|England||William I the Conqueror (1026-87)||Dec. 25, 1066||Sept. 9, 1087|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||Apr. 25, 1058||Nov. 13, 1093|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||Aug. 5, 1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||Oct. 5, 1056||Dec. 31, 1105|
|Papacy||Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (1023-85)||Apr. 22, 1073||May 25, 1085|
1080 In Mar. Pope Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes HRE Henry IV again, but in June a synod of German and N Italian prelates deposes Gregory VII, electing reformer bishop (former friend of Gregory VII) Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna as Antipope Clement III (1025-1100) (until Sept. 8, 1100). On Oct. 14 the Battle of the Elster on the Weisse-Elster River is a D for Rudolf of Swabia (b. 1125), who loses his right hand then dies from an abdominal wound in Merseburg on Oct. 15; his relative Frederick I von Staufen (1050-1105) becomes duke of Swabia (until 1105), becoming the first Swabian ruler of the House of Hohenstaufen. Canute IV "the Saint" "the Holy" (1043-86) becomes king of Denmark (until July 10, 1086). Duke William Geoffrey of Guienne deposes Duke Bernard d'Armagnac of Gascony to the S, and combines the two duchies into the new Duchy of Aquitaine (Aquitania) in SW France. William I sends his eldest son Robert III Curthose to subdue Malcolm III, but they end up holding a conference in Falkirk, renewing the terms of the 1072 treaty; the Normans claim a V, but actually Robert's hasty bldg. of a new castle at the seaport of Newcastle (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) in N England (modern pop. 290K/880K) as the new county seat of Northumberland shows that Malcolm has extended his rule far S into Bernicia (between the Forth and the Tees Rivers); not to be confused with Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, WC England (modern pop. 80K); William I sieges Curthose in Gerberoi, but his wife Matilda of Flanders (Robert's mother) persuades him to make peace, and he remains in line for England and Normandy on his daddy's death in 1087, but daddy's got a surprise waiting. After refusing to administer the pagan sacrifices at the Temple of Uppsala, Inge I is exiled by his brother-in-law Blot-Svend (Blot-Sweyn) ("a swain wlling to perform the blot or pagan sacrifice), who becomes king of Sweden (until 1083). The kingdom of Lesser (Little) (Cilician) Armenia (Armenian Cilicia) in Cilicia of displaced Armenians under Prince Reuben (Roupen) (Rupen) I (1025-95) ("Lord of the Mountains") declares independence from the Byzantine Empire; it lasts almost three cents. (until 1375). By this year the commune of Saint-Quentin in N France is chartered. About this time rabbits are introduced by the Normans to Britain - no rabbit holes before the 11th cent.? Architecture: Peveril Castle is built on the Devil's Arse above the town of Castleton in England on land appropriated from Saxon dogs Gernebern and Hundline. Bishop Osmund of Salisbury builds a Norman castle in Devizes in SW England, originally known as the Castrum ad Divisas (castle at the boundaries). The Gothic Norman York Minster in England is begun by new archbishop Thomas of Bayeux (finished 1100). Nonfiction: The Toledan Table of Star Positions is compiled by Muslim astronomers in Spain. Art: About this time the Byzantic mosaic Christ Pantocrator (Almighty) is constructed in Daphni, Greece. Births: Portuguese queen (1112-28) Teresa of Leon (d. 1130); half-sister of Queen Urraca of Leon-Castile (1079-1126); mother of Afonso I (1109-85). German Christian bishop (founder of the Norbertine Order) (St.) Norbert of Xanten (d. 1134) in Xanten (near Wesel), Cologne; feast day: June 6. English #1 scientist Adelard of Bath (d. 1152). Scottish Canmore king (1124-53) David I (the Saint) (d. 1153); 6th and last son of Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93) and 2nd wife Margaret Aetheling (1045-93). English "Historia Anglorum" historian (archdeacon of Huntingdon) Henry of Huntingdon (d. 1160); grows up in the wealthy court of Robert Bloet of Lincoln. Deaths: German duke of Swabia (1057-79) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (b. 1025) on Oct. 15 in Hohenmoisen, Saxony; dies from wounds suffered at the Oct. 14 Battle of Elster.
