|England||Edward III the Confessor (1003-66)||1042||Jan. 5, 1066|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||1057||1093|
|France||Henri I (1008-60)||1031||Aug. 4, 1060|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||1056||1106|
|Papacy||Nicholas II (-1061)||1059||July 27, 1061|
1060 On Aug. 4 French king (since 1031) Henri I (b. 1008) dies leaving the royal demesne at its lowest point, and is succeeded by his 8-y.-o. son Philip (Gr. "horse-lover") I (the Amorous) (the Fat) (1053-1108) as Capetian king #4 (until 1108), with his mother Anne of Kiev and his uncle Count Baldwin of Flanders as regents (until 1066). Prince Bela, backed by a Polish army defeats his brother Andras I of Hungary at the Battle of the Theben Pass near the Danube-March frontier at Wieselburg, and Andras I falls from his carriage and is trampled to death by the horses; on Dec. 6 Bela I the Champion (Wisent) (1016-63), hero of the campaigns against the Germans stifles Andras' 9-y.-o. son Solomon (b. 1053), and next year becomes Arpad king of Hungary (until 1063), going on to introduce new currency incl. the silver denarius. Pons II dies, and next year Guillaume (William) IV (1040-94) becomes count of Toulouse, margrave of Provence, and duke of Narbonne (until 1094). Ferdinand I of Leon and Castile imposes an annual tribute on Muslim Zaragoza; Zaragoza emir Al-Muktadir ibn Hud drives the Slavs from Tortosa after the pop. rises against their Slav ruler. The anchovy-pizza issue begins? The Normans under brothers Robert Guiscard (1016-85) and Roger Guiscard (1031-1101) capture Rheggio, complete the conquest of Calabria, and begin the conquest of Sicily (finished 1090), which is controlled by the Saracens and Byzantines; the complete Muslim rule of Sicily that began in 965 ends next year, and they are completely ousted by 1091; meanwhile the anti-military attitude of Constantine X and his admin. causes the military to chafe and commit hostile acts? Emund the Old dies, and his son-in-law Stenkil (Steinkell) Ragnvaldsson (1028-66) becomes king of Sweden (until 1066), founding the House of Stenkil (ends 1125). Luxembourg comes under the rule of Count Conrad of Luxembourg (1040-86). After becoming the first English bishop to pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1058, Worcester bishop (since 1046) Ealdred (-1069) becomes archbishop of York (until Sept. 11, 1069). Architecture: The Romanesque Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Santigo de Compostela, Galicia, Spain is begun (finished in 1211), featuring the Portico of Glory (Portico da Gloria), commissioned by Ferdinand I of Leon and designed by architect-sculptor Master Mateo (1150-1217), finished in 1188; to the W is the Praza do Obradoiro (Port. "Square of the Workshop"). Casas Grandes, a large adobe pueblo on the Shell Trail through Ariz. and New Mexico (whose economy is based on shells from the Pacific) is built; it is abandoned in the 15th cent. Poetry: Ezzo of Bambert, The Ezzolied (Anegenge); the life of Christ; big hit in S Germany. Births: Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria Roger Borsa (d. 1111); son of Robert Guiscard (1016-85) and Sikelgaita of Lombardy (1040-90); husband of Adela of Flanders (1064-1115), daughter of Count Robert I of Flanders; father of William II of Apulia (1095-1127). English historian-theologian Eadmer (Edmer) (d. 1124). French Benedictine chronicler abbot Lambert of St. Bertin (d. 1125). Deaths: Turkish Seljuq ruler Chaghri Beg (b. 989) in Sarakhs. French king (1031-60) Henri I (b. 1008) on Aug. 4. Hungarian king (1047-60) Andrew (Andras) I (b. 1014) in Zirc.
1061 A smallpox and colic epidemic is recorded in Leinster, Ireland, which spreads throughout Ireland by 1063. On July 27 Pope (since 1059) Nicholas II dies, and on Sept. 30 reform party leader Bishop Anselm the Elder of Lucca (favorite of Hildebrand) is elected Pope (#155) Alexander II (-1073); too bad, on Oct. 28 an assembly in Basel of anti-reform German and Lombard bishops convoked by Empress Agnes (Gr. "pure") of Poitou (Poitiers) (1025-77) (regent of young HRE Henry IV), presided over by imperial chancellor Eilbert elects Bishop Peter Cadalus of Parma as Antipope Honorius II (-1072), and assemble an army to back him up. Vratislaus (Vratislav) (Bratislav) (Bretislaus) II (1060-1100) becomes duke (prince) of Bohemia, and becomes a vassal of HRE Henry IV, causing Pope Gregory VII try to woo him away by allowing him to wear the mitre and tunic for an annual payment of 100 marks. Polish duke (1058-76) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II the Bold (1038-1081) begins the reconquest of Upper Slovakia (until 1063). Malcolm III marries Ingibjorg Finnsdottir (-1069), widow of Thorfinn the Mighty of Orkney, insuring peace with the Norse as long as her sons rule in Orkney; they have two sons, Duncan (Donnchad) II and Donald (Domnall); having had his prima nocta with the Viking babe, Malcolm forgets his "sworn brother" oath with Northumbrian earl Tostig Godwinson, and takes advantage of the latter's absence on a pilgrimage to Rome to invade and sack Northumbria. The Normans under Robert and Roger Guiscard conquer Messina in Sicily opposite Italy's toe. The Estonians retake Tartu from Kiev. Berber chieftain Yusuf ibn Tashfin (Tashufin) (1061-1106) becomes leader of the Murabitun ("hermits"), AKA the Almoravids, taking the title of king next year, and going on to use strict fundamentalist Muslim ideology to justify subjugation of Morocco, Algeria, and Muslim Spain. Births: Scottish king (1093-4) Duncan II (d. 1094); eldest son of Malcolm III and 1st wife Ingibjorg Finnsdottir (widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson); grandson of Duncan I. Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #148 (1057-9) Isaac I Comnenus (b. 1005).
