Two Scorpions in a Bottle Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Polar Bear on Melting Ice Floe 'How to Survive the Coming Ice Age' fake Time mag. cover, 2007 Climate Fraud Greenhouse Gas Theory Busted
John Dalton (1766-1844) Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) John Tyndall (1820-93) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) G.S. Callendar (1898-1964) Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) Roger Revelle (1909-91)

TLW's Climatescope™ (Climate Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: May 30, 2018. Last Update: Oct. 21, 2018.


Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)
Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Tim Ball (1938-) James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Hoggan (1946-) Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-) Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)
Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-) H. Jay Zwally Gregory Wrightstone William Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-) Christiana Figueres of Costa Rica (1956- Naomi Oreskes (1958-) Joe Bastardi (1955-) Anthony Watts (1958-)

Alternate url for this page:
http://tinyurl.com/climatescope


Quick Jump Table

-4,400,000,000 -300,000 -4,004 1040 1700 1800 1900 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 1998 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

What Is A Historyscope?


"Nothing is created by coincidence (at random), rather there is reason and necessity for everything." - Leucippus (d. -420)

"Any man can make mistakes, but only an idiot persists in his error." - Marcus Tullius Cicero (-106 to -43)

"The less a thing is known, the more fervently it is believed." - Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)

"For when propositions are denied, there is an end of them, but if they bee allowed, it requireth a new worke." - Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

"E pur si muove (And yet it moves)." - Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

"You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time." - Jacques Abbadie (1654-1727)

"Falsehood flies, and the Truth comes limping after it." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"Reasoning will never make a man correct an ill opinion, which by reasoning he never acquires." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"There are few, very few, that will own themselves in a mistake, though all the World sees them to be in downright nonsense." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities." - Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)

"A thing is not proved just because no one has ever questioned it. What has never been gone into impartially has never been properly gone into. Hence skepticism is the first step toward truth. It must be applied generally, because it is the touchstone." - Denis Diderot (1713-84)

"Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"Every age has its peculiar folly: Some scheme, project, or fantasy into which it plunges, spurred on by the love of gain, the necessity of excitement, or the force of imitation." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"From Seine's cold quays to Ganges' burning stream,/ The mortal troupes dance onward in a dream;/ They do not see, within the opened sky,/ The Angel's sinister trumpet raised on high./ In every clime and under every sun,/ Death laughs at ye, mad mortals, as ye run;/ And oft perfumes herself with myrrh, like ye/ And mingles with your madness, irony!" - Charles Baudelaire (1821-67), The Dance of Death in Les Fleurs du Mal (1857)

"The difference between genius and stupidity is genius has its limits." - Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-95)

"The improver of natural knowledge absolutely refuses to acknowledge authority, as such. For him, skepticism is the highest of duties; blind faith the one unpardonable sin... The man of science has learned to believe in justification, not by faith, but by verification." - Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95)

"The great tragedy of science - the slaying of a lovely hypothesis by an ugly fact." - Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95)

"There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such trifling investment of facts." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"How easy it is to make people believe a lie, and hard it is to undo that work again." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it." - Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)

"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. The important thing is to never stop questioning; never lose a holy curiosity." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Blind obedience to authority is the greatest enemy of the truth." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"The essence of science is that it is always willing to abandon a given idea, however fundamental it may seem to be, for a better one; the essence of theology is that it holds its truths to be eternal and immutable." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The human mind is capable of infinite self-deception." - Charles Lee Smith (1887-1964)

"The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age." - H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937)

"The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific/technological elite." - U.S. Pres. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

"That propaganda is good which leads to success. It is not propaganda's task to be intelligent, its task is to lead to success." - Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945)

"No President, Academy, Court of Law, Congress or Senate on this Earth has the knowledge or power to decide what will be the knowledge of tomorrow." - Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957)

"Whenever a theory appears to you as the only possible one, take this as a sign that you have neither understood the theory nor the problem which it was intended to solve." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"There is an almost universal tendency, perhaps an inborn tendency, to suspect the good faith of a man who holds opinions that differ from our own opinions." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"True ignorance is not the absence of knowledge, but the refusal to acquire it." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"The attempt to make heaven on earth invariably produces hell. It leads to intolerance. It leads to religious wars, and to the saving of souls through the inquisition. And it is, I believe, based on a complete misunderstanding of our moral duties. It is our duty to help those who need help; but it cannot be our duty to make others happy, since this does not depend on us, and since it would only too often mean intruding on the privacy of those towards whom we have such amiable intentions." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"He who controls the past controls the future. He who controls the present controls the past." – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (1903-50)

