TLW's New Yorkscope™ (New York Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Aug. 19, 2016. Last Update: Apr. 28, 2017.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to New York history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
On Mar. 1, 1524 Italian Florentine explorer (sailing under the French flag) Giovanni da Verrazano (Verrazzano) (1485-1527), sent by Francis I of France to explore the North Am. coast between Fla. and Newfoundland in hopes of finding a passage to the Pacific Ocean lands near Cape Fear, N.C.; on Apr. 17 after sailing S along the S.C. coast, turning N, discovering the Outer Banks of N.C. (thinking that it splits North Am. in two with the "Sea of Verrazano"), then missing Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, he discovers the mouth of the Hudson River and New York Bay, and anchors in the Narrows of New York Harbor between Staten Island and Long Island (home of the Manhasset, Shinnecock, Patchogue, and Montauk Indians), where a party of Lenape arrive in a canoe "clad with fowl feathers of diverse feathers. They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat"; thinking that the Hudson River is a freshwater lake, he follows the S coast of Long Island past Block Island Sound, then records an island about the size of Rhodes (Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay near modern-day Newport?), where he meets "two kings more beautiful in form and stature than can possibly be described" (Massasoit's great-grandfather?); he then heads to the coast of Maine, then Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, then back to France - the first wop-dago in New York Harbor, and in a stolen vehicle?
On May 1, 1607 English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) makes his First Voyage in his 80-ton ship Hopewell to find a Northwest Passage, and makes it as far N as Willem Barents' Spitsbergen. In 1608 Henry Hudson makes his Second Voyage, looking for a Northeast Passage through 5.4M sq. mi. of ice - good luck, sucker? In summer 1609 English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) begins his Third Voyage to search for a Northwest Passage in the Dutch ship Half Moon (Halve Mein); on Aug. 28 after a budding mutiny of his crew causes him to reverse course and head toward the New World, he discovers Delaware Bay and the Delaware River; on Sept. 11 he discovers New York Bay, sailing into the Hudson River on Sept. 12 and founding New Amsterdam (renamed New York in 1664) on the Hudson River, while setting eyes upon the wooded island of Manhattan, from the Lenape word Mannahatta, meaning island of many hills; on Sept. 14 he enters the Tappan Zee (Sea) 10 mi. N of Manhattan, thinking that the widening of the Hudson River indicates a Northwest Passage, then giving up after reaching modern-day Troy; meanwhile he makes the first Euro encounter with the Mohicans (Mahicans); upon returning to Europe he is arrested for sailing under another nation's flag - does that make him an illegal alien? In 1610 Henry Hudson (b. 1566) makes his Fourth Voyage in search of a Northwest Passage, sailing through the Hudson Strait and discovering Hudson (Hudson's) Bay and the Hudson River; too bad, the crew mutinies and returns to England after setting Henry, his son and several others adrift in Hudson Bay on June 22, and they are never seen again.
On Sept. 6, 1609 John Colman, a sailor in Henry Hudson's mostly-Dutch Half Moon crew of 16 becomes the first recorded murder in future New York City while anchored between Coney Island and Sandy Hook after their 16-ft. shallop containing him and four others is ambushed by two dugouts containing a total of 30 Indians; it is unsolved until ?.
On June 3, 1621 (worried about them pesky English?) the Dutch West India Co. is chartered for the New Netherlands (Netherland) to share world trade with the Dutch East India Co. by Peter Minuit's Antwerp friend Willem Usselincx (1567-1647), who prefers colonization of the New World to profit, and gives up after the Dutch estates-gen. don't support him; the co. later acquires a monopoly in Africa the North Am. coast from Newfoundland to Chesapeake Bay; in 1645 not-so-useless Usselincx utters the Immortal New York, New York Soundbyte: "It is because of foreigners that the country will be peopled, because its might is derived mostly from those who come from abroad and settle, marry and multiply here. If one were to remove the foreigners, their children and grandchildren from the large cities of Holland, the remaining residents would be fewer in number than those removed" - never mind those English squatters?
On May 4, 1626 after being appointed the first dir.-gen. of New Netherlands, Peter Minuit (1580-1638) arrives at the mouth of the Hudson River in the Sea Mew, then on May 6 buys Manhattan Island (discovered in 1609 by Henry Hudson) from the natives for 60 Dutch guilders ($24) in trade goods (beads and geegaws), followed on Aug. 10 by Staten Island for another 60 guilders worth of trinkets; meanwhile the Dutch West India Co. rips off the Spanish treasure ships for 120M guilders?
