TLW's Climatescope™ (Climate Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: May 30, 2018. Last Update: June 22, 2018.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to world climate and world climate history along with the history of climate change science and the great debate on anthropogenic climate change (global warming). Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
About 4B B.C.E. Venus forms basalt continents and Mars forms shield volcanoes, with neither having differentiation or plate tectonics; Mars loses its carbon dioxide quickly, while Venus goes into a runaway greenhouse effect and loses water; both end up as the only two Solar System planets with CO2 atmospheres - the soda pop planets?
About 1.4B B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels on Earth are 200x greater than modern levels.
About 550M B.C.E. atmospheric oxygen on Earth rises from 3% to the modern-day level of 21%, causing complex multicellular animal life to arise; carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration is 20x modern-day levels.
About 485M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); CO2 content of the atmosphere is 4.2K ppm.
About 350M B.C.E. the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air is about the same as modern times, rising by 200M B.C.E. to 4x-5x modern-day levels.
About 144M B.C.E. the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era ends, and the Cretaceous Period (Lat. "creta" = chalk) of the Mesozoic Era begins (ends -66M), an era of a greenhouse climate (warmest period in the last 600M years), with no ice in the polar regions and the climate of Alaska like that of Oregon; the spread of reptiles and the development of flowering plants begins; bony fish begin a major radiation; in the U.S. the Lower Cretacean is also called the Comanchean, after the Comanches of Texas; another mass-extinction occurs, and most sauropods in the N Hemisphere, along with stegosaurus, allosaurus, ceratosaurus, ornitholestes et al. become extinct - no likey de steam baths?
About 137M B.C.E. after high levels of CO2 raise global temp and melt polar ice, a sudden sea temp. drop in the Atlantic Gulf Stream from 13C (55F) to 4C-7C (39F-44F) occurs, leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs by -65M, not a meteor, according to Gregory Price et al. of Plymouth U.
In 66M B.C.E. the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event sees a 1T-ton 6-mi.-dia. asteroid or smaller comet impact in the area of Chicxulub, Mexico, apparently causing the 5th worldwide (2nd largest) mass-extinction (75% of all species), leaving the K-PG (Cretaceous-Paleogene) Boundary, a thin layer of sediment with high levels of iridium; too bad, the Chicxulub crater lacks iridium; the 24km diam. Boltysh Crater in Ukraine happens several thousand years earlier?; at first sulfur chokes the atmosphere and blocks the Sun for years or decades, causing land temps to plummet by 28C (50F), after which increased CO2 levels cause global warming by 5C (9F) for 100K-300K years; the dinosaurs are wiped out, along with many primitive species of Cretaceous birds, allowing the mammals to inherit the Earth, rapidly increasing their max size from 10kg to 17 tons, a factor of 1Kx; the ammonites become extinct; plankton and small wormlike creatures recover in the silty crater seafloor within a few years; birds have to rediscover how to fly after only flightless emu-like species survive; mixotrophs, which can consume organic matter in the absence of sunlight help smaller organisms survive?; the mass exinction of the dinos was really caused by the Earth traveling through a thin disk of dark matter running through the Galaxy?; long-term climate change kills off the dinosaurs, not a rogue asteroid, according to German paleontologist Michael Prauss; the precise date is 66,038,000 B.C.E.; the decline of plant-eating dinosaur species in the last few million years is what doomed them? Within 400K years rat-sized placental Protungulatum donnae emerges in North Am., becoming the ancestor of all placental mammals, which branch into 5.4K modern-day species?
About 55M B.C.E. the Arctic region around the North Pole is subtropical, with surface sea temps of 23C (73F) (until -49M).
About 49M B.C.E. the ocean around the North Pole is closed off by the continents, creating a freshwater sea at about 10C (50F); the low salinity causes Azolla ferns to multiply, consuming the carbon dioxide and cooling it down?
About 40M B.C.E. the avg. global temp is 88F (31C) due to high CO2 levels of 900-1K PPM.
About 15M B.C.E. the Earth becomes cooler and more arid, but the climate is still very warm, with CO2 levels as high as modern times; alligators live in England.
About 10M-6M B.C.E. the North Pole has ice-free summers, and the sea surface temp reaches 4C-9C (39F-48F).
About 4.5M B.C.E. the Pliocene Warm Period begins (ends -3.5M); the Bering Sea is ice-free and full of life.
About 300,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation in the Alps (named after the Riss River in Upper Swabia) begins (ends -128K), along with the Saale Glaciation (ends -128K).
About 128,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation ends, and the Eeemian (Sangamonian) (Ipswichian) (Mikulin) (Kaydayky) (Valdivia) (Riss-Wurm) Warming begins (ends -113K), becoming the last interglacial period.
About 120,000 B.C.E. the Wurm (Würm) Glaciation (named after a river in Bavaria) begins, becoming the last ice age in the Alpine region, and the youngest major glaciation to extend beyond the Alps, with avg. yearly temps below -3C.
About 40,000 B.C.E. a climate-changing volcanic eruption in Liguria on the Italian Rivera in the Phlegraean Fields W of modern-day Naples devastates Europe, wiping out most of the Homo sapiens, with some surviving in rock shelters incl. Riparo Bombrini.
About 19,000 B.C.E. the Last Glacial Maximum sees a cold Earth whose N continents are covered by vast ice sheets, with low atmospheric CO2 levels.
About 17,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Glacial Retreat begins, seeing the glacial ice sheet begin its retreat to the N, accelerating about -13K and ending about -9.7K with abrupt warming and rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of Europe and North Am.; melting ice causes a global sea level rise until -4K, averaging 1m per cent., with rapid jumps of up to 2.5m per cent.
About 16,000 B.C.E. the Wurm Glaciation reaches its maximum extent in the Gschnitz Stadial. The Older Dryas (end -13K), based on oxygen isotope ratio cycles and the marker species Dryas octopetaia is a climatic period during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian Glaciation in N Europe. The last ice age in the S Hemisphere ends in response to warming in the N Hemisphere?
About 10,900 B.C.E. start of the Younger Dryas (-10.8K?) (ends -9.4K) (named after an Arctic plant of the rose family which appears), caused by an inrush of fresh water from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans greater than the volume of all the Great Lakes combined, causing abrupt (10 years) cooling in Europe and North Am. and return of near-glacial conditions for 1K years, leading to extinction of megafauna in North Am. incl. mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and giant short-faced bears, and the extinction of the Clovis Culture; the melting of continental ice sheets reverses in Scotland and Norway; abrupt drought in the Near East brings on the beginnings of agriculture, the creation of granaries to store food, etc., ending the mobile way of life, and causing pop. concentrations around sources of water, changing Stone Age hunter-gatherers into the world's first farmers, and the first domestication and genetic selection of plants incl. wheat and grains; at the same time Antarctica heats up by 1 deg C, coupled with rising CO2; it is caused by a comet ripping through North Am., according to Douglas J. Kennett et al. of the U. of Ore. in 2009; in 2010 C. Vance Haynes of the U. of Ariz. finds evidence for a comet to be lacking; nanodiamond evidence is inconclusive and tends to contradict the comet theory?; in 2013 Mukul Sharma et al. of Dartmouth College claim conclusive evidence of an asteroid or comet impact.
About 7,500 B.C.E. the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase) begins (ends -3500), bringing wet rainy conditions to N Africa incl. a Green (Wet) Sahara; the climate of Britain warms up to modern conditions, and Britain is reforested; Periodic tidal waves over the next 2K years indundate 1K sq. mi. of land now under the North Sea.
About 6,200 B.C.E. a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) begins (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile, Catal Huyuk is abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.
About 3,900 B.C.E. the 5.9 Kiloyear Event begins (ends -3400), bringing five cents. of colder climate in northernly latitudes, launching the modern dessication of the Sahara and triggering human immigration to the Nile River Valley.
About 3,040 B.C.E. the climate of North Am., along with vegetation cover and sea levels achieve modern levels.
About 2,200 B.C.E. the 4.2 Kiloyear Aridification Event begins (ends -2100), causing the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu Culture in the Lower Yangtze River Basin, also probably causing the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization, spurring migration of Indo-European speaking people into India; a drought begins in the Akkadian Empire, causing migration away from urban centers followed by a collapse of the govt. known as the Third Millennium Mesopotamian Urban Crisis.
