|England||Henry III (1207-72)||1216||Nov. 16, 1272|
|Scotland||Alexander II (1198-1249)||1214||July 8, 1249|
|France||Louis IX the Saint (1214-70)||1226||Aug. 25, 1270|
|Germany||HRE Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1194-1250)||1212||Dec. 13, 1250|
|Papacy||Gregory IX (1145-1241)||1227||1241|
1240 On Apr. 11 Llywelyn the Great (b. 1173) dies after suffering a paralytic stroke in 1237, and by his will his legitimate son (by Princess Joan) Dafydd ap Llywelyn (1212-46) becomes the first to claim the title of prince of Wales (until Feb. 25, 1246), pissing off his half-brother Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr (1200-44), who vies for the throne, causing Dafydd to hold him in prison (until 1241); meanwhile Henry III accepts his claim to rule Gwynedd, but decides to reclaim his daddy's conquests outside it. On Apr. 15 after coming of age and pawning Christ's alleged Crown of Thorns to a Venetian merchant for 13,134 gold pieces in 1237, Constantinople-born Baldwin of Courtenay returns and becomes Baldwin II (1217-73), the last Latin king of Constantinople (until July 24/25, 1261), spending most of his reign traveling to Italy and France scratching for money. They may all be blonde, but some swing east and some swing west? On July 15 after a Swedish army under Jarl Magnusson (Birger Jarl) (1210-66) lands at the confluence of the Izhora and Neva Rivers at the request of Pope Gregory IX to punish the Eastern Orthodox Russians for helping the Finns avoid conversion to Roman Catholicism, 19-y.-o. grand prince (since 1236) (St.) Alexander Nevsky (Nevski) (1220-63) of Novgorod surprise-attacks and defeats their larger army at the Battle of the Neva River (near modern-day St. Petersburg); Alexander gains the name Nevsky (of the Neva) and Khrabry (valiant); too bad, this makes the boyars jealous and he soon has to leave Novgorod. They may all be swarthy, but some swing north and some swing south? On Dec. 6 after a 2-week siege the Mongols under Golden Horde leader Batu Khan (-1255) (grandson of Genghis Khan) capture and raze Kiev, "mother of Russian cities", and slaughter its pop., permitting Muscovite Russia to emerge as dominant while clearing the Mongol path W to Europe; the Kievan Era of Russian history ends - and Russian babies start developing those Mongolian features? On Dec. 26 Siena U. in Siena, Tuscany, Italy is founded. Richard of Cornwall and Simon de Montfort go on a crusade to Jaffa. Al-Malik al-Salih (Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub) (1205-49) becomes sultan of the Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt and Syria (until 1249). The Seljuks of Rum suppress a revolt in C Anatolia led by messianic Dervish prophet Baba Ishak (Babai Ishaq) (-1241), hanging him next year and scattering his followers to the West, where they work to spread his syncretic beliefs. The border between England and Scotland is fixed - och aye? The House of Wittelsbach (founded 1119) acquires the county of Bogen, and along with it the blue-white lozenge flag to add to their Palatinate lions in the Wittelsbach Coat of Arms. Henry III quarrels with Simon de Montfort and his wife Eleanor, causing them to leave for the continent. Polotsk in Belarus becomes a vassal of Lithuania. Roger Bacon returns to England from Paris. The Disputation of Paris in the court of French king St. Louis IX sees Franciscan Karaite Jewish convert Nicholas (Nicolas) Donin, who translated the Talmud and pressed 35 charges against it incl. a passage where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell and boiled in shit for eternity, take on four rabbits, er, rabbis, incl. Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris (-1268), Moses of Coucy, Judah of Melun, and Samuel ben Solomon of Chateau-Thierry, accusing the Talmud of containing blasphemies against Jesus Christ, God, and the Christian religion, and obscenities, and wishing to make them chuck it so they will return to the pure Judaism of the Old Testament and become ripe for Christianity; too bad, Jew-hating Louis IX declares Donin the winner, and after a commission of Christian theologians passes judgment, 24 carriage loads of Jewish mss. incl. 10K-12K Talmuds are publicly burned in Paris in Louis IX's presence on June 17, 1244, with Louis IX uttering the soundbyte that the only way to debate with a Hell-bound Jew is to kill him "with a good thrust in the belly as far as the sword will go" - "once they start burning books it won't be long before they start burning people"? (Henrich Heine) The Carmelites on Mount Carmel (founded 1156) are forced out by the Muslims, settling in Cyprus, Messina, Provence, and England, where they become known as White Friars; in 1245 Pope Innocent IV sanctions a change from hermit to community life as a mendicant order. By this year the intelligentsia of Italy adopt Averroism, the doctrine that Natural Law rules the world without interference by God, that the world is coeternal with God, that there is one immortal soul AKA the active intellect of the cosmos, of which the individual soul is a transitory form, and that heaven and hell are fables invented to cow the people into morality; to fool the Inquisition they profess to believe the Bible and the Christian faith at the same time. Art: Mou Yi (1178-1243), Pounding Cloth; based on the poem "Pounding Cloth" by Xie Huilian (397-433). Nonfiction: Jabir ibn Aflah, Correction of the Almagest (Islah al-Majisti); uses the Giralda Observatory in Seville. Bartholomew of England (1202-72), On the Properties of Things (De Proprietatibus Rerum) (19 vols.); forerunner of the encyclopedia, incl. a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders can have a physical or psychological cause. Matthew Paris (1200-59), Chronica Majora (1240-53); history of the world from Creation to 1253, based on Roger of Wendover's "Flores Historiarum"; he abridges the years 1067-1253 as Historia Minor (Abbreviatio chronicorum), the years 1070-1253 as Historia Anglorum, and the years 1241-9 as Flores Historiarum; the years 1254-9 are later added. Births: Swedish king (1275-90) Magnus III (d. 1290); father of Birger (1280-1321). Spanish Jewish mystic Qabbalistic scholar-numerologist Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (d. 1292) in Saragossa; the classic wandering Jew? Italian Florentine painter Giovanni Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo) (d. 1302) (pr. chee-mah-BOO-eh) in Florence. Spanish "Sefer ha-Zohar" Jewish qabbalistic writer rabbi Moses de Leon (Moshe ben Shem-Tov) (d. 1305). Deaths: Spanish-born Islamic Sufi philosopher Ibn al-'Arabi (b. 1165) in Damascus. Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great (b. 1173) on Apr. 11. English archbishop of Canterbury (1233-40) St. Edmund of Abingdon (b. 1175) on Nov. 16 in Soisy-Bouy, Seine-et-Marne, France; dies at the Augstinian Canons House 50 mi. N of the Cistercian Pontigney Abbey after traveling to Rome in Dec. 1237-Aug. 1238 to argue against the exactions of Henry II, paying one-fifth of his revenue to the pope's agents early in the year, setting out for Rome to argue against an order of 300 new English benefices to be assigned to Romans, getting sick, and doubling back; in 1236 St. Edmund Hall AKA The Hall and Teddy Hall is founded at Oxford U., becoming "the oldest academical society for the education of undergraduates in any university", becoming Oxford U.'s last surviving medieval hall.
