Two Scorpions in a Bottle Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Polar Bear on Melting Ice Floe 'How to Survive the Coming Ice Age' fake Time mag. cover, 2007 Climate Fraud Greenhouse Gas Theory Busted
John Dalton (1766-1844) Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) John Tyndall (1820-93) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) G.S. Callendar (1898-1964) Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) Roger Revelle (1909-91)

TLW's Climatescope™ (Climate Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: May 30, 2018. Last Update: Aug. 13, 2018.


Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)
Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Tim Ball (1938-) James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Hoggan (1946-) Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-) Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)
Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-) H. Jay Zwally Gregory Wrightstone William Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-) Naomi Oreskes (1958-) John Cook Joe Bastardi (1955-) Anthony Watts (1958-)

Alternate url for this page:
http://tinyurl.com/climatescope


What Is A Historyscope?


Warning: This page takes a long time to load. Use the time to get refreshments.


"It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it." - Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)

"There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such trifling investment of facts." - Mark Twain (1835-1910)

"The less a thing is known, the more fervently it is believed." - Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)

"You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time." - Jacques Abbadie (1654-1727)

"Falsehood flies, and the Truth comes limping after it." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"Reasoning will never make a man correct an ill opinion, which by reasoning he never acquires." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"There are few, very few, that will own themselves in a mistake, though all the World sees them to be in downright nonsense." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"You can't have healthy people on a sick planet." - Fr. Thomas Berry (1914-2009)

"Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities." - Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)

"The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age." - H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937)

"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"A foolish faith in authority is the worst enemy of truth." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"The difference between genius and stupidity is genius has its limits." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"Every age has its peculiar folly: Some scheme, project, or fantasy into which it plunges, spurred on by the love of gain, the necessity of excitement, or the force of imitation." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"It does not make any difference how beautiful your guess is, it does not make any difference how smart you are, who made the guess, or what his name is - if it disagrees with experiment, it is wrong. That is all there is to it." - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"Have no respect whatsoever for authority; forget who said it and instead look what he starts with, where he ends up, and ask yourself, 'Is it reasonable?'" - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"The essence of science is that it is always willing to abandon a given idea, however fundamental it may seem to be, for a better one; the essence of theology is that it holds its truths to be eternal and immutable." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific/technological elite." - U.S. Pres. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

"No President, Academy, Court of Law, Congress or Senate on this Earth has the knowledge or power to decide what will be the knowledge of tomorrow." - Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957)

"So dark the con of man (Madonna on the Rocks)." - Dan Brown (1964-), The Da Vinci Code (2003)

"Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it." - Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900)

"I don't know what you could say about a day in which you have seen four beautiful sunsets." - John Glenn (1921-2016)


Global Temperatures 2500 B.C. to 2040 A.D.
Deep Sea Sediment Core Climate Cycles
Historical Chart of Atmospheric CO2

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Earth's climate and Earth's climate history along with the history of climate change science and the great debate on anthropogenic climate change (global warming). Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Note to newbies: This isn't just another Internet blog article, it's a historyscope, an intensive online course for people who want to know it all not just bits and pieces, requiring long hours of serious study to be absorbed fact-by-fact. It's important to click all the hyperlinks and at least scan them to give you a 3-D vision into history. Ditto the embedded YouTube videos. It's subject to change at any time, so refresh your browser before each study session. Is this propaganda? Heck no, it's education. Since a Historyscoper takes the cool impassioned view of what events will look like 500 years from now, this Historyscope presents all sides and lets the readers decide what to get passionate about; nothing is censored. If you've already made up your mind then don't lock it in a cage, keep up with my other students and don't fall behind.

About 4.4B B.C.E. The Purple Rain of comets and/or asteroids greater than 100 km in dia. begins on Earth and the Moon (ends -3.9B); the mares are formed on the Moon, creating the plains of solidified lava forming the Man in the Moon; each impact on Earth vaporizes the oceans and conveniently sterilizes any existing life (incl. the gods on Mount Olympus?) while reforming the Earth's surface; the intense heat creates an underground habitat where single cell "unboilable bacteria" thrive, according to Oleg Abramov et al. of the U. of Colo. in 2009.

About 4B B.C.E. Venus forms basalt continents and Mars forms shield volcanoes, with neither having differentiation or plate tectonics; Mars loses its carbon dioxide quickly, while Venus goes into a runaway greenhouse effect and loses water; both end up as the only two other Solar System planets with CO2 atmospheres - the soda pop planets? 30% dimmer than today, the Sun begins brightening, causing Venus to heat up and lose its Earth-like conditions?; the Faint Young Sun Paradox, pub. in 1972 by Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen tries to explain why the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%. Mars becomes too cold for liquid water and goes into permanent deep-freeze, whether or not it once had oceans? - eat your heart out, Ray Bradbury? As the bombardment slows, the Earth stabilizes and cools, and its surface becomes resurfaced for the last time and solidifies, the crust differentiates into the earliest felsic crust (first continents), and the initial atmosphere outgasses; a heavy rain floods the surface, forming the deep highly alkaline Archaean (Archean) (Soda) Ocean (Sea) by -3.9B, according to S. Kempe and E.T. Degens (1985), causing the thioredoxin enzymes to be developed, which are chemically stable at temps up to 58F (32C)?.

About 1.4B B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels on Earth are 200x greater than modern levels.

About 720M B.C.E. the Tonian Period ends, and the Cryogenian Period of the Neoproterozoic Era begins (ends -635M), seeing the Sturtian Glaciation (named after Sturt River Gorge in South Australia) and the Marinoan Glaciation (named after Marino near Adelaide, South Australia), the two greatest ice ages in Earth history, creating either a Snowball Earth or Slushball Earth (band of open sea near the equator); global avg. temp is 5C; CO2 level is 1300 ppm; O2 is 60% of modern level; the end of the glaciation releases methane from equatorial permafrost.

About 550M B.C.E. atmospheric oxygen on Earth rises from 3% to the modern-day level of 21%, causing complex multicellular animal life to arise; carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration is 20x modern-day levels.



Car 54 Jehovah, where are you? Now which triangle is big, Mister Pockets? Is that a trilobite in your pocket, or are you just happy to see me? Working, working up a fast sweat in the o-zone? The family that plays together stays together? Oxygen in the air makes new big living things explode on sea and land in the combinatorial Cambrian Explosion? God's living Windows (Mac?) operating system size jumps from gigabyte to tetrabyte, er, trilobyte, er, trilobite?

Lighting-Fast Cambrian Explosion? Trilobite Graptolite Brachiopods Conodont Annelids Sea Squirt Ctenophore Echinoderm Molluscs Sponges Foraminifera Radiolarian Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)

The breath of life really blows? About 540M B.C.E. the Hadrynian Era (begun -1B) ends; the 500M-year Precambrian Eon ends along with the (Late) Precambrian Era along with the Ediacaran Period (begun -600M), and the lightning fast (55.6M-year) Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era of the Phanerozoic (Present) Eon begins (ends -500M); named after the Cambrian (Welsh "Cymru" = Wales") Mts. of Wales by British geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) (who carried a lucky trilobite in his pocket, or was he just happy to see me?), who divided the period into Lower, Middle, and Upper based on the presence of Olenellus, Paradoxides and Olenus trilobites; the Earth now has the Western Interior Seaway and the Hudson Seaway, shallow seas covering parts of continents, and the modern-day continent of North Am. has two big inland seas, one on the E, where the large mountainous island of Appalachia (modern-day E seaboard of the U.S. and Canada) exists, and the other on the W, where the large mountainous island (peninsula?) of Cascadia (modern-day Alaska, British Columbia, Wash., Ore., N Calif.) exists; the ozone layer and atmosphere are developed sufficiently to permit a Cambrian Explosion (Radiation) of thousands of new species (incl. all the modern phyla or basic body plans); the first animals with egg, sperm, embryo, and blastula appear; Saccorhytus coronarius, with a large mouth and no anus is the first living creature?; hard-shelled arthropods appear, the most abundant being the 1-18-in.-long (usually 1-4) swimming, bottom-feeding, 3-lobed trilobites with gills, walking legs, and crescent-shaped eyes (distantly related to the modern horseshoe crab), also coelenterates (with stingers), graptolites (colonial organisms with a skeleton of tough chitinlike material), small, mollusc-like, shelled brachiopods (lampshells), conodonts (cone teeth), annelids (segmented worms), chordates (sea squirts), ctenophores (comb-bearers), echinoderms (starfish), molluscs, sponges; also foraminifera (single-shelled protists with shells), dinomastigotes, radiolarians; it was caused by a cascade of events, according to Paul Smith of Oxford U. and David Harper of Durham U - this Instant Powdered Life in the Murky Mud seems so hokey that to prohibit the teaching of alternates to Darwinian Evolutionary Theory in public schools seems like brainwashing, and parents should pull their kids out in protest?

About 485M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); CO2 content of the atmosphere is 4.2K ppm.

Abou 400M B.C.E. the ice age ends; the year is 400 days, the Moon is closer than it is now and the Earth is spinning faster. The appearance of vascular plants (tracheophytes) and large predatory fish coincide with increased oxygen levels; the first fires appear?

About 359M B.C.E. the Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Mississippian (Lower or Early Carboniferous) Period (coal-forming) of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -323M), with avg. global temps of 20C (68F), cooling during the Middle Carboniferous to 12C (54F), with 22.4-hour day creating a stronger Coriolis effect and winds, and atmospheric oxygen content of 35% allowing terrestrial invertebrates esp. insects and amphibians to grow to great sizes; lower sea levels than in the Devonian Period allow swamps and forests to expand in North Am. and Europe, and the first bark-bearing trees to appear along with wood fiber lignin and waxy bark-sealing suberin enjoying a lack of enzymes for them in bacteria, allowing large quantities of wood to be buried; marine beds are common in E North Am. in the early part of the period, almost disappearing by the end; trilobites become uncommon, and marine life becomes rich in crinoids (sea lillies) and other echinoderms, as well as brachiopods (lamp shells); coniferous trees appear in the late Carboniferous, on higher ground; petroleum arises from layers of dead plants and animals?

About 350M B.C.E. the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air is about the same as modern times, rising by 200M B.C.E. to 4x-5x modern-day levels.

About 323M B.C.E. the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Pennsylvanian (Upper or Late Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -299M); mountains are raised along the E coast of North Am. and C Europe; lush, moist seed-bearing fern forests populated by amphibians and winged insects in the N hemisphere produce vast coal reserves composed primarily of carbon.

About 144M B.C.E. the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era ends, and the Cretaceous Period (Lat. "creta" = chalk) of the Mesozoic Era begins (ends -66M), an era of a greenhouse climate (warmest period in the last 600M years), with no ice in the polar regions and the climate of Alaska like that of Oregon; the spread of reptiles and the development of flowering plants begins; bony fish begin a major radiation; in the U.S. the Lower Cretacean is also called the Comanchean, after the Comanches of Texas; another mass-extinction occurs, and most sauropods in the N Hemisphere, along with stegosaurus, allosaurus, ceratosaurus, ornitholestes et al. become extinct - no likey de steam baths?

About 137M B.C.E. after high levels of CO2 raise global temp and melt polar ice, a sudden sea temp. drop in the Atlantic Gulf Stream from 13C (55F) to 4C-7C (39F-44F) occurs, leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs by -65M, not a meteor, according to Gregory Price et al. of Plymouth U.



The worst day in history? A Millennium Fever 6-6-6 megalennium, and what happens? The Double-Edge Swordoid? A giant asteroid impact giveth, and taketh away? Do you love the asteroids or do you hate them?

In 66M B.C.E. the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event sees a 1T-ton 6-mi.-dia. asteroid or smaller comet impact in the area of Chicxulub, Mexico, apparently causing the 5th worldwide (2nd largest) mass-extinction (75% of all species), leaving the K-PG (Cretaceous-Paleogene) Boundary, a thin layer of sediment with high levels of iridium; too bad, the Chicxulub crater lacks iridium; the 24km diam. Boltysh Crater in Ukraine happens several thousand years earlier?; at first sulfur chokes the atmosphere and blocks the Sun for years or decades, causing land temps to plummet by 28C (50F), after which increased CO2 levels cause global warming by 5C (9F) for 100K-300K years; the dinosaurs are wiped out, along with many primitive species of Cretaceous birds, allowing the mammals to inherit the Earth, rapidly increasing their max size from 10kg to 17 tons, a factor of 1Kx; the ammonites become extinct; plankton and small wormlike creatures recover in the silty crater seafloor within a few years; birds have to rediscover how to fly after only flightless emu-like species survive; mixotrophs, which can consume organic matter in the absence of sunlight help smaller organisms survive?; the mass exinction of the dinos was really caused by the Earth traveling through a thin disk of dark matter running through the Galaxy?; long-term climate change kills off the dinosaurs, not a rogue asteroid, according to German paleontologist Michael Prauss; the precise date is 66,038,000 B.C.E.; the decline of plant-eating dinosaur species in the last few million years is what doomed them? Within 400K years rat-sized placental Protungulatum donnae emerges in North Am., becoming the ancestor of all placental mammals, which branch into 5.4K modern-day species?

About 56M B.C.E. the Paleocene Period of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Eocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period begins (ends -33.9M); Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India separate from and begin colliding with the Eurasian continent, raising the Rockies, Andes, and Alps; the Eurasian Plate crumples and overrides the Indian Plate, creating the Himalayas ("abode of snows"); Mount Everest forms; Antarctica breaks away from Australia, opening the Greenland-Norwegian Sea; Australia ends up as the continent with the smallest distance between its high and low points (7.5K ft.), as well as the highest low point and the lowest high point; air masses forced over the Himalayas to the E become bone dry, creating the Gobi Desert, and the Great Loess (Huangtu) Plateau of C China, which later becomes the center of Chinese rice production.

About 55.5M B.C.E. the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) sees global sea surface temps rise 5C-8C (11F) (from 3C to 8C-11) and sea temps reach 20C for 200K years because of degassing methane ice deposits (clathrates) lasting 20K years, causing mass extinctions of foraminifera, allowing plankton to migrate to higher latitudes along with land animals and plants; the avg. temp. at the North Pole is 23C (74 F), with alligator ancestors and palm trees caused by a greenhouse effect?; mammals begin to proliferate.

About 55M B.C.E. the Arctic region around the North Pole is subtropical, with surface sea temps of 23C (73F) (until -49M). Angiosperm herbs and trees with fruit, and grasses appear; associated with this is a significant increase in the diversity of birds and insects (cabbage-sized mosquitoes?). Mammals spread from Eurasia to Africa and India.

About 49M B.C.E. the ocean around the North Pole is closed off by the continents, creating a freshwater sea at about 10C (50F); the low salinity causes Azolla ferns to multiply, consuming the carbon dioxide and cooling it down?

About 40M B.C.E. the avg. global temp is 88F (31C) due to high CO2 levels of 900-1K ppm.

About 15M B.C.E. the Earth becomes cooler and more arid, but the climate is still very warm, up to 6C (11F) warmer than today, with almost all the ice melting, and CO2 levels as high as modern times; alligators live in England.

About 10M-6M B.C.E. the North Pole has ice-free summers, and the sea surface temp reaches 4C-9C (39F-48F), with sea levels about 100m higher than today.

About 7.2M B.C.E. the Messinian Age (Salinity Crisis) begins (ends -5.3M), in which the Mediterranean becomes separated from the Atlantic and becomes shallow, losing 5K ft. of depth, with a retraction of the shores that washes out underground oil and gas with river streams in the Nile Delta, and forms a saltwater sea gorge invading the Nile as far S as Aswan; primates migrate from Africa to S Spain across dry land (Am. Museum of Nat. History); some Atlantic eels, which breed in the Sargasso Sea (S of Bermuda) become separated E of Gibraltar, making that their new breeding ground? - what an eely mess?

About 5.33M B.C.E. the Gibraltar Dam keeping the Atlantic out of the Mediterranean breaks, causing the Zanclean Flood (Deluge), flooding the Mediterranean desert with 1 mi. of saltwater within 50 years, creating the 40-mi. x 9-24 mi. x 1K ft. deep Strait of Gibraltar, with entrance at the Pillars of Hercules incl. the Rock of Gibraltar (world's most famous rock?) on the S point of the Iberian Peninsula, and Mt. Abila (Abyla) (Sierra Bullones) (Monte Hacho) in Ceuta, N Africa, or Jebel Musa in Morocco, N Africa.

About 4.5M B.C.E. the Pliocene Warm Period begins (ends -3.5M); the Bering Sea is ice-free and full of life.

About 2.586M B.C.E. the Pliocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Pleistocene Epoch (AKA Ice Age) (named by Charles Lyell) of the Quaternary Period begins (ends -9.7K); global cooling leads to frequent Ice Ages and glaciers covering more than 25% of the Earth's land surface; great glaciers covering W North Am. (as far S as Penn., as far W as the Missouri River, incl. the Great Lakes and the area between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers), and NW Europe, along with volcanoes along the W coast of the U.S., and another glacier from the Rocky Mts. S and E to the Mississippi River as far S as St. Louis, Mo., and more glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mts. as far S as New Mexico; yet more glaciers over Scandinavia S and E across N Germany and W Russia and SW over the British Isles; yet another giant glacier over Siberia; the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada Mts., Glacier Nat. Park in the Rocky Mts., Bonneville Lake (which shrinks to Great Salt Lake), the Great Lakes, Lake Algonquin, Lake Iroquois, and the Finger Lakes are left when they recede, along with the Red River Valley of Manitoba, left by glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained into Hudson Bay - a huge gulp of time is the pleis to be cene?

About 1.8M B.C.E. after the Nubian Swell, a geologic structural uplift going E-W separating the lower Nile River from the Sudan basin causes the Nile River to dry up (until -0.8M), the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and Eurasia via a land bridge in the Levant halts; Homo erectus becomes the first human ancestor to migrate out of Africa.

About 300,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation in the Alps (named after the Riss River in Upper Swabia) begins (ends -128K), along with the Saale Glaciation (ends -128K).

About 128,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation ends, and the Eeemian (Sangamonian) (Ipswichian) (Mikulin) (Kaydayky) (Valdivia) (Riss-Wurm) Warming begins (ends -113K), becoming the last interglacial period; Northern Hemisphere winters are warmer and wetter than today, with some areas slightly cooler; the hippopotamus ranges as far N as the Rhine and Thames Rivers; trees grow as far N as S Baffin Island (vs. Kuujjuaq, N Quebec today); the Great Plains prairie-forest boundary is near Lubbock, Tex. (vs. Dallas, Tex. today).

About 123,000 B.C.E. forests reach as far N as North Cape, Norway above the Arctic Circle; hazel and oak grow as far N as Oulu, Finland.

About 113,000 B.C.E. the Eemian Warming ends, and the Wurm (Würm) Glaciation (named after a river in Bavaria), the Last glacial period begins in Europe (ends -9.7K), becoming the last ice age in the Alpine region, and the youngest major glaciation to extend beyond the Alps, with avg. yearly temps below -3C; this period sees 25 Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) Events, rapid warming over decades followed by global cooling over a few cents., expanding the polar front S across the North Atlantic Ocean; each is preceded by a Heinrich Event, in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic, depositing rock matter on the sea floor and adding extensive amounts of fresh water.

About 40,000 B.C.E. a climate-changing volcanic eruption in Liguria on the Italian Rivera in the Phlegraean Fields W of modern-day Naples devastates Europe, wiping out most of the Homo sapiens, with some surviving in rock shelters incl. Riparo Bombrini.

About 19,000 B.C.E. the Last Glacial Maximum sees a cold Earth whose N continents are covered by vast ice sheets, with low atmospheric CO2 levels.

About 17,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Glacial Retreat begins, seeing the glacial ice sheet begin its retreat to the N, accelerating about -13K and ending about -9.7K with abrupt warming and rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of Europe and North Am.; melting ice causes a global sea level rise until -4K, averaging 1m per cent., with rapid jumps of up to 2.5m per cent.

About 16,000 B.C.E. the Wurm Glaciation reaches its maximum extent in the Gschnitz Stadial. The Older Dryas (end -13K), based on oxygen isotope ratio cycles and the marker species Dryas octopetaia is a climatic period during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian Glaciation in N Europe. The last ice age in the S Hemisphere ends in response to warming in the N Hemisphere?

About 12,500 B.C.E. the Sahara Desert becomes moist and wet, with a savanna climate, peaking about 4,000 B.C.E., when the Sahara reverts to desert conditions, causing a marked decline in the magnitude of Nile River floods between 2,700 B.C.E. and 2,100 B.C.E.

About 11,800 B.C.E. (-12.7K to -11.5K) Meltwater Pulse 1A causes global sea level to rise 16m-25m (52 ft.-82 ft.) in 400-500 years (40mm-60mm/year).

About 10,900 B.C.E. start of the Younger Dryas (-10.8K?) (ends -9.4K) (named after an Arctic plant of the rose family which appears), last cold snap of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) Epoch (begun -2.586M), caused by an inrush of fresh water from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans greater than the volume of all the Great Lakes combined, causing abrupt (10 years) cooling in Europe and North Am. and return of near-glacial conditions for 1K years, leading to extinction of megafauna in North Am. incl. mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and giant short-faced bears, and the extinction of the Clovis Culture; it is caused by a comet impact (over the Great Lakes?) that set large areas of North Am. on fire and caused the extinction of most of its megafauna along with mass starvation of humans?; the melting of continental ice sheets reverses in Scotland and Norway; abrupt drought in the Near East brings on the beginnings of agriculture, the creation of granaries to store food, etc., ending the mobile way of life, and causing pop. concentrations around sources of water, changing Stone Age hunter-gatherers into the world's first farmers, and the first domestication and genetic selection of plants incl. wheat and grains; at the same time Antarctica heats up by 1 deg C, coupled with rising CO2; it is caused by a comet ripping through North Am., according to Douglas J. Kennett et al. of the U. of Ore. in 2009; in 2010 C. Vance Haynes of the U. of Ariz. finds evidence for a comet to be lacking; nanodiamond evidence is inconclusive and tends to contradict the comet theory?; in 2013 Mukul Sharma et al. of Dartmouth College claim conclusive evidence of an asteroid or comet impact.

About 9,700 B.C.E. the Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period (begun -2.586M) ends, and the Holocene (Recent) Epoch of the Quaternary Period begins (until ?); Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa is topped with ice (until 2021?).

About 9,000 B.C.E. the Boreal Age begins in N Europe, based on the study of Danish peat bogs and named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Semander, characterized by a pollen zone.

Colin Renew (1937-)

About 7,800 B.C.E. the last ice age ends, and the Atlantic Period Begins (ends -4.8K), AKA the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Thermal Maximum) (Megathermal) (Hypsithermal) (Mid-Holocene Warm Period), becoming the warmest period of the Holocene, a warmer climate than today; humans are still mainly at the hunter-gatherer stage; meanwhile complex trade routes begin to be set up in the Mediterranean basin between now and -5000, according to British archeologists Colin Renfew (1937-) et al.

About 7,500 B.C.E. the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase) begins (ends -3500), bringing wet rainy conditions to North Africa incl. a Green (Wet) Sahara; the climate of Britain warms up to modern conditions, and Britain is reforested; Periodic tidal waves over the next 2K years inundate 1K sq. mi. of land now under the North Sea.

About 7,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Thermal Maximum (Climatic Optimum) begins (ends -3K); Hinlopen Strait in Svalbard is 4C-7C warmer than modern times even though CO2 concentration is 260 ppm; Eden-like conditions exist in Egypt?

About 6,200 B.C.E. after melting glaciers pour cold fresh water into the North Atlantic, a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) begins (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, cooling the climate of Europe, Greenland, and SW Asia and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile drier summers reduce crop yields, causing Catal Huyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to be abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.

Jason and the Argonauts Hero and Leander Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) William B.F. Ryan

About 5,600 B.C.E. according to geologists Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) and William B.F. Ryan of Columbia U. in 1997, a catastrophic Great Flood creates the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) when the Mediterranean creates a giant 30-mi. by 1-to-4 mi. crack called the Dardanelles (Gk. Hellespontus) (Turk. Cannakkale bogazi) (between Asia Minor and the Gallipoli Peninsula of Europe), connecting the Aegean (Mediterranean) Sea with the Sea of Marmara (Propontis), and then flushes over the even narrower (20 mi. x 0.5-2.75 mi. x 400 ft. deep) crack called the Bosporus (Bosphorus) Straits (Bosporus Thracius) (Karadeniz Bogazi) (Gk. "Ox Ford", since the goddess Io turned into a heifer and swam it) (originally a spillway for freshwater flowing into the Aegean Sea), and floods the freshwater Euxine Lake (should be White Is Right Lake?) (the S end later called the Golden Horn, one of the largest natural harbors on Earth) with a force 400x that of Niagara Falls, the sound carrying for 60 mi. and turning it into a mixed 6K-7K ft. deep, 165K sq. mi. (750 mi. x 380 mi.) fresh-saltwater body characterized by brutal (mainly winter) storms and a lethal anoxic bottom layer full of hydrogen sulfide, with the freshwater flowing toward the Bosporus on the top, while the saltwater comes in underneath 40 ft. down above the anoxic sublayer in a swift current (made swifter for 10 mo. of each year by winds), causing it to become impassable, and the shores unlivable, and the Epic of Gilgamesh to later call it "the waters of death", Pliny the Elder to call it Pontus Axenus (Pontos Axeinos) (Inhospitable Sea), and the Turks to call it Karadeniz (Harbinger of Death); later some jokesters call it the Pontos Euxeinos (Hospitable Sea); the Greeks call the Dardanelles the Hellespontus because Helle alleged drowns there while fleeing with the Golden Fleece; Leander (Gk. "lion man") dies in the Hellespont during a nightly crossing from Abydos to visit his virgin-vowed babe Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, whose usual lamp in the tower is extinguished by a storm, and when his body washes ashore in front of her she throws herself in after him and drowns; lame Lord Byron swims it in 1810 C.E. to prove he's a lion man hero and not a girlie man?; the Black Sea becomes a challenge to sailors, engendering the 7-11 (July-Aug.-Sept.-Oct.-Nov.) story of Jason and the Argonauts (sent from Thessaly to fetch it from Colchis in modern-day W Georgia by his uncle King Pelias of Thessaly, he gets Hercules to join, but Herc's boyfriend Hylas is lured by nymphs on the coast of Mysia in Asia Minor, causing him to jump ship to look for him), until they figure out how to hop from island to island between storms, and drag a 40-ft. anchor to let the saltwater layer tug them along; the flood causes dispersion of farmers to Europe and Asia, incl. proto Indo-Europeans up the Dnieper River, Semites and Ubaids S to the Levant and Mesopotamia, Kartvelians to the Caucasus Mts., Linearbandkeramik (LBK) farmers up the Dnieper River over the Carpathians through Prague into the Rhineland N of the Alps (continually leapfrogging for reasons unknown?), Vincas farmers up the Danube River into the Hungarian Basin, Hamangians into Thrace, Danilo-Hvars through the Aegean and Ionian Seas into the Dinaric Alps on the E coast of the Adriatic, and Tocharians E to the Tarim Basin S of the Tien Shan Mts. and N of the Tibetan Plateau in Chinese Turkestan (later the route of the Silk Road).



Madam, in Eden I'm Adam? Name no one man? This is everything I wanted, this is just for men? Our brochure will give you the answers? The beginning of the Leta (Let's Exterminate the Aliens) the Swan Story? The darkest alley in the Great Track of Time has the most profound consequences for who, me, yes, you?

Adam and Eve, by Giulio Clovio (1546) Rivers of Eden Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) Satan

In 4004 B.C.E. the nightfall (6:00 p.m.) before Oct. 23 (Sun.) (autumnal equinox) is the date of the Creation, according to Protestant Bible fundamentalists, based on the work of Irish Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656), who in "The Annals of the World" (1658) dates the birth of Christ in 4 B.C.E. (so Darwinian evolution is the Fall of the House of Ussher?); end of the Sixth Day (land animals and man created); Adam (d. -3074) (Heb. "red", as in dirt or maybe blood, the sacred mojo of Jehovah?) is created from the dust of the Earth (Gen. 2:7); Noah's birth is 1,056 years ahead (-2992); (the original think outside the bun wasn't a good idea?) the Garden of Eden, the birthplace of the human race, is the source of four rivers, the Euphrates (Prath), Gihon, Pishon (which encircles the entire land of Havilah), and Tigris (Hidekel), indicating either that it is in the snow-covered mountains or that there is no snow but that it receives a constant source of rainfall, making it a lush garden where food and medicine grow on trees and all humans have to do is tend them and live practically forever, as long as they don't disobey God (i.e. sin), which he tests them by telling them that one special tree is not to be eaten from, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad (Evil), which is not necessarily special in itself but is just an easy-to-obey test, which doesn't stop them from doing it anyway, introducing Sin into the world, causing God to instantly judge them as worthy of death and have them expelled from Eden so they can be die eventually despite any and all technology they can come up with to feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in the cruel world, while being barred from directly talking with God anymore, leaving them to their new god, I hope you know my name, please allow me to introduce myself, Satan, Heaven's Top Model, originally the 2nd of God's sons (the Logos being the first), who was originally given the prestige job of "covering angel" for newly-created humans, the first material creatures created in God's image (hence all the complicated gray junk in our skulls), and are given God's Blessing of living forever while multiplying and filling the Earth and subduing it through the seed of the original perfect sinless man Adam, who can talk directly with God if he wants to and doesn't need a Savior yet? Too bad, Satan gets tired of working in the department store and letting little humans sit on his knee, and grows envious of God, figures these inferior humans can be subverted to worship him instead, and goes to work with the Great Deception, appearing in the form of a naughty girl's toy and getting a little too friendly with "weaker vessel" Eve (the first cunnilingus?), after which "the Serpent beguiled me and I did eat" of the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and sin (disobey an order of God, who made sinning both so easy and so hard, depending on whether you love him); then, even worse, she leads her lawfully-married-under-God husband Adam to do it for fear of losing his helpmate (tailor-made just for him out of his rib) and ending up as a lonely people counting crows again? Too bad, this leaves God standing in the wind, as sin is the ultimate grief man can give their all-loving Creator, who, as an all-just judge, must reverse the Blessing and institute the Curse, kick them out of the Garden of Eden (where life is easy and food and medicine grow on trees, and animals are all tame and vegetarian), and bar them from the gates by an angel with a flaming sword (Gen. 3:24), after which the area turns into a sour grapes forbidden zone overgrown with vegetation? Once he's past that problem, the fallen angel Satan (opposer) (serpent) (Rev. 12:9), AKA Lucifer (Light-Bringer, appearing to be Light) (Isaiah 14:12-13) and Devil (liar, slanderer) (1 Peter 5:8) (the original Elvis?), who sinned first, before Eve and Adam, and who is himself doomed to die and knows it, decides he'd rather rule in hell than serve in heaven, and keeps his new groupies deceived that the world is still their oyster, death is natural, but that if they stick with him and do his walk they're going to become as gods and know right from wrong on their own outside of God's favor, therefore stayin' alive, stayin' alive forever, when actually they're his slaves, told what to think and do, and led down the er, garden path as they are under judgment of eternal death by their wronged Creator and Supreme Court? So what do they do? The wrong thing? Instead of repenting, telling Satan to stuff it and trying to get right with God, they continue to sin and let themselves be used, abused and losed by Sick Santa, spreading their sin to their children, and filling a fallen Earth with fallen people more and more openly worshiping Satan as their god after totally alienating themselves from the Real Thing Big J (Jehovah)? Never fear, God-And-Man-No-Religion-Modern-Love, the Sun's coming up, as Big J knows the End from the Beginning, and is already an infinite number of moves ahead of his opponent Jim the Bow Snake, and has already put a Redemption Plan (Gen. 3:15) in place to turn the Curse back into the Blessing, after man earns it, not by doing good works expecting to pay the fine and avoid the death sentence, but by being faithful to the Invisible God no matter what bull Satan can tempt him with, and paying the one and only ransom God will accept, namely, not all of Nature Talks To Me, but Jesus swinging in the breeze? But that's where you come in? As a day is as a thousand (or thousands) of our years with God (2 Peter 3:8, Psalms 90:4), it will end up taking 4K+ years to implement, as humans reproduce into the billions and all the variations on the board get played? Meanwhile, God makes the Earth livable, but with no free lunch, i.e., only at the expense of eternal toil, pain in childbirth, sickness and disease caused by the loss of perfection (Gen. 3:16-19)? You got X-ray eyes? Too bad, until the game is played out this is Satan's world now, and he keeps accusing God of being unable to maintain the loyalty of man without giving him everything for free, and even appears in his court (Job chap. 1) to make a motion to allow him to have a free hand to afflict him with curses to show God he's right that even a righteous man will blame and curse God instead of him?

About 3,900 B.C.E. the 5.9 Kiloyear Event begins (ends -3400), bringing five cents. of colder climate in northernly latitudes, launching the modern dessication of the Sahara and triggering human immigration to the Nile River Valley.

About 3,250 B.C.E. the Great Shock of 3250 B.C.E. sees 1K years of wet stormy weather begin (ends -1500).

About 3,040 B.C.E. the climate of North Am., along with vegetation cover and sea levels achieve modern levels.

Noah's Ark Noah's Great Flood, -2348

In 2,348 B.C.E. Methuselah (b. -3317) dies at age 969 (Gen. 5:27); 600-y.-o. Noah (b. -2948) finishes Noah's Ark, 300 cubits long x 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high (438 ft. x 73 ft. x 44 ft.) (Gen. 6:15-16), which has 1.4M cubic ft. of cargo space and 96K sq. ft. of floor space on 3 floors (same as the Titanic) and holds at least the bare minimum of 43 kinds of mammals, 74 kinds of birds, and 10 kinds of reptiles necessary to restock the Earth; the waters of the Great Flood of Noah (Noah's Flood) (Genesis Flood) (Deluge) begin to fall in Nov. (Gen. 7:11); allegedly a protective water canopy hovering over Earth falls, at first drowning everything that breathes air, then part of it freezes, leaving a permanently raised ocean level with a new continental configuration (avg. ocean depth 2.5 mi., avg. land elev. 0.5 mi.) (incl. the 277-mi.-long 18-mi.-wide 6,093-ft.-deep Grand Canyon, the world's largest gorge?); since then we get too much direct radiation, causing the life span to plummet (and also conveniently causing all the hereditary skin colors?); whether the Great Flood happened or not, glaciers end up occupying 5.8M sq. mi. of the world's land surface, about 10%, an area the size of South Am.; if the Earth were to be flattened out, water would cover it to a depth of 2 mi.; if the Antarctic ice were melted, the ocean level would rise 240 ft., submerging one-quarter of the world's land mass.

About 2,200 B.C.E. shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation cause the 4.2 Kiloyear Aridification Event to begin (ends -2100), causing a 200-year mega global drought that devastates civilizations from Egypt to China, causing the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu Culture in the Lower Yangtze River Basin, also probably causing the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization, spurring migration of Indo-European speaking people into India, plus mass migrations from Egypt, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, and the Yangtze River Valley; a drought begins in the Akkadian Empire, causing migration away from urban centers followed by a collapse of the govt. known as the Third Millennium Mesopotamian Urban Crisis; the Meghalayan Age in modern-day Meghalaya, India begins.

About 12,900 B.C.E. a comet hits E Canada, causing wildfires followed by chilly weather that helps wipe out the woolly mammoths along with three-fourths of the large mammals plus the Clovis people, as indicated by tiny diamonds found in Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island off Calif. and other sites in 2009?; the real cause of mammoth extinction was inbreeding?

About 1,800 B.C.E. the Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch begins (ends -1500), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic region, along with severe volcanic eruptions in Mt. Vesuvius (-1660), Mount Aniakchak (-1645), and Mt. Thera in Minoa (-1620).

In 800 C.E. a cent.-long drought begins in the Yucatan Empire, causing the disintegration of the Mayan civilization.

About 950 B.C.E. the Homeric Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends -800).

About 900 B.C.E. the Iron Age Cold Epoch (Neoglaciation) (Climate Pessimum) begins (ends 300 B.C.E.), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic, peaking during the expansion of Greece era about 450 B.C.E.

About 250 B.C.E. the Roman Warm Period (Climatic Optimum) in Europe and North Am. begins (ends 400 C.E.), causing Theophrastus to write that date trees can grow in Greece but can't set fruit, as in modern times; the mild weather conditions help Hannibal cross the Alps with his elephants.

In 535 C.E. Krakatoa Volcano (Rabul Volcano near Papua, New Guinea?) in Malaysia (at 105 deg. E, 5 deg. S) explodes, splitting the island of Sumatra asunder and creating the islands of Java and Sumatra separated by the Sunda Strait, reducing daylight to four hours and affecting crop growth for 10 years, causing seven years of crop failures, encouraging fleas in Africa to multiply, bringing the plague 3x; did this accelerate the coming of the Dark Ages?

In 892 C.E. a 220-year drought begins in Calif. (ends 1112), followed by a 140-year one in 1209 to 1350, causing water levels to drop 50+ ft.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) Medieval Warm Period

About 950 C.E. the Medieval Climate Optimum (Climatic Anomaly) (Warm Period) in the North Atlantic begins (ends 1250), becoming the warmest period in the Northern Hemisphere since the Roman Warm Period of -250 to 400, with temps. 1C-1.4C higher than modern temps; the tropical Pacific region is colder than normal; Tree Ring Growth in this half-cent. and the next cent. are especially rapid, indicating a warm period; the warmest period is between 950-1100, becoming the warmest period of the last 2K years prior to the 20th cent., allowing commercial winemaking in S England to compete with France 500 km to the N, and vineyards in Germany to be planted at 780m above sea level (vs. 560m today); first proposed by English climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) in his 1965 report "The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel, based on data from the realms of botany, historical document research and meteorology", whose diagram of global temperature variations over the last thousand years is pub. in the IPCC's First Assessment Report in 1990, massaged to obliterate the Medieval Warm Period?

About 1040 the Oort Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends 1080).

About 1250 the Medieval Climate Optimum (begun 950) along with the optimal climate conditions in Europe since 1000 end, and the Little Ice Age (ends 1850) begins as Atlantic ice pack begins growing, bringing poor harvests, famine, and disease, and changing the sociopolitical landscape with a pop. reduction, uprooted vagabond farmers, and a blind rage against the rich and Jews; Europe begins to be rapidly deforested, leading to a shortage of wood for heating and cooking by 1500, along with a decline of wild game and a food shortage; luckily, in the 16th cent. potatoes and corn (maize) are brought in from the New World, and soft coal begins to be used as fuel.

In 1258 after an unusually mild winter in 1249 where flowers sprout in Jan. before turning cold in Apr.-May, the summer in England is unusually wet and cool, leading to crop failures and famine in winter, killing 20K in London, with people driven to eating tree bark.

About 1280 the Wolf Minimum of minimum solar activity begins (ends 1350).

About 1300 farm expansion in Europe halts because of the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which lasts until 1850; less cattle is raised, and the herring supply starts to slide; food production slides in Greenland and Scandinavia, and the coast of Greenland grows icebound, causing the settlements to dwindle; Greenland has a pop. of 3K colonists living on 300 farms along the W coast, but the worsening weather dooms them to eventual near-extinction.