About 1,800 B.C.E. the Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch begins (ends -1500), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic region, along with severe volcanic eruptions in Mt. Vesuvius (-1660), Mount Aniakchak (-1645), and Mt. Thera in Minoa (-1620).
About 900 B.C.E. the Iron Age Cold Epoch (Neoglaciation) (Climate Pessimum) begins (ends 300 B.C.E.), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic, peaking during the expansion of Greece era about 450 B.C.E.
About 250 B.C.E. the Roman Warm Period (Climatic Optimum) in Europe and North Am. begins (ends 400 C.E.), causing Theophrastus to write that date trees can grow in Greece but can't set fruit, as in modern times; the mild weather conditions help Hannibal cross the Alps with his elephants.
In 535 C.E. Krakatoa Volcano (Rabul Volcano near Papua, New Guinea?) in Malaysia (at 105 deg. E, 5 deg. S) explodes, splitting the island of Sumatra asunder and creating the islands of Java and Sumatra separated by the Sunda Strait, reducing daylight to four hours and affecting crop growth for 10 years, causing seven years of crop failures, encouraging fleas in Africa to multiply, bringing the plague 3x; did this accelerate the coming of the Dark Ages?
About 950 C.E. the Medieval Climate Optimum (Climatic Anomaly) (Warm Period), a period of temps. 1-2 deg. F higher than normal begins (ends 1250); Tree Ring Growth in this half-cent. and the next cent. are especially rapid, indicating a warm period; the warmest period is between 950-1100, becoming the warmest period of the last 2K years prior to the 20th cent.
About 1250 the Medieval Climate Optimum (begun 950) along with the optimal climate conditions in Europe since 1000 end, and the Little Ice Age (ends 1850) begins as Atlantic ice pack begins growing, bringing poor harvests, famine, and disease, and changing the sociopolitical landscape with a pop. reduction, uprooted vagabond farmers, and a blind rage against the rich and Jews; Europe begins to be rapidly deforested, leading to a shortage of wood for heating and cooking by 1500, along with a decline of wild game and a food shortage; luckily, in the 16th cent. potatoes and corn (maize) are brought in from the New World, and soft coal begins to be used as fuel.
About 1300 farm expansion in Europe halts because of the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which lasts until 1850; less cattle is raised, and the herring supply starts to slide; food production slides in Greenland and Scandinavia, and the coast of Greenland grows icebound, causing the settlements to dwindle; Greenland has a pop. of 3K colonists living on 300 farms along the W coast, but the worsening weather dooms them to eventual near-extinction.
In spring 1315 bad weather leads to the Great Famine of 1315-17, which kills millions in Europe and Russia, causing cannibalism, infanticide, disease, and crime, ending the period of growth and prosperity begun in the 11th cent.
About 1460 the Sporer (Spörer) Minimum begins (ends 1550), a 90-year span of low solar activity first proposed in 1976 by John A. Eddy based on analysis of C-14 in tree rings, and named for German astronomer Gustav Sporer.
In 1645 the Maunder Minimum (period of low sunspot counts) begins (ends 1715); the Thames River freezes every winter, and there is famine throughout Europe and China.
In Dec. 1683 the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow - all them scientific brains and no mention of Global Cooling?
In 1793 English meteorologist John Dalton (1766-1844) pub. his first work Meteorological Observations and Essays (2nd ed. 1834), based on his habit of M.O., which goes on from 1787-1844, later used to propose the Dalton Minimum of low sunspot counts in 1796-1820 (1790-1830?).
In 1816 the Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7.
In 1822 French mathematician Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) pub. On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies (Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur), his mathematical theory of heat conduction, introducing his hot new Fourier Series, expansions of piecewise continuous functions as trigonometrical series. In 1825 he discovers the Greenhouse Effect.
In 1850 the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which has kept Europe cold and half-starved suddenly ends in a span of a few years; the Great Glacier Retreat begins (ends ?) - giving Euros a chance to create a peaceful Paradise or a war-torn Hell?
In 1859 Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) discovers that gases can block infrared radiation, and suggests that they could be used to bring climate change, AKA the Greenhouse Effect - all ahead full? Too bad, in 1856 Am. scientist Eunice Foote already pub. it.
In 1889 after attempting to determine the surface temp of the Moon by measuring infared radiation reaching the Earth, using the angle in the sky to estimate CO2 and water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) pub. The Temperature of the Moon: from Studies at the Allegheny Observatory.
In Apr. 1896 Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age; "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression."
On Nov. 1, 1899 Mattoon, Ill.-born geologist Thomas Chrowder "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, which promotes the theory that atmospheric CO2 concentration can drive changes in the climate for the purposes of climate engineering (geoengineering); "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate."; "A study of the life of the geological periods seems to indicate that there were very notable fluctuations in the total mass of living matter. To be sure there was a reciprocal relation between the life of the land and that of the sea, so that when the latter was extended upon the continental platforms and greatly augmented, the former was contracted, but notwithstanding this it seems clear that the sum of life activity fluctuated notably during the ages. It is believed that on the whole it was greatest at the periods of sea extension and mild climates, and least at the times of disruption and climatic intensification. This factor then acted antithetically to the carbonic acid freeing previously noted, and, so far as it went, tended to offset its effects. It now becomes necessary to assign agencies capable of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate sufficiently above the normal rate of supply, at certain times, to produce glaciation; and on the other hand, capable of restoring it to the atmosphere at certain other times in sufficient amounts to produce mild climates."
On July 10, 1913 after a record hot summer Death Valley, Calif. reaches a high air temp of 134 F (56.7 C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth), followed by the record highest ground surface temp on Earth of 201F (93.9C) on July 15, 1917.
In the 1920s Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate chnages by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun.
In 1934 the Great Drought begins in the U.S. (ends 1937), covering 150K sq. mi. (75%) of the Great Plains, incl. parts of Okla., Tex., Kans., Colo., and N.M., becoming the worst drought in 1K years; caused by the planting of wheat during WWI on former grazing land to make a quick profit? On July 20, 1934 Keokuk, Iowa reaches a state temp record of 118F (48C).
In 1938 Montreal, Canada-born British steam engineer Guy Stewart "G.S." Callendar (1898-1964) pub. the Callendar (Greenhouse) Effect caused by the burning of fossil fuels, assessing climate sensitivity at 2 deg C and claiming that it would be beneficial, delaying a "return of the deadly glaciers", meeting with widespread skepticism but leading to attempts to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Hawaii in 1958.
In 1953 Wilton, N.H.-born astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) (former asst. of Charles Pierpont Langley), dir. since 1907 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (inventor of the solar cooker, solar boiler, and solar still) discovers a link between sunspot cycles and Earth climate, claiming to be able to predict climate patterns 50 years in advance.
In 1957 Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) and Vienna, Austria-born Am. chemist-physicist Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) pub. the paper "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades" in Tellus, which suggests that the rate of absorption of excess CO2 by Earth's oceans is lower than previously estimate, threatening a greenhouse effect leading to global warming, and proposing the Revelle Factor, the resistance to absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean surface layer due to bicarbonate chemistry, which is higher in warm waters, leading to more anthropogenic CO2; Revelle goes on to help create the Internat. Geophysical Year in 1958, and the Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean (CCCO), help found the U. of Calif. San Diego (UCSD), and become Al Gore's professor and mentor.
In Mar. 1958 Am. chemist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) begins measuring atmospheric CO2 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the Internat. Geophysical Year, obtaining an initial reading of 314 ppm, which grows to 387 ppm in 50 years, becoming known as the Keeling Curve.
In 1970 the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by John Adams, Richard Ayres, John Bryson, Gus Speth, and Edward Strohbehn to fight for environmental causes, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; of course, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump.
In 1971 New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) pub. the paper "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Science" in Science mag., containing the soundbyte: "[I]t is projected that man's potential to pollute will increase six- to eightfold in the next 50 years. If this increased rate of injection of particulate matter in the atmosphere should raise the present background opacity by a factor of 4, our calculations suggest a decrease in global temperature by as much as 3.5 °K. Such a large decrease in the average temperature of Earth, sustained over a period of few years, is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age. However, by that time, nuclear power may have largely replaced fossil fuels as a means of energy production"; in 1974 after deciding that he underestimated the warming effect of CO2 by a factor of three, Schneider pub. a retraction, and in 1976 he pub. the book The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, discussing the balance between short-term cooling due to aerosols and long-term warming due to CO2, deciding that CO2 wins and going on to become a major advocate of global warming and the Greenhouse Theory; in 1989 he pub. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century?; on Nov. 3, 2009 he and Tim Flannery pub. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth's Climate; in Oct. 2010 he and Michael D. Mastrandrea pub. Preparing for Climate Change, advocating big-buck projects.