1081 On Jan. 18 the Battle of Pedroso between Braga and the Cavado River sees Garcia II of Galicia suppress the rebellion of his Portuguese subjects under Nuno II Mendes, who is KIA; in Apr. Garcia II is captured by his brother Sancho II of Castile, but purchases his release and retires to the court of his tributary Al-Mutamid of Seville, and Galicia is divided between his brothers Sancho II and Alfonso VI. The Ronald Reagan of the Byzantines pumps up the defense budget while promising voodoo economics? On Apr. 1 after Byzantine gen. Alexius Comnenus revolts, seizes and plunders Constantinople with a force of mercenaries, and overthrows emperor (since Mar. 24, 1078) Nicephorus III (b. 1002), who retires to a monastery and dies on Dec. 10, he is crowned Roman Byzantine emperor #153 Alexius I Comnenus (Alexios I Komnenos) (1048-1118) (until Aug. 15, 1118), refounding the Comnenus Dynasty and turning it around, beginning the Comnenian (Komnenian) Restoration (ends 1185); he goes on to appeal to the pope to help stem the Seljuk tide, as everybody can see that the supposedly moribund divided Muslim empire not only has risen again but seems on the brink of destroying them all, leading to the First Crusade in 1096-9; the military aristocracy finally takes over the empire and promises big Vs in years to come, while Alexius I reforms the finances and uses the surplus to buy off his enemies? Rodrigo Diaz, Count of Vivar ("El Cid") (1043-99) (who is called El Campeador, from the Latin "campi doctus", meaning doctor of military arts) and his trusty warhorse Babieca (Bavieca) (Sp. "stupid") are exiled by Alfonso VI from Castile, and he enters the service of the Moorish ruler of Zaragoza. The Diet of Tulln is held, and Leopold II of Austria swtiches to the pope's side in the investitute dispute after his wife Itha and Bishop Altmann of Passau talk him into it, which pisses off HRE Henry IV, who desposes him and gives Austria to Vratislav II of Bohemia, who then goes on and defeats Leopold at the Battle of Mailberg; after kissing up, Leopold gets his territory back, minus a little in S Moravia. Constantine (Konstantin) Bodin (d. 1101) founds a Serbian state in Zeta (Montenegro). At the Lenten Synod, Pope Gregory VII reiterates his excommunication of HRE Henry IV, who marches into Italy - love me tender, love me right, take me to your heart? Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (1016-85), who came to Italy as a pilgrim and began his career as a brigand in Calabria gathers a Norman army which contains a contingent of Sicilian Muslims, and crosses from Brindisi to Epirus in the reverse direction to that of Pyrrhus in the -270s, laying siege to the salad-spritzer stronghold of Durazzo (Dyracchium) in Albania, threatening the Byzantine EWmpire in the Balkans; meanwhile his brother Roger Guiscard (1031-1101) (later Roger I of Sicily) continues with the final conquest of Sicily (ends 1090). Venice negotiates a commercial treaty with the Byzantines, who grant Venice duty-free trade throughout their empire. The Castilians capture the Moorish town (since 714) of Guadalajara in C Spain. Architecture: Bamberg Cathedral in Bavaria is partially destroyed by fire (rebuilt 1111). The rebuilding of Mainz Cathedral begins. Science: Muslim astronomer Ibrahim al-Sahdi of Valencia builds the first known Celestial Globe, made of brass, 81.5 in. in diam. with 47 constellations and 1,015 stars along with magnitudes. Births: French Capetian king (1108-1137) ("the king of St. Denis") Louis VI (Le Gros) (the Fat) (the Wide-Awake) Capet (d. 1137) on Dec. 1 in Paris; son of Philip I (1052-1108) and 1st wife Bertha of Holland (1055-94) (daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and Gertrude of Saxony, daughter of Duke Bernard II of Saxony); father of Louis VII (1120-80), Archbishop Henry of Rheims (1121-75), Count Robert of Dreux (1123-88), Countess Constance of Toulouse (1124-76), Archdeacon Philip of Paris (1125-61), and Peter of Courtenay (1126-83); his mommy produces him after nine years of marriage by getting hermit Arnoul to bang, er, pray for her, and he gets to name him. German Salian king #4 (last) HRE (1106-25) Henry V (d. 1125); son of HRE Henry IV (1050-1106). French abbot of St. Denis (1122-) Suger (d. 1151); friend of Louis VI and Louis VII. English queen (1135-52) Matilda (Maud) of Boulogne (d. 1152); daughter of Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland and 2nd wife St. Margaret Aetheling; wife of Henry I; related through her mother to Edmund Ironside and Alfred the Great. Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor (1078-81) Nichephorus III Botaniates (b. 1002) on Dec. 10 in Constantinople; dies in the monastery of St. Mary Peribleptos.