In 1629 under the urging of Amsterdam diamond and pearl merchant Kiliaen (Killian) Van Rensselaer (1585-1643), Dutch colonizers called patroons are authorized to establish large estates in New Netherland which they can rule with full feudal jurisdiction limited only by an oath of fealty to the Dutch West India Co.; they are required to purchase Indian rights to their land and settle at least 50 colonists on it within four (five?) years. By 1630 there are five patroonships in New Netherlands: two on the Hudson River, two on the Delaware River, and one on the Connecticut River; only Rennselaerwyck, founded by van Rensselaer on the W bank of the Hudson around Ft. Orange (Albany) succeeds.
On Dec. 5, 1632 after settlers in Zwaanendael (Swaanendael) (Dutch "swan valley or dale") (modern-day Lewes, Del.) (founded 1631), Delaware's first Dutch settlement in the S are massacred by the Indians, Capt. David Peterson de Vries arrives too late to help, then negotiates a treaty with the Indians and sails up the Delaware River trading for beans and corn bofore sailing to Virginia Colony to recruit new colonists, but the Dutch later removes them to New Amsterdam.
In 1632 the West India Co. builds a brewery on Brewers (Brouwer) St. in Manhattan, New Amsterdam, led by gov.-gen. #5 (1633-8) Wouter van Twiller (1606-54), successor of Peter Minuit; becoming the first commercial brewery in North Am.; the street is later named Stone St. for its cobblestone paving.
In 1636 the site of Brooklyn in New Amsterdam is first settled by the Dutch and Walloons along Gowanus, Jamaica, and Wallabout Bays this year and next.
In 1638 Willem Kieft (1597-1640) becomes dir.-gen. of New Netherland (until 1647), forming the Council of Twelve Men on Aug. 29, 1641, the first representative body in New Netheland, going on to ignore their advice inflame relations with the Lenape Indians, ordering the Pavonia and Corlears Hook Massacre of 120 Indians incl. women and children on Feb. 25, 1643, resulting in Kieft's (Wappinger) War (1643-5).
In 1642 Dutch explorer Capt. David Pieterszoon de Vries (1593-1655) makes the first written mention of Broadway (Dutch "Brede weg") in Manhattan, N.Y., originally called the Wickquasgeck ("birch bark country") Trail by the natives.
In July 1645 after mending relations with the Indians with plenty of wampum, Adriaen Cornelissen van der Donck (1618-65) AKA "Jonkheer" (young gentleman) (first lawyer in North am.) is granted 24K actres on the future site of Yonkers, N.Y. N of Manhattan near the junction of the Hudson and Nepperhan Rivers, going on to build his Colen Donck estate along with several mills; meanwhile the pop. of Amsterdam decides to remove dir.-gen. (since 1638) Willem Kieft, picking Peter Stuyvesant.
In 1645 the town of Breuckelen (Brooklyn) in New Amsterdam is founded near the modern-day borough hall.
On May 11, 1647 Peter (Pieter) Stuyvesant (1592-1672) arrives in New Amsterdam to become dir.-gen. #7 of New Netherlands (until 1664), introducing tea to North Am.
The original John Brown's Body is more like John Bowne's Sperm Bank? In Sept. 1662 34-y.-o. English settler John Bowne (1628-95) is arrested by Peter Stuyvesant's sheriff Resolve Waldron at his 1-room farmhouse (oldest house in New York City, built in 1661) in Vlissingen (modern-day Flushing, Queens) in New Amsterdam on the charge of "abetting an abomination" for permitting Quakers to worship with his wife in his home; he is deported to Amsterdam for 19 mo. until he gets the Dutch West India Co. to enforce the 1657 Flushing Remonstrance, order Gov. Peter Stuyvesant to halt persecution of religious minorities, and allow him to return to his little ole home, which later is hailed as the "cradle of religious tolerance in America" (turned into a museum in 1947); seven U.S. presidents later descend from him (John and J.Q. Adams, Lincoln, Nixon, Ford, G.H.W. Bush and G.W. Bush), and four New York City mayors (all before 1840) (John Lawrence, Marinus Willett, Walter Bowne, and Cornelius Lawrence).