1062 On Apr. 14 after the army of Antipope Honorius II, backed by Empress Agnes and the nobles marches to Rome to claim the papal seat from Pope Alexander II by force, and Alexander II's backer, rich converted Jew (baptized by Pope Leo IX) Leo de Benedicto Christiano (Benedictus Christianus) (past backer of papal candidate Gerhard of Burgundy AKA Pope Nicholas II, whose son Peter later became Antipope Anacletus II, other son Giordano became the first patrician of the Roman Commune in 1143, and daughter married Roger I of Sicily) tries in vain to stop them through negotiations, a short battle gives him control of St. Peter's Church, after which Duke Godfrey III (the Bearded) of Lorraine (997-1069) arrives in May and gets the rivals to let young German king Henry IV decide the matter, causing Honorius II to withdraw to Parma and Alexander II to return to his see in Lucca; too bad, Henry IV is kidnapped in Kaiserswerth (modern-day Dusseldorf) by his princes, led by anti-Honorius Cologne archbishop (1056-75) (St.) Anno II of Cologne (1010-75), who stage a coup, send Empress Agnes to a convent in Fructuaria in Piedmont, Italy, and assume the regency under Bremen-Hamburg archbishop (since 1043) Adalbert of Bremen-Hamburg (1000-72); Anno II and Adalbert divide the monasteries between themselves, later sharing with Mainz archbishop Siegfried I, further robbing the crown blind; meanwhile in Oct. the Council of Augsburg recognizes Alexander II as pope, and gets Honorius II excommunicated next year, which doesn't stop him from holding a counter-synod in Parma, telling them to piss off, and heading back to Rome, holing-up in the Castel Sant'Angelo, owned by Leo. Tostig Godwinson of Northumbria returns from Rome and patches things up with his sworn brother Malcolm III. Ferdinand I the Great of Castile and Leon invades Muslim Toledo with a large army; emir Al-Mamun becomes a tributary of Castile; Ferdinand I invades Muslim Badajoz, and extracts tribute from emir Al-Mutadid of Seville, who steps down in favor of Abbad III al-Mu'tamid (1040-95), who becomes king #3 (last) of the Taifa of Seville (until 1091), the badass S section of Spain (except the SE corner); too bad, becoming vassals of Castile weakens Seville and softens it up for conquering by the Almoravids in 1091; al-Mudamid's soldiers fight under green flags with Islamic texts written on them, later becoming the green-white-green Arbonaida Flag of Andalusia. Shiraz is taken from the Buyids by the Seljuks. Chola Virarajendra (-1070) defeats the Chalukyas of Kalyani in S India, and founds a vedic college and hospital. The Mediterranean seaport of Bougie (Bugia) (ancient Carthaginian city of Saldae) 120 mi. E of Algiers becomes the capital of a Berber dynasty, and a chief port of N Africa. Learned Benedictine monk Lanfranc becomes prior of the Abbey of St. Stephen in Caen, France; Berengar of Tours opposes the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation, and Lanfranc becomes the man to take him on. (St.) Wulstan (Wolstan) (Ulfstan) (II) (1008-95) becomes bishop of Worcester, England, becoming one of the only Saxon bishops to be retained by William I the Conqueror, going on to rebuild the church. The city of Marrakesh (Marrakech) (modern-day pop. 928K) N of the Atlas Mts. in Morocco 360 mi. SW of Tangier, 203 mi. SW of Rabat, 149 mi. S of Casablanca, and 153 mi. NE of Agadir is founded by Berber Almoravid leader Abu Bakr ibn Umar (-1087), cousin of king Yusuf ibn Tashfin as the Almoravid capital (until 1147), going on to introduce the Maliki School of strict Islamic Sharia law to the Maghrib, and import Andalusian art and culture, politically unifying tribal Morocco, becoming known as "the Red (Ochre) City" for its many red sandstone bldgs.; Jemaa el-Fnaa (el Fna) becomes the busiest square in Africa. Births: French breed mare (St.) Adela of Normandy (Blois) (England) (d. 1137); daughter of William I of England (1026-87) and Matilda of Flanders (1031-83); sister of Henry I of England (1068-1135) and Robert Curthose; wife (1083-) of Count Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102); bears 12 children, incl. Stephen I of England (1096-1154), Bishop Henry of Blois (1101-71), and Theobald II of Champagne (1090-1151). Byzantine statesman-historian-gen. Nikephoros Bryennios (Nicephorus Bryennius) the Younger (d. 1137); husband (1097-) of Anna Comnenos (1083-1153). Deaths: Turkish Seljuq ruler Tughril Beg (b. 980) on Sept. 4.