1082 Robert Guiscard defeats the Byzantines allied with the Venetians (bought with extensive trade privileges) at the Battle of Pharsalus, and captures Durazzo, but is recalled to Italy, putting an end to the first Norman attack upon the Byzantine empire. The Battle of Almenar sees Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) lead the army of Al-Mutamin of Zaragoza and defeat a combined army of the kings of Valencia (Al-Mundhir), Lerida (Al-Hayib), Aragon (Sancho Ramirez), and count Berenguer Ramon II of Barcelona, capturing the latter, and earning the title "El Cid"; when Emir Al-Mutamid of Seville pays his tribute in debased coinage, Alfonso VI leads an expedition into Muslim territory; meanwhile on Dec. 5 Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead (b 1053) is killed while hunting in the woods, causing everybody to blame it on his twin brother Berenguer Ramon II and begin calling him "the Fratricide"; RB2's infant son Ramon Berenguer III (the Great) (1082-1131) becomes count of Barcelona, Girona, and Osona (until 1131), sharing rule with Berenguer Ramon II until 1097. Architecture: The Benedictine Bermondsey Abbey in Southwark, London is founded by Cluniac monks, later becoming known for alleged paranomal activity. Births: Spanish queen of Castile and Leon (1109-26) Urraca I (d. 1126); daughter of Alfonso VI (1037-1109) and 2nd wife Constance of Burgundy (1046-93) (daughter of Robert I of Burgundy). Spanish count of Barcelona (1082-1131) and count of Provence (1112-31) Ramon Berenguer (Raymond Berengar) III (the Great) (d. 1131) in Rodez; son of Ramon Berenguer III the Towhead (1053-82); nephew of Berenguer Ramon II; father of Ramon Berenguer IV (1113-62) and Berengar Raymond I of Provence (1115-44). French abbot of St Denis (1122-55) Suger (d. 1155). Deaths: Irish monk-chronicler Marianus Scotus (Maelbrigte) (b. 1028) on Dec. 22 in Mainz; leaves Chronicon, a universal history from Creation to the year 1082. Persian king Kai Kavus ibn Iskandar (b. ?); leaves Qabus Nama (Nameh) (Advice to Rulers) (from an old king to his favorite son). Spanish count of Barcelona (1076-82) Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead (b. 1053) on Dec. 5.
1083 In June-July the Almoravids take Ceuta in N Africa on the S end of the Strait of Gibraltar, last outpost of the Zanata, and execute the ruler Al-Muizz ibn Suqut; during the summer Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile reaches Tarifa overlooking the Straits of Gibraltar, and partially reconciles with El Cid. On Nov. 2 William I's 4'2" wife Matilda of Flanders (b. 1031) dies, causing him to turn tyrannical? A Norman army led by Robert Guiscard's eldest son Bohemund I de Hauteville (1058-1111) (later prince of Taranto and Antioch) defeats the Byzantines, and conquers all of Macedonia as far as the Vardar River, but a guerrilla resistance by anti-Roman Catholics along with mercenary Seljuk cavalry halts their advance at the Battle of Larissa. HRE Henry IV arrives at the gates of Rome, gives up on reconciliation, and sieges it, causing Pope Gregory VII to call on his Norman allies - five foot two, eyes of blue, has anybody seen my pope? Inge I returns to power in Sweden (until 1105). St. Stephen and his son St. Emeric of Hungary are canonized together - the century is a V for those not disappointed by Christ's failure to return because they rule more of the world now? Births: Spanish Jewish poet-philosopher Jehuda (Judah) ben Samuel (Shemuel) Halevy (Halevi) (d. 1141) (b. 1075?) in Tudela, Navarre (Toledo, Spain?). Arab Muslim Maliki scholar Qadi Ayyad ('Iyad) ibn Musa al-Yahsubi (d. 1149) in Gibraltar. Greek "Alexiad" Byzantine princess and historian (first female historian?) Anna Comnena (Komnene) (d. 1153) on Dec. 1 in Constantinople; eldest daughter of Alexius I Comnenus (1048-1118). Deaths: English queen Matilda of Flanders (b. 1031) on Nov. 2; bured in l'Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy. Polish king Boleslav II the Bold (b. 1038).
