John Fitzgerald Kennedy of the U.S. (1917-63) Khrushchev (Shoechev) (K-Shoe) at the U.N., Oct. 12, 1960) 'El Jefe' Fidel Castro Ruz of Cuba (1926-2016) Mao Tse Tung of China (1893-1976) Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union (1906-82) Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam (1890-1969) Che Guevara (1928-67) Malcolm X (1925-65) Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68)

TLW's 1960s Historyscope 1960-1969 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Greensboro Four, 1960 James Meredith (1933-) The Andy Griffith Show, 1960-8 Enovid, 1960 The Beatles, 1961 'West Side Story', 1961 'Dr. No' starring Sean Connery (1930-), 1962 Taco Bell, 1962- K-Mart, 1962-

JFK Assassination, Nov. 22, 1963 Lee Harvey Oswald (1939-63) Mug Shot LBJ's Air Force One Inauguration, Nov. 22, 1963 Thurgood Marshall of the U.S. (1908-93) Elvis and Priscilla Presley, May 1, 1967 Twiggy (1949-) Bob Dylan (1941-) Allen Ginsberg (1926-97) Andy Warhol (1928-87)

The Beach Boys The Beatles, 1964 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band' by the Beatles, 1967 Donovan (1946-) The Byrds Jefferson Airplane Jimi Hendrix (1942-70) Janis Joplin (1943-70) Johnny Cash (1932-2003) and June Carter Cash (1929-2003)

Sonny Bono (1935-98) and Cher (1946-) Dr. Christiaan Barnard (1922-2001) Betty Friedan (1921-2006) Ralph Nader (1934-) Bigfoot, 1965 Dave Draper (1942-) Time Mag., Apr. 8, 1966 'Rosemary's Baby' starring Mia Farrow, 1968 Star Trek, 1966-9

Indira Gandhi of India (1917-84) Yasser Arafat of Palestine (1929-2004) Moshe Dayan of Israel (1915-81) Golda Meir of Israel (1898-1978) Execution of Viet Cong by Saigon police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Feb. 1, 1968 My Lai Massacre, Mar. 16, 1968 Robert F. Kennedy Assassination, June 5, 1968 Czech Invasion, Aug. 11, 1968 The Chicago Seven, 1969

Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-94) and Spiro Theodore Agnew (1918-96) of the U.S. The Smothers Brothers Charles Manson (1934-2017) R. Crumb (1943-) Timothy Leary (1920-96) Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) (1942-2016) Willie Mays (1931-) Mario Andretti (1940-) Joe Namath (1943-) 'What have you been up to, Mr. Moneybags?'

Hair Musical, 1967 'The Graduate', 1967 'Guess Whos Coming to Dinner?' starring Sidney Poitier and Katharine Houghton, 1967 CDC 7600, 1969 Apollo 11 Moon Landing, July 20, 1969 'Abbey Road', 1969 'Easy Rider, 1969 'Let It Bleed' by the Rolling Stones, 1969

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

The 1960s (1960-1969 C.E.)

The Six Six Sixties, the Most Interesting Decade of the Twentieth Century, Does It Bring a Flood of Memories To Ya Sixtiesmaniacs? If you can remember the Sixties you really weren't there? The Bond, Beatles, and Batman, Shoot for the Moon, Hurt in Protest, Wrap a White Belt Around It and Call in the Strong Arm, or, This is How a Heart Breaks, Ruby, or, Watch Out, Boy, I'm Comin' to Get Ya, or, I'm Going Base Jumpin', or, You White Master Racers Blew It Decade at first, turning into the Groovy Psychedelic Hippies Never Trust Anybody Over Thirty Beatles Decade in the middle, and ending with the They Freed a Lot of People and Now They're Gone Decade? The War is Not Healthy for Children and Other Living Things M-i-c-k-e-y, Military-Industrial Complex is the Key Decade? The Who Killed Abraham, Martin, Bobby, and John Decade? The Magic Bullet, Magic Bus, Magical Mystery Tour, Magic Carpet Ride, Magic Mushroom Decade

Bad Santa Whitey has spent 1960 -1492 = 468 years invading and settling the Americas, ending up with two worlds, Catholic South America, filled with military dictatorships, and Protestant North America, dominated by the massively segregated lotsa-dirty-laundry White Is Right U.S., which now rules Da World as Uncle Sam Da WASP Cop, having survived a century of massive non-WASP immigration, two world wars, the rise of pesky atheistic World Communism, the Bomb, the disturbing discovery of DNA, and Brown v. Board of Education, and initially hopes to settle down as a nice everybody-should-copy-us society where people continue worshipping Almighty Capitalism with a dose of Socialism and don't go against God, er, reverse a hundred thousand years of Evo, er, go against Nature and intermarry with the minorities, and stay hetero too, only to spring a leak in its precious what-else-is-left color line by the end of the decade after totally losing control of its young adults, who are two decades from running everything into the ground and already are chanting Hell No We Won't Go?

But don't count the sandwiched pre-Baby Boomers out, who start the decade coming on clean, corny, religious and strong, despite knowing their days are numbered because the big 666 is coming up fast, along with Rosemary's Baby, then break loose and begin raging against all authority? A decade in which airliner crashes begin to rise, continuing into the next decade, tracking what's happening politically, incl. the Black Civil Rights, Black Power, and Black Muslim movements, the political liberation of don't-say-it Africa, the British Rock & Roll Invasion, and the U.S. Garage Band response, Sexual Liberation and contraceptives, the Drug Culture, Women's Liberation, and sick sideshows like Vietnam, Czechoslovakia, and albatross-around-America's-neck Israel, and the rise of Muslim terrorism, surely that's a passing fad, pass the kosher peanut butter?

The decade when brainy Jews totally take over the arts and sciences in the U.S., as well as the judiciary, taking God, the Bible, and sponsored prayer out of the public schools whether they control the finances or not? At least the Space Race and most primetime TV shows remain 100% Christian straight white, giving what's left of them a pipe dream of a possible escape route off the planet maybe in a couple of centuries, forget that Return to the Planet of the Apes at their local drive-ins?

Meanwhile, being all burned-out by WWI, WWI and the Cold War in order to give it all to them, and now getting too old to control them anymore without calling the police or the National Guard, their children, the emerging precious coddled white-but-we-can-fix-it U.S. Baby Boomers turn political and merge their forces into a great shining sword to thwart racism and end looming horrible atomic war by starting the world over with Year One and flooding the world with colorblind hippie-dippie Eastern religion-filled love, whether it's wanted or not, while the Fail-Safe parental-controlled Dr. Strangelove Military-Industrial Complex doesn't skip a beat and kills a too-young Stranger in a Strange Land president and his brother, Officer Tippit, Lee Harvey Oswald, and several others they won't admit, and shoots for the Moon in a death struggle with Soviet Communism, finally emerging triumphant in the 1990s, only to see a new millennium dawn where the threat isn't so easy to locate anymore?

Throw in Tang, Tanganyika, Katanga and Mustang to give the decade true tang? The Pharmaceutical Decade of the Pharmaceutical Century? Carsons come on strong, Rubies, Ronalds, Bushes, Hoffmans and Cobras play a salty role, and Townsends, Hershes and Hersheys play a spoiler role, while Spocks become trendsetters in baby rearing and hairstyles?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) Jan. 20, 1953 Jan. 20, 1961 Dwight David Eisenhower of the U.S. (1890-1969)
United Kingdom Harold Macmillan (1894-1986) Jan. 10, 1957 Oct. 19, 1963 Harold Macmillan of Britain (1894-1986)
United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II (1926-) Feb. 6, 1952 Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-)
Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) Sept. 7, 1953 Oct. 14, 1964 Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union (1894-1971)
People's Republic of China Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (1893-1976) 1943 Sept. 9, 1976 Mao Tse-tung of China (1893-1976)
India Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) Aug. 15, 1947 May 27, 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru of India (1889-1964)
Canada John George Diefenbaker (1895-1979) June 21, 1957 Apr. 21, 1963 John George Diefenbaker of Canada (1895-1979)
France Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) Jan. 8, 1959 Apr. 28, 1969 Charles de Gaulle of France (1890-1970)
West Germany Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) Sept. 15, 1949 Oct. 16, 1963 Konrad Adenauer of West Germany (1876-1967)
East Germany Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960) Oct. 11, 1949 Sept. 7, 1960 Wilhelm Pieck of East Germany (1876-1960)
Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) Nov. 29, 1945 May 4, 1980 Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1892-1980)
Spain Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Apr. 1, 1939 Nov. 20, 1975 Francisco Franco of Spain (1892-1975)
Mexico Adolfo Lopez Mateos (1909-69) Dec. 1, 1958 Nov. 30, 1964 Adolfo Lopez Mateos of Mexico (1909-69)
Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-70) Jan. 16, 1956 Sept. 28, 1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (1918-70)
Iran Mohammed Shah Pahlavi II (1919-80) Sept. 16, 1944 Feb. 11, 1979 Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi II of Iran (1919-80)
Israel David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) May 14, 1948 June 26, 1963 David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973)
Papacy John XXIII (1881-1963) Oct. 23, 1958 June 3, 1963 Pope John XXIII (1881-1963)
U.N. Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden (1905-61) Apr. 10, 1953 Sept. 18, 1961 Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden (1905-61)

1960 - The Tap Shoes, Did You Fall, Poor Thing, On With the Shoe Lunch Counter Sit-In Sharpeville Massacre Gary Powers Birth Control Pill Year? The 1960s Start Out On the Wrong Foot as World Cop U.S. scrambles to deal with pesky Fidel Castro, who plays them off against the shoe-tapping Gary Powers-downing Soviet Union, while a gallery of new black leaders of Africa greet the U.N.? Military sideshows feature the Cong and the Congo? Meanwhile all of the major powers are run by old farts with one foot in the 19th century and the other foot in the grave, who soon run into a wall of angry post-WWII youths who don't trust anybody over 30, but still don't know what kind of haircut to wear?

'El Jefe' Fidel Castro Ruz of Cuba (1926-2016) Kennedy-Nixon Debate, 1960 Don Hewitt (1922-2009) Arthur Hiller Penn (1922-2010) Khrushchev (Shoechev) (K-Shoe) at the U.N., Oct. 12, 1960) U.S. Air Force Capt. Francis Gary Powers (1929-77) U.S. Air Force Capt. Francis Gary Powers (1929-77) Soviet Col. Rudolf Abel (1903-71) James Britt Donovan (1916-70) Harold Macmillan of Britain (1894-1986) Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) Greensboro Four, 1960 Bill Mandel (1917-2016), May 13, 1960 TIROS-1, 1960 Echo 1, 1960 Gilmore Tilmen Schjeldahl (1913-2002) Polaris Missile Test, 1960 USS Triton, 1960 U.S. Capt. Edward Latimer Beach (1918-2002) U.S. F-4 Phantom II, 1960 U.S. Convair B-58 Hustler, 1960 Mao Tse Tung of China (1893-1976) Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union (1906-82) Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin of the Soviet Union (1902-86) Walter Ulbricht of East Germany (1893-1973) Fernando Tambroni of Italy (1901-63) Amintore Fanfani of Italy (1908-99) Roberto F. Chiari of Panama (1905-81) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of the U.S. (1902-85) Everett Dirksen of the U.S. (1896-1969) Charles Abraham Halleck of the U.S. (1900-86) Christian Archibald Herter Sr. of the U.S. (1895-1966) Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) French Gen. Raoul Salan (1899-1984) Pierre Lagaillarde of France (1931-) Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-) Hayato Ikeda of Japan (1899-1965) Fernando Tambroni of Italy (1901-63) Cemal Gürsel of Turkey (1895-1966) Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon (1916-2000) Yun Po Sun of South Korea (1897-90) Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam (1890-1969) Le Duan of North Vietnam (1907-86) Capt. Kong Le of Laos Prince Boun Oum of Laos (1912-80) Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia (1922-) Princess Margaret (1930-2002) and Antony Armstrong-Jones (1930-2017) of Britain Princess Margret (1930-2002) and Verboten Capt. Peter Wooldridge Townsend of Britain (1914-95) African Independence Map Sharpeville Massacre, Mar. 21, 1960 Ahmadou Ahidjo of Cameroon (1924-89) David Dacko of the Central African Republic (1930-2003) Patrice Lumumba of Congo (1925-61) Joseph Kasavubu of Congo (1910-69) Antoine Gizenga of Congo (1925-) Moise Kapenda Tshombe of Congo (1919-69) Joseph-Désiré Mobutu of Zaire (DRC) (1930-97) Albert Kalonji of Congo (1929-2015) Fulbert Youlou of Congo-Brazzaville (1917-72) Francois (Ngarta) Tombalbaye of Chad (1918-75) Hubert Maga of Dahomey (Benin) (1916-2000) Gabriel Leon Mba of Gabon (1902-67) Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana (1909-72) Felix Houphouët-Boigny of Ivory Coast (1905-93) Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya (1897-1978) Modibo Keita of Mali (1915-77) Hamani Diori of Niger (1916-89) Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria (1904-96) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of Nigeria (1912-66) Moktar Ould Daddah of Mauritania (1924-2003) Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal (1906-2001) Mamadou Dia of Senegal (1910-2009) Aden Abdullah Osman Daar of Somalia (1908-2007) Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke of Somalia (1919-69) Ahmed Ben Salah of Sudan (1926-) Sylvanus Olympio of Togo (1902-63) Maurice Yaméogo of Upper Volta (1921-93) Amha Selassie of Ethiopia (1916-97) Sheik Ahmed bin Ali bin Abdullah Al-Thani of Qatar (1917-77) Saeb Salam of Lebanon (1905-2000 Queen Fabiola of Belgium (1928-) Janio da Silva Quadros of Brazil (1917-92) Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus (1913-77) Viggo Kampmann of Denmark (1910-76) Joaquin Balaguer of Dominican Republic (1906-2002) Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra of Ecuador (1893-1979) Julio Adalberto Rivera of El Salvador (1921-73) James McCauley Landis of the U.S. (1899-1964) U.S. Gen. Colin Luther Powell (1937-) Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo of Venezuela (1903-79) Jean Lesage of Quebec (1912-80) L.B. Sullivan Ruby Bridges (1954-) Ella Josephine Baker (1903-86) Caryl Whittier Chessman (1921-60) Adolf Eichmann (1906-62) Simon Wiesenthal (1908-2005) Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Otoya Yamaguchi (1943-60) Sam Giancana (1908-75) Santo Trafficante Jr. (1914-87) Robert Aime Maheu (1917-2008) Marita Lorenz (1939-) Frank Anthony Sturgis (1924-93) Operation 40, 1960-? Everett Howard Hunt Jr. of the U.S. (1918-2007) Manuel Antonio de Varona of Cuba (1908-92) Charles Tracy Barnes of the U.S. (1911-72) George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-) Felix Ismael Rodriguez (1941-) Jack Alston Crichton (1916-2007) Peter Zvi Malkin (1927-2005) Joseph Wright Alsop V (1910-89) Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887-1972) Mickey Mantle (1931-95) Lamar Hunt (1932-2006) Joe Foss (1915-2003) Jack Kemp of the U.S. (1935-2009) Bob Howsam (1918-2008) Oscar Robertson (1938) Oscar Robertson (1938) Jerry West (1938-) Darrall Imhoff (1938-) Lee Shaffer (1939-) Lenny Wilkens (1937-) Lenny Wilkens (1937-) Mikhail Tal (1936-92) Clint William Murchison Jr. (1923-87) Pete Rozelle (1926-96) Milt Plum (1935-) Norm Van Brocklin (1926-83) Sonny Jurgensen (1934-) Fran Tarkenton (1940-) Ernie Harwell (1918-2010) Carol Heiss of the U.S. (1940-) David Wilkinson Jenkins of the U.S. (1936-) Wilma Rudolph of the U.S. (1940-94) Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia (1932-73) Herb Elliott of Australia (1938-) Armin Hary of Germany (1937-) John Devitt of Australia (1937-) Lance Larson of the U.S. (1940-) C.K. Yang of Taiwan (1933-2007) and Rafer Johnson of the U.S. (1935-) Pete Newell (1915-2008) Bill Mazeroski (1936-), Oct. 13, 1960 Cassius Clay of the U.S. (1942-2016) Floyd Patterson (1935-2006) Sugar Ray Robinson (1921-89) Paul Pender (1930-2003) Maria Bueno (1939-) Neale Fraser (1933-) Darlene Hard (1936-) Dean R. Beman (1938-) Arnold Palmer (1929-2016) Junior Johnson (1931-) Jim Rathmann (1928-) Sir Francis Chichester (1901-72) Adolph Coors III (1916-60) Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-) Bob Heft (1941-) Gavin Maxwell (1914-69) Tad Mosel (1922-2008) Donald Merriam Allen (1912-2004) Stan Barstow (1928-2011) Robert Bolt (1924-95) James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014) Ronald Coase (1910-) Robert Triffin (1911-93) Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965) Otis Chandler (1927-2006) Don Walsh (1931-) and Jacques Piccard (1922-) Manfred E. Clynes (1925-) Max Hamilton (1912-88) Nathan Schellenberg Kline (1916-83) Theodore Maiman (1927-2007) Frank Donald Drake (1930-) William Maurice Ewing (1906-74) Francis Perrin (1901-92) David Gale (1921-2008) Raymond Queneau (1903-76) Jean Raspail (1925-) Marshall B. Rosenberg (1934-) Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009) Robert M. Solow (1924-) Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921-) Piero Sraffra (1898-1983) Robert W. Bussard (1928-2007) Belding Hibbard Scribner (1921-2003) Otto Wichterle (1913-98) Drahoslav Lim (1925-2003) Sir Michael Woodruff (1911-2001) Robert Burns Woodward (1917-79) Rudolf Kempe (1910-76) Lawrence Robert Klein (1920-) Stanley Reiter (1925-) John Hamilton Reynolds (1923-2000) Douglass Cecil North (1920-) William N. Parker (1919-2000) Hans Ji Maharaj (1900-66) Guru Maharaj Ji (1957-) Willis Carto (1926-) Jack Chick (1924-2016) Chick Comics Leander Henry Perez Sr. (1891-1969) Dream Lovers Bobby Darin (1936-73) and Sandra Dee (1942-2005) Lucille Ball (1911-89) and Gary Morton (1924-99) Desi Arnaz (1917-86) and Edith Mack Hirsch (-1985), Mar. 2, 1963 Wolfman Jack (1938-95) Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009) Roland Barthes (1915-80) Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) Michel Foucault (1926-84) Albert John Luthuli (1898-1967) Saint-John Perse (Alexis Saint-Leger Leger) (1887-1975) Willard Frank Libby (1908-80) Sir Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) Peter van de Kamp (1901-95) Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87) Louis Aragon (1897-1982) Gary Stanley Becker (1930-) Jacob Mincer (1922-2006) Paul Blackburn (1926-71) Elias Canetti (1905-94) Aimé Césaire (1913-2008) Robert Edward Duncan (1919-88)) Edward Hoagland (1932-) Harper Lee (1926-2016) Richard Elliott Neustadt (1919-2003) Edna O'Brien (1930-) Istvan Kertesz (1929-73) Jane Goodall (1934-) Clifton Fadiman (1904-99) Leslie Fiedler (1917-2003) Randall Jarrell (1914-65) R.D. Laing (1927-89) Roger Woodward (1953-) Patrick Kavanagh (1904-67) John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87) W.S. Merwin (1927-) Robert Pinget (1919-97) Kenneth Patchen (1911-72) William Lawrence Shirer (1904-93) Brinsley Le Poer Trench, 8th Earl of Clancarty (1911-95) Lucio Costa (1902-98) Brian Wilson Aldiss (1925-) John Barth (1930-) Lillian Hellman (1905-84) Patricia Highsmith (1921-95) Sandra Hochman (1936-) Walker Percy (1916-90) Pat Robertson (1930-) Sylvia Plath (1932-63) Francoise Sagan (1935-2004) Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010) Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006) Wole Soyinka (1934-) Elizabeth Spencer (1921-) William Stafford (1914-93) Wallace Stegner (1909-93) Alexander Trocchi (1925-84) Richard 'Mr.' Blackwell (1922-2008) Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002) Luther George Simjian (1905-97) E.L. Doctorow (1931-) Dario Fo (1926-) Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-2014) Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Ian Graeme Barbour (1923-) William Peter Blatty (1928-) Jerry Bock (1928-) Robert Conquest (1917-2015) Sheldon Harnick (1924-) Seymour Martin Lipset (1922-2006) Albert John Luthuli (1898-1967) Saint-John Perse (1887-1975) Frank Donald Drake (1930-) Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-2013) Sir Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87) Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90) Walter Terence Stace (1886-1967) David Storey (1933-) Adam Bruno Ulam (1922-2000) Theodore Harold White (1915-86) Tom Wolfe (1930-2018) Norman Mailer (1923-2007) Terry Southern (1924-95) Gay Talese (1932-) Robert Christgau (1942-) George Plimpton (1927-2003) Truman Capote (1924-84) Joan Didion (1934-) Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005) P.J. O'Rourke (1947-) Martin Walser (1927-) Poul Anderson (1926-2001) Nathaniel Benchley (1915-81) Paul Blanshard (1892-1980) Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000) Marc Camoletti (1923-2003) Carlo Cassola (1917-87) Gregory Corso (1930-2001) George Garrett (1929-2008) Joe Gores (1931-) Micheal MacLiammoir (1899-1978) Phyllis McGinley (1905-78) Yukio Mishima (1925-70) Sviatoslav Richter (1915-97) Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91) George Starbuck (1931-96) John Terrane (1921-2003) Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970) John Updike (1932-2009) Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000) Donald Edwin Westlake (1933-2008) Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977) Raymond Henry Williams (1921-88) Tennessee Williams (1911-83) Jonas Mekas (1922-) Lionel Rogosin (1924-2000) Jack Paar (1918-2004) Shari Lewis (1933-98) Lew 'Clarabell the Clown' Anderson (1922-2006) The Andy Griffith Show, 1960-8 Sammy Davis Jr. (1925-90) and May Britt (1933-) Bobby Fischer of the U.S. (1943-2008) Fred Riccilli (1921-2015) Verne Gagne (1926-) The Crusher (1926-2005) Mad Dog Vachon (1929-) Nick Bockwinkel (1934-) Baron Von Raschke (1940-) Ken Patera (1943-) Black Jack Lanza Ric Flair (1949-) Ric Flair (1949-) Ricky Steamboat (1953-) Curt Hennig (1958-2003) Edith Piaf (1915-63) Impulse! Records Creed Taylor (1929-) Edith Piaf (1915-63) Adam Faith (1940-2003) Bobby Rydell (1942-) Brenda Lee (1944-) Connie Francis (1938-) Paula Prentiss (1938-) Diane McBain (1941-) Charles Brown (1922-99) Capucine (1928-90) Joan Baez (1941-) Pete Seeger (1919-2014) Johnny Tillotson (1939-) Loretta Lynn (1935-) Nat King Cole (1919-65) Ornette Coleman (1930-2015) Eric Dolphy (1928-64) Jessie Hill (1932-96) Freddie King (1934-76) The Shirelles Berry Gordy Jr. (1929-) Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner (1939-) Jeff Barry (1938-) and Ellie Greenwich (1940-) Carole King (1942-) and Gerry Goffin (1939-) Barry Mann (1939-) and Cynthia Weil (1940-) Burt Bacharach (1928-) and Hal David (1921-2012) Jerry Leiber (1933-2011) and Mike Stoller (1933-) Doc Pomus (1925-91) and Mort Shuman (1936-91) Neil Sedaka (1939-) Howard Greenfield (1936-86) Harvey Schmidt (1929-) and Tom Jones (1928-) Sir Georg Solti (1912-97) Leonard Bernstein (1918-90) Leontyne Price (1927-) Bert Kaempfert (1923-80) Alwin Nikolais (1910-93) Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007) The Hollywood Argyles Elliott Cook Carter Jr. (1908-) Gary U.S. Bonds (1939-) Johnny Burnette (1934-64) Jerry Butler (1939-) Chubby Checker (1941-) Joey Dee and the Starliters Charlie Drake (1925-2006) Jimmy Gilmer (1940-) and the Fireballs Rolf Harris (1930-) Brian Hyland (1943-) Frank Ifield (1937-) Hank Locklin (1918-) Miriam Makeba (1932-2008) Gene McDaniels (1935-) Thelonious Monk (1917-82) Reprise Records Jane Morgan (1924-) Anthony Newley (1931-99) Kate Smith (1907-86) Roy Orbison (1936-88) Freddie and the Dreamers Gerry and the Pacemakers The Brothers Four The Four Preps Smokey Robinson (1940-) The Miracles The String-A-Longs The Ventures Kathy Young (1945-) Carolyn Hester (1937-) Logan English (1928-83) Bob Newhart (1929-) John Lennon (1940-80) Paul McCartney (1942-) George Harrison (1943-2001) Pete Best (1941-) Stuart Sutcliffe (1940-62) Loretta Lynn (1932-) Mercedes Sosa (1935-2009) Linda Lawson (1936-) Astrid Kirchherr (1938-) Ken Dodd (1927-) Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) Katharine Dexter McCormick (1875-1967) Carl Djerassi (1923-) Enovid, 1960 Paul Janssen (1926-2003) Douglas McGregor (1906-64) Blaze Starr (1932-) Playboy Bunny, 1960- Peppermint Lounge Pat Weaver (1908-2002) 'The Flintstones', 1960-66 'The Barbara Stanwyck Show', 1960-1 'Checkmate', 1960-2 'Johnny Midnight', 1960 'King Leonardo and His Short Subjects', 1960-3 The Law and Mr. Jones', 1960-2 " 'Mister Magoo', 1960-1 'My Three Sons', 1960-72 'National Velvet', 1960-2 Route 66', 1960-4 Route 66 'Surfside 6', 1960-2 'Surfside 6', 1960-2 'The Tab Hunter Show', 1960-1 'The Tall Man', 1960-2 The Westerner', 1960 'Camelot', 1960 'The Fantasticks', 1960 'A Man for All Seasons', 1960 'Wildcat', 1960 Bob Bell (1922-97) as Bozo the Clown Ray Rayner (1919-2004) 'The Alamo', 1960 'The Apartment', 1960 'The Apartment', 1960 Arthur Ferrante (1921-2009) and Louis Teicher (1924-2008) Magic Floating Water Tap, Menora, Spain 'The Amazing Transparent Man', 1960 'Beyond the Time Barrier', 1960 'Breathless' by Jean-Luc Godard (1930-), 1960 Jean-Luc Godard (1930-) 'BUtterfield 8', 1960 'Can-Can', 1960 'Elmer Gantry' starring Burt Lancaster, 1960 'The Entertainer' 1960 Albert Finney (1936-) 'First Spaceship on Venus', 1960 'House of Usher', 1960 Lionel Davidson (1922-2009) 'The League of Gentlemen', 1960 'The Little Shop of Horrors', 1960 'The Magnificent Seven', 1960 Cantinflas (1911-93) Harold Pinter (1930-2008) 'The Caretaker, 1960 'The Fantasticks', 1960 Lionel Bart (1930-99) 'Oliver!' by Lionel Bart (1930-99), 1960 Marcel Ophüls (1927-) 'Peeping Tom', 1960 'Psycho' starring Janet Leigh, 1960 Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980) Robert Bloch (1917-94) 'Saturday Night and Sunday Morning', 1960 'Spartacus', starring Kirk Douglas (1916-), 1960 Peter Ustinov (1921-2004) 'The Time Machine', 1960 'Village of the Damned', 1960 Head of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) Louis Isadore Kahn (1901-74) Richards Medical Center, 1960 Oscar Niemeyer (1907-2012) Lucio Costa (1902-98) Congress Bldg., Brasilia, 1960 Joseph Beuys (1921-86) 'Bathtub' by Joseph Beuys (1921-86), 1960 Richard Diebenkorn (1922-93) 'Girl with Plant' by Richard Diebenkorn (1922-93), 1960 Jasper Johns (1930-) 'Painted Bronze (Ale Cans)' by Jasper Johns (1930-), 1960 Alberto Korda (1928-2001) 'Che Guevara' by Alberto Korda, 1960 Yves Klein (1928-62) 'Untitled Anthropometry ANT 106' by Yves Klein (1928-62), 1960 'RE 46' by Yves Klein (1928-62), 1960 'Etre Atout' by Roberto Matta (1911-2002), 1960 James Rosenquist (1933-) 'President Elect' by James Rosenquist (1933-), 1960 Mark Rothko (1903-70) 'No. 7' by Mark Rothko (1903-70), 1960 'Dick Tracy' by Andy Warhol (1928-87), 1960 Alberto Varga (1896-1982) Vargas Girls Sir Anthony Caro (1924-2013) 'Twenty Four Hours', by Sir Anthony Caro (1924-2013), 1960 SS France, 1960 Bulova Accutron Spaceview, 1963 Schwinn 10-Speed Continental Bicycle, 1960 Sports Palace in Rome, 1960 Candlestick Park, 1960- A-6 Intruder Douglas Delta Bell Rocket Belt Burroughs 5000, 1961 Domino's Pizza, 1960 Hardee's, 1960 Hardee's Restaurant Wilber Hardee (1918-2008) Poppycock, 1960 Starburst, 1960 Sun City, Ariz., 1960- Aswan High Dam, 1960-70 T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-), 1960