1063 In spring Ramiro I of Aragon sieges Graus in the Pyrenees in NE Spain at the confluence of the Esera and Isabena Rivers; emir Al-Muktadir of Zaragoza leads an army N accompanied by a Castilian contingent under Prince Sancho (future Sancho II); Rodrigo (Ruy) Díaz (Diaz) de Vivar (El Cid) ("the lord") is in the Castilian contingent; Ramiro I is KIA and the Aragonese flee on May 8; meanwhile Pope Alexander II sends an internat. force to Spain under his standard bearer William of Montreuil, which incl. Italian knights, Normans (Robert Crespin, Baron of Lower Normandy), Frenchmen (Wiliam, Count of Poitiers and Duke of Aquitaine), and Spaniards (Bishop of Vic, Count Ermengol II of Urgel); in early July the expedition sieges Barbastro in the Muslim Kingdom of Lerida; the emir of Lerida (the brother of Al-Muktadir of Zaragoza) makes no attempt to relieve the siege, and after 40 days the defenders are forced to surrender when a large stone falls from the walls and blocks the only water supply; 50K inhabitants are massacred or enslaved, and a large number of Muslim singing harem girls are taken back to France by William VIII of Aquitaine; Count Ermengol II of Urgel is left as gov. on behalf of Sancho Ramirez of Aragon; Seville feels obliged to pay the Christians tribute. On Sept. 11 after he Germans wage a victorious campaign against Hungary, Bela I (b. 1016) dies after his throne collapses, and HRE Henry IV installs his boy nephew (son of Andas I and Anastasia of Russia) Solomon (Salamon) I (1053-87) as king of Hungary (until 1074). Duke William of Normandy defeats the counts of Anjou, and unites Normandy with Maine, conquering Le Mans 115 mi. SW of Paris. Boleslav II of Poland reconquers Upper Slovakia. Saxon brothers Harold and Tostig Godwinson subdue Wales. Tughril Beg dies after extending Seljuk rule throughout Iran and Iraq, and his son Alp Arslan ("lion hero") (1029-72) becomes sultan of the Seljuks, with able statesman Nizam al-Mulk (Pers. "order of the realm") (Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi) (1018-92) as his chief minister. Vratislaus II of Bohemia creates a new diocese in Olomouc, Moravia, and raises monk John of Brevnov (-1085) to bishop, taking away revenues from his priestly brother Jaromir of Prague, beginning a lifetime rivalry; after Vratislaus moves some relics from Prague there, Jaromir has them forcibly returned. A new Nestorian Christian metropolitan is ordained for Khitai in N China. Architecture: Abbaye-aux-Dames (Ladies' Abbey) in Caen, Normandy is founded by William I the Conqueror's wife Queen Matilda. The white marble Pisa Cathedral, designed by Buschetto and Rinaldo is begun (finished 1118). Deaths: Hungarian king (1061-3) Bela I (b. 1016) on Sept. 11.
1064 On Jan. 20 Ferdinand I of Leon and Castile sieges Coimbra, and takes it on July 9; the Muslim gov. who surrendered is allowed to leave with his family, but 5K inhabitants are taken captive, and all Muslims are forced out of Portuguese territory across the Mondego River; Ferdinand I retakes the area of Old Castile that had been annexed to Navarre by his father Sancho the Great. On May 31 the Council of Mantua ends the papal schism by confirming Pope Alexander II and excommunicating Honorius II, who continues to claim the papal throne to his death in 1072. Moustachioed earl of Wessex (SW England) Harold Godwinson, 2nd most powerful man in England is shipwrecked on the French coast and held for ransom by the Count of Ponthieu; Duke William of Normandy procures his release, forcing Harold to take an oath that William will become king of England upon the death of William's cousin Edward the Confessor, William claiming that Edward had already promised it to him - sure you can have it, buddy, but over my dead body? The Hungarians seize Belgrade from the Byzantines. The Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan take Ani, and ravage Armenia; the first Turkoman tribes enter Syria. The Great German Pilgrimage (ends 1065), which incl. archbishops Siegfried of Mainz and Thiemo of Salzburg, and bishops Gunther of Bamberg and Altmann of Passau opens up future Crusader routes. Song Ren Zong dies, and Song Ying Zong (Tsung) (-1067) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #5 of China; Chinese scholar Ssu-ma Kuang (Sima Guang) (1019-86) presents him with the 5-vol. Chart of Successive Years (Liniantu), a history of China from the start of the Warring States Period (403 B.C.E.) to the end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (959 C.E.); in 1066 he adds 8 more vols., covering from -403 to -207 (end of the Qin Dynasty), turning on the emperor, who orders all imperial libraries opened to him, and provides him with assistants; the next emperor Song Shen Zong changes the title to Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government (Zizhi Tongjian), and he completes it in 1084 (10 vols.). Deaths: Spanish Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm (b. 994); leaves Al Fisal (The Detailed Critical Examination), which examines various philosophies and religions incl. Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity to prove the superiority of Islam.
1065 In Apr. a civil war begins in Castile-Leon when Zaragoz emir Al-Muqtadir, aided by 500 knights from Seville sieges and captures Barbastro, killing the gov. Count Ermengol II of Urgel and putting the Spanish and French garrison to the sword; Pope Alexander II's crusade is kaput; meanwhile Al-Muqtadir breaks off relations with Castile, and Ferdinand I leads a punitive expedition into Zaragoza, taking Alquezar, then invading Valencia; despite being a Castilian tributary, Emir Mamun of Toledo leads a force in support of his son-in-law Emir Abd al-Malik; Mamun dethrones Abd al-Malik and incorporates Valencia into the Kingdom of Toledo in Nov. On June 24 (Feast of St. John the Baptist) king (since 1037) Ferdinand I the Great (b. 1017) dies after falling dangerously ill and retiring, then dressing up as a monk and lying on an ash-covered bier in front of the altar of the Church of St. Isidore; his empire is divided between his three sons, with his provocative title of emperor of Spain retired, along with the title of count of Castile: eldest son Sancho II the Strong (1036-72) becomes king of Castile, middle son Alfonso VI the Brave (1037-1109) becomes king of Leon, and youngest son Garcia II (1042-90) becomes king of Garcia, er, Galicia (Portugal); he also gives the city of Toro to his daughter Elvira, and the city of Urraca to his other daughter Zamora; too bad, Sancho II wants it all, and the War of the Three Sanchos (Castile vs. Aragon and Navarre) (ends 1067) when Aragon severely mauls the Castilians at the Battle of Viana; the status quo is restored after the Zaragozan Vali of Huesca invades Aragon from the S. HRE Henry IV (b. 1050) comes of age and begins a fight to throw off his priestly bonds and assume personal rule. The Northumbrians revolt against Northumbrian earl Tostig Godwinson, brother of Harold of Wessex, and Harold doesn't support him, causing Tostig to become bitter; the Northumbrians are subdued, but Tostig is exiled by descendants of the former earls (rivals of Harold), taking refuge at the court of Malcolm III. Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan invades Georgia. A Nestorian metropolitanate of Jerusalem is established. Architecture: On Dec. 28 the 513 ft. x 203 ft. Latin cross-shaped Romanesque Benedictine Westminster Abbey (Collegiate Church of St. Peter) (begun 1052) in London is consecrated, becoming the English royal church; Edward the Confessor is not present; the nave is 38 ft. wide and 102 ft. high; the twin towers on the W are 225 ft. high; in 1245 Henry III begins enlarging it. Inventions: Oliver of Malmesbury builds an airplane, and is killed testing it. Nonfiction: Wilhelm von Hirsau (1030-91), Manuals on Musical Theory; by a Benedictine monk. Births: Bohemian duke (1109-17, 1020-5) Vladislaus I (d. 1125); son of Vratislav II (-1092) and his 2nd wife Swatawa (daughter of Casimir I of Poland); brother of Borivoj II (1064-1124); cousin of Svatopluk (-1109). Flemish count (1093-1111) Robert II "the Crusader" (d. 1111); eldest son of Robert I (1029-93) and Gertrude of Holland. English Norman baron Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare (d. 1117) in Clare, Suffolk; 2nd son of Richard Fitz Gilbert (1034-90) and Rohese Giffard. English hermit (St.) Godric (Goderic) of Finchale (d. 1170) in Walpole, Norfolk. Spanish Jewish mathematician-astronomer Abraham ben Hiyya of Barcelona (d. 1136); first to write scientific works in Hebrew rather than Arabic. Deaths: Spanish king of Castile-Leon (1029-65) Ferdinand I the Great (d. 1017) on June 24 in Leon.