1241 In Feb. the Mongols cross the frozen rivers into C Europe then split into two armies, N and S; the 8K-20K-man N one under Kaidu and Baidar invades Poland and sacks Cracow on Mar. 18 , then on Apr. 9 defeats a 2K-25K-man German, Polish, and Bohemian army led by Henry the Bearded's son Henry the Pious (-1241), the Polish palatines, and the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Liegnitz (Legnica) (Wahlstatt) in Silesia (SW Poland), after which they fill nine sacks with the right ears of the slain; Henry the Pious is KIA along with most of his knights after the faster Mongol ponies outmaneuver them; the Mongols capture Polish gold miners at the battle and take them back to the Caspian Sea and Siberia; meanwhile the S Mongol army under Batu and Subutai advances through Transylvania, and meets a united European army under Bela IV of Hungary on Apr. 11 at the Battle of the Sajo (Sajó) River (Tisza River) (Mohi) (Muhi); at first Bela IV drives the Mongols out onto the Plains of Muhi (Mohi) on the Theiss River SW of the Sajo River, but the Mongols win a decisive V, driving Bela to the Adriatic, and occupying the Great Hungarian Plain and its fabled alfoeld (perfect grazing grounds) for a year, and destroying 15%-25% of its pop.; in Apr. the N and S armies hook up. and finish pacifying all resistance, and the road to France is now open; the Mongols begin pursuing Bela IV - who starts sweating paprika? On Mar. 28 Valdemark II (b. 1170) dies after completing the Code of Jutland (Codex Holmiensis) (the earliest Danish law code), and his son Eric IV Plovpenning (1216-50) becomes king of Denmark (until Aug. 10, 1250), going on to put high taxes on ploughs, causing the peasants of Scania to rebel, gaining him the name "Plovpenning" (plough tax); meanwhile his brothers Abel of Denmark, duke of Schleswig and Christopher I vie for the throne. Which one of you gentlemen will be first into space? On Mar. 31 HRE Frederick II prevents a meeting of bishops in Rome, and on May 3 at the First Battle of Meloria (2nd in 1284) off Livorno he defeats a Genoese fleet with his Stupor Mundi fleet, capturing a number of French, English, and Spanish prelates summoned by Pope Gregory IX, after which he marches his army to Rome and encamps near the city; Louis IX then talks Freddy II into releasing the hostages while sympathizing with his grievances against the pope, and on Aug. 22 Pope (since 1227) Gregory IX conveniently dies, allowing Roman Sen. Matteo Orsino to attempt to force a quick decision from the 10 cardinals in Rome by locking them in the 1K-y.-o. Roman Septizonium Temple until they make a decision; they take so long that Orsini's guards begin going potty through holes in the roof, all the cardinals get sick, and one English cardinal dies in the heat, and is kept in a wooden coffin in the room with them?; after 2 mo. they elect Godfrey of Sabinia, who becomes Pope (#178) Celestine IV (-1241), but he reigns only 16 (17) days, dying on Nov. 10 from the ordeal; since the cardinals refuse to meet again, the Holy See remains vacant for two years (until June 25, 1243) while HRE Frederick II works to fix the election. In the spring after Novgorod is invaded by the Livonian Knights, Alexander Nevsky is invited to return from exile, and gathers an army which drives them out, after which the latter regroup and bring in their heavy guns for a final conflict. In May the first Frankfurt Pogrom (Judenschlacht) (Ger. "Battle of the Jews") over Jewish-Christian marriages and forced baptism of children of mixed marriages kills 180 Jews and a few Christians; 24 Jews avoid death by accepting baptism; the synagogue is plundered and the Torah scrolls destroyed; HRE Frederick II orders an investigation, and in 1246 his son Conrad IV issues a pardon of the citizens of Frankfurt, concluding that the pogrom happened "from carelessness rather than deliberation". On June 24 John Asen II is killed during the invasion of Batu Khan, and his 7-y.-o. son Kaliman I (1234-46) becomes tsar of Bulgaria just as the Mongols returning from C Europe decide to use his kingdom as ass-wipe? Europe is saved from the Mongols by the bell? In Dec. the Mongols start to attack Italy, then suddenly pack up and return to Karakorum to participate in the election of a new grand khan after news of the death of Grand Khan Ogedei (Ughetai) on Dec. 11 is received; ditto the other Mongols in Hungary and elsewhere. Duke Hugh IV of Burgundy and Richard of Cornwall take Ascalon (Ashkelon) and negotiate a peace with Egypt. Henry III invades Gwynedd and forces Dafydd to give up all his lands outside Gwynedd and surrender his half-brother Gruffydd, whom Henry uses as a poker chip, locking him up in the Tower of London; when Gruffydd's wife Senana pays him 600 marks and hands of her two sons Dafydd Jr. and Rhodri as hostages, Henry reneges and keeps them all as his "guests". Hermann II (b. 1222) dies without reigning (poisoned?), and his brother Henry (Heinrich) Raspe (1204-47) becomes landgrave of Thuringia (until 1247). Thirteenth-century Virgin Lines without Sir Richard Branson? The German cities of Hamburg and Lubeck form the Hanseatic League (Lat. Hansa = "association") (ends 1669) to protect their Baltic trade routes, with Lubeck (Lübeck), introducing ships equipped with the rudder and bowsprit; members incl. the Viking port of Visby (Wisby) on the island of Gotland (Gothland) (?), Bremen (1249), Riga (1282), Kolberg (Colberg) in Pomerania (1284), Elbing (Elblag) in N Poland (30 mi. ESE of Gdansk) (1358), Amsterdam (1369), Duisburg (1407), and Arnhem on the Rhine River (38 mi. ESE of Utrecht) (1443). Art: The Master of Naumburg begins preparing Gothic sculptures in Meissen, Mainz, and Naumburg (ends 1260). Births: Scottish Canmore king (1249-86) Alexander III (d. 1286) on Sept. 4; an only child; son of Alexander II and 2nd wife Mary de Coucy; husband of Margaret (1240-75). Scottish queen Margaret of England (d. 1275) on Sept. 29 in Windsor Castle; 2nd child of Henry III of England and Eleanor; wife (1251-) of Alexander III (1240-86); mother of Princess Margaret (1260-83) (wife of Erik II of Norway), Prince Alexander (1263-83), and Prince David (1272-81). Polish king (1279-88) Leszek the Black (d. 1288). English queen consort (1272-90) and countess of Ponthieu (1279-90) Eleanor of Castile (d. 1290) in Castile; daughter of Fernando III (1199-1252) and 2nd wife Countess Jeanne of Ponthieu (1216-79); wife (1254-90) of Edward I (1239-1307) (2nd cousin once removed through Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine); bears 16 children. Deaths: Muslim Sufi philosopher Ibn Arabi (b. 1165) on Nov. 10 in Damascus; leaves Wisdom of the Prophets (Fusus al-Hikam), Ringstones of Wisdom (Fursus al-Hikam), The Meccan Openings (Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya), and The Interpreter of Yearnings (Tarjuman al-Ashwaq). Danish king (1202-41) Valdemar II (b. 1170) on Mar. 28 in Vordingborg. Icelandic poet-historian Snorri Sturluson (b. 1178) on Sept. 23.
