Giovanni da Verrazano (1485-1527) Henry Hudson (1566-1611) Peter Minuit (1580-1638) Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1585-1643) Peter Stuyvesant (1592-1672) Adriaen van der Donck (1618-55) Daniel Fawcett Tiemann of the U.S. (1805-99) Fernando Wood of the U.S. (1812-81) Frederick Augustus Tallmadge of the U.S. (1792-1869)
Seth Low of the U.S. (1850-1916) George B. McClellan Jr. of the U.S. (1865-1940) Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) Brooklyn Bridge, May 24, 1883 Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) Statue of Liberty, Oct. 28, 1886 Emma Lazarus (1849-87) Carnegie Hall, 1891 Ellis Island, 1892

TLW's New Yorkscope™ (New York Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: Aug. 19, 2016. Last Update: June 22, 2017.


James John 'Jimmy' Walker of the U.S. (1881-1946) Fiorello Henry La Guardia of the U.S. (1882-1947) Robert Moses (1888-1981) Robert Ferdinand Wagner Jr. of the U.S. (1910-91) John Vliet Lindsay of the U.S. (1921-2000) William F. Buckley Jr. (1925-2008) Cotton Club, 1923 Chrysler Bldg., 1930 Empire State Building, 1931
World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 9/11 Terrorists Abraham David Beame of the U.S. (1906-2001) Edward Irving 'Ed' Koch of the U.S. (1924-2013) David Dinkins of the U.S. (1927-) Rudy Giuliani of the U.S. (1944-) Michael Bloomberg of the U.S. (1942-) Bill de Blasio of the U.S. (1961-)

Alternate url for this page:
http://tinyurl.com/newyorkscope


What Is A Historyscope?


Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to New York City history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Giovanni da Verrazano (1485-1527)

On Mar. 1, 1524 Italian Florentine explorer (sailing under the French flag) Giovanni da Verrazano (Verrazzano) (1485-1527), sent by Francis I of France to explore the North Am. coast between Fla. and Newfoundland in hopes of finding a passage to the Pacific Ocean lands near Cape Fear, N.C.; on Apr. 17 after sailing S along the S.C. coast, turning N, discovering the Outer Banks of N.C. (thinking that it splits North Am. in two with the "Sea of Verrazano"), then missing Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, he discovers the mouth of the Hudson River and New York Bay, and anchors in the Narrows of New York Harbor between Staten Island and Long Island (home of the Manhasset, Shinnecock, Patchogue, and Montauk Indians), where a party of Lenape arrive in a canoe "clad with fowl feathers of diverse feathers. They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat"; thinking that the Hudson River is a freshwater lake, he follows the S coast of Long Island past Block Island Sound, then records an island about the size of Rhodes (Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay near modern-day Newport?), where he meets "two kings more beautiful in form and stature than can possibly be described" (Massasoit's great-grandfather?); he then heads to the coast of Maine, then Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, then back to France - the first wop-dago in New York Harbor, and in a stolen vehicle?

Henry Hudson (1566-1611)

On May 1, 1607 English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) makes his First Voyage in his 80-ton ship Hopewell to find a Northwest Passage, and makes it as far N as Willem Barents' Spitsbergen. In 1608 Henry Hudson makes his Second Voyage, looking for a Northeast Passage through 5.4M sq. mi. of ice - good luck, sucker? In summer 1609 English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) begins his Third Voyage to search for a Northwest Passage in the Dutch ship Half Moon (Halve Mein); on Aug. 28 after a budding mutiny of his crew causes him to reverse course and head toward the New World, he discovers Delaware Bay and the Delaware River; on Sept. 11 he discovers New York Bay, sailing into the Hudson River on Sept. 12 and founding New Amsterdam (renamed New York in 1664) on the Hudson River, while setting eyes upon the wooded island of Manhattan, from the Lenape word Mannahatta, meaning island of many hills; on Sept. 14 he enters the Tappan Zee (Sea) 10 mi. N of Manhattan, thinking that the widening of the Hudson River indicates a Northwest Passage, then giving up after reaching modern-day Troy; meanwhile he makes the first Euro encounter with the Mohicans (Mahicans); upon returning to Europe he is arrested for sailing under another nation's flag - does that make him an illegal alien? In 1610 Henry Hudson (b. 1566) makes his Fourth Voyage in search of a Northwest Passage, sailing through the Hudson Strait and discovering Hudson (Hudson's) Bay and the Hudson River; too bad, the crew mutinies and returns to England after setting Henry, his son and several others adrift in Hudson Bay on June 22, and they are never seen again.

On Sept. 6, 1609 John Colman, a sailor in Henry Hudson's mostly-Dutch Half Moon crew of 16 becomes the first recorded murder in future New York City while anchored between Coney Island and Sandy Hook after their 16-ft. shallop containing him and four others is ambushed by two dugouts containing a total of 30 Indians; it is unsolved until ?.

On June 3, 1621 (worried about them pesky English?) the Dutch West India Co. is chartered for the New Netherlands (Netherland) to share world trade with the Dutch East India Co. by Peter Minuit's Antwerp friend Willem Usselincx (1567-1647), who prefers colonization of the New World to profit, and gives up after the Dutch estates-gen. don't support him; the co. later acquires a monopoly in Africa the North Am. coast from Newfoundland to Chesapeake Bay; in 1645 not-so-useless Usselincx utters the Immortal New York, New York Soundbyte: "It is because of foreigners that the country will be peopled, because its might is derived mostly from those who come from abroad and settle, marry and multiply here. If one were to remove the foreigners, their children and grandchildren from the large cities of Holland, the remaining residents would be fewer in number than those removed" - never mind those English squatters?

Peter Minuit (1580-1638)

On May 4, 1626 after being appointed the first dir.-gen. of New Netherlands, Peter Minuit (1580-1638) arrives at the mouth of the Hudson River in the Sea Mew, then on May 6 buys Manhattan Island (discovered in 1609 by Henry Hudson) from the natives for 60 Dutch guilders ($24) in trade goods (beads and geegaws), followed on Aug. 10 by Staten Island for another 60 guilders worth of trinkets; meanwhile the Dutch West India Co. rips off the Spanish treasure ships for 120M guilders?

Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1585-1643)

In 1629 under the urging of Amsterdam diamond and pearl merchant Kiliaen (Killian) Van Rensselaer (1585-1643), Dutch colonizers called patroons are authorized to establish large estates in New Netherland which they can rule with full feudal jurisdiction limited only by an oath of fealty to the Dutch West India Co.; they are required to purchase Indian rights to their land and settle at least 50 colonists on it within four (five?) years. By 1630 there are five patroonships in New Netherlands: two on the Hudson River, two on the Delaware River, and one on the Connecticut River; only Rennselaerwyck, founded by van Rensselaer on the W bank of the Hudson around Ft. Orange (Albany) succeeds.

On Dec. 5, 1632 after settlers in Zwaanendael (Swaanendael) (Dutch "swan valley or dale") (modern-day Lewes, Del.) (founded 1631), Delaware's first Dutch settlement in the S are massacred by the Indians, Capt. David Peterson de Vries arrives too late to help, then negotiates a treaty with the Indians and sails up the Delaware River trading for beans and corn bofore sailing to Virginia Colony to recruit new colonists, but the Dutch later removes them to New Amsterdam.

In 1632 the West India Co. builds a brewery on Brewers (Brouwer) St. in Manhattan, New Amsterdam, led by gov.-gen. #5 (1633-8) Wouter van Twiller (1606-54), successor of Peter Minuit; becoming the first commercial brewery in North Am.; the street is later named Stone St. for its cobblestone paving.

In 1636 the site of Brooklyn in New Amsterdam is first settled by the Dutch and Walloons along Gowanus, Jamaica, and Wallabout Bays this year and next.

In 1638 Willem Kieft (1597-1640) becomes dir.-gen. of New Netherland (until 1647), forming the Council of Twelve Men on Aug. 29, 1641, the first representative body in New Netheland, going on to ignore their advice inflame relations with the Lenape Indians, ordering the Pavonia and Corlears Hook Massacre of 120 Indians incl. women and children on Feb. 25, 1643, resulting in Kieft's (Wappinger) War (1643-5).

In 1642 Dutch explorer Capt. David Pieterszoon de Vries (1593-1655) makes the first written mention of Broadway (Dutch "Brede weg") in Manhattan, N.Y., originally called the Wickquasgeck ("birch bark country") Trail by the natives.

Adriaen van der Donck (1618-55)

In July 1645 after mending relations with the Indians with plenty of wampum, Adriaen Cornelissen van der Donck (1618-65) AKA "Jonkheer" (young gentleman) (first lawyer in North Am.) is granted 24K actres on the future site of Yonkers, N.Y. N of Manhattan near the junction of the Hudson and Nepperhan Rivers, going on to build his Colen Donck estate along with several mills; meanwhile the pop. of Amsterdam decides to remove dir.-gen. (since 1638) Willem Kieft, picking Peter Stuyvesant.

In 1645 the town of Breuckelen (Brooklyn) in New Amsterdam is founded near the modern-day borough hall.

Peter Stuyvesant (1592-1672)

On May 11, 1647 Peter (Pieter) Stuyvesant (1592-1672) arrives in New Amsterdam to become dir.-gen. #7 of New Netherlands (until 1664), introducing tea to North Am.