In 1972 Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen propose the Faint Early (Young) Sun Paradox (Problem), that the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%.
On Apr. 28, 1975 Newsweek pub. the article The Cooling World by Peter Gwynne, which claims that evidence of a coming ice age is accumulating "so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it."
In 1979 Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) pub. The Charney Report (Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment), which concludes: "We estimate the most probable global warming for a doubling of CO2 to be near 3°C with a probable error of ± 1.5°C"; too bad, it never mentions the Greenhouse Gas Theory?
On May 2, 1982 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history".
On Mar. 9, 1984 The libertarian Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) in Washington, D.C. is founded by lobbyist Fred L. Smith Jr. to fight against big govt., going on to lead climate change skeptics.
In Oct. 1985 the Internat. Conference of the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts is held in Villach, Austria, led by Canadian climatologist Fredrick Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) and Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007), after which the U.N. Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases is founded by the U.N. Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Org. (WMO), and the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions, holding its last meeting in 1990 after being replaced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988). In 1975 Bolin helped the Swedish govt. pass a bill on future energy policy containing the soundbyte: "It is likely that climatic concerns will limit the burning of fossil fuels rather than the size of the natural resources", earning him a rep as the man who got the world to agree on climate. On Nov. 15, 2007 Bolin pub. the semi-autobio. book A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
On June 23, 1988 after pub. the first Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) Global Temperature Analysis in 1981, NASA climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) addresses the U.S. Congress, uttering the soundbyte that global warming has already arrived, claiming a 0.5C-0.7C global warming in the past cent., with the four warmest years all in the 1980s, and the two warmest in 1981 and 1987, making him 99% sure that the Earth is the warmest since instrumental data began to be collected in 1980, that there is a clear cause-effect relationship with the Greenhouse Effect, and that global warming is steadily increasing the likelihood of freak weather, becoming "the opening salvo of the age of climate change", supercharging the One World Govt. (OWG) types and letting them loose like a roving lion to create a new money-hungry OWG religion complete with priests, bishops, and a pope (Al Gore)?, and CO2 as their Devil?; in 1999 the GISS study is updated, reporting 1998 as the warmest year on record despite slight cooling in the E U.S. and W Atlantic, mainly due to the El Nino; too bad, in 2000 he pub. the paper "Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario", admitting that the net global warming observed so far is likely due to non-CO2 gases and black carbon, because CO2 is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted via fossil fuel burning.
In 1988 after the speech by James Hansen, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) to prove an objective scientific view of climate change and its political-economic impacts, with Bert Bolin as chmn. #1, receiving endorsement by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Resolution 43/53; too bad, it is taken over by sinister OWG globalists who want to force the rich nations to cough-up their wealth and give it to the poor nations to supposedly atone for their sins, ensuring that all nations will be poor?
On June 4, 1992 the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is opened for signatures at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, entering into force on Mar. 21, 1994, with the objective to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system", setting non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions with no enforcement mechanisms.
In summer 1992 the article "What to do about greenhouse warning: Look before you leap", by Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) is pub. in Cosmos: A Journal of Engineering Issues, which contains the soundbyte: "Drastic, precipitous - and, especially, unilateral - steps to delay the putative greenhouse impacts can cost jobs and prosperity and increase the human costs of global poverty, without being effective. Stringent economic controls now would be economically devastating particularly for developing countries", and concludes: "The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses"; too bad, Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer ("Father of Global Warming") Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) adds his name to the article after Singer allegedly hoodwinks him, causing Revelle's grad student Justin Lancaster to to call Singer's actions "unethical", after which Singer sues with the support of the Center for Public Interest in Washington, D.C., receiving a letter of apology from Lancaster sans admission of wrongdoing, only to withdraw his letter in 2006 after Robert Balling et al. continue to claim that Revelle is the article's real author, while Revelle waffles until his 1991 death; meanwhile in June 1992 Dem. vice-pres. candidate Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. the NYT bestseller (first by a sitting U.S. sen. ince JFK's "Profiles in Courage") Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, proposing a Global Marshall Plan to save the planet. In Feb. 2007 Singer and Am. food policy analyst Dennis T. Avery (1936-) pub. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years, containing the soundbyte: "The Earth is warming but physical evidence from around the world tells us that human-emitted carbon dioxide has played only a minor role in it. Instead, the mild warming seems to be part of a natural 1,500-year climate cycle (plus or minus 500 years) that goes back at least one million years." On Jan. 3, 2011 Singer pub. the article Estimated 40 Percent of Scientists Doubt Manmade Global Warming in the bulletin of the Nat. Assoc. of Scholars. On Feb. 29, 2012 Singer pub. the article Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name in American Thinker, attempt to position himself on the fence. On Apr. 2, 2018 Singer pub. the article Does the Greenhouse Gas CO2 Cool the Climate? in American Thinker, which concludes: "A greenhouse gas produces cooling of the climate when its molecular transitions are in a region of positive lapse rate. One example is CO2 and the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude. Another example is temperature over the winter poles. While the climate cooling is not obvious, it counters [conventional] GH warming. This at-least-partial cancellation might explain the puzzling absence of CO2-based GH warming in the 20th century. It could also help explain the cause of the [hotly] contested climate 'pause'. Much further work awaits!"
In 1992 English climate scientist Chris Folland (1944-) utters the soundbyte about the 1990 IPCC Report: "The data doesn't matter. We're not basing our recommendations on the data. We're basing them on the climate models"; in 2014 after the quote is spread over the Internet by climate warming skeptics, he confirms it but claims that since 1995 the data began coming in and the models are no longer as important.
On Nov. 9-10, 1995 a conference in Leipzig, Germany organized by German plant physiologist Helmut Metzner (1925-99) produces the Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change, written by Austrian-born Am. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and his Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEP) (founded 1990) in Arlington, Va., and signed by 80 scientists and 25 TV meteorologists, opposing the claims of global warming; in 1997 it is updated to opppose the Kyoto Protocol after a conference on Nov. 10-11 in Bonn, Germany; in 2005 it is revised again; global warming advocates call it a disinfo. campaign.
In 1995 English weather-forecasting physicist Piers Richard Corbyn (1947-) founds WeatherAction to sell weather predictions based on his secret Solar Weather Technique which considers past weather patterns and solar observations, and Sun-Earth magnetic connectivity; in 1990 his successful prediction of severe weather makes him a star when it becomes a year of "the worst extremes"; he goes on to deny anthropogenic global warming, with the soundbyte: "CO2 has never driven, does not drive and never will drive weather or climate. Global warming is over and it never was anything to do with CO2. CO2 is still rising but the world is now cooling and will continue to do so."
On Dec. 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol is signed by 192 parties incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the U.S., effective Feb. 16, 2005, extending the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commiting all parties to reduce greenhouse emissions esp. CO2; the Oregon Petition (Global Warming Petition Project), organized by Arthur B. Robinson, pres. of the Ore. Inst. of Science and Medicine and endorsed by Frederick Seitz (1911-2008), pres. #17 of the U.S. Nat Academy of Sciences in 1962-9 has 31K degreed signatories, urging the U.S. to reject the Kyoto Protocol, with the soundbyte: "The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind."
According to NASA, 1998 is the warmest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, with an avg. temp. for the first 10 mo. of 1.25 deg. F above normal, blamed on the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (Niño) (warmer water than usual), which formed in the C and E equatorial Pacific in the first half of the year, disrupting worldwide weather patterns and feeding Millennium Fever with wildfires in Indonesia, Brazil, and Central Am., crop losses in SE Africa, record rains in the S U.S., the warmest spring in Canadian records, and the worst natural diaster in Latin Am. records (Hurricane Mitch); Jan.-Feb. are the warmest and wettest in U.S. records; the global avg. temp. this year is 14.57 C, compared to 14.0 C avg. from 1960-90; high sea temps cause massive coral bleaching in the Seychelles, Maldives and W Australian coral reefs.