In spring 1315 bad weather leads to the Great Famine of 1315-17, which kills millions in Europe and Russia, causing cannibalism, infanticide, disease, and crime, ending the period of growth and prosperity begun in the 11th cent.

About 1460 the Sporer (Spörer) Minimum begins (ends 1550), a 90-year span of low solar activity first proposed in 1976 by John A. Eddy based on analysis of C-14 in tree rings, and named for German astronomer Gustav Sporer.

'The Hunters in the Snow' by Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-69), 1565

In Dec. 1565 winter in N Europe is super-cold, killing birds and fruit trees; on Dec. 25-Jan. 13 the Thames River freezes solid, and Elizabeth I becomes fond of daily trips on the ice; portrayed by Dutch Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel (Bruegel) the Elder (1525-69) in his 1565 painting The Hunters in the Snow (Return of the Hunters); stark portrayal of global cooling?

Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)

In 1610 after beating Galileo by 4 mo. and making the first drawing of the Moon through a telescope on July 26, 1609, English astronomer Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) discovers sunspots - you're the cream in my coffee?

In 1645 the Maunder Minimum (period of low sunspot counts) begins (ends 1715); the Thames River freezes every winter, and there is famine throughout Europe and China.

In Dec. 1683 the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow - all them scientific brains and no mention of Global Cooling?

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) Anders Celsius (1701-44)

In 1714 Danzig, Poland-born Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) of Amsterdam invents mercury-in-glass thermometer, followed in 1724 by the 0-32-212 Fahrenheit Scale, which becomes popular with beer brewers. In 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-44) proposes the 0-100 Celsius (Lat. "centigrade" = 100 steps) Scale for use in lab work to the Royal Swedish Society. with 0 for the boiling point and 100 for the freezing point; in 1745 Carolus Linnaeus inverts it; mercury solidifies at -39 C; after the Celsius scale is adopted by the internat. scientific community, only the U.S. sticks with the Fahrenheit scale. In 1724 Fahrenheit discovers the phenomenon of supercooling (undercooling), the ability of a liquid or gas to be lowered below its freezing point, for example when water doesn't freeze in clouds.

George Graham (1674-1751) Anders Celsius (1704-44)

In 1727 after discovering slight magnetic fluctuations on his compass to be correlated with the latter's observations of aurorae, English watchmaker George Graham (1674-1751) and Swedish scientist Anders Celsius (1701-44) discover that sunspots are really magnetic storms.

Rene Antoine de Reaumur (1683-1757)

In 1731 French entomologist Rene (René) Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (Réaumur) (1683-1757) invents an alcohol thermometer with the 0-80 (freezing-boiling) Reaumur (Réaumur) Temperature Scale - he should have used the 20-80 rule and made it 0-100?

In 1750 the CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere is 280 ppm.

In July 1757 the July 1757 Heat Wave in Europe becomes the hottest summer in Europe until 2003.

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In fall 1792 Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. pub. the first (1793) ed. of The (Old) Farmer's Almanac; by the late 1860s circ. zooms from 3K to 200K.

John Dalton (1766-1844)

In 1793 English meteorologist John Dalton (1766-1844) pub. his first work Meteorological Observations and Essays (2nd ed. 1834), based on his habit of M.O., which goes on from 1787-1844, later used to propose the Dalton Minimum of low sunspot counts in 1796-1820 (1790-1830?).

Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)

In 1800 German-born English astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers Infrared Light (beyond the red end of the spectrum) using prisms and thermometers on solar rays; he also discovers a connection between 11-year sunspot cycles and wheat prices, becoming the first theory of economic cycles.

Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857)

In 1805 County Meath, Ireland-born hydrographer and British rear adm. Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) devises the Blowfart, er, Beaufort Wind Scale (0-12) for gauging wind force at sea: 0:0-1 mph (calm), 1:2-3 (light air), 2:4-7 (slight breeze), 3:8-12 (gentle breeze), 4:13-18 (moderate breeze), 5:19-24 (fresh breeze), 6:25-31 (strong breeze), 7:32-38 (moderate gale), 8:39-46 (fresh gale), 9:47-54 (strong gale), 10:55-63 (whole gale), 11:64-72 (storm), 12:73-82 (hurricane).

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In 1816 the Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7; Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. in his Old Farmer's Almanac (founded 1792) mistakenly forecasts snow in July and Aug., but before he can send out replacements it actually does snow in the summer, making him into a genius and boosting his almanac's popularity?

The Old Farmer's Almanac, 1818-

In 1818 The Farmer's Almanac is founded in Morristown, N.J. by David Young and Jacob Mann; in 1851 Samuel Hart Wright succeeds Young, and is succeeded in 1875 by his son Berlin Hart Wright; in 1934 Ray Geiger becomes ed., followed in 1994 by his son Peter Geiger; each new ed. is released in Sept., and covers 16 mos., covering seven U.S. climatic zones using a "top secret mathematical and astronomical formula, that relies on sunspot activity, tidal action, planetary position and many other factors"; the forecaster is named Caleb Weatherbee; 80% forecast accuracy is claimed by the publishers, but meteorologists regard it ias pseudoscience.

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

In 1822 French mathematician Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) pub. On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies (Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur), his mathematical theory of heat conduction, introducing his hot new Fourier Series, expansions of piecewise continuous functions as trigonometrical series. In 1825 he discovers the Greenhouse Effect.

Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)

In 1824 French physicist Nicolas Leonard (Léonard) Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) pub. Reflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop That Power), which shows that the transformation of heat into motive power depends on the quantity of heat (caloric) and the temperature difference, while the efficiency of a steam engine is a function of the temperature difference between the hot and cold chambers (source and sink), the "free energy", a preliminary formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics; it also introduces the reversible Carnot Cycle.

Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) James Prescott Joule (1818-89) Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

In Feb. 1840 German physician Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) sails from Rotterdam in the 3-masted ship Java, and after docking at Surabaya he notices that the venous blood of sailors he's bleeding is brighter red, indicating less oxygen being consumed than in colder climates, causing him to have a bright idea that food is oxidized to create not only animal heat but work, hence that heat and work are interchangeable in some way. In 1842 he announces an improved value for the mechanical equivalent of heat, calculated by an apparatus pulled by a horse that stirs paper pulp in a cauldron, and proposes the law of conservation of energy, which holds even for living systems, and also states that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy on Earth; too bad, not being a recognized scientist (member of a prof. assoc. of stuffed shirts), he is ignored; he says that a weight falling 365m will lose enough potential energy to warm an equal weight of water by 1 deg C, corresponding to a mechanical equivalent of heat of 3.56 Joules per calorie, not far from the real figure of 4.184. The tendency of learned societies of know-nothings to keep newbies out follows the dismal example of established churches? In 1843 British (Manchester) brewer and obsessive amateur scientist James Prescott Joule (1818-89) calculates the first fairly accurate value (41.54M ergs or 4.154 Joules per calorie) for the mechanical equivalent of heat; later 10M ergs is called a Joule in his honor; at first his work is disregarded since he's not a recognized academic, and is refused by the Royal Society and learned journals, forcing him to get it pub. in 1847 in a Manchester newspaper on which his brother is the music critic; a few mo. later he is allowed to present it at a scientific gathering, and 23-y.-o. Scottish physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) gets it accepted, causing it to be taken up by respectable German scientist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-94), who ends up getting credit for the law of conservation of energy instead of amateurs Joule and Mayer in 1847; Joule finally gets to present his paper to the Royal Society in 1849, making him look like a beer-brewing copycat? Meanwhile in 1840 James Prescott Joule pub. the I^2*R law for the heat given off by a conductor of resistance R carrying a current I (Joulean heat) - the reason Easy-Bake Ovens work?

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93)

In 1843 German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) discovers 11-year Solar Cycles of sunspot counts, with Cycle 1 set in 1755-66 by Swiss astronomer Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93) in 1848, who devises the Wolf (Zurich) (Internat. Sunspot) (Relative Sunspot) Number for the number of visible sunspots and sunspot groups; in 1852 Wolf et al. discover the link between the Wolf Cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.

In 1850 the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which has kept Europe cold and half-starved suddenly ends in a span of a few years; the Great Glacier Retreat begins (ends ?) - giving Euros a chance to create a peaceful Paradise or a war-torn Hell?

Rudolf Clausius (1822-88)

The original Rudolf the Red-Nosed Rain On Your Parade, Dear? In 1850 German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-88) formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Kinetic Theory of Gases. In 1865 he coins the term "entropy", and reformulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics using it: "The entropy of the Universe is constantly increasing to an eventual maximum" - that sounds good and bad at the same time?

Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

The lukewarm Love Train, or, There are only two kinds of people, those who think that there is a God, and those who believe they are God? Right in your face mask? In 1851 English physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) begins pub. papers on the laws of conservation and dissipation of energy, generalizing Carnot's 1824 paper and formulating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the idea of degradation of energy and the eventual heat death of the Universe, in which there is a uniform temperature throughout, hence none of its energy can be converted into useful work; "Though the total energy of the Universe is constant, the amount of free energy decreases steadily"; luckily there is enough free energy still left for trillions of years?

Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75)

On Sept. 1-2, 1859 the Solar (Super) Storm of 1859 (Carrington Event) sees a solar storm induce a geomagnetic solar storm in the Earth's magnetsphere, creating auroras that can be seen from Cuba to Hawaii, so bright that people in the NE U.S. can read their newspapers by its light, and creating an EMP that interferes with telegraphs, but doesn't shut them down; it is all recorded by London, England-born amateur astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75), proving the existence of solar flares; in 1863 his observations of sunspots reveal the differential rotation of the Sun.

John Tyndall (1820-93)

In 1859 Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) discovers that gases incl. water vapor and CO2 can absorb infrared radiation, and suggests that they could be used to bring climate change, AKA the Greenhouse Effect, going further in a lecture on Feb. 7, 1861, claiming that changes in CO2 and H20 in the atmosphere explain all climate changes so far identified by geological research - all ahead full? Too bad, in 1856 Am. scientist Eunice Foote already pub. it.

Josef Stefan (1835-93) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

In 1879 using experimental data from Irish physicist John Tyndall, Austrian (Carinthian Slovene) mathematician-physicist Josef Stefan (1835-93) pub. the paper Über die Beziehung zwischen der Wärmestrahlung und der Temperatur (On the relation between heat radiation and temperature), announcing the Stefan (Stefan-Boltzmann) Law, that the total energy per unit time radiated from a black body per unit surface area is directly proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature, using it to calculate the temp of the Sun's surface as 5,430C (9,810F); in 1884 Austrian physicist Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906) (founder of Statistical Mechanics, and coiner of the term "ergodic") pub. Ableitung des Stefan'schen Gesetzes, betreffend die Abhängigkeit der Wärmestrahlung von der Temperatur aus der electromagnetischen Lichttheorie (Derivation of Stefan's Law, concerning the dependency of heat radiation on temperature, from the electromagnetic theory of light), extending Stefan's Law to grey body emissions.

On Jan. 12-13, 1883 (Thur.-Fri) a blizzard from Canada blows in suddenly, causing a trick of Nature on a beautifully warm 70 F day in the midst of miserably cold Jan. as the temp drops suddenly by 100 F and leads to the death of 500+ pioneers, incl. 100+ lightly-dressed children walking home from school in the plains of the Dakotas, Minn., and Neb. in the Big Brash (School Children's) Blizzard; as far away as Denver, Colo. the temp drops to -18 F with 60 mph winds, but little snow.

Eruption of Krakatoa, Aug. 26-27, 1883

Atlas cracks his toa in Indonesia? Krakonesia, biggest volcano grave on Earth? On Aug. 26-27, 1883 the small volcanic island of Krakatoa (Krakatau) in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra (100 mi. W. of Batavia) erupts with a ginormous explosive force of 200 megatons (Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6), ejecting 6 cu. mi. of rock, creating a 120-ft.-high tsunami which travels 5,450 mi. to South Africa in 12 hours and drowns 36K; a Dutch warship in Batavia (Djakarta) 100 mi. away is washed ashore and left stranded .5 mi. inland 30 ft. above sea level; the sound (largest noise ever heard by man?) is heard 2.2K mi. away in Alice Springs and 2.97K mi. away in Rodrigues Island near Mauritius; at Batavia people have to light their lamps during the day; for the next two years a thin haze of particles can be seen in the night sky as far away as London, and for three years all over the world sunrise and sunset are brilliantly colored; the explosion leaves a 2,667-ft. cone, and the island shrinks from 18 sq. mi. to 6 sq. mi.; the explosion causes the Muslims of Indonesia to see it as a sign from Allah and begin a jihad to push the Dutch out; the volcanic ash in the atmosphere causes global cooling next year, with aftereffects lasting almost a cent., offsetting anthropogenic global warming?

Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906)

In 1889 after attempting to determine the surface temp of the Moon by measuring infared radiation reaching the Earth, using the angle in the sky to estimate CO2 and water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) pub. The Temperature of the Moon: from Studies at the Allegheny Observatory.

Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)

In Apr. 1896 Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age; "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"; in 1906 he pub. The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations, amending his views, lowering his estimates to 1.6C-3.9C and considering increased CO2 to be beneficial; "Since, now, warm ages have alternated with glacial periods, even after man appeared on the earth, we have to ask ourselves: Is it probable that we shall in the coming geological ages be visited by a new ice period that will drive us from our temperate countries into the hotter climates of Africa? There does not appear to be much ground for such an apprehension. The enormous combustion of coal by our industrial establishments suffices to increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air to a perceptible degree"; "We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind."

Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928)

In 1896 German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900.

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928)

On Nov. 1, 1899 Mattoon, Ill.-born geologist Thomas Chrowder "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, which promotes the theory that atmospheric CO2 concentration can drive changes in the climate for the purposes of climate engineering (geoengineering); "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate."; "A study of the life of the geological periods seems to indicate that there were very notable fluctuations in the total mass of living matter. To be sure there was a reciprocal relation between the life of the land and that of the sea, so that when the latter was extended upon the continental platforms and greatly augmented, the former was contracted, but notwithstanding this it seems clear that the sum of life activity fluctuated notably during the ages. It is believed that on the whole it was greatest at the periods of sea extension and mild climates, and least at the times of disruption and climatic intensification. This factor then acted antithetically to the carbonic acid freeing previously noted, and, so far as it went, tended to offset its effects. It now becomes necessary to assign agencies capable of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate sufficiently above the normal rate of supply, at certain times, to produce glaciation; and on the other hand, capable of restoring it to the atmosphere at certain other times in sufficient amounts to produce mild climates."

In 1900 the Modern Maximum of solar activity esp. sunspots begins, ramping up in the 1940s and reaching the highest level since the warm Boreal Period in 7K B.C.E. during the late 1950s, reaching a double peak in the 1950s and another in the 1990s, with the highest level of solar magnetic activity for most of the past 11.4K years.

In the 20th cent. the amount of atmospheric dust on Earth doubles.

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) Max Planck (1858-1947)

In 1900 English physicist John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) pub. the Rayleigh-Jeans Law (improved by Sir James Jeans in 1905), claiming that the spectral radiance (emission at a single frequency) of a "black body" (perfect absorber of radiation, radiating an amount equal to that which it is absorbing) is proportional to the frequency to the fourth power, which heads toward infinity as the frequency approaches infinity, causing the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the prediction that a black body emits radiation with infinite power; on Oct. 19 after ruminating not on that but on why Wien's 1896 Displacement Law breaks down at low frequencies, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) announces to the Berlin Physical Society his revolutionary Planck's Radiation Law, proposing the (Old) Quantum Theory to account for the radiation from a black body, explaining that it is emitted in discrete quanta, each being of an energy value equal to Planck's constant h times the frequency, and violating the ancient maxim "Natura non facit saltum" (Nature doesn't make jumps); as he can't explain the meaning of his new constant, he delves into atomic theory to try and find a clue; meanwhile herr Wilhelm Wien proposes the formula E = (3/4) * M * C^2 for the relation between electromagnetic mass and electromagnetic energy - don't complain about the wienie in your neighbor's eye when you have a planck in your own?

Galveston Flood, Sept. 8, 1900

Galveston, oh Galvesto-o-n? On Sept. 8, 1900 Galveston, Tex., the #2 wealthiest city in the U.S. after New York City is struck by the Category 4 (145 mph) 1900 (Great) Galveston Hurricane (Aug. 27-Sept. 17), killing 6K-12K and almost wiping the city off the map, throwing smug Americans who thought they ruled the world into denial, becoming the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history (until ?); the authorities failed to order evacuation, thinking they were immune from Mother Nature?

In mid-June-early Aug. 1901 the 1901 Eastern U.S. Heat Wave sees Philly experience 12 straight days above 90F starting June 25, with several institutionalized individuals in New York City committing suicide in 95F heat, and dead horses becoming a source of contamination; July becomes the hottest month in the contiguous U.S. until the Julys of 1931, 1934, 1936, and 2012; a drought in the Upper Midwest and Ohio Valley gives Ill. its driest year until ?; a total of 9.5K are killed.

In early Sept. 1902 after an unusually hot dry season and high winds, forest fires rage in every part of Greece.

Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941)

In 1906-12 German chemist Walter Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) formulates the Third Law of Thermodynamics, that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

On Aug. 20-21, 1910 the Great Fire (Big Blowup) of 1910, a giant forest fire in W Mont., N Idaho, and NE Wash. burns 3M acres in two days, killing 87 (mostly firefighters) becming the deadliest forest fire in U.S. history (until ?), making firefighters into heroes and permanently changing the focus of the U.S. Forest Service to fire prevention.

In early July-Sept. 11, 1911 the 1911 U.K. Heat Wave sets high temperature records throughout England, with a max of 36.7C (98.1F), which isn't broken until 1990. On Aug. 8 after a nationwide strike of transport workers is called by Labour Party leader Keir Hardie, riots in Liverpool are quashed by troops, who fire on demonstrators, killing two; meanwhile 50K troops are rushed to London as famine looms; just at the worse time, on Aug. 9 the temp. in London reaches a record 98. 1 deg F.

Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964)

In 1912 Austrian-born Am. physicist Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) discovers Cosmic Rays with a hot air balloon during a near-total eclipse, measuring rising radiation at rising altitudes despite the Moon blocking most of the Sun's visible radiation, winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize; "The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above."

On July 10, 1913 after a record hot summer Death Valley, Calif. reaches a high air temp of 134 F (56.7 C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth), followed by the record highest ground surface temp on Earth of 201F (93.9C) on July 15, 1917.

Charles Fabry (1867-1945) Henri Buisson (1873-1944)

In 1913 after the spectrum of radiation from the Sun is found to be blocked 97%-99% at 200nm-315nm in the ultraviolet end, French physicists Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1873-1944) discover the Earth's Ozone Layer, located at 12-19 mi. (20-30km) above the surface, containing 10 ppm of ozone (O3), compared to 0.3 ppm for the rest of the atmosphere.

USS Cyclops, 1910-18

On Mar. 4, 1918 the 542-ft. 19K-ton U.S. Navy collier USS Cyclops (AC-4) (launched May 7, 1910) (largest ship in the U.S. Navy) en route from the West Indies to Baltimore carrying manganese ore disappears without a trace along with all 309 crew and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle, becoming the first mysterious ship disappearance there; its last message is "Weather Fair, All Well"; the Germans disavow knowledge.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In the 1920s Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate chnages by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun.

In Aug. 1922 the 1922 China-Japan Heat Wave sees temperatures averaging 100F, with several days in Peking and Tientsin at 115F.

On Sept. 13, 1922 the highest temp. ever recorded on Earth (136.4 F) (58.0 C) is recorded in 'Aziziya (El Azizia) (Al-Azizyah), Libya (until ?) - get used to it?

Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

In 1930 English mathematician-geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) describes the photochemical mechanisms underlying the Earth's ozone layer; early in this decade he and his student V.C.A. Ferraro predict the existence of the magnetosphere.

In July-Nov. 1931 the 1931 China (Yangtze-Huai River Floods) kill 422K-4M, becoming one of the most lethal natural disasters of the cent., and most deadly flood in known history; on Aug. 21 floods in Hankow spread over thousands of sq. mi. and make 30M homeless, causing the Communists to blame corrupt govt. officials of embezzlement of the dyke fund.

In 1934 the Great Drought begins in the U.S. (ends 1937), creating the Am.-Canadian Dust Bowl of 1935-8, covering 150K sq. mi. (75%) of the Great Plains, incl. parts of Okla., Tex., Kans., Colo., and N.M., becoming the worst drought in 1K years; caused by the planting of wheat during WWI on former grazing land to make a quick profit? On July 20, 1934 Keokuk, Iowa reaches a state temp record of 118F (48C). In July 1934 80% of the U.S. is in extreme or severe drought.

In 1934 the U.S. Nat. Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is established in New Orleans, La. to archive weather data, moving to Asheville, N.C. in 1951 and renamed to the Nat. Weather Records Data Center (NWRC), and the modern name in 1993; in 2015 it is merged with the Nat. Geophysical Data Center and the Nat. Oceanic Center into the Nat. Centers for Environmental Info. (NCEI), becoming part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) along with Ariz. State U. and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, which runs five Earth surface stations, 6K temperature stations, 7.5K precipitation stations, and 2K pressure stations, with the avg. temp record going back to the late 1950s, incl. data collected since 1697, with 1,650 records greater than 100 years, and 220 greater than 150 years.

In Mar. 1935 dust storms begin plaguing Kansas, and on Apr. 8 after the air in Washington D.C. turns copper from dust blowing in from the W end of the Okla. Panhandle, the U.S. Emergency Relief Appropriation Act is passed, appropriating $4B to be used at FDR's discretion, along with $880M in previously unspent appropriations; in Apr. Congress approves the Works Progress Admin. (WPA), which begins operating on May 6. On Apr. 14, 1935 (p.m.) Black Sunday, a terrific 200-mi.-wide dust storm begins in Cimarron County, Okla., crossing into Kansas, dropping the temp. 25 deg. in an hour, and permanently blinding many people; 4.7 tons of dust per acre are dumped on W Kan., denting cartops; the wind blows at 40 mph or greater for 100 straight hours, displacing 300M tons of topsoil from the prairies; later the southern plains are plagued by up to 14M grasshoppers per sq. mi. after natural predators are killed by the dust; in July 1940 Woody Guthrie releases his debut album Dust Bowl Ballads, becoming one of the first concept albums, featuring Great Dust Storm Disaster; "On the 14th day of April 1935,/ There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky./ You could see that dust storm comin', the cloud looked deathlike black,/ And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track./ From Oklahoma City to the Arizona line,/ Dakota and Nebraska to the lazy Rio Grande,/ It fell across our city like a curtain of black rolled down,/ We thought it was our judgment, we thought it was our doom./ The radio reported, we listened with alarm the wild and windy actions of this great mysterious storm."

In Oct. 1935-Mar. 1936 the U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. experiences the 5th-coldest weather for the contiguous U.S.; in Dec. 1935-Feb. 1936 the 1936 North Am. Cold Wave is worse in the Midwest U.S. and the Canadian Prairies, missing the SW U.S. and Calif., becoming the worst in North Am. in cents.; Feb. is the coldest on record in the contiguous U.S., narrowly beating Feb. 1899; in June-Sept. 1936 the Summer 1936 North Am. Heat Wave kills 5K in the U.S. and 1180 in Canada, esp. in urban centers sans air conditioning; and destroys massive numbers of crops, becoming the hottest summer until 2012.

G.S. Callendar (1898-1964)

In 1938 Montreal, Canada-born British steam engineer Guy Stewart "G.S." Callendar (1898-1964) pub. the Callendar (Greenhouse) Effect caused by the burning of fossil fuels, assessing climate sensitivity at 2 deg C and claiming that it would be beneficial, delaying a "return of the deadly glaciers", meeting with widespread skepticism but leading to attempts to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Hawaii in 1958.

Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957)

In 1939 Swedish-born Am. meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby (1898-1957) of the U.S. Weather Bureau and U. of Chicago discovers Rossby Waves in the Earth's atmosphere, due to the variation in the Coriolis effect with latitude, leading to large-scale meanders of the Jet Stream (which he also identifies) that cause masses of cold or warm air to detach and become low-strength cyclones and anticyclones, driving daily weathern patterns at mid-latitudes, making the E coast of the U.S. colder than the W coast at a given latitude.

In 1943 the free market small govt. think tank Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) is founded in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia by 54 people, with close ties to the Australian Liberal Party, advocating deregulation and privatization, and opposing unions and climate change science.

Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965)

In 1946 English physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) discovers that sunspots emit radio waves.

Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973)

In 1953 Wilton, N.H.-born astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) (former asst. of Charles Pierpont Langley), dir. since 1907 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (inventor of the solar cooker, solar boiler, and solar still) discovers a link between sunspot cycles and Earth climate, claiming to be able to predict climate patterns 50 years in advance.

On July 11, 1954 Sedgwick, Colo. records a temp of 114F, becoming the hottest temp ever recorded in Colo. (until ?); Boulder, Colo. reaches a record 104F, part of four straight days over 100F; Neb. reaches 116F, Kan. 115F, Okla. 112F, and Mo. 110F.

James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

On July 1, 1957-Dec. 31, 1958 the Internat. Geophysical Year (IGY) is participated in by 67 nations, who cooperate to sponsor research on the year's high solar sunspot activity; the idea was originated in 1950 by scientists James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) of the U. of Iowa, and British geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) on England; the Antarctic is the initial focus of activity with Operation Deep Freeze (1955-6) using a network of 60 research stations; on Sept. 18, 1958 the temp. in the Antarctic reaches a record low of -102.1 F (-74.5 C).

Roger Revelle (1909-91) Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93)

In 1957 Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) and Vienna, Austria-born Am. chemist-physicist Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) pub. the paper "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades" in Tellus, which suggests that the rate of absorption of excess CO2 by Earth's oceans is lower than previously estimate, threatening a greenhouse effect leading to global warming, and proposing the Revelle Factor, the resistance to absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean surface layer due to bicarbonate chemistry, which is higher in warm waters, leading to more anthropogenic CO2; Revelle goes on to help create the Internat. Geophysical Year in 1958, and the Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean (CCCO), help found the U. of Calif. San Diego (UCSD), and become Al Gore's professor and mentor.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005)

In Mar. 1958 Am. chemist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) begins measuring atmospheric CO2 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the Internat. Geophysical Year, obtaining an initial reading of 314 ppm, which grows to 387 ppm in 50 years, becoming known as the Keeling Curve.

On Jan. 2, 1960 Oodnadatta, South Australia 542 mi. N of Adelaide reaches 50.7C (123.3F), becoming the highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania (until ?).

Reid Bryson (1920-2008)

In 1962 after observing dust clouds in India obscuring his view of the ground, Am. climate scientist Reid Bryson (1920-2008) proposes the idea of the "human volcano" increasing aerosol loading of the atmosphere and causing global cooling, with the soundbyte: "The continued rapid cooling of the earth since WWII is in accord with the increase in global air pollution associated with industrialisation, mechanisation, urbanisation and exploding population"; in 1973 Bryson testifies before Congress that anthropogenic global warming is unstoppable, with the soundbyte: "There is no way right now that we can control the climate to make it more benign. Even if we were to say 'let us stop using fossil fuels so that we do not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, because that impacts the world climate,' how on earth could you stop using fossil fuels? Even those countries that are most heavily impacted by the climatic change are the ones who say it is our turn to be affluent and it is in the use of fossil fuels that one gains affluence"; he goes on to dismiss the theory that climate change is anthropogenic, uttering the soundbyte: "All this argument is the temperature going up or not, it's absurd. Of course it's going up. It has gone up since the early 1800s, before the Industrial Revolution, because we're coming out of the Little Ice Age, not because we're putting more carbon dioxide into the air."

Nimbus 4, 1970

On Apr. 8, 1970 the NASA Nimbus 4 weather satellite is launched from Vandenberg AFB in Lompoc, Calif., sending data until Sept. 30, measuring the infrared emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere, along with vertical temperature profiles and water vapor, solar UV radiation, and atmospheric ozone, revealing a V-shaped notch in the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum at 13-17 microns, caused by the 325 ppm CO2 content, which only cuts 2/3 of the way into the surface radiation spectrum, allowing 1/3 of the energy to escape into space?; the notch is saturated, meaning that higher CO2 concentrations can't increase the so-called Greenhouse Effect?

William Doyle Ruckelshaus of the U.S. (1932-)

On Oct. 2, 1970 the U.S. Clean Air Extension (Muskie) Act is passed, amending the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act; on Dec. 2 Congress creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor and protect the public from airborne contaminants, along with the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) on Oct. 3, growing to the largest U.S. regulatory agency by 1975, with 9K employees and a budget of $700M a year; on Dec. 12 William Doyle Ruckelshaus (1932-) becomes dir. #1 of the EPA (until Apr. 1973); after legislative pressure, on Dec. 31 Pres. Nixon signs amendments to the act, giving automakers six years to develop engines that are 90% emission-free; too bad, existing smokestack plants are grandfathered, and pollution standards only apply to new plants, causing greedy owners to extend the life of the smoky old plants as long as they can for decades to come - takes my breath away?

In 1970 the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by John Adams, Richard Ayres, John Bryson, Gus Speth, and Edward Strohbehn to fight for environmental causes, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; of course, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97)

In 1971 the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia in Norwich, England is founded by climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) (known as the Ice Man for predicting a coming ice age before switching to global warming after the hot summer of 1976), and supported by Sir Graham Sutton, Lord Solly Zuckerman et al., with financial support from British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, the Nuffield Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and later the Wolfson Foundation, pioneering the idea of the variability of the climate; in the late 1970s it begins contracting with the U.S. Dept. of Energy; in the mid-1980s British PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a strong backer.

John Paul Holdren (1944-) Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1971 Sewickley, Penn.-born environmental scientist John Paul Holdren (1944-) and Philadelphia, Penn.-born ecologist Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) (author of the 1968 bestseller "The Population Bomb", predicting global famine and proposing a OWG with sweeping powers to set up a "Planetary Regime") pub. the essay Overpopulation and the Potential for Eocide, warming, er, warning of a coming ice age caused by industrial soot, farm dust, deforestation, and urbanization, with the soundbytes: "The effects of a new ice age on agriculture and the supportability of large human populations scarcely need elaboration here. Even more dramatic results are possible, however; for instance, a sudden outward slumping in the Antarctic ice cap, induced by added weight, could generate a tidal wave of proportions unprecedented in recorded history"; "If man survives the comparatively short-term threat of making the planet too cold, there is every indication he is quite capable of making it too warm not long thereafter. For the remaining major means of interference with the global heat balance is the release of energy from fossil and nuclear fuels. As pointed out previously, all this energy is ultimately degraded to heat. What are today scattered local effects of its disposition will in time, with the continued growth of population and energy consumption, give way to global warming... Again, the exact form such consequences might take is unknown; the melting of the ice caps with a concomitant 150-foot increase in sea level might be one of them"; no mention of greenhouse gases?; Holdren goes on to propose a drastic decline in U.S. fertility, with the soundbyte: "210 million now is too many and 280 million in 2040 is likely to be much too many", and get appointed by Pres. Obama as his dir. #9 of the Office of Science and Technology Policy on Mar. 19, 2009-Jan. 20, 2017.

Stephen Schneider (1945-2010)

In 1971 New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) pub. the paper "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Science" in Science mag., containing the soundbyte: "[I]t is projected that man's potential to pollute will increase six- to eightfold in the next 50 years. If this increased rate of injection of particulate matter in the atmosphere should raise the present background opacity by a factor of 4, our calculations suggest a decrease in global temperature by as much as 3.5 °K. Such a large decrease in the average temperature of Earth, sustained over a period of few years, is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age. However, by that time, nuclear power may have largely replaced fossil fuels as a means of energy production"; in 1974 after deciding that he underestimated the warming effect of CO2 by a factor of three, Schneider pub. a retraction, and in 1976 he pub. the book The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, discussing the balance between short-term cooling due to aerosols and long-term warming due to CO2, deciding that CO2 wins and going on to become a major advocate of global warming and the Greenhouse Theory; in 1989 he pub. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century?; on Nov. 3, 2009 he and Tim Flannery pub. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth's Climate; in Oct. 2010 he and Michael D. Mastrandrea pub. Preparing for Climate Change, advocating big-buck projects.

On July 9, 1972 Russia's Kola Peninsula reaches a record high temperature of 32.9C (until ?); meanwhile forest fires rage across Arctic Norway.

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing

In 1972 Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen propose the Faint Early (Young) Sun Paradox (Problem), that the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%.

On June 24, 1974 Time mag. pub. the article Another Ice Age?, containing the soundbyte: "As they review the bizarre and unpredictable weather pattern of the past several years, a growing number of scientists are beginning to suspect that many seemingly contradictory meteorological fluctuations are actually part of a global climatic uphead. However widely the weather varies from place to place and time to time, when meteorologists take an average of temperatures around the globe they find that the atmosphere has been growing gradually cooler for the past three decades. The trend shows no indication of reversing. Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age."

Ed Crane (1944-) Koch Brothers Charles G. Koch (1935-) and David H. Koch (1940-) Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95)

In 1974 Edward Harrison Crane III (1944-), a leader in the U.S. Libertarian Party (quits in 1983) founds major corp.-backed conservative-libertarian think tank Cato Inst. (originally the Charles Koch Foundation) along with rich Wichita, Kan.-based Koch Industries CEO Charles de Ganahi Koch (1935-) and Austrian libertarian economist Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), which goes on to oppose environmental groups and back climate change/global warming denial, work to eliminate the U.S. depts. of agriculture, commerce, educate, energy, interior and labor, and propose privatizing Social Security, with Crane uttering the soundbyte "I think Franklin Roosevelt was a lousy president. What he did, which is to impose this great nanny state on America, was a great mistake"; after the Cocks, er, Kochs start a war to replace its stockholders with a 12-member board subservient to themselves, Crane retires as pres. on Oct. 1, 2012 after building it to a staff of 127 and a $21M/year budget.

Frank Wentz (1947-) Carl Mears (1963-)

In 1974 Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) is founded in Northern Calif. by Frank Wentz (1947-) to process microwave data from NASA satellites, going on to work with Carl A. Mears (1963-) to develop a satellite temperature record; in June 2017 version 4 revises the global warming trend from 1979 from .135K/decade to .184K/decade.

On Apr. 28, 1975 Newsweek pub. the article The Cooling World by Peter Gwynne, which claims that evidence of a coming ice age is accumulating "so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it."

On June 23-July 8, 1976 the 1976 Great Britain and Ireland Heat Wave sees the hottest avg. summer temperatures in the U.K. since records began, accompanied by a severe drought and constant blue skies from May until Sept., becoming the driest summer until 1995; on June 28 Southampton, England sets a June temp record at 35.6C (96.1F) (until ?).

On Sept. 13, 1976 after DeuPont is first confronted with evidence that their product is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer in 1974, the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences reports that Freon (CFCs) used in spray cans is depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere, increasing deadly UV radiation on the ground.

Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81)

In 1979 Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) pub. The Charney Report (Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment), which concludes: "We estimate the most probable global warming for a doubling of CO2 to be near 3°C with a probable error of ± 1.5°C"; too bad, it never mentions the Greenhouse Gas Theory?

Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980

On Mar. 27, 1980 (Thur.) Mount St. Helens in Washington State (dormant for 123 years) erupts with ash and steam at 1.1K F; a crater forms at the summit and the N flank begins to bulge; on May 18 (8:32 a.m.) it explodes with the force of 500 A-bombs, losing over 1.3K ft. of elevation (9,677 to 8,364) and gaining a 2-mi.-long 1-mi.-wide crater; 57 people are killed or missing; 51M cu. yds. of debris is dumped into the Columbia River.

William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1980 Congress requests the Nat. Academy of Science to review the science of climate change, with Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), Roger Revelle's successor at the Scripps Inst. of Oceanography as chmn. of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, and economists William Nordhaus of Yale U. and Thomas Schelling of Harvard U. joining major physical scientists; it goes on to pub. the report Changing Climate in 1983, backing up the Charney conclusions of a likely global warming of 1.5C-4.5C after a doubling of CO2, greater by 2x-3x over the poles as over the tropics, with a sea level rise of 70 cm over a cent., concluding that while rising CO2 is a cause for concern, no action should be taken without more study and a careful program of monitoring and analysis; global warmists later claim that climate change denier Nierenberg slanted the conclusions toward inaction, and "in doing so arguable launched the climate change debate, transforming the issue from one of scientific concern to one of political controversy."

1980 is the first year when global warming effects become noticeable?; this year the yearly number of wildfires in Calif. reaches a peak, bottoming-out in ?

In 1980 the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and the Internat. Council for Science (ICSU); in 1993 it is sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO; in 1995 the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) of WCRP establishes the Coupled model intercomparison project to coordinate research on Climate models incl. Gen. circulation models (GCMs).

John Coleman (1934-2018)

On May 2, 1982 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history".

Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1982 after claiming that climate sensitivity is only about 0.3C, and that NASA's global warming predictions are "about 10 times too great", and that global warming will have a beneficial effect on agriculture, Thief River Falls, Minn.-born physicist Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) pub. Carbon Dioxide: Friend or Foe? An inquiry into the climatic and agricultural consequences of the rapidly rising CO content of Earth's atmosphere, highlighting CO2's benefits, becoming the first anti-global warming (AGW) book; the next one doesn't appear until July 1, 1989, his Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Earth in Transition; only four anti-global warming (AGW) books are pub. in 1989, growing to 19 in the 1990s, 15 in 2000-5, 54 in 2005-9, and 15 in 2010. In 1997 he pub. Global Warming: The Science and the Politics, which contains the soundbyte: "I find no compelling reason to believe that the earth will necessarily experience any global warming as a consequence of the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide concentration"; in 1998 he pub. the paper "CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic's view of potential climate change", containing the soundbyte: "Several of these cooling forces have individually been estimated to be of equivalent magnitude, but of opposite sign, to the typically predicted greenhouse effect of a doubling of the air's CO2 content, which suggests to me that little net temperature change will ultimately result from the ongoing buildup of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere." On Jan. 7, 2011 Sherwood and his son Craig Idso pub. The Many Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment.

On July 21, 1983 the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica records a record low ground level temp of -89.2C (-128.6F) (until ?).

Fred L. Smith Jr.

On Mar. 9, 1984 the libertarian Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) in Washington, D.C. is founded by lobbyist Fred L. Smith Jr. to fight against big govt., going on to lead climate change skeptics.

Joseph Lee Bast (1958-)

In 1984 the libertarian-conservative think tank Heartland Inst. is founded in Arlington Heights (near Chicago), Ill. by Chicago investor David H. Padden (1948-), becoming known for backing free market policies before working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke in the 1990s, going on in 2008 to back climate change/global warming denial, holding regular conferences and back the Tea Party; Kimberly, Wisc.-born Joseph Lee Bast (1958-) becomes CEO #1 (until ?), building it up to 8.3K supporters by 2015 incl. 160+ elected officials who serve on its legislative forum.