1084 A plague ("great sickness") strikes Britain. On Mar. 21 HRE Henry IV captures Rome and imprisons Pope Gregory VII in Castel del Sant'Angelo; on Mar. 24 Guibert of Ravenna is enthroned as Pope Clement III at St. Peter's, crowning Henry IV as HRE; Henry IV and Clement III then invade Apulia and Tuscany, while Robert Guiscard's Norman army sacks Rome, causing a great fire, to the delight of their contingent of Sicilian Muslims; the horrors of the sacking cause Gregory VII to leave Rome with his allies; the five great imperial Roman Forums (Original, Caesar's, Augustus', Nerva's, Trajan's), which had survived all these cents. (with appreciable deterioration) are pretty much destroyed, and the remains partially buried, with the few habitable bdgs. turned into fortresses; Henry IV has the last laugh in the Investiture Controversy, allowing monastic brewing rights to be ignored or revoked and court brewhouses (Hofbrauhauses) to be established to cash in on some of that yummy money, after which many monasteries switch to wine growing, benefitting from the Medieval Warm Period (950-1250). In fall after the Muslim Taifa kings ask his help in reconquering it from North African Muslim fundamentalist Morabitun (Almoravid) leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1061-1106), with the soundbyte "It's better to pasture camels than herd swine", the Castilians under king (since 1072) Alfonso VI the Brave (1037-1109) begin the Siege of Toledo in C Spain (ends May 25, 1085). The Muslim army of Zaragoza under El Cid defeats the Aragonese. Seljuk sultan Suleyman of Rum (d. 1086) captures Antioch, which had been under Byzantine rule since 969 (until 1098). Hoel II of Cornwall dies, and his son Alan IV Fergant (the Younger) (1063-1119) becomes duke of Brittany (until 1112), becoming the first to stand up to the claims of the dukes of Normandy and counts of Anjou and stabilize the region. Kyanzittha (-1113) becomes ruler of Bagan in Burma, synthesizing a number of ethic groups and cultures and creating a distinctive Burmese style. St. Bruno (1030-1101) founds the super-strict (half green and half yellow?) Caruthsian Order of monks in Chartreuse, France, becoming known for their green-yellow alcoholic liqueur Chartreuse made from 130 plants, first distilled in 1737. Births: Norman count of Flanders (1119-27) Charles the Good (d. 1127) in Odense, Denmark; half-brother of William II of Apulia (1095-1127). English Norman knight Richard Fitz Gilbert, 2nd Earl de Clare (d. 1136) in Hertford; son of Earl Gilbert de Clare (-1117) and Adeliza de Clermont; father of Earl Roger de Clare (1115-73). French duke of Burgundy (1103-43) Hugh II (d. 1143); son of Eudes I the Red (1058-1103).
1085 On May 25 Toledo is recaptured from the Muslims (who held it since 711) by Alfonso VI the Brave of Castile-Leon, who brings the Cistercian Order into Spain, with Gascon-born Bernard de Sedirac (d'Agen) (Le Sauvetat) (1050-1125) of France as the first archbishop of Toledo next year, and first primate of Spain in 1088, ending the isolation of the church of Leon-Castile from Sad Sack Rome; Muslims are allowed to remain and worship in their mosques, while Euros flock in to read books in their libraries; the capture immensely advances Christian knowledge of astronomy and revives the theory of the sphericity of the Earth, laying the foundations of the Renaissance; the Christians build a bizarre Hybrid Church of Toledo, with Arabic mosque architecture, complete with Arab inscriptions reading "Peace and Prosperity". On May 25 Pope (since 1073) Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (b. 1023) dies as the guest of the Normans in Salerno; the Normans then defeat the combined Byzantine and Venetian fleets at the naval Battle of Corfu; Robert Guiscard dies, leaving his property to his youngest son Roger Guiscard (1031-1101), causing his other son Bohemund Guiscard (1054-1111) to quarrel and abandon the conquest of the Balkans. The Bohemian national character is born? On June 15 Bohemian duke (since 1061) Vratislaus (Wratislaus) (Vratislav) II (-1092) becomes king #1 of Bohemia (until Jan. 14, 1092); too bad, the title is a royal grant from the HRE and is not hereditary; Moravian bishop John, whose investiture got Bohemian duke Vratislaus II's brother Jaromir of Prague deposed dies, and a reichstag convened in Mainz suppresses the Moravian See and reunites it to Prague at Jaromir's insistence; Vratislaus, pissed off at Henry IV over the loss of Meissen restores it, and raises his chaplain Wecel to bishop Andrew I of Olomouc, pissing his rival brother Jaromir off bigtime. In Dec. after "mickle deep speech" with the great council, William I sends royal commissioners to each English county to compile The Domesday Book (Book of Winchester) (2 vols.), a census and survey of land ownership to assess property and establish a tax base in an attempt to increase the old Danegeld tax on land, which he restores on the theory that all land now belongs to the Conqueror, and Englishmen who accept his rule must repurchase it; when completed with the help of hundreds of juries it contains records for 13,418 settlements in the English counties S of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the current border with Scotland); "So narrowly did he commission them that there was not a yard of land... nor even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine, that was not set down in his writ"; the book is used as the final doom or judgment in all realty disputes; after William I imposes an 8 p.m. curfew to prevent fires, lays heavy taxes upon all commercial activity incl. the use of bridges and roads, confiscates all vaults in monasteries, and deposes and jails Anglo-Saxon nobles, some patriotic Anglo-Saxons hole-up in inaccessible places to continue the resistance for over a cent., incl. Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest? Salamanca is conquered from the Muslims by the Christians. HRE Henry IV decrees a Truce (Peace) of God in a vain attempt to stop all the feuds among his German nobles. Islam arrives in the Lake Chad area of Africa. Births: Turkish atabeg of Mosul (1127-46) (founder of the Zengid Dynasty) Imad ad-Din Zengi (Zenghi) (Zangi) (Zengui) (Zenki) (Zanki) (d. 1146). Seljuk sultan of Khorasan (1097-1118) and the Seljuk Empire (1118-57) Ahmad Sanjar (Turk. "Thruster") (Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik Shah) (d. 1157) in Sinjar; son of Malik Shah I (1055-1092); brother of Mahmud I, Barkiyaruq, Malik Shah II, and Bahram of Ghazna (1084-1157); nephew of Muhammad I. Deaths: Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (b. 1016). German pope (1073-85) Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (b. 1023) on May 25 in Salerno, Apulia.