1066 Pop. of Anglo-Saxon England: 1M. The 270' x 20" Bayeux Tapestry (embroidered wool cloth on a linen canvas), created by the victorious Normans starting next year tells the tale of the Norman Conquest of England in the Big Year 1066, incl. the Comet, the Big Bad Conqueror, and Harold with an Arrow in His Eye with Diamonds, complete with a cast of 600 people, 200 horses, 40 ships, and a cameo by Edward the Confessor; only 15 people are named, and only six named in standalone fashion, incl. Harold (twice), William, Robert, Eustace, and the mysterious Turold the Dwarf - the original Sgt. Pepper? I wish I was a little bit taller, like six foot nine? On Jan. 5 Edward the Confessor (b. 1003) (son of Ethelred II and Emma) dies childless in London, and his remains are entombed behind the High Altar of Westminster Abbey, starting a tradition that carries through to George II as every English monarch except Edward V and Edward VII is crowned there; he leaves no Saxon heir to the English throne, but allegedly names his 6'4" blonde brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex (grandson of prior king Hardicanute Godwin, son of Canute and Emma) as his successor on his deathbed, and on Jan. 5 the Witan elects Harold, who is crowned Harold II Godwinson (1022-66), the 20th monarch of England (last Anglo-Saxon) at Westminster Abbey on Jan. 6, after which on Mar. 20 Halley's Comet appears, which his fellow Anglo-Saxons take as a bad 666 omen (6-6-66); "And in this year also earl Harold was hallowed king; and he experienced little quiet therein, the while that he ruled the realm" (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle); his rival, Norman duke #6 William II (the Bastard) (1026-87) (1st cousin, once removed of Edward the Confessor via his mother Emma, whom he is the grandnephew of) claims the throne by right of succession, and also claims that both Edward and Harold had promised it to him, and gets Harold excommunicated by Pope Alexander II for his dirty business over the exiled Norman archbishop of Canterbury and for not deposing the Anglo-Saxon one, helping William's army by giving him a consecrated banner as a sign of papal approval in hopes of turning the English people gainst Harold, while assembling a fleet of 700 ships in Dives-sur-Mer on the coast of Normandy and assembling an army on the Isle of Wight, causing Harold to begin guarding the coasts of England against William during the summer; too bad, on Sept. 8 after provisions run low, a large part of Harold's force disbands in order to bring in the harvest, and he returns to London; meanwhile Harold's pissed-off brother Tostig Godwinson, earl of Northumbria sails to Norway and persuades Viking king (since 1046) Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) (1016-66) (did his wife call him that or was he just bragging?) to help him seize the crown, and after waiting for a storm to pass on Sept. 12, they arrive together with a fleet of 270 ships, plunder the coast and burn Scarborough, then sail up the Humber River, attacking from the N at York and defeating the N earls on Sept. 20 at the Battle of Fulford Gate outside Jorvik (York); after receiving the bad news, Harold II issues the immortal gay-curious soundbyte: "I will give him just six feet of English soil, or, since they say he is a tall man, I will give him seven feet"; on Sept. 20 Harold leaves London, gathers the remainder of his c oastal militia along with his thegns and household troops (leaving the S coast unwatched, which gives Duke William his chance), and makes a brilliant dash N, covering 190 mi. in five days, surprising the invaders on Sept. 25 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge 8 mi. E of Jorvik in modern-day East Riding of Yorkshire, becoming the greatest battle so far between Norse and Anglo-Saxons; the over-confident Vikings decide not to wear their armor of leather jerkins with sewn-on metal rings because of the heat, and Harald is KIA with an arrow through his throat; Tostig and many other Vikings are also KIA, and only 30 Viking ships make it back to Norway; England has now been made safe for Anglo-Saxons forever, and they can keep speaking German and there will never be a Shakespeare, right?; too bad, Duke William, promising spoils, has been busy gathering an army of 6K-12K (7.5K?) from Normandy and all over Europe, incl. France, Italy, and Spain (incl. 1K mainly landless Norman knights, plus 500 more from Flanders and Brittany), and sails from Bayeux in Normandy in his long ships (his ship is the Mora, bought for him by his wife Matilda), landing on Sept. 28 in Pevensey (pee in the sea?) on the SW tip of Sussex (65 mi. SSE from London), proceeding to terrorize the countryside, making use of the Chevauchee to burn and pillage in order to force Harold to fight while marching E to Hastings, causing tired Harold and his brothers Gyrth Godwinson (1032-66) and Leofwine Godwinson (1035-66) to hastily attempt to gather a larger force than William (the N earls are too late, and forces end up about equal, incl. 2K-3K Saxon housecarls, and hardly any cavalry like the Normans have, because the insulated Anglo-Saxons never learned to fight on horseback), then march 58 mi. in three days, waiting for William the Bastard a few mi. from Hastings on Caldbec Hill, which with Senlac Hill (Ridge) (originally Santlache, OE for sandy stream, then renamed by the Normans to Sanguelac, Fr. for bloody lake) guards the interior; on Oct. 14 (Oct. 21 Gregorian) (Sun.) after William learns of their position, the 8-hour unhasty Battle of Hastings (Senlac) (one of the longest medieval battles) features the Companions of William the Conqueror fighting an Anglo-Saxon shield wall with feigned Norman retreats to cut them down with cavalry as they try to climb back up the hill; both sides wear chain mail at least, but the Normans have archers and knights, and the Anglo-Saxons take 4K