Robert Jastrow (1925-2008) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1984 the George C. Marshall Inst. (GMI) is established in Arlington, Va. as a conservative think tank with a focus on science and public policy issues (esp. to back Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program AKA Strategic Defense Initiative) by NASA astronomer Robert Jastrow (1925-2008), Am. solid state physicist Frederick "Fred" Seitz (1911-2008), and Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), later becoming a major critic of climate change science; in 2015 it morphs into the CO2 Coalition.

On May 16, 1985 scientists Joe Farman, Brian Gardner, and Jonathan Shanklin studying the South Pole pub. an article in Nature announcing the finding of an "ozone hole" the size of the U.S. in the ozone layer of the atmosphere over Antarctica with depletion as much as 70% in austral spring, allowing dangerous UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface.

Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) Bert Bolin (1925-2007)

In Oct. 1985 the Internat. Conference of the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts is held in Villach, Austria, led by Canadian climatologist Fredrick Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) and Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007), after which the U.N. Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases is founded by the U.N. Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Org. (WMO), and the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions, holding its last meeting in 1990 after being replaced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988). In 1975 Bolin helped the Swedish govt. pass a bill on future energy policy containing the soundbyte: "It is likely that climatic concerns will limit the burning of fossil fuels rather than the size of the natural resources", earning him a rep as the man who got the world to agree on climate. On Nov. 15, 2007 Bolin pub. the semi-autobio. book A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) Boyd Ray Strain

In 1985 Am. agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) and Am. biologist Boyd Ray Strain pub. the paper Carbon dioxide levels in the biosphere: Effects on plant productivity in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, touting the benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "An increase in plant growth due to 'fertilization' of extra CO2 has not been measured, but a 5 to 10% increase may already have occurred. Current data indicate that plants growing at higher than normal CO2 levels are more tolerant of water, temperature, light, and atmospheric pollutant stresses. There are effects on carbon metabolism, plant growth and development, microbial activity, and terrestrial and aquatic plant communities." On Sept. 1, 1987 Wittwer pub. Feeing a Billion: Frontiers of Chinese Agriculture, followed by Food, Climate, and Carbon Dioxide: The Global Environment and World Food Production (Oct. 30, 1995).

Dennis A. Tirpak Joel B. Smith

In June 1986 the House Subcommittee on Pollution of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee hold hearings on the Greenhouse Effects and its implications for public policy, requesting the U.S. EPA to undertake studies, and in May 1989 after it commissions 55 studies by govt. and academic scientists, Dennis A. Tirpak (deputy dir. of the EPA Global Climate Change Div. in 1984-92) and Joel B. Smith of the U.S. EPA present Congress with the report The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, which is pub. by the EPA in Dec. 1989; it concludes that warmer weather "could have an enormous impact upon human health through the 21st century", even if people acclimatize; Tirpak goes on to become a lead author of the 2007 Fourth IPCC Assessment Report; Smith goes on to become a lead author of the 2001 Third, 2007 Fourth, and 2014 Fifth IPCC Assessment Reports.

On Sept. 14-16, 1987 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed by 46 nations, effective Jan. 1, 1989, calling for a 50% reduction in the use of all substances responsible for ozone layer depletion esp. chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000; 197 U.N. members eventually ratify it; the ozone layer depletion stops by 1995, and is projected to return to 1980 levels in 2050-2070.

James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Edward Hansen (1941-)

In summer 1988 the Summer 1988 U.S. Heat Wave sees a drought reminiscent of the Dust Bowl years, killing 5K-17K. On June 23, 1988 after pub. the first Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) Global Temperature Analysis in 1981, top NASA climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) addresses the U.S. Congress on a particularly hot day with broken air conditioning, uttering the soundbyte that global warming has already arrived, claiming a 0.5C-0.7C global warming in the past cent., with the four warmest years all in the 1980s, and the two warmest in 1981 and 1987, making him 99% sure that the Earth is the warmest since instrumental data began to be collected in 1980, that there is a clear cause-effect relationship with the Greenhouse Effect, and that global warming is steadily increasing the likelihood of freak weather incl. superstorms, becoming "the opening salvo of the age of climate change", supercharging the One World Govt. (OWG) types and letting them loose like a roving lion to create a new money-hungry OWG religion complete with priests, bishops, and a pope (Al Gore)?, and CO2 as their Devil?; in 1999 the GISS study is updated, reporting 1998 as the warmest year on record despite slight cooling in the E U.S. and W Atlantic, mainly due to the El Nino; Hansen says that coal-fired power plants with no CO2 (carbon) capture technology should be eliminated in the U.S. by 2025, and the rest of the world by 2030; Hansen's runaway climate predictions focus the spotlight on the Petroleum (fossil fuel) industry and its Fossil fuels lobby, turning its great benefit to humanity into something sinister, based on pie-in-the-sky future gloom and doom predictions treated as sure things, targeting it with fossil fuel divestment, causing opponents of global warming to counter with global warming conspiracy theory; too bad, after his runaway climate predictions fall flat, and he insists on keeping his job, on Aug. 29, 2000 Hansen pub. the paper Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario, admitting that the net global warming observed so far is likely due to non-CO2 gases and black carbon, because CO2 is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted via fossil fuel burning. On Feb. 13, 2013 global warming scientist James A. Hansen of NASA is arrested outside the White House along with Sierra Club dir. Michael Brune, 350.org co-founder Bill McKibben, civil rights activist Julian Bond, and actress Daryl Hannah while protesting the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline.

John Henry Sununu of the U.S. (1939-) Lee Atwater of the U.S. (1951-91)

On Nov. 17, 1988 pres.-elect Bush announces his choice of conservative Havana, Cuban-born Repub. N.H. gov. #75 (1983-9) John Henry Sununu (1939-) (an Arab-Am. of Lebanese extraction and Greek Orthodox faith) to be White House chief of staff #14 (Jan. 20, 1989-Dec. 15, 1991), and his Atlanta, Ga.-born campaign mgr. Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater (1951-91) to succeed Frank Fahrenkopf Jr. as chmn. of the Rep. Nat. Committee, becoming known for dirty tricks incl. the "jumper cable" episode, rumors that Dukakis had been treated for mental illness and his wife had burned a U.S. flag, and the Willie Horton ad smear campaign; before he dies of a brain tumor in 1991 Atwater converts to Roman Catholicism and issues written apologies; during the campaign Bush's son George W. Bush is given an office across from Atwater's to be his dad's "eyes and ears", and they become good friends; Sununu's refusal to back the 1986 proclamation condemning the U.N. resolution defining Zionism as racism causes concerns by Jews, but Bush owes him for his help in the N.H. primary; Sununu goes on to join a "policy action" group to advise Bush incl. Allan Bromley (science), Michael Biskin (economics), Dick Darman (budget), and Roger Porter (domestic policy) and convince Bush to becoming a global warming skeptic and "not commit to policies that would result in trillion dollar changes in the U.S. economy until there were then more adequate technical bases for such a position." Sununu goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming crisis is just the latest surrogate for an over-arching agenda of anti-growth and anti-development. This agenda grew and gathered support in the years following World War II"; "Nature will eventually do what nature has always done. It will respond in a self-stabilizing manner over the long term with moderate variability over multi-decade periods and with occasional significant variability over the short term"; "But waiting for 'eventually' to prove the alarmists wrong is not the wisest course of action. Unfullfillable ambitions to stifle growth will devastate a world trying to deal with the complexities of economics, stability, and the environment. Quality of life depends on access to energy. Noble intentions about 'C02-free' sources of energy are not sufficient, if their agenda of eliminating coal as a source, and turning their back on nuclear, are allowed to be part of our near-term policies."

In 1988 after the speech by James Hansen, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) to prove an objective scientific view of climate change and its political-economic impacts, with Bert Bolin as chmn. #1, receiving endorsement by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Resolution 43/53; too bad, it is taken over by sinister OWG globalists who want to force the rich nations to cough-up their wealth and give it to the poor nations to supposedly atone for their sins, ensuring that all nations will be poor?; "The aim of the IPCC is to ignore recognized standards of science, frame mankind for a nonexistent crime, and shackle human society. It's the next planned slavery. The developing countries, who will be denied cheap and reliable energy, will bear the heaviest chains." (">Pierre Gosselin)

On July 26, 1989 Philip Shabecoff pub. the article U.S. Data Since 1895 Fail to Show Warming Trend in The New York Times, reporting on a study led by Kirby Hanson of the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) pub. in Geophysical Research Letters, explaining that it is only about the U.S. not global temps, which are warming; in 1999 James A. Hansen of NASA falsifies the record by shaving 0.5C off 1934 and adding it to 1998 then lying about it?

1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989 1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989

On Oct. 17, 1989 (5:04 p.m.) the 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta (Watsonville) (San Francisco) Earthquake, centered in the Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi. NE of Santa Cruz hits the San Francisco (N Calif.) area minutes before the start of World Series Game 3, killing 63, injuring 3,757 and causing $5.6-$6B in damage; the WS is delayed for 10 days.

Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003)

In Nov. 1989 Birmingham, England-born MIT meteorologist Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003) (known for talking the Mass. legislature into a harbor tunnel in 1969) pub. the article Has the Globe Really Warmed?, revealing that ocean surface temperature logs kept by merchant-marine captains around the world dating back to 1856 "appears to have... little or no global warming over the past century", going on to become a global warming skeptic and losing federal funding despite being considered one of the world's top meteorologists; on Aug. 12, 1990 he participates in the British documentary film The Greenhouse Conspiracy along with Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, Sherwood Iso, and Pat Michaels, containing the soundbyte "Man-Made Climate Change is Absolute Crap", becoming one of the first to suggest a conspiracy to deny funding to scientists critical of global warming.

In 1989 the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) is founded in Washington, D.C. by an internat. lobbyist group of businesses incl. Exxon, Phillips Petroleum Co., the Am. Petroleum Inst., the Nat. Coal Assoc., the Am. Forest and Paper Assoc., the Edison Electric Inst., and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to oppose the Kyoto Protocol and challenge the science of global warming, becoming the largest climate policy group, representing over 230K businesses; too bad, in 1995 an internal advisory committee produces the 17-page report "Future Climate Change: A Primer", which admits "The scientific basis for the Greenhouse Effect and the potential impact of human emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 on climate is well established and cannot be denied", and in 1996 after a campaign by environmental groups British Petroleum (BP) withdraws, followed in 1997 by Royal Dutch Shell, Ford Motor Co. in 2000, Texaco in 1999, the Southern Co. in 2000, GM in 2000, and Daimler-Chrysler in 2000, after which it folds in 2001 after U.S. Pres. George W. Bush withdraws the U.S. from the Kyoto process, but not before gleefully posting on its Web site: "At this point, both Congress and the Administration agree that the U.S. should not accept the mandatory cuts in emissions required by the protocol."

On Aug. 1-4, 1990 the 1990 U.K. Heat Wave sees highs of 37.1C (98.8F) on Aug. 3 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, breaking the 1911 record (until 2003).

In the 1990s after ozone depletion is discovered in 1984, Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) are introduced to replace ozone-depleting cloroflurocarbons (CFCs) such as freon in refrigerators, air conditioners, and insulating foam; too bad, while the ozone shield recovers, the HFCs cause a super greenhouse effect, with 4,470x the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide (CO2?)

On Nov. 16, 1990 the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 is enacted by the 101st U.S. Congress, requiring research into global warming and related issues along with a report to Congress every four years, which becomes known as the Nat. Climate Assessment.

Richard A. Betts Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Met Office Hadley Centre

In 1990 the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research of the U.K. Met Office is established, going on to employ 1.5K staff incl. 200 in its climate research unit, incl. Richad A. Betts as head of High-End Climate Impacts and Extremes (Helix), and John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) as head of the Climate Change Group, rising to chief scientist in 2002-8 and dir. of climate science in 2008-10, becoming the most cited scientist on the topic of global warming, getting knighted in 2001; the climate unit goes on to develop the HadCM3 climate model.

Hal Lewis (1923-2011)

In 1990 UCSB physicist Harold Warren "Hal" Lewis (1923-2011) (student of J. Robert Oppenheimer) pub. Technological Risk, which contains the soundbyte: "All models agree that the net effect" of increasing greenhouse gases "will be a general and global warming of the earth; they only disagree about how much. None suggest that it will be a minor effect, to be ignored while we go about our business", adding that reducing the effects incl. sea level rise would "require global cooperation and sacrifice now, to avert something far in the future, and a conjectural something at that. There is no evidence in human history that this is in the cards, but one can always hope"; too bad, after 20 years of further thinking, on Oct. 6, 2010 he writes a letter to Am. Physical Society pres. Curtis Callan, resigning after 67 years because it has been "corrupted by the money flood", which has "become the raison d'etre of much physics research, the vital sustenance of much more, and it provides the support for untold numbers of professional jobs", adding that it is "the global warming scam, with the (literally) trillions of dollars driving it, that has corrupted so many scientists, and has carried APS before it like a rogue wave. It is the greatest and most successful pseudoscientific fraud I have seen in my long life as a physicist", making him a climate denier celeb; on Oct. 12 the APS quickly covers for itself with a statement claiming that Lewis is full of it, and he dies on May 26, 2011 before he can properly respond.

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

In Jan. 1991 the Kuwaiti oil fires are set by Iraqi forces retreating from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm of the Persian Gulf War, igniting 605-732 oil wells plus oil lakes and fire trenches; the last well is not capped until Nov. 6; meanwhile Am. astronomer Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) debates Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) on ABC-TV's "Nightline", with Sagan claiming that the smoke could cause a Nuclear Winter, which only requires 100 oil fires emitting smoke that rises to 48K ft., and Singer correctly claiming that the smoke would only rise to 3K ft. before being rained out in 3-5 days; in 1995 Sagan pub. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, admitting that he was wrong, with the soundbyte: "It was pitch black at noon and temperatures dropped 4–6 °C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."

Mount Pinatubo, June 12, 1991

On June 9-16, 1991 Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupts for the first time in 400 years, killing 450 (most on June 15-16), becoming the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the cent. after Novarupta, Alaska in 1912, complicated by the arrival of Typhoon Yunya, causing tens of thousands to be evacuated, after which mudslides raise the death toll to 700; the particulates ejected into the stratosphere are the greatest since Krakatoa in 1883, forming a global sulfuric acid haze that drops global temps by 0.5C (0.9F) in 1991-3, increasing ozone depletion; volcanoes generate 200M tons of CO2 each year, vs. 24B from human activities; the eruption pumps more pollution into the atmosphere than the entire history of man?

Rush Limbaugh (1951-)

On Feb. 4, 1992 Al Gore debates conservative radio talk show host Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (1951-) on Ted Koppel's Nightline, with Limbaugh calling him an "environmentalist wacko". On Apr. 2, 2007 Limbaugh utters the soundbyte that the so-called scientific consensus on climate is "just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition."

Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-)

On June 3-14, 1992 the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development) is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, followed on June 13-22 by the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development, in which U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda) utters the soundbyte to the audience: "We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy", going on to become undersecy. pf state #1 for global affairs for the U.S. State Dept. in 1993-7, lead U.S. negotiator for the Kyoto Climate Conference, and pres. #1 of the United Nations Foundation in 1998-2013; meanwhile a climate skeptic conference to be held in Heidelberg, Germany, resulting in the Heidelberg Appeal by Michel Salomon to be pub. on June 14, calling on govt. to quit following environmental science for their policies, calling it "pseudoscientific arguments or false and nonrelevant data", pissing-off the global warmists, who call it tobacco and asbestos industry agitprop.

On June 4, 1992 the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is opened for signatures at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, entering into force on Mar. 21, 1994, with the objective to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system", setting non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions with no enforcement mechanisms.

Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) Roger Revelle (1909-91) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)

In summer 1992 the article "What to do about greenhouse warning: Look before you leap", by Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) is pub. in Cosmos: A Journal of Engineering Issues, which contains the soundbyte: "Drastic, precipitous - and, especially, unilateral - steps to delay the putative greenhouse impacts can cost jobs and prosperity and increase the human costs of global poverty, without being effective. Stringent economic controls now would be economically devastating particularly for developing countries", and concludes: "The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses"; too bad, Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer ("Father of Global Warming") Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) adds his name to the article after Singer allegedly hoodwinks him, causing Revelle's grad student Justin Lancaster to to call Singer's actions "unethical", after which Singer sues with the support of the Center for Public Interest in Washington, D.C., receiving a letter of apology from Lancaster sans admission of wrongdoing, only to withdraw his letter in 2006 after Robert Balling et al. continue to claim that Revelle is the article's real author, while Revelle waffles until his 1991 death; meanwhile in June 1992 Dem. vice-pres. candidate Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. the NYT bestseller (first by a sitting U.S. sen. ince JFK's "Profiles in Courage") Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, proposing a Global Marshall Plan to save the planet. In Feb. 2007 Singer and Am. food policy analyst Dennis T. Avery (1936-) pub. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years, containing the soundbyte: "The Earth is warming but physical evidence from around the world tells us that human-emitted carbon dioxide has played only a minor role in it. Instead, the mild warming seems to be part of a natural 1,500-year climate cycle (plus or minus 500 years) that goes back at least one million years." On Sept. 9, 2007 Hannity's America airs footage of Al Gore landing in late Aug. in a fuel-inefficient private Gulfstream jet at the San Francisco airport and taking off in another fuel-inefficient town car. On Jan. 3, 2011 Singer pub. the article Estimated 40 Percent of Scientists Doubt Manmade Global Warming in the bulletin of the Nat. Assoc. of Scholars. On Feb. 29, 2012 Singer pub. the article Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name in American Thinker, attempt to position himself on the fence. On Apr. 2, 2018 Singer pub. the article Does the Greenhouse Gas CO2 Cool the Climate? in American Thinker, which concludes: "A greenhouse gas produces cooling of the climate when its molecular transitions are in a region of positive lapse rate. One example is CO2 and the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude. Another example is temperature over the winter poles. While the climate cooling is not obvious, it counters [conventional] GH warming. This at-least-partial cancellation might explain the puzzling absence of CO2-based GH warming in the 20th century. It could also help explain the cause of the [hotly] contested climate 'pause'. Much further work awaits!"

Patrick J. Michaels (1950-) Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) Chip Knappenberger (1964-) Oliver W. Frauenfeld Robert E. Davis (1960-)

On Oct. 15, 1992 Berwyn, Ill.-born climatologist (global warming skeptic) Patrick J. "Pat" Michaels (1950-) pub. Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming, claiming that there is no scientific foundation for a coming global warming apocalypse a la Al Gore. On Dec. 31, 1998 Michaels pub. the paper Long Hot Year: Latest Science Debunks Global Warming Hysteria for the Cato Inst. In 2000 Michaels and Ariz. State U. geography prof. Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) pub. The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air About Global Warming. On Dec. 20, 2002 Michaels pub. the article Revised 21st century temperature projections along with Paul C. "Chip" Knappenberger (1964-), Oliver W. Frauenfeld, and Robert E. Davis (1960-) in Climate Research, containing the soundbyte that the Earth will see "a warming range of 1.3–3.0°C, with a central value of 1.9°C" for the 1990 to 2100 period (an analysis far smaller than the IPCC's average predictions)." In 2004 Michaels pub. Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media, "Patrick Michaels fully exploits his incomparable wit and credentialed expertise to dismantle the claim that catastrophic climate change is upon us. Using dozens of examples, this working-stiff climatologist exposes the exaggerations and outright falsehoods promoted by a media industry hungry for ?if it bleeds, it leads? stories." On Nov. 28, 2005 he edited the book Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming. On Feb. 23, 2007 Michaels pub. an article calling Al Gore's big global warming scare film "science fiction... The main point of [Gore's] movie is that, unless we do something very serious, very soon about carbon dioxide emissions, much of Greenland's 630,000 cubic miles of ice is going to fall into the ocean, raising sea levels over twenty feet by the year 2100. Nowhere in the traditionally refereed scientific literature do we find any support for Gore's hypothesis. Instead, there's an un-refereed editorial by NASA climatefirebrand James E. Hansen, in the journal Climate Change - edited by Steven Schneider, of Stanford University, who said in 1989 that scientists had to choose 'the right balance between being effective and honest' about global warming - and a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that was only reviewed by one person, chosen by theauthor, again Dr. Hansen. These are the sources for the notion that we have only ten years to 'do' something immediately to prevent an institutionalized tsunami. And given that Goreonly conceived of his movie about two years ago, the real clock must be down to eight years! It would be nice if my colleagues would actually level with politicians about various 'solutions' for climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, if fulfilled by every signatory, would reduce global warming by 0.07 degrees Celsius per half-century." On Sept. 29, 2007 Michaels gives an interview to The Washington Post, explaining why he resigned as the state climatologist of Va., with the soundbyte: "I was told that I could not speak in public.... Michaels has argued that the climate is becoming warmer but that the consequences will not be as dire as others have predicted. Gov. Kaine had warned Michaels not to use his official title in discussing his views. 'I resigned as Virginia state climatologist because I was told that I could not speak in public on my area of expertise, global warming, as state climatologist,' Michaels said in a statement this week provided by the libertarian Cato Institute, where he has been a fellow since 1992. 'It was impossible to maintain academic freedom with this speech restriction.'" On Nov. 21, 2007 Andrew Dessler pub. the soundbyte in Grist Magazine: "While some people claim there are lots of skeptical climate scientists out there, if you actually try to find one, you keep turning up the same two dozen or so (Singer, Lindzen, Michaels, Christy, etc., etc.) These skeptics are endlessly recycled by the denial machine, so someone not paying close attention might think there are lots of them out there - but that's not the case." On Sept. 23, 2009 Michaels pub. the article The Dog Ate Global Warming in National Review, containing the soundbyte: "Steel yourself for the new reality, because the [Hadley Center] data needed to verify the gloom-and-doom warming forecasts have disappeared." In 2009 Michaels pub. Climate of Extremes: Global Warming Science They Don't Want You to Know (w/Robert Balling Jr.). On Apr. 16, 2011 Michaels edited Climate Coup: Global Warming's Invasion of Our Government and Our Lives. In 2015 Michaels and Knappenberger pub. Global Lukewarming: A New Synthesis of Climate Change, proposing a third group after climate alarmists and climate deniers; "Climate change is real, it is partially man-made, but it is clearer than ever that its impact has been exaggerated - with many of the headline-grabbing predictions now being rendered implausible or impossible." Michaels is known for the soundbytes: "Surface temperatures are indeed increasing slightly: They’ve been going up, in fits and starts, for more than 150 years, or since a miserably cold and pestilential period known as the Little Ice Age. Before carbon dioxide from economic activity could have warmed us up, temperatures rose three-quarters of a degree Fahrenheit between 1910 and World War II. They then cooled down a bit, only to warm again from the mid-1970s to the late ’90s, about the same amount as earlier in the century"; "It's hardly news that human beings have had a hand in the planetary warming that began more than 30 years ago. For nearly a century, scientists have known that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide would eventually result in warming that was most pronounced in winter, especially on winter's coldest days, and a cooling of the stratosphere. All of these have been observed... The best policy is to live with some modest climate change now and encourage economic development, which will generate the capital necessary for investment in the more efficient technologies of the future"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something." Balling is known for the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence argues against the existence of a greenhouse crisis, against the notion that realistic policies could achieve any meaningful climatic impact, and against the claim that urgent action is necessary to reduce the greenhouse threat"; "Life has existed on our planet for billions of years, and the climate over that time has changed from ice ages to periods much warmer than today. There is little doubt that as our cities grow, heat waves will be more severe in the urban areas. If global warming does in fact add to the problem, we will adapt to the new world, just as humans have done for millions of years"; "All of us engage in activities that involve burning fossil fuels, and according to some self-proclaimed environmentalists we should feel guilty doing so due to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) which can lead to ever-dreaded global warming. However, the botanical literature is full of 1,000s of articles showing that elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will be beneficial for plants throughout the world... We see the forest and we see the trees, and they both thank us for the CO2 we're adding to the atmosphere... So drive out to the forest and feel good about the CO2 coming out of your tailpipe!"; "Elevated atmospheric CO2 will produce biological miracles all over the world." Knappenberger is known for the soundbytes: "It's expected that the Arctic is going to warm more than the rest of the world. Now, does that mean it's all doom and gloom? There, I take exception to that... Some particular elements of the press like to focus on the losers – and pretend like the winners don't exist at all. But in that same annual Arctic report card from NOAA, there is plenty of good to be found there"; "The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently reached a 'milestone' of 400 parts per million (ppm). In some circles, this announcement has been met with consternation and gnashing of teeth. The proper reaction is celebration." Davis is known for the soundbytes: "The question everyone should ask is not 'Is the earth warming,' but, 'How is the warming being felt across the planet? Where is it warming? When? And by how much?' It turns out that most of the warming is occurring in the high latitudes, in the winter, and across the planet, at night"; "The temperature record at the surface is a contaminated record and urbanization needs to be factored out of that if we're going to get any kind of accurate representation of how surface temperatures have changed over the last hundred years." Frauenfeld is known for the soundbytes: "Without question, much more progress is necessary regarding our current understanding of climate and our abilities to model it"; "Only after we identify these factors and determine how they affect one another, can we begin to produce accurate models. And only then should we rely on those models to shape policy. Until that time, climate variability will remain controversial and uncertain."

Henry Way Kendall (1926-99)

In Dec. 1992 former Union of Concerned Scientists chmn. Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (1990 Nobel Physics Prize) pub. World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, a reponse to the June 14 Heidelberg Appeal, signed by 1.7K leading scientists incl. most Nobel Prize science laureates, starting out: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course", and incl. the soundbyte: "We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water... We must stabilize population"; in Nov. 2017 "A World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: Second Notice" is pub., signed by 15,364 scientists, calling for drastically lowering per capita consumption of fossil fuels, meat, et al., and limiting population growth, detailing 13 specific steps to transition to sustainability, becoming the most scientist cosigners for a journal article (until ?).

In 1992 the Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research is founded by the German govt., becoming a top environmental think tank.

Chris Folland (1944-)

In 1992 English climate scientist Chris Folland (1944-) of the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre utters the soundbyte about the 1990 IPCC Report: "The data doesn't matter. We're not basing our recommendations on the data. We're basing them on the climate models"; in 2014 after the quote is spread over the Internet by climate warming skeptics, he confirms it but claims that since 1995 the data began coming in and the models are no longer as important.

On Jan. 1, 1995 a 61-ft.-high Draupner Wave (rogue wave) is observed via satellite in the Bermuda Triangle, supposedly solving the mystery; in Feb. a pair of rogue waves up to 95 ft. high hit the Queen Elizabeth II, injuring 50 passengers.

David Deming (1954-) David John Karoly (1955-)

On June 16, 1995 Terre Haute, Ind.-born U. of Okla. geophysicist David Deming (1954-) pub. a paper in Science reviewing published analysis of borehole temperature data in North Am., concluding: "The magnitude of the observed warming... is still within the range of estimated natural variability... A cause and effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and climatic warming cannot be demonstrated unambiguously at the present time", pissing-off global warmists; in 1998 he adds that worldwide borehole temperature records are not anomalously warm "when compared to the period of time over which human civilization rose, present day temperatures are colder than average. Even if mean global temperature were to rise another degree, it would still be colder than it has been for much of the last 10,000 years." In Mar. 2005 he pub. an op-ed in Investor's Business Daily, comparing Naomi Oreskes' claim of 100% scientific consensus on global warming "to the October 2002 election in Iraq, where Saddam Hussein received 100% of the vote", dissing a Dec. 26, 2004 op-ed by Oreskes in the Washington Post in which she wrote the soundbyte "We need to stop repeating nonsense about the uncertainty of global warming" and ending with a quotation from Francis Bacon: "If we begin in certainty, we will end in doubts." On Dec. 6, 2006 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, with the soundbyte: "The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause - human or natural - is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria." On Mar. 1, 2007 Deming debates Australian-born U. of Okla. meteorology prof. David John Karoly (1955-), uttering the soundbyte: "[S]ome people want to enlist science in a moral crusade. Science is a disinterested search for truth... Global warming is a scientific question, not a moral one... The projection that the temperatures are becoming warmer is nothing more than speculation." On Dec. 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Washington Times titled "Year of Global Cooling", containing the soundbyte: "In 2007, hundreds of people died, not from global warming, but from cold weather hazards", adding that "The mean planetary temperature hasn't increased significantly for nearly nine years", and concluding that "Global warming has long since passed from scientific hypothesis to pseudo-scientific mumbo-jumbo."

'Waterworld', 1995

On July 28, 1995 Kevin Reynolds' Waterworld (Universal Pictures) ("A man with a serious drinking problem") debuts, gobbling up $172M in production and causing star Costly Kevin, er, Kevin Costner to call in his chips, becoming known as Fishtar and Kevin's Gate; stars Costner as man-fish Mariner, who helps the good human survivors of global flooding, esp. his babe Jeanne Tripplehorn look for Dryland while fighting Dennis Hopper's mean Smokers on a floating set anchored off Hawaii that is once lost during a tropical storm; does $264.2M box office; it could be the best or the worst sci-flick yet made, wait till the secondary markets are milked?; view trailer.

Helmut Metzner (1925-99) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

On Nov. 9-10, 1995 a conference in Leipzig, Germany organized by German plant physiologist Helmut Metzner (1925-99) produces the Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change, written by Austrian-born Am. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and his Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEP) (founded 1990) in Arlington, Va., and signed by 80 scientists and 25 TV meteorologists, opposing the claims of global warming; in 1997 it is updated to opppose the Kyoto Protocol after a conference on Nov. 10-11 in Bonn, Germany; in 2005 it is revised again; global warming advocates call it a disinfo. campaign.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Phil Jones (1952-), Ben Santer, and Tom Wigley

On Nov. 27-29, 1995 the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is approved by the 5th session of IPCC Working Group I in Madrid, Spain, and pub. in 1996, with the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide remains the most important contributor to anthropogenic forcing of climate change; projections of future global mean temperature change and sea level rise confirm the potential for human activities to alter the Earth's climate to an extent unprecedented in human history; and the long time-scales governing both the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the response of the climate system to those accumulations, means that many important aspects of climate change are effectively irreversible"; Working Group III pub. Summary for Policymakers, causing an uproar when it seems to put a money value on people, suggesting that people living in poor countries are worth less than people living in rich countries; meanwhile Am. scientist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) of the Mauna Loa Observatory reports that the annual spring-time carbon dioxide drop in the N Hemisphere is occurring earlier each year in response to increasing global CO2 levels, lengthening the overall growing season about 12 days in recent decades; by 2005 it is a full month; "I honestly believe that we are standing at the edge of a very, very large mass extinction, and top-of-mountain species are going to be the first ones to go." (Terry Root, Stanford U.); too bad, overzealous CRU scientist Ben Santer is lead author of Chapter 8 "Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes", rewriting the conclusions of the other authors in their final draft meeting in Madrid, changing "None of the studies cited above has shown clear evidence that we can attribute the observed [climate] changes to the specific cause of increases in greenhouse gases" and "While some of the pattern-base discussed here have claimed detection of a significant climate change, no study to date has positively attributed all or part of climate change observed to man-made causes" to: "There is evidence of an emerging pattern of climate response to forcing by greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols... from the geographical, seasonal and vertical patterns of temperature change... These results point toward a human influence on global climate" and "The body of statistical evidence in chapter 8, when examined in the context of our physical understanding of the climate system, now points to a discernible human influence on the global climate", taking the IPCC report over the top with the public as proof of a scientific consensus about human-caused climate change after a quick peer-reviewed article is pub. in Nature on July 4, 1996 by Santer, Tom Wigley, Phil Jones et al. backing the report up, with Dennis Avery and Fred Singer issuing the soundbyte: "Santer single-handedly reversed the 'climate science' of the whole IPCC report and with it the global warming political process! The 'discernible human influence' supposedly revealed by the IPCC has been cited thousands of times since in media around the world and has been the 'stopper' in millions of debates among nonscientists"; after the Climategate scandal breaks, Santer sends an email threatening to beat the crap out of Pat Michaels for exposing the fraud in an article in Nature pub. on Dec. 12, 1996? On July 21, 2018 Santer et al. pub. an article in Science, dissing the U.S. Congress for failing to acknowledge human-caused global warming, and announcing that four decades of satellite data have led to the conclusion that for the first time humans are pushing seasonal temperatures out of balance, giving odds of "roughly 5 in 1 million" of it being purely natural.

Piers Corbyn (1947-)

In 1995 English weather-forecasting physicist Piers Richard Corbyn (1947-) founds WeatherAction to sell weather predictions based on his secret Solar Weather Technique which considers past weather patterns and solar observations, and Sun-Earth magnetic connectivity; in 1990 his successful prediction of severe weather makes him a star when it becomes a year of "the worst extremes"; he goes on to deny anthropogenic global warming, with the soundbyte: "CO2 has never driven, does not drive and never will drive weather or climate. Global warming is over and it never was anything to do with CO2. CO2 is still rising but the world is now cooling and will continue to do so."

Jonathan Patz

On Jan. 17, 1996 Am. physician Jonathan Patz pub. the paper Global Climate Change and Emerging Infectious Disease in the Journal of the Am. Medical Assoc., becoming the first policy paper of the Am. Public Health Assoc. (APHA), going on to become a global warming star salesman, scaring people with stories of stranded polar bears, thriving poison ivy, yellow fever, Zika virus, sewer overflow et al., all the while pushing American guilt and confusing global warming with air pollution?; he goes on to claim that the health benefit for each ton of CO2 eliminated is $200, vs. $30/ton for doing it; on Oct. 2, 2017 he gives a lecture at Colo. State U. in Fort Collins titled Solving the Global Climate Crisis Will Be the Health Cure of the Century.

In Dec. 1996 the 1996 El Nino develops (ends Aug. 1997), bringing unusually warm (4C) water to the South Am. coastline.

Arthur B. Robinson (1942-) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008)

On Dec. 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol is signed by 192 parties incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the U.S., effective Feb. 16, 2005, extending the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commiting all parties to reduce greenhouse emissions esp. CO2; the Oregon Petition (Global Warming Petition Project), organized by Chicago, Ill.-born biochemist Arthur Brouhard "Art" Robinson (1942-), pres. of the Ore. Inst. of Science and Medicine in Cave Junction, Ore. (founded in 1980) and endorsed by Frederick Seitz (1911-2008), pres. #17 of the U.S. Nat Academy of Sciences in 1962-9 has 31K degreed signatories incl. 39 climatologists, urging the U.S. to reject the Kyoto Protocol, with the soundbytes: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth"; "The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind."

Jeremy Grantham (1938-)

In 1997 billionaire British investor Robert Jeremy Goltho Grantham (1938-), founder of Grantham, Mayo & van Otterloo (GMO) establishes the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, giving money to entities that protect the environment; in 2017 he launches the GMO Climate Change Fund to invest in wind and solar cos.; Grantham goes on to correctly predict the bursting of the Dot.com bubble in 2000 and the market downturn in 2008 while seeing his assets under mgt. drop $124B in June 2014 to $71B in Mar. 2018; no surprise, on June 12, 2018 he gives a speech at the Morningstar Investment Conference in Chicago, Ill. calling on capitalists and mainstream economists to recognize the looming threat of climate change, with the soundbyte: "We deforest the land, we degrade our soils, we pollute and overuse our water and we treat air like an open sewer, and we do it all off the balance sheet", blaming corps. for short-sightedness, with the soundbytes: "Anything that happens to a corporation over 25 years out doesn't exist for them, therefore, as I like to say, grandchildren have no value", and "Capitalism and mainstream economics simply cannot deal with these problems. Mainstream economics largely ignore them."

On Jan. 4-10, 1998 after a low pressure system stalls over the Great Lakes, pumping warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the St. Lawrence Valley, the Great North Am. Ice Storm of 1998 sees five successive ice storm hit a narrow swath of land from E Ontario to S Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, bordering U.S. areas from N New York to C Maine, damaging trees and electrical infrastructures, leading to long-term power outages that affect millions, causing the largest deployment of Canadian military personnel since the Korean War (16K incl. 12K in Quebec and 4K in Ontario).

1998 is the warmest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, with an avg. temp. for the first 10 mo. of 1.25 deg. F above normal, according to NASA, blamed on the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (Niño) (warmer water than usual), which formed in the C and E equatorial Pacific in the first half of the year, disrupting worldwide weather patterns and feeding Millennium Fever with wildfires in Indonesia, Brazil, and Central Am., crop losses in SE Africa, record rains in the S U.S., the warmest spring in Canadian records, and the worst natural diaster in Latin Am. records (Hurricane Mitch); Jan.-Feb. are the warmest and wettest in U.S. records; the global avg. temp. this year is 14.57 C, compared to 14.0 C avg. from 1960-90; high sea temps cause massive coral bleaching in the Seychelles, Maldives and W Australian coral reefs. In 1998 (hockey stick year) the Global Warming Pause (Hiatus) (Slowdown) begins (ends 2013), causing global warming proponents to do somersaults.

Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Willie Soon (1966-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-) Chris de Freitas (1948-2017)

Man-made global warming or Mann-made global warming? On Apr. 23, 1998 Am. climatologists Michael E. Mann (1965-) (Penn. State U.), Raymond S. "Ray" Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes pub. the article Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries in Nature, proposing the Hockey Stick Graph based on reconstructions of the temp record on Earth over the past 600 (later 1K years), showing an abrupt rise in temps over the last 150 years, ramping up the Global Warming Controversy over whether there is a coming runaway heat wave; his graph hides the Medieval Warm Period of 950-1250?; on Jan. 31, 2003 fossil fuel industry-funded Malaysian-born Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (1966-) and Harvard/Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years in Climate Research, blasting Mann's hockey stick, with the soundbytes: "Our results suggest a different interpretation of the multiproxy climates compared to recent conclusions of Mann et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)", and "Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest or a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which is quickly adopted by the Pres. G.W. Bush admin. as a basis for amending the first EPA Report on the Environment, causing a firestorm of controversy causing 10 of 20 editors to resign and German-born publisher Otto Kinne (1923-2015) to cut the authors loose and blame the ed. who passed the paper, Trinidad and Tobago-born Kiwi climate scientist Christopher Rhodes "Chris" de Freitas (1948-2017), who on May 9, 2006 pub. an article in the New Zealand Herald with the soundbyte: "There is evidence of global warming. The climate has warmed about 0.6 °C in the past 100 years, but most of that warming occurred prior to 1940, before the post World War II industrialisation that led to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions. But warming does not confirm that carbon dioxide is causing it. Climate is always warming or cooling. There are natural variability theories of warming"; he also writes the soundbytes: "I am not a global warming skeptic. I accept that rising human-caused CO2 from fossil sources could 'change the climate'. The basic physics is there to support this view. But where is the evidence that the putative change would be large or damaging?" and "Climate is not responding to greenhouse gases in the way we thought it might. If increasing carbon dioxide is in fact increasing climate change, its impact is smaller than natural variation. People are being misled by people making money out of this"; on June 5, 2001 Baliunas pub. the paper Climate History and the Sun, containing the soundbyte: "But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case … measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident." On May 9, 2003 she speaks out against U.K. climate change policy, with the soundbyte: "Fear often dominates discussion about the earth's climate. Many people have been led to believe that drastic measures are necessary to prevent the risk of negative future outcomes, such as global warming. As such, we now face a situation where politicians are misallocating resources because they are responding to manufactured problems, which are based on public anxiety rather than sound scientific evidence. Ineffective measures like the Kyoto Protocol, built on fear rather than science, will not reduce the future burden of greenhouse gases and will cause many more problems than they solve." On Nov. 14, 2011 Baliunas pub. the press release Human Activity is Not Cause of Global Warming via the George C. Marshall Inst., containing the soundbyte: "The science does not suggest dangerous global warming. If there is any trace at all of a greenhouse warming, it is too small to be seen in the climate record. That means that future warming due to human activities will be quite small - well under one degree C."