"The further a society drifts from the truth, the more it will hate those who speak it." - George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (1903-50)

"You can't have healthy people on a sick planet." - Fr. Thomas Berry (1914-2009)

"It does not make any difference how beautiful your guess is, it does not make any difference how smart you are, who made the guess, or what his name is - if it disagrees with experiment, it is wrong. That is all there is to it." - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"Have no respect whatsoever for authority; forget who said it and instead look what he starts with, where he ends up, and ask yourself, 'Is it reasonable?'" - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that 'my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge'." - Isaac Asimov (1920-92)

"Clearly, a civilization that feels guilty for everything it is and does will lack the energy and conviction to defend itself." - Jean Francois Revel (1924-2006)

"One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we've been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We're no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It's simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we've been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back." - Carl Sagan (1934-96), The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (1995)

"Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"Scientists are skeptics. It's unfortunate that the word 'skeptic' has taken on other connotations in the culture involving nihilism and cynicism. Really, in its pure and original meaning, it's just thoughtful inquiry." - Michael Brant Shermer (1954-)

"When the Lamb broke the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, 'Come and see!' I looked, and behold, there was before me a pale horse, and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following close behind him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth." - Book of Revelation 6:7-8

"So dark the con of man (Madonna on the Rocks)." - Dan Brown (1964-), The Da Vinci Code (2003)

"Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it." - Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900)

"I don't know what you could say about a day in which you have seen four beautiful sunsets." - John Glenn (1921-2016)

"I should like to close by citing a well-recognized cliche in scientific circles. The cliche is 'In God we trust, others must provide data'." - Edwin R. Fisher, 1978


Global Temperatures 500 Million Years Ago
Global Temperatures 2500 B.C. to 2040 A.D.
Deep Sea Sediment Core Climate Cycles
Historical Chart of Atmospheric CO2

CO2 Over Last 800K Years
Trenberth Global Energy Flow Diagram

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Earth's climate and Earth's climate history along with the history of climate change science and the great debate on anthropogenic climate change (global warming) incl. radiative (climate) forcing. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

"For over 180 years scientists have been demonstrating that increased atmospheric CO2 causes global temperature increase. Among them, Joseph Fourier in 1824 and 1827; Eunice Foote in 1856; John Tyndall in 1859; Svante Arrhenius in 1896; C.J. Fox in 1909; John Henry Poynting in 1909; A. Angstron in 1918; Chamberlain and Fowle in 1916; Alexander Graham Bell in 1917; E.O. Hulburt in 1931; S.G. Callendar in 1937; Professor Gilbert Plass in 1956; Carl Sagan in 1972; Stephen Hawking in 1960; Isaac Asimov in 1968; Wally Broecker in 1975; Richard Feynman and "The Jasons" in 1979; and over 660 science organization in 35 countries with one dissent." - David Rice. If you believe that without question I've got some swampland in Florida to sell you.

The Climate change industry is currently a $1.5T/year enterprise, which comes to $4B/day, the same spent on online retail sales. Right now the global warming scientists and climate skeptic scientists are divided into two hardened camps who don't talk to each other. At least the skeptics regularly look at the other side's publications, because they can't avoid them, but the establishment-backed-and-funded warmists have their minds locked in cages, unwilling or unable to seriously consider the skeptics' publications. Whoever you are, if you would like to know enough to decide for yourself if this expenditure is justified, this is the best historyscope on Earth's climate and climate science ever created, worthy of serious study, and really the only place to study the subject seriously with equal consideration given to both/all sides. No, it doesn't attempt to solve the science, but to chronicle the efforts to solve the science, with plenty of hyperlinks to explore the details for yourself.