On Apr. 23, 1998 Am. climatologists Michael E. Mann (1965-), Raymond S. "Ray" Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes pub. the article Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries in Nature, proposing the Hockey Stick Graph based on reconstructions of the temp record on Earth over the past 600 (later 1K years), showing an abrupt rise in temps over the last 150 years, ramping up the Global Warming Controversy; on Jan. 31, 2003 fossil fuel industry-funded Malaysian-born Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (1966-) and Harvard/Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years in Climate Research, blasting Mann's hockey stick, with the soundbytes: "Our results suggest a different interpretation of the multiproxy climates compared to recent conclusions of Mann et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)", and "Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest or a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which is quickly adopted by the Pres. G.W. Bush admin. as a basis for amending the first EPA Report on the Environment, causing a firestorm of controversy causing 10 of 20 editors to resign and publisher Otto Kinne to cut the authors loose. On June 5, 2001 Baliunas pub. the paper Climate History and the Sun, containing the soundbyte: "But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case … measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident." On May 9, 2003 she speaks out against U.K. climate change policy, with the soundbyte: "Fear often dominates discussion about the earth's climate. Many people have been led to believe that drastic measures are necessary to prevent the risk of negative future outcomes, such as global warming. As such, we now face a situation where politicians are misallocating resources because they are responding to manufactured problems, which are based on public anxiety rather than sound scientific evidence. Ineffective measures like the Kyoto Protocol, built on fear rather than science, will not reduce the future burden of greenhouse gases and will cause many more problems than they solve." On Nov. 14, 2011 Baliunas pub. the press release Human Activity is Not Cause of Global Warming via the George C. Marshall Inst., containing the soundbyte: "The science does not suggest dangerous global warming. If there is any trace at all of a greenhouse warming, it is too small to be seen in the climate record. That means that future warming due to human activities will be quite small - well under one degree C."
In 1998 Lenoir, N.C.-born Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) (co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Chem. Prize) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, in which he disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.
In 1998 after getting pissed-off when his global warming skeptic father is attacked by U.S. senator Al Gore in an attempt to discredit him, Ariz. State U. geographer Craig D. Idso et al. found the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change in Tempe, Ariz., promoting the idea that carbon dioxide (CO2) has mostly positive environmental effects.
In 2001 the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., summarizing the predominant scientific opinion on climate change, concluding that the global avg. surface temp has risen 0.6C +/-0.2 C since the late 19th cent., and 0.17C/decade in 1971-2001, with the soundbyte: "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" esp. greenhouse gases methane and CO2, predicting a temp increase of 1.4C-5.8C between 1990 an 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continue, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in some types of extreme weather, becoming more negative as warming increases; critics incl. Am. atmospheric physicist Richard Siegmund Lindzen (1940-), lead author of Ch. 7 "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks", who calls it "climate alarmism", uttering the soundbyte: "Why do we need to deconstruct global warming? Simply because it has been an issue that has been routinely treated with misinformation and sophistry abetted by constant repetition, institutional endorsements, and widespread ignorance even (perhaps especially) among the educated.... To a great extent, global warming has been merely a device for implementing broader agendas"; another critic is English-born Am. physicist Freeman John Dyson (1923-), who acknowledges that CO2 drives global warming but doubts that existing climate simulation models are accurate enough "to describe the real world we live in", pointing in 2009 out that "What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago", suggesting that China and India should choose to burn coal and get rich instead of staying poor, noting that "the main effect of carbon dioxide... is to make the planet greender, feeding the growth of green plans of al kinds, increasing the fertility of farms and fields and fields", suggesting that planting 1T trees could remove all excess CO2 in the atmosphere.
In late 2003 after getting pissed-off at the Canadian govt.'s promotion of the Kyoto Protocol, Canadian mining consultant Stephen "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the paper Corrections to the Mann et al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series in Energy and Environment, alleging errors in principal component analysis in Mann's 1998 hockey stick graph that underrepresent the Medieval Warm Period, turning the hockey stick into er, moose hockey; on Oct. 15, 2004 Richard A. Muller pub. the paper Global Warming Bombshell in MIT Technology Review (subtitle: A prime piece of evidence linking human activity to climate change turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics), containing the soundbyte: "McIntyre and McKitrick obtained part of the program that Mann used, and they found serious problems. Not only does the program not do conventional PCA, but it handles data normalization in a way that can only be described as mistaken. Now comes the real shocker. This improper normalization procedure tends to emphasize any data that do have the hockey stick shape, and to suppress all data that do not. To demonstrate this effect, McIntyre and McKitrick created some meaningless test data that had, on average, no trends. This method of generating random data is called 'Monte Carlo' analysis, after the famous casino, and it is widely used in statistical analysis to test procedures. When McIntyre and McKitrick fed these random data into the Mann procedure, out popped a hockey stick shape!... That discovery hit me like a bombshell, and I suspect it is having the same effect on many others. Suddenly the hockey stick, the poster-child of the global warming community, turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics. How could it happen?" - now that ain't my radio it's my weather gauge? McIntyre later utters the soundbyte: "The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann... for the estimation of temperature from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal componenets and other quality control defects." McKitrick later utters the soundbytes: "I have been probing the arguments for global warming for well over a decade. In collaboration with a lot of excellent coauthors I have consistently found that when the layers get peeled back, what lies at the core is either flawed, misleading or simply non-existent", and "The world still awaits a proper inquiry into climategate: one that is not stacked with global warming advocates and one that is prepared to cross-examine evidence, interview critics as well as supporters of the CRU and other IPCC players, and follow the evidence where it clearly leads." In 2002 McKitrick and Christopher Essex pub. Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming, accusing politicians of claiming more certainty that is justified by the science.
In 2003 New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) reports from a research camp located on drifting sea ice near the North Pole, advertising a sign that reads "The North Pole Was Here", going on to pub. The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World on Apr. 22, 2006. In 2010 he becomes a member of the new Anthropocene Working Group of the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy, which was founded to develop the idea that human impact on Earth's climate is creating the new Anthropocene geological epoch, presenting its official recommendation on Aug. 29, 2016, which isn't officially approved until ?.
On May 17, 2004 Roland Emmerich's The Day After Tomorrow (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Dennis Quaid as climatologist Jack Hall, who must save the world from super-fast global warming er, cooling, which incl. New York being taken over by a new ice age; Jake Gyllenhaal plays his stranded son Sam; #7 movie of 2004 ($187M in the U.S., $544.3M worldwide on a $125M budget).
On Aug. 11, 2005 the online ed. of Science pub. three reports reporting that old temp. records used to feed calculations indicating that there is no global warming contained errors, and that the troposphere has warmed during the last two decades; John Christy and Roy Spencer of the U. of Ala., who developed the original records concede the error, but say that the warming rate calculated is too small to be a concern?
On Sept. 28, 2005 the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. releases data that the Arctic ice cap is shrinking, reaching its smallest-ever size this summer, and that the cause is probably global warming from human-generated greenhouse gases; they also speculate that the change is becoming self-sustaining as the holes in the ice allow the sea to absorb solar energy; they also claim that the permafrost is disappearing, coastal areas are being inundated, and polar bears are losing hunting grounds.
In Dec. 2005 U. of Kan. researcher Johannes Feddema et al. in Science predict that the deforestation of Amazon jungles could strengthen the summer monsoon in the SW U.S., adding 2 in. to the precipitation and offsetting some of global warming's effects; global deforestation is going at a rate of 50K sq. mi. a year.