1086 The Almoravid Dynasty revives Muslim rule in Spain, only in a retro form? In the spring the Castilians under Alfonso VI siege Zaragoza, but call it off when the backward black fundamentalist Berber Almoravids (Al-Murabitun) (Al-Morabiton) (1040-1147) (backward horsemen from the W Sahara of the Lamtuna and Gudala tribes, known for riding to war wearing veils that only leave their eyes visible, who founded their capital of Marrakesh in 1062) heed a call from bi Abbadid (not Abbasid) ruler of Seville (1069-91) Al-Mutamid (Al-Mu'tamid) (1040-95) and land in the S; in June the 500-man Almoravid advance guard takes Algeciras, and the remaining 12K-20K soon follow, with al-Mutamid not realizing that their goal is to steal his kingdom until it's too late; the Castilians under Alvar Fanez (Fáñez) (Háñez) de Minaya (-1114) (El Cid's nephew and right-hand man) install Al-Qadir as emir of Valencia; on Oct. 23 the Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeat Alfonso VI at the Battle of Zalaca (Zallaqa) (Zagrajas) (Sagrajas) in Andalusia, killing 24K Christian soldiers and shipping their heads all over Andalusia and N Africa (Allah Akbar?); happy Tashfin returns to Morocco, while the Almoravids go on to conquer all of Spain between the Tagus and Ebro Rivers by 1090, thumping their Qurans and ending the Muslim high culture incl. science and art, descending Andalusia into pure retro science-hating head-lopping fundamentalist Muhammad darkness; in Dec. El Cid and Alfonso VI are finally reconciled; meanwhile 15-y.-o. William IX (the Troubador) (1071-1127), new duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and count of Poitou inherits some Muslim harem girls, finding out that they are like geishas and sing too, copying them and becoming the first troubadour - a Christian head is a Muslim tailfin? On May 24 after Gregory VIII recommends him on his deathbed, and he stalls until the papal throne has been vacant for 12 mo. minus 1 day, Desiderius (Dauphar) (Dauferio) (Dauferius) Epifani, eldest son of Prince Landulf V (-1033) of Benevento, abbot of Monte Cassino 8 mi. S of Rome is forcibly dragged to the Church of St. Lucy and invested in the red cope with the name of Pope (#157) Victor III (1026-87), starting a winnerless contest with Antipope (since 1080) Clement III (Guibert), who forces him to flee Rome on May 28, where he resigns in Terracina and retires to Monte Cassino for almost a year - look at the list, I made the list? HRE Henry IV rewards Vratislav II of Bohemia with a non-hereditary crown; the earliest mention of a beer brewery in Prague, Bohemia. Duke William of Normandy invades Brittany, causing Alan IV Fergant to flee, then make a peace by marrying William's daughter Constance of England (1061-90), but he poisons the 30-y.-o. bitch in 1090 to get her out of the way. The Bogomils in Thrace and Bulgaria begin the Bogomil Revolt against the Byzantines (ends 1091), supported by the Patzinaks and Cumans. Suleyman is KIA in a battle against Toutouch, brother of Seljuk ruler Malik Shah between Aleppo and Antioch, leaving his son David as sultan of Rum; the Seljuk (Seljuq) Dynasty takes over Aleppo (until 1260) and Damascus (until 1104). Sweyn II dies, and his son Olaf (Olof) I Svensson "Hunger" (1050-95) (brother of Canute IV) becomes king of Denmark (until Aug. 18, 1095), his reign marked by crop failures and famines, for which he is blamed in the Rev. Jerry Falwell way (judgment of God for being ungodly?). Song Shen Zong dies, and Song Zhe Zong (-1101) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #7 of China. To prevent future dismemberment of his kingdom like is happening in France, William I the Conqueror summons all main landowners in England to the Concourse of Salisbury, where they have to pledge paramount fealty to him. Architecture: Affligem Abbey 25 mi. NW of Brussels in Brabant, Belgium is dedicated, becoming the #1 monastery in the Duchy of Brabant. Births: Polish king (high duke) (1102-38) Boleslav (Boleslaw) III Krzywousty (the Wry-Mouthed) (d. 1138) on Aug. 20 in Plock; son of Wladyslaw I Herman (1042-1102) and Judith of Bohemia (daughter of Vratislaus II); husband of Salome von Berg-Schelklingen (1093-1144). Deaths: Chinese scholar-historian Ssu-ma Kuang (b. 1019). Chinese poet Wang-Anshi (b. 1021). Italian bishop St. Anselm II of Luca (b. 1036) on Mar. 18. Danish king (1080-6) Canute IV the Saint.