The original John Brown's Body is more like John Bowne's Sperm Bank? In Sept. 1662 34-y.-o. English settler John Bowne (1628-95) is arrested by Peter Stuyvesant's sheriff Resolve Waldron at his 1-room farmhouse (oldest house in New York City, built in 1661) in Vlissingen (modern-day Flushing, Queens) in New Amsterdam on the charge of "abetting an abomination" for permitting Quakers to worship with his wife in his home; he is deported to Amsterdam for 19 mo. until he gets the Dutch West India Co. to enforce the 1657 Flushing Remonstrance, order Gov. Peter Stuyvesant to halt persecution of religious minorities, and allow him to return to his little ole home, which later is hailed as the "cradle of religious tolerance in America" (turned into a museum in 1947); seven U.S. presidents later descend from him (John and J.Q. Adams, Lincoln, Nixon, Ford, G.H.W. Bush and G.W. Bush), and four New York City mayors (all before 1840) (John Lawrence, Marinus Willett, Walter Bowne, and Cornelius Lawrence).

In 1664 the plague kills 24K in Amsterdam and spreads to Brussels, then reaches London by Dec. Early in 1664 the Second Anglo-Dutch War (ends 1667) is started by the Earl of Clarendon; on May 25 Duke James II of York (eventual successor Charles II) sends an expedition of 300 troops from Portsmouth to capture New Netherlands from Connecticut to Delaware, incl. Ft. Orange, renaming it Albany; on Sept. 8 they capture New Amsterdam from the Dutch, who surrender it peacefully, renaming it New York (modern pop. 7M+) after the Duke of York (both the city and the province), with Richard Nicolls (1624-72), groom of the duke's bedchamber as British gov. #1 (until 1672); the region of Pennsylvania is captured along with it; Charles II also grants the province of Maine (named after the French province, or because the mainland is distinct from its many coastal islands?) to the the Duke of York, who grants the province of New Jersey (named after Carteret's native island of Jersey, or Nova Caesaria) to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley (brother of the gov. of Va.); after the surrender Dutch gov. of New Holland Peter Stuyvesant goes to Holland for debriefing, then returns, spending the rest of his life cultivating his large farm called the Bouwerij (Bowery) in Manhattan (Algonquian word for island?) (until 1672).

On Mar. 12, 1665 the Duke of York's Laws for the Government of the Colony of New York are proclaimed in Hempstead, Long Island by N.Y. gov. Richard Nicolls (until 1683), providing for jury trial, proportional property taxation, and procedures for land patents; on June 12 England installs a municipal govt. in New York City.

What's a Brooklyn style pizza? What are you, nuts? On Oct. 18, 1667 Brueckelen (Dutch "broken land") (Brooklyn) in New Amsterdam, er, New York is chartered by Gov. Richard Nicolls, consisting of "all the lots and plantations lying and being at the Gowanus, Bedford, Walle Bocht and Ferry" - where is the undercover DEA agent?

''Bowling Green' by E.A. Abbey

About 1670 Dutchmen like to bowl at the Old King’s Arms Tavern near modern-day 2nd and Broadway in New York City.

On Oct. 30, 1683 the New York Charter of Liberties and Privileges is passed, becoming the first act of its kind in the Am. colonies; it is suspended in 1685, then reenacted via a new charter in 1691, which stays in effect until the 1776 Am. Rev.

In 1690 there is a yellow fever epidemic in New York.

On May 1, 1690 the first intercolonial congress in North Am. history meets in New York City to plan united action against the French and Indians; meanwhile the king appointed Col. Henry Sloughter (-1691) as new gov. of N.Y. last Sept. 3, and he doesn't arrive until next Mar.

On Jan. 28, 1691 British Maj. Richard Ingoldesby (-1719) arrives in New York City with two cos. of soldiers and demands Ft. James; on Mar. 17 Leisler's men refuse and start shooting, killing two and wounding several soldiers; on Mar. 19 new New York gov. Col. Henry Sloughter (-1691) arrives, and after Jacob Leisler hesitates to turn over his authority, the new gov. charges him with treason, and on May 16 he and his son-in-law Jacob Milborne are hanged, ending Leisler's Rebellion (begun 1689); Sloughter then dies and Ingoldesby takes over as gov. until next year, when Benjamin Fletcher (1640-1703) takes his place (until 1697); in 1695 Parliament exonerates them of all charges, but New York is split into two factions for years afterwards; Capt. William Kidd (not yet a pirate) is given a £150 reward by the council of New York for loyal service in the revolt.

In 1691 English-born Philly Quaker printer William Bradford (1663-1752) is arrested and tried for "seditious libel", and his press and pubs. confiscated; in 1693 the jury refuses to convict him, becoming the first case of freedom of the press in Am., and in Apr. 1893 the New York City council invites him to establish the first press in that colony, and he eagerly skedaddles from Quakerland.

'Charging Bull', by Arturo di Modica (1941-), 1989

In 1733 the govt. of New York City authorizes the old Dutch parade ground at the S end of Broadway adjoining Ft. Amsterdam E of Battery Park to be established as a "bowling green... for the recreation and delight of the inhabitants of the city", known as Bowling Green, where ninepins (bowling) is played for the first time in New York City?; it becomes the center of the exclusive residential district and the oldest public park in New York City to survive to modern times; in 1989 it becomes host to the Charging Bull bronze sculpture by Arturo Di Modica (1960-), and is used as the starting point for ticker tape parades into the "Canyon of Heroes" (Broadway).

Cadwallader Colden of Britain (1688-1776)

In 1760 super-educated minister-scientist-physician Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776) (the first English colonial rep. to the Iroquois Nation) becomes acting British gov. of New York (until 1762, then 1763-5 and 1769-71), going on to stick it to the rebels for being too uneducated to see the advantages of staying loyalist.

On Jan. 3, 1791 the Methodist Episcopal (Old) New York Hospital (planned since 1769) opens, becoming the first public hospital in Brooklyn, N.Y. (40 years after Philly), and the first Methodist hospital.

In 1817 the Richmond Turnpike Co. begins operating the steam-powered Nautilus between New York City and Staten Island, captained by John De Forest, brother-in-law of 17-y.-o. Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) sets up the Staten Island Ferry; in 1838 Vanderbilt buys control, selling it to his brother Jacob Vanderbilt of the Staten Island Railway during the U.S. Civil War (1861-5), which opens in 1860; on July 30, 1871 (1:30 p.m.) the Westfield suffers a boiler explosion while sitting at South Ferry, killing 85+ and injuring hundreds, causing owner Jacob Vanderbilt to be tried and acquitted of murder; by 1900 the fare is 5 cents, rising to 50 cents in 1990, pissing-off Staten Islanders, who vote in 1993 to secede from New York City and help Rudy Giuliani become New York City mayor, finally becoming free on July 4, 1997.

Niblo's Garden, 1834

In 1823 Niblo's Garden on Broadway near Prince St. in Manhattan, N.Y. is founded as Columbia Garden, acquired in 1828 by Irish-born coffeehouse owner William Niblo (1790-1878), who turns it into the San Souci theater, and Niblo's Theater in 1834, going on to host P.T. Barnum's first exhibition 1835 and form a vaudeville co. in summer 1837; after being destroyed by a fire on Sept. 18, 1846 and reopened in summer 1849 with 3.2K cap. ($2/seat), it begins producing Italian opera, becoming the best-equipped and most fashionable theater in New York City; it is destroyed by fire in 1872 and rebuilt by dept. store magnate A.T. Stewart; the final performance is given on Mar. 23, 1895.

Early in the 1830s the Bowery Boys, a loose gang of anti-Irish anti-Roman Catholic nativists based in the Bowery neighborhood of Manhattan, N.Y. (known for wearing stovepipe hats, red shirts, and dark trousers tucked into their boots as homage to volunteer firemen) fights the tide of Irish immigrants, incl. the Dead Rabbits, fighting 200+ battles in 1934-44, incl. the Dead Rabbits Riot of July 4-5, 1857, culminating in an all-out street war during the New York City Draft Riots of July 13-16, 1863, as portrayed in the 2002 Martin Scorsese film "The Gangs of New York".

On Dec. 16, 1835 the 1835 Great Fire of New York breaks out in New York City, destroying 17 city blocks and 530 bldgs., incl. most of the original New Amsterdam, killing two and doing $20M damage.

P.T. Barnum (1810-91) Barnum's American Museum Gen. Tom Thumb (1838-83) and Lavinia Warren (1841-1919)

In 1835 Bethel, Conn.-born Phineas Taylor "P.T." Barnum (1810-91) begins his huckster career by exhibiting Joyce (Joice) Heth (1674-), a black woman alleged to be George Washington's nurse and only 160 years young; one of his most favorite stunts was to display a big sign reading "This Way to the Egress", and when suckers followed it they ended up in the alley, because egress means exit. In 1841 he purchases the American Museum in New York City at the corner of Broadway and Ann St., starting it out as a freakshow, and operating it until it burns down on July 13, 1865, coining the slogan "There's a sucker born every minute." In 1850 he brings "Swedish Nightingale" Jenny Lind (1820-87) to New York City, where her hotel is mobbed by 20K adoring fans - the original American Idol? In 1855 P.T. Barnum, known for the saying "there's a sucker born every minute" proves himself a you know what by losing $500K in the Jerome Clock Co. Swindle, causing him to file for bankruptcy and contemplate suicide. On Feb. 10, 1863 after refusing $15K from P.T. Barnum to delay it so he can arrange more publicity, 3'3" "General" Tom Thumb (Charles Sherwood Stratton) (1838-83) weds Lavinia Warren (1841-1919) in New York City's Grace Episcopal Church - don't ask?

Fernando Wood of the U.S. (1812-81)

On Dec. 31, 1854 Philly-born Tammany Hall Dem. Fernando Wood (1812-81) is elected mayor #73 of New York City (until Dec. 31, 1858), fighting to control the corrupt New York Muncipal Police (founded 1845).