In 1664 the plague kills 24K in Amsterdam and spreads to Brussels, then reaches London by Dec. Early in 1664 the Second Anglo-Dutch War (ends 1667) is started by the Earl of Clarendon; on May 25 Duke James II of York (eventual successor Charles II) sends an expedition of 300 troops from Portsmouth to capture New Netherlands from Connecticut to Delaware, incl. Ft. Orange, renaming it Albany; on Sept. 8 they capture New Amsterdam from the Dutch, who surrender it peacefully, renaming it New York (modern pop. 7M+) after the Duke of York (both the city and the province), with Richard Nicolls (1624-72), groom of the duke's bedchamber as British gov. #1 (until 1672); the region of Pennsylvania is captured along with it; Charles II also grants the province of Maine (named after the French province, or because the mainland is distinct from its many coastal islands?) to the the Duke of York, who grants the province of New Jersey (named after Carteret's native island of Jersey, or Nova Caesaria) to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley (brother of the gov. of Va.); after the surrender Dutch gov. of New Holland Peter Stuyvesant goes to Holland for debriefing, then returns, spending the rest of his life cultivating his large farm called the Bouwerij (Bowery) in Manhattan (Algonquian word for island?) (until 1672).
On Mar. 12, 1665 the Duke of York's Laws for the Government of the Colony of New York are proclaimed in Hempstead, Long Island by N.Y. gov. Richard Nicolls (until 1683), providing for jury trial, proportional property taxation, and procedures for land patents; on June 12 England installs a municipal govt. in New York City.
What's a Brooklyn style pizza? What are you, nuts? On Oct. 18, 1667 Brueckelen (Dutch "broken land") (Brooklyn) in New Amsterdam, er, New York is chartered by Gov. Richard Nicolls, consisting of "all the lots and plantations lying and being at the Gowanus, Bedford, Walle Bocht and Ferry" - where is the undercover DEA agent?
About 1670 Dutchmen like to bowl at the Old King’s Arms Tavern near modern-day 2nd and Broadway in New York City.
On Oct. 30, 1683 the New York Charter of Liberties and Privileges is passed, becoming the first act of its kind in the Am. colonies; it is suspended in 1685, then reenacted via a new charter in 1691, which stays in effect until the 1776 Am. Rev.
In 1690 there is a yellow fever epidemic in New York.
On May 1, 1690 the first intercolonial congress in North Am. history meets in New York City to plan united action against the French and Indians; meanwhile the king appointed Col. Henry Sloughter (-1691) as new gov. of N.Y. last Sept. 3, and he doesn't arrive until next Mar.
On Jan. 28, 1691 British Maj. Richard Ingoldesby (-1719) arrives in New York City with two cos. of soldiers and demands Ft. James; on Mar. 17 Leisler's men refuse and start shooting, killing two and wounding several soldiers; on Mar. 19 new New York gov. Col. Henry Sloughter (-1691) arrives, and after Jacob Leisler hesitates to turn over his authority, the new gov. charges him with treason, and on May 16 he and his son-in-law Jacob Milborne are hanged, ending Leisler's Rebellion (begun 1689); Sloughter then dies and Ingoldesby takes over as gov. until next year, when Benjamin Fletcher (1640-1703) takes his place (until 1697); in 1695 Parliament exonerates them of all charges, but New York is split into two factions for years afterwards; Capt. William Kidd (not yet a pirate) is given a £150 reward by the council of New York for loyal service in the revolt.
In 1691 English-born Philly Quaker printer William Bradford (1663-1752) is arrested and tried for "seditious libel", and his press and pubs. confiscated; in 1693 the jury refuses to convict him, becoming the first case of freedom of the press in Am., and in Apr. 1893 the New York City council invites him to establish the first press in that colony, and he eagerly skedaddles from Quakerland.
In 1733 the govt. of New York City authorizes the old Dutch parade ground at the S end of Broadway adjoining Ft. Amsterdam E of Battery Park to be established as a "bowling green... for the recreation and delight of the inhabitants of the city", known as Bowling Green, where ninepins (bowling) is played for the first time in New York City?; it becomes the center of the exclusive residential district and the oldest public park in New York City to survive to modern times; in 1989 it becomes host to the Charging Bull bronze sculpture by Arturo Di Modica (1960-), and is used as the starting point for ticker tape parades into the "Canyon of Heroes" (Broadway).
In 1760 super-educated minister-scientist-physician Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776) (the first English colonial rep. to the Iroquois Nation) becomes acting British gov. of New York (until 1762, then 1763-5 and 1769-71), going on to stick it to the rebels for being too uneducated to see the advantages of staying loyalist.