1242 On Feb. 10 11-y.-o. emperor (since 1232) Shijo (d. 1231) dies suddenly of an accident, and on Feb. 21 after 11 days of catfighting his 22-y.-o. 2nd cousin Go-Saga (1220-72) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #88 (until 1246). On Apr. 5 with the pesky Mongols gone and the popeless Roman clergy getting ideas about kicking some heretic Russian Orthodox butt and forcing them to accept the True Faith, the Roman Catholic Church-backed Livonian Knights (Brothers of the Sword) coming from Riga in the SW, led by Magister Hermann (brother of Albert of Buxhoeveden) get a shock at the Battle of Lake Peipus (Battle of the Ice) when Alexander Nevsky's foot soldiers swarm and defeat well-armored knights (a first in Middle Age history, setting the precedent for Russian generals using their troops like cannon fodder against the Germans?), killing only a few before they give up and flee (later inflated into hundreds by Russian chroniclers), checking the E expansion of the hated German Huns and their Roman Catholic priests for the next cent.; portrayed from the Russian side in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 film Alexander Nevsky. At the Mongol kuraltai it is decided that the grazing grounds of Hungary aren't rich enough, so the Kipchaks (Tartars) under Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan move their herds into the steppes of S Russia on the Lower Volga River, where they form the Khanate of the Golden Horde, with capital at Sarai NW of the Caspian Sea, which acts as suzerain of all Russia for the next two cents., while respecting the Russian Church and leaving the princes in control; a rebellion in Chuvashia is bloodily suppressed by 40K Mongol warriors - nobody doesn't like Sarai? The Mongols invade Anatolia (Turkey) (Asia Minor) (ends 1243). Queen Rusudan of Georgia is forced to accept the sovereignty of the Mongol khan and pay an annual tribute of 50K gold pieces plus support them with the Georgian army. After the Bulgars liberate Theodore Dukas Angelus of Epirus, John III Vatatazes of Nicaea hooks up with him and sieges Thessalonica, but fails due to lack of seapower, although he forces the despot John to give up his title of Emperor of the West and recognize his Nicaean suzerainty over the Latin conquests in Asia Minor. Aquitaine submits to Louis IX. The heir to the earldom of Atholl in Scotland dies under suspicious circumstances, causing the nobles to force Alexander II to take action against his family although they had been high in his favor. John of Ibelin captures Tyre from the Hohenstaufens, and strikes a deal with the king of Jerusalem to become count of Jaffa and Ascalon and lord of Ramla, ending the Ibelin War with pesky HRE Frederick II (begun 1229). For helping him in his struggle with the pope, HRE Frederick II gives Thuringia and the Palatinate of Saxony to Henry III (the Illustrious) of Meissen (1215-88), and betrothes his daughter Margaret of Sicily (b. 1241) to Henry's son Albert III the Degenerate (b. 1240). HRE Frederick II selects Henry Raspe and Wenceslaus I of Bohemia as administrators for his underage son Conrad IV. The Assize of Arms made by King Henry III requires all Englishmen with an income of Ł25 a year to own a longbow; churches are required to maintain butts for target practice. The Inquisition in Paris burns the works of Jewish brain man Maimonides; 40 days later at the instigation of Jew-hating French king Louis IX, the Paris Inquisition condemns the Jewish Talmud as a vicious attack on the person of Christ, and burns thousands of copies in his presence, with Louis IX uttering the soundbyte that the only way to debate with a Hell-bound Jew is to kill him "with a good thrust in the belly as far as the sword will go"; "Once they start burning books it won't be long before they start burning people." (Henrich Heine) Al-Mustansir dies, and Al-Mustasim Billah (1213-58) succeeds him, becoming the last Abbassid caliph of Baghdad - it musta seem what? The Este Family begins ruling Ferrara, capital of Padua in Italy as vicars of the pope. Bela IV of Hungary permits 40K Cuman families driven W by the Mongol invasions to settle in the Theiss (Tisza) region as a bulwark against his rival Stephen d'Este; he also allows the nobles to build castles, which end up being used against him. The seaport of Kiel in Schleswig-Holstein in N West Germany (modern pop. 300K) is established. Zagreb in Croatia on the Sava River 230 mi. W of Belgrade becomes a free royal city. The Mongol invasion of Poland guts it so bad that large numbers of German settlers are called in, colonizing new areas in Silesia and Posen (Poznan); meanwhile the principalities of Galicia and Volynia in W Russia begin to come under Lithuanian suzerainty, evolving into the Ukrainian and Belorussian peoples. The first English arrive in Drunholm, Ireland and settle with the O'Connors from Munster to help them fight the chieftains of Donegal. The first record of a ship convoy. Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #84 (1210-21) Juntoku (b. 1197) on Oct. 7. Japanese Yamato emperor #87 (1232-42) Shijo (b. 1231) on Feb. 10.