Frederick Augustus Tallmadge of the U.S. (1792-1869)

In 1856 the Repub.-controlled N.Y. State Legislature in Albany goes after Dem. New York City mayor Fernando Wood, shortening his term of office from two years to one, and creating the Metropolitan Police Force, headed by Frederick Augustus Tallmadge (1792-1869) (until 1862) to replace Wood's corrupt Municipal Police; when Wood refuses to disband it, the N.Y. Supreme Court rules next May to back the legislature, but the Municipal Police under supt. George Washington Matsell (1811-77) along with 15 captains and 800 patrolmen back Wood, causing a showdown.

On June 16, 1857 the Great New York City Police Riot of 1857 sees the New York City Metropolitan Police order Muncipal Police Capt. George Washington Walling to arrest mayor Fernando Wood in city hall, causing Wood's Muncipal Police to chuck Walling into the street, causing 50 Metropolitan Police to march in with nightsticks, and lose to the Metropolians, with 52 injured, after which the Nat. Guard 7th Regiment surrounds City Hall and arrests Wood, who is released on bail and returns to iffice, er, office; the feud rages through the summer, allowing gangs to take over the city, while criminals arrested by one police force are summarily released by judges loyal to the other force; Walling becomes police suptd. in 1874-85.

On July 4-5, 1857 taking advantage of the police anarchy, the Dead Rabbits Riot in the Bowery in Lower Manhattan, N.Y. between the Irish Dead Rabbits gang and the Protestant nativist Bowery Boys kills eight and injures 30-100.

Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) Central Park, 1858

In 1857 a competition is held to design 778-acre city-owned Central Park in Manhattan, N.Y., and the winner is Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), who becomes known as the "Father of U.S. Landscape Architecture"; it opens to the public next winter; in 1873 it is expanded to 843 acres; in 1962 it is designated a nat. historic landmark; in Apr. 2017 it is placed on the UNESCO World Heritage site list.

Daniel Fawcett Tiemann of the U.S. (1805-99)

On Dec. 31, 1858 New York City mayor #73 (since Jan. 1 1855) (grand sachem of Tammy Hall) Fernando Woods is defeated for reelection by Daniel Fawcett Tiemann (1805-99) (nephew-in-law of Peter Cooper) by 3K votes despite the Dead Rabbits gang stuffing the ballot box using names from city cemeteries; in 1860 Wood is elected for a 2nd term (until 1862).

In the 1860s the theatrical district of New York City becomes concentrated along the Bowery, an avenue parallel to Broadway between Chatham Square and Cooper Square which was originally an Indian trail, then the road to the farm (bouwerij) of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant; by 1870 it becomes a center of vice, and by the end of the cent. is a center for Yiddish theater.

New York Draft Riots, 1863

On July 11, 1863 a draft lottery is announced in New York City, followed on July 12 by the first roll of draftees published alongside the roll of the dead at Gettysburg, sparking the poor and working class (half of the 1M pop.) (mostly Irish immigrants), incensed at wealthy Repub. Protestants trying to send them to die for black slaves who will end up stealing their jobs, to take it out on them all fiercely in the New York City Draft Riots on July 13-16, becoming the worst riots in U.S. history (until ?), four days of looting, arson, lynching and murder killing 105 (official) (more like 500?) and injuring 2K+, and forcing thousands of blacks to flee the collapsing city; on July 16 tired Union troops from Gettysburg end the and restore order; $2M in property is destroyed; a cent. of repression of blacks and harsh treatment of labor protests follows - the pig cannot come in but the animal we'll take?

Madison Square Theatre, 1865

In 1865 Madison Square Theatre (AKA Fifth Ave. Theatre) at Broadway and West 24th St. between Sixth Ave. and Broadway near the Fifth Ave. intersection in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1K) opens, staging Divorce by Augustin Daly in 1871 for 200 perf., going on to pioneer advances in stage technology, theater design, and tour mgt.; it is demolished in 1908.

Belvedere Castle, 1865

In 1865 the Tweed Ring saps big bucks out of the budget for the New York County Courthouse N of City Hall, keeping it from being finished to keep their sluice open; meanwhile Belvedere Castle is built in Central Park, soon hailed as a "folly".

Grand Central Terminal, 1871

In 1871 Grand Central Terminal in midtown Manhattan, N.Y. at 42nd St. and Park Ave. opens, built by the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, containing 44 platforms (most on Earth), all below ground, serving 30 tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower level, and 100+ total tracks; it is rebuilt in 1913, and 1994-2000; the nearby U.S. post office at 450 Lexington Ave. is called Grand Central Station.

Brooklyn Bridge, May 24, 1883 John Augustus Roebling (1806-69)

On May 24, 1883 (2 p.m. ET) the 5,989-ft. x 85 ft. Brooklyn Bridge over the East River linking Manhattan and Brooklyn, designed by German-born civil engineer John Augustus Roebling (1806-69) opens, becoming the first modern suspension bridge and the first land passage between Manhattan and Brooklyn; one of the bridge supports sits on the site of the first U.S. pres. exec. house; 1.8K vehicles and 150,300 people cross on the first day; on May 30 a rumor that the bridge is about to collapse causes a stampede, and 12 people are trampled to death.

Statue of Liberty, Oct. 28, 1886 Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923) Emma Lazarus (1849-87)

On Oct. 28, 1886 (Thur.) the 305' 1" 225-ton (heaviest in the world) "harbor chick" Statue of Liberty (AKA Liberty Enlightening the World), built by Dijon-born Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (Bonickhausen) (1832-1923) and designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) of Alsace (a recycled version of "Egypt Bringing Light to Asia", once planned for the entrance to the Suez Canal, with the Roman goddess Libertas robed as an Egyptian fallaha peasant) is dedicated at Liberty (formerly Bedloe's) Island in New York Harbor "beside the golden door"; the base is an 11-pointed star constructed from the remains of Ft. Wood; the seven spikes in the crown signify the seven seas and continents; the right hand of the 152-ft. steel-reinforced copper-clad Lady Liberty on a 150-ft. pedestal holds a torch aloft, while her left hand carries a book inscribed "July IV MDCCLXXVI"; the sonnet The New Colossus, by Jewish-Am. poet Emma Lazarus (1849-87) is engraved on a tablet inside the pedestal, cementing the purpose as the welcoming of er, white immigrants; "Give me your tired, your poor/ Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,/ The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,/ Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,/ I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"; on Oct. 29 the first-ever ticker tape parade is held for Lady Liberty in New York City, with workers spontaneously throwing ticker tape out of brokers' windows, while Pres. Grover Cleveland accepts the statue for the U.S.

On Mar. 11-14, 1888 the Great Blizzard of 1888 (March Blizzard) (White Hurricane) in the NE U.S. from Chesapeake Bay to Maine drops 20-60 in. of snow (incl. 21 in. in New York City), with 80 mph winds causing 20-50 ft. snow drifts, killing 400+ and grounding or wrecking 200+ ships, and causing $25M in damage, trapping people in their houses for up to a week; after railway and telegraph lines are disabled, plans are made to move them undeground resulting in the Boston, Mass. subway system in 1897; later, floods from melting snow compound the damage.

Ellis Island, 1892

In 1890 the Eleventh (11th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 62,947,714 (21.2 per sq. mi.); New York City: 1.341M; the German pop. of the U.S. is now at 2.8M, a majority within the German Triangle of Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis; 75% of the pop. of Chicago are immigrants or children of immigrants, with Germans topping the list at 29%; since 1820 15.6M people have immigrated to the U.S. through New York Harbor and/or Ellis Island: 4.6M from Germany, 3.5M from Ireland, 2.5M from England, 0.9M from Norway-Sweden, 0.46M from Austria-Hungary, 0.41M from Italy, 0.37M from France, 0.36M from Russia-Poland, 0.33M from Scotland, 0.29M from China, 0.17M from Switzerland, 0.15M from Denmark, 1.03M from British North Am. possessions, 0.61M from all other countries; on apr. 18 the U.S. govt. assumes control of immigration, causing Congress to appropriate $75K to construct the first U.S. federal immigration station on Ellis Island, which originally were part of the Oyster Islands, called Gibbet Island in the 1760s, then acquired in the 1770s by merchant Sammuel Ellis, who leases it to the state of N.Y. in 1794. On Jan. 1, 1892 after Castle Garden becomes unable to accommodate the flow, Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay about 1 mi. SW of Battery Park opens as the first Federal Immigration station, no longer under the control of New York and its famous corruption, which let "paupers" and other "undesirables" in; instead, the feds begin to close immigration down in their own, more bureaucratic way; between this year and 1924 22M immigrate; the first immigrant this year is 15-y.-o. Annie Moore (1877-1924) (born on Jan. 1) from Ireland; she dies poor in Lower East Side, N.Y. as Annie Moore Schayer.

Carnegie Hall, 1891 William Burnet Tuthill (1855-1929)

In Apr. 1891 Carnegie Hall two blocks S of Central Park at 881 Seventh Ave. between West 56th St. and West 57th St. in midtown Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 3,671) opens, built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie and designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill (1855-1929), becoming one of the top classical and popular music venues on Earth.

John Bigelow of the U.S. (1817-1911)

In 1895 after trustee John Bigelow (1817-1911) (U.S. ambassador to France during the U.S. Civil War) comes up with the idea, the Tilden Trust creates the New York Public Library by joining the struggling Astor and Lenox libraries, opening their collections to the public; in Feb. 1901 it absorbs the New York Free Circulating Library; Andrew Carnegie donates $2.5M to build 65 branch libraries.