In 1823 Niblo's Garden on Broadway near Prince St. in Manhattan, N.Y. is founded as Columbia Garden, acquired in 1828 by Irish-born coffeehouse owner William Niblo (1790-1878), who turns it into the San Souci theater, and Niblo's Theater in 1834, going on to host P.T. Barnum's first exhibition 1835 and form a vaudeville co. in summer 1837; after being destroyed by a fire on Sept. 18, 1846 and reopened in summer 1849 with 3.2K cap. ($2/seat), it begins producing Italian opera, becoming the best-equipped and most fashionable theater in New York City; it is destroyed by fire in 1872 and rebuilt by dept. store magnate A.T. Stewart; the final performance is given on Mar. 23, 1895.
On Dec. 16, 1835 the 1835 Great Fire of New York breaks out in New York City, destroying 17 city blocks and 530 bldgs., incl. most of the original New Amsterdam, killing two and doing $20M damage.
In the 1860s the theatrical district of New York City becomes concentrated along the Bowery, an avenue parallel to Broadway between Chatham Square and Cooper Square which was originally an Indian trail, then the road to the farm (bouwerij) of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant; by 1870 it becomes a center of vice, and by the end of the cent. is a center for Yiddish theater.
In 1865 Madison Square Theatre (AKA Fifth Ave. Theatre) at Broadway and West 24th St. between Sixth Ave. and Broadway near the Fifth Ave. intersection in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1K) opens, staging Divorce by Augustin Daly in 1871 for 200 perf., going on to pioneer advances in stage technology, theater design, and tour mgt.; it is demolished in 1908.
In 1865 the Tweed Ring saps big bucks out of the budget for the New York County Courthouse N of City Hall, keeping it from being finished to keep their sluice open; meanwhile Belvedere Castle is built in Central Park, soon hailed as a "folly".
In 1923 the Cotton Club night club in Harlem, N.Y. at 142nd St. and Lenox Ave. opens (until 1935) as a whites-only establishment featuring mainly black entertainers, incl. Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday, Lena Horne, Fats Waller, Ethel Waters, the Nicholas Brothers, and Stepin Fetchit; Sun. nights are Celebrity Night, with guests incl. Fanny Brice, Eddie Cantor, Jimmy Durante, Judy Garland, George Gershwin, Moss Hart, Langston Hughes, Al Jolson, NYC Mayor Jimmy Walker et al.; in 1936-40 it repons in the midtown Theater District.
On Jan. 1, 1926 Irish-Am. Dem. Greenwich Village alderman and Tin Pan Alley songwriter James John "Jimmy" "Beau James" Walker (1881-1946) becomes mayor of New York City (until Sept. 1, 1932), becoming known as Beau James as he makes the Big Apple friendly to the Jazz Age by allowing speakeasies to proliferate while he enjoys chorus girls, leaving his wife for Isle of Wight-born Ziegeld Follies showgirl Betty (Violet Halling) Compton (1904-44), whom he marries in 1933; too bad, the Great Depression gives Cardinal Patrick Hayes an excuse to come down on his case, blaming his immorality for everything, leading to corruption investigations, after which he resigns on Sept. 1, 1932 and skips to Europe for awhile to avoid prosecution and marry his Betty; after the heat dies down, he returns and becomes pres. of Majestic Records.
On Nov. 19, 1926 the Paramount Theatre (cap. 3,664) at 1501 Broadway in Manhattan, N.Y. in the Times Square district opens as the HQ of Paramount Pictures, with founder Adolph Zukor maintaining his office there until 1976; the opening features the stage show "God Gave Me 20 Cents", featuring Mayor Jimmy Walker and Thomas Edison; the theater houses a large Wurlitzer organ for silent films, featuring organist ("Poet of the Organ") Jesse Crawford (1895-1962) until 1933.
On Sept. 23, 1962 the New York Philharmonic Hall, designed by Max Abramovitz (1908-2004) is the first bldg. to open at the new Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan, N.Y., whose first pres. is composer William Howard Schuman (1910-92) (until 1969), going on to house the Metropolitan Opera (1966) and the New York City Ballet.
On July 13-14, 1977 the 25-hour 1977 New York City Blackout hits the New York City area after lightning strikes on upstate power lines, causing looters to rampage while the rabbits rustle, causing $150M in theft and property damage; Con Edison is later found guilty of negligence.