Note to newbies: This isn't just another Internet blog article, it's a Historyscope, an intensive online course for people who want to know it all not just bits and pieces, a production of the awesome astounding power of the Historyscoper, containing 2900+ embedded hyperlinks and 500+ YouTube links, requiring long hours of serious study to be absorbed fact-by-fact, but with the knowledge that when you're done you're on top of the whole subject better than even the so-called experts in the field who didn't study it. It's important to click all the hyperlinks and at least scan them to give you a 3-D vision into history. Ditto the embedded YouTube videos, try listening to them while you're reading. Caveat: It's subject to change at any time, so refresh your browser before each study session. Is this propaganda? Heck no, it's education. Since a Historyscoper takes the cool impassioned view of what events will look like 500 years from now, this Historyscope presents all sides and lets the readers decide what to get passionate about; nothing is censored. If you've already made up your mind then at least don't lock it in a cage, open the door to new information and try to keep up with my other students and don't fall behind. Take this journey with me and go from probably knowing next to nothing about this subject to knowing everything worth knowing, and become a Climate Historyscoper. Note: TLW's personal wisecracks are set off in italics and may be ignored, although they can be quite instructive and educational. :)

-4,400,000,000

About 4.4B B.C.E. the Purple Rain of comets and/or asteroids greater than 100 km in dia. begins on Earth and the Moon (ends -3.9B); the mares are formed on the Moon, creating the plains of solidified lava forming the Man in the Moon; each impact on Earth vaporizes the oceans and conveniently sterilizes any existing life (incl. the gods on Mount Olympus?) while reforming the Earth's surface; the intense heat creates an underground habitat where single cell "unboilable bacteria" thrive, according to Oleg Abramov et al. of the U. of Colo. in 2009.

About 4B B.C.E. the Faint Young Sun Paradox (70% intense as in modern times), pub. in 1972 by Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen tries to explain why the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%. Venus forms basalt continents and Mars forms shield volcanoes, with neither having differentiation or plate tectonics; Venus goes into a runaway greenhouse effect and loses water?; Mars loses its CO2 quickly and becomes too cold for liquid water and goes into permanent deep-freeze, whether or not it once had oceans?; Mars and Venus end up as the only two other Solar System planets with CO2 atmospheres - the soda pop planets? Eat your heart out, Ray Bradbury? As the bombardment slows, the Earth stabilizes and cools, and its surface becomes resurfaced for the last time and solidifies, the crust differentiates into the earliest felsic crust (first continents), and the initial atmosphere outgasses; a heavy rain floods the surface, forming the deep highly alkaline Archaean (Archean) (Soda) Ocean (Sea) by -3.9B, according to S. Kempe and E.T. Degens (1985), causing the thioredoxin enzymes to be developed, which are chemically stable at temps up to 58F (32C)?.

About 3.8B B.C.E. the first water-related sediments on Earth are found.

About 3.5B B.C.E. the Isuan Era (begun -3.8B) ends, and the Swazian Era of the Archean Eon begins (ends -2.8B); the oldest known oceanic crust is formed. Earth's strong magnetic field begins to decrease as the core nucleates (ends -2.8B). The earliest known fossil cells are from complex mat-forming microbial communities in W Australia that leave Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS); the Big Bang of Life occurs as two different prokaryote genomes fuse into a eukaryote genome in yeast within the next 2B years?

About 3.4B B.C.E. the first photosynthetic bacteria appear on Earth, absorbing near-infrared rather than visible light and producing sulfurous compounds; their pigments are predecessors to chlorophyll. The oldest fossilized single-cell organisms date to this era; they are anerobic bacteria.

About 3.2B B.C.E. the Earth has its first tides, and the lunar month is only 20 days, while the Earth year is 550 days.

About 2.8B B.C.E. the Swazian Era ends, and the Randian Era of the Hadean Eon begins in South Africa (ends -2.45B), when life gets randy and cyanobacteria begin photosynthesis using visible light, which releases CO2 into the atmosphere. The Earth's magnetic field stops its decline.

About 2.7B B.C.E. there is barely enough CO2 in the atmosphere to compensate for the faint young Sun, along with significant amounts of greenhouse gases incl. methane.

About 2.45B B.C.E. the Great Oxidation Event (Crisis) (Catastrophe) (Holocaust) (Revolution) sees the appearance of photosynthesis cause a sudden rise in oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere as oxygen-producing cyanobacteria in shallow waters crank it up; they were preceded by manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis?; the collective genome undergoes an expansion, bringing 27% of all modern gene families into existence; the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating CO2 and chilling the Earth, causing the Earth's First Ice Age; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 2.4B B.C.E. the Randian Era (begun -2.8B) ends, and the Huronian Era (Glaciation) begins (ends -2.1B) after the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating less powerful greenhouse gas CO2 and chilling the Earth, becoming Earth's first and longest ice age, causing a mass extinction of the simple unicellular life on Earth; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 1.4B B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels on Earth are 10x-200x greater than modern levels (7% vs. 0.35%).