In Jan. 2006 the DeSmog Blog is founded by public relations exec James "Jim" Hoggan (1946-) of Vancouver, B.C., Canada to push the global warming theory and oppose "a well-funded and highly organized public relations campaign" that is "poisoning" the climate change debate. On Sept. 29, 2009 he and Richard Littlemore pub. Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming; "Explains how the propaganda generated by self interest groups has purposely created confusion about climate change. It's an imperative read for a successful future." - Leonardo DiCaprio
On May 24, 2006 former U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It; pub. by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Penn.; "I am Al Gore, and I used to be the next president of the United States of America"; "You see that pale, blue dot? That's us. Everything that has ever happened in all of human history, has happened on that pixel. All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars all the famines, all the major advances... it's our only home. And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization. I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future"; "As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives"; "Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us"; "Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, 'What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had a chance?' We have to hear that question from them, now"; "The scientists are virtually screaming from the rooftops now. The debate is over! There's no longer any debate in the scientific community about this. But the political systems around the world have held this at arm's length because it's an inconvenient truth, because they don't want to accept that it's a moral imperative"; "It is appropriate to have an over representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis"; "An Inconvenient Truth is so convincing that it makes opposers of the argument as credible as Holocaust deniers" (Jon Niccum); released along with a film (May 24), which does $24M U.S. and $26M worldwide box office, which is followed by An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power (July 28, 2017), which only grosses $5M worldwide; "I don't think anybody can prepare on a physical level. It isn't possible to prepare for what is about to happen. The Pentagon gives us one to three years left of normal life on this planet. Now you have Al Gore's movie 'An Inconvenient Truth', whom I find very optimistic, as he gives us ten years. But I don't know a single scientist on the planet who gives us ten years or anybody else who gives us that long. What the Pentagon talks about is the rapid changes in climate, making it impossible to live in certain areas. Exactly where those areas are, they don't know" (Drunvalo Melchizedek); the book is followed by the sequel Our Choice (original title: The Path to Survival) (Nov. 2009) - or, drowning polar bears, submerged mainly Dem. Manhattan and San Fran, and why I shoulda been president then grew a beard to save electricity?
On Nov. 17, 2006 Am. TV meteorologist Willard Anthony Watts (1958-) launches the blog Watts Up With That? (WUWT), opposing proponents of anthropogenic climate change esp. by CO2, going on to help spread the Climatic Research Unit controversy in Nov. 2009, and becoming the #1 climate change blog on Earth (until ?); Tony Heller of Colo. builds up a rep on the blog under the alias Steven Goddard with allegations that NASA has been falsely claiming the year 1998 as the hottest in U.S. history when it was really 1934 after "adjusting" temperature data in a way which is "highly subjective, and subject to software and algorithm errors", going on to launch his own blog The Deplorable (Real) Climate Science Blog, with the motto: "Pulling Back the Curtain on Junk Science", continuing to expose govt. agencies incl. NASA, NOAA, the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, and the Japanese Meteorological Agency as data fakers; in Aug. 2007 NASA admits that 1934 is the hottest year on record for the U.S., but claims that the hottest year on Earth for the past cent. is still 2005.
On Jan. 14, 2007 (14:30 GMT) the Doomsday Clock is set to 5 min. to midnight, becoming the 4th forward set since 1991, prompted by nuclear standoffs with Iran and N Korea and warnings of climate change; "Global warming could kill millions. We should have a war on global warming rather than the war on terror" (Stephen W. Hawking, Jan. 17); China's emissions increase 8% this year, causing it to overtake the U.S. as the top producer of greenhouse gases (14% higher), although the U.S. still leads on a per capita basis, 19.4 tons, vs. 11.8 in Russia, 8.6 in the EU, 5.1 in China, and 1.8 in India.
On Feb. 9, 2007 Sir Richard Branson offers a $25M reward for the invention of a way to suck greenhouse gases out of the air - plant trees?
On Feb. 25, 2007 the 79th Academy Awards, hosted by Ellen Degeneres are held at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.; 306 films are eligible for consideration; the Oscars officially go green; the best picture Oscar for 2006 goes to The Departed, along with best dir. to sentimental favorite Martin Scorsese on his 6th try (beating Paul Greengrass' better United 93?); best actor goes to Forest "Idi Amin" Whitaker for The Last King of Scotland, best actress goes to Helen "Liz II" Mirren for The Queen ("Our Leaders. Ourselves.") (10-y.-o. Abigail Breslin, who played Olive Hoover in Little Miss Sunshine is passed over, as is Meryl Streep, who played Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada, her 14th nomination, two more than Jack Nicholson and Kate Hepburn), best supporting actor goes to Alan Alda in Little Miss Sunshine (Eddie Murphy, who plays James Brown clone James "Thunder" Early is passed over, perhaps because of his crude toilet-humor world's fattest woman flick Norbit, which comes out just at the wrong time, causing him to storm out of the awards show), and best supporting actress goes to Jennifer Hudson for playing Effie White in Dreamgirls (proving that rejection by Simon Cowell on "American Idol" is the ticket to fame?); Al Gore wins for the global warming documentary An Inconvenient Truth (dir. by Davis Guggenheim) ("By far the most terrifying film you will ever see"), which also garners Lezzie Lezzeridge, er, Melissa Etheridge a best song Oscar for I Need to Wake Up; before going to the stage she gives her wife a big kiss, then dedicates the win to her and her four kids (the highlight of the evening?); Gore utters the soundbyte: "People all over the world, we need to solve the climate crisis. It's not a political issue, it's a moral issue"; sound engineer Kevin O'Connell of Apocalypto sets a record with 19 straight Oscar nominations and 0 wins, losing to Dreamgirls; Pilobolus Dance Theatre provides the briefest numbers yet seen, despite one of the longest Oscar ceremonies ever.
On Mar. 8, 2007 Martin Durkin's The Great Global Warming Single (original title: "Apocalypse my arse") debuts on BBC Channel 4, questioning the scientific consensus on global warming, calling it "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times", pissing-off the PC police, causing U.K. broadcasting regulatory agency Ofcom to come down on it, making them rebroadcast it and correct three errors.
On Mar. 21, 2007 Al Gore appears before Congress with a boxes full of petitions to take action on global warming, becoming his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Jan. 2001.
On July 7, 2007 400K attend the globally-televised Live Earth concert at Copacabana Beach in Brazil to spotlight climate change, sponsored by Save Our Selves, founded by Kevin Wall with backing by Al Gore et al., receiving a record 15M live video streams, becoming a hit in Canada and a flop in the U.K. and U.S.
On Nov. 17, 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988) pub. its Fourth Assessment Report in Paris, written by Argentine-born Am. economist Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-) (lead author) et al., warning that human activity poses a risk of "abrupt or irreversible changes" on Earth, and proposing the Carbon Credit Emissions Trading Market, which is adopted by the Kyoto Protocol; the IPCC is awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize along with former U.S. vice-pres. Al Gore (1948-), whose acceptance speech contains the New Age OWG soundbyte: "The climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity. It is also our greatest opportunity to lift Global Consciousness to a higher level."
On Mar. 2, 2008 the Heartland Inst. (founded in Arlington Heights, Ill. in 1984, and known for working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke) holds the first Internat. Conference on Climate Change in New York City, endorsing the Nongovernmental Internat. Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) and pub. the article Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate, criticizing the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), followed by the Manhattan Declaration, declaring that carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for all life, and calling for an immediate halt to tax-funded attempts to counteract climate change, with the soundbytes: "Assertions of a supposed 'consensus' among climate experts are false", and demanding that "all taxes, regulations, and other interventions intended to reduce emissions of CO2 be abandoned forthwith"; leaders incl. Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), former adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher; signers incl. S. Fred Singer, Anthony Watts, David Bellamy, Piers Corbyn, Ian Plimer, Robert M. Carter, and Roy Spencer; by 2017 12 conferences are held.
On June 28, 2008 U.S. scientist Mark Serreze of the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. predicts that the North Pole may becoming ice-free for the first time in recorded history by the end of the summer; luckily, he was wrong.
In July 2008 Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-) pub. the article Climate Sensitivity Reconsidered in the newsletter of the Am. Physical Society, which contains the soundbytes: "More importantly, the conclusion is that, perhaps, there is no 'climate crisis', and that currently-fashionable efforts by governments to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions are pointless, may be ill-conceived, and could even be harmful", and "Global warming will not affect us for the next 2,000 years, and if it does, it won't have been caused by us", ramping up the scientific climate change denial movement; on Oct. 18 he posts the online article "More in Sorrow than in Anger, Open letter from The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley to Senator John McCain about Climate Science and Policy" , dissing U.S. Sen. John McCain for a speech he made at a wind farm pushing anthropogenic climate change.
