|England||Richard I Lionheart (1157-99)||July 6, 1189||Apr. 6, 1199|
|Scotland||William I the Lion (1143-1214)||Dec. 9, 1165||Dec. 4, 1214|
|France||Philip II Augustus (1165-1223)||Sept. 18, 1180||July 14, 1223|
|Germany||HRE Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90)||Jan. 2, 1155||June 10, 1190|
|Papacy||Clement III (1130-91)||Dec. 19, 1187||Mar. 20, 1191|
1190 You didn't have to shake it but you did, you did, you did, and I thank you? The Third Crusade is led by the Big Three of Christendom, German HRE (since 1155) Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90), English king (since 1189) Richard I Lionheart (Coeur de Lion) Plantagent (1157-99), and French king (since 1180) Philip II Augustus (1165-1223), while Pope (since 1187) Clement III (-1191) tries in vain to get in charge to get the credit for this lay effort?; Austrian duke Leopold V (1157-94) also goes, accompanied by Alsace-born minnesinger Reinmar the Old of Hagenau (-1207); on Feb. 14 Frederick I (b. 1122) signs a peace with the Byzantines in Adrianople, allowing him to pass through undisturbed; in Mar. Richard I leaves on Crusade after raising mucho dinero, becoming known for squeezing his subjects while enjoying luxury and lavish feasts; too bad, after getting through Rum, on June 10 Frisky Freddy (b. 1122) is drowned in the 150-mi.-long Saleph (Goksu) (Göksu) River in the Taseli Peninsula in Cilician Armenia in SE Asia Minor in hip-deep water while bathing (heart attack from the shock of the cold water?) after the Holy Lance of Christ slips from his hands, causing his 15K-man (100K-man?) Crusader army (incl. 3K knights) to panic and disintegrate under Turkish attacks as the Muslims attribute his death to the will of Allah and get pumped up, with only 5K reaching Acre; after attempts to preserve Drop Dead Fred's body in vinegar to bury him in Jersualem fail, his bones are buried in Cathedral of Tyre, his flesh is buried in the Church of St. Peter in Antioch, and his heart and internal organs in Tarsus; his eldest son (by Beatrice of Burgundy) Henry VI (1165-97) succeeds him as German Hohenstaufen king #3 (until Sept. 28, 1197), and his 3rd son Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia (1167-91) becomes leader of the remnants of the Crusader army, leaving Richard I and Philip II as the real leaders of the Crusade. Early in the year Emperor Isaac II Angelos, no longer threatened by the pesky German Crusaders defeats the invading Serbs with a huge army in S Moravia, and reduces Stefen I Nemanja to his vassal, forcing him to give up large areas E of the Morava River, incl. Nis and Ravno (to keep him separated from the Bulgarians), and marry his son Stefan II to Byzantine princess Eudocia; in the spring Isaac II Angelos invades Bulgaria and sieges Tarnovo, but ends up retreating after Cuman reinforcements arrive from the N, and Ivan Asen I ambushes him in the Balkan passes, causing him to barely escape with his life after losing most of his men and treasure; Peter IV then retires to Preslav without abdicating, while co-tsar Asen raids into Thrace and Macedonia, and badly defeats the Byzantines at the spring Battle of Tryavna in C Bulgaria. On Mar. 16 (Fri.) (night) (Shabbat-ha-Gadol) the Clifford's Tower Massacre in York, England sees 150 Jews (entire pop.) huddled in a castle surrounded by mobs set their castle on fire to commit suicide, with the survivors being murdered, becoming England's worst case of anti-Semitism (until ?). On Apr. 22 Reginald of Sidon negotiates with Saladin in order to buy time, and ends up tortured outside his stronghold of Beaufort while allegedly ordering his troops to surrender in Arabic but also telling them to continue fighting in French, then being imprisoned in Damascus, Beaufort finally surrenders in return for his release, and he goes on to become an adviser and interpreter for Richard I Lionheart. In July English king Richard I Lionheart, accompanied by bishop of Salisbury Hubert Walter (1160-1205) heads out to the Big J three years after its fall to kick badass Saracen Saladin, and arrives in Sicily in Sept.; Richard I and Philip II winter in Sicily, where they begin quarreling; meanwhile back in England, Bishop Hugh of Lincoln protests against Richard I's unfair taxation and persecution of Jews; too bad, Prince Levon of Armenia was waiting for Barbarossa to crown him king of Armenia, and it takes until 1199 to get his son Henry VI to do it. Philip II Augustus of France orders 80 Jews executed in Orange, France after learning that one of his agents had been hanged by city authorities for murdering a Jew. The Order of German Hospitalers (Hospitallers) (Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem) is founded to treat sick and wounded Crusaders, with grandmaster #1 (until 1192) Garnier de Nablus. In this decade Harald Maddadsson, Earl of Orkney and Mormaer of Caithness (1134-1206) begins a revolt against William I of Scotland, causing him to campaign in N Scotland, reaching the N coast at Thurso and finally getting the rascal to submit early next decade. Prince Madog ab Owain Gwynedd of Wales returns to his New World settlement, finds the 120 men he left behind annihilated by natives, and dies soon after in the New World? Genghis Khan (b. 1162) begins his conquest of Asia - loving to conquer his enemies and clasp their wives? In this decade Jayavarman VII of Angkor (Cambodia) raids and takes over Champa, ruling until 1220. About this time the German settlement of Wisby on Gothland (Gottland) becomes autonomous, and establishes an offshoot in Novgorod in St. Peter's Yard, becoming the launching point for Russian trade. Noble German Minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide (1170-1230) visits the court of Duke Leopold V of Babenberg in Vienna until 1198, when he begins touring the courts of Europe, singing songs and writing political propaganda verses supporting HRE Otto IV against the pope, becoming the #1 Minnesinger of Germany - the original Madonna Like a Virgin Tour? In this decade Zen Buddhism is introduced to Japan from China. The alleged remains of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere are found in the ancient cemetery of Glastonbury Abbey on Glastonbury Tor, and are put in the abbey church in a tomb which is rediscovered in 1931; too bad, Henry VIII has their bones destroyed in 1516 because they're too dear to Roman Catholics? Architecture: The Louvre (Palas du Louvre) in Paris, France is begun as a fortress (finished 1202). The white marble Temple of the Immaculate Holy Virgin the Benefactor is built by Stefan I Nemanja of Serbia, becoming the temple of the House of Nemanjic. Nonfiction: Isaac the Blind and Aziel, Sefer-ha Bahir (Book of Light); by the son of Rabbi Abraham ben David of Posquieres, an opponent of Maimonides; a mystical commentary on the first chapter of Genesis, turning the Logos into the Jewish trinity of Light, Wisdom, and Reason, adopted by Eleazar of Worms (1176-1238) and Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (1240-92). Walter Map, De Nagis Curialium; mentions vampires in England. Alexander Neckam (1157-1217), De Naturis Rerum (On the Nature of Things); compendium of scientific knowledge containing the first Euro mention of using a magnetic compass (bk. 2 chap. 98); describes the winged lizard-tailed cockatrice as born from an egg laid by a cock and incubated by a toad; it can turn people to stone by looking at them, touching them, or breathing on them, and only a weasel is immune; luckily, a rooster's crow will kill it instantly, as will looking at itself in a mirror; it takes until the middle of the 17th cent. for it to be regarded as a mythical duplicate of the basilisk or regulus after being mentioned in the 1611 King James Vers. of the Old Testament (Is. 11:8 et al.); De Utensibilus; first Euro mention of using a magnet as a compass. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Guide for the Perplexed (Moreh Nevukhim or Nebuchim) (Delalatul Ha'yreen); one of the great philosophic statements of Judaism, attempting to reconcile Moses with Aristotle, fostering scholasticism and influencing Thomas Aquinas et al.; tries to explain which words in the Bible should be taken literally, metaphorically, and symbolically, accepting the Creation but dissing personal immortality, Aristotelizing Bible stories, e.g., Abraham and Sarah represent matter and form, Adam is the active spirit, Eve is passive matter (the root of all evil), and the serpent is imagination, pissing-off orthodox rabbis, who accuse him of "selling the Scriptures to the Greeks", and Qabbalists, who desecrate his tomb; "My primary object is to explain certain words occurring in the prophetic books"; "A thing which has in itself the necessity of existence cannot have for its existence any cause whatever"; "Everything except God has been brought into existence out of nonexistence"; "Incorporeal entities can only be numbered when they are forces situated in a body"; written "to promote the true understanding of the real spirit of the Law, to guide those religious persons who, adhering to the Torah, have studied philosophy and are embarrassed by the contradictions between the teachings of philosophy and the literal sense of the Torah"; the main purpose is to expound on Maaseh Bereishit and Maaseh Merkavah, works of Jewish mysticism regarding the theology of creation from Genesis and the passage of the Chariot from Ezekiel, the two main mystical texts in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible); written in Arabic in Hebrew chars., it is trans. into Hebrew in 1199-1204 by Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon, and also into Latin, causing a firestorm of controversy; "The first who openly declared that Scripture must be accomodated to reason" (Baruch Spinoza). Births: Spanish Arab Muslim scientist (writer on botany and pharmacology) Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar (al-Baytar) of Malaga (d. 1248). French Dominican friar-writer Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis) (d. 1264) (b. 1184-1194?). Deaths: German king (1152-90) and HRE (1155-90) Frederick I Barbarossa (b. 1122) on June 10 in Cilicia, Anatolia (SE Asia Minor); dies on Crusade while crossing the Saleph (Goksu) River (heart attack?); alleged to only be sleeping in a cave in Mt. Kyffhauser in Thuringia or Mt. Untersberg in Bavaria, his red beard growing through the table before him and his eyes half-closed, waiting for the ravens flying around to disappear to signal his reawakening to return to save Germany. English archbishop of Canterbury (1184-90) Baldwin of Forde (b. 1125) on Nov. 19 in Acre; his long-running dispute with his clergy earns him the epithet of being more damaging to Christianity than Saladin. French Jewish rabbi Moses Kimchi (b. 1127) in Provence. French romantic poet-trouvere Chretien de Troyes (b. 1144); leaves the unfinished poem (1181-90) Perceval, the Story of the Grail (Perceval, le Conte du Graal) (Fr. "pure fool"), which popularizes the Quest of the Holy Grail, and is continued by other writers. German Minnesinger Friedrich von Hausen (b. 1150) on May 6 in Philomelium (Aksehir), Turkey (KIA). Jerusalem queen (1186-90) Sibylla (b. 1160) on July 25 in Acre. English statesman-jurist Ranulf de Glanville (b. ?); born in Stratford, Suffolk.
1191 German Hohenstaufen king #3 (since 1190) Henry VI (1165-97) (son of Frederick I Barbarossa) claims the vacant throne of Sicily by right of his wife Constance, heiress of Sicily, but Pope Clement III, fearful of losing papal independence invests Tancred of Lecce (-1194), an illegitimate heir of the Norman House of Roger (son of Constance's brother Duke Roger of Apulia), and he leads a vigorous native Norman revolt, supported by Richard I of England; young testosterone-soaked Henry VI advances into Italy to kick papal butt, but on Mar. 27 Pope (since 1187) Clement III dies, and on Mar. 30 Giacinto Bobo is elected Pope (#174) Celestine III (1106-98) (first of the Roman Orsini family), and he sees which side his bread is buttered on and immediately crowns Henry VI as HRE, and his wife Constance of Sicily as empress, and the House of Hohenstaufen now rules Sicily (until 1266); too bad, Henry VI proceeds S to press his claims in Sicily, and is defeated, and his wife is captured by Tancred of Lecce and later released; Pope Celestine III sanctions the observance of Ash Wednesday (first day of Lent, where penitents place ashes on their foreheads), and grants privileges to the Knights Templar, who receive a donation of 28K farms (manors) to finance a permanent army for the defense of the Holy Land; he also delivers the Scottish Church from the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of York, declaring it directly subject to the Holy See. In the spring Crusaders Richard I Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, incl. Templars and Hospitallers, Angevins, Bretons, and Flemings under James (Jacques) (Jacob) of Avesnes (1152-91) set sail to attack the Holy Land, and Richard I Lionheart stops in Rhodes to drop off his sister Joan Plantagenet (1165-99) (widow of William II of Sicily) to talk Sancho VI of Navarre into agreeing to give him his eldest daughter Berengaria of Navarre (1165-1230) in marriage so that he can get his hands on Navarre (dumping Alys, his betrothed), and when they leave to follow him and get shipwrecked by a storm on Cyprus, hot-headed Cyprus despot (since 1184) Isaac Comnenus (Komnenos) of Cyprus (1155-96) captures them, pissing-off Richard and causing him to turn around (or get blown there by a storm), land in Lemesos (Limassol) on May 6, conquer it, then kick Comnenus' butt at the Battle of Tremetusia, and trick him into surrendering at his Kantara Castle on Cape St. Andreas on the Karpas Peninsula by promising not to put him in irons, after which he uses silver chains (ha ha), and turns him over to the Knights of St. John, who keep him in Margat (near Tripoli) until 1194, after which he travels to the sultanate of Rum to gain support, and ends up poisoned; Richard then marries Berengaria on May 12 in Limassol at the Chapel of St. George, the wedding attended by Prince Levon of Cicilian Armenia (ever eager to get noticed so they can promote him to king?), and decides to use Cyprus as a Crusader supply bridge to Jerusalem; Richard has Commandaria wine served at his wedding, proclaiming it "the wine of kings and the king of wines"; Richard buys two Arabian horses in Cyprus, which he puts gold bridles on, causing them to be called brigliadores; Comnenus' daughter "the Damsel of Cyprus" joins Richard's court, and travels back to England with Joan; meanwhile Egyptian sultan Saladin conquers Haifa, and dismantles the city of Ashkelon on the Mediterranean coast; in Apr. the French under Philip II Augustus and Conrad of Montferrat arrive at Acre after Philip's nephew Count Henry II of Champagne beats him to it, then erect huge siege engines; the English under Richard I Lionheart arrive on June 9 and take contol of the siege, using sappers to undermine the walls; Richard offers his men first one then four gold coins to race across the open plain dodging Saracen bowmen and hot oil-slingers and pull a single stone from Acre's thick wall; on July 12 after their supplies run out, Acre, AKA Ptolemais surrenders to the Crusaders; Philip II gets sick and accuses Richard I of trying to poison him, and returns to France, making final capture of Jersualem impossible, as if that would stop them?; the Crusaders demand the delivery of 1.6K Christian captives, payment of 200K dinars, delivery of the True Cross, and allow the pop. of Acre to leave on the condition that they carry nothing but the clothes on their backs; too bad, on Aug. 11 an exchange of POWs and moolah is aborted after the Crusaders quibble; on Aug. 20 after Saladin takes too long to respond, Der Fuhrer Richard I orders the execution of 2.7K Muslim hostages, "avenging their fallen comrades who had died at Acre", slicing open their bellies looking for swallowed