1243 In May 10K Roman Catholic troops of the seneschal of Carcassone and the archbishop of Narbonne surround and siege the impregnable Cathar fortress of Montsegur (Montségur) (W of Rennes-le-Chateau in Languedoc) (until Mar. 16, 1244); since the fabulously wealthy Cathar parfaits (priests) are not permitted to bear arms, the fortress is defended by mercenaries. On June 25 Sinbaldo de' Fieschi, Genoan Count of Lavagna is elected Pope (#179) Innocent IV (-1254); Theodoric Borgognoni of Lucca (1205-98), student of Hugh of Lucca becomes his surgeon, breaking with Galen and his love of pus and cleaning and suturing wounds, soaking bandages with wine to disinfect them, and using opium, hemlock, mandrake, and other anesthetics in surgery, leaving Chirurgia (4 vols.); "For it is not necessary that bloody matter (pus) be generated in wounds - for there can be no error greater than this, and nothing else which impedes nature so much, and prolongs the sickness." On June 26 the Mongols defeat the Seljuk Muslim Sultanate of Rum (founded 1077) at the Battle of Kose Dagh (Kosedag) in NE Anatolia, taking Sivas and Kayseri, then reaching Ancyra (Ankara) and turning them into vassals; John III Vatatzes of Nicaea establishes friendly relations with the Mongols and gains much of their territory in C Anatolia; the sultanate begins to disintegrate, becoming kaput in 1307. A 5-year English-French Truce is signed. The Crusaders led by Richard of Cornwall retake Jerusalem for one year. Boleslaw V the Bashful (Chaste) (1226-79) defeats Conrad of Mazovia and takes the throne of Cracow, which was destroyed in 1241 and is now trying to import German immigrants. Taking advantage of the death of his brother's father-in-law John Asen II, Stefan Uros I (the Great) (1223-77) overthrows his brother Stefan Vladislav I, and becomes king of Serbia (until 1276), allowing his deposed brother to rule Zeta (Zenta) (Montenegro) (around the Zeta River), then marries a daughter of deposed Latin emperor Baldwin II and establishes an alliance with Charles of Anjou, going on to introduce Saxon miners from Hungary to develop the silver mines at Brskovo and Rudnik, with their right to Roman Catholic worship guaranteed, and mints large numbers of Venetian-style coins, increasing trade with the Dalmatian cities of Dubrovnik and Kotor - that's right, just 6.99 for six drumsticks and thighs? Toulouse submits to Louis IX. The entire Jewish pop. of Klein Belitz, Germany (near Berlin) is burned alive after some are accused of defiling a consecrated host. Mongol chief Batu Khan summons grand prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir to his capital Sarai, and after a lengthy conference Vladimir returns with honors. Births: Spanish king of Majorca (1276-1311) James II (d. 1311) on May 31; 2nd son of James I of Aragon (1208-76); brother of Peter III of Aragon (1239-85). Japanese Yamato emperor #89 (1246-60) Go-Fukakusa (d. 1304) on June 28; 2nd son of Go-Saga (1220-72). English soldier (redhead) ("the Red Earl") Sir Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (d. 1295) on Sept. 2 in Hampshire; son of Richard de Clare (1222-62) and Maude de Lacy (1222-88); husband (1290-) of Joan of Acre (1272-1307), daughter of Edward I and Leonore of Castile; father of Gilbert de Clare (1291-1314), last of the 1066 Norman Invasion de Clare male line. Deaths: English chief justiciar Hubert de Burgh (b. 1165) on May 12 in Banstead, Surrey.
1244 The French Masada? In Jan. two Cathar parfaits escape the encirclement carrying the fabled Cathar treasure, which is not heard of again (until ?); on Mar. 1 impregnable Montsegur Castle in France on the slopes of the Pyrenees overlooking the Plain of Languedoc is captured after a 10-mo. siege, and the occupants are offered lenient terms incl. departing with their personal property intact if they abjure the Cathar faith, and the 400 defenders request a 2-week truce to consider it, offering hostages as insurance; on Mar. 15 one day after their sacred festival of Bema (which falls on the spring equinox this year) all 215 Cathar parfaits (incl. 20 - 15 mercenaries and six women, who become parfaits at the last minute) refuse to abjure their faith, and are burned in an enormous fire at the Prat des Cramats near the S foot of the castle in a wood-filled stockade, with the rest forced to watch; on Mar. 16 (night) four parfaits concealed by the others escape down the W face of the mountain on ropes, carrying away some other Cathar treasure that was needed for Bema, taking it to the fortified caves of Ornolac in the Ariege, where a band of Cathars is soon killed sans the treasure, which went to Rennes-le-Chateau?; Catharism is driven underground; it later resurfaces as the Waldensians, Hussites, Adamites (Brethren of the Free Spirit), Anabaptists, and Camisards? On Mar. 1 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr (b. 1200) dies trying to escape from the S side of the White Tower of London, lowering himself by a cloth rope which breaks because he is so fat, causing him to fall 90 ft.; he leaves four sons, Owain, Llywelyn, Dafydd, and Rhodri; meanwhile Dafydd, whose hands are freed enters into an alliance with other Welsh princes to reclaim English possessions in Wales, and scores some Vs. On Mar. 1 the Order of St. Augustine is founded, going on to spread the veneration of the Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Good Counsel (Mater Boni Consilii). On Mar. 26 the Treaty of Almizra between James I the Conqueror of Aragon and his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile defines their mutual zones of expansion into miserable crumbling Muslim Andalusia, defining the borders of the new Christian Kingdom of Valencia, and reserving all lands S of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot to Castile. On July 1 Austrian Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome issues the Charter of the Jews of the Duchy of Austria, granting the Jews freedom from interference and protection from kidnapping of their children. In July Jerusalem is surprise-attacked by wild Khwarismian (Khwarazmian) Turk mercenaries (freebooters and unemployed soldiers left over from the 1220 Mongol invasion) in the employ of Egyptian pasha Khwarazmi after he discovers the Christians intriguing against him; the garrison flees to the Tower of David and holds out for nearly six weeks, surrendering on Aug. 23; Jerusalem remains under Egyptian control until 1517, and under Muslim control until 1917 when British Gen. Allenby captures it. On Oct. 17-18 a major Latin army (allied with local Ayyubid princes) is destroyed by the Egyptians and their allies near Gaza in the Battle of La Forbie; the three Christian military orders have their butts kicked bigtime by the Allah Akbars, and 312 of the 348 Knights Templar are KIA, incl. grandmaster Armand de Perigord (Hermann de Pierre-Grosse) (b. 1178); Louis IX the Saint of France becomes a Knight Templar, gets sick, and swears that if he recovers he will start the Seventh Crusade to stop the Egyptian attacks; he does, so guess what, he does the saintly thing and takes up the Cross; meanwhile the reaction among Christians is to revert to Millennium Fever, taking to the soapbox to whip the masses up to go on YAC (yet another crusade) - maybe Jeezy just doesn't care about the *!?