1960 Doomsday Clock: 7 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Rat (Jan. 28). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Top 15 U.S. Scientists. World pop.: 3B (double 1900 pop.), incl. 284M in Africa, 1.7B in Asia, 604M in Europe, 218M in Latin Am., 204M in North Am., and 16M in Oceania; the Eighteenth (18th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. at 179,323,175 in a land area of 3,540,911 sq. mi. (50.6 per sq. mi); white pop. is 88.6%, which incl. all Latin-Ams., blacks from the Dominican Repub., and Mexicans who resemble Native Ams; the 81 Communist parties of the world claim 40M members. U.S. GNP: $503B ($284B in 1950) ($521B in 1961) ($977B in 1970); govt. spending: $170B (27% of GNP) (21% in 1950) (32% in 1970). $1K U.S. this year buys as much as $6,818 in 2006; U.S. incomes: $5K-$10K: 25M, $10K-$25K: 5.3M, $25K and up: 500K (42.5K in 1939). In Britain, the richest 10% own 83% of the wealth (88% in 1939). It takes until the year 1967 for the human technical knowledge in this year to double, according to French economist Georges Anderla (1921-2005); last in 1950. Number of U.S. nuclear warheads: 18K (1K in 1955) (18K reasons to be nucleomitiphobic?); the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) (coined on Jan. 17, 1961 by Pres. Eisenhower), consisting of the Iron Triangle of Industry, Congress, and the Armed Services is here to stay, sucking $5T out of U.S. taxpayers by the end of the cent. West German industrial production reaches 176% of Germany's 1936 level. Coal supplies 45% of U.S. energy needs, declining to 18% by 1975 after a switch to oil and natural gas; between this year and 1990 80B tons of CO2 are released into the atmosphere by humans, the same as from 1860-1960. U.S. city with highest per capita income: Detroit, Mich. 34% of U.S. women over age 14 are in the workforce (25% in 1940), along with 31% of all married women; 10% of working women are farm hands or servants (50% in 1900). U.S. homeowners: 32.8M (23.6M in 1950), with children aged 5-14 at 35.5M (24.3M in 1950) Automobiles in the U.S.: 74M (32.6M in 1941), one for every three Americans, with 15% of families having 2+ cars (vs. 7% in 1950). Surfaced roads in the U.S.: 2.17M mi. (1.68M in 1950); dirt roads: 951K mi. (1.31M in 1950). Total TV sets: U.S. 60M (vs. 6M in 1950), Britain: 10.5M, West Germany 2M, France 1.5M; 88% of American families (40M) own a TV set, producing 100M viewers. U.S. gin consumption: 19M gals., up from 6M gals. in 1950, with vodka going from .1M to 9M gals. U.S. guitar sales: $35M ($130M in 1968). U.S. computer sales: 2K (4K in 1964). U.S. paperback book sales: 300M. World religions: Christians 890M, Hindus 365M, Buddhists 200M, Jews 13M. The Sun's magnetic field begins a periodic expansion (until 2005), causing fewer cosmic rays to hit the Earth, decreasing the number of low wet clouds that reflect solar heat, increasing the avg. temp? Beginning this year large numbers of Cubans begin immigrating to the U.S. Black is as black does, or, Play that funky music white boy? The U.N. declares this the Year of Africa: 17 African states (out of 51, with over 1K different cultures and 800 languages) gain their full or token independence from white European govts. (16 join the U.N.): Cameroon (Jan. 1), Togo (Apr. 27), Mali (June 20), Senegal (June 20), Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar) (June 26), Belgian Congo (Kinshasa) (June 30), Ghana (Gold Coast) (July 1), Somalia (July 1), Ghana (July 1), Dahomey (Aug. 1), Niger (Aug. 3), Upper Volta (Aug. 5), Ivory Coast (Aug. 7) (two brands of bar soap?), Chad (Aug. 11), Central African Repub. (CAR) (Aug. 13), Congo Repub. (Brazzaville) (Aug. 15), Gabon (Aug. 17), Nigeria (Oct. 1), Mauritania (Nov. 28). Celtic squire John F. Handsome pulls Excalibur out of the stone and becomes king, er, president, and brings the halcyon, er, classy haute couture era of Camelot? On Jan. 1 Washington defeats Wisconsin by 44-8 to win the 1960 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 Sun City, Ariz. retirement community near Phoenix, built on the ghost town of Marinette in the shape of giant pinwheels of houses with spokes has a grand opening that draws 100K, growing to 37K pop., 98% white; too bad, it is built near livestock feedlot Spur Industries, and after both grow larger, Sun City begins to suffer from stench and flies, filing a lawsuit, resulting in the 1972 Ariz. supreme court case Spur Industries v. Del E. Webb Development Co., in which the feedlot is ruled a public nuisance, but since the town "came to a nuisance" on its own, it must pay them for shutting down or moving. On Jan. 2 Oodnadatta, South Australia 542 mi. N of Adelaide reaches 50.7C (123.3F), becoming the highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania (until ?). On Jan. 2 Mass. Sen. John F. Kennedy (Gaelic "Kenneth" = handsome, "Kennedy" = helmet or deformed or ugly head) announces his candidacy for the Dem. pres. nomination, with the slogan "The New Generation Offers a New Leader", uttering the soundbyte: "The presidency is the most powerful office in the free world. Through its leadership can come a more vital life for all of our people. In it are centered the hopes of the globe around us for freedom and a more secure life", adding that he won't accept the vice-presidency as an option; liberal Harvard-educated closet-gay columnist Joseph Wright Alsop V (1910-89) calls him an "[Adlai] Stevenson with balls"; Frank Sinatra campaigns for him, backfiring when his swinging lifestyle and Mafia connections are used as ammo by Repubs.; JFK closes each speech with the Robert Frost quote: "But I have promises to keep,/ And miles to go before I sleep,/ And miles to go before I sleep" - that last mile was a doozy? On Jan. 4 the European Free Trade Assoc. (EFTA) Convention is signed by the "Outer Seven States", Britain, Denmark, Austria, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, entering into force on May 3; Finland joins in 1961, and Liechtenstein in 1991; Britain and Denmark leave in 1973, followed by Portugal in 1986; by the end of the cent. only Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein remain. On Jan. 6 (2:38 a.m.) Nat. Airlines Flight 2511 (Douglas DC-6) en route from New York City to Miami, Fla. explodes in midair over Bolivia, N.C. after well-insured New York atty. Julian A. Frank sets off a suicide bomb, killing 33 - he wasn't a Muslim? On Jan. 7 Ike's Eighth State of the Union Address begins "Seven years ago I entered my present office with one long-held resolve overriding all others. I was then, and remain now, determined that the United States shall become an ever more potent resource for the cause of peace, realizing that peace cannot be for ourselves alone, but for peoples everywhere. This determination is shared by the entire Congress, indeed, by all Americans"; after going on to brag about the awesome military power of the U.S. and the threat of Communism, he says: "The fissure that divides our political planet is deep and wide. We live, moreover, in a sea of semantic disorder in which old labels no longer faithfully describe. Police states are called people's democracies. Armed conquest of free people is called liberation. Such slippery slogans make more difficult the problem of communicating true faith, facts and beliefs. We must make clear our peaceful intentions, our aspirations for a better world. So doing, we must use language to enlighten the mind, not as the instrument of the studied innuendo and distorter of truth. And we must live by what we say. On my recent visit to distant lands I found one statesman after another eager to tell me of the elements of their government that had been borrowed from our American Constitution, and from the indestructible ideals set forth in our Declaration of Independence. As a nation we take pride that our own constitutional system, and the ideals which sustain it, have been long viewed as a fountainhead of freedom. By our every action we must strive to make ourselves worthy of this trust, ever mindful that an accumulation of seemingly minor encroachments upon freedom gradually could break down the entire fabric of a free society. So persuaded, we shall get on with the task before us. So dedicated, and with faith in the Almighty, humanity shall one day achieve the unity in freedom to which all men have aspired from the dawn of time." On Jan. 7 a U.S. 2-stage solid fuel Polaris UGM-27 A1 Missile is test-launched from Cape Canaveral; on Apr. 14 one is launched underwater for the first time; on July 20 a missile is successfully test-fired into the air from a submarine, after which it becomes known as a fleet ballistic missile (FBM); in 1961 Holy Loch in the Firth of Clyde in Argyll, Scotland becomes a Polaris base (until 1992). On Jan. 9 the $1B 3,830m long x 980m wide x 111m tall Aswan High Dam on the first cataract of the Nile River (170B cu. m. of water), funded by the Soviet Union is begun (finished July 21, 1970), flooding Lower Nubia and displacing 60K; meanwhile UNESCO launches a rescue operation for antiquities, while Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the country's media - dam dumb ideas? On Jan. 12 (Tues.) the crime drama series Johnny Midnight debuts in syndication for 39 episodes (until Dec. 7), starring Edmond O'Brien (1915-85) as actor-turned-P.I. Johnny Midnight, who lives in a plush penthouse in Manhattan, N.Y. and focuses on cases in Times Square and Broadway, narrating his stories in a terse Humphrey Bogart style; Yuki Shimoda (1921-81) plays his wisecracking Japanese manservant Uki; the theme song is "Lullaby of Broadway". On Jan. 14 the U.S. Army promotes pvt. Elvis Presley to sgt.; on Mar. 5 Sgt. Elvis Presley (b. 1935) is discharged from the U.S. Army. Japan gets off to a fast start taking over the U.S. economy starting with the prime material, steel? On Jan. 15 the 6-mo.-old. 1959 U.S. Steel Strike (begun on July 15) ends, with a new 20-mo. contract giving workers a 7 cent an hour pay raise plus automatic cost-of-living adjustments and better benefits; too bad, U.S. industries didn't wait, and began importing steel from Japan and Korea, beginning the downfall of the U.S. steel industry. On Jan. 18 the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty is signed in Washington, D.C., and ratified by the Japanese House of Reps. on June 19 despite violent riots, and becomes effective on June 23; meanwhile a U.S.-Japanese summit is planned for June, but on June 16 after three weeks of leftist anti-U.S. and anti-treaty demonstrations, PM Nobusuke Kishi requests Pres. Eisenhower to postpone his scheduled visit. The team that killed JFK and burglarized the Watergate Complex was born on TLW's 7th birthday? On Jan. 18 CIA officials, incl. Everett Howard Hunt Jr. (1918-2007) (the mastermind of the 1972 Watergate break-ins) meet near the Lincoln Memorial in the office of Cuban Task Force dir. Charles Tracy Barnes (1911-72) (who is fired from the CIA in July 1966 by new CIA dir. Richard Helms), and establish Operation 40, consisting of 40 Cuban exiles trained to assassinate Fidel Castro; the group is run by vice-pres. Richard Nixon, and funded by a group of Texas oilmen headed by George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-) and Jack Alston Crichton (1916-2007); on Mar. 17 Pres. Eisenhower authorizes the program; operatives incl. Cuban exile Felix Ismael Rodriguez Mendigutia (1941-), who later is involved with the 1967 interrogation and execution of Che Guevara, and surfaces again with ties to George H.W. Bush during the 1986 Iran-Contra Affair; members later surface as the 1972 Watergate burglars, and are suspected of involvement in the 1963 JFK assassination - washed-up Nixon supplies the JFK assassination team to get rid of a pinko pres. in return for a political resurrection and future presidency? On Jan. 18 white-is-right WGG T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-) of Denver, Colo. in the U.S. heartland turns seven, going on to prove always too young to join the 1950s teenie revolt, the 1960s college student revolt, the 1960s hippie movement, or to be drafted to fight in Vietnam, but always old enough to take it all in, growing up this decade while going through an endless parade of heroes, whom he all rejects, ending up as the real TLW, the universal student who needs at least 50 years to get up to speed, check back with him if you're still around, okay? On Jan. 22 the Johnburg Coal Mine in Coalbrook (S of Johannesburg), South Africa explodes, killing 437 (mostly blacks), becoming the country's worst mining disaster (until ?). On Jan. 23 the U.S. Navy bathyscape Trieste, built by Jacques Piccard (1922-) and his father Auguste Piccard, and carrying Jacques and U.S. Navy Lt. Don Walsh (1931-) descends to 35.8K ft. (10.9Km) while exploring the Challenger Deep, lowest part of the Marianas Trench in the Pacific E of the Philippines (the lowest part of the ocean) - negative 8 miles high? On Jan. 24-Feb. 1 the Week of the Barricades in Algiers, Algeria sees student and army protests of Charles de Gaulle's policy, after which on Jan. 29 de Gaulle addresses the nation on TV, calling on the army to remain loyal, causing the siege to end, after which leaders Pierre Lagaillarde (1931-) and Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-), are arrested and taken to Paris, then flee parole and return to Algeria via Spain, setting up the Organisation de l'Armee Secrete (OAS) (Secret Armed Org.) (motto "Algeria is French and will remain so") with gen. Raoul Albin Louis Salan (1899-1984) on Dec. 3, which begins terrorist activities against Algerians and pro-govt. French citizens. On Jan. 24 Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) moves his family from Montgomery, Ala. to Atlanta, Ga., becoming co-pastor with his father MLK Sr. of the Ebenezer Baptist Church; on Feb. 17 an Ala. grand jury finding that he falsified his 1956 and 1958 Ala. state income tax returns results in a warrant for his arrest, and on May 28 an all-white jury in Montgomery, Ala. acquits him; meanwhile on May 4 he is arrested in cracker-run Jawjaw (Ga.) for driving without a Ga. license, even though he has one from Ala. On Jan. 25 (Mon.) the half-hour variety show The Kate Smith Show debuts on CBS-TV for 25 episodes (until July 18, 1960), starring "God Bless America" singer ("the First Lady of Radio") ("the Songbird of the South") Kathryn Elizabeth "Kate" Smith (1907-86), with the theme song "When the Moon Comes Over the Mountain"; too bad, her 1930s-40s popularity doesn't carry over into the 1960s, and it tanks in 6 mo. On Jan. 26 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 133 to admit Cameroon; on May 31 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 136 to admit Togo; on June 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 139 to to admit Mali; on June 29 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 140 to admit the Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar); on July 5 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 141 to admit Somalia; on July 7 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 142 to admit the (Dem.) Repub. of Congo; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 147 to admit Dahomey (Benin); on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 148 to admit Niger; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 149 to admit Upper Volta (Burkina Faso); on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 150 to admit Ivory Coast; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 151 to admit Chad; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 152 to admit the Repub. of the Congo; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 153 to admit Gabon; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 154 to admit the Central African Repub.; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 155 to admit Cyprus; on Sept. 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 158 to admit Senegal; on Sept. 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 159 to admit Mali; on Oct. 7 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 160 to admit Nigeria. On Jan. 27 Belgian and Congolese leaders agree to allow the Congo to become independent on June 30. In Jan. the U.S. stock market begins a 10-mo. decline of 16%. In Jan. German-born Marita Lorenz (1939-), who has been hooking up with Fidel Castro since 1959 is involved in an assassination attempt on him by the CIA, run by Frank Anthony Sturgis (1924-93), who allegedly meets with Lee Harvey Oswald in Miami, Fla. before the JFK assassination, according to Jim Buchanan. In Jan. the English teenie Quarrymen band, formed in Mar. 1957 by John Winston Lennon (1940-80), adding James Paul McCartney (1942-) in July 1957 and George Harrison (1943-2001) in Mar. 1958 signs bassist Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (1940-62), followed on Aug. 12 by lousy drummer Randolph Peter "Pete" Best (1941-) ("the forgotten Beatle") (son of the owner of the Casbah Club in Liverpool), leaving on Aug. 16 for Hamburg, Germany, and playing at the Indra Club of porno shop owner Bruno Koschmider on Aug. 17 for 48 nights, followed by the Kaiserkeller in Oct., then the rival Top Ten Club, pissing Koschmider off, who gets Harrison deported on Nov. 21 for lying to authorities about his age and having no work permit, followed by McCartney and Best a week later for setting fire to a condom in their filthy living quarters, causing damage to it, leaving Sutcliffe behind with his babe Astrid Kirchherr (1938-); they begin wearing cowboy boots, jeans, and leather jackets before Hamburg?; on Dec. 17 they play at the Casbah Club in Liverpool; meanwhile they change their name to Johnny and the Moondogs, Long John and the Beetles (after Buddy Holly and the Crickets), the Silver Beetles, and finally the Beatles. In Jan.-Aug. food shortages cause 160K refugees to cross from East to West Germany, pissing of Soviet PM Nikita Khrushchev and causing him to order the building of the 103-mi. 12-ft.-high Berlin Wall. Blacks start the decade out fast with their first sit-in? On Feb. 1 the Greensboro Four, black N.C. A&T students Joseph McNeil, David Richmond, Franklin McCain, and Jibreel Khazan (Ezell Blair Jr.) begin a sit-in at an F.W. Woolworth lunch counter on South Elm St. in Greensboro, N.C. after being refused service, returning each day with more and more black friends until they get served coffee, while white racist youths harass them; the sit-in spreads to Woolsworths in 15 cities, then spreads to Walgreen's, S.H. Kress, W.T. Grant, and Liggett stores, then to every segregated facility in society, incl. libraries, parks, theaters, bingo halls, etc.; on May 10 Woolworth desegregates lunch counters in six Nashville stores, the first action in any Southern state except Tex.; on June 23 Hot Shoppes in Va. desegregate, followed by all stores in Knoxville on July 18; on July 25 the original store in Greensboro gives in, but the opposition stiffens and on Oct. 19 Atlanta police arrest 51 demonstrators led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68), who refuse bail and are jailed. On Feb. 1-13 29 U.S. oil cos. are tried in U.S. district court in Tulsa, Okla. for conspiring to fix oil and gasoline prices; judge Royce H. Savage (1904-93) rules for the defendants, saying "The evidence does not rise above the level of suspicion." On Feb. 3 British PM (1957-63) Maurice Harold "Supermac" Macmillan (1894-1986) delivers his Wind of Change Speech in South Africa, with the soundbyte: "The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact", announcing the intention of the Conservative British govt. to grant independence to its African territories, calling the greatest issue remaining in the 20th cent. whether the new African states will side with the West or the Commies in the Cold War. On Feb. 8 the U.S. Congress begins hearings into payola (pay-for-play) in the U.S. broadcasting industry; the next big U.S. govt. investigation into pay-for-play is run by the FCC in 2006. On Feb. 8 Carl Wesley Matthews is denied lunch counter service at a Kress dept. store in Winston-Salem, N.C., causing him to begin a protest that is joined on Feb. 23 by black students from Winston-Salem Teachers College and white students from Wake Forest U., along with more from Atkins High School; on May 23 after 107 days the city caves and signs a desegregation agreement with local businesses, and on May 25 Matthews becomes the first black to be served at a desegregated lunch counter in the U.S. South. Did he use a Silver Bullet? On Feb. 9 Coors beer magnate Adolph Coors III (b. 1916), grandson of the founder is kidnapped and murdered en route to work in Golden, Colo. by Seattle, Wash.-born Fulbright scholar and escaped murderer Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-2009), who tries to get $500K in ransom before the remains are found on Sept. 14 in a garbage dump near Pikes Peak, after which Corbett is captured in Vancouver, Canada on Oct. 29 and sentenced to life, then paroled in 1978, ending up living in Denver, Colo.; too bad, the experience causes Coors to initiate polygraph tests for potential employees. I don't give a shit about NBC censors? On Feb. 11 Tonight Show host (1957-62) Jack Paar (1918-2004) gets pissed-off and walks off the show to protest censorship of a joke mentioning a "W.C." (water closet, i.e., toilet), saying "There must be a better way of making a living than this", after which announcer Hugh Downs finishes the show; on Mar. 7 Paar returns, saying "As I was saying before I was interrupted, when I walked off, I said there must be a better way of making a living. Well, I've looked and there isn't." On Feb. 13 France explodes its first atomic (plutonium) bomb in the Sahara in French Algeria, followed by two more on Apr. 1; the nuclear club now consists of France, the U.S., Soviet Union and Britain; pacifist nuclear physicist Francis Perrin (1901-92) (son of Nobel Physics Prize winner Jean Baptiste Perrin) heads the French atomic energy commission that oversees their development. On Feb. 13 after Soviet deputy PM Anastas I. Mikoyan negotiates for Russia, they sign a trade pact with Cuba, with the Soviets giving Cuba $100M in credit and promising to purchase 5M tons of Cuban sugar over the next five years; on Feb. 21 Cuba places all private industry under govt. control; the first shipment of Soviet oil arrives in Havana on Apr. 19, after which U.S.-owned refineries refuse to refine it or to sell oil to Cuba, pissing-off Fidel Castro, who nationalizes the Texaco Refinery on June 29, followed on July 1 by the Esso Standard and Shell Refineries. On Feb. 15 the Danny Thomas Show (Make Room for Daddy) guest-stars Andy Samuel Griffith (1926-2012) as a small town sheriff in Mayberry, N.C. stopping Danny for a traffic violation and putting him in jail; the positive response results in the Oct. 3 debut of The Andy Griffith Show on CBS-TV (until Apr. 1, 1968), produced by Danny Thomas and Sheldon Leonard, starring Andy Samuel Griffith (1926-2012) as Sheriff Andy of Mayberr, N.C., Jesse Donald "Don" Knotts (1924-2006) as bumbling deputy Barney Fife, and Ronald William "Ron" Howard (1954-) as Andy's innocent loveable son Opie, whom Andy raises sans wife with the help of spinster Aunt Bee, played by Frances Bavier (1902-89); it is filmed in B&W until 1965; the theme song The Fishin' Hole is composed by Earle Hagen (the whistler), Herbert Spencer, and Everett Sloane. On Feb. 16-May 10 the 447-ft. USS Triton twin-reactor nuclear submarine, captained by "Run Silent, Run Deep" (1955) author Edward Latimer "Ned" Beach (1918-2002), with a crew of 176 plus six scientists completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the Earth in 84 days (30,708 mi.), tracing the same route used by Ferdinand Magellan in 1519; they cheat and surface on Mar. 5 to transfer a sick crewman to heavy cruiser Macon off Montevideo before rounding Cape Horn - looking for lost loot? On Feb. 18 the Latin Am. Free Trade Assoc. (LAFTA) is founded by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay, effective next June 2; on Dec. 13 the Central Am. Common Market is founded by El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Costa Rica in July 1962). On Feb. 19 after pressure on Calif. gov. (1959-67) Pat Brown by J. Edgar Hoover, the U. of Calif. regents retract the following question from its Subject A aptitude test for high school applicants: "What are the dangers to a democracy of a national police organization, like the FBI, which operates secretly and is unresponsive to public criticism" - duh, assassinations and coverups? On Feb. 21 academic Viggo Olfert Fischer Kampmann (1910-76) of the Social Dem. Party beomes PM of Denmark (until Sept. 3, 1962). On Feb. 21 the Repub. of Cameroon (founded Jan. 1) adopts the 1960 Cameroon Constitution in a referendum, then chooses a nat. assembly in Apr., electing PM #1 (Jan. 1-May 15) Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (1924-89) (a Muslim) as pres. #1 (until Nov. 6, 1982). On Feb. 25 a U.S. Navy plane carrying Navy musicians to perform at a dinner given by visiting Pres. Eisenhower collides with a Brazilian airliner over Rio de Janeiro, killing 61. On Feb. 26 Soviet PM Nikita Khrushchev voices support for Indonesia. On Feb. 29 (23:40 WET) the 5.8 shallow Agadir Earthquake in SW coastal Morroco kills 12K-15K out of 45K in Agadir and injures 12K, leaving 35K homeless and causing the city to have to be rebuilt, becoming the deadliest earthquake in Morocan history (until ?). In Feb. Butcher Hollow, Ky.-born unknown Loretta Lynn (nee Webb) (1932-) cuts her first record Honky Tonk Girl, touring the U.S. to sell it to country radio stations until it reaches #14, launching her career. On Mar. 1 Benito Nardone Cetrulo (1906-64) becomes pres. of Uruguay (until Mar. 1, 1961); on Mar. 2 Pres. Eisenhower addresses the Uruguayan congress, and declares that in the previous fiscal year the total of U.S. public and private funding to Latin Am. was about $1B - therefore I own you all? On Mar. 1 1K black students pray and sing the nat. anthem on the steps of the old Confederate Capitol in Montgomery, Ala. On Mar. 1 the Associated Broadcasting Co. in the Philippines is established, later (2006) producing "Philippine Idol". On Mar. 3 14.5" of snow falls in New York City (9th largest). On Mar. 4 (3:10 p.m.) the 4,310-ton Belgian-flagged French cargo ship La Coubre, carrying 76 tons of Belgian munitions from Antwerp for Castro's regime explodes in Havana Harbor, after which a 2nd bomb explodes during the rescue operation, killing 75 (101?) (136?) and injuring 200+, becoming the first successful action carried out by CIA Operation 40; on Mar. 4 Castro holds a rally blaming saboteurs, where Castro's official photographer Alberto Korda (Alberto Diaz Gutierrez) (1928-2001) snaps a Photo of Che Guevara which he calls "Guerrillero Heroico", and which becomes an icon, with millions of copies sold and hung on dorm room walls in the U.S. and elsewhere (most famous photo in the world?); too bad, hunky dreamy-eyed beret-wearing Che doesn't like his new bureaucratic establishment job, so he goes to the Congo to stir things up, then when that fails he returns to repeat his Cuban experience in Bolivia, taking to the mountains with a hardy band of revolutionaries, and finding their govt. a bit tougher than Batista's - he never heard of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid? Speaking of hot-to-trot Cubans? On Mar. 4 after catching him with the zillionth bimbo, Lucille Ball (1911-89) files for divorce from hubby (since Nov. 30, 1940) Desi Arnaz (1917-86), which is finalized on May 4; on Nov. 19, 1961 Ball marries Jewish-Am. comedian Gary Morton (Morton Goldaper) (1924-99), who allegedly never watched her show "I Love Lucy", and ends up as head of Desilu Productions; on Mar. 2, 1963 Arnaz marries Edith Mack Hirsch (-1985); this time both stay married. On Mar. 4 the Bruderheim Meteorite lands near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, causing the establishment of the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) in 1971. On Mar. 6 Swiss women gain the right to vote in municipal elections. On Mar. 7 Time mag. pub. an article on the Black Knight Satellite, a dead or dark satellite discovered orbiting over the continental U.S. in a polar orbit, which it claims is the lost Discoverer 1 Corona Recon Satellite launched in Feb. 1959; too bad, after a photo of it is taken on Sept. 3 and it is found to be travelling in an E-W rather than W-E orbit like other manmade satellites, the UFO people jump on the bandwagon. On Mar. 8 the first pres. primary is held in N.H., with wins for Hubert Humphrey and Richard Nixon, and John F. Kennedy breathing down Humphrey's neck; Nixon leads Kennedy in the Gallup polls by 6 points (53-47), down from 22 points for Kennedy (61-39) in July 1959. On Mar. 11 the U.S. launches the NASA Pioneer 5 (Pioneer P-2) (Thor Able 4) spin-stabilized space probe from Cape Canaveral into solar orbit between Earth and Venus; it goes on to confirm the existence of interplanetary magnetic fields. On Mar. 15 10 nations meet in Geneva for the non U.N.-sponsored East-West Disarmament Conference; too bad, the U-2 fiasco ends up torpedoing it after Soviet delegate Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin (1902-86) denounces the West for 90 min. then walks out in the summer. On Mar. 15 South Korean pres. Syngman Rhee is reelected for a 4th term after an opposition party official is beaten to death and he runs unopposed; on Apr. 19 the 1960 South Korean Student Rev. begins to protest the rigged elections, causing police to fire on demonstrators in Seoul, killing 127, after which on Apr. 27 Rhee rhee-signs, signs-off and flees into exile in Honolulu, Hawaii in late May - doo doo doo doo doo-doo, doo doo doo doo dah (Hawaii Five-O Theme)? On Mar. 17 Fidel Castro rejects a last attempt by the Eisenhower admin. to reach an understanding, causing Ike to approve the use of a Cuban exile army to oust him; in Apr. the CIA begins planning the Bay of Pigs Invasion along with the assassination of Castro (without telling Ike?), with an initial budget of $4.4M, which grows to $46M. On Mar. 18, 1960 under the WWII Global Accords, West Germany pays Greece 115M German marks, followed by 400M to France, 100m to Poland, 7.5M to Russia, and 8M to Yugoslavia. On Mar. 21 the Sino-Nepalese Boundary Agreement agrees to the traditional border with scientific demarcation, after which a boundary treaty is signed next Oct. 5. On Mar. 21 the Sharpeville Massacre sees South African police kill 69 and injure 180 of 5K-7K blacks in Sharpeville protesting the apartheid pass laws, causing an internat. protest; on Mar. 30 the govt. declares a state of emergency (until Aug. 31); on Apr. 1 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (France, U.K.) to adopt Resolution 134, calling for South Africa to abandon apartheid, making it an internat. pariah; meanwhile the South African govt. bans the PAC and ANC, causing them to go from passive to active resistance; in 1966 the U.N. establishes Mar. 21 as the Internat. Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. On Mar. 21 U.S. Marine Corps Reserve pilot Capt. John Eaheart (b. 1928) crashes his F9F Cougar fighter jet into Flathead Lake, Wyo. near the home of his fiancee's parents; his remains are not found until 2006. On Mar. 23 Explorer 8 is launched at Cape Canaveral, but fails to reach Earth orbit - how many years until this would refer to an Internet browser? On Mar. 23 Italian PM (since 1959) Antonio Segni resigns, and on Mar. 25 Christian Dem. leader Fernando Tambroni Armaroli (1901-63) becomes PM #51 of Italy; after he suggests that the crypto-fascist Italian Social Movement support his party against the left, causing riots in Genoa and other cities, he resigns, and on July 26 Christian Dem. leader Amintore Fanfani (1908-99) becomes PM #52 of Italy (until June 21, 1963). On Mar. 24 Pres. Eisenhower agrees to stop U.S. atomic testing, but secretly authorizes resumption of U-2 flights on Apr. 9. On Mar. 25 the nuclear sub USS Halibut launches its first guided missile. On Mar. 25 the grisly head-on-a-spike of 17th cent. English dictator Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) finally comes to a rest on the grounds of Cambridge U., where it is buried near a chapel at Sidney Sussex College. On Mar. 26 Iraq executes 30 for attempting a coup. On Mar. 28 (7 p.m.) a whisky warehouse on Cheapside St. on Anderston Quay in Glasgow, Scotland explodes during a fire, killing 19 firefighters. On Mar. 29 The New York Times pub. an article titled "Heed Their Rising Voices", asking for contributions to help Martin Luther King Jr. et al. to fight "a wave of terror" by Southern racists, claiming they padlocked a dining room to starve students into submission, after which Montgomery, Ala. city commissioner L.B. Sullivan sues them for defamation, and it goes to the U.S. Supreme Court as "New York Times v. Sullivan" (decided 1964). In Mar. the Justice League debuts in DC Comics' "The Brave and the Bold" #28, consisting of Superman, Aquaman, Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter, Batman, and Wonder Woman; in Nov. "Justice League of America" debuts. On Apr. 1 TIROS-1, the first weather satellite is launched from Cape Canaveral - coverstory for a spy satellite? On Apr. 1 former Burmese PM (1948-56, 1957-8) U Nu is elected PM of Burma again (until Mar. 2, 1962). On Apr. 1 France explodes two A-bombs in the Sahara Desert. On Apr. 2 Cuba purchases oil from the Soviet Union. On Apr. 3 Cambodian king (since 1955) Norodom Suramarit (b. 1896) dies, causing his PM son Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1922-) and his cabinet to resign on Apr. 12 until a nat. referendum on June 5 gives him an overwhelming vote of confidence as PM ("head of state") (under the queenship of his mother) (until Mar. 18, 1970). On Apr. 3 (Sun.) the Charismatic Movement is launched in the U.S. when Dennis J. Bennett (1917-91), rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, Calif. confesses to his Pentecostal experience, converting many of his congregation and being forced to resign, causing a controversy that spreads; in 1985 the Third Wave of the Holy Spirit AKA Signs and Wonders sees the movement spread to the Evangelicals, who become known as neo-charismatics. On Apr. 4 the 32nd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1959 to MGM's Ben-Hur, along with 10 other Oscars, incl. best actor to Charlton Heston, best supporting actor to Hugh Griffith, and best dir. to William Wyler; best actress goes to Simone Signoret for Room at the Top (first French actress to win), and best supporting actress to Shelley Winters for The Diary of Anne Frank. On Apr. 5 John F. Kennedy beats Hubert Humphrey in the Wisc. primary, receiving 56% of the vote. On Apr. 9 the first of two U-2 overflights of the Soviet Union is made; the backup pilot is Gary Powers. On Apr. 10 the U.S. Senate passes the 1960 U.S. Civil Rights Act, which protects black voters' rights by establishing federal inspection of local voter registration polls, introducing penalties for obstructing somebody's attempt to register to vote or vote, and establishing the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; Pres. Eisenhower signs it on May 6; too bad, black voters only increase 3% at the next election as the repression continues at the state level with literacy tests, poll taxes, and gerrymandering. On Apr. 13 after launching the prototype Transit 1A in Sept. 1959, which fails to reach orbit, the U.S. Navy launches Transit 1B (NAVSAT) (NNSS) from Cape Canaveral on a Thor-Ablestar rocket, becoming the first satellite navigation system, used by Polaris ballistic missile subs, surface ships, and hydrographic-geodetic surveying; the satellites provide continuous navigation service starting in 1964, later allowing civilian use; last satellite is launched in 1988, and it is retired in 1996. On Apr. 15 the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) (pr. like "snick") is formed after student meetings at Shaw U. in Raleigh, N.C. by black student Ella Josephine Baker (1903-86) et al., going on to play a major role in sit-ins, freedom rides, the 1963 Great March on Washington, Miss. Freedom Summer et al. The 1960s starts out with protections for crazy defendants? On Apr. 18 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules in Dusky v. U.S. that a defendant has a right to a competency evaluation before trial; in 1979 the U.S. First Circuit Court of Appeals rules in Rogers v. Okin that a mental patient in a state psychiatric facility has the right to refuse medication in non-emergency conditions until he/she is adjudicated to be incompetent; on June 24, 1993 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 7-2 in Godinez v. Moran that the competency standard applies to pleading guilty or waiving the right to counsel. One of the worse typhoon seasons ever says welcome to the 1960s? On Apr. 22-26 Tropical Storm Karen hits the Philippines, killing 56, leaving 7K homeless and causing $2M damage; on May 25-June 1 Tropical Storm Lucille hits the Philippines again, causing flash flooding in Manilla which kills 300; on June 2-18 150 mph Typhoon "Bloody" Mary becomes the worst to hit Hong Kong since Sept. 2, 1937, killing 1.6K and leaving 18K homeless, after which it kills 1M in Fukien Province, China; on June 23-30 Typhoon Olive kills 104 in Luzon, Philippines; on July 29-Aug. 2 Super Typhoon Shirley devastates Taiwan, killing 104, damaging or destroying 9.9K houses and leaving 50K homeless; on Aug. 4-9 Typhoon Trix kills four more in Taiwan; on Aug. 8-13 Typhoon Virginia hits Japan, killing two; on Aug. 16-24 Typhoon Carmen (largest eye for a cyclone until ?) hits Korea, causing 24 casualties and $2M in damage; on Aug. 19-25 Typhoon Della hits Japan, causing a landslide in Nishinomiya that kills 38 road workers, plus another 17 throughout the country; on Aug. 20-31 Typhoon Elaine hits Taiwan, destroying 280 homes and killing five; on Oct. 2-13 Typhoon Kit in the W Pacific kills 149 fishermen and $3M damage; on Oct. 8-17 Typhoon Lola hits the Philippines, killing 58, destroying the rice crop, and causing $15M in damage; on Nov. 21-Dec. 8 _Pacific_typhoon_season">Super Typhoon Ophelia kills two in the Caroline Islands while travelling 5K mi., after which its name is officially retired. On Apr. 25 Fernando Tambroni (1901-63) of the Christian Dem. Party continues as PM after resigning on Apr. 11, and forms a new govt. on July 27. On Apr. 27 former French colony Togo becomes an independent repub. with wealthy PM (since 1958) Sylvanus Epiphenio Olympio (1902-63) as pres. #1 (until Jan. 13, 1963), going on to negotiate a settlement of the alleged debt the country owes to France for 46 years of colonization; France goes on to create the French Colonial Pact with its former African countries to retain influence (until ?). On Apr. 27 the U.S. territory of Am. Samoa (pop. 20K) adopts the 1960 Am. Samoa Constitution, which becomes effective on Oct. 17; it is revised in 1967. On Apr. 27 the U.S. launches USS Tullibee, its first quiet nuclear-powered electric-drive hunter-killer submarine; it is decommissioned on June 18, 1988. On Apr. 28 the Sino-Nepalese Treaty of Peace and Friendship is signed, and Nepal agrees to treat China's problems with Tibet as an internal matter and to back the One China policy. In Apr. Guns mag. pub. the article Know Your Lawmakers, in which lifetime NRA member JFK uttered the soundbyte: "By calling attention to 'a well regulated militia,' the 'security' of the nation, and the right of each citizen 'to keep and bear arms,' our founding fathers recognized the essentially civilian nature of our economy. Although it is extremely unlikely that the fears of governmental tyranny which gave rise to the Second Amendment will ever be a major danger to our nation, the Amendment still remains an important declaration of our basic civilian-military relationships, in which every citizen must be ready to participate in the defense of his country. For that reason I believe the Second Amendment will always be important." On May 1 India's state of Bombay splits into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The dream of Ike's entire administration of reaching detente with the Russkies through Ike's personal diplomacy is shot down over the Urals on Commie Mayday? On May 1 (Sun.) (Mayday) (6 weeks after Lee Harvey Oswald arrived in the Soviet Union) the U.S. Lockheed U-2 spy plane (sortie #4154 of Operation Overflight, commanded by Col. William M. Shelton, leaving at 3:26 a.m. Moscow time) piloted by beefy crew-cut Air Force 1st Lt. Francis Gary Powers (1929-77) (salary $30K/year) is shot down at 65K ft. alt. by 14 Soviet S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) SAMs over the Soviet Union near Degtyarsk (near Sverdlovsk) (the Russian Ruhr) in the Urals (1.3K mi. from the Soviet-Afghan border) on a spy run from Badaber (near Peshawar), Pakistan to Bodo, Norway (1st overflight since Apr. 9, 2nd U-2 overflight since last Oct., and 1st attempt to cross the entire Soviet Union, personally approved by Eisenhower); Powers wasn't shot down but defected?; the incident causes the B-70 Valkyrie high altitude Mach 3 nuclear bomber program (begun in 1957) to be canceled next year, causing the B-52 to be forced to keep on keeping on; Powers was flying U-2 #360, known to be a "dog" with faulty fuel tanks, and waits 56 min. on the flight line waiting for final White House approval; he parachutes onto a large state farm and is held by farmers at gunpoint until the KGB arrives; on May 5 (Thur.) after NASA issues a coverup report about an aircraft missing N of Turkey, claiming pilot oxygen difficulties, Khrushchev reports the true incident in a 3.5 hour speech in the Supreme Soviet, calling it a "spy plane", after which the same day the U.S. responds by lying that it was a weather observation plane that may have "strayed" over the Russian border, not realizing that the plane had been captured almost intact along with its photographic equipment after Powers failed to activate the self-destruct mechanism before parachuting out; on May 7 Khrushchev springs his trap, revealing that Powers was captured "alive and kicking", and has made a "complete confession", calling his mission "an agressive act" by the U.S. "aimed at wrecking the summit", with the soundbyte "Now just look how many silly things [the Amerikanskies] have said", raising a big stink which causes lasting injury to U.S.-Soviet relations; Powers was carrying the "silver dollar" containing an instant-death curare-tipped needle, but whimped out and didn't use it; on May 6 Lincoln White of the U.S. State Dept. issues an official coverup, with the soundbyte: "There was absolutely no deliberate intention to violate Soviet airspace, and there has never been"; on May 9 Khrushchev warns that any country allowing U.S. spy planes will be attacked by Soviet rockets; on May 11 Ike belatedly assumes personal responsibility for all U-2 flights, and K-Shoe responds by displaying the plane wreckage and uttering the soundbyte "The Russian people would say I was mad to welcome a man who sends spy planes over here"; on May 15 Ike suspends future U-2 flights; on May 16 the Four-Nation Summit (U.S., U.K., Soviet Union, France) in the Elysee Palace in Paris begins, but collapses after Khrushchev accuses Ike of "treachery" and "bandit" acts, demands an apology, then demands it be postponed for 6 mo. and walks out on both shoes; on May 17 at 5 p.m. the summit ends after Ike refuses to apologize; on May 18 Khrushchev tells a press conference attended by 3K that the U.S. is "thief-like", "piratical", and "cowardly"; on July 8 the Soviets charge Powers wth espionage, and he pleads guilty on Aug. 17, saying "I have a sackful of pride", er, "I am sincerely sorry that I had anything to do with this"; on Aug. 19 he is convicted, and sentenced to 10 years in prison, then after negotiations by Brooklyn atty. James Britt Donovan (1916-70) is exchanged on Feb. 10, 1962 after 17 mo. for English-born German-Russian Soviet spy Col. Rudolf Abel (real name Vilyam Genrikhovich "Willie" Fisher) (1903-71) at the Glienicke Bridge in Potsdam, Germany, after which he works for Lockheed as a test pilot until being laid off in 1970; Powers' survival pack, incl. 7.5K rubles plus jewelry to give women ends up on display with the plane wreck at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces in Moscow, although a small piece of the plane is returned to the U.S.; on his way home Ike visits Lisbon to honor Portugal's 71-y.-o. dictator (since 1931) Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970); did the Military-Industrial Complex stab Ike in the back to kill the summit by feeding U-2 radar secrets to the Soviets through Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) double-agent Lee Harvey Oswald, who worked at Atsugi U-2 Air base in Japan before defecting to the Soviet Union, and is later allowed to return to the U.S. without arrest and then later used as the patsy when the MIC bumps JFK off? On May 2 St. Joseph, Mich.-born "Red Light Bandit" rapist and best-selling author (of "Cell 2455, Death Row") Caryl Whittier Chessman (b. 1921) (convicted of 17 counts of robbery, kidnapping, and rape, but not murder), who was railroaded under the Calif. version of the Little Lindbergh Law (which makes a capital offense out of kidnapping with any kind of "bodily harm", and which was repealed in 1955, after which other death row inmates except him were converted to lifers), is gassed at San Quentin Prison in Calif. after 12 years on death row and mucho worldwide publicity, during which time he became the cause celebre for anti-capital punishment forces, dooming him?; a last-minute stay of execution is ignored since the peach blossom and bitter almond cyanide fumes have already been released - checkmate? On May 6 after being thwarted in her love for divorced older man Capt. Peter Wooldridge Townsend (1914-95) for political reasons back in 1955, British princess Margaret Rose (1930-2002) (youngest sister of Elizabeth II) marries mere bloody commoner (photographer) Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones (1930-2017) in Westminster Abbey, having son David Albert Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley (1961-) and daughter Lady Sarah Frances Elizabeth Chatto (1964-); he is created 1st earl of Snowdon next year; they divorce in 1978. On May 6 Spanish Communist Ramon Mercader (1914-78), murderer of Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) is freed in Mexico, moving to Havana, where he is welcomed as a hero, followed by the Soviet Union next year. On May 7 beetle-browed Leonid Brezhnev (1906-82) becomes pres. of the Soviet Union (until 1963), a job that lets him travel abroad, causing him to develop a notorious taste for Western clothes and boodissy, er, fast cars. On May 8 Roberto F. Chiari (1905-81) of the Liberal Party is elected pres. of Panama (until 1964). Stick it in djerassi jokes here? On May 9 after claiming that it has proved 100% effective in a 4-year test by 1.5K women, the U.S. Food and Drug Admin. (FDA) approves the contraceptive Enovid, AKA the birth control pill, developed by Austrian-born Am. chemist Carl Boodissy, er, Carl Djerassi (1923-) of G.D. Searle & Co. of Chicago, Ill. for U.S. birth control advocate (really negative eugenics, to keep the poor and therefore inferior from outbreeding the good guys?) Margaret Higgins Sanger (1879-1966) and funded by Am. heiress Katharine Dexter McCormick (1875-1967); the cost is only $10-$11 per mo. for 20 pills, and for the first time in history women are liberated to have sex without fear of pregnancy, causing a run on pharmacies by non-Catholics and Catholics alike; by 1961 500K women are using it, and 10M by 1973, unchaining Western poontang bigtime; norethindrone, the key hormone in the pill was synthesized by Djerassi in Mexico City in 1951; the FDA also obtains jurisdiction over color additives, giving provisional approval to substances already in use, incl. Red Dye No. 2, which it rescinds in 1976 after tests link it to cancer. On May 10 after his 4-1 margin over Hubert Humphrey flops to 3-2 against when the Wisc. primary brings up the religion issue, and hostility by Eleanor Roosevelt is countered by mailing 50K letters signed by FDR Jr. that claim Humphrey avoided military service in WWII, John F. Kennedy wins the Dem. primary by 3-2 in supposedly anti-Catholic W. Va., after which Humphrey runs out of money and drops out of the pres. race; Kennedy goes on to win in Md., Ind., and Ore, locking up 550 of 761 delegate votes by June 27. On May 11 $81M 66K-ton 1,035-ft. SS France is launched by Madame Charles de Gaulle, becoming the longest transatlantic passenger liner built until RMS Queen Mary in 2004. On May 11 Israeli Mossad agents led by Peter Zvi Malkin (1927-2005) spectacularly capture Nazi Adolf Otto Eichmann (1906-62) in Buenos Aires, where he had been hiding since 1952 under the alias Ricardo Kliment while working for Mercedes-Benz (kind of a dumb giveaway?) as he steps off a bus in a suburb on his way home from work, and smuggle him to Israel to receive Biblical vengeance; PM David Ben-Gurion announces the nab on May 23; meanwhile the Jewish Documentation Center in Vienna, dir. by Austrian Jewish "Nazi hunter" Simon Wiesenthal (1908-2005) (who hunted down Eichmann) opens, using files shipped to Israel in 1954 to track down 1K+ more Nazi war criminals and get them tried, mostly in West Germany; by mid-1963 there are 5K convictions and a backlog of 644 cases. On May 13 a Swiss-Austrian expedition led by Max Eiselin makes the first ascent of Mt. Dhaulagiri (Sansk. "dhawala" = dazzling white, beautiful) in Nepal, #7 highest mountain on Earth. On May 13 U. of Calif. students are barred from entering a meeting of the House Un-Am. Activities Committee (HUAC) investigating Calif. KPFA/KQED-TV broadcaster William Marx "Bill" Mandel (1917-2016) in San Francisco's city hall, and it turns into a riot, with 12 injured and 52 arrested; on May 14 2K-5K protesters are greeted by the pigs with fire hoses; student protesting is born in San Fran. ("I was a political virgin, but I was raped on the steps of city hall"); to lead counsel Richard Arens' question "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?", Mandel utters the immortal soundbyte: "Honorable beaters of children, sadists, uniformed and in plain clothes, distinguished Dixiecrat wearing the clothing of a gentleman, eminent Republican who opposes an accommodation with the one country with which we must live at peace in order for us and all our children to survive. My boy of fifteen left this room a few minutes ago in sound health and not jailed, solely because I asked him to be in here to learn something about the procedures of the United States government and one of its committees. Had he been outside where a son of a friend of mine had his head split by these goons operating under your orders, my boy today might have paid the penalty of permanent injury or a police record for desiring to come here and hear how this committee operates. If you think that I am going to cooperate with this collection of Judases, of men who sit there in violation of the United States Constitution, if you think I will cooperate with you in any way, you are insane!" On May 14 the Kenya African Nat. Union (KANU) is founded in Kenya from a coalition of three other parties to support the Kikuyu and Luo tribes, led by Jomo Kenyatta (1897-1978); meanwhile this year the smaller Kenya African Dem. Union (KADU) is formed as its opposition to support the rival Kalenjin, Maasai, Turkana, and Samburu tribes. On May 15 the Soviet Union launches Sputnik 4 as a precursor of the Vostok spacecraft; on Sept. 5 it crashes in in Manitowoc, Wisc. on N 8th St., becoming a mini tourist attraction; on Nov. 15 the Internat. Assoc. of Machinists embeds a brass ring in the middle of the street to mark it. On May 20 after the police remove Socialist members from the diet, Japan approves a security treaty with the U.S. On May 20 the first annual Viking-throwback Hamefarin fair is held in the Shetland Islands in the U.K. On May 22 (15:11 local time) the 10-min. 9.5 (equal to 1K atomic bombs) Great Chilean (1960 Valdivia) Earthquake off the W coast becomes the largest ever recorded, causing a tsunami that devastates Hilo, Hawaii, killing 2K-6K and causing $400M-$800M in damage. On May 22 the U.S. launches Midas 2, the first infrared spy satellite, followed by CORONA, the first photo spy satellite on Aug. 18; first in a series (ARGON, LANYARD). On May 26 U.N. ambassador (since 1953) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1902-85) accuses the Soviets of hiding a microphone inside a wood carving of the Great Seal of the U.S. that they presented to the U.S. embassy in Moscow. On May 27 after civilian and student protests, a military coup in Turkey overthrows the dem. govt. of pres. (since 1950) Celal Bayar (1883-1986) and PM (since 1950) Adnan Menderes (1899-1961), and installs gen. Cemal Gursel (Gürsel) (1895-1966) as pres. #4 (until Mar. 28, 1966), giving him more absolute powers than Kemal Ataturk, after which he gains public popularity by freeing several prisoners, allowing 14 banned newspapers to resume pub., and forming a learned committee on May 27 to design a new constitution, then going over the top by allowing the banned Turkish-Scottish nat. soccer game to proceed on June 8; Turkey defeats Scotland 4-2 - I bet Idi Amin was disappointed? On May 31 the first gen. elections in the Congo give leftist Patrice Emery Lumumba (1925-61) of the Nat. Congolese Party 35 of 137 seats in the nat. assembly; on June 24 he becomes PM and forms a coalition cabinet, while widespread violence causes white Euros and others to flee the country; in his speech celebrating Congo's independence from Belgium, Lumumba accuses Belgian king Baudouin of presiding over a "regime of injustice, suppression, and exploitation", adding "We are no longer your macaques", referring to a Belgian woman who called him a "sale macaque" (filthy monkey) years earlier; meanwhile Lumumba makes overtures to the Soviet Union, stirring things up. On June 1 the ABC-TV network reaches 100 affiliates. On June 1 the first TV station in New Zealand begins broadcasting in Auckland. On June 1 (Wed.) Gerde's (Gerdes) Folk City in Greenwich Village, N.Y. begins holding weekly hootenannies, featuring folk singers Carolyn Hester (1937-), Logan Eberhardt English (1928-83), Charlie Rothschild (who later becomes Judy Collins' mgr.) et al., becoming one of the top three music venues on Earth along with The Cavern and CBGB, helping launch the careers of Bob Dylan et al. On June 4 the Taiwan island of Quemoy is hit by 500 artillery shells fired from the coast of Communist China. On June 4 (night) the Lake Bodom Murders in Espo, Finland (13 mi. W of Helsinki) sees four teen campers attacked by an assailant with a knife who kills three and wounds the 4th, Nils Wilhelm Gustafsson, after which he ends up a suspect in 2004 and is found not guilty in Oct. 2005. On June 5 Victor Paz Estenssoro is reelected pres. of Bolivia (until 1964), and shows his new reactionary stripes by using the army to suppress leftists, causing his MNR Party to fracture - stop living in the past, comrade? On June 7 JFK wins the Calif. Dem. primary. On June 10 Domino's Pizza is founded in Ypsilanti, Mich. by Thomas Stephen "Tom" Monaghan (1937-) and his brother after acquiring Domi-Nick's Pizzeria; its domino logo shows three dots, representing its first three stores; by 2015 it expands to 10K stores in 70+ countries after becoming the #2 largest pizza chain in the U.S. after Pizza Hut; in 1973 is launches a guarantee of your pizza free if it doesn't arrive within 30 min., reducing it to $3 off in the mid-1980s; in 1998 it is acquired by Bain Capital, who takes it public in 2004. On June 11 U.S. ambassadors Douglas MacArthur II and Jim Hagerty are attacked by a mob of 20K leftists at Tokyo's Haneda Airport, causing Ike (in Manila) to be warned by the Japanese cabinet on June 16 not to attend a planned visit; instead he goes to Formosa on a 125-ship 500-aircraft convoy of the Seventh Fleet, causing Radio Peking to call him a "god of plague" and to shell Quemoy Island while he's close enough to hear it, causing the press to call him the only chief of staff to get an 80K gun salute. On June 15 (midnight) the town of Kopperl, Tex. experiences "Satan's Storm", in which a heat burst from a dying thunderstorm causes superheated air to compress and fall on the town, bursting thermometers at 140F (60C), with wind gusts of up to 75 mph (121 km/hr), popping corn on the stalks. On June 15 violent demonstrations at Tokyo U. in Japan result in 182 arrests and 589 injuries. On June 15 BC Ferries in Victoria, B.C., Canada begins operation, becoming the 2nd largest ferry operator on Earth. On June 16 the XXIII (23rd) amendment to the U.S. Constitution is sent to the states to be ratified by the 86th Congress. On June 19 Freedomland U.S.A. amusement park in Bronx, N.Y. opens, with original music by Jule Styne, billed as "the World's Largest Entertainment Center", and created by Cornelius Vanderbilt Wood (1922-92), who selected the site of Disneyland in Anaheim, Calif.; it has the shape of the U.S, with guests entering at Washington, D.C.; too bad, it closes in 1964 after failing to make a profit and being plagued with mosquitoes and poor access, plus competition from the 1964 New York World's Fair. On June 20 French-speaking cotton-exporting 70% Muslim 25% animist Mali (Bambara "hippopotamus") (formerly French Sudan) (home of the Tuaregs, known for the Sahara Desert in the N, grasslands in the S, and the Niger Valley) becomes independent under the name Sudanese Repub., with capital at Bamako (Bambara "crocodile's back"), and is federated with the French-speaking 95% Sunni Muslim Repub. of Senegal (which also gains its independence on June 20) in the Mali Federation; too bad, on Aug. 20 Senegal secedes from the Mali Federation, with Socialist poet Leopold Sedar (Léopold Sédar) Senghor (1906-2001) as pres. #1 on Sept. 6 (until Dec. 31, 1980), and former PM (since 1957) Mamadou Dia (1910-2009) continuing as PM #1 (until Dec. 18, 1962); on Sept. 22 the Sudanese Repub. changes its name to the Repub. of Mali, with Muslim Socialist PM (since 1959) Modibo Keita (1915-77) becoming pres. #1 (until Nov. 19, 1968), going on to socialize the economy, starting with the creation in Oct. of the govt. monopoly Mali Import-Export Co. (SOMIEX), followed in 1962 by the establishment of the tidings-of-comfort-and-joy-not Malian franc, after which the welfare state hits a brick wall with inflation and shortages, leading to unrest; this doesn't stop him from cultivating good relations with the U.S., meeting with JFK in Sept. 1961 at the same time as Sukarno of Indonesia, and promoting pan-African unity. On June 20 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 5-4 in Flemming v. Nestor that Section 1104 of the 1935 U.S. Social Security Act (in which Congress reserves to itself the power to amend the benefits schedule) is constitutional, as is Section 202 (n), which terminates benefits for an alien deported for membership in the Communist Party, because a payer into the system obtains no property rights thereby, and is only protected by due process, which is satisfied because it's not irrational and arbitrary to think that beneficiaries will spend their payments in the U.S. and increase U.S. purchasing power et al. On June 20 The Bozo Show debuts on WGN-TV in Chicago, Ill. (until July 14, 2001), starring Robert Lewis "Bob" Bell (1922-97) as Bozo the Clown, Ray Rayner (Raymond M. Rahner) (1919-2004) as Oliver O. Oliver from Puff Bluffy, Ky., becoming the most popular and successful locally-produced children's show in TV history; watch. On June 23 Fidel Castro threatens to seize all U.S.-owned property in Cuba to stop "economic aggression", causing Ike on July 6 to cut the Cuban sugar quota by 95% and declare that the U.S. will never permit a regime "dominated by international Communism" to exist in the Western Hemisphere, pissing-off Khrushchev, who threatens on July 9 to use Soviet ICBMs to protect Cuba from U.S. invasion, followed on July 12 by the soundbyte that the 1823 Monroe Doctrine has "died a natural death", causing the U.S. to reaffirm the doctrine on July 14 and accuse the Soviets of trying to set up a rival "Bolshevik Doctrine" to push world Communism. On June 24 Martin Luther King Jr. meets with John F. Kennedy to discuss guess what. On June 24 Joseph Kasavubu (Kasa-Vubu) (1910-69), leader of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) Party is elected pres. #1 of the Repub. of Congo (Leopoldville) (which becomes independent of Belgium), taking office on June 26 (until Nov. 24, 1965). On June 24 Venezuelan pres. (since 1959) Romulo Betancourt surives an assassination attempt in Caracas institgated by Dominican Repub. fascist dictator (since 1930) Rafael Trujillo, who had been pissed-off at him going to the Org. of Am. States to present his case against his regime; too bad, it backfires when Betancourt defiantly appears with badly burned hands on TV, looking like a Raging Bull trailer, and public opinion is inflamed, causing Trujillo's fall next year. On June 25 the first black customer is served at the Woolworth's counter in Greensboro, N.C. - you got everything you need, right, chicken breasts, parsley, onions, and garlic? On June 26 British Somaliland becomes independent from the U.K., and on July 1 is united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Repub.. On June 26 the Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar) becomes independent. On June 27 Ike returns to Washington, D.C., his personal diplomacy efforts in ruin, uttering the soundbyte "After all, Communists will act like Communists"; the Cold War is back bigtime. On June 30 the Repub. of the Congo (capital Leopoldville) is granted independence from Belgium, with Patrice Lumumba as PM, and Joseph Kasavubu as pres.; on July 11 after the Congolese army mutinies against the remaining Belgian officers, Belgian-appointed Christian anti-Communist pro-Western Moise Kapenda Tshombe (1919-69) leads a Belgian-backed secession in mineral-rich Katanga Province in SE Congo (W of Lake Tanganyika), which is controlled by the Belgian Union Miniere and produces weapons-grade uranium, raising the stakes and bringing in internat. intrigue; on July 14 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (France, U.K., China) for Resolution 143, calling on Belgium to withdraw its troops and deciding to send U.N. troops (supported by Ghana, Guinea and India), led by U.N. secy.-gen. Dag Hammarskjold to Katanga to oversee the withdrawal, starting the Congo Crisis (ends Nov. 25, 1965), featuring an anti-colonial struggle, a secessionist war, a U.N. peacekeeping operation, and a Cold War proxy battle between the dueling superpowers U.S. and Soviet Union, who lust for all that uranium ore and other minerals; on Sept. 5 Lumumba appoints Machiavelli-thumping ("one of my favorite books)" journalist (former soldier, and one big mean dude) Joseph Desire (Joseph-Désiré) Mobutu (1930-97) as army chief of staff, who gets pissed-off at the U.N. forces for not helping him crush the secessionists and turns to the Soviet Union, which sends massive military aid incl. 1K technical advisors, causing the U.S. to kick Repub. of the Congo pres. #1 (1960-5) Joseph Kasavubu (1910-69) in the pants, after which he fires the govt. of Patrice Lumumba and has him placed under house arrest, causing Lumumba to declare Kasavubu deposed and call on Mobutu to arrest him instead; on Sept. 14 after consulting his Machiavelli, Mobutu leads a CIA-backed military coup, placing Lumumba under house arrest for a 2nd time, and keeping Kasavubu as pres., then ordering the Soviets to leave, accusing Lumumba of Commie sympathies to gain U.S. support, causing him to flee to Stanleyville, where he is captured on Dec. 1, sent to Katanga, then tortured and assassinated next Jan. 17, causing the U.N. Security Council next Feb. 21 to vote 9-0-0 (France, Soviet Union) to adopt Resolution 161, urging the withdrawal of Belgian and other foreign military and mercenary troops and launching an investigation into Lumumba's death, causing the Soviet Union to seek unsuccessfully to get the office of secy.-gen. replaced by a 3-man troika; meanwhile on Nov. 14 Belgium threatens to leave the U.N. if it doesn't stop criticizing its Congo policy, after which on Nov. 22 the U.N. supports Kasavubu and Mobutu anyway; next Nov. 24 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-0 (France, U.K.) to adopt Resolution 169, On June 30 leftist demonstrations in Italy against the crypto-fascist Italian Socialist Movement are bloodily suppressed by police. On June 30 The Washington Post quotes Pres. Eisenhower as saying that Thomas Paine is his 2nd favorite patriot next to George Washington; Pres. Theodore Roosevelt once called TP a "dirty little atheist". On July 1 cocoa-producing Ghana gains its independence from the U.K., with Marxist Kwame Nkrumah (1909-72) as pres. #1 (until Feb. 24, 1966), who gets Mali to join the Union of African States next Apr. while instituting state socialism, only to run up against a brick wall as the welfare state causes inflation and shortages. On July 1 the Soviets shoot down a USAF RB-47 recon plane in the Barents Sea, capturing all six crew and sticking them in horrid Lubyanka Prison in Moscow, then using the incident to put more pressure on Ike over the Gary Powers affair, vetoing a U.S.-sponsored U.N. resolution calling for an impartial investigation - let's make room for big bucks? On July 1 Somalia achieves independence, with Aden Abdullah (Abdulle) "Aden Adde" Osman Daar (1908-2007) as pres. #1 (until June 10, 1967), and Abdi Rashid (Abdirashid) Ali Shermarke (1919-69) as PM #3 (until June 14, 1964), pursuing a neutral non-aligned foreign policy. On July 1 the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. ("Rocket City, USA") is created from the Redstone Arsenal, and dedicated on Sept. 8 by Pres. Ike. On July 4 the 50-star flag makes its debut in Philadelphia as the 50th star is added for Hawaii by Congress (design #27); 17-y.-o. Robert G. "Bob" Heft (1941-) of Saginaw, Mich. designs the 50-Star U.S. Flag for his high school history class - is the Man on the Moon Flag next? On July 4 Uruguay experiences its first heavy snowfall until ?. On July 9 a boat carrying a man (James Honeycutt) and two children capsizes in the Niagara River, and 7-y.o. Roger Woodward (1953-) goes over Niagara Horseshoe Falls and miraculously survives with a slight concussion; the man is killed, and the girl, 17-y.-o. Deanne Woodward is fished out before going over Canadian Falls. On July 11 the Czechoslovak Repub. changes its name to Czechoslovak Socialist Repub. On June 11 a Gallup poll gives Kennedy a 52-48 lead over Nixon, which rises to 55-45 after the Dem. Nat. Convention. The beginning of America's Camelot? On July 11-15 (Mon.-Fri.) the 1960 Dem. Nat. Convention is held at the Memorial Sports Arena in Los Angeles, Calif.; despite a nominating speech for Adlai E. Stevenson by Minn. Sen. Eugene McCarthy, backed by Eleanor Roosevelt, and more opposition from Sen. Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, on July 13 (167 years after Jean-Paul Marat is stabbed in his bath by Charlotte Corday in 1893) 43-y.-o. Mass. Sen. John F. Kennedy is nominated for pres. on the 1st ballot with 806 votes (youngest pres. candidate and 2nd Catholic pres. candidate in U.S. history after Alfred E. Smith in 1928), giving his New Frontier Acceptance Speech, mentioning a "New Frontier - the frontier of the 1960s - the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils - the frontier of unfulfilled hopes and unfilled threats... It sums up, not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them"; "Today our concern must be with that future. For the world is changing. The old era is ending. The old ways will not do. Abroad, the balance of power is shifting. New and more terrible weapons are coming into use. One-third of the world may be free, but one-third is the victim of a cruel repression, and the other third is rocked by poverty and hunger and disease. Communist influence has penetrated into Asia, it stands in the Middle East, and now festers some ninety miles off the coast of Florida. Friends have slipped into neutrality and neutrals have slipped into hostility. As our keynoter reminded us, the President who began his career by going to Korea ends it by staying away from Japan"; he ends with "Give me your help and your hand and your voice"; Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger utters the soundbyte that if JFK is elected she will "find another place to live"; despite JFK wanting Mo. Sen. Stuart Symington, less-than-clean Lyndon B. Johnson is nominated for vice-pres. to strengthen the Dem. ticket in the South and "annul him as majority leader" (according to Jackie Kennedy) to prevent him from blocking JFK's agenda; why Johnson accepts a step-down in power to become vice-pres. remains a matter of speculation (unless you subscribe to the conspiracy theory that he waited in the wings at JFK's assassination?) ("I guess he was drunk, wasn't he?" - Jackie Kennedy); LBJ later attacks JFK's father Joseph P. Kennedy (one of the 12 richest men in the U.S., who uses his dough to help his son win every primary) at a press conference, saying "My father never carried an umbrella for Chamberlain", which makes Robert Kennedy forever hate his guts?; Kennedy's campaign theme is that U.S. prestige is slipping and Americans must move ahead; "K-E-Double-N-E-D-Y/ Jack's the nation's favorite guy/ Everyone wants to back Jack/ Jack is on the right track"; 7M new Dem. voters are registered vs. only 3M Repub. voters. On July 18 after Nobosuke Kishi resigns over the adverse leftist reaction to the U.S., pro-Western minister of internat. trade and industry Hayato Ikeda (1899-1965) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to U.S. Gen. Colin Luther Powell (1937-)?) is elected as the 9th postwar PM of Japan (until 1964), setting a nat. goal of doubling the GNP in 10 years based on increased public spending while attempting to control interest rates and inflation. On July 20 Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916-2000), widow of slain Sri Lanka Freedom Party leader Solomon Bandaranaike is elected PM of Ceylon (until 1965), taking office on July 21 and becoming the first elected female PM ever. On July 22 the Quiet Rev. begins in Quebec with the coming to office of PM #19 Jean Lesage (1912-80) and his Liberal Party (until June 16, 1966), replacing the late Maurice Duplessis and his "duplessisme", which had held Quebec behind the times in "les annees noires" (the Dark Ages); Michel Brunet's "three dominant components of French Canadian thought" (agriculturalism, anti-statism, and messianism) are rejected in favor of secularist Socialism and nationalism, and Quebec goes from the least to the most taxed province. On July 24 two buses collide on Mount Hiei in Otsu, Shiga, Japan and plunge 270 ft. into a valley, killing 30 and injuring 16. On July 25-28 the 1960 Repub. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. nominates 47-y.-o. vice-pres. Richard M. Nixon (a Quaker) for pres., former Mass. Sen. (1936-44) and U.S. U.N. rep. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. for vice-pres.; Nixon gives his 1960 Acceptance Speech, with the soundbye "Let's first examine what our opponents offered in Los Angeles two weeks ago. They claimed theirs was a new program, but you know what it was? It was simply the same old proposition that a political party should be all things to all men, and nothing more than that. And they... promised everything to everybody, with one exception: they didn't promise to pay the bill"; Nixon's campaign theme is hard-line anti-Communism, free enterprise, and individual responsibiity (and licking the feet of the Military-Industrial Complex?), and Lodge is chosen to divert JFK's resources to his home state of Mass., plus to contrast his U.N. experience with JFK's inexperience, but alienates the South by pledging (without his prior approval) that Nixon will name at least one black to a cabinet post; Ike calls Kennedy "that boy" (a young upstart), but stabs Tricky Dicky Nixon in the back by saying "Dick just isn't presidential timber"; "Come and click with Dick/ The one that none can lick/ He's the man to lead the U.S.A./ So let's all click with Dick" - that's do or don't lick Dick? On July 29 a Gallup poll gives Nixon a 51-49 lead over Kennedy, which rises to 53-47 a week later, but by Aug. is neck-in-neck. On July 29 after freedom of assembly and speech is proclaimed, gen. elections are held in South Korea, and the Dem. Party wins more than two-thirds of the nat. assembly seats; on Aug. 13 liberal Yun Po Sun (1897-1990) is sworn-in as pres. (until 1962); on Aug. 19 U.S.-educated John Myun Chang becomes PM (until 1961). On July 29 a NASA rocket test in Cape Canaveral witnessed by the Mercury astronauts fails to lift off, going up in a fireball. On July 30 60K Buddhist monks march in protest of the pro-Catholic Diem regime in Vietnam. In July the Chamizal Convention to resolve a cent.-long border dispute near El Paso, Tex. caused by the shifting of the path of the Rio Grand River after a flood in 1864 is signed by reps. of the U.S. and Mexico; LBJ signs it next Jan. 4, and in Apr. the U.S. Congress approves it; on Sept. 25, 1964 LBJ and Mexican pres. Adofo Lopez Mateos meet at the Internat. Bridge in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez to officially approve it amid a crowd of 250K. On Aug. 1 after a nat. referendum confirms him as pres. Pakistan dictator Mohammed Ayub Khan declares Rawalpindi to be the new capital, replacing Karachi, and sets up a system of "basic democracies" to administer local affairs, with members elected by constuencies of 800-1K adults. On Aug. 1 Dahomey in W Africa achieves full independence under pres. #1 Coutoucou Hubert Maga (1916-2000) (until Oct. 22, 1963). On Aug. 2 former PM (1952, 1953) (Sunni Muslim) Saeb Salam (1905-2000) becomes PM of Lebanon again (until Oct. 31, 1961), going on to oppose a police state and political interference by the military even after he leaves office, returning as PM on Oct. 13, 1970 (until Apr. 25, 1973). On Aug. 3 French-speaking Niger (pop. 6.5M, 54% Hausa, 24% Songhai and Djerma, 11% Peul; 90% Islam, 10% animist and Christian) proclaims its independence, and PM (since 1958) Hamani Diori (1916-89) becomes pres. #1 (until Apr. 15, 1974), sinking into nepotism and corruption until he is ousted by a military coup. On Aug. 5 Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) declares independence from France, with Maurice Yameogo (Yaméogo) (1921-93) of the Voltaic Dem. Union as pres. #1 (until Jan. 3, 1966), who bans all opposition parties, leading to increasing demonstrations and strikes until the military is forced to intervene and oust him. On Aug. 6 Cuba nationalizes foreign-owned (esp. U.S.) property. On Aug. 6 the appearance of Chubby Checker (Ernest Evans) (1941-) on the Dick Clark Saturday Night Show to perform Let's Do the Twist (a cover of "The Twist" by Hank Ballard) launches the U.S. Twist Craze, giving rock and roll its first signature dance, with just enough suggestion of wild animal sexuality to upset the square grownups; the first Twist record was "The Twist", the B-side of "Teardrops On Your Letter" (1959) by Hank Ballard; the fad actually starts at the Peppermint Lounge, a New York City nightclub located in the Knickerbocker Hotel at 128 West 45th St., where the multiracial group Joey Dee and the Starliters record the million-selling Peppermint Twist (released 1961) and other Twist records. On Aug. 7 Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire) becomes independent from the French Union, with "Papa" Felix Houphouet-Boigny (Houphouët-Boigny) (1905-93) as PM #1 (until Nov. 27), then pres. #1 (until Dec. 7, 1993), enjoying one of the most developed economies in sub-Saharan Africa as the world's largest exporter of cocoa and a leading exporter pineapples, palm oil, and coffee; for the next two decades the Ivorean Miracle sees the GDP grow by 10% a year; too bad, the N is dominated by Muslims, the S by Christians (mostly Roman Catholics), and other areas by non-Muslims (mostly animists) - ivory, fugeddaboutit? He talks to ducks, of course he does? On Aug. 8 Albert Kalonji (1929-2015) proclaims the independence of South Kasai (home of the Baluba) from the Dem. Repub. of Congo, following the example of neighboring Katanga; the capital is at Bakwanga (Mbuji-Mayi); next Apr. 12 he assumes the title of emperor Albert I Kalonji, after which Congolese troops reconquer the region and arrest him on Dec. 30, 1961, then divide the region to discourage another separatist movement; on Sept. 7, 1962 he escapes from prison and sets up a new govt., but is captured again within 1 mo. On Aug. 9 a military coup led by paratroop Capt. Kong Le ousts the pro-Western govt. in Laos, causing the king on Aug. 15 to ask Prince Souvanna Phouma to form a new govt. On Aug. 10 the Canadian Bill of Rights is enacted by the Canadian parliament, attempting to ape the U.S. Bill of Rights without being part of their constitution; after it proves ineffective, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is adopted in 1982. On Aug. 11 no-longer-hanging autonomous French repub. Chad (home of the Bodele Depression, the world's largest dust patch?) achieves independence under Francois (N'Garta) Tombalbaye (1918-75), who becomes the first pres. and PM (until Apr. 13, 1975), ruling as a dictator until the military assassinates him. On Aug. 12 Echo 1, the first balloon communications satellite is launched by the U.S. from Cape Canaveral, and the first 2-way telephone conversation by satellite takes place over it on Aug. 13, after which coast-to-coast U.S. TV transmissions become possible; Am. inventor Gilmore Tilmen Schjeldahl (1913-2002) pastes together the 100-ft. sphere coated with Mylar and vaporized aluminum with his own adhesive. On Aug. 13 David Dacko (1930-2003) proclaims the independence of the Central African Repub. (CAR) from France, with capital at Bangui on the Oubangui River in the S, and on Aug. 14 he becomes pres. #1 (until Jan. 1, 1966), trying to handle 80+ ethnic groups with 80+ different languages, incl. Baya, Banda, Mandjia, and Sara, and a pop. that is 25% Protestant, 25% Roman Catholic, and 15% Muslim. On Aug. 15 the Repub. of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) proclaims independence from France, with Roman Catholic priest Abbe Fulbert Youlou ("grape") (1917-72) as pres. #1 (until Aug. 15, 1963), starting out pro-economic liberalism and anti-Communist and degenerating into a 1-party system that imprisons union leaders in Aug. 1963, leading to the Trois Glorieuses Rev. that causes him to resign. On Aug. 16 Britain grants independence to the crown colony of Cyprus under the London-Zurich Agreements, ending 88 years of colonial rule; the British-administered sovereign base areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are created in the treaty of establishment; Greek Orthodox archbishop Makarios III (1913-77) (who was deported in Mar. 1956) is elected pres. #1 (until 1974), presiding over an enternal war between Greeks and Turks for control. On Aug. 16 American test pilot Joseph W. Kittinger (1928-) makes a parachute jump over N.M. from 102,800 ft. alt. (19.3 mi.) out of a gondola lifted by a 360-ft. helium balloon, the highest alt. ever reached by man in non-powered flight (until ?); his freefall lasts 4 min. 36 sec., and he becomes the first man to exceed the speed of sound without an aircraft or space vehicle since Superman, along with fastest unaided human speed (614 mph). On Aug. 17 Gabon gains independence from France, with capital at Libreville, and next Feb. 12 PM (since 1957) Gabriel Leon Mba (M'ba) (1902-67) (pr. UM-bah) becomes pres. #1 of Gabon (until Nov. 28, 1967); women are granted the right to vote. On Aug. 19 the Soviet Union launches Sputnik 5 (Korabl-Sputnik 2), carrying spacedogs Strelka (Rus. "Little Arrow") and Belka (Russ. "Squirrel"), who return safely to Earth on Aug. 20, along with 40 mice, two rats, and a bunch of plants. On Aug. 22 the Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Mass. begins operation, becoming the 3rd nuclear power plant in the U.S. and the first in New England; closed in 1992. On Aug. 24 Ike holds a press conference in which they ask him "What major decisions of your administration has the vice-president participated in?", and he replies "If you give me a week, I might think of one" - cut him off at the pass, I hate that cliche? On Aug. 24 Vostok Station, Antarctica (near the geomagnetic South Pole) sets the world record low temp. at -126.9 F (-88 C). On Aug. 25 the USS Seadragon (SSN-584) surfaces at the North Pole so the crew can play softball - we Yanks is king of da world? On Aug. 25-Sept. 11 the XVII (17th) Summer Olympic Games are held in Rome, Italy in the new Palazzo dello Sport (PalaLottomatica) (opened 1960) and Palazzetto dello Sport (Sports Palace) (opened 1957); 5,338 athletes from 83 nations compete in 150 events in 17 sports; the last appearance for South Africa until 1992; the Soviets win 15 of 16 medals in women's gymnastics; the Japanese men's gymnastics team wins the first of five successive golds (until 1976); future King Constantine II of Greece wins a gold in Dragon Class sailing; former polio patient "La Gazella" Wilma Rudolph (1940-94) becomes the first African-Am. to win three gold medals in a single Olympics (100m, 200m, 4 x 100m relay); barefoot Ethiopian Abebe Bikila (1932-73) wins the marathon, becoming the first black African to win a gold; dominating Herbert James "Herb" Elliott (1938-) of Australia wins the 1500m in 3 min. 35.6 sec.; the 100m men's freestyle swimming race is marred by officials who reverse the automatic timers and award the win to John Devitt (1937-) of Australia over Lance Melvin Larson (1940-) of the U.S., who receives a gold medal for the butterfly leg of the men's 4x100m medley relay along with Frank McKinney (backstroke), Paul Hait (breaststroke), and Jeff Farrell (freestyle), setting a world record of 4:05.4; Armin Hary (1937-) of West Germany (known for rumors of accepting cash under the table to wear Adidas and/or Puma shoes) wins the gold in the 100m with a time of 10.2 sec., becoming the first non-U.S. winner since Percy Williams of Canada in 1928; Rafer Lewis Johnson (1935-) of the U.S. defeats friend-rival "Iron Man of Asia" C.K. Yang (Yang Chuan-kwan) (1933-2007) of Taiwan in the decathlon; on Aug. 26 Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapses then dies in the hospital (2nd Olympic athlete death since 1912), and amphetamines are found in his blood; on Sept. 5 6'3" Louisville, Ky.-born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. (1942-2016) (later Muhammad Ali) wins a gold medal in light-heavyweight boxing, and returns to the U.S. to find he's still treated like an N-word, later throwing it in the Ohio River after being refused service at a Louisville diner while wearing it around his neck; he goes 100-5 in his amateur career; the U.S. men's basketball team under U. of Calif. coach (1954-60) Peter Francis "Pete" Newell (1915-2008), incl. Oscar Robertson, Jerry Lucas, Jerry West, and Terry Dischinger wins the gold; Pakistan becomes the first team to defeat India in men's field hockey since 1928 (six golds), winning its first gold - IOC, a family company? On Aug. 29-Sept. 14 Category 5 (160 mph) Hurricane Donna hits the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Fla., ruining the fruit crop, causing $900M in damage and killing 364. In Aug. exiled Cuban politician (PM in 1948-50) Manuel Antonio de Varona y Loredo (1908-92) strikes a deal with Mafia boss Meyer Lansky to back his CIA-sponsored Cuban govt.-in-exile in return for backing the reopening of his gambling empire. On Sept. 1-2 striking workers shut down the Penn. Railroad for the first time. On Sept. 2 Tibetan Democracy Day sees the first elections for parliament held in Tibet. On Sept. 5 Sombo Amba "Joseph" Ileo (1921-94) becomes PM #2 of Congo; on Sept. 20 Albert Ndele (1930-) becomes PM #3 (until Feb. 9, 1961), and Ileo becomes minister of information. On Sept. 6 Uruguay breaks off diplomatic relations with the Dominican Repub., and on Nov. 16 Uruguayan pres. Nardone states that internat. Communism has made Uruguay a base for operations. You won't have any more weak presidents of the GDR to pieck on? On Sept. 7 If-I-were-a-carpenter-and-you-were-a-Commie pres. #1 (since 1949) Wilhelm Pieck (b. 1876) dies, and on Sept. 12 central committee gen. secy. (since July 25, 1950) Walter Ulbricht (1893-1973) becomes first secy. (chmn. of the state council) of the German Dem. Repub. (East Germany) (until Aug. 1, 1973), becoming a despot who resists destalinization; on Sept. 8 wasting no time, Ulbricht announces permanent restrictions on travel by West Germans to East Berlin, requiring a Communist police pass, causing the Allies to cry that the 4-power agreement on Berlin is being violated - the point is that you have to reclaim it at the other window? On Sept. 9 Hardee's fast food restaurant chain is founded in Greenville, N.C. by Wilbert Hardee (1918-2008), becoming known for distinctive "charboiled thickburgers" incl. the Huskee, and hexagonal bldgs. with pointed roofs, even the hamburgers, expanding to 4K locations in the U.S. before being acquired by Imasco in 1981, then contracting to 2K locations by 1997, when it is acquired by Carl's Jr. On Sept. 10 (Sat.) the B&W Western series The Tall Man debuts on NBC-TV for 75 episodes (until Sept. 1, 1962), set in Lincoln, N.M., starring 6'3" Patrick Barry Sullivan (1912-94) as Sheriff Pat Garrett, and William Martin "Clu" Gulager (1928-) as Billy the Kid (William H. Bonney); an episode depicting Garrett killing the Kid is never filmed. On Sept. 11 a West German Panzer battalion begins a 3-week training program in Castlemartin, South Wales; on Sept. 20 journalists get to watch them in action shelling five WWII Churchill tanks. On Sept. 11 Ralph Smart's Danger Man (AKA Secret Agent in the U.S.) debuts on BBC-TV for 86 episodes (until Jan. 12, 1968), starring Patrick Joseph McGoohan (1928-2009) as secret agent John Drake. On Sept. 12 pres. candidate John F. Kennedy addresses the Greater Houston Ministerial Assoc. in Tex., and draws applause when he says that he believes in the complete separation of church and state, and that if he ever felt conflicted he would resign, with the soundbyte: "Because I am a Catholic and no Catholic has ever been elected president, the real issues in this campaign have been obscured, perhaps deliberately, in some quarters less responsible than this. So it is apparently necessary for me to state once again, not what kind of church I believe in for that should be important only to me, but what kind of America I believe in. I believe in an America where the separation of church and state is absolute, where no Catholic prelate would tell the president (should he be a Catholic) how to act and no Protestant minister would tell his parishioners for whom to vote, where no church school is granted any public funds or political preference, and where no man is denied public office merely because his religion differs from the president who might appoint him or the people who might elect him." On Sept. 14 after Pres. Dimwit, er, Dwight Eisenhower forces quotas on Venezuelan oil in favor of Canada and Mexico, claiming military reasons, Venezuelan energy minister Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo (1903-79) (known for calling oil the Devil's excrement) gets together with Middle Eastern oil countries, and OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries) is founded in Baghdad, Iraq by Kuwait, Qatar, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (later Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela); their first action is to force Standard Oil of N.J. to retract its 4-14 cents per barrel decrease of oil prices - why not call it VIKISA? On Sept. 17 (Sat.) (8:30-9:30 p.m.) the detective series Checkmate debuts on CBS-TV for 70 episodes (until Sept. 1, 1962), starring Anthony (Ottavio Gabriel) George (1921-2005) as Don Corey, and Douglas Osborne "Doug" McClure (1935-95) as Jed Sills, who run the Checkmate Inc. detective agency in San Francisco, Calif. at 3330 Union St.; Charles Sebastian Thomas Cabot (1918-77) plays their advisor Dr. Carl Hyatt, who has a pet dachshund named Bismarck; Kenneth E. "Ken" Lynch (1910-90) plays Police Lt. Thomas Brand. On Sept. 18 cigar-puffing Fidel Castro (1926-2016) arrives in New York City and is cheered by thousands; on Sept. 19 he angrily checks out of the Shelbourne Hotel in a dispute with the management, and is offered free lodging at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, where he is visited by Nehru, Malcolm X, and other dignitaries - these pretty women are just my nieces, isn't my Communist Express card good? On Sept. 18 (Sun.) the drama series National Velvet, based on the 1944 film debuts on NBC-TV for 58 episodes (until Sept. 17, 1962), starring Lori Martin (Dawn Catherine Menzer) (1947-2010) as Velvet Brown, who had her haired dyed black during the competitive auditions (contestant #975) to look more like Elizabeth Taylor, then had her name changed by the studio. On Sept. 18 (Sun.) the sitcom The Tab Hunter Show debuts on NBC-TV for 32 episodes (until Apr. 30, 1961), starring closet gay hunk Tab Hunter (Arthur Andrew Kelm) (1931-) as "Bachelor at Large" comic strip cartoonist Paul Morgan, who gets into amorous hetero adventures around Malibu Beach, Calif.; he gets the part after losing the role of Tony in the 1961 film "West Side Story" to Richard Beymer, and being acquitted by a jury for beating his dog Fritz; too bad, it has to compete with "The Ed Sullivan Show", and doesn't last er, long. On Sept. 19 (Mon.) (10:00 p.m.) the half-hour anthology drama series The Barbara Stanwyck Show debuts on NBC-TV for 36 episodes (until Sept. 11, 1961), starring hostess Barbara Stanwyck (Ruby Catherine Stevens) (1907-90) in all but four episodes in a failed attempt to spin-off a dramatic series about Am. Josephine Little, who runs an import-export shop in Hong Kong. On Sept. 19 six guerrilla bands of U.S.-trained Cuban exiles (one for each province), trained in Ft. Trax, which is housed in a Guatemalan coffee plantation beneath Sierra Madre (owned by Roberto Alejos, brother of the Guatemalan ambassador to the U.S.) are called off from infiltrating Cuba when the futility of taking on 400K troops equipped with 28K tons of Soviet and Chinese military supplies is realized; instead, German-born CIA operative "Frank Bender", real name Gerry Droller (1905-) defies orders to stand down, telling exiled leader Pepe San Roman that the U.S. will back a full exile-led amphibious invasion with U.S. troops, but not informing his superiors. On Sept. 19 Indian PM Pandit Nehru and Pakistani pres. Mohammed Ayub Khan sign an agreement on the joint use of Indus River water. On Sept. 20 14 nations join the U.S.: Cameroon, CAR, Chad, People's Repub. of the Congo (Brazzaville), Dem. Repub. of the Congo (Kinshasa), Cyprus, Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Malagasy Repub., Niger, Somalia, Togo, Upper Volta, followed by Mali and Senegal on Sept. 28, and Nigeria on Oct. 7. On Sept. 21 Khrushchev arrives in the U.S. for 25 days to attend a U.N. session, shoe in hand. On Sept. 22 the 15K-ton hospital ship HOPE (Health Opportunities for People Everywhere) (a refitted mothballed U.S. Navy WWII hospital ship) leaves San Francisco for Indonesia to give free medical help; it retires in Sept. 1974 after traveling 250K mi. On Sept. 24 the Internat. Development Assoc. (IDA) in Washington, D.C. is established by the U.S. within the World Bank to make long-term interest-free loans to the poorest developing countries; it goes on to lend $120B to 100+ countries by the end of the cent. On Sept. 24 "The Howdy Doody Show" (begun 1947) ends, with its final episode showing tearful mute Clarabell the Clown, played by "Honey Dreamers" singing group member Lew Anderson (1922-2006) breaking his act to speak the show's final words "Goodbye, kids" - millions of U.S. baby boomers learn a lesson about reality? On Sept. 24 the USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier is launched. On Sept. 26 candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon (both former WWII naval officers from the Swing Generation) meet in Chicago, Ill. in the First Kennedy-Nixon Debate, the first-ever televised U.S. presidential debate, carried by all three U.S. networks and hosted by Howard K. Smith of CBS-TV; "60 Minutes" creator Donald S. "Don" Hewitt (1922-2009) is exec producer; more debates follow on Oct. 7, Oct. 13 and Oct. 21; 3M out of 4M viewers who are swayed by the debates go with JFK; on Oct. 7 after he refuses makeup, the debate shows unpowdered Nixon sweaty and nervous, causing TV viewers to go for JFK for his cool looks and disposition rather than substance, even though radio listeners go with Nixon, setting the model for future debates; Kennedy's Catholicism causes many Americans to vote on religious lines, even though he claims "I am not the Catholic candidate for president"; Kennedy was coached by future "Bonnie and Clyde" dir. Arthur Hiller Penn (1922-2010) to look directly at the camera and keep his responses brief and pithy; too bad, Kennedy lies during the debates that there is a U.S-Soviet "missile gap", when actually the Soviets have 300 and the U.S. has 6K; he also lies about his intentions about Cuba without actually lying, with the soundbyte: "The Republicans have allowed a Communist dictatorship to flourish eight jet minutes from our borders. We must support anti-Castro fighters. So far these freedom fighters have received no help from our government." On Sept. 26 Fidel Castro gives his longest U.N. speech so far (4 hrs. 29 min.), during which he calls JFK "an illiterate and ignorant millionaire", and utters the immortal soundbyte: "When the philosophy of robbery disappears, then the philosophy of war will disappear" - no need to debate with anybody? On Sept. 27 ABC-TV debuts Bell and Howell Closeup, their first news documentary series in primetime, hosted by John Daly. On Sept. 28 Norway signs an agreement with Britain permitting British trawlers to fish within 6 mi. of their coast for 10 years, after which the limit goes to 12 mi. On Sept. 29 (Thur.) My Three Sons debuts on ABC-TV for 380 episodes (until Aug. 24, 1972) (2nd longest-running sitcom after "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet"), starring Fred Martin MacMurray (1908-91) as a widowed aeronautical engineer, who raises his three sons Tim Considine (1940-) as Michael "Mike" Douglas, Don Grady (Agrati) (1944-) as Robert "Robbie" Douglas, and Stanley Livingston (1950-) as Richard "Chip Douglas, and later adopts Barry Livingston (1953-) as Ernest "Ernie" Thompson; William Clement Frawley (1887-1966) plays grumpy maternal grandfather Bub O'Casey, who is replaced because of bad health in 1965 (when it switches to CBS-TV) by William Demarest (1892-1983), who plays his brother Charley, causing Frawley to become disgruntled. On Sept. 30 the U.N. admits 15 African nations. On Sept. 30 the West German cabinet announces that it will break off trade relations with East Germany effective Jan. 1, 1961 if they don't lift their travel restrictions, but caves in on Dec. 29 and extends the trade pact. On Sept. 30 (Fri.) Hanna-Barbera's animated prime time TV series The Flintstones debuts on ABC-TV (until Apr. 1, 1966), about "modern" working class Stone Age couple Fred and Wilma Flintstone in Bedrock and their friends Barney and Betty Rubble, becoming the most successful animated network series until "The Simpsons" in 1989; later babies Pebbles Flintstone and Bamm-Bamm Rubble make their debut; during the end credits pet saber-toothed cat Baby Puss throws Fred out of the house. On Sept. 30 (Fri.) Sam Peckinpah's highbrow B&W Western series The Westerner debuts on NBC-TV for 13 episodes (until Dec. 30, 1960), starring Brian Keith (1921-97) as drifter cowhand Dave Blassingame, who ditches his dog Brown (Spike of "Old Yeller" fame, trained by Frank Weatherwax) after stealing a lost govt. payroll. In Sept. the Dillon Round of GATT (named after U.S. treasury secy. Douglas Dillon) begins (ends 1962), with 26 countries meeting in Geneva and reducing over $4.9B in tariffs; followed by the Kennedy Round (1964-7). In Sept. U.S. Cuba-based Mafia bosses Salvatore "Sam the Cigar" "Momo" "Mooney" Giancana (Giangana) (1908-75) of Chicago and Santo Trafficante Jr. (1914-87) of Fla. are contacted by CIA go-between Robert Aime Maheu (1917-2008) about assassinating Fidel Castro, and after Giancana suggests it they unsuccessfully try getting poison pills slipped into his food - they hadn't invented Pop Rocks yet? In Sept. JFK meets with NASA chief James Webb, and expresses doubts about the Moon Program. In Sept. Playboy mag. begins carrying the erotic art of Peruvian painter Alberto Vargas (1896-1982), known as Vargas Girls; he stops painting when his wife Anna Mae dies in 1974. In the fall the U.S. creates the Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff (JSTPS), which in Dec. issues the first Single Integrated Operations Plan (SIOP), with its own security classification of ESI (Extremely Sensitive Info.), permitting a multi-service plan of nuclear attack on America's foes; the Nat. Target Base (NTB) eventually contains 150K+ sites around the world, of which 16K are targeted for nukes by 1985, dropping to 2.5K in 1995 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. New Law & Order on Shoe Day on N-BBC? On Oct. 1 (Shoe Day Minus Eleven) Nigeria declares independence from Britain, and is admitted to U.N. membership as a loose federation of self-governing states with 250 ethnic and linguistic groups; on Nov. 16 U.S.-educated Igbo gen. Benjamin Nnamdi (Igbo "My father is alive") "Zik" Azikiwe (1904-96) becomes gov.-gen. #3 of Nigeria (first native) (until Oct. 1, 1963), also becoming the first Nigerian on the Queen's privy council, founding the African liberation philosophy of Zikism, with the five principles of spiritual balance, social regeneration, economic determination, mental emancipation, and political resurgence, uttering the soundbyte "The challenge of Nigeria as a free state in 20th century Africa is the need to revive the stature of man in Africa and restore the dignity of man in the world"; Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912-66) (Muslim) (who was knighted in Jan. by Elizabeth II of Britain and awarded an honorary doctorate in May by the U. of Sheffield) becomes PM #1 of Nigeria (until Jan. 15, 1966), going on to lead the protest against the Sharpeville Massacre, enter an alliance with Commonwealth ministers who want South Africa expelled in 1961, and become a founder of the Org. of African Unity (OAU) in 1963. On Oct. 1 (Sat.) The Shari Lewis Show debuts on NBC-TV (until Sept. 28, 1963), replacing "The Howdy Doody Show", starring Bronx, N.Y.-born ventriloquist Shari Lewis (Phyllis Naomi Hurwitz) (1933-98) and her sock puppets Lamb Chop, a 6-y.-o. sheep with a New York accent, Hush Puppy, Charlie Horse, and Wing Ding, a black crow, which she later drops. On Oct. 3 after blaming high inflation on incumbent (since 1956) Juscelino Kubitschek, Sao Paolo gov. (since 1955) Janio da Silva Quadros (1917-92) is elected pres. #25 of Brazil by a landslide, taking office next Jan. 31 (until Aug. 25, 1961), going on to establish relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba, outlaw gambling, and ban women from wearing bikinis; too bad, his Commie alignment turns off the Nat. Dem. Union, which leaves him powerless, and he doesn't last long. On Oct. 4 Eastern Air Lines Flight 375 (Lockheed L-188) crashes on takeoff from Boston Airport in Mass. after it runs into a flock of 10K starlings, killing 62 of 72 aboard - Shakespeare killed them? On Oct. 5 white South Africans vote to make South Africa a whites-only repub. On Oct. 5-13 (Thur.) (the Shoe Series?) the Pittsburgh Pirates (NL) defeat the New York Yankees (AL) 4-3 to win the Fifty-Seventh (57th) World Series when Pirates 2nd baseman Bill "the Glove" Mazeroski (1936-) hits a walk-off homer over the left field wall in the bottom of the 9th inning with the score tied 9-9 at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh, Penn. for the city's biggest sports moment, becoming the first series-ending homer; Pirates co-owner (since 1946) Bing Crosby (1903-77) can't stand to see the game live, and instead listens to it on the radio in Paris while having the telecast recorded on Kinescope. On Oct. 6 (Thur.) the detective series Surfside 6 debuts on ABC-TV for 74 episodes (until June 25, 1962), starring blonde-blue male sex symbol Troy Donahue (Merle Johnson Jr.) (1936-) as Miami Beach, Fla. P.I. Sandy Winfield II, who works out of his houseboat at Surfside 6, which is berthed next to that of socialite Daphne Dutton, played by blonde-blue Diane McBain (1942-); Madrid, Spain-born Margarita Sierra (Maria Margarita Suarez Sierra) (1936-63) plays entertainer Cha Cha O'Brien, who works at the Boom Boom Room in the Fontainebleau Hotel across the street, and releases the non-charting single "The Cha Cha Twist"; the Surfside 6 Theme by Jerry Livingston and Mack David is a keeper. On Oct. 7 Nikita Khrushchev extends diplomatic recognition to the provisional govt. of the Algerian Repub. (formed 1958). On Oct. 7 (Shoe Day Minus Five) (Fri.) the Hollywood film Spartacus, is released, breaking the Hollywood Blacklist by giving open credit to blacklisted Hollywood Ten (1947) screenwriter Dalton Trumbo (1905-76). On Oct. 7 (Fri.) the half-hour crime drama The Law and Mr. Jones debuts on ABC-TV for 45 episodes (until July 5, 1962), starring James Allen Whitmore Jr. (1921-2009) as former star college athlete atty. Abraham Lincoln Jones, who takes on white collar crime in New York City; on Mar. 3, 1961 the episode "Cold Turkey" features Peter Falk, who gets an Emmy nomination. On Oct. 7 (Fri.) Stirling Silliphant's and Herbert Breiter Leonard's drama Route 66 debuts on CBS-TV for 116 episodes (until Mar. 20, 1964), starring Martin Sam Milner (1931-2015) as recent college grad Tod Stiles, who decides to travel U.S. Route 66 from Chicago, Ill. to Santa Monica, Calif. in his Chevy Corvette with friend Buz Murdock, played by George Maharis (1928-),who is replaced in season 3 by Vietnam vet Lincoln "Linc" Case, played by Glenn Corbett (1933-93); filming ends up covering 25 states plus Toronto, Canada, vs. only eight states on the real Route 66; the ultra-cool Route 66 Theme is by Nelson Riddle. On Oct. 8 the 15-min. Sat. night TV series Make That Spare debuts on ABC-TV (until Sept. 11, 1964), hosted by Johnny Johnston from Paramus, N.J., with two bowlers vying for prizes, incl. a new Ford Mustang for making the Sweepstakes Spare; on Oct. 28, 1961 Don Carter becomes the first to convert a 6-7-8-10 spare, receiving the $19K grand prize, then doing it again four episodes later, winning $8K. On Oct. 9 sultan (since 1911) Khalifa II bin Harub al-Said (b. 1879) dies, and his son Abdullah bin Khalifa al-Said (1910-63) becomes sultan #10 of Zanzibar (until July 1, 1963), facing growing leftist disturbances. On Oct. 10 16 members of the Cal Poly San Luis Obispo football team are killed in a plane crash in Toledo, Ohio. Destiny: Shoes? Shoe Day, 10-12-60 (10/2 x 12 = 60)? On Oct. 12 (Wed.) (Shoe Day) (15th anniv. session) after Soviet PM Shoechev, er, Khrushchev got away with interrupting a speech by British PM Harold Macmillan twice on Sept. 29 by pounding his fists and shouting in Russian (causing Macmillan to ask U.N. Gen. Assembly pres. Frederick Henry Boland (1904-85) of Ireland that he would like a translation), he ramps it up to the next level by waving and pounding his table with his right shoe during a U.N. Gen. Assembly speech by Filipino delegate Lorenzo Sumulong (1905-97), after he said that the Soviet resolution condemning Western imperialism should be viewed with the shoe on the other foot when it comes to their domination of Eastern Europe, uttering the rejoinder "You're a hooligan and stooge of imperalism", causing an adjournment - Bun-dy, Bun-dy? On Oct. 12 a plebiscite in Peru okays the gradual nationalization of oil-production facilities, quieting the radicals who want it done immediately. On Oct. 12 Japanese Socialist Party chmn. Inejiro Asanuma (b. 1898) (known for his controversial support of the Chinese Communist Party) is assassinated with a samurai sword (wakizashi) in the guts by 17-y.-o. right-winger Otoya Yamaguchi (b. 1943) during a televised political debate in Hibiya Hall in Tokyo; on Nov. 2 he hangs himself with a bedsheet after leaving the message "Seven lives for my country, ten thousand years for His Imperial Majesty the Emperor." On Oct. 14 (Shoe Day Plus Two) after the U.S. stops its sugar quota, Cuba nationalizes its banks, sugar industry, and all large commercial and industrial enterprises, causing the U.S. to respond on Oct. 19 with an embargo on Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products (until 2016); Ike sends a note to the Org. of Am. States (OAS) on Oct. 28 charging that Cuba has been receiving substantial arms shipments from the Soviet bloc; too bad, the sugar embargo allows Cuban expatriates led by the Fanjul Brothers to set up shop in Fla. S of Lake Okechobee, depleting the Everglades while setting up a federally-subidized system of sugar price supports greased by baksheesh that continues until ?. On Oct. 14 (Shoe Day Plus Two) U.S. pres. candidate John F. Kennedy first suggests the idea of a Peace Corps to students at the U. of Mich. On Oct. 15 (Sat.) the animated series King Leonardo and His Short Subjects debuts on NBC-TV for 102 episodes (until Sept. 28, 1963), about King Leonardo of Bongo Congo and his asst. skunk Odie O. Cologne; his rival is his maneless beatnik brother Itchy Brother, who works for Biggie Rat with the help of evil German inventor Prof. Messer and Odie's sister Carlotta. On Oct. 19 after first meeting JFK in June, Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested at a sit-in in Atlanta, Ga. for trespassing, and after refusing to post bail he remains in jail as the KKK marches through the streets and JFK and Nixon hold their final TV debate; on Oct. 22 after authorities produce a 5-mo.-o. traffic ticket from a neighboring county, and the charges are dropped and all demonstrators released except him, after which they charge him with violating probation on a 5-mo.-old traffic ticket from a neighboring county and send him to Reidsville State Prison in maximum security for 4 mo. hard labor, causing JFK to ignore objections from RFK and his own campaign mgr. and get an aide to call King's pregant wife Coretta to assure her, after which RFK calls the judge, and he is released on Oct. 27 on a $2K bond, causing King to issue the soundbyte that he is "deeply indebted to Senator Kennedy", causing the JFK campaign to use the episode for traction among black voters, winning 78% of their vote. On Oct. 24 a rocket explodes in the Russian-operated Baikonur (Kazakh "fertile land with brown herbs") Space Center in Kazakhstan on the launchpad during fueling, killing 91. On Oct. 24 emir (since 1948) Sheik Abdullah bin Jassim Al-Thani abdicates in favor of his 2nd son Sheik Ahmad bin Ali bin Abdullah Al-Thani (1917-77), who becomes emir of Qatar (until Feb. 22, 1972), presiding over its independence from Britain in 1971. On Oct. 27 (Shoe Day Plus Fifteen) although the U.S. Appeals Court ruled it not obscene on Mar. 24, the British govt. prosecutes Penguin Books after it prints 200K copies of the 1928 novel Lady Chatterly's Lover to celebrate the 30th anniv. of the death of author D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930); on Nov. 2 after a 6-day trial in which 35 expert witnesses are called for the defense (incl. Dame Rebecca West, E.M. Forster (1884-1915), and Richard Hoggart), defense atty. Charles Rembar (1915-2000) gets the ban on its pub. lifted, and all 200K copies are sold on the first day of pub. (3s 6d each); the case causes the virtual abandonment of censorship of books in the U.K., setting the stage for the sexual rev. of the 1960s; the prosecutor Mervyn Griffiths-Jones loses it when he rhetorically asks the jury "Is it a book you would even wish your wife or your servants to read?" - and the evidence between their legs speaks loud and clear? In Oct. 26 the after using repressive measures to counter leftist-inspired worker unrest fails, making the U.S. nervous, the U.S.-backed bloodless 1960 El Salvador Coup desposes pres. (since 1956) Jose Maria Lemus, and puts a military-civilian junta in charge, led by Lt. Col. Julio Adalberto Rivera (1921-73); Castro-sympathizer univ. prof. Fabio Castillo leads the opposition. On Oct. 28 the Dartmouth Conference(s) are founded at Dartmouth College (until ?), becoming the longest continuous bilateral dialogue between U.S. and Soviet (later Russian) reps. In Oct. after failing to incite civil war to overthrow Fidel Castro via Operation 40, the CIA sponsors the creation of Brigade 2506, consisting 1,511 Cuban exiles who are trained to invade Cuba in the Bay of Pigs Invasion next Apr. On Nov. 2 New York Philharmonic conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos (b. 1896) dies, and is succeeded by (his gay lover?) Leonard Bernstein (1918-90). On Nov. 7 (Mon.) the animated series Mister Magoo debuts on NBC-TV for 130 episodes (until Aug. 28, 1961), starring Jim Backus as nearsighted wealthy short Quincy Magoo, who refuses to admit his sight problem but always lucks out and gets out of every predicament. On Nov. 8 (Tue.) after a campaign marked by slogans such as "Nixon Nixon, he's our man, Kennedy belongs in the trash can" (and vice-versa), the 1960 U.S. Pres. Election sees John F. Kennedy defeat Richard M. Nixon by only 113,057 votes out of 69M cast (34,227,096 to 34,108,546) (303 to 219 electoral votes); Nixon wins Ohio but loses the election, a rarity; vote tampering is suspected, and rightly so, as the Mafia comes through for old man Kennedy in Chicago, Ill., stuffing the ballot box, although Ill. has only 27 electoral votes and Kennedy would win anyway, after which Nixon gamely announces that he will not demand a recount "for the good of the country"; Dem. Va. Sen. Harry F. Byrd J. wins 15 electoral votes; Kennedy becomes the 3rd person since Harding and Garfield to move directly from the Congress to the White House; he appoints Adlai E. Stevenson as the new U.S. ambassador to the U.N.; after the election, at Ike's suggestion the Joint Senate-House Repub. Leadership policy-making group is formed, holding weekly meetings followed by a press conference to give the Repub. side to issues, starring Sen. minority leader, Ill. Sen. (1951-61) Everett McKinley Dirksen (1896-1969) and House minority leader (1959-64), Ind. Rep. (1935-69) Charles Abraham Halleck (1900-86), who become the faces of the Repub. Party until Richard Nixon becomes pres. in 1969. On Nov. 11 the 1960 South Vietnamese Coup Attempt by a paratroop brigade in Saigon, led by Lt. Col. Vuong Van Dong traps pres. Ngo Dinh Diem in the Independence Palace, after which he stalls them until his own forces have time to arrive and quash them on Nov. 12 (400 casualties on both sides), causing the leaders to flee to Cambodia, after which Diem orders a crackdown, imprisoning former cabinet ministers and critics, and condemning the plotters in absentia to death; after murdering 1.2K of his own govt. officials last year, only to see the Commies keep coming, Diem assumes dictatorial powers to combat them, causing them on Dec. 20 to secretly form the Nat. Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), made up from over a dozen different political and religious groups, led by non-Marxist atty. Hua Tho; they announce the 10-Point Program of the NLF, incl. a new regime that "represents all social classes and religions", and the big kicker, free land redistribution to peasants, which causes many peasants to support them; early next year the People's Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) AKA the Viet Cong (VC) are created as the military arm of the NLF by the North Vietnamese; meanwhile after a power struggle, aging North Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh ("He Who Enlightens") (1890-1969) (real name Nguyen Singh Cung et al.) becomes a figurehead pres., and Le Duan (1907-86) becomes the real boss, masterminding the Vietnam War. On Nov. 13 a movie theater fire in Amude, Syria kills 152 children. On Nov. 13 Harlem, N.Y.-born black entertainer Samuel George "Sammy" Davis Jr. (1925-90) (who lost his left eye in an automobile accident on Nov. 19, 1954 in San Bernardino, Calif. during a trip from Las Vegas to Los Angeles, and converted to Judaism after Eddie Cantor introduced him to it in the hospital) shocks white racists sheetless by marrying blonde Swedish actress May Britt (Maybritt Wilkens) (1933-) (star of The Young Lions" with Marlon Brando and "Murder Inc." with Peter Falk), who retires to manufacture mulattoes after converting to Judaism to get married to him; after having one daughter they divorce in 1968 after she catches him hooking up with dancer Lola Falana, and she returns to acting - welcome to the 1960s? On Nov. 14 two trains collide in Pardubice, Czech., killing 117 and injuring 106. On Nov. 14 Pres. Eisenhower orders U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after Nicaragua and Guatemala charge Castro with starting uprisings, which are suppressed by CIA-trained Cuban exiles while U.S. warships wait off the coast. On Nov. 14 New Orleans, La., the Crescent City integrates two all-white schools as 6-y.-o. black student Ruby Bridges (1954-) enters Franz Elementary (in a racially-mixed neighborhood) flanked by four federal marshals before a phalanx of angry white racists. On Nov. 140 after the 1957 U.S. Civil Rights Act allows blacks to register in Tuskegee, Ala., reaching the point of outnumbering white voters, causing the legislature to enact Local Law 140 creating a 28-sided city boundary that excludes almost all the blacks, the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Gomillion v. Lightfoot that an electoral district cannot be gerrymandered to disenfranchise blacks because of the 15th Amendment. On Nov. 15 the first sub with Polaris nuclear-tipped missiles, the USS George Washington takes to sea from Charleston, S.C., and test-launches a Polaris missile; on Dec. 16 U.S. state secy. (1959-61) Christian Archibald Herter Sr. (1895-1966) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (1947-)?) says that the U.S. will commit five atomic subs and 80 Polaris missiles to NATO by the end of 1963. On Nov. 15 the CIA gives a briefing to JFK on the planned invasion of Cuba, telling him that the invasion force is too small to work, although it gives him plausible deniability. On Nov. 28 Are You Lonesome Tonight by Elvis Presley peaks at #1 on the pop singles chart, and stays there for 6 weeks. On Nov. 28 Mauritania becomes independent from France over the opposition of its N neighbor Morocco (which claims it), and is admitted to the U.N. next year after its admission is voted by the Soviet Union on Dec. 4; Moktar Ould Daddah (1924-2003) becomes PM #1 (until July 10, 1978), ruling a motley crew of Moors, Arabs, Berbers, and African blacks, mainly nomadic, with only 5% living in urban centers. In Nov. NBC pres. (1953-55) Sylvester Laflin "Pat" Weaver Jr. (1908-2002) (father of Sigourney Weaver) utters the soundbyte in The Denver Post: "Television has gone from about a dozen forms to just two - news shows and the Hollywood stories. The blame lies in the management of NBC, CBS and ABC. Management doesn't give the people what they deserve. I don't see any hope in the system as it is." On Dec. 1 Am. "Dream lovers", box office star Sandra Dee (Alexandra Zuck) (1942-2005) and ultracool pop singer Bobby Darin (Walden Robert Cassotto) (1936-73) get very publicly married at the home of music publisher Don Kirshner in Camden, N.J. after meeting on his first film Come September (1961) in Italy and eloping; they have one son, Dodd, in 1961, and divorce in 1967 - Dodd Dee Darin? On Dec. 2 Pres. Eisenhower authorizes $1M for resettlement and relief of Cuban refugees, who are arriving in Fla. at the rate of 1K a week; meanwhile Castro's regime begins rounding up tens of thousands of Cuban youths for "delinquency", which is defined as wearing long hair, listening to rock music, or being religious, Jewish, or gay, and herding them into Guanahacabibes Work Camp in W Cuba, set up by the end of this year by Che Guevara; 90% of Cuba's Jews flee the country. On Dec. 2 Canterbury archbishop (1945-61) Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887-1972) becomes the first head of the Anglican Church to visit the pope, spending an hour with modernist Pope John XXIII in the Vatican. On Dec. 5 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 7-2 in Boynton v. Va. that segregation in public transit is illegal because it violates the U.S. Interstate Commerce Act, extending the ruling in Morgan v. Va. (1946) to bus terminals used in interstate bus service, leading to the creation of the Freedom Riders next year to test it; Justice Hugo Black writes the majority opinion. On Dec. 9 Charles de Gaulle visits Algeria, sparking bloody French and African Muslim riots in large cities that kill 127. The war of the three princes in landlocked Laos? On Dec. 9 the Laotian govt. of PM Prince Souvanna Phouma flees to Cambodia as the capital city Vientiane is taken by Gen. Phoumi Nosavan, who controls the bulk of the royal army, and on Dec. 16 after defeating Capt. Kong Le he sets up a pro-Western rightist govt. in the S headed by Prince Boun Oum Nachampassack (1912-80), causing the U.S. to resume arms shipments; Kong Le joins the Pathet Lao, and the Soviet bloc supports Phouma. On Dec. 9 the soap opera Coronation Street (AKA Corrie) debuts on BBC-TV, becoming such a hit that it seemingly runs forever (until ?); episode #7,000 is broadcast on Jan. 28, 2009. On Dec. 12 the U.S. Supreme Court upholds a lower federal court ruling that the segregation laws in lovely La. are unconstitutional. On Dec. 13 while Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I is away visiting Brazil, his imperial bodyguard revolts, proclaiming his son crown prince Asfaw Wossen Taffari as emperor Amha Selassie (1916-97); the revolt is quashed on Dec. 17 after he returns, and daddy absolves his son of guilt, after which he is proclaimed again on Sept. 12, 1974 after his daddy is deposed, ending up in exile, and proclaimed yet again on Apr. 8, 1989. On Dec. 13 U.S. Navy Cmdr. Leroy Heath and Lt. Larry Monroe establish a record alt. of 91,450.8 ft. (27,874.2m) in an A3J-1 Vigilante carrying a 1kg payload, beating the previous record by 4 mi. On Dec. 13-14 a U.S. B-52 bomber piloted by USAF Lt. Col. J.R. Grisson sets a 10,078.84 mi. (19 hours, 44 min.) nonstop record without refueling at Edwards AFB, Calif.; the previous (1947) record was only 8,854.308 mi.; on Jan. 10-11, 1962 the record is raised to 12,532.28 mi. On Dec. 14 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1514, titled "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples" is adopted 89-0-9 (Australia, Belgium, Dominican Repub., France, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, U.K., U.S.), providing for the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples; on Dec. 15, 1960 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1541 affirms that complete compliance with the principle of self-determination is required to ensure decolonisation. On Dec. 14 Patrice Lumumba's deputy Antoine Gizenga (1925-) proclaims himself PM of the Dem. Repub. of Congo in Stanleyville, and his govt. is recognized by 21 countries in Feb., going on to lead his rebel govt. after his assassination until the Congo Crisis ends in Nov. 1965, after which he is exiled until 1992. On Dec. 15 Belgian king (since 1951) Baudouin I (1930-93) marries Dona Fabiola Fernanda Maria de las Victorias Antonia Adelaida de Mora y Aragon (1928-), who becomes Queen Fabiola; her wedding dress is designed by Cristobal Balenciaga; they have no children, making his brother Prince Albert (1934-) heir to the throne - is Liege still on the Meuse? On Dec. 16 128 passengers and crew people are killed, plus 6 on the ground when a United Air Lines DC-8 (coming from Chicago, Ill.) and a TWA Super Constellation (coming from Dayton, Ohio) collide over New York City in the fog, crashing in two different boroughs; 11-y.-o. Stephen Baltz survives but later dies; Sir Edmund Hillary was to have flown in the United jet but misses his flight in Chicago; 15 years later his wife dies in an air crash near Mt. Everest. On Dec. 19 a fire on the USS Constellation (largest U.S. aircraft carrier) while under construction at New York Naval Shipyard in Brooklyn kills 50 and injures 150. On Dec. 20 Discoverer XIX is launched into polar orbit from Vandenburg AFB, Calif. to spy on, er, measure radiation. On Dec. 21 the Peruvian govt. announces that it has proof that the Cuban embassy had been giving support to Communists, causing it to sever diplomatic relations on Dec. 30. On Dec. 27 France explodes its 3rd nuke at its atomic proving grounds in Reggane, Algeria. On Dec. 27 after they open for "Little Miss Dynamite" Brenda Lee (Brenda Mae Tarpley) (1944-), the Beatles perform in Liverpool, and are so much improved after a lengthy residence in Germany that the hometown audience goes ape, launching Beatlemania? On Dec. 31 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes at 615.89, down from 679.36 a year ago. In Dec. JFK's special counsel (former legal advisor to his dad Joseph P. Kennedy) James McCauley Landis (1899-1964) pub. the Landis Report on Regulatory Agencies, recommending federal regulatory reforms incl. stronger chmns. and streamlined procedures, which the Kennedy admin. later adopts. Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra (1893-1979) becomes pres. of Ecuador for the 4th time (until 1961). Ahmed (Ahmad) Ben Salah (1926-) becomes secy. of state for planning and finance in Sudan, in charge of switching the economy to central planning. West Germany bans neo-Nazi political groups - what's on your arm band? The Soviet Union proposes the Troika Plan of three U.N. secy.-gens. British Virgin Islands becomes a separate colony, becoming autonomous in 1967. Bauxite deposits are discovered in Guinea in W Africa. WWII war-torn Kiev, Ukraine is finally rebuilt. Washington, D.C. becomes the first U.S. city with a black majority (54%) (35% in 1950). Indonesia begins a 10-year campaign to eradicate malaria, which kills 120K per year, backed by WHO equipment funded by the U.S. to drain swamps and spray houses with DDT; by 1964 Java is almost malaria-free. Student protests in San Francisco against the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) kick-off the student protest movement of the sixties. The U.S. Heavy Electrical Equipment Scandal sees Gen. Electric, Westinghouse, Allis-Chalmers, and 26 other cos. indicted for violating the 1890 U.S. Sherman Act in the sale of $1.75B of equipment a year, becoming the largest conspiracy in its history; the courts eventually fine them $1.92M and hand out seven prison sentences plus 24 suspended sentences. Am. white segregationist leader Leander Henry Perez Sr. (1891-1969) speaks at a rally in New Orleans, La., uttering the soundbyte: "Don't wait for your daughter to be raped by these Congolese. Don't wait until the burrheads are forced into your schools. Do something about it now", causing 2K segregationists to assault the school admin. bldg., then attack blacks in the streets; on Apr. 16, 1962 after he fights the archdiocese of New Orleans which supports desegration of the parochial school system, he is excommunicated, causing him to claim that the Church is "being used as a front for clever Jews", and announcing his own church called the Perezbyteians; he reconciles with the Church before his death, but not blacks. Belgian economist Robert Triffin (1911-93) (U.S. citizen in 1942-77) testifies before the U.S. Congress, exposing serious flaws in the Bretton Woods system as the U.S. pledge to convert dollars into gold that it can't honor causes a dollar glut outside the U.S., resulting in large U.S. deficits that will eventually erode both liquidity and confidence in the U.S. dollar, which becomes known as the Triffin Dilemma (Paradox), which is resolved with the 1971 Nixon Shock. Am. Communist folk singer Peter "Pete" Seeger (1919-2014), who was indicted for contempt of Congress on July 26, 1957 for refusing to testify to the House Un-Am. Activities Committee (HUAC) is barred by the school board of San Diego, Calif. from performing at a high school unless he signs an oath that he won't promote a Communist agenda or attempt to overthrow the govt., and after he refuses, the ACLU obtains an injunction forcing the concert to be held; they finally apologize in Feb. 2009 after he finally officially quits the Communist Party USA, with the soundbyte: "I should have asked to see the gulags when I was in the U.S.S.R. [in 1965]", and writes Big Joe Blues condemning Stalin, also uttering the soundbyte: "I certainly should apologize for saying that Stalin was a hard driver rather than a very cruel leader"; meanwhile he utters the soundbytes: "Some may find [my songs] merely diverting melodies. Others may find them incitements to Red revolution. And who will say if either or both is wrong? Not I", and "I like to say I'm more conservative than Goldwater. He just wanted to turn the clock back to when there was no income tax. I want to turn the clock back to when people lived in small villages and took care of each other", and "I still call myself a Communist, because Communism is no more what Russia made of it than Christianity is what the churches make of it." The Am. Heart Assoc. issues a Report on Cigarette Smoking and Cardiovascular Diseases, attributing higher death rates among middle-aged men to heavy cigarette smoking. English pacifist philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) et al. found the London Committee of 100 militant anti-war splinter group after splitting from the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, advocating massive demonstrations of nonviolent civil disobedience, going on to stage a 5K-person sit-down demonstration next Feb. 18 in Whitehall, London against the Ministry of Defence. Early in this decade the Fourth Great Awakening begins in the U.S. (ends 1980), seeing mainline Protestant denominations weakening sharply, while the most conservative denominations incl. the Southern Baptists and Missouri Synod Lutherans and evangelical and fundamentalists expand; meanwhile all battle a rise in secularism incl. abortion and gay rights, fighting back with Creationism et al., led by the Southern Baptist Conservative Resurgence. In this decade the U.S. Indian Health Service begins forced sterilization of Native Am. women, reaching the thousands by the next decade. In this decade the tiny Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan between India and Tibet finally tries to catch up, with its first roads, written language, money, and communications systems. Early in this decade the Suite 8F Group (Crowd) of powerful conservative Dems. begins meeting in the Lamar Hotel in Houston, Tex., forming the power center of the South for right-wing politicians and businessmen; members incl. LBJ and John Connally; if there was a conspiracy to kill JFK they had to be involved up to their necks? In this decade the term "gyrene" is coined for a member of the U.S. Marine Corps - shouldn't that be jarhead? In this decade the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (SMOTJ) is founded under the umbrella of the Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani, which was formally recognized by Napoleon in 1805; by 2010 it reaches 5K members, 1.5K from the U.S., which has 33 priories from Ariz. to Wisc. In this decade Ecological Anthropology is founded as a response to cultural ecology. In this decade Surfing becomes a craze in Calif., and evolves into the first Baby Boomer subculture - sex, drugs, and rock & roll on the beach? In this decade Am. curly-haired blacks begin wearing big bushy Afros (natural) hairdos; popularity wanes by the early 1980s. In this decade Second-Wave Feminism begins in the U.S., tackling a broad range of issues incl. sexuality, the family, the workplace, and legal and de facto inequalities, petering out by the mid-1980s after spreading to Europe, Asia, Turkey, and Israel. In this decade the Jane and Finch neighborhood of NE Toronto, Canada is developed as a model suburb; too bad, it is opened to immigrants from around the world, causing it to degenerate into a gang-ridden poverty-stricken hellhole; in 2008 a campaign to rename it University Heights fails. In this decade the your-own-personal-Jesus New Journalism movement in the U.S. (ends 1980?), led by Thomas Kennerly "Tom" Wolfe Jr. (1930-2018), Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Terry Southern (1924-95), Gay Talese (1932-), Robert Christgau (1942-), George Plimpton (1927-2003), Truman Capote (1924-84), Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005), Joan Didion (1934-), P.J. O'Rourke (1947-) et al. brings a literary slant to journalism, blurring the line with fiction, telling stories via scenes, with conversational speech, first person POV, and everyday details, causing it to end up relegated to mags. instead of newspapers, esp. "The New Yorker" and "Esquire", where Terry Southern kicks it off with Twirlin' At Ole Miss in Feb. 1963; Wolfe predicts it will "wipe out the novel as literature's main event". The Ska Era of music begins in Jamaica (ends 1966). Russian pianist Sviatoslav Richter (1915-97), who defied the Soviet authorities by performing at the funeral of Boris Pasternak (died May 30) debuts in the U.S. in Chicago, Ill. playing Johannes Brahms' Second Piano Concerto to rave reviews, tough critic Claudia Cassidy calling it "the performance of a lifetime"; he goes on to perform in the U.S. and Europe, then swears off the U.S. in 1970 after an anti-Soviet protest in New York City. In this decade Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-) of Colombia et al. start a lit. boom in Latin Am. In this decade U.S. network TV evening programming reacts to the 1958 TV Quiz Show Scandal by going Western, with eight Westerns on CBS, nine on NBC, and eleven on ABC, for a total of 24.5 hours of prime time every week - how do you say in French? In this decade French intellectuals begin ditching Existentialism for Structuralism, founded by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), who uses the science of signs to claim that human consciousness is dependent on objective rational structures mirrored in the laws of language syntax, and embraced by anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009) and lit. critic Roland Barthes (1915-80); too bad, after the near rev. of 1968, Post-Structuralism and Deconstructionism, developed by Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) and Paul-Michel Foucault (1926-84) picks Structuralism apart and brings back good ole 20th cent. relativism. The journal Mankind Quarterly is founded by the Internat. Assoc. for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics in Edinburgh, Scotland and funded by Am. white supremacists incl. the Pioneer Fund, with the goal of fighting the 1950 UNESCO declaration against scientific racism. New Am. Cinema is founded by independent filmmakers Jonas Mekas (1922-), Lionel Rogosin (1924-2000) et al.; this year Rogosin founds the Bleecker Street Cinema in Greenwich Village in New York City, which becomes a popular art house nurturing dirs. Francis Ford Coppola, Milos Forman et al.; in 1964 Mekas founds the Film-Makers' Cooperative to produce and display avant-garde films. In this decade the Brill Bldg. Era of (mainly Jewish) pop music composers working out of the Brill Bldg. (built 1930) at 1619 Broadway in the former Tin Pan Alley section of Manhattan, N.Y. spawns songwriting teams incl. Burt Bacharach (1928-) and Hal David (1921-2012) ("Walk On By", "Anyone Who Had a Heart"), Carole King (1942-) and Gerry Goffin (1939-) ("Up On the Roof", "Will You Love Me Tomorrow"), Barry Mann (1939-) and Cynthia Weil (1940-) ("On Broadway"), Jerome "Jerry" Leiber (1933-2011) and Michael "Mike" Stoller (1933-) ("West Side Story"), Doc Pomus (1925-91) and Mort Shuman (1936-91) ("Save the Last Dance for Me", "This Magic Moment"), Neil Sedaka (1939-) and Howard Greenfield (1936-86) (Breaking Up Is Hard to Do", "Rainy Jane", "Workin' on a Groovy Thing", "Everybody's Somebody's Fool"), and Jeff Barry (1938-) and Ellie Greenwich (1940-) ("Chapel of Love", "Leader of the Pack"), producing a string of hits that emphasize the writers, producers and arrangers more than the singers, until do-it-all groups like the Beatles change the rules by the middle of the decade; meanwhile Motown Records (AKA Tamla Motown) (founded 1959) is incorporated in Detroit ("Motor Town"), Mich. by former feathwerweight boxer and failed record store owner Berry Gordy Jr. (1929-), going on to crank out R&B and soul records known as "the Motown Sound", injecting a steady stream of color into mainstream U.S. music; the studio is called Hitsville. After graduating near the top of his class at Yale Law school in 1955 then failing the New York bar exam, throwing him into a tailsin until he became a born-again Christian, Lexington, Va.-born fundamentalist Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (1930-), son of Va. Dem. Sen. (1946-66) Absalom Willis Robertson (1887-1971) begins his TV evangelist career in Portsmouth, Va., founding Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), then getting ordained as a Southern Baptist minister next year, going on to associate with the Charismatic movement and become a staunch Repub.; on Apr. 1, 1966 he launches The 700 Club on CBN. British ethologist Jane Goodall (1934-) is sent by anthropologist Louis Leakey to begin her 40-year study of chimpanzees in the Gombe reserve of Tanganyika (Tanzania). Hanna Barbera's Huckleberry Hound becomes the first TV cartoon to win an Emmy. By this year the Tibetan practice of disposing of the dead by strewing the hacked-up remains on a hill for feeding to the birds ends. The JASON Group (named after Greek mythological figure Jason by Mildred Goldberger, wife of member Murph Goldberger to replace the lame name Project Sunrise) of independent elite scientists is founded by John Wheeler and Charles H. Townes of MITRE Corp. to advise the U.S. govt. on science and technological matters of a sensitive (classified) nature, growing to 30-60 members and pioneering the Vietnam war's McNamara Line of electronic barriers along with early work on global warming science and acid rain; members incl. Nobel Prize winners Luis Walter Alvarez, Val Fitch, Murray Gell-Mann, Donald Glaser, Henry Way Kendall, and Steven Weinberg; chairmen incl. Marvin Leonard Goldberger (1960-66), Harold Lewis (1966-73), William Happer (1987-90), Curtis Callan (1990-5), Gerald Joyce (2011-14), and Russell J. Hemley (2014-). During this decade paper mill strikes rock Scissors, er, Sweden. Norman Chandler dies, and his blond Calif. beach boy son Otis Chandler (1927-2006) becomes pub. of the Los Angeles Times, turning it from a narrow conservative rag to one of the nation's most influential newspapers at the political center; on Mar. 5, 1961 he angers conservatives by pub. a series critiquing the John Birch Society, which gets it investigated by the U.S. Senate next year. Vienna-born creative guy Manfred E. Clynes (1925-) and Am. psychiatrist Nathan Schellenberg Kline (1916-83) coin the word "cyborg" from "cybernetic organism". Churchill College at Cambridge U. is founded. The U. of Novi Sad in Yugoslavia is founded. The Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is founded in the foothills of beautiful Boulder, Colo. by West Bridgewater, Mass.-born physicist-astronomer Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90), who becomes dir. #1 (until 1968), backing anthropogenic climate change and pub. The Climate Mandate in 1979 with Henry Lansford, which results in Greenhouse Glasnost being discussed at the 1989 Sundance Symposium on Global Climate Change. Archbishop Fisher of Canterbury visits Jerusalem, Istanbul and Rome - the grand tour complete, retirement is not an option? Three women are admitted to the ministry of the Swedish Lutheran Church. Hellen Keller (b. 1880) dedicates a statue in her alma mater Radcliffe with a speech that begins with her famous first word "water". What is that about statistics being worse than damned lies? Am. economist Stanley Reiter (1925-) coins the term "cliometrics" after Clio, muse of history to refer to the systematic application of economics and econometrics to the study of history; Cambridge, Mass.-born economist Douglass Cecil North (1920-) and Columbus, Ohio-born economist William N. Parker (1919-2000) become the eds. of the Journal of Economic History (founded 1941), turning it on to Cliometrics; the Internat. Economic History Assoc. (IEHA) is founded; in 1983 the allied Cliometric Society is founded at the U. of Wisc., annually awarding the Clio Can. New Wave Science Fiction is launched (ends 1980), eschewing the hard science of pulp sci-fi in favor of soft sci-fi, experimentation, and lit. and artistic sensibility. Indian guru Hans Ji Maharaj (1900-66) founds the ever-happy Divine Light Mission in N India, gaining 6M followers by the end of the decade, plus a few in Britain and the U.S., allowing his son Guru Maharaj Ji (1957-) to fly in and clean up in the 1970s. N.J.-born Hom Jay Dinshah (1933-2000) founds the Am. Vegan Society. French poet Raymond Queneau (1903-76) founds Oulipo (Ouvroir de littérature potentielle) (Fr. "workshop of potential literature"). After hearing that Chinese Commies proselytize via small comic books, Los Angeles, Calif.-born fundamentalist premillennial dispensationalist Independent Baptist cartoonist Jack Thomas Chick (1924-2016) begins issuing Chick tracts to evangelize for Jesus, incorporating as Chick Pubs. in 1970 in Rancho Coo-Coo, er, Cucamonga, Calif. in 1970 and hiring artist Fred Carter in 1972 then releasing 23 full-color issues in 1974-85, going on to be heavily criticized for folding in anti-Catholic, anti-Darwinist, and anti-gay messages, and for claiming Satanic influence behind various Jewish, er, non-fundamentalist Christian conspiracies incl. Islam, Freemasonry, and Halloween, which doesn't stop him from selling 750M+ in 100 languages. The leftist Nueva Cancion (New Song) movement in the Southern Cone of South Am. is founded in this decade by French-Quechuan Argentine singer Mercedes "La Negra" Sosa (1935-2009) et al., working for social justice until ?; hits incl. Solo le Pido a Dios (I Pray Only to God), Gracias a La Vida (Thanks to Life). Arhoolie Records is founded in Calif. by German-born Christopher Alexander Maria "Chris" Strachwitz (1931-) to pub. obscure "down home blues" artists incl. Lightnin' Hopkins, Snooks Eaglin, and Bill Gaither. Narcissistic Harvard-educated Am. writer Norman Kingsley Mailer (1923-2007), known for drunken fistfights stabs his 2nd wife (since 1954) Adele Morales at a party with a penknife, endearing him to women's libbers not; in 1997 she pub. the memoir The Last Party; meanwhile Norm takes a 3rd stab at marriage (1962-3), British heiress-journalist Lady Jeanne Campbell (1929-2007), granddaughter of newspaper mogul Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964), then takes a stab at marriage with model-actress Beverly Bentley (1963), then Carol Stevens (1980) (lasts one day), finally model-writer Barbara Davis (AKA Norris Church) (1980). The Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1623 Vine St. is begun for big stars, with the honorary mayor of Hollywood overseeing ceremonies; it ends up taking 18 city blocks. Calif. orders smog control devices to be put on cars. Harley-Davidson begins marketing the Vespa-clone Topper scooter. U.S. car makers begin to introduce cruddy underpowered unsafe small cars such as the Ford Falcon and the Chevrolet Corvair - of course a lot of brilliant engineering went into making the interior really nice? Maxwell House becomes the first coffee brand to be packaged in glass jars. Chatty Cathy Dolls are first marketed by Mattel (until 1966), able to speak 11 different phrases. The Game of Life by Milton Bradley Co. (originally created in 1860) hits the market, complete with $100K bills featuring the face of Art Linkletter. The working class erotic Playboy Bunny Outfit makes its appearance at Playboy Clubs, featuring bunny ears, collar, cuffs, corset and cottontail, becoming the first service uniform to receive a patent (U.S. patent #762,884); Playboy Bunnies incl. Gloria Steinem (undercover to do research), Lauren Hutton, Sherilyn Fenn, and Debbie Harry. Mary Martin performs Peter Pan on live TV for the last time, with skinny Cyril Ritchard as Capt. Hook. The Porter Wagoner Show debuts on syndicated TV for 280 episodes (until 1981), reaching 3M viewers, featuring Norman Jean in 1960-5, Jeannie Seely in 1965-6, Dolly Parton in 1966-74, Barbara Lea in 1974-6, and Linda Carol Moore in 1976-81. Hungarian conductor Istvan Kertesz (1929-73) (most of whose family were shipped to Auschwitz) becomes dir. of the Augsburg Opera, going on to conduct the Cologne Opera in 1964, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in 1862, and the London Symphony Orchestra in 1965; too bad, he drowns while swimming in Israel in 1973. German conductor Rudolf Kempe (1910-76) debuts at the Beyreuth Festspielhaus, conducting Wagner's Ring Cycle, with the role of Wotan split between Hermann Uhde and Jerome Hines, and the role of Brunnhilde between Astrid Varnay and Birgit Nilsson. Leontyne Price (1927-) becomes the first black woman to sing a leading role at La Scala in Milan as Aida; next Jan. she sings Leonora in Giuseppe Verdi's "Il Trovatore", receiving a record 42 min. standing ovation; in 1966 she becomes the first black woman to play Cleopatra in Samuel Barber's "Antony and Cleopatra"; "Her singing has brought light to her land" (Pres. Lyndon Johnson). Hungarian-born conductor Sir Georg Solti (1912-97) becomes music dir. of the Los Angeles Philharmonic; too bad, he abruptly resigns next year after learning that young whippersnapper Zubin Mehta (b. 1936) has been appointed as his asst. without his approval. The jazz label Impulse! Records is founded in Santa Monica, Calif. by Bedford, Va.-born Creed Taylor (1929-) as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records, signing John Coltrane and becoming known as "the house that Trane built"; in 1961 Taylor leaves for Verve Records, introducing bossa nova to the U.S. via songs incl. "The Girl from Ipanema" by Stan Getz and Antonio Calos Jobim, moving to A&M Records in 1967 and forming his own jazz label CTI (Creed Taylor Inc.), which rises to the top after signing Chet Baker, George Benson, Ron Carter, Paul Desmond, Herbie Hancock, Art Farmer, Freddie Hubbard, Nina Simone, Stanley Turrentine et al. In this decade DJ Wolfman Jack (1938-95) reaches listeners across the U.S. from 250KW radio station ZERF in Mexico. The Tate Gallery in London holds a Picasso exhibition. Frank Sinatra leaves Capital Records and forms his own record co., Reprise Records (pr. rih-PREEZE) with Dean Martin, causing him to be called "the chairman of the board"; too bad, after mismanagement and poor sales, it is sold to Warner Bros. Records in 1963, going on to sign The Kinks, Arlo Guthrie, Neil Young, Norman Greenbaum, Tiny Tim, Captain Beefheart, Frank Zappa and the Mothers, Gram Parsons, The Fugs, Jethro Tull, T.Rex, Gordon Lightfoot et al. Oskar Kokoschka and Marc Chagall receive the Dutch Erasmus Prize. The Minimalist Music movement is born in the New York City Downtown scene, featuring constant harmony, steady pulse, stasis, and reiteration of musical phrases; it is adopted by composers Philip Glass, Steve Reich, Terry Riley, La Monte Young et al.; it is accompanied by the Minimalist Art Movement, as in, how little do I have to do to get you rich stupid art collectors to give me your money, kaching? Caffe Lena (Caffè Lena) in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. opens, becoming the first folk music coffee house in the U.S. Purple-painted Tootsie's Orchid Lounge in Nashville, Tenn. behind the Ryman Auditorium opens, becoming a hangout for country stars incl. Patsy Cline, Mel Tillis, Waylon Jennings, Roger Miller, Kris Kristofferson, and Willie Nelson. The Big Texan Steak Ranch on U.S. Route 66 in Amarillo, Tex. opens, moving to Interstate 40 in 1970, painted yellow with blue trim, featuring a large bull statue advertising their "free" 72 oz. steak ("if consumed in 60 minutes") and white stretch Cadillac limos with longhorn hood ornaments. Back Stage (Backstage) weekly mag., ed. by Ira Eaker (1921-2002) and Allen Zwerdling (1922-2009) begins pub. in New York City, becoming a must-read for stage and movie actors looking for work, zooming from 10K to 32K copies/week; in 1994 they found "Back Stage West" for readers in Los Angeles, Calif., reaching 24K copies/week; in 1986 it is acquired by Billboard Pubs. Gay Jewish-Am. fashion designer-critic Richard "Mr." Blackwell (1922-2008) pub. his first Ten Worst Dressed Women List; it later describes Cher as "a million beads and one overexposed derrier", and Martha Stewart as "dresses like the centerfold for Farmers' Almanac"; initially viewed as an insult, inclusion is later treated as an honor; in 1964 Blackwell and his gay partner Robert Spencer rent their home in Hancock Park, Los Angeles to the Beatles, but back out when it is leaked to the media. Sports: Big year for U.S. football, which is for real men, not that sissy rugby and soccer stuff? The Am. Football League (AFL) is founded (until 1969) by Lamar Hunt (1932-2006) (son of Texas oilman H.L. Hunt et al.; WWII Marine fighter ace Joseph Jacob "Joe" Foss (1915-2003) becomes AFL commissioner #1 (until 1966); the Buffalo Bills, owned by Ohio-born Ralph C. Wilson Jr. (1918-) joins the AFL, with QB (until 1970) Jack French Kemp (1935-2009); the new (Aug. 14, 1959) Denver Broncos, owned by Robert Lee "Bob" Howsam (1918-2008) joins the AFL, and on Sept. 9 wins the first-ever AFL game over the Boston Patriots by 13-10, then compiles a lousy 39-97-4 record during the decade, becoming the only AFL never to play in a title game, having its first winning season in 1973; meanwhile future Super Bowl winning QB (1997-8) John Elway (1960-) (Denver Broncos #7) is born this year, and joins the team in 1983, fighting to turn around its born-loser image and finally doing it before retiring in 1999. On Jan. 28 after twisting the arm of Washington Redskins owner (since 1932) George Preston Marshall (1896-1969) (owner of a TV monopoly in the South) by buying the rights to their fight song "Hail to the Redskins", the new Dallas Cowboys NFL franchise (originally the Dallas Steers then the Dallas Rangers) is created by Clint William Murchison Jr. (1923-87) et al., going on to become rivals of the other Southern team the Washington Redskins (the greatest rivalry in sports?); after the Redskins defeat them 26-14 in their first contest they finish their first season 0-11-1. Pete Rozelle (1926-96) becomes commissioner of the Nat. Football League (NFL) (until 1989), and the Dallas Cowboys join the NFL, giving it 13 teams, while the Cardinals relocate from Chicago, Ill. to St. Louis, Mo. on Mar. 13, giving the city two teams with the same name; brothers Jack Mara and Wellington Timothy "Duke" Mara (1916-2005), owners of the New York Giants (the largest market) agree to share TV revenue on a league-wide basis, giving the league a needed boost; on Dec. 26 the 1960 NFL Championship Game at Franklin Field in Philly sees the Philadelphia Eagles, led by QB Norman Mack "Norm" "the Dutchman" Van Brocklin (1926-83) and backup QB Christian Adolph "Sonny" Jurgensen III (1934-) defeat the Green Bay Packers in Franklin Field in Philadelphia by 17-13, becoming the only post-season D of Packers Coach Vince Lombardi, after which they go on to win five titles in seven years, incl. the first two Super Bowls; in 1964 the Eagles trade aging Jurgensen to the Washington Redskins for QB Norm Snead, only to find out that there's a lot of life left in him, and Lombardi ends up as his coach in 1969, after which he doesn't retire until 1975. On Jan. 4 the 1960 Orange Bowl features the first-ever blimp shots; the Georgia Bulldogs, quarterbacked by Francis Asbury "Fran" Tarkenton (1940-) defeat the Missouri Tigers by 14-0 despite being shut down on the ground; Tarkenton is drafted by the Minn. Vikings (coach Norm Van Brocklin) in the 1961 NFL draft (until 1966), defeating the favored Chicago Bears in his first game by 37-13 and going on to pioneer the idea of a mobile QB, becoming known as Scramblin' Fran and Sir Francis. On Jan. 22 after placing a $2M bet on himself and vowing to join the police force if beaten, Paul Pender (1930-2003) wins the middleweight boxing title from aging Sugar Ray Robinson (Walker Smith Jr.) (1921-89) in a split decision in Boston, Mass., then defeats him again in another split decision in Boston on June 10, then retires on May 7, 1963 undefeated after several tough matches, going to college and becoming a vocal opponent of boxing. On Jan. 26 6'0 senior Danny Heater (1942-) of Burnsville H.S. in W. Va. sets a h.s. basketball record (until) by scoring 135 points in a 32-min. basketball game, incl. 53 field goals, 29 of 41 free throws, and 32 rebounds. On Feb. 14 the 1960 (2nd) Daytona 500 is won by Robert Glenn "Junior" Johnson Jr. (1931-) (inventor of the drafting technique?) in a 1959 Chevrolet, becoming the first to be televised (by CBS-TV, anchorman Bud Palmer), and the slowest race in Daytona 500 history (124.74 mph avg.). On Feb. 18-28 the VIII (8th) Winter Olympic Games are held in Squaw Valley, Calif., becoming the first North Am. Winter Games since 1932; an IBM 305 RAMAC becomes the first computer used in an Olympics; U.S. vice-pres. Richard Nixon opens the games; U.S. figure skater Carol Elizabeth Heiss (1940-) becomes the first woman chosen to recite the Olympic Oath, going on to win a gold medal; South Africa makes its first appearance, and its last until 1994; women's speed skating and men's biathlon debut; the bobsledding event is canceled as too expensive; artificial refrigeration is first used for speed skating events; David Wilkinson Jenkins (1936-) of the U.S. wins gold for men's figure skating; on Feb. 27 the U.S. Olympic hockey team defeats the Soviet team 3-2 on its way to win the gold medal; the Zamboni ice-resurfacing machine makes its debut, boosting it into internat. prominence, esp. as some connect it with the U.S. hockey win. On Feb. 24-25 the 12-team NFL-wannabe Nat. Bowling League (NBL), (5-man teams) is formed to compete with the PBA, with $6K-$24K salaries depending on TV revenue; on July 17 the first (last) NBL draft selects Billy Welu #1 (Miami) and Don Carter #2 (Fort Worth Panthers); later rounds (of 30 total) select ML baseball players Mickey Mantle and Yogi Berra, who are both bowling alley owners; on Sept. 5 Fred Joseph Riccilli (1921-2015) (winner of the 1952 Petersen Classic) becomes the first player to sign, with the Los Angeles Toros for $10K; Steve Nagy signs with the Toros for $24K: Buzz Fazio signs with the Omaha Packers for $24K plus a free luxury apt.; the Pfeiffer Beer team incl. Ed Lubanski, Billy Golembiewski, Joe Joseph, Bob Hitt, and Bob Kwolek all sign after Pfeiffer drops sponsorship; too bad, Don Carter stalls, turning down a $1K/week contract, half-interest in a goat farm, and a cut of the gate; on Oct. 12, 1961 the NBL has its first game in Dallas, Tex., and the Dallas Broncos defeat the New York Gladiators 22-2, with Carmen Salvino of Dallas, Tex. bowling the high game (259); on Dec. 13 Ed Lubanski of the Detroit Thunderbirds rolls the first 300 game in NBL play in Fresno, Calif.; on May 4-6, 1962 the First Nat. Bowling League (NBL) Championships in Allen Park, Mich. see the Detroit Thunderbirds defeat the Twin Cities Skippers 3-0, after which on July 9 the NBL folds amid rumors of an attempt to bribe PBA star Don Carter with a pig farm; too bad, after failing to sign Don Carter or negotiate a TV contract, the league folds on May 6, 1962. On Mar. 27-Apr. 9 the 1960 NBA Finals is won by the Boston Celtics (coach Red Auerbach) by 4-3 over the St. Louis Hawks (coach Ed Macauley). On Apr. 2 the first exploding scoreboard debuts in Comiskey Park in Chicago, Ill.; on Apr. 19 U.S. ML baseball uniforms begin displaying players' names on their backs - so that CIA spies using spy sats can follow along? On Apr. 7-14 the 1960 Stanley Cup Finals see the Montreal Canadiens defeat the Toronto Maple Leafs 4-0, becoming a 5-peat, which is not achieved again until ?. On Apr. 11 the 1960 NBA Draft sees eight teams select 100 players in 21 rounds; after the draft the Minneapolis Lakers relocate to Los Angeles, Calif. and become the Los Angeles Lakers; 6'5" guard-forward Oscar Palmer "the Big O" Robertson (1938-) of the U. of Cincinnati is selected #1 by the Cincinnati Royals (#14), moving to the Milwaukee Bucks (#1) in 1970-4; 6'2" guard-forward Jerry Alan "Gentleman" "Mr. Clutch" "The Logo" "Mr. Outside" "Zeke from Cabin Creek" West (1938-) of the U. of W. Va. is selected #2 by the Minneapolis Lakers (#44), becoming a member of the first five NBA All-Defensive Teams (1969-73), then retiring in 1974, returning as head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers in 1976-9; after playing on the 1960 men's Olympic basketball team in Rome, 6'10" center Darrall Tucker Imhoff (1938-) of the U. of Calif. (#40) is selected #3 by the New York Knicks (#18), proving a bust with poor shooting skills, getting demoted to backup center; in 1962 he is traded for Gene Shue to the Detroit Pistons (#17), who trade him in 1964 to the Los Angeles Lakers (#14), who trade him in 1968 for Wilt Chamberlain to the Philadelphia 76ers (#22), moving to the Cincinnati Royals (#30) in 1970-1, and the Portland Trail Blazers (#35) in 1971-2; 6'7" forward Lee Philip Shaffer II (1939-) of the U. of N.C. is selected #5 by the Syracuse Nationals (#22), playing until 1964; 6'1" guard Leonard Randolph "Lenny" Wilkens (1937-) of Providence College is selected #6 by the St. Louis Hawks (#32), moving to the Seattle SuperSonics (#15) in 1968-72, the Cleveland Cavaliers (#14) in 1972-4, and the Portland Trail Blazers (#19) in 1974-5, becoming the head coach of the Supersonics in 1977-85, Atlanta Hawks in 1993-2000, Toronto Raptors in 2000-3, and New York Knicks in 2004-5; in 1992 he is an asst. coach of the 1992 U.S. Olympic Dream Team; in 1994-2010 he becomes the winningest coach in NBA history (1,332 Vs) (until ?). On May 30 the 1960 (44th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Richard "Jim" Rathmann (1928-). On June 20 former champ (1956-9) Floyd Patterson (1935-2006) (35-2-0) KOs 22-0-0 Ingemar Johansson in round 5 in the Polo Grounds in New York City with a leaping left hook to regain the heavyweight boxing title; the big Swede lays unconscious flat on his back for 5 min. with his glazed eyes staring up at the lights, blood trickling from his mouth, and his left foot quivering - is my car insurance just right for me? On July 21 English yachtsman Francis Chichester (1901-72) arrives in New York harbor aboard Gypsy Moth II after a record 40-day solo Atlantic crossing - if I could make it all the way around the world, I could become Sir Francis Chichester? On Sept. 10 New York Yankee player Mickey Charles Mantle (1931-95) hits a homer at Briggs Stadium in Detroit against the Detroit Tigers that measures a record 634 ft. (193m.). On Oct. 29 Cassius Clay wins his first prof. fight in Louisville, Ky. On Nov. 4 Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors sets an NBA record for most missed free throws with all 10 tries against Detroit; on Dec. 8, 2000 Shaquille O'Neal of the Los Angeles Lakers misses 11 against Seattle. On Nov. 24 Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors sets an NBA record (until ?) with 55 rebounds against the Boston Celtics. Neale Andrew Fraser (1933-) of Australia wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. men's singles title along with the Wimbleton singles title, and Darlene Hard (1936-) of the U.S. wins the women's singles title along with the French Open; Maria Esther Andion Bueno (1939-) of Brazil wins her 2nd straight Wimbledon women's singles tennis title, and Neale Fraser defeats Rod Laver to win the men's singles title; Australia defeats Italy to win the Davis Cup of tennis - yes yes yes oi oi oi? On Nov. 28 the First Annual PBA Bowling Championship in Memphis, Tenn. sees 48 bowlers compete in a 30-game preliminary round, and the top 12 compete in a 30-game final round; the winner is Don Carter; in 2002 it is renamed the PBA World Championship, presenting the Earl Anthony Trophy to winners, named after 6x winner (1973-5, 1981-3) Earl Roderick Anthony (1938-2001). Deane R. Beman (1938-) (who won the British amateur title last year) wins the U.S. amateur golf title, and in June Arnold Daniel Palmer (1929-2016) wins the U.S. Open (his only win) at Cherry Hills Country Club in Colo., shocking the golf world on June 19 with a monstrous drive, starting with a birdie on hole #1 en route to a 65 as he overcomes a 7-shot deficit to overtake 14 players; Beman wins the U.S. amateur title again in 1963, then turns pro in 1967. Ga.