treasure; Saladin responds in kind, ordering the execution of all 1.6K Christian POWS, and hiding the True Cross (under the doorway of the Mosque in Damascus?); Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus surrenders to Richard I, who imprisons him in the Syrian castle of Markab; after Richard I unsuccessfully backs his vassal Guy de Lusignan for king of Jerusalem over the German candidate Conrad of Montferrat, Guy gives the Hospitallers a portion of the tower in Acre, and Richard I sells Cyprus to Guy and the Knights Templar, and Guy becomes king of Cyprus next year (until 1194); the Crusaders rule Acre for the next cent; meanwhile after Richard I insults Duke Leopold V of Austria by throwing his banner into the acres of mud of Acre, the latter invents the red-and-white triband Austrian Flag when there is a white strip of cloth found under his bloody tunic after the battle; in Aug. knowing they need to control the port of Jaffa before taking Jerusalem, the Crusaders leave Acre and go S, and, after being harassed all along the way by archers finally defeat Saladin on Sept. 7 at the Battle of Arsuf near Jaffa, remembering the lessons of the Horns of Hattin and taking measures against heat exhaustion and thirst, although they are tormented at night by tarantulas; on Aug. 30 as they approach Caesarea, the rear guard under Duke Hugh III of Burgundy is cut off, but Richard rallies his troops to save them with the cry "Sanctum Sepulchrum Adjuva!" (Help us, Holy Sepulchre!); during the battle the Muslims are sorely pressing the Crusaders, until Hospitaler grandmaster Garnier de Nablus disobeys Richard's orders and goes beserk and leads a charge, which Richard decides is their big chance to turn the tide, after which Richard "advanced with untiring sword strokes, cutting down the unspeakable race as if he were reaping the harvest with a sickle, so that the corpses of Turks he had killed covered the ground everywhere for the space of half a mile"; Saladin's myth of invicibility is shattered, with 7K Muslims killed vs. 700 Christians (according to the Christians); the slap-happy Crusaders then recapture St. Peter's old Dorctown of Jaffa, although Big J is out of their grasp and they decide to cut off Saladin's main supply base of Egypt instead. The Byzantines drive the pesky Normans out of the Balkans, incl. Durazzo and Corfu. The gov. of Cordoba attacks Silves, and takes 3K Christian slaves. The Second Era of Maya Civilization in Central Am. begins. Saladin orders the execution of mystical heretic Surawardi, and pub. On the Resurrection of the Dead, accepting it as an article of faith while expressing doubts. Poetry: Hartmann von Aue (1170-1210), Erec. Births: Christian Jerusalem queen (1205-12) Maria of Montferrat (d. 1212) in summer; daughter of Conrad of Monteferrat (-1192). Georgian Bagrationi king (1213-23) George (Giorgi) IV Lasha (d. 1223); son of Tamar (1160-1213) and 2nd husband David Soslani (-1207); brother of Rusudan (1194-1245). Russian grand prince of Vladimir (1238-46) Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich (d. 1246) on Feb. 8; 4th son of Vsevolod III the Big Nest (1154-1212) and Maria Shvarnovna (-1205); husband (1218-) of Fedosia Igorevich of Ryazan; father of Alexander Nevsky (1220-63). Deaths: French archbishop of Caesarea (1175-) Heraclius (b. 1128) in the winter of 1190-1. Dutch/German writer Hendrik van Veldeke (b. 1139); leaves Life of St. Servatius, Eneide (Aeneid), and various love songs, becoming the first great Dutch and/or German writer. Muslim Sufi philosopher-theologian Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi (b. 1154) in Aleppo; executed on charges of heresy. Roman Catholic bishop (of Mecklenburg) Berno (b. ?).
1192 On Apr. 2 Richard I Lionheart of England sends his rep. Henry II of Champagne from Acre to Tyre to inform Conrad of Montferrat of his election as Latin king of Jerusalem, but on Apr. 28, a few days after Henry returns Conrad is murdered by two hashashin in Tyre, and when Henry is sent back to Tyre two days later to help with his coronation, he finds a funeral instead, and eight days later after supposedly wowing her with his virility (being 20 years younger than Conrad) he marries Conrad's pregnant widow Isabella of Jerusalem (1172-1205) (daughter of Amalric I and Maria Comnena), and becomes king of Jerusalem (until 1197); on July 29 the Crusaders, incl. 80 knights and 2K Genoese crossbowmen recapture Jaffa from 7K Muslim cavalry troops, and reach Jerusalem but fail to capture it, and on Sept. 2 after a trial balloon proposal of a marriage of Saladin's brother to Richard I's sister Joan, with Big J invested to the lucky groom, the Crusaders give up fighting for Christ and agree to the 3-year Peace of Ramlah (Ramleh) with Dinner Salad, er, Saladin, giving the Christians a strip of steak, er, coastal territory between Jaffa and Acre, plus access to Jerusalem, and it takes until 1229 for the Christians to recapture Big J; Guy de Lusignan resigns his title of king of Jerusalem, but still has the serviceable launchpad island of Cyprus (until 1194); meanwhile new king Henry II of Champagne meets with the Assassins in their fortress stronghold of al-Khaf, smokes, er, watches two of the fanatics kill themselves to prove what robots they are, then signs a treaty with their grandmaster, causing speculation of a plot with Richard to knock off Conrad all along - get my caddy and my calculator? On Apr. 26 retired emperor Go-Shirakawa (b. 1127) dies, and Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147-99) is named Japan's first shogun ("barbarian-subduing general") (generalissimo) by Japanese emperor Go-Toba, who becomes a puppet, turning to calligraphy, painting, music, and poetry instead of politics. On Aug. 25 Hugh III (b. 1142) dies in Acre, and his eldest son Eudes III (1166-1218) becomes duke of Burgundy (until 1218), going on to back Philip II against John I Lackland and HRE Otto IV. On Oct. 9 Richard I Lionheart returns from the Crusades, but suffers from seasickness and decides to cross the Alps disguised as a Knight Templar; too bad, he is captured on Dec. 11 at an inn near Vienna by his enemy Duke Leopold V of Austria (1157-94), then imprisoned (in violation of an unwritten law that Crusaders can't be detained) by orders of grudge-bearing HRE Henry VI in a dark castle in Durnstein (Durrenstein) on the Danube River on Dec. 21 (until Feb. 4, 1194); after his return to France Philip II Augustus begins scheming with Richard's brother John Lackland, getting Normandy handed over by secret treaty; Philip II tries to get Richard I handed over to him as his prisoner, but is refused. Kilij Arslan II dies, and his 11th and youngest son Kaykhusraw I (-1211) becomes Seljuk sultan of Rum (until 1196, then 1205-11), going on to fight his brothers for control; he marries a Byzantine babe who is an illegitimate descendant of Manuel I, causing her daddy Manuel Maurozomes to fight for him in 1205-6. Afghan ruler Mohammed of Ghor defeats Prithvi Raj and captures Delhi, then founds the Delhi Sultanate, the first Muslim empire in India (ends 1398). The dukedom of Styria becomes part of the Babenberg realm of Austria by inheritance (until 1276). St. Ladislas (d. 1095) of Hungary is canonized. Stefan I Nemanja's son Rastko flees his job as prince of Zahumlje to flee to a Ston Monastery in Mt. Athos and become a monk by the name of Sava. Giovanni Colonna the Elder is made cardinal priest of Santa Prisca, beginning the rise of the Colonna Family (a branch of the counts of Tusculum) in Rome, who begin a bitter feud with the rival Orsini Family (ends 1511). The first Portuguese writing sample is from an act of partition dated this year. Architecture: The rebuilding of the Bamberg Cathedral begins (ends 1237). Births: Japanese shogun #3 (1203-19) Minamot no Sanetomo (d. 1219) on Sept. 17. Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #77 (1155-8) Go-Shirakwaa (b. 1127) on Apr. 26. French duke of Burgundy (1162-92) Hugh III (b. 1142) on Aug. 25 in Acre.