casualties to 2.5K for the Normans, contracting them around tall, blonde, good-arm John Elway, er, Harold, until William's cavalry drives home a charge at Harold, who stands his ground surrounded by his housecarls, but is KIA by an arrow through the eye (according to the Bayeux Tapestry) in the next Norman charge, then his brothers are KIA, and his depleted army flees after losing 25% of their men, later regrouping then suffering more deaths from dysentery; the battle is so close that if Harold could have held out for another hour, an approaching Saxon fleet could have blocked off William's rear and sandwiched him in a 2-front battle, preventing reinforcements or retreat, and the Normans would have been completely crushed?; the battle wipes out the Anglo-Saxon aristrocracy, with the few survivors turned into serfs, allowing the Norman aristocracy to easily take over, and another coup replaces the Anglo-Saxon higher clergy with Normans; the first major medieval battle using knights, spawning their myth of invincibility?; William the Conqueror (Dark Horse MVP of the English Super Bowl, known for his 4th-quarter comebacks?) then plunders SW England, and advances though the Dover Strait towns (Dover, et al.) to secure his communications with Normandy, then up the Thames River looking to cross over to head to London and being repulsed until Anglo-Saxon lord Wigod (Wigot) (kindsman of Edward the Confessor) invites him to cross from W to E at Wallingford in Berkshire N of London, then E to Berkhamsted (Berkhamstead) in order to cut off any aid which Edwin and Morcar might send; meanwhile on Oct. 15 the Witan elects Edgar (the) Aetheling (1051-1126), grandson of Edmund II Ironside (last surviving rep. of the West Saxon royal house of Cerdic) as the new king, never coronating him; too bad, after exchanging letters and failing to recruit enough patriotic Anglo-Saxons from the hinterland, the undefended city of London finally capitulates, sending a delegation outside the walls to kiss foot, and William's army peacock-struts into London, where the Witan offers him the crown, and Edgar resigns on Oct. 10 at Berkhamsted (we were just kidding, you da king, you da king?), being taken back to Normandy by William and treated well until he joins the 1068 rebellion; on Dec. 25 (Christmas Day) William the Bastard becomes William the Conqueror, and is crowned William I (1026-87) (21st English monarch) at Westminster Abbey by York archbishop (since 1060) Ealdred (Aldred) (-1069), assisted by excommunicated Canterbury archbishop Stigand (who has the wealthiest estates in England after Harold), tying England to Normandy for 150 years (until 1204); the first of 3x that England has three kings in the same year (1483, 1936); William begins feudalizing England, completing it by his death in 1087; he keeps the local shires and Hundred Courts, along with the Royal Writ and cool Anglo-Saxon coronation order, but makes sure that estates are spread out over two or more counties to stop attempts at provincial autonomy; each royal tenant-in-chief has to supply from 5-60 knights (in multiples of five) to the king when ordered, a total of 5K for the country; knowing that they can only be made to serve 40 days a year, and are too expensive to transport across the Channel, William institutes scutage ("shield money"), allowing the payment of money in lieu of service so he can hire foreign mercenaries in their place, which later helps the English monarchy raise bigger armies than the French et al.; the Witan is combined with the Norman Curia Ducis (duke's court) to form the Curia Regis (king's court); 3x a year all royal vassals must attend it to hear his announcements, advise him on policy, and hear lawsuits involving the tenants-in-chief; no castles can be built without royal permission; the Anglo-Saxon title of sheriff (shire reeve) is coopted for Norman viscounts, who turn the office from weak to powerful, presiding over the shire courts, where William restores the old Carolingian (and forgotten Anglo-Saxon practice) of swearing-in juries, and acting as local agents of the royal treasury, taking on even the greatest lords in the name of the king; the hereditary rank of baron/baroness (lowest rank, below earl/countess) is created; the title of earl (deriving from the Scandinavian word jarl for chieftain) being cooler to Anglo-Saxons than the Continental title of count, the palatine earldoms of Kent, Hereford, Shrewsbury, and Chester are created, along with the barons of the Cinque Ports (Dover, Hastings, Sandwich, Romney, Hythe, later Winchelsea and Rye) to guard the coast of the Strait of Dover; the fast crushing Norman takeover leads to a loss of prestige for the Anglo-Saxons, who become "dogs", and for the next four decades the haughty superior Normans hold all Anglo-Saxon culture in utter contempt, destroying art works and mss., and turning the Anglo-Saxon language into hut talk fit only for peasants, while for the next 1.5 cents. England becomes a cultural province of France as English society begins to split into a French-speaking upper class and hut-talk-speaking middle and lower classes; the Normans introduce many French words to the Anglo-Saxon dogs, incl. boeuf, mouton, veau, porc, and poularde, which are transformed into beef, mutton, veal, pork, and poultry, along with Latin words, making the dogs want to use them to make themselves seem higher in class, e.g., turning hearty welcome into cordial reception; the Norman takeover was a blessing in disguise since otherwise their disintegrating kingdom would have been taken over by the Norse, cutting off England from exciting French cultural progress, although, duh, the retro Norse wouldn't have destroyed Anglo-Saxon culture and would have eventually been thrown out?; William I becomes Europe's most powerful monarch, setting up a new kind of kingdom that relies on law and admin. machinery rather than ideology