-born sports announcer William Earnest "Ernie" Harwell (1918-2010) becomes the voice of the Detroit Tigers (until 1991). Latvian-born Mikhail Tal (1931-92), "the Riga Magician" of the Soviet Union defeats Mikhail Botvinnik to become world chess champ #9 (until 1961); 16-y.-o. Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (1943-2008) successfully defends his U.S. chess title. Milton Ross "Milt" Plum (1935-) of the Cleveland Browns (#16) ends the season with a record 110.4 NFL passer rating, the highest until 1989; he started the season with 16 TDs without an interception in the first 10 games. TLW's boyhood heroes are all phony he-men, no girlie men in sight? Verne Gagne (1926-) (known for his sleeper hold) founds the Am. Wrestling Assoc., becoming its heavyweight champ and going on to promote a sleazy style of prof. wrestling with colorful working class hero stars (all of whom supposedly have amateur wrestling backgrounds, but at least mostly don't do steroids, preferring beer and mixed drinks?), incl. The Crusher (Reginald "Reggie" Lisowski) (1926-2005) ("the wrestler who made Milwaukee famous"), Maurice "Mad Dog" Vachon (1929-), and Nicholas Warren Francis "Nick" Bockwinkel (1934-), followed by the next generation, incl. Baron Von (James Donald) Raschke (1940-), "Nature Boy" Ric Flair (Richard Morgan Fliehr) (1949-), Ken Patera (1943-) ("first man to overhead press 500 lbs."), and Black Jack Lanza, followed by the next generation, incl. Ricky "the Dragon" Steamboat (Richard Henry Blood) (1953-), Curtis Michael "Curt" "Mr. Perfect" Hennig (1958-2003), and finally Hulk Hogan (Terry Gene Bollea) (1953-), who bolts in 1983 to the WWF of Vince McMahon, causing the AWA to go kaput in 1991; the TV version is nothing but taped buildups for the well-choreographed arena shows, where concealed razor blades are used to satisfy the paying crowds with real blood. The Prof. Women Bowler's Assoc. (PWBA) is founded, becoming the first org. for prof. women bowlers; in 1974 some players leave to form the Ladies' Prof. Bowlers Assoc. (PBA) before merging back in 1978, becoming the Women's Prof. Bowlers Assoc. (WPBA), which dissolves in 1981, becoming the Ladies Pro Bowlers Tour (LPBT), then returns to the PWBA name in 1998; it goes defunct in fall 2003. Architecture: On Apr. 12 Candlestick Park (AKA the Stick) in San Francisco, Calif. (begun 1958) opens, becoming the home of the San Francisco Giants and San Francisco 49ers until 2000; state tax auditor Al Dermody (1910-2004) won a newspaper contest with 16K entries by naming it after the nearby Candlestick Point rock formation; the Beatles play their last live commercial concert there on Aug. 29, 1966. On Apr. 21 Brasilia (modern-day pop. 480K/2.9M), the new more accessible capital of Brazil, designed by Toulon, France-born architect Lucio Costa (1902-98) is inaugurated as the nat. govt. seat, replacing Rio de Janeiro; designed for a pop. of 500K, it zooms to 2M by the end of the cent. On July 30 $600K .533 mi. Bristol Motor Speedway AKA "Thunder Valley", "World's Fastest Half-Mile", "The Last Great Colosseum" in Bristol, Tenn. hosts its first NASCAR race, becoming known for its steep 30 deg. banking, all-concrete surface, and stadium-like seating for 160K, becoming one of NASCAR's loudest tracks. On July 31 $1.8M 1.54 mi. Atlanta Motor Speedway (originally Atlanta Internat. Raceway) in Hampton, Ga. opens to host NASCAR races. $1.25M 1.5 mi. Charlotte Motor Speedway (originally Lowe's Motor Speedway) in Concord, N.C. opens, going on to host the annual Coca-Cola 600 (longest NASCAR race) on Memorial Day weekend. The Nat. Army Museum in Chelsea, London is established. Livonian-born architect Louis Isadore Kahn (Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (1901-74), prof. of architecture at Yale U. in 1947-57, followed by the U. of Penn. since 1957 designs the Richards Medical Research Bldg. Louis Isadore Kahn (1901-74) designs the Richards Medical Research Bldg. at the U. of Penn., his first example of the served-servant space concept, which groups the functional equipment into four 7-story brick towers. The Nat. Congress Bldg. in Brasilia, Brazil, designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (1907-2012) opens, along with the museum. Am. architect Minoru Yamasaki (1912-86) designs the Pavilion of Sciences in Seattle, Wash. for the 1962 Seattle World's Fair. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Albert John "Mvumbi" Luthuli (Lutuli) (1898-1967) (South Africa) (Zulu) [nonviolent protest against apartheid]; Lit.: Saint-John Perse (Alexis Saint-Leger Leger) (1887-1975) (France); Physics: Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-2013) (U.S.) [bubble chamber]; Chem.: Willard Frank Libby (1908-80) (U.S.) [C-14 dating]; Medicine: Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) (Australia) and Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87) (U.K.) [acquired immunity]. Inventions: Early in this decade the Bell Rocket Belt is created for the U.S. Army, using compressed nitrogen to shoot hydrogen peroxide over a catalyst that turns it into superheated steam to supply thrust. On Apr. 19 the $16M twin jet mid-wing all-weather Grumman A-6 Intruder attack aircraft makes its first flight, entering service in 1963 for the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps and replacing the Douglas A-1 Skyraider; 693 are built by the 1993; it is retired by the USMC on Apr. 28, 1993, and the U.S. Navy on Feb. 28, 1997; on May 25, 1968 the $20M Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare version makes its first flight, entering service in July 1971; 170 are produced by 2015. On May 13 the Douglas Delta satellite launching vehicle makes its first launch, which is a failure, after which it goes on to have a 95.3% success rate (15 failures out of 325 launches) in the Vanguard, Agena, Echo, and other programs. On Aug. 23 German-born IBM scientist Hans Peter Luhn (1896-1964) patents the Luhn Algorithm for checking the validity of ID numbers incl. credit card numbers. The opioid drug Fentanyl (Fentanil) is discovered by Belgian physician Paul Janssen (Paul Adriaan Jan, Baron Janssen) (1926-2003) (founder of Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1953) , and approved by the U.S. FDA in 1968, going on to cause 20K deaths/year in the U.S. incl. celebs like rock star Prince. The Bussard Ramjet, a rocket that uses electromagnetic fields to compress hydrogen until it fuses is proposed by physicist Robert W. Bussard (1928-2007) as a method of spacecraft propulsion - why do I keep picturing a space buzzard? The govt. of Lebanon begins developing its Cedar rocket line, which is discontinued after a warning letter from French pres. Charles de Gaulle that it threatens French army missiles. Kazuo Hashimoto (-1995) of Phonetel develops the Ansafone, which becomes the first telephone answering machine sold in the U.S. Schwinn begins marketing the derailleur Continental 10-Speed Bicycle; TLW talks his mother into getting him one for Xmas at age 7, and being too young for it some bigger kids soon steal it; years later the police return what's left of the frame - fun way to take your daily 10K steps? The U.S. Navy takes delivery of the first F-4 Phantom II (that's three straight F sounds) supersonic jet, manufactured by McDonnell Aircraft, which can do Mach 2 and operate at a 50K ft. ceiling; the U.S. Air Force adopts it in 1963, and more than 5K are built by 1979; meanwhile the Air Force takes delivery of the first delta-winged Convair B-58 Hustler, the first supersonic (Mach 2) bomber, featuring a jettisonable pod beneath the fuselage to carry fuel and/or nukes. Coopertone introduces QT (Quick Tanning), which uses DHA (dihydroxyacetone) to turn the skin brown, as first discovered by German scientists in the 1920s; too bad, it often turns it orange instead. Poppycock brand popcorn clusters with almonds and pecans, covered in a candy glaze, invented in the 1950s by Howard Vair is acquired by Wander Co. of Switzerland (makers of Ovaltine), who produce it in Villa Park, Ill., later moving production to Lincoln, Neb. under the name Lincoln Snacks Co.; in 1968 it merges with Sandoz Nutrition Co. to form Sandoz-Wander Inc.; on Sept. 7, 2007 it is acquired by Conagra Foods. Starbust (originally Opal Fruits) box-shaped fruit-flavored soft taffy candies are introduced by Mars in the U.K.; Peter Pfeffer picks the name Opal Fruits for a competition, winning £5; the original flavors are lemon, lime, orange, and strawberry, with the slogan "Made to make your mouth water"; they are introduced in the U.S. in 1967 as Starburst. Smith Corona (founded 1886) invents the typewriter power carriage return. Soft Contact Lenses using HEMA (hydrogel-poly-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) are invented using an Erector Set and a phonograph on his kitchen table (a children's spincasting kit?) by Czech chemist Otto Wichterle (1913-98) and Drahoslav Lim (1925-2003); even though they are more comfortable than hard contacts (introduced in 1939), the FDA doesn't approve them until Mar. 18, 1971; Bausch and Lomb begin marketing them in 1976; by the end of the cent. 100M worldwide are wearing them, even though they only last about a year. On May 16 U.S. physicist Theodore Maiman (1927-2007) of Hughes Research Labs in Malibu, Calif. (brother-in-law of Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921-99), who came up with the idea of building a cavity out of synthetic ruby to serve as an amplification chamber) first demonstrates the Optical Ruby Laser. On Oct. 25 Bulova introduces the Accutron 360 Hz tuning fork watch, the first Electronic Wristwatch, with a retro analog display; in 1963 they introduce the Spaceview, with a transparent dial so the tuning forks can be observed. IBM introduces the 1405 Disk Storage unit, available with 25 or 50 disks for 10MB or 20MB storage capacity, with a 17.5 KB per sec. read/write rate; the CIA uses it for their Walnut info. retrieval system; it is discontinued in 1970. Imperimerie Nat. in Paris pioneers Computer Typesetting. Polaroid introduces 3K-rated ASA high-speed film, a 10x improvement. Am. physician Belding Hibbard Scribner (1921-2003) of the U. of Wash. implants the first outpatient kidney dialysis Teflon Scribner Shunt in 39-y.-o. machinist Clyde Shields (1921-71) on Mar. 9; the operating room version was developed in 1944 by Willem J. Kollf; too bad, now that people with renal failure have an easier way out, the ethical dilemma of who will and won't be treated arises, and in 1962 Scribner founds the 12-patient Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, the world's first outpatient dialysis treatment center, with an anon. committee deciding which of 60 patients get treatment. The PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations) computer-assisted education system is built at the U. of Ill. by Donald L. Bitzer, pioneering online forums, message boards, e-mail, chat rooms, picture languages, instant messages, multiplayer games, and remote screen sharing; it is shut down in 2006. Armenian-Am. inventor Luther George Simjian (1905-97) patents the Bankograph, which is installed in lobbies of the First Nat. City Bank of New York City (later Citibank), allowing customers to deposit checks or cash and receive a photo receipt., becoming the first automatic teller machine (ATM); in 1968 Deibold & Co. of Canton, Ohio begins manufacturing them. Science: This decade is the Pharamaceutical Decade as blood pressure, tranquilizer, and other drugs hit the market bigtime, starting with the anti-anxiety sedative-hypnotic Benzodiazepines (BZDs) incl. Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) (AKA Librax, Libritabs, Mesural, Multum, Novapam, Sonimen, Tropium, Angirex, Elenium, Klopoxid et al.) of Hoffmann-La Roche Labs, which was discovered accidentally in 1955 by Leo Sternbach and receives FDA approval on Feb. 24; in 1963 it markets the benzodiazepine drug Diazepam AKA Valium; in 1977 the benzodiazepine drug Lorazepam is introduced, becoming known for its ability to induce sleep and amnesia, making it the date rape drug of choice - my mother used to look like this? In this decade Pottsville, Penn.-born economist Gary Stanley Becker (1930-) and Polish-born economist Jacob Mincer (1922-2006) develop New Home Economics (NHE) at Columbia U., emphasizing the importance of household production, spawning Family Economics. In this decade Kampen, Netherlands-born astronomer Peter (Piet) van de Kamp (1901-95), dir. of Swarthmore College's Sproul Observatory in 1937-72 claims to find a periodic wobble in the motion of Barnard's Star, indicating a planet; too bad, he never admits he is wrong despite numerous criticisms, causing the term van de Kampian planet to be coined; on Nov. 14, 2018 the Red Dots Project announces the discovery of a planet 3.2x the mass of Earth orbiting you know what. In this decade Canton, Ohio-born psychologist Marshall B. Rosenberg (1934-) develops Nonviolent (Compassionate) (Collaborative) Communication (NVC), a conflict resolution process based on self-empathy, empathy, and honest self-expression. Irving Friedman (1920-2005) et al. of the U.S. Geological Survey invent Obsidian Hydration Dating based on absorption of water over time. German-born English pshrink Max Hamilton (1912-88) pub. the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), with a score of 20+ indicating clinical depression. K.H. Hofmann of Germany synthesizes pituitary hormone. The first Jodie Fosters with those accents they try so desperately to shed, pure West Virginia are already into Carl Sagan's Contact? Project Ozma (named after L. Frank Baum's Queen of Oz) is founded by Chicago, Ill.-born astronomer Frank Donald Drake (1930-) of Cornell U. in Green Bank, W. Va., doing the first research for the SETI program, looking for signs of extraterrestrial life on the 1.420 GHZ band; next year Drake develops the Drake Equation to estimate the number of detectable civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy; the U.S. govt. stops funding SETI in 1995. In this decade Omaha, Neb.-born econometrist Lawrence Robert Klein (1920-) develops the Brookings-SSRC Econometric Model, and the Wharton Econometric Forecasting Model (1967), winning him the 1980 Nobel Econ. Prize. Cambridge, Mass.-born physicist John Hamilton Reynolds (1923-2000) of UCB sets the age of the Solar System at 4.95B years based on an excess of xenon-129 in the Richardton Meteorite and other meteorites resulting from beta decay of iodine-129 to xenon-129 in its early years. G.N. Robinson of Beecham Co. of Britain discovers the semi-synthetic penicillin Methicillin (Meticillin) (originally Celbenin), which is toxic to humans but can kill Staphylococcus aureus in the lab. Gary, Ind.-born economist Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009) and Brooklyn, N.Y.-born economist Robert Merton Solow (1924-) pub. a paper publicizing an inverse relation between unemployment and inflation, which is called the Phillips Curve, capturing the public imagination and influencing public policy. English surgeon Michael Francis Addison Woodruff (1911-2001) performs the first successful Kidney Transplant in the U.K. at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, getting knighted for it in 1969. Am. chemist Robert Burns Woodward (1917-79) (the model for nerds of the future?) announces the synthesis of chlorophyll, winning him the 1965 Nobel Chem. Prize. Dinosaur fossils are found in Zhucheng in Shandong Province in E China, which climbs to 7.6K fossils in 2008, making it the richest dino fossil site on Earth. The Gypsy Moth Pheromone is discovered. The first Vetlesen Prize is awarded by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia U. and the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation to Am. geophysicist-oceanographer William Maurice "Doc" Ewing (1906-74), going on to become the Nobel Prize for geology. Nonfiction: Mercedes de Acosta (1893-1968), Here Lies the Heart (autobio.); her encounter with Maharishi Sri Ramana, and how she licked every Hollywood starlet's problems she could? Joy Adamson (1910-80), Born Free: The Lioness of Two Worlds; the untaming of Elsa the lion in Kenya; filmed in 1966. Herbert Sebastian Agar (1897-1980), The Saving Remnant: An Account of Jewish Survival Since 1914. John Marco Allegro (1923-88), The Treasure of the Copper Scroll; after arranging for it to be cut open in Manchester, England in 1955-6, he trans. its contents and found it to be a list of the Jewish Temple treasures hidden during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. Donald Allen (1912-2004) (ed.), The New American Poetry, 1945-1960; which documents the "third generation" of Am. modernist poets, becoming a std. work; Robert Lowell describes the difference between the old and new poets as the difference between the cooked and the raw. Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962), La Poetique de la Reverie. Am. Bible Society et al., Version Reina-Valera; a Spanish trans. of the Bible, used by Spanish Protestants. Cleveland Amory (1917-98), Who Killed Society?; the low level of morality and courtesy in society. Philippe Aries (1914-84), Centuries of Childhood (L'Enfant et la Vie Familiale sous l'Ancient Regime); first book on the history of childhood; "In medieval society, the idea of childhood did not exist"; claims it takes until the 17th cent. A.J. Ayer (1910-89), Logical Positivism. Bernard Bailyn (1922-), Education in the Forming of American Society. Ian Graeme Barbour (1923-), Christianity and the Scientist; founds the modern dialogue on science v. religion. Jacques Barzun (1907-), Lincoln the Literary Genius; first pub. in the Saturday Evening Post, Feb. 14, 1959. Werner Baumbach, Broken Swastika: The Defeat of the Luftwaffe. L.L. Bean (1872-1967), My Story: The Adventures of a Down-East Merchant (autobio.); it all began with his little old Maine Hunting Shoe. Simone Beauvoir (1908-86), The Prime of Life (autobio.). Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer (1899-1972), The Sciences Were Never at War. Daniel Bell (1919-), The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties; 19th-20th cent. humanism is kaput because society is becoming classless a la Karl Marx? Nicolas Clerihew Bentley (1901-78), A Version of the Truth (autobio.). John Betjeman (1906-84), Summoned by Bells: A Life in Verse (verse autobio.). Paul Blanshard (1892-1980), God and Man in Washington. James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014), John Kennedy: A Political Profile; written after meeting him in 1958 while unsuccessfully running for the U.S. House in Mass. while he was seeking reelection to the U.S. Senate and being granted personal access, portraying him as "a rationalist and an intellectual", a man of excessive calculation lacking in emotion, who was "casual as a cash register", "quiet, taut, efficient - sometimes, perhaps, even dull", asking "What great idea does Kennedy personify? In what way is he a leader of thought? How could he supply moral leadership at a time when new paths before the nation need discovering?", pissing-off Jackie, who writes the soundbyte: "I think you underestimate him. Can't you see he is exceptional?" James Ramsay Montagu Butler (1889-1975), Lord Lothian. Herb Caen (1916-97), Only in San Francisco. Elias Canetti (1905-94), Crowds and Power. Aime Cesaire (1913-2008), Toussaint L'Ouverture, La Revolution Francaise et le Probleme Colonial. Caryl Chessman (1921-60), The Kid Was a Killer (autobio.). Sir Kenneth Clark (1903-83), Looking at Pictures. Ronald Coase (1910-), The Problem of Social Cost; claims that law and govt. regulations are not as important or effective in helping people as once thought, and that the govt. should have the burden of proof that its intervention in the market has positive effects based on costs of action, and that well-defined property rights can overcome the problems of externalities; proposes the Coase Theorem, that if trade in an externality is possible and there are no transaction costs, bargaining will lead to an efficient outcome regardless of the initial allocation of property, leading to the creation of New Institutional Economics in the 1970s. Robert Conquest (1917-2015), Common Sense About Russia (first book); U.S.-based British historian praises their educational system and scientific research; Power and Politics in the USSR. Earl Wendell Count (1897-1966) (ed.), This Is Race: An Anthology of the International Literature on the Races of Man. Bosley Crowther (1905-81), Hollywood Rajah: The Life and Times of Louis B. Mayer. Norman Dacey (1909-85), How to Avoid Probate; advocates trusts and shows how to set up estates without hiring an atty. Edward Dahlberg (1900-77), Can These Bones Live?; rev. of "Do These Bones Live" (1941) and "Sing O Barren" (1947). George Dangerfield (1904-86), Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. Jonathan Worth Daniels (1902-81), Robert E. Lee. Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), The Historic Reality of Christian Culture. Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-72), Buried Day (autobio.). Isaac Deutscher (1907-67), The Great Contest: Russia and the West. David Herbert Donald (1920-), Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (Pulitzer Prize). Thomas Anthony Dooley III (1927-61), Doctor Tom Dooley, My Story; The Night They Burned the Mountain. Charles M. Doughty, My Travels in Arabia Deserta (June 30). Loren Eiseley (1907-77), The Firmament of Time. Clifton Fadiman (1904-99), Lifetime Reading Plan; list of Great Books; rev. eds. pub. in 1978, 1986, and 1998. Herbert Feis (1893-1972), Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference (Pulitzer Prize). Leslie Fiedler (1917-2003), Love and Death in the American Novel; deconstructs the Great Am. Novel. Errol Flynn (1909-59), My Wicked, Wicked Ways (autobio.) (posth.). John Thomas Flynn (1882-1964), God's Gold: The Story of Rockefeller and His Times; former progressivist flip-flops and sees how capitalists get rich by helping others, and it's only the jealous anti-capitalists who paint them as evil and want to get in the loop with govt. power? Michel Foucault (1926-84), Madness and Reason: History of Madness in the Age of Reason (Foilet et Deraison: Histoire de la Folie a l'Age Classique) (abridged English trans. in 1964); his first major book, abandoning phenomenology for structuralism in an examination of the evolution of the meaning of madness in Euro culture, attributing it to the influence of social structures. Arlene Francis (1907-2001), That Certain Something: The Magic of Charm. Erich Fromm (1900-80), Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism. Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002), Truth and Method; truth cannot be adequately explained by scientific method; is there a way to transcend history and culture to find a truly objective position from which to criticize society? David Gale (1921-2008), The Theory of Linear Economic Models; becomes a std. textbook on linear programming and linear inequalities. Larry Gara, The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad. Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), Thoughts and Meditations (posth.). Barry Goldwater (1909-98), The Conscience of a Conservative; the Conservative Bible, touting freedom as the highest value in society; "The challenge to Conservatives today is quite simply to demonstrate the bearing of a proven philosophy on the problems of our own time", incl. states' rights, civil rights, freedom for the farmer and laborer, taxes and spending, the welfare state, education, and the Soviet menace; calls federal intervention in education unconstitutional, saying that "the alleged need for federal funds has never been convincingly demonstrated"; also calls the farm subsidy program unconstitutional, and backs more nuclear tests in case of a limited war. Paul Goodman (1911-72), Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized Society; study of juvenile delinquency. Robert L. Heilbroner (1919-2005), The Future as History. Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978), The Arabs. Emory Holloway (1885-1977), Free and Lonesome Narrative: The Secret of Walt Whitman; refutes critics who charged him with ignoring evidence of Whitman's gayness, discussing his "simple homosexual" disposition vis a vis his "Once I Passed Through a Populous City"; "The key word in the comprehension of Whitman is 'balance'." Margaret Irwin (1889-1967), That Great Lucifer: A Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. Elizabeth Jenkins (1905-2010), Joseph Lister. Walter Johnson (1915-85) and Francis J. Colligan, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue: Presidents and the People, 1929-59. Howard Mumford Jones (1892-1980), The Scholar as American. Robert Francis Kennedy (1925-68), The Enemy Within: The McClellan Committee's Crusade Against Jimmy Hoffa and Corrupt Labor Unions. Frances Parkinson Keyes (1885-1970), Roses in December (autobio.). Maj. Donald E. Keyhoe (1897-1988), Flying Saucers: Top Secret. David Kidd (1927-96), All the Emperor's Horses; repub. in 1988 as "Peking Story". Henry A. Kissinger (1923-), Necessity for Choice: Prospects of American Foreign Policy; talks of the "missile gap", but limits "flexible response" to the use of conventional forces, influencing the Kennedy admin. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), The Watershed: A Biography of Johannes Kepler; excerpt from "The Sleepwalkers" (1959); Lotus and the Robot; assessment of East vs. West. R.D. Laing (1927-89), The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. Rex Lardner (1918-98), Out of the Bunker and Into the Trees. John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87), I Am My Brother (autobio.); being gay in England. Oscar Lewis (1914-70), Tepoztlan, Village in Mexico. Seymour Martin Lipset (1922-2006), Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Allard Kenneth Lowenstein (1929-80), A Brutal Mandate; his 1959 tour of Namibia in SW Africa; introduction by Eleanor Roosevelt. Dwight Macdonald (1906-82), The Memoirs of a Revolutionist: Essays in Political Criticism; Parodies: An Anthology from Chaucer to Beerbohm and After. Gavin Maxwell (1914-69), Ring of Bright Water; bestseller (1M copies); jaded Scottish naturalist brings a smooth-coated otter named Mijbil (1956-) back from Basra, Iraq and discovers the new sub-species Maxwell's Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli); title taken from the poem "The Marriage of Psyche" by Kathleen Raine (1908-2003), who's hot for him but which he doesn't return since he's gay. Arthur J. May (1899-1968), The Hapsburg Monarchy, 1867-1914. Douglas McGregor (1906-64), The Human Side of Enterprise; how employees can be managed via Theory X (they are inherently lazy) and/or Theory Y (they like to work and have ambition); too bad, most take it as an unqualified endorsement of Theory Y. Eric Louis McKitrick (1919-2002), Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (first book); reverses the picture of a brave hero fighting the Carpetbaggers and portrays him as a small-minded stubborn vindictive man who held back racial progress. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-61), Signs; the primacy of perception. Elting Elmore Morison (1909-95), Turmoil and Tradition (Parkman Prize); bio. of U.S. war secy. Henry L. Stimson, Charles Norman (1904-96), Ezra Pound; rev. ed. 1969. Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968), A Crown of Fire: The Life and Times of Girolamo Savonarola. Vance Packard (1914-96), The Waste Makers; criticizes planned obsolescence. Talcott Parsons (1902-79), Structure and Process in Modern Societies. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), The Victorians. Richard Poirier (1925-), The Comic Sense of Henry James: A Study of the Early Novels. Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000), Word and Object; the impossibility of translating languages. Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (1910-90), John King Fairbank (1907-), and Albert Morton Craig (1927-), East Asia: The Great Tradition. Elmer Rice (1892-1967), The Living Theatre; by the playwright who was as popular as Eugene O'Neill in the 1920s. Joan Robinson (1903-83), Exercises in Economic Analysis. Robert S. de Ropp (1913-87), Man Against Aging. Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003), The United States in the World Arena: An Essay in Recent History; The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto; based on a 1959 article in Economics History Review; proposes the Rostovian Takeoff Model of Economic Growth, with five basic stages: traditional society, preconditions for takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption; the book impresses pres. candidate JFK, who makes him an adviser, then appoints him as an asst. to nat. security adviser McGeorge Bundy, getting promoted to his job by LBJ and becoming LBJ's main war hawk; too bad, he says that the preconditions for takeoff can be speeded up via not only infusions of Western knowhow and culture to backwards benighted Third World countries, but diffusion of Western culture, triggering anti-Westernism. Sir Steven Runciman (1903-2000), The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946; James Brooke and his independent nation of Sarawak in 1841. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Bertrand Russell Speaks His Mind. George Sanders (1906-72), Memoirs of a Professional Cad (autobio.). Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80), Critique de la Raison Dialectique. Cicely Mary Strode Saunders (1918-2005), Care of the Dying; founds the modern hospice movement, based on the premise that dying is a natural part of living rather than a failure of medicine, therefore people should be permitted to die with dignity along with effective pain meds and sensitive nursing. Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921-), The Strategy of Conflict; uses game theory to analyze how the U.S. and Soviet Union maintain the credibility of their nuclear threats. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (1917-2007), The Politics of Upheaval; by JFK's and LBJ's speechwriter, who teaches at CUNY in 1966-94. Richard Seaver (1926-2009), Terry Southern (1924-95), Alexander Trocchi (1925-84) (eds.), Writers in Revolt. Idries Shah (1924-96), Gerald Gardner: Witch; English Wicca founder Gerald Gardner (1884-1964); pub. under alias J.L. Bracelin. William Lawrence Shirer (1904-93), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (Oct. 17); bestseller (2M copies) covering the early 1920s through 1945; initial press run is only 12.5K copies; supports the Sonderweg (Ger. "special path") ("Luther to Hitler") theory that claims that Hitler's rise to power was an expression of German nat. character that began with Martin Luther, as Germany kept seeking a "Third Way" compared to "vulgar" Western democracy and "Tsaristic" eastern autocracy; "The course of German history... made blind obedience to temporal rulers the highest virtue of Germanic man, and put a premium on servility"; no surprise, German historians diss it because to them Nazism was just another manifestation of a totalitarian disease that afflicted Italy, Japan, and many other countries at the time, hence Amerikaners have no reason to harbor anti-German sentiment. Martin Shubik (1926-), Game Theory as an Approach to the Firm. Robert Sobel (1931-99), The Origins of Interventionism: The United States and the Russo-Finnish War. Lydia Sokolova (1896-1974), Dancing for Diaghilev (autobio.). Piero Sraffa (1898-1983), Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities: Prelude to a Critique of Economic Theory; attempts to refute neoclassical economics by a technique of aggregating capital as "dated inputs of labor", leading to the Cambridge Capital Controversy, and founding the Neo-Ricardian School of Economics. Walter Terence Stace (1886-1967), Mysticism and Philosophy; The Teachings of the Mystics; popularizes the subject. Wallace Stegner (1909-83), Wilderness Letter (Dec. 3); helps get the 1964 U.S. Wilderness Act get passed. George Steiner (1929-), Tolstoy or Dostoevsky: An Essay in Contrast. Malcolm H. Stern, Americans of Jewish Descent; 250K Jews in the U.S. and their Jewish bloodlines; only 550 copies printed. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1901-87), The Uncertain Trumpet; a U.S. gen. criticizes Ike's "New Look" defense policy as relying too much on nukes, and calls for "means to deter or to win the small wars". John Terraine (1921-2003), Mons: The Retreat to Victory (first book). Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1911-95), The Sky People: Ancient Aliens and the Supernatural; claims that ancient Bible chars. Adam, Eve, and Noah came from Mars and were experimental creations of ETs. Adam Bruno Ulam (1922-2000), The Unfinished Revolution: An Essay on the Sources of Influence of Marxism and Communism. Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), The Old Man's Notebook (Il Taccuino de Vecchio). Alan W. Watts (1915-73), The Value of Psychotic Experience; The World As Emptiness; From Time to Eternity; Lecture on Zen; The Cross of Cards; The Nature of Consciousness; "If you awaken from this illusion, and you understand that black implies white, self implies other, life implies death - or shall I say, death implies life - you can conceive yourself. Not conceive, but feel yourself, not as a stranger in the world, not as someone here on sufferance, on probation, not as something that has arrived here by fluke, but you can begin to feel your own existence as absolutely fundamental. What you are basically, deep, deep down, far, far in, is simply the fabric and structure of existence itself. So, say in Hindu mythology, they say that the world is the drama of God. God is not something in Hindu mythology with a white beard that sits on a throne, that has royal perogatives. God in Indian mythology is the self, Satcitananda. Which means sat, that which is, chit, that which is consciousness; that which is ananda is bliss. In other words, what exists, reality itself is gorgeous, it is the fullness of total joy." James Wechsler (1915-83), Reflections of an Angry Middle-Aged Editor; retiring ed. of the New York Post. Theodore Harold White (1915-86), The Making of the President, 1960 (Pulitzer Prize); bestseller, causing him to do it every four years. Michael Young (1915-2002), The Chipped White Cups of Dover: A Discussion of the Possibility of a New Progressive Party. Art: Joseph Beuys (1921-86), Bathtub (sculpture); covers his childhood metal tub with plaster and fat-soaked gauze, commemorating his WWII experience as a Luftwaffe pilot shot down over the Crimea and saved by Tatars by wrapping him in fat; too bad in fall 1973 two women at the Museum Schloss Morsbroich mistakenly clean it. John Randall Bratby (1928-92), Gloria Bishop with Sunflower. Sir Anthony Caro (1924-2013), Twenty Four Hours (sculpture); his first abstract and first welded sculpture, launching his rise to #1 sculptor in England. Lucien Coutaud (1904-77), Le Chateau des Fourches. Richard Diebenkorn (1922-93), Girl with Plant. Jim Dine (1935-), Shoes Walking on My Brain; leather shoes hanging off the forehead of a painting of a childlike face. M.C. Escher (1898-1972), Ascending and Descending (lithograph). Alberto Giacometti (1901-66), Walking Man II (Homme qui Marche II) (bronze sculpture); first one in 1947. Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Girl in the Sun (Joie d'une Fillette Devant le Soleil). Jasper Johns (1930-), Painted Bronze (Ale Cans) (sculpture); two cans of Balantine XXX ale; painted on a bet about his dealer Leo Castelli; "Somebody told me that Bill de Kooning said that you could give that son-of-a-bitch two beer cans and he could sell them. I thought, what a wonderful idea for a sculpture." (Johns) Ellsworth Kelly (1923-), Block Island II. Yves Klein (1928-62), Untitled Anthropometry (ANT 106); has nude models do the painting with his Internat. Klein Blue paint using their bushes as brushes; RE 46; sells for $4.72M at Christie's in May 2006. Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Door to the River. Morris Louis (1912-62), Beta Lambda; Unfurled Series (1960-1). Rene Magritte (1898-1967), The Postcard. Agnes Martin (1912-2004), White Flower. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Etre Atout; Vers l'Universe; Ciudad Cosmica; Design of Intuition. Justin McCarthy (1891-1977), Lady in Polka Dots. Barnett Newman (1905-70), The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Stations (1960-2). Larry Rivers (1923-2002), Orange Valentine II; Reclining Figure. Norman Rockwell (1894-1978), Triple Self-Portrait; Saturday Evening Post, Feb. 13. James Rosenquist (1933-), President Elect. Mark Rothko (1903-70), No. 7; No. 14, 1960 - Or, I want to catch a 3 lb. walleyed pike by 3 this afternoon and where did I lay my used tampon? Andy Warhol (1928-87), Dick Tracy. Music: Arthur Alexander (1940-93), Lonely Just Like Me: The Final Chapter; incl. Sally Sue Brown (debut). Paul Anka (1941-), Something Happened. The Hollywood Argyles, Alley Oop (#1 in the U.S.); written by Dallas Frazier (1939-); produced by Kim Fowley (1939-) (a student at Univ. H.S. in West Los Angeles) along with Sandy Nelson, Jan Berry and Dean Torrence, who lives at the corner of Hollywood Blvd. and Argyle St., and pays musicians $25 per session to record for him, incl. Norm Davis (lead vocals), Gary Paxton (1938-), Sander L. "Sandy" Nelson (1938-) (drums), Ted Winters (jug?); first song played on May 2 by WLS-AM in Chicago after they change from farm programming to rock and roll. Joan Baez (1941-), Joan Baez (album) (debut) (Oct.); incl. "Silver Dagger", "House of the Rising Sun", "Donna Donna", "Fare Thee Well (10,000 Miles)". The Teen Beats (Don Rivers and the Califfs), The Slop Beat. Harry Belafonte (1927-), Belafonte Returns to Carnegie Hall (album); Swing Dat Hammer (album). Chuck Berry (1926-2017), Too Pooped to Pop/ Let It Rock; Bye Bye Johnny; I Got to Find My Baby; Jaguar and Thunderbird. Boris Blacher (1903-75), Rosamunde Floris (opera) (Berlin) (Sept. 21); libretto by Gerhart von Westerman; based on the play by Georg Kaiser. Johnny Bond (1915-78), Hot Rod Lincoln; cover of the 1955 hit by Charlie Ryan. Gary U.S. Bonds (1939-), New Orleans (#6 in the U.S.). Benjamin Britten (1913-76), A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 64 (opera) (Aldeburgh Festival) (June 11); stars Alfred Deller as Oberon, Jennifer Vyvyan as Tytania, and Leonide Massine II as Puck. The Brothers Four, The Brothers Four (album) (debut) (#11 in the U.S.); incl. Greenfields (debut) (Jan.) (#2 in the U.S.) (#40 in the U.K.) (1M copies); The Green Leaves of Summer (#65 in the U.S.) (from the film "The Alamo"); Rally 'Round! (album #2); from the U. of Wash. in Seattle, incl. Bob Flick, John Paine, Mike Kirkland, and Dick Foley. Charles Brown (1922-99), Charles Brown Sings Christmas Songs (album); incl. Please Come Home for Christmas (#76 in the U.S.). James Brown (1933-2006), Think (Aug.). Johnny Burnette (1934-64), You're Sixteen (by Robert B. Sherman and Richard M. Sherman) (#8 in the U.S.); covered in 1973 by Ringo Starr; promotes pedophilia? Jerry Butler (1939-), He Will Break Your Heart (#7 in the U.S.). Elliott Cook Carter Jr. (1908-), Second String Quartet (Pulitzer Prize). The Capris, There's a Moon Out Tonight; Nick Santa Maria, Mike Mincelli, Steve Reina, Vinnie Narcardo, John Apostol. Ray Charles (1930-2004), Let the Good Times Roll; Just For a Thrill; Hard Hearted Hannah; Ruby; Georgia On My Mind (about Hoagy Carmichael's sister?); Sticks and Stones; Tell the Truth. Chubby Checker (1941-), (Let's Do) The Twist; cover of "The Twist" by Hank Ballard. Eddie Cochran (1938-60), Cut Across Shorty / Three Steps to Heaven (Mar.); Lonely (Aug.); Weekend (Dec.). Nat King Cole (1919-65), The Magic of Christmas (album) (July 5-7) (#1 in the U.S.); becomes the best-selling Christmas album of the 1960s (6M copies in the U.S.); Wild is Love (album) (Oct.); based on a failed Broadway play about his travels through the realm of "hundreds and thousands of girls"; incl. Wild is Love ("Your chance goes by, and it's too late to wonder why"); The Magic of Christmas. Ornette Coleman (1930-2015), Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation (album #6) (Dec. 21, 1960); coins the term "free jazz", founding a movement that incl. John Coltrane and Eric Dolphy. Marius Constant (1925-2004), Cyrano de Bergerac (ballet). Sam Cooke (1931-64), Chain Gang (#2 in the U.S.); Wonderful World (#12 in the U.S.). Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965), Symphony No. 15 "Thesis". Bobby Darin (1936-73), Beyond the Sea (#6 in the U.S., #8 in the U.K.). Miles Davis (1926-91) and Gil Evans (1912-88), Sketches of Spain (album) (July 18). Bo Diddley (1928-2008), Bo Diddley is a Gunslinger (album); incl. Gunslinger, Ride on Josephine; Mumblin' Guitar. Dion (1939-) and the Belmonts, Where or When (#3 in the U.S.); Lonely Teenager (#12 in the U.S.). Ken Dodd (1927-), Love Is Like a Violin; sets a record for telling 1.5K jokes in 3.5 hours in Liverpool. Eric Dolphy (1928-64), Outward Bound (album) (debut); Out There (album #2); incl. Out There. Fats Domino (1928-2017), Walking to New Orleans; Three Nights a Week; My Girl Josephine. Charlie Drake (1925-2006), Mr. Custer. The Drifters, Save the Last Dance for Me (#1 in the U.S.). Duane Eddy (1938-) and The Rebels, Duane Eddy's 16 Greatest Hits (album #4); incl. Shazam! (#45 in the U.S.) (#4 in the U.K.). Maureen Evans (1940-), The Big Hurt. The Everly Brothers, Cathy's Clown (Apr.). Adam Faith (1940-2003) and The Roulettes, Poor Me (#1 in the U.K.); Someone Else's Baby (#2 in the U.K.); When Johnny Comes Marching Home (#5 in the U.K.); How About That! (#4 in the U.K.); Lonely Pup (In A Christmas Shop) (#4 in the U.K.); Made You (by John Barry) (#5 in the U.K.) (from "Beat Girl") (banned by the BBC, making it more popular?); Adam (album) (debut) (Nov. 4). Percy Faith (1908-76), Theme from A Summer Place. Stan Freberg (1926-), The Old Payola Roll Blues. Jimmy Gilmer (1940-) and The Fireballs, The Fireballs (album) (debut); from Raton, N.M.; incl. Torquay, Bulldog, Vaquero. The Flamingos, Your Other Love (by Doc Pomus) (#54 in the U.S.); Nobody Loves Me Like You Do (by Sam Cooke) (#30 in the U.S.). Skip and Flip, Cherry Pie. Billy Fury (1940-83), Colette (#9 in the U.K.); That's Love (#19 in the U.K.); Wondrous Place (#25 in the U.K.); A Thousand Stars (#14 in the U.K.); The Sound of Fury (album) (debut); after he becomes a hit, he dumps his backup band The Blue Flames (which incl. keyboardist Georgie Fame, who takes them over) and holds auditions, offering the job to the Silver Beetles (later The Beatles) for £20 a week on the condition that they dump bass player Stuart Sutcliffe, which John Lennon refuses after securing his autograph, after which The Beatles tour Scotland with Johnny Gentle and Duffy Power. Buddy Greco (1926-2017), The Lady Is a Tramp (#26 in the U.K.) (1M copies). Rolf Harris (1930-), Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport (#3 in the U.S.) (#1 in Australia); features his invention, the wobble board. The Heartbeats, A Thousand Miles Away. Jessie Hill (1932-96), Ooh Poo Pah Doo (#5 R&B) (#30 in the U.S.) (800K copies); 1-hit wonder. John Lee Hooker (1917-2001), Travelin' (album); incl. No Shoes. Johnny Horton (1925-60), North to Alaska (#1 country), Sink the Bismarck (#6 country). Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), Symphony No. 11 ("All Men Are Brothers"), Op. 186; Symphony No. 14 ("Ararat"), Op. 194. The Hunters, Teen Scene; from Cheshunt, England, incl. Brian Parker, Norman Stracey, John Rogers, and Norman Sheffield. Brian Hyland (1943-), Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini (album); incl. Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini (June) (#1 in the U.S.) (2M copies); written by Paul Vance and Lee Pockriss. Frank Ifield (1937-), Lucky Devil (debut). Wanda Jackson (1937-), Let's Have a Party (#37 in the U.S., #32 in U.K.). Etta James (1938-2012), At Last! (album #3); incl. Trust in Me (#30 in the U.S.), At Last (#47 in the U.S.) (#2 R&B), All I Could Do Was Cry (#33 in the U.S.), My Dearest Darling (#34 in the U.S.), If I Can't Have You (w/Harvey Fuqua) (#52 in the U.S.), Spoonful (w/Harvey Fuqua) (#78 in the U.S.). Bert Kaempfert (1923-80), Wonderland by Night (album) (first hit); incl. Wonderland by Night (#1 in the U.S. in 1961). Freddie King (1934-76), Have You Ever Loved a Woman. Linda Lawson (1936-), Introducing Linda Lawson (album) (debut). Brenda Lee (1944-), Miss Dynamite (album); incl. I'm Sorry (#1 in the U.S., #12 in the U.K.); (her first #1) (the new "Nashville Sound", adopted by Ray Charles for "Georgia On My Mind"); This is Brenda (album); incl. I Want to Be Wanted (#1 in the U.S., #31 in the U.K.). Jerry Leiber (1933-) and Mike Stoller (1933-), The Leiber-Stoller Big Band (album). Erich Leinsdorf (1912-93), Turandot (album). Abbey Lincoln (1930-2010) and Max Roach (1924-2007), We Insist! (Max Roach's Freedom Now Suite) (album). Hank Locklin (1918-), Please Help Me I'm Falling. Loretta Lynn (1935-), I'm A Honky Tonk Girl; launches her career by self-promoting it in a car tour. Miriam Makeba (1932-2008), Miriam Makeba (album) (debut); The World of Miriam Makeba (album); exiled South African black singer is helped to enter the U.S. by Harry Belafonte (1927-), and becomes a star. Gene McDaniels (1935-), In Times Like These (album) (debut). The Miracles, Shop Around (debut); Motown's 1st #1 R&B hit and first million-selling single; Who's Loving You; William "Smokey" Robinson Jr. (1940-) and his wife Claudette Marie Rogers Robinson (1942-), Ronald "Ronnie" White (1939-95), Peter (Warren) Moore (1939-), Marvin "Marv" Tarplin (1941-). Thelonious Monk (1917-82), Thelonious Monk at the Blackhawk (album #13). Lou Monte (1917-89), Dominick the Italian Christmas Donkey. Wes Montgomery (1925-68), The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery (album); incl. Four on Six. Jane Morgan (1924-), Romantica. Bob Newhart (1929-), The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart (album) (debut); Am. accountant George Robert "Bob" Newhart (1929-) goes into comedy, and his album becomes the first comedy album to hit #1, saving Warner Brothers Records; best album of the year Grammy. Anthony Newley (1931-99), Love Is a Now and Then Thing (album) (debut); incl. Why?; Do You Mind; If She Should Come to You; Strawberry Fair. Roy Orbison (1936-88), Only the Lonely (May); Blue Angel (Aug.); I'm Hurtin' (Dec.). Edith Piaf (1915-63), Non, Je Ne Regrette Rien (No, I Regret Nothing); becomes her anthem. Platters, Harbor Lights (Jan.); Sleepy Lagoon (Jan.); Ebb Tide (May); Red Sails in the Sunset; To Each His Own (Oct.). The Four Preps, Down by the Station (#13 in the U.S.); More Money for You and Me; parody of "Tom Dooley". Elvis Presley (1935-77), A Touch of Gold Vol. 3 (album) (Feb.); Stuck On You/ Fame and Fortune (Mar.); Elvis Is Back! (album) (Apr.); It's Now or Never/ Mess of Blues (July); based on "O Sole Mio"; G.I. Blues Soundtrack (album) (Oct.); incl. G.I. Blues; Are You Lonesome Tonight/ I Gotta Know (Nov.); His Hand in Mine (album) (Nov.); incl. I Believe in the Man in the Sky. Jim Reeves (1923-64), He'll Have to Go (#1 country) (#2 in the U.S.); "Put your sweet lips a little closer to the phone/ Let's pretend that we're together all alone/ I'll tell the man to turn the jukebox way down low/ And you can tell your friend there with you he'll have to go." Cliff Richard (1940-) and The Shadows, Move On Down the Line. Sviatoslav Richter (1915-97), Brahms: Concerto No. 2 in B-flat, Op. 83 (album). Marty Robbins (1925-82), Big Iron (#5 country) (#26 in the U.S.); Ballad of the Alamo (#34 in the U.S.). Bobby Rydell (1942-), Wild One (#2); Swingin' School (#5); Volare (#4); Sway (#14); Ding A Ling; the Italian-Am. Philly singer starts at the top and systematically slides down the charts as the Beatles Invasion arrives. Pete Seeger (1919-2014), Champlain Valley Songs (album). Pete Seeger (1919-2014) et al., Pete Seeger at the Village Gate with Memphis Slim and Willie Dixon (double album) (1960, 1962) (Folkways Records); incl. Jacob's Ladder, I'm On My Way to Canaan's Land, Hieland Laddie. The Shadows, Man of Mystery; written by Michael Carr (1905-68); Apache. The Shirelles, Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow? (#1 in the U.S.) (written by Carole King); Tonight's the Night (#39 in the U.S.); incl. Shirley Owens (Shirley Alston Reeves)/Doris Coley, Doris Jackson, Beverly Lee, and Addie Harris "Micki" McPherson; launches the Girl Group Era. Dinah Shore (1916-94), Dinah Sings, Previn Plays/ Somebody Loves Me (album); Dinah Sings Some Blues with Red. Frank Sinatra (1915-98), Nice 'n' Easy (album); incl. Nice 'n' Easy, Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear to Tread). Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007), Konstakte (Contacts) (electronic sounds). String-A-Longs, Wheels; sells 7M copies; from Plainview Tex., incl. Jimmy Torres, Richard Stephens. Johnny Tillotson (1939-), Poetry in Motion (#2 in the U.S.) (#1 in the U.K.). Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner (1939-) and the Ikettes, The Soul of Ike Turner and Tina Turner (album) (debut); incl. A Fool in Love, Whole Lotta Love; Dance with the Kings of Rhythm (album). Frankie Vaughan (1928-99), What More Do You Want; Love Me Now; Kookie Little Paradise; Milord. Billy Vaughn (1919-91) and His Orchestra, Look for a Star (#19 in the U.S.). Bobby Vee (1943-), What Do You Want?. The Ventures, Walk Don't Run (album) (debut) (Dec. 5) (#11 in the U.S.); incl. Walk Don't Run (#2 in the U.S.), Perfidia; formed in 1959 in Tacoma, Wash., incl. Don Wilson (guitar), Bob Bogle (guitar), Nokie Edwards (guitar), and Mel Tyler (1934-96) (drums); after no record co. will sign them, they found Horizon Records to distribute it, and they go on to become the #1 instrumental band of all time, with 100M+ records sold, inspiring rockers incl. the Beatles, Stephen Stills, Carl Wilson, Keith Moon, Alan White, Roger Glover et al. T-Bone Walker (1910-75), T-Bone Blues (album). Dionne Warwick (1940-), Don't Make Me Over (#21 in the U.S.); first of 56 Billboard 100 singles written by Hal David and Burt Bacharach. Lawrence Welk Orchestra, Calcutta, Never on Sunday. Jackie Wilson (1934-84), A Woman, A Lover, a Friend; Night; Alone At Last; Stop Doggin' Me Around; Am I the Man. Chester Arthur "Howlin' Wolf" Burnett (1910-76), Back Door Man (by Willie Dixon); Spoonful; Wang Dang Doodle (by Willie Dixon). Kathy Young (1945-) and the Innocents, A Thousand Stars. Movies: John Wayne's The Alamo (Oct. 24), produced by his Batjac Productions for $12M about the 1836 white-is-right Battle of the Alamo stars Wayne as Col. Davy Crockett, Laurence Harvey as Col. William Travis, Richard Widmark as Jim Bowie, and Frankie Avalon as Smitty, who sings Ballad of the Alamo; the Mexican army has 7K extras; John Ford helps Wayne direct the finale; Wayne's son Michael Wayne is assoc. producer, launching his career; the film is full of historical moose hockey, slanted toward Wayne's right-wing views, trying to compare Gen. Santa Anna to Khrushchev and Hitler; Chill Wills plays Beekeeper, then conducts an embarrassing self-promotion campaign for best actor Oscar, comparing voters to his "Alamo Cousins", to which Groucho Marx replies "I am delighted to be your cousin, but I voted for Sal Mineo" losing the award and costing the film even more; ddoes $7.2M box office on a $12M budget, hitting Wayne's pocketbook hard; "The mission that become a fortress. The fortress that became a shrine." Michael Anderson's All the Fine Young Cannibals (Sept. 15), based on the novel by Rosamond Marshall about Chet Baker stars Robert Wagner as Chad Bixby, and Natalie Wood as Sarah "Salome" Davis, who start off dirt poor and end up idle rich; a flop. Edgar G. Ulmer's The Amazing Transparent Man (July) (B&W) stars James Griffith as ex-U.S. Army Maj. Paul Krenner, who forces former POW scientist Dr. Peter Ulof (Ivan Trisault) to build an invisibility machine. Ib Melchior's The Angry Red Planet (Feb.) (Am. Internat. Pictures), starring Gerald Mohr is filmed using the CineMagic process (which takes B&W film and inverts the colors, turning white into blood red), morphing "The Wizard of Oz" experience into giant amoebas and bat-rat-spider-crabs on Mars, becoming a classic of camp; does ? box office on a $200K budget. Billy Wilder's The Apartment (June 15) (The Mirisch Co.) (United Artists), a classic film about the price paid to climb the corporate ladder stars Jack Lemmon as lowly insurance clerk C.C. "Bud" Baxter, who loans his apt. to his bosses, then learns that Mr. Sheldrake (Fred MacMurray) is using it for an affair with his dream girl Fran Kubelik (Shirley MacLaine); does $24.6M box office on a $3M budget; the first million-selling movie theme hit for the Juilliard-trained Am. pianists Arthur Ferrante (1921-2009) and Louis Milton Teicher (1924-2008), who follow it with "The Apartment" (1960), "Tonight" (1961), and "Midnight Cowboy" (1969), causing them to become known as "the Movie Theme Team"; features are magical floating water tap, a home decoration that catches on and ends up duplicated on a large scale around the world incl. Menorca, Spain. Michelangelo Antonioni's L'Avventura (The Adventure) (May) stars Monica Vitti, Gabriele Ferzetti and Lea Massari in a love triangle in which one of them has disappeared on a Mediterranean boating trip; "like trying to follow a showing of a picture at which several reels have got lost" (NYT film critic Bosley Crowther). Edmond T. Greville's B&W Beat Girl (Wild for Kicks) (Oct. 28) is a late-arriving 1950s youth rebellion flick from Britain, starring newbies Gillian Hills (1944-) ("the English Brigitte Bardot") (Barbie Doll lookalike?) and blonde-blue English singer Adam Faith (1940-2003) (a wannabe James Dean?), plus Christopher Lee and Oliver Reed, showing the London underground and its Elvis imitators, strippers, and potheads; topless stripping scenes get it banned for awhile in the U.K., making it more popular?; the music by John Barry confuses rock and roll with a jazz workout by a brass orchestra?; "If it's beat - jazz, that is." Vincente Minnelli's Bells Are Ringing (June 23), based on the Betty Comden play is a musical starring Judy Holliday as Brooklyn telephone operator Ella Peterson, who falls for Jeffrey Moss (Dean Martin) while pretending to be an old woman called Mom. Edgar G. Ulmer's B&W Beyond the Time Barrier (July) stars Robert Clarke as USAF Maj. Bill Allison, who flies an experimental aircraft into suborbital flight, loses radio contact, and discovers that he entered a wormhole and landed in the year 2024 near the underground city of Citadel, run by the Supreme (Vladimir Sokoloff) and his mute telepathic granddaughter Princess Trirene (Darlene Tompkins). Jean-Luc Godard's B&W Breathless (A Bout de Souffle) (Out of Breath) (Mar. 17) is the first feature film of Paris-born dir. Jean-Luc Godard (1930-), catapulting him to the vanguard of French filmmakers, and is the acting debut of Jean-Paul Belmondo (1933-) as itinerant criminal Michel Poiccard; also stars Jean Seberg as his bbe Patricia Franchini; "All you need to make a movie is a girl and a gun" (Godard); "There is the cinema before Godard and the cinema after Godard" (Francois Truffaut). Daniel Mann's BUtterfield 8 (Nov. 4) (MGM), based on the dirty parts of John O'Hara's 1935 novel stars a reluctant Elizabeth Taylor (who didn't want to make the movie, and hops on a plane for London as soon as it wraps to star in "Cleopatra") as glorious wandering ho Gloria Wandrous, who is trying to go straight, along with her hubby Steve Carpenter (Eddie Fisher); she gets an Oscar for it because such a queen could never really be a ho so she's a great actress?; "The most desirable woman in town and the easiest to find... just call BUtterfield 8". Walter Lang's Can-Can (Mar. 9) (20th Cent. Fox) (Todd AO), based on the 1952 Broadway musical stars Frank Sinatra as Francois, Shirley MacLaine as Simone, Louis Jordan as Philippe, Maurice Chevalier as Paul, and Bombay, India-born Juliet Anne Prowse (1936-96) (film debut) as Claudine; #2 grossing film of 1960 after "Ben-Hur"; does $4.2M box office on a $5M budget; in Sept. 1959 after watching Juliet Prowse dancing on the movie set of Can-Can, he calls the dancers "immoral", "depraved", and "pornographic" saying "A person's face is more beautiful than their ass"; on Sept. 19 he is barred from Disneyland, and throws a tantrum, uttering the soundbyte "Is there an epidemic there? Have gangsters taken over the place?" Ismail Merchant's The Creation of Woman, about Hindu god Brahma is the dir. debut of Indian-born producer-dir. Ismail Merchant (1936-2005). Budd Boetticher's Comanche Station is his last of his seven classic Western films starring Randolph Scott, after which he wastes the rest of his life trying to produce a documentary of his matador friend "Mexican Cyclone" Carlos Arruza (1920-66) until Arruza is killed in an auto wreck, and Boetticher ends up in the asylum before it is released in 1971 and flops, finishing his career. Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita (Feb. 3), starring Marcello Mastroianni and Anita Ekberg, about the show biz life in Rome coins the term "paparazzi" (Fr. paperassier, rummager in waste paper) (big daddy rats) for hungry celebrity photographers. Richard Brooks' Elmer Gantry (July 7), based on the 1926 Sinclair Lewis novel stars Burt Lancaster as a smooth-talking ever-smiling small-town Southern evangelist phony who talks his way into a travelling congregation and the bed of Sister Sharon Falconer (Jean Simmons), and jukes the elders into taking on big city Zenith in the state of Winnemac (pop. 361K) while being watched by agnostic reporter Jim Lefferts (Arthur Kennedy), and dumps girlfriend Lulu Baines (Shirley Jones), causing her to turn into a ho then frame him for revenge, causing the crowd to pelt him with garbage, after which the tent burns down and takes Sharon with it, causing him to quit, quoting the Bible verse "When I was a child, I understood as a child and spake as a child. When I became a man I put away childish things" (1 Cor. 13:11); the real fun is watching Bible-thumping Gantry manage to condemn Biblical Creation with faint praise? Tony Richardson's B&W The Entertainer (July 25) (Woodfall Film Productions) (British Lion Films)), produced by Harry Saltzman based on the 1957 John Osborne play, filmed in Morecambe, Lancashire stars Laurence Olivier as failing music hall performer Archie Rice; the film debut of Charlestown, Pendleton-born Albert Finney (1936-) as Archie's son Mick Rice, who is captured by the Egyptians during the Suez Crisis. Roberto Rossellini's Escape by Night (Blackout in Rome) (Era Notte a Roma) (July 31) is about three POWs in a German concentration camp, one Russian (Sergei Bondarchuk), one English (Leo Genn), and one American (Peter Baldwin), who become friends and escape together. Otto Preminger's Exodus (Dec. 16) (United Artists), written by Dalton Trumbo based on the 1958 Leon Uris novel and filmed in Cyprus and Israel stars Paul Newman, Sal Mineo, Eva Marie Saint, Lee J. Cobb, Gregory Ratoff et al. as heroic good-guy Jews trying to ram their way into British-run Palestine after WWII, while the native Muslims are treated like prejudiced throwbacks who should wake up and become their friends?; costs a phenomenal $4.5M to make, and lasts 220 min., doing $20M worldwide box office, causing comedian Mort Sahl to issue the review "Otto, let my people go"; "I will never divulge the name of a fellow member of the Irgun." Georges Franju's horror film Eyes Without a Face (Les Yeux sans visage) (Mar. 2) (Lux Film) (Champs-Elysees Productions), based on the Jean Redon novel stars Pierre Brasseur as plastic surgeon Dr. Genessier, who performs a face transplant on his disfigured daughter Christiane (Edith Scot), with the help of his asst. Louise (Alida Valli) while eluding Inspector Parot (Alexandre Rignault); after censorship, it debuts in the U.S. under the title "The Horror Chamber of Dr. Faustus". Kurt Metzig's First Spaceship on Venus (Feb. 26), produced in East Germany is set in 1985, when a "spool" is found in the Gobi Desert linked to the 1908 Tunguska explosion, causing a spaceship to be sent to Venus to investigate, finding that the Venusians intended to destroy Earth but destroyed themselves first. Norman Taurog's G.I. Blues (Nov. 23) is beanpole-thin Elvis Presley's first flick after leaving the U.S. Army, playing Army specialist Tulsa McLean, who sings and dreams of leaving it while being allowed to dye his hair jet black and wear mascara; co-stars Juliet Prowse as his babe Lili; features the Bert Kaempfert song Wooden Heart. Pier Paolo Passolini's The Gospel According to St. Matthew (Oct. 2) stars Enrique Irazoqi as a Marxist Christ. Blake Edwards' High Time (Sept. 16) stars Bing Crosby as 51-y.-o. widower Harvey Howard, who decides to go to college with Gil Sparrow (Fabian) and Joy Elder (Tuesday Weld); Crosby sings High Time, and Second Time Around. Vincente Minnelli's Home from the Hill (Mar. 3), based on the 1957 William Humphrey novel about a wealthy Tex. family stars Robert Mitchum as Capt. Wade Hunnicutt, and Eleanor Parker as his wife, who hooks up with Wade's illegitimate son George Peppard, while his half-brother George Hamilton vies for another woman with him. Roger Corman's House of Usher (June 18) (Am. Internat. Pictures), based on the 1893 Edgar Allan Poe story "The Fall of the House of Usher" stars Mark Damon as Philip Winthrop, who visits the Usher Mansion to see his babe Madeline Usher (Myrna Fahey), and discovers that she and her brother Roderick Usher (Vincent Price) have a mysterious illness based on a family curse; does $1.45M box office, causing Corman to go into the Poe horror movie biz, incl. "The Pit and the Pendulum" (1961), "The Premature Burial" (1962), "Tales of Terror" (1962), "The Raven" (1963), "The Haunted Palace" (1963), "The Masque of the Red Death" (1964), and "The Tomb of Ligeia" (1965). Vincent Sherman's Ice Palace (Jan. 2), based on the 1958 Edna Ferber novel about Alaska's road to statehood stars Richard Burton as Zeb Kennedy, Thor Storm as Robert Ryan, and Carolyn Jones as Bridie Ballantyne; blonde-blue newbie Diane McBain (1941-) (billed as Hollywood's next Marilyn Monroe) makes her feature film debut as Christine Storm. Stanley Kramer's Inherit the Wind (Nov. 1), about the 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial stars Spencer Tracy as Clarence Darrow, monkey-looking Dick York as John Scopes, and Fredric March as the bad guy prosecutor William Jennings Bryan. Aram Avakian's and Bert Stern's Jazz on a Summer's Day, filmed at the 1958 Newport Jazz Festival in R.I. features performances by Louis Armstrong, Chuck Berry, Mahalia Jackson, Anita O'Day, Anita O'Day, Dinah Washington et al. Basil Dearden's B&W The League of Gentlemen (Apr. 5) (British Lion Films), written by Bryan Forbes based on the 1958 John Boland novel stars Jack Hawkins (as Lt. Col. Norman Hyde), Nigel Patrick (as Maj. Peter Race), Bryan Forbes (as Capt. Martin Porthill), and Richard Attenborough (as Lt. Edward Lexy) as a group of military-style bank robbers. Roger Corman's B&W The Little Shop of Horrors (Sept. 14) (original title "The Passionate People Eater") (The Filmgroup) (Am. Internat. Pictures), a comedy written by Charles B. Griffith stars Jonathan Haze as flower shop worker Seymour Krelboyne, who creates man-eating talking plant Audrey Jr. (voiced by Griffith) from seeds he got from a "Japanese gardener over on Central Avenue", and works to get it good food; Jackie Joseph plays his coworker babe Audrey Fulquard; Mel Welles plays shop owner Gravis Mushnick; Jack Nicholson plays Wilbur Force; gains a cult following before getting turned into a musical in 1982, and refilmed in 1986. John Sturges' Western The Magnificent Seven (Oct. 23) (Mirisch Co.) (United Artists), based on Akira Kurosawa's 1954 film "Seven Samurai" set in a Mexican village stars Russian-born Yul Brynner as Chris Adams, New York City-born Jewish actor Eli Wallach as bandit leader Calvera, Steve McQueen as Vin, Charles Bronson as Bernardo O'Reilly, Robert Vaughan as Lee, James Coburn as knife-throwing Britt, Brad Dexter as Harry Luck, German-Am. actor Horst Buchholz as Chico, and Rosenda Monteros as Petra; Robert J. Wilke fights Britt in a knife-vs.-gun battle; Chris and Vin charge to the cemetery in a hearse; Russian-born Vladimir Sokoloff plays the wise old man; musical score by Elmer Bernstein; remade in 2016. Marcel Ophuls' Matisse ou Le Talent de Bonheur is a documentary narrated by Claude Dauphin and Jeanne Moreau, and is the debut of German-born Am. dir. Marcel Ophuls (Ophüls) (1927-), who becomes known for his documentaries. Jules Dassin's Never on Sunday (May) stars Melina Mercouri, "the last Greek goddess" as Illya, the top ho in Piraeus, Greece, whom U.S. scholar Homer Thrace (Jules Dassin) tries to save, while her pimp Mr. No Face finances him behind the scenes to lure her into retiring because her independence is a bad example; features the hit song "Never on Sunday", which becomes the first foreign-made film song to win an Oscar; "Where do you learn all those languages?" (Homer); "In bed" (Illya). Nagisa Oshima's Night and Fog in Japan (Oct. 9) expresses dissilusionment with the left and right, and is pulled from theaters after a Socialist leader is assassinated by a right-wing extremist, after which Oshima forms his own independent film co. Henry Hathaway's North to Alaska (Nov. 7), based on a play by Laszlo Fodor stars John Wayne as Seattle prospector Sam McCord, who strikes it rich in Nome with his partner George Pratt (Stewart Granger) and get in a war with crooked bar owner Frankie Canon (Ernie Kovacs), ex-beau of hot French babe Michelle "Angel" Bonet (Capucine), who chases real man Wayne in a triangle, no, quadrangle with young squirt Billy Pratt (Fabian), who sniffs her every chance he can, his bumbling boy-man down-on-one-knee ("I'd rather smell you") act ruining his sex symbol singing career?; "Ah, women! I never met one yet that was half as reliable as a horse" (Wayne); a little song about Michelle sung by Granger is Paul McCartney's inspiration for "Michelle"? Michael Powell's Peeping Tom (May 16) (Anglo-Amalgamated Film Distributors) is a horror film written by Leo Marks starring Carl Boehm as Mark Lewis, who murders women to observe their faces while he films them, and Anna Massey as his next victim, his fiancee Helen Stephens; Powell plays Boehm's daddy, who got him started; too bad, it's too good, and so freaks the moviegoers that it ruins Powell's dir. career in the U.K.; in the 1970s it gains a cult following, causing Powell to write the soundbyte: "I make a film that nobody wants to see and then, thirty years later, everybody has either seen it or wants to see it." George Sidney's Pepe (Dec. 20) stars Mexican star Mario "Cantinflas" Moreno (1911-93) as a hired hand who travels to Hollywood to buy back a white stallion for his boss, and meets stars incl. Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby, Maurice Chevalier, and Zsa Zsa Gabor; too bad, the jokes don't translate well from Spanish to English, ending Cantinflas' Hollywood career; Judy Garland sings The Faraway Part of Town by Andre Previn (1929-) and Dory Previn (1925-). David Swift's Pollyanna (May 19), a Disney production based on the 1913 Eleanor H. Porter novel stars Hayley Mills as a 12-y.-o. orphan who only sees the best in life in small town Harrington, run by her mean rich Aunt Polly (Jane Wyman), who tries to stop a new orphanage from being built; Karl Malden plays Rev. Paul Ford, Agnes Moorehead plays hypochrondriac Mrs. Snow, Adolphe Menjou plays old recluse Mr. Pendergast, Kevin Corcoran plays Jimmy Bean, and Richard Egan plays Dr. Edmond Chilton; filmed at the Mableton Mansion at 1015 McDonald Ave., Santa Rosa, Calif.; spawns the Pollyanna Principle (Effect) of Margaret W. Matlin and David J. Stang in 1978, that people tend to agree with positive statements about themselves. Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (June 16) (Paramount Pictures) (his last B&W film), based on the 1959 novel by horror writer Robert Bloch (1917-94) based on an actual murder stars Anthony Perkins as bird-taxidermy-loving momma's boy Norman Bates (based on real-life serial killer Ed Gein), owner of the 12-room Bates Motel (15 mi. from Fairvale), where fleeing (Fri., Dec. 11) Phoenix, Ariz. thief Marie Samuels, er, Marion Crane (Janet Leigh) (license plate #NFB-418) (who stole $40K from 'her real estate employer of 10 years) checks into room #1 and receives a bloody shower death at the hands of a mad slasher grandma in the classic Psycho Shower Scene; first Hollywood film to show a flushing toilet; Bernard Hermann's scary music uses only strings; "She's as harmless as one of those stuffed birds" (Norman); also stars John Gavin as Leigh's beau Sam, Vera Miles as her sister Lila, and Martin Balsam as detective Arbogast; theater owners are told not to allow seating after the movie begins; shot on a low budget in only 1 mo.; uses chocolate sauce for blood in the 45-sec. 78-frame 70-camera-setup shower scene, which occurs 30 min. into the film, and changes the horror movie genre forever; a double is used for Perkins to make it harder to guess who it is; "A boy's best friend is his mother"; when an angry father writes to Hitchcock that his daughter quit bathing after the 1954 French film "Les Diaboliques", and now won't shower, he replies "Send her to the dry cleaners"; NYT film critic Bosley Crowther calls the film "a blot on an otherwise honorable career." Luchino Visconti's Rocco and His Brothers (Rocco i Suoi Fratelli) (Aug.) is about four brothers moving with their widowed mother Rosaria Parondi (Katina Paxinou) to Milan; Alain Delon plays son Rocco Parondi. Lee Kresel's Saiyu-ki is a Japanime about a monkey king who learns the secrets of magic. Karel Reisz's B&W Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (Oct. 27) (Woodfall Film Productions) (Bryanston Films), based on the 1958 Alan Sillitoe novel stars 23-y.-o. Albert Finney as working class Arthur Seaton of Nottingham, who pursues old-fashoned Doreen (Shirley Anne Field) while having an affair with older married Brenda (Rachel Roberts), who gets preggers, drawing her hubby Jack's (Bryan Pringle) revenge, causing Doreen to pussy-whip him into going straight?; Reisz's first feature film. Jack Cardiff's Scent of Mystery (Jan. 12) stars Denholm Elliott and Peter Lorre, who are involved in a plot to kill an Am. tourist (Beverly Bentley) in Spain; Michael Todd Jr. introduces the theater gimmick of Smell-O-Vision for the stinker. Henry Hathaway's Seven Thieves (Mar. 11) stars Edward G. Robinson as discredited prof. Theo Wilkins, who teams up with sophisticated thief Rod Steiger to pick a team and pull off one last big job, a Monte Carlo casino vault; also stars Joan Collins and Eli Wallach. Francois Truffaut's Shoot the Piano Player (Tirez sur le pianiste) (Nov. 25) (Les Films de la Pleaide) (Les Films du Carrosse), based on the David Goodis novel "Down There" is a comical movie about gangsters based on the David Goodis novel "Down There", starring Charles Aznavour as washed-up classical pianist Charlie Kohler/Edouard Saroyan, whose wife commits suicide, ending up in a dive bar in Paris where waitress Lena (Marie Dubois) falls in love with him; it started out serious until Truffaut decided he hated them too much. Charles Vidor's Song Without End (Oct. 14), about Hungarian pianist-composer Franz Liszt (Dirk Bogarde) and his scandalous affairs is the film debut of classic patrician bone structure French actress Capucine (1928-90), and Vidor's last film, as he dies during filming, and George Cukor finishes it, changing the style midstream. Jack Cardiff's Sons and Lovers (May) stars Dean Stockwell, Trevor Howard, and Wendy Hiller as young lovers experiencing it for the first time. Stanley Kubrick's and Anthony Mann's Spartacus (Oct. 7), written by Dalton Trumbo based on the 1951 Howard Fast novel about the Servile Revolt of 73-71 B.C.E., with a cast of 10.5K stars Kirk Douglas (the exec. producer, who raised the $12M production cost, and had to talk Olivier out of the part) as the Thracian slave gladiator, Laurence Olivier as Sen. Marcus Licinius Crassus (richest man in Rome), Charles Laughton as Sen. Sempronius Gracchus, Tony Curtis as snail-hating literate Sicilian slave Antoninus, Jean Simmons as Spartacus' babe Varinia, Peter Ustinov as gladiator school owner Lentulus Batiatus, John Dall as Graccus' protege Marcus Publius Glabrus, Nina Foch as her black buck-loving sister Helena, Herbert Lom as Cilician pirate Tigranes Levantus, Woody Strode as Ethopian gladiator Draba, Charles McGraw as gladiator trainer Marcellus, and John Gavin as Julius Caesar; musical score by Alex North; the battle scenes were filmed outside Madrid, using 8K Spanish infantrymen; "When just one man says no I won't, Rome begins to fear"; "My taste includes both snails and oysters"; "When a free man dies, he loses the pleasure of life. A slave loses his pain. Death is the only freedom a slave knows. That's why he's not afraid of it. That's why we'll win"; "I'm Spartacus!" Fred Zinneman's The Sundowners (Dec. 8) stars Deborah Kerr and Robert Mitchum as Australian sheep drovers Ida and Paddy Carmody, who fight over settling down or keeping on the move. Ken Annakin's Swiss Family Robinson (Dec. 21), based on the 1812 Johann David Wyss novel stars John Mills and Dorothy McGuire as Father and Mother Robinson, Tommy Kirk and Kevin Corcoran as brothers Ernst and Francis, and Milton Reid as a pirate. George Pal's The Time Machine (Aug. 17), based on the 1895 H.G. Wells novel stars Rod Taylor as Wells, who travels forward to the year 802,701, watching humans destroy their own civilization and their descendants degenerate into the deep-dwelling cannibalistic Morlocks and the surface-dwelling food animal Eloi; Alan Young plays David/James Filby, and Yevette Mimieux plays Weena the Eloi, who is worth going back, er, forward for. Ronald Neame's Tunes of Glory (Dec. 20), based on the James Kennaway novel stars Alec Guinness as easygoing Maj. Jock Sinclair, 2nd-in-command of a Scottish Highland regiment, who is passed over by disciplinarian Lt. Col. Basil Barrow (John Mills). Wolf Rilla's B&W Village of the Damned (Dec. 7) (MGM) is a sci-fi horror film based on the 1957 novel "The Midwich Cuckoos" by John Wyndham about English children with ray-gun eyes who are the vanguard of an alien invasion, starring George Sanders as Prof. Gordon Zellaby; does $2.175M box office on a $320K budget; followed by the even better 1964 B&@ sequel The Children of the Damned, dir. by Anton M. Leader, and a 1995 remake Village of the Damned, set in N Calif., dir. by John Carpenter and starring Christopher Reeve; "Beware the stare that will paralyze the will of the world." Luis Bunuel's Viridiana stars Silvia Pinal as a Spanish virgin who is drugged by her lecherous uncle, who then repents and doesn't touch her, but lies to her anyway, then dies, leaving her his estate, which she turns into a home for beggars after becoming a nun named you know what. Richard Murphy's The Wackiest Ship in the Army (Dec. 20 (Columbia Pictures), filmed in Pearl Harbor and Kauai stars Jack Lemmon and Ricky Nelson; based on the real-life USS Echo, a 40-year-old schooner that was transferred to the U.S. Navy from the govt. of New Zealand and returned in 1944 after being put under U.S. Army command. Henry Levin's Where the Boys Are (Dec. 28), about white college girls going to Fort Lauderdale for Easter vacation (causing a craze) features the film debuts of wholesome Connie Francis (1938-) (the singer) and Paula Prentiss (1938-), who wear modest swim suits and only date white boys, and only have sex (straight missionary, once a week?) after marriage (and only for procreation?); George Hamilton and Jim Hutton are the boys, and Yvette Mimieux and Dolores Hart are the other two girls; features Connie Francis singing Where the Boys Are by Neil Sedaka and Howard Greenfield; Hart goes on to become Mother Dolores Hart, prioress at the Abbey of Regina Laudis in Bethlehem, Conn. - 40 years later we have porn superstar and multi-millionaire porn producer Jenna Jameson? Elia Kazan's Wild River (Mar. 26), based on novels by Borden Deal and William Bradford Huie stars Montgomery Clift as TVA admin. Chuck Glover, who builds a dam on the Tennessee River, and hooks up with wild ride Carol Garth Baldwin (Lee Remick). Plays: George Abbott (1887-1995), Jerome Weidman (1913-98), Jerry Bock (1928-), and Sheldon Harnick (1924-), Tenderloin (46th St. Theater, New York) (Oct. 17) (216 perf.); sequel to "Fiorello!", about Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933). Edward Albee (1928-2016), Fam and Yam; The Death of Bessie Smith (1-act play); her death after being refused treatment at a whites-only hospital. Lionel Bart (1930-99), Fings Ain't Wot They Used t'Be (musical) (Garrick Theatre, London) (886 perf.); Oliver! (musical) (New Theatre, West End, London) (June 30) (2,618 perf.) (Imperial Theater, New York) (Jan. 6, 1963) (774 perf.); based on Charles Dickens' 1837 novel "Oliver Twist"; dir. by Peter Coe; stars Ron Moody as Fagin, and Georgia Brown as Nancy; Broadway production stars Davy Jones as the Artful Dodger; filmed in 1968; features the songs Food, Glorious Food, Fine Life, Oliver!, Where Is Love?, Oom-Pah-Pah, Consider Yourself, You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two, I'd Do Anything, As Long As He Needs Me. Robert Oxton Bolt (1924-95), A Man for All Seasons (Globe Theatre, London) (July 1) (ANTA Playhouse, New York) (Nov. 22, 1961 (620 perf.); about Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), played by Paul Scofield; written by an agnostic Socialist who admires his will to stand up to a king; "What matters is not that it's true, but that I believe it; or no, not that I believe it, but that I believe it"; filmed in 1966 starring Paul Scofield, and in 1988 starring Charlton Heston. Ray Bradbury (1920-2012), The Meadow; started out as a 1947 radio drama. Marc Camoletti (1923-2003), Boeing-Boeing (Theatre de la Comedie-Caumartin, Paris) (Dec. 10); Parisian architect Bernard, his housekeeper Bertha, his school chum Robert, and his airline hostess fiancees Gabriella (Italian), Gloria (American), and Gretchen (German); debuts at the Apollo Theatre in London in 1962, starring Beverly Cross, going for 2K perf. by 1969, becoming the most performed play in the world to date. Cy Coleman (1929-2004), Carolyn Leigh (1926-83), and N. Richard Nash (1913-2000), Wildcat (musical) (Alvin Theatre, New York) (Dec. 16) (171 perf.); dir. and choreographed by Michael Kidd; stars 48-y.-o. Lucille Ball (her only musical) as Wildcat "Wildy" Jackson in 1912 oil boom town Centavo City, and Keith Andes (after Kirk Douglas turns it down) as her partner Joe Dynamite; stars Paula Stewart as Jane Jackson; Valerie Harper is in the chorus; shuts down after Ball suffers a lingering illness and fatigue; features the song Hey, Look Me Over. William Douglas-Home (1912-92), Up a Gum Tree. Dario Fo (1926-), He Had Two Pistols with White and Black Eyes. Christopher Fry (1907-2005), Duel of Angels (Apr. 19); based on Jean Giraudoux's "Pour Lucrece". Lillian Hellmann (1905-84), Toys in the Attic (Hudson Theater, New York) (Feb. 25) (556 perf.); loser Julian Beniers (Jason Robards Jr.) takes a new bride and moves in with his wealthy adoring spinster sisters in New Orleans, then stays for 34 years to get his hands on their $157K inheritance. Wolfgang Hildesheimer (1916-91) and Gunter Eich (1907-72), Herrn Walsers Raben. Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), Apprendre a Marcher. Frederick Knott (1916-2002), Write Me a Murder (Belasco Theater, New York) (Oct.); stars Kim Hunter and Denholm Elliott. Alan Jay Lerner (1918-86) and Frederic Loewe (1901-88), Camelot (musical) (Oct. 1) (O'Keefe Centre, Toronto) (Dec. 3) (Majestic Theatre, New York) (873 perf.); based on the 1958 T.H. White novel "The Once and Future King"; Richard Burton's only appearance in a musical, as King Arthur; also stars Julie Andrews, as Queen Guinevere, Roddy McDowell as Mordred, Robert Goulet as Sir Lancelot, and John Cullum as Sir Dinadan in their first Broadway roles; pres.-elect JFK attends a perf., launching the Camelot legend of his admin. Ira Levin (1929-2007), Critic's Choice (Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York) (Dec. 14) (189 perf.); inspired by drama critic Walter Kerr (1913-96) and his wife Jean Kerr (1922-2003), about critic Parker Ballantine, whose 2nd wife Angela writes a terrible play which he has to review. Micheal MacLiammoir (1899-1978), The Importance of Being Oscar; 1-man show based on the plays of Oscar Wilde. Loring Mandel (1928-), Advise and Consent (Cort Theatre, New York) (Nov. 17) (212 perf.); based on the 1959 Allen Drury novel; stars Ed Begley, Richard Kiley, Chester Morris, and Barnard Hughes. Felicien Marceau (1913-), La Mort de Neron; L'Etouffe-Chretien. Henri de Montherlant (1895-1972), Le Cardinal d'Espagne (The Spanish Cardinal). John Mortimer (1923-2009), The Wrong Side of the Park (London). George Ault "Tad" Mosel Jr. (1922-2008), All the Way Home (Pulitzer Prize) (Belasco Theater, New York) (Nov. 30) (334 perf.); based on the 1957 James Agee novel "A Death in the Family", set in Knoxville, Tenn. in 1915; stars Colleen Dewhurst (1924-91), Arthur Hill, Aline MacMahon, and Lillian Gish. N. Richard Nash (1913-2000), Cy Coleman (1929-2004) and Carolyn Leigh (1926-83), Wildcat (musical) (Alvin Theatre, New York) (Dec. 11) (171 perf.); stars Lucille Ball as Wildcat "Wildy" Jackson and Keith Andes as Joe Dynamite in 1912 Centavo City; features the song "Hey, Look Me Over". Alwin Nikolais (1910-93), Totem. Sean O'Casey (1880-1964), The Drums of Father Ned: A Mickrocosm of Ireland (Queens Theatre, London) (Nov. 8). Robert Pinget (1919-97), La Manivelle (The Crank) (The Barrel Organ); tr. by Samuel Becket as "The Old Tune", and broadcast on BBC radio on Aug. 23. Harold Pinter (1930-2008), The Dumb Waiter (Hampstead Theatre Club) (Jan. 21); hit men Ben and Gus wait for their victim in a basement that has a you know what; The Caretaker (Arts Theatre, Westminster, London) (Apr. 27) (Duchess Theatre, West End, London) (May 30) (444 perf.); his first major success; about two brothers and a tramp, becoming a psychological study of power, allegiance, and corruption; filmed in 1964 by Clive Donner starring Alan Bates as Mick, Donald Pleasence as Davies, and Robert Shaw as Aston (replacing Peter Woodthorpe). Pope John Paul II (1920-2005), The Jeweler's Shop: A Meditation on the Sacrament of Matrimony, Passing on Occasion into Drama; three intertwined couples, Andrew and Teresa, Stefan and Anna, and Christopher and Monica, and how they know they are in love. Terence Rattigan (1911-77), Ross; RAF recruit Ross is blackmailed by a fellow recruit; inspired by T.E. Lawrence "of Arabia"; too bad, David Lean is filming his "Lawrence of Arabia", causing Dirk Bogarde to bug out of a film version. Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Chateau en Suede (Chateau in Sweden). Harvey Lester Schmidt (1929-) and Tom Jones (1928-), The Fantasticks (musical) (Sullivan St. Playhouse, New York) (May 3) (17,162 perf.) (world's longest-running musical until ?); based on the play "Les Romanesques" (The Romancers) by Edmond Rostand; two fathers fake a feud and put up a wall between their houses so that reverse psychology will cause their children to fall in love, then hire actors to stage a mock abduction so that Matt can become a hero saving Luisa; later they discover the plot and separate, then return having learned from the world that they really love each other; uses the word "rape" to mean abduction (Lat. rapere), pissing-off the PC police; filmed in 1995; features the songs Try to Remember, and Soon It's Gonna Rain. Wole Soyinka (1934-), A Dance of the Forests; presented at the 1960 Nigerian Independence Day celebrations, warning Nigerians about post-colonial mistakes, pissing-off the elitists. Charles Strouse (1928-), Lee Adams (1924-), and Michael Stewart (1924-87), Bye Bye Birdie (musical) (Martin Beck Theatre, New York) (Apr. 14) (607 perf.); Elvis clone Conrad Birdie (Dick Gautier) is about to be inducted into the U.S. Army, and awards lucky 15-.y.-o. Kim MacAfee (Susan Watson) of Sweet Apple, Ohio an all-American goodbye kiss on the Ed Sullivan Show, making her beau Hugo Peabody (Michael J. Pollard) jealous; features the song Hymn for a Sunday Evening, a salute to Ed Sullivan, sung by Mr. Harry MacAfee (Paul Lynde) and Mrs. McAfee (Marijane Maricle); also features the songs How Lovely to Be a Woman, Put on a Happy Face (sung by Dick Van Dyke), and The Telephone Hour. Jule Styne (1905-94), Betty Comden (1917-2006), and Adolph Green (1914-2002), Do Re Mi (musical) (St. James Theater, New York) (Dec. 26) (400 perf.); stars Phil Silvers and Nancy Walker. Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000), Las Meninas. Gore Vidal (1925-2012), The Best Man (Morosco Theatre, New York) (Mar. 31) (520 perf.); about the Dem. Nat. Convention in Philly and rival candidates Bill Russell and Joe Cantwell; written the same year that Vidal runs for Congress from N.Y. as a Dem., backed by Eleanor Roosevelt, Paul Newman, and Joanne Woodward, winning more votes in his district than JFK but losing; stars Melvyn Douglas, Lee Tracy, and Frank Lovejoy; Ronald Reagan lost the lead role because he didn't look presidential enough; "May the best man win." Tennessee Williams (1911-83), Period of Adjustment (Helen Hayes Theatre, New York) (Nov. 10) (132 perf.); stars James Daley and Barbara Baxley. Meredith Willson (1902-84) and Richard Morris (-1996), The Unsinkable Molly Brown (musical) (Winter Garden Theatre, New York) (Nov. 3) (532 perf.); stars Tammy Grimes as Molly (really Maggie) Brown; features the songs "I Ain't Down Yet", "Belly Up to the Bar, Boys". Poetry: Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Les Poetes. W.H. Auden (1907-73), Homage to Clio. John Betjeman (1906-84), Summoned by Bells. Paul Blackburn (1926-71), Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), El Hacedor. Richard Brautigan (1935-84), The Octopus Frontier. Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000), The Bean Eaters; incl. We Real Cool; "We real cool. We/ Left school. We/ Lurk Late. We/ Strike straight. We/ Sing sin. We/ Thin gin. We/ Jazz June. We/ Die soon." Aime Cesaire (1913-2008), Ferrements. Gregory Corso (1930-2001), The Happy Birthday of Death. Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961), Bid Me to Live (A Madrigal). Robert Edward Duncan (1919-88), The Opening of the Field (debut); incl. "Often I Am Permitted to Return to a Meadow". Richard Eberthart (1904-2005), Collected Poems, 1930-1960 Gunnar Ekelof (1907-68), A Molna (Mölna) Elegy. Odysseus Elytis (1911-96), Six Plus One Remorses for the Sky. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), The Penny Fiddle: Poems for Children. Sandra Hochman (1936-), Voyage Home (debut). Randall Jarrell (1914-65), The Woman at the Washington Zoo; "You know what I was,/ You see what I am: change me, change me!" Patrick Kavanagh (1904-67), Come Dance with Kitty Strobling and Other Poems. Galway Kinnell (1927-2014), What a Kingdom It Was (debut). Phyllis McGinley (1905-78), Sugar and Spice: The ABC of Being a Girl; illustrations by Colleen Browning; Times Three: Selected Verse from Three Decades (Pulitzer Prize). W.S. Merwin (1927-), The Drunk in the Furnace; about old drunk Orpheus; "Where he gets his spirts/ it's a mystery/ But the stuff keeps him musical". Howard Moss (1922-87), A Winter Come, A Summer Gone: Poems, 1946-60. Kenneth Patchen (1911-72), The Love Poems of Kenneth Patchen; Because It Is. Sylvia Plath (1932-63), The Colossus and Other Poems (Oct.) (debut); "My hours are married to shadow./ No longer do I listen for the scrape of a keel/ On the blank stones of the landing". Salvatore Quasimodo (1901-68), The Selected Writing of Salvatore Quasimodo; first major collection in English. Anne Sexton (1928-74), To Bedlam and Part Way Back. Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), The Darkness Surrounds Us (debut). George Starbuck (1931-96), Bone Thoughts (debut). William Stafford (1914-93), West of Your City (debut). Paul West (1930-), The Spellbound Horses. Novels: Kobo Abe (1924-93), Eyes of Stone (Ishoi no Me). Chinua Achebe (1930-2013), No Longer at Ease. Brian W. Aldiss (1925-), The Interpreter (Bow Down to Nul); about Earthling Gary Towler, who defies the 3-armed giant aliens who run the Partussy Earth Co-Prosperity Sphere of 4M planets. Eric Ambler (1909-98), Passage of Arms. Sir Kingsley Amis (1922-95), Take a Girl Like You; Jenny Bunn is seduced by her schoolmaster Patrick Standish. Poul Anderson (1926-2001), The High Crusade; a spaceship lands in 1345 England. Uell Stanley Andersen (1917-1986), The Other Jesus. Jerzy Andrzejewski (1909-), Gates of Paradise (Bramy Raju); the Children's Crusade of 1212; trans. from Polish to English in 1978; the entire 40K-word novel is written as one sentence with no punctuation - you'll never guess who's checking into the celebrity rehab? Miguel Angel Asturias (1899-1974), The Eyes of the Interred. Louis Auchincloss (1917-), The House of Five Talents. Stan Barstow (1928-2011), A Kind of Loving (first novel); Vic Brown of Cressley, England and his struggle to work up from working class to white collar by courting Ingrid; spawns the term "lad-lit."; filmed in 1962. John Barth (1930-), The Sot-Weed Factor; 17th cent. poet and tobacco planter Ebenezer Cooke, new poet laureate of Md. meets old bugger Isaac Newton, travels to Md. and meets John Smith and Pocahantas while trying to preserve his virginity; based on a real book pub. in 1708; father Andrew Cooke, twin sister Anna Cooke, tutor Henry Burlingame, manservant Bertrand Burton, poets Ben Oliver, Dick Merriwether, and Tom Trent, Joan Toast and John McEvoy - TLW's favorite novel besides Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings", or is he just jerking you around because it's a historical novel? H.E. Bates (1905-74), An Aspidistra in Babylon: Four Novellas; When the Green Woods Laugh. Nathaniel Benchley (1915-81), Sail a Crooked Ship; filmed in 1961; Sinbad the Sailor; hit children's book. Don Berry (1931-2001), Trask. Wendell Berry (1934-), Nathan Coulter (Apr.) (first novel); the citizens of Port William, Ky. Marie-Claire Blais (1939-), Tete (Tête) Blanche. William Peter Blatty (1928-), Which Way to Mecca, Jack? (first novel). Robert Bloch (1917-94), The Dead Beat; Pleasant Dreams: Nightmares (short stories). Kay Boyle (1902-92), Generation Without Farewell. Bryher (1894-1983), Ruan; druids in the Scillies of W Cornwall in the 6th cent. C.E. Michel Butor (1926-), Degres (Degrés); Repertoire I. Dino Buzzati (1906-72), Il Grande Ritratto. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), In Spite of Thunder; Dr. Gideon Fell solves the case of a suicide at Berchtesgaden in 1939. Carlo Cassola (1917-87), La Ragazza di Bube (Bebo's Girl); internat. bestseller; filmed by Luigi Comencini in 1963. Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), Nord (North); pt. 2 of his Exile Trilogy. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Adventure of the Christmas Pudding and a Selection of Entrees (Oct. 24); first with stories of both Hercule Poirot and Miss Jane Marple. Evan S. Connell Jr. (1924-), The Patriot; 17-y.-o. Melvin Isaacs in WWII naval aviation school. Richard Condon (1915-96), Some Angry Angel. William Conton (1925-), The African. Catherine Cookson (1906-98), Fenwick Houses. Julio Cortazar (1914-84), The Winners (Los Premios). Roald Dahl (1916-90), Kiss Kiss (short stories). Lionel Davidson (1922-2009), The Night of Wenceslas (first novel); 24-y.-o. Londoner Nicolas Whistler goes on a business trip to Prague and gets into spy trouble; big hit, pub. in a green Penguin jacket; filmed in 1964 as "Hot Enough for June". E.L. Doctorow (1931-), Welcome to Hard Times (first novel); Bad Man from Bodie comes to Hard Times, S.D.; an attempt to prove that the promise of a better life on the Am. Western frontier is hollow? Maurice Druon (1918-2009), Le Lis et le Lion (The Lily and the Lion). Lawrence Durrell (1912-90), Clea; last in the Alexandria Quartet (begun 1957). Mircea Eliade (1907-86), With the Gypsy Girls. Harlan Ellison (1934-), The Man with Nine Lives (The Sound of a Scythe). Howard Fast (1914-2003), The Golden River. Ian Fleming (1908-64), For Your Eyes Only (short stories) (Apr. 11); James Bond 007; contains "From a View to a Kill" (filmed in 1985), "For Your Eyes Only" (filmed in 1971), "Quantum of Solace" (filmed in 2008), "Risico", and "The Hildebrand Rarity" (filmed in 1989 as "License to Kill"). Pamela Frankau (1908-67), Road Through the Woods. Shichiro Fuzakawa (1914-87), The Story of a Dream of Courtly Elegance (Furyu Mutan); a leftist takes over the Japanese Imperial Palace and beheads crown prince Akihito and princess Michiko before cheering crowds; pisses-off ultra-nationalists, who on Feb. 1, 1961 break into the home of his publisher Shimanaka Hoji, kill a maid, and wound his wife, causing Fuzakawa to go into hiding for life. George Garrett (1929-2008), The Finished Man (first novel); political drama in Fla. Romain Gary (1914-80), La Promesse de l'Aube (Promise at Dawn). Witold Gombrowicz (1904-69), Pornografia. Paul Goodman (1911-72), Our Visit to Niagara (short stories). Joe Gores (1931-), A Time of Predators (first novel). A.B. Guthrie Jr. (1901-91), The Big It and Other Stories. Arthur Hailey (1920-2004), In High Places. L.P. Hartley (1895-1972), Facial Justice. L.P. Hartley and Muriel Spark (1918-2006), The Bachelors; "Daylight was appearing over London, the great city of bachelors." James Leo Herlihy (1927-93), All Fall Down (first novel). John Hersey (1914-93), The Child Buyer; a project to engineer high-IQ kids to save the cruddy U.S. school system which can't teach Johnny to read, uh huh huh huh; a mysterious stranger in Pequot tries to buy brain boy Barry Rudd. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), This Sweet Sickness. Edward Hoagland (1932-), The Circle Home; about boxing. H.L. Hunt (1889-1974), Alpaca (first and only novel) - alpaca high-power rifle in Dallas one day? Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), Family! Guillermo Cabrera Infante (1929-2005), In Peace and In War (Asi en la Paz Como en la Guerra). Clifford Irving (1930-), The Valley; mythic Western. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (1927-), The Householder; New Delhi teacher Prem becomes a householder and has a load of responsibilities; filmed in 1963. Frances Parkinson Keyes (1885-1970), The Chess Players: A Novel of New Orleans and Paris; chess champ Paul Morphy (1837-84). Louis L'Amour (1908-88), Daybreakers; followed in 1961 by Sackett, launching the Sackett Series, about the Sackett family, who come from The Fens of Cambridgeshire, England, and work their way W over the Atlantic to the Great Plains, Rockies, and Calif. Harper Lee (1926-2016), To Kill a Mockingbird (first novel) (Pulitzer Prize) (40M copies) (first woman winner since Ellen Glasgow in 1942); 6-y.-o. Scout (based on herself) and her brother Jem (Jeremy), Atticus Finch (based on her father Amasa and her mother's maiden name Finch), 7-y.-o. tow-headed Dill Harris (based on her childhood friend Truman Capote), Boo Radley in 1930s Maycomb, Ala.; "All I want to be is the Jane Austen of South Alabama" (Lee); in 1975 her publisher announces she's working on her 2nd novel, which is pub. in ?; in July 2015 she pub. "Go Set a Watchman", the first draft of "To Kill a Mockingbird'; "When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow" (first sentence); filmed in 1962 starring Gregory Peck as Atticus Finch. Doris Lessing (1919-2013), In Pursuit of Englishness. Richard Llewellyn (1906-83), Up into the Singing Mountain. Helen MacInnes (1907-85), Decision at Delphi; artist Kenneth Strang. Charles Eric Maine (1921-81), Calculated RiskHe (The Man Who) Owned the World. Bruce Marshall (1899-1987), The Divided Lady. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Secret Mission to Bangkok; Colonel Hugh North Solves the Multi-Million-Dollar Murders. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), Harris's Requiem. Yukio Mishima (1925-70), After the Banquet; based on Hachiro Arita's campaign to become gov. of Tokyo. Naomi Mitchison (1897-1999), The Young Alexander the Great. Nicholas Monsarrat (1910-79), The Nylon Pirates; card sharks aboard an ocean liner. Brian Moore (1921-99), The Luck of Ginger Coffey. Alan Moorehead (1910-83), The White Nile; Sir Richard Burton (1821-90) and John Hanning Speke (1827-64). Alberto Moravia (1907-90), La Noia (The Empty Canvas). Wright Morris (1910-98), Ceremony in Lone Tree; sequel to "The Field of Vision" (1956). Robert Nathan (1894-1985), The Color of Evening; The Weans. Edna O'Brien (1930-), The Country Girls (first novel); Kate Brady and Baba Brennan; first in the Country Girls Trilogy (1960-4); banned in Ireland for sexual content, making them more popular? Flannery O'Connor (1925-64), The Violent Bear It Away. John O'Hara (1905-70), Ourselves to Know; Sermons and Soda Water: A Trilogy of Three Novellas. Zoe B. Oldenbourg (1916-2002), Les Brules (Destiny of Fire). John Osborne (1929-94), Luther. Milton K. Ozaki (1913-89), Inquest. Edith Pargeter (1913-95), The Will and the Deed (Where There's a Will); The Heaven Tree; first in the Heaven Tree Trilogy (1960-3), about the days of King John Lackland of England (1166-1216). Anthony Powell (1905-2000), Casanova's Chinese Restaurant (Dance to the Music of Time). Richard P. Powell (1908-99), The Soldier. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), All or Nothing. Roger Price (1918-90), J.G., The Upright Ape. Jose Soler Puig (1917-96), Bertillon 166 (first novel). Jean Raspail (1925-), Lands Holy and Profane. Paul Mark Scott (1920-78), The Chinese Love Pavilion. Allan Seager (1906-68), Death of Anger. Mary Lee Settle (1918-2005), Know Nothing; #3 in the Beulah Quintet about the history of W. Va. (1956-82). Dr. Seuss (1904-91), Green Eggs and Ham (Aug. 12) (Random House); #4 bestselling English-language children's book of all time; uses only 50 different words; banned in China in 1965-91; "I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them, Sam-I-Am"; "I do so like green eggs and ham. Thank you. Thank you, Sam-I-Am." Irwin Shaw (1913-84), Two Weeks in Another Town. Nevil Shute (1899-1960), Trustee from the Toolroom. Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), The General. Claude Simon (1913-2005), The Flanders Road (Le Route des Flandres); novelist Georges tries in vain to break with tradition. Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91), The Magician of Lublin; Yasha Mazur in late 19th cent. Poland. Andrei Sinyavsky (1935-), The Trial Begins (Sud Idyot). Vern Sneider (1916-98), The King from Ashtabula. C.P. Snow (1905-80), The Affair. Muriel Spark (1918-2006), The Ballad of Peckham Rye; working class Dixie Morse is jilted by a class-conscious groom. Elizabeth Spencer (1921-), The Light in the Piazza; a brain-damaged woman is met in a Florentine piazza and courted by an Italian Romeo. David Storey (1933-), This Sporting Life (novel); anti-hero Frank Machin of Wakefield, Yorkshire leaves coal mining for rugby while hooking up with his landlady Mrs. Howard, who calls her "just a great ape" for his testosterone-soaked boorish misogynistic behavior; filmed in 1963 by Lindsay Anderson. Theodore Sturgeon (1918-65), Venus Plus X; Charlie Johns of 61 N. 34th St. is taken to the future world of Ledmon, which has dispensed with gender. William Styron (1925-2006), Set This House on Fire. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Grace Divorce. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), The Key (Kagi). Alexander Trocchi (1925-84), Sappho of Lesbos; Cain's Book; study of heroin addiction; banned in Britain, making it more popular?; too bad, he shoots up live on camera during a TV debate on drug abuse while on bail for supplying heroin to a minor, after which his friends smuggle him over the Canadian border, after which he ends up in anything-goes Venice, Calif., where he begins his Sigma Project to create an internat. "spontaneous university". John Updike (1932-2009), Rabbit, Run; 26-y.-o. ex-high school basketball player kitchen gadget salesman Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom (taken from Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit) and his wife Janice of Mount Judge (near Brewer), Penn. and their dysfunctional family life; "What happens when a young American family man goes on the road the people left behind get hurt" (Updike); "If you have the guts to be yourself... other people'll pay your price"; spawns sequels "Rabbit Redux" (1971), "Rabbit is Rich" (1981), "Rabbit At Rest" (1990), "Rabbit Remembered" (2001). Peter Ustinov (1921-2004), The Loser. Jack Vance (1916-2013), The Man in the Cage (first mystery novel). Gore Vidal (1925-2012), Visit to a Small Planet. John B. Wain (1925-94), Nuncle and Other Stories. Irving Wallace (1916-90), The Chapman Report. Edward Lewis Wallant (1926-62), The Human Season (first novel). Martin Walser (1927-), Halftime; Dieter Roth presses lit. into sausage and creates "Literature Sausage" (1961); The Gadarene Club. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Fuel for the Flame. Donald Edwin Westlake (1933-2008), The Mercenaries (first novel); a Mob hit man. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Satanist; special agent Barney Sullivan infiltrates the British Communist Party to battle pesky Satanists who are trying to start WWIII; his novels sell 1M copies a year during this decade. John A. Williams (1925-94), The Angry Ones (first novel). Raymond Henry Williams (1921-88), Border Country (first novel); a Welsh academic visits his railway signalman daddy and confronts his working class past from a leftist POV. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), A Test to Destruction. Arthur Wise (1923-82), Days in the Hay (first novel); pub. under alias John McArthur. Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91), Gillian. Births: Japanese dir.-actor Shinya Tsukamoto on Jan. 1 in Tokyo. Am. "Devil Inside", "Talk About the Passion" singer John Michael Stipe (R.E.M.) on Jan. 4 in Decatur, Ga. English "How to be a Domestic Goddess" TV chef Nigella Lucy Lawson on Jan. 6 in London; educated at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford U.; daughter of Nigel Lawson (1932-). Am. 6'5" hall-of-fame football defensive end (Los Angeles Raiders #75, 1981-93) and actor Howard Matthew Moses "Howie" Long on Jan. 6 in Somerville, Mass.; educated at Villanova U.; father of Chris Long (1985-) and Kyle Long (1988-). Am. "Steve Billings in The Shield" actor David Marciano on Jan. 7 in Newark, N.J. Iranian foreign affairs minister (2013-) Mohammad Javad Zarif on Jan. 7 in Tehran; educated at San Francisco State U., and the U. of Denver. British "Bend It Like Beckham", "Bride and Prejudice" film dir. (Sikh) Gurinder Chadha on Jan. 10 in Nairobi, Kenya; grows up in Southall, West London; educated at the U. of East Anglia. Am. rock musician Charlie Gillingham (Counting Crows) on Jan. 12 in Torrance, Calif. Am. "Oliver Babish in The West Wing" actor Oliver James Platt on Jan. 12 in Windsor, Ont., Canada. Am. 6'8" basketball player (black) ("the Human Highlight Film") (Atlanta Hawks #12, 1982-94) Jacques Dominique Wilkins on Jan. 12 in Paris, France; educated at the U. of Ga. Am. "Mr. Arable in Charlotte's Web" actor Kevin C. Anderson on Jan. 13 in Gurnee, Ill. Am. physicist Robert Eric Betzig on Jan. 13 in Ann Arbor, Mich.; 2014 Nobel Chem. Prize. Soviet Olympic pentathlete Anatoli Starostin on Jan. 18 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. German journalist Udo Ulfkotte on Jan. 20 in Lippstadt, North Rhine-Westphalia. Dutch physicist Erik Peter Verlinde on Jan. 21 in Woudenberg; identical twin brother of physicist Herman Louise Verlinde; educated at Utrecht U. Australian "Devil Inside", "Need You Tonight" singer-actor Michael Kelland John Hutchence (d. 1997) (INXS) on Jan. 22 in Sydney, N.S.W. Am. Olympic diver (gay) Gregory Efthimios "Greg" Louganis on Jan. 29 n El Cajon, Calif.; of Samoan-Swedish descent; raised by Greek-Am. adoptive parents. Am. "Alan Pinkard in Head of the Class" actor Tony O'Dell (Anthony Dell'Aquila) on Jan. 30 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. "Janelle Voight in T2", "PFC J. Vasquez in Aliens" actress (Jewish) Jenette Elise Goldstein on Feb. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Rent" dramatist (Jewish) Jonathan Larson (d. 1996) on Feb. 4 in White Plains, N.Y. Am. singer Robert Baresford "Bobby" Brown on Feb. 5 in Roxbury, Mass. Am. economist Christina Hull Paxson on Feb. 6 in ?; educated at Swarthmore College, and Columbia U. Am. "Stargate", "Alan Shore in Boston Legal" actor James Todd Spader on Feb. 7 in Boston, Mass.; both parents are teachers. English "Relax (Don't Do It)" musician (gay) William Holly Johnson (Frankie Goes to Hollywood) on Feb. 9 in Liverpool. Am. astronaut Peggy Annette Whitson on Feb. 9 in Mount Ayr, Iowa; educated at Iowa Wesleyan College, and Rice U. Saudi Muslim imam Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais (Abdul Rahman Ibn Abdul Aziz as-Sudais on Feb. 10 in Riyadh. Am. jazz musician Russ Freeman on Feb. 11 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. "Revenge of the Nerds", "Captain America" actor-producer Matt Salinger on Feb. 13 in Windsor, Vt.; son of J.D. Salinger (1919-2010) and Claire Douglas; educated at Phillips Andover Academy, Princeton U., and Columbia U. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (Buffalo Bills #12) (1986-96) James Edward "Jim" Kelly on Feb. 14 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Am. "Agnes of God" actress-dancer Meg Tilly (Margaret Elizabeth Chan) on Feb. 14 in Long Beach, Calif.; Chinese-Am. father, white mother; sister of Jennifer Tilly (1958-). English rock bassist Michael Emile "Mikey" Craig (Culture Club) on Feb. 15 in Hammersmith, London. Am. economist Stephen Moore on Feb. 16 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and George Mason U. English rock musician Peter Andrew "Pete" Willis (Def Leppard) on Feb. 16 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire. British prince and duke of York (1986-) Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten on Feb. 19 in Buckingham Palace, London; 2nd son and 3rd child of Elizabeth II and Philip Mountbatten; first birth to a reigning English monarch since 1857; husband (1986-96) of Sarah Ferguson (1959-). Am. serial murderer ("the Angel of Death") Charles Edmund Cullen on Feb. 22 in West Orange, N.J. German oceanographer-climate scientist Stefan Rahmstorf on Feb. 22; educated at Victoria U. of Wellington. English musician Paul David Humphreys (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) on Feb. 27 in London. Am. historian and U.S. Army Col. Peter R. Mansoor on Feb. 28; educated at Ohio State U. Am. ecologist Guy R. McPherson on Feb. 29 in ?; educated at the U. of Ariz. Am. 6'1" serial killer (epileptic) ("the Night Stalker") Richard Ramirez (Ricardo Leyva Muñoz Ramírez) (d. 2013) on Feb. 29 in El Paso, Tex.; Mexican immigrant parents. Am. "Awaken the Giant Within" writer Anthony "Tony" Robbins on Feb. 29 in North Hollywood, Calif. English "Greg Mandel" sci-fi novelist Peter F. Hamilton on Mar. 2 in Rutland. Am. "Benjamin Buford Bubba Blue in Forrest Gump" actor (black) Mykelti (Michael T.) Williamson on Mar. 4 in St. Louis, Mo.; part Blackfoot Indian. Am. 6'3" football player (Houston Oilers, 1982-93) and head coach (Tenn. Titans, 2011-13) Michael Anthony "Mike" Munchak on Mar. 5 in Scranton, Ohio; educated at Penn. State U. Am. NFL coach (Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans, 1994-) Michael Anthony "Mike" Munchak on Mar. 6 in Scranton, Penn. Czech-Am. tennis player Ivan Lendl on Mar. 7 in Prague. Am. "The Virgin Suicides", "Middlesex" novelist Jeffrey Kent Eugenides on Mar. 8 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Brown U., and Stanford U. Am. 6'8" basketball player (black) (New Jersey Nets #52, 1981-9) (Portland Trail Blazers, 1989-96) (New York Knicks) (1996-9) Charles Linwood "Buck" Williams on Mar. 8 in Rocky Mount, N.C.; educated at the U. of Md. Am. swimmer Linda Jezek on Mar. 10 in Palo Alto, Calif. Iranian Shiite cleric Ayatollah Sadeq (Sadegh) Ardeshir Amoli Larijani on Mar. 12 in Najaf; son-in-law of Ayatollah Hossein Vahid Khorasani (1921-). Am. "A.D.A. Ron Carver in Law & Order: Criminal Intent", "Russell Banfield in ER", "Stanford Wedeck in Flash Forward" actor (black) Courtney Bernard Vance on Mar. 12 in Detroit, Mich. Irish rock bassist Adam Charles Clayton (U2) on Mar. 13 in Chinnor, Oxfordshire, England; emigrates to Ireland in 1965. Australian "The Sleepwalkers" historian Sir Christopher Munro "Chris" Clark on Mar. 14 in Sydney; educated at the U. of Sydney, and Pembroke College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 2015. Am. 5'8" baseball hall-of-fame center fielder (Minnesota Twins #34, 1984-95) (black) ("Minny's Mighty Mite") Kirby Puckett (d. 2006) on Mar. 14 in Chicago, Ill. - sounds like? Lebanese-Am. anti-Zionist political scientist (Muslim-turned-atheist) As'ad AbuKhalil on Mar. 16 in Tyre; educated at Am. U. of Beirut, and Georgetown U. Am. "Adam Green in Ellen" actor (Jewish) Arye Gross on Mar. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif. English actress (Jewish) Maria Friedman on Mar. 19 in Bernese Obeland, Switzerland; daughter of Russian Jewish descent father Leonard Friedman and English mother Clair Llewlyn Sims; sister of Sonia Friedman (1965-). Am. rock drummer-producer Michael Urbano (Smash Mouth) on Mar. 19 in Sacramento, Calif. Am. "Alan Pope in The Flying Scissors" actor (Jewish) Matthew Arkin on Mar. 21 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; son of Adam Arkin (1934); brother of Adam Arkin (1956-). German "99 Red Balloons" singer-actress Nena (Gabriele Susanne Kerner) on Mar. 24 in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia; Sp. "nina" = little girl. English "The Woman in Red", "Weird Science" "Don't hate me because I'm beautiful" actress Kelly LeBrock on Mar. 24 in New York City; French-Canadian father, Irish mother; raised in London; wife (1987-96) of Steven Seagal (1951-). Am. hall-of-fame bowler Mike Aulby on Mar. 25 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Frances Baby Houseman in Dirty Dancing", "Jeanie Bueller in Ferris Bueller's Day Off" actress (Jewish) Jennifer Grey on Mar. 26 in New York City; daughter of Joel Grey (1932-); granddaughter of Mickey Katz (1909-85). U.S. Repub. Utah gov. #16 (2005-9) and U.S. ambassador to China (2009-11) (Mormon) Jon Meade Huntsman Jr. on Mar. 26 in Palo Alto, Calif.; educated at the U. of Utah., and U. of Penn.; father of Abby Huntsman (1986-). Am. "Being John Malkovich", "The 40-Year-Old Virgin" actress Catherine Ann Keener (AKA Karen Kersh) on Mar. 26 in Miami, Fla.; Irish father, Lebanese mother. Marcus LeMarr Allen on Mar. 26 in San Diego, Calif. Am. "The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold" writer Acharya S (Dorothy Milne Murdock) (d. 2015) on Mar. 27 in Mass.; grows up in Avon, Conn.; educated at Marshall College. Am. Olympic Alpine skier William Dean "Bill" Johnson on Mar. 30. English "Agent Smith in The Matrix", "Elrond in The Lord of the Rings", "Red Skull in Captain America" 6'2" actor Hugo Wallace Weaving on Apr. 4 in Austin, Nigeria. Am. R&B musician Warren Haynes (Allman Brothers Band, Gov't Mule) on Apr. 6 in Asheville, N.C. Am. 6'3-1/2" heavyweight boxing champ (1990) (black) James "Buster" Douglas on Apr. 7 in Columbus, Ohio; son of William "Dynamite" Douglas (1940-99). Am. "Walking on Sunshine" rock musician Katrina Leskanich (Katrina and the Waves) on Apr. 10 in Topeka, Kan. Egyptian al-Qaida leader (Sunni Muslim) Saif al-Adel on Apr. 11. Am. "2nd Chris in The Partridge Family" actor Brian Forster on Apr. 14; grandson of Alan Napier (1903-88). Am. "Robert Barone in Everybody Loves Raymond" 6'5" actor-comedian Brad Garrett (Brad Harold Gerstenfeld) on Apr. 14 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Danish "After the Wedding" dir.-writer-producer Susanne Bier on Apr. 15 in Copenhagen. U.S. ambassador (gay?) John Christopher Stevens (d. 2012) on Apr. 18 Grass Valley, Calif.; educated at UCB. Am. "Barbara Cooper Royer in One Day at a Time" actress Valerie Anne Bertinelli on Apr. 23 in Wilmington, Del.; wife (1981-2007) of Eddie Van Halen (1955-2020). English rock musician Stephen Maynard "Steve" Clark (d. 1991) (Def Leppard) on Apr. 23 in Hillsborough, Sheffield. English rock drummer Roger Andrew Taylor (Duran Duran) on Apr. 26 in Castle Bromwich, Birmingham; not to be confused with Roger Taylor of Queen (1949-). U.S. solicitor-gen. #45 (2009-10) (first woman) and U.S. Supreme Court justice #112 (2010-) (Jewish) Elena Kagan on Apr. 28 in New York City; educated at Princeton U., Oxford U., and Harvard U. Canadian "Flashforward" "The Terminal Experiment" sci-fi novelist Robert James Sawyer on Apr. 29 in Ottawa, Ont.; educated at Ryerson U. U.S. adm. (black) Michelle Janine Howard on Apr. 30 in March Air Reserve Base near Riverside, Calif.; first African-Am. woman to command a U.S. Navy ship (USS Rushmore); first African-Am. 2-star and 2-star adm.; first woman 4-star adm. (July 1, 2014). Am. Church of Scientology leader (1987-) David Miscavige on Apr. 30 in Bucks County, Penn.; grows up Roman Catholic in Willingboro Township, N.J. Am. jockey (youngest to win the Triple Crown in 1978 riding Affirmed) Steve Cauthen on May 1 in Covington, Ky.; grows up in Walton, Ky. Am. boxer (black) Iran "the Blade" Barkley on May 6 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. musician (lefty) John Conant "Flansy" Flansburgh (They Might Be Giants) on May 6 in Lincoln, Mass. Irish "Monica in Touched By an Angel" actress Roma Downey on May 6 in Derry, North Ireland. Am. "Frankie in Sisters" actress-model Julianne Phillips on May 6 in Chicago, Ill.; 1st wife (1985-9) of Bruce Springsteen (1949-). Am. rock bassist Eric Brittingham (Cinderella) on May 8 in Salisbury, Md. Am. baseball hall-of-fame right fielder (left) (black) (San Diego Padres #19, 1982-2001) ("Mr. Padre") ("Captain Video") Anthony Keith "Tony" Gwynn Sr. (d. 2014) on May 9 in Los Angeles, Calif. Irish "In the Name of Love" rock singer Sir Bono Vox (Lat. "good voice") (Paul David Hewson) (U2) on May 10 in Dublin; knighted in 2007. English "American Idol", "Pop Idol" producer Simon Fuller on May 17 in Hastings, East Sussex. Am. rock musician-producer Page Hamilton (Helmet) on May 18 in Portland, Ore. Finnish hockey hall-of-fame player Jari Pekka Kurri on May 18 in Helsinki. French 6'5" tennis player-singer (black) Yannick Noah on May 18 in Sedan, Ardennes; Cameroonian father Zacharie Noah (1937-), French mother; husband (1978-) of Cecilia Rodhe (1961-); father of Joakim Noah (1985-). Israeli gen. (Jewish) Gadi Eizenkot on May 19 in Tiberias; Jewish Moroccan immigrant parents. Am. "Dr. Phlox in Star Trek: Enterprise" actor John Billingsley on May 20 in Media, Penn.; grows up in Weston, Conn.; educated at Bennington College. Am. "Carl Bruner in Ghost", "Pres. Fitzgerald Grant III in Sacndal", "Col. Bagley in The Last Samurai" actor Anthony Howard "Tony" Goldwyn on May 20 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Brandeis U. Am. serial murderer ("the Milwaukee Cannibal") Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer (d. 1994) on May 21 in West Allis, Wisc. Am. "The Vast Conspiracy" writer Jeffrey Ross Toobin on May 21 in New York City; son of Marlene Sanders; educated at Harvard U. Am. football hall-of-fame running back (#32) English "The Only Way is Up" pop singer Yazz (Yasmin Evans) on May 21 in Shepherd's Bush, London. Am. "Abe Sapien in Hellboy", "Amphibian Man in The Shape of Water" actor Doug Jones on May 24 in Indianapolis, Ind. English "Katharine Clifton in The English Patient" actress Kristin Scott Thomas on May 24 in Redruth, Cornwall; sister of Serena Scott Thomas (1961-). U.S. Sen. (D-Minn.) (2007-) Amy Jean Klobuchar on May 25 in Plymouth, Minn.; educated at Yale U., and U. of Chicago; of Slovenian descent. Am. "Percy Wetmore in The Green Mile" actor Doug Hutchinson on May 26 in Dover, Del. English musician Stephen Anthony James "Tin Tin" Duffy (Duran Duran) on May 30 in Alum Rock, Birmingham. English rock bassist Simon Jonathon Gallup (The Cure) on June 1 in Duxhurst, Surrey. English rock drummer Michael "Mike" Joyce (The Smiths) on June 1 in Fallowfield, Manchester. English rock singer-songwriter Tony Hadley (Spandau Ballet) on June 2 in Islington, London. Am. auto racer Kyle Eugene Petty on June 2 in Randleman, N.C.; son of Richard Petty (1937-); grandson of Lee Petty (1914-2000); father of Adam Petty (1980-2000). Am. broadcast reporter (TV) Robert "Bob" "Zoey" Tur on June 8 in Los Angeles, Calif.; becomes a transvestite in 2014. Scottish "Most Haunted" psychic David Wells on June 8 in Kelloholm; Swiss politician Oskar Freysinger on June 12 in Sierre. Am. rock musician Steven Siro "Steve" Vai on June 16 in Carle Place, N.Y. Am. surgeon (Sunni Muslim) Mehmet Cengiz Oz (Öz) on June 11 in Cleveland, Ohio; Turkish immigrant parents; educated at Harvard U., and U. of Penn.; father of Daphne Oz (1986-). Am. "Sandman in Spider-Man 3" actor Thomas Haden Church on June 17 in El Paso, Tex. English rock bassist Nigel John Taylor (Duran Ran) on June 20 in Birmingham. Am. Dem. Ore. gov. #38 (2015-) (bi) Katherine "Kate" Brown on June 21 in Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain; educated at the U. of Colo., and Lewis and Clark College; first openly bi U.S. gov. (until ?). Chinese astronaut Maj. Gen. Yang Liwei on June 21 in Suizhong, Liaoning. Am. environmental activist Erin Brokovich (Erin L.E. Pattee) on June 22 in Lawrence, Kan. Am. "Ellen Reed in Family Ties" actress (Jewish) Tracy Jo Pollan on June 22 in Long Island, N.Y.; wife (1988-) of Michael J. Fox (1961-). U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (2001-) (Jewish) Adam Bennett Schiff on June 22 in Framingham, Mass.; educated at Stanford U., and Harvard U. Am. economist James Bradford "Brad" DeLong on June 24 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. physicist and climate blogger Joseph J. Romm on June 27 in Middletown, N.Y.; educated at MIT. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (Denver Broncos #7) (1983-98) John Albert Elway Jr. on June 28 in Port Angeles, Wash.; son of Broncos scout John Albert "Jack" Elway Sr. (1932-2001); grandson of semi-pro QB Harry Elway; educated at Stanford U. Am. "Shame", "Love Come Down" R&B singer (black) Evelyn "Champagne" King on June 29 in Bronx, N.Y.; grows up in Philly. Am. Islamist terrorist David Coleman Headley (Daood Sayed Gilani) on June 30 in Washington, D.C.; grows up in Lahore, Pakistan. Am. "Shame", "Love Come Down" R&B singer (black) Evelyn "Champagne" King on July 1 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. country musician Teddy Carr (Ricochet) on July 4. Am. 7'4" hall-of-fame basketball center-forward (black) (Houston Rockets #50, 1983-8) Ralph Lee Sampson Jr. on July 7 in Harrisonburg, Va.; educated at the U. of Va.; half of the Twin Towers duo with Hakeem Olajuwon (1963-). Am. computer scientist Yann LeCun (Le Cun) ("nice guy") on July 8 in Soisysous-Montmorency; educated at ESIEE Paris, and U. Pierre et Marie Curie. Ukrainian pres. (2010-) Viktor Fedoryvich Yanukovich (Yanukovych) on July 9 in Zhukovka (near Yenakiieve), Donetsk Oblast. Am. "Sue Sylvester in Glee", "Dr. Linda Freeman in Two and a Half Men" actress-comedian-singer (lesbian) Jane Lynch on July 14 in Dolton, Ill.; educated at Cornell U.; wife (2010-) of Dr. Lara Embry. Am. "Tommy Bradford in Eight Is Enough", "Buddy Lembeck in Charles in Charge", "David in Paradise" actor-dir.-writer-producer William Aames (Albert William Upton) on July 15 in Los Angeles, Calif. English rock drummer Kevin Haskins (Kevin Michael Dompe) (Bauhaus, Love and Rockets, Tones on Tail) on July 19 in Northampton. English TV producer Mark Burnett on July 17 in London. Am. football placekicker (Buffalo Bills #11, 1985-91) Scott Allan Norwood on July 17 in Alexandria, Va.; educated at James Madison College. Am. "Symphony of Sorrowful Songs" soprano Dawn Upshaw on July 17 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. writer Michael Collins Piper on July 17. Armenian-Canadian. "The Sweet Hereafter" dir.-writer Atom Egoyan on July 19 in Cairo, Egypt; son of Joseph and Shushan Yeghoyan; brother of pianist Eve Egyoyan; raised in Victoria, B.C. Am. "Alex Rogan in The Last Starfighter" actor Lance R. Guest on July 21 in Saratoga, Calif. English "Why We Disagree About Climate Change" geographer (founder of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research) Michael "Mike" Hulme on July 23 in London; educated at Durham U., and Swansea U. Am. "Slacker", "Dazed and Confused", "School of Rock", "Fast Food Nation" dir.-screenwriter (vegetarian) Richard Stuart Linklater on July 30 in Houston, Tex. English rock musician Vince Clarke (Vincent John Martin) (Depeche Mode) on July 3 in South Woodford; raised in Basildon, Essex. English arsonist Peter Dinsdale (Bruce George Peter Lee) on July 31 in Manchester; prostitute mother. Am. rapper (black) Chuck D (Carlton Douglas Ridenhour) (Public Enemy) on Aug. 1 in Flushing, Queens, N.Y.; grows up in Roosevelt, N.Y. Am. grunge rock singer-musician Suzi Gardner (L7) on Aug. 1. Am. Olympic figure skater (U.S. champ in 1977-80) Linda Sue Fratianne on Aug. 2 in Los Angeles, Calif. Spanish Socialist PM (2004-11) Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero on Aug. 4 in Valladolid; educated at the U. of Leon. Am. "A Soldier's Daughter Never Cries" novelist Kaylie Jones on Aug. 5; daughter of James Jones (1921-77); raised in Paris; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Fox Mulder in The X-Files" actor-writer-dir. (Jewish) David William "Duke" Duchovny on Aug. 7 in New York City; B.A. from Princeton U. and M.A. from Yale U.; husband (1997-2014) of Tea Leoni (1966-). Am. singer Aimee Mann on Aug. 9. Spanish "Puss in Boots in Shrek" actor-singer Antonio (Jose Antonio Dominiguez) Banderas on Aug. 10 in Malaga, Andalusia; father is a policeman and mother is a teacher; acts in a Spanish TV series at age 4; breaks his foot playing soccer at age 14, and switches careers to actor; comes to the U.S. at age 30 and becomes a movie star even though he can't speak English yet. Am. prof. wrestler (black) Frederick Seawright (Brickhouse Brown) (d. 2018) on Aug. 11 in Wilmington, Del. Am. "Baby Got Back" rapper-producer (black) Sir Mix-a-Lot (Anthony Ray) on Aug. 12 in Seattle, Wash. English "Christine Daae in The Phantom of the Opera" soprano-actress-dancer Sarah Brightman o n Aug. 14 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire; wife (1984-90) of Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-). Am. "Conrad Jarrett in Ordinary People" actor Timothy Tarquin Hutton on Aug. 16 in Malibu, Calif.; son of Jim Hutton (1934-79). Am. Dem. politician (Roman Catholic) Mitchell Joseph "Mitch" Landrieu on Aug. 16 in New Orleans, La.; son of Maurice Edwin "Moon" Landrieu (1930-); educated at Catholic U. of Am. and Loyola U. Am. "History Detectives" historian Eduardo Obregon Pagan Obregón Pagán on Aug. 13 in Mesa, Ariz.; educated at Arizona State U., U. of Arizona, and Princeton U. Am. "Dead Man Walking", "Mystic River" actor-dir. Sean Justin Penn on Aug. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of TV dir. Leo Penn (1921-98) and actress Eileen Ryan (1928-); brother of actor Chris Penn (1965-2006) and musician Michael Penn (1958-); husband (1985-9) of Madonna (1958-) and (1996-2010) Robin Wright Penn (1966-). U.S. acting atty.-gen. (2017) Sally Caroline Quillian Yates on Aug. 20 in Atlanga, Ga.; educated at the U. of Ga. Am. 6'4" baseball hall-of-fame SS and 3B player (Baltimore Orioles) Calvin Edwin "Cal" "Iron Man" Ripken Jr. on Aug. 24 in Havre de Grace, Md.; son of Cal Ripken Sr. (1935-99); brother of Billy Ripken (1964-). Austrian astronaut #1 Franz Artur Viehbock (Viehböck) on Aug. 24 in Vienna. Am. Dem. investment banker (pres. of Goldman Sachs, 2006-17) (Jewish) Gary David Cohn on Aug. 27 in Cleveland, Ohio; grows up in Shaker Heights, Ohio; educated at Am. U. Am. astronaut Leroy Chiao on Aug. 28 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at UCB and UCSB. English "Fallon Carrington Colby in Dynasty" actress Emma Samms (Samuelson) on Aug. 28 in London. Lebanese Hezbollah leader (1992-) (Muslim) Sayyid Hassan Nasrallah on Aug. 31 in East Beirut. Am. football linebacker (Denver Broncos #77, 1983-94) ("the Snow Goose") ("the Albino Rhino") Karl Bernard Mecklenburg on Sept. 1 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at the U. of Minn. Norwegian Socialist finance minister (2005-9) and education minister (2009-13) Kristen Halvorsen on Sept. 2 in Horten; educated at the U. of Oslo. Am. ABC-TV journalist (black) Deborah Roberts on Sept. 2 in Perry, Ga.; wife of Al Roker (1954-). Am. rock musician Kim Thayil (Soundgarden) on Sept. 4 in Seattle, Wash.; of Kerala Indian descent. Am. "Homey don't play that" actor-comic (black) Damon Kyle Wayans Sr. on Sept. 4 in New York City; brother of Keenen Ivory Wayans (1958-), Kim Wayans (1961-), Shawn Wayans (1971-), and Marlon Wayans (1972-); Jehovah's Witness parents. Am. "Sgt. Larvell Motormouth Jones in Police Academy" actor-comedian (black) ("Man of 10,000 Sound Effects") Michael Leslie Winslow on Sept. 6 in Spokane, Wash.; no relation to TLW? English rocker Perry Archangelo Bamonte (The Cure) on Sept. 6 in London. Am. musician Aimee Mann ('Til Tuesday) on Sept. 8 in Richmond, Va.; wife (1997-) of Michael Penn (1958-). English rock musician David "Shuffle" Steele (The English Beat, Fine Young Cannibals) on Sept. 8 in Cowes, Isle of Wight. English "Four Weddings and a Funeral", "Bridget Jones's Diary" actor Hugh John Mungo Grant on Sept. 9 in Hammersmith, London; Anglo-Scottish ancestry; educated at New College, Oxford U. English "Pride and Prejudice", "Bridget Jones's Diary" actor Colin Firth on Sept. 10 in Grayshott, Hampshire; both parents are teachers who were born and raised in India. Japanese physicist Hiroshi Amano on Sept. 11 in Hamamatsu. Am. "Alice Ward in The Fighter" actress Melissa Chessington Leo on Sept. 14 in Manhattan, N.Y. Canadian rock drummer Michel "Mitch" Dorge (Crash Test Dummies) on Sept. 15 in Winnipeg, Man. English auto racer Damon Graham Devereux Hill on Sept. 17 in London; son of racer Graham Hill (1929-75). Am. chef ("Molto Mario") Mario Francesco Batali on Sept. 19 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at Rutgers U. Am. "Harmon Rabb Jr. in JAG" actor David James Elliott (David William Smith) on Sept. 21 in Milton, Ont. Israeli Labor Party politician (Jewish) Yitzhak (Isaac) "Bougie" Herzog on Sept. 22 in Tel Aviv; son of Chaim Herzog (1918-97); educated at Cornell U., and NYU. Am. "I Love Rock N' Roll" singer-songwriter-guitarist Joan Jett on Sept. 22 in Ardmore, Calif. Am. 6'2" basketball player-mgr. (white) (Chicago Bulls #5, 1985-94) John MacBeth Paxson on Sept. 29 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at Notre Dame U. Am. rock drummer William Frederick "Bill" Rieflin (R.E.M.) on Sept. 30 in Seattle, Wash. Am. football coach (Indianapolis Colts, 2012-) Charles David "Chuck" Pagano on Oct. 2 in Boulder, Colo.; educated at Wyoming U. Am. "Beau Felton in Homicide: Life on the Street" actor Daniel Leroy Baldwin on Oct. 5 in Massapequa, N.Y.; brother of Alec Baldwin (1958-), Billy Baldwin (1963-) and Stephen Baldwin (1966-); admitted lifetime cocaine addict; "an egomaniac with an inferiority complex". Am. Netflix co-founder Wilmot Reed Hastings Jr. on Oct. 8 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Bowdoin College, and Stanford U. Spanish "The Mask of Zorro", "Philadelphia" actor Jose Antonio Dominguez Banderas on Oct. 10 in Malaga, Andalusia. Am rock singer Joey Belladonna (Joseph Bellardini) (Anthrax) on Oct. 13 in Oswego, N.Y. English runner Stephen "Steve" Cram on Oct. 14 in Jarrow, Tyneside. Am. "Moneyball", "The Blind Side" writer-journalist Michael Monroe Lewis on Oct. 15 in New Orleans, La.; educated at Princeton U., and London School of Economics. Am. rock musician Robert Arthur "Bob" Mould (Husker Du) on Oct. 16 in Malone, N.Y.; educated at Macalester College. Am. "Chicago", "Memoirs of a Geisha", "Nine" dir.-choreographer (gay) Rob Marshall on Oct. 17 in Madison, Wisc.; grows up in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Carnegie Mellon U.; partner of John DeLuca. Am. molecular biologist Craig Cameron Mello on Oct. 18 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at Brown U., U. of Colo., and Harvard U.; 2006 Nobel Medicine Prize. Am. "Joanie Cunningham in Happy Days and Joanie Loves Chachi" actress Erin Marie Moran (d. 2017) on Oct. 18 in Burank, Calif.; grows up in North Hollywood, Calif. Belgian "Bloodsport", "Kickboxer" 5'9" actor ("Muscles from Brussels") Jean-Claude Van Damme (Jean-Claude Camille Francois Van Varenberg) on Oct. 18 in Sint-Agatha-Berchem, Brussels; Jewish father. Am. "Dreamgirls" singer-actress (black) Jennifer Yvette Holliday on Oct. 19 in Riverside, Tex. Am. CBS-TV journalist (black) Byron Pitts on Oct. 21 in Baltimore, Md. Am. Internet Archive computer engineer Brewster Kahle on Oct. 22 in New York City; educated at MIT. Swiss songwriter-producer Mirwais Ahmadzai (Taxi Girl) on Oct. 23 in Lausanne, Switzerland; Afghan father, Italian mother. Am. computer scientist Randy Pausch (d. 2008) on Oct. 23. Canadian Liberal MP (2015-) (Shiite Muslim) Majid Jowhari on Oct. 24 in Tehran, Iran; educated at Ryerson U., and NYU. Iranian pretender shah (1979-) Cyrus Reza Pahlavi on Oct. 30; son of Reza Pahlavi II (1919-80) and Farah Pahlavi (1938-); exiled in 1979; settles in the U.S. in 1984; educated at Williams College, and USC. French "A Christmas Tale" dir.-writer Arnaud Desplechin on Oct. 31 in Roubaix, Nord. English rock musician Johnny Marr (John Martin Maher) (The Smiths) on Oct. 31 in Ardwick, Manchester. English London Metropolitan police chief (2017-) (first woman) Cressida Rose Dick in Oct. in Oxford; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Mexican baseball pitcher (lefty) (Los Angeles Dodgers) ("El Toro") Fernando Valenzuela Anguamea on Nov. 1 in Navojoa, Sonora. Am. Apple CEO (2011-) (gay) Timothy Donald "Tim" Cook on Nov. 1 in Mobile, Ala.; educasted at Auburn U., and Duke U. English rock musician Matthew James Ashman (Adam and the Ants) on Nov. 3 in Mill Hill. Am. "My Life on the D-List" comedian-actress Kathleen Mary "Kathy" Griffin on Nov. 4 in Oak Park, Ill. Am. talent agent Bryan William Lourd on Nov. 5 in New Iberia, La.; husband (1991-4) of Carrie Fisher (1956); father of Billie Lourd (1992-); educated at the U. of Southern Calif. English "White Witch Jadis in The Chronicles of Narnia", "Karen Crowder in Michael Clayton", "Orlando" actress (Socialist) Katherine Mathilda "Tilda" Swinton on Nov. 5 in London; Australian mother; member of the ancient Swinton family that can trace its lineage to before the Norman Conquest, along with the Ardens and Berkeleys; educated at West Heath Girls' School (classmate of Princess Diana), and New Hall, Cambridge U. Cuban-Am. Telemundo TV journalist Jose Diaz-Balart (José Díaz-Balart) on Nov. 7 in Fort Lauderdale, Fla.; Cuban immigrant parents; grows up in Madrid, Spain. Am. rock musician Tommy Thayer (KISS) on Nov. 7 in Portland, Ore. Am. rock drummer Demetra "Dee" Plakas (L7, Problem Dogs) on Nov. 9 near Chicago, Ill. English "The Sandman" sci-fi writer (Jewish) Neil Richard Gaiman on Nov. 10 in Portchester, Hampshire; of Polish Jewish descent. Am. "Frank Nitti in Road to Perdition" actor-dir.-producer-writer Stanley Tucci Jr. on Nov. 11 in Peekskill, N.Y. Am. "Janitor in Scrubs", "Michael Mike Heck Jr. in The Middle" actor-comedian (Roman Catholic) Neil Richard Flynn on Nov. 13 in Chicago, Ill. Iranian vice-pres. #1 (2009) (Shiite Muslim) Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei on Nov. 16 in Ramsar. Am. actor-singer-songwriter (black) (gay) RuPaul Andre Charles on Nov. 17 in San Diego, Calif. Am. "Susan in Big", "June Ellis in The Doctor", "Wilma in The Flintstones" actress Elizabeth Ann Perkins on Nov. 18 in Queens, N.Y; Greek immigrant paternal grandparents. English "Kids in America", "You Keep Me Hangin' On" pop singer Kim Wilde (Smith) on Nov. 18 in Chiswick, West London. Israeli MK ((2003-) (Jewish) (Kulanu Party founder) Moshe Kahlon on Nov. 19 in Hadera; Libyan Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Haifa, and Harvard U. Am. rock bassist Brian Ritchie (Violent Femmes) on Nov. 21. Am. ABC-TV journalist (black) (lesbian) Robin Rene Roberts on Nov. 23 in Pass Christian, Miss.; grows up in Pass Christian, Miss.; sister of Sally-Ann Roberts. English "English Passengers" novelist Matthew Kneale on Nov. 24 in London; educated at Oxford U. Am. publisher John Fitzgerald "John-John" Kennedy Jr. (d. 1999) on Nov. 25 in Washington, D.C.; son of U.S. pres. John F. Kennedy (1917-63) and Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-94); brother of Caroline Kennedy (1957-). Am. 6'4" football hall-of-fame QB (New York Jets #7) (1983-92) Kenneth John "Ken" O'Brien on Nov. 27 in Rockville Centre, N.Y. Am. Repub. Minn. gov. #39 (2003-11) (evangelical Christian) Timothy James "Tim" Pawlenty on Nov. 27 in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at the U. of Minn. Am. football safety (black) (Chicago Bears, 1983-9) David Russell "Dave" Duerson (d. 2011) on Nov. 28 in Muncie, Ind. British fashion designer (gay) John Charles Galliano (Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillen) on Nov. 28 in Gibraltar; Gibraltarian father, Spanish mother; emigrates to England at age 6. Am. "Vickie LaMotta in Raging Bull" actress Cathy Moriarty on Nov. 29 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. "Mouna in The Visitor" actress-dir. (Sunni Muslim) Hiam (Hiyam) Abbas on Nov. 30 in Nazareth, Israel; grows up in Deir Hanna. Am. children's book illustrator Kevin Henkes in Nov. in Racine, Wisc. U.S. Rep. (D-N.M.) (2019-) Debra A. "Deb" Haaland on Dec. 2 in Winslow, Ariz.; Norwegian descent father, Laguna Pueblo mother; educated at the U. of N.M. English rock bassist Rick "Sav" Savage (Def Leppard) on Dec. 2 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Am. "Splash", "Reckless", "Blade Runner" actress Daryl Christine Hannah on Dec. 3 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Clarice Starling in Hannibal", "Dr. Sarah Harding in The Lost World: Jurassic Park" actress (atheist) Julianne Moore on Dec. 3 in Fayetteville, N.C.; Scottish mother; sister of Peter Moore Smith. Am. rock singer Jack Russell (Great White) on Dec. 5 in Montebello, Calif. English "Foursome" novelist, "Faking Friends" novelist Jane Fallon on Dec. 9 in Middlesex; educated at Univ. College London; wife (1982-) of Ricky Gervais (1961-). Am. "Nightline" TV journalist Terry Moran on Dec. 9 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Lawrence U. Am. actress-singer Dana Wheeler-Nicholson on Oct. 9 in New York City; granddaughter of DC comics founder Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson (1890-1965). Irish "Henry V", "Gilderoy Lockhart in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets", "Maj. Gen. Henning von Tresckow in Valkyrie" actor-dir.-writer-producer Sir Kenneth Charles Branagh on Dec. 10 in Belfast, Northern Ireland; husband (1989-95) of Emma Thompson (1959-); knighted in 2012. Am. 6'5" football defensive end (black) (Chicago Bears #95, 1983-93) Richard Lamar Dent on Dec. 13 in Atlanta, Ga.; educate at Tenn. State U. Am. historian Douglas Brinkley on Dec. 14 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Ohio State U. and Georgetown U. Am. 6'8" FBI dir. #7 (2013-7) James Brien "Jim" Comey Jr. on Dec. 14 in Yonkers, N.Y.; educated at the College of William and Mary, and U. of Chicago. English "Susan Rose in Eastenders" actress Tilly Vosburgh on Dec. 17 in London; daughter of Dick Vosburgh (1929-2007). Am. "Bobby in The Brady Bunch" actor (Mormon) Mike Lookinland on Dec. 19 in Mount Pleasant, Utah. Am. scholar (Shiite Muslim?) Vali Reza Nasr on Dec. 20 in Tehran; emigrates to the U.S. in 1980; educated at Tufts U., and MIT. Am. Neo-Expressionist artist (black) Jean-Michel Basquiat (d. 1988) on Dec. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Haitian immigrant father, Puerto Rican descent mother; first African descent artist to become an internat. star. Am. rapper Luther R. "Uncle Luke" "Luke Skyywalker" Campbell (2 Live Crew) on Dec. 22 in Miami, Fla. Am. country singer-musician Chuck Mead (BR549) on Dec. 22. Chinese serial killer Charles Chi-Tat Ng on Dec. 24 in Hong Kong. Israeli politician (Arab Muslim) Taleb el-Sana (Talab al-Sana) on Dec. 25 in Tel Arad. English actress Maryam D'Abo on Dec. 27 in London; cousin of Manfred Mann lead vocalist Michael d'Abo (1944-); first cousin once removed of Olivia d'Abo (1969-). Canadian 5'11" hockey player Raymond Jean "Ray" Bourque on Dec. 28 in Saint-Laurent, Quebec. Am. actor-producer Chad McQueen on Dec. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Steve McQueen (1930-80). Am. serial murderer (black) (Nation of Islam) John Allen Muhammad (Williams) (d. 2009) on Dec. 31 in Baton Rouge, La. Burkinabe Gen. Gilbert Diendere (Diendéré) on ? in Upper Volta. Am. country singer-musician Marty Roe (Diamond Rio) on Dec. 28 in Lebanon, Ohio; named after Marty Robbins. Afghan foreign minister (2001-5) Abdullah Abdullah on ? in Kabul. Irish "The Dark Fields" novelist Alan Glynn on ? in Dublin; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Am. "The End of Nature" environmentalist William Ernest "Bill" McKibben on ? in Palo Alto, Calif.; grows up in Lexington, Mass; educated at Harvard U. English writer (Muslim) Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Timothy John "Tim" Winter) on ? in London; educated at Westminster School, Pembroke College, and Cambridge U. Am. "Dreamships" sci-fi novelist (lesbian) Melissa Scott in Little Rock, Ark.; educated at Harvard U. and Brandeis U.; collaborator of Lisa A. Barnett (1958-2006). Lebanese "The Black Swan" economist Nassim (Nessim) (Nissim) Nicholas Taleb on ? in Amioun; educated at the U. of Paris, and Wharton School. Am. economist Andrew Wen-Chuan Lo on ? in Hong Kong; educated at Yale U., and Harvard U. Am. historian Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom on ? in ?; educated at Havard U., and UCB. Deaths: Am. Boston socialite Harriet Hemenway (b. 1858). English novelist-playwright Eden Phillpotts (b. 1862) on Dec. 29 in Broadclyst, Devon. Am. writer Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe Jr. (b. 1864) on Dec. 6 in Cambridge, Mass. U.S. Sen. (D-S.D.) (1931-43) William Bulow (b. 1869) on Feb. 26. Irish writer Seaumus MacManus (b. 1869). French neon lamp inventor Georges Claude (b. 1870) on May 23 in Saint-Cloud; dies while serving a life sentence for treason for collaborating with the Nazis. Swedish composer Hugo Alfven (d. 1872) on May 8. French poet Paul Fort (b. 1872) on Apr. 20. Am. etiquette columnist Emily Post (b. 1872) on Sept. 25 in New York City. Polish Gen. Jozef Haller (b. 1873) on June 4 in London, England. Canadian PM (1920-1, 1926) Arthur Meighen (b. 1874) on Aug. 5 in Toronto, Ont. Am. industrialist John D. Rockefeller Jr. (b. 1874) on May 27 in Tucson, Ariz. Syrian statesman Hasim al-Atassi (b. 1875) on Dec. 5 in Homs. Am. Montgomery Ward CEO Sewell Avery (b. 1875) on Oct. 31 in Chicago, Ill.; leaves a $20M fortune. French sculptor Henri Bouchard (b. 1875) on Nov. 30 in Paris. French physicist Maurice de Broglie (b. 1875) on July 14 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. English actress-mgr. Lillah McCarthy (b. 1875) on Apr. 15. Am. anthropologist A.L. Kroeber (b. 1876) on Oct. 5. East German pres. (1949-60) Wilhelm Pieck (b. 1876) on Sept. 7 in East Berlin (heart attack). German Adm. Erich Raeder (b. 1876) on Nov. 6 in Kiel. Hungarian pianist-composer Ernst von Dohnanyi (b. 1877) on Feb. 9. Am. illustrator James Montgomery Flagg (b. 1877) on May 27 in New York City. U.S. asst. Navy secy. (1929-33) Ernest Lee Jahncke (b. 1877) on Nov. 16 in New Orleans, La. Am. naval historian Dudley Wright Knox (b. 1877) on June 11 in Bethesda, Md. Am. country musician Samantha Bumgarner (b. 1878) on Dec. 24. Dutch physicist Wander Johannes de Haas (b. 1878) on Apr. 26 in Bilthoven. Turkish Kurdish religious leader Said Nursi (b. 1878) on Mar. 23 in Urfa. German physicist Max von Laue (b. 1879) on Apr. 24 in Berlin; 1914 Nobel Physics Prize. English actor Ernest Thesiger (b. 1879) on Jan. 14 in London. Canadian-born Am. Keystone Kops dir. Mack Sennett (b. 1880) on Nov. 5 in Woodland Hills, Calif. English archeologist Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (b. 1880) on Feb. 20. Soviet physicist Abram Joffe (b. 1880) on Oct. 14 in Leningrad. Am. sliced bread machine inventor Otto Rohwedder (b. 1880) on Nov. 8 in Concord, Mich. Canadian movie pioneer Mack Sennett (b. 1880) on Nov. 5 in Woodland Hills, Calif.; "The joke of life is the fall of dignity"; "Anyone who tells you he has invented something new is a fool or a liar or both." Am. "Tinks to Evers to Chance" humorous journalist Franklin Pierce Adams (FPA) (b. 1881) on Mar. 23: "Health is the thing that makes you feel that now is the best time of the year." Am. modernist artist John Covert (b. 1881). English radar pioneer Sir Arthur Percy Morris Fleming (b. 1881) on Sept. 14 on the Isle of Wight. Kiwi plastic surgeon Sir Harold Gillies (b. 1882) on Sept. 10 in Marylebone, London, England. German financier Wilhelm Keppler (b. 1882) on June 13 in Friedrichshafen, Baden-Wurttemberg, West Gemany. Austrian-born British child psychologist Melanie Klein (b. 1882) on Sept. 22. Am. suffragist Sylvia Pankhurst (b. 1882) on Sept. 27 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (heart attack); dies unwed after becoming an unwed mother at age 45. Scottish-born Am. mathematician Eric Temple Bell (b. 1883) on Dec. 21 in Watsonville, Calif. Mexican anthropologist Manuel Gamio (b. 1883). German Gen. Walter Kuntze (b. 1883) on Apr. 1 in Detmold. Canadian hockey star Lester Patrick 9b. 1883) on June 1 in Victoria, B.C. Am. original Indy Jones naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews (b. 1884) on Mar. 11 in Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif. German Field Marshal Albert Kesselring (b. 1885) on July 16 in Bad Nauheim (heart failure) - from arsenic and old lace? Canadian hockey star Frank Patrick (b. 1885) on June 29 in Vancouver, B.C. Sri Lankan-born British intel operative Harry St. John "Jack" Philby (b. 1885) on Sept. 30 in Beirut (heart attack); last words (to son Kim Philby): "God, I'm bored." Russian ballerina Ida Rubinstein (b. 1885) on Sept. 20 in Vence, France. Am. country musician Gid Tanner (b. 1885) on May 13 in Dacula, Ga. German pianist-conductor Edwin Fischer (b. 1886) on Jan. 24 in London. Scottish-born Am. film dir. Frank Lloyd (b. 1886) on Aug. 10 in Santa Monica, Calif. English actor George Zucco (b. 1886) on May 27 in Hollywood, Calif. (pneumonia). Austrian-born Am. "Grand Hotel" novelist Vicki Baum (b. 1888) on Aug. 29 in Hollywood, Calif.: "To be a Jew is a destiny"; "Pity is the deadliest feeling that can be offered to a woman." Spanish soprano Lucrezia Bori (b. 1887) on May 14 in New York City (cerebral hemorrhage). Am. architect Burnham Hoyt (b. 1887) on Apr. 6 in Denver, Colo. (Parkinson's); designed Lake Junior H.S., Riverside Church, Red Rocks Amphitheater, and the Denver Public Library. Am. circus clown (world's funniest?) Bobby Clark (b. 1888) on Feb. 12 in New York City. Swiss actor-dramatist Curt Goetz (b. 1888) on Sept. 12 in Graabs, St. Gallen. Polish-born British historian Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (b. 1888) on Aug. 19: "It did not require either 1914, or 1933, or 1939 to teach me the truth about the Germans. Long before the last war I considered them a deadly menace to Europe and the civilisation." Australian children's illustrator Ida Rentoul Outhwaite (b. 1888) on June 25. German film actress Henny Porten (b. 1888) on Oct. 15. English civil engineer Arthur Clifford Hartley (b. 1889) on Jan. 20 in London. French poet Pierre Reverdy (b. 1889) on June 17 in Solesmes: "Art begins when randomness ends, although randomness enriches it"; "A glass of papaya juice/and back to work. My heart is in my/pocket. It is Poems by Pierre Reverdy." (Frank O'Hara) Am. dir.-writer Gene Fowler (b. 1890) on July 2 in Los Angeles, Calif.: "Men are not against you; they are merely for themselves." German Reich economic minister Walther Funk (b. 1890) on May 31. Norwegian novelist Sigurd Hoel (b. 1890) on Oct. 14 (heart attack). English astronomer Sir Harold Spencer Jones (b. 1890) on Nov. 3 in London. Russian "Doctor Zhivago" novelist Boris Pasternak (b. 1890) on May 30 in Peredelkino (lung cancer): "Man is born to live, not to prepare for life." Am. anti-Joseph McCarthy atty. Joseph Nye Welch (b. 1890) on Oct. 6 in Hyannis, Mass. (heart failure). German actor Hans Albers (b. 1891) on July 24 in Starnberg. Am. country singer A.P. Carter (b. 1891) on Nov. 7 in Kingsport, Tenn. Am. "Their Eyes Were Watching God" novelist Zora Neale Hurston (b. 1891) on Jan. 28 in Fort Pierce, Fla.; dies in poverty. Am. baritone John Charles Thomas (b. 1891) on Dec. 13 in Apple Valley, Calif. U.S. Rep. (R-Mass.) (1928-58) Richard Bowditch Wigglesworth (b. 1891) on Oct. 22 in Boston, Mass. Hungarian operetta composer Paul Abraham (b. 1892) on May 6 in Hamburg. Afghan king (1919-29) Amanullah (b. 1892) on Apr. 25 in Zurich, Switzerland (in exile since 1929). German-born Am. astronomer Walter Baade (b. 1893) on June 25 in Gottingen, Germany. Am. "The Late George Apley" novelist John P. Marquand (b. 1893) on July 16 in Kent's Island (near Newburyport), Mass. (heart attack). Argentine boxer Luis Angel Firpo (b. 1894) on Aug. 7. Am. librettist and stage producer Oscar Hammerstein II (b. 1895) on Aug. 23 in Doylestown, Penn. (stomach cancer); the lights are dimmed on Broadway and in London in his memory. Am. actor Lucien Littlefield (b. 1895) on June 4 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. La. gov. #45 (1939-40, 1948-52, 1956-60) (son of Huey P. Long) Earl Kemp Long (b. 1895) on Sept. 5 in Alexandria, La. (heart attack); dies after being declared a paranoid schizophrenic and placed in a mental hospital in May 1959 at the request of his wife Blanche, then gaining release by dismissing the hospital suptd. and appointing his replacement; leaves the soundbyte: "When I die... I want to be buried in Louisiana so I can stay active in politics"; leaves $50K in his will to his notorious red-haired stripper babe Blaze Starr (1932-), which she refuses. Am. "Bring Up Baby" screenwriter Dudley Nichols (b. 1895) on Jan. 4 in Hollywood, Calif.; first artist to refuse an Oscar before George C. Scott and Marlon Brando. Am. physician Ossian Sweet (b. 1895) on Mar. 20 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Honey in the Horn" novelist Harold Lenoir Davis (b. 1896) on Oct. 31 in San Antonio, Tex. (heart attack). Greek-born Am. composer-conductor-pianist Dimitri Mitropoulos (b. 1896) on Nov. 2 in Milan, Italy; dies during a rehearsal at La Scala of the opening movement of Gustav Mahler's 3rd Symphony, bar #86. British Labour politician Aneurin Bevan (b. 1897) on July 6 in Chesham, Buckinghamshire (cancer). Polish-born British internat. lawyer Sir Hersch Lauterpacht (b. 1897) on May 8 in London: "International law is the vanishing point of law." Italian shoe designer Salvatore Ferragamo (b. 1898) on Aug. 7 in Florence. Malaysian sultan (1938-42, 1945-60) Hisamuddin Alam Shah (b. 1898) on Sept. 1 in Kuala Lumpur. Am. actor Ian Keith (b. 1899) on Mar. 26 in New York City. English-born Australian "On the Beach" novelist Nevil Shute (b. 1899) on Jan. 12 in Melbourne. Kiwi plastic surgeon Sir Archibald McIndoe (b. 1900) on Apr. 11 in London, England (heart attack). Am. sociologist Samuel Andrew Stouffer (b. 1900) on Aug. 24 (cancer). Italian historian-politician Federico Chabod (b. 1901) on July 14 in Rome. Am. "Rhett Butler in Gone With the Wind" actor Clark Gable (b. 1901) on Nov. 16 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack); dies a few days after the film "The Misfits" wraps; "He was as masculine as any man I've ever known, and as much a little boy as a grown man could be; it was this combination that had such a devastating effect on women" (Doris Day). Am. aviator Ruth Rowland Nichols (b. 1901) on Sept. 25 in New York City (OD). Am. composer-lyricist Phil Charig (b. 1902) on July 21. Am. "Wagon Train" actor Ward Bond (b. 1903) on Nov. 5 in Dallas, Tex. (heart attack). Am. FBI agent Melvin Purvis (b. 1903) on Feb. 29 in Florence, S.C. (suicide); kills himself with the same pistol he used to kill John Dillinger? Dutch novelist Anna Blaman (b. 1905) on July 13 in Aldaar (cerebral embolism). Am. "Bus Stop" film producer Buddy Adler (b. 1909) on July 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. (lung cancer). Am. writer Richard Wright (b. 1908) on Nov. 28 in Paris (heart attack or murder?). Am. blues singer Gladys Bentley (b. 1907) on Jan. 18 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. actress Margaret Sullavan (b. 1909) on Jan. 1 in New Haven, Conn. (accidental sleeping pill OD); her daughter Bridget Hayward (b. 1939) deliberately ODs on sleeping pills on Oct. 8 in New York City; actress Bridget Fonda (1964-) is named after her: "I don't think I've ever known one... star who was successfully able to combine a career and family life." English philosopher J.L. Austin (b. 1911) on Feb. 8 in Oxford (lung cancer). Swedish tenor Jussi Bjoerling (b. 1911) on Sept. 9 in Siaro (near Stockholm) (heart failure). Pakistani prince Aly Khan (b. 1911) on May 12 in Paris. Am. baritone Leonard Warren (b. 1911) on Mar. 4 in New York City (cerebral hemorrhage); dies on stage at the Met during a performance of "La Forza del Destino" in the title role of Simon Boccanegra. Am. poet Audrey Wurdemann (b. 1911) on May 20 in Miami, Fla. French existentialist car accident Albert Camus (b. 1913) on Jan. 4 in Villeblevin (near Sens) (existential car accident); 1957 Nobel Lit. Prize: "Against eternal injustice, man must assert justice, and to protest against the universe of grief, he must create happiness"; "I do not believe in God and I am not an atheist"; "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked" - the good cease to exist absurdly young? Am. Coors heir Adolph Coors III (b. 1916) on Feb. 9 in Colo. (murdered). Am. "Imperium" rightist writer Francis Parker Yockey (b. 1917) on June 16 in San Francisco, Calif.; commits suicide via cyanide in jail while in FBI custody; his disciple Willis Carto (1926-) (founder of Liberty Lobby in 1955) founds the Nat. Youth Alliance on Nov. 15, 1968 to promote his philosophy of allying with the Soviet Union against the U.S. to help Western culture survive the threat of the real Communism rampant in the in Zionist-controlled West. Am. rapist Caryl Chessman (b. 1921) on May 2 in San Quentin State Prison, Calif. (executed by gas chamber). Am. jazz musician Oscar Pettiford (b. 1922) on Sept. 8 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Am. "The Battle of New Orleans" country singer Johnny Horton (b. 1925) on Nov. 5 in Milano, Tex. (head-on collision on a narrow bridge with an intoxicated truck driver). Am. auto racer Jimmy Bryan (b. 1926) on June 19 (auto accident at Langhorne Speedway in Penn.). Am. rockabilly musician Eddie Cochran (b. 1938) on Apr. 17 in Bath, Somerset, England (traffic accident in a taxicab); songwriter Sharon Sheeley and singer Gene Vincent survive the crash; taxi driver George Martin is convicted of dangerous driving and sentenced to 6 mo. in jail.