*! place, no matter how much the tourist companies are hurting? On Dec. 5 Margaret of Constantinople (1202-80) inherits Flanders and Hainaut, and designates her eldest son by her 2d husband William III of Dampierre (1224-51), William of Flanders (-1251) as her heir, launching the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault (ends 1246) between him and her other son (half-brother) John I of Avesnes (1218-57). Pope Innocent IV flees Italy for Lyons for the next six years. German Hohenstaufen HRE (1212-50) Frederick II (1194-1250) caps the interest rates that Jewish moneylenders can charge to 173.5%; in England the standard rate is 2 pence per pound per week (43-1/3%), and 15-25% in Italy. John, son of Theodore Dukas Angelus dies, and Demetrius Angelus becomes despot of Thessaly (until 1246). Alexander II makes an offer to buy the Hebrides from Hakon IV of Norway, who rejects it, causing Alexander to begin plotting to bring down the MacDougall clan of Lorn, who are vassals of both kings and whom he suspects of also being in cahoots with Henry III. The Seljuk sultanate of Rum (Roum) (founded 1075) becomes a Mongol protectorate (vassal state) after reaching its zenith in the period from 1200, causing it to fragment into a host of Muslim Byzantine-hating Turkoman principalities fed by Muslims fleeing the Mongols. After being expelled from SE of Morocco by the Hilali tribe, the Zenata Berber Marinid (Beni Marin) Dynasty in Morocco is founded (by Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq (-1258) (ends 1465), taking Fez in 1248 and making it their capital; the Marinid Emblem is two squares rotated at 45 deg. angles. Fujiwara Kujo Yoritsugu (1239-56), son of 4th shogun Yoritsune becomes Kamakura shogun of Japan #5 (until 1252). The French Roman Catholic Diocese of Grasse is formed from the old 4th cent. French diocese of Antibes (until 1801) - ass is grasse jokes here? Thomas Aquinas (b. 1225) joins the Dominican Order before graduating from the U. of Naples, causing his parents to have two of his brothers kidnap and lock him up in the family castle of Roccasecca for almost two years in a vain attempt to make him resign, finally releasing him in 1245 after putting a pretty young woman in his chamber and he uses a flaming brand from the hearth to chase her out then burns the sign of the cross into the door, allowing him to go to Paris to serve his novitiate - intellectual scholars employ techniques unknown to the Yahoos in the real world? The first Dunmow Flitch competition is held in England, where a flitch or side of bacon is awarded to married couples who satisfy a judge and jury of six maidens and six bachelors that "in twelvemonth and a day" they have "not wished themselves unmarried again". In Paris two dozen cartloads of the Jewish Talmud are publicly burned. Births: French king of Navarre, and count of Campagne and Brie (1270-4) Henry I the Fat (d. 1274); AKA Count Henry III of Champagne and Brie; youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre (1201-52) and Margaret of Bourbon; husband (1269-) of Blanche of Artois (1248-1302) (niece of Louis IX); father of Theobald (-1273) and Jeanne I of Navarre (1271-1305). French last Knights Templar grandmaster (1297-1314) Jacques de Molay (d. 1314) in Burgundy; enters the Order of Templars in 1265. German Strasbourg Cathedral architect Erwin von Steinbach (d. 1318) in Steinbach (near Baden-Baden).
1245 On Jan. 11 Afonso III takes over as regent for addlepated Sancho II of Portugal. In Apr. fat Nestorian monk John of Piano (Giovanni da Piano) Carpini (1180-1252) and another monk are sent by Pope Innocent IV on a 15-mo. journey to the Mongol court in Karakorum, almost starving because they don't eat meat and the nomads eat nothing else; Giovanni later pub. an account of his journey that becomes a classic of geography. On June 24 the dispute between Pope Innocent IV and HRE Frederick II reaches a head when the pope calls the First Ecumenical Council of Lyons (Lyon); on July 17 the emperor is deposed, and the pope proclaims that no Hohenstaufen will ever again be emperor, Holy Roman or otherwise, causing Henry Raspe to switch sides to the pope; the Church takeover of the state that started with Constantine I the Great is now complete, with the bride of the church-state marriage becoming the head of the house and making and unmaking monarchs at her pleasure? After Pope Innocent IV excommunicates HRE Frederick II, the men of Schwyz burn the new Hapsburg Castle of New Habsburg (Neuhabsburg), which had been set up by the Habsburg family (from the Aar valley) to awe them (its ruins remain to modern times?); the peasant farmers of the Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden valleys around Lake Lucerene begin to form an independent Swiss Confederation. Alexander Nevsky defeats the Lithuanians, and now that there's a sword at their necks they begin to see the Christian light and take that *!*?! bath? A Muslim revolt begins in Valencia (ends 1258). Georgian queen (since 1223) Rusudan (b. 1194) dies, and her son David VI Narin (Junior) (the Clever) (1225-93) becomes king of Georgia (until 1259); too bad, mommy had sent him to the Mongol court to get official recognition as heir apparent, and when she dies the nobles believe he's dead, so they proclaim his cousin David VII Ulu (Senior) (1215-70) (whom she kept as a prisoner at the court of her son-in-law sultan Kaykhrusaw II) as king, and when D6 returns they rule jointly until 1259, when D6 tries to revolt from the Mongol yoke and ends up fleeing to Kutaisi, setting up his own Kingdom of Imereti in W Georgia, while D7 rules E Georgia from Tbilisi. Budweis in S Bavaria is founded by Ottokar II, launching its famous breweries. Architecture: Lavish but perpetually financially-strapped Henry III orders Westminster Abbey rebuilt in the French Gothic style; the choir and cloisters are begun (ends 1270); at the same time the great council begins making protests to Pope Innocent IV over his taxation of English clergy for his temporal ambitions, causing the king to vacillate in support and finally whimp-out at angering him? Nonfiction: The Laxdaela Saga is written in Icelandic, probably by a woman. Births: English prince Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (d. 1296) on Jan. 16 in London; 2nd son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence; younger brother of Edward I. French Capetian king (1270-85) Philip III (the Bold) (d. 1285) on Apr. 30 in Poissy; son of Louis IX (1214-70) and Margaret of Provence (1221-95); nephew of Charles I of Naples; father (through 1st wife Isabella of Aragon) of Philip IV (1268-1314), Charles of Valois (1270-1325), Louis of Evreux (1276-1319) and Blanche of Austria (1278-1305); father (through his 2nd wife Mary of Brabant) of Marguerite (Margaret) (1282-1317), wife of Edward I of England. French trouvere Rutebeuf (Rustebuef) (d. 1285) in Champagne. Nestorian Christian patriarch (1281-1317) Mar Yaballaha III (Marcos) (Markos) (d. 1317) near Beijing; of Uyghur descent. Italian sculptor Giovanni Pisano (d. 1320) (1250-1315?) in Pisa; son of Nicola Pisano (1220-78). Deaths: Italian cardinal Giovanni Colonna (b. 1170) on Jan. 28. English philosopher-theologian Alexander of Hales (b. 1175). Georgian queen (1223-45) Rusudan (b. 1194). Welsh prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn (b. 1208) on Feb. 25.