In 1998 the Global Climate Science Communications Plan is created by the Global Climate Science Communications Team to create a "one-stop resource on climate science for members of Congress, the media, industry and all others concerned", combined with a public relations and lobbying campaign funded with $600K from the Am. Petroleum Inst., known for the soundbyte: "Victory will be achieved when... Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'", later being accused of deliberately trying to confuse the public.

Bjørn Lomborg (1965-)

In 1998 Danish environmentalist Bjorn (Bjørn) Lomborg (1965-) pub. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (English trans. pub. in 2001), questioning the statistical data supporting global warming claims along with deforestation, water shortages, overpop. and species loss, and questioning the wisdom of govt. policies, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is by no means our main environmental threat", causing a firestorm of controversy.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Lenoir, N.C.-born Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) (co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Chem. Prize) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, in which he disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.

Craig D. Idso Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1998 after getting pissed-off when his global warming skeptic physicist father Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) is attacked by U.S. senator Al Gore in an attempt to discredit him, Ariz. State U. geographer Craig D. Idso, his father, and his brother Keith E. Idso (botanist) found the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change in Tempe, Ariz., promoting the idea that carbon dioxide (CO2) has mostly positive environmental effects; no surprise, climate warmists later find out that he was receiving $11K/mo. from the Heartland Inst. in 2012, using it to give the finger to all his scientific arguments without detailed scientific analysis Marxist style; famed agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer joins. On Feb. 24, 2009 Craig Idso pub. CO2, Global Warming and Coral Reefs. On June 1, 2009 Craig Idso and S. Fred Singer pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: The Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), released on conjunction with the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change, claiming to refute the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. On Jan. 31, 2011 Craig and Sherwood Idso pub. Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path, which concludes: "Why would anyone in their right mind give the governments of the world a mandate to totally restructure human society to fight a hypothetical problem of vastly greater complexity than the very real and clearly-identified problems we currently face? Why should we not rather confront these genuine energy and health threats with all due haste and with every modern tool we have at our disposal?" On Sept. 1, 2011 Craig Idso and Robert M. Carter pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report on the Nongovernmental Panel on Climate Change. On May 9, 2018 Craig Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer pub. Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming: Second Edition: The NIPCC Report on Scientific Consensus.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Nobel-Prize-winning Lenoir, N.C.-born biochemist Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, which disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.

Robert W. Felix

In 1999 Am. former architect Robert W. Felix pub. Not by Fire but by Ice: Discover What Killed the Dinosaurs...and Why It Could Soon Kill Us, predicting a coming ice age after a reversal of the magnetic poles.

In 2000 the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, named after 19th cent. scientist John Tyndall is founded in the U.K. by the U. of East Anglia, Cambridge U., Cardiff U., U. of Manchester, Newcastle U., Oxford U., U. of Southampton, and U. of Sussex; Fudan U. joins in May 2011.

On July 15, 2001 the Internat. Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in Amsterdam pub. the Amsterdam Declaration on Earth System Science, proposing the term "Anthropocene", a new geological epoch to succeed Holocene about 10K B.C.E., caused by human alteration of the "Earth system", as coined by Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer, going on to unsuccessfully lobby the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to adopt it before running out of funding.

Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) Sir John T. Houghton (1931-) Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Richard Lindzen (1940-) Freeman Dyson (1923-) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-) Vincent Richard Gray (1922-2018)

In 2001 the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., summarizing the predominant scientific opinion on climate change, concluding that the global avg. surface temp has risen 0.6C +/-0.2 C since the late 19th cent., and 0.17C/decade in 1971-2001, with the soundbyte: "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" esp. greenhouse gases methane and CO2, predicting a temp increase of 1.4C-5.8C between 1990 an 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continue, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in some types of extreme weather, becoming more negative as warming increases; leaders of the IPCC Working Group incl. chmn. Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) (knighted in 2012), co-chmn. Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) and Sir John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) of Hadley Centre (lead author of the Second Assessment Report); in May a joint statement of support is issued by the science academies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Caribbean, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, New Zealand, Sweden, and U.K.: "We recognise the IPCC as the world's most reliable source of information on climate change and its causes, and we endorse its method of achieving consensus"; critics incl. Am. atmospheric physicist Richard Siegmund Lindzen (1940-), lead author of Ch. 7 "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks", who calls it "climate alarmism", uttering the soundbyte: "Why do we need to deconstruct global warming? Simply because it has been an issue that has been routinely treated with misinformation and sophistry abetted by constant repetition, institutional endorsements, and widespread ignorance even (perhaps especially) among the educated.... To a great extent, global warming has been merely a device for implementing broader agendas"; another critic is English-born Am. physicist Freeman John Dyson (1923-), Albert Einstein's successor at the Inst. for Advanced Physics at Princeton U., who acknowledges that CO2 drives global warming but doubts that existing climate simulation models are accurate enough "to describe the real world we live in", pointing in 2009 out that "What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago", suggesting that China and India should choose to burn coal and get rich instead of staying poor, noting that "the main effect of carbon dioxide... is to make the planet greender, feeding the growth of green plans of al kinds, increasing the fertility of farms and fields and fields", suggesting that planting 1T trees could remove all excess CO2 in the atmosphere; in Apr. 2013 Dyson gives an interview to Paul Mulshine of the N.J. Star-Ledger, uttering the soundbytes: "I just think they [climatologists] don't understand the climate. Their computer models are full of fudge factors. The models are extremely oversimplified. They don't represent the clouds in detail at all. They simply use a fudge factor to represent the clouds"; in 2000 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognising that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world"; in Apr. 2002 after presure from ExxonMobil et al. he is replaced as IPCC chmn. by Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-), who resigns in Feb. 2015 after sexual harassment allegations; in 2010 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The mistakes all appear to have gone in the direction of making it seem like climate change is more serious by overstating the impact. That is worrying. The IPCC needs to look at this trend in the errors and ask why it happened." Adding "We should always be challenged by sceptics. The IPCC's job is to weigh up the evidence. If it can't be dismissed, it should be included in the report. Point out it's in the minority and, if you can't say why it's wrong, just say it's a different view." Another critic is London-born Kiwi chemist Vincent Robert Gray (1921-2018), who pub. the books The Greenhouse Delusion: A Critique of 'Climate Change 2001' (Aug. 2002), and Confessions of a Climate Skeptic, going on in Mar. 2008 to call for the IPCC to be abolished, calling it "fundamentally corrupt" and unable to handle criticism, with the soundbytes: "The claims of the IPCC are dangerous unscientific nonsense", "The two main 'scientific' claims of the IPCC are the claim that 'the globe is warming' and 'Increases in carbon dioxide emissions are responsible'. Evidence for both of these claims is fatally flawed", "There is not a scrap of evidence in any IPCC reports that human emissions of CO2 have any harmful effect on the climate", and "Nobody seems to realise that the most elaborate and comprehensive conflict of interest that has been inflicted on the public is the 'Global Warning" Theory'... I have been an Expert Reviewer on every one of the Reports of IPCC", ending up commenting on every pub. of the IPCC, with 1,898 comments on the 2007 report alone. On Nov. 10, 2015 he pub. his last book The Global Warming Scam and Climate Change Superscam.

In 2001 the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (CES) is founded in Arlington, Va. as a successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change to work with policymakers and stakeholders to promote pragmatic and effective policies to fight global warming at all levels from state to internat., growing to become the largest U.S.-based assoc. of cos. working to advance business and policy solutions to climate change, growing from 13 members in 2001 to 44 in 2008, with a total market capitalization of $2.8T, and 30 mainly Fortune 500 cos. by 2018 with a total of 3.5M employees; it goes on to found the Make an Impact Program to assist employees and individuals in reducing their carbon footprints.

In Feb. 2002 the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (originally the U.S. Global Change Research Program) is established under the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 to coordinate and integrate research on global warming, issuing 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs), along with three Nat. Climate Assessment Reports starting in 2000, followed by 2009 and 2014.

Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

On Jan. 17, 2003 Chicago, Ill.-born "Jurassic Park" novelist John Michael Crichton (1942-2008) gives a lecture at Caltech titled Aliens Cause Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had. Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period"; on Dec. 7, 2004 he pub. the NYT bestseller (1.5M copies) State of Fear, about ecoterrorists plotting mass murder to publicize the dangers of global warming, which the book attempts to refute with scientific arguments that are pooh-poohed by climate warmists, making it more popular? On Sept. 28, 2005 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, uttering the soundbyte: "I want to state emphatically that nothing in my remarks should be taken to imply that we can ignore our environment, or that we should not take climate change seriously. On the contrary, we must dramatically improve our record on environmental management. That is why a focused effort on climate science, aimed at securing sound, independently verified answers to policy questions, is so important now."

In July-Aug. 2003 the Summer 2003 European Heat Wave kills 70K, becoming the hottest summer in Europe since 1540; on Aug. 10 a record of 38.5C (101.3F) is set in Faversham, Kent, England; on Sept. 25 France reports a death toll of 14,802, mostly elderly people without air conditioning from the summer heat wave; the young people were vacationing at the time, and arrived back to find thousands of negelected dead old people bottled up in their hot apts.?

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014)

On Sept. 29-Oct. 9, 2003 the World Climate Change Conference in Moscow, Russia, convened by Russian Federation pres. Vladimir Putin endorses the IPCC Third Assessment Report; too bad, several scientists break ranks, incl. Putin's scientific advisor Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), vice-chmn. of the IPCC (until Sept. 2008) who utters the soundbytes: "The Kyoto Protocol is overly expensive, ineffective, and based on bad science", and: "The people of Bangladesh, who live at sea level, may face problems if the Indian Ocean rises. Still, their resettlement would be much cheaper than projected Kyoto Protocol expenses", causing conference participant Andreas Fischlin to get pissed-off and utter the soundbyte: "However, concerning the scientific content of the conference, we had also to struggle with considerable difficulties. Unfortunately, there were not only leading scientists present, but also some colleagues who used the conference to express personal, political opinions based on value judgement instead of scientific facts and rigorously derived, scientific insights and thorough understanding. Thereby, I believe, principles of proper scientific conduct were violated too often and sometimes, I am afraid having to say so, even systematically. This contrasts sharply with the principles upheld by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), which allow only to assess the current knowledge based on the best available, peer reviewed scientific literature and which do not allow for any non-scientific value judgements, let alone policy recommendations"; Izrael goes on to putin, er, put in his two cents worth, with the soundbytes: "Climate change is obvious, but science has not yet been able to identify the causes of it"; "There is no proven link between human activity and global warming"; "Global temperatures will likely rise by 1.4-5.8 degrees during the next 100 years. The average increase will be three degrees. I do not think that this threatens mankind. Sea levels, due to rise by 47 cm in the 21st century, will not threaten port cities"; "I think the panic over global warming is totally unjustified. There is no serious threat to climate"; "There is no need to dramatize the anthropogenic impact, because the climate has always been subject to change under Nature's influence, even when humanity did not even exist"; "There is no scientifically sound evidence of the negative processes that allegedly begin to place at such temperatures"; no surprise, global warmist scientists pooh-pooh him and resort to ad hominem attacks, with Quirin Shiermeier and Byron MacWilliams calling him a "fossil communist fighting for fossil fuel".

Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In late 2003 after getting pissed-off at the Canadian govt.'s promotion of the Kyoto Protocol, Canadian mining consultant Stephen "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the paper Corrections to the Mann et al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series in Energy and Environment, alleging errors in principal component analysis in Mann's 1998 hockey stick graph that underrepresent the Medieval Warm Period, turning the hockey stick into er, moose hockey; on Oct. 15, 2004 Richard A. Muller pub. the paper Global Warming Bombshell in MIT Technology Review (subtitle: A prime piece of evidence linking human activity to climate change turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics), containing the soundbyte: "McIntyre and McKitrick obtained part of the program that Mann used, and they found serious problems. Not only does the program not do conventional PCA, but it handles data normalization in a way that can only be described as mistaken. Now comes the real shocker. This improper normalization procedure tends to emphasize any data that do have the hockey stick shape, and to suppress all data that do not. To demonstrate this effect, McIntyre and McKitrick created some meaningless test data that had, on average, no trends. This method of generating random data is called 'Monte Carlo' analysis, after the famous casino, and it is widely used in statistical analysis to test procedures. When McIntyre and McKitrick fed these random data into the Mann procedure, out popped a hockey stick shape!... That discovery hit me like a bombshell, and I suspect it is having the same effect on many others. Suddenly the hockey stick, the poster-child of the global warming community, turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics. How could it happen?" - now that ain't my radio it's my weather gauge? McIntyre later utters the soundbyte: "The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann... for the estimation of temperature from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal componenets and other quality control defects." McKitrick later utters the soundbytes: "I have been probing the arguments for global warming for well over a decade. In collaboration with a lot of excellent coauthors I have consistently found that when the layers get peeled back, what lies at the core is either flawed, misleading or simply non-existent", and "The world still awaits a proper inquiry into climategate: one that is not stacked with global warming advocates and one that is prepared to cross-examine evidence, interview critics as well as supporters of the CRU and other IPCC players, and follow the evidence where it clearly leads." In 2002 McKitrick and Christopher Essex pub. Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming, accusing politicians of claiming more certainty that is justified by the science.

George Marshall (1964-)

In 2003 English environmental activist George Marshall (1964-) founds Climate Outreach to engage the public on climate change; in 2007 he pub. Carbon Detox, a how-to manual for personal emissions reduction; in 2014 he pub. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change, about stepping away from Green Guilt, becoming a hit.

Andrew Revkin (1956-)

In 2003 New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) reports from a research camp located on drifting sea ice near the North Pole, advertising a sign that reads "The North Pole Was Here", going on to pub. The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World on Apr. 22, 2006. In 2010 he becomes a member of the new Anthropocene Working Group of the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy, which was founded to develop the idea that human impact on Earth's climate is creating the new Anthropocene geological epoch, presenting its official recommendation on Aug. 29, 2016, which isn't officially approved until ?.

Nir Shaviv (1972-) Jan Veizer (1941-)

In 2003 Ithaca, N.Y.-born Hebrew U. of Jerusalem climatologist Nir Joseph Shaviv (1972-) and Slovakian-born U. of Ottawa geochemist Jan Veizer (1941-) pub. the article Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? in GSA Today, proposing that Earth's passes through the spiral arms of the Milky Way along with cosmic rays may have caused Earth's major ice ages over the past billion years, containing the soundbyte: "Pending further confirmation, one interpretation of the above result could be that the global climate possesses a stabilizing negative feedback. A likely candidate for such a feedback is cloud cover. If so, it would imply that the water cycle is the thermostat of climate dynamics, acting both as a positive (water vapor) and negative (clouds) feedback, with the carbon cycle 'piggybacking' on, and being modified by, the water cycle." On Apr. 19, 2007 he and Veizer pub. the paper Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate in the journal of the Geological Society of Am., demonstrating that a temperature reconstruction of the Phanerozoic Eon (began -541M) correlates with cosmic ray flux but not with CO2, placing a low upper limit on the climatic effect of CO2, causing climate scientists Stefan Rahmstorf at al. to criticize them in the June 3, 2011 article Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate in Eos (Am. Geophysical Union), with the conclusion: "The correlation of CRF [cosmic ray flux] and climate over the past 520 m.y. appear to not hold up under scrutiny."

In 2004 the Antarctic Polar Night begins (ends 2016), with 100 different locations on the East Antarctic Plateau reaching temps of -98C (-144F), beating the record low air temp of -89.2C (-129F) of July 23, 1983.

In 2004 the 2004 African Locust Infestation ravages crops across the N third of Africa, leaving millions at risk of starvation; in 2006 another swarm reaches 3 sq. mi. in area as it moves across Mauritania; meanwhile a drought in Niger combined with desert locust damage destroys the fall crop, leaving 3.6M short of food, causing a food crisis in 2005-6.

Tim Phillips (1964-)

On Mar. 10, 2004 the conservative-libertarian political advocacy group Americans for Prosperity is founded in Arlington, Va., funded by the billionaire Koch Brothers, going on to turn the Obama-era Tea Party into a political force, organizing opposition to Obama admin. initiatives on global warming, Medicaid expansion, economic stimulus, Obamacare, cap and trade, federal min. wage et al., helping achieve a Repub. majority in the House in 2010 and the Senate in 2014; in 2008 it launches the No Climate Tax Pledge, which is signed by 411 politicians incl. 25% of U.S. senators and 33% of U.S. reps by July 213 incl. 9 of 12 Repubs. on the House Energy and Commerce Committee; in 2005 Spartanburg, S.C.-born Repub. political strategist Tim Phillips (1964-) becomes pres. (until ?).

'The Day After Tomorrow', 2004

On May 17, 2004 Roland Emmerich's The Day After Tomorrow (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Dennis Quaid as climatologist Jack Hall, who must save the world from super-fast global warming er, cooling, which incl. New York being taken over by a new ice age; Jake Gyllenhaal plays his stranded son Sam; #7 movie of 2004 ($187M in the U.S., $544.3M worldwide on a $125M budget).

Ferenc Miskolczi

In Oct. 2004 after studying radiosonde observations from around the world, NASA scientist Ferenc Miskolczi pub. the paper The greenhouse effect and the spectral decomposition of the clear-sky terrestrial radiation in the Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, describing a "greenhouse constant" that keeps the greenhouse effect in equilibrium with rising CO2 levels, maintaining a constant value of 1.87 total infrared optical thickness of the atmosphere, making warming by back-radiation along with runaway greenhouse theories moose hockey that contradict energy balance equations; too bad, his supervisors at NASA begin to shun him and refuse to pub. his results, causing him to resign on Oct. 28, 2005.

David E. Parker

On Nov. 18, 2004 David E. Parker of Hadley Center in Exeter, England pub. the article Climate: Large-scale warming is not urban in Nature, showing that the urban heat island effect doesn't affect the historical temperature record, with the soundbyte: "The reality and magnitude of global-scale warming is supported by the near-equality of temperature trends on windy nights with trends based on all data"; too bad, other studies show the opposite.

Nick Mabey Tom Burke John Ashton (1956-)

In 2004 the climate change think tank E3G (Third Generation Environmentalism is founded by Nick Mabey, Tom Burke, and British diplomat John Ashton (1956-), with offices in London, Brussels, Berlin, and Washington, D.C., going on to play a pivotal role in getting Russia to ratify the Kyoto Protocol; in 2009 it creates the Transform UK Coalition, leading to the founding of the Green Investment Bank (Group) in London in 2012.

On Feb. 1-3, 2005 after an invitation by British PM Tony Blair, Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases is held at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter, Devon, England, chaired by Dennis Tirpak to take action on the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report and achieve the objectives of the 1991 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, concluding that the runaway level of 2C of global warming would likely happen after the atmospheric CO2 level reaches 550ppm, and that action must be taken when it is still below 400ppm because if it reaches 450 ppm then there is only a 50% likelihood of stopping the global warming from reaching 2C, also that if no action is taken for 20 years, emission reduction rates will have to be 3x-7x greater to achieve the same temperature target, causing the U.K. to change its target in its Climate Change Act from 60% to 80% by 2050.

John Raymond Christy Roy W. Spencer (1955-) Scott Denning

On Aug. 11, 2005 the online ed. of Science pub. three reports by Carl Mears and Frank Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems, reporting that old temp. records used to feed calculations indicating that there is no global warming contained errors, and that the troposphere has warmed during the last two decades; John Raymond Christy and Roy Warren Spencer (1955-) of the U. of Ala., who developed the original records (first successful satellite temperature record) concede the error, but say that the warming rate calculated is too small to be a concern. In 2006 Spencer criticizes Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbyte: "Mr. Gore claims that the Earth is now warmer than it has been in thousands of years. Yet the latest National Academies of Science (NAS) report on the subject has now admitted that all we really know is that we are warmer now than we were during the last 400 years, which is mostly made up of the 'Little Ice Age'", adding the soundbyte in a New York Post op-ed of Feb. 26, 2007: "Contrary to popular accounts, very few scientists in the world - possibly none - have a sufficiently thorough, 'big picture' understanding of the climate system to be relied upon for a prediction of the magnitude of global warming. To the public, we all might seem like experts, but the vast majority of us work on only a small portion of the problem"; on Feb. 28, 2007 he gives an interview to Rush Limbaugh, with the soundbyte the he doesn't believe that "catastrophic manmade global warming" is occurring, criticizing climate models with the soundbyte: "The people that have built the climate models that predict global warming believe they have sufficient physics in those models to predict the future. I believe they don't. I believe the climate system, the weather as it is today in the real world shows a stability that they do not yet have in those climate models", later billing himself as "official climatologist of the Rush Limbaugh Show". In 2008 Spencer and William Braswell pub. a paper in Journal of Climate suggesting that natural variations in cloud formation could be causing temperature changes, rather than vice-versa, leading to overestimates of the sensitivity of Earth's climate to greenhouse gas emissions, with the soundbyte: "Our paper is an important step toward validating a gut instinct that many meteorologists like myself have had over the years... that the climate system is dominated by stabilizing processes, rather than destabilizing processes – that is, negative feedback rather than positive feedback." In 2011 Spencer and Braswell pub. a paper in Remote Sensing concluding that more energy is radiated back to space and released earlier than previously thought, with the soundbyte: "The satellite observations suggest there is much more energy lost to space during and after warming than the climate models show. There is a huge discrepancy between the data and the forecasts that is especially big over the oceans", causing a firestorm of controversy resulting in ed.-in-chief Wolfgang Wagner to resign. In 2011 Spencer debates Colo. State U. pro-global warming climate scientist Scott Denning at the Heartland Inst. Internat. Conference on Climate Change, their only non-climate skeptic. On Aug. 28, 2012 Spencer pub. The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists, showing how recent global warming is the result of chaotic internal natural cycles, and that the climate models fail to account for the complexities of clouds. In Feb. 2014 Spencer posts the soundbyte on his blog that those who use the derogatory term climate change deniers should be called global warming Nazis, with the soundbyte: "These people are supporting policies that will kill far more people than the Nazis ever did", pissing-off the Anti-Defamation League, who calls it "just the latest example of a troubling epidemic of comparisons to Hitler and the Holocaust", to which Spencer responds that they didn't criticize syndicated columnist Ellan Goodman's assertion that "global warming deniers are now on a par with Holocaust deniers". On Aug. 19, 2017 Spencer pub. An Inconvenient Deception: How Al Gore Distorts Climate Science and Energy Policy, an attempt to drive the last nail in Gore's coffin, outselling Gore's book. Too bad, Spencer associates himself with the Intelligent Design crowd, and the libertarians, drawing derision for comments incl. "I view my job a little like a legislator, supported by the taxpayer, to protect the interests of the taxpayer and to minimize the role of government."

On Sept. 28, 2005 the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. releases data that the Arctic ice cap is shrinking, reaching its smallest-ever size this summer, and that the cause is probably global warming from human-generated greenhouse gases; they also speculate that the change is becoming self-sustaining as the holes in the ice allow the sea to absorb solar energy; they also claim that the permafrost is disappearing, coastal areas are being inundated, and polar bears are losing hunting grounds.

Nicola Scafetta

On Sept. 28, 2005 Italian-born scientist Nicola Scafetta and physics prof. Bruce West of Duke U. pub. a paper in Geophysical Research Letters, which claims that "the sun may have minimally contributed about 10 to 30 percent of the 1980-2002 global surface warming", with Scafetta's Wikipedia bio stating: "At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system, claiming that the only reasonable explanation is that the climate system is modulated by astronomical oscillations. Natural cycles known with certainty are the 11 (Schwabe) and 22 (Hale) year solar cycles, the cycles of the planets and luni-solar nodal cycles. Jupiter has an orbital period of 11.9 years while Saturn has an orbital period of 29.4 years. These periods predict three other major cycles which are associated with Jupiter and Saturn: about 10 years, the opposition of two planets; about 20 years, their synodic cycle; and about 60 years, the repetition of the combined orbits of the two planets. The major lunar cycles are about 18.6 and 8.85 years. Scafetta's climate model is based primarily on a numerological comparison of secular periodic changes of global surface temperature and the Sun's periodic movement around barycenter of the Solar System caused by the revolving planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Periodic modulation of Moon´s orbital parameters by these planets and subsequent modulation of lunar tides is also discussed. According to Scafetta, who provides no physical explanation of that process, "external forcing of celestial origin simply drives the adjustment of the natural rhythms by letting their own energy flow with the same frequency of the forcing. It just passes to the climatic system the information of how it has to oscillate, not the entire energy to make it oscillate. The effect of a periodic external forcing, even if weak, may become macroscopic and all components of the system gradually synchronize with it." In Dec. 2009 Scafetta pub. the paper Empirical analysis of the solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, reconstructing major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar-induced temperature changes. In 2011 Scafetta and Am. ecologist Craig Lohle pub. the paper Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data in the Open Atmospheric Science Journal, forecasting that the world climate "may remain approximately steady until 2030-20040, and may at most warm 0.5-1.0°C by 2100 at the estimated 0.66°C/century anthropogenic warming rate." Scafetta goes on to pub. four more major papers starting in Jan. 2012, only to see the PC global warming scientist community respond with yawns, uttering the soundbyte: "The fact is that I can hindcast major properties observed in climate and solar records for decades, centuries and millennia, as my papers demonstrate while the mainstream climate community cannot do it. My models overcome any IPCC GCM for accuracy that is also demonstrated in one of my recent peer review publications just published."

In Dec. 2005 U. of Kan. researcher Johannes Feddema et al. in Science predict that the deforestation of Amazon jungles could strengthen the summer monsoon in the SW U.S., adding 2 in. to the precipitation and offsetting some of global warming's effects; global deforestation is going at a rate of 50K sq. mi. a year.

In 2005 the Climate Inst. of Australia is founded in Sydney to encourage progressive policies for managing climate change in Australia.

Tim Flannery (1956-)

In 2005 Australian environmentalist Timothy Fridtjof "Tim" Flannery (1956-) pub. The Weather Makers: The History and Future Impact of Climate Change, which claims that high enough CO2 levels can cause mass species extinctions, and has already contributed to the conflict in Darfur, dissing the coal industry and the U.S. Repub. Party, making fans of Sir Richard Branson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, British Columbia PM Gordon Campbell, and Zhou Ji, pres. of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

In 2006 the U.S. Hurricane Drought begins, with no Category 3 or higher hurricane making landfall until 2017; the mean frequency of W North Pacific tropical cyclones is 18% lower in 1997-2014 than in 1980-96; the avg. value of total annual accumulated cyclone energy between 2006-16 is less than 60% of the 1900-2017 avg.; no increase in hurricane landfall frequency from 1900-2017; no correlation between tropical cyclone frequency and sea surface temperature over the W North Pacific basin.

James Lovelock (1919-)

In Jan. 2006 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system pub. an op-ed. in the British newspaper The Independent, claiming that as a result of global warming "billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable" by the end of the 21st cent., going on to predict that by 2040 the 6B world pop. will be culled by famine, flood, and droughts, with "the people of Southern Europe, as well as South-East Asia,... fighting their way into countries such as Canada, Australia and Britain", adding that "By 2040, parts of the Sahara desert will have moved into middle Ruope. We are talking about Paris - as far north as Berlin. In Britain we will escape because of our oceanic position", and "If you take the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions, then by 2040 every summer in Europe will be as hot as it was in 2003 - between 110F and 120F. It is not the death of people that is the main problem, it is the fact that the plants can't grow - there will be almost no food grown in Europe"; he finally predicts that 80% of humanity will perish by 2100 C.E., and that this global warming will last 100K years, adding in 2010 that "democracy must be put on hold for the time being"; too bad, in Apr. 2012 he gives an interview to MSNBC-TV, flopping on the issue, saying that he is no longer an "alarmist", with the soundbytes: "All right, I made a mistake", and had been "extrapolating too far"; when it comes to the claim that the science is settled, he utters the soundbytes: "One thing that being a scientist has taught me is that you can never be certain about anything. You never know the truth. You can only approach it and hope to get a bit nearer to it each time. You iterate towards the truth. You don’t know it"; "It just so happens that the green religion is now taking over from the Christian religion"; "I don't think people have noticed that, but it's got all the sort of terms that religions use... The greens use guilt. That just shows how religious greens are. You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air"; "The problem is we don't know what the climate is doing. We thought we knew 20 years ago. That led to some alarmist books – mine included – because it looked clear-cut, but it hasn't happened"; "The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now. The world has not warmed up very much since the millennium. Twelve years is a reasonable time... it (the temperature) has stayed almost constant, whereas it should have been rising - carbon dioxide is rising, no question about that." He goes on to back nuclear energy, natural gas, and fracking.

James Hoggan (1946-)

In Jan. 2006 the DeSmog Blog is founded by public relations exec James "Jim" Hoggan (1946-) of Vancouver, B.C., Canada to push the global warming theory and oppose "a well-funded and highly organized public relations campaign" that is "poisoning" the climate change debate. On Sept. 29, 2009 he and Richard Littlemore pub. Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming; "Explains how the propaganda generated by self interest groups has purposely created confusion about climate change. It's an imperative read for a successful future." - Leonardo DiCaprio

Bob Carter (1942-2016)

In Apr. 2006 English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) pub. the soundbyte: "There IS a problem with global warming... It stopped in 1998... That industrial carbon dioxide is not the primary cause of earth's recent decadal-scale temperature changes doesn't seem at all odd to many thousands of independent scientists. They have long appreciated - ever since the early 1990s, when the global warming bandwagon first started to roll behind the gravy train of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - that such short-term climate fluctuations are chiefly of natural origin"; on Nov. 3, 2006 he pub. the soundbyte in The Australian: "The empirical data stressed by climate rationalists will ultimately prevail over the predictions of the unvalidated computer models. Perhaps then we will be able to attend to the real climate policy problem, which is to prepare response plans for extreme weather events, and for climate warmings as well as coolings, in the same way we prepare to cope with all other natural hazards"; in Sept. 2014 he and Tom Harris pub. an op-ed in The New York Post, with the soundbyte: "Science is never settled, but the current state of 'climate change' science is quite clear: There is essentially zero evidence that carbon dioxide from human activities is causing catastrophic climate change."

Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)

On May 24, 2006 former U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It; pub. by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Penn.; "I am Al Gore, and I used to be the next president of the United States of America"; "You see that pale, blue dot? That's us. Everything that has ever happened in all of human history, has happened on that pixel. All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars all the famines, all the major advances... it's our only home. And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization. I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future"; "As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives"; "Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us"; "Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, 'What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had a chance?' We have to hear that question from them, now"; "The scientists are virtually screaming from the rooftops now. The debate is over! There's no longer any debate in the scientific community about this. But the political systems around the world have held this at arm's length because it's an inconvenient truth, because they don't want to accept that it's a moral imperative"; "It is appropriate to have an over representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis"; "An Inconvenient Truth is so convincing that it makes opposers of the argument as credible as Holocaust deniers" (Jon Niccum); released along with a film (May 24), which does $24M U.S. and $26M worldwide box office, which is followed by An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power (July 28, 2017), which only grosses $5M worldwide; "I don't think anybody can prepare on a physical level. It isn't possible to prepare for what is about to happen. The Pentagon gives us one to three years left of normal life on this planet. Now you have Al Gore's movie 'An Inconvenient Truth', whom I find very optimistic, as he gives us ten years. But I don't know a single scientist on the planet who gives us ten years or anybody else who gives us that long. What the Pentagon talks about is the rapid changes in climate, making it impossible to live in certain areas. Exactly where those areas are, they don't know" (Drunvalo Melchizedek); the book is followed by the sequel Our Choice (original title: The Path to Survival) (Nov. 2009) - or, drowning polar bears, submerged mainly Dem. Manhattan and San Fran, and why I shoulda been president then grew a beard to save electricity? On Nov. 5, 2007 Gore utters the soundbyte on NBC-TV's "Today Show": "There are still people who believe that the Earth is flat... you don't search out for someone who still believes the Earth is flat and give them equal time"; on Mar. 30, 2008 he appears on CBS-TV's "60 Minutes" to unveil a $300M advertising blitz to force a debate on climate change during the U.S. pres. elections, uttering the soundbyte about climate change skeptics: "I think that those people are in such a tiny, tiny minority now with their point of view, they're almost like the ones who still believe that the Moon landing was staged in a movie lot in Arizona and those who believe the earth is flat. That demeans them a little bit, but it's not that far off." In Mar. 2008 Gore's Law is formulated: "As an online climate change debate grows longer, the probability that denier arguments will descend into attacks on Al Gore approaches 1."

On Sept. 26, 2006 James Hansen et al. of NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies warn that the Earth's temperature is the warmest in 12K years, and has been warming .036F (0.2C) per decade for the past 30 years; 1.7K plant, animal, and insect species move poleward at an avg. rate of 4 mi. (6.5km) per decade in the last half of the 20th cent.

Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-)

On Sept. 27, 2006 the Calif. Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 is signed by Calif. Repub. Gov. (2003-11) Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (1947-), establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse emissions from all sources in the state, strengthening his Executive Order S-3-05 of June 1, 2005 establishing greenhouse emissions targets.

Don J. Eastbrook (1936-)

On Oct. 23, 2006 Western Wash. U. geologist Don J. Eastbrook (1936-) gives the paper The Cause of Global Warming and Predictions for the Coming Century, containing the soundbyte: "If the cycles continue as in the past, the current warm cycle should end soon and global temperatures should cool slightly until about 2035, then warm about 0.5°C from ~2035 to ~2065, and cool slightly until 2100. The total increase in global warming for the century should be ~0.3 °C, rather than the catastrophic warming of 3-6°C (4-11°F) predicted by the IPCC." On Mar. 10, 2009 he speaks at the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte that a decades-long global cooling spell is coming, deeper than the one in the mid-20th cent., maxing-out energy sources, with the soundbyte: "We want to reduce pollution, increase efficiency, decrease dependence on foreign oil. The difficulty I see is greater demands and fewer resources."

Nicholas Stern (1946-)

On Oct. 30, 2006 the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is pub. by the British govt., written by British economist Nicholas Herbert Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford (1946-), containing the soundbyte: "Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. The evidence on the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming... The problem of climate change involves a fundamental failure of markets: those who damage others by emitting greenhouse gases generally do not pay", recommending large environmental taxes incl. carbon taxes and carbon trading to supposedly circumvent a 5%-20% GDP loss per year, causing criticism of his freewheeling application of discount rates; Stern goes on to advocate vegetarianism to mitigate climate change.

Anthony Watts (1958-) Tony Heller

On Nov. 17, 2006 Am. TV meteorologist Willard Anthony Watts (1958-) launches the blog Watts Up With That? (WUWT), opposing proponents of anthropogenic climate change esp. by CO2, going on to help spread the Climatic Research Unit controversy in Nov. 2009, and becoming the #1 climate change blog on Earth (until ?); Tony Heller of Boulder, Colo. builds up a rep on the blog under the alias Steven Goddard with allegations that NASA has been falsely claiming the year 1998 as the hottest in U.S. history when it was really 1934 after "adjusting" temperature data in a way which is "highly subjective, and subject to software and algorithm errors", going on to launch his own blog The Deplorable (Real) Climate Science Blog, with the motto: "Pulling Back the Curtain on Junk Science", continuing to expose govt. agencies incl. NASA, NOAA, the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, and the Japanese Meteorological Agency as data fakers, and paint a picture of the "global warming religion"; in Aug. 2007 NASA admits that 1934 is the hottest year on record for the U.S., but claims that the hottest year on Earth for the past cent. is still 2005.

In Nov. 2006 the Nat. Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP) pub. a survey on climate change, with 82% claiming that global warming is real and measurable, 67% claiming that the U.S. is not doing enough to combat it, 66% claiming that global warming is a serious problem, 40% wanting the automotive industry regulated, and 39% wanting carbon emissions regulated.

Calvin Beisner (1955-)

In 2006 the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (originally the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance) is founded by evangelical Christian Ernest Calvin Beisner (1955-) to fight environmentalism as "one of the greatest threats to society and the church today", and "the greatest threat to Western civilization", with the soundbyte: "Earth and its ecosystems - created by God's intelligent design and infinite power and sustained by His faithful providence – are robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting, admirably suited for human flourishing, and displaying His glory. Earth's climate system is no exception"; the "Evangelical Declaration on Global Warming" states: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human contribution to greenhouse gases is causing dangerous global warming." In 2010 the Cornwall Alliance releases the film Resisting the Green Dragon, which calls environmentalism a "false religion" and "global government" power grab; "In what has become one of the greatest deceptions of our day, radical environmentalism is striving to put America and the world under its destructive control. This so-called Green Dragon is seducing your children in our classrooms and popular culture. Its lust for political power now extends to the highest global levels, and its twisted view of the world elevates Nature above the needs of people, of even the poorest and most helpless. With millions falling prey to its spiritual deception, the time is now to stand and resist."

Augie Auer Jr. (1940-2007)

In 2006 St. Louis, Mo.-born Kiwi meteorologist August H. "Augie" Auer Jr. (1940-2007) co-founds the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition to fight claims for anthropogenic global warming, calling on the Kiwi govt. to institute a royal commission on climate change because the public are "being given incomplete, inaccurate and biased information about the effects of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere", claiming that "global warming caused by man-made emissions of greenhouse gases... cannot be substantiated", which they refuse; on May 19, 2007 Auer gives an interview to The Timaru Herald newspaper, containing the soundbyte: "Water vapour was responsible for 95 per cent of the greenhouse effect, an effect which was vital to keep the world warm... If we didn't have the greenhouse effect the planet would be at minus 18 °C but because we do have the greenhouse effect it is plus 15 °C, all the time. The other greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, and various others including CFCs, contributed only five per cent of the effect, carbon dioxide being by far the greatest contributor at 3.6 per cent. It would be like trying to increase the temperature of bath tub full of water using one drop from an eye dropper"; too bad, on June 10 he drops dead in Melbourne on his 67th birthday.

Andrew Dessler (1964-) Kate Marvel

In 2006 Houston, Tex.-born Texas A&M climate scientist Andrew Dessler (1964-) and Edward A. Parson pub. The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate (2nd ed. 2009), which becomes a hit for teaching climate science from the global warmist viewpoint; on Oct. 10, 2011 he follows it with Introduction to Modern Climate Change. On Jan. 16, 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, claiming that climate warming is real and "humans are now in the driver's seat... we have our foot on the gas, but unfortunately we don't have our hands on the wheel", adding "We know that, over the next century, if nothing is done to rein in emissions, temperatures will likely increase enough to profoundly change the planet." After a front page article is pub. in The New York Times discussing the theory that clouds might offset the effects of increased greenhouses gases, he pub. an article in 2011 in Geophysical Research Letters that "offered some evidence that clouds will exacerbate the long-term planetary warming", calling climate change skeptics believers in an "alternate reality", causing him to be targeted by climate change skeptics, making him more popular? - pretending to predict global climate in 2100 isn't an alternate reality? On June 18, 2015 Columbia U. climate scientist Kate Marvel pub. the article THe Hidden Importance of Clouds, discussing the power of clouds to moderate global warming, speculating that "It seems unlikely, though, that clouds will completely nullify the effects of our carbon dioxide emissions. They may at most buy us time and delay the consequences of our actions."