Robert Anderson Van Wyck of the U.S. (1849-1918)

On Jan. 1, 1898 the consolidation and incorporation of the City of Greater New York, at the mouth of the Hudson (North) River occurs with the merger of Brooklyn and Manhattan; the city's five boroughs Manhattan (New York County), the Bronx (Bronx County), Brooklyn (Kings County), Queens (Queens County) and Richmond (Richmond County, Staten Island) have 3.4M pop. total; next year the three eastern towns of Queens County separate to form Nassau County; meanwhile on Jan. 1 New York City-born Dem. judge (Tammany Hall puppet) Robert Anderson Van Wyck (1849-1918) becomes New York City mayor #91 (until Dec. 31, 1901).

Seth Low of the U.S. (1850-1916) Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947)

In 1901 after Mark Twain campaigns for him, anti-Tammany Hall Repub. Colombia U. pres. #11 (since 1890) (Teddy Roosevelt lookalike?) Seth Low (1850-1916) is elected New York City mayor #92, taking office on Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1903) on the Fusion Party reform ticket, going on to establish a merit-based civil service system, reduce police graft, improve public education, and lower taxes, which doesn't stop the Tammany Hall machine from plotting to replace him with their puppet; Columbia-educated philosophy prof. Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) becomes pres. #12 of Columbia U. (until 1945), steering it away from vocational training while becoming a leading peacenik and trying in vain to limit Jewish admissions.

Algonquin Hotel, 1902

In 1902 the 181-room Algonquin Hotel at 59 West 44th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. opens, becoming the home of the Alonquin Round Table in 1919-29.

Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) Flatiron Building, 1902

In 1902 Am. architect Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) designs the triangular Flatiron Bldg. in New York City (at 23rd St., 5th Ave. and Broadway), as well as the Union Station in Washington, D.C. (finished 1907); the Flatiron Bldg. acts as a wind tunnel, creating updrafts and viewing opportunities for men.

George B. McClellan Jr. of the U.S. (1865-1940)

On Oct. 27, 1904 the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT), the first rapid transit subway is inaugurated in New York City by new Princeton-educated mayor #93 (Jan. 1, 1904-Dec. 31, 1909) George Brinton McClellan Jr. (1865-1940), son of inept Civil War Union gen. George B. McClellan Sr.; it goes from City Hall to W. 145th St. in 26 min., and tickets cost a nickel (no tokens until 1953).

William Jay Gaynor of the U.S. (1849-1913)

On Jan. 1, 1910 honest former N.Y. supreme court justice (1893-9) William Jay Gaynor (1849-1913) (who started out a devout Roman Catholic then left the Church after reading Benjamin Franklin's autobiography) becomes New York City mayor #94 (until Sept. 10, 1913), becoming known for refusing to take orders from Tammany Hall boss Charles Francis Murphy, with his reforms causing an assassination attempt on Aug. 9 by fired dock night watchman James J. Gallagher (-1913) aboard the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse while docked in Hoboken, N.Y., with New York World photographer William Warnecke taking a photo of the moment when he shoots a bullet through his neck, becoming the only New York City to be hit by a bullet during an assassination attempt; the bullet lodges in his neck, leading to his early death.

On Sept. 8, 1910 Pennsylvania Station in New York City opens for Long Island Rail Road trains via the new tunnel under the East River; on Nov. 27 Penn. Railroad trains begin using it, eventually replacing the old New York City area terminal across the Hudson River at Exchange Place in Jersey City, N.J.

New York Public Library, 1911

On May 23, 1911 the $8M Renaissance-style New York Public Library bldg. at Fifth Ave. and W. 42nd St. in New York City opens, complete with two stone lions flanking the front steps; the architectural firm of John Merven Carrere (1858-1911) and Thomas Hastings (1860-1929) won a nat. competition to build it.

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) Church of the Intercession, 1913

In 1913 the Apollo Theater at 253 W. 125th St. in Harlem, N.Y. opens for African-Am. performers. In 1913 the Neo-Gothic Episcopal Church of the Intercession in New York City at 155th St. and Broadway on Sugar Hill between Harlem and Washington Heights, designed by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) is built, becoming the unofficial HQ for visiting African prelates incl. Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa.

John Francis Hylan of the U.S. (1868-1936)

On Jan. 1, 1918 Dem. Tammany Hall candidate John Francis Hylan (1868-1936) (former railroad engineer) becomes New York City mayor #96 (until Dec. 31, 1924), fighting to keep subway rates at 5 cents and launching the Independent Subway System, giving a famous speech against "the interests" in 1922, with the soundbyte: "The real menace of our Republic is the invisible government, which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy legs over our cities, states and nation. To depart from mere generalizations, let me say that at the head of this octopus are the Rockefeller–Standard Oil interests and a small group of powerful banking houses generally referred to as the international bankers. The little coterie of powerful international bankers virtually run the United States government for their own selfish purposes. They practically control both parties, write political platforms, make catspaws of party leaders, use the leading men of private organizations, and resort to every device to place in nomination for high public office only such candidates as will be amenable to the dictates of corrupt big business. These international bankers and Rockefeller–Standard Oil interests control the majority of the newspapers and magazines in this country. They use the columns of these papers to club into submission or drive out of office public officials who refuse to do the bidding of the powerful corrupt cliques which compose the invisible government. It operates under cover of a self-created screen [and] seizes our executive officers, legislative bodies, schools, courts, newspapers and every agency created for the public protection"; the Dan Quayle of his day, with a rep for missing some cylinders (banker agitprop?), his successor Jimmy Walker appoints him judge of the Queens Children Court, with the soundbyte: "The children can now be tried by their peer."

Andrew John Volstead of the U.S. (1860-1947) Wayne Bidwell Wheeler (1869-1927)

On Oct. 10, 1919 the U.S. Senate and House pass the U.S. Volstead Nat. Prohibition Enforcement Act, drafted by U.S. Rep. (R-Minn.) (1903-23) Andrew Volstead (1860-1947), chmn. of the House Judiciary Committee, with advice from Anti-Saloon League pres. Wayne Bidwell Wheeler (1869-1927); on Oct. 27 Pres. Wilson vetos it, and the same day it is overridden by the House, followed on Oct. 28 by the Senate, and the Volstead Act becomes law; Prohibition begins, with Wheeler running the federal bureau from the outside without official authority, becoming the most powerful person in the U.S. - drink fast?

On Jan. 16, 1920 Prohibition begins in the U.S. with the passage of the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, making the manufacture, sale, and transportation (but not consumption or private possession) of alcoholic beverages a federal crime, causing bootlegging to skyrocket; it is not repealed until Dec. 5, 1933 with the ratification of the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; Canadian breweries use the opportunity to being producing Am.-style Cream ale, which after Prohibition ends becomes popular in both countries; meanwhile in the 1920s brewers try to stay in business by producing near bears, incl. Pablo (Pabst), Famo (Schlitz), Vivo (Miller), Lux-O (Stroh), and Bevo (Anheuser-Busch), producing 300M gal. in 1921 and 88M gal. in 1932.

The American Irish become Mister Feelgood? By the 1920s the Irish have "arrived" in the U.S., and could probably run it if they just weren't !?!? Roman Catholic?; "There are judges by the dozen, incl. a third of the Supreme Court, three Cardinals, Senators, multi-millionaires and captains of industry by the score, like Mr. Henry Ford, the motor king, Mr. Doheny, who dominates the petrol industry, Mr. Thomas F. Ryan, the partner of King Leopold in the Congo diamond mines, Mr. Mellon, the secy. to the Treasury, Mr. Doughtery, the Atty.-Gen., Mr. Smith, the gov. of New York, Mr. Hylan, the mayor of New York, Mr. Tumulty, private secy. to Pres. Wilson, Gen. O'Ryan of the American Army, Dudly Malone, chief official of the port of New York, J.R. Ryan, the head of the Copper Trail, John Mitchel, mayor of New York, Col. Concanon, chmn. of the White Star Line, and J.A. Farrell, Pres. of the U.S. Steel Co." (Terence Sheehy) - we've been ratted out, boys?

Alain Locke (1886-1954) Langston Hughes (1902-67) Arna Wendell Bontemps (1902-73) Countee Cullen (1903-46) Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961) Alice Dunbar Nelson (1875-1935)

In the 1920s (1918-29?) the Harlem Renaissance (New Negro Movement) of African-Am. writers in Harlem, Manhattan, N.Y. begins, led by Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) (the Dean) (first African-Am. Rhodes scholar, 1907), James Mercer Langston Hughes (1902-67), Arna Wendell "Arna" Bontemps (1902-73), Countee Cullen (1903-46), Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961), Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar Nelson (1875-1935) et al. In 1928 Countee Cullen marries the daughter of W.E.B. Du Bois.

Cotton Club, 1923

In 1923 the Cotton Club night club in Harlem, N.Y. at 142nd St. and Lenox Ave. opens (until 1935) as a whites-only establishment featuring mainly black entertainers, incl. Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday, Lena Horne, Fats Waller, Ethel Waters, the Nicholas Brothers, and Stepin Fetchit; Sun. nights are Celebrity Night, with guests incl. Fanny Brice, Eddie Cantor, Jimmy Durante, Judy Garland, George Gershwin, Moss Hart, Langston Hughes, Al Jolson, NYC Mayor Jimmy Walker et al.; in 1936-40 it reopens in the midtown Theater District.

Eustace Tilley Harold Wallace Ross (1892-1951) E.B. White (1899-1985) Peter Arno (1904-68) Janet Flanner (1892-1978)

On Feb. 21, 1925 the first issue of The New Yorker mag., founded by Colo.-born h.s. dropout Harold Wallace Ross (1892-1951) (ed.-in-chief until his death), and Austrian-born banker Raoul Herbert Fleischmann (1885-1969), cousin of yeast king Julius Fleischmann is pub., becoming the #1 lit. mag. in the U.S.; "It is not edited for the old lady in Dubuque"; the top-hatted character Eustace Tilley, created by a Victorian era-loving Rea Irvin (1881-1972) appears on the cover of the first issue and every anniv. issue thereafter; Irvin also creates the mag.'s typeface; E.B. White (1899-1985) becomes a main contributor, keeping it up for life, as does cartoonist Peter Arno (1904-68) and correspondent Janet Flanner (1892-1978), who uses the penname Genet.