1961 - The Dopeshit Year, when the Commies stink themselves up by erecting the Berlin Wall, while the Capitalists stink themselves up by botching the Bay of Pigs Invasion, with JFK and the Military-Industrial Complex at loggerheads in the middle? The U.S.-Soviet Space Race gives Round 2 to the Soviets again, who send one Commie into orbit, while another Commie in tights leaps to freedom, and another jumps a fence to freedom for great heartwarming TV moments, countering the feeling that the Space Race is being won by the Gagarins? Meanwhile U.S. white supremacists reverse that warm feeling of racial superiority and stink themselves up with animalistic attacks on peaceful Freedom Riders both black and white, the latter having the gall to travel in integrated buses and share restrooms with Darwinian throwbacks, it must be another Jewish plot?

John Fitzgerald Kennedy of the U.S. (1917-63) Lyndon Baines Johnson of the U.S. (1908-73) John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) and Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-73) of the U.S. Robert Francis 'Bobby' Kennedy of the U.S. (1925-68) Jacqueline 'Jackie' Kennedy of the U.S. (1929-94) Jacqueline 'Jackie' Kennedy of the U.S. (1929-94) Oleg Cassini (1913-2006) Robert Strange McNamara of the U.S. (1916-2009) Dean Rusk of the U.S. (1909-94) McGeorge 'Mac' Bundy of the U.S. (1919-96) William Putnam 'Bill' Bundy of the U.S. (1917-2000) Chester Bowles of the U.S. (1901-86) C. Douglas Dillon of the U.S. (1909-2003) Burke Marshall of the U.S. (1922-2003) Theodore Chaikin Sorensen of the U.S. (1928-) Pierre Salinger of the U.S. (1925-2004) David Ormsby-Gore of Britain (1918-85) Abraham Alexander Ribicoff of the U.S. (1919-98) Newton Norman Minow of the U.S. (1926-) Adlai Stevenson II of the U.S. (1900-65) Rennie Davis (1941-) Tom Hayden (1939-) David Dellinger (1915-2004) Gore Vidal (1925-2012) William F. Buckley Jr. (1925-2008) Chou En-lai of China (1898-1976) Eunice Kennedy Shriver of the U.S. (1921-2009) R. Sargent Shriver of the U.S. (1915-2011) Rev. Theodore Martin Hesburgh (1917-2015) Gen. Park Chung-hee of South Korea (1917-79) Gen. Chang Do Yung of South Korea (1923-) João Goulart of Brazil (1919-76) Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli of Brazil (1910-75) Cheddi Berret Jagan of British Guiana (1918-97) Maurice Papon of France (1910-2007) French Gen. Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95) French Gen. Andre Zeller (1898-1979) Hassan II of Morocco (1929-99) Sheik Abdullah III al-Salim al-Sabah of Kuwait (1895-1965) Sheik Sabah al-Salem al-Sabah of Kuwait (1913-77) Sheik Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa of Bahrain (1933-99) Nazim al-Kudsi of Syria (1906-98) Mohammed al-Badr of Yemen (1926-96) Col. Abdullah al-Salal of Yemen (1919-94) Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya (1897-1978) Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika (1922-99) Holden Roberto of Angola (1923-2007) Nelson Mandela of South Africa (1918-2013) Walter Sisulu of South Africa (1912-2003) Helen Joseph of South Africa (1905-92) Eduardo Victor Haedo of Uruguay (1901-70) Diosdado Pangan Macapagal of the Philippines (1910-97) Sir Robert Gordon Menzies of Australia (1894-1978) Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs POWs Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn of the U.S. (1882-1961) Allen Welsh Dulles of the U.S. (1893-1969) USAF Gen. Charles Pearre Cabell (1903-71) Earle Cabell (1906-75) U.S. Gen. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1901-87) Walt Whitman Rostow of the U.S. (1916-2003) Richard Lehman of the U.S. (1923-2007) Frederick E. Nolting Jr. of the U.S. (1911-89) Newton N. Minow of the U.S. (1926-) Clifton Reginald Wharton Sr. of the U.S. (1899-1990) Janet Graeme Travell of the U.S. (1901-97) William Cornelius Sullivan of the U.S. (1912-77) Arnold J. Toynbee (1889-1975) and Yaacov Herzob (1921-72), Jan. 31, 1962 Ham the Chimp (1956-83) Katherine Johnson of the U.S. (1918-) Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-68) and Charles Lindbergh (1902-74) Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. of the U.S. (1923-98) USAF Capt. Virgil Ivan 'Gus' Grissom (1926-67) Gherman Titov of the Soviet Union (1935-2000) Enos the Chimponaut, 1961 Hans Conrad Schumann Leaping the Berlin Wall, Aug. 15, 1961 The Freedom Riders, 1961 Rev. William Sloane Coffin Jr. (1924-2006) Stokely Carmichael (1941-98) Mark Lane (1927-) Percy Ellis Sutton (1920-2009) Tom Hayden (1939-) James L. Farmer (1920-99) Charlayne Hunter (1942-) and Hamilton Holmes (1941-95) John Malcolm Patterson of the U.S. (1921-) Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-61) Shafiq al-Hout (1932-2009) Ahmed Jibril (1938-) Dave Garroway (1913-82) John Chancellor (1927-96) Hugh Downs (1921-) Barbara Walters (1929-) John William McCormack of the U.S. (1891-1980) John Alexander McCone of the U.S. (1902-91) John Tower of the U.S. (1925-91) Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd of South Africa (1901-66) Charles Robberts Swart of South Africa (1894-1982) Prince Louis Rwagasore of Burundi (1932-61) Mustafa al-Barzani of Kurdistan (1903-79) Carlos Fonseca of Nicaragua (1936-76) French Gen. Maurice Challe (1905-79) Soviet Naval Capt. Nikolai Vladimirovich Zateyev (1926-98) Carlos Julio Arosemena of Ecuador (1919-2004) King Hussein I (1935-99) and Princess Muna (1941-) of Jordan Howard K. Smith (1914-2002) Helen Thomas (1920-2013) Gordon Lonsdale (1922-70) George Blake (1922-) Herman Kahn (1922-83) Peter Kroger (1910-95) Helen Kroger (1913-92) Max Conrad (1903-79) Wolfgang von Trips (1928-61) Roger Maris (1934-85) Roger Maris (1934-85) and Sal Durante (1942-) Ford Christopher Frick (1894-1978) Dean Edwards Smith (1931-2015) George Blanda (1927-) Ernie Davis (1939-63) Walt Bellamy (1939-2013) Tom Meschery (1938-) Don Kojis (1939-) Bill Bridges (1939-) Stan Mikita (1940-) Jack Nicklaus (1940-) Gene Littler (1930-) Gary Player (1935-) Roy Stanley Emerson (1936-) Rod Laver (1938-) Connie Hawkins (1942-) John McLendon (1915-99) Angela Margaret Mortimer Barrett (1939-) Frankie Carbo (1904-76) Don Jordan (1934-97) Frances Oldham Kelsey of the U.S. (1914-) Thalidomide Baby Marvin Panch (1926-) A.J. Foyt (1935-) Sam Yorty of the U.S. (1909-98) Peter Benenson (1921-2005) Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) Michael C. Rockefeller (1938-60) Rudolf Nureyev (1938-93) Irving Spencer Cooper (1922-85) Maurice Ralph Hillerman (1919-2005) Sydney Brenner (1927-2019) Francois Jacob (1920-) Matthew Stanley Meselson (1930-) Franklin William Stahl (1929-) Jacques Lucien Monod (1910-76) Murray Gell-Mann (1930-) Yuval Nu'eman (1925-2006) J. Heinrich Matthaei (1929-) Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927-) George Devol (1912-2011) John Larry Kelly Jr. (1923-65) Dag Hammarskjold (1905-61) Bill Harvey of the U.S. (1915-76) Ivo Andric (1892-1975) Albert Bandura (1925-) Fritz Fischer (1908-89) Robert Hofstadter (1915-90) Rudolf Mossbauer (Mössbauer) (1929-) Melvin Ellis Calvin (1911-97) Georg von Bekesy (Békésy) (1899-1972) Wayne Clayson Booth (1921-) Thomas J. Fogarty (1934-) William Fouts House (1923-2012) Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Jr. (1916-95) James Mellaart (1925-) Jacques Francis Albert Pierre Miller (1931-) Neal Elgar Miller (1909-2002) Peter Dennis Mitchell (1920-92) James Till (1931-) and Ernest McCulloch (1926-2011) Philip C. Johnson (1906-2005) Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe (1883-1974) Canterbury Archbishop Arthur Michael Ramsey (1904-88) Daniel Joseph Boorstin (1914-2004) Marion Zimmer Bradley (1930-99) Asa Briggs (1921-) Grace Bumbry (1937-) Emilio Carballido (1925-2008) John le Carré (1931-) J.P. Donleavy (1926-) Harlan Ellison (1934-) Athol Fugard (1932-) John Hawkes (1925-98) Joseph Heller (1923-99) 'Catch-22' by Joseph Heller (1923-99), 1961 Richard Hughes (1900-76) Donald Rodney Justice (1925-2004) MacKinlay Kantor (1904-77) Robert Jay Lifton (1926-) James 'Buddy' McLean (1929-66) Lewis Mumford (1895-1990) Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-2008) Michel Butor (1926-) Nathalie Sarraute (1900-99) Clifford Donald Simak (1904-88) Claude Simon (1913-2005) George Steiner (1929-) Howie Winter (1929-) Richard Yates (1926-92) 'Revolutionary Road' by Richard Yates (1926-92), 1961 Benjamin Arthur Quarles (1904-96) W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) Amiri Baraka (1934-2014) Samuel Beckett (1906-89) Ernst Bloch (1885-1977) Hortense Calisher (1911-2009) Raul Hilberg (1926-2007) Martin Broszat (1926-89) Langston Hughes (1902-67) Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927-2008) Carolyn Kizer (1925-) Maxine Kumin (1925-2014) Denise Levertov (1923-97) Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) Tillie Olsen (1913-2007) James Purdy (1914-2009) Ayn Rand (1905-82) Henry Rosovsky (1927-) William Sansom (1912-76) Neil Simon (1927-2018) 'Come Blow Your Horn', 1961 Muriel Spark (1918-2006) Sir Laurens van der Post (1906-96) Gordon Parks (1912-2006) David Caute (1936-) Alan Dugan (1923-2003) Per Olov Enquist (1934-) John Hollander (1929-) Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) Robert Moses (1888-1981) Mortimer Adler (1902-2001) J.G. Ballard (1930-2009) Leonard Cohen (1934-2016) M. Stanton Evans (1934-) Maria Irene Fornes (1930-) Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880-1971) Winston Graham (1908-2003) John Howard Griffin (1920-80) Earl Hamner Jr. (1923-2016) Oscar Handlin (1915-2011) Robert Anson Heinlein (1907-88) 'Stranger in a Strange Land', by Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), 1961 Norman Juster (1929-) Emma Lathen Jackson Turner Main (1917-2003) Bernard Malamud (1914-86) Abraham Maslow (1908-70) Larry McMurtry (1936-) Frank O'Connor (1903-66) Kenzaburo Oe (1935-) Gladys Schmitt (1909-72) Arthur Ochs 'Punch' Sulzberger (1926-) Peter de Vries (1910-93) Alan W. Watts (1915-73) Patrick White (1912-90) Robert Ardrey (1908-80) Marina Prusakova Oswald (1942-) George de Mohrenschildt (1911-77) Gaeton Fonzi (1935-) Yevgeny Yevtushenko (1933-) Betty Hill (1919-2004) and Barney Hill (1923-69) Kathleen Marden John Clement Whitcomb Jr. (1924-2020) Ken Ham (1951-) Eugene F. Lally Ray Kroc (1902-84) Joan Beverly Kroc (1928-2003) Charles Eames (1907-78) and Ray Eames (1912-88) Jim McKay (1921-2008) ABC's Wide World of Sports, 1961-98 The Beatles, 1961 The Cavern Club Tony Sheridan (1940-) Sir George Henry Martin (1926-2016) Jackie Lomax (1944-2013) Brian Epstein (1934-67) Milton Byron Babbitt (1916-) Acker Bilk (1929-) Pat Boone (1934-) Jacques Brel (1929-78) Ray Charles (1930-2004) John Coltrane (1926-67) James Darren (1936-) Jimmy Dean (1928-2010), 'Big Bad John', 1961 Miles Davis (1926-91) Judy Garland (1922-69) Marvin Gaye (1939-84) The Supremes Diana Ross (1944-) Del Shannon (1934-90) Bobby Vee (1943-) Mike Berry (1942-) Judy Collins (1939-) Ben E. King (1938-) Phil Spector (1939-2021) Lester Sill (1918-94) Larry Levine (1928-2008) Dion DiMucci (1939-) The Crystals The Ronettes Bob B. Soxx and the Blue Jeans Ike and Tina Turner The Righteous Brothers Darlene Love (1941-) The Marvelettes Mary Wells (1943-92) Wanda Jackson (1937-) The Highwaymen The Limeliters Solomon Linda (1909-62) The Tokens Bob Gibson (1931-96) Henry Mancini (1924-94) Annunzio Mantovani (1905-80) Mitch Miller (1911-2010) 'Mexico' by Bob Moore (1932-), 1961 Ricky Nelson (1940-85) Tony Orlando (1944-) Ray Stevens (1939-) Fred Weintraub (1928-) Andy Williams (1927-) Si Zentner (1917-2000) Andre Jolivet (1905-74) Yuri Soloviev (1940-77) Ernest 'Papa' Hemingway (1899-1961) Ernest Hemingway Suicide, July 2, 1961 Stanislaw Lem (1921-2006) Sir William Empson (1906-84) Marlene Schmidt (1937-) Richard Chamberlain (1934-) Mike Douglas (1925-2006) Ismail Merchant (1935-2005) James Ivory (1928-) Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (1927-2013) Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922-75) Victoria Spivey (1906-76) Len Kunstadt (1925-96) and Victoria Spivey (1906-76) Spivey Records The Mister Ed Show, 1961-6 'Car 54, Where Are You?', 1961-3 Topo Gigio Marcel Achard (1899-1974) Rita Tushingham (1942-) Allan 'Rocky' Lane (1909-73) 'Alcoa Premiere', 1961-3 'The Alvin Show', 1961-2 'Ben Casey', 1961-6 'The Defenders, 1961-5 The Dick Van Dyke Show, 1961-6 'Dr. Kildare', 1961-6 '87th Precinct', 1961-2 Hazel', 1961-66 'The Joey Bishop Show', 1961-5 'Margie', 1961-2 Password', 1961-75 'Ripcord', 1961-3 'Shannon', 1961-2 'Target: The Corruptors!', 1961-2 'Victim', 1961 'Walt Disneys Wonderful World of Color', 1961-9 'The Yogi Bear Show', 1961-2 'A Shot in the Dark', 1961 'How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying', 1961 'PT-109' by Robert J. Donovan (1912-2003), 1961 'The Absent-Minded Professor', 1961 'The Absent-Minded Professor', 1961 'The Beast of Yucca Flats', 1961 'Blue Hawaii', 1961 'Breakfast at Tiffanys' starring Audrey Hepburn, 1961 'Come September' starring Rock Hudson and Gina Lolllobrigida, 1961 'Creature from the Haunted Sea', 1961 'The Day the Earth Caught Fire', 1961 'Girl with a Suitcase', 1961 'The Guns of Navarone', 1961 'The Hustler', 1961 Minnesota Fats (1913-96) 'Invasion of the Neptune Men', 1961 'Judgment at Nuremberg', 1961 'The Misfits', 1961 Jack A. Weil (1901-2008) Inge Morath (1923-2002) Sam Peckinpah (1925-84) 'One-Eyed Jacks, 1961 'Paris Blues', 1961 'The Phantom Planet', 1961 'The Pit and the Pendulum', 1961 'Reptilicus' 1961 'Splendor in the Grass', 1961 'Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea', 1961 'West Side Story', 1961 'Lola', 1961 Jacques Demy (1931-90) Guildford Cathedral, 1961 BT Tower, London, 1961-5 'Monster Slayer (Pricking Vagina)' by Cynthia Bissell, 1961 'Tribe of Levi' by Marc Chagall (1875-1985), 1961 Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) 'Cantabile' by Kenneth Noland, 1961 Bridget Riley (1931-) 'Movements in Squares' by Bridget Riley (1931-), 1961 Tom Wesselmann (1931-2004) 'Great American Nude' by Tom Wesselmann, 1961 Stan Lee (1922-2018) Jack Kirby (1917-94) The Fantastic Four, Nov. 1961- Eliot Fette Noys (1910-77) IBM Selectric, 1961 Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, 1961- Johnson Space Center Minuteman 1, 1961 Venera 1, 1961 Charlie the Tuna, 1961 Häagen-Dazs, 1961 Red Barn, 1961 John Galardi (1937-2013) Der Wienerschnitzel, 1961 Slip 'N Slide, 1961 El Alamein Fountain, 1961 Robert Woodward (1923-2010) Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, 1961 Union Carbide Bldg., 1961 Natalie de Blois (1921-2013)