Patrick Moore (1947-)

In 2006 Port Alice, B.C., Canada-born former Greenpeace pres. (1977-86) Patrick Moore (who left after it "took a sharp turn to the political left" and "evolved into an organization of extremism and politically motivated agendas" writes a letter to the British Royal Society, claiming that there is "no scientific proof that mankind was causing global climate change", and that it "has a much better correlation with changes in solar activity than CO2 levels", adding that global warming can be good if it creates more arable land, advocating adaptation to it; in 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Congress, uttering the soundbyte: "There is no scientific proof that human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are the dominant cause of the minor warming of the Earth's atmosphere over the past 100 years. Today, we live in an unusually cold period in the history of life on Earth and there is no reason to believe that a warmer climate would be anything but beneficial for humans and the majority of other species. The fact that we had both higher temperatures and an ice age at a time when CO2 emissions were 10 times higher than they are today fundamentally contradicts the certainty that human-caused CO2 emissions are the main cause of global warming. When modern life evolved over 500 million years ago, CO2 was more than 10 times higher than today, yet life flourished at this time. Then an Ice Age occurred 450 million years ago when CO2 was 10 times higher than today... Humans just aren't capable of predicting global temperature changes."

On Jan. 14, 2007 (14:30 GMT) the Doomsday Clock is set to 5 min. to midnight, becoming the 4th forward set since 1991, prompted by nuclear standoffs with Iran and N Korea and warnings of climate change; "Global warming could kill millions. We should have a war on global warming rather than the war on terror" (Stephen W. Hawking, Jan. 17); China's emissions increase 8% this year, causing it to overtake the U.S. as the top producer of greenhouse gases (14% higher), although the U.S. still leads on a per capita basis, 19.4 tons, vs. 11.8 in Russia, 8.6 in the EU, 5.1 in China, and 1.8 in India.

'Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?', by William Hunt, 2009

On Jan. 22, 2007 Am. geologist-environmentalist William Hunt pub. the article The Nonsense of Global Warming, containing the soundbytes: "Global warming, geologic dating techniques, and uniformitarianism all can be considered junk science as much of the physical evidence argues against them"; "The facts, such as we can observe and calculate them, do not support the idea of man-made global warming. Natural processes completely eclipse anything that man can accomplish - a minor rainstorm expends more energy than a large nuclear explosive releases and the lowest category of hurricane expends more energy than all of the nuclear weapons ever produced in a short time. Most geologists and indeed, most scientists in the U.S., do not accept the idea that global warming resulting from human activities is a viable theory - because most have an appreciation for the kind of power inherent in natural systems. Conversely, most biologists do accept the idea of mancaused global warming and quote scientists in other fields, without understanding those other fields sufficiently to make a logical judgment as to whether the studies were reasonable in their methods and claims. They simply take it on faith that the scientistspropounding global warming are correct in their methods and assumptions. The problem with computer [climate] modeling is that only a tiny percentage of the literally millions of variables involved can be written into a program. It's currently impossible for us to accurately model Earth’s climate and we are not aware of all of the variables yet"; in 2007 he pub. the audio series Global Warming Exposed, followed on June 10, 2009 by the book Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?

Henrik Svensmark (1958-) Nigel Calder (1931-2014)

On Jan. 25, 2007 Danish physicist Henrik Svensmark (1958-) pub. the paper Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges in Astronomy and Geophysics, tracing climate change to solar activity and their effect on cosmic rays, not CO2; in 2007 Svensmark and British science writer Nigel David Calder (McKail-Ritchie-Calder) (1931-2014) pub. the book The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change; in 1980 Calder predicted that by 2000 "the much-advertised heating of the earth by the man-made carbon dioxide 'greenhouse' fails to occur; instead, there is renewed concern about cooling an an impending ice age." "The hypothesis is that solar variability is linked to climate variability by a chain that involves the solar wind, cosmic rays, and clouds"; "Those who are absolute certain that the rise in temperature is due solely to carbon dioxide have no scientific justification. It's pure guesswork." On Mar. 20, 2015 (08:30 GMT) (Fri.) (equinox) a full-supermoon-vernal-equinox-solar eclipse knocks out solar-generated electricity in Europe, where 100x as much power is generated from the Sun than during the last eclipse in 1999; first total solar eclipse to coincide with the northern spring equinox since 1662; next on Mar. 20, 3034; the 2:47 eclipse causes Svalbard Island in Norway to experience a sudden temperature drop from 8F to -7F, disproving that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and proving Henrik Svensmark right?

Peter Hadfield

On Jan. 26, 2007 Potholer54 (former BBC journalist Peter Hadfield) launches a YouTube channel, going on to release videos attempting to debunk climate change denialists, reaching 27K subscribers by Mar. 2010, and 157K by 2018; watch sample video.

In Jan. 2007 Seth Shulman et al. of the Union of Concerned Scientists pub. Smoke, Mirrors & Hot Air: How ExxonMobil Uses Big Tobacco's Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science, with the intro: "In an effort to deceive the public about the reality of global warming, ExxonMobil has underwritten the most sophisticated and most successful disinformation campaign since the tobacco industry misled the public about the scientific evidence linking smoking to lung cancer and heart disease. As this report documents, the two disinformation campaigns are strikingly similar. ExxonMObil has drawn upon the tactics and even some of the organizations and actors involved in the callous disinformation campaign the tobacco industry waged for 40 years", drawing a big bead on climate skeptic Patrick J. Michaels.

On Feb. 9, 2007 Sir Richard Branson offers a $25M reward for the invention of a way to suck greenhouse gases out of the air - plant trees?

On Feb. 25, 2007 the 79th Academy Awards, hosted by Ellen Degeneres are held at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.; 306 films are eligible for consideration; the Oscars officially go green; the best picture Oscar for 2006 goes to The Departed, along with best dir. to sentimental favorite Martin Scorsese on his 6th try (beating Paul Greengrass' better United 93?); best actor goes to Forest "Idi Amin" Whitaker for The Last King of Scotland, best actress goes to Helen "Liz II" Mirren for The Queen ("Our Leaders. Ourselves.") (10-y.-o. Abigail Breslin, who played Olive Hoover in Little Miss Sunshine is passed over, as is Meryl Streep, who played Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada, her 14th nomination, two more than Jack Nicholson and Kate Hepburn), best supporting actor goes to Alan Alda in Little Miss Sunshine (Eddie Murphy, who plays James Brown clone James "Thunder" Early is passed over, perhaps because of his crude toilet-humor world's fattest woman flick Norbit, which comes out just at the wrong time, causing him to storm out of the awards show), and best supporting actress goes to Jennifer Hudson for playing Effie White in Dreamgirls (proving that rejection by Simon Cowell on "American Idol" is the ticket to fame?); Al Gore wins for the global warming documentary An Inconvenient Truth (dir. by Davis Guggenheim) ("By far the most terrifying film you will ever see"), which also garners Lezzie Lezzeridge, er, Melissa Etheridge a best song Oscar for I Need to Wake Up; before going to the stage she gives her wife a big kiss, then dedicates the win to her and her four kids (the highlight of the evening?); Gore utters the soundbyte: "People all over the world, we need to solve the climate crisis. It's not a political issue, it's a moral issue"; sound engineer Kevin O'Connell of Apocalypto sets a record with 19 straight Oscar nominations and 0 wins, losing to Dreamgirls; Pilobolus Dance Theatre provides the briefest numbers yet seen, despite one of the longest Oscar ceremonies ever.

'The Great Global Warming Swindle', 2007

On Mar. 8, 2007 Martin Durkin's The Great Global Warming Swindle (original title: "Apocalypse my arse") debuts on BBC Channel 4, questioning the scientific consensus on global warming, calling it "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times", pissing-off the PC police, causing U.K. broadcasting regulatory agency Ofcom to come down on it, making them rebroadcast it and correct three errors.

On Mar. 21, 2007 Al Gore appears before Congress with a boxes full of petitions to take action on global warming, becoming his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Jan. 2001.

Václav Klaus of Czech. (1941-)

In Mar. 2007 global warming skeptic economist-politician Vaclav (Václav) Klaus (1941-), pres. #2 of the Czech Repub. in 2003-13 gives a speech at the Cato Inst. in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte: "Environmentalism should belong in the social sciences, along with other isms such as communism, feminism, and liberalism", and compared environmentalism to a religion, a "modern counterpart of communism that seeks to change peoples' habits and economic systems." In June 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Financial Times, calling environmentalism "the biggest threat to freedom, democracy, a market economy and prosperity", calling on readers to oppose the term "scientific consensus", adding that "it is always achieved only by a loud minority, never by a silent majority." In Sept. 2007 he he speaks at the 2007 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling for a second IPCC to be established to produce competing reports, and for countries to be left alone to set their priorities and prepare their own plans for the problem. In 2007 he pub. the book Blue Planet in Green Shackles, which contains the soundbyte: "The theory of global warming and the hypothesis on its causes, which has spread around massively nowadays, may be a bad theory, it may also be a valueless theory, but in any case it is a very dangerous theory." In Sept. 2009 he speaks at the 2009 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling it "propagandistic" and "undignified". On July 26, 2011 he speaks at the Nat. Press Club, calling global warming "a Communist conspiracy." On May 21, 2012 he speaks at the Heartland Inst. 7th Internat. Conference on Climate Change.

On Apr. 2, 2007 the U.S. Supreme (Roberts) Court rules 5-4 in Mass. vs. EPA ("the Endangerment Finding") to rebuke the Bush admin. for inaction on global warming, declaring that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act, and that the EPA has the authority to regulate those emissions from new cars and trucks.

Steven F. Hayward (1958-)

On Apr. 12, 2007 the documentary film An Inconvenient Truth... or Convenient Fiction? debuts, starring conservative scholar Steven F. Hayward (1958-), aping Al Gore's PowerPoint presentation, agreeing with many of his points but dissing "global warming extremists" for slanting it toward an Armageddon, with the soundbyte: "What I disagree with is overall pessimism"; he later claims that there was global warming between 1978-98, when it suddenly stopped despite atmospheric CO2 continuing to rise, causing climate change models to be falsified.

Glenn Beck (1964-)

On May 2, 2007 Exposed: The Climate of Fear debuts on CNN, hosted by Everett, Wash.-born Glenn Lee Beck (1964-) (his last show before moving to Fox-TV), featuring prominent climate change skeptics and deniers incl. Tim Ball, John Christy, Bjorn Lomborg, Patrick Michaels, Patrick Moore, and Roy Spencer; "Yes, Al Gore, there is another credible side."

On May 24, 2007 J.P. Donnelly and J.D. Woodruff pub. the article Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the West African monsoon, in PubMed, concluding from an examination of 5K years of sediment cores from the Caribbean that increased frequency of intense tropical cyclones is due to variations in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the strength of the West African moonson rather than sea surface temps.

Live Earth, 2007

On June 26, 2007 David de Rothschild and William Van Roden pub. The Live Earth Global Warming Survival Handbook: 77 Essential Skills to Stop Climate Change as an official companion book to the Live Earth concerts; on July 7 400K attend the globally-televised Live Earth concert at Copacabana Beach in Brazil and 10 other locations around the world to spotlight climate change, sponsored by Save Our Selves, founded by Kevin Wall with backing by Al Gore et al., receiving a record 15M live video streams, becoming a hit in Canada and a flop in the U.K. and U.S.

Tim Patterson

On June ?, 2007 Canadian Carleton U. geologist R. Timothy "Tim" Patterson pub. an article in the Financial Post of Canada, predicting a general climatic cooling as the Sun enters Cycle 25 about 2018; "Despite this clear and repeated correlation, the measured variations in incoming solar energy were, on their own, not sufficient to cause the climate changes we have observed in our proxies. In addition, even though the sun is brighter now than at any time in the past 8,000 years, the increase in direct solar input is not calculated to be sufficient to cause the past century's modest warming on its own. There had to be an amplifier of some sort for the sun to be a primary driver of climate change. Indeed, that is precisely what has been discovered. In a series of groundbreaking scientific papers starting in 2002, Veizer, Shaviv, Carslaw, and most recently Svensmark et al., have collectively demonstrated that as the output of the sun varies, and with it, our star's protective solar wind, varying amounts of galactic cosmic rays from deep space are able to enter our solar system and penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. These cosmic rays enhance cloud formation which, overall, has a cooling effect on the planet. When the sun's energy output is greater, not only does the Earth warm slightly due to direct solar heating, but the stronger solar wind generated during these 'high sun' periods blocks many of the cosmic rays from entering our atmosphere. Cloud cover decreases and the Earth warms still more. The opposite occurs when the sun is less bright. More cosmic rays are able to get through to Earth's atmosphere, more clouds form, and the planet cools more than would otherwise be the case due to direct solar effects alone. This is precisely what happened from the middle of the 17th century into the early 18th century, when the solar energy input to our atmosphere, as indicated by the number of sunspots, was at a minimum and the planet was stuck in the Little Ice Age. These new findings suggest that changes in the output of the sun caused the most recent climate change... By comparison, CO2 variations show little correlation with our planet's climate on long, medium and even short time scales.... Solar scientists predict that, by 2020, the sun will be starting into its weakest Schwabe solar cycle of the past two centuries, likely leading to unusually cool conditions on Earth. Beginning to plan for adaptation to such a cool period, one which may continue well beyond one 11-year cycle, as did the Little Ice Age, should be a priority for governments. It is global cooling, not warming, that is the major climate threat to the world, especially Canada." In Nov. 2015 he speaks to the Canadian Internat. Council (CIC), telling them that in addition to concerns over the long-term impact of global warming it would be prudent for Canadian policymakers and planners to be aware that "climatic cooling associated with Solar Cycle 25 and a corresponding trough in the Gleissberg Cycle may negatively impact the Canadian agricultural sector. During any climatic warming agricultural methods used to the south can be immediately adapted. However, cooling such as may occur beginning about 2018 would be an agricultural and national disaster as no one is farming north of us."

Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014)

On July 7, 2007 German mathematical physicists Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014) and Ralf D. Tscheuschner pub. the paper Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics, proving: (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33C is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified", pissing-off global warmists, who pub. alleged refutations, which only makes them stick to their guns; "The CO2-greenhouse effect of the Earth atmosphere is pure fiction of people who like to use big computers, without physical fundamentals."

Terry Wimberley (1949-)

On Nov. 1, 2007 Am. marine-environmental scientist Edward T. "Terry" Wimberley (1949-) of Fla. Gulf Coast U. writes the soundbyte: "At issue is how big of a problem is human produced CO2 emissions. Undoubtedly to some marginal degree - which scientists debate about - it is a problem, but is it the major cause of global warming? No. More important is the interaction of solar activity (solar winds) with penetrating cosmic rays into the earth’s atmosphere. When cosmic ray activity is great a large volume of rays penetrate the earth's lower atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation and cool the earth. However, when there is a lot of solar activity, solar winds tend to blow away just enough of the cosmic rays to thwart cloud formation at the lower levels resulting in fewer clouds and global warming. This phenomenon can be documented over hundreds if not thousands of years - well before humans were able to affect atmosphere. Scientists do not dispel the problem of global warming - that is real - but rather the CO2 theory of global warming, which unfortunately is not verified by geological and climate records going back thousands of years or by observed fact. The CO2 theory of climate change is based upon a computer simulation model and flawed data that has been widely criticized in scientific literature. The theory has acquired ‘political legs’ because there are interests who see benefit to be derived from their ideological positions by pursuing some of the policies that can be justified by aggressively responding to a global warming threat."

Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-) Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-) Jim Salinger (1947-)

On Nov. 17, 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988) pub. its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): Climate Change 007 in Paris, written by hundreds of thousands of scientists (really only 52?) led by Argentine-born Am. economist Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-), German climatologist Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-), Kiwi scientist Michael James "Jim" Salinger (1947-), German economist Ottmar Edenhofer (1961-) (known for the Nov. 2010 soundbyte: "We redistribute de facto the world's wealth by climate policy... One has to free oneself from the illusion that international climate policy is environmental policy. This has almost nothing to do with environmental policy anymore") et al., citing 6K+ peer-reviewed scientific studies and concluding that "warming of the climate system is unequivocal", "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions", warning that human activity poses a risk of "abrupt or irreversible changes" on Earth, and proposing the Carbon Credit Emissions Trading Market, which is adopted by the Kyoto Protocol; the 996-page Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis is pub. by Working Group I as an addendum to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, describing causes and consequences of global warming; it has 620 authors; the IPCC is awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize along with former U.S. vice-pres. Al Gore (1948-), whose acceptance speech contains the New Age OWG soundbyte: "The climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity. It is also our greatest opportunity to lift Global Consciousness to a higher level." Rahmstorf goes on to found the blog RealClimate, which becomes one of the most popular pro-climate change blogs.

On Dec. 8-9, 2007 the Development and Climate Days at UNFCC COP13 in Bali, Indonesia features a community-based adaptation to climate change panel, and another one titled "increasing clean development investments in developing countries to enable them to leapfrog onto a clean development pathway" - who pays for it in the end?

U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-) Habibullo Abudssamatov (1940-) Geoffrey Duffy Andrey Kapitsa (1931-2011) Miklós Zágoni José Delgado Domingos Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009)

On Dec. 20, 2007 the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, chaired by U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-) pub. the U.S. Senate Minority Report on Global Warming, listing 400 prominent scientists who dispute manmade global warming, increasing it to 650 on Dec. 11, 2008, 687 in July 2009, and 1K+ on Dec. 8, 2010; the list incl. prominent internat. scientists (incl. former U.N. IPCC scientists who flip-flopped), of whom only about 10% are climate scientists, and about 15% have pub. in related fields; critics incl. eminent Russian space scientist Habibullo Ismailovich Abdussamatov (1940-), who calls CO2 "insignificant" in climate change, and expresses fears of a future "deep temperature drop", predicting a new mini-ice age in 2014-2055 in the Heartland Inst.'s 4th Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Ill. in May 2010 and the 9th conference in Las Vegas on July 7-9, 2014; also Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer Geoffrey Duffy, who uttered the soundbyte: "Even doubling our tripling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapor and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate and local weather is forever changing. Sure we must minimize pollution of our air and water systems with obnoxious chemical and particulates, and not treat them as 'sewers'. But even doubling or trebling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapour and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate has forever been changing and will continue to do so. The major driver is the Sun and the radiation from it. The main atmospheric 'intermediary' between the Sun and Earth is water, and thus it dictates the behaviour of the Earth's climate"; "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'"; "So what are the key players in 'Climate Change'? The major driver is the Sun. Warming depends on the Sun. Cooling is due to the lack of Sun's energy"; another critic is famed Russian geographer and explorer (discoverer of subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctica) Andrey Petrovich Kapitsa (1931-2011), who utters the soundbyte: "The Kyoto theorists have put the cart before the horse. It is global warming that triggers higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not the other way around... A large number of critical documents submitted at the 1995 U.N. Conference in Madrid vanished without a trace. As a result, the discussion was one-sided and heavily biased, and the U.N. declared global warming to be a scientific fact", calling global warming "the biggest ever scientific fraud"; another critic is Hungarian physicist Miklos Zagoni (Miklós Zágoni), who started out supporting the Kyoto Protocol then flopped after reading the works of Hungarian climate skeptic Ferenc Miskolczi, uttering the soundbytes: "Nature's regulatory instrument is water vapor: more carbon dioxide leads to less moisture in the air, keeping the overall GHG content in accord with the necessary balance conditions"; "I am positively convinced that the anthropogenic global warming theory is wrong. New developments in the physics of greenhouse effect and radiative transfer show that the accepted theory leads to largely exaggerated global warming projections"; another critic is leading Portuguese environmental scientist Jose (José) Delgado Domingos (1935-2014), founder of the Numerical Weather Forecast Group, who on Jan. 28, 2008 gives an interview to Sabado Noticias (Saturday News) mag., containing the soundbytes: "There are measurable climate changes but there is also an enormous manipulation in reducing everything to CO2 and equivalents. The main gas producing the greenhouse effect is water vapour. The present alarm on climate change is an instrument of social control, a pretext for major businesses and political battle. It became an ideology, which is concerning", adding that when it comes to the Kyoto Protocol, "Everything made to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is positive, because it implies a reduction in energy consumption. But creating an ideology pegged to carbon dioxide is a dangerous nonsense. It is preferable for us to prepare for the natural climate evolutions. To adapt ourselves and be ready in case it happens, meaning, among other things, not destroying the dunes on the pretext of national interest, not building in flood stream beds, not turning the soils impermeable to avoid the effects of potential and natural heat waves, etc"; on Nov. 31, 2009 he pub. an op-ed in the newspaper Expresso damning the Climategate emails of the Climate Research Unit of the U. of East Anglia as a scientific fraud that compromises the credibility of climate science; another critic is Japanese Chubu U. scientist Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) (proponent of nuclear energy and critic of recycling), which contains the soundbyte: "CO2 emissions make absolutely no difference one way or another... Every scientist knows this, but it doesn't pay to say so... Global warming, as a political vehicle, keeps Europeans in the driver's seat and developing nations walking barefoot"; in Jaa. 2017 and on July 4, 2018 he gives lectures on Japanese TV calling global warming a hoax, saying that the focus should be on cooling instead of warming; another critic is Portland, Ore.-born nuclear physicist Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009), who uttered the soundbytes: "Earth is in the final stages of a typical 10,000 year plus interglacial when both atmospheric temperature and CO2 content tend to increase long term from natural causes, as they have after every ice age. The next major stage is the start of a new ice age which hopefully is more than a thousand years in the future" (Feb. 2008); "Man has been putting increasingly large amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Age and rapidly increasing the last 60 years as shown in all the references. However, the amount of CO2 man has added to the atmosphere is less than 1 % of the CO2 that is there from natural causes"; "Current atmospheric temperatures and CO2 content are no higher than they have been at various times during the past million years. The so-called Climate Optimum 1000 to 1300 A.D. was 1-3 degrees C warmer than now, and apparently provided better living conditions for humans, animals, and vegetation. For example, Greenland was green and habitable by farmers. Water vapor (H2O) is the primary greenhouse gas, contributing roughly 80 % of the greenhouse effect. Without the warming effect of the greenhouse gases, the Earth would be roughly 10 degrees cooler, and probably uninhabitable by humans. It has been estimated that the warming effect of CO2 is roughly one thousandth that of water vapor" "The analytical models used to predict higher atmospheric CO2 content and temperature have not been validated, and do not predict the measured values from the last 200 years; e.g., the cooling of roughly 1 degree C from about 1940 to 1975. Thus they are not valid and should not be used. They are not valid because they do not include major effects on the climate such as clouds, rain, electric currents, cosmic rays, sun spots, etc."

Martin Hertzberg Hans Schreuder

In 2007 Am. physical chemist Martin Hertzberg (former U.N. Navy meteorologist), Am. science writer Alan Siddons, and Am. analytical chemist Hans Schreuder (1946-) pub. the paper Role of greenhouse gases in climate change, with the abstract: "This study examines the concept of 'greenhouse gases' and various definitions of the phenomenon known as the 'Atmospheric Radiative Greenhouse Effect'. The six most quoted descriptions are as follows: (a) radiation trapped between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere; (b) the insulating blanket of the atmosphere that keeps the Earth warm; (c) back radiation from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface; (d) Infra Red absorbing gases that hinder radiative cooling and keep the surface warmer than it would otherwise be – known as 'otherwise radiation'; (e) differences between actual surface temperatures of the Earth (as also observed on Venus) and those based on calculations; (f) any gas that absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the Earth's surface towards free space. It is shown that none of the above descriptions can withstand the rigours of scientific scrutiny when the fundamental laws of physics and thermodynamics are applied to them." On Feb. 9, 2017 Hertzberg pub. the immortal soundbyte: "In comparison to water in all of its forms, the effect of the carbon dioxide increase over the last century on the temperature of the earth is about as significant as a few farts in a hurricane!"

Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) Roger A. Pielker Jr. (1968-)

In 2007 Am. meteorologist Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) breaks ranks with the herd and utters the soundbyte: "As I have summarized on the Climate Science weblog, humans activities do significantly alter the heat content of the climate system, although, based on the latest understanding, the radiative effect of CO2 has contributed, at most, only about 28% to the human-caused warming up to the present. The other 72% is still a result of human activities!", going on to criticize the IPCC for its conclusions on CO2 and global warming, accusing it of selectively choosing data to support their view; in 2010 he answers the question from Andrew Revkin: "Is most of the observed warming over the last 50 years likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations" with the soundbytes: "The 2010 answer ... remains NO", and "The added greenhouse gases from human activity clearly have a role in increasing the heat content of the climate system from what it otherwise would be... there are other equally or even more important significant human climate forcings... We now know, however, that the natural variations of atmospheric and ocean circulation features within the climate system produces global average heat changes that are substantially larger than what was known in 2005. The IPCC models have failed to adequately simulate this effect." His son Roger A. Pielke Jr. (1968-) has been labeled a climate skeptic or climate change denier, which he denies, although he denies that the trend of increasing damage from hurricane is due to change in frequency and intensity, tracing it to increase in wealth density.

In 2007 The Climate Registry (TCR) is founded in Calif. to continue the work of the Calif. Climate Action Registry (CCAR), created by the State of Calif. in 2001 to design and operate voluntary and compliance greenhouse gas reporting programs, signing up 30+ U.S. states and 17 Canadian provinces and territories by 2009.

On Jan. 1, 2008 the U.N. Gen. Assembly declares the Internat. Year of Planet Earth to increase awareness of the importance of Earth sciences.

On Jan. 4, 2008 Solar Cycle 24 begins (ends 2018?), with the lowest recorded sunspot activity since records began in 1750, with a double-peaked solar maximum of 99 in 2011 and 101 in early 2014.

In Jan. 2008 the European Climate Foundation (ECF), a "foundation of foundations" is established to lead Europe into a low-carbon society and mitigate global climate change; the current dir. is Keith Allott - how does the magnet know that there's a refrigerator nearby to be attracted to?

Joanne Simpson (1923-2010)

In Feb. 2008 eminent Am. meteorologist Joanne Simpson (nee Gerould) (1923-2010) (first woman to receive a Ph.D. in meteorology) releases her Public Citizen Statement on global warming, containing the soundbyte: "Since I am no longer affiliated with any organization nor receiving any funding, I can speak quite frankly. Few of these people seem to have any skeptical self-criticism left, although virtually all of the claims are derived from either flawed data sets or imperfect models or both. The term 'global warming' itself is very vague. Where and what scales of response are measurable? One distinguished scientist has shown that many aspects of climate change are regional, some of the most harmful dangers caused by changes in human land use. No one seems to have properly factored in population growth and land use, particularly in tropical and coastal areas... What should we as a nation do? Decisions have to be made on incomplete information. In this case, we must act on the recommendations of Gore and the IPCC because if we do not reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the climate models are right, the planet as we know it will in this century become unsustainable. The main basis of the claim that man's release of greenhouse gases is the cause of the warming is based almost entirely upon climate models. We all know the frailty of models concerning the air-surface system. We only need to watch the weather forecasts", going on to recommend the use of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to test the predictions of climate models; too bad, her quote is regularly edited to take out her endorsement of Gore and the IPCC to make her a stronger climate change denier; in 2012 she pub. the soundbyte: "A vocal minority of scientists so mistrusts the models and the complex fragmentary data, that some claim that global warming is a hoax. They have made public statements accusing other scientists of deliberate fraud in aid of their research funding. Both sides are now hurling personal epithets at each other, a very bad development in Earth sciences."

On Mar. 2, 2008 the Heartland Inst. (founded in Arlington Heights, Ill. in 1984, and known for working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke) holds the First Internat. Conference on Climate Change in New York City, with the purpose being "to generate international media attention to the fact that many scientists believe forecasts of rapid warming and catastrophic events are not supported by sound science, and that expensive campaigns to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not necessary or cost-effective", endorsing the Nongovernmental Internat. Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) and pub. the article Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate, criticizing the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), followed by the Manhattan Declaration, declaring that carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for all life, and calling for an immediate halt to tax-funded attempts to counteract climate change, with the soundbytes: "Assertions of a supposed 'consensus' among climate experts are false", and demanding that "all taxes, regulations, and other interventions intended to reduce emissions of CO2 be abandoned forthwith"; leaders incl. Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), former adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher; signers incl. S. Fred Singer, Anthony Watts, David Bellamy, Piers Corbyn, Ian Plimer, Robert M. Carter, and Roy Spencer; by 2017 12 conferences are held.

On Mar. 31-Apr. 4, 2008 the Bangkok Climate Change Talks are held in Bangkok, Thailand, featuring climate change proponents Dennis Tirpak of the IPCC, Andrew Howard of the UNFCC Secretariat, and Artur Runge-Metzger of the European Community, along with greedy Third World reps Martin Khor, Fernando Abad et al. calling for big bucks to mitigate the problems caused by the rich bad countries; similar conferences begin to be held regularly all over the Third World.

Tom Harris (1953-)

On Apr. 7, 2008 Canadian mechanical engineer Tom Harris (1953-) becomes exec. dir. of the climate skeptic Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC), going on to engage in a media campaign and pub. articles giving the climate skeptic side.

Nigel Lawson (1932-)

On Apr. 10, 2008 British Conservative MP (1974-92) and journalist Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby (1932-) pub. An Appeal to Reason: A Cool Look at Global Warming, acknowledging global warming but denying that the science is settled, opposing the scientific consensus of the 2007 IPCC Report and claiming that global warming would bring benefits as well as harm, calling for gradual adaptation instead of radical action, with the soundbyte: "I don't question for a moment that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that, all things being equal, this will lead to warming of the atmosphere. And that it's true that scientists differ greatly on how big the effect is, but there is huge agreement that there is some effect. But we account for less than two percent of global carbon emissions. And so it is crazy for us–we can't do anything on our own – and if the rest of the world... is not going to go down this route... it's not doing any good. I have long since come to the conclusion... that [climate change] is an economic issue... My judgement is the most cost-effective way of dealing with it is though adaptation, and I believe that is perfectly do-able", pissing-off global warmists incl. Jean Palutikof and IPCC head Robert Watson, and the Hadley Centre, which admits that there has been no global warming since 2000 but blames it on the early 2007 La Nina - circular reasoning or gymnophobia?

On June 23, 2008 (20th anniv. of his speech to Congress) top NASA climate scientist James A. Hansen gives a speech to the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, claiming the world has long passed the "dangerous level" for greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and needs to return to the 1988 levels or in a couple of decades there will be mass extinction, ecosystem collapse, and dramatic sea level rises, with the soundbyte: "We're toast if we don't get on a very different path. This is the last chance... We see a tipping point occurring right before our eyes. The Arctic is the first tipping point and it's occurring exactly the way we said it would", adding that "in five to 10 years, the Arctic will be free of sea ice in the summer".

On June 28, 2008 U.S. scientist Mark Serreze of the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. predicts that the North Pole may becoming ice-free for the first time in recorded history by the end of the summer; luckily, he was wrong.

Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-)

In July 2008 Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-) pub. the article Climate Sensitivity Reconsidered in the newsletter of the Am. Physical Society, which contains the soundbytes: "More importantly, the conclusion is that, perhaps, there is no 'climate crisis', and that currently-fashionable efforts by governments to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions are pointless, may be ill-conceived, and could even be harmful", and "Global warming will not affect us for the next 2,000 years, and if it does, it won't have been caused by us", ramping up the scientific climate change denial movement; on Oct. 18 he posts the online article "More in Sorrow than in Anger, Open letter from The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley to Senator John McCain about Climate Science and Policy" , dissing U.S. Sen. John McCain for a speech he made at a wind farm pushing anthropogenic climate change.

Walter Cunningham of the U.S. (1932-)

In the July/Aug. 2008 issue of Launch Mag. NASA Apollo 7 astronaut Ronnie Walter "Walt" Cunningham (1932-) pub. the article In Science, Ignorance is not Bliss, containing the soundbytes: "Saying the Earth is warming is to state the obvious. Since the end of the ice age, the Earth's temperature has increased approximately 16 degrees Fahrenheit and sea levels have risen a total of 300 feet. That is certain and measurable evidence of warming, but it is not evidence of AGW - human-caused warming. We can track the temperature of the Earth back for millennia. Knowing the temperature of the Earth, past or present, is a matter of collecting data, analyzing it, and coming up with the best answer to account for the data. Collecting such data on a global basis is a NASA forte. I believe in global climate change, but there is no way that humans can influence the temperature of our planet to any measurable degree with the tools currently at their disposal. Any human contribution to global temperature change is lost in the noise of terrestrial and cosmic factors. Our beautiful home planet has been warming and cooling for the last 4.8 billion years. Most recently, it has been warming - be it ever so slightly - but there is nothing unusual about it! The changes and rates of change in the Earth's temperature, just since the Industrial Revolution, have occurred many times in our climatic history. While climate scientists generally agree that the Earth's temperature is always changing, not many of them would say that humans are responsible for those changes"; "It doesn't help that NASA scientist James Hansen was one of the early alarmists claiming humans caused global warming. Hansen is a political activist who spreads fear even when NASA's own data contradict him"; “NASA should be at the forefront in the collection of scientific evidence and debunking the current hysteria over human-caused, or Anthropogenic GlobalWarming (AGW). Unfortunately, it is becoming just another agency caught up in the politics of global warming, or worse, politicized science. Advocacy is replacing objective evaluation of data, while scientific data is being ignored in favor of emotions and politics"; "I do see hopeful signs that some true believers are beginning to harbor doubts about AGW. Let's hope that NASA can focus the global warming discussion back on scientific evidence before we perpetrate an economic disaster on ourselve"; "The reality is that atmospheric CO2 has a minimal impact on greenhouse gases and world temperature. Water vapor is responsible for 95 percent of the greenhouse effect. CO2 contributes just 3.6 percent, with human activity responsible for only 3.2 percent of that. That is why some studies claim CO2 levels are largely irrelevant to global warming. Without the greenhouse effect to keep our world warm, the planet would have an average temperature of minus 18 degrees Celsius. Because we do have it, the temperature is acomfortable plus 15 degrees Celsius. Based on the seasonal and geographic distribution of any projected warming, a good case can be made that a warmer average temperature would be even more beneficial for humans."

Guy LeBlanc Smith Ross Garnaut (1946-)

On Aug. 16, 2008 Australian geologist Guy LeBlanc Smith writes the soundbyte: "I have yet to see credible proof of carbon dioxide driving climate change, yet alone manmade CO2 driving it. The atmospheric hot-spot is missing and the ice core data refute this. When will we collectively awake from this deceptive delusion? I contend that those professional scientists and advisors that are knowingly complicit in climate science fraud and all that is derived from it, will continue to be exposed by the science itself. There is no atmospheric hot-spot from 'greenhouse CO2' despite over 20 years of serious looking for it. Occam's razor would point to the sun as the driver of climate change of significance. Human generated carbon dioxide is arguably around 3% of the total carbon dioxide budget, and in the light of the above, we are effectively irrelevant to the natural climate change continuum." On Sept. 30, 2008 Australian economist Ross Gregory Garnaut (1946-), pub. the Garnaut Climate Change Review for the Australian govt., recommending a global CO2 level of 450 ppm and a fall-back position of 550 ppm, requiring emissions reductions of 25% on 2000 levels by 2020, and 90% by 2050, causing Smith to pub. a letter to Garnaut, containing the soundbyte: "I am strongly supportive of measures that promote effective and efficient use of all resources and reduction of pollution in all its forms - smart use. I contend that carbon tax will be amongst the most damaging and misguided use of a tax since the dark middle ages tax on light. The empirical evidence from ice core data do not support anthropogenic carbon dioxide impacts of significance. I have this data and my graphs and interpretations show substantive natural climate variations over records as long as 800,000 years, where CO2 is clearly a response after temperature change, and not a driver of change. I attach a few graphs of thisdata (with references) for your consideration. I have been in research for over 30 years in geoscience, ten of which with the CSIRO, and Iremain open to be convinced there is credible evidence to substantiate Item 1 of your terms of reference. I am yet to be persuaded by evidence not based on assumptions, that humankindhas any control over climate changes of significance. My reading of the rock and ice records is currently favouring an interpretation that our climate is poised for a major fall in temperatures, which will have a far more immediate and damaging impact of human populations should snowfall over northern land masses not melt across summer, effectively initiating continental ice sheets, and mass migrations. The Romanssuffered this when the Dark Ages Ice age took effect and northern tribes were forced south..."; "There is an abundance of information that does not support the current alarmist stance that humankind is causing climate change. My current view, based on evidence to hand, is that this contention is a fraud bordering on a crime against humanity. Hypothetically, I wonder if the Hague will get involved should carbon taxes of significance be levied, and subsequently be found to be unwarranted?"

On Aug. 24, 2008 the 33rd Internat. Geology Congress in Norway sees about two thirds of the presenters and question-askers hostile to the IPCC (International panel on climate change) and the idea that the Earth's climate was responding to human influences.

Barack Hussein Obama II of the U.S. (1961-)

On Nov. 19, 2008 after several Euro countries approach his transition team to signal his intentions to diplomats gathering in Poland in Dec. to draft a successor to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on Feb. 16, 2005 while the U.S. never joined, pres.-elect #44 (2009-17) Barack Hussein Obama II (1961-) sends a videotaped Speech on Global Climate Change to 700 delegates from 19 countries at a global warming conference in Los Angeles, Calif. held by the London-based Climate Group and backed by Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, promising "a new chapter in America's leadership on climate change", incl. a federal cap and trade system, and establishment of annual targets aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by 2020 and an additional 80% by 2050, promising that the U.S. will "help lead the world toward a new era of global cooperation on climate change"; "Few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change. The science is beyond dispute and the facts are clear." In Mar. 2009 the Cato Inst. pub. an ad titled With all due respect, Mr. President, that is not true, signed by dozens of scientists, reading: "We, the undersigned scientists, maintain that the case for alarm regarding climate change is grossly overstated. Surface temperature changes over the past century have been episodic and modest and there has been no net global warming for over a decade now. After controlling for population growth and property values, there has been no increase in damages from severe weather-related events. The computer models forecasting rapid temperature change abjectly fail to explain recent climate behavior. Mr. President, your characterization of the scientific facts regarding climate change and the degree of certainty informing the scientific debate is simply incorrect."