1193 On Mar. 4 Saladin (b. 1137) dies in Damascus, and his Ayyubid Dynasty lands in Egypt and Syria are split between his family and lts. (until 1200). Hubert Walter becomes archbishop of Canterbury, then justiciar in 1194-8, ruling England in Richard I Lionheart's absence while keeping Prince John in check; Richard I is handed over to HRE Henry VI, who imprisons him in a secret location, demanding a huge ransom of 150K marks, double the annual revenue of the English crown; Richard I's mother and regent Eleanor of Aquitaine and her justiciar Hubert Walter attempt to raise his ransom by taxation of his English subjects, while Philip II violates his pledge and attacks and seizes English possessions in France, and both he and King John try to outbid them to keep him in captivity; Richard I writes a ballad while imprisoned, appealing to his countrymen to pay the ransom; William I of Scotland opposes John's attempts to seize power, and contributes 2K marks to Richard's ransom; meanwhile after much searching, Richard is found in Durnstein by his traveling minstrel Blondel de Nesle (1155-1202), who hears his master's voice singing along with a minstrel from the dungeon, then returns to England and reports it; the ransom money is used to build walls around Vienna - all right, you're not the person you were before you got rheumatic arthritis? Bela Arpad of Hungary invades Serbia, but is repelled. Indigo (blue) and brazilwood (red) are imported from India to England for dyeing purposes. The first known merchant guild is established in England. Architecture: A new Mosque of Omar is built in Jerusalem by Saladin to commemorate the prayer that Caliph Omar made in 637 on the E steps of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre where David allegedly once prayed, but on the S side instead after the entrance is moved; in 1417 the Al-Khanqah al-Salahiyya Mosque is built on the N side with an almost identical minaret, with the pair sited on a line intersecting the door of the Tomb of Jesus at exactly the same elevation, supposedly to "nullify" the Holy Sepulchre since Muslims don't believe in Jesus' death and resurrection. Births: Georgian Bagrationi queen (1223-45) Rusudan (d. 1245); daughter of Tamar (1160-1213) and 2nd husband David Soslan (-1207); sister of George IV (1191-1223). French queen consort of Cyprus (1210-8) Alice of Champagne (d. 1246); eldest daughter of Count Henry II of Champagne (1166-97) and Isabella I of Jerusalem (1172-1205); wife of Hugh I of Cyprus (her step-brother). Greek emperor of Nicaea (1222-54) John III Ducas (Doukas) Vatatzes (d. 1254) in Didymoteicho; son-in-law of Theodore I Lascaris; father of Theodore II Ducas Lascaris (1221-58). German #1 Dominican friar-priest philosopher-scientist (St.) Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great of Cologne) (d. 1280) in Lauingen, Swabia (Bavaria); son of the Count of Bolltadt; big fan of Aristotle, "giving Aristotle to the Latins" with tons of essays on every branch of science, philosophy, and theology, citing Maimonides and Avicenna; teacher of Thomas Aquinas; closest thing to a champion of church-state coexistence; canonized in 1931 by Pope Pius XI; feast day: Nov. 15. Deaths: Egyptian-Syrian sultan (1174-93) Saladin (b. 1138) on Mar. 4 in Damascus. French Crusader Balian of Ibelin (b. 1141). English historian Benedict of Peterborough (b. ?); leaves The Murder of Thomas Becket, 1170, The Death of King Henry II, 1189.
1194 On Feb. 4 Richard I Lionheart is freed after paying the ransom and substituting Norman knight Hugh de Morville, Lord of Westmorland (-1202) (one of the assassins of Thomas Becket) as his hostage, and returns to England in Apr., in an endless feud with his former friend Philip II Augustus, who has been conspiring with his brother Evil Prince John to partition English territories in France, raising taxes, assembling an army, and invading Normandy in Feb., and capturing Evreux (Évreux) 67 mi. WNW of Paris; Richard then crushes a coup attempt by his bad brother John and is crowned for the 2nd time (see any Robin Hood movie?), after which he magnanimously pardons John, offers to sell William I his coveted lost earldom of Northumbria for 15K marks on condition that he keep the chief castles (and is refused), then leaves England in May, never to return, refusing the sacraments for years for fear of being required to forgive Philip II; the Third Crusade ends the Golden Age of the Crusades, and future ones all suck? On July 18 Guy of Lusignan (b. 1150) dies in Nicosia, and his brother Aimery II of Lusignan (1145-1205) succeeds as ruler of Cyprus (until 1205), going on to accept investiture in 1196 as king #1 from HRE Henry VI. On July 24 Song Guan Zong is forced to abdicate by Song Ning Zong (Zhao Kuo) (1168-1224), who becomes Chinese Southern (Nan) Song emperor #4 (until Sept. 17, 1224), going on to foster cultural and intellectual achievements by Zhu Xi (1130-1200) et al., while dealing with the pesky Jurchen people in the N and also dealing with inflation. In Sept. after popular discontent with pesky sheriffs grows, the office of coroner (Lat. "in crown service") is established in Norman England as the highest civil officer in a county after sheriff to keep the pleas of the crown (custodire placita coronae) and make sure the king gets his fine money; the most important function becomes to preside over inquests over dead bodies to avert suspicion of foul play; too bad, the office is easily corrupted to cover up murders? - the beginning of the JFK coverup? On Dec. 31 after Pope Celestine III excommunicates Duke Leopold V (the Virtuous) of Austria (b. 1157), and presses for return of Richard's ransom until he dies, Friedrich (Frederick) I (the Catholic) (1175-98) becomes Babenberg duke of Austria (until 1198). Casimir II the Just (b. 1138) dies after making the principality of Cracow (Krakow) hereditary, and Leszek I the White (1186-1227) becomes ruler of Poland (until 1227), while ousted meany Mieszko III the Old (-1202) unsuccessfully tries to regain his throne for the next eight years - until he just gets too old? Tancred of Lecce dies, ending Norman rule of Sicily, causing HRE Henry VI to invade Italy again to press his claims, this time successfully, and after conquering it he is crowned king, after which he conquers S Italy and part of Tuscany (with aid from Pisa and Genoa), and secures the Matildine lands in C Italy, planning to make Italy the base of his Hohenstaufen Empire; he then compels Pope Celestine III to acknowledge his infant son Frederick II (1194-1250) as king of the Two Sicilies, and the Hohenstaufens continue to rule Sicily until l268; his mother acts as his guardian for 6 mo., then dies, and Lotario de' Conti (future Pope Innocent III) becomes regent and guardian, which doesn't stop him from placing him in the care of princes who abuse him, helping to form his adult megalomaniac Oriental despot personality, later so beloved of Nazis? After taking Sofia and the Upper Struma River Valley, the Bulgarians under Ivan Asen I invade Macedonia, causing the Byzantines under Basil Vatatzes (Western army) and Alexios Gud (Eastern army) to meet them at the Battle of Arcadiopolis near Lule Burgas in Anatolia; too bad, the Byzantines are annihilated, and Vatatsi is KIA; the D causes emperor Isaac II Angelos to plead to Bela III of Hungary for help. Raymond V, Count of Toulouse dies, and is succeeded by his son Raymond VI (1156-1222). Isaac Comnenus is