On Jan. 1, 1926 Irish-Am. Dem. Greenwich Village alderman and Tin Pan Alley songwriter James John "Jimmy" "Beau James" Walker (1881-1946) becomes mayor of New York City (until Sept. 1, 1932), becoming known as Beau James as he makes the Big Apple friendly to the Jazz Age by allowing speakeasies to proliferate while he enjoys chorus girls, leaving his wife for Isle of Wight-born Ziegeld Follies showgirl Betty (Violet Halling) Compton (1904-44), whom he marries in 1933; too bad, the Great Depression gives Cardinal Patrick Hayes an excuse to come down on his case, blaming his immorality for everything, leading to corruption investigations, after which he resigns on Sept. 1, 1932 and skips to Europe for awhile to avoid prosecution and marry his Betty; after the heat dies down, he returns and becomes pres. of Majestic Records.

Paramount Theatre, 1926 Jesse Crawford (1895-1962)

On Nov. 19, 1926 the Paramount Theatre (cap. 3,664) at 1501 Broadway in Manhattan, N.Y. in the Times Square district opens as the HQ of Paramount Pictures, with founder Adolph Zukor maintaining his office there until 1976; the opening features the stage show "God Gave Me 20 Cents", featuring Mayor Jimmy Walker and Thomas Edison; the theater houses a large Wurlitzer organ for silent films, featuring organist ("Poet of the Organ") Jesse Crawford (1895-1962) until 1933.

Holland Tunnel, Nov. 13, 1927 Clifford Milburn Holland (1883-1924) Ole Singstad (1882-1969)

On Nov. 13, 1927 the 1.7-mi. (8,558 ft.) (2,608.5m) Holland Tunnel for vehicular traffic from Manhattan, N.Y. to Jersey City, N.J. under the Hudson River opens, named after chief engineer Clifford Milburn Holland (1883-1924), who died of overwork during its construction, after which designed by Norwegian-born civil engineer Ole Knutsen Singstad (1882-1969) finishes it, adding an innovating ventilation system, and later inventing the sunk-tube method of underwater vehicular tunnel building using prefab sections.

William van Alen (1883-1954) Chrysler Bldg., 1930 Chrysler Bldg., 1930

On May 27, 1930 the 77-story 1,046-ft. (318.9m) Chrysler Bldg. at 405 Lexington Ave. (42nd St. and Lexington Ave.) in New York City is completed, designed by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born architect William van Alen (1883-1954), becoming a prime example of plush art deco, right down to the elevator doors, and is one of the first skyscrapers to carry stainless steel on its exterior, becoming the tallest brick bldg. on Earth, the tallest bldg. in the world until 1931, after which it becomes the 2nd talles until 2007.

Empire State Building, 1931 William Frederick Lamb (1893-1952)

On May 1, 1931 the 1,472-ft.-tall (1,250 ft. tall) Empire State Bldg. at 350 Fifth Ave. in New York City opens, designed by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born architect William Frederick Lamb (1893-1952), becoming the world's tallest bldg. (Eiffel Tower = 984.5 ft.); the stairway has 1,576 steps; it has 60K tons of steel beams, 3M sq. ft. of wire mesh, 70K cubic yards of concrete, 10M bricks, 5 acres of windows, and 2M sq. ft. of office space, which can accommodate 15K people; the upper 30 stories are lit with hi-intensity floodlights visible for 50 mi., which are turned off in the spring and fall to prevent migrating birds from flying into it.

Othmar Hermann Ammann (1879-1965) George Washington Bridge, 1931

On Oct. 24, 1931 N.Y. gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the George Washington Bridge (begun Oct. 1927), designed by Swiss-born civil engineer Othmar Hermann Ammann (1879-1965), spanning the Hudson River between W. 178th St. in Manhattan and Ft. Lee, N.J., becoming the world's longest suspension bridge (until ?), carrying up to 100M vehicles/year; its two support towers rise 604 ft. above the water, and the bridge is supported on four 36-in. diam. cables; thrifty Swiss Ammann brings the bridge in ahead of schedule and under budget, and goes on to design the Bayonne Bridge (opened Nov. 15, 1931), Triborough Bridge (opened July 11, 1936), and Bronx-Whitestone Bridge (opened Apr. 29, 1939).

John Patrick O'Brien of the U.S. (1873-1951)

In early Nov. 1932 after the surprise resignation of Jimmy Walker, Tammany Hall's candidate John Patrick O'Brien (1873-1951) beats acting mayor Joseph V. Mckee by 500K votes, and on Jan. 1 he is sworn-in as mayor #98 of New York City (until Dec. 31, 1933), uttering the soundbyte about who will be the next police commissioner "I don't know. They haven't told me yet."

Fiorello Henry La Guardia of the U.S. (1882-1947) Robert Moses (1888-1981)

In early Nov. 1933 5'2" Greenwich Village, N.Y.-born Fiorello (It. "Little Flower") Henry (Enrico) La Guardia (1882-1947) beats Tammany Hall to become mayor New York City, and is sworn-in as mayor #99 on Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1945), going on to become "the Napoleon of New York", using his first 100 days in office to end corruption, replace patronage with merit-based civil service, modernize transportation and parks with the help of New Haven, Conn.-born Yale U., Columbia U., and Oxford U. grad Robert Moses (1888-1981), and restore the city's financial health and end dependence on banks; a Repub. who supports Dem. U.S. pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, he is given 20% of the entire nat. U.S. Civil Works Admin. (CWA) budget for work relief; he names the lions in front of the N.Y. Public Library "Patience" and "Fortitude".

On Dec. 5, 1933 Mormon-dominated Utah becomes the 36th state to ratify the Twenty-First (21st) (XXI) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, repealing the 18th Amendment and ending Prohibition (begun Jan. 16, 1920), and the U.S. goes wet, freeing the whole country from being a concentration camp for alcoholics (into being a concentration camp for drivers?); too bad, Prohibition reduces the number of U.S. breweries from 1100 in 1920 to 300 in 1933, which are whittled down to 50 by 1982.

Lincoln Tunnel, Dec. 22, 1937 Ole Singstad (1882-1969)

On Dec. 22, 1937 the center tube of the 1.5-mi. (8,216 ft.) (2,504m) Lincoln Tunnel (named after Pres. Abraham Lincoln) for vehicular traffic between midtown Manhattan, N.Y. and Weehawken, N.J. under the Hudson River opens, designed by Norwegian-born civil engineer Ole Knutsen Singstad (1882-1969), becoming the 2nd major tunnel between the two states along with the Holland Tunnel; originally named the Weehawken Midtown Tunnel, the George Washington Bridge to the N causes the name change to keep up with the Georges?; the north tube opens on Feb. 1, 1945, and the south tube on May 25, 1957.

William O'Dwyer of the U.S. (1890-1964)

On Jan. 1, 1946 County Mayo, Ireland-born Dem. William O'Dwyer (1890-1964), Tammany Hall's candidate becomes New York City mayor #100 (until Aug. 31, 1950), singing "It's a Great Day for the Irish" at his inauguration, going on to establish the Office of City Construction Coordinator, with Robert Moses as park commissioner #1, and preside over the first $1B city budget, creating a traffic dept. and raising subway fares from 5 cents to 10 cents; too bad, he resigns after a police corruption scandal, receiving a ticker tape parade and getting appointed U.S. ambassador to Mexico by Pres. Truman (until Dec. 6, 1952), staying in Mexico except for a trip back to answer questions about his connections with organized crime, which haunts him for life.

On June 25, 1946 a fire at the St. George Terminal of the Staten Island Ferry in New York City kills three and injures 280.

Robert Moses (1888-1981) Oscar Niemeyer (1907-2012) U.N. HQ, 1952

On Dec. 12, 1946 after being convinced by N.Y. planning czar Robert Moses (1888-1981) not to build it in Philadelphia, Penn., a U.N. committee votes to accept a 6-block tract of Manhattan real estate on Turtle Bay overlooking the East River bounded by First Ave., East 42nd St., and East 48th St., offered as a gift by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to be the permanent site of their U.N. HQ; on Dec. 14 the Gen. Assembly okays the deal, and adopts a disarmament resolution prohibiting the A-bomb; the U.N. HQ is designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (1907-2012), and completed in 1952.

Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, 1950

On May 25, 1950 the 2.8mi (9,117 ft.) twin-tube Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel for vehicular traffic under the East River in New York City opens, connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn after passing underneath Governors Island, becoming the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in North Am. (until ?).

Vincent Richard Impellitteri of the U.S. (1900-87)

On Nov. 14, 1950 after William O'Dwyer resigns and he becomes acting mayor, then loses the Dem. primary and switches to the populist Experience Party ticket to win, with the slogan "unbought and unbossed", Sicilian-born city council pres. Vincent (Vincenzo) Richard Impellitteri (1900-87) beccomes New York City mayor #101 (until Dec. 31, 1953).

Lever House, 1952 Gordon Bunshaft (1909-90) Natalie de Blois (1921-2013)

In 1952 the 307-ft. (94m) glass-box skyscraper Lever House at 390 Park Ave. in midtown Manhattan, N.Y., designed by Gordon Bunshaft (1909-90) and Natalie Griffin de Blois (1921-2013) of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill is completed as the new HQ for Lever Brothers Co., designed in the Internat. Style of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, becoming the 2nd curtain wall skyscraper in New York City after the UN HQ, causing Park Ave. to begin changing from masonry apt. bldgs. to glass towers.