to unify it like the Euro monarchies do, beginning the trend toward secularism and absolutism that dominates the 12th and 13th cents.; Norman Romanesque Architecture is born; Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire is begun; William I's half-brother Robert of Montain becomes earl of Cornwall, and builds Launceston Castle; the office of queen's (royal) champion is granted to Robert Marmyon, along with the castle-manor of Tamworth and the manor of Scrivelsby, with the job of riding in full armor into Westminster Hall during a coronation to fight anybody challenging the king's title (until 1377); the Norman Pierpoint family settles in a manor in West Sussex (Wessex) taken from Earl Godwin, which becomes known as Hurstpierpoint ("the wood of Pierpoint"); (a new hope?) although William I is king, Harold's partisans still hold most of the wild wild west (Wessex), incl. Barnstaple Castle in Barnstaple, North Devon at the mouth of the Taw River at the entrance to the Bristol Channel, which is granted by William I to Geoffrey de Montbray (-1093), who loses his barony in 1095 after rebelling against William II - Anglo-Saxon Jedi freedom fighters plan revenge against the haughty Norman evil emperor and his stormtroopers, but too bad, their Luke Skywalker is a wuss? On Dec. 30 the 1066 Granada Massacre sees a Muslim mob in Granada, Spain that was envious of his high position and inflamed by the anti-Semitic writings of Cordoban Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm (994-1064), storm the royal palace and murder Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela (ha-Nagid) (b. 1035), then massacre the Jewish pop. of the city, killing off 1.5K Jewish families, about 4K total, about the same as the Spanish Inquisition of 1478-1833 killed over several centuries (Islam is always light years ahead in the killing field?); poet Abu Ishaq, who helped to incite the pogrom composes a poem justifying it, with the soundbyte "Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them, the breach of faith would be to let them carry on/ They have violated our covenant with them, so how can you be held guilty against the violators?" On the alternate viewing channel? The Diet of Tribur, fueled by anti-Adalbert sentiment frees 16-y.-o. Henry IV from his control, and he begins his personal rule. Sultan Alp Arslan attacks the Byzantine Empire. After Harald III Hardrada (b. 1025) dies in York, England, Magnus II Haraldsson (1049-69) becomes king of Norway (until Apr. 28, 1069). 16, er, 15, er 14-y.-o. Philip I of France assumes personal rule. Swedish king (since 1060) Stenkil Ragnvaldsson dies, plunging Sweden into chaos until 1080 as Erik Stenkilsson, Halsten (Alstan) Stenkilsson, and Eric Hedningen (later Eric VIII "the Pagan") vie for the throne, with Halsten winning round one but getting deposed in 1070. Hoel II of Cornwall (Cornouaille) (1031-84), count of Cornouaille in NW Brittany since 1058 becomes duke of Brittany (until 1084). Ermengol III (b. 1032) dies, and his son Ermengol (Armengol) IV "Gerb" "Gerp" (1056-92) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1092), going on to introduce the Gregorian reform. Joseph, son of the Jewish vizier Samuel Ha Nagid invites Al-Mutasim of Ameria to come and rule in Granada; the Zirid Sanhaja defeat them and instigate a pogrom of the Jews in Granada, but Pope Alexander II advises the Castilian bishops to respect Jewish ways of life? China's Khitan (Qi Dan) tribe changes its name to Liao. The first black Africans in modern-day Gambia convert to Islam. William I the Conqueror agrees to respect the sovereignty of London, which becomes known as a sovereign city headed by its own lord mayor; before that it was ruled by an ealdorman or underking; William I turns the Anglo-Saxon legal system French, introducing Trial by Combat. Only three Anglo-Saxon families survive to modern times, incl. the Arden Family, named after the Arden Forest in Warwickshire, founded by Alwin (Aethelwine), sheriff of Warwickshire, nephew of Earl Leofric of Mercia, counting William Shakespeare as a descendant via his mother Mary Arden, the Berkeley Family in Gloucestershire, and the Swinton Family in Northumberland. Frenchman Geoffroi de Purelli sets down the rules for jousting tournaments, then is killed at his own tournament; jousting is just one type of Hastlitude (Lat. "lance games") - oil the quintain? After the Norman conquest, both men and women in England begin wearing their hair very long, incl. clergy and soldiers - the original Beatles, removed by centuries numbering 9? Architecture: Rochester Castle in England is built by the Normans. The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk, Belarus (begun in 1044) is finished, becoming the first church in Belarus. Births: Portuguese count #1 (1093-1112) Henrique (Henry) of Burgundy (d. 1112); son of Henry of Burgundy (1035-71) (son of Duke Robert I of Burgundy); brother of Duke Hugh I of Burgundy and Duke Eudes I of Burgundy; distant cousin of Raymond of Burgundy and Pope Callistus II. Deaths: Scottish bishop of Mecklenburg Johannes Scotus (b. 990) (murdered); sacrificed to the German god Radegast. English Saxon king (1042-66) Edward the Confessor (b. 1003) on Jan. 5 in London; canonized in 1161 by Pope Alexander III; leaves Curtana (Cortana) (Cortain) (his sword with the tip broken off by an angel), which becomes part of the English coronation ceremony, indicating the quality of mercy in the sovereign. Norwegian king Harald III Hardrada (b. 1016) on Sept. 25 near York, England (KIA). Indian mathematician-astronomer-astrologer Sripati (b. 1019). English last Saxon king (1066) Harold II Godwinson (b. 1022) on Oct. 14 near Hastings, Sussex. English earl (of Northumbria) Tostig Godwinson on Sept. 25 near York. English royals Leofwine Godwinson and Gyrth Godwinson on Oct. 14 near Hastings. Swedish king (1060-66) Stenkil Ragnvaldsson.