1961 Doomsday Clock: 7 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Ox (Feb. 15). Time Mag. Man of the Year: John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (1917-63). The first same-upside-down year since 1881 (next 6009). Speaking of a shitty year? The 7th Cholera (El-Tor) Pandemic (first 1817) begins in Indonesia, spreading to Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, the Soviet Union in 1966, Baku in 1972, then North Africa and Italy by 1973, finally reaching Japan and the South Pacific before petering out in the 1970s. The famine in China (begun 1959) ends, causing a baby boom. An economic crisis hits Britain, aggravating class warfare, with South African-born British Communist leader Edward "Ted" Grant (1913-2006) uttering the soundbyte: "The only remedy for the Tory witch doctors is to bleed the victim in the new economic squeeze for the benefit of their millionaire paymasters." There are only 140 independent breweries in the U.S. (230 total). On Jan. 1 the farthing (in use since the 13th cent.) ceases to be legal tender in the U.K.; on Mar. 13 B&W £5 notes cease to be legal tender. On Jan. 2 Minn. defeats Washington by 17-7 to win the 1961 Rose Bowl; the Great Rose Bowl Prank of 1961 sees the "Fiendish 14" Caltech students (who are unhappy at never getting to compete in the event even though they live close by) sneak into the cheerleaders' room and swap the instruction sheets for the 2,232 seats, causing images #12 and following to read "HUSKIES SEIKSUH CALTECH". On Jan. 3 the U.S. severs diplomatic relations with Cuba - that won't last long, duh? On Jan. 3 a nuclear reactor at the Nat. Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, Idaho explodes, killing three technicians. On Jan. 4-7 the Casablanca Group, incl. Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Mali and UAR meets in Casablanca, Morroco to found a NATO-type org. in Africa for common defense; in 1963 they merge into the OAU. On Jan. 5 Mister Ed debuts on CBS-TV for 143 episodes (until Feb. 6, 1966), becoming the first mid-season replacement show; it originally debut from Jan. 5-July 2 in syndication; English-born Alan Young (1919-) plays architect Wilbur Post, and Bamboo Harvester (1946-1979) plays the horse, Mr. Ed (palomino Am. Saddlebred), voiced by former B-Western star Allan "Rocky" Lane (1909-73). On Jan. 6 the U.S. federal courts order the U. of Georgia in Athens to desegregate, after which black students Charlayne Hunter (Hunter-Gault) (1942-) and Hamilton E. "Hamp" Holmes (1941-95) are admitted amidst racist hooters. On Jan. 8 a referendum in France backs Charles de Gaulle's policies on independence for Algeria. On Jan. 9 the British announce the uncovering of a large Soviet spy ring in London. On Jan. 11 the Throg's Neck Bridge in Bronx, N.Y. over the East River at Long Island Sound to Bayside, Queens, N.Y., designed by Swiss-born Othmar Hermann Ammann (1879-1965) opens, relieving traffic on the 1939 Whitestone Bridge. In early Jan. vice-pres. Richard Nixon, following Art. II Sec. 2 of the U.S. Constitution ("shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Reps... open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted") counts the votes as 303 to 219 for Kennedy (with 15 Dixiecrats for Harry Byrd), becoming the first vice-pres. since Breckinridge in 1861 to attest to his own defeat. On Jan. 17 exiled Congo PM Patrice Lumumba (b. 1925) is spirited along wih two of his ministers on a Sabena Airlines DC-4 airliner to Katanga,then assassinated at the orders of interior minister Godefroid Munongo (1925-), making him a martyr; on Feb. 13 the Congolese govt. tries a coverup, announcing that he was killed by villagers; in 2001 a Belgian govt. commission declares that the Belgian govt. bears "moral responsiblity" for the murder; did King Baudoin and his Belgian govt. conspire to kill Congo's first democratically-elected PM because he was going to nationalize their mining interests in Katanga, check back with me when the screenplay's finished? On Jan. 17 Pres. Eisenhower and Canadian PM John G. Diefenbaker sign a treaty in Washington, D.C. for the joint development of the Columbia River Basin. Monday morning couldn't guarantee what? On Jan. 17 (Tues.) outgoing U.S. Pres. Eisenhower gives Ike's Farewell Address from the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, D.C., which is broadcast live on radio and TV, coining the phrase "Military-Industrial Complex" (MIC), with the soundbytes: "I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight. Happily, I can say that war has been avoided", and that the Cold War is a "prolonged and complex struggle with liberty at stake"; He then throws conspiracy theorists a bone with "This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience", concluding "In the councils of government we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the Military-Industrial Complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist"; the MIC then does just what he warned, and gets away with it?; as Pres. Eisenhower leaves office, there are only 900 "advisers" in Vietnam. On Jan. 20 salesman Oscar Deslatte and mgr. Fred Sewell of the Bolton Ford Dealership in New Orleans, La. are visited by two members of the anti-Castro Friends of Dem. Cuba, and the first, Joseph Moore, orders 10 trucks on the condition of a special discount for a nonprofit org., telling Deslatte to put the 2nd man's name on the bid, Oswald; the Jan. 6 articles of incorporation list Oswald, ex-FBI agent W. Buy Banister, and steamship shipping co. owner Gerard F. Tujague, who employed Lee Harvey Oswald as a messenger from Nov. 10, 1955 - Jan. 14, 1956; the trucks are to be used in the Bay of Pigs invasion? Knocking on Heaven's Door, or Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, or King Arthur and the Days of Camelot come to the White House, only to be defeated by the mean Dragon of the MIC? On Jan. 20 (Fri.) 43-y.-o. charisma-maximus Mass.-born Harvard-educated WWII Navy PT-boat hero (first to be knocked-off by the Military-Industrial Complex?) John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (1917-63) becomes the 35th U.S. pres. (until Nov. 22, 1963) in the 51st U.S. Pres. Inauguration in Washington, D.C. (youngest pres. until?) (first Boy Scout pres.) (first Gemini pres.) (first pres. with an air-conditioned limo) (continues the tradition of all Mass.-born presidents being born in Norfolk County, incl. John Adams and John Quincy Adams); "from a medical standpoint, he was a mess", having been hospitalized more than three dozen times and given last rites 3x; snowiest inauguration (8 in. of snow) until ?; Robert Frost delivers his poem The Gift Outright ("The land was ours before we were the land's"); Stonewall, Tex.-born U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (since Jan. 3, 1949) Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-73) becomes the 37th U.S. vice-pres. (until Nov. 22, 1963); JFK makes wearing hats uncool for decades to come?; the inaug. theme is "World Peace Through New Frontiers"; JFK's Inauguration Address, mainly written by his "intellectual blood bank" advisor Theodore Chaikin "Ted" Sorensen (1928-) (a Nebraskan with a Danish father and Russian Jewish mother), incl. the soundbytes: "The world is very different now, for man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe: the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty"; "Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all minkind? Will you join in that historic effort? In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility, I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for you country"; he adds "I now invite all nations, incl. the Soviet Union to join with us in developing a weather prediction program, in a new communications satellite program), and in preparation for probing the distant planets of Mars and Venus, probes which may someday unlock the secrets of the Universe"; on Jan. 21 JFK's brother Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (1925-68) becomes U.S. atty.-gen., with JFK explaining that it's "to give him... experience before he goes out to practice law" (which is OK despite nepotism because the Nixon Doctrine says that if the president does it it isn't illegal?); Yale U. grad Burke Marshall (1922-2003) is appointed by RFK as asst. atty.-gen. in charge of the U.S. Justice Dept.'s Civil Rights Div. (until Dec. 1964), initially chosen because he's not a known civil rights leader and turning JFK off, who says "I have nothing in common with that man", but who later distinguishes himself by using the U.S. govt. power to regulate interstate commerce as the tool to force black civil rights on states rather than the more obvious 14th Amendment; Dem. Pierre Emil George Salinger (1925-2004) (Jewish father, French Catholic mother) becomes White House press. secy., continuing with LBJ after JFK's death; Repub. Clarence Douglas (Douglass) Dillon (1909-2003) becomes treasury secy. #57 (until 1965); after turning down the treasury secy. job, Oakland, Calif.-born Repub. Robert Strange McNamara (1916-2009) ("an IBM machine with legs") (whose portrait resembles actor James Stewart crossed with a Scottish Terrier and Giant Poodle?) (pres. of Ford Motor Co. for five weeks, first who wasn't a descendant of Henry Ford, one of the Ford Whiz Kids, known for his slicked-back hair, frameless glasses, and statistical-quoting technocrat approach, who made the decision to dump the Edsel, and takes a $3M pay cut to take the $25K-a-year govt. job after visiting JFK in a snowstorm and telling him he has no experience and isn't qualified, to which JFK responds that he had no experience as pres. either but that didn't stop him) becomes U.S. defense secy. #8 (until Feb. 29, 1968) (first to exert civilian control over the military) (the Defense Dept. soaks up 10% of the GDP, and 50% of the federal budget), going on to see the U.S. and Soviet Union come to the brink of nuclear war 3x; Athens, Ga.-born "Cold War, hell it was a hot war"; Rockefeller Foundation head (a Dem. from Ga., who only takes the job after he gets a partial pension) David Dean Rusk (1909-94) becomes U.S. secy. of state #54 (until Jan. 20, 1969) after JFK snubs his too-liberal campaign foreign policy advisor Chester Bliss Bowles (1901-86) (Conn. gov. #78 in 1941-51) (who becomes undersecy., and is fired before the end of the year) for a conservative figurehead who gives an appearance of not appeasing the Commies, although Rusk is the odd man out in the admin. and a weak secy., and JFK really leans on his 25-year friend William David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech (1918-85) (British ambassador to the U.S.) and seems to know more about British than U.S. society and foreign policy, esp. U.S. civil rights, and regards Gore's boss British PM Harold Macmillan as a surrogate father after his own daddy's stroke?; on Jan. 21 Jewish-Am. Dem. Conn. gov. #80 (since Jan. 5, 1955) Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (1910-98) becomes U.S. HEW secy. #4 (until July 13, 1962); JFK goes hatless to his inaguration, and starts the trend toward 2-button suits? (easier to get out of when making out?); JFK favors John Wayne Westerns for White House viewing, and his favorite food is tomato soup with sour cream; he is a sex and drug (methamphetamime?) addict, which the press covers up; his two pet cats are named Kitten and Tom; First Lady Jacqueline Lee Bouvier "Jackie" Kennedy (1929-94) (Secret Service codename: Lace) last year hired Paris-born Am. fashion designer Oleg Cassini Loiewski (1913-2006) to create her own look, and he decided that she looks Egyptian, "the Cleopatra of the modern era", making use of her broad shoulders, flat chest, thin hips and long torso, causing her to bite big and spend $100K on haute couture clothes this year alone; she smokes cigarettes even though she is never photographed with one; Des Moines, Iowa-born fashion designer Halston (Roy Halston Frowick) (1932-90) gains fame for designing the pillbox hat work by Jackie Kennedy at JFK's inauguration, going on to redefine Am. fashion for Am. women in the mid-1970s, using cashmere and ultrasuede in relaxed urban lifestyle clothing that can be worn the entire day on any occasion; JFK orders a copy of the Robert Preston exercise song Go, You Chicken Fat, Go sent to every U.S. school; in Nov. 1960 UPI correspondent Helen Thomas (1920-) (Greek Orthodox of Lebanese descent) is assigned to the White House, becoming known as "the Sitting Buddha", sitting in the front row and asking the first question, and beginning the tradition of ending all the conferences with "Thank you, Mr. President"; she resigns from UPI on May 17, 2000 after 57 years a day after News World Communications Inc., owned by Rev. Sun Myung Moon acquires it, and joins Hearst Newspapers; after on-camera remarks about Jews needing to leave Palestine and go back to Europe surface, she retires on June 7, 2010. On Jan. 21 The Economist pub. an article on JFK's inauguration, containing the soundbyte: "He will need, as well as his brave essay in thought-out leadership, sometimes the intuitive personal flair of Roosevelt, sometimes the warm downright sense of Truman and, often, the patient humility of Lincoln. Then, indeed, many hopes may be fulfilled"; on Nov. 30, 1963 they pub. "Leader of the West", extolling the virtues of his successor LBJ, with the soundbyte: "John Kennedy has gone Lincoln's way to the end, and the many hopes now rest upon Lyndon Johnson." On Jan. 21 the Vatican establishes diplomatic relations with Turkey, sending the first nuncio Mgr. Francesco Lardone (1887-1980) to Istanbul, who becomes the first diplomat of the Holy See since Isidore of Kiev (Thessalonica) (1385-1463) in 1458 to enter the city. On Jan. 23 after he refuses to endorse JFK before the Dem. Convention, pissing-off JFK and causing him to snub him for secy. of state and give him the choice of atty. gen., ambassador to the U.K., or this, Los Angeles, Calif.-born former Dem. Ill. gov. #31 (1949-53) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (1900-65) (who served on the committee that created the U.N., and on the early U.S. delegations to it) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #5 (until July 14, 1965), going on to be treated as a bit player and kept from knowing about the Apr. 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion in advance, giving a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly with the CIA coverstory that there was no U.S. involvement, embarrassing him but not enough to resign. On Jan. 24 a U.S. B-52 Stratofortress carrying two 2.4MT nuclear bombs crashes near Goldsboro, N.C. On Jan. 24 Duluth, Minn.-born folk singer Bob Dylan (Robert Allen Zimmerman) (1941-) first comes to New York City, visiting his idol Woody Guthrie then settling down in Greenwich Village to join the protest folk music scene, sometimes going by the name Elston Gunn, forming a tight circle of artists and writers at the Gaslight Cafe on MacDougal St. incl. Victor Maymudes (1935-2001) (bodyguard/mgr.), Philip David "Phil" Ochs (1940-76), Eric Andersen (1941-), David Kenneth Ritz "Dave" Van Ronk (1936-2002), Thomas Richard "Tom" Paxton (1937-), Robert "Bob" Neuwirth (1939-), and David Blue (Stuart David Cohen) (1941-82). On Jan. 25 Pres. Kennedy holds the first pres. news conference broadcast live on TV and radio, announcing that the Soviets have freed the two last crewmen of the USAF RB-47 recon plane shot down last July 1. On Jan. 25 a rightist coup in El Salvador halts "leftist excesses"; in Apr. elections give a big V to the new U.S.-backed anti-Communist Party of Nat. Conciliation, led by Julio Adalberto Rivera (1921-73), who becomes pres. of El Salvador (until 1967). On Jan. 26 pain-wracked Pres. Kennedy appoints Janet Graeme Travell (1901-97), "the Mother of Myofascial Trigger Point Treatment" as his personal pres. physician, becoming the first woman. On Jan. 27 Sing Along With Mitch debuts on NBC-TV for 42 episodes (until 1963), hosted by bandleader Mitchell William "Mitch" Miller (1911-2010), featuring "follow the bouncing ball", pioneering karoke. On Jan. 30 JFK's First State of the Union Address starts out "It is a pleasure to return from whence I came", and ends with the soundbyte "Life in 1961 will not be easy. Wishing it, predicting it, even asking for it, will not make it so. There will be further setbacks before the tide is turned. But turn it we must. The hopes of all mankind rest upon us, not simply upon those of us in this chamber, but upon the peasant in Laos, the fisherman in Nigeria, the exile from Cuba, the spirit that moves every man and nation who shares our hopes for freedom and the future. And in the final analysis, they rest most of all upon the pride and perseverance of our fellow citizens of the great republic." On Jan. 30 Hanna-Barbera Productions' animated series The Yogi Bear Show debuts in syndication for 33 episodes (until Jan. 6, 1962), starring Yogi Bear (voiced by Daws Butler, who tries to impersonate Art Carney), "smarter than the average bear", who lives in Jellystone Park and likes to steal picnic baskets, and his sidekick Boo-Boo Bear (voiced by Don Messick), who try to evade Ranger Smith (voiced by Don Messick); Yogi's babe is Cindy Bear (voiced by Julie Bennett); features the segments "Snagglepuss" and "Yakky Doodle". On Jan. 31 37 lb. Ham the Chimp (Astrochimp) (1956-83) becomes the first animal put by the U.S. into orbit aboard Mercury-Redstone 2 to test the Project Mercury capsule; African-Am. mathematician Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson (1918-) works as a computor for NASA calculating trajectories, going on to work for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, receiving a Pres. Medal of Freedom in 2015. On Jan. 31 after he delivers a lecture at McGill U. questioning the right of Israel to exist and equating Israelis to Nazis, labeling Judaism a "fossil", the Montreal Debate on Israel between British historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975) and Israeli ambassador to Canada Yaacov Herzog (1921-72) (brother of Chaim Herzog) before a nat. audience sees Herzog getting Toynbee to admit that all nations sometimes commit murder and is no reason to single-out Israel to question its right to exist, and also that "Israel can defossilize, just as you can defrost a car", making him an Israeli hero. On Jan. 31 after blaming his pedecessor Juscelino Kubitschek for inflation, Janio da Silva Quadros (1917-92) becomes pres. #22 of Brazil, going on to outlaw gambling and prohibit women from wearing bikinis on the beach, attempting to achieve a neutralist foreign policy and establishing relations with Cuba and the Soviet Union, causing the UDN Party in Congress to withdraw support, leaving him with no real power; on Aug. 25 he resigns as a ruse to be returned by popular acclamation after getting scared by his leftist vice-pres. (who hung on since 1956), rich former estancieiro Joao (João) Belchior Marques "Jango" Goulart (1919-76), only to have the legislature accept his resignation; on Sept. 8 Goulart becomes pres. #24 of Brazil (until Apr. 1, 1964), going on to expropriate oil refineries and uncultivated land owned by foreign cos., and institute land reforms, pissing-off the conservative elements, leading to a right-wing coup; meanwhile on Aug. 25-Sept. 8 chamber of deputies pres. (1958-65) Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli (1910-75) babysits as pres. #23 for two weeks, and for another two weeks (Apr. 2-15, 1964) as pres. #25. On Feb. 1 the U.S. makes its first test-launch of the LGM-30A Minuteman 1 ICBM,; the system becomes operational next year, followed by the Minuteman 2 in 1965, and the Minuteman 3 in 1970; as of 2015 there are 450 Minuteman-III missiles deployed in Malmstrom AFB, Mont., Minot AFB, N.D., and Warren AFB, Wyo.; in 2018 50 are put in reserve. On Feb. 2 Pres. Kennedy delivers a Special Message to the Congress: Program for Economic Recovery and Growth, advocating an economic stimulus to revive the economy along with increased anti-poverty spending. On Feb. 3 Red China buys $60M worth of grain from Canada. On Feb. 4 after the Portuguese insist on staying, pissing-off the Communist-led natives, the Portuguese Colonial (Overseas) War (of Liberation) in Angola (ends Apr. 25, 1974) begins with an uprising of Africans in Luanda, led by the Nat. Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), founded on July 14, 1954 as the Union of Peoples of Angola (UPA) by Holden Alvaro (Álvaro) Roberto (1923-2007); on Mar. 13 Adlai E. Stevenson votes against Portuguese policies in Africa in the U.N. Security Council; on Mar. 15 4K-5K Bakongo rebels attack strategic locations in N Angola, killing 1K+ whites and seizing their farms, with Roberto uttering the soundbyte "This time the slaves did not cower"; on Apr. 18 Portugal sends its first military reinforcements to Angola; on Apr. 25 Roberto meets with Pres. Kennedy, causing Ghanaian pres. Kwame Nkrumah to turn him down for aid; on June 9 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (France, U.K.) for Resolution 163, affirming U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1603 declaring Angola a non-self-governing territory and calling on Portugal to go along; in Mar. 1962 the UPA merges with the Dem. Party of Angola to form the FNLA, establishing the Rev. Govt. of Angola in Exile (GRAE) in Kinshasa on Mar. 27, with Jonas Savimbi as foreign minister, after which Roberto divorces his wife and marries a woman from the village of the wife of Zairian pres. Mobutu Sese Soko to establish a political alliance; in 1963-9 Israel gives it aid. On Feb. 9 Pres. Kennedy delivers a Special Message to the Congress on Health and Hospital Care, recommending "enactment of a health insurance program under the Social Security system", advocating an economic stimulus to revive the economy along with increased anti-poverty spending, causing Congress to pass six laws by June, providing $200M in extra welfare payments to 750K families, $800M in extended unemployment benefits to 3M, $175M in higher wages, and 420K new construction jobs under the new Housing Act. On Feb. 12 the Soviet Union launches the Venera 1 probe towards Venus; on Feb. 19 contact is lost; on May 19-20 it becomes the first manmade object to pass by Venus, passing within 100K km then entering heliocentric orbit, and the mission is a dud. On Feb. 14 India claims that China is in "unlawful occupation" of about 12K mi. of their territory, and on May 2 charges it with intrusion on the Indian border as well as fomenting tensions among Asian nations. On Feb. 14 South Africa adopts the decimal system, and the rand becomes legal tender. On Feb. 15 a Sabena Boeing 707 airliner carrying the U.S. Olympic figure skating team crashes near Brussels, Belgium en route to a world meet in Prague, killing 72 incl. the entire team and several coaches, plus a farmer on the ground. On Feb. 16 Explorer 9 is launched by the U.S., becoming the first satellite powered by an all solid-propellant rocket. On Feb. 20 the U.S. Supreme Court in Monroe v. Pape finally allows the 1871 U.S. Civil Rights (Ku Klux Klan) Act to be used on state govts. with a lot of legal mumbo-jumbo; it still doesn't cover municipalities until Monell v. Dept. of Social Services in 1978. On Feb. 21 (Tue.) (lunchtime) the Beatles debut at the Cavern Club (10 Mathew St.) in Liverpool, making 292 appearances until Aug. 3, 1963, where rival Merseybeat band The Undertakers, fronted by John Richard "Jackie" Lomax (1944-2013) are more popular; meanwhile in Apr. they return to Hamburg and perform at the Top Ten Club, then sign with George Henry Martin (1926-2016) of Polydor on June 22, releasing My Bonnie (Mein Herz ist Bei Dir Nur) as the Beat Brothers, backing Tony Sheridan (1940-) on Oct. 31 in Germany (released on Jan. 5, 1962 by Polydor); meanwhile on Nov. 9 Brian Epstein (1934-67) sees the Beatles play for the first time at the Cavern Club, and they sign a 5-year contract with him next Jan. 24; too bad, next Jan. 1 after Epstein pays for a 1-hour audition, in which they cover Bobby Vee's "Take Good Care of My Baby", British Decca exec Richard Paul "Dick" Rowe (1921-86) turns the Beatles down in favor of Brian Poole and the Tremeloes, with the soundbyte "We don't like their sound, and guitar music is on the way out"; Rowe later makes up for his mistake by taking George Harrison's advice and signing the Rolling Stones; too bad, after wasting their time with Pye Records, The Undertakers sign with Epstein only to have his untimely death ruin all the plans, after which the Beatles try to save Lomax's career in vain; too bad, in 1994 a court ruling allows the Hard Rock chain to sell merchandise with the Cavern Club label - talk to the hand? On Feb. 25 Pres. Kennedy appoints egghead (former Harvard dean) McGeorge "Mac" Bundy (1919-96) as nat. security advisor (until 1966); his brother William Putnam "Bill" Bundy (1917-2000) is appointed foreign affairs advisor; both are Yale U. grads, and Mac is a member of Skull & Bones; on Nov. 21, 1963 (1 day before JFK's assassination) McGeorge Bundy drafts sharp escalations to JFK's Vietnam policy called Nat. Security Action Memorandum 273, even though JFK would not have approved them, making him a suspect in the assassination conspiracy too? On Feb. 26 Moroccan king (since 1957) Mohammed V (b. 1909) dies, and his French-educated 2nd son Hassan II (1929-1999) becomes king of Morocco (until July 23, 1999), turning it into a modern pro-Western state at the expense of human rights abuses and corruption, known as the Years of Lead. On Feb. 27 James Cook U. of North Queensland (originally Univ. College of Townsville until Apr. 29, 1970) is founded, becoming the 2nd univ. in Queensland, Australia atter the U. of Queensland (1909). On Feb. 28 the South Korean govt. approves an agreement with the U.S. to increase its $207M in aid by $43M - too bad, you can't buy love? In Feb. the first Certificate of Deposits (CDs), paying a higher rate than savings accounts are offered by First Nat. City Bank of New York; initially they are only offered to corps. in denominations of $100K and up, but eventually they are opened to individuals at denominations as small as $500. On Mar. 1 Pres. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10924, establishing the Peace Corps, organized by his sister Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver (1921-2009) (whom he dreads talking with because she's always promoting some such plan?); Congress authorizes it on Sept. 22 with the U.S. Peace Corps Act; Eunice's husband Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (1915-) becomes the first dir.; after being proposed by Notre Dame U. pres. #15 (1952-87) Holy Cross Father Theodore Martin Hesburgh (1917-2015), who allows them to be trained at Notre Dame U. in summer 1961, the first volunteers are sent to Ghana; 1K volunteers cost $5M the first year, after which almost 200K serve as volunteers in 139 countries by the end of the cent. On Mar. 1 Eduardo Victor Haedo (1901-70) becomes pres. of Uruguay (unitl 1962); in May Communist China sends three political agitators to Montevideo via Havana to organize a trade union federation, and they remain despite attempts to deport them. On Mar. 4-Apr. 22 the U.N. Conference on Consular Relations is held at the Neue Hofburg in Vienna; on Apr. 18 the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is opened for signing, providing a framework for diplomatic relations between countries, specifying the privileges of a diplomatic mission and forming the legal basis for diplomatic immunity, becoming the cornerstone of modern internat. relations; by Feb. 2017 it is ratified by 191 states; it is followed on Apr. 24, 1963 by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, which by 2018 is ratified by 179 states. On Mar. 8 the first U.S. Polaris-equipped nuclear subs arrive in Holy Loch in W Scotland. On Mar. 8 U.S. pilot Max Conrad (1903-79) finishes circumnavigating the Earth in a record 8 days, 18 hours and 49. min. in a twin-engine Piper Aztec; in 1966 he reverses the direction, going E to promote Expo '67 in a twin-engine Piper Comanche; in 1968-70 he unsuccessfully tries doing it over the poles. On Mar. 13 a dam bursts on the Dnieper River in the Soviet Union, killing 145. On Mar. 13 Pres. Kennedy proposes a long-term Alliance for Progress between the U.S. and Latin Am. at a White House reception for Latin Am. diplomats, ending with the soundbyte "Let us once again transform the American Continent into a vast crucible of revolutionary ideas and efforts, a tribute to the power of the creative energies of free men and women, an example to all the world that liberty and progress walk hand in hand. Let us once again awaken our American Revolution until it guides the struggles of people everywhere, not with an imperialism of force or fear but the rule of courage and freedom and hope for the future of man." On Mar. 16 the first Mini-Cooper minicabs go into service in London to compete with the large comfy Austin taxicabs; meanwhile souped-up versions become popular for private owners in "Swinging London". On Mar. 15 U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (since Mar. 1957) Elbridge Durbrow (1903-97) is replaced by conservative Va. Dem. Frederick E. "Fritz" Nolting Jr. (1911-89) as U.S. ambassador to Vietnam (until June 27, 1963), who arrives in Saigon in May as the Viet Cong begin to dominate the countryside and assassinate village chieftains, changing the U.S. policy from being honest with Diem to being nice to him? On Mar. 18 a ceasefire takes effect in Algeria. On Mar. 20 the Royal Shakespeare Co. in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England is officially established, with the old Shakespeare Memorial Theatre renamed the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. On Mar. 23 JFK gives a news conference on Laos, stating that he supports "strongly and unreservedly... the goal of a neutral and independent Laos, tied to no outside power or group of powers, and threatening no one, and free from any domination"; too bad, the Pentagon wants to move in with bombing of Hanoi and China, and even proposes nukes, but he refuses, telling W. Averell Harriman "I want a negotiated settlement in Laos. I don't want to put troops in", and walking out of a meeting with top military advisors after they suggest using nukes in Berlin and Southeast Asia, saying "These people are crazy." On Mar. 25 after Pres. Eisenhower signs Public Law 85-344 in 1858, allowing the Pacific War Memorial Commission to raise $500K, raising only $155K by 1960, causing Col. Parker to step in, Elvis Presley holds a benefit concert at the Bloch Arena in Pearl Harbor, Honolulu for the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, wearing a gold lame jacket with silver sequin lapels, singing 15 songs in 45 min., becoming his last concert for eight years; after the benefit raises $60K, donations pick up, and the goal of $500K is reached by Sept. On Mar. 27 Imam Ahmed of Yemen (1891-1962) is seriously wounded in an assassination attempt, and on Oct. 13 delegates his powers to his son Mohammed (Muhammad) (Muhammad) al-Badr (1926-96), who becomes the last Shiite imam of Yemen next year after his daddy's Sept. 19 death (until 1970). On Mar. 29 the Twenty-Third (23rd) (XXIII) Amendment is ratified, allowing the mainly black residents of the District of Columbia to appoint pres. electors and vote in U.S. pres. elections, starting in 1964, when it has three electoral votes, all of which but one go for the Dem. candidate until ? On Mar. 30 the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed in New York City, updating the 1931 Paris Convention to incl. cannabis and synthetic opioids, and making it easier to incl. new ones in the future. In Mar.-July Operation Mural sees Israel smuggle in 500+ Jewish children from Morocco. On Apr. 5 after the Dutch govt. tries to prepare Netherlands New Guinea in W New Guinea for full independence, the New Guinea Council takes office, deciding to call the country West Papua, and raising its new flag on Dec. 1; too bad, Indonesia claims it, threatening invasion, backed by the Soviet Union, and next Aug. 15 the Netherlands acknowledge it as part of Indonesia, and give control to the U.N. on Oct. 1, 1962, after which Indonesia takes control on May 1, 1963, renaming it to West Irian then Irian Jaya; a U.N.-approved referendum in 1969 ratifies the annexation; a West Papuan independence movement begins, still losing in 2004 after 100K are killed. On Apr. 12 (100th anniv. of the opening of hostilities at Ft. Sumter) orange-spacesuited Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-68) becomes the first human to orbit the Earth in his 6-ton spacecraft Vostok (East) 1, making a single orbit at 17.5K mph in 108 min. at alt. 203 mi. while humming a patriotic song with the lines "The Motherland hears, the Motherland knows/ Where her son flies in the sky"; after welcoming him back to Earth, Nikita Khrushchev says that Gagarin "didn't see any God up there", which was misquoted as by Gagarin himself. On Apr. 13 the U.N. Gen. Assembly passes U.N. Resolution 1598, condemning South Africa for apartheid; meanwhile white South African anti-apartheid activist Helen Beatrice May Joseph (nee Fennell) (1905-92), who was arrested for treason in Dec. 1956, banned in 1957 and became the first person to be placed under house arrest is finally acquitted after a 5-year trial, but she stays banned for the next 10 years; meanwhile on May 29-31 Nelson Mandela (1918-2013), leader of the South African Nat. Congress (ANC) (founded 1912) stages a stay-at-home strike, and when that doesn't work, he and Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (1912-2003) give up on peaceful solutions and set up the Spear of the Nation (MK) militant wing, which issues a public announcement on Dec. 16: "The time comes in the life of any nation when there remains only two choices: submit or fight... We shall not submit and we have no choice but to hit back by all means within our power in defense of our people, our future, and our freedom." On Apr. 13 there is a failed coup attempt in Portugal against dictator (since 1932) Antonio de Oliveira Salazar when defense minister Botelho Moniz and other military leaders demand his resignation; Moniz is dismissed from his post. On Apr. 13 (Thur.) U.S. Pvt. John A. Bennett of Va. is hanged at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. for rape and attempted murder of an 11-y.-o. Austrian girl after Pres. Kennedy confirms his sentence, becoming the 200th U.S. military execution since 1942, and the last until ?. On Apr. 14 the Soviet Union makes its first live TV broadcast - no jeans in sight? On Apr. 15 six repainted U.S. Air Force B-26 bombers knock out half of the Cuban Air Force, but Pres. Kennedy recalls them on Apr. 16 without the 1,511 CIA-trained commandos being informed, and on Apr. 17 they invade Cuba in four chartered merchant ships and two landing crafts from Nicaragua in the unsuccessful Bay of Pigs Invasion in Cochinos Bay on the S coast of Cuba 90 mi. from Havana, getting pinned down on a swampy beachhead while their supplies are blocked by reefs until the supply ships are sunk; on Apr. 19 the 300K-man Cuban army finishes the invaders off, killing 114 and capturing 1.2K POWs (released in Dec. 1962 for $53M in food and medical supplies, privately raised), after which on Apr. 20 Castro announces the defeat of the invasion; on Apr. 22 Pres. Kennedy accepts "sole responsibility", saying "How could I have been so stupid?" for trusting the CIA and Joint Chiefs of Staff, but he actually holds CIA dir. (since 1953) Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) responsible, and he is pressured into resigning in Sept., along with deputy dir. USAF Gen. Charles Pearre Cabell (1903-71), brother of Dallas mayor (1961-4) Earle Cabell (1906-75), allegedly saying that he wants "to splinter the CIA in a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds", although his memo to do it is ignored (turning the whole CIA against him with a reason to assassinate him?); E. Howard Hunt uses the cover name Eduardo in the Bay of Pigs operation; after the Cuban V, Khrushchev gets the idea of installing nuclear missiles in Cuba to protect it from another invasion, and vetoes Castro's plan of doing it publicly, preferring to do it in secret before the U.S. can react; on Apr. 21 JFK holds a press conference, accepting responsibility for the fiasco, with the soundbyte: "There's an old saying that victory has a hundred fathers, and defeat is an orphan"; in Apr.-May the Cuba Study Group, led by retired gen. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1901-87) performs an "autopsy" of the fiasco, then pub. a report on June 13 concluding that the invasion was Ike's plan, that JFK's decision to not call in additional air strikes did not doom it, and that the CIA and Joint Chiefs of Staff share the blame; during this time Taylor becomes a friend of Robert Kennedy, who is wowed by his intellect and names one of his sons after him in Jan. 1965; meanwhile Taylor is recalled to active duty and installed to the new post of military rep. to the U.S. pres., causing him to end up cutting off the Joint Chiefs, until JFK appoints him as chmn. on Oct. 1, 1962 (until 1964) - the plot to kill JFK, who just approved the execution of a U.S. soldier and stabbed others in the back, begins? On Apr. 17 the 33rd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1960 to United Artists' (Mirisch Co.) The Apartment, along with best dir. to Billy Wilder; Kirk Douglas is snubbed for best actor in Spartacus, which goes to Burt Lancaster for Elmer Gantry; best actress goes to Elizabeth Taylor for Butterfield 8, best supporting actor to Peter Ustinov for Spartacus, and best supporting actress to Shirley Jones for Elmer Gantry; James Stewart accepts an honorary Oscar for terminally-ill (cancer) Gary Cooper. On Apr. 22 the Algiers Putsch sees four retired anti-de Gaulle anti-Communist French gens. stage a failed coup, incl. Raoul Albin Louis Salan (1899-1984), Maurice Challe (1905-79) (French CIC in Algeria, 1958-60), Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95), and Andre Zeller (1898-1979); they are sentenced to 15 years on up, then amnestied by 1968. On Apr. 23 singer Judy Garland (1922-69) makes a legendary comeback in a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City. On Apr. 27 Pres. Kennedy delivers his speech The President and the Press before the Am. Newspaper Pubs. Assoc. at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, with the soundbyte: "No president should fear public scrutiny of his program, for from that scrutiny comes understanding, and from that understanding comes support or opposition, and both are necessary. I am not asking your newspapers to support the administration, but I am asking your help in the tremendous task of informing and alerting the American people, for I have complete confidence in the response and dedication of our citizens whenever they are fully informed. I not only could not stifle controversy among your readers, I welcome it. This administration intends to be candid about its errors, for, as a wise man once said, 'An error doesn't become a mistake until you refuse to correct it.' We intend to accept full responsibility for our errors, and we expect you to point them out when we miss them"; this after the soundbyte loved by conspiracy theorists everywhere: "For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence, on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations, its preparations are concealed, not pub., its mistakes are buried not headlined, its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed." On Apr. 28 the New York Herald Tribune reports that "President Kennedy had planned an overhaul of the Central Intelligence Agency after Director Allen W. Dulles, retired at the end of this year or early next year, it was learned today... The timetable for the review of the CIA was moved up as a result of last week's ill-fated invasion of Cuba by rebel forces. The President last Saturday named General Maxwell D. Taylor (Ret.) to investigate U.S. intelligence capabilities, incl. the CIA." On Apr. 29 ABC's Wide World of Sports debuts (until Jan. 3, 1998), with the Drake Relays from Drake U. in Des Moines, Iowa, and the Penn Relays from Franklin Field in Philadelphia, Penn.; host Jim McKay (James Kenneth McManus) (1921-2008) voices the great intro bit "The thrill of victory, the agony of defeat", which features a video clip of Brazilian soccer star Pele scoring with a bicycle kick. On Apr. 30 U.S. expatriate Lee Harvey Oswald marries 19-y.-o. Leningrad pharmacology student Marina Prusakova Oswald (1942-) (daughter of a KGB col.) (Soviet agent?) six weeks after meeting her; their first child June Oswald (1962-) is born next Feb.; after obtaining a loan from the U.S. embassy in Moscow, he returns to the U.S. with them next June 1, being met at the dock in Hoboken, N.J. by State Dept.-recommended prominent Bulgarian-Am. anti-Communist Spas T. Raikin, then settling in the Ft. Worth, Tex. area to be with his mother and brother, meeting Russian-born CIA man George de Mohrenschildt (1911-77), who gets him a job four days later at a graphics art co. working for the U.S. Army Map Service on maps related to U-2 spy missions over Cuba, and becomes a father figure; de Mohrenschildt is a friend of Jackie Kennedy, and was a business partner of Aristotle Onassis in oil deals in the Caribbean prior to Castro's takeover of Cuba, while Onassis' brother-in-law is the cover employer of CIA Sukarno coup plotter Al Ulmer (1916-2000), who visits Dallas the week of Nov. 22, 1963; when Oswald moves to New Orleans in Apr. 1963, de Mohrenschildt gets a $285K contract to do a geological survey for Papa Doc Duvalier of Haiti (which he never does), introducing Oswald to Ruth Hyde Paine; in 1977 after admitting that he contacted Oswald for the CIA and was set to meet House Select Committee on Assassinations member Gaeton Fonzi (1935-), Mohrenschildt allegedly commits suicide; was he one of Oswald's handlers at the CIA?; was Oswald in the CIA or ONI before going to Russia, or did they induce him to join it in order to be given safe passage back to the U.S.?; if the latter, they must already have decided to assassinate JFK?; if the former, they may or may not have already decided to do JFK, but must have eventually decided that Oswald was nearing the end of his life cycle and was to be used, abused, and losed in Dallas? In Apr. Red China is estimated to have 200M armed and organized militiamen behind the Bamboo Curtain. On May 1 Fidel Castro announces the end of elections in Cuba, and founds Radio Havana to broadcast his absolutely truths to the world at 6MHz - I always win and am always right, so why bother with all that democratic machinery and give the people a chance to make a mistake and elect somebody else? On May 1 Cuban expatriate Antulio Ramirez Ortiz hijacks a Nat. Airlines Convair 440 flight en route from Marathon, Fla. to Key West to Havana allegedly to warn Castro of an assassination plot, becoming the first hijacking from the U.S. to Cuba; after arrival he becomes a hero and is nicknamed Numero Uno; the first skyjacking was in 1947, in order to escape a Communist country, with U.S. approval, after which there are 21 more skyjackings by 1956, 18 to escape Communism. On May 2 Canada and Communist China announce a grain sale agreement. On May 2 Bechuanaland in SW Africa (NW of Johannesburg), home of the Bantu Tswana tribe and 30K Bushmen in the Kalahari Desert proclaims the 1961 Bechuanaland Constitution, which Britain approves in Dec. On May 3 after King Sisavang Vathana asks Cambodia, Burma, and Malaya to form a 3-man peace commission on Feb. 19 and affirms Lao's neutrality and policy of nonalignment, and the U.S. approves it on Feb. 20, a ceasefire is arranged in Laos; on May 16 the 14-nation Geneva Conference on Laos, chaired by Britain and the Soviet Union meets in Geneva, and on June 22 the three warring princes Boun Oum (rightist), Souvanna Phouma (neutralist) and Souphanouvong (leftist) announce a coalition govt. in Zurich. Feces and urine are the same color for all races, but? On May 4 1961 13 black and white Freedom Riders, incl. Rev. William Sloane Coffin Jr. (1924-2006) (white), Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael (1941-98) (black), atty. Mark Lane (1927-) (white), atty. Percy Ellis Sutton (1920-2009) (black), and Thomas Emmet "Tom" Hayden (1939-) (white), organized and led by James L. "Jim" Farmer (1920-99) (black) leave Washington, D.C. in a bus headed for New Orleans, La. to challenge racial segregation in interstate buses and bus terminals, outraging white racists with black-white pairs sitting side by side and sharing restrooms; the bus (along with the offending seats and potties) is bombed and burned in Montgomery, Ala. on May 20 by a white mob, who beat the riders with iron pipes as the police do nothing, prompting U.S. atty.-gen. Robert Kennedy to send U.S. marshals; on May 21 white demonstrators armed with rocks and Molotov cocktails surround the First Baptist Church (Colored) in Montgomery, Ala. (a few blocks away from the state capitol where Jefferson Davis had been elected provisional pres. of the Confederacy) as it holds a rally for the visiting Freedom Riders attended by more than 1K blacks, incl. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68), but the Nat. Guard arrives to save the day; the Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Miss. on May 24 for disturbing the peace after leaving their bus. The original 15 minutes of fame? On May 5 (Fri.) after uttering "Shepard's Prayer" ("Don't fuck up, Shepard") ("Oh Lord, don't let me fuck up"), Navy cmdr. Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (1923-98) (known for impersonating Jose Jimenez) becomes the 2nd person and 1st American in space as he makes a 15-min. suborbital flight down the Atlantic Missile Range on a Redstone Rocket ("every part of this ship was built by the low bidder"), reaching an alt. of 116.5 mi. in the Project Mercury Freedom 7 capsule launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla.; after waiting too long on the launchpad and peeing in his spacesuit, he utters the immortal soundbyte "What a beautiful view!"; on his return, he is greeted as a nat. hero and given parades in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles, and meets with Pres. Kennedy; he uses a bar of Dial brand soap, which ends up in the Smithsonian; too bad, in early 1964 he is diagnosed with Meniere's Disease, causing him to be removed from flight status until May 1969 after corrective surgery, when he becomes the oldest astronaut in the U.S. space program, then gets to command Apollo 14 in 1971, becoming the 5th person to walk on the Moon. On May 5 Sierra Leone gains its independence from Old Navy, the Denim Capital of the World (Britain). On May 9 in a speech to the Nat. Assoc. of Broadcasters, new FCC chmn. (until May 15, 1963) Newton Norman Minow (1926-) gives his Vast Wasteland Speech ("Television and the Public Interest"), bemoaning the loss of its limitless educational potential to mental crap, with the soundbyte: "When television is good, nothing - not the theater, not the magazines or newspapers - nothing is better. But when television is bad, nothing is worse. I invite you to sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air and stay there without a book, magazine, newspaper, profit-and-loss sheet or rating book to distract you - and keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that you will observe a vast wasteland"; the SS Min(n)ow on "Gilligan's Island" is later named in his honor; meanwhile he gets the U.S. All-Channels (All-Channel Receiver) Act (ACRA) passed, mandating UHF reception capability for all TV sets sold in the U.S., helping to launch non-profit educational TV stations, and talks Congress into clearing the way for communications satellites, telling JFK: "Communications satellites will be much more important than sending man into space because they will send ideas into space. Ideas last longer than men." On May 14 the U.S. tests a nuclear ramjet engine designed to be used on a robot-guided cruise missile; meanwhile JFK cancels the Air Force's nuclear bomber project since missiles can do the job cheaper and without human problems. On May 14 a Freedom Riders bus is bombed near Anniston, Ala., and they are beaten by an angry mob. On May 15 Pres. Kennedy signs amendments to the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act, raising the minimum wage by 15 cents to $1.15 per hour, and extending it to cover 3.6M workers, incl. those working in large retail and service enterprises, gas stations, transit, and construction. On May 15 Pope John XXIII issues the encyclical Mater et Magistra, condemning materialism and stressing the need for social justice, asking for workers to be given a greater voice and appealing for aid to underdeveloped areas - sounds safe? On May 16 after student demonstrations in South Korea, an anti-Communist military coup led by army chief of staff Gen. Chang Do Yung (1923-) takes power and declares a military dictatorship on June 6; after a power struggle on July 3 Yung is forced to resign, and Maj. Gen. Park Chung-hee (Pak Chong-hui) (1917-79) is elected chmn. (until 1979), arresting Yung and ruling with an iron hand, closing the nat. assembly, arresting thousands, and setting up the KGB-clone Korean CIA (KCIA), headed by Oddjob, er, Kim Chong-p'il (Jong-pil) (1926-); meanwhile he begins an austerity program and reopens negotiations with Japan. On May 17-22 Typhoon Alice hits Hong Kong, killing four and injuring 20. On May 21 race riots cause Ala. Dem. gov. (1959-63) John Malcolm Patterson (1921-) to declare martial law. On May 25 Pres. Kennedy gives his Man on the Moon Speech to a joint session of Congress, asking Americans to help put an American (white, straight, male, non-Communist) on the Moon and return him safely by the end of the decade; former pres. Eisenhower utters the soundbyte "Anybody who would spend $40B in a race to the Moon for national prestige is nuts." On May 25 Jordanian king (1952-99) Hussein I bin Talal (1935-99) marries his 2nd wife Princess Muna al-Hussein (1941-) (until Dec. 21, 1971); they bear son Abdullah II (1962-), son Faisal (1963-), and twin daughters Aisha (1968-) and Zein (1968-). On May 26 a USAF bomber flies across the Atlantic in just over three hours. On May 27 Malayan PM (since 1957) Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903-90) announces his idea of a new Federation of Malaysia, comprising Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo (Sabah), which is implemented in 1963. On May 28 after two students are jailed for seven years for toasting freedom by Portuguese dictator Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, English Jewish barrister Peter James Henry Solomon Benenson (1921-2005) pub. The Forgotten Prisoners in The Observer of London, launching Amnesty Internat. (AI), which spawns chapters in 60+ countries and secures the release of many political prisoners. On May 30 32-year Roman Catholic Dominican Repub. dictator (since 1930) Generalissimo Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina (b. 1891) is assassinated on George Washington St. in Dealey Plaza, er, Santo Domingo by a CIA-backed group in a military-style ambush; he is succeeded by his son (pres. since 1952) Hector Bienvenido Trujillo Molina (1908-2002), until Aug. 3, when daddy's protege (a soft-spoken poet-scholar known for a wearing a dark suit and fedora, not a boisterous generalissimo, but just as much a strongman) Joaquin Amparo Balaguer Ricardo (1906-2002) becomes pres. #41 (until Jan. 16, 1962, then July 1, 1966 to Aug. 16, 1978, and Aug. 16, 1986 to Aug. 16, 1996), changing the name of the capital from Ciudad Trujillo back to Santo Domingo the signal the end of the bloody Trujillo era, and becoming known as a friend of the poor, even though he once wrote a book against interracial marriage; too bad, his liberalization efforts are too much for the hardline trujillistas and not enough for the underclass. On May 31 pissed-off apartheid-loving South Africa severs its ties with the British Commonwealth and becomes an independent repub., with last gov.-gen. (since Dec. 11, 1959) Charles Robberts "Blackie" Swart (1894-1982) (who refused to take an oath of allegiance to Elizabeth II in 1959) (definitely not swarthy?) as pres. #1 (until June 1, 1967), and PM (since 1958) Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (1901-66) (who survived an assassination attempt last year, then runs out of luck in 1966) continuing as PM #1 (until Sept. 6, 1966); Ghana refuses to recognize it. On May 31 Pres. Kennedy and his wife Jackie make a state visit to Paris to meet with Charles de Gaulle, where she steals the show with her haute couture and finishing school knowledge of French language and lit. On May 31 Arthur Michael Ramsey (1904-88) is appointed as archbishop #100 of Canterbury (until 1974), succeeding retiring Lord Fisher. On June 1 the 6.7 Kara Kore Earthquake in Ethiopia becomes their worst of the cent., leaving 5K homeless. On June 1 the Am. Cancer Society, Am. Heart Assoc., the Am. Public Health Assoc., and the Nat. Tuberculosis Assoc. address a Letter to Pres. John F. Kennedy, calling for a nat. commission on smoking to seek "a solution to this health problem that would interfere least with the freedom of industry or the happiness of individuals", which the Kennedy admin. sets up next year. On June 3 the adventure series Ripcord debuts in syndication for 76 episodes (until Sept. 1, 1963), starring Lawrence Kenneth "Larry" "Bud" Pennell (1928-2013) as skydiver Ted McKeever, and Ken Curtis (Curtis Wain Gates) (1916-91) as his mentor Jim Buckley, who at the end of each episode give a sermon on skydiving safety; a Ripcord plastic parachute toy becomes a bestseller. On June 4-5 Pres. Kennedy meets with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna to discuss nuclear tests, disarmament, and pesky Germany. On June 13 after three years of negotiations, the British govt. proposes a draft constitution for Southern Rhodesia, with a 65-seat parliament and voters divided into A (mostly white) and B (mostly black) rolls; on July 26 a constitutional referendum in Southern Rhodesia approves a new constitution by 66%-34%. On June 15 Houston, Tex.-born John Goodwin Tower (1925-91) becomes a Repub. sen. from Tex. (until Jan. 3, 1985), the first Repub. since Reconstruction, and the only Southern Repub. senator until Strom Thurmond in 1964, going on to oppose the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act and the 1965 U.S. Voting Rights Act before mellowing and supporting Gerald Ford over Ronald Reagan along with legalized abortion, and opposing Pres. Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. On June 16 Soviet ballet star Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (1938-93) defects from the Soviet Union at Le Bourget airport in Paris while travelling with the Leningrad Kirov Ballet after learning that he was not to go with the company to London but back to the U.S.S.R.; suspecting punishment for defiant acts such as refusing to join the Communist Youth League, he throws himself at two French policemen, crying "Protect me!", which the press dubs his "leap to freedom", after which he requests asylum on June 21, pissing-off Nikita Khrushchev, who signs an order to kill him; he first dances onstage with Margot Fonteyn on Feb. 21, 1962 at Covent Garden, London in "Giselle". On June 16 after David Cunningham "Dave" Garroway (1913-82), host (since 1952) of the #1 morning NBC-TV The Today Show (who is addicted to Dexedrine) and suffers from depression, and whose wife Pamela committed suicide in Apr.) lies down on the set and refuses to get up until they meet his contract demands, they fire him, causing his career to go kaput, after which he eventually commits suicide; he is replaced by John William Chancellor (1927-96) until 1962, then Hugh Malcolm Downs (1921-) from 1962-71; in 1966-76 Barbara Jill Walters (1929-) co-hosts. On June 17 a train en route from Paris to Strasbourg derails near Vitry-le-Francois in Marne, killing 24 and injuring 109. On June 17 in Canada the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation (1932) and the Canadian Labour Congress merge to form the leftist New Dem. Party (NDP). On June 19 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Torcaso v. Watkins to strike down a provision in the constitution of Md. requiring state officeholders to profess a belief in the existence of God - is that your final answer? On June 19 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 9-3 in Mapp v. Ohio that the Fourth Amendment's rule against using evidence obtained by police in "unreasonable searches and seizures" applies to states, broadening the 1949 case of Wolf v. Colorado and the 1914 case of Weeks v. U.S. On June 19 the British protectorate of oil-rich Kuwait regains complete independence from Britain along with Qatar and Bahrain; Sheik Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1895-1965) continues as emir of Kuwait (since 1950), entitled to receive half of its oil profits; on June 26 Kuwaiti voters oppose Iraq's annexation plans; on July 1 Sheik Sabah III al-Salem al-Sabah (1913-77) calls in 6K British troops to oppose Iraqi Gen. Kassim's threats of occupation; the Brits end up collapsing in the heat while their machines seize up, and the Strategic Oil Reserve is depleted, causing them to get itchy about Berlin, but luckily Iraq backs out and doesn't invade. On June 20 the Royal Commission on Health Services (Hall Commission) in Canada is established to coverup, er, report on the quality of health care. On June 22 Moise Tshome is released for lack of evidence of connection to the murder of Patrice Lumumba - you need to show me more lumumba? On June 24 the Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta (S.M.O.M.) (the size of two tennis courts) in the heart of Rome is officialized, becoming the smallest nation on Earth - bet you thought it was the Vatican? On June 25 Iraqi pres. Abdul Karim (Abdel-Karim) Kassem announces his intention of annexing Kuwait, causing Kuwait on June 27 to request British help, bringing troops; on Oct. 19 the Arab League takes over the protection of Kuwait, and the last British troops leave; on Nov. 20 the Soviet Union vetoes their application for U.N. membership - the hot tub is where it all started? On June 30 the U.S. Omnibus Housing Act establishes the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and inaugurates funding for mass public transportation. In June the Dirty Bizerte Business begins (ends 1963) after the French attempt to expand their sole remaining military base in Tunisia, pissing-off the Sudanese govt., which surrounds it with troops, after which fighting erupts on July 19, with French troops taking control of Bizerte after killing 1.3K Tunisians, causing Tunisia to break off diplomatic relations with France (until July 1962). In June the Am. Cancer Society, Am. Heart Assoc., Nat. TB Assoc., and Am. Public Health Assoc. address a letter to Pres. Kennedy calling for a nat. commission on smoking. On July 1 after backing Richard Nixon over JFK and earning the title "Reform Repub.", Neb.-born Dem. Samuel William "Sam" Yorty (1909-98) becomes mayor #48 of Los Angeles, Calif. (until July 1, 1973), going on to back the expansion of the freeway network and try to clean up the smog; too bad, his criticism of the civil rights movement, busing, and feminism fuels the 1965 Watts Riots; after losing the Dem. pres. nomination in 1972 to McGovern he switches to the Repub. Party - by which time nobody cares? On July 2 after receiving electroshock therapy, which he claims erased his brain, novelist Ernest "Papa" Hemingway (b. 1899) shoots himself in the head in his home in Ketchum, Idaho (with a magnificent view of the Sawtooth Mts.) with a 12-gauge silver-inlaid Boss shotgun in the front foyer; his wife locked his guns in the basement fearing just this, but left the keys on the window ledge above the kitchen sink; JFK gets permission for his widow to travel to Cuba to pick up his papers. On July 3-4 Soviet nuclear sub K-19 (commissioned Apr. 30) (AKA "Hiroshima" or "Widowmaker" for the large number of deaths during its construction) develops a nuclear reactor leak in the North Atlantic 1.5K mi. from its home port, and its all-star crew saves it from an imminent meltdown by working on the reactor sans radiation suits with the loss of eight to radiation poisoning within weeks, followed by 12-20 within a few years, all covered-up by the govt.; too bad, Capt. Nikolai Vladimirovich Zateyev (1926-98) (who believed it had been rushed to sea too early, and mistakenly believed that the reactor could cause a nuclear explosion near a NATO base, starting WWIII, and had been approached by U.S. warships offering to evacuate his crew, which he either did or did not accept, depending on whom you believe, before another Soviet sub arrives to evacuate them) is accused of trying to defect along with his crew, causing a court-martial, but they are cleared, after which Zateyev never commands a sub again and they are all sworn to secrecy, which they lift in 1990 after the fall of the Soviet Union; in Mar. 2006 Zateyev is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. On July 8 a mine explosion in Dolna Suce, Czech. kills 108. On July 13 Charlie Brown first successfully flies his kite. :) On July 17 Britain announces an austerity program to improve its trade deficit, freezing wages and raising the bank rate from 5% to 7%. On July 21 U.S. Air Force Capt. Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (1926-67) becomes the 2nd Americanski to rocket into a suborbital pattern around the Earth, flying for 16 min. on the Mercury-Redstone 4 Liberty Bell 7; too bad, the capsule sinks in the Atlantic Ocean 302 mi. from Cape Canaveral when the hatch blows prematurely, and bobbing Grissom is rescued by heli; the capsule is not recovered until 1999, and Grissom's career is tainted by allegations that he screwed the pooch, although he claims the explosive bolts went off by themselves in an equipment malfunction. On July 31 Ireland becomes the first country to submit an application to join the European Economic Community (EEC), followed by Britain on Aug. 10. In July at a Nat. Security Council meeting, Joint Chiefs Chmn. Lyman Lemnitzer and CIA Dir. Allen Dulles present JFK with a plan for "a surprise nuclear attack", causing him to leave the meeting, remarking to Dean Rusk "And we call ourselves the human race"; the MIC begins calling calling JFK a pinko traitor Commie-appeaser behind his back, who wanted to end the cold war instead of escalating it to a hot war and winning it? In July Billboard mag. begins listing "easy" (adult) music hits. On Aug. 5 the $10M Six Flags Over Texas theme park in Arlington, Tex. 15 mi. W of Dallas opens, becoming the first pay-one-price amusement park ($2.75), built by real estate developer Angus G. Wynne Jr. (1914-79), who goes bankrupt in 1964, although the park is a success with several succeeding owners. On Aug. 6-7 Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Stepanovich Titov (1935-2000) makes 17 orbits around the Earth in 25.6 hours in Vostok 2, smashing Gagarin's record of one - think back to when you were a child, what did you dream of as you fell asleep, space travel? On Aug. 12 in order to keep the large flow of U.S. money coming in, the South Korean govt. announces that the military junta will end martial law in Dec. 1962, and restore civilian control in 1963. On Aug. 13 the GDR blocks off East from West Berlin, and on Aug. 15 begins building the Berlin Wall (torn down 1989) to halt the flight of refugees after the U.S. rejects proposals by Khrushchev to make Berlin a "free city" with access controlled by East Germany, mentally splitting Eastern and Western Europe; on Aug. 15 an East German soldier, Hans Conrad Schumann jumps a 3-ft. barbed wire barrier to West Berlin to join his family and has his 15 min. of fame (he commits suicide in 1998); on Aug. 31 the wire is replaced by a concrete wall, and extended to 559 mi. in length; on Oct. ? U.S. and Soviet tanks confront each other at Checkpoint Charlie in a near-battle; 130+ go on to be killed trying to cross to the West; the Berlin Wall saves West Germany from Soviet takeover, and becomes the Second Birth of the GDR, stablizing its economy and allowing it to become one of the most prosperous Commie countries, until the 1B mark-a-year cost for guarding it drags them down - nine months for a health career, did you say nine months? On Aug. 21 Pan-Africanist Mzee Jomo Kenyatta (1897-1978) is released from prison in Kenya, going on to found the Kenyan nation as PM (1963-4) and pres. #1 (1964-78). On Aug. 23 Ranger 1 is launched from Cape Canaveral as the first of nine unmanned spacecraft to investigate the Moon; too bad, it fails to leave Earth orbit. On Aug. 27 Ben Khedda is elected PM of the Algerian provisional govt., with Ben Bella (in prison) as vice-PM. In Aug. after accepting JFK's proposal, the Alianza Para el Progreso (Alliance for Progress) is formed in Punta del Este, Uruguay by 19 Latin-Am. countries and the U.S., which promises them $10B in aid over 10 years; meanwhile U.S. U.N. ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson proposes that developed nations each contribute 1% of their GNP to help emerging nations. In Aug. JFK's Harvard classmate Theodore Harold White (1915-86) laments about Vietnam that "The situation gets worse almost week by week" and that "Guerillas now control almost all the Southern delta... I could find no American who would drive me outside Saigon in his car even by day without military convoy." On Sept. 1 the Soviet Union ends its moratorium on atomic testing and explodes an above-ground nuke in C Asia. On Sept. 1 the Eritrean War of Independence begins (ends May 29, 1991) after Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie dissolves the 1952 U.N.-mediated federation. On Sept. 4 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act, reorganizing the programs to separate military from non-military aid; o n Nov. 3 Pres. Kennedy signs an executive order creating the U.S. Agency for Internat. Development (USAID) to provide long-range economic and humanitarian assistance worldwide in support of U.S. foreign policy; by the end of the cent. it has 7K employees in 85 offices. On Sept. 5 after the position has been vacant since Oct. 9, 1953 because of British interference, former 133-day PM (1953) Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918-97) of the People's Progressive Party becomes PM of British Guiana again (until Dec. 12, 1964), which only pisses the Brits off more, causing them to begin scheming to oust him again. On Sept. 8-12 Super Typhoon Pamela hits Taiwan and E China, causing 98 casualties, $5M in damage, and leaving 50K homeless. On Sept. 12 Italy formally protests to Austria over terrorism caused by Austrians wanting autonomy for German-speaking Alto Adige Province (formerly Austrian South Tyrol). On Sept. 14 the new military govt. of Turkey sentences 15 members of the previous govt. to death, and on Sept. 17 hangs former pres. Adnan Menderes. On Sept. 16 the courtroom drama series The Defenders debuts on CBS-TV for 132 episodes (until May 13, 1965), starring E.G. Marshall (Everett Eugene Grunz) (1914-98) and Robert Reed (1932-92) as father-son defense attys. Lawrence and Kenneth Preston, who represent controversial defendants incl. civil rights demonstrators, neo-Nazis, conscientious objectors, pornographers, mercy-killing doctors, schoolteacher atheists, etc., exploring abortion, capital punishment, the insanity defense, the Hollywood Blacklist, jury nullification et al.; the 1962 episode "The Benefactor", about the defense of an abortionist causes the sponsors to drop out until a new one is found; the title of the Dec. 7, 1963 episode "The Gentle Assassin" is changed to "Climate of Evil" after the Nov. 22 assassination of JFK; the Jan. 4, 1964 episode "Clare Cheval Died in Boston" has a reference to "President Kennedy" deleted; "perhaps the most socially conscious series the medium has ever seen". On Sept. 17 the Committee of 100 stages massive protests in England, blocking roads in Trafalgar Square and Holy Loch, causing 32 protesters, incl. Bertrand Russell to be given 1-mo. jail sentences; on Dec. 9 5K demonstrators blockade the USAF bases at Wethersfield and Ruislip, causing the govt. to up the ante from incitement to breach the peace to conspiracy to violate the Official Secrets Act, charging six. On Sept. 17 the B&W 1950s-feel Car 54, Where Are You? debuts on NBC-TV for 60 episodes (until Sept. 8, 1963), starring rubber-faced Frederick Hubbard "Fred" Gwynne (1926-93) as Officer Francis Muldoon, and "Ooh ooh!" Joe E. Ross (1914-82) as Officer Gunther Toody, who humorously patrol the Bronx; the Car 54 Theme is played while they are driving and playing checkers at the same time, and goes "There's a holdup in the Bronx/ Brooklyn's broken out in fights/ There's a traffic jam in Harlem/ That's backed up to Jackson Heights/ There's a scout troop short a child/ Khrushchev's due at Idlewild/ Car 54,where are you?" On Sept. 17-18 U.N. secy.-gen. #2 (since Apr. 10, 1953) Dag Hammarskjold (b. 1905) is killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia on the way to negotiate a ceasefire in the Congo; meanwhile JFK, who has been working with him to create an independent Congo rejects proposals for direct military intervention, preferring to support the U.N. peacekeepers, pissing-off the multinat. corps. who seek to carve the Congo up for themselves, causing JFK to get into a war with the CIA, which has been arming the secessionists in order to promote Belgian mining interests. Just in time to arrange a trip for JFK? On Sept. 19-20 (night) the first Hill Abduction (Zeta Reticuli Incident) sees the first Grey Aliens being reported to have abducted mixed-race couple Betty Hill (1919-2004) and Barney Hill (1923-69) of Portsmouth on U.S. Route 3 near Lancaster in the er, White Mts. of N.H., who describe them as "bald-headed alien beings, about five foot tall, with greyish skin, pear shaped heads and slanting cat-like eyes", who show Betty a star map of star system Zeta Reticuli 39.5 l.y. from Earth. On Sept. 20 (Wed.) the sitcom The Joey Bishop Show debuts on NBC-TV for 123 episodes (until Mar. 30, 1965 after witching to CBS-TV in 1964 and going color), starring Rat Pack comedian Joey Bishop (Joseph Abraham Gottlieb) (1918-2007). On Sept. 24 (Sun.) after switching from ABC-TV, Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color debuts on NBC-TV (until 1969), causing sales of color TVs to jump 105% over last Sept. On Sept. 25 the crime drama 87th Precinct debuts on NBC-TV for 30 episodes (until Apr. 30, 1962), based on the Ed McBain novels, starring Robert Lansing (Robert Howell Brown) (1928-94) as Det. Steve Carella of Isola (really Manhattan), N.Y., Ronald Robert "Ron" Harper (1936-) as rookie Det Bert King, Gregory Walcott (Bernard Mattox) (1928-2015) as Det. Roger Havilland, and Norman Fell (Norman Noah Feld) (1924-98) as Det. Meyer Meyer; Virginia Cathryn "Gena" Rowlands (1930-) plays Carella's deaf mute wife Teddy. On Sept. 26 former GM pres. (1941-53) and U.S. defense secy. (1953-7) Charles Erwin "Engine Charlie" Wilson (b. 1890) (who way back in 1944 first claimed that the U.S. needed a "permanent war economy", and also uttered the soundbyte "What's good for General Motors is good for the country") dies; meanwhile the U.S. Justice Dept. indicts GM for forcing U.S. railroads to buy its locomotives, but the charges are dropped in Dec. 1964 - we call it the family, Senator, we call it the family? On Sept. 26 (Tue.) the crime drama series Shannon debuts in syndication for 36 episodes (until June 12, 1962), starring George Nader (1921-2002) as insurance investigator Joe Shannon, who drives a 1961 Buck Special equipped with James Bond type equipment incl. weapons, cameras, dictating machine, tape recorder, and a car phone; John Regis Toomey (1898-1991) plays his boss Bill Cochran. On Sept. 27 Hanna-Barbera Productions' animated series Top Cat debuts on ABC-TV for 30 episodes (until Apr. 18, 1962), starring Top Cat ("T.C.)", leader of a gang of alley cats in Hoagy's Alley in Manhattan, N.Y. incl. Fancy-Fancy, Spook, Benny the Ball, Brain, and Choo Choo. On Sept. 28 a military coup begins in Damascus, Syria; on Sept. 29 the United Arab Repub. (UAR) of Egypt and Syria breaks up, and Syria becomes independent; on Dec. 14 Nazim al-Kudsi (al-Qudsi) (1906-98) becomes pres. of Syria (until Mar. 7, 1963), going on to restore relations with anti-Nasser regimes in Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia, along with the U.S. and U.K., and denationalize factories, causing the World Bank to make loans to Syria. On Sept. 28 (Thur.) the medical drama series Dr. Kildare, based on the Max Brand novels debuts on NBC-TV for 191 episodes (until Apr. 5, 1966), starring heartthrob closet gay actor George Richard Chamberlain (1934-) (after William Shatner turns it down) as young intern Dr. James Kildare of Blair Gen. Hospital (really the Irving Thalberg Bldg. on the MGM lot), who tries to live up to the expectations of his boss Dr. Leonard Gillespie, played by Raymond Hart Massey (196-1983), who tells him "Our job is to keep people alive, not to tell them how to live", which Kildare ignores to make it interesting?; Chamberlain records the hit song Three Stars Will Shine Tonight with music from the show's opening theme. On Sept. 28 (Thur.) the sitcom Hazel, based on the Ted Key comic strip debuts on NBC-TV for 154 episodes (until Apr. 11, 1966 after switching to CBS-TV in 1965 and going to color in in the last episode of season 1), starring Shirley Booth (Marjory Ford) (1898-1992) as feisty live-in maid Hazel Burker, who works for the Baxter family, incl. atty. (Butterworth, Hatch, Noll and Baxter) George "Mr. B" Baxter, played by Donald John "Don" DeFore (1913-93), his interior decorator wife Dorothy "Missy" Baxter, played by Whitney Blake (Nancy Ann Whitney) (1926-2002), and their son Harold "Sport" Baxter, played by Robert W. "Bobby" Buntrock (1952-74); in July 1963 the NAACP announces a boycott if the show doesn't add a black to the technical staff, causing them to fold in Sept., hiring a black production exec. On Sept. 29 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 165 to admit Sierra Leone; on Oct. 25 it votes 9-0-1 (U.S., China) for Resolution 166 to admit Mongolia; on Oct. 25 it votes 9-1-1 (UAR, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 167 to admit Mauritania; on Dec. 14 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 170 to admit Tanganyika (Tanzania). On Sept. 30 the OEEC (founded Apr. 16, 1948) is refounded in Paris as the Org. for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by 30 developed nations who accept representative democracy and free market economies, growing to 34 states incl. Israel - oh I like you so very, so much in fact that I have to pump you up? In Sept. Viet Cong guerrillas capture a provincial capital in South Vietnam and execute the gov., causing Pres. Diem to ask the U.S. for a bilateral defense treaty, causing Pres. Kennedy to send hawk Gen. Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (1901-87) and civilian hawk economist Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003) as advisors, and they end up writing a report urging Kennedy to send 8K soldiers, but he refuses, saying "It will be just like Berlin"; in Nov. he yields partially, and authorizes a buildup of U.S. strength by sending in support units and advisors, some of which participate in combat; meanwhile JFK requests the military to draw up a plan for withdrawal from Vietnam, stating his determination not to send ground units, citing the French failure as a precedent, desiring Vietnam to be handled by Laos, all of which pisses-off the military, who stonewall. On Sept. 29 (Fri). the crime drama series Target: The Corruptors! debuts on ABC-TV for 35 episodes (until June 8, 1962), starring Horace Vincent "Stephen" McNally (1911-94) as newspaper reporter Paul Marino, and Robert "Bob" Harland (Yurgatis) (1934-) as undercover agent Jack Flood, who infiltrate the New York City mafia and report on it. In Sept. the Tanganyika Conference on Wildlife in Arusha meets to protect African wildlife. In Sept. the Iraq govt. begins an offensive against Kurdish rebels in Kurdistan in N Iraq after demands by the Kurdish Dem. Party (KDP) are ignored and tribal rebels under Mulla Mustafa al-Barzani (1903-79) revolt and declare a Kurdish state. On Oct. 2 (Mon.) the medical drama Ben Casey debuts on ABC-TV for 153 episodes (until Mar. 21, 1966), starring Vince Edwards (Vincente Eduardo Zoino III) (1928-96) as young idealistic surgeon Dr. Ben Casey at County Gen. Hospital, and Sam (Shalom) Jaffe (1891-1984) as his mentor Dr. David Zorba, chief of surgery; Stella Stevens (Estelle Caro Eggleston) (1936-) plays Casey's babe Jane Hancock; "Man, woman, birth, death, infinity." On Oct. 2 (Mon.) the Goodson-Todman game show Password debuts on CBS-TV for 1,555 episodes (until Sept. 15, 1967), followed by 1,099 episodes on ABC-TV on Apr. 5, 1971-June 27, 1975, hosted by Allen Ellsworth Ludden (1917-81); it switches to color in the 1966-7 season. On Oct. 3 (Tue.) after the show "Head of the Family" starring too-New-York-Jewish-looking actor Carl Reiner is scrapped, and Johnny Carson is rejected, the sitcom The Dick Van Dyke Show (filmed in front of a studio audience except for the episode right after JFK's assassination) ) debuts on CBS-TV for 158 episodes (until June 1, 1966), starring Richard Wayne "Dick" Van Dyke (1925-) as comedy writer Robert "Rob" Simpson Petrie (who turns to alcohol to stay funny, ending up in rehab), Mary Tyler Moore (1936-2017) as Laura Meeker (a heavy smoker who collects the free Kent cigarettes from the cast and trades them in for her favorite brand, suffering from strange symptoms that later turn out to be Type I diabetes), Richard Deacon (1921-84) as Melvin "Mel" Cooley, Rose Marie (1923-) as Sally Rogers, and Moritz "Morey" Amsterdam (1908-966) as Maurice B. "Buddy" Sorrell; after the show flops during season 1 and is canceled, producer Danny Thomas begs the network execs to resume it during the summer, and it becomes a hit; the scripts intentionally leave out current events and politics to make the show timeless; Rob and Laura sleep in separate beds; Laura (a fan of Katherine Hepburn) insists on wearing Capri pants, starting a fashion trend; On Oct. 4 the animated series The Alvin Show debuts on CBS-TV for 26 episodes (until Sept. 12, 1962), starring Alvin the Chipmunk and his friends Simon and Theodore, along with their manager David "Dave" Seville; features the segment "Clyde Crashcup"; on Sept. 17, 1983 the sequel Alvin and the Chipmunks debuts on NBC-TV for 102 episodes (until Dec. 1, 1990). (the Redcoats vs. the Yankees, get it?) to win the Fifty-Eighth (58th) (1961) World Series; during the regular season Yankees "M&M Boys" Mickey Mantle and Roger Maris (who beat Mantle for MVP by the closest vote in league history) bat-in 115 combined homers. On Oct. 5 the Internat. Red Cross announces that 72K North Koreans have been repatriated from Japan since Dec. 1959. On Oct. 10 the 1961 Turkish Constitution is proclaimed, granting full civil and political rights along with govt. checks and balances; in Nov. Ismet Inonu becomes PM of Turkey again (until 1965), working with pres. Cemal Gursel to improve relations with the Soviet Union as well as the West. On Oct. 10 a volcanic eruption in Tristan de Cunha causes the entire pop. to be evacuated. On Oct. 10 the anthology drama series Alcoa Premiere debuts on ABC-TV for 58 episodes (until July 21, 1963), hosted by Fred Astaire (Frederick Austerlitz) (1899-1987)), featuring provocative subjects starting with the rehabilitation of disturbed war veterans. On Oct. 11 gap-bridging (married to a Hutu) prince Louis Rwagasore (1932-61) (son of Mwambutsa IV) is elected PM of Burundi; too bad, on Oct. 13 he is assassinated at the Hotel Tanganyika by Greek national Georges Kageorgis, allegedly in the pay of the pro-Belgian Christian Dem. Party (PDC). On Oct. 12 New Zealand abolishes the death penalty. On Oct. 12 the sitcom Margie debuts on ABC-TV for 26 episodes (until Apr. 12, 1962), baed on the 1946 film, starring pigtail-wearing Cynthia Pepper (Cynthia Anne Culpepper) (1940-) as Roaring Twenties teenie Margie Clayton, a student at Madison H.S. in New England. On Oct. 12 the sitcom Margie debuts on ABC-TV for 26 episodes (until Apr. 12, 1962), baed on the 1946 film, starring pigtail-wearing Cynthia Pepper (Cynthia Anne Culpepper) (1940-) as Roaring Twenties teenie Margie Clayton, a student at Madison H.S. in New England. On Oct. 15 Pres. Kennedy calls out military reserves in the wake of the Berlin crisis. On Oct. 16 Khrushchev welcomes Chinese Communist leader Chou En-lai (Zhou Enlai) (1898-1976) to the 22nd Soviet Communist Party Congress, but the latter makes a demonstrative departure, symbolizing the growing alienation between Beijing and Moscow. On Oct. 17 the Paris Massacre of 1961 sees Paris police under command of Maurice Papon (1910-2007) attack 30K Algerians protesting an Algerian-only curfew, beating and killing dozens, throwing dozens of bodies into the Seine River, then trying a coverup by claiming only three killed, although the other side claims up to 240; in 1998 the French govt. acknowledges only 40 - another sodamn insane (inseine) joke is waiting to be born here? On Oct. 18 Le Bateau, an abstract painting by Henri Matisse is hung upside down in the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, and the mistake goes unnoticed for 47 days, during which time 100K+ people view it. On Oct. 21 the Saturn launch vehicle, developed under Wernher von Braun for the Apollo program is successfully test-launched. On Oct. 23 the Taiwan Stock Exchange Corp. is founded. On Oct. 25 Private Eye, a fortnightly British satirical mag. begins pub., with the goal of becoming a "thorn in the side" of the British establishment, going after incompetent or corrupt officials, causing it to be the object of many prominent libel suits; in 1986 Ian David Hislop (1960-) becomes ed. going on to become the most sued man in English history (until ?). On Oct. 27 an amistice begins in Katanga, Congo. On Oct. 27 Mongolia and Mauritania join the U.N. On Oct. 27 a standoff between Soviet and U.S. tanks in Berlin, Germany gets screenwriters to buy new typewriter ribbons. On Oct. 28 (Thanksgiving) the Kennedy family has a get-together at Hyannis Port, Mass., and Jackie demonstrates the new Twist in a Schiaparelli pink slack suit after Ted brings laughs trying to do it with his big derriere; Rose writes "Joe Sr... is not at all himself but quiet. For first time - I have noticed he has grown old"; in Dec. Joseph P. Kennedy (d. 1969) has a stroke, which incapacitates him for the rest of his life. On Oct. 30 the Soviet Union tests the super-scary Tsar Bomba ("Big Ivan") (RDS-220), H-bomb over Novaya Zemlya, with a yield estimated at 58 megatons (largest manmade explosion recorded until ?), breaking a 3-year nuclear test moratorium; about this time key player Andrei Sakharov decides that nuclear proliferation is wrong, and helps get the 1963 Partial Test-Ban Treaty passed - whadya gonna do, nuke me? On Oct. 30 the Recruitment Agreement Between the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey is signed, permitting unmarried male Muslim Turks to work in West Germany for two years, a limitation that is removed in 1964, causing 750K Turks to emigrate to Germany, half of which never return; after the oil crisis of 1973-4 the program is closed, but the men import their wives and start having children, causing the Turkish pop. in Germany to rise to 2.5M by 2011, 3.8M-4.3M by 2010, and 4M-5M by 2016 (5% of the pop.). On Oct. 30 the Soviet Party Congress unanimously approves a resolution ordering the removal of Josef's Stalin's body from Lenin's Mausoleum, which is done on Oct. 31. On Oct. 31 Category 4 Hurricane Hattie pounds Belize City, Belize, killing 400 and leaving thousands homeless, followed by Belmopan. In Oct. the Federal Repub. of Cameroon comes into being after the 1961 Cameroon Constitution is approved, and the French and British parts of the country unify, led by Ahmadou Ahidjo (French part) and John Foncha (British part); Northern Cameroons, the N section of the British Cameroon votes to become part of Nigeria. In Oct. Mighty Mouse is chosen as the official ambassador for UNICEF's trick-or-treat fundraising drive, and he repeats next year. On Nov. 1 the Hungry Generation Movement of poets in Calcutta, India is launched. On Nov. 1 the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in "Space City" Houston, Tex. is founded, later being renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) on Feb. 19, 1973. On Nov. 1 a federal from the Interstate Commerce Commission banning segregation in all U.S. interstate public facilities goes into effect. On Nov. 2 ruler (since 1962) Sheikh Salman ibn Hamad Al Khalifa (b. 1894) dies, and his son Sheikh Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa (1933-99), a member of the original ruling family becomes emir of oil-rich Bahrain (until Mar. 6, 1999). On Nov. 7 Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra is ousted in another military coup (his 3rd time, 1934-5, 1944-7, 1952-6, 1960-1), and vice-pres. Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy (d. 2004) becomes pres. of Ecuador (until July 11, 1963); too bad, the military boots him out too, and Velasco crawls back in from 1968-72. On Nov. 11 Stalingrad (Staritsyn until 1925) is renamed Volgograd. On Nov. 15 exiled Argentine pres. (1946-55) Juan Peron marries Isabel Peron (1931-) in Madrid. On Nov. 16 Dem. House Speaker (1940-7, 1949-53, 1955-61) Samuel "Mister Sam" Taliaferro Rayburn (b. 1882) dies in Bonham, Tex., having served as speaker since 1940 except for two terms (10 terms total); next Jan. 10 he is succeeded by Boston, Mass.-born John William McCormack (1891-1980) (D-Mass.) (until Jan. 3, 1971), son of Irish immigrants, who ends up in the catbird seat during all the fun of the 1960s; Rayburn's funeral in Washington, D.C. on Nov. 2 is attended by Ike, Truman, JFK and LBJ. On Nov. 17-18 a catamaran carrying Michael C. Rockefeller (b. 1938), son of N.Y. gov. Nelson Rockefeller overturns off the coast of New Guinea; he swims to shore, and is never seen again - the natives ate the evidence? On Nov. 18 Pres. Kennedy sends 18K military advisors to South Vietnam. On Nov. 20 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Hoyt v. Florida, to uphold a Fla. law exempting women from jury duty unless they volunteer, rejecting the arguments of the attys. of Gwendolyn Holt that an all-male jury is unfair in her trial on charges of killing her hubby with a baseball bat; meanwhile Ala., Miss., and S.C. prohibit women from jury duty, and 18 states allow them to be excused on the basis of gender; the ruling is reversed 8-1 on Jan. 21, 1975 in Taylor v. Louisiana. On Nov. 24 the U.N. adopts a ban on nuclear arms over U.S. protests. On Nov. 29 Enos the Chimponaut is launched from Cape Canaveral aboard the Mercury-Atlas 5 spacecraft, orbiting the Earth 2x before returning for bananas. On Nov. 30 the Soviets veto a U.N. seat for Kuwait, pleasing Iraq, who covets their oil. On Nov. 30 the U.S. Navy discontinues its blimp program (begun 1917). On Nov. 30 Pres. Kennedy authorizes aggressive covert operations against Fidel Castro's govt. in Cub, becoming known as Operation Mongoose (the Cuban Project), setting Oct. 1962 for his overthrow, with CIA agent ("America's James Bond") William King "Bill" Harvey (1915-76) in charge; he later masterminds the assassination of JFK? In Nov. the U.S. stock market begins a 7-mo. decline of 25%. In Nov. the Thanksgiving Day Massacre in the JFK admin. reorganizes the U.S. State Dept., dumping Chester Bowles, who is moved to a nothing post at the White House, and later becomes U.S. ambassador to India (until 1969). In Nov. the Fantastic Four comic book series debuts, created by writer Stan Lee (Stanley Martin Lieber) (1922-) and artist Jack Kirby (Jacob Kurtzberg) (1917-94), about Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards), Invisible Woman (Susan "Sue" Storm), Human Torch (Johnny Storm), and Thing (Ben Grimm), becoming a big hit, putting Marvel Comics on the map and starting a comic book rev. On Dec. 2 Fidel Castro gives a big speech, declaring himself a Marxist-Leninist who is going to lead Cuba to a golden age of Communism - as its chain-smoking Materialist Messiah? On Dec. 5 Pres. Kennedy gives official support to the Volta Dam project in Ghana. On Dec. 9 Tanganyika becomes independent of Britain, with former teacher Julius Kambarage Nyerere (1922-99) as PM #1, followed on Oct. 29, 1964 by pres. #1 (until Nov. 5, 1985); Nyerere goes on to pub. a Swahili trans. of Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" in 1966 and "The Merchant of Venice" in 1969, which are widely read in E Africa; he later helps bring hip-hop to Tanzania. On Dec. 9 after a rise in unemployment, the Liberal (really conservative anti-Communist and "British to the boostraps") Australian govt. of PM #16 (since 1949) Sir Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (1894-1978) (pr. like Mings) is reelected for a 6th term (until Jan. 26, 1966) with a majority of only two seats, going on to win an increased majority in 1963 (along with his knighthood), then decide in 1965 to send Australian troops to Vietnam with conscription, all with popular support. On Dec. 11 the first 100 U.S. military advisors along with 400 soldiers arrive in Vietnam, officially beginning the Vietnam War (ends Apr. 30, 1975); on Dec. 22 James Thomas Davis becomes the first of 90K U.S. military deaths (58K in battle or theater) in Vietnam. On Dec. 11 after a 4-mo. trial while held in a bulletproof glass enclosure, Adolf Eichmann, the former German Gestapo official accused of a major role in the Nazi final solution (alleged murder of 6M Jews), who uses the defense of just obeying orders is found guilty, then sentenced on Dec. 15 by a Jerusalem court to be hanged - combined with the start of the Vietnam War, sounds like deja vu? On Dec. 11 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Garner v. La. that states cannot use disturbing the peace laws to oppress peaceful sit-in protesters at dining establishments; JFK's Justice Dept. defends the demonstrators, along with the NAACP. On Dec. 11 the daytime talk show series The Mike Douglas Show, hosted by Mike Douglas (1925-2006) debuts in Cleveland, Ohio (until 1982), with five 90-min. shows a week, becoming a nursery for new talent incl. Harrison Ford, Jay Leno, and 2-y-o. Tiger Woods; in 1965 Zsa Zsa Gabor calls Morey Amsterdam a "son of a bitch", causing a tape-delay to be installed; in Aug. 1965 it moves to Philly, followed by Los Angeles in 1978, and runs for 20 years and 4,017 episodes (until Nov. 30, 1981). On Dec. 12 Oscar 1 (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) (built by U.S. radio hams) is launched by the U.S., becoming the first privately-built satellite to be launched. On Dec. 14 a passenger train smashes into a school bus in farm country in Weld County, Colo., killing 20 children, becoming the deadliest traffic accident in Colo. history (until ?); bus driver Duane Harms (1938-2007) is sued for hundreds of thousands of dollars, and charged with manslaughter, and after being acquitted on Mar. 24, 1962 he leaves the state - out of harm's way? On Dec. 15 after lobbying by Austalia, Colombia, Italy, Japan, and the U.S., U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1668 is adopted by a 61-34-7 vote, deeming the issue of China representation at the U.N. so important that any proposal to change the designated representation of China will require a two-thirds majority vote. On Dec. 17 a circus tent fire in Niteroi, Brazil kills 323. On Dec. 18-19 Operation Vijay sees Indian troops invade and conquer the Portuguese territories of Goa, Damao, and Diu, in Portuguese possession since 1510, turning them into a territory of India - which did we love more, the shoes or the price? They can call it Malaysia, but it's really northern Indonesia? On Dec. 19 after aligning with Mao, with the 3rd largest Communist party on Earth, Indonesian dictator Sukarno announces that he will take West Irian by force if necessary, and begins a guerrilla war in Malaysia, invading West Papua and causing Britain to send 30K Special Air Service soldiers. On Dec. 19 JFK's daddy Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. suffers a debilitating stroke in Palm Beach, Fla. - who was she? On Dec. 20 the U.N. Gen. Assembly unanimously adopts the McCloy-Zorin Accords, conceived by Pres. Eisenhower and Pres. Kennedy, establishing a roadmap for all future negotiations and internat. treaties between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. with regard to nuclear and gen. disarmament under effective internat. control, with the ultimate aim of abolishing war as an institution, with member states supplying "agreed manpower... necessary for an international peace force". On Dec. 21 Katangan PM Moise Tshombe recognizes the new Congolese constitution. On Dec. 23 the Grand Duke's Official Birthday becomes Luxembourg's nat. holiday, with the celebration fixed for June 23, when no ruler has ever been born. On Dec. 28 Yemen and the UAR dissolve the United Arab States (founded 1958). On Dec. 30 Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (1910-97) becomes pres. #9 of the Philippines (until Dec. 30, 1965), becoming known as "the Incorruptible". On Dec. 30 Albert Kalonji of South Kasai is captured by Congolese troops, but soon escapes. On Dec. 31 the Marshall Plan expires after delivering $12B in postwar aid to Europe. On Dec. 31 Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE) in Ireland (founded 1926) begins regular TV broadcasts - and they don't call it TTE? In Dec. Jackie Kennedy becomes the first U.S. First Lady to have a themed Christmas tree in the White House, based on the Nutcracker Suite. Lord Privy Seal Edward Heath begins negotiations for British entry into the Common Market. Clifton Reginald Wharton Sr. (1899-1990) becomes U.S. ambassador to Norway (until 1964), becoming the first black U.S. ambassador. Queen Elizabeth II tours India, Pakistan, Iran, Cyprus, and Ghana. West German chancellor (since 1949) Konrad Adenauer visits London. Pres. Kennedy visits Paris, Vienna (where he meets with Khrushchev), and London, and meets British PM Harold Macmillan again in Bermuda. Poland starts a 5-year program to increase production. Prince Jean, son and heir of Grand Duchess Charlotte is made head of the state of Luxembourg, acting for his mother. The U.S. Food Stamp Program of 1939-43 is revived as a pilot project - who's always asleep at the wheel? Another coup is launched in Lebanon, promoting union with Syria. Ferenc Muennich is replaced by Janos Kadar as PM of Hungary (2nd term) (until 1965). The Wallis and Futuna island groups in the South Pacific between Fiji and Samoa become an Overseas Territory of France after a referendum by the approx. 10K Polynesian inhabitants. Britain holds trials for accused spies Gordon Lonsdale (Konon Trofimovich Molody) (1922-70), George Blake (Behar) (1922-), Peter Kroger (Morris Cohen) (1910-95), and Helen Kroger (Lona Teresa Cohen) (1913-92); Blake gets 42 years on May 8, 1961. Brig. Gen. Julius Cecil Holmes (1899-1968) is appointed U.S. ambassador to Iran (until 1965). The Central Am. Common Market (CACM) is formed, providing a "free trade zone" in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is founded in Belgrade by Yugoslav pres. Josip Broz Tito and Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru as an alternative to the Western and Eastern blocs; in 2009 it has 118 members and 17 observer countries, representing 55% of world pop. and two-thirds of U.N. members. Jaffa-born intellectual Shafiq al-Hout (Shafik al-Hut) (1932-2009) and Jaffa-born Ahmed Jibril (1938-) found the militant Syrian-backed Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF); in 1964 al-Hout becomes a co-founder of the PLO, representing it at the U.N. and in Lebanon, then resigning after Yasser Arafat signs the 1993 Oslo Accords; in 1964 the fake Arab Muslim "Palestinian" nationality is dreamed up by the KGB for Soviet-trained Yasser Arafat, who uttered the soundbyte: "The Palestinian people have no national identity. I, Yasser Arafat, man of destiny, will give them that identity through conflict with Israel." King Idris opens a 104-mi. pipeline to the Mediterranean, making it possible for Libya to export oil for the first time - lube with Libyan? South Africa switches to decimal currency; P.W. Botha enters govt. life as minister of coloured affairs; the South African govt. establishes the Central Kalahari Game Reserve to protect the Bushmen after the popularity of the books of Sir Laurens van der Post (1906-96), who becomes the mentor of British Prince Charles. The London Gold Pool is established, in which the U.S. central banks and seven other nations agree to buy and sell gold to support the $35 per troy ounce price that was established on Jan. 31, 1934; enormous losses force it to be discontinued in 1968. La.-born CBS-TV journalist Howard Kingsbury Smith (1914-2002), who started out under Edward R. Murrow in Berlin in 1940 and interviewed Hitler, Himmler, and Goebbels at Berchtesgaden before they threw him out of the country quits CBS after he incl. a quote from Edmund Burke at the end of his documentary "Who Speaks for Birmingham?" that "All that is necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing", pissing-off CBS pres. William S. Paley, who orders him to remove it; he moves to ABC-TV, which is running #3 behind CBS-TV and NBC-TV, and helps pump it up while turning into a Vietnam War hawk and earning the love of Richard Nixon, who gives him a rare 1-hour interview in 1971, although he later becomes the first nat. TV commentator to call for his resignation over Watergate; meanwhile Pres. Kennedy appoints Edward R. Murrow to head the new U.S. Info. Agency (USIA) (until 1963), causing him to leave CBS News, where Paley had already cut his See It Now show back; meanwhile after revealing CIA info. about Israel's Dimona nuclear weapons plant to the New York Times last Dec., gaining JFK's attention, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission chmn. (since 1958) John Alexander McCone (1902-91) becomes dir. of the CIA (until 1965); meanwhile CIA agent Richard Lehman (1923-2007) initiates PICL (pr. like pickle) (President's Intelligence Checklist), the first daily memo for a U.S. pres. summarizing global intel news, guiding JFK through the Cuban missile crisis et al.; it is later called the President's Daily Brief; meanwhile at JFK's request a U.S. inspection of Dimona is carried out, finding the facility "within the scope of peaceful character"; after Levi Eshkol replaces Ben Gurion as Israeli PM in 1963, JFK requests another inspection, which is still pending when he is assassinated - giving anti-Semites an opening to accuse Israel of JFK's assassination? William Cornelius Sullivan (1912-77) becomes dir. of the FBI's domestic intel div., putting him in line for J. Edgar Hoover's job; in 1964 he helps arrange for a tape recording of MLK Jr.'s hanky panky with women to be mailed to his wife Coretta Scott King, calling MLK Jr. "a fraud, demagogue, and scoundrel"; too bad, he is "the only liberal Democrat to break into the top ranks of the bureau" (NYT), and after he begins criticizing Hoover about his overemphasis on the Am. Communist Party compared to civil rights violations in the South, and about illegal activities of his COINTELPRO activities, he ends up summarily fired on Oct. 1, 1971, which doesn't stop him from going public with his allegations. The Marxist Sandanista Nat. Liberation Front is founded in Nicaragua by Carlos Fonseca Amador (1936-76) et al., named for assassinated nationalist rebel Augusto Cesar Sandino (1895-1934). Pres. Kennedy establishes the President's Commission on the Status of Women, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chmn.; in Oct. 1963 it pub. a report documenting discrimination against women in the workplace, and suggests reforms incl. paid maternity leave and affordable child care. The JFK admin. drags its feet on civil rights for blacks? The U.S. Dept. of Justice targets 100 counties for black voter registration, but by JFK's death only increases it from 5% to 8.3% of eligible voters while blacks employed by the federal govt. only rise 0.5%; the number of school districts desegregated rises from 17 to 166, with Miss., Ala., and S.C. still at zero, and Ga. and La. at 1, causing Martin Luther King Jr. to remark that at this rate it will take until the year 2054 - that's right, we'll leave it to our grandchildren? Women Strike for Peace (WSP) is founded to protest U.S. and Soviet atmospheric nuclear tests, with the motto "End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race". The Soviet Union holds a trade fair in London. The Trans-Siberian Railroad between Moscow and Irkutsk is electrified. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) succeeds Eugene Dennis as chmn. of the U.S. Communist Party, becoming its first woman chmn. JFK's younger brother Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-2009) makes a trip to Latin Am., concentrating on meetings with prominent Communist and left wing leaders, outraging the U.S. ambassador to Mexico by asking to bring some to the embassy, and causing a State Dept. official in Peru to call him a "pompous and a spoiled brat"; he rents a brothel for an entire night in Chile? Archduke Otto of Hapsburg's application to return to Austria is rejected. After an Am. collector buys Goya's Portrait of the Duke of Wellington for $400K, and public outrage at it leaving Britain forces the British govt. to match the sum and hand it in the Nat. Gallery in London, it is stolen weeks later by a thief who demands the same amount as ransom; it is recovered after Terence Young, dir. of "Dr. No" (1962) spots it in a doctor's lair in 1965, and it is returned voluntarily six weeks later. The Freedom (Liberation) Movement of Iran (FMI or LMI) is founded as the reincarnation of the banned Nat. Front for Mohammad Mossadeq supporters by Muslim religious laymen; it operates mainly in the U.S. and Europe until the 1979 Iranian Rev. Hollywood actor Ronald Reagan works for Operation Coffee Cup, a campaign against Socialized medicine by the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA), producing a 33-1/3 rpm record titled Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine, in which he says that the U.S. pop. will never accept it with its true label, but might go for it if it's called liberal. Pres. Kennedy allegedly orders the top secret Iron Mountain Study by an anon. 15-person Special Study Group on how to bring the U.S. into a socialist New World Order, done in an underground nuclear bunker called Iron Mountain in N.Y. from Aug. 1963-Mar. 1966. The Carlin Gold Mine in Nev. is discovered, causing a new gold rush. The Universalist Church of Am. merges with the Am. Unitarian Assoc. to become the Unitarian Universalist Assoc.; its members profess no creed - no creed is good creed? New York Times pub. Arthur Hays Sulzberger (b. 1891) retires in favor of his son Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger (1926-) (until 1992). African-Am. writer-reformer W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) renounces his U.S. citizenship, and spends his remaining years in the West African country of Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) - I'm ghana get out of this racist country? Darwin College is founded, becoming the first graduate college at Cambridge U. The Western History Assoc. in Santa Fe, N.M. is founded by Ray Allen Billington (1903-81) et al., going on to pub. The American West Magazine, Western Historical Quarterly, and Montana: The Magazine of Western History. The Sleep Research Society (SRS) (originally the Assoc. for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep) in Chicago, Ill. is founded, changing to its present name in 1982. Am. mezzo-soprano Grace Bumbry (1937-) is featured by Richard Wagner's grandson in the Bayreuth Wagner Festival in Germany, becoming the first black to sing there; she wins the Wagner Medal. The Boston Irish Gang War (ends 1966) begins between the McLaughlin Gang of Charlestown, Mass., led by Bernard "Bernie" McLaughlin, and the Winter Hill Gang of Somerville (N of Boston), Mass., led by James Joseph "Buddy" McLean (1930-65), who kills Bernie then ends up killed, although his gang, led (until 1979) by Italian-German mobster Howie Winter (1929-) becomes #1 among the Irish gangs after the FBI begins using its members as informants in return for shielding them from prosecution to bring down the rival Patriarcha crime family, while they murder over 20 people over the next three decades. The largest police scandal in U.S. history (until ?) takes place in Denver, Colo. (the Queen City of Corruptorado, the Police State of Hate?), giving it its "Year of Shame" as 47 police officers in a dept. of 750 are arrested for participating in an organized burglary ring, along with a sheriff, two deputies, two private detectives, and three civilians; about 40 are convicted. Quaker introduces Life brand cereal. Toucan Sam (body is shades of blue and beak is purple-red-yellow starting at tip) begins appearing in Froot Loops cereal commercials and on boxes. Mattel introduces the Ken Doll as the boyfriend of Barbie. After working for them since 1954, Oak Park, Ill.-born milkshake machine salesman Raymond Albert "Ray" Kroc (1902-84) buys McDonald's Restaurants from 1940 founders Dick and Mac McDonald for $2.7M, initially promising them a 1.9% royalty on gross sales, but later reneging after they try to give the original restaurant to the founding employees, opening "The Big M" McDonald's Restaurant near it to force it out of biz; meanwhile he introduces the slogan "Look for the Golden Arches", followed in 1966 by "The Closest Thing to Home", "You Deserve a Break Today" in ?, "Good Time, Great Taste" in 1998, "I'm Loving It" in 2003, and carries on with blonde married bar piano player Joan Beverly Kroc (nee Mansfield) (1928-2003), marrying her in 1969 (wife #3) after they both divorce their spouses; when he dies, she inherits his empire, becoming known as a philanthropic angel and anti-nuclear activist. Ill. becomes the first U.S. state to decriminalize sodomy, incl. homosexual acts such as sucking, licking, and butt, er, fellatio, cunnilingus, and anal sex between consenting adults in private; Conn. follows in 1971, followed by Colo., Del., Hawaii, N.D., and Ore. in 1973, Ohio in 1974, N.M. in 1975, Calif., Ind., Maine, Wash. and W. Va. in 1976, Vt. and Wyo. in 1977, Alaska and N.Y. in 1980, Wisc. in 1983, Mich. in 1990, Ky. in 1992, Nev. in 1993, the District of Columbia in 1995, Mont. in 1997, Ga., Md. and R.I. in 1998, Ariz. and Ark. in 2001, Mass. in 2002, Minn. in 2001, and all 50 states in 2003 (U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas) - next week I can work you in between Rainman and the guy from My Left Foot? He walked in from the Windy City with his gay hat acock? Just because a toothbrush is electronic doesn't mean it works like a Sonicare? Fla. finally protects the Am. crocodile - bon apetit? India annexes Portuguese India incl. the rich state of Goa. The Nat. Indian Council is formed in Canada to promote better relations. Jewish synagogues in Moscow are closed. ABC-Paramount founds the jazz label Impulse Records, which issues LPs with distinctive orange-black spines; its first big hit is Genius + Soul (EQ) Jazz by Ray Charles. Bombay, India-born N.Y.U. business student Ismail Merchant (1936-2005) meets U.S.-born James Ivory (1928-) at a New York City coffee shop, and they form a gay film partnership, adding German-born screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (1927-2013) in 1963. African-Am. photographer Gordon Parks (1912-2006) takes photos for Life mag. of poor ailing Brazilian boy Flavio da Silva, which brings donations and a new home for him and his family. Russian ballet star Yuri Vladimirovich Soloviev (1940-77) tours the U.S. with the Kirov Ballet, becoming known as "Cosmic Yuri" for his sky-high Yuri Gagarin leaps; he repeats in 1964; too bad, he commits suicide in Jan. 1977. The FCC approves FM stereo for radio - just in time for the rock era? This year and next Wagon Train (on the air since 1957) is the top-ranked network TV show in the U.S. The U. of Sussex in England is founded. The Washington Post buys Newsweek mag. for $15M. Dallas, Tex.-born engineer ("the Father of Modern Creation Science") Henry Madison Morris (1918-2006) and Washington, D.C.-born theologian John Clement Whitcomb Jr. (1924-2020) pub. the book The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and its Scientific Implications, defending young Earth creationism as more in line with a literal Bible reading than old Earth creationism, becoming a bestseller among Christian fundamentalists, going through 29 printings and selling 200K copies in 25 years, which evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould calls "the founding document of the creationist movement", spawning a movement that attracts young scholars in the sciences, leading to the founding of the Creation Research Society in 1963 and the Inst. for Creation Research in 1972, and making a fan of Australian Christian fundamentalist Kenneth "Ken" Ham (1951-), who founds Answers in Genesis (AiG) in Petersburg, Ky. in 1994, the Creation Museum in 2007 in Petersburg, Ky., and Ark Encounter in Grant County, Ky. in 2016. Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-70) et al. found the Journal of Humanistic Psychology in the spring. The Hudson Inst. in Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. is founded by systems theorist Herman Kahn (1922-83) (inspiration for Dr. Strangelove?) et al. from RAND Corp. as a conservative nonprofit think tank to promote "global security, prosperity, and freedom"; it later moves to Washington, D.C. The Amon Carter Museum of Old West art opens in Ft. Worth, Tex. in a bldg. designed by glass-boxman Philip Cortelyou Johnson (1906-2005) - see your oil dollars at work? The Nat. Museum of the Chinese Rev. in Beijing opens. Liverpool, England-born William MacDonald (1924-2015) begins his string of gruesome knife murders in Sydney, Australia, stabbing men dozens of times in the head and neck then amputating their penis and testicles, killing five before being apprehended in Melbourne on May 13, 1963 and receiving a life sentence, becoming known as "the Sydney Mutilator", the first serial murderer in Australia, dying on May 12, 2015 in Randwick, N.S. in a mental hospital. Black singer Ray Charles (1930-2004) refuses to sing at a Jim Crow whites-only concert in Ga., and is fined, but never banned from the state. The Supremes, featuring Diana Ross (1944-) sign with Motown Records, releasing When the Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes in 1963, which becomes the group's first top-20 single, followed by Where Did Our Love Go in 1964, their first #1 hit; between Aug. 1964 and May 1967 they chart 10 #1 singles. Jewish-Am. entrepreneurs Harvey Philip "Phil" Spector (1939-2021) and Lester Sill (1918-94) found Phillies Records (combo of Phil and Les) in Philly, soon moving to Los Angeles, Calif. and setting up Gold Star Studios at the corner of Santa Monica Blvd. and Vine St., going on to issue He's a Rebel by the Crystals, followed by 38 more singles and 12 albums by The Crystals, The Ronettes, Bob B. Soxx and the Blue Jeans, Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner (1939-), and The Righteous Brothers, all characterized by innocence, until the arrival of the Beatles kills it by 1966; Spector develops his Wall of Sound musical production technique there with Jewish-Am. audio engineer Larry Levine (1928-2008) that sounds well on AM radio and jukeboxes, using large numbers of electric and acoustic guitars in parallel, plus a resonant echo chamber in the bathroom; he uses the Wrecking Crew, a group of session musicians that goes on to work with The Beach Boys, The Byrds, The Monkees (getting them into trouble with fans), Simon and Garfunkel, The Carpenters, The 5th Dimension, The Partridge Family, John Denver et al. Blues singer Victoria Regina "Queen Victoria" Spivey (1906-76) and blues-jazz historian Leonard "Len" "Kazoo Papa" Kunstadt (1925-96) found the blues label Spivey Records, going on to sign Big Willie Dixon, Lucille Hegamin, Lonnie Johnson, Otis Rush, Memphis Slim, Otis Spann, Roosevelt Sykes, Hannah Sylvester, Buddy Tate, Big Joe Turner, Muddy Waters, Sippie Wallace, Big Joe Williams et al. The Bitter End nighclub in Greenwich Village, N.Y. at 147 Bleecker St., owned by Fred Weintraub (1928-) opens, hosting weekly hootenannies that help launch the careers of folk musicians and comedians incl. Lenny Bruce, Peter, Paul and Mary, Randy Newman, and The Isley Brothers; in the 1960s Weintraub moves to Hollywood and becomes a TV producer, producing "Hootenanny", "The Dukes of Hazzard" et al., then in 1970 becomes exec vice-pres. of Warner Bros., producing "Woodstock", "Enter the Dragon", and "It's Showtime". The Martin Marietta Corp. is founded in Bethesda, Md. via the merger of the Glenn L. Martin Co. and the Chicago-based paint manufacturer American-Marietta; in 1995 it merges with Lockheed Corp. to form Lockheed Martin. Married Am. industrial designers Charles Eames (1907-78) and Ray Eames (1912-88) design the Mathematica: A World of Numbers and Beyond exhibit for IBM, followed by "A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age" in 1971, and "The World of Franklin and Jefferson" in 1975-7. Haagen-Dazs (Häagen-Dazs) is founded in Bronx, N.Y. by Polish-born Jewish-Am. couple Reuben Mattus (1912-94) and Rose Mattus (1916-2006), featuring real rather than artificial ingredients incl. guar gum, xanthan gum, and carrageenan; they start out only with vanilla, chocolate, and coffee flavors; in tribute to the brave treatment of Jews in WWII they invent what they think is a Danish name, even though there is no umlaut in Danish; the carton features a map of Denmark; they open their first retail store in Brooklyn, N.Y. on Nov. 15, 1976; in 1983 Pillsbury Co. acquires the brand for $70M before being acquired by Pillsbury in 2001. The Red Barn fast-food restaurant chain is founded in Springfield, Ohio by Don Six, Martin Levine, and Jim Kirst, growing to 300-400 franchises in 19 states plus Canada and Australia by the time it folds in 1988; offerings incl. the Big Barney and Barnbuster, and the first self-service salad bars; mascots incl. Hamburger Hungry, Chicken Hungry, and Big Fish Hungry; "When the hungries hit/ When the hungries hit/ Hit the Red Barn". Der Wienerschnitzel hot dog restaurant is founded in Wilmington, Los Angeles, Calif. by former Taco Bell employee John Galardi (1937-2013), becoming known for A-frame roofs, becoming the world's largest hot dog chain; the mascot is the Delicious One; in the late 1980s they become Original Hamburger Stand restaurants. Leyland Motors Ltd. acquires Triumph (founded 1923) and goes back into the automobile business. The tandem-rotor YHC-1B Chinook Helicopter by Boeing Aircraft begins production, carrying 22.4M people and 1.3M tons of cargo in 161K hours of flying time by 1968 in Vietnam and elsewhere. Giorgio Beverly Hills (GBH) is founded by Fred Hayman and George Grant, becoming the first luxury boutique on Rodeo Drive (273) in Beverly Hills, Calif.; in 1987 it changes its name to Fred Hayman Beverly Hills. StarKist brand Tuna, owned by H.J. Heinz Co. of Pittsburgh, Penn. launches the Charlie the Tuna ad campaign, created by Leo Burnett Agency; "Sorry Charlie"; on June 24, 2008 Dongwon Industries of South Korea acquires it from Del Monte Foods for $300M. Wham-O introduces the Slip 'N Slide long thin plastic sheet that can be connected to a garden hose for backyard fun; too bad, it's only for kids. Architecture: On Oct. 1 the $24M District of Columbia Stadium (begun July 8, 1960) E of the U.S. Capitol Bldg. near the W bank of the Anacostia River and the D.C. Armory in Washington, D.C. opens, designed to host both baseball and football, with the first circular "cookie-cutter" design, becoming the home of the Washington Redskins (until 1996) and Washington Senators (until 1971); in Jan. 1969 it is renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium. On Dec. 21 the first section of the 64-mi.Capital Beltway (Interstate 495) surrounding Washington, D.C. is opened; it is completed on Aug. 17, 1964. The Bangladesh Nat. Assembly Bldg. (Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban) in Dhaka (Dacca), designed by Louis I. Khan is begun (finished in 1982). The Country Music Hall of Fame is founded by the Country Music Assoc. (CMA); the first inductees are Jimmie Rodgers, Fred Rose, and Hank Williams Sr.; in 1964 the nonprofit Country Music Foundation is founded to operate the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, which opens on Music Row at Music Square East and Division St. in Nashville, Tenn. on Apr. 1, 1967; in ? it moves to 222 Fifth Ave. South. The Modernist bronze-brass El Alamein Memorial (Kings Cross) Fountain in Kings Cross, Sydney, Australia is officially opened by Harry Jensen, lord mayor of Sydney, commemorating the two battles of El Alamein in July and Nov. 1942 by the Australian 9th Div., designed by veteran Robert Raymond "Bob" Woodward (1923-2010), resembling a dandelion. Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe (1883-1974) designs Guilford Cathedral in England. The Independence (Philadelphia) Martime Museum in Penn's Landing, Philadelphia, Pann. is established, housing the warship USS Olympia and sub USS Becuna. The 707-ft. 52-floor Union Carbide Bldg. at 270 Park Ave. in midtown Manhattan, N.Y. is built, designed by architect Natalie Griffin de Blois (1921-2013) of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; used as the HQ of the World Wide Wicket Co. in the 1967 film "How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying". Sports: On Feb. 26 the 1961 (3rd) Daytona 500 is won by Marvin Panch (1926-) in his 1960 Pontiac at an avg. speed of 149.601 mph. On Mar. 13 the Rubber Match (their 3rd fight) in Miami Beach, Fla. sees Floyd Patterson get decked twice and Ingemar Johansson once before Patterson KOs Johansson in round 6 to retain his heavyweight boxing title; they become good friends who fly across the Atlantic to see each other every other year. On Mar. 27 the 1961 NBA Draft sees nine teams select 107 players in 15 rounds; after serving as the starting center on the 1960 Olympic men's basketball team in Rome, 6'11" center Walter Jones "Walt" Bellamy (1939-2013) of the U. of Ind. is selected #1 by the Chicago Packers (#8), going on to be named rookie of the year with 31.6 points per game avg. (2nd to Wilt Chamberlain's 37.6) and 19 rebounds per game (vs. 27 for Wilt Chamberlain and 19.6 for Bill Russell) before moving to the Baltimore Bullets (#8) in 1963-5, the New York Knicks (#8) in 1965-8, the Detroit Pistons (#8) in 1968-70, the Atlanta Hawks (#8) in 1970-4, and the New Orleans Jazz (#8) in 1974; 6'6" Harbin, Manchuria-born Russian immigrant forward (budding poet) Thomas Nicholas "Tom" Meschery (Tomislav Nikolayevich Meshcheryakov) (1938-) of Saint Mary's College (#31) is selected #7 by the Philadelphia Warriors (#14), leading the NBA in personal fouls in 1962, moving to the Seattle Supersonics (#14) in 1967-71; 6'3" forward Donald R. "Don" Kojis (1939-) of Marquette U. is selected #21 by the Chicago Packers, holding out to play for the Baltimore Bullets (#22) in 1963-4, followed by the Detroit Pistons (#16) in 1964-6, Chicago Bulls (#9) in 1966-7, San Diego Rockets (#44) in 1967-70, Seattle SuperSonics (#22) in 1970-2, and Kansas City-Omaha Kings (#21) in 1972-5; 6'6" power forward-center William C. "Bill" Bridges (1939-) of the U. of Kan. is selected #32 by the Chicago Packers, chosing to play for the ABL Kansas City Steers (#?) in 1961-3, setting an ABL record with 55 points on Dec. 9, 1962 before returning to the NBA to play for the St. Louis Hawks (#10) in 1963-71, averaging a double-double throughout his NBA career; in 1967-8 he sets an NBA record of 366 personal fouls. On Apr. 2-11 the 1961 NBA Finals is won 4-3 by the Boston Celtics (coach Red Auerbach) over the St. Louis Hawks (coach Paul Seymour). On Apr. 6-16 the 1961 Stanley Cup Finals see the Chicago Blackhawks (first Finals appearance since 1944) defeat the Detroit Red Wings 4-2, becoming their 3rd title, first since 1938, and last until 2010; the only title won by a team not from Detroit, Toronto, or Montreal during the Original Six Era (1942-67); Czech.-born Chicago 5'9" center Stanislav "Stan" Mikita (Guoth) (1940-) leads the NHL in goals during the playoffs with six, going on next season to become a star, the #1 center of the 1960s, anchoring the Scooter Line with Ken Wharram, Ab McDonald, and Doug Mohns, becoming known for his curved stick along with teammate Bobby Hull, trying his record of 97 points in the 1966-7 season; in 1970 the NHL limits blade curvature to 1/2"; after his daughter Meg asks him why he sits down so much on TV, he cleans up his game. On May 30 the 1961 (45th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Anthony Joseph "A.J." Foyt Jr. (1935-). On July 8-9 the U.S. joins the Federation Internationale des Quilleurs (FIQ) (founded 1952) in Strasbourg, France, with the U.S. Bowling Congress (USBC) forming Team USA to compete in the 1963 FIQ World Championships in Mexico. On July 31 the first ML All-Star Game to end in a tie is stopped in the 9th inning due to rain at Fenway Park in Boston, Mass.; the next isn't until 2002. The Washington Senators move to Minneapolis, Minn. and become the Minnesota Twins; the new Washington Senators become Washington, D.C.'s first ML team; after the 1971 season they move to Arlington, Tex. and change their name to the Texas Rangers. On Sept. 10 German driver Count Wolfgang Alexander Albert Eduard Maximilian Berghe von Trips (b. 1928) collides with Jim Clark's Lotus and crashes his Ferrari into a stand at the F1 Italian Grand Prix in Monza, Italy, killing 15 spectators plus himself and ruining Germany's chance to get its first Formula One world title, for which he only needed to come in 3rd. On Oct. 1 after a race with teammate Mickey Mantle (who share an apt. in Queens, and are called the "M&M Boys" by the press), helped by an expansion season, N.D.-born Croatian-descent New York Yankees right fielder (same position as Babe Ruth) Roger Eugene Maris (1934-85) (#9) (salary $38K a year) (known for eating burned eggs to help him hit homers, and for signing an X for an autograph, with the stress causing his hair to start falling out) hits his 61st home run in the last game of a 162-game season against the Boston Red Sox in front of only 23K fans, breaking Babe Ruth's 1927 record and making Maris the most hated man in baseball by Ruth fans; he hit his first homer on Apr. 26; he hits #58 in game #153, and hits #59 in pennant-clinching game #154 against Baltimore during Hurricane Esther, and potential #60 is caught by the wind, after which his team rallies to get him a last at-bat, and Baltmore brings in knuckle-ball thrower Hoyt Wilhelm, who tags him out at first; he hits #60 in game #158; despite 80% of the fans rooting for him, Okla.-born center fielder (#7) Mickey Mantle ends the season wth 54 homers, hitting #49 with a bad right arm and ending up in the hospital with a bad left hip caused by an infected needle; the big ball is caught by Sal Durante (1942-), who offers it to Maris, who declines, after which Durante sells it for $5K to restaurateur Sam Gordon, who donates it to the Nat. Baseball Hall of Fame; MLB commissioner #3 (1951-65) Ford Christopher Frick (1894-1978) (a former ghostwriter for Babe Ruth) convinces record keepers to list his record separately from Babe Ruth's, adding an asterisk because of the shorter 154-game season; in 1991 after three players eclipse both of them, ML baseball commissioner Fay Vincent drops the asterisk, thus Maris died not knowing that the record belonged to him. On Nov. 4 Wilt Chamberlain of Philadelphia begins his record streak of 65 straight games scoring 30+ points (until ?); in 1962 he has a 31-game streak. On Nov. 16 after being falsely accused of point shaving at the U. of Iowa in 1960, causing him to be blackballed from the NBA, 6'8" Brooklyn, N.Y.-born center-power forward Cornelius L. "Connie" "the Hawk" Hawkins (1942-) makes his prof. debut with the Pittsburgh Rens of the ABA with a 97-89 home loss to the Chicago Majors, and is named MVP in his only season before the league folds in 1963; in 1963-7 he plays for the Harlem Globetrotters; in 1966 he is officially banned from the NBA, causing him to file a $6M lawsuit against the NBA, which is settled in 1969 for $1.3M; in 1967-9 he plays for the Pittsburgh/Minn. Pipers of the ABA; in 1969 despite knee problems he is drafted by the new NBA Phoenix Suns (#42), leading them to the playoffs until the Los Angeles Lakers knock them out in a 7-game series; in 1973 he is traded to the Lakers, followed in 1975 by the Atlanta Hawks. On Nov. 28 running back Ernie Davis (1939-63) of Syracuse U. becomes the first African-Am. to win the Heisman Trophy, getting drafted by the Washington Redskins, traded to the Cleveland Browns, then developing leukemia in 1962 before playing a single pro game. On Dec. 8 Wilt Chamberlin scores a record 78 points and makes 43 rebounds in a game against the Los Angeles Lakers. The Chicago Packers become the first NBA expansion team; in 1962 they become the Chicago Zephyrs, followed in 1963 by the Baltimore Bullets, in 1973 by the Capital Bullets, in 1974 by the Washington Bullets, and in 1997 by the Washington Wizards. AFL Houston Oilers QB (#16) George Blanda (1927-) ends the season with an NFL record 36 TD passes, which it takes Dan Marino of the Miami Dolphins until 1984 to surpass with 48. Roy Stanley Emerson (1936-) of Australia wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. men's singles title; he also wins the Australian Open this year, followed by 1963-7; Darlene Hard of the U.S. wins the women's singles title; Rodney George "Rod" Laver (1938-) (#1 world player in 1964-70) wins the Wimbledon men's singles title, and Florence Angela Margaret Mortimer Barrett (1932-) of England wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. women's singles title; Australia skunks Italy 5-0 to win the Davis Cup of tennis, its 10th win since 1946 vs. six for the U.S. Jack William Nicklaus (1940-), "the Golden Bear" wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and Gene Alec Littler (1930-) wins the U.S. Open; Gary Player (1935-) of South Africa (who always plays in all-black outfits) wins the Masters. Carry Back (1958-83) (jockey J. Sellers) wins the Preakness Stakes and the Kentucky Derby. 18-y.-o. Bobby Fischer refuses to compete for the U.S. chess title, citing the paltry $1K prize, then wins it for the 4th time, defeating Hungarian grandmaster Paul Benko. Brainy 5'8" blonde Marlene Schmidt (1937-) (masters degree in engineering) wins the 1961 Miss Germany and Miss Universe pageants, becoming the first German to be crowned Miss Universe (until ?); in 1962-6 she marries "Bronco" TV star Ty Hardin. Lucchese crime family mobster Frankie Carbo (1904-76), known as "the Czar of Boxing" since the 1940s, who is rumored to have engineered the 1947 murder of Bugsy Siegel in Beverly Hills, Calif. is charged with extortion of welterweight boxing champ (1958-60) Don "Geronimo" Jordan (1934-97), and after a 3-mo. trial prosecuted personally by U.S. atty.-gen. Robert Kennedy he is convicted and sentenced to 25 years. After inventing the full-court press and four corners offense at the N.C. College for Negroes (1941-52), Hampton Inst. (1953-4), and Tenn. State A&I U. (1955-9), where he leds them to three straight NAIA titles in 1957-9, Hiawatha, Kan.-born John B. McLendon Jr. (1915-99) becomes the head coach of the ABL Cleveland Pipers basketball team (until 1962), becoming the first African-Am. head coach of a major sports team; in 1967 he becomes men's basketball coach at Kentucky State U., becoming the first African-Am. basketball coach of a predominantly white univ.; in 1969 he becomes head coach of the ABA Denver Rockets, but is fired after the team starts the season 9-19; the John McLendon Court at Tenn. State U. is later dedicated. Dean Edwards Smith (1931-2015) becomes head basketball coach at the U. of N.C. (until 1997), retiring with two nat. titles and a record 879 wins, which is not surpassed until 1997 by Bob Knight of Indiana U. The first Little America's Cup multi-hull match race is held off Thorpe Bay, Essex. Mikhail Botvinnik regains his world chess title (until 1963). The Ramblin' Wreck, a 1930 Ford Model A Sport Coupe becomes the official football team mascot of Georgia Tech. Architecture: The BT (London Post Office) Tower in London, designed by Eric Bedford (1909-2001) is begun (finished 1965). 869-ft. Vajont (Vaiont) Dam in Vaiont, Italy is completed, becoming the world's highest dam (until 1962) (first to break the 800 ft. barrier), and 3rd highest concrete structure; speaking of breaking, in Oct. 1963 a major rock slide into the reservoir flushes a 200-ft. wall of water over the dam, killing 1,809 incl. 430 school children in Langarone and five other villages. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (1905-61) (Sweden) (posth.) (after this, posth. awards are prohibited); Lit.: Ivan "Ivo" Andric (1892-1975) (Yugoslavia); Physics: Robert Hofstadter (1915-90) (U.S.) [electron scattering in nuclei], Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer (Mössbauer) (1929-) (Germany) [Mossbauer Effect]; Chem.: Melvin Ellis Calvin (1911-97) (U.S.) [Calvin Cycle for photosynthesis]; Med.: Georg von Bekesy (Békésy) (1899-1972) (U.S.) [cochlea]. Inventions: Burroughs introduces the Burroughs 5000, featuring a stack-driven architecture with reentrant code that exclusively supports high-level programming languages, becoming a programmer's dream; all system software is written in ALGOL 60. David Flexer of Inflight Motion Pictures develops a 16mm film system for commercial aircraft, replacing 30-in.-diam. film reels; on July 19 "By Love Possessed" by John Sturges becomes the first movie shown on a regular commercial airline flight on TWA. After witnessing 50% of patients with blood clots in their limbs die, Cincinnati, Ohio-born surgeon Thomas J. "Tom" Fogarty (1934-) (not to be confused with the Creedence Clearwater Revival Fogarty) invents the Fogarty Balloon Embolectomy Catheter to remove clots in arteries using only local anesthesia via minimally-invasive surgery, patenting it in 1969; in 1965 it is used for the first balloon angioplasty. Gibson redesigns the Les Paul guitar to create the Gibson SG (solid guitar), later becoming the favorite of AC/DC lead guitarist Angus Young (1955-). Grecian Formula hair dye is introduced by Combe Inc. of er, White Plains, N.Y., becoming a hit with the graying set because it is colorless and works gradually because it is really lead acetate and sulfur, which penetrates the hair shaft and turns dark black; after daily treatments for 1-2 weeks, it only has to be applied once a week. On July 23 IBM Corp. introduces the electric IBM Selectric Typewriter, invented by architect Eliot Fette Noyes (1910-77), which uses a replaceable golfball-shaped typing element to allow easy changing of fonts; in 1964 IBM introduces a magnetic tape to turn it into a word processor, for a mere $10K; the IBM Pavilion in the 1964 New York World's Fair is shaped like a Selectric type element; in Oct. 1969 IBM introduces the IBM Mag Card Selectric Typewriter. Am. physician William Fouts House (1923-2012) invents the Cochlear Implant (bionic ear) for deaf people, which stimulates nerves inside the inner ear with electric currents; it is first marketed commercially in 1972. In 1961 John Larry Kelly Jr. (1923-65) of Bell Labs uses an IBM 704 computer for Human Speech Synthesis, having it sing the song Daisy Bell, which Arthur C. Clarke witnesses, using it in his 1968 film "2001: A Space Odyssey". Jack Lippes invents the inert plastic Intrauterine Device (IUD) for birth control, becoming up to 99.9% effective and lasting up to 10 years. Am. electrical engineer Eugene F. Lally of JPL invents Digital Photography as a way for manned missions to photograph Mars. English businessman Sir Isaac James Pitman (1901-85) (grandson of shorthand inventor Sir Isaac Pitman) invents the Initial Teaching (Augmented Roman) Alphabet of 44 characters containing every sound in the English language, used for teaching beginners to read. In 1961 Unimate, the first industrial robot receives a U.S. patent (#2,988,237) (filed 1954) and begins operation at a GM plant in Detroit, Mich. welding die castings onto auto bodies. Wham-O begins marketing Slip 'n Slide, a fun way to use your garden hose in your yard to keep cool. Science: On Feb. 14 the radioactive element (half-life 3.6 hours) Lawrencium (#103) (Lr) is synthesized by Albert Ghiroso (1915-2010) et al. of UCB. Beecham Co. of Britain begins marketing the antiobiotic Ampicillin (Penbritin). Ibuprofen is patented by Boots Co. of Britain, and approved for prescription use to treat rheumatoid arthritis in 1969, followed by the U.S. in 1974; it becomes an over-the-counter drug in the U.K. in 1983; unlike aspirin, it is stable in solution and can be applied as a topical gel for sports injuries to bypass the digestive tract. Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Jr. (1916-95) of the Nat. Insts. of Health shows that ribonuclease can be refolded after denaturation with enzyme activity preserved, suggesting that the info. required by protein to reach its final conformation is encoded in its primary structure, winning him the 1972 Nobel Chem. Prize. Alberta, Canada-born psychologist Albert Bandura (1925-) conducts the controversial Bobo Doll Experiment, which proves that people can learn not just by being rewarded and punished themselves (Behaviorism), but by watching somebody else being rewarded and punished (Observational Learning), founding Social Learning Theory. After Am. microbiologist Maurice Ralph Hillerman (1919-2005) of Merck & Co. discovers that simian viruses can contaminate vaccines, Jonas Salk's polio vaccine is recalled and replaced with Albert Sabin's oral vaccine. South African biologist Sydney Brenner (1927-2019), French biologist Francois Jacob (1920-2013), and Am. biologists Matthew Stanley Meselson (1930-) and Franklin William Stahl (1929-) use phage-infected bacteria to show that ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis and are stable, proving the existence of Messenger RNA (mRNA), and elucidating the triplet nature of the code of protein translation, incl. how frameshift mutations occur when a number of nucleotides not evenly divisible by three are inserted or deleted; Jacob and Jacques Lucien Monod (1910-76) propose that control of enzyme levels in cells occurs through feedback on transcription, becoming the first example of a transciptional regulation system, winning them the 1965 Nobel Med. Prize; Brenner later discovers that the 1mm roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal model organism for studying the genetics of animal development, winning him the 2002 Nobel Med. Prize. German biochemist J. Heinrich Matthaei (1929-) of NIH in Bethesda, Md. performs the Poly-U Experiment on May 15, becoming the first person to understand the genetic code, going on to work with Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927-2010) to synthesize repeated nucleotide sequences leading to the production of repeated single amino acids; too bad, Matthaei is snubbed for a Nobel Prize - something about the Nuremberg Trials? After 302 cases of phocomelia (seal-flipper limbs) in newborns in West Germany, Australian physician William Leon McBride (1938-) traces it to the tranquilizer Thalidomide (originally developed by the Nazis as an antidote to the nerve gas Sarin, and used since 1956 in 50 countries to treat morning sickness during pregnancy) (actually only one of the two isomers, left and right-handed, causes fetal abnormalities, but it is marketed in a 50-50 mixture), causing the ministry of health to issue a warning to physicians, after which the U.S. FDA on the advice of reviewer Frances Kathleen Oldham Kelsey (1914-) rejects approval, and McBride becomes a hero, earning several awards; too bad, 10K-12K children are born with phocomelia by the time its use is stopped; too bad, McBride claims that the drug alters DNA so that the affliction can be passed to children, and he is discredited in 1993 for falsifying the records on another morning sickness drug and struck from the Australian Medical Register. Cryosurgery is first performed by Am. neurosurgeon Irving Spencer Cooper (1922-85) on Parkinson's disease patients to reduce tremors. The thrill of breaking things becomes Big Science? In Jan. 1960 Murray Gell-Mann (1930-) of Caltech pub. his Eightfold-Way Theory, proposing that all of the 100+ nuclear particles, incl. subnuclear hadrons (baryons and mesons) are made up of Quarks (named after James Joyce's "Finnegans Wake", "Three quarks for Muster Mark!