Robert Ferdinand Wagner Jr. of the U.S. (1910-91)

On Jan. 1, 1954 Robert Ferdinand Wagner Jr. (II) (1910-91) (Yale U. Scroll & Key), son of U.S. Sen. (D-N.Y.) (1927-49) Robert Ferdinand Wagner Sr. (1877-1953) (leader of the New Deal Coalition) becomes New York City mayor #102 (until Dec. 31, 1965), serving three terms and going on to create the City U. of N.Y. (CUNY) system and work to bar housing discimination and build public housing, hiring blacks for city govt.; on his 3rd term in 1961 he breaks with Tammany Hall.

It's just like Lucy and Ricky moving from New York to California? On Sept. 23, 1957 Hank Aaron hits an 11th-inning homer to give the Milwaukee Braves their first NL pennant; on Sept. 24 after New York City planning czar Robert Moses (1888-1981) refuses to let owner Walter O'Malley build a new stadium in Brooklyn at the corner of Atlantic Ave. and Flatbush Ave. and tries to force him to build in Flushing Meadows, the Brooklyn Dodgers play their last game at Ebbets Field and head for Los Angeles; on Sept. 29 the New York Giants lose their last game at the Polo Grounds to the Pittsburgh Pirates, then move to San Francisco, Calif., bringing the Dodgers-Giants rivalry to the West coast.

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, 1962- Max Abramovitz (1908-2004)

On Sept. 23, 1962 the New York Philharmonic Hall, designed by Chicago, Ill.-born architect Max Abramovitz (1908-2004) is the first bldg. to open at the new Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan, N.Y., whose first pres. is composer William Howard Schuman (1910-92) (until 1969), going on to house the Metropolitan Opera (1966) and the New York City Ballet.

On Nov. 9, 1965 (5:16 p.m. EST) (17:16 9-11-65) the Great Northeast Blackout of 1965 occurs during rush hour (begins at 4:44 p.m.) in an 80K sq. mi. area of Ontario, New York and New England (seven NE states and two Canadian provinces) inhabited by 30M as Sir Adam Beck Station No. 2 four mi. W of Niagara Falls on the Canadian side of the border trips a relay, and by 5:38 a domino effect completes the blackout; New York City goes black at 5:27 p.m.; mucho leche flows in the dark as people begin playing hot rabbit?; 62M phone calls are placed in New York City, the most ever recorded in one day; the blackout is traced to the Beck plant on Nov. 15; the blackout lasts up to 13.5 hours.

Madison Square Garden, 1968

In 1965 after the Grand Pennsylvania Station (opened Sept. 8 1910) in New York City at W. 31st-33rd Sts. and 7th Ave. across the street from Gimbel's Dept. Store was demolished in 1963 to make way for the new (4th) Madison Square Garden (opened on Feb. 11, 1968) (relocated from the 1925 site at 50th St. and 8th Ave.), it is rebuilt as the Penn Station at W. 31st St. and 8th Ave. under New York City''s first Preservation Act, sponsored by atty. Albert Bard (1866-1963).

John Vliet Lindsay of the U.S. (1921-2000) William F. Buckley Jr. (1925-2008) Mike Quill (1905-66)

On Jan. 1, 1966 New York City-born liberal Repub. John Vliet Lindsay (1921-2000) becomes New York City mayor #103 (until Dec. 31, 1973), succeeding Dem. mayor (since Jan. 1, 1954) Robert F. Wagner Jr., issuing the following soundbyte in the Jan. 13, 1967 New York Times: "The miniskirt enables young ladies to run faster, and because of it, they may have to"; conservative former CIA agent and Nat Review mag. founder (1955) William Frank (Francis) Buckley Jr. (1925-2008), known for his chipmunk face with arching eyebrows and a darting tongue often compared with an anteater (who denounced the John Birch Society in 1965 as lunatic fringers) ran against him, taking 13.4% of the vote away from his Dem. challenger Abe Beame after uttering the soundbyte that if he won the election he'd demand a recount; on Jan. 2 the Transport Workers Union of Am. (TWU), led by Irish-born (ex-Communist) Michael Joseph "Red Mike" Quill (1905-66) (who calls Lindsey "Linsley") goes on strike, shutting down subway and bus service for 12 days until Lindsay obtains an injunction and gets Quill and seven others cited for contempt of court, at which Quill announces "The judge can drop dead in his black robes", after which he himself dies of a heart attack in jail three days after the strike ends.

Minoru Yamasaki (1912-86) World Trade Center (WTC), 1973

Got a strange magic? In Dec. 1970 the North Tower of the 1,368-ft./1,326-ft. 110-story $350M twin-towered World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan, New York City, designed by Minoru Yamasaki (1912-86) is completed, followed by the South Tower next July; the excavated dirt is used to make Battery Park City on the W side of Lower Manhattan; it officially opens on Apr. 4, 1973 with a ribbon-cutting ceremony; its originally contains over 9M sq. ft. of office space; the Windows on the World Restaurant is established on the 106th-107th floors of the North Tower in late 1972; the Top of the World Observation Deck is established on the 107th floor of the South Tower; later four more bldgs. are added to the complex, incl. the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center (9 stories), 6 World Trade Center (8 stories) (1975) (housing the U.S. Customs), and 7 World Trade Center (47 stories) (1987); it becomes the world's highest bldg. until 1974; too bad, after becoming a symbol of the Great Satan to Muslim terrorists, it is totally destroyed on Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) by al-Qaida terrorists in two spectacular implosions triggered by fully-laden Boston-to-LA Boeing 767 airliners rammed into each tower by flight school dropout pilots, changing the U.S. seemingly forever.

Abraham David Beame of the U.S. (1906-2001)

On Nov. 6, 1973 London, England-born Abraham David "Abe" Beame (Birnbaum) (1906-2001) is elected as New York City's first Jewish mayor (#104), taking office next Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1977), spending his term fighting looming bankruptcy, cutting the city workforce, freezing salaries, and reconfiguring the budget, going from a $1.5B deficit to a $200M surplus.

On July 13-14, 1977 the 25-hour 1977 New York City Blackout hits the New York City area after lightning strikes on upstate power lines, causing looters to rampage while the rabbits rustle, causing $150M in theft and property damage; Con Edison is later found guilty of negligence.

Edward Irving 'Ed' Koch of the U.S. (1924-2013)

On Jan. 1, 1978 crypto-sexual (childless) Bronx-born Dem. Jewish atty. Edward Irving "Ed" Koch (1924-2013) becomes New York City mayor #105 (until Dec. 31, 1989), calling himself a "liberal with sanity", becoming known for riding the subway and standing on street corners asking passersby "How'm I doing?', going on to win reelection in 1981 with 75% of the vote after becoming the first New York City to win endosement by both the Dem. Party and Repub. Party, winning a 3rd term with 78% of the vote, launching an ambitious public housing renewal program in his last years before a corruption scandal and racial tensions cause him to lose to David Dinkins.

On Apr. 1-11, 1980 the 1980 New York City Transit Strike (first since 1966) over wages for contracted workers sees 34K mass transit workers in New York City go on strike, stopping 6.4K subway cars and 4.5K buses, forcing 5.4M to find other ways to get to work until a 17% raise is agreed to (9% in the first year, 8% in the 2nd year); women begin wearing sneakers to work to walk over the Brooklyn Bridge, and it becomes a habit.

John Lennon (1940-80) and Mark David Chapman (1955-) Mark David Chapman (1955-)

That really chaps my hide, or, the Day the Music Died, or, Imagine there's no John Lennon? On Dec. 8, 1980 (Mon.) (12-8-80) (10:49 p.m.) after a nude photoshoot and a recording session for Yoko Ono's "Walking on Thin Ice", former Beatle John Winston Ono Lennon (b. 1940) is shot 4x in the back, side, and shoulder with a Charter Arms .38 Special Undercover snub-nosed revolver firing five hollow point "dum-dum" bullets, and killed outside the Dakota Apt. Bldg. in New York City's Upper West Side on W 72nd St. (6 blocks from 66th St.) (a reputed home for witches, famous as the setting for "Rosemary's Baby") by deranged eyeglasses-wearing Tex.-born "Catcher in the Rye" loving fan and Honolulu security guard Mark David Chapman (1955-), who had gotten his autograph earlier in the day, and stays on the scene reading his novel, then calls out "Mr. Lennon" and drops to a combat stance before firing, and later tells police "I'm sure the large part of me is Holden Caulfield, who is the main person in the book - the small part of me must be the Devil"; Lennon is hit in the aorta and collapses to the floor, dropping cassettes of "Walking on Thin Ice", then struggling to the lobby shouting "I'm shot! I'm shot!", and arrives DOA at the hospital, and is pronounced dead at 11:07 p.m.; Chapman remains on the scene, letting his smoking gun drop on top of Lennon's bloodstained eyeglasses, and not resisting arrest, telling them "I acted alone" and "Lennon had to die"; future rock star Madonna (1958-), who had just moved to the Big Apple is walking a few blocks away at the time, and joins the crowd outside the Dakota; singer Neil Diamond is also in town for the debut of his movie "The Jazz Singer"; Howard Cosell announces Lennon's death on Monday Night Football during a game between the Miami Dolphins and New England Patriots, with the soundbyte "This, we have to say it, remember this is just a football game, no matter who wins or loses. An unspeakable tragedy, confirmed to us by ABC News in New York City. John Lennon, outside of his apartment building on the West Side of New York City, the most famous, perhaps, of all the Beatles, shot twice in the back, rushed to the Roosevelt Hospital, dead on arrival"; after the usual calls for more gun control laws, Pres. Reagan says they wouldn't have prevented the shooting; on Dec. 14 fans around the world pay tribute to the brainy Beatle in a John Lennon Memorial Service in Central Park across the street from the Dakota, where the Strawberry Fields Memorial (designed by Yoko Ono) is erected, complete with the word "Imagine" (dedicated on Oct. 9, 1985); Fidel Castro commemorates a statue to this "revolutionary hero"; before he dies, John arranges a dog for his 5-y.-o. son Sean Ono Lennon (1975-), which arrives on Dec. 25 and is named "Merry Christmas"; 1 mo. after the murder, Yoko Ono releases Walking on Thin Ice (for John) her first charting single, peaking at #58; Lennon is awarded a posth. album of the year at the 1982 Grammy Awards; Chapman toys with an insanity defense then pleads guilty, and on Aug. 24, 1981 is sentenced to 20-life, ending up in Attica Correctional Facility in Buffalo, N.Y.; the hit was really ordered by the CIA?