Christopher Booker (1937-) Philip Ball (1962-)

On Nov. 26, 2008 the Climate Change Act of 2008 by the British Parliament is given royal assent, making it the duty of the secy. of state for energy and climate change to ensure that the net carbon account for all six Kyoto greenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline, aiming to make the U.K. a low-carbon economy with ministers given powers to introduce measures to achieve a wide range of greenhouse gas reduction targets; an independent Committee on Climate Change is established; British journalist Christopher John Penrice Booker (1937-) calls the act "the most expensive piece of legislation ever put through Parliament", with projected costs in the hundreds of billions over 40 years; on Oct. 17, 2009 he pub. the bestseller The Real Global Warming Disaster: Is the Obsession with 'Climate Change' Turning Out to Be the Most Costly Scientific Blunder in History?, denying a scientific consensus on climate change, denying that it is manmade, and calling govt. measures to combat it "one of the most expensive, destructive, and foolish mistakes the human race has ever made", labeling it Groupthink, with British science writer Philip Ball (1962-) (ed. of Nature) in The Observer (a critic) calling it "the definitive climate skeptics' manual... [in which] he has rounded up just about every criticism ever made of the majority scientific view that global warming, most probably caused by human activity, is under way, and presented them unchallenged"; Ball reverses the Groupthink argument with the observation that to accept Booker's position one must believe: "1) Most of the world's climate scientists, for reasons unspecified, decided to create a myth about human-induced global warming and have managed to twist endless measurements and computer models to fit their case, without the rest of the scientific community noticing. George W Bush and certain oil companies have, however, seen through the deception. 2) Most of the world's climate scientists are incompetent and have grossly misinterpreted their data and models, yet their faulty conclusions are not, as you might imagine, a random chaos of assertions, but all point in the same direction."

In 2008 the nonprofit news org. Climate Central is founded in Princeton, N.J. to conduct scientific research on climate change and energy issues and produce and distribute multimedia content; on June 20, 2018 after NBC News reports how its Climate Change Education Partnership (founded 2010) helped educate 500+ TV weathercasters across the U.S. on global warming and its impacts, Repub. Sens. Ted Cruz of Tex., Rand Paul of Ky., James Lankford of Okla., and Jim Inhofe of Okla. call for the foundation's inspector gen. Allison Lerner to investigate their $4M program to increase climate reporting by meteorologists, calling it "propagandizing" instead of science, causing CEO Ben Strauss to utter the soundbyte: "Climate Central is not an advocacy organization, and the scientific consensus on climate change is not a political viewpoint", and U.S. Sen. (D-R.I.) Sheldon Whitehouse to utter the soundbyte: "Calling education on the irrefutable science of climate change 'political' would be laughable if it didn't reveal such a sobering truth about Republicans in Congress. Climate deniers still exist on Capitol Hill and the way fossil fuel money holds sway over the Republican Party permits antics like attacking this sensible grant."

The 2009-2010 El Nino is a warm pool El Nino, rapidly decaying to a strong La Nina.

John S. Theon (1934-)

On Jan. 15, 2009 NASA atmospheric scientist John S. Theon (1934), former supervisor of NASA climate change king James Hansen writes a letter to the Minority Office of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, with the soundbytes: "I appreciate the opportunity to add my name to those who disagree that global warming is man made"; "As Chief of several of NASA Headquarters' programs, I was responsible for all weather and climate research in the entire agency, including the research work by James Hansen"; "Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA's official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind's effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress"; "Climate models are useless... My own belief concerning anthropogenic climate change is that the models do not realistically simulate the climate system because there are many very important sub-grid scale processes that the models either replicate poorly or completely omit. Furthermore, some scientists have manipulated the observed data to justify their model results. In doing so, they neither explain what they have modified in the observations, nor explain how they did it. They have resisted making their work transparent so that it can be replicated independently by other scientists. This is clearly contrary to how science should be done. Thus there is no rational justification for using climate model forecasts to determine public policy."

In Jan. 2009 Scottish-born Canadian geologist A. Neil Hutton (1934-) pub. Climate Change in Reservoir, the mag. of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, a balanced treatment pissing-off global warmists for its fairness to the climate skeptic side.

Richard Blumenthal of the U.S. (1946-)

On Feb. 5, 2009 Conn. atty. gen. #23 (1991-2011) Richard Blumenthal (1946-) along with 17 other states and two cities issue a joint letter calling on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) head Lisa P. Jackson to comply with an Apr. 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision ordering it to determine whether CO2 is a danger to human health and welfare and must be regulated, with Blumenthal writing the soundbyte: "I urge the new Obama EPA to declare carbon dioxide a danger to human health and welfare so we can at last begin addressing the potentially disastrous threat global warming poses to health, the environment and our economy. We must make up for lost time before it's too late to curb dangerous warming threatening to devastate the planet and human society"; on Dec. 7 the EPA issues a finding that greenhouse gas pollution threatens human health and the environment, putting it under Section 202(a) of the U.S. Clean Air Act, causing Blumenthal to comment: "No reputable climate scientist disputes the reality of global warming. It is fact, plain and simple. Dithering will be disastrous."

'The Age of Stupid', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Franny Armstrong's The Age of Stupid (Spanner Films) (Dogwood Pictures) debuts, a documentary starring Pete Postlethwaite as a historyscoper living alone in the devastated world of 2055, watching archival footage from guess what year while asking "Why didn't we stop climate change when we had the chance?"; spawns the 10:10 Project in the U.K. to encourage everybody to reduce their carbon emissions by 10% in 12 mo.

'Knowing', 2009 Caleb's Number Sheet from 'Knowing', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Alex Proyas' Knowing (Summit Entertainment), based on an idea by novelist Ryne Douglas Pearson debuts, starring Rose Byrne/Lara Robinson as Lucinda Embry-Wayland, who is visited by ETs in 1959 and puts a sheet of numbers in her school's time capsule, which is opened in 2009 by fellow student Caleb Koestler (Chandler Canterbury), whose father Jonathan "John" Koestler (Nicolas Cage) is an MIT astrophysics prof.; the numbers turn out to be dates and coordinates of major disasters, the last one of which is "EE" (everyone else), after which a solar flare wipes out all life on Earth right before some ETs arrive in spaceships to rescue a lucky few; does $187.9M box office on a $50M budget; "Now, I want you to think about the perfect set of circumstances that put this celestial ball of fire at just the correct distance from our little blue planet for life to evolve, making it possible for you to be sitting here in this riveting lecture. But that's a nice thought, right? Everything has a purpose, an order to it, is determined. But then there's the other side of the argument, the theory of randomness, which says it's all simply coincidence. The very fact we exist is nothing but the result of a complex yet inevitable string of chemical accidents and biological mutations. There is no grand meaning. There's no purpose. What about you, Professor Koestler? What? Well, what do you believe? I think shit just happens. But that's me."

Marc Morano (1968-) Richard Mellon Scaife (1932-2014)

In Apr. 2009 Washington, D.C.-born former Rush Limbaugh aide Marc Morano (1968-) founds the climate change denial Web site Climate Depot, sponsored by the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) of Washington, D.C. (founded in 1985 by David Rothbard and Craig Rucker), going on to help spread news of the Climategate scandal, debate Bill Nye the Science Guy on CNN's "Piers Morgan Tonight" in Dec. 2012 and Sierra Club exec dir. Michael Brune on ditto in Jan. 2013, and produce the documentary Climate Hustle, which debuts on Dec. 7, 2015 at the COP21 U.N. Climate Change Summit in Paris, and in U.S. theaters on May 2, 2016; the film is produced by the Committee for Contructive Tomorrow (CFACT), which is funded by major oil corps. and right-wing billionaire Richard Mellon "Dickie" Scaife (1932-2014). On Feb. 26, 2018 he pub. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Climate Change, which claims that climate change is not about science but about fundamentally changing society to eliminate capitalism in favor of central planning run by the U.N.

Ian Plimer (1946-) William Kininmonth

On May 1, 2009 Australian global warming skeptic earth scientist (geologist) Ian Rutherford Plimer (1946-) pub. the bestseller Heaven and Earth: Global Warming - The Missing Science, dissing climate models for overemphasis on CO2 and not giving enough weight to solar variation; in June he gives an interview to ABNNewswire, containing the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide has an effect on the atmosphere and it has an effect for the first 50 parts per million and once it's done its job then it's finished and you can double it and quadruple it and it has no effect because we've seen that in the geological past, and we've seen it in times gone by when the carbon dioxide content was 100 times the current content. We didn't have runaway global warming, we actually had glaciation, so there's immediately a disconnect. So carbon dioxide is absolutely vital for living on earth; it's plant food, all of life lives off carbon dioxide. To demonize it shows that you don't understand school child science"; he also utters the soundbyte: "There is no problem with global warming. It stopped in 1998. The last two years of global cooling have erased nearly thirty years of temperature increase"; in 2014 he pub. Not for Greens: He Who Sups with the Devil Should Have a Long Spoon. In 2004 he helps fellow Australian global warming skeptic meteorologist William Robert Kininmonth pub. his book Climate Change, a Natural Hazard.

Gareth Morgan (1953-)

On May 8, 2009 after he can't make up his mind about climate change and hires top scientists on both sides to answer his questions, wealthy Kiwi economist and investor Gareth Huw Morgan (1953-) along with John McCrystal pub. Poles Apart: Beyond the Shouting, Who's Right About Climate Change? (The Great Climate Change Debate), explaining why he began accepting it despite problems with the hockey stick, with the order in which CO2 growth and warming occur at the end of an ice age, and the arcane language of the IPCC reports; in Feb. 2012 he makes a voyage in Antarctica from Bluff to Scott Base carrying top scientists to gauge Antarctica's sensitivity to climate change.

On Sept. 28-30, 2009 the 4 Degrees and Beyond Internat. Climate Conference: Implications of a Global Climate Change of 4+ Degrees for People, Ecosystems and the Earth-system is held in Oxford, U.K., sponsored by Oxford U., the Tyndall Centre, and the Met Office Hadley Centre.

On Oct. 18, 2009 Australian atmospheric physicist John Reid pub. an article dissing Al Gore as nothing but a religious cult leader, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is the central tenet of this new belief system in much the same way that the Resurrection is the central tenet of Christianity. Al Gore has taken a role corresponding to that of St Paul in proselytizing the new faith... My skepticism about AGW arises from the fact that as a physicist who has worked in closely related areas, I know how poor the underlying science is. In effect the scientific method has been abandoned in this field."

Tony Abbott of Australia (1957-)

In Oct. 2009 future Australian Liberal PM #28 (2013-15) Anthony John "Tony" Abbott (1957-) gives a speech in Victoria, in which he utters the soundbyte: "I observed that the so-called settled science of climate change was 'absolute crap'"; in July 2014 his govt. abolishes Labor's 2011 carbon tax and replaces it with the Emissions Reduction Fund, which lets cos. bid for $2.5B in public funds to implement emissions reduction projects; on Oct. 9, 2017 he gives the speech Daring to Doubt at the Global Warming Policy Foundation in London, calling green ideology a symptom of the decline of Western civilization, and climate change an insidious new religion that has replaced Christianity in many Western societies, with the soundbytes: "Beware the pronouncement, 'the science is settled'. It's the spirit of the Inquisition, the thought police, down the ages. Almost as bad is the claim that '99 per cent of scientists believe', as if scientific truth is determined by votes rather than facts", "Contrary to the breathless assertions that climate change is behind every weather event, in Australia the floods are not bigger, the bushfires are not worse, the droughts are not deeper or longer, and the cyclones are not more severe than they were in the 1800s. Sometimes, they do more damage but that's because there's more to destroy, not because their intensity has increased. More than 100 years of photography at Manly Beach in my electorate does not suggest that sea levels have risen despite frequent reports from climate alarmists that this is imminent", "In what might be described as Ridley's paradox, after the distinguished British commentator: at least so far, it's climate change policy that's doing harm; climate change itself is probably doing good; or at least, more good than harm", "The growing evidence that records have been adjusted, that the impact of urban heat islands has been downplayed, and that data sets have been slanted in order to fit the theory of dangerous anthropogenic global warming does not make it false; but it should produce much caution about basing drastic action upon it", "Unsurprisingly, the recipients of climate change subsidies and climate change research grants think action is very urgent indeed. As for the general public, of course saving the planet counts – until the bills come in and then the humbug detector is switched on", with the concluding soundbyte: "A tendency to fear catastrophe is ingrained in the human psyche. Looking at the climate record over millions of years, one day it will probably come; whatever we do today won't stop it, and when it comes, it will have little to do with the carbon dioxide emissions of mankind."

Phil Jones (1952-) Tom Wigley Petr Chylek

On Nov. 17, 2009 Climategate starts when a hacker breaks into computers at the U. of East Anglia in England and finds emails of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) scientists faking global warming data at will and bragging about it, dogging the Dec. Copenhagen Summit; CRU dir. Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones (1952-) is in charge of the two key data sets used by the U.N. Intergovt. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to draw up its reports, along with Australian climate scientist Tom Wigley (Hubert Lamb's successor at the CRU), causing them to be known as Jones and Wigley; "Here are some speculations on correcting SSTs to partly explain the 1940s warming blip... So, if we could reduce the ocean blip by, say, 0.15 degC, then this would be significant for the global mean -- but we'd still have to explain the land blip... It would be good to remove a least part of the 1940s blip, but we are still left with 'why the blip'" (Wigley, Sept. 27, 2009); Los Alamos Nat. Lab researcher Petr Chylek sends an email titled "Open Letter to the Climate Research Community" to 100 of his climate research peers, containing the soundbyte that the climate science community has "substituted the search for truth with an attempt at proving one point of view", concluding "Let us drastically modify or temporarily discontinue the IPCC" and appealing for climate scientists to stop making "unjustified claims and exaggerated projections about the future even if the editors of some eminent journals are just waiting to publish them"; on Nov. 22 Climategate III sees another batch of email released, causing Myron Ebell, dir. of the Competitive Enterprise Inst. Center on Energy and Environment to utter the soundbyte: "If there were any doubts remaining after reading the first Climategate e-mails, the new batch of e-mails that appeared on the web today make it clear that the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an organized conspiracy dedicated to tricking the world into believing that global warming is a crisis that requires a drastic response"; too bad, it comes too near the Copenhagen Summit to stop it, despite U.N. climate scientist panel head Rajendra Pachauri uttering the soundbyte: "The internal consistency from multiple lines of evidence strongly supports the work of the scientific community, incl. those individuals singled out in these email exchanges."

James Delingpole (1965-)

On Nov. 20, 2009 English conservative-libertarian writer-journalist (non-scientist) James Mark Court Delingpole (1965-) pub. the article Climategate: The Final Nail in the Coffin of 'Anthropogenic Global Warming' in the London Daily Telegraph, containing the soundbytes: "The conspiracy behind the Anthropogenic Global Warming myth (aka AGW; aka ManBearPig) has been suddenly, brutally and quite deliciously exposed", and "A contretemps with a Climate Bully who wonders whether I have a science degree. (No I don't. I just happen to be a believer in empiricism and not spending taxpayers' money on a problem that may well not exist)." He goes on to popularize the term "Climategate" and use anthropogenic global warming as a whipping boy, humorously suggesting that global warming scientists like Michael E. Mann should be "hanged", "given the electric chair", or "fed to the crocodiles".

In Nov. 2009 the think tank Global Warming Policy Foundation is founded in London, England to challenge "extremely damaging and harmful policies" proposed by govts. to mitigate anthropogenic global warming, taking the position that the science is not yet settled, which causes warmists to lump them with climate change deniers.

On Dec. 7, 2009 the U.S. Environmental Protection Admin. (EPA) announces that greenhouse gases endanger public health and welfare, opening the way for the Obama admin. to impose its own curbs on emissions with or without approval from Congress. On Dec. 7 the Hopenhagen.org Web site sponsored by Coca-Cola, Siemens, and SAP corps. opens, inviting the world's citizens to sign a petition demanding world leaders draft binding agreements on climate changes; meanwhile Europe has its coldest winter in 50 years, snowing uninterruptedly starting on Dec. 13; Coca-Cola spearheads a coalition of 100+ cos. pushing a U.N. climate treaty, which commits the world's wealthiest nations to $10T in foreign aid, and possible create an internat. "super-grid" for regulating and distributing electric power; on Dec. 7-18 the 2009 U.N. Climate Change (Copenhagen) Conference attended by 15K reps from 192 nations is held in Copenhagen, Denmark to attempt to reach an internat. agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, with U.N. Climate Change Secretariat head Yvo de Boer uttering the soundbyte: "The clock has ticked down to zero. After two years of negotiations the time has come to deliver"; developing nations will be offered aid to cut emissions; on Dec. 8 a leaked document showing that world leaders will be asked to sign an agreement handing more power to rich countries and sidelining the U.N.'s role in all future climate negotiations causes an uproar, after which African reps. walk out on Dec. 14; on Dec. 14 Al Gore gives a speech, claiming that polar ice may vanish in 5-7 years (summer 2014), rather than in 2030 like other scientists estimate, citing Wieslav Maslowski, who later disclaims it; on Dec. 18 Pres. Obama visits it, originally planning to pledge a 17% emissions cut by 2020, and 83% by 2050, but ending up frantically trying to rescue it from a stalemate after China balks at a real deal, getting snubbed by the Chinese PM then crashing a meeting to work a last-minute toothless deal in order to claim a V; the last day of the conference is blanked with 4 in. of snow; Christopher Monckton, former science adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher claims that the real purpose of the conference is to lay the foundation for a OWG, but since it was a dud he must have been mistaken?; the rival Copenhagen Climate Challenge Conference is held by climate skeptics, with Australian earth scientist Ian Plimer as the star speaker, who utters the soundbyte: "They've got us outnumbered, but we've got them outgunned, and that's with the truth"; on Dec. 12 Danish police arrest 968 of 100K pro-global-warming protesters in Copenhagen; next July U.N. climate chief Yvo de Boer resigns.

Geraldo Luis Lino

In 2009 Brazilian geologist Geraldo Luis Lino pub. the book The Global Warming Fraud: How a Natural Phenomenon Was Converted into a False World Emergency, going on to utter the soundbytes: "The Anthropogenic Global Warming Hypothesis (AGWH, for short) is simple, direct and appealing; the only problem is that it flunks the scientific method test"; "Hundreds of billions of dollars have been wasted with the attempt of imposing a Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory that is not supported by physical world evidences... AGW has been forcefully imposed by means of a barrage of scare stories and indoctrination that begins in the elementary school textbooks."

Hajo Smit

In 2009 after the Climategate scandal turns him off to global warming science, Dutch climate modeler Hajo Smit (member of the Dutch U.N. IPCC committee) launches the Web site Climategate.nl, uttering the soundbyte: "Gore prompted me to start delving into the science again and I quickly found myself solidly in the skeptic camp... Climate models can at best be useful for explaining climate changes after the fact."

Between 2000 and 2010 humans add about 100 billion tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, which is about 25% of all the CO2 put there by humanity since 1750.

In Jan.-Feb. 2010 the U.S. experiences its coldest winter in 25 years, while Canada experiences its warmest winter on record.

Phil Jones (1952-)

On Feb. 13, 2010 after the Climategate scandal causes Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones (1952-) to temporarily step aside as dir. of the U. of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit (CRU), BBC News pub. an article titled Q&A: Phil Jones, an interview by BBC journalist Roger Harrabin, who asks him if the rates of global warming from 18860-80, 1910-40, and 1978-98 are identical, to which he replies: "The warming rates for all four periods are similar and not statistically significantly different from each other"; to the question: "DO you agree that from January 2002 to the present there has been statistically significant global warming?" he replies: "No. This period is even shorter than 1995-2009. The trend this time is negative (-0.12C per decade), but this trend is not statistically significant"; to the question: "There is a debate over whether the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) was global or not. If it were to be conclusively shown that it was a global phenomenon, would you accept that this would undermine the premise that mean surface atmospheric temperatures during the latter part of the 20th Century were unprecedented?", he replies: "There is much debate over whether the Medieval Warm Period was global in extent or not. The MWP is most clearly expressed in parts of North America, the North Atlantic and Europe and parts of Asia. For it to be global in extent the MWP would need to be seen clearly in more records from the tropical regions and the Southern Hemisphere. There are very few palaeoclimatic records for these latter two regions. Of course, if the MWP was shown to be global in extent and as warm or warmer than today (based on an equivalent coverage over the NH and SH) then obviously the late-20th century warmth would not be unprecedented. On the other hand, if the MWP was global, but was less warm that today, then current warmth would be unprecedented. We know from the instrumental temperature record that the two hemispheres do not always follow one another. We cannot, therefore, make the assumption that temperatures in the global average will be similar to those in the northern hemisphere"; to the question: "When scientists say 'the debate on climate change is over', what exactly do they mean - and what don't they mean?", he replies: "It would be supposition on my behalf to know whether all scientists who say the debate is over are saying that for the same reason. I don't believe the vast majority of climate scientists think this. This is not my view. There is still much that needs to be undertaken to reduce uncertainties, not just for the future, but for the instrumental (and especially the palaeoclimatic) past as well."

On May 1, 2010 the Antarctic Volcanoes Project Blog is launched by TLW, who claims that global warming is good not bad, and more not less CO2 and H2O need to be pumped into the atmosphere to create more living space and food supplies, calling for a global scientific effort to evaluate the potential of reactivating underwater volcanoes in the Antarctic.

Berkeley Earth

In 2010 Berkeley Earth is founded by UCB physicist Richard A. Muller (1944-) and Elizabeth Muller to perform the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project to reanalyze the Earth's surface temperature record in the light of concerns by skeptics, going on to pub. their findings in 2012 and go non-profit in Feb. 2013; they conclude that potential biases from data selection, data adjustment, poor station quality, and the urban heat island effect did not unduly bias the record, and that the overreliance on large and complex global climate models by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the attribution of the recent temperature increase to anthropogenic forcings could be replaced by a simple model that included a volcanic term and, as an anthropogenic proxy, CO2 concentration, concluding that the record could be reproduced by just these two contributions, and that inclusion of direct variations in solar intensity did not contribute to the fit; members incl. Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter (1959-), UCB physicist Jonathan Wurtele (1957-), UCB physicist Arthur Hinton "Art" Rosenfeld (1926-2017), physicist Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Pamela Hyde, and UCB physicist Robert Andrew Rhode, who writes the software to search databases for global temp records and merge them into a unified record, which he compares to "Hercules' enormous task of cleaning the Augean stables", extending the temp record back to 1753; in Oct. 2011 Richard Muller pub. an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal, containing the soundbyte: "When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didn't know what we'd find. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been very careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. They managed to avoid bias in their data selection, homogenization and other corrections. Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help cool this portion of the climate debate. How much of the warming is due to humans and what will be the likely effects? We made no independent assessment of that."

In 2010 the U.N. Green Climate Fund is established in Incheon, South Korea to fight global warming via Climate finance under the UNFCCC; on June 1, 2017 Pres. Trump calls it a scheme to redistribute wealth from rich to poor countries; on July 4, 2018 Australian diplomat Howard Bamsey, dir. since Jan. 2017 resigns after a board meeting approves no new projects.

Donna Laframboise

In 2010 Canadian investigative journalist (non-scientist) Donna Laframboise organizes a "citizen audit" of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, finding that 21 of its 44 chapters used fewer than 60% peer-reviewed sources; in 2011 she pub. the book The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World's Top Climate Expert, exposing the rottenness of the IPCC incl. its ties to environmental activist orgs. and no conflict of interest policy until May 2011; on Sept. 9, 2013 she pub. the book Into the Dustbin: Rajendra Pachauri, the Climate Report & the Nobel Peace Prize, criticizing IPCC chmn. Rajendra Pachauri for padding his resume, and claiming that the IPCC bases its conclusions solely on peer-reviewed lit. while advising IPCC personnel to claim that they are Nobel laureates; no surprise, the PC press attacks her personally, just making her more popular?; "There are two ways to get a scientific consensus. One is to present the data and the analysis in a manner that is so persuasive that everyone is convinced. The other way is to exclude or marginalize anyone who does not agree... The response to Susan's work is politically motivated, not an argument against her conclusions." (Mitchell Taylor)

In 2010 Alan J. Moran (ed.) pub. Climate Change: The Facts, containing essays expounding the climate skeptic viewpoint from several authors; in 2015 a 2nd ed. is pub. by the Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) in Australia together with Canadian right wing pundit Mark Steyn, containing 21 essays; in 2017 Jennifer Marohasy (ed.) pub. Climate Change: The Facts 2017, containing 22 essays, sponsored by the IPA; "However, our understanding of how the climate operates is incomplete and it is critically important to challenge the view that the planet is facing a global warming catastrophe."

Tim Ball (1938-) John O'Sullivan

On Jan. 18, 2011 Canadian geographer-climatologist Timothy Francis "Tim" Ball (1938-), Charles Anderson, Martin Hertzberg, Claes Johnson, Joseph Olson, John O'Sullivan, and Hans Schreuder pub. Slaying the Sky Dragon - Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory, claiming to disprove the theory of manmade global warming by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; a product of Principia Scientific Internat. (PSI), founded in the U.K. in 2010 by Tim Ball and British-born Canadian-Am. atty. John O'Sullivan to push the claim that CO2 is not a greenhouse gas. In 2011 hockey stick man Michael Mann sues Tim Ball for defamation for the soundbyte that Mann "should be in the State Pen, not Penn State". On Jan. 21, 2014 Ball pub. The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science, dissing the progressive left for politicizing what should only be a science. On Sept. 5, 2016 Ball pub. Human Caused Global Warming.

20111 Fukushina Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, Mar. 11, 2011

On Mar. 11, 2011 the 9.0 2011 Tohoku Japan Earthquake (biggest ever) strikes off Senai (near Tokyo), causing tsunami alerts in 20+ countries, with a 33-ft. wall of water swamping town in N Japan, killing 10K and causing $35B in damage; an explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi (No. 1) Power Plant nuclear reactor 170 mi. NE of Tokyo causes radiation to hit 1Kx the safe level, causing a 6-mi. exclusion zone to be placed around it, after which a 2nd power plant explodes; on Mar. 14 the 3rd nuclear power plant explosion occurs, causing panicked residents of Tokyo to flee as the U.S. braces for possible radioactive fallout; the earthquake shortens the length of the day by 1.8 microsec.; on Mar. 15 100K protesters throughout Germany call for closing of nuclear power stations; on Mar. 17 German chancellor Angela Merkel orders Germany's older nuclear reactors to be temporarily shut down for a safety check; on Mar. 18 Pres. Obama orders a review of nuclear power plants, while standing strong on the need for more; on Mar. 26 after radioactive iodine spikes 1.2K times higher than normal in nearby seawater, Japanese authorities order the evacuation zone to be expanded to 18 mi.; on Apr. 12 Japan raises the crisis level at Fukushima to 7 (highest), equal to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.

Katharine Hayhoe and Andrew Farley (1972-) Katharine Hayhoe with Leonardo DiCaprio and Pres. Barack Obama

On Mar. 21, 2011 Canadian-Am. climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe and her husband, West Tex. evangelical pastor Andrew Farley (1972-) pub. A Climate for Change: Global Warming Facts for Faith-Based Decisions, attempting to reconcile climate change wth evangelical Christianity, making fans of Leonardo DiCaprio and Pres. Obama; on Nov. 14, 2016 she writes an open letter to Pres. Trump, pleading with him to accept that climate change is real and not a hoax.

In Apr. 2011 the monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal Nature Climate Change is founded to cover global warming research; ed.-in-chief #1 is Olive Heffernan.

On May 25-27, 2011 the 2011 Geological and Mineralogical Assoc. of Canada (GAC-MAC) Conference is held at the U. of Ottawa in Canada, pissing-off global warmists by giving ample space to global warming skeptics incl. Bob Carter, Ian Plimer, and Henrik Svensmark.

John L. Casey

On May 31, 2011 former White House nat. space policy adviser John L. Casey pub. Cold Sun, blaming perceived global warming on the Sun; on Aug. 19, 2014 he pub. Dark Winter: How the Sun Is Causing a 30-Year Cold Spell, predicting a coming "solar hibernation" bringing a long-term drop in Earth temperatures along with record earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Ben Davidson (1983-)

In May 2011 Ben Davidson (1983-) founds SuspiciousObservers to promote the role of the Sun in climate change and predict a coming Grand Solar Minimum.

Ivar Giaever (1929-)

On June 26, 2011 Bergen, Norway-born Am. physicist Ivar Giaever (1929-) (co-winner of the 1973 Nobel Physics Prize) utters the soundbyte in the Aftenposten (Norway's largest newspaper): "It is amazing how stable temperature has been over the last 150 years", resigning from the Am. Physical Society on Sept. 13, 2011, with the soundbyte: "In the APS it is OK to discuss whether the mass of the proton changes over time and how a multi-universe behaves, but the evidence of global warming is incontrovertible?"; at the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting he utters the soundbyte: "Is climate change pseudoscience? If I'm going to answer the question, the answer is: absolutely."

William M. Gray (1929-2016)

In June 2011 Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist William Mason "Bill" Gray (1929-2016) (authority on tropical cyclone forecasting) pub. the paper On the Hijacking of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), containing the soundbyte: "I am very disappointed at the downward path the AMS has been following for the last 10-15 years in its advocacy of the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis. The society has officially taken a position many of us AMS members do not agree with. We believe that humans are having little or no significant influence on the global climate and that the many Global Circulation Climate Model (GCMs) results and the four IPCC reports do not realistically give accurate future projections. To take this position which so many of its members do not necessarily agree with shows that the AMS is following more of a political than a scientific agenda.... We AMS members have allowed a small group of AMS administrators, climate modelers, and CO2 warming sympathizers to maneuver the internal workings of our society to support AGW policiesirrespective of what our rank-and-file members might think. This small organized group of AGW sympathizers has indeed hijacked our society"; the paper was greeted with stony silence - you can't handle the truth?

Christian Parenti

On July 12, 2011 Am. journalist Christian Parenti pub. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence, claiming a link between climate change and political unrest in mid-lat. regions of Earth.

On Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 2011 the 2011 U.N. Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa fails to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions, but does agree to establish a legally binding deal comprising all countries by 2015, to take effect in 2020; despite conference pres. Maite Nkoana-Mashabane declaring it a success, environmental groups and scientists warnt that it is not sufficient to avoid global warming beyond 2C.

On Dec. 15, 2011 the Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources holds a 2-hour Hearing on Climate Change, with speakers incl. climate change skeptics Ian Clark, Ross McKitrick, Tim Patterson, Roger Pielke, and Jan Veizer.

In Dec. 2011 the 2011-2017 Calif. Drought begins (ends Mar. 2017), killing 102M trees in 2011-16, and 62M in 2016 only, after which severe floods are caused by Pacific storms, causing the Calif. Drought Manipulation Conspiracy Theory to be proclaimed by various sources, claiming it was manufactured via weather modification.

Ole Humlum (1949-)

In 2011 Danish physical geographer Ole Humlum (1949-) et al. pub. the article Identifying natural contributions to late Holocene climate change in Global and Planetary Change, claiming that changes in the Sun's and Moon's influence on the Earth may explain most of the historical and current climate change, drawing fire from several pro-anthropogenic warming scientists; in 2013 he predicts that the climate will most likely grow colder in the next 10–15 years.

Claude J. Allègre Vincent Courtillot (1949-)

On Jan. 27, 2012 the op-ed No Need to Panic About Global Warming is pub. in The Wall Street Journal, signed by 16 scientists, with the headline: "There's no compelling scientific argument for drastic action to 'decarbonize' the world's economy", claiming that "a large and growing number of distinguished scientists and engineers do not agree that drastic actions on global warming are needed" and calling on elected officials to avoid implementing climate change policy because it would "divert resources from real needs and are based on alarming but untenable claims of incontrovertible evidence", only four signers have pub. peer-reviewed climate research articles, only two in the past 30 years?; it's just a cheap propaganda ploy that avoids the need to pub. a peer-reviewed scientific article proving their claims? signers incl. French leading climate skeptic (geochemist) Claude J. Allegre (Allègre), a flip-flopper who signed the 1992 "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity", known for the soundbyte: "We do not deny climate change, but we consider that global warming is not the essential phenomenon. If the temperature increases by 1 or 2° C per century and the sea level rises 25 centimeters, this does not seem catastrophic. We think, for our part, that the essential phenomenon is the increased frequency of extreme events: heat waves or Russian winter, heavy rains with flooding and drought with lack of clean water, and frequent violent tornadoes. All with seemingly random geographic distributions"; his French colleague Vincent Courtillot (b. 1949?) is known for the soundbytes: "It is true that carbon dioxide has increased dramatically in recent decades. And if I am not persuaded that the effect on global temperatures is shown, nothing prevents these effects occurring in the future (one of the main risks is ocean acidification)"; "It is clear that oil, gas and coal resources will eventually be depleted someday and to be reasonably cautious about decreasing consumption is a necessity. It does not need to be related to a legal precautionary principle"; "We have shown that some specific features of the magnetic field were remarkably well correlated with some variations in the sun's activity - which in itself was not surprising - but the fact that it also correlated with the mean global temperature of the lower atmosphere came to us as a real surprise. This is how I started to get interested in climatology at the decadal to centennial time scale, an area which is not my specialty, though I had already encountered climatologists at the million year time scale with the Indian volcanism."

On Jan. 29, 2012 David B. Lobell et al. of Stanford U. pub. an article in Nature Climate Change revealing that images from the MODIS Earth observation satellite show wehat in the Ganges Plain of India turning from green to brown earlier when avg. temps are higher, predicting yield losses 50% greater than today if global temps rise by 2C - meaning that a Paradise Earth won't have Wheaties?

U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-) U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-)

On Feb. 7, 2012 U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-), chmn. of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) in 2003-7 and 2015-17, known for opposing same-sex marriage and wanting to make English the U.S. nat. language pub. The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future, claiming on the Senate floor that "manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people", once bringing a snowball with him to disprove global warming, and claiming that schools are "brainwashing" children about climate change, making it necessary to "unbrainwash them when they get out", earning him the top position on the Top Ten Climate Deniers List.

Anthony R. Lupo (1966-)

On Feb. 20, 2012 environmental activist Peter Gleick admits to hacking into the computers of the Heartland Inst. and stealing internal documents that show it paying six univ. profs. to provide consulting services, causing U. of Mo. atmospheric science prof. Anthony R. "Tony" Lupo (1966-) to be unsuccessfully put under the microscope to 'get' hiim for his belief that humans are causing global warming, with the soundbyte: "There's no doubt the climate is changing; that's a given. But the question is: What's causing it. Is it mankind alone, which a lot of people say? Is it some mix of man and nature? Or is it nature? I would say nature is mostly responsible. There may be a role for man in there somewhere, but how much, I don't know"; he goes on to speak at the \ 7th Heartland Inst. Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Ill. in May 2012, and the 9th in Las Vegas, Nev. on July 7-9, 2014.

On Mar. 1, 2012 Barbel Honisch et al. of Columbia U. pub. an article in Science announcing that the Earth's oceans may be turning acidic from human carbon emissions faster than during the last four major extinctions over 300M years.

On Mar. 1-27, 2012 the Mar. 2012 North Am. Heat Wave sees 7K+ daily temperature records tied or broken, with Chicago, Ill. reching 80F+ every day between Mar. 14-18; S Canada also sees record-breaking high temps.

In Apr. 2012 Obama admin. agriculture secy. Tom Vilsack announcing the new Forest Planning Rule for the 155 U.S. nat. forests and grasslands, heavily influenced by leftist environmentalists, with plan components incl. "Restore and maintain forests and grasslands", "Provide habitat for plant and animal diversity and special conservation" et al., in practice making forest fires more likely by prohibiting the clearing of brush and cutting of dead trees since environmentalists can't stand the sight of a logger in a nat. park?

Heartland Inst. Unabomber ad, May, 2012

On May 3-4, 2012 the Heartland Inst. runs a billboard ad campaign comparing believers in global warming to the Unabomber, pissing them off along with some supporters, causing them to pull the billboard and not follow it with more featuring Charles Manson, Fidel Castro, and Osama bin Laden.

Sir Matt Ridley (1958-)

On Dec. 18, 2012 English libertarian journalist Sir Matthew White "Matt" Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley (1958-), known for his lukewarm view of climate change and distrust of renewable energy policy pub. the article Cooling Down the Fears of Climate Change, claiming that evidence points to a further global temp rise of just 1C by 2100, and arguing that the net effect on Earth may be beneficial; on Jan. 4, 2013 he pub. the article How Fossil Fuels Have Greened the Planet in The Wall Street Journal explaining the satellite evidence for the CO2 fertilisation effect (global greening), becoming the first in the mainstream media; on Sept. 17 he pub. the article Dialing Back the Alarm on Climate Change, claiming that the forthcoming (Sept. 27) IPCC Fifth Assessment Report will lower its estimates on global warming; in 2013 he pub. a report for the Global Warming Policy Foundation, containing the soundbyte: "I have written about climate change and energy policy for more than 25 years. I have come to the conclusion that current energy and climate policy is probably more dangerous, both economically and ecologically, than climate change itself. T his is not the same as arguing that climate has not changed or that mankind is not partly responsible. That the climate has changed because of man-made carbon dioxide I fully accept. What I do not accept is that the change is or will be damaging, or that current policy would prevent it"; in 2015 he comments on the CO2 fertilisation effect in a report about scientist Indur Goklany: "As Goklany demonstrates, the assessments used by policy makers have overestimated warming so far, underestimated the direct benefits of carbon dioxide, overestimated the harms from climate change, and underestimated the human capacity to adapt"; his critics ignore his arguments and satisfy themselves with observations on his ownership of coal mine land. On Sept. 4, 2014 he pub. the article Whatever Happened to Global Warming? in The Wall Street Journal, examining "climate scientists' implausible explanations for why the 'hiatus' has passed the 15-year mark".

Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-)

In 2012 German chemist Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) and German geologist Sebastian Luning (Lüning) (1970-) pub. "Die Kalte Sonne: Warum die Klimakatrasphoe nicht Statfindet", which is pub. in English on June 15, 2015 as The Neglected Sun: Why the Sun Precludes Climate Catastrophe, which claims that the Sun and four concurrent solar cycles control weather on Earth, not CO2, making the doomsday global warming predictions of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change into moose hockey, a castle built on sand, because a future ice age is a possibility after the Earth cools 0.2-0.3 C by 2035; their book is heavily criticized by climate scientists.

In 2012-13 the coldest winter in 50 years in Russia, with abnormally cold weather in Europe, India, China, and the U.S.; China has its coldest winter in 30 years; Moscow has its deepest snowfall in 134 years; in Jan. 2013 New Delhi records its lowest temperature in 44 years; in Mar. 2013 Britain experiences its 2nd coldest Mar. since 1910; in Apr. 2013 3,318 sites in the U.S. record their lowest temps ever; on Mar. 31, 2013 an article in the Herald of Germany contains the soundbyte: "German meteorologists say that the start of 2013 is now the coldest in 208 years - and now German media has quoted Russian scientist Dr Habibullo Abdussamatov from the St. Petersburg Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory [saying this] is proof as he said earlier that we are heading for a 'Mini Ice Age.' Talking to German media the scientist who first made his prediction in 2005 said that after studying sunspots and their relationship with climate change on Earth, we are now on an 'unavoidable advance towards a deep temperature drop.'"

In early Jan.-Mar., 2013 after a pool of hot air settles over the center of the continent in Sept. combined with lack of cloud cover, the 90-day Australian Angry (Extreme) Summer sees 123 weather records broken incl. hottest Jan., hottest summer, hottest week (avg. of 39C or 102F), and hottest day in Australia (Jan. 7, 40.30C or 104.54F); no surprise, the U. of Melbourne claims a link to anthropogenic global warming.