/ Sure he hasn't got much of a bark/ And sure any he has it's all beside the mark"), which come in various flavors (up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom), and are permanently confined by forces coming from the exchange of Gluons, and calling for a search for a nuclear particle called Omega Minus; the same mo. Yuval Ne'eman (1925-2006) of Israel pub. a similar theory; too bad, Gell-Mann is awarded the 1969 Nobel Physics Prize, but Ne'eman is snubbed. German biochemist J. Heinrich Mathaei (1929-) discovers that a synthetic RNA polynucleotide composed of three repeating uridylic acid residues (UUU) codes for phenylalanine, leading to the unlocking of the genetic code in 1968 by Nirenberg, Kohorana and Holley; too bad, they chintz him out of his share of the Nobel Prize? British archeologist James Mellaart (1925-) begins excavating the Neolithic town of Catal Huyuk (Çatal Hüyük) (Turkish "fork mound") SE of Konya in S Anatolia (until 1965). French-Australian physician Jacques Francis Albert Pierre Miller (1931-) proves that the thymus is part of the immune system by removing it from newborn mice, who fail to develop white blood cells or lymph nodes and accept grafts without rejection. Milwaukee-Wisc.-born psychologist Neal Elgar Miller (1909-2002) proposes the use of Biofeedback to control heart rate and other involuntary functions. English biochemist Peter Dennis Mitchell (1920-92) pub. the Chemiosmotic Theory to explain energy storage in plants and animals via a proton gradient across a vesicular membrane that generates an electric field, countering the prevailing purely chemical phosphorylation theory and winning him the 1978 Nobel Chem. Prize after ATP synthase is discovered. Am. economist John Fraser Muth (1930-2005) pub. his Theory of Rational Expectations, that agents' expectations equal true statistical expected values, i.e., are model-consistent, i.e., assume the validity of the model's predictions. Canadian scientists James Edgar Till (1931-) and Ernest Armstrong McCulloch (1926-2011) prove the existence of Stem Cells by using radiation to destroy the blood cells of lab mice, then injecting bone marrow from genetically identical mice and observing that all types of blood cells are formed - talk about getting your strong arm and hand in the eager till and McCulling in earnest? Parqauat (made from sodium, anhydrous ammonia, and chloromethane), first synthesized in 1882, whose herbicidal properties weren't recognized until 1955 is first marketed commercially for weed killing. The value of pi is computed to 100,265 places by an IBM 7090 computer at the IBM Data Center in 8 hours and 43 min. - did it end or repeat? Nonfiction: Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), The Idea of Freedom: A Dialectic Examination of the Controversies about Freedom; Great Ideas from the Great Books. Daniel Aaron (1912-), Writers on the Left: Episodes in American Literary Communism; from his birth year to the early 1940s. Joy Adamson (1910-80), Living Free; sequel to "Born Free" (1960). Gordon Willard Allport (1897-1967), Pattern and Growth in Personality. Robert Ardrey (1908-80), African Genesis: A Personal Investigation Into the Animal Origins and Nature of Man; the killer ape theory of man (incl. that only humans intentionally kill members of their own species), which along with Desmond Morris' 1967 "The Naked Ape" turn on Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick. Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962), La Flamme d'une Chandelle (The Flame of a Candle). John Haden Badley (1865-1967), A Bible for Modern Readers (New Testament); followed in 1965 by The Bible As Seen Today (Old Testament). James Baldwin (1924-87), Nobody Knows My Name. Solomon Barkin (1907-2000), The Decline of the Labor Movement and What Can Be Done About It; how unions are getting bogged down in administering contracts and are losing their role as agents of change. Ernest Becker (1924-74), Zen: A Rational Critique. Paul Blanshard (1892-1980), The Future of Catholic Power. Ernst Bloch (1885-1977), Natural Law and Human Dignity (Naturrecht und Menschliche Wurde); human rights in a Socialist society; helps spawn the 1968 Prague Spring. Daniel Joseph Boorstin (1914-2004), The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America; hyperreality and postmodernity; events that serve no person other than to be reproduced in ads. Edwin Garrigues Boring (1886-1968), Psychologists at Large: An Autobiography and Selected Essays (3 vols.). Wayne Clayson Booth (1921-), The Rhetoric of Fiction; all narrative is a form of rhetoric and is not about "showing vs. telling", and the author can't be abstracted from the text?; the concept of the implied audience and narrative reliability. Asa Briggs (1921-), The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom (5 vols.) (1961-95); history of the BBC. Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93), Economic Development as an Evolutionary System; how society will move from civilized to "post-civilized". Kenneth Burke (1897-1993), The Rhetoric of Religion; how Christians, Jews, Buddhists, Muslems etc. inhabit different symbolic realities with different vocabularies describing how the world works. Eddie Cantor (1892-1964), The Way I See It. Edward Hallett Carr (1892-1982), What Is History?; rev. ed. 1986; pooh-poohs the idea that history is a series of accidents, as in the Cleopatra's nose story, arguing that it is actually a series of interacting causal chains, but noting that historians selective choose which facts are important, such as ignoring how millions crossed the Rubicon River until Caesar did it in 49 B.C.E., and dissing the "cult of individualism" that ignores that everybody is a product of society, waffling on the question of whether and how history is a science instead of an art. Julia Child (1912-2004), Simone Beck (1904-91), and Louisette Bertholle (1905-99), Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Vol. 1 (Alfred A. Knopf) (726 pages); bestseller, turning Americans on to French cuisine; vol. 2 in 1970. Craig Claiborne (1920-2000), The New York Times Cookbook. James Bryant Conant (1893-1978), Slums and Suburbs: A Commentary on Schools in Metropolitan Areas. Robert Conquest (1917-2015), Courage of Genius: The Pasternak Affair: A Documentary Report on Its Literary and Political Significance. Lawrence Arthur Cremin (1925-90), The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876-1957 (Bancroft Prize); how mushrooming enrollment led to an emphasis on non-academic subjects and non-authoritarian teaching methods. Edward Dahlberg (1900-77), Truth is More Sacred. Adelle Davis (1904-74), Exploring Inner Space: Personal Experiences Under LSD-25; pub. under the alias Jane Dunlap. Bernice Freeman Davis (1905-2002), The Desperate and the Damned; the Caryl Chessman case. Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), The Crisis of Western Education: With Specific Programs for the Study of Christian Culture; bemoans the dropping of Western culture studies in favor of vocational and technical studies. Robert J. Donovan (1912-2003), PT-109: John F. Kennedy in World War II; bestseller about JFK's 9/11 on Aug. 2, 1943; makes the new pres. a bigger hero; funny how he has a habit of getting into fatal collisions? Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), Power and Democracy in America. Will Durant (1885-1981) and Ariel Durant (1898-1981), The Story of Civilization, Part VII: The Age of Reason Begins; from Elizabeth I to Galileo, 1558-1642. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Images and Symbols: Studies in Religious Symbolism. Sir William Empson (1906-84), Milton's God; claims he had an active hatred for the God of Christianity. M. Stanton Evans (1934-), Revolt on the Campus. Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (1961-2003), Metaphysics and Historicity. Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006), The Useless Sex: Voyage Around the Woman. Fritz Fanon (1925-61), The Wretched of the Earth (Les Damnes de la Terre); the dehumanizing effects of colonization. Charles G. Finney (1905-84), The Old China Hands (autobio.). Fritz Fischer (1908-99), Germany's Aims in the First World War (Griff nach der Weltmacht: DieKriegzielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914–1918) (fall); English trans. 1967; claims that Germany deliberately instigated WWI in an attempt to become a world power, wanting to created a German-dominated Europe (Mitteleuropa) and German-dominated Africa (Mittelafrika), running the risk of drawing Britain into war to pursue it, pissing-off Germans and getting his publisher's office firebombed, launching the heated Fischer Controversy among historians of Germany. Erich Fromm (1900-80), May Man Prevail? An Inquiry into the Facts and Fictions of Foreign Policy; Marx's Concept of Man. John Frederick Charles Fuller (1878-1966), The Conduct of War, 1789-1961: A Study of the Impact of the French, Industrial, and Russian Revolutions on War and Its Conduct; claims that the French Rev. changed the aim of warfare from changing a govt.'s policy to its unconditional surrender and destruction. Vivian Hunter Galbraith (1889-1976), The Making of Domesday Book. John William Gardner (1912-2002), Excellence: Can We Be Equal and Excellent Too?; "If we accept the common usage of words, nothing can be more readily disproved than the old saw, 'You can't keep a good man down'." F.H. George, The Brain As A Computer; "The idea is to regard the brain itself as if it were a computer-type control system, in the belief that by so doing we are making explicit what for some time has been implicit in the biological sciences" - break free from the behaviorist pack? Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880-1971), The Triumphant Empire: Thunder-Clouds Gather in the West, 1733-66 (Pulitzer Prize); vol. 10 in his 15-vol. pro-British history of the British Empire before the Am. Rev. John Howard Griffin (1920-80), Black Like Me; a white man from Mansfield, Tex. disguises himself as a black man using Oxsoralen to darken his skin, and spends six weeks traveling on Greyhound buses through La., Miss., Ala., and Ga.; filmed in 1964 starring James Whitmore. Frank Gruber (1904-69), Horatio Alger Jr.: A Biography and Bibliography; first book to challenge the 1928 Herbert R. Mayes bio. Philippe Halsman (1906-79), Halsman on the Creation of Photographic Ideas; the rule of the unusual technique, the rule of the added unusual feature, and the rule of the missing feature. Oscar Handlin (1915-2011) and Mary Flug Handlin (-1976), The Dimensions of Liberty; The Distortion of America; 2nd ed. 1996; the first critique of anti-Americanism in Am. univs., blaming the cancer of Marxist-Leninist ideology and showing how historians can shed their ideological biases and produce reliable histories; the 2nd ed. covers Yugoslavia, China, and Arthur Koestler; "The study of the human past persuades me that, despite the frequent risks of failure, man has the capacity to make order an find purpose in the world in which he lives when he uses the power of his reason to do so." Carolyn Heilbrun (1926-2003), The Garnett Family. Leicester Hemingway (1915-82), My Brother, Ernest Hemingway - who wouldn't want to pick this up in the bookstore? Raul Hilberg (1926-97), The Destruction of the European Jews his magnum opus, pub. after his alma mater Columbia U. turns it down, followed by five more publishers until Quadrangle Books takes a chance on it; German ed. isn't pub. until 1982; rev. ed. pub. in 1985 as a 3-vol. set; "The first clear description of the incredibly complicated machinery of destruction set up under Nazism" (Hannah Arendt); bolsters the functionalist view of the Holocaust, first proposed by German historian (ex-Nazi Party member) Martin Broszat (1926-89) in 1977, that it was evolved by the bureaucracy after other plans proved untenable, which competes with the intentionalist view that it was a premeditated plan from day one by Hitler, forced on the bureaucrats from the top; in 1977, that it evolved after other plans proved untenable, which competes with the documents how the Judenrate (Jewish Councils) were complicit in the Holocaust, pissing-off the Israeli govt., which denies him access to the Yad Vashem archives, causing him to utter the soundbyte: "It has taken me some time to absorb what I should always have known, that in my whole approach to the study of the destruction of the Jews I was pitting myself against the main current of Jewish thought." Christopher Hill (1912-2003), The Century of Revolution, 1603-1714. Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978), The Near East in History. Lancelot Hogben (1895-1975), Mathematics in the Making - little TLW's favorite pillow book for years? Sidney Hook (1902-89), The Quest for Being, and Other Studies in Naturalism and Humanism. Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927-2008), The Common Defense: Strategic Programs in National Politics. Jane Jacobs (1916-2006), The Death and Life of Great American Cities; criticizes urban renewal and favors diverse building styles in densely-packed neighborhoods, starting a rev. and bringing down N.Y. planning czar Robert Moses (1888-1981), starting with the rejection of his proposed Mid-Manhattan Expressway through Greenwich Village and SoHo. Elizabeth Jenkins (1905-2010), Elizabeth and Leicester; the violent deaths of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard made Queen Elizabeth I unable to have sex with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester? Howard Mumford Jones (1892-1980), Humane Traditions in America: A List of Suggested Readings, Vol. 1. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Memories, Dreams, Reflections (posth.). George Frost Kennan (1904-2005), Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), Control of the Mind; Hanged by the Neck: An Exposure of Capital Punishment in England. Hans Kohn (1891-1971), The Habsburg Empire, 1804-1918. R.D. Laing (1927-89), Self and Others. Joseph P. Lash (1909-87), Dag Hammarskjold: Custodian of the Brushfire Peace. Bernard Lewis (1916-2018), The Emergence of Modern Turkey; Kemal Ataturk's People's Party of 1923, the turnover of power in May 1950 to the Dem. Party, followed by the military takover in 1960; as a Western-oriented Muslim Middle East power, its status is a bellweather to the success of Muslim fundamentalism?; argues that the Armenian Genocide was not a deliberate Ottoman policy but a struggle between two competing nationalist movements, and calls the label "genocide" the "Armenian version of history "in Nov. 1993, getting him taken to court and fined one franc; Oscar Lewis (1914-70), The Children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican Family; the Mexico City slum of Tepito; banned in Mexico. Robert Jay Lifton (1926-), Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China; coins the term "brainwashing" AKA "thought reform" AKA "mind control", consisting of eight methods: milieu control, mystical manipulation, demand for purity, confession, sacred science, loaded language, subordination of person, right to dispense of existence; claims they can't permanently change beliefs or personality. John Cunningham Lilly (1915-2001), Man and Dolphin: Adventures of a New Scientific Frontier. Jackson Turner Main (1917-2003), The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788 (first book) (Jamestown Prize); attacks the Consensus School of Am. History with archival work exposing tension between ordinary citizens and aristocrats. Harpo Marx (1888-1964), Harpo Speaks! (autobio.). Mary McCarthy (1912-89), On the Contrary (essays). David McClelland (1917-98), The Achieving Society. George Lachmann Mosse (1918-99), The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, an Introduction; culture as "a state or habit of mind which is apt to become a way of life". Lewis Mumford (1895-1990), The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects; his masterpiece? Ernest Nagel (1901-85), The Structure of Science. Stephen Charles Neill (1900-84), Christian Faith and Other Faiths: The Christian Dialogue with Other Religions. Richard Elliott Neustadt (1919-2003), Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership; by a JFK advisor. Hans Erich Nossack (1901-77), Nach dem Letzten Aufstand. Frank O'Connor (1903-66), An Only Child (autobio.); how as a child when he came to a wall too high to climb he would throw his cap over it to force himself to do it; quoted by JFK when launching the Race to the Moon: "This nation has tossed its cap over the wall of space and we have no choice but to follow it." Oxford U. Press, The New English Bible; pub. on the 350th anniv. of the 1611 King James Authorized Version (AV). Louella Parsons (1881-1972), Tell It to Louella (autobio.); in 1964 her asst. Dorothy Manners (1903-98) takes over her Hearst Corp. movie gossip column, begun in 1922; Manners retires in 1977. Eric Partridge (1894-1979), A Charm of Words: Essays and Papers on Language. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), The Modern British Monarchy. Richard Pipes (1923), The Russian Intelligentsia. George Plimpton (1927-2003), Out Of My League; how he faced the eight starters for both teams in the 1960 All-Star game. David Morris Potter (1910-71), The Background of the Civil War. Benjamin Arthur Quarles (1904-96), The Negro in the American Revolution; "The Negro's role in the Revolution can best be understood by realizing that his major loyalty was not to a place nor to a people, but to a principle. Insofar as he had freedom of choice, he was likely to join the side that made him the quickest and best offer in terms of those 'unalienable rights' of which Mr. Jefferson had spoken. Whoever invoked the image of liberty, be he American or British, could count on a ready response from the blacks." Carroll Quigley (1910-77), The Evolution of Civilizations: An Introduction to Historical Analysis. Leon Radzinowicz, In Search of Criminology. Ayn Rand (1905-82), For the New Intellectual: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand; her rational self-interest philosophy of Objectivism as described in her bestselling novels "Atlas Shrugged" and "The Fountainhead". Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82), Assays. Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-2008), Pour un Nouveau Roman (For a New Novel); helps define the French Nouveau Roman, a movement incl. Michel Butor (1926-), Nathalie Sarraute (1900-99), and Claude Simon (1913-2005). Henry Rosovsky (1927-), Capital Formation in Japan; Quantitative Japanese Economic History. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Fact and Fiction; Has Man a Future?; The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell [1872-1970], 1903-1959; ed. by Robert E. Egner and Lester E. Denonn. Robert Allen Rutland, George Mason: Reluctant Statesman. Michel Saint-Denis (1897-1971), Theatre: A Rediscovery of Style. Mark Schorer (1908-77), Sinclair Lewis: An American Life. Hans F. Sennholz (1922-2007), Moneda y Libertad (Money and Liberty). Alexander P. de Seversky (1894-1974), America: Too Young to Die! B.F. Skinner (1904-90), The Analysis of Behavior: A Program of Self-Instruction. C.P. Snow (1905-80), Science and Government. George Steiner (1929-), The Death of Tragedy; the one art form unique to the Western world, and it's kaput? William Andrew Swanberg (1907-92), Citizen Hearst: A Biography of William Randolph Hearst (NYT bestseller); rejected for a Pulitzer Prize by the trustees of Columbia U. even after the advisory board recommends it because Hearst isn't important enough, becoming the first trustee rejection of a board recommendation, causing sales to soar. Herman Taller (1906-84), Calories Don't Count; Romanian-born Am. physician claims that polyunsaturated safflower oil is the cure to obesity, bringing the FDA down on him; sells 2M copies despite a conviction for 12 counts of mail fraud on May 11, 1967. A.J.P. Taylor (1906-90), The Origins of the Second World War; attempts to lessen Germany's blame. Hugh Thomas (1931-), The Spanish Civil War. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975), Between Oxus and Jumna. Watch Tower Society, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures; generally accurate but unpoetic and unbeautiful trans.; controversial for being worded to support Jehovah's Witnesses' anti-Trinitarian Arian doctrines and for preserving the name of God (Tetragrammaton) (Jehovah) perhaps a wee bit too much; JWs counter by saying how it grieves them to the heart to see King James Bibles with "Lord" substituted throughout. New York Times, The New York Times Cookbook. Barbara Mary Ward (1914-81), India and the West. Robert Penn Warren (1905-89), The Legacy of the Civil War; the Civil War "holds in suspension the great unresolved issues of our society - justice, tolerance, true brotherhood, understanding, and charity"; "The asking and the answering which history provides may help us to understand, even to frame, the logic of experience to which we shall submit. History cannot give us a program for the future, but it can give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and of our common humanity, so that we can better face the future." Alan W. Watts (1915-73), Psychotherapy East and West; proposes that Buddhism be regarded as a form of psychotherapy. Sidney Weintraub (1914-83), Classical Keynesianism, Monetary Theory, and the Price level (Jan. 1); disses Classical or Hicksian Keynesian for caricaturing true Keynesianism and not making enough use of supply-side aspects of macroeconomics. Emlyn Williams (1905-87), George: An Early Autobiography. Raymond Henry Williams (1921-88), The Long Revolution; the growth of the English-speaking world causes its own rev. outside the dem. and industrial revs.? William Appleman Williams (1921-90), The Contours of American History; traces U.S. imperialism to 17th cent. Britain, who used expansion of its empire to contain class and racial tensions at home. Garry Wills (1934-), Chesterton: Man and Mask. C. Vann Woodward (1908-99), The Age of Reinterpretation. Ola Elizabeth Winslow (1885-1977), John Bunyan. Art: Cynthia Bissell, Monster Slayer (Pricking Vagina) - painting of the decade? Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Tribe of Levi; Daphnis and Chloe (lithographs) - one of the last commercial artists left still making halfway classical-looking art, and he's in his 80s? Lucien Coutaud (1904-77), Les Fauchers de Vagues; Les Belles Demoiselles de Mer. M.C. Escher (1898-1972), Waterfall (lithograph). Helen Frankenthaler (1928-), Arden. Richard Lippold (1915-2002), Orpheus and Apollo (sculpture); 190 thin metal planks suspended by steel wires; for Avery Fisher Hall in Lincoln Center. Morris Louis (1912-62), Stripes Series (1961-2). Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Vivir Enfrentando las Flechas. Kenneth Noland (1924-2010), Cantabile. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Portrait of Jacqueline; his 2nd wife; Ace. Bridget Riley (1931-), Horizontal Vibration; Kiss; Movements in Squares; makes her a rising British Op Art star. James Rosenquist (1933-), Hey, Let's Go for a Ride. Dieter Roth (1930-98), Daily Mirror; a bunch of old newspapers cut into 2cm squares and rebound as a 150-page book. Mark Rothko (1903-70), Orange, Red, Yellow; sells for $86.9M in 2012. Tom Wesselmann (1931-2004), Great American Nude Series (1961-); all in red-white-blue. Music: Arthur Alexander (1940-93), You Better Move On. The Angels, Till. Paul Anka (1941-), Cinderella; Dance On Little Girl; Story of My Love. Tennessee Stud. Milton Byron Babbitt (1916-). Composition for Synthesizer; uses the RCA Mark II Synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. Joan Baez (1941-), Joan Baez, Vol. 2 (album #2) (Sept.); incl. "Pal of Mine", "The Trees They Do Grow High", "Lily of the West", "Lonesome Road". Henri Barraud (1900-97), Lavinia (opera buffa) (Aix-en-Provence) (July 20); libretto by Felicien Marceau based on his novel "La Maman d'Enee". The Beatles (Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers), My Bonnie (album) (debut) (Jan. 5); released by Polydor; produced by German bandleader Bert Kaempfert (1923-80); incl. My Bonnie (Mein Herz ist Bei Dir Nur) (first single) (Jan. 5); recorded June 22, 1961. Chuck Berry (1926-2017), I'm Talking 'Bout You; Come On. Mike Berry (1942-) and The Outlaws, Will You Love Me Tomorrow (Jan. 1) (debut); Tribute to Buddy Holly (Nov.). Acker Bilk (1929-), Stranger on the Shore; first #1 U.S. hit by an English artist since the advent of the Billboard 100. Gary U.S. Bonds (1939-), Quarter to Three (June) (#1 in the U.S.) (1M copies); School Is Out (#5 in the U.S.), School Is In (#28 in the U.S.); Dear Lady Twist (Dec. 11) (#9 in the U.S.). Pat Boone (1934-), Moody River (album); incl. Big Cold Wind, Moody River (May) (#1 in the U.S.); "Moody River your bloody water took my baby's life". Pierre Boulez (1925-), Domaines (1961-8). Jacques Brel (1929-78), Jacques Brel 5 (album). The Brothers Four, B.M.O.C. (Best Music On/Off Campus) (album #3) (#4 in the U.S.). The Isley Brothers, Twist and Shout. Anita Bryant (1940-), Hear Anita Bryant in Your Home Tonight! (album); incl. Paper Roses (#5 in the U.S.) (her biggest hit), In My Little Corner of the World, God Bless America. Jerry Butler (1939-), Moon River (1961) (#11) (by Johnny Mercer and Henry Mancini) (Andy Williams' version never charts except as an LP track). Mari Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895-1968), The Importance of Being Earnest (opera). Ray Charles (1930-2004), Genius+Soul=Jazz (album); incl. Hit the Road Jack; I'm Gonna Move to the Outskirts of Town; I've Got News For You; One Mint Julep; Them That Got; At the Club. Chubby Checker (1941-), Pony Time; written by Don Covay; #1 in the U.S. for 3 weeks. Patsy Cline (1932-63), I Fall to Pieces; Crazy; composed by Wilie Nelson. Nat King Cole (1919-65), The Nat King Cole Story (triple album); The Touch of Your Lips (album). Judy Collins (1939-), A Maid of Constant Sorrow (album) (debut); features folk sings performed in a social protest style, incl. Maid of Constant Sorrow, Wild Mountain Thyme, Tim Evans (Go Down You Murderers) (by Ewan McColl). John Coltrane (1926-67), My Favorite Things (album); his change from bebop to free jazz; incl. My Favorite Things (from "The Sound of Music" by Richard Rodgers (1902-79) and Oscar Hammerstein II), Summertime. Sam Cooke (1931-64), Cupid (#17 in the U.S.). Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965), Music I Heard; based on a Conraid Aiken poem. Betty Curtis (Roberta Corti) (1936-2006), Al di La (It. "Beyond"); performed at the Palais des Festivals in Cannes, becoming a big hit in Italy. Bobby Darin (1936-73), Lazy River (#14 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby (#5 in the U.S., #10 in the U.K.); James Darren (1936-), Goodbye, Cruel World (#3 in the U.S.) (1M copies); composed by Noel Regney (1922-2002) and Gloria Shayne Baker (1923-2008). Miles Davis (126-91), Someday My Prince Will Come (album) (Dec. 11); features his wife Frances on the cover. Jimmy Dean (1928-2010), Big Bad John and Other Fabulous Songs and Tales (album) (Sept.); incl. Smoke, Smoke, Smoke That Cigarette ("I smoked them all my life and I ain't dead yet/ But nicotine slaves are all the same/ At a pettin' party or a poker game/ Everything's gotta stop when you have that cigarette"); Big Bad John (#1 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.) (1M copies); written by Jimmy Dean and Roy Acuff; "Every morning at the mine, you could see him arrive. He stood 6 foot 6, weighed 245. Kind of broad at the shoulders, narrow at the hip. And everybody knew you didn't give no lip to Big John"; "Grabbed a sagging timber and gave out with a groan and like a giant oak tree just stood there alone". Joey Dee and the Starliters, Peppermint Twist; #1 in early 1962. Dion (1939-) and the Belmonts, Runaround Sue (#1 in the U.S.) ("Here's my story, sad but true./ It's about a girl that I once knew/ She took my love then ran around/ With every single guy in town"); The Wanderer (#2 in the U.S.) ("Well I'm the type of guy who will never settle down/ Where pretty girls are, well, you know that I'm around/ I kiss 'em and I love 'em cause to me they're all the same/ I hug 'em and I squeeze 'em thay don't even know my name"). Bo Diddley (1928-2008), Bo Diddley is a Lover (Jan. 1). Eric Dolphy (1928-64), At the Five Spot (album #3) (double album). Fats Domino (1928-2017), Ain't That Just Like a Woman; It Keeps Raining; Let the Four Winds Blow; What a Party; I Hear You Knocking. Craig Douglas (1941-), A Hundred Pounds of Clay; banned by the BBC. Joe Dowell (1940-), Wooden Heart (#1 in the U.S.); composed by Bert Kaempfert; takes advantage of the Elvis Presley version being released only in Europe to sell 1M copies. Charlie Drake (1925-2006), My Boomerang Won't Come Back; too bad, he suffers a serious skull fracture on his BBC TV show after a breakaway bookcase is mended by a workman and they throw him through it anyway, knocking him out, after which they throw him through a window, derailing his career for two years. Duane Eddy (1938-) and The Rebels, $1,000,000 Worth of Twang, Vol. II (album #5) (#18 in the U.K.); incl. Pepe (#18 in the U.S.) (#2 in the U.K.), Theme from Dixie (#39 in the U.S.) (#7 in the U.K.), Drivin' Home (#87 in the U.S.) (#30 in the U.K.), Gidget Goes Hawaiian (#101 in the U.S.); Ring of Fire (#84 in the U.S.) (#17 in the U.K.). Bill Evans (1929-80), Explorations (album #5); Sunday at the Village Vanguard (album #6) (Oct.); recorded on June 25, 1961 with bassist Rocco Scott LaFaro (1936-61) (who dies in a car accident on July 6, 10 days after the recording session while returning from the Newport Jazz Festival) and drummer Stephen Paul Motian (1931-2011), becoming one of the best live jazz albums of all time; incl. Solar (by Miles Davis), Gloria's Step (by Scott LaFaro), All of You (by Cole Porter). Adam Faith (1940-2003) and John Barry (1933-2011), Beat Girl Soundtrack (album). Adam Faith (1940-2003) and the Roulettes, Who Am I! (#5 in the U.K.); Easy Going Me (#12 in the U.K.); Don't You Know It (#12 in the U.K.); The Time Has Come (#4 in the U.K.). Earl Scruggs (1924-2012) and Lester Flatt (1914-79) and the Foggy Mountain Boys, Foggy Mountain Banjo; incl. Cripple Creek. Stan Freberg (1926-), Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America, Volume One: The Early Years (album); vol. 2 is released in 1996. Jimmy Gilmer (1940-) and The Fireballs, Quite A Party (#29 in the U.K.). Clinton Ford (1931-), Too Many Beautiful Girls. Connie Francis (1938-), Never on Sunday; Where the Boys Are; "Where the boys are someone waits for me". Judy Garland (1922-69), Judy at Carnegie Hall (double album) (July 10); recorded Apr. 23, 1961, "the greatest night in show business history". Marvin Gaye (1939-84), The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye (album) (debut) (June 8); 2nd LP released by Motown Records after "Hi... We're the Miracles" (June); too bad, it's mostly jazz not R&B, and flops; incl. Let Your Conscience Be Your Guide, Never Let You Go, You Don't Know What Love Is. Bob Gibson (1931-96), Gibson & Camp at the Gate of Horn (album). Ferde Grofe (1892-1972), The Niagara Falls Suite. Alexei Haieff (1914-94), Symphony No. 3 (New Haven) (Apr. 11). George Hamilton IV (1937-), Before This Day Ends. Hans Werner Henze (1926-), Elegy for Young Lovers (opera) (Schwetzingen) (May 20); incl. Carolina's Monologue. The Highwaymen, Michael (Row the Boat Ashore) (#1 in the U.S and U.K.) (1M copies); "collegiate folk music" from Wesleyan U. in Middletown, Conn., incl. Dave Fisher (1940-2010), Bob Burnett (1940-2011), Steve Butts, Chan Daniels (1939-75), and Stephen S. "Steve" Trott (1939-). Billie Holiday (1915-59), The Essential Billie Holiday (album) (posth.); her last concerts on Nov. 10, 1956 at Carnegie Hall, Johnny Horton (1925-60), Sleepy-Eyed John (posth.). (#9 country). Frank Ifield (1937-), I Remember You; sells 1M in the U.K. Wanda Jackson (1937-), In the Middle of a Heartache (#27 in the U.S.); Right or Wrong (#29 in the U.S.); A Little Bitty Tear (#84 in the U.S.). Etta James (1938-2012), The Second Time Around (album #3); incl. At Last (#47 in the U.S.) (#2 R&B), Trust in Me (#30), All I Could Do Was Cry (#33), My Dearest Darling (#34), If I Can't Have You (w/Harvey Fuqua) (#52), Spoonful (w/Harvey Fuqua) (#78). Norman Dello Joio (1898-2003), Blood Moon (opera) (San Francisco). Andre Jolivet (1905-74), Sonata for Flute and Piano; Symphony for Strings. Kitty Kallen (1922-), Raining in My Heart. Eden Kane (1941-), Well I Ask You (debut); Get Lost ("Get lost, but get lost in my arms"). Ben E. King (1938-), Stand By Me (#1 in the U.K.). Freddie King (1934-76), Freddy King Sings Federal 762 (album) (debut); Let's Hide Away and Dance Away with Freddy King (album); incl. Hide Away. The Kingston Trio, Where Have All the Flowers Gone; big hit; they release it thinking it's an anon. folk song. Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips, Every Beat of My Heart (#6 in the U.S.). Brenda Lee (1944-), All the Way (album); incl. All the Way, Dum Dum; Brenda, That's All (album); incl. Fool #1 (#3 in the U.S., #38 in the U.K.); Speak to Me Pretty. The Limeliters, A Dollar Down (1961) (#60 in the U.S.); Tonight: In Person (album) (#5 in the U.S.); from New York City, incl. Lou Gottlieb (1923-96) (bass violin) (doctorate in musicology), Alex Hassilev (1932-) (banjo), and Glenn Yarbrough (1930-) (guitar); named after a nightclub in Aspen, Colo. Abbey Lincoln (1930-2010), Straight Ahead (album #5); incl. Straight Ahead (co-written by Earl Baker and Max Waldron). Abbey Lincoln (1930-2010) and Max Roach (1924-2007), It's Time (album); incl. It's Time. Joe Loss Orchestra, Wheels Cha Cha. Darlene Love (1941-) and the Blossoms, Son-in-Law; Hard to Get. Henry Mancini (1924-94), Breakfast at Tiffany's Soundtrack (album). Annunzio Mantovani (1905-80) and His Orchestra, Mantovani Plays Music from Exodus and Other Great Themes (album) (#2 in the U.S.) (1M copies). The Marvelettes, Please Mr. Postman (album) (debut); incl. Please Mr. Postman; first #1 pop hit for Motown Records; from Inkster, Mich., incl. Gladys Horton (1945-), Katherine Anderson Schaffner (1944-), Wanda Rogers (1944-), Anne Bogan, Georgeanna Marie Tillman Gordon (1943-80), Wyanetta (Juanita) Cowart, Georgia Dobbins. Johnny Mathis (1935-), Moon River (by Johnny Mercer and Henry Mancini). Gene McDaniels (1935-), Sometimes I'm Happy, Sometimes I'm Blue (album #2); incl. Tower of Strength, A Hundred Pounds of Clay (album #3); incl. A Hundred Pounds of Clay, It's All in the Game. The Miracles, Hi... We're the Miracles (album) (debut) (June); 1st album released by Motown Records; incl. Shop Around; Cookin' with the Miracles (album #2) (Nov.); incl. Everybody's Gotta Pay Some Dues. Thelonious Monk (1917-82), Monk in France (album #14); recorded on Apr. 18. Matt Monro (1930-85), My Kind of Girl. Bob Moore (1932-), Mexico (#7 in the U.S.) (1M copies). Douglas Moore (1893-1969), The Wings of the Dove (opera). Ricky Nelson (1940-85), Travelin' Man (by Jerry Fuller) (6M copies); claims to have girls in Alaska, Berlin, Mexico, China, and Polynesia; Hello Mary Lou; written by Gene Pitney (1940-2006). Sandy Nelson (1938-), Let There Be Drums (#7 in the U.S., #9 in the U.K.). Anthony Newley (1931-99), Tony (album); incl. And the Heavens Cried; What Kind of Fool Am I. Luigi Nono (1924-90), Intoleranza (opera) (Venice) (Apr. 13); calls it a "stage action"; anti-fascist opera causes a riot by neo-Nazis at its debut; written for soprano Catherine Grayer. Roy Orbison (1936-88), Running Scared (Mar.) (#1 in the U.S., #9 in the U.K.); Crying/ Candy Man (July) (#2 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.). Tony Orlando (1944-), Bless You (album) (debut); incl. Halfway to Paradise; Bless You; Happy Times (Are Here to Stay). Walter Piston (1894-1976), Symphony No. 7 (Pulitzer Prize). The Platters, If I Didn't Care (Jan.); Trees (Apr.); I'll Never Smile Again (July). Elvis Presley (1935-77), Surrender/ Lonely Man (Feb.); Elvis By Request - Flaming Star (Apr.) (first Elvis film without a full soundtrack album); I Feel So Bad/ Wild in the Country (May); Something for Everybody (album) (June); (Marie's the Name) His Latest Flame/ Little Sister (Aug.); Blue Hawaii (album) (Oct.); incl. Blue Hawaii, Hawaiian Wedding Song, Can't Help Falling in Love, Rock-A-Hula Baby. The Ramrods, Ghost Riders in the Sky (#30 in the U.S.) (#8 in the U.K.); from Conn., incl. Claire Lane (Litke) and Rich Litke, Vinny Lee (guitar), Gene Moore (guitar). Jim Reeves (1923-64), Losing Your Love (#2 country) (#89 in the U.S.). Paul Revere and The Raiders, Like, Long Hair (album) (debut); incl. Like, Long Hair; bakery employee Mark Lindsay (1942-) sells hamburger buns to restaurant owner Paul Revere Dick (1938-2014) in Caldwell, Idaho, and the rest is history? Marty Robbins (1925-82), Don't Worry (#1 country) (#3 in the U.S.); It's Your World (#3 country) (#51 in the U.S.). Uno Sguardo Dal Ponte (opera); based on Arthur Miller's play "A View from the Bridge". Bobby Rydell (1942-), Cherie; That Old Black Magic; The Fish; I Wanna Thank You; Jingle Bell Rock. Scorpions, (Ghost) Riders in the Sky. Neil Sedaka (1939-), This Endless Night. The Shadows, Rollers Express; The Savage. Del Shannon (1934-90), Runaway (debut) (Mar.) (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.); from Grand Rapids, Mich. introduces the Musitron electric synthesizer; Hats Off to Larry (June) (#5 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.). The Shirelles, Mama Said. Ray Stevens (1939-), 1,837 Seconds of Humor (album) (debut); incl. Jeremiah Peabody's Polyunsaturated Quick-Dissolving Fast-Acting Pleasant-Tasting Green and Purple Pills, Ahab the Arab. B. Bumble and the Stingers, Bumble Boogie; Kim Fowley (1939-). Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer - he's still around? Sir Michael Tippett (1905-98), Magnificat; Nunc Dimittis Collegium Sancti Johannis Cantabrigiense; commissioned by George Guest for St. John's College, Cambridge U. The Tokens, Tonight I Fell in Love (#15 in the U.S.); Wimoweh; The Lion Sleeps Tonight; from Brooklyn, N.Y., incl. Neil Sedaka (1939-) (quit in 1957), Hank Medress (1938-2007), Cynthia Zolotin (quit in 1957), Jay Siegel, Mitch Margo (tenor), Phil Margo (baritone), and Joe Venneri (guitar); cover of 1952 song "Wimoweh" by The Weavers, which is a cover the 1939 song "Mbube" by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds. Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner (1939-), The Sound of Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner. Various Artists, West Side Story Soundtrack (album); incl. Maria, Tonight. Frankie Vaughan (1928-99), Tower of Strength; Don't Stop Twist. Billy Vaughn (1919-91) and His Orchestra, Wheels (#28 in the U.S.). Bobby Vee (1943-), Take Good Care of My Baby (June); #1 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); Devil or Angel (#6 in the U.S.); Rubber Ball (#6 in the U.S.); More Than I Can Say (#4 in the U.S.); Run to Him (#2 in the U.S.). The Ventures, The Ventures (album) (July); Another Smash!!! (album) (Sept.); The Colorful Ventures (album) (Oct.); all tracks have titles with a color in the name, incl. "Blue Moon", "Yellow Jacket". Robert Eugene Ward (1917-), The Crucible (opera) (Oct. 26) (City Opera, New York) (Pulitzer Prize); based on the Arthur Miller Play. Kitty Wells (1919-2012), Heartbreak U.S.A. (#1 country). Mary Wells (1943-92), Bye Bye Baby/ I Don't Want to Take a Chance (album); first Motown LP?; incl. Bye Bye Baby, I Don't Want to Take a Chance. Jackie Wilson (1934-84), The Tear of the Year; I"m Comin' on Back to You. Si Zentner (1917-2000) and the Johnny Mann Singers, Great Band with Great Voices (album). Movies: Robert Stevenson's The Absent-Minded Professor (Mar. 16) (Walt Disney) (B&W), based on a story by Samuel Woolley Taylor and Princeton U. chem. prof. Hubert "Dr. Boom" Alyea stars Fred MacMurray as Prof. Ned Brainard, who invents a gravity-defying goo called Flubber (flying rubber), makes a flying car, and turns white men into black, er, great jumping basketball players; Tommy Kirk plays Biff Hawk; does $25.4M box office; followed by "Son of Flubber" (1963), "Flubber" (1997); gives birth to a neverending retro dream for white Baby Boomers? Pier Paolo Pasolini's Accatone (Apr. 4) is the dir. debut of Italian dir.-writer Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922-75), starring Franco Citti as Roman pimp Vittorio "Accattone" Cataldi, whose money honey Maddalena (Silvana Corsini) is jailed, causing his income to dry up, after which he seduces Stella (Franca Pasut) and turns her into his ho, then falls in love with her and decides to go straight and support her, leading to tragedy, since he's totally unemployable; sets the kinky sex and violence theme for Pasolini. Federico Caldura's The Adventure of Topo Gigio the Italian Mouse stars the puppet made famous on The Ed Sullivan Show, patented by Maria Perego Caldura of Milan, which requires three people to operate. Boris Petroff's Anatomy of a Psycho, written by Jane Mann and Ed Wood (under the alias Larry Lee) stars George Burns' son Ronnie Burns as Chet, a teenie who goes psycho. Richard O. Fleischer's Barabbas (Dec. 23), written by Christopher Fry and Nigel Balchin based on the Par Lagerkvist novel stars Anthony Quinn, who gets freaked about being let off the cross in the place of Jesus Christ. Coleman Francis' The Beast of Yucca Flats (Mar. 2) (B&W) stars Swedish wrestler Tor Johnson as defecting Russian scientist Joseph Javorsky, who tries to give military secrets to the U.S. and is chased by KGB agents into the desert, where he is caught in an A-bomb explosion at a test range and turns into a killer monster; worse sci-fi horror film ever made? Norman Taurog's musical comedy film Blue Hawaii (Nov. 22) (Paramount Pictures), written by Hal Kanter stars Elvis Presley in his biggest hit movie ($4.2M box office) as ex-GI Chadwick Gates (a stretch?), who disobeys his mother Sarah Lee (Angela Lansbury) to work as a tour guide at the agency of his babe Maile Duval (Joan Blackman); features "Hawaiian Wedding Song" and "Can't Help Falling in Love", plus such jewels as "Song of the Shrimp", "Queenie Wahine's Papaya", and "Do the Clam". Blake Edwards' Breakfast at Tiffany's (Oct. 5), based on the 1958 Truman Capote novel stars introverted doll-like Audrey Hepburn (after Marilyn Monroe turns down the part) as extroverted poverty-stricken Tiffany's window-viewing socialite Holly Golightly, and pretty boy George Peppard as neighbor writer Paul "Fred" Varjak; features Hepburn singing Moon River by Henry Mancini, which wins the best song Oscar - would have been better in another film? John Sturges' By Love Possessed (July 19), based on the 1957 novel by James Gould Cozzens stars Lana Turner, Efrem Zimbalist Jr., Jason Robards, and George Hamilton; on July 19 it becomes the first in-flight movie shown on a regular airline flight (TWA). Nagisa Oshima's The Catch, based on a novel by Kenzaburo Oe is about a WWII Japanese village that captures an African-Am. serviceman. William Wyler's The Children's Hour (Dec. 19), based on the 1934 Lillian Hellman play stars Audrey Hepburn and Shirley MacLaine as former college classmates who are accused of a lezzie affair, and James Garner as Karen's clueless beau. Robert Mulligan's Come September (Aug. 9) stars Rock Hudson, Gina Lollobrigida, Sandra Dee. and Bobby Darin in a romantic comedy about the generation gap; Dee and Darin meet and get married on the set; Bobby Darin sings Multiplication ("Multiplication, that's the game, and each generation plays the same") (if only he knew about Rock sucking Hudson?) and The Come September Theme. Shirley Clarke's The Connection is a performance by the Living Theatre of Jack Gelber's play about heroin addicts. Roger Corman's Creature from the Haunted Sea (June) (Filmgroup) is a horror comedy starring Antony Carbone as Am. racketeer Renzo Capetto, who helps a group of Cuban loyalists led by Gen. Tostada (Edmundo Rivera Alvarez) escape the Cuban Rev. with Cuba's nat. treasury for use in a counterrev., causing U.S. spy Agent XK150 (Robert Towne) (the narrator) to infiltrate them under the name Sparks Moran, almost pulling it off until a ridiculous fuzzy sea monster upsets their plans; Betsy Jones-Moreland plays Capetto's blonde babe Mary-Belle Monahan. Val Guest's The Day the Earth Caught Fire (Nov. 23) (British Lion Films) (Universal-International) stars Edward Judd, Leo McKern, and Janet Munro in an apocalyptic film about U.S.-Soviet nuclear weapons tests knocking the Earth out of orbit, causing it to move closer to the Sun. Sam Peckinpah's Deadly Companions (June 6) is the feature film debut of dir. David Samuel "Sam" Peckinpah (1925-84) is a Western based on the Albert Sidney Fleischman novel, starring Brian Keith as ex-army officer Yellowleg, who accidentally kills the son of Kat Tilden (Maureen O'Hara), and redeems himself by escorting the funeral procession through Injun territory; shows Peckinpah's knack for screen violence. Pietro Germi's Divorce, Italian Style (Dec. 20) is a comedy starring Marcello Mastroianni as Sicilian baron Ferdinando Cefalu, who falls in love with his beautiful young cousin Angela (Stefania Sandrelli), and decides to do in his wife Rosalia (Daniela Rocca) by framing her for infidelity and relying on the lenient Italian law of honor killing, hooking her up with painter Carmelo Patane (Leopoldo Trieste). Henry Koster's Flower Drum Song (Nov. 9), based on a Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, based on a novel by C.Y. Lee stars Nancy Kwan, Jack Soo, James Shigeta and Miyoshi Umeki in musical numbers incl. "Fan Tan Fanny" and "Chop Suey". Valerio Zurlini's Girl with a Suitcase (Feb. 9) (La Razazza con la Valigia) stars Claudia Cardinale as showgirl Aida Zepponi, who lives on the goodwill of others, and runs to the younger brother of her ex-lover, 16-y.-o. rich kid Lorenzo Fainardi (Jacques Perrin), becoming his lover while the family goes nuts, finally parting with a new lover, after which he tries to make things right by giving her some farewell money. J. Lee Thompson's The Guns of Navarone (June 22) (Columbia Pictures), based on the 1957 Alistair MacLean novel and filmed on Rhodes stars Gregory Peck as Capt. Keith Mallory, head of a British team incl. Cpl. Anthony Miller (David Niven), Maj. Roy Franklin (Anthony Quayle), and Pvt. Butcher Brown ("Butcher of Barcelona") (Stanley Baker), who are sent to destroy an impregnable German gun overlooking the Aegean Sea with the help of Greek partisans incl. Col. Andrea Stavrou (Anthony Quinn), and Pvt. Spyros Pappadimos (James Darren); up-and-coming he-can-sing-too actor Richard Harris (1930-2002) gets a memorable bit part as squadron leader Howard Barnsby of the RAAF, who reports that the "bloody guns" can't be blown up from the air; does $28.9M box office on a $6M budget. Jonas Mekas' Guns of the Trees, narrated by Allen Ginsberg is about a group of mourners for the dead brunette Frances, who get into leftist politics. Don Siegel's Hell is for Heroes stars Steve McQueen as Pvt. Reese, Bobby Darin as Pvt. Corby (who sells fountain pens for $7.50, $8.50 with ink), Fess Parker as Sgt. Pike, Harry Guardino as Sgt. Larkin, James Coburn as Cpl. Henshaw, Mike Kellin as Pvt. Kolinsky, and Nick Adams as Pvt. Homer, members of an outnumbered U.S. platoon facing the Nazi Siegfried Line near Montigny, France in fall 1944 and trying to fool them into believing their numbers are greater than they actually are while awaiting reinforcements; film debut of Bob Newhart as Lt. Driscoll, who does his first telephone comedy monologue ("Temple Red to Abel Six... This is Lt. Driscoll, the entertainment officer... The main complaint seems to be about the evening movie. I've had to show Road to Morocco now five evenings in a row, sir... The cook is working out rather well sir. One problem, sir, his vichyssoise tastes a little too much like potato soup - oh, they're supposed to taste like potato soup"). Robert Rossen's The Hustler (Sept. 25), based on the 1959 novel by Walter Tevis based on the life of pool shark "Fast" Eddie Parker (1931-2001) stars Paul Newman as Fast Eddie Felson, and Jackie Gleason as Minnesota Fats in a taste of what it takes to be a top green baize master pool shark; real pool hustler Rudolf Wanderone (Wanderon) Jr. (1913-96) claims the film is based on him, and adopts the nickname; sequel is "The Color of Money" (1986). Jack Clayton's The Innocents (Nov.), based on Henry James' novel "The Turn of the Screw" about a haunted house stars Deborah Kerr as Miss Giddens, Peter Wyngarde as Peter Quint, Megs Jenkins as Mrs. Grose, and Michael Redgrave as the uncle. Koji Ota's Invasion of the Neptune Men (Iron Sharp) (B&W) stars Sonny Chiba as superhero Iron Sharp (Space Chief). Stanley Kramer's Judgment at Nuremberg (Dec. 14 in Berlin, Dec. 19 in the U.S.) stars Spencer Tracy as chief justice Dan Haywood, Richard Widmark as the prosecutor Col. Tad Lawson, Maximilian Schell as defense atty. Hans Rolfe, Burt Lancaster as accused Nazi Dr. Ernst Janning, Judy Garland as his suspected lover Irene Hoffman, Marlene Dietrich as German woman Mrs. Bertholt, and Montgomery Clift as Rudolph Petersen (his last Oscar nomination); "Over six million, according to reports from the Nazis' own figures, but the real figures nobody knows" (Widmark). Vladimir Pogacic's Karolina Rijecka stars Anne Aubrey as Karolina. Alain Resnais' Last Year at Marienbad (L'Anee Derniere a Marienbad), written by Alain Robbe-Grillet stars Giorgi Albertazzi as a stranger trying to lure married Delphine Seyrig to run away with him at an old-fashioned luxury hotel. Jacques Demy's Lola (Mar. 3) is a "musical without music" starring Anouk Aimee as a cabaret dancer; the dir. debut of Jacques Demy (1931-90); first in a trilogy of romantic films, incl. "The Umbrellas of Cherbourg" (1964), "The Young Girls of Rochefort" (1967). John Huston's The Misfits (Feb. 1) (Seven Arts Productions), written by Arthur Miller for his wife Marilyn Monroe debuts on the birthday of dead star Clark Gable (as Gay Langland), who woos Marilyn Monroe (as Roslyn Taber) and tries to catch wild mustangs near Reno along with rodeo rider Montgomery Clift (as Perce Howland) while she pussy-whips them into letting them go so they won't end up as dog food; Eli Wallach plays Guido, and Thelma Ritter plays Isabelle Steers: Gable wears a snap-style Western shirt manufactured in Denver, Colo. by Rockmount Ranch Wear, founded by future centenarian Jack A. Weil (1901-2008), which has been marketing them since the 1950s; they are later worn by Elvis, Bob Dylan, Ronald Reagan, Nicolas Cage et al.; Monroe's drug and pill habit and cheating ways finally cause Miller to divorce her after the filming, and marry Austrian-born photographer Inge Morath (1923-2002) on Feb. 17, 1962. Michael Anderson's The Naked Edge (May) is the last film of Gary Cooper; "Only the man who wrote Psycho could jolt you like this!" Marlon Brando's One-Eyed Jacks (Mar. 30) (Paramount Pictures), written by Sam Peckinpah et al. loosely based on "The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones" by Charles Neider (1956), set in 1880s Sonora, Mexico and Monterrey, Calif. stars Brando (in his dir. debut) and Karl Malden as gringo bank robbers Rio and Daddy Longworth, who fall out after mentor Longworth leaves him in the lurch to steal two sacks of gold, allowing Rio to be captured by the Rurales and suffer five years in the stinkin' pen, after which he escapes to track him down, finding out he went straight and became a sheriff using the loot, resulting in a deadly cat-and-mouse game; meanwhile Rio falls in love with Longworth's stepdaughter Louisa (Pina Pellicer), complicating things; also stars Ben Johnson as Rio's crooked new partner Bob Emory, and Slim Pickens as weasly deputy sheriff Lon Dedrick, who has the hots for Louisa; Katy Jurado plays Maria "Mother" Longworth, and Larry Duran plays Rio's partner Chico Modesto; the way this Western turns a lying, back-shooting, bank-robbing villain into a killer hero is later copied by Sergio Leone et al.; Brando fired original dir. Stanley Kubrick; "You're a one-eyed jack around here, Dad, I seen the other side of your face" (Rio); does $4.3M box office on a $6M budget. Clyde Geronimi's One Hundred and One Dalmatians (Jan. 25), based on the 1956 Dodie Smith novel is a Disney animation about a litter of Dalmatian puppies who are abducted by Cruella De Vil (voiced by Betty Lou Gerson) to make them into fur; #10 grossing film of 1961; the live-action version "101 Dalmations" is relesed in 1996, starring Glenn Close as Cruella. Martin Ritt's Paris Blues (Sept. 27) (United Artists), based on the 1957 novel by Harold Flender stars Paul Newman as jazz trombonist Ram Bowen, and Sidney Poitier as jazz saxophonist Eddie Cook, who romance vacationing Am. tourists Connie Lampson (Diahann Carroll) and Lillian Corning (Joanne Woodward); features appearances by Louis Armstrong (as Wild Man Moore) and jazz pianist Aaron Bridgers. William Marshall's The Phantom Planet (Dec. 13) (B&W) stars Dean Fredericks as Capt. Frank Chapman, and Richard Weber as Lt. Ray Makonnen, who rescue a Pegasus spacecraft that disappears en route from the Moon to Mars, and end up on an asteroid filled with Lilliputian aliens. Roger Corman's The Pit and the Pendulum (Aug. 12) (Am. Internat. Pictures), based on the 1842 Edgar Allan Poe story set in 16th cent. Spain, stars Vincent Price as Sebastian Medina, who is visited by his brother-in-law Nicholas to investigate his sister's mysterious death, and ends up strapped in amid maniacal laughs; does $2M U.S. box office on a $300K budget, becoming Am. Internat. Pictures' biggest hit. Frank Capra's Pocketful of Miracles (Dec. 19) (Capra's last film) is a remake of his 1933 "Lady for a Day", starring Bette Davis as Apple Annie, and Glenn Ford as her Henry Higgins, Dave "the Dude" Conway; film debut of Ann-Margret (Olsson) (1941-) as Louise. Poul Bang's Reptilicus (Feb. 25) is about a giant dragon dug up by Danish miners in Lapland that can regenerate itself from a tail section; a U.S. version dir. by Sidney W. Pink is released in 1962. Jose Ferrer's Return to Peyton Place (May 5), based on the 1959 Grace Metalious novel stars Carol Lynley as Allison Mackenzie, who writes a shocking novel about you know what, shaking up the town and her family; music by Franz Waxman. Irving Brecher's Sail a Crooked Ship (Dec.), based on the 1960 Nathaniel Benchley novel stars Robert Wagner as Gilbert Barrows, who disobeys orders to scrap a WWII Liberty ship, letting it fall into the hands of bank robbers George M. Wilson (Frank Gorshin) and Bugsy G. Fogelmeyer (Ernie Kovacs); Dolores Hart plays Wagner's babe Elinor Harrison. Edward D. Wood Jr.'s The Sinister Urge (Dec. 8) is about police breaking up an underground porno ring, which is blamed for impulsive murders. Elia Kazan's Splendor in the Grass (Oct. 10), written by William Inge (who has a bit part as a Protestant minister); title taken from William Wordsworth's 1807 "Ode: Intimations of Immortality"; the film debut of Warren Beatty (Henry Warren Beaty) (1937) (brother of Shirley MacLaine), who co-stars with Natalie Wood as a 1928 Kansas town's two most good-looking teenie lovers Bud Stamper and Deanie Loomis, who resist their sexual desires until he goes to Yale U. and has sex with some girl, causing Deanie to go insane; "Whether you live in a small town the way they do, or in a city, maybe this is happening to you right now. Maybe, if you're older, you remember when suddenly the kissing isn't a kid's game any more, suddenly it's wide-eyed scary and dangerous." Tony Richardson's A Taste of Honey (Sept. 15) (Woodfall Film Productions) (British Lion Films), based on the 1959 play by Shelagh Delaney stars what-a-name Rita Tushingham (1942-) as white working class girl Jo, whose slutty alcoholic mother Helen (Dora Bryan) kicks her out, after which she falls in instant love with black sailor Peter Smith (Robert Stephens), gets pregnant, and turns to white homo Geoffrey (Murray Melvin) (who moves in with her, but of course doesn't want her tushy, not because, er, forget it?) for help in becoming a woman; makes a star out of Tushingham, who becomes the icon for white women who like black men; inspires the Beatles' song "Your Mother Should Know" - milk, honey, and chocolate on my hammy tushy? Vittorio De Sica's Two Women (La Ciociara) makes an actress of Sophia Loren, and earns her an Oscar; the first of eight films she does with De Sica. Basil Dearden's B&W Victim (Aug. 31) (Allied Film Makers) (Rank Org.) stars Dirk Bogarde as London barrister Melville Farr, who has a gay affair with young working class stud Boy Barrett (Peter McEnery), who is blackmailed and commits suicide, causing Farr to decide to go public and get them caught; meanwhile Farr's wife Laura Farr (Sylvia Syms) tries to understand; it becomes the first English language film to use the word "homosexual", pissing-off the British Board of Film Censors and the Motion Picture Assoc. of Am. (MPAA), which refuse to grant it their seals of approval. Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (July 12) stars Walter Pidgeon as Adm. Harriman Nelson, designer of the U.S. submarine Seaview, Robert Sterling as Capt. Lee Crane, and Joan Fontaine as pshrink Dr. Susan Hiller; Frankie Avalon appears and sings the theme song Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea; turned into a 1964 ABC-TV show. Robert Wise's and Jerome Robbins' West Side Story (Oct. 18) (United Artists) is a musical based on Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" about the Jets and the Sharks, New York City street gangs who like to break into song and dance; features the love story between Maria (Natalie Wood) (voice by Marni Nixon) and Tony, inactive co-founder of the Jets, who works at Doc's drugstore, played by Richard Beymer (voice by Jimmy Bryant) (after Elvis Presley turns down the part and Tab Hunter, Troy Donahue, Bobby Darin et al. are rejected); also stars Russ Tamblyn as Jets leader Riff, George Chakiris as Sharks leader Bernardo, Maria's older brother, Rita Moreno as Bernardo's girl Anita, Simon Oakland as Police Lt. Schrank, Ned Glass as drugstore owner Doc, and William Bramley as Officer Krupke; the Emeralds lose their turf to the Jets, and the Hawks fail to grab it, leaving the Sharks; does $43.7M box office on a $6M budget; incl. the songs Maria, America, Tonight, One Hand, One Heart, Officer Krupke, Somewhere, Tonight, A Boy Like That, I Feel Pretty, Cool. Akira Kurosawa's Yojimbo (Apr. 25) is Kurosawa's first full-length comedy, starring Toshiro Mifune as an unemployed samurai who comes to a town and plays the two warring factions off against each other; Sergio Leone later uses it as the basis of "A Fistful of Dollars" (1964), causing Kurosawa to sue him, until it is revealed that he took the story from Dashiell Hammet's novel "Red Harvest". Plays: Marcel Achard (1899-1974) and Harry Kurnitz (1908-68), A Shot in the Dark (Booth Theatre, New York) (Oct. 18) (389 perf.); adapted from Achard's 1961 play "L'Idiote"; stars Julie Harris, Walter Matthau, and William Shatner; adapted for the 1963 Blake Edwards film "The Pink Panther". Edward Albee (1928-2016), An American Dream (1-act play); Mommy and Daddy kill their son for failing to meet expectations. Jean Anouilh (1910-87), La Grotte (The Cavern). Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Happy Days (Oh les Beaux Jours) (Cherry Lane Theater, New York) (Sept. 17); title taken from Paul Verlaine's poem "Colloque Sentimental"; Rough for Radio I/II (radio play); Words and Music (radio play). Abe Burrows (1910-85), Willie Gilbert (1916-80), Frank Loesser (1910-69), and Jack Weinstock (-1969), How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying Oct. 14) (46h Street Theatre, New York) (Oct. 14) (1,417 perf.) (Pulitzer Prize); based on the 1952 book by Shepherd Mead (1914-94); J. Pierrepont Finch (Robert Morse) climbs from window washer to mail room to chmn. of World Wide Wickets in one week, vying with pres. J.W. Biggley (Rudy Vallee). Emilio Carballido (1925-2008), A Short Day's Anger (Un Pequeno Dia de Ira). Paddy Chayefsky (1923-81), Gideon (236 perf.); Biblical judge Gideon debates Jehovah on theological issues. Ossie Davis (1917-2005), Purlie Victorious; a flamboyant self-ordained minister returns to his Ga. hometown and tries to integrate a black church. J.P. Donleavy (1926-), The Ginger Man; based on his 1955 novel; A Fairy Tale of New York. William Douglas-Home (1912-92), The Bad Soldier Smith. Dario Fo (1926-), He Who Steals a Foot is Lucky in Love; Isabella, Three Tall Ships, and a Con Man. Maria Irene Fornes (1930-), The Widow (first play). Max Frisch (1911-91), Andorra. Christopher Fry (1907-2005), Curtmantle. Athol Fugard (1932-), Blood Knot; two brothers, one light-skinned (Morris) and one dark-skinned (Zachariah) live in a shack in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Black Nativity (New York) (Dec. 11); original title "Wasn't It a Mighty Day?"; the Nativity story with an entirely black cast of 160 singers, plus a narrator and a mute Mary and Joseph; pioneers the urban contemporary gospel musical play style. Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), A Stroll in the Air (Le Pieton de l'Air). Molly Keane (1905-96), Dazzling Prospect. Jean Kerr (1922-2003), Mary, Mary (New York) (1,572 perf.); comedy about a divorced couple with witty dialogue. John Osborne (1929-94), Plays for England: The Blood of the Bambergs, Under Plain Cover. Robert Pinget (1919-97), Clope au Dossier; Ici ou Ailleurs; Architruc. Harold Pinter (1930-2008), The Collection; Harry and Bill get a phone call from James, whose wife Stella had a 1-nighter with Bill. Helmut Qualtinger (1928-86) and Carl Merz, Der Herr Karl; farce about a grocery store clerk who tells his life story to an imaginary friend, incl. Austrian collaboration with the Nazis, which pisses-off many Austrians. Dieter Roth (1930-98), Literature Sausage; Martin Walser's "Halftime" chopped and pressed into a sausage shape - back achya, sausage-stuffer? Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Les Violons Parfois. Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), A Shred of Evidence. Neil Simon (1927-2018), Come Blow Your Horn (Brooks Atkinson Theater, New York) (Feb. 22) (678 perf.); his first Broadway hit, about a Jewish businessman (Lou Jacobi), whose his rebellious son Buddy (Warren Berlinger) decides to leave the nest to live in the bachelor pad of his older brother Alan (Hal March), starting his string of hits that make him #1, with the most Oscar and Tony nominations of all time; dir. by Stanley Prager; filmed in 1963 starring Frank Sinatra as Alan and Tony Bill as Buddy. Hugh Callingham Wheeler (1912-87), Big Fish, Little Fish; Look, We've Come Through. John Whiting (1917-63), The Devils (Aldwych Theatre, London) (Feb.); based on Aldous Huxley's 1952 nonfiction book "The Devils of Loudun". Tennessee Williams (1911-83), The Night of the Iguana; set in a Mexican hotel in the early 1940s. Poetry: Amiri Baraka (1934-2014), Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note (debut) (June 1); incl. Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Collected Poems in English; French poems pub. in 1977. Paul Blackburn (1926-71), The Nets. Aime Cesaire (1913-2008), Cadastre. Leonard Cohen (1934-2016), The Spice-Box of Earth. Edward Dorn (1929-99), The Newly Fallen (debut). Alan Dugan (1923-2003), Poems (debut) (Pulitzer Prize). Gunnar Ekelof (1907-68), A Night in Otocac. George Garrett (1929-2008), Abraham's Knife and Other Poems. Allen Ginsberg (1926-97), Kaddish and Other Poems, 1958-1960; about his dead mother; written on amphetamines; Empty Mirror: Early Poems. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), More Poems 1961. Thom Gunn (1929-2004), My Sad Captains and Other Poems. Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Stufen; "It even may be that the last hours/ Will make us once again a youthful lover/ The call of life to us forever flowers". Dorothy Hewett (1923-2002) and Merv Lilley, What About the People! John Hollander (1929-), A Crackling of Thorns. John Hollander (1929-) and Harold Bloom (1930-2019) (eds.), The Wind and the Rain. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Ask Your Momma: 12 Moods for Jazz; inspired by the white youth riot at the 1960 Newport Jazz Festival; his masterpiece? Donald Rodney Justice (1925-2004), The Summer Anniversaries. Carolyn Kizer (1925-), The Ungrateful Garden (debut); incl. The Great Blue Heron. Maxine Kumin (1925-2014), Halfway (debut); incl. One Dead Friend, 400-Meter Free Style. Irving Layton (1912-2006), The Swinging Flesh; celebrates sexual love. Denise Levertov (1923-97), The Jacob's Ladder. Henry Livings (1929-98), Stop It, Whoever You Are (first play). Robert Lowell (1917-77), Imitations; "repoetizations" of Homer, Sappho, Villon et al. Louis MacNeice (1907-63), Solstices. Rochelle Owens (1936-), Not Be Essence That Cannot Be. Nelly Sachs (1891-1970), Fahrt ins Staublose. John B. Wain (1925-94), Weep Before God. Diane Wakoski (1937-), Coins and Coffins (debut). Richard Wilbur (1921-2017), Advice to a Prophet, and Other Poems. Yevgeny Yevtushenko (1933-), Babi Yar; brave Soviet poet disses the Soviet Union for its anti-Semitism and disinformation; The Heirs of Stalin; asks the Soviet govt. to make sure that Stalin will "never rise again". Novels: Brian W. Aldiss (1925-), The Primal Urge; about a society where people wear an Emotion Register on their foreheads that glows when they get sexually aroused; banned in Ireland. Jorge Amado (1912-2001), Home Is the Sailor: The Whole Truth Concerning the Redoubtful Adventures of Captain Vasco Moscoso de Arago, Master Mariner; The Two Deaths of Quincas Wateryell; his masterpiece? J.G. Ballard (1930-2009), The Wind from Nowhere (first novel); hurricanes destroy civilization. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), How It Is. Nathaniel Benchley (1915-81), The Off-Islanders; filmed in 1966 by Norman Jewison as "The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming", starring Alan Arkin. Pierre Berton (1920-2004), The Secret World of Og. Burt Blechman (1927-), How Much?; a beatnik. Robert Bloch (1917-94), Firebug; Blood Runs Cold (short stories). Marion Zimmer Bradley (1930-99), The Door Through Space (first novel); "Beware of the 4-D demons" - good first title for a lez? W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), Conant; Round the Clock at Volari's. Sheila Burnford (1918-84), The Incredible Journey; three pets incl. Luath (retriever), Tao (Siamese cat), and Bodger (bull terrier) brave the Canadian wilderness. William S. Burroughs (1914-97), The Soft Machine; #1 in the Jumbled-Page Trilogy (1961-4); coins the term "heavy metal". Hortense Calisher (1911-2009), False Entry. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), The Witch of the Low Tide: An Edwardian Melodrama; set in 1907. John le Carre (1931-2020), Call for the Dead (first novel); un-James-Bond-like cerebral English spy George Smiley. David Caute (1936-), Comrade Jacob; filmed in 1975 as "Winstanley". John Cheever (1912-82), Some People, Places, and Things That Will Not Appear in My Next Novel (short stories); incl. The Death of Justina. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Double Sin and Other Stories; The Pale Horse (Nov. 6); a converted Tudor Inn run by three middle-aged witches; novelist detective Ariadne Oliver. Louis Chu (1915-70), Eat a Bowl of Tea (only novel); New York's Chinatown in the 1940s. Ivy Compton-Burnett (1884-1969), The Mighty and Their Fall. Richard Condon (1915-96), A Talent for Loving. William Cooper (1910-2002), Scenes from Married Life. A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), The Judas Tree. Roald Dahl (1916-90), James and the Giant Peach; 4-y.-o. English orphan James Henry Trotter loses his family in S England to an escaped rhino, and is forced to live with mean aunts Spoker and Sponge near the White Cliffs of Dover for three years, until he meets an old man who gives him a recipe for a magic potion that will bring happiness and great adventures, but he spills it onto a barren peach tree, which produces a gigantic magical peach as big as a house, which has a secret room where he meets six magically-altered garden bugs, who free the house to roll through the village and fall over the cliffs into the sea, where 500 seagulls fly it across the Atlantic Ocean, meeting the Cloud-Men above the clouds who control the weather, then to New York City, landing on top of the Empire State Bldg, where they are welcomed as heroes, the giant peach pit becoming a mansion in Central Park, where they all live happily forever. originally intended to be a giant cherry, but a peach is "prettier, bigger and squishier than a cherry". George P. Elliott (1918-80), Among the Dangs. Harlan Ellison (1934-), Spider Kiss (Rockabilly); Children of the Streets (The Juvies) (short stories); Gentleman Junkie and Other Stories of the Hung-Up Generation; a good review in Esquire by Dorothy Parker launches his career. Per Olov Enquist (1934-), Kristallogat (first novel). James T. Farrell (1904-79), Side Street and Other Stories. Howard Fast (1914-2003), April Morning; a teenager witnesses the Apr. 19, 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord. Konstantin Fedin (1892-1977), The Fire. Ian Fleming (1908-64), Thunderball (James Bond 007 #8) (Mar. 27); introduces bad guy Ernst Stravro Blofeld of SPECTRE, who kills James Bond 007's wife and becomes his most hated foe; filmed in 1965, and in 1983 as "Never Say Never Again". Janet Frame (1924-2004), Faces in the Water. Pamela Frankau (1908-67), Pen to Paper: A Novelist's Notebook. Carlo Emilio Gadda (1893-1973), Verso la Certosa. George Garrett (1929-2008), Which Ones Are the Enemy?; about Am. GIs. Jose Maria Gironella (1917-2003), A Million Dead. Eliot George (Gillian Freeman) (1929-), The Leather Boys; English biker gang with two queer, er, gay members; filmed in 1964. Winston Graham (1908-2003), Marnie; a woman's childhood nightmares make her into a liar and thief; filmed in 1964. Shirley Ann Grau (1929-), The House on Coliseum Street; a young woman in New Orleans has an abortion. Graham Greene (1904-91), A Burnt-Out Case. Davis Grubb (1919-80), The Watchman. David Halberstam (1934-2007), The Noblest Roman (first novel). Earl Hamner Jr. (1923-2016), Spencer's Mountain; basis of the CBS-TV series "The Waltons". John Hawkes (1925-98), The Lime Twig; lonely fat man William Hencher moves in with his mother and attempts to steal a famous racehorse and run it under an alias; his first hit, although later his 1951 novel "The Beetle Leg" is viewed as one of the top novels of the cent. Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), Stranger in a Strange Land (original title "The Heretic") (June 1); bestseller (5M copies) about human Valentine Martin Smith, who was raised by Martians and brought back to Earth, transforming society a la the Biblical book of Exodus into organized religion-free counterculture free love anything goes hippiedom; coins the terms "grok"and "grokked"; becomes the Bible of the hippie movement; "Once upon a time there was a Martian named Valentine Martin Smith" (opening). Joseph Heller (1923-99), Catch-22 (Nov. 10); Time mag. copywriter writes it in his spare time; a flop until humorist S.J. Perelman commends it in a nat. pub.; USAF B-25 flyer Yossarian and Maj. Major of the Fighting 256th ("two to the fighting eighth power") on the Mediterranean island of Pianosa W of Italy in WWII; "There was only one catch and that was Catch-22, which specified that a concern for one's safety in the face of dangers that were real and immediate was the process of a rational mind. Orr was crazy and could be grounded. All he had to do was ask; and as soon as he did, he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he were sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; but if he didn't want to he was sane and had to. Yossarian was moved very deeply by the absolute simplicity of this clause of Catch-22 and let out a respectful whistle"; its satire of military bureaucracy feeds the anti-Vietnam war culture; filmed in 1970 by Mike Nichols. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), The Two Faces of January (Oct. 31); Rydal Keener, Chester McFarland, and his wife Colette. Susan Hill (1942-), The Enclosure (first novel). Langston Hughes (1902-67), The Best of Simple. Richard Hughes (1900-76), The Fox in the Attic; first in his Human Predicament trilogy, following Euro history from the 1920s thru WWII, incl. Hitler's escape after the Nov. 9, 1923 Munich Putsch; followed by "The Wooden Shepherdess" (1973). Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), God Must Be Sad. Norman Juster (1929-), The Phantom Tollbooth (Random House); written after receiving a $5K Ford Foundation grant to write a children's book about cities; about young Milo and his magic tollboth, which transports him to the Kingdom of Wisdom, where he rescues Princess Rhyme and Princess Reason from the castle in the air, becoming the 20th cent. "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". MacKinlay Kantor (1904-77), Spirit Lake; Indian raid on Iowa settlers; If the South Had Win the Civil War; launches the genre of U.S. Civil War alternate histories. Nikos Kazantzakis (1883-1957), Report to Greco (posth.); sums up his philosophy as "the Cretan Glance", and discusses his Arab ancestry. Russell Amos Kirk (1918-94), Old House of Fear (first novel). Damon Knight (1922-2002), The Sun Saboteurs. Emma Lathen, Banking on Death (first novel); Harvard grads. Mary Jane Latsis (1927-97) and Martha Henissart (1929-) team up to crank out crime novels featuring Wall St. banker Putnam Thatcher; they later branch out under the alias R.B. Dominic with sleuth congressman Benton Safford. Stanislaw Lem (1921-2006), Solaris; filmed in 1972; Earth astronauts explore a planet while its sentient beings explore their minds. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Hombre; filmed in 1967. Richard Llewellyn (1906-83), Sweet Mom of Judas' Day. Malcolm Lowry (1909-57), Hear Us, O Lord from Heaven Thy Dwelling Place (posth.). Alistair MacLean (1922-87), Fear is the Key; The Dark Crusader (The Black Shrike) (under alias Ian Stuart). Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006), The Thief and the Dogs. Charles Eric Maine (1921-81), The Mind of Mr. Soames; a man in a coma since infancy is awakened; filmed in 1970. Bernard Malamud (1914-86), A New Life; autobio. novel about a New York Jew making a fresh start in a "cow college" in Ore (Ore. State U.). William Manchester (1922-2004), The Long Gainer. Paule Marshall (1929-), Soul Clap Hands and Sing; four aging men reevaluate their lives. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Manila Galleon; The Sea Venture. Peter Matthiessen (1927-), Raditzer. William Keepers Maxwell Jr. (1908-2000), The Chateau. Carson McCullers (1917-67), Clock Without Hands (last novel); a small-town Ga. druggist sees his community explode into racial violence. Larry McMurtry (1936-), Horseman, Pass By (first novel); Homer Bannon, his stepson Hud, and grandson Lonnie; basis of the 1963 film "Hud"; first in his Thalia Trilogy (1961-6). Grace Metalious (1924-64), The Tight White Collar - do you like it tight and white? Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), A Serious Woman. Henry Miller (1891-1980), Tropic of Cancer; first legal U.S. pub. (first pub. in Paris in 1934). Merle Miller (1919-86), A Gay and Melancholy Sound. Yukio Mishima (1925-70), The Sport of Beasts. Iris Murdoch (1919-99), A Severed Head; dramatized by J.B. Priestley, starring Ian Holm and Richard Attenborough. V.S. Naipaul (1932-2018), A House for Mr. Biswas. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), The Wilderness-Stone. Robert Nicolson, The Whisperers; a poor old woman living alone in an apt. and fantasizing that she's an heiress discovers stolen money hidden by her son; filmed in 1967 starring Dame Edith Evans. Edwin O'Connor (1918-68), The Edge of Sadness (Pulitzer Prize). Kenzaburo Oe (1935-), Seventeen (Sebuntiin); based on 17-y.-o. imperialist assassin Otoya Yamaguchi (1943-60). John O'Hara (1905-70), Assembly (short stories). Zoe B. Oldenbourg (1916-2002), Cities of the Flesh; or, The Story of Roger de Montbrun. Tillie Olsen (1913-2007), Tell Me A Riddle (short stories) (debut). John Dos Passos (1896-1970), Midcentury (last novel). Alan Stewart Paton (1903-88), Tales from a Troubled Land (short stories). Edith Pargeter (1913-95), Death and the Joyful Woman; Inspector George Felse. Walker Percy (1916-90), The Moviegoer (first novel); New Orleans stockbroker John "Binx" Bolling goes on a search for his decaying Southern heritage, becoming a drifter who makes up for his cruddy life via films. Robert Pinget (1919-97), L'Hypothese. Sir Laurens van der Post (1906-96), The Heart of the Hunter: Customs and Myths of the African Bushman; based on the Bushmen stories of Wilhelm Bleek (1827-75); claims they represent the myth of the noble savage and the "lost soul" of mankind. V.S. Pritchett (1900-97), When My Girl Comes Home. James Purdy (1914-2009), Color of Darkness (short stories); The Nephew. Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), Heaven Has No Favorites; love story between a young sanitarium patient and a race car driver; filmed in 1977 as the Sydney Pollack film Bobby Deerfield, starring Al Pacino and Marthe Keller. Harold Robbins (1916-97), The Carpetbaggers; bestseller (8M copies) about hard-drinking entrpreneur Jonas Cord (Howard Hughes?) and Rina Marlowe (Jean Harlow?), who are both trying to break into Hollywood; Nevada Smith = Tom Mix?; "It was not quite proper to have printed [it] between covers of a book. It should have been inscribed on the walls of a public lavatory" (New York Times). Robert Ruark (1915-65), The Old Man's Boy Grows Older. Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Les Merveilleux Nuages (The Wonderful Clouds). J.D. Salinger (1919-2010), Franny and Zooey; two stories set in Nov. 1955 about the Glass family (sister-brother) in New England during the Yale football game; she likes to carry "The Way of the Pilgrim" and is suffering a nervous breakdown after a date with Lane Coutell; he tries to talk her out of it by reminding her of their brother Seymour's advice (during their radio whiz-kid days), "Do your best for the Fat Lady in the listening audience". James Salter (1925-), The Arm of Flesh (Cassada). William Sansom (1912-76), The Last Hours of Sandra Lee (London); an office clerk for a cosmetics firm has a last fling at the office Xmas party before her wedding, and makes the mistake of wearing a sexy dress, turning them all on. Thomas Savage (1915-), Trust in Chariots. Gladys Schmitt (1909-72), Rembrandt: A Novel. Robert Shaw (1927-78), The Sun Doctor; he can do more than act? Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), Key to the Door. Clifford D. Simak (1904-88), Time is the Simplest Thing (The Fisherman); about paranormal Shepherd Blaine, who escapes a mob set on him by the evil Fishhook monopoly by travelling back in time, only to find that time only flows forward while splitting into parallel Universes, and the past is a lifeless insubstantial place; The Trouble with Tycho; about a lunar crater where spacecraft disappear. Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91), The Spinoza of Market Street and Other Stories. Muriel Spark (1918-2006), The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie; a 1930s Scottish teacher is fond of law-and-order Fascism; set in Marcia Blane School in the 1930s, based on James Gillespie's High School for Girls in Edinburgh; filmed in 1969. Howard Spring (1889-1965), I Met a Lady. Wallace Stegner (1909-83), A Shooting Star; Sabrina Castro cheats on her hubby. John Steinbeck (1902-68), The Winter of Our Discontent (last novel); an old New England family collapses morally and financially; Ethan Allen Hawley. Irving Stone (1903-89), The Agony and the Ecstasy (Mar. 16); about Michelangelo (1475-1564); bestseller; filmed in 1965 starring Charlton Heston. David Storey (1933-), Flight Into Camden. Edward Streeter (1900-76), Chairman of the Bored. Theodore Sturgeon (1918-65), Some of Your Blood; about Dr. Philip Outerbridge and his patient George Smith, who Outerbridge believes is a vampire. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), Death of a Highbrow. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), Diary of a Mad Old Man. Elizabeth Taylor (1912-75), In a Summer Season; a rich woman marries a 10-year-younger hunk, who becomes attracted to her neighbor's young daughter. Jim Thompson (1906-77), The Transgressors. Philip Toynbee (1916-81), Pantaloon or the Valediction (verse novel). Roderick Thorp (1936-99), Into the Forest (first novel). Leon Uris (1924-2003), Mila 18; the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Various Authors, Perry Rhodan; a sci-fi series from Germany that reaches 150M words and sells over 1B copies worldwide, about U.S. Space Force Maj. Perry Rhodan, who land on the Moon in 1971, discovered a marooned space ship, and take it to Terry. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Mother Night; title taken from Goethe's "Faust"; Am. playwright Howard W. Campbell Jr. moves from the U.S. to Germany and becomes a Nazi propagandist in order to spy on them; "We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we pretend to be." Peter De Vries (1910-93), Through the Fields of Clover; The Blood of the Lamb; Don Wanderhop. Edward Lewis Wallant (1926-62), The Pawnbroker; a Holocaust survivor works as a you know what, pissing-off some PC police by linking Jewish suffering with African-Ams. Mika Waltari (1908-79), The Tree of Dreams. Robert Penn Warren (1905-89), Wilderness: A Tale of the Civil War; a Bavarian Jew joins the Union army. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), My Place in the Bazaar. Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), The End of the Battle; #3 in the Sword of Honour Trilogy (1952-61). Paul West (1930-), A Quality of Mercy. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), Saturdays with Bricks (and Other Days Under Shell-Fire); Vendetta in Spain. Hugh Callingham Wheeler (1912-87), The Ordeal of Mrs. Snow (short stories). Patrick White (1912-90), Riders in the Chariot (Miles Franklin Award); bestseller based on the Book of Ezekiel. John A. Williams (1925-94), Night Song. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), The Innocent Moon. Angus Wilson (1913-91), The Old Men at the Zoo. Marjorie Winslow, Mud Pies and Other Recipes; children's book; illustrated by Erik Blegvad. Arthur Wise (1923-82), The Little Fishes Richard Wright (1908-60), Eight Men (short stories) (posth.); incl. The Man Who Lived Underground. Richard Yates (1926-92), Revolutionary Road (first novel) (Dec. 31); the plan of Conn. suburbanites Frank and April Wheeler of the Revolutionary Hill Estates to move to Paris is ruined by conformist Frank, after which April dies trying to give herself an abortion; "One of the few novels I know that could be called flawless" (James Atlas); "The Great Gatsby of our time" (Kurt Vonnegut Jr.); "If my work has a theme, I suspect it is a simple one, that most human beings are inescapably alone, and therein lies their tragedy"; too bad, his books never sell well, and he is only rediscovered after a 1999 essay in the Boston Review by Stewart O'Nan; after his daughter Monica dates Larry David and scares him, he becomes the model for Elaine's father Lawrence Tierney in "Seinfeld". Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91), The Garfield Honor. Births: Canadian physicist (Jewish) Jacques Distler on Jan. 1 in Montreal; educated at Harvard U. Israeli politician (Jewish) Erel Margalit on Jan. 1 in Na'an; educated at the Hebrew U. of Jerusalem, and Columbia U. English musician Allan Mark "Boff" Whalley (Chumbawamba) on Jan. 1 in Burnley, Lancashire. Am. "Andrea Zuckerman in Beverly Hills, 90210" actress Gabrielle Anne Carteris on Jan. 2 in Scottsdale, Ariz. Spanish New Keynesian economist Jordi Gali (Galí) on Jan. 4 in Barcelona; educated at MIT; student of Olivier Blanchard (1948-). Am. "Infamous Angel" country-folk singer-songwriter Iris DeMent on Jan. 5 near Paragould, Ark.; grows up in Long Beach, Calif. Canadian Islamist physician Tahawwur Hussain Rana on Jan. 12 in Chichawatni, Punjab, Pakistan. Am. "Elaine Benes on Seinfeld", "The New Adventures of Old Christine" actress-comedian Julia Scarlett Elizabeth Louis-Dreyfus on Jan. 13 in New York City; oldest of five sisters; family owns the Louis Dreyfus Group; moves to Washington, D.C. at age 8, where her stepfather is dean of George Washington U. Medical School; meets Seinfeld co-creator Larry David during three years on "Saturday Night Live" (1982-5); returns to host it in 2006. Canadian 6'2" hockey center ("the Messiah") Mark Douglas Messier on Jan. 18 in Edmonton, Alberta. Am. "Charley Brewser in Fright Night", "Herman Brooks in Herman's Head" actor William Ragsdale on Jan. 19 in El Dorado, Ark. Mexican Nat. Action Party (PAN) politician Josefina Eugenia Vazquez Mota on Jan. 20 in Mexico City. U.S. Rep. (R-N.D.) (2013-) Kevin John Cramer on Jan. 21 in Rolette, N.D.; educated at Concordia College, and U. of Mary. Am. "Stonewalled" writer Sharyl Attkisson on Jan. 26 in Sarasota, Fla.; educated at the U. of Fla. Canadian 6'0" 170 lb. "hockey hall-of-fame player-coach ("the Great One") Wayne Douglas Gretzky on Jan. 26 in Brantford, Ont. Am. rocker Carl Thomas "Tom" Keifer (Cinderella) on Jan. 26 in Springfield, Penn. English rocker Gillian Lesley Gilbert (New Order, The Other Two) on Jan. 27 in Whalley Range, Manchester; grows up in Macclesfield. Am. fashion designer Narciso Rodriguez III on Jan. 27 in Newark, N.J. Canadian rock singer Margo Timmins (Cowboy Junkies) on Jan. 27 in Montreal. English rock drummer David Baynton-Power (James) on Jan. 29 in Kent. Am. rock bassist Eddie "Edbass" Jackson (Queensryche) on Jan. 29 in Robstown, Tex. English singer-songwriter Lloyd Cole on Jan. 31 in Buxton. Am. musician-songwriter Wayne Michael Coyne (Flaming Lips) on Jan. 31 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; brother of Mark Coyne (1962-). Am. "C.C. Babcock in The Nanny" actress Lauren Lane (Laura Kay Lane) on Feb. 2 in Oklahoma City, Okla. Am. "The Chocolate War", "Arnie Cunningham in Christine" actor-dir. (Jewish) (atheist) Keith Gordon on Feb. 3 in New York City. Am. "Snow Angels" novelist Stewart O'Nan on Feb. 4 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Boston U., and Cornell U. Ukrainian cosmonaut Yuri Ivanovich Onufrienko (Onufriyenko) on Feb. 6 in Rysasne, Kharkiv Oblast. U.S. Rep. (R-Fla.) (2011-13) (black) Allen Bernard West on Feb. 7 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at the U. of Tenn., and Kansas State U. Am. long-blonde-hair-screeching rock singer Vince Neil Wharton (Motley Crue) on Feb. 8 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. rock singer-musician Sammy Llanas (BoDeans) on Feb. 8 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. ABC-TV "This Week" host (Greek Orthodox) George Robert Stephanopoulos on Feb. 10 in Fall River, Mass.; of Greek descent; Greek Orthodox priest father; grows up in Purchase, N.Y. and Cleveland, Ohio; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Sideways", "Jurassic Park III" film dir.-writer Constantine Alexander Payne on Feb. 10 in Omaha, Neb.; of Greek descent; educated at Stanford U.; likes to set his movies in Omaha and to cast Phil Reeves (1946-). Canadian rock musician cEvin Key (Kevin William Crompton) (Skinny Puppy) on Feb. 13 in Vancouver, B.C. Am. punk singer Henry Rollins (Henry Lawrence Garfield) (Black Flag) on Feb. 13 in Washington, D.C. Am. singer-producer (black) D'Wayne Wiggins (Tony! Toni! Tone!) on Feb. 14 in Oakland, Calif. English musician-songwriter Andy Taylor (Duran Duran) on Feb. 16 in Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear. Am. economist Andrei Shleifer on Feb. 20 in Moscow, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1976; educated at Harvard U., and MIT; student of Brad DeLong and Lawrence Summers. English actress-playwright Imogen Stubbs, Lady Nunn on Feb. 20 in Rothbury, Northumberland; educated at Exeter College, Oxford U. English musician (black) Ranking Roger (Roger Charlery) (The English Beat, General Public) on Feb. 21 in Birmingham. French chef Jean-Christophe Novelli on Feb. 22 in Arras. Ethiopian anthropologist (black) Yohannes Haile-Selassie Ambaye on Feb. 23 in Adigrat, Trigray, Ethiopia; Addis Ababa U., and educated at UCB. Am. auto racer David Carl "Davey" Allison (d. 1993) on Feb. 25 in Hueytown, Ala.; eldest child of Bobby Allison (1937-). Am. football QB (Kansas City Chiefs #14, 1983-7) (Pittsburgh Steelers, 1988-9) Todd Alan Blackledge on Feb. 25 in Canton, Ohio; educated at Penn State U. Am. 6'9" hall-of-fame basketball player (black) (Los Angeles Lakers #42, 1982-94) James Ager "Big Game" Worthy on Feb. 27 in Gastonia, N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C. Indian economist Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee on Feb. ? in Calcutta; educated at Harvard U.; husband of Esther Duffo (1972-); 2019 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. "The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father" biographer John Matteson on Mar. 3 in San Mateo, Calif.; educated at Princeton U., Harvard U., and Columbia U. Am. "Brian Michael Hackett in Wings" actor Steven Weber on Mar. 4 in Queens, N.Y. Mexican-Am. mass murderer Ramon Bojorquez (Ramón Bojórquez) Salcido oon Mar. 6 in Los Mochis, Sinaloa. Am. "Ellenor Frutt in The Practice", "Delia Banks in Ghost Whisperer" actress (Jewish) Debra Frances "Camryn" Manheim on Mar. 8 in Caldwell, N.J. Am. Olympic gymnast Mitchell Jay "Mitch" Gaylord (Jewish) on Mar. 10 in Van Nuys, Calif. Am. Research in Motion founder Michael "Mike" Lazaridis on Mar. 14 in Istanbul, Turkey; of Greek descent; emigrates to Canada in 1966; educated at the U. of Waterloo. Am. 6'9" basketball player (black) (San Diego Clippers #34, 1982-4) (Milwaukee Bucks #34, 1984-9) (San Antonio Spurs #34, 1989-95) Robert Terrell "Terry" Cummings on Mar. 15 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at DePaul U. Italian supermodel Fabio Lanzoni (1959?) on Mar. 15 in Milan. Am. 7'1" basketball center (black) Samuel Paul "Sam" Bowie on Mar. 17 in Lebanon, Pa.; picked #2 before #3 Michael Jordan in the 1984 NBA Draft. Am. rock drummer Grantzberg Vernon "Grant" Hart (Husker Du) on Mar. 18 in South St. Paul, Minn. Am. rock drummer Slim Jim Phantom (James McDonnell) (Stray Cats) on Mar. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; raised in Massapequa, N.Y. Am. "Cougar in Top Gun" actor-dir.-writer-producer John Stockwell (John Samuels IV) on Mar. 25 in Galveston, Tex. English economist Gerard Patrick Lyons on Mar. 31 in Kilburn, London; educated at the U. of Liverpool, U. of Warwick, and U. of London. Scottish "I Dreamed a Dream", "Wild Horses" singer (Roman Catholic) Susan Magdalane Boyle on Apr. 1 in Blackburn, West Lothian; Irish immigrant parents; youngest of 10 children. Am. "Lacey's Song" country singer (Nashville Star #1) Buddy Jewell Jr. on Apr. 2 in Lepanto, Ark. Am. "Det. Elliot Stabler in Law & Order: SVU", "Chris Keller in Oz" actor Christopher Peter Meloni on Apr. 2 in Washington, D.C.; Italian father, French Canadian mother. Am. pop singer Keren Jane Woodward (Bananarama) on Apr. 2 in Bristol; partner of Andrew Ridgeley (1963-). Am. "Amanda in Highlander: The Raven' actress (Miss America 1982) Elizabeth Ward Gracen (nee Elizabeth Grace Ward) on Apr. 3 in Ozark, Ark.; educated at Ark. Tech. U. English "Leo Howard in Howard's Way" actor Edward Thomas Highmore on Apr. 3 in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey; father of Freddie Highmore (1992-). Am. "Det. Axel Foley in Beverly Hills Cop", "Donkey in Shrek" comedian-actor-dir.-producer (black) Edward Regan "Eddie" Murphy on Apr. 3 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Dutch "New Age Religion and Western Culture" writer-scholar Wouter Jacobus Hanegraaff on Apr. 10 in Amsterdam. Am. rock bassist Hiro Yamamoto (Soundgarden) on Apr. 13 in Seattle, Wash. Scottish "Begbie in Trainspotting", "Renard in The World Is Not Enough", "Adolf Hitler in Hitler: The Rise of Evil" actor Robert Carlyle on Apr. 14 in Maryhill, Glasgow. Am. molecular biologist Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider on Apr. 15 in San Diego, Calif.; educated at UCB; 2009 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. 6'5" football QB (Cincinnati Bengals #7, 1984-92) Norman Julius "Boomer" Esiason on Apr. 17 in West Islip, N.Y.; nicknamed by his mother for kicking in the womb; educated at the U. of Md. Am. conservative writer (Jewish) John Podhoretz on Apr. 18; son of Norman Podhoretz (1930-) and Midge Decter (1927-); educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. baseball 1B player (lefty) (New York Yankees, 1982-95) Donald Arthur "Donnie Baseball" "The Hit Man" Mattingly on Apr. 20 in Evansville, Ind. Mexican-Am. comedian-actor George Lopez on Apr. 23 in Mission Hills, Calif.; "Any chance I can get to hit something that's white" (why he plays golf). Belgian astronaut Frank, Viscount De Winne on Apr. 25 in Ledeberg, Belgium. Am. ""Obama's America" conservative writer (Roman Catholic) Dinesh D'Souza on Apr. 25 in Mumbai, India; emigrates to the U.S. in 1978; educated at Dartmouth College. educated at Dartmouth College; AKA Distort D'Newza. Am. "Twin Peaks", "The Last Emperor" actress-dir.-writer Joan Chen on Apr. 26 in Shanghai, China. Am. "The Opie and Anthony Show" radio talk host Anthony Cumia on Apr. 26 in Long Island, N.Y. Am. alternative rock drummer-painter Chris Mars on Apr. 26. Am. 6'1" basketball point guard-coach (black) (Detroit Pistons, 1981-94) Isiah Lord "Zeke" "Pee Wee" "Mr. Wonderful" Thomas III on Apr. 30 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Indiana U. Am. "The People's Court" judge Marilyn Milian on May 1 in Astoria, N.Y.; brother of Jenny Packham; educated at Georgetown U. English "The Really Wild Show", "Springwatch" environmentalist Christopher Gary "Chris" Packham on May 4 in Southampton, Hampshire; educated at Taunton's College, and U. of Southampton. Am. "my career started on Facts of Life" "Dr. Doug Ross in ER" 5'11" actor-dir. (Roman Catholic-turned-atheist?) George Timothy Clooney on May 6 in Lexington, Ky.; nephew of Rosemary Clooney (1928-2002); husband (1989-93) of Talia Balsam (1959-), and (2014-) Amal Alamuddin (1978-): "I don't believe in Heaven and Hell... All I know is that as an individual, I won't allow this life - the only thing I know to exist - to be wasted." Am. Dem. New York City mayor #109 (2014-) Bill de Blasio (Warren Wilhelm Jr.) on May 8 in Manhattan, N.Y.; raised in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at NYU, and Columbia U. Am. "Aidan in Sex and the City" actor and country singer John Joseph Corbett Jr. (John Corbett Band) on May 9 in Wheeling, W. Va.; coal miner stepfather. Am. rock drummer Daniel Erwin "Danny" Carey (Tool) on May 10 in Lawrence, Kan. Am. "Maggie in The Negotiator", "Mrs. Zuckerman in Charlotte's Web", "school bus driver Dorothy Harris in Forrest Gump" actress Siobhan Fallon (Hogan) (pr. shah-VAHN) on May 13 in Syracuse, N.Y. Am. 6'7" "Bad As I Wanna Be" hall-of-fame basketball player-actor (black) (Detroit Pistons, 1986-93) (Chicago Bulls, 1995-8) Dennis Keith "the Worm" Rodman on May 13 in Trenton, N.J.; educated at Southeastern Okla. State U. English "Mr. Orange in Reservoir Dogs", "robber in Pulp Fiction" actor-dir. (Jewish) Tim Roth (Timothy Simon Smith) on May 14 in Dulwich, London; of German Jewish descent; father Ernie Smith is a member of the British Communist Party. Am. TV personality (Jewish) Giselle Fernandez on May 15 in Mexico City, Mexico; Mexican flamenco dancer father, Jewish mother. Irish "A Day Without Rain" singer-composer Enya Brennan (Eithne Patricia Ni Bhraonain) on May 17 in Gweedore, County Donegal. Am. "Agent Clay in Hellboy" actor Corey (John) Johnson on May 17 in New Orleans, Calif. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Lisa Wagner on May 19 in Calif. English musician Nicholas "Nick" Heyward (Haircut 100) on May 20 in Beckenham, Kent. Am. "Luther Stickell in Mission: Impossible" actor (black) (bald) Irving Rameses "Ving" Rhames on May 21 in New York City; grows up in Harlem; named after NBC journalist Irving R. Levine (1922-). Am. actress Ann Cusack on May 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; sister of Joan Cusack (1962-) and John Cusack (1966-). Am. "1st Chris in The Partridge Family" actor Jeremy Gelbwaks on May 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. musician-producer (Scientologist) Michael Lockwood on May 22 in Hawthorne, Calif.; husband (2006-) of Lisa Marie Presley (1968-). Am. "Come to My Window" singer (lesbian) Melissa Lou Etheridge on May 29 in Leavenworth, Kan. Am. "Lorraine Baines McFly in Back to the Future", "Erica in Red Dawn", "Caroline Duffy in Caroline in the City" actress-dir.-producer Lea Katherine Thompson on May 31 in Rochester, Minn. Am. bicyclist Gregory James "Greg" LeMond on June 2 in Lakewood, Calif.; first U.S. cyclist to win the Tour de France (1986, 1989, 1990). Am. "Jeopardy!" champ Chuck Forrest on June 3. English "The Phantom of the Opera" lyricist Charles Hart on June 3 in London; educated at Robinson College, Cambridge U. Am. "South Park" voice-over actress ("Catholic Jew") Mary Kay Bergman (d. 1999) on June 5 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Jewish parents don't stop her from converting to Roman Catholicism. Chilean musician Tomas Enrique "Tom" Araya (Slayer) on June 6 in Vina del Mar. Canadian "Marty McFly in Back to the Future","Alex P. Keaton in Family Ties", "Mike Flaherty in Spin City" actor Michael J. (Andrew) Fox on June 9 in Burnaby, B.C. (near Vancouver); adopts the middle initial in homage to Michael J. Pollard (1939-). Am. "A Few Good Men", "The American President", "Moneyball", "Steve Jobs" writer-dir.-producer (Jewish) Aaron Benjamin Sorkin on June 9 in New York City; grows up in Scarsdale, N.Y.; educated at Syracuse U. Am. rock bassist-songwriter Kimberley Sue Ann "Kim" Deal (AKA Mrs. John Murphy, Tammy Ampersand) (Pixies) on June 10 in Dayton, Ohio. English "Karma Chameleon" singer (gay) Boy George (George Alan O'Dowd) (Culture Club) on June 14 [Gemini] in Eltham, London. Am. "Cold-Case Christianity" Christian apologist James Warner Wallace on June 16 in Torrance, Calif.; educated at CSU Long Beach, and UCLA. Venezuelan 1B baseball 63" player (Montreal Expos, 1985-91) (Colorado Rockies, 1993-7) Andres Jose Padovani "the Big Cat" "El Gateo" Galarraga on June 18 in Caracas. Am. rock musician Charles Frederick Kip Winger (Winger) on June 21 in Denver, Colo. Am. writer (gay) David Leavitt on June 23 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Yale U. Am. musician Dennis Eric Danell (d. 2000) (Social Distortion) on June 24. English "Everybody Wants to Rule the World" musician Curt Smith (Tears for Fears) on June 24 in Bath, Somerset. English "The Office" actor-comedian-dir.-writer-singer (atheist) Ricky Dene Gervais (Seona Dancing) on June 25 in Reading, Berkshire; French-Canadian immigrant father; educated at the U. of London. husband (1982-) of Jane Fallon (1960-). Am. 6'2" Olympic track star (black) Frederick Carlton "Carl" Lewis on July 1 in Birmingham, Ala.; raised in Willingboro, N.J. English princess of Wales (1981-96) ("the People's Princess") Diana Frances Spencer (Princess Diana/Di) (d. 1997) on July 1 [Cancer] in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk; 4th of five children of John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer (1924-92), Viscount Althorp, who served as royal equerry to George VI, and 1st wife Frances Ruth Shand Kydd (nee Roche), Viscountess Althorp (1936-2004); sister of Lady Sarah McCorquodale (1955-), Jane Fellowes (1957-), and Charles Spencer, 9th earl Spencer (1964); sister Jane briefly dates Prince Charles; bluer blood than the real royal family, with a little covered-up Sephardic Jewish ancestry? Am. "Wit" playwright Margaret Edson on July 4 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Smith College, and Georgetown U. Am. "Bizarre Foods" chef (Jewish) Andrew Scott Zimmern on July 4 in New York City; educated at Vassar College. Am. "The Sixth Extinction" environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert on July 6 in Bronx, N.Y.; grows up in Larchmont, N.Y.; educated at Yale U., and U. Hamburg. Am. "Should've Been a Cowboy", "Ford Truck Man", "How Do You Like Me Now?" country singer-songwriter Toby Keith (Toby Keith Covel) on July 8 in Clinton, Okla. German economist Ottmar Georg Edenhofer on July 8 in Gangkofen, Lower Bavaria; educated at the Ludwig Maximilian U. of Munich. English rock musician Andrew John "Fletch" Fletcher (Depeche Mode) on July 8 in Nottingham. Am. "Army Staff Sgt. Ding Chavez in Clear and Present Danger", "Tuco Salamanca in Breaking Bad" actor Raymond Cruz on July 9 in Los Angeles, Calif.; of Mexican descent. Tennis player Anders Per Jarryd (Järryd) on July 13 in Lidkoping. Am. "The Bad News Bears", "All the King's Men" actor Jackie Earle Haley on July 14 in Northridge, Calif. Canadian "Joan in The Object of Beauty", "Blaze Starr in Blaze" actress Lolita "Lolly" Davidovich (Davidoviae) on July 15 in London, Ont.; Serbian immigrant parents; wife of Ron Shelton (1945-). Am. U.N. weapons inspector (in Iraq) William Scott Ritter Jr. on July 15 in Gainesville, Fla.; educated at Franklin and Marshall College. Am. "Jody in The Crying Game", "Big Harold in Platoon", "Idi Amin in The Last King of Scotland" 6'2" actor-dir.-producer and opera tenor (black) Forest Steven Whitaker on July 15 in Longview, Tex.; grows up in South Los Angeles and Carson, Calif. Australian musician Mark McEntee (Divinyls) on July 16 in Perth, Western Australia. Portuguese PM #119 (2015-) Antonio Luis Santos da Costa on July 17 in Sao Sebastiao da Pedreira, Lisbon; educated at the U. of Lisbon. Am. comedian Lisa Lampanelli (Lisa Marie Lampugnale) on July 19 in Trumbull, Conn.; educated at Boston College, and Syracuse U. U.S. Black Hawk Down heli pilot Michael J. "Mike" Durant on July 23 in Berlin, N.H. English "Enjoy the Silence" rocker musician Martin Lee Gore (Depeche Mode) on July 23 in Dagenham, Essex. Am. "Woody Boyd in Cheers", "Mickey Knox in Natural Born Killers", "Larry Flynt in People vs. Larry Flynt", "David Murphy in Indecent Proposal", "Billy Hoyle in White Men Can't Jump", "Carson Wells in No Country for Old Men" actor Woodrow Tracy "Woody" Harrelson on July 23 in Midland, Tex.; hit-man father gets life sentence. Am. country singer-songwriter Joy Lynn White on July 24 in Ark.; grows up in Mishawaka, Ind. Am. musician Gary Francis Caine Cherone (Extreme, Van Halen) on July 26 in Malden, Mass.; has older fraternal twin Greg. Am. "Tyrone Clean Miller in Apocalypse Now", "Morpheus in The Matrix" actor (black) Laurence "Larry" Fishburne III on July 30 in Augusta, Ga. English rock drummer Peter Louis Vincent "Pete" de Freitas (d. 1989) (Echo and the Bunnymen) on Aug. 2 in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Am. rock singer-musician Lee Rocker (Stray Cats) on Aug. 3 in Long Island, N.Y. U.S. 6'1" 170-190 lb. Dem. pres. #44 (2009-) (black) (lefty) (Christian) (closet Muslim?) (closet Marxist?) (Freemason?) Barack (Baraka) (Heb. "baruch" = blessed) "Barry" Hussein (Arab. "handsome") (grandson of Muhammad) Obama (Kenyan "crooked") II (Jr.) on Aug. 4 (Fri.) (7:24 p.m.) in Kapilani Maternity and Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii (really in Mombasa, Kenya, then covered up to make him eligible for the presidency?); first African-Am. U.S. pres.; son of alcoholic polygamist Communist Muslim-turned-atheist Barack Hussein Obama Sr. (1936-82) of Nyang'oma Kogelo, Siaya District, Kenya (first African student at the U. of Hawaii) and white leftist anthropologist mother Stanley Ann Dunham (1942-95) of Wichita, Kan. (of British descent, with a pinch of Irish, incl. distant cousin Dick Cheney) (met in 1960 at the U. of Hawaii in a Russian language class, and married on Feb. 2, 1961 in Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, when interracial marriage was illegal in more than half of U.S. states); his father's father was a cook for the British, who called him boy; he meets his father only once as a child; Muslim law considers him a Muslim at birth; "I got my middle name from somebody who obviously didn't think I'd ever run for president"; grows up to consider himself black; his parents separate in 1963, and divorce in Jan. 1964, after which she marries Indonesian Muslim Lolo Soetoro (1935-87) in 1966, living with him in Indonesia until 1972 then returning to Hawaii with her son (who returned in 1971 to go to school), and making periodic trips back to Indonesia as well as Pakistan on behalf of the Ford Foundation and the U.S. Agency for Internat. Development (USAID) (a CIA front); she doesn't divorce Soetoro until 1980; in 1965 he attends the Muslim Besuki Elementary School in Jakarta, Indonesia for less than a year, followed by three years at the Roman Catholic St. Francis Assisi Elementary School in Jakarta; from age 10 he is raised in Honolulu by his white maternal grandparents Madelyn Lee Payne "Toot" (Hawaiian "Tutu" = grandmother") Dunham (1922-2008) and Stanley Armour Dunham (1918-92); while at Harvard U., Barack Sr. marries Ruth Nidesand (Ndesandjo), who bears son Mark Okoth Obama Ndesandjo; his Indonesian-born half-sister Maya Kassandra Soetoro-Ng (1970-) also lives in Honolulu; educated at Columbia U. and Harvard Law School; first black pres. of the Harvard Law Review (1990), and first never to be pub. while in school; husband (1992-) of Michelle Obama (1964-); his first job after graduating from Columbia U. in 1983 is with Henry Kissinger at the CIA front Business Internat. Corp.; 2009 Nobel Peace Prize; distant relation of U.S. presidents George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, Gerald Ford, LBJ, Harry S. Truman, and James Madison (1751-1836), also Sir Winston Churchill and Robert E. Lee: "To say that force is sometimes necessary is not a call to cynicism, it is a recognition of history." Am. actress (Jewish) Julie "Tawny" Kitaen on Aug. 5 in San Diego, Calif. Am. "Janice Goralnik in Friends" actress Margaret Emily "Maggie" Wheeler (nee Jakobson) on Aug. 7 in Manhattan, N.Y. Irish rock musician The Edge (David Howell Evans) (U2) on Aug. 8 in Barking, East London; Welsh parents; emigrates to Malahide, Dublin, Ireland at age 1. Am. rock drummer Rikki Rockett (Richard Allan Ream) (Poison) on Aug. 8 in Mechanicsburg, Penn. German-Am. investor ("the Homeless Billionaire") Nicolas Berggruen on Aug. 10 in Paris, France; German-Jewish descent father, Roman Catholic Austrian-Albanian descent mother. Australian rock drummer Jonathon James "Jon" Farriss (INXS) on Aug. 10 in Perth; brother of Tim Farriss (1957-) and Andrew Farriss (1959-). Canadian-Am. "Bobos in Paradise" journalist (Jewish) David Brooks on Aug. 11 in Toronto, Ont.; grows up in New York City; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. TV weatherman Samuel Jones "Sam" Champion on Aug. 13 in Paducah, Ky. English rock musician Roy Ernest Hay (Culture Club) on Aug. 12 in Southend, Essex. Am. football player-coach (Broncos, Houston Texans) Gary Wayne "Koob" Kubiak on Aug. 15 in Houston, Tex. Am. jazz musician (black) Everette Harp on Aug. 17 in Houston, Tex. U.S. treasury secy. #75 (2009-13) Timothy Franz "Tim" Geithner on Aug. 18 in New York City; German descent father, English (Mayflower) descent mother; educated at Dartmouth College, Peking U., Beijing Normal U., and Johns Hopkins U. Am. TV journalist Robert Warren "Bob" Woodruff on Aug. 18 in Bloomfield Hills, Mich.; educated at Colgate U., and U. of Mich. Am. "SpongeBob SquarePants" cartoonist Stephen Hillenburg on Aug. 21 in Ft. Sill, Okla.; educated at Humboldt State U. (marine science). English "Everybody Wants to Rule the World" musician Roland Jaime Orzabal (de la Quintana) (Tears For Fears) on Aug. 22 in Portsmouth; Spanish-Basque father, English mother. Am. rock drummer Deborah Mary "Debbi" Peterson (Bangles) on Aug. 22 in Northridge, Los Angeles, Calif.; sister of Vicki Peterson (1958-). Am. rock musician Dean DeLeo (Stone Temple Pilots) on Aug. 23 in Glen Ridge, N.J.; brother of Robert DeLeo (1966-). English "aged Will Robinson in Lost in Space", "Capt. Mike in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" actor Jared Francis Harris on Aug. 24 in London; son of Richard Harris (1930-2005) and 1st wife Joan Elizabeth Rees-Williams ( 1936-); educated at Duke U. Am. "Achy Breaky Heart" country singer-actor (lefty) William "Billy" Ray Cyrus on Aug. 25. in Flatwoods, Ky.; educated at Georgetown College; husband (1993-) of Liticia "Tish" Cyrus (nee Finley) (1967-); father of Trace Cyrus (1989-), Miley Cyrus (1992-), and Noah Cyrus (2000-). Am. fashion designer and film dir. (gay) Thomas Carlyle "Tom" Ford on Aug. 27 in Austin, Tex.; educated at NYU. Am. urban jazz saxophonist "Boney" James Oppenheim on Sept. 1 in Lowell, Mass. Am. "Mark in Friends" actor Steven Eckholdt on Sept. 6 in Los Angeles, Calif. Norwegian pop musician Pal Waaktaar-Savoy (Pal Waaktaar Gamst) (a-ha) on Sept. 6 in Tonsenhagen, Oslo. Am. saxophonist (black) Leroi Moore (Dave Matthews Band) on Sept. 7 in Durham, N.C. Am. rock metal musician David Scott "Dave" Mustaine (Metallica, Megadeth) on Sept. 13 in La Mesa, Calif. English economist Timothy John "Tim" Besley on Sept. 14 in Kesteven; educated at All Souls College, Oxford U. Am. celeb Melinda Lou "Wendy" Morse (nee Thomas) on Sept. 14 in Columbus, Ohio; daughter of Dave Thomas (1932-2002); educated at the U. of Fla. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (Miami Dolphins #13, 1983-99) Daniel Constantine "Dan" Marino Jr. on Sept. 15 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; of Italian and Polish descent; educated at the U. of Pittsburgh; drafted by the Kansas City Royal ML baseball team in 1979. Am. "Tony Soprano in The Sopranos" actor James Joseph Gandolfini Jr. (d. 2013) on Sept. 18 in Westwood, N.J. Am. "Open Court" TV host-atty. (Jewish) Lisa Bloom on Sept. 21; daughter of Gloria Allred (1941-); educated at UCLA and Yale U. Am. "Chachi Arcola in Happy Days", "Charles in Charge", "Joani Loves Chachi" actor Scott Vincent James Baio on Sept. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Italian immigrant grandparents. Am. "Gladiator", "Star Trek: Nemesis", "The Last Samurai", "The Aviator" playwright-screenwriter (gay) John David Gynn Logan on Sept. 24 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Northwestern U. Am. conservative atty. Miguel Angel Estrada Castaneda (Castañeda) on Sept. 25 in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; emigrates to the U.S. in 1978; educated at Columbia U., and Harvard U. Am. "Officer Stacy Sheridan in T.J. Hooker", "Sammy Jo Dean Carrington in Dynasty" actress-producer Heather Deen Locklear on Sept. 25 in Westwood, Calif.; distant cousin of Marla Maples (1963-) - hi there, hot rear? Am. banker-atty. Edward Moore Kennedy Jr. on Sept. 26 in Boston, Mass.; son of Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy Sr. (1932-2009) and Joan Bennett Kennedy (1936-); brother of Patrick Joseph Kennedy (1967-); right leg amputated on Nov. 17, 1973 from cancer; educated at Wesleyan U., Yale U., and U. of Conn. Palestinian Fatah leader (Sunni Muslim) Mohammed Yusuf Dahlan on Sept. 29 in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip. Australian Labor PM #27 (2010-13) (redhead) (atheist) Julia Eileen Gillard on Sept. 29 in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, Wales; emigrates to Australia in 1966. Am. "Roy L. 'Rocky' Dennis in Mask", "Lance in Pulp Fiction" actor Eric Cameron Stoltz on Sept. 30 in Whittier, Calif. Am. "Dr. 90210" plastic surgeon Robert (Roberto Miguel) Rey Jr. on Oct. 1 in Sao Paulo, Brazil; emigrates to the U.S. in 1974 after sci-fi novelist Orson Scott Card and other Mormon missionaries sponsor him. Cuban-Am. "Just Another Day" singer-songwriter (black) Jon (Juan) Secada Da Cunha on Oct. 4 in Havana; raised in Hialeah, Fla. Am. "Waltons" actor David W. Harper on Oct. 4 in Abilene, Tex. U.S. Dem. labor secy. #26 (2013-7) Thomas Edward "Tom" Perez on Oct. 7 in Buffalo, N.Y.; Dominican immigrant parents; educated at Brown U., and Harvard U. Am. rock musician Mitch Marine (Smash Mouth) on Oct. 8. Am. actress-comedian-dir. (black) Kim Wayans on Oct. 8 in New York City; sister of Keenen Ivory Wayans (1958-), Damon Wayans (1960-), Shawn Wayans (1971-), and Marlon Wayans (1972-); Jehovah's Witness parents. Canadian "The Safety Dance" musician Ivan Doroschuk (Men Without Hats) on Oct. 9 in Ill.; grows up in Montreal, Quebec; of Ukrainian descent. Am. "Doublemint Twins" actresses Jean and Liz Sagal on Oct. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Boris Sagal (1917-82) and Sara Zwillig; sisters of Katey Sagal (1954-) and Joe Sagal (1957-). Palestinian "Paradise Now", "Omar" dir. Hany Abu-Assad on Oct. 11 in Nazareth; emigrates to the Netherlands in 1981. Am. 6'2" football hall-of-fame QB (lefty) (San Francisco 49ers #8, 1987-99) Jon Steven "Steve" Young on Oct. 11 in Salt Lake City, Utah; great-great-great-grandson of Brigham Young; educated at BYU: "Perception is reality. If you are perceived to be somehting, you might as well be it because that's the truth in people's minds." Am. writer Richard Abanes on Oct. 13 in ?. Am. fashion designer (Jewish) (gay) Isaac Mizrahi on Oct. 14 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Egyptian Jewish descent. Am. "Jennifer Lyons-Appleton in Perfect Strangers" actor Melanie Wilson (Melina DiGuglielmo) on Oct. 14; daughter of "Mr. Whipple" Dick Wilson (1916-2007). Am. bowler Bryan Goebel on Oct. 15 in Kansas City, Kan. Am. "Black Codes" jazz trumpeter-composer (black) Wynton Learson Marsalis on Oct. 18 in New Orleans, La.; son of Ellis Marsalis Jr. (1934-); brother of Branford Marsalis (1960-), Ellis Marsalis III (1964-), Delfeayo Marsalis (1965-), Mboya Kinyatta (1971-), and Jason Marsalis (1977-); educated at Juilliard School. Am. "The Ice Storm" novelist Rick Moody on Oct. 18 in New York City. English "Labyrinth" novelist Kate Mosse on Oct. 20 in West Sussex; educated at New College, Oxford U. Am. "Speak" children's novelist Laurie Halse Anderson on Oct. 23 in Potsdam, N.Y.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. auto racer Ward Burton III on Oct. 25 in South Boston, Va.; brother of Jeff Burton (1967-); father of Jeb Burton (1992-). Am. "Vera", "Cleopatra" writer-ed.-biographer Stacy Madeleine Schiff on Oct. 26 in Adams, Mass.; educated at Phillips Andover Academy, and Williams College. Am. "Bobby Donnell in The Practice" actor Dylan (Mark Anthony) McDermott on Oct. 26 in Waterbury, Conn.; foster son of "The Vagina Monologues" playwright Eve Ensler (1953-). Kenyan pres. #4 (2013-) (black) (Roman Catholic) Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta on Oct. 26 in Nairobi; son of Jomo Kenyatta (1897-1976) and 4th wife Ngina Kenyatta; educated at Amherst College. Am. singer-musician (black) Steven Randall "Randy" Jackson (Jackson Five) on Oct. 29 in Gary, Ind.; youngest in the Jackson family; not to be confused with Am. Idol judge Randy Jackson (1956-). Kiwi "The Lord of the Rings", "The Hobbit", "King Kong", "District 9" film dir. Sir Peter Robert Jackson on Oct. 31 in Wellington; gorws up in Pukerua Bay. Irish rock drummer Lawrence Joseph "Larry" Mullen Jr. (U2) on Oct. 31 in Artane, Dublin. Canadian "Constant Craving" country singer-songwriter (vegetarian) (lesbian) k.d. lang (Kathryn Dawn Lang) on Nov. 2 in Edmonton, Alberta. English Christie's chmn. David Albert Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley on Nov. 3 in Clarence House, London; only son of Antony Armstrong-Jones (1930-2017) and Princess Margaret (1930-2002); brother of Lady Sarah Chatto (1964-). Am. "Daniel LaRusso Karate Kid", "Bill Gambini in My Cousin Vinny" actor Ralph George Macchio Jr. on Nov. 4 in Huntington, N.Y.; half-Greek half-Italian descent father, Italian descent mother. Am. 'I Was Made for Dancin'" singer-actor Leif Garrett (Leif Per Nervik) on Nov. 8 in Hollywood, Calif.; of Norwegian descent; brother of Dawn Lyn (1963-). English musician Paul Stephen "Porl" Thompson (The Cure) on Nov. 8 in Wimbledon, London. Am. "The Death of the Grownup", "American Betrayal: The Secret Assault on Our Nation's Character" conservative journalist Diana West on Nov. 8 in Holywood, Calif.; educated at Yale U. Am. "Caroline, or Change", "Shrek The Musical" composer (Jewish) Jeaning Tesori (Levenson) on Nov. 10; educated at Barnard College. Romanian-Am. Olympic gold medal 7-perfect-10s gymnast Nadia (Russ. "hope") Elena Comaneci (pr. koh-man-EECH) on Nov. 12 in Onesti; becomes U.S. citizen in 2001; wife (1996-) of Bart Conner (1958-). Am. "Shoeless Joe Jackson in Eight Men Out", "Dish Boggett in Lonesome Dove" actor D.B. (Daniel Bernard) Sweeney on Nov. 14 in Shoreham, Long Island, N.Y. Am. "Sally Albright in When Harry Met Sally", "Annie Reed in Sleepless in Seattle" actress (Roman Catholic) Meg Ryan (Margaret Mary Emily Anne Hyra) on Nov. 19 in Fairfield, Conn. Am. "Pull Painting 1", "Waterfall" artist (black) Mark Brdford on Nov. 20 in South Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at the Calif. Inst. for the Arts; starts out as a hairdresser. Am. "Chris Cahill in Personal Best" actress Mariel Hemingway on Nov. 22 in Mill Valley, Calif; granddaughter of Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961); sister of Margaux Hemingway (1955-96); named after Mariel, Cuba. Indian "The God of Small Things" novelist Suzanna Arundhati Roy on Nov. 24 in Shillong, Meghalaya; Bengali father, Keralite Syrian Christian mother. Am. punk rock drummer Lori Barbero (Babes in Toyland) on Nov. 27 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. football punter (Cincinnati Bengals #11, 1988-98) Leland Eric "Lee" Johnson on Nov. 27 in Dallas, Tex. Mexican "A Little Princess", "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban" film dir. Alfonso Cuaron Orozco on Nov. 28 in Mexico City. Am. boxer (black) Jacqui Frazier-Lyde on Dec. 2; daughter of Joe Frazier (1944-2011). Am. rock drummer ("The Scientific Phenomenalist") David "Dave" Lovering (Pixies) on Dec. 6 in Burlington, Mass. Am. "How to Talk to a a Liberal" conservative writer Ann Hart Coulter on Dec. 8 in New York City; educated at Cornell U., and U. of Mich.; starts out writing legal briefs for Paula Jones' attys. and pub. a book on Pres. Clinton's impeachment. Am. "Byron Sully in Dr. Quinn: Medicine Woman" actor Joseph John "Joe" Lando on Dec. 9 in Prairie View, Ill. Am. "Nicole Chapman in Fame", "Sydney Cook in Walker, Texas Ranger" actress and R&B singer Virenia Gwendolyn "Nia" Peeples on Dec. 10 in Hollywood, Calif.; of Filipino, Scots-Irish, English, Italian, and Amerindian ancestry; educated at UCLA. English chef Marco Pierre White on Dec. 11 in Leeds. Irish singer Daniel Francis Noel O'Donnell on Dec. 12 in Kincasslagh, County Donegal. Am. actor Sam Prideaux Robards on Dec. 16 in New York City; son of Jason Robards Jr. (1922-2002) and Lauren Bacall (1924-2014). Am. 6'6" football hall-of-fame offensive lineman (Denver Broncos) Gary Wayne Zimmerman on Dec. 16 in Fullerton, Calif.; protects QB #7 John Elway in 1993-7. Am. "House Party" film dir.-writer Reginald Hudlin on Dec. 15 in Centreville, Ill. Am. "Lethal Weapon", "The Monster Squad", "The Last Boy Scout", "The Last Action Hero", "The Long Kiss Goodnight" screenwriter-actor Shane Black on Dec. 16 Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at UCLA; student of William Goldman; known for stories featuring two main chars. who become friends and trade witty dialogue ("Shane Blackisms"), usually set during Christmas time. Am. "Bright Lights, Big City" actor Sam Prideaux Robards on Dec. 16 in New York City; son of Jason Robards Jr. (1922-2000) and Lauren Bacall (1924-); husband (1985-93) Suzy Amis (1962-). Am. "The Closer" actor Jonathan F.W. "Jon" Tenney on Dec. 16 in Princeton, N.J.; educated at Vassar College; husband (1994-2003) of Teri Hatcher (1964-). English pop singer Sara Elizabeth Dallin (Bananarama) on Dec. 17 in Bristol. Am. physicist Eric Allin Cornell on Dec. 19 in Palo Alto, Calif.; educated at Stanford U. and MIT; 2001 Nobel Physics Prize. British film producer Graham King on Dec. 19. English psychic John Holland on Dec. 20; educated at Arthur Findlay College. Ukrainian cosmonaut (first person to marry in space) Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko on Dec. 22 in Svitlovodsk. Azerbaijani pres. (2003-) (Sunni Muslim) Ilham Heydar Oglu Aliyev on Dec. 24 in Baku; son of Heydar Aliyev (1923-2003). Am. GM CEO (2013-) Mary Teresa Barra (nee Makela) on Dec. 24 in Waterford, Mich.; educated at Kettering U. Am. basketball coach (Villanova U.) (2001-) Jerold Taylor "Jay" Wright Jr. on Dec. 24 in Churchville, Penn. Canadian sprinter (black) Benjamin Sinclair "Ben" Johnson on Dec. 30 in Falmouth, Jamaica. English "Cowl" novelist Neal Asher on ? in Billericay, Essex. Am. physicist John Carlos Baez on ? in ?; son of Albert Baez (1912-2007); cousin of Joan Baez (1941-); educated at Princeton U. and MIT. Am. economist Kyle Bagwell on ? in Claude, Tex.; educated at SMU, and Stanford U. Am. naturalist Eustace Robinson Conway IV on ? in S.C. Am. Mozilla co-founder (creator of JavaScript) Brendan Eich on ? in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Santa Clara U., and U. of Ill. Australian mathematician-engineer David Evans on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Sydney, and Stanford U. Am. businessman (Muslim) Mansoor Ijaz on ? in Tallahassee, Fla.; son of Mujaddid Ahmed Ijaz (1937-92); educated at the U. of Va. and MIT. Am. film critic (Jewish) Shawn Anthony Levy on ? in New York City; not to be confused with Shawn Adam Levy (1968-). Am. economist Aaron Tornell on ? in ?; educated at MIT. Canadian scientist-politician (Green Party of B.C.) leader Andrew John Weaver on ? in Victoria, B.C.; educated at the U. of Victoria, Cambridge U., and U. of British Columbia. Deaths: Am. longevity queen Charity Davis (b. 1842) on ?; 119 years 160 days. Am. late-blooming artist Grandma (Anna Mary) Moses (b. 1860) on Dec. 13; lives from Pres. Buchanan to JFK: "If I didn't start painting, I would have raised chickens." Hungarian painter Istvan Csok (b. 1865) on Feb. 1. Am. peace activist Emil Greene Balch (b. 1867) on Jan. 9; 1946 Nobel Peace Prize. Belgian pathologist-bacteriologist Jules Bordet (b. 1870) on Apr. 6; 1919 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. Mormon atty. Joshua Reuben Clark (b. 1871) on Oct. 6 in Salt Lake City, Utah. French immunologist Jean-Marie Camille Guerin (b. 1872) on June 9 in Paris. Am. jurist Learned Hand (b. 1872) on Aug. 18 in New York City: "A society in which men recognize no check upon their freedom soon becomes a society where freedom is the possession of only a savage few." Canadian 5-pin bowling hall-of-fame inventor Thomas F. Ryan (b. 1872) on Nov. 19 in Toronto, Ont. English chemist Morris William Travers (b. 1872) on Aug. 25 in Stroud. U.S. First Lady (1915-21) ("the Secret President") Edith Wilson (b. 1872) on Dec. 28 in Washington, D.C.; wife of Pres. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), who became the first de facto woman U.S. pres. after he suffered a stroke in Sept. 1919. Am. vacuum tube inventor Lee De Forest (b. 1873) on June 30 in Hollywood, Calif. German-born Am. physiologist-pharmacologist ("Father of Neuroscience") Otto Loewi (b. 1873) on Dec. 25 in New York City; 1936 Nobel Medicine Prize. French Simon-Benet Test psychologist Theodore Simon (b. 1873) on Sept. 4. French-born Am. "The Poor Little Rich Girl" dir.-writer Maurice Tourneur (b. 1873) on Aug. 4 in Paris. U.S. Gen. John Francis O'Ryan (b. 1874) on Jan. 29 in South Salem, N.Y. Am. Tex. gov. #29 (1925-7) and #32 (1933-5) Ma Ferguson (b. 1875) on June 25 in Austin, Tex. Swiss psychoanalyst-philosopher Carl Gustav Jung (b. 1875) on June 6 in Kusnacht, Zurich; leaves the weird red-covered medieval tome Red Book (Liver Novus) (Lat. "New Book), written in 1914-30, detailing his fight with his own demons, which is locked in a bank vault and not pub. until 2009. English lyricist-novelist Valentine (Archibald Thomas Pechey) (b. 1876) on Nov. 29 in Wells, Somerset. French archeologist Abbe Henri Breuil (b. 1877) on Aug. 14 in L'Isle-Adam, Val-d'Oise. Russian-born Am. banana magnate Samuel Zemurray (b. 1877) on Nov. 30 in New Orleans, La. Am. Moral Rearmament founder Frank N.D. Buchman (b. 1878) on Aug. 7. Welsh painter Augustus John (b. 1878) on Oct. 31 in Fordingbridge, Hampshire, England. Philippine pres. (1944-6) Sergio Osmena (b. 1878) on Oct. 19 in Quezon City. Am. historian Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton (b. 1878) on Nov. 10 in Chapel Hill, N.C. Russian-born Am. film exec (co-founder of 20th Cent.-Fox) Joseph Schenck (b. 1878) on Oct. 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. English conductor Sir Thomas Beecham (b. 1879) on Mar. 8 in London. Slovakian-born Am. businessman John Daniel Hertz Sr. (b. 1879) on Oct. 8 in Chicago, Ill. Canadian novelist-dramatist Mazo de la Roche (b. 1879) on July 12 in Toronto, Ont. Am. tennis player Beals C. Wright (b. 1879) on Aug. 23 in Boston, Mass. Am. "Pancho in The Cisco Kid" actor Leo Carrillo (b. 1880) on Sept. 10 in Santa Monica, Calif. (cancer). Am. Gesell Dome child psychologist Arnold Lucius Gesell (b. 1880) on May 29; known for studying Kamala the Wolf Girl (-1929), sister of Amala the Wolf Girl (-1921). British ambassador Sir Percy Loraine, 12th Baronet (b. 1880) on May 23 in London. Am. novelist Julia Peterkin (b. 1880) on Aug. ? near Ft. Motte, S.C. Am. Communist Party leader William Z. Foster (b. 1881) on Sept. 1 in Moscow, Russia. Russian artist Natalia Goncharova (b. 1881) on Oct. 17 in Paris, France. Australian steel magnate Essington Lewis (b. 1881) on Oct. 2 in Tallarook, Victoria. Polish-born Am. painter Max Weber (b. 1881) on Oct. 4. Swedish entrepreneur Axel Lennart Wenner-Gren (b. 1881) on Nov. 24. Am. high pressure physicist Percy Williams Bridgman (b. 1882) on Aug. 20 in Randolph, N.H. (suicide after contracting terminal cancer; leaves a note: "It isn't decent for society to make a man do this thing himself. Probably this is the last day I will be able to do it myself"; 1946 Nobel Physics Prize: "There is no adequate defense, except stupidity, against the impact of a new idea." Am. "Comedy, American Style" novelist Jessie Redmon Fauset (b. 1882) on Apr. 30 (heart failure). German novelist Leonhard Frank (b. 1882) on Aug. 18 in Munich. Australian-born Am. pianist-composer Percy Aldridge Grainger (b. 1882) on Feb. 20 in White Plains, N.Y.; head of New York U. music dept. Canadian activist Mary Richardson (b. 1882) on Nov. 7 in Hastings, East Essex, England. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) Samuel "Mister Sam" T. Rayburn (b. 1882) on Nov. 16 in Bonham, Tex.; 47 years in the House, speaker for 17 (most of 1940-61). Australian novelist Alice Grant Rosman (b. 1882) on Aug. 20. Am. silent film actress Stella Adams (b. 1883) on Sept. 17 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Am. Erector Set inventor Alfred Carlton Gilbert (b. 1884) on Jan. 24 in Boston, Mass. English "The Bells of St. Marys" lyricist Douglas Furber (b. 1885) on Feb. 20. English-born Australian activist Adela Pankhurst (b. 1885). Latvian-born Am. psychologist David Pablo Boder (b. 1886) on Dec. 18 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "daring to the point of dementia" hall-of-fame baseball player Ty Cobb (b. 1886) on July 17 in Atlanta, Ga. (prostate cancer); holds a ML record .366 (.367) career batting avg., stealing homes a record 54x, and committing a record 271 errors; youngest player with 4K hits and 2K runs; has a bag with $1M in negotiable bonds and a Luger pistol with him at Emory Hospital, and leaves an estate worth $11.8M, leaving 25% to the Ty Cobb Educational Fund to provide scholarships to needy people from Ga. Am. Imagist poet-novelist Hilda Doolittle ("H.D.") (b. 1886) on Sept. 27 in Zurich, Switzerland (stroke); epitaph: "So you may say,/ Greek flower, Greek ecstasy/ reclaims forever/ one who died/ following intricate song's/lost measure." U.S. Gen. Robert Lawrence Eichelberger (b. 1886) on Sept. 26 in Asheville, N.C. Russian-born Am. painter John D. Graham (b. 1886) in London. German Marxist philosopher Karl Korsch (b. 1886) on Oct. 21 in Belmont, Mass. English writer Archibald Robertson (b. 1886) on Oct. 14 in Oxford. Swiss-born French modernist poet-novelist Blaise Cendrars (b. 1887) on Jan. 21 in Paris. French occultist Rene Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz (b. 1887). Austrian physicist Erwin Schrodinger (b. 1887) on Jan. 4 in Vienna (asthma); 1933 Nobel Physics Prize: "You will, on close introspection, find that what you really mean by 'I' is the ground-stuff upon which all experiences are collected." French Egyptologist Rene Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz (b. 1961); leaves The Temple of Man on the symbolism in the Temple of Luxor, which is later taken up by John Anthony West. Am. comedian Chico Marx (b. 1887) on Oct. 11 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart failure). Irish "Father Fitzgibbon in Going My Way" actor Barry Fitzgerald (b. 1888) on Jan. 14 in Dublin (heart attack). Am. "Charlie Chan" producer John Stone (b. 1888) on June 3 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. actor Harry Bannister (b. 1889) on Feb. 26 in New York City. U.S. gen. Russell Peter Hartle (b. 1889) on Nov. 23 in Bethesda, Md. French lit. critic Emile Henriot (b. 1889) on Apr. 14 in Paris. Am. comic dramatist George S. Kaufman (b. 1889) on June 2 in New York City. Am. jazz musician Nick LaRocca (b. 1889) on Feb. 22. Am. Kool-Aid inventor Edwin Elijah Perkins (b. 1889) on July 3 in Olmsted County, Minn. Australian-born Am. silent film comedian Snub Pollard (b. 1889) on Jan. 19 in Burbank Calif. (cancer). Hungarian PM (1946-8) Zoltan Tildy (b. 1889) on Aug. 3 in Budapest. English-Australian novelist Angela Thirkell (b. 1890) on Jan. 29: "It's very peaceful with no husbands." U.S. Sen. (Md.) Millard E. Tydings (b. 1890) on Feb. 9 near Havre de Grace, Md. U.S. secy. of defense (1953-7) and GM CEO (1943-53) Charles Erwin Wilson (b. 1890) on Sept. 26 in Norwood, La. Dominican Repub. dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina (b. 1891) on May 30 in Santo Domingo (assassinated). Austrian chancellor Julius Raab (b. 1891) on Jan. 8. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Marie Elizabeth Clemensen (Geddes) (b. 1892) on May 23 in Tampa, Fla. English Jaguar Cars co-founder William Walmsley (b. 1892) on June 4/5 in Poulton-Le-Fylde. Am. diplomat Sumner Welles (b. 1892) on Sept. 24 in Bernardsville, N.J. Am. actress Ruth Chatterton (b. 1893) on Nov. 24 in Norwalk, Conn. Am. "Alligator People" film dir. Roy Del Ruth (b. 1893) on Apr. 27 in Sherman Oaks, Calif. Am. horror-fantasy writer Clark Ashton Smith (b. 1893) on Aug. 14 in Pacific Grove, Calif. Am. journalist Dorothy Thompson (b. 1893) on Jan. 30 in Portugal: "Age is not measured by years. Nature does not equally distribute energy. Some people are born old and tired while others are going strong at seventy"; "It is not the fact of liberty but the way in which liberty is exercised that ultimately determines whether liberty itself survives"; "When liberty is taken away by force it can be restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default it can never be recovered." French "Journey to the End of Night" novelist Louis-Ferdinand Celine (b. 1894) on July 1 in Paris. Am. "Sam Spade" novelist Dashiell Hammett (b. 1894) on Jan. 10 in Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City (lung cancer); buried in Sec. 12 Lot 508 of Arlington Nat. Cemetery; "I stopped writing because I was repeating myself. It is the beginning of the end when you discover you have style" (1956); "I have been asked many times over the years why he did not write another novel after 'The Thin Man'. I do not know. I think, but I only think, I know a few of the reasons: he wanted to do new kind of work; he was sick for many of those years and getting sicker. But he was a man who kept his work, and his plans for work, in angry privacy and even I would not have been answered if I had ever asked, and maybe because I never asked is why I was with him until the last day of his life." (Hillian Hellman) Canadian hockey player Alf Skinner (b. 1894) on Apr. 11 in Toronto, Ont. Am. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" New Yorker humorist writer-cartoonist James Thurber (b. 1894) on Nov. 2 in New York City. Am. first African-Am. fighter pilot Eugene Bullard (b. 1895) on Oct. 12 in New York City (stomach cancer); ended up as a nobody elevator operator at Rockefeller Center in New York City: "The truth is our fight, and the fight of those who looked up to us as heroes, didn't end with the 'War to End All Wars'." German Gen. Hermann Foertsch (b. 1895) on Dec. 27 in Munich. Indian maharaja (1925-61) Hari Singh (b. 1895) on Apr. 26 in Mumbai. Am. CIA dir. (1950-3) Walter Bedell Smith (b. 1895) on Aug. 9 in Washington, D.C. Albanian king (1928-39) Zog I (b. 1895) on Apr. 9 in Suresnes, Paris. Am. actress Marion Davies (b. 1897) on Sept. 22 in Hollywood, Calif. (stomach cancer). Am. "Blood and Sand" silent film vamp actress Nita Naldi (b. 1897) on Feb. 17 in New York City. U.S. Sen. (R-N.H.) (1937-61) Henry Styles Bridges (b. 1898) on Nov. 26 in Concord, N.H. (heart attack). British actor Wallace Lupino (b. 1898) on Oct. 11 in Ashford, Kent. Am. jazz trombonist Miff Mole (b. 1898) on Apr. 29. Am. novelist Henry Morton Robinson (b. 1898) on Jan. 13 in New York City. Am. "The Sun Also Rises" novelist Ernest "Papa" Hemingway (b. 1899) on July 2 in Ketchum, Idaho (suicide): "Writing is at best a lonely life"; "We all have a girl and her name is Nostalgia"; "Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know"; "Never confuse motion with action"; "The first panacea for a mismanaged nation is inflation of the currency; the second is war. Both bring a temporary prosperity; both bring a permanent ruin. But both are the refuge of political and economic opportunists"; "They wrote in the old days that it is sweet and fitting to die for one's country. But in modern war there is nothing sweet nor fitting in your dying. You will die like a dog for no good reason"; "Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime"; "All good books are alike in that they are truer than if they had really happened"; "Man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated"; "The most essential gift for a good writer is a built-in, shock-proof shit detector"; "There is no hunting like the hunting of man, and those who have hunted armed men long enough and liked it, never care for anything else thereafter"; "There is no lonelier man in death, except the suicide, than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and then outlived her. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it" - these are the hands I work with, they make me a living, bang? Am. historian Garrett Mattingly (b. 1900) on Dec. 18 in Oxford, England (emphysema). Am. "High Noon" actor Gary Cooper (b. 1901) on May 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer); "I know that what is happening is God's will. I am not afraid of the future" (last public statement); "One of the most beloved illiterates this country has ever known" (Carl Sandburg); "From what I hear about Communism, I don't like it because it isn't on the level." Am. "Afternoon of a Pawnbroker" poet-novelist Kenneth Fearing (b. 1902) on June 26 in Manhattan, N.Y. (malignant melanoma). French "Irma La Douce" composer Marguerite Monnot (b. 1903) on Oct. 12 in Paris. Am. mathematician-physicist Howard P. Robertson (b. 1903) on Aug. 26 in Pasadena, Calif. (pulmonary embolish). Am. writer-critic William Troy (b. 1903) on May 26 (cancer). German-born British astrologer Louis de Wohl (b. 1903) on June 2 in Lucerne, Switzerland. Am. actress Anna May Wong (b. 1905) on Feb. 2 in Santa Monica, Calif. (heart attack). English singer George Formby Jr. (b. 1904) on Mar. 6 in Liverpool (heart attack). Am. playwright-dir. Moss Hart (b. 1904) on Dec. 20 in Palm Springs, Calif. (heart attack): "The self-hatred that destroys is the waste of unfulfilled promise." Swedish statesman and U.N. secy.-gen. (1953-61) Dag Hammarskjold (b. 1905) on Sept. 17/18 in Ndola, N Rhodesia (plane crash en route to Katanga, Congo); the U.S. was behind it? Am. actress Dorothy Burgess (b. 1907) on Aug. 21 in Riverside, Calif. (TB). French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (b. 1908) on May 3 (stroke). Am. country musician Karl Farr (b. 1909) on Sept. 20 in Mass. (heart attack). Moroccan king (1951-61) Mohammed V (b. 1909) on Feb. 26. German SS Gen. Kurt Meyer (b. 1910) on Dec. 23 in Hagen; sentenced to life, released in 1954. Finnish-Am. architect Eero Saarinen (b. 1910) on Sept. 1 in Ann Arbor, Mich.; designer of the Tulip chair, St. Louis Gateway Arch, and TWA Flight Center in New York City. German-born Am. journalist Karl Henry von Wiegand (b. 1911) on June 7 in Switzerland. Estonian Gen. Harald Riipalu (b. 1912) on Apr. 4 in Heckmondwicke, England (heart failure). Am. blues musician Sticks McGhee (b. 1917) on Aug. 15 in Bronx, N.Y. (lung cancer). Am. folk singer Cisco Houston (b. 1918) on Apr. 29 in San Bernardino, Calif. (stomach cancer). French Marxist philosopher Frantz Fanon (b. 1925) on Dec. 6 in Bethesda, Md. (leukemia). Am. famous dwarf Eddie Gaedel (b. 1925) on June 18 in Chicago, Ill. Congolese PM (1060) Patrice Lumumba (b. 1925) on Jan. 17 in Elisabethville, Katanga (tortured and executed). Am. physician-writer Thomas Anthony Dooley III (b. 1927) on Jan. 18 in New York City (cancer) - the good hang down their heads young? German auto racer Wolfgang von Trips (b. 1928) on Sept. 10 in Monza, Italy (auto accident). Am. basketball player Don Sunderlage (b. 1929) on July 15 in Lake Geneva, Wisc. (auto accident). Burundi PM (1961) prince Louis Rwagasore (b. 1932) on Oct. 13 at the Hotel Tanganyika (assassinated). Am. jazz musician Scott LaFaro (b. 1936) on July 6 in Geneva, N.Y. (automobile accident).