1067 Oh no, another Jewish conspiracy? Jews begin to move to Norman England from Europe in considerable numbers, settling in towns and following the pursuit of money-lending, at rates typically of 40%-80%, which contributes to simmering Christian animosity. Olav (Olaf) III Haraldsson (the Peaceful) (1050-93) becomes joint king of Norway (until Sept. 22, 1093); William I leaves for Norway, and disturbances arise in the unconquered regions of England, esp. N England. On May 22 Byzantine emperor (since Nov. 24, 1059) Constantine X Ducas (b. 1006) dies, and since his son Michael VII Ducas (Doukas) (1050-90) is incompetent, Romanus (Romanos) IV Diogenes (1030-72) marries Constantine's widow and Michael's regent Eudoxia (Eudokia) Makrembolitissa (1021-96) in order to rule the empire, and becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #150 next Jan. 1 (until Oct. 24, 1071). On Sept. 1 Baldwin V dies, and in 1070 his son Robert I the Frisian (1029-93) becomes count of Flanders (until 1093). The Castilian army under Sancho II and Alferez Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) sieges Zaragoza, then lifts it after Emir Al-Muqtadir pays a large ransom and promises tribute. The earliest written reference to the city of Minsk (Russ. "exchange") in the Principality of Polotsk (modern-day Belarus) on the Svislach and Nyamiha Rivers (modern-day pop. 2.1M); in 1242 it becomes part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, receiving town privileges in 1499. A UFO is sighted in the North Sea off NE England. Architecture: Canterbury (Christ's) Church (where its first archbishop St. Augustine was crowned by King Ethelbert of Kent in 597) burns down, and Lanfranc begins to build a more magnificent one in Romanesque style; part of it is destroyed by fire in 1174. The rebuilding of Monte Cassino monastery begins. William I founds Battle Abbey in Hastings to commemorate his big V over the Saxon dogs, housing a copy of the Battle Abbey Roll, listing his 500 knightly companions, the original being housed in the Dives Cathedral in Normandy; the Hastings copy is moved to Cowdray House near Midhurst, which burns down in 1793. Seljuk chief minister Nizam al-Mulk founds the Madrasa al-Nizamiyya Shafi'i religious college in Baghdad as part of a program to establish madrasas in major cities throughout the empire and throw water on the fiery rivalries among the schools of Islamic law. Art: Work begins on the 19.5 in. x 231 ft. linen Bayeux Tapestry (finished by 1082) chronicling William the Conqueror's biggest moments, and depicting 600 people, 200 horses, 20 ships, Edward the Confessor, and Halley's Comet, which ends up in the museum of Bayeux in NW France; it is forgotten in Bayeux Cathedral until the 1789 French Rev., when it is about to be used as an ammunition cover until a young lawyer snatches it away and hides it for 30 years; it contains the first drawing of a horse being used in field labor in England rather than an ox. Nonfiction: Works on Hastings hit the bestseller list at Scarborough Fair? Bishop Guy of Amiens, Carmen de Hastingae Proelio (Song of the Battle of Hastings); the battle from the English POV; how the Norman knights were supposed to take out the English archers first then go after the shield wall; claims that Harold was felled by a hit squad of four knights sent by William (to avoid single combat?), Eustace of Boulogne, Guy de Montfort, Walter Giffard the Younger, and Hugh of Ponthieu) with lances, swords and javelins, and doesn't mention any arrow in eye; one pierces his shield and strikes his chest, the 2nd lances his gut, a 3rd cuts off his leg, and the 4th cuts off his head? Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #149 (1059-67) Constantine X Ducas (b. 1006) on May 22.
1068 Jews get Millennium Fever this year, believing it to be the 1000th since the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. On Jan. 1 Romanus IV Diogenes is crowned Byzantine emperor; an ambitious soldier, he reverses the decline of the army and attempts to turn the tide, repulsing the Seljuks, but failing to stop the Normans from taking Otranto and continue to squeeze the Byzantines out of Italy (by 1071). In early Jan. Leo de Benedicto has the gates of the Leonine City thrown open for Duke Godfrey the Bearded of Lorraine and his wife Marchioness Beatrice of Tuscany, who immediately take over Tiber Island then attack the Lateran, forcing Antipope Honorius II to flee back to Parma on Jan. 14, after which Leo allies with Hildebrand and Pope Alexander II against him, and he becomes kaput. In the spring William I overthrows Harold Godwinson's partisans, led by Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar in the W, then in the fall brings the Midlands and N into subjection, but treats the rebels leniently, although Edgar Aetheling, who joined in the rebellion flees to the Scottish court of Malcolm III, along with his sister Margaret, and Norman baron William (the Seemly) Sinclair of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, who is granted the barony of Roslin (Rosslyn) in Midlothian 7 mi. S of Edinburgh, founding Clan Sinclair line in Scotland, after which his sons get involved with the Knights Templars and the Holy Grail business - and the Da Vinci Code is on? On July 19 the Battle of Llantada (Llantadilla) on the banks of the Pisuerga River on the boundary between Leon and Castile sees the Castilians under Sancho II and El Cid defeat the Leonese; Alfonso VI of Leon flees, then leads a campaign against Badajoz, but withdraws when Emir Mamun ibn Dhi-I-Nun of Toledo intercedes; Badajoz becomes a tributary to Leon; the emir of Badajoz dies, and his two sons dispute the succession. William I sends mercenary Normans into Wales, who permanently separate it into N and S halves. After two of Harold Godwinson's sons flee to Ireland after his 1066 death in Hastings and negotiate with Diarmait mac Mael for his Dublin fleet of 52 ships, they sail up the Avon River and attack Bristol, England, but are repulsed, after which they successfully land in Somerset and take plunder, then organize a larger expedition and attack Devon next year, but are repulsed, after which they sail for the court of their uncle the king of Denmark, becoming the last raid by Norse Dublin on England; in 1068 Diarmait mac Mael presents another Irish king with Harold's battle standard. Norman lord Richard fitz Gilbert (1034-90) is rewarded for his support of William I with 176 lordships and large land grants, incl. in Clare, Suffolk, where he builds Clare Castle; during William I's absence he serves as joint chief justiciar; after gaining the titles "de Clare", "and of Tonbridge", and "de Bienfaite", he founds the de Clare family, who rule the Welsh Marches, Suffolk, Surrey, Kent (Tonbridge), and