In 2008 the nonprofit news org. Climate Central is founded in Princeton, N.J. to conduct scientific research on climate change and energy issues and produce and distribute multimedia content; on June 20 after NBC News reports how its Climate Change Education Partnership (founded 2010) helped educate 500+ TV weathercasters across the U.S. on global warming and its impacts, Repub. Sens. Ted Cruz of Tex., Rand Paul of Ky., James Lankford of Okla., and Jim Inhofe of Okla. call for the foundation's inspector gen. Allison Lerner to investigate their $4M program to increase climate reporting by meteorologists, calling it "propagandizing" instead of science, causing CEO Ben Strauss to utter the soundbyte: "Climate Central is not an advocacy organization, and the scientific consensus on climate change is not a political viewpoint", and U.S. Sen. (D-R.I.) Sheldon Whitehouse to utter the soundbyte: OCalling education on the irrefutable science of climate change 'political' would be laughable if it didn't reveal such a sobering truth about Republicans in Congress. Climate deniers still exist on Capitol Hill and the way fossil fuel money holds sway over the Republican Party permits antics like attacking this sensible grant."
On Mar. 20, 2009 Franny Armstrong's The Age of Stupid (Spanner Films) (Dogwood Pictures) debuts, a documentary starring Pete Postlethwaite as a historyscoper living alone in the devastated world of 2055, watching archival footage from guess what year while asking "Why didn't we stop climate change when we had the chance?"; spawns the 10:10 Project in the U.K. to encourage everybody to reduce their carbon emissions by 10% in 12 mo.
In Apr. 2009 Washington, D.C.-born former Rush Limbaugh aide Marc Morano (1968-) founds the climate change denial Web site Climate Depot, sponsored by the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) of Washington, D.C. (founded in 1985 by David Rothbard and Craig Rucker), going on to help spread new of the Climategate scandal, debate Bill Nye the Science Guy on CNN's "Piers Morgan Tonight" in Dec. 2012 and Sierra Club exec dir. Michael Brune on ditto in Jan. 2013, and produce the documentary Climate Hustle on May 2, 2016.
On Nov. 17, 2009 Climategate starts when a hacker breaks into computers at the U. of East Anglia in England and finds emails of Climatic Research Unit scientists faking global warming data at will and bragging about it, dogging the Dec. Copenhagen Summit; CRU dir. Philip Jones is in charge of the two key data sets used by the U.N. Intergovt. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to draw up its reports; too bad, it comes too near the Copenhagen Summit to stop it, despite U.N. climate scientist panel head Rajendra Pachauri uttering the soundbyte: "The internal consistency from multiple lines of evidence strongly supports the work of the scientific community, incl. those individuals singled out in these email exchanges."
On Dec. 7, 2009 the U.S. Environmental Protection Admin. (EPA) announces that greenhouse gases endanger public health and welfare, opening the way for the Obama admin. to impose its own curbs on emissions with or without approval from Congress. On Dec. 7 the Hopenhagen.org Web site sponsored by Coca-Cola, Siemens, and SAP corps. opens, inviting the world's citizens to sign a petition demanding world leaders draft binding agreements on climate changes; meanwhile Europe has its coldest winter in 50 years, snowing uninterruptedly starting on Dec. 13; Coca-Cola spearheads a coalition of 100+ cos. pushing a U.N. climate treaty, which commits the world's wealthiest nations to $10T in foreign aid, and possible create an internat. "super-grid" for regulating and distributing electric power; on Dec. 7-18 the 2009 U.N. Climate Change (Copenhagen) Conference attended by 15K reps from 192 nations is held in Copenhagen, Denmark to attempt to reach an internat. agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, with U.N. Climate Change Secretariat head Yvo de Boer uttering the soundbyte: "The clock has ticked down to zero. After two years of negotiations the time has come to deliver"; developing nations will be offered aid to cut emissions; on Dec. 8 a leaked document showing that world leaders will be asked to sign an agreement handing more power to rich countries and sidelining the U.N.'s role in all future climate negotiations causes an uproar, after which African reps. walk out on Dec. 14; on Dec. 14 Al Gore gives a speech, claiming that polar ice may vanish in 5-7 years (summer 2014), rather than in 2030 like other scientists estimate, citing Wieslav Maslowski, who later disclaims it; on Dec. 18 Pres. Obama visits it, originally planning to pledge a 17% emissions cut by 2020, and 83% by 2050, but ending up frantically trying to rescue it from a stalemate after China balks at a real deal, getting snubbed by the Chinese PM then crashing a meeting to work a last-minute toothless deal in order to claim a V; the last day of the conference is blanked with 4 in. of snow; Christopher Monckton, former science adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher claims that the real purpose of the conference is to lay the foundation for a OWG, but since it was a dud he must have been mistaken?; on Dec. 12 Danish police arrest 968 of 100K pro-global-warming protesters in Copenhagen; next July U.N. climate chief Yvo de Boer resigns.
On May 1, 2010 the Antarctic Volcanoes Project Blog is launched by TLW, who claims that global warming is good not bad, and more not less CO2 and H2O need to be pumped into the atmosphere to create more living space and food supplies, calling for a global scientific effort that starts with an evaluation of the potential of reactivating volcanoes in the Antarctic.
In 2010 Berkeley Earth is founded by UCB physicist Richard A. Muller (1944-) and Elizabeth Muller to perform the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project to reanalyze the Earth's surface temperature record in the light of concerns by skeptics, going on to pub. their findings in 2012 and go non-profit in Feb. 2013; they conclude that potential biases from data selection, data adjustment, poor station quality, and the urban heat island effect did not unduly bias the record, and that the overreliance on large and complex global climate models by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the attribution of the recent temperature increase to anthropogenic forcings could be replaced by a simple model that included a volcanic term and, as an anthropogenic proxy, CO2 concentration, concluding that the record could be reproduced by just these two contributions, and that inclusion of direct variations in solar intensity did not contribute to the fit; members incl. Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter (1959-), UCB physicist Jonathan Wurtele (1957-), UCB physicist Arthur Hinton "Art" Rosenfeld (1926-2017), physicist Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Pamela Hyde, and UCB physicist Robert Andrew Rhode, who writes the software to search databases for global temp records and merge them into a unified record, which he compares to "Hercules' enormous task of cleaning the Augean stables", extending the temp record back to 1753; in Oct. 2011 Richard Muller pub. an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal, containing the soundbyte: "When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didn't know what we'd find. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been very careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. They managed to avoid bias in their data selection, homogenization and other corrections. Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help cool this portion of the climate debate. How much of the warming is due to humans and what will be the likely effects? We made no independent assessment of that."
On Jan. 18, 2011 Canadian geographer-climatologist Timothy Francis "Tim" Ball (1938-), Charles Anderson, Martin Hertzberg, Claes Johnson, Joseph Olson, John O'Sullivan, and Hans Schreuder pub. Slaying the Sky Dragon - Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory, claiming to disprove the theory of manmade global warming by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; a product of Principia Scientific Internat. (PSI), founded in the U.K. in 2010 by British-born Canadian-Am. atty. John O'Sullivan to push the claim that CO2 is not a greenhouse gas. In 2011 hockey stick man Michael Mann sues Tim Ball for defamation for the soundbyte that Mann "should be in the State Pen, not Penn State". On Jan. 21, 2014 Ball pub. The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science, dissing the progressive left for politicizing what should only be a science.
On Mar. 21, 2011 Canadian-Am. climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe and her husband, West Tex. evangelical pastor Andrew Farley (1972-) pub. A Climate for Change: Global Warming Facts for Faith-Based Decisions, attempting to reconcile climate change wth evangelical Christianity, making fans of Leonardo DiCaprio and Pres. Obama; on Nov. 14, 2016 she writes an open letter to Pres. Trump, pleading with him to accept that climate change is real and not a hoax.
On June 26, 2011 Bergen, Norway-born Am. physicist Ivar Giaever (1929-) (co-winner of the 1973 Nobel Physics Prize) utters the soundbyte in the Aftenposten (Norway's largest newspaper): "It is amazing how stable temperature has been over the last 150 years", resigning from the Am. Physical Society on Sept. 13, 2011, with the soundbyte: "In the APS it is OK to discuss whether the mass of the proton changes over time and how a multi-universe behaves, but the evidence of global warming is incontrovertible?"; at the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting he utters the soundbyte: "Is climate change pseudoscience? If I'm going to answer the question, the answer is: absolutely."
On July 12, 2011 Am. journalist Christian Parenti pub. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence, claiming a link between climate change and political unrest in mid-lat. regions of Earth.