freed, and is welcomed at Iconium by Sultan Kay-Khusraw I. Alaeddin Takish kills Tghril III and destroys the Iraqi Seljuks, ending Seljuk power in Iran-Iraq and beginning the rise of the Turkic Khwarezmians in Transoxiana. The Battle of Oranges in Ivrea, Italy results when a local count makes a rule of "first night" (prima nocta), and an uncooperative bride named Violetta cuts off his head, causing the townsfolk to revolt and throw stones at his troops - naughty Mel, stealing this tidbit for your Braveheart movie? William I of Scotland arranges the marriage of his oldest legitimate daughter Margaret (b. 1187) to Richard I's nephew Otto of Saxony, son of Henry of Saxony. Domnall Mor Ua Briain, king of Munster and Limerick (since 1168) dies, allowing the Normans to take control of County Limerick, becoming "more Irish than the Irish". Seville emir Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur orders all the works of Averroes except a few on natural science burned, and forbids the study of philosophy, encouraging the burning of all philosophy books; Ibn Habib is executed for studying philosophy; by 1200 speculative thought is kaput in Islam, and after the Mongols destroy Baghdad in 1258, you can stick a fork in Islamic science. The Yellow River in China drastically changes its course from N to S of the Shantung Peninsula. Wiener Neustadt (New Vienna) S of Vienna is founded by Babenberger duke Leopold V with the ransom money paid for Richard I of England as a fortress to defend against the Hungarians. The 24K-sq.-mi. Svalbard ("Cold Coast") (Spitsbergen) island group in the Arctic Ocean is discovered E of Greenland and N of Norway, but nobody seems to do anything about it until 1596? - an iceberg's spit from what? Bayreuth in N Bavaria on the Red Main River between the Frankish Alb (Franconian Jura) and the Fichtelgebirge mountain range, founded by the counts of Andechs is first mentioned. Architecture: After five previous cathedrals, he Gothic Chartres Cathedral (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartes) in Chartres, NW France 50 mi. SW of Paris is begun (finished 1220/1260), becoming a masterpiece of French Gothic architecture, attracting crowds of pilgrims with its Sancta Camisa relic, the alleged tunic worn by the Virgin Mary at Christ's birth; "Petalled with panes of azure, gules and or" (Edith Wharton). Nonfiction: Saemund the Wise (1056-1133) (ed.), Elder Edda (Norse "great-grandmother); anon. collection of Scandinavian mythology from Norway, Iceland, and Greenland, discovered in 1643 by a bishop in the Royal Library of Copenhagen; about Sigurd the Volsung et al., incl. The High One's Lay ("Even in three words quarrel not with a worse man; often the better man yields when the worse strikes") ("In a maiden's words none should place faith, nor in a woman's, for guile has been laid in their breasts"), The Voluspa (prophetess Volva describes the creation, coming destruction, and regeneration of the world). Births: French king of Cyprus (1201-18) Hugh (Hugues) I de Lusignan (d. 1218); youngest of three sons of Aimery of Lusignan (1145-1205) and Eschiva of Ibelin (1160-96); husband of Alice of Champagne (1193-1246); father of Henry I the Fat (1217-53). Italian super-cruel blazing-eyed condottiero of Verona, Vicenza, and Padua Ezzelino III da Romano (d. 1259) on Apr. 25; of German descent. German super-educated, cynical-skeptical "stupor mundi" (amazement of the world) ("Grand Frederigo") Hohenstaufen king #6 and HRE (1212-50) Frederick II (d. 1250) on Dec. 26 in Jesi, Marche, Italy; son of HRE Henry VI (1165-97) and Constance of Sicily (1154-98) (daughter of Norman King Roger I of Sicily); 40-y.-o. mother gives birth to him in a public square to avoid suspicion?; grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90); father of German king Henry. Spanish Qabalistic rabbi-physician (Jewish) Nachamanides (Moses ben Nachman) (AKA Bambam) (d. 1270) in Girona, Catalonia. Deaths: Polish king (1177-94) Casimir II the Just (b. 1138). French king of Jerusalem (1186-92) Guy of Lusignan (b. 1150) on July 18 in Nicosia. Austrian duke (1177-94) Leopold V (b. 1157) on Dec. 31 in Graz (dies of gangrene after his horse falls on him during a tournament); buried under excommunication at Heiligenkreuz Abbey.
1195 In Mar. after personally leading a campaign against Bulgaria in Thrace and leaving camp to go hunting, giving his ungrateful older brother Alexius Angelus (who was redeemed from captivity and showered with honors by the emperor) the chance to proclaim himself emperor and get the soldiers behind him, emperor Isaac II Angelus is captured in Stagira, deposed, blinded, and imprisoned in Constantinople in Apr. along with his son Alexius IV by Alexius III Angelus (1153-1211) who is crowned Roman Byzantine emperor #159 (until July 18, 1203), and continues the campaign, which ends up a bust, causing him to offer peace to Tsar Ivan Asen I, but the latter demands the return of all Bulgarian lands, causing peace negotiations to fall through - these eyes have seen a lot of love but they're never going to see another woman like I had with you? In the summer William I of Scotland falls seriously ill, and shocks his counselors by seeking to have Otto of Saxony named as his successor, as long as Otto's uncle Richard I gives Cumberland, Northumberland, and Lothian to him as dowry; just when he's about to get his coveted N-land into his grap, he suddenly backs out? On July 19 after getting pissed-off at Castilian raids in the Seville region, Yaqub al-Mansur assembles a large Almohad army and defeats a much smaller Castilian force under Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos, with 30K Castilians vs. 500 Muslims KIA; al-Mansur returns to Seville to award himself the title of Billah ("made victorious by Allah"), then takes Trujillo, Plasencia, Talavera, Maqueda, Cuenca, and Ucles, and sieges Toledo, then attacks Madrid (Majrit) and returns to Seville next Aug. After his brother-in-law Alexius III becomes Byzantine emperor, Stefan I Nemanja decides to retire, and gives Zeta (Zenta) (Montenegro) to his eldest son Vukan II Nemanjic (1164-1208), who becomes king of Zeta (until 1208). Llywelyn the Great (1173-1240) becomes prince of Gwynedd in North Wales, with capital at Garth Celyn; he goes on to become de facto ruler of most of Wales. Architecture: The sultan of Marrakesh, Morocco orders the Marrakesh Mosque constructed to commemorate a military V, with 960 sacks of musk added to the mortar for the minaret, which survives to modern times, with the fragrance still perceptible? Births: Portuguese Franciscan monk (St.) Anthony of Padua (Lisbon) (Fernando Martins de Bulhoes) (d. 1231) in Lisbon; born to a wealthy family, becomes an Augustinian monk at age 15, then joins the Franciscan Order at age 25; patron saint of Padua and Portugal, and for finding lost articles and safe delivery of the mail; feast day: June 13. French prince #3 of Achaea (1229-46) Geoffrey II of Villehardouin (d. 1246); son of Geoffrey I of Villehardouin (1169-1229). Deaths: German Saxon duke (1142-80) Bavarian duke (1156-80) Henry the Lion (b. 1129). German Alsatian abbess Herrad of Landsberg (b. 1130) on July 25 in Hohenburg Abbey. Chinese superbrain Shen Kuo (b. 1131) in Runzhou. Italian surgeon Rogerius (b. 1139). Greek emperor of Cyprus (1184-91) Isaac Comnenus (b. 1155) in Iconium. Limoges, France-born Norman Crusader hermit St. Berhold of Calabria (b. ?) in Mount Carmel.