1087 On May 9 after accepting reelection in Capua under pressure of Prince Jordan I of Capua, and being restored to power in Rome by the Normans, who drive Antipope Clement III's soldiers out of St. Peter's Church, Victor III (b. 1026) is crowned pope, then returns to Monte Cassino on May 17 while his troops take the Vatican, the Leonine City, and Trastavere, then answers a summons from his ally Countess Matilda of Tuscany to return to Rome, only to see the antipapal forces take St. Peter's Church back in late June, causing him to withdraw to Monte Cassino again; in Aug. a synod in Benevento renews Clement III's excommunication along with lay investiture, and proclaims a Crusade against the Saracens of N Africa; too bad, Pope (since 1086) Victor III (b. 1026) takes sick and dies on Sept. 16 - not even a pope can be in two places at the same time? On May 30 Conrad II of Italy (1074-1101), 2nd son of HRE Henry IV and Bertha of Savoy (Turin), and brother of future HRE Henry IV is crowned Salian king of Germany in Aachen (until 1098); too bad, Matilda of Tuscany influences him to join the papal camp; Godfrey of Bouillon (1060-1100 becomes count of Lower Lorraine. The bigger they are the harder they fall? In early Sept. after he wars with Philip I of France over boundaries and tarries in Rouen, having become so fat the he can barely move, causing Philip I to joke that he is "lying in", and there will be a grand display of candles at his funeral, pissed-off William I the Conqueror (b. 1027) vows to light Philip some candles, and sieges and burns Mantes, 30 mi. W of Paris; too bad, as he is riding among the ruins his horse stumbles, and he is thrown against the iron pommel of his saddle and falls, suffering abdominal injuries, and dies on Sept. 9 at St. Gervais Convent near Rouen after having centralized the Norman govt. of England so well that it is not successfully invaded again until ?; the downside is the subjection of not only the Celts but the Anglo-Saxons, and the worse serfdom ever seen on the island; the upside is introduction of French language and culture along with feudalism, chivalry, heraldry, and vocabulary, and better org. of agriculture; on his deathbed William I the Morbidly Obese confesses his sins, makes his will, distributes treasure to the poor and the Church, and provides for the rebuilding of Mantes; all his sons except Henry desert his deathbed to fight for the succession, while his officers and servants abscond with all the spoils they can grab; he leaves his eldest son (known for being easy-going, a fatal flaw?) Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) the duchy of Normandy, his mean middle son William II Rufus (the Red) (1057-1100) (known for his ruddy complexion and/or red beard) (Normans like to claim that their complexions are never ruddy like the Anglo-Saxon dogs) the crown of England in exchange for good behavior to his anointer and minister Lanfranc, and his youngest son (a good clark?) Henry I Beauclerc (1068-1135) 5K lbs. of silver to buy land (so he won't be called Henry Lackland?); "Red King" William II Rufus (1057-1100) is crowned (22nd monarch of England) amid dissatisfaction by the Norman barons of England; after a rustic vassal carries his remains to the Abbaye aux Hommes in Caen, William I's well-lit funeral ceremony at Norman Romanesque-style St. Stephen's Church in Caen is halted when the bishops try to squeeze his rotting corpse into a narrow sarcophagus, and the stomach bursts, spewing royal stench over the mourners, who flee?; Malcolm II's son (by Ingibjorg) Donald, who had been brought up as a Norman since 1072 is released and knighted, and elects to remain in England; shortly after William II's coronation the London Fire of 1087 (other fires in 60, 675, 1666) burns down most of Norman London, incl. St. Paul's Cathedral; William I's Fleet River Palatine tower is destroyed, and part of the stone is used to rebuilt St. Paul's, which is rebuilt in Gothic style (consecrated 1240). Alfonso VI takes Aledo Fortress in the territory of Murcia, blocking the route from Seville and Granada to the E provinces, and sends El Cid to the Levant; in May French Crusaders enter Spain to fight the Almoravids, but as the Berbers had already returned to Africa, most of them return home. The Bogomil rebels defeat a large army led by Emperor Alexius I Comnenus at the Battle of Drystra (Dorostolon), which allows the Cumans to begin ravaging the E Balkan region all the way to the gates of Big C Constantinople. Philip I of France begins steadily supporting Duke Robert of Normandy against Anglo-Norman