Ed Caryl

On Mar. 2, 2013 the climate skeptic blog NoTricksZone pub. the article The Carbon Cycle - Nature or Nurture? by Ed Caryl, which claims that man injects only about 4% of the annual CO2 flux, the resting coming from oceans and land plants, concluding: "It is ten times as likely that atmospheric CO2 is coming from natural sources, namely the warming ocean surface, as it is likely that it is coming from anthropogenic sources. The changes in CO2 track ocean surface temperature, not global carbon emissions. Burning fossil fuels is not increasing atmospheric CO2. Recovery from the Little Ice Age, driven by the sun, is causing the oceans to release CO2. It is temperature driving CO2 release, not the other way around. Just as it has always been. As the sun gets quiet in the next few years, sea surface temperature will begin to fall, and the rise in CO2 will cease. If the sun stays quiet for 30 or 40 years, ocean surface temperatures will fall far enough to reverse the CO2 rise, the globe will enter a new little ice age, and things will get really interesting"; it turns out to be fake news? On Oct. 15, 2015 Caryl pub. the article Social Benefit Of Carbon Is Ten To A Hundred Times The Estimated Social Cost. On July 13, 2018 the blog pub. the article Five New Studies From Around the World Show Today's Weather Fully Within Range of Natural Variability! by Pierre Gosselin.

On Apr. 10, 2013 the Business for Innovative Climate and Energy Policy Coalition (BICEP) releases the Climate Declaration urging Congress to act on climate change, with the soundbyte that "asserting that a bold response to the climate challenge is one of the greatest American economic opportunities of the 21st century"; signers incl. 30 cos. incl. Nike, Starbucks, and eBay.

On Apr. 29, 2013 the atmospheric CO2 concentration at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory reaches 400 ppm for the first time after increasing 2.1 ppm per year for the last 10 years.

William Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-)

On May 8, 2013 Princeton U. physicist William "Will" Happer (1939-) and former NASA astronaut (geologist) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.) (1977-83) Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (1935-) pub. the op-ed article In Defense of Carbon Dioxide in The Wall Street Journal, arguing that "the demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlations with global temperature", pissing-off the global warmists and causing the Columbia Journalism Review to call the article "shameful, even for the dismal standards" of the WSJ (journalism standards or scientific standards?); Happer later gives an interview claiming that "temperature always changes first, and CO2 follows", there has been no global temp increase since 1998, and "A thousand parts per million of CO2 would actually help the planet... If you look around the world, many greenhouse operators put several thousand parts per million into their greenhouses"; he later utters the soundbyte: "There's a whole area of climate so-called science that is really more like a cult... it's like Hare Krishna or something like that. They're glassy-eyed and they chant. It will potentially harm the image of all science"; in 2017 Happer meets with new Pres. Trump to discuss being appointed as his science adviser.

Naomi Oreskes (1958-) John Cook

On May 15, 2013 after years of papers attempting to estimate scientific support for anthropogenic global warming/climate change, Australian cognitive scientist John Cook (2007 founder of the climate science blog Skeptical Science) et al. pub. the paper Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature in Environmental Research Letters, which reports on an examination of 11,944 climate abstracts pub. in 1991-2011, finding that "Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming", which is given a super boost on May 16 by Pres. Obama in a tweet; on Apr. 13, 2016 Cook, Am. historian of science Naomi Oreskes (1958-), Am. geologist Peter T. Doran et al. pub. the paper Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming in Environmental Research Letters, which concludes that "The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper", and that "the finding of 97% consensus [that humans are causing recent global warming] in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies." On June 3, 2010 Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (1965-) pub. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, which is filmed in 2004 by Robert Kenner. On Apr. 22, 2011 Cook, Haydn Washington, and Oreskes pub. Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, pissing-off the opposition by use of the cruel char. assassination terms "deniers" and "denialists".

On May 26, 2013 researchers at the U. of Hawaii pub. an article in Nature Geoscience revealing that El Nino is dependent on an unusual wind pattern that straddles the equatorial Pacific and has a 15 mo. cycle.

On May 30, 2013 Qing-Bin Lu et al. of the U. of Waterloo pub. an article in the Internat. Journal of Modern Physics B blaming chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for global warming instead of carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "Conventional thinking says that the emission of human-made non-CFC gases such as carbon dioxide has mainly contributed to global warming. But we have observed data going back to the Industrial Revolution that convincingly shows that conventional understanding is wrong. In fact, the data shows that CFCs conspiring with cosmic rays caused both the polar ozone hole and global warming. Most conventional theories expect that global temperatures will continue to increase as CO2 levels continue to rise, as they have done since 1850. What's striking is that since 2002, global temperatures have actually declined - matching a decline in CFCs in the atmosphere. My calculations of CFC greenhouse effect show that there was global warming by about 0.6 °C from 1950 to 2002, but the earth has actually cooled since 2002. The cooling trend is set to continue for the next 50-70 years as the amount of CFCs in the atmosphere continues to decline."

On June 25, 2013 Pres. Obama unveils his Nat. Climate Action Plan in a speech at Georgetown U. in Washington, D.C., with the soundbytes: "And around the same time we began exploring space, scientists were studying changes taking place in the Earth’s atmosphere. Now, scientists had known since the 1800s that greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide trap heat, and that burning fossil fuels release those gases into the air. That wasn’t news. But in the late 1950s, the National Weather Service began measuring the levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, with the worry that rising levels might someday disrupt the fragile balance that makes our planet so hospitable. And what they’ve found, year after year, is that the levels of carbon pollution in our atmosphere have increased dramatically. That science, accumulated and reviewed over decades, tells us that our planet is changing in ways that will have profound impacts on all of humankind. The 12 warmest years in recorded history have all come in the last 15 years. Last year, temperatures in some areas of the ocean reached record highs, and ice in the Arctic shrank to its smallest size on record - faster than most models had predicted it would. These are facts. Now, we know that no single weather event is caused solely by climate change. Droughts and fires and floods, they go back to ancient times. But we also know that in a world that's warmer than it used to be, all weather events are affected by a warming planet. The fact that sea level in New York, in New York Harbor, are now a foot higher than a century ago - that didn’t cause Hurricane Sandy, but it certainly contributed to the destruction that left large parts of our mightiest city dark and underwater. The potential impacts go beyond rising sea levels. Here at home, 2012 was the warmest year in our history. Midwest farms were parched by the worst drought since the Dust Bowl, and then drenched by the wettest spring on record. Western wildfires scorched an area larger than the state of Maryland. Just last week, a heat wave in Alaska shot temperatures into the 90s"; "So the question is not whether we need to act. The overwhelming judgment of science - of chemistry and physics and millions of measurements - has put all that to rest. Ninety-seven percent of scientists, including, by the way, some who originally disputed the data, have now put that to rest. They've acknowledged the planet is warming and human activity is contributing to it."

In June 2013 sociologist Riley E. Dunlap of Okla. State U. and political scientist Peter J. Jacques of the U. of Central Fla. pub. the article Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection, complaining of the lack of peer review for climate denial books, and noting that the climate denial movement has spread out from the U.S. to other countries.

'Snowpiercer', 2013

On July 29, 2013 Bong Joon-ho's Snowpiercer (Stillking Films) (CJ Entertainment) debuts, based on the 1982 French graphic novel "Le Transperceneige" by Jacques Lob, Benjamin Legrand, and Jean-Marc Rochette about a future world where botched climate engineering causes an ice age, causing the remnant of humanity to live on a massive perpetual motion-powered train that travels on a circumnavigational track, where the elite live in the opulent front cars and the scum live in the back cars under the brutal bootheel of Minister Mason (Tilda Swinton), causing a revolution led by Curtis Everett (Chris Evans) and Gilliam (John Hurt); Ed Harris plays engine creator Minister Wilford; does $86.8M box office on a $40M budget.

In July-Aug. 2013 the 2013 China Heat Wave centered over Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province sees Fenghua, Zhejiang reach a record high temperature of 43.5C (110.3F) on Aug. 8; five provinces with a total pop. of 314M are affected.

Warm Regards podcast crew

On Sept. 27, 2013 the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is released, concluding that: "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century"; on Sept. 27 after calling the report a "death warrant written in stark, black-and-white data", Am. blogging meteorologist Eric Holthaus (1981-) announces his decision to never fly again. In July 2016 Holthaus, U. of Maine paleoecologist and leftist activist Jacquelyn Gill, and New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) found the weekly podcast Warm Regards (until ?); listen.

Allan Savory (1935-)

On Dec. 11, 2013 after founding the Africa Centre for Holistic Management in Zimbabwe in 1993, Zimbabwean ecologist Clifford Allan Redin Savory (1935-) pub. The Grazing Revolution: A Radical Plan to Save Earth, using holistic planned cattle grazing to reverse desertification and combat climate change, making fans of Prince Charles of Britain et al.; he becomes known for the soundbytes: "Burning one hectare of grassland gives off more, and more damaging, pollutants than 6,000 cars. And we are burning in Africa, every single year, more than one billion hectares"; "Ultimately, the only wealth that can sustain any community, economy or nation is derived from the photosynthetic process - green plants growing on regenerating soil."

On Dec. 22, 2013 researchers at the U. of Edinburgh pub. an article in Nature GeoScience claiming that a historical study of climate disproves the theory that the Sun has a major influence - except if it goes dead?

On Jan. 2-8, 2014 Winter Storm Hercules, based on a life-threatening Polar Vortex blasts North Am. with the lowest temps in decades, reaching -53F in Winnipeg, and creating Chiberia in the Chicago area; on Jan. 2-Apr. 10 the Early 2014 North Am. Cold Wave, caused by a southward shift of the North Polar Vortex breaks low temperature records across the U.S. from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, killing 21 and doing $5B damage; record low temperatures continue into Mar.; meanwhile Calif. has its warmest winter on record, 4.4F above average.

On May 31, 2014 the Obama admin. announces a new EPA plan to reduce carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants by 30% by 2030, imposing an emission cap on existing plants; the new rules are only a draft, not expected to be finalized for another year; the announcement causes the Heritage Foundation to utter the soundbyte that the plan "will drive up energy prices for American families and businesses without making a dent in global temperatures", and House Speaker (R-Ohio) John Boehner to utter the soundbyte: "Every proposal that has come out of this administration to deal with climate change involves hurting our economy and killing American jobs"; the environmental activist group Nat. Resources Defense Council claims that the new rules will create "hundreds of thousands" of new jobs.

In May 2014 the 2014-16 El Nino (ends June 2016) sees the E equatorial Pacific Ocean warm, with unusually warm waters between the coast of South Am. and the Internat. Date Line, bringing more tropical cyclones than normal in the Pacific Ocean, and fewer than normal in the Atlantic Ocean.

On June 14, 2014 Pres. Obama delivers a commencement speech at the U. of Calif. Irvine, saying that he wants to "light a fire" underneath his young listeners' pants to do something about global warming, with the soundbytes: "The question is not whether we need to act. The overwhelming judgment of science, accumulated and measured and reviewed over decades, has put that to rest. The question is whether we have the will to act before it's too late"; "The climate change deniers suggest there's still a debate over the science. There's not. The talking heads on cable news suggest public opinion is hopelessly deadlocked. It's not"; he also announces a $1B fund to help communities protect against wildfires, flooding, and storm damage caused by the changing climate.

Tom Steyer (1957-) Michael Bloomberg (1942-) Henry Paulson of the U.S. (1946-)

In June 2014 after Steyer launches NextGen America in 2013 to support climate change policies and candidates, the Risky Business Project, founded by billionaire hedge fund mgr. Thomas Fahr "Tom" Steyer (1957-), billionaire New York City mayor (2002-13) Michael Rubens Bloomberg (1942-), and former U.S. treasury secy. #74 (2006-9) Henry Merritt "Hank" Paulson Jr. (1946-) to combat climate change pub. its Nat. Report, followed by the Midwest Report (Jan. 2015), and the Calif. Report (Apr. 2015), examining the economic risks and opportunities of climate change.

In Aug. 2014 1,097 low maximum temperature records are broken across the U.S. except the West Coast.

On Aug. 29, 2014 Bardabunga Volcano in C Iceland begins erupting (until Feb. 27, 2015), emitting large amounts of sulfur dioxide but little or no volcanic ash, extruding basaltic lava covering 33 sq. mi. of terrain in 6 mo., becoming the largest basaltic lava flow since 1783, driving rapid global warming in 2014-16.

Mark Giampapa Tony Phillips

In 2014 U. of Ariz. solar physicist Mark S. Giampapa utters the soundbyte: "My opinion is that we are heading into a Maunder Minimum. I'm seeing a continuation in the decline of the sunspots' mean magnetic field strengths and a weakening of the polar magnetic fields and subsurface flows." In 2017 the documentary film Global Cooling: The Grand Solar Minimum is released, claiming a coming global cooling, exacerbated by the Geissberg Cycle of Solar Activity, with Tony Phillips of the Web site spaceweather.com uttering the soundbyte: "During the nadir of the sunspot cycle, the entire heliosphere changes its personality with many consequences for the space around our planet. One of the most important changes involves cosmic rays, high-energy radiation reaching Earth from deep space. As sunspot numbers decline, cosmic rays intensify", explaining that solar storm clouds incl. coronal mass ejections (CMEs) normally sweep aside cosmic rays.

Willie Soon (1966-) Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) David Russell Legates William M. Briggs

On Jan. 8, 2015 Harvard-Smithsonisn Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Willie Wei-Hock Soon (1966-), British self-educated pansophist Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), U. of Del. climatologist David Russell Legates (former Del. State Climatologist in 2004-11), and Am. "Statistician to the Stars" William M. "Matt" Briggs pub. Why Models Run Hot: Results from an Irreducibly Simple Climate Model in the Chinese Science Bulletin, claiming that climate computer models of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tend to exaggerate global warming, and using a simple climate model to predict an overall trend of 1.0C warming in 2000-2100, pointing to an historical record of 0.34C warming in 1990-2014, with the soundbyte: "The impact of anthropogenic global warming over the next century... may be no more than one-third to one-half of IPCC's current projections", pissing-off the global warming set. On June 24, 2018 Briggs pub. the article Global Warming: Thirty Years of Hype, Hysteria and Hullabaloo, which contains the soundbyte: "Here we are, thirty years after the klaxon. Life is better, or at least no worse, as far as environmental conditions are concerned. Whatever trouble we had from global cooling, or rather global warming, was not that bothersome. We discovered there are plenty of more pressing problems to worry about. The boorish behavior of activists, the endless hectoring of politicians, the realization of what shutting off fossil fuels really meant, the whopping pile of failed predictions, all that and more, killed global warming as a mass cause. The undead corpse of global warming is animated now only by the hopes of a handful of true believers. Smarter activists see the futility of climate change and have begun the work of metamorphosing the cause into something grander. The seeds for this growth were planted in the Paris 'climate' accord, which called for 'gender equality, empowerment of women, and intergenerational equity' as well as 'climate justice.' All that was missing was transgender 'rights.' But don’t worry. That's being taken care of, too."

On Jan. 20, 2015 (Tues.) Pres. Obama delivers his 2015 State of the Union Speech, acting as if his party hadn't just lost a nat. election, calling climate change the greatest threat to future generations, and calling for $320B in new taxes without explicitly mentioning it, which incl. a $3K/year child care tax credit, an expanded earned income tax credit, seven days of paid sick leave, two years of free community college, a bipartisan infrastructure plan et al., praising the middle class, becoming the first SOTU speech since 9/11 to not mention al-Qaida, and first to mention LGBTs, calling same-sex marriage "America at its best", asking Congress to officially approve military action against ISIS, and ending with an appeal for "a better politics" that crosses party lines; Repubs. call his proposals income redistribution, and declare them dead on arrival; "The shadow of crisis has passed, and the state of the Union is strong"; "At this moment - with a growing economy, shrinking deficits, bustling industry, and booming energy production - we have risen from recession freer to write our own future than any other nation on Earth. It's now up to us to choose who we want to be over the next 15 years, and for decades to come"; "Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well, or will we commit ourselves to an economy that generates rising incomes and chances for everyone who makes the effort?"; too bad, although decrying anti-Semitism, he keeps covering for Islam, declaring that he will veto any new sanctions on Iran, with the soundbytes: "As Americans, we respect human dignity, even when we're threatened, which is why I've prohibited torture, and worked to make sure our use of new technology like drones is properly constrained. It's why we speak out against the deplorable anti-Semitism that has resurfaced in certain parts of the world. It's why we continue to reject offensive stereotypes of Muslims, the vast majority of whom share our commitment to peace. That's why we defend free speech, and advocate for political prisoners, and condemn the persecution of women, or religious minorities, or people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. We do these things not only because they're right, but because they make us safer"; "2014 was the planet's warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn't make a trend, but this does – 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century. I've heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they're not scientists; that we don't have enough information to act. Well, I'm not a scientist, either. But you know what – I know a lot of really good scientists at NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we'll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it."

On Feb. 5, 2015 Maya Tolstoy et al. of the Earth Inst. at Columbia U. pub. the article Seafloor volcano pulses may alter climate: Strikingly regular patterns, from weeks to eons, showing that undersea volcanoes flare up in strikingly regular cycles ranging from 2 weeks to 100K years, always during the first 6 mo. of the year, and are apparently tied to short-term and long-term changes in Earth's orbit and sea levels, and may trigger climate swings, suggesting a connection with Milankovitch Cycles, esp. the 100K-year cycle in which Earth's orbit changes from a circle to an ellipse.

Judith A. Curry (1952-)

On Apr. 13, 2015 (Earth Day) Pres. Obama signs the President's U.N. Climate Pledge, incl. a new Nat. Fuel Efficiency Policy of 35.5 mpg for model years 2012-16 cars, new efficiency stds. for home appliances, a new EPA regulation requiring the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions by major emitters in the U.S. et al., after which fence-sitting Am. climatologist Judith A. Curry (1952-), known for criticizing the IPCC reports for neglecting the "Uncertainty Monster", and for advocating that climatologists be more accomodating to climate change skeptics testifies before the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, uttering the soundbyte: "The definition of 'dangerous' climate change is ambiguous, and hypothesized catastrophic tipping points are regarded as very or extremely unlikely in the 21st century. Efforts to link dangerous impacts of extreme weather events to human-caused warming are misleading and unsupported by evidence. Climate change is a 'wicked problem' and ill-suited to a 'command and control' solution. It has been estimated that the U.S. national commitments to the U.N. to reduce emissions by 28% will prevent three hundredths of a degree centigrade in warming by 2100... The articulation of a preferred policy option in the early 1990's by the United Nations has marginalized research on broader issues surrounding climate variability and change and has stifled the development of a broader range of policy options. We need to push the reset button in our deliberations about how we should respond to climate change. We should expand the frameworks for thinking about climate policy and provide a wider choice of options in addressing the risks from climate change. As an example of alternative options, pragmatic solutions have been proposed based on efforts to accelerate energy innovation, build resilience to extreme weather, and pursue no regrets pollution reduction. Each of these measures has justifications independent of their benefits for climate mitigation and adaptation. Robust policy options that can be justified by associated policy reasons whether or not human caused climate change is dangerous avoids the hubris of pretending to know what will happen with the 21st century climate"; on Jan. 4, 2017 she resigns from the chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Ga. Inst. of Tech, with the soundbyte: "A deciding factor was that I no longer know what to say to students and postdocs regarding how to navigate the CRAZINESS in the field of climate science. Research and other professional activities are professionally rewarded only if they are channeled in certain directions approved by a politicized academic establishment - funding, ease of getting your papers published, getting hired in prestigious positions, appointments to prestigious committees and boards, professional recognition, etc."; she also utters the soundbyte: "Recent data and research supports the importance of natural climate variability and calls into question the conclusion that humans are the dominant cause of recent climate change."

'Climate Change Denial Order', 2015

On Apr. 14, 2015 Carly Usdin's Climate Change Denial Disorder debuts, starring Ed Begley Jr., Timothy Brennan, and Susan Yeagley, winning a nomination for best digital short film in the 2015 Environmental Media Awards.

On May 24, 2015 Pope Francis pub. the encyclical Laudato Si, preaching climate change; on Apr. 27 An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change is pub., organized by Carl Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance and signed by 202 mainly scientists, urging Pope Francis to reconsider his views on climate change before issuing the encyclical, containing the soundbytes: "Good climate policy must recognize human exceptionalism, the God-given call for human persons to 'have dominion' in the natural world (Genesis 1:28), and the need to protect the poor from harm, including actions that hinder their ascent out of poverty"; "The models are wrong. They therefore provide no rational basis to forecast dangerous human-induced global warming, and therefore no rational basis for efforts to reduce warming by restricting the use of fossil fuels or any other means"; "In light of these considerations, we believe it is both unwise and unjust to adopt policies requiring reduced use of fossil fuels for energy. Such policies would condemn hundreds of millions of our fellow human beings to ongoing poverty. We respectfully appeal to you to advise the world's leaders to reject them."

In May 2015 the 2015 Indian Heat Wave begins, killing 2.5K by June 3 esp. in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, with high demand for electricity to power air conditioning leading to power outages; in May 2016 a new high temp record is set in Phalodi; the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) blames air conditoners for causing heat waves.

In July 2015 according to NOAA, there is the hottest month in recorded history? (16.61C or 61.86F, which is 0.81C or 1.46F above the 20th cent. avg. of 15.8C or 60.4F), surpassing the 1998 record by 0.8C (0.14F); the hottest year is really 2002, and 2015 comes in 10th?

On Aug. 3, 2015 Pres. Obama unveils the Clean Power Plan ("Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units"), designed to lower carbon dioxide emissions by power generators, requiring a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions by states by 2030, mainly affecting coal-fired plants, pissing-off Repubs., who launch court challenges; on Oct. 4, 2017 the Trump admin. announces that they intend to end it.

On Sept. 15, 2015 glaciologists Lonnie Thompson and Konrad Steffan release a video warning of erosion caused by climate change.

On Oct. 29, 2015 French mathematicians of the Paris-based Societe de Calcul Mathematique pub. a Paper on the Costly and Pointless Crusade Against Global Warming, with the soundbyte: "You would probably have to go quite a long way back in human... history to find (such a) mad obsssion", pointing out that "There is not a single fact, figure... or observation that leads us to conclude the world's climate is in any way 'disturbed'. It is variable, as it has always been."

On Oct. 29, 2015 V.V. Zharkova, S.J. Shepherd, E. Popova, and S.I. Zharkov pub. the article Heartbeat of the Sun from Principal Component Analysis and prediction of solar activity on a millenium timescale in Scientific Reports, showing when Grand Solar Minimums are occurring, predicting a coming global coming in Solar Cycle 26, a 35-year ice age, pissing-off the IPCC, which tries unsuccessfully to get it suppressed by the Royal Astronomical Society?

H. Jay Zwally

On Oct. 30, 2015 NASA scientist H. Jay Zwally pub. a paper in Journal of Glaciology revealing that ice sheet growth in E Antarctica of 147B tons/year outweighs the losses in W Antarctica, pissing-off warmist scientists, who pub. a paper on June 13, 2018 in Nature claiming that Antarctica is losing a net of 200B tons of ice/year, adding 0.02" (0.5mm) a year to the sea level, which he claims is moose hockey.

Stefan Molyneux (1966-)

On Nov. 3, 2015 Ireland-born Canadian alt-right podcaster Stefan Basil Molyneux (1966-) comes out as a climate change skeptic, based on distrust of Big (govt.-funded) Science.

Peter Langdon Ward (1943-)

On Nov. 3, 2015 U.S. Geological Survey geophysicist Peter Langdon Ward (1943-) pub. the book What Really Causes Global Warming? Greenhouse Gases or Ozone Depletion?, followed on Apr. 20, 2018 by the article Ozone Depletion, Not Greenhouse Gases Cause for Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "By 1993, increases of CFCs in the atmosphere stopped. By 1995, increases in ozone depletion stopped. By 1998, increases in average global temperatures stopped. The ozone layer remains depleted, the ocean continues to warm, ice continues to melt, and sea-level continues to rise, but global temperatures did not change significantly from 1998 through 2013. They also had not changed much from 1945 to 1970. Thus, humans appear to have accidentally caused the warming starting around 1970 by manufacturing large amounts of CFCs and to have accidently stopped the warming of air in 1998 while trying to limit ozone depletion. Meanwhile, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide rose linearly, but at ever-increasing rates, showing no direct relationship to the details of observed global warming. Dozens of peer-reviewed scientific papers by leading atmospheric scientists have tried to explain, based on greenhouse-warming theory, why global temperatures did not change much from 1998 through 2013, a phenomenon dubbed the global warming hiatus. While they suggest many interesting ideas, there has been little agreement."

On Nov. 30-Dec. 12, 2015 the 2015 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP21) (CMP 11) in Paris, France, attended by leaders from 147 nations negotiates the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord), signed by reps of 196 parties, agreeing to a goal of a 1.5C limit to global temperature increase by 2030 at a cost of $100T, but only reducing global temps by .086C; the U.S. agrees to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 26%-28% (below the 2005 level) by 2025, reducing GDP by $150B/year (6M jobs), while reducing global temps by 1/15,000th of 1C by 2100, postponing global warming by 8 mo.?; on Nov. 30 Pres. Obama gives a Speech on Climate Change, urging world action, with the soundbytes: "Our understanding of the ways human beings disrupt the climate advances by the day. Fourteen of the fifteen warmest years on record have occurred since the year 2000 - and 2015 is on pace to be the warmest year of all. No nation - large or small, wealthy or poor - is immune to what this means"; "For I believe, in the words of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., that there is such a thing as being too late. And when it comes to climate change, that hour is almost upon us. But if we act here, if we act now, if we place our own short-term interests behind the air that our young people will breathe, and the food that they will eat, and the water that they will drink, and the hopes and dreams that sustain their lives, then we won't be too late for them"; the only real goal of the U.N. is to sock U.S. taxpayers $150B/year to give to poor countries?; of course out pop so-called experts claiming that global climate change threatens the world's poor directly?

Ted Cruz of the U.S. (1970-) Mark Steyn (1959-)

On Dec. 8, 2015 U.S. Sen. (R-Tex.) (2013-) Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (1970-), chmn. of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee hosts the hearing Data or Dogma? Promoting Open Inquiry over the Magnitude of Human Impact on Earth's Climate, using the satellite record from Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) to argue that there has been a global warming pause for 18 years, which is later disputed; he goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence doesn't support global warming", and "They call anyone who questions the science who even points to the satellite data - they call you, a, quote, 'denier'. Denier is not the language of science. Denier is the language of religion. It is heretic. You are a blasphemer. It's treated as a theology. But it's about power and money. At the end of the day, it's not complicated. This is liberal politicians who want government power"; Canadian right wing pundit Mark Steyn (1959-), known for repeatedly accusing Penn State climate science Michael Mann and getting sued for defamation testifies at the hearing, calling climate science fraudulent and oppressive of critics, later calling govt. action to stop climate change "the most ingenious pretext for big government ever devised."

Chris Shaw

In 2015 Christopher "Chris" Shaw of the U. of Sussex (senior researcher at Climate Outreach) pub. The Two Degrees Limit for Climate Change: Public Understanding and Decision Making, questioning how it was arrived at.

On Jan. 12, 2016 Pres. Obama delivers his (last) 2016 State of the Union Speech (watched by 31.3M viewers), ignoring the taking of U.S. Navy hostages by Iran and waxing lyrical about the United State of America, with the soundbytes: "The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth, period. It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined", "Surveys show our standing around the world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead, they call us", and "Anyone claiming that America's economy is in decline is peddling fiction", dissing Repub. climate deniers with the soundbyte: "Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. You'll be pretty lonely, because you'll be debating our military, most of America's business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it's a problem and intend to solve it", then strangely admitting that failure to heal the Dem.-Repub. divide is "one of the few regrets of my presidency", heating the divide up himself by slapping at Donald Trump with the Muslim appeasing soundbyte claiming that singling out Muslims "betrayed" America's identity: "When politicians insult Muslims... that doesn't make us safer. It's just wrong. It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. it makes it harder to achieve our goals", dismissing ISIS as "killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed", adding: "We don't need to build them up to show that we're serious, nor do we need to push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is representative of one of the world's largest religions"; Obama reserves an empty chair for the victims of gun violence; Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) walks out before the speech starts; as Obama begins his last year in office, he has purged U.S. military brass and attempted to fill the ranks with LGBTs and Muslims, you judge a tree by its fruit- and in absolute contradiction to what liar Obama says, the U.S. was only possible because it was free of the Muslim World and Islam, as well as the Roman Catholic world?

On Jan. 26, 2016 Al Gore's Global Warning Doomsday arrives when greenhouse gases cause the Earth to go into runaway heat death. :)

Bill Nye the Science Guy (1955-) Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-)

Cooler heads jokes here? On Apr. 14, 2016 Washington, D.C.-born "Science Guy" (bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Cornell U.) William Sanford "Bill" Nye (1955-) releases a video interview with Marc Morano of Climate Depot, er, warming to the idea of jailing climate skeptics; on Aug. 22, 2016 Nye gives an interview to CBS News, acknowledging that climate skeptics have been "surprisingly successful" in influencing public opinion, but only "because they are almost exclusively funded by the fossil fuel industry", which is challenged by Marc Morano of Climate Depot, who utters the soundbyte: "It is the environmental left that frequently enjoys amounts of fossil fuel funding that skeptics never see."

On Apr. 21, 2016 Chris D'Angelo pub. the article 93 Percent of the Great Barrier Reef is Practically Dead in The Huffington Post, blaming it on climate change; really fake news, confusing bleaching with dying?

On Apr. 22, 2016 (Earth Day) the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord) is opened for signatures at the U.N. HQ in New York City, setting a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global avg. temp to below 2C above pre-industrial levels, and limiting the increase to 1.5C, with each country voluntarily setting targets and target dates, along with plans and reporting mechanisms; by May 2018 195 members sign the agreement, and 177 become a party to it.

On June 13, 2016 NASA releases its monthly analysis of global avg. temps, followed on June 16 by NOAA, agreeing that May was the warmest on record, as was the period from Jan.-May, with NOAA claiming that it goes back 13 mo., becoming the longest record streak since 1880, while 13 of the warmest months occurred since Feb. 2015; May's temperature anomaly was a whopping 1C (1.8F).

Reto Knutti (1973-) Heather Stoll (1973-) Andreas Rigling (1964-)

On July 13/14, 2016 ETH Zurich establishes the Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, appointing eight profs. incl. Reto Knutti (1973-) of Switzerland, known for work with climate models, Heather Stoll (1973-), known for work in paleoclimatology, and Andreas Rigling (1964-), a researcher on forest dynamics under disruption by climate change.

On July 27, 2016 Hollyweird leftist icons James Cameron and Sigourney Weaver speak at the 2016 Dem. Nat. Convention, introducing a glitzy tear-jerker film on global climate change.

'Before the Flood', 2016

On Oct. 21, 2016 Fisher Stevens' Before the Flood (Nat. Geographic) debuts, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, who travels the globe supposedly watching global warming proceeding in front of his eyes and blasting climate change deniers esp. politicians and corporate lobbyists while comparing it all to Hieronymus Bosch's famous trptych "The Garden of Earthly Delights"; aired on the Nat. Geographic Channel on Oct. 31, which makes it available for free; "Before The Flood is the product of an incredible three-year journey that took place with my co-creator and director Fisher Stevens. We went to every corner of the globe to document the devastating impacts of climate change and questioned humanity's ability to reverse what may be the most catastrophic problem mankind has ever faced. There was a lot to take in. All that we witnessed on this journey shows us that our world's climate is incredibly interconnected and that it is at urgent breaking point... We wanted to create a film that gave people a sense of urgency, that made them understand what particular things are going to solve this problem. We bring up the issue of a carbon tax, for example, which I haven't seen in a lot of documentaries. Basically, sway a capitalist economy to try to invest in renewables, to bring less money and subsidies out of oil companies. These are the things that are really going to make a massive difference... W e need to use our vote... We cannot afford to have political leaders out there that do not believe in modern science or the scientific method or empirical truths... We cannot afford to waste time having people in power that choose to believe in the 2 percent of the scientific community that is basically bought off by lobbyists and oil companies."

On Nov. 7, 2016 the U.N. Climate Megaconference in Marrakesh, Morocco.

On Nov. 18, 2016 the U.S. Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric (NOAA) reports the 3rd warmest Oct. on record behind 2014 and 2015, and the hottest year on record, with the North Pole 36F (20C) warmer than normal along with a record low sea ice extent, which is 28.5% below the 1981-2010 avg., which they attribute to global surface warming in the high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (0.94C) incl. the Arctic (6.42C); meanwhile the tropics are 0.31C warmer than usual, the Southern Hemisphere 0.15C warmer, and the Antarctic 0.92C warmer; meanwhile Arctic summers have been running consistently below normal temps over the past decade, causing ice volume to expand, and ice doesn't melt there in winter; duh, how can the Greenhouse Effect warm the Arctic in the winter when there is no sunshine there?

On Dec. 8, 2016 the At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Summit is held at the Allison Auditorium in Washington, D.C., hosted by the Tex. Public Policy Foundation and the Heritage Foundation, billed as "the premier energy-and-climate policy event in America, featuring climate skeptic Patrick J. Michaels, who utters the soundbytes: "In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences you have an international team of authors who publishes a paper and then they add an American author to their next paper the chance that it will report a positive result doubles. This is very, very bad, science is very very sick"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something"; "You properly account for the fact that the Earth is getting greener, the more CO2 we put in - you can see it on satellite - it is God's getting greener Earth. If you account for all of those, what happens is the social cost of carbon becomes the social benefit of carbon"; "So what's going to have to happen is the endangerment finding is going to have to be torn apart."

On Dec. 19, 2016 snow falls in the Sahara Desert in Ain Sefra, Algeria, becoming the first time since Feb. 1979.

In 2016 Sidd Mukherjee and Daniel Brouse of membrane.com pub. The Human Induced Climate Chaange Experiment, containing the soundbytes: "We are not saying that the Earth's temperature is just going to rise. In general, as energy is added to a system, the fluctuations in the system increase. So, we expect more storms, more droughts, more wildfires, more floods, more fluctuations of all kinds. What we are saying is that weather conditions will become more volatile due to the impact of humans", and "Feedback loops accelerate global warming. For example, global warming has resulted in tree deaths and deforestation. Trees are a natural carbon sink for carbon dioxide, as well as, provide shade and retain moisture. As trees die from the effects of global warming, climate change is accelerated resulting in more tree deaths" - duh, they don't know the first thing about physics?

Scott Pruitt of the U.S. (1968-)

On Feb. 17, 2017 Danville, Ky.-born Okla. Repub. atty. gen. #17 (since Jan. 10, 2011) Edward Scott Pruitt (1968-) (anthropogenic climate change denier) (activist against the EPA's activist agenda, as well as gay marriage, the Affordable Care Act, and abortion) becomes dir. #14 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), going on to work at breakneck speed to dismantle Obama admin. environmental legislation while sinking into pitty-pat personal misconduct scandals that finally turn conservatives against him, causing him to resign on July 6, 2018.

On Apr. 19-Nov. 9, 2017 the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season sees 10 hurricanes in a row and six major hurricanes incl. Harvey, Maria, Irma, and Nate, costing a record total $282.16B damage. On Aug. 17 Hurricane Harvey starts E of the Lesser Antilles, crossing the Windward Islands on Aug. 18, then entering the Caribbean Sea after passing S of Barbados and skirting Saint Vincent, degenerating into a tropical wave N of Colombia on Aug. 19, then rapidly intensifying on Aug. 24, growing to Category 4 on Aug. 25 before making landfall near Rockport, Tex., killing seven in the U.S. and one in Guyana, causing catastrophic flooding in Houston and turning it into the Great Houston Swamp, becoming the worst disaster in Tex. history, first major hurricane to hit the U.S. since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, the first hurricane to hit Tex. since Hurricane Ike in 2008, and the strongest to hit Tex. since Hurricane Carla in 1961, also the strongest hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico since Hurricane Rita in 2005, and the strongest to make landfall in the U.S. since Hurricane Charley in 2004, joining Hurricane Matthew (2016) as the 2nd U.S. hurricane to cause tornado-like winds warnings to be issued; it was engineered and used as a weapon? On Aug. 30-Sept. 13 Category 5 Hurricane Irma starts near Cape Verde, moving to the Leeward Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Anguilla, Virgin Islands, French West Indies, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Fla. Keys, causing 52 direct and 82 indirect deaths, and $64.76B damage, becoming the first Category 5 hurricane of 2017 and the strongest hurricane in the Atlantic ever observed (until ?). On Sept. 16-Oct. 2 Hurricane Maria becomes the 2nd Category 5 hurricane and deadliest storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, devastating the NE Caribbean and becoming the worst disaster so far in Dominica and Puerto Rico, killing 146-8,580 and causing $91.61B damage. On Oct. 4-11 Hurricane Nate becomes the costliest natural disaster so far in Costa Rica, also devastating Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, and the U.S., killing 48 and causing $787M damage.

Noam Chomsky (1928-)

On May 11, 2017 Philly-born #1 leftist brain man Avram Noam Chomsky (1928-) gives an interview to the BBC, uttering the soundbyte that the U.S. Repub. Party is "the most dangerous organisation in human history"; when asked if that means it's worse than ISIS, he replies: "Is ISIS dedicated to trying to destroy the prospects for organised human existence? What does it mean to say not only are we not doing anything about climate change but we're trying to accelerate the race to the precipice? It doesn't matter whether they genuinely believe it or not... If the consequence of that is 'let's use more fossil fuels, let's refuse to subsidise developing countries, let's eliminate regulations that reduce greenhouse gases'. If that's the consequence, that's extremely dangerous."

In May 2017 Global Warming Prophet Al Gore has a net worth of $300M.

On June 18, 2017 Pablo Ganguli's and Tomas Auksas' documentary In This Climate... debuts, featuring talking heads incl. Noam Chomsky, Sir David Attenborough, Christiana Figueres, actor Joseh Brolin et al.

On June 27, 2017 the study On the Validity of NOAA, NASAand Hadley CRU Global Average Surface Temperature Data & The Validity of EPA’s CO2 Endangerment Finding, is pub. by Cato Inst. climate scientist Craig Idso, Am. meteorologist Joe D'Aleo, and Am. statistician James Wallace, finding that global surface temperature readings by scientists in recent years "are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data. Thus, it is impossible to conclude from the three published [global average surface temperature (GAST)] data sets that recent years have been the warmest ever - despite current claims of record setting warming"; "Nearly all of the warming they are now showing are in the adjustments. Each dataset pushed down the 1940s warming and pushed up the current warming. You would think that when you make adjustments you’d sometimes get warming and sometimes get cooling. That’s almost never happened"; instead, measurements "nearly always exhibited a steeper warming linear trend over its entire history", which was "nearly always accomplished by systematically removing the previously existing cyclical temperature pattern. The conclusive findings of this research are that the three [global average surface temperature] data sets are not a valid representation of reality. In fact, the magnitude of their historical data adjustments, that removed their cyclical temperature patterns, are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data"; they conclude that the science underlying the EPA's authority to regulate greenhouse gases "is invalidated", and the 2009 Endangerment Finding should be reversed.