On Sept. 19, 1981 Simon and Garfunkel reunite for a free Concert in Central Park on the Great Lawn, attended by 500K, releasing a live album next Feb. 16.

Trisha Milei (1962-)

On Apr. 19, 1989 (9:00 p.m. local time) a group of up to 50 black and Hispanic Harlem teenagers go "wilding" in Central Park, New York City looking for random whites to terrorize and rape, and chase down, rape, and beat Trisha Ellen Meili (1962-), a 28-y.-o. Wall Street investment banker, who becomes known as the Central Park Jogger; six teenagers are charged and five (four black, one Hispanic) are convicted, receiving 5-15-year sentences, until convicted serial murderer-rapist Matias Reyes confesses in 2002 that he did it alone, but is not prosecuted because of the statute of limitations, causing all five convictions to be vacated, and in 2003 they sue the city, which stalls until mayor Bill de Blasio authorizes a $41M settlement in 2014 - so let them off and I'll do their time?

Yusuf Hawkins (1973-89)

On Aug. 23, 1989 in a case that inflames racial tensions in New York City, black teenager Yusuf (Yusef) Hawkins (b. 1973) is shot dead after he and three friends are confronted and chased by 10-30 white youths in the heavily Italian working-class Brooklyn neighborhood of Bensonhurst; Rev. Al Sharpton leads a protest march through the neighborhood; two men are tried for the murder, and Joseph Fama is convicted of 2nd degree murder, while Keith Mondello is acquitted of murder but convicted on 12 lesser charges, causing more protest marches by Sharpton, contributing to the downfall of New York City mayor (since Jan. 1, 1978) Ed Koch.

Lawrence Douglas Wilder of the U.S. (1931-) David Dinkins of the U.S. (1927-) David Duke of the U.S. (1950-)

On Nov. 7, 1989 lt. gov. Lawrence Douglas "Doug" Wilder (1931-) becomes the first elected black state gov. in U.S. history, taking office next Jan. 14 as Va. gov. #66 (until Jan. 15, 1994); David Norman Dinkins (1927-) is elected the first black mayor (#106) of New York City, taking office on Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1993); white supremacist former KKK leader David Ernest Duke (1950-) scores one for the pinks when he is elected to the State House of Reps. (Repub.) in La. (until 1992), and disavows his white supremacist agenda (but later returns to it) - I don't hate other races I just luuuuv mine?

The Big Two for One Plus Ninety-Two, or, WTC One? On Feb. 26, 1993 Muslim terrorists attempt to blow up the twin-tower World Trade Center in New York City with a nitric acid-urea bomb in a Ryder van in the parking garage, killing six, injuring 1,042, and costing $591M in damage and lost business; a 3-story-deep hole is ripped in the structure, collapsing the ceiling of a nearby subway line; an officer worker uses his new Timex Indiglo night lite to guide fellow employees down 40 flights of dark stairs, causing a sales boom; the bombing is later linked to al-Qaida (Al-Qaeda) and Osama bin Laden; on Mar. 4 Palestinian illegal immigrant Mohammed A. Salameh (1967-) is arrested in Jersey City, N.J., and by Aug. seven suspects have been arrested; the trial of four of them begins on Oct. 4; on July 26, 2005 a jury rules that the New York Port Authority is negligent for not properly maintaining the parking garage, which is a "substantial factor" in allowing the bombing to occur.

Rudy Giuliani of the U.S. (1944-) Bill Bratton of the U.S. (1947-)

On Jan. 1, 1994 New York City-born former 1980s Mafia-busting U.S. atty. Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (1944-) becomes Repub. mayor #107 of New York City (until Dec. 31, 2001), going on to hire William Joseph "Bill" Bratton (1947-) as police commissioner (until Apr. 15, 1996), who applies the "broken windows theory" that clamps down on minor violations to prevent a permissive atmosphere leading to serious crimes.

World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 The Pentagon, Sept. 11, 2001 Mohamed Atta (1968-2001) Waleed Mohammed al-Shehri (1978-2001) Wail al-Shehri (1973-2001) Abdulaziz al-Omari (1979-2001) Satam al-Suqami (1976-2001) Marwan al-Shehhi (1978-2001) Fayez Banihammad (1977-2001) Mohand al-Shehri (1979-2001) Hamza al-Ghamdi (1980-2001) Ahmed al-Ghamdi (1979-2001) Hani Hanjour (1972-2001) Khalid al-Mihdhar (1975-2001) Majed Moqed (1977-20010 Nawaf al-Hazmi (1976-2001) Salem al-Hazmi (1981-2001) Ziad Jarrah (1975-2001) Ahmed Ibraham al-Haznawi (1980-2001) Ahmed al-Nami (1977-2001) Saeed al-Ghamdi (1979-2001) George W. Bush (1946-) and Colin Powell (1937-) of the U.S. Osama bin Laden (1957-2011) 9/11 Terrorists Pres. Bush reading from 'The Pet Goat' on 9/11 Andy Card of the U.S. (1947) Todd Morgan Beamer (1968-2001) Rick Rescoria (1939-2001) Sergio G. Villanueva (-2001) Richard N. Perle of the U.S. (1941-) Thomas Joseph 'Tom' Ridge of the U.S. (1945-) Father Mychal F. Judge (1933-2001) James Anthony Traficant Jr. of the U.S. (1943-) Jonathan Franzen (1959-) Eric Henry Monkkonen (1942-2005) Peter Orner T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-)