pressure. The Normans sack the Fatimid capital of Mahdiyya (founded 912). Seljuk Sultan Malikshah visits Baghdad. Emperor (since 1073) Shirakawa (b. 1053) retires to a monastery, and his son Horikawa (1079-1107) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #73 (until 1107). Architecture: Archbishop Lanfranc begins the Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Middlesex, England 12 mi. WNW of London on Harrow on the Hill; Lord Byron later spends many hours flogging the bishop, er, daydreaming on a stone on its grounds. Rochester Castle in England is rebuilt for William II Rufus by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester (finished 1089). Nonfiction: Cardinal Deusedit (-1097), Church Canons (4 vols.); defends Church authority against secular encroachment. Anon., Koryo Tripitaka; an ed. of the Buddhist canon printed in Korea (Koryo) from wood blocks, after being started early in the cent. in supplication to forestall Khitan attacks. Births: Byzantine emperor #154 (1118-43) John II Komnenos (Comnenus) of Kalojoannes (d. 1143) on Sept. 13 in Constantinople; son of Alexios I Komnenos (1048-1118); brother of Anna Comnena (1083-1153); husband (1104-) of Irene of Hungary (1088-1034); father of Manuel I Komnenos (1118-80). Deaths: English Norman king #1 (1066-87) William I (b. 1026) on Sept. 9 in St. Gervais Convent near Rouen, France (thrown from his horse at the Battle of Mantes 30 mi. W of Paris); buried in Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen; when his pregnant-woman-fat body won't fit in the stone sacrophagus, the owner of the land under the church demands 60 shillings during the funeral (paid by his son Henry I Beauclerc); later a fire breaks out, and by modern times only his left femur remains in the tomb. Hungarian king (1063-74) Solomon I (b. 1053).
1088 Early in the year the Norman barons of England revolt in favor of Duke Robert of Normandy, and are put down by William II Rufus largely by the aid of his English subjects. On Mar. 12 Odo (Udo) (Otho) (Otto) of Lagery (Chatillon) (a Cluny Benedictine monk born in Chatillon-sur-Marne) is elected Pope (#158) Urban II (1042-99) (2nd French pope after Sylvester II in 999) (Pope Urban I was in 220-30), continuing the fight with Antipope Clement III, excommunicating him and defeating his forces in Rome, and reexcommunicating Henry IV over his demands about investiture; meanwhile pissed-off Prague bishop Jaromir comes to Rome to protest the new Moravian bishop Andrew I, then dies in Esztergom in N Hungary as he prepares to fight him, causing Jaromir to storm off to Rome to protest to Pope Urban II; being from the Champagne region of NE France, the pope declares that the wine of Champagne (Ay) is the best in the world. William IV leaves for the Holy Land, putting his brother Raymond IV of St. Gilles (1041-1105) (great-grandfather of Eleanor of Aquitaine via his daughter and her hubby William IX of Aquitaine) in charge as count of Toulouse (until 1105). Ibn Tashfin arrives back in Algeciras, and is joined by al-Mutamid of Seville and Abd Allah of Granada, plus support from Almeria and Murcia (but not the Emirs); the combined army sieges Aledo for 4 mo., but Ibn Tashufin returns to Africa unsuccessful; meanwhile El Cid places the Levant under his protection and collects tribute, then between this year and 1089 fails to rendezvous with Alfonso VI to lift the siege of Aledo, causing him to be exiled for a 2nd time. The reason that academics are full of bologna? After city laws impose collective punishments on each "nation" of foreigners, causing them to turn into collective bargaining groups and end up hiring scholars to school them, the U. of Bologna in Italy is founded to study the balogna of the law independent of the balogna of the ecclesiastical schools, becoming the oldest continuously-operating univ. in Europe (world?) ("Alma Mater Sudiorum"), becoming the first to use the term "universitas"; in 1158 it receives a royal charter from HRE Frederick I Barbarossa; in 1219 it becgins training physicians, competing against the U. of Padua; it goes on to produce Dante, Petrarch, Torquato Tasso, Vesalius, Galvani et al. as students and faculty; motto: "Petrus ubique pater legum Bononia mater" (St. Peter is the father of all places and Bologna the master of the law"). The Patzinak Turks, AKA Pechenegs settle between the DanubeRiver and the Balkans; their horse archers, giant warriors, and drinking of blood when out of water make for good gossip. Chinese painter-priest Chung-Jen flourishes about this time, painting with India ink on silk.