1196 On Mar. 25 Stephen I Nemanjic (d. 1200) of Serbia (Raska) officially abdicates in Ras, then retires to Vatopedia Monastery on Mt. Athos that had been founded by his 3rd son Rastko Nemanjic (St. Sava), along with his wife, who take the names Simeon and Anastasia, and gives his grand princedom to his 2nd son Stefan II Nemanjic (-1228) (until 1228), pissing-off the eldest son Vukan, who begins a power struggle, and gets Hungarian backing, causing Stephen to flee to the Bulgarian court, return with an army of Cumans and win his throne back with the mediation of brother St. Sava; Joannitsa (future tsar Kaloyan), younger brother of Peter IV uses the opportunity to seize E Serbia, incl. Belgrade and Nish; meanwhile, on his triumphal return to Tarnovo, Ivan Asen I is murdered by his cousin Ivanko (who was bribed by the Byzantines), and after he fails to take the throne he is sieged and chased back to Constantinople by pissed-off Peter IV. On Apr. 23 Bela III (b. 1148) dies, and his son (by 1st wife Anne of Chatillon-Antioche) Emeric I (1174-1204) becomes Arpad king of Hungary and Croatia (until Nov. 30, 1204). On Aug. 14 (Oct. 11?) St. Meinhard dies, and Bertold becomes bishop #2 of Livonia, arriving in Riga with a Crusader army to force the pesky pagan Finnic Livs to convert; too bad, they defeat the army and kill him, pissing off Pope Innocent III, who issues a bull declaring a Crusade against the Livonians. HRE Henry VI, as heir to the Norman dynasty demands Durazzo and Thessalonica from Byzantine Emperor Alexius III, who stalls by giving him a huge bribe. Alfonso II the Chaste (b. 1152) dies, and his son Peter II (the Catholic) (1178-1213) (who was already crowned by Pope Innocent III in Rome in 1205, swearing to defend the Roman Catholic faith, setting a trend) becomes king of Aragon and count of Barcelona in NE Spain (until Sept. 12, 1213), losing Provence. Duchess Constance of Brittany abdicates in favor of her son (by Geoffrey Plantagenet) Duke Arthur I of Brittany (1187-1203), who was designated heir of England after Richard I in 1190 - no matter who you are behind the wheel, fusion can handle it? The Battle of Serres in Greece is yet another Bulgarian V against the Byzantines under Gen. Sevastokrator Isaac, who is KIA after the cavalry is surrounded; too bad, before reaching the Bulgarian capital, Tsar Ivan Asen I is murdered by his cousin Ivanko, who had been bribed by the Byzantines, and tries to take the throne but ends up fleeing to Constantinople. Anglo-Norman knight John de Courcy (1150-1219) defeats the king of the Cenel Connail, leaving Donegal at his mercy; in 1198 he returns, devastating Inishowen; too bad, in subsequent campaigns he is defeated by the O'Neill clan under their chief Aed (Aodh) Meith (Méith) (-1230), and finds himself unable to conquer W Ulster. Suleyman (Suleiman) II (Rukn ad-Din) (-1204) overthrows his brother Kaykhusraw I, and becomes Seljuk sultan of Rum (until 1204). William "Long Beard" Fitz Osbert, leader of the London tax riots on behalf of the poor is captured in the Church of St. Mary le Bow and dragged naked behind a horse to Tyburn in Marylebone, London at the W end of Oxford St. at the junction with Park Lane, becoming the first person executed there, after which it becomes the main place for English executions until the 18th cent. The Sanskrit college of Vishaldev in the capital of Gujrat is destroyed by Turkic Muslim eunuch Qutubuddin (Qutb al-Din) Aibak (Aybak) (1150-1210). Heidelberg in SW Germany (modern pop. 135K) is first mentioned in records. The Shroud of Christ is allegedly displayed in Constantinople, and disappears during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Nonfiction: William of Newburgh, Chronicles; mentions revenants, vampire-like creatures. Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #83 (1196-1231) Tsuchimikado (Tamehito) (d. 1231) on Jan. 3; eldest son of Go-Toba (1180-1239). Spanish countess of Urgell (1208-31) Aurembiaix (Aurembiax) (d. 1231) only child of Ermentol VIII and Elvira of Subirats; wife (1212-28) of Alvaro Perez de Castro) and (1229-31) of Peter I (1187-1258). Deaths: Indian sage Basava (b. 1134). Hungarian king (1172-96) Bela III (b. 1148) on Apr. 23 in Szekesfehervar. Spanish king of Aragon and count of Barcelona (1162-96) Alfonso II the Chaste (b. 1152).
1197 On Sept. 10 Henry II of Champagne (b. 1166) dies after falling from a 1st story window from his palace in Acre along with his dwarf servant Scarlet (accounts vary), and his younger brother Theobald (Thibaut) III (1179-1201), "the Troubadour Prince" becomes count of Champagne (until May 24, 1201), while Amalric II of Cyprus becomes king of Jerusalem-Acre (until 1205), marrying the thrice-widowed Isabella next year, and choosing to guard his domains separately. Ottokar I (1155-1230), son of Bela III of Hungary and his 1st wife Anne of Chatillon-Antioche becomes king of Bohemia (until 1230), founding the Premysl (Przemysl) (Premyslid) Dynasty in Bohemia (ends 1306), using his imperial elector position to jerk the Germans around and make himself a big cheese and pain in the neck. On Sept. 28 HRE Henry VI Hohenstaufen (b. 1165) dies, and his infant son Frederick II becomes king of the Two Sicilies. On Nov. 20 the ministers of Richard I issue the Assize of Measures, providing a uniform std. of weights, measures, and coins in England, along with govt. supervision of their use; "Throughout the realm there shall be the same yard of the same size and it should be of iron." Sultan Melek al-Adil recaptures Jaffa, and massacres 20K Christians; Sidon is recovered by Crusader Reginald of Sidon. Bulgarian tsar Peter IV is murdered, and his younger brother Ivan I Kaloyan (Handsome John I) (Joannitsa) (1168-1207) (known as Skyloioannes or Dog John by his enemies) becomes tsar of Bulgaria (until 1207) - a lot of tirnovo there? Ganapati (-1259) becomes ruler of Kakati in E India. Parakramabahu I of Ceylon dies after invading Madura and uniting the two rival Buddhist monasteries. The Jewish quarter of Leon is burned down by order of Alphonso VIII of Castile and Pedro II of Aragon; the Jews are now treated as slaves. Architecture: Fleet Prison on the E bank of the Fleet River in London is built, becoming known for housing people committed by the Star Chamber, for persons charged with contempt of court by the Court of Chancery, and as a debtor's prison; in 1381 it is destroyed by Wat Tyler's men; in 1666 it burns down on day 3 of the Great Fire of London; after it is rebuilt, it becomes known for the highest fees in England, complete with grill built into the Farringdon St. wall for prisoners to beg alms, along with Liberty of the Fleet for those who pay enough; starting in 1613 clandestine Fleet Marriages are performed; it is destroyed during the Gordon Riots of 1780; in 1842 Parliament passes an act requiring inmates of Fleet Prison and Marshalsea Prison to be moved to the Queen's Bench Prison, which is renamed the Queen's Prison; it is closed in 1844, and demolished in 1846. Lambeth Palace in London on the S bank of the Thames River becomes the official residence of the archbishops of Canterbury. Richard I builds romantic Chateau Gaillard on the Seine River near Rouen on a hill overlooking the town of Les Andelys to secure Angevin power in N France - the prototype lover's castle in the south of France? St. Mungo's Cathedral in Glasgow, Scotland is dedicated. Births: French count of Toulouse (1222-49) Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles (d. 1249) in July in Chateau de Beaucaire, Beaucaire, Languedoc; son of Raymond VI and Joan of England. Deaths: Welsh prince Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd (b. 1132) on Apr. 28. French count of Champagne (1181-97) Henry II (b. 1166) on Sept. 10 in Acre (falls from a 1st floor window in his palace). Spanish-born Muslim Sufi scholar Abu Maydan al-Andalusi (b. ?) in N Africa; his tomb becomes a pilgrim attraction.