On Sept. 11, 2001 (Tues.) Pres. George W. Bush is targeted in an assassination plot by al-Qaida in Sarasota, Fla.? On Sept. 11 (Tues.) the New York Times pub. a story about ex-Weatherman radical Bill Ayers, quoting him as saying "I don't regret setting bombs. I feel we didn't do enough." On Sept. 11 (Tues.) the 9/11 Attacks see the New York City skyline changed after 19 lowdown cowardly stinking crazed Satan-controlled Muslim raghead jihad terrorist scumbags (incl. 15 Saudis) hijack four U.S. commercial airliners and take over the unprotected cabins, using flying lessons given them in the U.S. to steer and crash into the twin towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) (dedicated in Apr. 1973), and also the Pentagon; Am. Airlines Flight 11 (Boeing 767) from Boston to Los Angeles hits the North Tower at 8:46:26 a.m. with a direct hit that disables all the elevators; actor Tony Perkins' wife Berinthia "Berry" Berenson-Perkins (b. 1948) is on Flight 11; United Airlines Flight 175 (Boeing 767) from Boston to Los Angeles hits the South Tower at 9:02:54 a.m. at an angle, permitting people to escape; Am. Airlines Flight 77 from Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles hits the SW face of the Pentagon at 9:43 a.m. on the 60th anniv. of its groundbreaking; it was really a U.S.-launched missile, and was covered-up?; Pres. Bush had a meeting scheduled with affiliates of the Muslim Brotherhood after he arrived back at the White House; Pres. Bush first informs the nation of "an apparent terrorist attack on our country" at 9:30 from the school; at 9:45 a.m. the FAA grounds all civilian domestic and internat. flights to-from the U.S., although an El Al (Boeing 747) flight is allowed to take from JFK Airport to Tel Aviv at 4:11 p.m.; commercial flights resume on Sept. 13, followed by private flights on Sept. 14; on Sept. 20 a flight containing Bin Laden family members is allowed to leave the U.S., carrying four Americans; on Sept. 11 NBC-TV commentator Tom Brokaw answers a speculation by Matt Laurer with "This is war. This is a declaration and execution of an attack on the United States", later chanting "War! War!"; "When I saw the second airplane hit, I knew jihad has come to America" (Nonie Darwish); the South Tower implodes at 9:59:04 a.m., followed by the North Tower at 10:28:31 a.m., after the jet fuel ignites tons of paper, which causes internal temps as high as 2K F; Pres. Bush is informed of the South Tower crash at 9:07 a.m. by White House chief of staff (2001-6) Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr. (1947-) while visiting with 2nd grade (mainly black) students at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla., and turns red, but stays with the kids, reading aloud from the children's story The Pet Goat (by Siegfried Engelmann and Elaine C. Bruner) with them; British-born former U.S. Army officer Cyril Richard "Rick" Rescoria (b. 1939), vice-pres. of security at Morgan Stanley (scheduled for retirement at year's end) dies after helping 2.7K coworkers to safety; after rushing in to help not knowing about the impending collapse; 343 firefighters die in the Twin Towers, and firefighter (Argentine native) Sergio Gabrial Villanueva (b. 1968) becomes a hero; Hollywood actor Steven Vincent "Steve" Buscemi (1957-) (a former NYC firefighter) quietly returns to Engine Co. 55 and works 12-hour shifts, trying to avoid publicity; two Port Authority of N.Y. and N.J. police officers survive the towers' collapse and are rescued from the rubble after 22 hours; 300K are evacuated by boat in lower Manhattan after hundreds of craft answer a Coast Guard call for help "From All Available Boats" and converge on the West Side; meanwhile United Air Lines Flight 93 from Newark, N.J. to San Francisco, Calif. carrying 37 passengers and seven crew is hijacked by Beirut, Lebanon-born pilot (al-Qaida member) Ziad Samir Jarrah (1975-2001) and three Saudi Arabia-born muscle men Ahmed bin Abdullah al-Nami (1977-2001), Ahmed Ibrahim al-Haznawi (1980-2001), and Saeed Abdallah Ali Sulayman al-Ghamdi (1979-2001), crashing at 10:03 a.m. near Shanksville in Somerset County, Penn. (60 mi. SE of Pittsburgh and 150 mi. NW of Washington, D.C.) after the 33 all-American passengers are first cowed by a fake body bomb then fight back against the four ragheads instead of cowering like sheep, and kick the surprised terrorists butts, although too late to prevent the crash; Flight 93 passenger Todd Morgan Beamer (b. 1968) becomes a U.S. hero when he quarterbacks the makeshift anti-raghead team with the all-American words "Let's roll!", which are heard on his cellphone; his sad-proud wife Lisa later founds the charity Heroic Choices; the Flight 93 Nat. Memorial is established on Sept. 24, 2002, and dedicated on Sept. 10, 2011; 2,976 are killed in the 9/11 attacks, incl. 2,605 in New York City, 125 at the Pentagon (incl. 55 military personnel), and 246 on the four planes, with 24 listed as missing, becoming the most Americans lost on U.S. soil since the Sept. 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam, and the greatest single-day civilian loss of life in the U.S. since the May 31, 1889 Johnstown Penn. Flood; Time mag. pub. a 9/11 tragedy issue with a cover photo by Lyle Owerko; many Palestinians openly celebrate the attackon the Great Satan U.S.; Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein utters the soundbyte: "The American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity"; the govts. of Cuba, Iran, Libya, and North Korea join a worldwide chorus denouncing the attacks; Arab leaders denouncing the attacks incl. King Hussein of Jordan, Egyptian pres. Hosni Mubarak, and Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri; some Muslims around the world express sympathy for the 9/11 victims, incl. a moment of silence at a World Cup match between Bahrain and Iran on Sept. 14, and a candlelight vigil by Palestinians in Jerusalem on Sept. 15 along with another in Tehran; on Sept. 14 Ireland holds a nat. day of mourning, becoming the only country other than the U.S. and Israel to do so; the Taliban in Afghanistan condemns the attacks but denies that Osama bin Laden is behind them; bin Laden also denies involvement, claiming that there is a govt. within the govt. of the U.S. that wants to turn the 21st cent. into a cent. of conflict between Islam and Christianity, suggesting U.S. Jews and intel agencies; the economic repercussions cost the U.S. economy $1T (same as Bush's June 7 tax cut); 40K workers work at "The Pile" at Ground Zero for the next 8 mo., removing 1M tons of rubble, and 69% of them later develop permanent lung problems known as "WTC Cough"; NASA astronaut Frank Culbertson films the smoking WTC from space; New York Fire Dept. chaplain (Roman Catholic Franciscan friar) Father Mychal (Michael) Fallon Judge (b. 1933) dies at the WTC, becoming the "Saint of 9/11" ("God is going to make the headlines some day rather than the Devil, so don't give up"); St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church at 130 Liberty St. is destroyed, and the govt. stalls in rebuilding it until ?; St. Paul's Chapel at 209 Broadway facing Church St. opposite the E side of the WTC, where new U.S. pres. #1 George Washington prayed after his first inauguration on Apr. 30, 1789 is not harmed, and the syacmore tree in its courtyard becomes known as the 9/11 Sycamore, with a memorial later built for it (Isaiah 9:10); at 8:30 p.m. Pres. Bush gives a great Red-Blooded Am. Cowboy Speech from the White House, with the soundbyte "Make no mistake about it, the U.S. will hunt down and punish those responsible for these cowardly acts"; the U.S. launches into a new kind of war, the Global War on Terror (Terrorism) (ends ?); Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaida org. are immediately suspected and become the world's most-wanted criminals, despite of a lack of hard evidence; Egyptian-born 9/11 ringleader ("Emir of the WTC Attack") Mohamed Mohamed Atta (b. 1968) (Mohamed Attacker?) (who created the jihad cell in Hamburg, Germany in the late 1990s, incl. three of the four pilots) is found to have met in Prague with an Iraqi spy, throwing suspicions on Saddam Hussein, and New York City-born U.S. nat. security adviser Richard N. Perle (1941-) allegedly either blames the 9/11 attack on Iraq or wants retaliation to incl. them; Pres. Bush activates the "shadow govt." of 75-150 top officials working 90-day shifts in underground bunkers on the East Coast; the Five Dancing Israelis incident starts with a woman named Maria claiming to see a white van with five men in it filming the burning Twin Towers, allegedly with shouts of joy, who are alleged to be Israeli Mossad agents, although they are interviewed and deny dancing etc., causing conspiracy theorists to claim 9/11 was a Mossad operation; New York City Mayor Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (1944-) leads the city in a heroic manner after the attacks, earning the title "America's Mayor", and calling the deaths "worse than anyone could bear"; "Vanity Fair" ed. Graydon Carter comments "I think it's the end of the age of irony"; British Queen Elizabeth II comments "Grief is the price we pay for love"; Russian pres. Vladimir Putin orders a massive expansion of intel-gathering efforts in North Am. and W Europe; a folded $20 U.S. bill shows the Twin Towers burning?; Algerian-born British airline pilot Lotfi Raissi becomes the first person accused of participating in the 9/11 attack, and is held for five mo. in Belmarsh hi-security prison in London, then put through nine years of hell until being cleared on Apr. 23, 2010; the 20-ft. Ground Zero Cross, a fortuitous configuration of fallen I-beams draws memorial messages and becomes a religious monument; Alicia Esteve Head, who is in Spain on 9/11 arrives in the U.S. in 2003 and pretends to be 9/11 Twin Towers survivor Tania Head, becoming er, head of the survivors' network until she is exposed in 2007, becoming the subject of the 2012 book The Woman Who Wasn't There: The True Story of an Incredible Deception by Robin Gaby Fisher; ; meanwhile by 2003 a joke translation of Quran 9:11 begins circulating: "For it is written that a son of Arabia would awaken a fearsome Eagle. The wrath of the Eagle would be felt throughout the lands of Allah and lo, while some of the people trembled in despair still more rejoiced, for the wrath of the Eagle cleansed the lands of Allah; and there was peace"; later conspiracy theorists begin exposing the 9/11 attacks as really perpetrated by the U.S. govt. to give them a pretext to destroy the last bastions of the Bill of Rights in the name of homeland security and give them a coverstory to invade the Middle East at will to secure oil, and point to a giant 9/11 conspiracy and coverup, incl. the framing of Muslim terrorists, who allegedly could never have accurately flown the airliners into the WTC, the fact that no fighters were scrambled to accept any of them, the fact that Osama bin Laden et al. were originally trained by the U.S., the problem that eight of those named on the FBI's list of 19 names later turn up alive and well living in different countries, and the evidences of the deliberate demolition of WTC Bldg. 7, which hadn't been struck by an airplane; later civil engineers prove WTC Bldg. 7 was in free-fall for 2.5 sec., pointing to planted explosives; others claim to rebut conspiracy allegations; did the U.S. govt murder its own people to make a power grab, then stage a coverup, stay tuned?; in Aug. 2009 a group of law enforcement officers and others who participated in the 9/11 rescue and cleanup develop immune system cancer and other health problems; by 2010 3K WTC survivors are still experienced long-term PTSD; on Mar. 11, 2010 they reach a $657.5M settlement; Saudi princess Haifa bint Faisal, wife of U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia Prince Bandar bin Sultan is later discovered to have donated money via a conduit to two of the 9/11 hijackers.

Michael Bloomberg of the U.S. (1942-)

On Jan. 1, 2002 Boston, Mass.-born billionaire Jewish Dem.-turned-Repub. financier Michael Rubens "Mike" Bloomberg (1942-) becomes mayor #108 of New York City (until Dec. 31, 2013), succeeding 9/11 hero mayor Rudy Giuliani.

Bill de Blasio of the U.S. (1961-)

On Aug. 21, 2013 after news breaks that the NYPD has designed mosques as terrorist orgs. for purposes of surveillance, New York City mayoral candidate Bill de Blasio tweets the soundbyte that he is "deeply troubled NYPD has labelled entire mosques & Muslim orgs terror groups with seemingly no leads. Security AND liberty make us strong." Bill de Blasio (Warren Wilhelm Jr.) (1961-) is elected mayor of New York City, and is sworn-in as mayor #109 on Jan. 1 (until ?), becoming the first Dem. since 1989, succeeding Michael Bloomberg, going on to end the stop-and-frisk policy of the NYPD, institute deescalation training, and require them to wear body cameras, turning the NYPD Union against him. On Feb. 4 New York City mayor Bill de Blasio announces special treatment for Muslims, closing schools for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, along with the Lunar New Year, but not the Hindu festival Diwali. On Dec. 19 NYPD cops Wenjian Liu and Rafael Ramos are assassinated (shot in the head in their cop car) by Arabic-speaking Quran-quoting Am. Muslim Ismaaiyl Brimsley, who commits suicide to avoid capture; he did it for jihad, or in revenge for Eric Garner and Michael Brown?; on Dec. 27 hundreds of cops turn their backs on NYC mayor Bill de Blasio at Ramos' funeral, where vice-pres. Joe Biden gives a speech with the soundbyte that the "assassin's bullet" touched the "soul of an entire nation".




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