1246 On Feb. 25 after Henry III invades Gwynedd and builds a castle in Deganwy, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (b. 1208) dies in the midst of fighting without an heir, and his half-brother Gruffudd's sons Llywelyn the Last ap Gruffydd (1223-82) and Owain Goch the Red ap Gruffydd (-1282) split Wales W of the Conwy River, while Henry III hangs onto the rest, continuing the war (until 1247). On May 6 prince (since 1229) Geoffrey II of Villehardouin (b. 1195) dies, and William of Villehardouin becomes William II (-1278), prince #4 (last) of Achaea (until May 1, 1278). On May 22 after Pope Innocent IV sends a legate to Germany to bring about his election, Henry Raspe is elected anti-king in opposition to Conrad IV (until 1247), becoming known as "the pope's king" (Pfaffenkonig). On June 15 after Austrian duke (since 1230) Frederick II the Quarrelsome (b. 1201), last of the Baabaablacksheep Babenbergs takes advantage of the Mongol invasion to enlarge the vacant dukedom of Styria by seizing the W comitatiof Moson, Sopron, and Vasvar from Hungary, Bela IV of Hungary arrives and kicks his quarrelsome butt at the Battle of the Leitha River (between Ebenfurth and Neufeld?), and he dies childless, ending the House of Babenberg along with Austrian claims to the W counties of Hungary. In Aug. Henry Raspe (b. 1204) defeats Conrad IV in the Battle of Nidda in S Hesse, then dies in the winter in Wartburg Castle near Eisenach in Thuringia. On Sept. 30 grand prince (since 1238) Yaroslav II (b. 1191) dies 1 week after being summoned to Karakorum by Guyuk Khan and getting poisoned by his wife, and his big hero son Alexander Nevsky (1220-63) becomes grand prince of Vladimir (until 1263). John III Vatatzes of Nicaea goes on a 2nd expedition (1242) to the Balkans, and conquers N Macedonia, then finally takes Thessalonica and deposes despot Demetrius Angelus of Thessaly. Sancho II of Portugal is overthrown by his brother Afonso III. Louis IX of France intervenes to settle their succession dispute, and grants Hainaut to John and Flanders to William; too bad, Margaret refused to hand Hainaut over to John, and their feud continues underground. Kaliman I dies, and John Asen II's pre-teen son Michael Asen I (1238-56) becomes tsar of Bulgaria (until 1256). Geoffroy II (b. 1195) dies, and his brother William (Guillaume) II of Villehardouin (-1278) becomes the last Latin prince of well-governed Achaea, going on to conquer the rest of the Peloponnese (Morea) and build the Fortress of Mistra near Sparta. Louis IX intervenes in the War of the Flemish Succession, granting Flanders to Margaret II of Flanders' son William III of Dampiere, and Hainault to John I of Avenes (1218-47), her illegitimate eldest son, but his mother refuses to hand it over. The barons of England, incl. Richard de Clare, 6th earl of Hertford send a letter to Pope Innocent IV complaining of the exactions of the Roman Curia. Emperor (since 1242) Go-Saga resigns, and his 4-y.-o. son Go-Fukakusa (1243-1304) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #89 (until 1259). The Council of Beziers forbids employment of Jewish physicians by Christians. The Spanish island of Mallorca is occupied by the Arabs - we are so bad? The Khwarazmi soldiers holding Jerusalem are defeated and scattered by Ayyubid forces. Arles, former capital of the kingdom of Burgundy (Arles) is incl. in the county of Provence, which splits off and passes to the house of Anjou (until 1481). The Three Legs of Man symbol begins appearing on charter seals of the Isle of Man, which is equidistant from Scotland, England, Wales, and Ireland - that 3rd leg couldn't be what I think it is? Births: Italian Augustinian monk ("Patron of Holy Souls") (vegetarian) (St.) Nicholas of Tolentino (d. 1305) in Pontano, Ancona; feast day: Sept. 10; inventor of St. Nicholas Bread. Italian Roman Catholic Franciscan missionary (in China) John of Montecorvino (d. 1328) in Montecorvino; first Roman Catholic missionary to China. Deaths: English queen consort Isabella of Angouleme (b. 1187) on May 31 in Fontrevault. Russian grand prince Yaroslav II (b. 1191) on Sept. 30. French queen of Cyprus (1210-8) Alice of Champagne (b. 1193). French prince #2 of Achaea (1229-46) Geoffrey II of Villehardouin (b. 1229) in May. Welsh prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn (b. 1212) on Feb. 25 in Abergwyngregyn. Austrian duke (1230-46) Frederick II the Quarrelsome (b. 1211) on June 15 (KIA in the Battle of the Leitha River).