1198 On Jan. 8 Pope (since 1191) Celestine III (b. 1106) dies, and on Jan. 8 37-y.-o. (young for a pope) Lotario de'Conti is elected Pope (#175) Rocky, er, Innocent III (1160-1216); under him the papacy as an institution reaches its zenith of power, and he is one of the great persecuting popes; in his first year he preaches another crusade to rebuild the old Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem which had been destroyed in 1187 and only imperfectly restored in 1192; in Nov. to quiet the Normans, he issues a bull confirming his 4-y.-o. ward Frederick II as king of the Two Sicilies. After the death of HRE Henry VI a double election ensues, and on Mar. 8 the Ghibellines elect HRE Frederick I Barbarossa's son Philip of Swabia (1177-1208) (bishop of Wurzburg in 1191-2, duke of Tuscany since 1195, duke of Swabia since 1196, and husband since May 1197 of Irene Angelina, daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II) in Muhlhausen, while in Apr. the Guelfs (Guelfphs) (Welfs), led by Adolph de Berg, archbishop of Cologne elect Otto IV of Brunswick (1175-1218), son of Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Matilda (daughter of Henry II of England), who was educated at the court of his uncle Richard I of England; on July 12 Otto is crowned in Aachen, and on Sept. 8 Philip is crowned in Mainz; the rivals then go to war for 10 years while Pope Innocent III, who alone can crown one of them as HRE waits in the wings and plays both ends against the middle; Philip's support comes mainly from S Germany, and he allies with Philip II of France, gaining the upper hand early on, until things reverse by 1200. On Apr. 6 Friedrich I (b. 1175) dies while returning from the Holy Land, and his younger brother Leopold VI (the Glorious) (1176-1230)) becomes Babenberg duke of Austria, followed in 1194 by duke of Styria (until 1230); he goes on to introduce Gothic architecture into his realm, while his court becomes a center for Minnesingers; the Nibelungenlied are written in his court? On Aug. 24 William I of Scotland finally has a son and heir, Alexander II (d. 1249). On Sept. 27 after both sides pillage each other's territory and commit atrocities such as blinding the local pop., Richard I defeats Philip II Augustus and his 300 knights at the Battle of Gisors in Normandy, after which the Frog knights flee across a bridge that breaks under the weight, causing Philip to have to be pulled out of the water by his men; Richard I takes the motto "Dieu et mon Droit" (God and My Right) as his motto, which is adopted by the British monarchy, meaning that they acknowledge no superior rank but God. Levon I the Great (-1219), an ally of HRE Frederick I Barbarossa becomes king of Lesser Armenia, receiving the royal crown from his son Henry VI. Hubert Walter resigns as English justiciar. John of Ibelin (1179-1236), half-brother of Queen Isabella of Jerusalem is appointed constable of Jerusalem (until 1204). Philip II Augustus, deciding he likes the way they pay taxes on their usury readmits the Jews to France, and heavily regulates and taxes their banking activities; meanwhile new Pope Innocent III excommunicates him for rejecting his lawful wife Ingeburga (Ingebiorga) (Ingeborg) of Denmark in place of Agnes of Meran, daughter of the duke of Meran. 18-y.-o. emperor (since 1183) Go-Toba (b. 1180) is forced to abdicate by Minamoto Yoritomo, and his eldest son Tsuchimikado (1196-1231) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #83 (until 1210). Pozzuoli on the Bay of Naples is ruined by an earthquake. Nonfiction: William of Newburgh writes Historia Rerum Anglicarum (History of the Kings of England) - the victors write the history books? Births: Scottish Canmore king (1214-49) Alexander II (d. 1249) on Aug. 24 in Haddington, East Lothian; son of William I (1142-1214) and Ermengarde de Beaumont (1170-1234). Japanese Yamato emperor #84 (1210-21) Juntoku (Morinari) (d. 1242) on Oct. 22; 3rd son of Go-Toba (1180-1239). Spanish Jewish philosopher-rabbi Nachmanides (Heb. "Son of Nahum) (Moses ben Nishmon) (d. 1270) (AKA Rambam) in Barcelona. Deaths: Irish last high king Rory O'Connor (b. 1116); dies in retirement in a monastery. Spanish Muslim brain man Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (b. 1126) on Dec. 10 in Marrakesh; first to explain the function of the retina, and to recognize acquired immunity with smallpox; leaves Commentaries on Aristotle, which are trans. into Hebrew then Latin, spawning the rationalist School of Padua, and heretic Siger de Brabant, causing St. Thomas Aquinas to take them on, Encyclopedia of Medicine (Kitab al-Kuyat fi al-Tibb) (1161), which becomes a hit in the West, and Tuhafut al-Tuhafut (Destruction of the Destruction), a reply to al-Ghazili, saying that deep study of philosophy will lead one out of atheism, albeit after giving up the dogmas of literal religion, so that the rulers should protect them while they combat the bad philosophers, and that in the meantime the uneducated masses should be allowed to have literal religion, and that philosophers, who should only accept it symbolically shouldn't criticize it as long as they in turn are not harassed. French Crusader Humphrey IV of Toron (b. 1166).