later Ireland. Robert de Comyn (Comines) (Comine) (named after Comines, Flanders), who followed William I to England becomes the first Norman earl of Northumberland, founding the Clan Comyn (Cumming) line, the most powerful family in 13th cent. Scotland. The office of High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests is created for William Peverel, followed by Hugh fitz Baldric (1069-80), Hugh de Port (1081-7), Richard fitz Gotse (1088-1105), and Helgot (1105); in 1568 it is split into two sheriffs, of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Song Ying Zong dies, and Song Shen Zong (She-tsung) (-1086) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #6 of China - is that like a Song Shen Blue? Emperor (since 1045) ? (b. ?) dies, and his younger brother Go-Sanjo (Takahito) (1034-73) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #71 (until 1073). Prince Vseslav Bryachislavich (1039-1101) of Polotsk in Belarus becomes prince of Kiev (until 1069). Chalukya Somesvara I of Kalyani drowns himself during Jain rites in the sacred Tungabhadra River in S India. Vratislaus II appoints his brother-rival Jaromir (-1088) as bishop of Prague, and begins wearing his mitre and tunic at official functions to piss him off. Architecture: William I the Conqueror orders castles to be built along his line of march in the principal boroughs, incl. Arundel Castle, commanding the major bridging point of the Arun River, which guards the valley to the N through the South Downs; Arundel town later grows up on the slope below the castle to the S; Arun River is originally called the Tarrant River, and is later renamed after the castle and town, which becomes home to the future dukes of Norfolk and earls marshal of England; the lucky people born in Arundel are known locally as Mullets, due to the presence of mullet (fish) in the river; the original Nottingham Castle is established on Castle Rock (Hill) on the ruins of the Roman military outpost of Camboritum (modern-day Cambridge) by William Peveril for William I (his daddy?). Warwick Castle (pr. like warick) on the poetic Avon River is built by William I; in 1604 it is granted to poet Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628), friend and biographer of poet Sir Philip Sidney. Art: Anon., Shotoku Taishi Eden; the oldest surviving painting of the Yamato style. Nonfiction: Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014-94), Book of Highways and Kingdoms (Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik). William of Jumieges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum (History of the Norman Dukes); no mention of any arrow through the eye? Count William of Poitiers, Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum (History of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England); no mention of any arrow through the eye? Births: English Norman king #3 (1100-35) Henry I Beauclerc (d. 1135) in Selby, Yorkshire?; son of William I the Conqueror (1027-87); brother of William II Rufus (1056-1100) and Robert III Curthose (1053-1134); husband (1100-18) of Matilda of Scotland (1080-1118) and (1121-35) Adeliza (Adelicia) (Adela) (Aleidis) of Louvain (1103-51).
1069 In July Leinster-Dublin king Murchad mac Diarmata (b. ?) invades Meath, burning churches and farms until he is badly wounded by defender Feichin, dying next year. Malcolm III of Scotland agrees to support the claim of Edgar Aetheling to the English crown in return for his sister Margaret Aetheling marrying him; meanwhile Edgar joins with King Sweyn II Estridsson of Denmark, Canute's nephew, who also claims the English throne, and their combined forces raid N England, capturing Jorvik (York); after William I the Conqueror comes N and pays the Danes to skoot, causing Edgar to skedaddle back to Scotland, he practices tough love by laying waste all the land N to Durham S of the River Tyne, and killing or driving out the pop. during a winter campaign (1069-70), messing the region up so bad that it takes more than two cents. to partially recover, and until the 19th cent. to fully recover; the Bishopric of Durham is created; the Marcher Lords of Wales (Ger. "marko" = boundary) (equivalent of a marquess, and margrave in the HRE), Norman barons ruling the border with what's left of Wales are created, controlling Cardiff on the N coast of the Bristol Channel; in the 13th cent. they are called the Earls of March, with the Mortimers on the Welsh border and the Dunbars on the Scottish border; meanwhile a shipload of Anglo-Saxons fleeing William I, incl. Anglo-Saxon royal claimant Edgar Aetheling, his mother, and sisters Christina and (St.) Margaret Aetheling of Saxony (1045-93) is shipwrecked in the Firth of Forth, and they seek protection from Malcolm III Canmore, Macbeth's successor, who had acquired Anglo-Saxon culture during his long residence at the court of Edward the Confessor, and whose invasion of Northumbria this year to grab it from William is bloodily repulsed, making him see his chance to fork into the West Saxon Dynasty and produce an heir to the restored Anglo-Saxon throne; what a coincidence, his 1st wife Ingibjorg just happens to die, leaving him a bachelor?; the Teutonic lowlands begin their domination of the Celtic highlands - lord almighty, feel my temperature rising? Magnus II Haraldsson of Norway dies, leaving Olav III Haraldsson the Peaceful (the Quiet) (Kyrre) (1050-93) as sole king of Norway. Duke (since 1058) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II the Bold (1038-1081) of Poland conquers the Russian principality of Kiev, then boldly marches to Kiev to put one of his relatives on the Russian throne. Romanus IV continues battling the Seljuks, who keep raiding in E Anatolia. Alfonso VI of Leon overruns Badajoz early in the year; Seville takes Cordoba with an army of 1.3K men. Henry IV of Germany reconciles with his wife Bertha, sets his personal life in order and begins ruling vigorously, reverting to Otto the Great's use of the Church as a source of revenue, and promoting simony, which causes reformers to appeal to Rome; he also begins a campaign to get his lost royal lands and revenues back, esp. in Saxony, and plans a Capetian-style monarchy centered in the Harz-Goslar region. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thanh-Tong repeats his daddy's 1044 naval expedition to Champa, sparing the life of the king. Chinese chancellor Wang Anshi (1021-86) comes to power, promulgating the New Policies, stressing the well-being of the common people (farmers), and seeking to break up the monopolies and speculators; too bad, after a famine in 1074 his court enemies get him removed in 1075. Deaths: French duke of Upper Lorraine (1044-65) and Lower Lorraine (1065-9) Godfrey III the Bearded (b. 997) on Dec. 24 in Bouillon.