1247 On Feb. 16 Henry Raspe (b. 1204) dies, and the papal party elects Count William II of Holland (1228-56) as HRE in competition with Frederick II (until 1256); Henry III the Illustrious of Meissen begins a war (until 1263) over Thuringia with his cousin Sophie of Thuringia (1224-75), daughter of Raspe's brother Ludwig IV (1200-27) and Elizabeth of Hungary (1207-31), and 2nd wife of Duke Henry II of Brabant (1207-48), who wants it for her son Henry. In Apr. Llywelyn and Owain meet Henry III at Woodstock and sign a peace after giving up much territory in Gwynedd. On Dec. 4 king (since Mar. 6, 1223) Sancho II (b. 1209) is deposed, and flees to Toledo, and his brother Afonso III (the Brave) (1212-79) (regent since 1245) becomes king #5 of Portugal (until Feb. 16, 1279). The Bohemian nobility rises against King Wenceslas I after being pissed-off by his favoritism of Germans (until 1250). The Egyptians under sultan Ayub capture Ascalon and Tiberias from the Knights Hospitaller, leaving Jaffa as the main Crusader base on the coast. The Muslim rebels in Valencia retreat into the the territory controlled by the mudejar (tamed) lord Azraq (who holds eight castles in the Alcala Valley), and continue a successful guerrilla war. The Mongols conquer Korea. Hetum I the Great of Lesser Armenia allies with Mongol ruler Mongke Khan against their common enemy the Mongols. Carcassonne in S France is joined to the French crown. Henry V the Blond (the Great) (1216-81) becomes count of Luxembourg (until 1281). Duchess Sophia (d. 1263), niece of Henry Raspe of Thuringia establishes Hesse in SW Germany as a separate landgraviate. The half-brothers of Henry III visit England, proving very unpopular. Pope Innocent IV issues an epistle repudiating the legend of ritual murders of Christian children by Jews, and calling for Jewish persecution to end, with the soundbyte "Jews, though living under Christian princes, are in worse plight than were their ancestors under the Pharaohs"; too bad, he is widely ignored. Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London is founded as the priory of the new Order of St. Mary of Bethlem by Goffredo de Prefetti of Italy, bishop-elect of Bethlehem to collect alms for the Crusades; it begins to be called a hospital in 1330, and by 1377 (1403?) after the English govt. secularizes it, it begins admitting the insane; by the 14th cent. it becomes known as Bedlam; in 1547 it is acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust. Nonfiction: St. Clare of Assisi (1194-1253) begins work on her autobio. Testament. Inventions: The Chinese first use a circular symbol for zero. Births: Persian Ilkhanid chief minister and physician (Jewish convert to Islam) Rashid al-Din Tabib (Fadhlullah Hamadani) (d. 1318) - good for his health? Dutch count of Hainaut (1280-1304), Holland (1299-1304), and Zeeland John II of Avesnes (d. 1304); eldest son of John I of Avesnes (1218-57) and Adelaide of Holland. Deaths: German landgrave of Thuringia (1241-7) Henry Raspe (b. 1204) on Feb. 16 in Wartburg Castle, Eisenach, Thuringia. English Lord Locksley Robin Hood on Dec. 24 (?).
The Seventh (7th) Crusade
(ends 1254) is led by Louis IX of France, with the aim of freeing Palestine via the capture of Egypt;
after putting his mother Blanche of Castile back in charge of France as regent (until 1252), he winters
in Cyprus to make preparations to invade Egypt.
On Feb. 18 the Lombards defeat HRE Frederick II at the
Battle of Parma.
After a 16-mo. siege King (1217-52)
(St.) Ferdinand III of Castile (1199-1252)
captures Seville from the Moors,
leaving only Granada left in their hands, where the Nasrid Dynasty rules; the Moors use cannon,
becoming the first use of gunpowder in Europe?
The Genoese take Rhodes.
Birger Magnusson (1210-66)
becomes jarl (earl) (PM) (2nd in command to the king) of Sweden (until 1266), going on to put his son
Valdemar on the throne in 1250, found Stockholm in 1255, abolish serfdom, and establish the rule of law
in a country preoccupied with taming Nature, while far-off Iceland becomes the Scandinavian lit. center.
A Christian Nestorian metropolitan is appointed in Khanbalik (Peking).
A papal bull by Pope Innocent IV excoriates Ghibelline leader
Ezzelino III da Romano (1194-1259)
for maiming and torturing hundreds (thousands?) of innocent people, his favorite activity being to
cut out their giblets, er, genitals and try to fill a pit with them.
On Apr. 26 the Gothic style La Sainte-Chappele
in Palais de la Cite, Paris (begun 1239) is consecrated to house Louis IX's Passion relics incl. Christ's Crown of Thorns, becoming the residence
of the French kings until the 14th cent., becoming known for its stained glass collection.
(Dutch "count's hedge") ('s Gravenhage) in the Netherlands is built.
The relics of the Three Magi of the Jesus story are brought to Cologne, causing the Gothic
(with two broad towers and lacy stonework) to be built to house them (finished 1880), becoming the
largest Gothic church in N Europe; Thomas Aquinas follows his Paris teacher, scholastic philosopher
Albertus Magnus (1193-1280)
to Cologne; after his fellow Dominican novices call Aquinas a "dumb ox" for being pudgy and taciturn,
Magnus replies "This ox will one day fill the world with his bellowing."
Granada might be all the Muslims have left in Spain, but that doesn't stop them from beginning construction
of the beautiful 2,500 ft. x 675 ft. Alhambra
(finished 1354) on a hill, surrounded by a 1-mi. circumference red brick wall with 13 square brick towers,
containing the Court of the Lions and the
Hall of the Two Sisters.
Brunetto Latini (1220-94), Tresor;
discusses the "Mariniere" compasses used on Norman ships, a wooden tub
with a cork, magnetized needle and goose quill covered with a birdskin
with a fleur-de-lis design, which becomes a std. feature for compass
French duke of Burgundy (1271-1306)
(d. 1306); 3rd son of Hugh IV (1213-71) and Yolande of Dreux
(1212-48) (daughter of Count Robert III Gasteble of Dreux and
Aenor of Saint-Valery); father of Hugh V (1282-1315), Blanche of
Savoy (1288-1348), Queen Marguerite (1290-1315) (wife of Louis X),
Queen Jeanne (1290-1348) (wife of Philip VI), Eudes IV (1295-1350),
Louis of Thessalonica (1297-1316), Mary of Bar (1298-1336).
Spanish poet Gonzalo de Berceo (b. 1180); leaves 13K religious verses.
Arab scientist Ibn Baitar (b. 1190); leaves
Compendium on Botany and Pharmacology,
listing 1.4K plants, foods, and drugs, incl. 300 new ones,
becoming the std. botanical authority in Europe until the 16th cent.
Portuguese king #4 (1223-47) Sancho II the Pious (b. 1209) on Jan. 4 in Toledo, Spain (exile).
1249 - The Tiny Robe Walk Like An Egyptian Mamluk Year? Egypt gets its second Cleopatra, Scotland gets its last independent king for a long time, and the Ho Ho Hohenstaufen king is canned like a sardine?