1962 - The 62 Pee Yu Cuban Missile Crisis Vatican II Escape from Alcatraz James Bond 007 Three Billion K-Mart Target Wal-Mart Do the Twist Telstar Theatre of the Absurd Year? The year that the advance guard of the U.S. Baby Boom generation starts to appear on the public scene, quickly changing corny to cool to anything goes as it sweats through a near-death experience with the Cuban Missile Crisis, while the U.S. Supreme Court conveniently sets them loose by banning morality-dictator God from public schools, and childless 1950s Hollywood bimbo Marilyn Monroe gives a singing performance for JFK and then ODs before reaching 40, symbolizing the liberation of the Baby Boomer Generation from maternal restraints? A good year to start an American retail or fast-food chain?

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) and Robert Francis Kennedy (1925-68) of the U.S. Andrei Gromyko of the Soviet Union (1909-89) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II of the U.S. (1900-65) in the U.N., 1962 Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin of the Soviet Union (1902-86) John Albert Scali of the U.S. (1918-95) Alexander Feklisov of the Soviet Union (1914-2007) Soviet Adm. Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov (1926-98) Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria (1916-2012) Ahmed Messali Hadj of Algeria (1898-1974) Mohammed Khemisti of Algeria (1930-63) Marilyn Monroe (1926-62) Marilyn Monroe (1926-62), Happy Birthday Mr. President, May 19, 1962 Marilyn Monroe's Brentwood Cottage Marilyn Monroe (1926-62), dead Thomas T. Noguchi (1927-) Judith Campbell Exner (1934-99) Peter Fechter (1944-62), Aug. 17, 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 U.S. Gen. Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (1899-1988) John Glenn of the U.S. (1921-2016) in Friendship 7, 1962 John Glenn of the U.S. (1921-2016) Scott Carpenter of the U.S. (1925-2013) Donald Kent 'Deke' Slayton of the U.S. (1924-93) Telstar I, 1962 First U.K.-U.S. Satellite TV Broadcast, July 23, 1962 Charles de Gaulle of France (1890-1970) Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou of France (1911-74) French Gen. Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95) French Gen. Raoul Salan (1899-1984) Pierre Lagaillarde of France (1931-) Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-) French Gen. Georges-Augustin Bidault (1899-1983) U.S. Gen. Paul Donal Harkins (1904-84) Sir Harry Pilkington of Britain (1905-83) Edmund Gerald 'Pat' Brown Sr. of the U.S. (1905-96) Edward Moore 'Ted' Kennedy of the U.S. (1932-2009) Richard Milhous Nixon of the U.S. (1913-94) Jens Otto Krag of Denmark (1914-78) V.K. Krishna Menon of India (1896-1974) Savepalli Radhakrishnan of India (1888-1975) Indian Maj. Shaitan Singh (1924-62) Fred Korth of the U.S. (1909-98) James Claude Wright Jr. of the U.S. (1922-) Bell X-22 F-111 Aardvark Wally Schirra Jr. of the U.S. (1923-2007) William Henry Hastie Jr. of the U.S. (1904-76) Byron Raymond White of the U.S. (1917-2002) Arthur Joseph Goldberg of the U.S. (1908-90) William Willard Wirtz of the U.S. (1912-) Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane of Mozambique (1920-69) Junius Irving Scales (1920-2002) Walter Cronkite (1916-2009) Mariner 2, 1962 Ross Barnett of the U.S. (1898-1987) James Meredith (1933-) John Michael Doar of the U.S. (1921-) Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly of Dominican Republic (1904-79) Juan Bosch Gavino of the Dominican Republic (1909-2001) Gen. Ne Win of Burma (1910-2004) Apolo Milton Obote of Uganda (1925-2005) King Mutesa II of Buganda (1924-69) Gregoire Kayibanda of Rwanda (1924-76) Mwambutsa IV of Burundi (1912-77) Masayoshi Ohira of Japan (1910-80) Antonio Segni of Italy (1891-1972) Eric Eustace Williams of Jamaica (1911-81) Sir Alexander Bustamante of Jamaica (1884-1977) Karl Heinrich Lübke of Germany (1894-1972) Mike Mansfield of the U.S. (1903-2001) U Thant of Burma (1909-74) Lei Feng of China (1940-62) Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry (1927-63) Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968) Laurance Spelman Rockefeller (1910-2004) Lucky Luciano (1897-1962) Said Ramadan (1926-95) Joe Adonis (1902-71) Casey Stengel (1890-1975) Jackie Robinson (1919-72) Rodger Ward (1921-2004) Dick Duff (1936-) Kid Paret-Emile Griffith Fight, 3/24/1962 Sonny Liston (1928-71) Maury Wills (1932-) Wilt Chamberlain (1936-99) Wilt Chamberlain (1936-99) Al Attles (1936-) Elgin Baylor (1934-) Oscar Robertson (1938) Frank Selvy (1932-) Bill Russell (1934-) Jerry West (1938-) Dave DeBusscherre (1940-2003) Jerry Lucas (1940-) Chris Schenkel (1923-2005) Billy Welu (1932-74) Nelson Burton Jr. (1942-) ABC Professional Bowlers Tour, 1962-97 PBA Tournament of Champions Logo Joe Joseph (1918-88) Jack Biondolillo (1940-) J. Wilbert Sims (1921-76) Chet Walker (1940-) Karen Hantze Susman (1942-) Harland Svare (1930-) James Hanratty (1936-62) Frank Lee Morris (1926-) John Anglin (1930-) Clarence Anglin (1931-) Homero Blancas Jr. (1938-) Bill Soberanes (1921-2003) and Dave Devoto Franz Josef Strauss (1915-88) Rudolf Augstein (1923-2002) John Henry Faulk (1913-90) Louis Nizer (1902-94) Marshall McLuhan (1911-80) Ralph Ginzburg (1929-2006) Father Morton A. Hill (1917-85) Sister Mary Luke Tobin (1908-2006) Cardinal Eugene Tisserant (1884-1972) Richard Williams (1928-) George Harry Heilmeier (1936-) Neil Bartlett (1932-) Milton Friedman (1912-2006) Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922-96) Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) Alejo Carpentier (1904-80 George Armitage Miller (1920-) Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) John Steinbeck (1902-68) Lev Davidovich Landau (1908-68) Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914-2002) John Cowdery Kendrew (1917-97) James D. Watson (1928-) and Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916-2004) Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) Frank J. Tipler (1947-) Leon Max Lederman (1922-) Melvin Schwartz (1932-2006) Jack Steinberger (1921-) Sol Spiegelman (1914-83) William Howard Schuman (1910-92) Eric Ambler (1909-98) John Ashbery (1927-2017) Giorgio Bassani (1916-2000) Lerone Bennett Jr. (1928-2018) Robert Bly (1926-) Anthony Burgess (1917-93) Rachel Carson (1907-64) James Clavell (1924-94) Nicolas Freeling (1927-2003) Bruce Jay Friedman (1930-) Nadine Gordimer (1923-) Sir John Habakkuk (1915-2002) P.D. James (1920-) Chalmers Ashby Johnson (1931-) Fletcher Knebel (1911-93) Rose Kennedy (1891-1995) Cesar Chavez (1927-93) Dolores Huerta (1930-) Frederic Morton (1924-) Reynolds Price (1933-) Mark Rosenzweig (1922-2009) Stanley Schachter (1922-97) Peter Tompkins (1919-2007) Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (1912-89) Barbara Mary Ward (1914-81) Rene Char (1907-88) Sir John Charnley (1911-82) Robert Creeley (1926-2005) Roald Dahl (1916-90) Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921-90) Romain Gary (1914-80) Lloyd Stowell Shapley (1923-) Robert Franklin Stroud (1890-1963) Riccardo Giacconi (1931-0 Sir John Gurdon (1932-) Brian David Josephson (1940-) Leo Esaki (1925-) Ivar Giaever (1929-) Joseph Pratt Harris (1896-1985) William Rouverol (1918-) Earl 'Madman' Muntz (1914-87) David Oreck (1923-) John Franklin Enders (1897-1955) Robert Chester Wilson Ettinger (1918-2011) Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984) Thomas Berger (1924-) Wilfred Ruprecht Bion (1897-1979) Earle Birney (1904-95) Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93) Helen Gurley Brown (1922-) James McGill Buchanan Jr. (1919-) Gordon Tullock (1922-2014) Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) Carleton Stevens Coon (1904-81) Leon Edel (1907-97) Leon Eisenberg (1922-2009) Martin Esslin (1918-2002) William Faulkner (1897-1962) Rudolf Flesch (1911-86) Constance McLaughlin Green (1897-1975) Joseph Hayes (1918-20060 Ann Jellicoe (1927-) Adrienne Kennedy (1931-) John Mason Brown (1900-69) Len Deighton (1929-) Graham Young (1947-90) Alan Bullock (1914-2004) Kurt Hahn (1886-1974) David Joel Horowitz (1939-) John Oliver Killens (1916-87) Doris Lessing (1919-2013) Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-) Sarnoff A. Mednick James Merrill (1926-95) Penelope Ruth Mortimer (1918-99) John Marcus Fleming (1911-76) Robert Alexander Mundell (1932-) James Tobin (1918-2002) Michael Murphy (1930-) and Dick Price (1930-) Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980) Robert Henry Rimmer (1917-2001) Philip Roth (1933-2018) Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95) Frank William Stringfellow (1928-85) Isabel Maitland Stewart (1878-1963) Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012) Silvan Solomon Tomkins (1911-91) Irving Wallace (1916-90) Arnold Wesker (1932-) George Woodcock (1912-95) William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) Louis Zukofsky (1904-78) Zubin Mehta (1936-) The Beach Boys Tony Bennett (1926-) Gay Byrne (1934-) The Contours Bob Dylan (1941-) Carlisle Floyd (1926-) Wayne Newton (1942-) Jack Jones (1938-) Steve Lawrence (1935-) Jay and the Americans John Lee Hooker (1917-2001) Arthur Alexander (1940-93) Herb Alpert (1935-) A&M Records Holland-Dozier-Holland Invictus Records Hank Snow (1914-99) Cilla Black (1943-) Vikki Carr (1941-) Dick Dale (1937-) Maureen Evans (1940-) Shelley Fabares (1944-) Claude Francois (1939-78) Kenny Lynch (1939-) Susan Maughan (1942-) Chris Montez (1943-) Bobby Pickett (1938-2007) Tommy Newsom (1929-2007) Tommy Roe (1942-) The Rooftop Singers Jimmy Soul (1942-88) The Spotnicks Bobby Vinton (1935-) The Rivingtons The Isley Brothers Bobby Sheen (1941-2000) Dionne Warwick (1940-) Mary Wells (1943-92) Peter, Paul and Mary Albert Grossman (1926-86) The New Christy Minstrels Herbie Mann (1930-2003) Ringo Starr (1940-) John Lennon (1940-80) and Cynthia Powell (1939-) The Rolling Stones Mick Jagger (1943-) Swinging Blue Jeans The Tornados Frankie Valli (1934-) and the Four Seasons Jet Harris (1939-) Booker T. and the M.G.'s Mrs. Mills (1918-78) Herbie Hancock (1940-) Quincy Jones (1933-) Roger Whittaker (1936-) Archie Shepp (1937-) Bill Dixon (1925-2010) Georges Auric (1899-1983) Dick Francis (1920-) Herb Gardner (1934-2003) Michael Harrington (1928-89) Erich Leinsdorf (1912-93) Madeleine L'Engle (1918-2007) Alison Lurie (1926-) Donald R. Seawell (1912-) John Melville Burgess (1909-2003) Sebastian de Grazia (1917-2000) Johnny Carson (1925-2005), 'The Tonight Show', 1962-92 Ed McMahon (1923-2009) Lester Flatt (1914-79) and Earl Scruggs (1924-) The Beverly Hillbillies, 1962-71 Homer and Jethro 'Combat!', 1962-7 'The Eleventh Hour', 1962-4 'Im Dickens, Hes Fenster', 1962-3 McHale's Navy, 1962-6 Steptoe and Son, 1962-74 The Virginian', 1962-71 'To Serve Man', The Twilight Zone, Mar. 2, 1962 The Flying Wallendas, 1962 'The Brain That Wouldnt Die', 1962 'The Day of the Triffids', 1962 'Girls! Girls! Girls!', 1962 'Hatari', 1962 'La Jetée', 1962 'Journey to the Seventh Planet', 1962 'Jules and Jim', 1962 'To Kill a Mockingbird', 1962 'To Kill a Mockingbird', 1962 'A Kind of Loving', 1962 'Lolita', starring Sue Lyon (1946-), 1962 'The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner', 1962 'Lonely Are the Brave', starring Kirk Douglas (1916-), 1962 'The Longest Day', 1962 'Moon Pilot', 1962 Richard Condon (1915-96) John Frankenheimer (1930-2002) 'The Manchurian Candidate', 1962 'The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, 1962 Gene Pitney (1940-2006) 'The Miracle Worker', 1962 'Panic in Year Zero!', 1962 'Two for the Seesaw', 1962 'Dr. No' starring Sean Connery (1930-), 1962 Sean Connery (1930-) as James Bond in 'Dr. No', 1962 Harry Saltzman (1915-94), Ian Fleming (1908-64) and Albert R. Broccoli (1909-96) Monty Norman (1928-) John Barry (1933-2011) Vic Flick (1937-) The Cascades Richard Todd (1919-) Rex Ingram (1895-1969) Poster for Elvis Presley's USS Arizona Benefit Concert, Mar. 15, 1961 Alfred Preis (1911-93) USS Arizona Memorial, 1962 Glen William Bell Jr. (1923-2010) Taco Bell, 1962- S.S. Kresge (1867-1966) K-Mart, 1962 Target Stores, 1962 Sam Walton (1918-92) Wal-Mart, 1962 Warren Buffett (1930-) H. Ross Perot (1930-) Sis Cunningham (1909-2004) and Gordon Friesen (1909-96) 'Broadside' mag., 1962- John Harvey Wheeler (1918-2004) 'Fail-Safe' by Eugene Burdick (1918-65) and John Harvey Wheeler (1918-2004), 1962 'How the West Was Won', 1963 'The Music Man', 1962 Robert Preston (1918-87) 'Ride the High Country', 1962 'The Three Stooges in Orbit', 1962 'Whatever Happened to Baby Jane?', 1962 Vaughn Meader (1936-2004) Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, 1962 Max Abramovitz (1908-2004) Walter A. Netsch (1920-2008) U.S. Air Force Academy Chapel, 1962 John Graham Jr. (1908-91) Seattle Space Needle, 1962 Sir Basil Urwin Spence (1907-76) Coventry Cathedral, 1962 Larry Rivers (1923-2002) Dennis Hopper (1936-2010) 'Mr. Art' by Larry Rivers (1923-2002), 1962 Stan Lee (1922-2018) Steve Ditko (1927-) 'Spider-Man', 1962- 'The Incredible Hulk', 1962- 'The Jetsons', 1962-3 'A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum', 1962 'Never Too Late', 1962 Edward Albee (1928-) 'Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf?', 1962 Jean Dubuffet (1901-85) 'Court les rues', by Jean Dubuffet (1901-85), 1962 Jasper Johns (1930-) 'Fools House' by Jasper Johns (1930-), 1962 Richard Lippold (1915-2002) 'Flight' by Richard Lippold (1915-2002), 1962 Claes Oldenburg (1929-) 'Two Cheeseburgers with Everything' by Claes Oldenburg (1929-), 1962 Ed Ruscha (1937-) 'Actual Size' by Ed Ruscha (1937-), 1962 'Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights' by Ed Ruscha (1937-), 1962 'Still Life No. 15' by Tom Wesselmann (1931-2004), 1962 Andy Warhol (1928-87) 'Campbells Soup Cans' by Andy Warhol (1928-87), 1962 'Green Coke Bottles' by Andy Warhol (1928-87), 1962 'Do-It-Yourself Landscape' by Andy Warhol (1928-87), 1962 Movieland Wax Museum, 1962-2005 Victor Gruen (1903-80) Carroll Shelby (1923-2012) Shelby Cobra, 1962-7 A-12 Spy Plane, 1962 Bell X-22 Aero Spacelines Pregnant Guppy Sukhoi Su-15 Flagon CH-46 Sea Knight