1199 On Jan. 13 Pope Innocent III imposes a 5-year truce on Richard I of England and Philip II Augustus of France, but on Apr. 6 after Viscount Adhemar of Loges discovers a cache of ancient Roman gold on his land, and he refuses an offer of a share and demands it all, coming to take it by force, Richard I Lionheart (b. 1157) dies of gangrene in the arms of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine while sieging the castle of Chalus-Chabrol after inviting the boy crossbowman on the castle wall to shoot at him because he was amused by his clutching a frying pan as a shield, getting an arrow in the left shoulder near the neck, after which butcher surgeon Hoveden mangles his arm, and he contracts gangrene, his dying wish being that the crossbowman (who told him that his men had killed his father and two brothers) be spared and granted 100 shillings,, but instead his mercenary capt. Mercadier (-1200) has him flayed alive and impaled; "The Lion was slain by an Ant" - eh, what was that you said, kingey, I'm kinda murky today? On Feb. 13 after helping his son St. Sava (1174-1236) rebuild the ruined Orthodox Hilandar Monastery on Mt. Athos, making it the center of Serbian spiritual culture, Stefan I Nemanja (b. 1109) dies in front of his son and the icon of the Virgin Hodegetria (3-handed virgin), his last words being to take his remains back to Serbia. I got supernatural expectancy, God's dope is living inside me? In Feb. Pope Innocent III gives the new military Order of Teutonic Knights (an ethnic spinoff from the Order of Hospitalers formed during the Siege of Acre) official recognition, followed on Apr. 23 by the Hospitaler Order of the Holy Ghost, followed on Dec. 7 by the Order of Trinitarians (devoted to rescuing Catholic captives). On May 27 after securing the adherence of the Norman barons, and swearing a coronation oath at the insistence of Archbishop Hubert Walter that his throne is held by the election of the nation (nobles and prelates) and the grace of God (which he doesn't believe in?), cruel cunning tyrant and cruddy soldier (see any Robin Hood movie?) John Lackland (Softsword) (1167-1216), youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine is crowned the 27th monarch of England in Westminster (until Oct. 19, 1216), usurping the right of his 12-y.-o. nephew (son of his elder brother Geoffrey) and designated heir Arthur I of Brittany (1187-1203); Philip II Augustus of France steps in and defends the claims of Arthur and Hugh de Lusignan, thinking he can use Arthur to grab John's territory in France, capturing Evreux again; Arthur declares himself Philip's vassal; after news of his bro's death, Lucky John I gets his marriage to Isabel of Gloucester annulled on grounds of consanguinity, then dispatches an embassy to negotiate for the hand of a Portuguese princess, but soon becomes enamored of foxy young Isabella of Angouleme (1187-1246), "the Helen of the Middle Ages", daughter of one of his vassals in Poitou, betrothed to Hugh IX the Brown of Lusignan, Count of La Marche (1163-1219), his Poitevin vassal; John betrothes Isabella, "the queen without a conscience" with the consent of her father but without Hugh's consent, pissing off the nobility of both nations, and Hugh appeals to Philip II; John goes on to marry Isabella on Aug. 24, 1200; Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury and justiciar (since 1194) accepts the office of chancellor, and with William Marshall aids justiciar Geoffrey Fitz Peter in putting down the usual revolts, beginning to rely on the middle class in town and shire, granting charters to towns, giving London the right to elect a mayor, calling on the knights of the shire to assume county business as a balance to the sheriffs, and recruiting knights (elected by the gentry) to serve as coroners and choose juries; William I the Cowardly Lion of Scotland forms an army and is about to demand concessions from the new king when he loses the nerve and disbands it. Come to pop? On Aug. 15 at the behest of HRE Henry VI, Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fourth Crusade to European monarchs in an obvious attempt to override royal and lay control, and steer the effort towards the other white meat heretic Orthodox Byzantines; the pope for the first time compels his clerical subjects to pay a tax based on their annual incomes in order to pay for the Crusade, and after enthusiasm proves lacking, on Nov. 28 Count Theobald III of Champagne (1179-1201) holds a tournament in his castle in Ecry-sur-Aisne, where preacher Fulk of Neuilly (-1201) persuades Geoffrey de Villehardouin (1160-1212) to sign up, being named one of the ambassadors to Venice to procure ships for the voyage; Theobald III is elected the leader of the Fourth Crusade. On Dec. 12 Pope Innocent III lays the whole of France under interdict, and public opinion forces Philip II to a reconciliation, although he refuses the pope's offer of mediation with King John, who continues Richard I's conquest of the Angevin lands of N France. The Declaration of Speyer confirms the right of German princes to elect a king. Hubert de Burgh (1165-1243) becomes chamberlain to John I (until 1216), beginning a long rise (and fall) in England. Albert of Livonia (Riga) (1165-1229) is proclaimed bishop #3 of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede (-1207), prince-archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, and arrives next year with 23 ships carrying 500 Westphalian Crusaders; in 1201 he transfers the seat of the bishopric from Ikskile to the new town of Riga, and builds a cathedral in 1221. Galicia in Austria SW of Russia reaches its zenith under Prince Roman of Volhynia (-1205). Habsburg (Hapsburg) count Albert the Rich (b. ?), great-grandson of Werner I (d. 1096) dies after having greatly increased the family estates in Alsace with domains in Switzerland, and his son Rudolph the Old (-1232) continues with his daddy's program by acquiring the countships of Laufenburg and Aargau. Al-Mansur dies, and his son Muhammad al-Nasir (-1213) becomes Almohad caliph #4 (until 1213), going on to fight the rebel Banu Ghaniya in Tunisia, and appoint Abu Muhammad ben Abi Hafs as gov. of Ifriqiya (N Africa), who later founds the Hafsid Dynasty. Bengal is conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni, who imports a Muslim elite of Persianized Turks to run the Hindu-Buddhist pop.; after they attack Buddhist monasteries, a mass exodus of Buddhists into SE Asia begins. Queen Berengaria, who was left by her hubby Richard I to find her way back from the Holy Land and arrives after his death sues the Church to be recognized as his widow; what she didn't know is that Richard I had abandoned her, and had been ordered to be faithful to her with the admonition "remember the destruction of Sodom and abstain from illicit acts", causing speculation that he is gay, possibly hooking up with Berengaria's brother Sancho VII? Architecture: Siena Cathedral in Italy is begun. The 238-ft.-high brick Qutub (Qutb) Minar Minaret in S Delhi, India next to the Quwwat-al-Islam Mosque begins construction, becoming the tallest brick minaret on Earth. Births: Spanish king of Castile and Toledo (1217-52) and king of Leon (1230-52) Ferdinand III (the Saint) (d. 1252) on July 30 (Aug. 5?) (summer 1201?) in the Monastery of Valparaiso, Peleas de Arriba, Leon; son of Alfonso IX of Leon and Berengaria of Castile (1179-1246) (daughter of Alfonso III, and sister of Blanche, mother of Louis IX of France); born near Salamanca; Pope Innocent III divorces his parents in 1204; feast day: May 30. Indian Vaisnava religious leader Madhva Acarya (d. 1278) in Velali. Deaths: Serbian grand prince (1166-99) St. Stefan I Nemanja (b. 1109) on Feb. 13 on Mt. Athos; canonized in 1200 as St. Simeon the Myrrh-Flowing (Elaiovyrtis) after holy oil allegedly seeps from his tomb and his body continues to "give off a sweet smell like violets"; his body is brought by his son St. Sava back to Rascia (Serbia) in 1206 like he requested. Japanese shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo (b. 1147) on Feb. 9. English king (1189-99) Richard I Lionheart (b. 1157) on Apr. 6 in Chalus, Chabrol, France (gangrene from an arbalest arrow); his brain is buried in Charroux Abbey in Poitou, his heart in Rouen, and his body in Fontrevaud Abbey in Anjou at his father's feet; the bishop of Richester later claims that he spent 33 years in purgatory before ascending to heaven in Mar. 1232; in 1838 his heart is rediscovered; in 2013 his heart is scientifically proved to have been embalmed with myrtle, mint, creosote, frankincense, lime et al. Spanish Almohad ruler #3 (1184-99) Yaqub al-Mansur (b. 1160) on Jan. 23 in Marrakesh, Morroco.