On June 28, 2017 the U.K. Independent pub. the climate alarmist article World Has Three Years to Prevent Dangerous Climate Change, Warn Experts, with the subheading: "Since the 1880s, the world's temperature has risen by about 1C because of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity", talking about a recent article in Nature in which experts led by Christiana Figueres call on "world leaders to be guided by the scientific evidence rather than 'hide their heads in the sand'", claiming that "entire ecosysems" are beginning to collapse, summer sea ice is disappearing in the Arctic, and coral reefs are dying from the heat, citing a report pub. in Apr., with the soundbyte: "Should emissions continue to rise beyond 2020, or even remain level, the temperature goals set in Paris become almost unattainable. Lowering emissions globally is a monumental task, but research tells us that it is necessary, desirable and achievable"; on June 29 conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh airs an episode lampooning it.

On June 30, 2017 the Journal of Climate pub. a paper claiming that new data from Remote Sensing Systems of Calif. shows that the lower part of the Earth's atmosphere has warmed 140% faster since 1998 than previous satellite data showed, and 36% faster since 1979, shutting the climate skeptics up?

Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

On June 30, 2017 German physicists Horst-Joachim Ludecke (Lüdecke) and Carl-Otto Weiss of the European Inst. for Climate and Energy (EIKE) pub. a paper titled Harmonic Analysis of Worldwide Temperature Proxies for 2000 Years in The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, reporting on their reverse Fourier transform of a large number of global temperature proxies to construct a global temperature mean for the last 2K years that they call G7, revealing 1000, 460, and 190-year periods driven by the Sun not CO2; "It is the unprecedentedly rapid recovery of the Sun’s activity over the past 300 years - far stronger than anyone had previously suspected - that has been the chief driver of global warming in recent decades. We have very little to do with it."

Ned Nikolov and Karl Zeller

On July 1, 2017 physical scientist Ned Nikolov and meteorologist Karl F. Zeller of Wellington, Colo. pub. the article New Insights on the Physical Nature of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect Deduced from an Empirical Planetary Temperature Model in Environment Pollution and Climate Change, disproving the Greenhouse Gas Theory that greenhouse gases warm the atmosphere by trapping heat, which was based on experiments with glass boxes (miniature greenhouse) by French mathematician Joseph Fourier, causing Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius to misapply the conclusions to Earth's free convective atmosphere that has no "lid" on it, and claim that greenhouse gases can trap heat; instead, Nikolov and Zeller prove that any perceived warming results from the Sun and atmospheric pressure, with the soundbyte: "Humans cannot in principle affect the global climate through industrial emissions of CO2, methane and other similar gases or via changes in land use. All observed climatic changes have natural causes that are completely outside of human control." "The foundation of the greenhouse theory was born of an assumption, it was never shown experimentally, and our results show this is completely wrong. Our study blows the greenhouse theory completely out of the water. There is nothing left"; "Hence, the public debate on climate needs now to shift focus to the fact that the basic science concept underlying current climate projections by the UN [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] IPCC and other international bodies is physically flawed", requiring a "fundamental overhaul of climate science" incl. the possibility of a future Earth cooling period. "This is what the data shows. We didn’t start with a theory, we started with the data, which is the opposite of how the greenhouse theory came about." The PC establishment tries to ignore them until ?

Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)

On July 2, 2017 English physicist Stephen William Hawking (1942-2018) gives an interview to the BBC to mark his 75th birthday, uttering the soundbyte: "We are close to the tipping point where global warming becomes irreversible. Trump's action could push the Earth over the brink, to become like Venus, with a temperature of two hundred and fifty degrees, and raining sulphuric acid", adding: "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face and it's one we can prevent if we act now. By denying the evidence the climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Climate Agreement, Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children", suggesting the solution: "The best hope for the survival of the human race might be independent colonies in space."

In July 2017 Pope Francis utters the soundbyte that a personal relationship with Jesus Christ is "dangerous and harmful", calling for a OWG with the political authority to combat climate change et al.

In July 2017 1T ton Iceberg A-68 (the size of Del.) breaks off from Antarctica, causing PC media incl. CNN to paint it as proof of global climate change; too bad, in July 2018 it becomes trapped by dense ice off the coast of Antarctica.

On Aug. 5, 2017 after Pres. Trump announced his intentions in June, the U.S. formally notifies theU.N. of its intent to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement.

Burt Rutan (1943-) in SpaceShipOne Burt Rutan (1943-)

In Sept. 10, 2017 Estacada, Ore.-born aircraft designer (SpaceShipOne pilot) Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan (1943-) utters the soundbyte: "Those who call themselves 'Green planet advocates' should be arguing for a CO2-fertilized atmosphere, not a CO2-starved atmosphere... Diversity increases when the planet was warm AND had high CO2 atmospheric content... Al Gore's personal behavior supports a green planet – his enormous energy use with his 4 homes and his bizjet, does indeed help make the planet greener. Kudos, Al for doing your part to save the planet."

Ed Berry (1935-)

On Oct. 2, 2017 Am. physicist-meteorologist Edwin "Ed" Berry (1935-) of Bigfork, Mont. pub. the article Why human CO2 does not change climate, which claims that since human CO2 emissions are only 4.5 ppm/year while Nature's emissions are 98 ppm/year, it's physically impossible for the human emissions to raise the total CO2 concentration; he goes on to pub. articles blasting the IPCC and its science and climate models, incl. Why the UN IPCC is wrong about climate science (July 27, 2018), and Climate Change Emperors Have No Clothes.

Calif. Gov. Jerry Brown (1938-)

On Oct. 8-31, 2017 amid unusually high temps, the Oct. 2017 Northern Calif. Wildfires consist of 250 wildfires, 21 major, incl. the Atlas Fire in Napa County, and the Tubbs Fire (most destructive in Calif. history until ?). In Oct. wildfires in Sonoma County Wine Country in Calif. are set by illegal Mexican alien Jesus Fabian Gonzalez, who enjoys Calif.'s status as a sanctuary state. On Dec. 4 the Dec. 2017 Southern Calif. Wildfires, whipped-up by Santa Ana winds hits Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, forcing 200K to evacuate and burning over 140K acres; on Dec. 5 the Thomas Fire in Ventura County begins, forcing 50K to evacuate and becoming the largest wildfire of the 2017 Calif. wildfire season, which becomes the most destructive on record, seeing 9,133 fires burn 1,381,405 acres, destroying 9,470 bldgs. and damaging 810, killing 43 incl. two firefighters; on Dec. 10 Calif. "Gov. Moonbeam" Jerry Brown appears on CBS-TV's "60 Minutes", lamenting Pres. Trump's denial of climate change, uttering the soundbytes: "I don't think President Trump has a fear of the Lord, the fear of the wrath of God, which leads one to more humility"; "The truth of the case is that there's too much carbon being emitted, that heat-trapping gasses are building up, the planet is warming and all hell is breaking loose. So I'd say to Mr. Trump, take a deeper look. Now is not the time to undo what every country in the world is committed to."

Gregory Wrightstone

On Oct. 24, 2017 Am. geologist Gregory Wrightstone pub. the bestseller Inconvenient Facts: The science that Al Gore doesn't want you to know, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that the Earth is thriving because of increasing CO2 and warmer temps.

I don't know whether to run for the mountains or build an ark? On Nov. 3, 2017 the Climate Change Special Report (CSSR), Fourth Nat. Climate Assessment (NCA4), Vol. 1 is pub. by 13 U.S. federal agencies, "an authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States", with the executive summary claiming that the global annual avg. surface air temp has increased by 1.0C (1.8F) in 1901-2016, making this period "the warmest in the history of modern civilization", concluding that "It is extremely likely that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. For the warming over the last century, there is no convincing alternative explanation supported by the extent of the observational evidence"; "The last few years have also seen record-breaking, climate-related weather extremes, and the last three years have been the warmest years on record for the globe. These trends are expected to continue over climate timescales"; "Thousands of studies conducted by researchers around the world have documented changes in surface, atmospheric, and oceanic temperatures; melting glaciers; diminishing snow cover; shrinking sea ice; rising sea levels; ocean acidification; and increasing atmospheric water vapor"; "Heatwaves have become more frequent in the United States since the 1960s, while extreme cold temperatures and cold waves are less frequent"; "global average sea level has risen by about 7–8 inches since 1900, with almost half (about 3 inches) of that rise occurring since 1993. Human-caused climate change has made a substantial contribution to this rise since 1900, contributing to a rate of rise that is greater than during any preceding century in at least 2,800 years. Global sea level rise has already affected the United States; the incidence of daily tidal flooding is accelerating in more than 25 Atlantic and Gulf Coast cities. Global average sea levels are expected to continue to rise - by at least several inches in the next 15 years and by 1–4 feet by 2100. A rise of as much as 8 feet by 2100 cannot be ruled out. Sea level rise will be higher than the global average on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States"; "The incidence of large forest fires in the western United States and Alaska has increased since the early 1980s and is projected to further increase in those regions as the climate changes, with profound changes to regional ecosystems"; "Annual trends toward earlier spring melt and reduced snowpack are already affecting water resources in the western United States and these trends are expected to continue. Under higher scenarios, and assuming no change to current water resources management, chronic, long-duration hydrological drought is increasingly possible before the end of this century"; "The magnitude of climate change beyond the next few decades will depend primarily on the amount of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide) emitted globally. Without major reductions in emissions, the increase in annual average global temperature relative to preindustrial times could reach 9°F (5°C) or more by the end of this century. With significant reductions in emissions, the increase in annual average global temperature could be limited to 3.6°F (2°C) or less"; "The global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has now passed 400 parts per million (ppm), a level that last occurred about 3 million years ago, when both global average temperature and sea level were significantly higher than today. Continued growth in CO2 emissions over this century and beyond would lead to an atmospheric concentration not experienced in tens to hundreds of millions of years. There is broad consensus that the further and the faster the Earth system is pushed towards warming, the greater the risk of unanticipated changes and impacts, some of which are potentially large and irreversible"; "The observed increase in carbon emissions over the past 15–20 years has been consistent with higher emissions pathways. In 2014 and 2015, emission growth rates slowed as economic growth became less carbon-intensive. Even if this slowing trend continues, however, it is not yet at a rate that would limit global average temperature change to well below 3.6°F (2°C) above preindustrial levels."

On Dec. 12, 2017 the Nat. Oceanic Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) pub. the 2017 Arctic Report Card, which claims that Arctic permafrost is thawing faster than ever, and Arctic seawater is warming and sea ice is melting at the fastest rate in 1,500 years, causing the U.K. Guardian to pub. an article titled Arctic permafrost thawing faster than ever, US climate study finds, and the Washington Post to pub. an article titled Warming of the Arctic is 'unprecedented over the last 1500 years', scientists say; it's really fake news?

On Dec. 18, 2017 Pres. Trump introduces his 2018 Nat. Security Strategy, calling out Russia and China, mentioning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, dropping climate change, and restoring reference to Islam as a nat. security threat, with the soundbyte: "The primary transnational threats Americans face are from jihadist terrorists and transnational criminal organizations."

On Dec. 28, 2017 amid a record cold spell, Pres. Trump tweets the soundbyte; "In the East, it could be the COLDEST New Year's Eve on record. Perhaps we could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming that our Country, but not other countries, was going to pay TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS to protect against. Bundle up!"

In Dec. 2017 Queensland, Australia experiences its coldest summer in a cent.

On Jan. 1, 2018 the journal Nature Climate Change pub. an article claiming that if the Paris Climate Change Accord is not honored and global temp rises by 2 deg. C by 2050, a large percentage of the Earth could become desert, and 25% of world pop. will live in perpetual drought.

Joe Bastardi (1955-) John J. Cahir

On Jan. 2, 2018 Am. meteorologist (former weightlifter) Joe Bastardi (1955-) pub. The Climate Chronicles: Inconvenient Revelations You Won't Hear From Al Gore - And Others, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that global temps were warmer in the 1930s than today, and that the human contribution to atmospheric CO2 is too small to have an effect on global warming, which is caused by sunspots and warmer oceans; since 2011 global temps have been falling, and by 2030 will return to 1970s levels due to the "triple crown of cooling" incl. oceanic temperature cycles, solar radiation cycles, and vocanic activity; "In the entire geological history of the planet, there has been no known linkage between CO2 and temperatures"; "CO2 cannot cause global warming. I'll tell you why. It doesn't mix well with the atmosphere, for one. For two, its specific gravity is 1 1/2 times that of the rest of the atmosphere. It heats and cools much quicker. Its radiative processes are much different. So it cannot - it literally cannot cause global warming"; "A colder planet would lead to untold misery given the current policies geared toward the opposite"; in June 2018 he pub. an article calling water (H20) vapor more important than CO2, backing the 2017 idea of meteorology prof. John J. Cahir of Penn. State. U. that the best metric of global warming is water vapor saturation mixing ratios.

No hockey stick in Sweden? On Jan. 9, 2018 Swedish geologists Irina Polovodora Steman, Helena L. Filipsson, and Kjell Nordberg of the U. of Lund pub. the paper Tracing winter temperatures over the last two millennia using a NE Atlantic coastal record, describing a 2.5K-year winter temp record reconstructed using sediment cores from the Gullmar Fjord, concluding: "The most recent warming of the 20th century does not stand out, but appears to be comparable to both the Roman Warm Period and the MCA (Medieval Climate Anomaly)."

Rebekah Mercer (1973-)

In late Jan. 2018 an open letter signed by 200+ pro-global warming scientists incl. Michael E. Mann and Katharine Hayhoe calls on the Am. Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City to remove wealthy climate change denier and Pres. Trump supporter Rebekah "Bekah" Mercer (1973-) (backer of Breitbart) from its board, and to "end ties to anti-science propagandists and funders of climate science misinformation", causing a group of you know whats incl. Willie Soon, Will Happer, Richard Lindzen, Craig Idso, and Geoffrey Duffy to send AMNH an open letter begging them "not to cave in to this pressure", with the soundbyte: "The Earth has supported abundant life many times in the geological past when there were much higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is quite likely that future generations will benefit from the enrichment of Earth's atmosphere with more carbon dioxide. Make no mistake, the agitators are not defending science from quackery - quite the contrary!"

On Feb. 17, 2018 independent researcher Aftab Alam Khan pub. the paper Why would sea-level rise for global warming and polar ice-melt?, disputing the U.N. IPCC's theory that global warming causes thermal expansion of the ocean, claiming that global warming and polar ice-melt do not contribute to sea level rise because melted ice occupies the same volume as the displaced water, and the floating sea ice around the polar region cools the oceans, preventing thermal expansion, plus melt water cannot move from the polar to the equatorial region because of the equatorial bulge and polar flattening; meanwhile the gravitational attraction of the Earth plays a dominant role in sea level rise, with the crust in the polar region rebounding elastically after the ice melts to achieve isostatic balancing through uplift, causing the sea level to drop.

On Feb. 18, 2018 the 2018 Calif. Wildfires begin with the Pleasant Fire in Inyo County, burning 2,070 acres by the time it is contained on Apr. 19; on June 11 the Lions fire in Madera County burns 7.8K+ acres before it is contained on ?; on June 30 the multi-county Lake-Napa-Yolo County Fire burns 90,288 acres before being contained on July 14; on July 6 record high temps are set at UCLA (111), Burbank (114), Santa Ana (114), Van Nuys (117), and Chino (120); on July 13 the Ferguson Fire in Mariposa County burns 94K+ acres before being contained on ?; on July 23 the Carr Fire in Shasta burns 167K+ acres before being contained on ?; on July 26 Redding, Calif. hits 133F as the Carr fire races out of control and causes deaths; on July 27 the Mendocino Complex Fire in Mendocino-Lake-Colusa Counties burns 283K+ acres before being contained on?; in July Fresno, Calif. reaches 100F or higher for 26 straight days, and Palm Springs, Calif. has a record July avg. temp of 97.4F, while Scripps Pier in San Diego, Calif. reaches a record 78.8F surface water temp; on Aug. 4 a nat. disaster is declared in N Calif after 4,983 fires burn 610,266 acres (2,469.66 sq. km), becoming the largest in Calif. history; on Aug. 6 twin fires N of San Francisco, Calif.; the years with the warmest summertime min. Calif. temps are 2017 (top), 2015, 2014, 2006, 2016, and 2003; manmade global warming is not a major factor, with U.S. Geological Survey fire scientist Jon Keeley uttering the soundbyte: "What's changing is not the fires themselves but the fact that we have more and more people at risk", and Paul Driessen blaming environmentalists, writing the soundbyte: "Eco-purists want no cutting, no thinning—no using fire retardants in 'sensitive' areas because the chemicals might get into streams that will be boiled away by conflagrations. They prevent homeowners from clearing brush around their homes, because it might provide cover or habitat for endangered species and other critters that will get incinerated or lose their forage, prey and habitats in the next blaze. They rarely alter their policies during drought years. The resulting fires are not the 'forest-rejuvenating' blazes of environmentalist lore. They are cauldron-hot conflagrations that exterminate wildlife habitats, roast bald eagle and spotted owl fledglings alive in their nests, boil away trout and trout streams, leave surviving animals to starve, and incinerate every living organism in already thin soils.. that then get washed away during future downpours and snow melts. Areas incinerated by such fires don't recover their arboreal biodiversity for decades."

On Mar. 1, 2018 David Finnigan debuts his play Kill Climate Deniers at the Griffin Theatre in Sydney; "As a classic rock band take the stage in Parliament House's main hall, 96 armed eco-terrorists storm the building and take the entire government hostage, threatening to execute everyone unless Australia ends global warming."

On Mar. 28, 2018 a federal judge in San Francisco, Calif. holds the first-ever U.S. court hearing on the impact of climate change, with lawyers for San Francisco and Oakland along with five of the largest multinat. oil cos. (BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Shell) participating in a climate change tutorial preparatory to a lawsuit claiming that rising sea levels et al. are caused by climate change traceable to the cos.; on June 18 he dismisses all the lawsuits trying to hold big oil cos. liable for global climate change, saying that the U.S. pres. and Congress are best suited to address the issue.

Catheriune McKenna of Canada (1971-)

In Mar. 2018 Canadian Liberal minister #28 of environment and climate change (since Nov. 4, 2015) Catherine Mary McKenna (1971-) AKA Climate Barbie utters the soundbyte that citizens should "consider the gendered impacts of climate change on women, girls and children", applauding Canada for training "women negotiators" to battle manmade global warming.

On Apr. 27, 2018 Arjen Luijendijk et al. of the Netherlands pub. the paper The State of the World's Beaches, revealing that satellite data indicates the 48% of the world's sandy beaches are stable, 28% are accreting, and 24% are eroding at rates exceeding 0.5m/yr, incl. a majority of sandy shorelines in marine protected areas in Australia and Africa, which are the only continents with net erosion; over the last 30 years, the world's beaches have accreted an avg. of 0.33 m/yr, for a total gain of 3,663 sq. km.

In Apr. 2018 avg. temps of 38.3F are the coldest since 1874 (37.6F); some major U.S. cities have their coldest Apr. in recorded history.

On May 1, 2018 the U.N. Climate Change Secretariat releases its first annual report, calling climate change "the single biggest threat to life, security and prosperity on Earth", according to exec secy. Patricia Espinosa, and rolling out its Gender Action Plan to mobilize women to fight global warming.

Peter Ridd

On May 2, 2018 after he pub. an op-ed on Feb. 2 containing the soundbyte: "Mass bleaching events along the reef that supposedly serve as evidence of permanent human-caused devastation are almost certainly completely natural and even cyclical" along with other statements skeptical of the risks climate change poses to the Great Barrier Reef, Australian geophysicist Peter Ridd (not a climate skeptic per se) is ridded, er, fired by James Cook U. for violating their code of conduct for allegedly not showing enough respect for his colleagues and institutions, not for his skeptical views themselves, causing a big court battle in which they are willing to spend any amount, while luckily the climate skeptic community backs him financially (as if a professor's right to freedom of speech in Australia is as fragile as a reed if he doesn't kiss the establishment's butt?); on July 25, 2017 he pub. the soundbyte: "Due to the remarkable mechanisms that corals have developed to adapt to changing temperatures, especially the ability to swap symbionts, corals are perhaps the least endangered of any ecosystem to future climate change – natural or man-made"; on July 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The National Forum, containing the soundbyte: "T]here is a swindle by scientists, politicians and most green organisations regarding the health of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We are told that the reef is a third of the way to ecological extinction, is being smothered by sediments, is polluted by nutrients and pesticides, and is being cooked by global warming. Some scientists and organisations give the reef only a couple of decades before it is finished... In biological circles, it is common to compare coral reefs to canaries, i.e. beautiful and delicate organisms that are easily killed. The analogy is pushed further by claiming that, just as canaries were used to detect gas in coal mines, coral reefs are the canaries of the world and their death is a first indication of our apocalyptic greenhouse future. The bleaching events of 1998 and 2002 were our warning. Heed them now or retribution will be visited upon us. In fact a more appropriate creature with which to compare corals would be cockroaches - at least for their ability to survive. If our future brings us total self-annihilation by nuclear war, pollution or global warming, my bet is that both cockroaches and corals will survive... Corals are particularly well adapted to temperature changes and in general, the warmer the better. It seems odd that coral scientists are worrying about global warming because this is one group of organisms that like it hot. Corals are most abundant in the tropics and you certainly do not find fewer corals closer to the equator. Quite the opposite, the further you get away from the heat, the worse the corals. A cooling climate is a far greater threat.”

On May 3, 2018 (4:30 p.m.) after a 5.0 earthquake, Mt. Kilauea ("Madame Pele") in Hawaii erupts, causing mass evacuations from 1.5K homes; on May 4 (12:33 p.m.) a 6.9 earthquake centered near Kilauea's S flank causes more damage; on May 11 another 6.9 earthquake (biggest since 1975) threatens the Puna Geothermal Venture geothermal power plant; meanwhile on May 3 Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory announces that atmospheric CO2 has reached a record 410 ppm for Apr.

On June 1, 2018 the 2018 European Drought and Heat Waves (ends ?); on July 23 wildfires begin in Attica, Greece, killing 87 and damaging or destroying 1K+ bldgs; the cause is thought to be arson, which doesn't stop global warmists from claiming you know what; on Aug. 6 Johan Rockstrom et al. of the Stockholm Resilience Center, U. of Copenhagen, Australian Nat. U., and Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research pub. a study in Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences claiming that "tipping elements" incl. permafrost thaw, loss of methane hydrates from the ocean floor, weaker land and ocean carbon sinks, loss of Arctic summer ice and Antarctic sea ice and polar sheets can act like a row of dominoes leading to an unliveable Hothouse Earth.

On June 8, 2018 Scientific American launches its Climate Science Column, written by Columbia U./NASA climate scientist Katherine D. "Kate" Marvel.

On June 21, 2018 the 2018 U.S. Summer begins, going on to have the smallest number of daily record temperatures and small number of all-time record max temperatures.

On June 22, 2018 the 2018 British Isles Heat Wave (ends ?).

On June 23, 2018 the 30th Anniv. of NASA Climate Scientist James Hansen's Congressional Testimony sees the establishment hailing him as a prophet despite getting virtually every prediction wrong?; or was he spot on, and the evil Koch brothers paid critics to misrepresent his three scenarios, only recognizing his first one, which assumes business as usual and no emissions cuts?; or was he just lucky?

On June 24, 2018 acting head of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce Tim Gallaudet gives a presentation announcing that the Nat. Ocean and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) (founded 1970) is returning to its traditional mission "to observe, understand and predict atmospheric and ocean conditions", dropping the mission "to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans and coasts", i.e., dropping the loaded word climate, esp. after it was accused of numerous tamperings with the Global Historical Climatology Network database to make man-made global climate change look more believable.

On June 28, 2018 the 2018 North Am. Heat Wave (ends ?); on July 27 Michael Mann of Penn. State U., Jennifer Francis of Rutgers U., and Noah Diffenbaugh of Stanford U. blame it on increased atmospheric CO2 and the jet stream; meanwhile Britain suffers an unusually wet and cold summer, and Siberia suffers record cold, with a record low of -1C in Salekhard on Aug. 2.

On July 3, 2018 the city of Quriyat, Oman sets a record of 108.7F (42.6C) for the highest 24-hour min. temperature on Earth, breaking the previous record of 107.4F (41.9C) set in Oman on June 27, 2011; the temp actually remains above 107.4F (41.9C) for 51 straight hours, with an afternoon high temp of 121.6F (49.8C); on July 6 Ouargla, Algeria reaches 124F (51C), setting a record for Africa, causing global warming proponents to claim it as proof; actually the heat dome phenomenon happens every few summers, and there have been far hotter summers in the past, esp. the 1930s?

On July 9, 2018 Pope Francis hosts a conference at the Vatican with oil co. execs, urging them to get with it and follow his 2015 climate change encyclical "Laudato Si" despite it not being obligatory.

On July 11, 2018 the U.N. Security Council holds its first session focusing on climate change in seven years, to consider "the cycle of conflict and climate disaster", calling for internat. coordination.

On July 16, 2018 Am. geologist James Edward Kamis (1951-), proposer of the Plate Climatology Theory that the geothermal Earth Heat Flow Engine is an important driver of Earth's climate pub. the article Geological Activity Not 'Atlantification' Altering Arctic Ocean Temps and Salinity in Climate Change Dispatch, debunking the global warmist theory that a mysterious force called Atlantification is warming the Arctic.

On July 18, 2018 The New York Times pub. the article Climate Change Is Killing the Cedars of Lebanon, claiming that climate change is killing the ancient cedars of Lebanon, tying it to an increase in insect infestations caused by rising temperatures; it's really fake news?

On July 20, 2018 the Australian govt. releases a new-improved 2050 Great Barrier Reef Plan that for the first time admits that climate change poses a deadly threat, with the outlook "one of continuing decline over time, and in many regions, including the Great Barrier Reef, the collapse and loss of coral reef ecosystems."

On July 23, 2018 Kumagaya, Japan NW of Tokyo reaches a temperature record of 41.1C (106F) in the midst of a 2-week heat wave that kills 23, causing The Economist to pub. an article on Aug. 2 titled The world is losing the war against climate change, "Such calamities, once considered freakish, are now commonplace. Scientists have long cautioned that, as the planet warms — it is roughly 1°C hotter today than before the industrial age's first furnaces were lit — weather patterns will go berserk."

On July 23, 2018 Marshall Burke et al. pub. the article Higher Temperates Increase Suicide Rates in the United States and Mexico in Nature Climate Change, claiming that suicide rates rise by 0.7% in the U.S. and 2.1% in Mexico for each 1C increase in avg. monthly temperature, estimating a total of 9K-40K additional suicides by 2050.

In July 2018 Furnace Creek in Death Valley, Calif. reports an avg. temp of 108.1F, becoming the hottest in the world; the readings are tainted by the environment around the weather station?

On Aug. 6, 2018 in a coordinated coup after viewer-losing CNN puts them up to it, Facebook, Apple, YouTube, and Spotify (but not Twitter) remove "The Alex Jones Show" and its InfoWars content in a quantum leap in leftist censorship of non-leftists, causing Media Research Center pres. Brent Bozell to write the soundbyte: "It's not just a slippery slope, it's a dangerous cliff that these social media companies are jumping off to satisfy CNN and other liberal outlets"; meanwhile leftist billionaire puppetmaster George Soros George Soros calls for Facebook to remove "climate deniers".

On Aug. 7, 2018 the 2nd America First Energy Conference in New Orleans, La. is sponsored by the Heartland Inst. to support Pres. Trump's America First Energy Plan, featuring 30 speakers; the Reuters article covering it has the title "At 'America First Energy Conference', solar powre is dumb, climate change is fake".

In Aug. 2018 the Nat. Geographic mag. pub. an article titled Starving-Polar-Bear Photographer Recalls What Went Wrong, admitting that they lied in captioning a Dec. 2017 video of a starving polar bear (filmed in Aug. 2017) "This is what climate change looks like" after it was viewed by 2.5B; causing zoologist Susan Crockford of PolarBearScience.com to pub. the soundbyte: "I've called this practice of filming dead or dying bears and splashing the photos across the pages of newspapers and the Internet 'tragedy porn' - a kind of voyeurism that leaves people open to emotional manipulation"; "One starving bear is not evidence of climate change."

In Oct. 2018 the 2018 Report of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub. in South Korea, containing the soundbyte: "If emissions continue at their present rate, human-induced warming will exceed 1.5°C by around 2040."

In 2022 the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.

Here's my two cents worth. The global warming colossus dominates the media, and those who accept it without question can live happily in their mental cage while their pockets are being picked, while skeptics also have to live under the media blanket but still defiantly challenge the colossus, making impartial thinkers eager to see their side. The colossus wants us to be deathly afraid of not tens of degrees but 0.1-0.2 C in global warming per decade. Every day the temperature rises and falls tens of degrees, and nobody could detect 0.1C without instruments. What a perfect con game to steal money. Every unusual or severe weather event is casually blamed on global warming, as if weather equals climate. Meanwhile if the global temp could actually be increased by 20F (11C) or so, the whole Earth would become a paradise with Hawaii-like shirtsleeve weather, and the increased H20 vapor would green the deserts and feed the teeming billions. What do they think we have stamped on our foreheads, the word DUMBASS? :) CO2 is not bad but good, the basis of all carbon-based life forms, but in their greed the global warming colossus tries to turn black white and white black to get their hands on the green. The whole con game runs off the term Greenhouse Gas Effect. It should be called Greenhouse Glass Effect, because it's not CO2 it's glass that traps heat and keeps it warm, all by convection not infrared radiation, building up a warm layer at the top that expands back down to the surface. Actually, greenhouse operators pump CO2 into greenhouses to feed the plants. CO2 has nothing to do with warming greenhouses. As to the Earth as a whole, duh, all global warming is caused by the Sun, stupid, if you don't believe me try sending a fleet of spaceships to turn it off, or see how often your area gets hotter at night than during day. Duh, the atmosphere and its components cool the Earth's surface and that's it. Back to carbon dioxide. CO2 is transparent to visible wavelengths, but opaque to infrared wavelengths, which is where people get ideas. But sorry, the basic laws of thermodynamics prohibit a cooler body from transferring heat to a warmer body, but instead compel it to transfer it to a cooler body, which is ultimately outer space, hence when night comes any trapped heat would end up dissipating harmlessly into space, with any thermal radiation immediately gobbled-up by the surrounding air, check out the loon who claims that "each captured ray gets pinged around the atmosphere, and most end up returning to the surface at least once before escaping to space." Ever hear of heat capacity? Rays of energy don't have a temperature, only matter, with the heat capacity determining how many degrees the temperature will rise per unit energy absorbed. Once the temperature of a body rises, it starts emitting radiation to cool it down, as governed by the Wien Displacement Law for blackbodies (lambda max = b/t), with the body's effective temperature determining the wavelength distribution of the emitted photons. For example, the Sun's effective temperature is 5800K, and its emission spectrum peak is .58 microns (yellow-green part of the visible spectrum). Actually, CO2 only absorbs infrared in small bands centered at 2.7, 4.3, and 15 microns, while the ground gives off infrared radiation in a band that goes to about 100 microns, so that CO2's three narrow absorption bands only absorb 8% of it, not reflect, but absorb, or as they say, CO2 is opaque to infrared radiation, which means it absorbs the energy into its molecular structure and reemits it as a blackbody. Sorry, Al Gore, but most of the sunlight hitting the ground is reflected back to space via quantum processes, and only the non-reflected part is absorbed by the atoms as heat, creating what they call the Earth's albedo. Meanwhile the Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that the power (energy per unit time) radiated from a blackbody is proportional to the temperature to the 4th power, for example, if the temperature is halved the radiated power is cut to one-sixteenth, meaning that because blackbodies emit photons at a peak wavelength (lambda= hc/E = b/T) based on their absolute temperature, starting with the Sun, which emits photons of such high energy that they reach visible wavelengths, then after absorbing sunlight the way cooler Earth's surface (130F or 327K even in direct noonday sunlight) emits photons of far longer wavelength (infrared), meaning each has less energy (hc/lambda) than the energetic photons from the Sun that heated it up, which is at 5800K, giving (5800/327)^4=100,000 times weaker photons. The Earth's surface has an effective temperature of -18C (255K) (-0.67F), giving an emission spectrum peak of 11 microns (mid-infrared), although the actual average Earth surface temperature is 14C (287K) (57.2F), only because of the atmosphere, which takes heat off the surface and lifts it to space slowly because of its great mass, in other words, if there were no atmosphere the surface would cool via pure radiation and reflection, and that would be instantaneous, like on the Moon, and would reduce the surface temperature to the effective temperature of -18C. Sorry, but mathematical science fiction isn't science, and the climate works great so why try to fix something that ain't broke? According to global warmist scientist con men, once emitted by the ground, infrared radiation is pretty much 100% absorbed by CO2 within 1 km altitude, and this radiation is not reflected like off the ground, but absorbed as thermal energy, with a half life of excitation before emission of radiation of 0.45 sec., with a radiance of about 33 watts/sq. m radiating back to the surface after half is emitted toward space and half toward the ground; too bad, this 100% absorption claim is the Big Lie of Greenhouse Gas Theory, and what's worse, reemission isn't the same as reflection, meaning it's absorbed into the molecular structure and later emitted as governed by the S-B Law, growing less powerful as the temperature drops via the Earth's lapse rate of 9.8C/km (3.0C or 5.38F/1K ft.), with a longer wavelength to boot. Another big lie is that infrared radiation keeps traveling through the atmosphere without anything but CO2 absorbing it, because it's the only component than reemits and can cause their coveted global warming. Actually, H20 and O2 absorb radiation too, and radiation absorption is saturated at about 100m, CO2 or no CO2, which works both ways, absorbing any infrared emitted by CO2. Of course, if global warmist fantasies could come true, if the CO2 concentration were way higher, say 100%, there might be enough right at the ground level to absorb the ground radiation then reemit it at virtually at the same temperature and wavelength straight back to the ground, causing a thermal blanket effect that could warm the surface potentially, maybe even in a runaway fashion, but at 0.04% who's kidding who? BTW that's over land. The average temperature of the sea surface is 290.15K (62.6F). Meanwhile the Earth Energy Balance Equation gives the avg. effective temp at which the Earth must emit radiation to space at the tropopause to bring the energy budget into balance as only 252.6K (5F), and when it comes to radiated heat from the surface, the atmospheric temp must always be lower than the ground temp because of adiabatic expansion, sorry Al Gore, no runaway temperature. Duh, once it's absorbed 100% of the radiation, further increases in CO2 concentration would be pointless, right? No, say the con men. According to them, because of the T^4 (S-B) Law, if increased CO2 concentrations raise the altitude at which the critical density is reached for radiation to escape straight into space somehow, the higher altitude will be colder, meaning that slightly less energy will be radiated to space than before, causing the Earth to warm up a little to retain the balance, not explaining how the warming will go clear back to the ground level. Again, the SB-Law requires that the emitted power be smaller and the wavelength longer, and the emission in all directions not just into space, and there is no mysterious physical mechanism that causes that law to be suspended or the tropopause to change its height. It's called tropopause because the lapse rate has stopped or reversed, meaning that temperature increases with altitude, causing CO2 to emit more not less power anyway, not that power is energy, it's energy per unit time, the strength of a hose not the number of gallons in the tank. And fantastic talk of hidden energy being "stored" somewhere, like in the oceans, is also moose hockey, because of the T^4 law. So, CO2-forced global warming is moose hockey, and there's plenty of natural forces at work that make it look like a big fat zero. So, if satellites measure a slight decade-by-decade warming of the upper atmosphere, so what? That warming would still come from the Sun. And it will never be warm enough up there to support a cloud city like in Star Trek, so we'll still have to live on the surface and shiver at night. The One World Govt. (OWG) global warmist elites such as the arch-wizard George Soros don't care because science is just a coverstory for their political goals. The reason they don't talk about sending a fleet of spaceships to turn the Sun off is because it would cost quadrillions or quintillions of dollars, and currently they can only force the wealthy countries to pony up trillions :) The main reason they don't want more CO2 in the atmosphere is to keep it from feeding more green plant life, keeping the population down even at the risk of famines - they're sick :) The real climate is more complicated than this, you say, but at the current trace concentrations there is no way CO2 can drive the global climate period, which doesn't stop elitist globalists from turning it into a great boogeyman to gain control of the world. All along, the climate change true believers like to scare you into emptying you pockets with strange contrived stories of the supposed horrible effects of global warming, confusing fantasy levels with real levels, which are 1C-2C, way less than the daily variations and not even detectable without instruments. Oh yes, Satan is the Prince of the Power of the Air, and it's way too easy to confuse weather with climate, the Devil makes the news and God just keeps the world going along. Another little joke. Since everybody agrees that Satan is let loose on the Earth, the question is whether he is now controlling the world's govts., or the world's corporations, or the world's scientists, and whether climate change is real, and whether it is manmade, with the solution being either that it isn't happening, or isn't manmade, hence leave Mother Nature alone, or that it is real and is manmade, hence man should take drastic actions to make sure it's real but under the control of the OWG and its scientists, so that Earth will become a utopia where the weather may or may not become tame, but for sure the rich mainly white countries will be drained to give to the poor mainly non-white countries, and the dissenters muzzled as the whole world is turned into a classless raceless poverty-stricken communist Hell with no more control over the global climate than a broken hockey stick :)


Clouds - a poem by Roy Venton-Walters


TLW's Climate Video Lounge

TLW's Climate Blog List




History of Earth

Geologic time scale

Geologic temperature record

Timeline of environmental history

Global cooling

Global warming

Climate change

Climate oscillation

Effects of global warming

Solar actitivy and climate

Solar cycle

List of periods and events in climate history

Temperature record of the past 1000 years

Table of historic and prehistoric climate indicators

Attribution of recent climate change

Palaeoclimatology

Paleoceanography

Sclerochronology

Dendroclimatology

CO2 fertilization effect

Sea level rise

Marine (oxygen) isotope stage

Climate of Antarctica

Instrumental Temperature Record

List of large-scale temperature reconstructions of the last 2,000 years

Climate change and agriculture

Climate change adaptation

Climate resilience

Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States

List of climate scientists

Scientific opinion on climate change

List of scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus on global warming

Public opinion on global warming

Media coverage of global warming

Politics of global warming

Environmental politics

Climate change mitigation

Low-carbon economy

Economics of global warming

Climate change policy of the United States

Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act

List of climate change intiatives

Climate change opinion by country

General circulation model

Satellite temperature measurements

Sea surface temperature

List of weather records

Highest temperature recorded on Earth

Lowest temperature recorded on Earth

List of heat waves

List of droughts

Droughts in California

List of dust storms

List of famines

List of blizzards

List of ice storms

List of costly or deadly hailstorms

List of wildfires

List of climate change books

Global warming article on RationalWiki

The secret life of 'global warming' on Wikipedia

List of climate change books


The Historyscoper's Antarctic Volcanoes Projec Blog

TLW's Dawn of Time Historyscope

The Historyscoper's Petroleumscope

Historyscoper Home Page







© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.