1962 Doomsday Clock: 7 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Tiger (Feb. 5). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Pope John XIII (1881-1963), for volunteering as a mediator in the Cuban Missile Crisis. World pop. officially reaches 3B on Sept. 1. This year the U.S. presence in Vietnam is increased to 11.3K soldiers; between this year and 1972 U.S. military tanker planes and helis spray 10M-20M gal. of "Rainbow Herbicides", incl. Agent Orange, Agent Purple, Agent Pink, and Agent Green, plus 375 lb. of Dioxin in Operation Ranch Hand to "deny cover" to Commie forces, causing them to begin hiding in tunnels; in 1984 the Agent Orange Class Action Lawsuit is settled, with a record $180M fund set up for victims, who have to apply by Dec. 31, 1994. This year 50 corps. control the U.S. media, which shrinks to five mega-corps. by the end of the cent.? On Jan. 1 Western Samoa becomes independent from New Zealand. On Jan. 1 Portuguese army troops led by Capt. Joao Varela Gomes, along with Roman Catholic dissident militants led by Manuel Serra attack the army barracks in Beja, Portugal. On Jan. 1 Pres. Kennedy activates the U.S. Navy SEALS (Sea-Air-Land) to meet the challenge of guerrilla war and counterterrorism, formed from the Navy's UDT (underwater demolition team) units used in WWII and the Korean War. On Jan. 1 Minn. defeats UCLA by 21-3 to win the 1962 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 2 NAACP exec secy. Roy Wilkins praises JFK for his "personal role" in advancing civil rights for blacks. On Jan. 3 Pope John XXIII excommunicates Cuban Communist dictator Fidel Castro - I'll bet he's real hurt? On Jan. 4 New York City activates a crewless subway train. It's time to shop at checkered auto parts? On Jan. 4 Pres. Kennedy appoints Texas-born Frederick Herman "Fred" Korth (1909-98) as U.S. Navy secy. #56 (until Nov. 1, 1963) after Texas-born John B. Connally Jr. (appointed on Jan. 25, 1961) resigns last Dec. 20 and Texas-born LBJ lobbies him in; within weeks Korth gets the X-22 V/STOL contract switched from Boeing of Seattle, Wash. to Bell Aerospace Corp. of Ft. Worth, Tex.; too bad, after a prototype crashes on Aug. 8, 1966, the program is canceled; meanwhile the $6.5B joint Navy-Air Force swing-wing TFX/F-111 Aardvark program is up for bids, and with his and LBJ's lobbying, General Dynamics Co. of Ft. Worth, Tex. gets the award on Oct. 24, despite Boeing Co. of Washington state having a better design and bidding $100M lower; Korth served as pres. of the Continental Nat. Bank in Fort Worth, Tex., which financed the Gen. Dynamics plant, and before that he was the lawyer for Edwin A. Ekdahl, hubby of Lee Harvey Oswald's mother Marguerite Frances Ekdahl during their divorce; too bad, on Dec. 12 when LBJ visits GD for their big celebration, Texas Dem. rep. (1955-89) James Claude "Jim" Wright Jr. (1922-), representing the Texas 12th District based in Ft. Worth slips and utters the soundbyte: "You have to have friends and they have to stick with you through thick and thin even if you do have merit on your side", causing the U.S. Senate to begin an investigation. On Jan. 5 Time mag. names John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) as their Man of the Year for 1961. On Jan. 7 the Los Angeles Examiner pub. its last issue after 59 years in operation. On Jan. 8 Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" is exhibited in the U.S. for the first time at the Nat. Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. On Jan. 8 the 2-train Harmelen Train Disaster in the Netherlands kills 93, becoming their worst train disaster until ?. On Jan. 9 Cuba signs a trade pact with the Soviet Union. On Jan. 10 an avalanche on 22K-ft. Mt. Huascaran (highest peak in the Peruvian Andes) kills 3K-4K in 45 ft. of debris over 1 mi. wide. On Jan. 11 JFK's Second State of the Union Address praises Sam Rayburn, and ends with the soundbytes: "A year ago, in assuming the tasks of the presidency, I said that few generations in all history had been granted the role of being the great defender of freedom in its hour of maximum danger. This is our good fortune, and I welcome it now as I did a year ago" and "In this high endeavor, may God watch over the United States of America". On Jan. 12 the Indonesian Army announces that it has begun military operations in W Iran. On Jan. 13 Albania allies with the People's Repub. of China. On Jan. 15 Portugal walks out of the U.N. Gen. Assembly during a debate on Angola. On Jan. 16 a military coup in the Dominican Repub. led by AF chief Rodriguez Echevarria overthrows Joaquin Balaguer and forces him into exile in New York City, followed on Jan. 19 by a counter-coup, with new pres. Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly Fondeur (1904-79); on Dec. 20 after putting the new 1962 Dominican Repub. Constitution into effect, the country holds its first free election in 38 years (1924), choosing leftist leader Juan Bosch Gavino (1909-2001), head of the Dominican Rev. Party as pres. #41, who takes office next Feb. 27; too bad, his U.S.-supported plans for land reform get him toppled by the army 4 mo. later (June). On Jan. 22 after U.S. pressure, the Org. of Am. States suspends the membership of Cuba, pissing-off Fidel Castro, who on Feb. 4 issues the Second Declaration of Havana, calling on all Latin Ams. to rise up against Yankee imperialism. On Jan. 22 the murder trial of James Hanratty (b. 1936) begins for the Aug. 22, 1961 A6 Murder of physicist Michael Gregsten in Maulden Wood, Bedforshire, after his companion Valerie Storie (1936-), who was raped, shot, and left for dead IDs him in a lineup, although he claims an alibi; after being convicted in Feb., he is hanged in Bedford Gaol despite many believing in his innocence, beginning a decades-long controversy (ends ?). On Jan. 24 East Germany resumes conscription. On Jan. 24 the far-right French OAS bombs the French foreign ministry to protest Algerian independence. On Jan. 26 Ranger 3 is launched to study the Moon; too bad, it misses by 22K mi. On Jan. 27 the Soviet govt. eliminates all place names honoring Stalin backers Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986), Lazar Kaganovich (1893-1991), and Georgi Malenkov (1902-88), who tried a coup in 1957 and are now kaput. On Jan. 27 the San Francisco Bay Area hosts the Chubby Checker Twist Party at the Cow Palace (attendance 17K); 1962 is the Year of the Twist, with The Twist by Chubby Checker becoming the #1 Billboard pop song of the year, followed by Peppermint Twist by Joey Dee and the Starliters at #5, Slow Twistin' by Dee Dee Sharp (1945-) at #36, Dear Lady Twist by Gary U.S. Bonds at #47, Twistin' the Night Away by Sam Cooke at #61, Twist and Shout by the Isley Brothers at #89, and Twist, Twist Senora by Gary U.S. Bonds at #98. On Jan. 27 the Sat. afternoon series Professional Bowlers Tour debuts on ABC-TV (until June 21, 1997), hosted by Bippus, Ind.-born sportscaster Chris Schenkel (1923-2005) and pro bowler William Joseph "Billy" Welu (1932-74); after Welu dies of a sudden heart attack on May 16, 1974, Saint Louis, Mo.-born PBA Hall of Famer player Nelson "Bo" Burton Jr. (1942-) (son of hall-of-fame bowler Nelson Burton Sr.) takes his place. On Jan. 29 U.S. manufacturing firms with $50K or more in federal contracts are ordered to report the number of blacks on their payrolls. On Jan. 30 two members of the Flying Wallendas high-wire act are killed when their 7-person pyramid collapses during a perf. in Detroit; they don't try it again for 15 years. In Jan. after the South African govt. declares the African Nat. Congress (ANC) illegal, leader Nelson Mandela flees South Africa for the first time after being accused of organizing illegal demonstrations, and ends up in London via Addis Ababa and Tanzania, then undergoes military training in Algeria before returning through E Africa and getting arrested on Aug. 2 in Howick en route from Durban to Johannesburg and convicted of incitement to rebellion and sentenced to five years of hard labor, with his wife Winnie becoming a spokeswoman for the ANC, getting her banned and restricted; Mandela ends behind bars for 27 years; undercover CIA agent Donald c. Rickard tipped off the South African govt. to arrest Mandela, claiming he is a dangerous Soviet agent, "the world's most dangerous Communist outside of the Soviet Union", and is planning an uprising as a prelude to a Soviet invasion, which would lead to a U.S.-Soviet conflict. In Jan. CBS-TV airs The Land Beyond the Wall: Three Weeks in a German City, by reporter Daniel Schorr, which the New York Times calls a "journalist coup", showing how residents of Russian cities such as Rostock have to be sealed off from the West by the Soviet state in order for Communism to survive. In Jan. rock and roll pioneer Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry (1926-) is sentenced to three years in prison under the infamous 1910 U.S. Mann Act for transporting a 14-y.-o. girl across state lines. In Jan. Harper's Mag. pub. Portrait of a Genius as a Young Chess Master, an interview with 18-y.-o. Bobby Fischer by Ralph Ginzburg, which becomes his best interview and the last formal interview he gives until ?. On Feb. 2 the govt. of Italian Christian Dem. PM Amintore Fanfani resigns to let in the left-wing Socialists of Pietro Nenni, beginning the Apertura a Sinistra (opening to the Left) period in Italy; on Feb. 21 the new govt. is formed, and lasts a whopping 15 mo. (until May, 1963); on May 6 Sardinian-born former PM (1955-60) Antonio Segni (1891-1972) is elected pres. of Italy (until Dec. 6, 1964). On Feb. 3 after sending fellow cigar smoker Pierre Salinger on a mission to get him 1.2K green Petit Upmanns for his personal humidor, JFK orders the Cuban Embargo, banning all U.S. trade with Cuba on Feb. 7 except for food and drugs; too bad, other countries don't follow suit. On Feb. 4 the London Sunday Times becomes the first newspaper to print a color supplement. On Feb. 4-5 a rare grand conjunction of the five naked eye planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn plus the Sun and Moon occurs, aligning within a 16 deg. arc; the next one occurs on May 5, 2000; the Soviets launch three 1,940-lb. spacecraft, Mars 1, 2, 3 for Mars, but they all fail to make it. On Feb. 5 amid public outrage at the use of torture by French troops against Algerians, French pres. Charles de Gaulle calls for Algeria's independence, and on Mar. 8-12 France negotiates with the Algerian FLN in Geneva, Switzerland. On Feb. 6 the U.S. Dept. of Commerce begins negotiations with U.S. Steel; on Apr. 6 U.S. Steel signs an agreement with the United Steelworkers Union, brokered by JFK, promising not to raise steel prices; on Apr. 10 six major U.S. steel producers led by U.S. Steel announce a $6/ton price hike, and Pres. Kennedy denounces them in a press conference on Apr. 11, shifting defense contracts to cos. that didn't go along and ordering his atty.-gen. brother RFK to begin a grand jury investigation of price fixing, subpoenaing steel exec expense accounts and dispatching FBI agents to interview them, with the soundbyte "The American people will find it hard, as I do, to accept a situation in which a tiny handful of steel executives whose pursuit of private power and profit exceeds their sense of public responsibility can show such utter contempt for the interests of 185 million Americans... Some time ago I asked each American to consider what he would do for his country and I asked the steel companies. In the last 24 hours we had their answer", causing them to back down and lower prices on Apr. 13, after which Wall Street considers JFK to be their enemy despite a pres. approval rating of 73% and public support of his stand by 58%-22%? On Feb. 7 a coal mine gas explosion in Saarland, West Germany kills 299. On Feb. 8 after leaving Le Havre on Feb. 3, the ocean liner SS France (launched May 11, 1960) arrives in New York City on its maiden voyage; it is decommissioned on Oct. 25, 1974, sold to Norwegian Cruise Line in 1979, and scrapped in Alang, India in 2008. On Feb. 10 the Soviet Union exchanges captured U.S. U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers for Soviet Spy Col. Rudolph Ivanovich Abel, who has been in U.S. hands since 1957. On Feb. 12 six members of the London Committee of 100 of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (formed 1960) are found guilty of breaching the Official Secrets Act and jailed, only making them madder, after which they organize an anti-nuke demonstration in Red Square, Moscow; too bad, in Sept. after some members get too radical and begin calling for the overthrow of the state, leader Bertrand Russell resigns and joins the Welsh Committee of 100, causing the whole movement to dwindle, and it folds in Oct. 1968. On Feb. 12-Mar 4 blacks boycott the buses in Macon, Ga. On Feb. 14 First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy conducts a televised Tour of the White House on CBS-TV and NBC-TV, which ABC-TV rebroadcasts on Feb. 18, becoming the first U.S. prime time documentary courting a female audience. On Feb. 15 Urho K. Kekkonen is reelected pres. of Finland (until 1968). On Feb. 15 the nat. council of Uruguay votes to retain diplomatic relations with Cuba to placate a large pro-Castro segment of the pop. On Feb. 16 the North Sea Flood sees heavy storms on the North Sea coast around Hamburg, Germany kill 300 and make thousands homeless. On Feb. 16-17 the leftist Students for a Dem. Society (SDS) and Boston SANE (Greater Boston Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) hold the first anti-nuclear march on Washington, D.C., attended by 4K-8K students; on June 15 the Port Huron Statement is issued by the SDS - there is a Garden of Eden? On Feb. 18 Robert F. Kennedy says that U.S. troops will stay in Vietnam until Communism is defeated; Gen. Paul Donal "Ramrod" Harkins (1904-84) (a past chum and deputy chief of staff of Gen. George S. Patton Jr. in WWII) heads the new Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG), which reaches Vietnam this mo.; he defies orders of Pres. Kennedy to tell the plain truth in his reports and instead calls his daily situation reports "The Headway Report"; Harkins and ambassador Frederick Nolting launch the policy of "Sink or Swim with Ngo Dinh Diem", stifling criticism of his regime and torpedoing subordinates who try to tell the truth; on Mar. 22 Harkins begins Operation Sunrise to build a chain of fortified strategic hamlets manned by home defense units run by Pres. Diem's brother Nhu; when guerrilla activity drops, Pres. Kennedy expands his command from 2K to 16K men, and upgrades its name to the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV). The original Dudley Doright Eagle Scout Lily-White Straight Married American Hero? On Feb. 20 (Tue.) U.S. Marine Lt. Col. John Herschel Glenn Jr. (1921-2016) becomes the first American to orbit the Earth (3x) in the Mercury Atlas 6 Friendship 7 capsule in a mission lasting 4 hr. 55 min. 23 sec., reaching an alt. of 162 mi., and uttering the soundbyte "Oh, that view is tremendous!"; the pop. of Perth, Australia turn their lights on and off simultaneously as he passes over them, and he thanks them; he claims to see firefly-like objects swarming over his capsule; after a "Landing Bag Deployed" light starts blinking, causing the heat shield to be suspected of being loose, the planned seven orbits are scrapped, and he has to reenter without jettisoning the retro rockets so they will hold his heat shield on; on Mar. 1 he is given a ticker tape parade in New York City (3,529 tons of ticker tape); he is given a 2nd ticker tape parade on June 18, 1999; Samuel Shenton (-1971), founder of the Flat Earth Society (1956) sends Glenn a telegram: "OK wise guy"; in Jan. 1964 6 weeks after the assassination of personal friend JFK he retires from NASA to go into politics. On Feb. 23 the European Space Agency (ESA) is formed by 12 Euro countries. On Feb. 27 two planes bomb the pres. palace in Saigon, missing pres. Diem. On Mar. 1 after its rudder separates from the tail, an Am. Airlines Boeing 707-123 jetliner crashes nose-first into Jamaica Bay near Idlewild Airport in New York City, killing all 95 aboard. The Year that K-Mart Sucks is born, along with Target and Wal-Mart? On Mar. 1 the first K-Mart (Kmart) opens in Garden City (near Detroit), Mich., run by 63-y.-o. 5-and-10-cent store chain magnate Sebastian Spering "S.S" Kresge (1867-1966), becoming #2 in sales after Sears in 1977, then getting passed up by Wal-Mart in the 1980s; meanwhile on May 1 Dayton Hudson Corp. opens the first Target discount store in Roseville (near St. Paul), Minn., growing to 1K stores in 47 states by the end of the cent. and passing K-Mart also; meanwhile on July 2 Wal-Mart (Walmart), the first discount retailer is founded in Rogers, Ark. by Okla.-born former Ben Franklin store owner Samuel Moore "Sam" Walton (1918-92), incorporating as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. on Oct. 31, 1969, and growing into the biggest mega-corp. in history (4K stores in the U.S., 1.6M U.S. employees, 2.3M global employees, global sales of $480B/year), putting ma-and-pop stores out of biz with a super-efficient mass-merchandising machine in every 1-horse town in the U.S. obsessed with offering the lowest price in town every day on almost every item and underpaying employees, which are called associates to avoid labor laws, while the penny-pinching founder lives like an avg. Joe, driving himself to pick up fast food, and giving his kids paltry allowances, even putting a slot machine in the attic to try and win it back? On Mar. 2 a military coup in Burma led by Gen. Ne Win (1910-2002) seizes control and arrests PM U Nu, after which No Win shows his style by ordering soldiers to massacre student protesters at Rangoon U. on July 7 (killing 100), then gives a radio speech on July 8, uttering the soundbyte: "If these disturbances were made to challenge us, I declare that we will fight sword with sword and spear with spear", then closes all univs. until Sept. 1964 - now Burma is in a ne-win situation? On Mar. 2 To Serve Man, season 3 episode 24 of The Twilight Zone (1959-64) based on a short story by Damon Knight is aired, starring 7'1" Richard Kiel (1939-) as a Kanamit, who comes to Earth and brings peace and plenty, then helps earthlings visit his home planet, where they end up as tasty dishes, freaking out young Baby Boomers permanently and giving them conflicting feelings about the space program? On Mar. 3 the British Antarctic Territory is formed; on Mar. 4 the AEC announces that the first atomic power plant in Antarctica is in operation. On Mar. 3 peasants in Peru attempt to seize large landed estates, and by Mar. 4 govt. troops kill 18 before withdrawing to avoid further bloodshed, after which the govt. allows Vicos to become an independent community, with peasants allowed to purchase the land they had been cultivating for 368 years. On Mar. 5 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules in Griggs v. Allegheny County that airports must compensate people living in the near vicinity for noise and vibrations. On Mar. 6 the U.S. promises Thailand assistance against Communist aggression. On Mar. 6-8 the 1962 Ash Wed. Storm batters the mid-Atlantic coast of the U.S., dumping 23.6 in. of snow, killing 40, injuring 1K, and causing hundreds of millions of dollars of property damage in six states, becoming one of the 10 worst U.S. storms of the 20th cent. On Mar. 7 JFK reduces tariff duties on 1K items to encourage foreign trade. On Mar. 9 the U.S. Dept. of Labor establishes minimum wages for Mexican migrant workers. On Mar. 12 after visiting Rome, where she talks with Pope John XIII in French, Jacqueline Kennedy and her sister Princess Lee Radziwill arrive in New Delhi on a 2-week goodwill tour. On Mar. 13 JCS chmn. (1960-2) Gen. Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (1899-1988) presents his plan for Operation Northwoods to U.S. secy. of defense Robert McNamara, calling for false flag acts of terrorism in the Miami area to create support for military action against Cuba; on Mar. 16 JFK told Lemnitzer that there is no way the U.S. will take military action against Cuba on his watch, after which Lemnitzer is denied another term as JCS chmn., pissing-off the Pentagon and causing USAF chief of staff gen. Curtis LeMay on Oct. 19 to utter the soundybte: "This is almost as bad as the appeasement at Munich"; in Jan. 1963 Lemnitzer is appointed Supreme Allied Cmdr. of NATO (until July 1969) - giving them a reason to get revenge as well as stop a pinko in the White House? On Mar. 15 exiled PM Moise Tshombe begins negotiations to return to the Congo, after which on Apr. 6 Belgium reestablishes diplomatic relations with it. On Mar. 16 Flying Tiger Line Flight 739, a U.S. Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation chartered by the U.S. military disappears over the W Pacific Ocean, losing all 107 aboard. On Mar. 17 Moscow asks the U.S. to pull out of South Vietnam - what if they say no? On Mar. 17 the Chicago River in Chicago, Ill. is dyed green, beginning a tradition. On Mar. 18 France and Algeria sign the Evian (Évian) Agreement (Accords) in Evian-les-Bains, France, ending the 7-year Algerian War, with France agreeing to pull out of Algeria, ending 132 years of French rule; on Mar. 19 an armistice in Algeria begins, ending the Algerian War of Independence (begun Nov. 1, 1954), although the OAS continues terrorist attacks against traitor Algerians, exploding a bomb on May 2, killing 110 and injuring 147 total; on Apr. 8 a nat. referendum in France approves the accords by 90%-10%; on May 20 the French begin an airlift to evacuate Europeans from Algiers; on May 29 negotiations between the OAS and FLN cause a real armistice in Algeria, which is signed on June 17; too bad, on June 18 the OAS announces that it will continue to fight; on June 30 the last French Foreign Legion troops leave Algeria; on July 1 Charles de Gaulle recognizes Algerian independence, and on July 3 the U.S. recognizes it; on July 31 Algeria declares independence; war losses since 1954 total 30K French and 1.5M Algerians; 1M Europeans are repatriated; on Sept. 15, 1963 FLN founder (1954) Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (1916-2012) (released from priz soon after the truce is signed, after which he uses Communist tactics to eliminate all opposition) becomes pres. #1 Algerian Socialist Repub. (until June 19, 1965), and is recognized by the U.S. on Sept. 29 even though he openly courts Commie support, and 76 FLN vets are sent to Cuba to train terrorists; longtime Algerian nationalist leader Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974) tries to create a party in opposition to the FLN, and ends up in exile in Paris for life; meanwhile on Mar. 23 de Gaulle orders the French army to stage an all-out war against the French right-wing anti-independence OAS and its four leader generals, causing the arrest of gen. Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95) in Oran on Mar. 24, followed on Apr. 20 by gen. Raoul Albin Louis Salan (1899-1984) in Algiers; on Apr. 13 Jouhaud is sentenced by a military tribunal in Paris to death, followed on May 23 by Salan, who gets it reduced to life in priz, and released in 1968; politician Pierre Lagaillard (1931-), who was arrested in Madrid last Oct. is exiled to the Canary Islands, then pardoned in 1968; Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-) hides out in Italy while attempting to assassinate Charles de Gaulle, getting twice condemned to death in absentia, then returns to France after the 1968 amnesty; in June WWII Resistance leader and PM (1949-50) Gen. Georges-Augustin Bidault (1899-1983) (who claims not to belong to the OAS) is accused of conspiracy against the state and stripped of parliamentary immunity, fleeing to Brazil, followed in 1967 by Belgium, then returning to France in 1968 after an amnesty; it takes until 1999 for France to officially call the "operation to maintain order" a "war"; in 1963 the Soviets send experts to Algeria to rid it of hundreds of thousands of French land mines. On Mar. 21 after the govt. of South Korea prohibits 4K+ former political prisoners (all members of previous regimes) from participating in politics for 6 years, pres. (since 1960) Posun Yung resigns in protest, and on Mar. 24 Park becomes pres., instituting a 5-year plan to increase agricultural output and electrical power and reduce unemployment, replacing the hwan ($0.0077 U.S.) with the new won ($0.077 U.S.). On Mar. 22 J. Edgar Hoover lunches with Pres. Kennedy and tells him about 70 wiretapped phone calls between him and mob moll Judith Campbell Exner (nee Inmoor) (1934-99), who were introduced in Las Vegas by Frank Sinatra in 1960, after which he breaks off the relationship and it is covered up until 1975. On Mar. 23 the Scandinavian states of the Nordic Council sign the Helsinki Convention on Nordic Cooperation. On Mar. 26 France shortens its term for military service from 26 to 18 mo. On Mar. 26 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 7-2 in Baker v. Carr that redistricting issues are judiciable in federal courts and not a political question, and that the constitutional right of equal protection requires "one man, one vote", and that the Tenn. legislature was wrong in giving overrepresentation to small towns and rural areas vis a vis cities, giving federal courts the power to order reapportionment of seats in a state legislature; Earl Warren claims it as his most important decision as chief justice, while dissenter Felix Frankfurter utters the soundbyte: "Courts ought not to enter this political thicket". On Mar. 26-Apr. 3 the Third Composers' Congress in the Soviet Union (1948, 1957) lays down the party line. On Mar. 28 the U.S. Air Force announces research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites - cut off a tail fin? On Mar. 29 Jack Paar hosts NBC's Tonight Show for the final time (no rerun tape is saved), and rotating hosts take over until Oct. 1, when comedian John William "Johnny" Carson (1925-2005) takes the job (until 1992), with first guests Joan Crawford, Tony Bennett, Rudy Vallee, Groucho Marx, and Mel Brooks; Edward Leo Peter "Ed" McMahon Jr. (1923-2009) becomes the announcer, uttering the soundbyte "Heeeeere's Johnny!"; Paul Anka writes Johnny's Theme (a reworking of his "Toot Sweet", renamed "It's Really Love", which Annette Funicello recorded in 1959), and splits royalties with Johnny; Carson's first guest is Groucho Marx, and no rerun tape is saved; saxophonist Tommy Newsom (1929-2007) joins the show, rising to asst. music dir. and becoming known for his drab suits and gaining the nickname "Mr. Excitement", once answering "vapor lock" when asked by Carson why he always clasps his hands behind his back, bringing down the house; in May 1972 the show moves from New York City to "beautiful downtown Burbank" in Calif. On Mar. 29 Cuba opens the trial of the Bay of Pigs invaders; on Apr. 8 they are sentenced to 30 years imprisonment in Cuba. On Mar. 29 Jose Maria Guido (1910-75) becomes pres. #33 of Argentina (until Oct. 12, 1963). On Mar. 31 the United Farm Workers Union (UFW) is organized by Cesar Chavez (1927-93) (on his birthday) and Dolores Huerta (1930-); it is originally called the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee; in 1965 Huerta directs the Calif. table grape boycott, which ends in a 3-year collective bargaining agreement in 1970. On Apr. 3 PM (since 1947) Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) is reelected PM of India (until May 27, 1964). On Apr. 6 conductor Leonard Bernstein makes podium remarks at a New York Philharmonic concert about Canadian pianist Glenn Herbert Gould (1932-82), who is about to perform Brahms' 1st Piano Concerto in D Minor in a novel way (taking a record 53 min., way slower than customary), saying "What am I doing conducting it?" and "In a concerto, who is the boss, the soloist or the conductor?", after which critics pan the performance but blame Bernstein for it despite disassociating himself, causing Gould to retire from concerts in 1964, after which he prefers to stay in the recording studio; Gould is later vindicated? - like anybody cares what highbrows think about highbrow crap? On Apr. 8 a time bomb aboard the British liner Dara explodes, and it sinks in the Persian Gulf, killing 236. On Apr. 9 the 34th Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1961 to United Artists' (Mirisch Pictures and B&P Enterprises) West Side Story, along with best dir. to Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise, best supporting actor to George Chakiris, and best supporting actress to Rita Moreno; best actor goes to Maximillian Schell for Judgment at Nuremberg, and best actress to Sophia Loren for Two Women. On Apr. 10 Beatles founding member, bassist and Ray Ban-wearing artist Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (b. 1940) dies in Hamburg, Germany of a brain hemorrhage from a fractured skull suffered in a fight in Jan. 1961 in Lathom Hall, England, for which he refused medical attention; the Beatles return to Hamburg from Apr. 13-May 31, playing at the opening of the Star Club, then sign with Parlophone Records (founded in Germany in 1896) on Sept. 15, which goes on to release the Beatles' first eight albums. On Apr. 12 the concentration camp clone Ile de la Cite Memorial to the Martyrs of the Deportation is inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle to commemorate the 200K French nationals deported to concentration camps in WWII; no specific mention is made of Jews. On Apr. 14 French PM (since 1958) Michel Debre resigns, and Charles de Gaulle appoints Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (1911-74) as PM #2 of the Fifth Repub. (until July 10, 1968). On Apr. 14 a Cuban military tribunal convicts 1,179 Bay of Pigs invaders. On Apr. 16 Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (1916-2009) succeeds Douglas Edwards as anchorman of the CBS Evening News (until 1981), going on to become the most trusted man in U.S. journalism, and the most influential man in the U.S., known for the soundbyte "And that's the way it is"; on Sept. 2, 1963 the show expands from 15 min. to 30 min., a first - Great White Father on the Evening Boob Tube? On Apr. 16 Bolivia cancels diplomatic ties with Chile over their 23-year spat concerning the use of the waters of the Lauca River. On Apr. 16 after JFK passes over the first African-Am. federal judge (1937-9) William Henry Hastie Jr. (1904-76) (teacher at Howard U. of Thurgood Marshall) for being too conservative, claiming that he will appoint him later, Ft. Collins, Colo.-born U. of Colo. football star and deputy U.S. atty.-gen. Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White (1917-2002) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #93 (until June 28, 1993) to fill the vacancy left by Ike's appointee Charles Evans Whittaker (1957-1962), becoming the first U.S. Supreme Court law clerk to make it (for Fred M. Vinson), and first justice from Colo.; on Sept. 28 U.S. labor secy. #9 (since Jan. 21, 1961) Arthur Joseph Goldberg (1908-90) becomes the 94th justice (until July 26, 1965), replacing retiring Jewish justice Felix Frankfurter (d. 1965), becoming the 2nd Jewish justice. On Apr. 18 the Commonwealth Immigrants Act ends free immigration to the U.K. by citizens of member states of the Commonwealth of Nations - nationwide is on your side? On Apr. 21-Oct. 21 the 1962 Seattle World's Fair ("Century 21") in Seattle, Wash. features the 605 ft. (184m) Space Needle, designed by Am. architect John Graham Jr. (1908-91). whose roof is painted Galaxy Gold; the observation deck is at 520 ft. (160m); the rotating SkyCity (originally Eye of the Needle) Restaurant is at 500 ft. (150m). On Apr. 26 the NASA Ranger 4 spacecraft crash-lands on the Moon. On Apr. 26 6K univ. students march on the Japanese Diet in protest of the new Japanese-U.S. Treaty of Mutual Security, which is up for ratification. On Apr. 28 Norway decides to apply for full membership in the European Economic Community (EEC). On Apr. 29 JFK and Jackie give a White House black tie dinner for 49 Nobel Prize winners and other prominent intellectuals incl. J. Robert Oppenheimer, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Robert Frost, James Baldwin, Katherine Anne Porter, Diana Trilling, and William Styron; JFK utters the soundbyte: "This is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever gathered at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." In Apr. African ministers meet in Casablanca, and agree not to establish an African Common Market, but instead to establish a payments union and development bank. On May 3 a train crashes into the wreckage of another collision between an inbound freight train and an outbound commuter train near Tokyo, Japan, killing 163 and injuring 400. On May 4 the Movieland Wax Museum in Buena Park, Calif. is founded by Allen Parkinson (1919-2002), inventor of Sleep-Eze, with a giant copy of Michelangelo's dangly "David" outside, becoming the largest wax museum in the U.S. and a top Calif. tourist attraction, drawing 1.2M visitors a year; it closes on Oct. 31, 2005. On May 5 12 East Germans escape under the Berlin Wall via a tunnel. On May 5 Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana declares a gen. amnesty for refugees and orders the release of political prisoners. On May 6 in the first test of i