1249 Walk like an Egyptian, way-oh-way-oh? Early in the year William II of Achaea captures the fortress of Monemvasia (Malvasia) in the Peloponnesus with the help of his Euboean vassals, then hooks up his 400 knights and 28 ships with Louis IX of France and his poorly organized Seventh Crusaders in Cyprus; in early June they land in Egypt, capture Damietta on June 4-6 (without a blow?), then wait for the Nile to subside before heading for Cairo; on Nov. 23 Sultan (since 1240) As-Salih Ayub (Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub) (1205-49), last Ayyubid ruler of Egypt dies in battle in Mansourah fighting the Crusaders, and his widow (a former Turkish Mamluk slave) Shajar (Shagrat) al-Durr (-1257) ("Tree of Pearls") conceals his death to rule in his name, becoming the first female ruler of Egypt since Cleopatra next May 2 (until Apr. 28, 1257); to save face, the Muslim leaders of Cairo make her marry former slave Aybak (-1257) and pretend that he's the ruler; the Kipchak Turkic Mamluks (Mamelukes) (Arab. "possessed", "owned") (white slave Turks and Mongols who earned the right to own weapons and are used as guards by the kaput Ayyubid sultans) go on to rule Egypt until 1517. On May 26 the Battle of Fossalta, between Guelph Bologna and Ghibelline Modena and Cremona sees Sardinian king Enzio (Enzo) (1220-72), illegitimate son of Hohenstaufen HRE Frederick II captured, after which he is kept POW in Enzio Palace (named after him later) for life; after the murder of Conradin 1268, he becomes the last heir of the Hohenstaufens, causing attempts to rescue him to get more desperate, but, ho ho ho, all in vain, although he does use the time to write some good poems? In the summer Scottish king (since 1214) Alexander II (b. 1198) leads a naval expedition to the Inner Hebrides and anchors off Kerrera Island in Oban Bay in July, preparing to attack the pesky MacDougall clan; too bad, on July 8 the wannabe Scottish Alexander the Great dies suddenly in his tent on Kerrera (which his enemies claim is due to the intervention of St. Columba), and (male primogeniture no longer a problem?) on July 13 his 8-y.-o. son (by 2nd wife Mary de Coucy) Alexander III (1241-86) is crowned Canmore king of Scotland at Scone (until Mar. 19, 1286); a list of possibly real possibly legendary kings of Scotland is recited at the inaguration, which is used by future claimants to the throne; a catfight immediately begins between Alan Durward (Doorward) (Ailean Dorsair), Count of Atholl (-1275), justiciar of Scotia (husband of Alexander III's bastard sister Margaret) and Walter Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, Earl of Monteith (-1258) (son of former justiciar of Scotia William Comyn), the latter preventing the king from being knighted before coronation by the former because that would give him a claim to be regent; a delegation sent to Rome to secure the rights of coronation and unction is rebuffed. On Sept. 27 count (since 1222) Raymond VII dies, and is succeeded by Alfonso (Alphonse) III (1220-71), who becomes the last count of Poitou and Toulouse (until Aug. 21, 1271). Pope Innocent IV preaches a Crusade against Crusade-ditching HRE Frederick II, who holds onto power, disses the papacy openly, and pub. a famous Letter by Frederick II Contra the Catholic Clergy, circulated throughout Europe, denouncing the pride and irreligion of the clergy, and ascribing all the corruptions of the times to their greed; he even proposes to his fellow princes that they confiscate church property for the church's own good, making him one of the few emperors that modern secularists would like to claim, "the first of the moderns" (H.G. Wells) - I want to know more? The Muslims are driven out of Malta. Portuguese king Alfonso II drives the Moors out of Portugal, and finishes finishing conquering the Algarve. The Muslim rebels in Valencia crush a major Christian offensive under King James, and almost capture him. Abu Zakariya dies, and Muhammad I al-Mustansir (1228-77) succeeds him as ruler #2 of the Hafsid Dynasty in Ifriqiya (Tunisia), becoming the first to claim the title of caliph. Wenceslas II grants to Lord Ulrich of Hradec (German Neuhaus), Bohemia the right to take eight Jewish families within his city walls - wrong year? Heinrich I of Liechtenstein obtains Nikolsburg (modern-day Mikulov) in S Moravia. Even the thirteenth century had its missile gap? Roger Bacon argues for a scientific curriculum at Oxford U., causing Univ. College to be founded by a bequest of 310 marks in the will of archdeacon William of Durham (-1249) (who dies in Rouen, Normandy), becoming the earliest college at Oxford established by private benefaction; it starts out with four fellows who are only allowed to study theology, and doesn't accept undergrads until the 16th cent. - everything from ice to steam to Japanese massage? Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #90 (1259-74) Kameyama (Tsunehito) (d. 1305) on July 9; 7th son of Go-Saga (1220-72). Italian nurse (St.) Alda (Aldobrandesca) (d. 1309) in Siena; feast day: Apr. 26. Scottish "Toom Tabard" (Empty Cloak) king (1292-6) John de Balliol (Baliol) (John I Baliol) (d. 1313) in Barnard Castle, Durham County, England; 3rd son of John, 5th baron de Balliol (-1269) (founder of Balliol College, Oxford) and his wife Devorguilla (Devorgilla) (-1290), daughter of Lord Alan of Galloway and Margaret, eldest daughter of earl David of Huntington, younger brother of William I of Scotland; starts out training to be a cleric until his older brothers die, leaving him his father's vast estates, incl. over 30 knights' fiefs in England by 1278, then his mother's lordship of Galloway in SW Scotland (centered on Buittle Castle and Sweetheart Abbey) in 1290; brother of Eleanor, wife of John Comyn of Badenoch; husband (1283) of Isabel de Warenne; father of Edward Balliol (1284-1364) and Henry Balliol (-1332). Dutch count of Nevers (1273–1322) and count of Flanders (1305–1322) ("the Lion of Flanders") Robert III of Flanders (Bethune) (d. 1322); eldest son of Guy of Dampierre (1226-1305) and Mathilda of Bethune (-1263); son-in-law of Charles I of Sicily (1265–1268). Deaths: French count of toulouse (1222-49) Raymond VII of Saint-Gailles (b. 1197) on Sept. 27. Scottish king (1214-49) Alexander II (b. 1198) on July 8 in Kerrera Island; buried at Melrose. Kurdish Ayyubid ruler of Egypt (1240-9) As-Salih Ayyub (b. 1205) on Nov. 22.