On Feb. 7, 2012 U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-), chmn. of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) in 2003-7 and 2015-17, known for opposing same-sex marriage and wanting to make English the U.S. nat. language pub. The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future, claiming on the Senate floor that "manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people", once bringing a snowball with him to disprove global warming, and claiming that schools are "brainwashing" children about climate change, making it necessary to "unbrainwash them when they get out", earning him the top position on the Top Ten Climate Deniers List.
On Mar. 1, 2012 Barbel Honisch et al. of Columbia U. pub. an article in Science announcing that the Earth's oceans may be turning acidic from human carbon emissions faster than during the last four major extinctions over 300M years.
In 2012 German chemist Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) and German geologist Sebastian Luning (Lüning) (1970-) pub. "Die Kalte Sonne: Warum die Klimakatrasphoe nicht Statfindet", which is pub. in English on June 15, 2015 as The Neglected Sun: Why the Sun Precludes Climate Catastrophe, which claims that the Sun and four concurrent solar cycles control weather on Earth, not CO2, making the doomsday global warming predictions of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change into moose hockey, a castle built on sand, because a future ice age is a possibility after the Earth cools 0.2-0.3 C by 2035; their book is heavily criticized by climate scientists.
In Jan. 2013 English libertarian journalist Sir Matthew White "Matt" Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley (1958-), known for his lukewarm view of climate change and distrust of renewable energy policy pub. an article in The Wall Street Journal explaining the satellite evidence for the CO2 fertilisation effect (global greening), becoming the first in the mainstream media; in 2013 he writes: "I have written about climate change and energy policy for more than 25 years. I have come to the conclusion that current energy and climate policy is probably more dangerous, both economically and ecologically, than climate change itself. T his is not the same as arguing that climate has not changed or that mankind is not partly responsible. That the climate has changed because of man-made carbon dioxide I fully accept. What I do not accept is that the change is or will be damaging, or that current policy would prevent it"; in 2015 he comments on the CO2 fertilisation effect in a report about scientist Indur Goklany: "As Goklany demonstrates, the assessments used by policy makers have overestimated warming so far, underestimated the direct benefits of carbon dioxide, overestimated the harms from climate change, and underestimated the human capacity to adapt"; his critics ignore his arguments and satisfy themselves with observations on his ownership of coal mine land.
On Apr. 29, 2013 the atmospheric CO2 concentration at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory reaches 400 ppm for the first time after increasing 2.1 ppm per year for the last 10 years.
On May 8, 2013 Princeton U. physicist William "Will" Happer (1939-) and former NASA astronaut (geologist) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.) (1977-83) Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (1935-) pub. the op-ed article In Defense of Carbon Dioxide in The Wall Street Journal, arguing that "the demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlations with global temperature", pissing-off the global warmists and causing the Columbia Journalism Review to call the article "shameful, even for the dismal standards" of the WSJ (journalism standards or scientific standards?); Happer later gives an interview claiming that "temperature always changes first, and CO2 follows", there has been no global temp increase since 1998, and "A thousand parts per million of CO2 would actually help the planet... If you look around the world, many greenhouse operators put several thousand parts per million into their greenhouses"; he later utters the soundbyte: "There's a whole area of climate so-called science that is really more like a cult... it's like Hare Krishna or something like that. THey're glassy-eyed and they chant. It will potentially harm the image of all science"; in 2017 Happer meets with new Pres. Trump to discuss being appointed as his science adviser.
On May 15, 2013 after years of papers attempting to estimate scientific support for anthropogenic global warming/climate change, Australian cognitive scientist John Cook (2007 founder of the climate science blog Skeptical Science) et al. pub. the paper Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature in Environmental Research Letters, which reports on an examination of 11,944 climate abstracts pub. in 1991-2011, finding that "Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming", which is given a super boost on May 16 by Pres. Obama in a tweet; on Apr. 13, 2016 Cook, Am. historian of science Naomi Oreskes (1958-), Am. geologist Peter T. Doran et al. pub. the paper Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming in Environmental Research Letters, which concludes that "The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper", and that "the finding of 97% consensus [that humans are causing recent global warming] in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies." On June 3, 2010 Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (1965-) pub. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, which is filmed in 2004 by Robert Kenning.
On May 26, 2013 researchers at the U. of Hawaii pub. an article in Nature Geoscience revealing that El Nino is dependent on an unusual wind pattern that straddles the equatorial Pacific and has a 15 mo. cycle.
On Sept. 27, 2013 the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is released, concluding that: "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century"; on Sept. 27 after calling the report a "death warrant written in stark, black-and-white data", Am. blogging meteorologist Eric Holthaus (1981-) announces his decision to never fly again. In July 2016 Holthaus, U. of Maine paleoecologist and leftist activist Jacquelyn Gill, and New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) found the weekly podcast Warm Regards (until ?); listen.
On Dec. 22, 2013 researchers at the U. of Edinburgh pub. an article in Nature GeoScience claiming that a historical study of climate disproves the theory that the Sun has a major influence - except if it goes dead?
On Jan. 8, 2015 Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon, Lord Christopher Monckton, David Legates, and William "Matt" Briggs pub. Why Models Run Hot in China's "Science Bulletin", claiming that climate computer models of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tend to exaggerate global warming, with the soundbyte: "The impact of anthropogenic global warming over the next century... may be no more than one-third to one-half of IPCC's current projections", pissing-off the global warming set.
On May 24, 2015 Pope Francis pub. the encyclical Laudato Si, preaching climate change.
On Oct. 29, 2015 French mathematicians of the Paris-based Societe de Calcul Mathematique pub. a Paper on the Costly and Pointless Crusade Against Global Warming, with the soundbyte: "You would probably have to go quite a long way back in human... history to find (such a) mad obsssion", pointing out that "There is not a single fact, figure... or observation that leads us to conclude the world's climate is in any way 'disturbed'. It is variable, as it has always been."
On Oct. 30, 2015 NASA scientist H. Jay Zwally pub. a paper in Journal of Glaciology revealing that ice sheet growth in E Antarctica of 147B tons/year outweighs the losses in W Antarctica, pissing-off warmist scientists, who pub. a paper on June 13, 2018 in Nature claiming that Antarctica is losing a net of 200B tons of ice/year, adding 0.02" (0.5mm) a year to the sea level, which he claims is moose hockey.
On Nov. 30-Dec. 12, 2015 the 2015 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP 21) (CMP 11) in Paris, France, attended by leaders from 147 nations negotiates the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord), signed by reps of 196 parties, agreeing to a goal of a 1.5C limit to global temperature increase by 2030.
On Jan. 12, 2016 Pres. Obama delivers his (last) 2016 State of the Union Speech (watched by 31.3M viewers), ignoring the taking of U.S. Navy hostages by Iran and waxing lyrical about the United State of America, with the soundbytes: "The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth, period. It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined", "Surveys show our standing around the world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead, they call us", and "Anyone claiming that America's economy is in decline is peddling fiction", dissing Repub. climate deniers with the soundbyte: "Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. You'll be pretty lonely, because you'll be debating our military, most of America's business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it's a problem and intend to solve it", then strangely admitting that failure to heal the Dem.-Repub. divide is "one of the few regrets of my presidency", heating the divide up himself by slapping at Donald Trump with the Muslim appeasing soundbyte claiming that singling out Muslims "betrayed" America's identity: "When politicians insult Muslims... that doesn't make us safer. It's just wrong. It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. it makes it harder to achieve our goals", dismissing ISIS as "killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed", adding: "We don't need to build them up to show that we're serious, nor do we need to push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is representative of one of the world's largest religions"; Obama reserves an empty chair for the victims of gun violence; Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) walks out before the speech starts; as Obama begins his last year in office, he has purged U.S. military brass and attempted to fill the ranks with LGBTs and Muslims, you judge a tree by its fruit- and in absolute contradiction to what liar Obama says, the U.S. was only possible because it was free of the Muslim World and Islam, as well as the Roman Catholic world?