Architecture: The Monastery of St. John the Theologian is founded on the island of Patmos by Ioannis Christodoulos on land ceded to him by Byzantine Emperor Alexis I Comnenus - good place to have a revelation? Otranto Cathedral in Italy is consecrated. Nonfiction: Shen Kuo, Dream Pool Essays; first description of movable type printing, invented by Bi Sheng (990-1051) of Bianliang in the Northern Song Dynasty, using clay-fired typeface; if only they had an alphabet instead of the unwieldy Chinese characters, everybody would be speaking Chinese by now? Births: Byzantine empress consort (1104-34) Irene of Hungary (Piroska) (d. 1134); daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia; mother of Manuel I Comnenus (1118-80). Byzantine emperor (1118-43) (the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius?) John II Comnenus of Kalojoannes (d. 1143) on Aug. 15; son of Alexius I Comnenus. French Crusader Count William (Guillaume) II of Nevers (d. 1148); son of Renaud II and Agnes of Beauregency; half-brother of Ermengarde of Nevers. Irish high king (1120-56) and king of Connacht (1106-56) Turlough Mor O'Connor (Tairrdelbach or Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobair) (d. 1156); youngest son of Roderic O'Connor (-1118). Deaths: French theologian Berengar of Tours (b. 1000) - he'd seen it all by now? Islamic Isma'ili theologian-poet Nasiri-i Khusraw (b. 1004); leaves a Account of Journeys to the West, 1045-52, which comments on the prosperity of Egypt and Syria compared with the E half of the Middle East. Irish abbot (of Clonmacnoise) Tigernach bua Braein (b. ?); leaves the Annals of Tigernach.
1089 On May 24 Canterbury archbishop (since 1070) Lanfranc (b. 1005) dies, and seeing his chance, William II Rufus becomes a money-hungry tyrant, leaving the archbishopric of Canterbury vacant for four years in order to secure the rich revenues of its estates for himself - need help, get help? Antipope Clement III reclaims Rome, and Pope Urban II anathematizes him from outside the city walls, going into exile in S Italy for three years. Matilda of Canossa (Tuscany) marries 17-y.-o. stud Welf II/V (1072-1120), son of ex-duke Welf I/IV of Bavaria (until 1095) to strengthen Welf ties with her friend Pope Urban II - pass the oil? Bohemund and Roger end their quarrel, and Bohemund receives part of Apulia, later using the First Crusade as a way to extend his possessions. Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102) becomes count of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux, giving him 300+ properties and making him one of the wealthiest men in Europe; his wife (since 1083?) Adela of Normandy (1062-1137), daughter of William I the Conqueror later talks him into joining the First Crusade to pay for his sins of self-indulgence? After the Seljuks begin forcing Georgia to pay tribute, Georgian king (since 1072) George II (b. 1054) abdicates in favor of his 16-y.-o. son David IV (the Builder) (1073-1125), who goes on to become Georgia's greatest king, reuniting the country, reforming the army and govt., and forming a spear to drive in the side of the pesky Seljuk Turks. The siege of Aledo is lifted sans El Cid. Henry IV invests the House of Wettin in Saxony with the March of Meissen as a fief. Harisha (-1101) becomes king of Kashmir (until 1101). Architecture: The Basilica of St. Nicholas in Bari, Italy is begun to house the bones of St. Nicholas, becoming a pilgrimage site; in 1098 the marble Bari Cathedra (Bishop's Throne) is created; the basilica is finished in 1197. Leopold II of Austria helps found the Benedictine Melk Abbey (Stift Melk) in E Austria near his summer residence of Thunau a Kamp. Inventions: On Jan. 16 Chinese superbrain Su Song (1020-1101) finishes construction of the world's first astronomical clock. Births: French count (1109-29) and Latin Jerusalem king (1131-43) Fulk (the Young) of Anjou (d. 1143) in Angers; son of Fulk IV and Bertrada of Montfort; their love child after the multiply-married lecher divorces another woman for her and dumps their son Geoffrey II Martel?; husband of Melisande (1105-61); father of Baldwin III (1130-63). Deaths: Italian-born archbishop of Canterbury (1070-89) Lanfranc (b. 1005) on May 24 in Canterbury.