On Jan. 26, 2016 Al Gore's Global Warning Doomsday arrives when greenhouse gases cause the Earth to go into runaway heat death. :)
Cooler heads jokes here? On Apr. 14, 2016 Washington, D.C.-born "Science Guy" (bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Cornell U.) William Sanford "Bill" Nye (1955-) releases a video interview with Marc Morano of Climate Depot, er, warming to the idea of jailing climate skeptics; on Aug. 22, 2016 Nye gives an interview to CBS News, acknowledging that climate skeptics have been "surprisingly successful" in influencing public opinion, but only "because they are almost exclusively funded by the fossil fuel industry", which is challenged by Marc Morano of Climate Depot, who utters the soundbyte: "It is the environmental left that frequently enjoys amounts of fossil fuel funding that skeptics never see."
On Apr. 22, 2016 (Earth Day) the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord) is opened for signatures at the U.N. HQ in New York City, setting a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global avg. temp to below 2C above pre-industrial levels, and limiting the increase to 1.5C, with each country voluntarily setting targets and target dates, along with plans and reporting mechanisms; by May 2018 195 members sign the agreement, and 177 become a party to it.
On Oct. 21, 2016 Fisher Stevens' Before the Flood (Nat. Geographic) debuts, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, who travels the globe supposedly watching global warming proceeding in front of his eyes and blasting climate change deniers esp. politicians and corporate lobbyists while comparing it all to Hieronymus Bosch's famous trptych "The Garden of Earthly Delights"; aired on the Nat. Geographic Channel on Oct. 31, which makes it available for free; "Before The Flood is the product of an incredible three-year journey that took place with my co-creator and director Fisher Stevens. We went to every corner of the globe to document the devastating impacts of climate change and questioned humanity's ability to reverse what may be the most catastrophic problem mankind has ever faced. There was a lot to take in. All that we witnessed on this journey shows us that our world's climate is incredibly interconnected and that it is at urgent breaking point... We wanted to create a film that gave people a sense of urgency, that made them understand what particular things are going to solve this problem. We bring up the issue of a carbon tax, for example, which I haven't seen in a lot of documentaries. Basically, sway a capitalist economy to try to invest in renewables, to bring less money and subsidies out of oil companies. These are the things that are really going to make a massive difference... W e need to use our vote... We cannot afford to have political leaders out there that do not believe in modern science or the scientific method or empirical truths... We cannot afford to waste time having people in power that choose to believe in the 2 percent of the scientific community that is basically bought off by lobbyists and oil companies."
On Nov. 7, 2016 the U.N. Climate Megaconference in Marrakesh, Morocco.
On Dec. 19, 2016 snow falls in the Sahara Desert in Ain Sefra, Algeria, becoming the first time since Feb. 1979.
On May 11, 2017 Philly-born #1 leftist brain man Avram Noam Chomsky (1928-) gives an interview to the BBC, uttering the soundbyte that the U.S. Repub. Party is "the most dangerous organisation in human history"; when asked if that means it's worse than ISIS, he replies: "Is ISIS dedicated to trying to destroy the prospects for organised human existence? What does it mean to say not only are we not doing anything about climate change but we’re trying to accelerate the race to the precipice? It doesn’t matter whether they genuinely believe it or not... If the consequence of that is 'let's use more fossil fuels, let's refuse to subsidise developing countries, let's eliminate regulations that reduce greenhouse gases'. If that's the consequence, that's extremely dangerous."
In July 2017 Pope Francis utters the soundbyte that a personal relationship with Jesus Christ is "dangerous and harmful", calling for a OWG with the political authority to combat climate change et al.
On Aug. 5, 2017 after Pres. Trump announced his intentions in June, the U.S. formally notifies the U.N. of its intent to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement.
On Oct. 24, 2017 Am. geologist Gregory Wrightstone pub. the bestseller Inconvenient Facts: The science that Al Gore doesn't want you to know, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that the Earth is thriving because of increasing CO2 and warmer temps.
On Dec. 18, 2017 Pres. Trump introduces his 2018 Nat. Security Strategy, calling out Russia and China, mentioning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, dropping climate change, and restoring reference to Islam as a nat. security threat, with the soundbyte: "The primary transnational threats Americans face are from jihadist terrorists and transnational criminal organizations."
On Jan. 1, 2018 the journal Nature Climate Change pub. an article claiming that if the Paris Climate Change Accord is not honored and global temp rises by 2 deg. C by 2050, a large percentage of the Earth could become desert, and 25% of world pop. will live in perpetual drought.
On Jan. 2, 2018 Am. meteorologist (former weightlifter) Joe Bastardi (1955-) pub. The Climate Chronicles: Inconvenient Revelations You Won't Hear From Al Gore - And Others, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that global temps were warmer in the 1930s than today, and that the human contribution to atmospheric CO2 is too small to have an effect on global warming, which is caused by sunspots and warmer oceans; since 2011 global temps have been falling, and by 2030 will return to 1970s levels due to the "triple crown of cooling" incl. oceanic temperature cycles, solar radiation cycles, and vocanic activity; "In the entire geological history of the planet, there has been no known linkage between CO2 and temperatures"; "CO2 cannot cause global warming. I'll tell you why. It doesn't mix well with the atmosphere, for one. For two, its specific gravity is 1 1/2 times that of the rest of the atmosphere. It heats and cools much quicker. Its radiative processes are much different. So it cannot - it literally cannot cause global warming"; "A colder planet would lead to untold misery given the current policies geared toward the opposite"; in June 2018 he pub. an article calling water (H20) vapor more important than CO2, backing the 2017 idea of meteorology prof. John J. Cahir of Penn. State. U. that the best metric of global warming is water vapor saturation mixing ratios.
No hockey stick in Sweden? On Jan. 9, 2018 Swedish geologists Irina Polovodora Steman, Helena L. Filipsson, and Kjell Nordberg of the U. of Lund pub. the paper Tracing winter temperatures over the last two millennia using a NE Atlantic coastal record, describing a 2.5K-year winter temp record reconstructed using sediment cores from the Gullmar Fjord, concluding: "The most recent warming of the 20th century does not stand out, but appears to be comparable to both the Roman Warm Period and the MCA (Medieval Climate Anomaly)."
In late Jan. 2018 an open letter signed by 200+ pro-global warming scientists incl. Michael E. Mann and Katharine Hayhoe calls on the Am. Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City to remove wealthy climate change denier and Pres. Trump supporter Rebekah "Bekah" Mercer (1973-) (backer of Breitbart) from its board, and to "end ties to anti-science propagandists and funders of climate science misinformation", causing a group of you know whats incl. Willie Soon, Will Happer, Richard Lindzen, and Craig Idso to send AMNH an open letter begging them "not to cave in to this pressure", with the soundbyte: "The Earth has supported abundant life many times in the geological past when there were much higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is quite likely that future generations will benefit from the enrichment of Earth’s atmosphere with more carbon dioxide. Make no mistake, the agitators are not defending science from quackery - quite the contrary!"
On Mar. 1, 2018 David Finnigan debuts his play Kill Climate Deniers at the Griffin Theatre in Sydney; "As a classic rock band take the stage in Parliament House's main hall, 96 armed eco-terrorists storm the building and take the entire government hostage, threatening to execute everyone unless Australia ends global warming."
On Mar. 28, 2018 a federal judge in San Francisco, Calif. holds the first-ever U.S. court hearing on the impact of climate change, with lawyers for San Francisco and Oakland along with five of the largest multinat. oil cos. (BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Shell) participating in a climate change tutorial preparatory to a lawsuit claiming that rising sea levels et al. are caused by climate change traceable to the cos.
On May 1, 2018 the U.N. Climate Change Secretariat releases its first annual report, calling climate change "the single biggest threat to life, security and prosperity on Earth", according to exec secy. Patricia Espinosa, and rolling out its Gender Action Plan to mobilize women to fight global warming.
On May 3, 2018 (4:30 p.m.) after a 5.0 earthquake, Mt. Kilauea ("Madame Pele") in Hawaii erupts, causing mass evacuations from 1.5K homes; on May 4 (12:33 p.m.) a 6.9 earthquake centered near Kilauea's S flank causes more damage; on May 11 another 6.9 earthquake (biggest since 1975) threatens the Puna Geothermal Venture geothermal power plant; meanwhile on May 3 Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory announces that atmospheric CO2 has reached a record 410 ppm for Apr.
On June 8, 2018 Scientific American launches its Climate Science Column, written by Columbia U./NASA climate scientist Katherine D. "Kate" Marvel.