About 1.1B B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia (Russ. "to give birth") emerges, causing land to cover 30% of the Earth's surface instead of only 5%; it ends up being surrounded by the single Iapetus Ocean in the S Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia by -600M; the Grenville Orogeny causes the Laurentian Mts. to be formed.

About 1B B.C.E. supercontinent Rodinia breaks up after plunging into a snowball state with ice-covered oceans from pole to pole; oxygen builds up in the atmosphere, along with the ozone layer, permitting terrestrial life; the number of eukaryotic species burgeons; the first Earth land life appears in the form of a biocrust of bacteria - try Head On, if it doesn't work we'll give you your money back?

About 750M B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia begins to separate into Euramerica, Siberia, and the largest, Gondwana (Gondwanaland), composed of modern-day South Am., Africa, S Europe, a large portion of the Middle East, India, Australia, New Zealand, and much of Antarctica; it extends from the low N latitudes to the high S latitudes; its index fossil is the Glossopteris; as a land bridge it allows manatees to migrate to W Africa, the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, and lemurs to Africa, Madagascar and India; they really reached Magadascar via rafting? The Neoproterozoic period, Earth's 2nd Ice Age sees a Snowball Earth (end -550M) covered by a series of global ice sheets, making it a giant snowball subject to a runaway albedo effect, according to Paul F. Hoffman et al. in 1998.

About 720M B.C.E. the Tonian Period ends, and the Cryogenian Period of the Neoproterozoic Era begins (ends -635M), seeing the Sturtian Glaciation (named after Sturt River Gorge in South Australia) and the Marinoan Glaciation (named after Marino near Adelaide, South Australia), the two greatest ice ages in Earth history, creating either a Snowball Earth or Slushball Earth (band of open sea near the equator); global avg. temp is 5C; CO2 level is 1300 ppm; O2 is 60% of modern level; the end of the glaciation releases methane from equatorial permafrost.

About 650M B.C.E. Snowball Earth sees Earth's surface become entirely frozen; really just a Slushball Earth with a thin equatorial band of seasonally open water?

About 550M B.C.E. atmospheric oxygen on Earth rises from 3% to the modern-day level of 21%, causing complex multicellular animal life to arise; carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration is 20x modern-day levels.



Car 54 Jehovah, where are you? Now which triangle is big, Mister Pockets? Is that a trilobite in your pocket, or are you just happy to see me? Working, working up a fast sweat in the o-zone? The family that plays together stays together? Oxygen in the air makes new big living things explode on sea and land in the combinatorial Cambrian Explosion? God's living Windows (Mac?) operating system size jumps from gigabyte to tetrabyte, er, trilobyte, er, trilobite?

The Original One Billion Served? It takes 4 billion years for Earth to evolve past single-celled life and start cooking Kentucky Plucked Chicken O'Fergus (Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) (King Philip Can Only Fight Giant Squids), ending in Big MacUs?

Lighting-Fast Cambrian Explosion? Trilobite Graptolite Brachiopods Conodont Annelids Sea Squirt Ctenophore Echinoderm Molluscs Sponges Foraminifera Radiolarian Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)

The breath of life really blows? About 540M B.C.E. the Hadrynian Era (begun -1B) ends; the 500M-year Precambrian Eon ends along with the (Late) Precambrian Era along with the Ediacaran Period (begun -600M), and the lightning fast (55.6M-year) Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era of the Phanerozoic (Present) Eon begins (ends -500M); named after the Cambrian (Welsh "Cymru" = Wales") Mts. of Wales by British geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) (who carried a lucky trilobite in his pocket, or was he just happy to see me?), who divided the period into Lower, Middle, and Upper based on the presence of Olenellus, Paradoxides and Olenus trilobites; the Earth now has the Western Interior Seaway and the Hudson Seaway, shallow seas covering parts of continents, and the modern-day continent of North Am. has two big inland seas, one on the E, where the large mountainous island of Appalachia (modern-day E seaboard of the U.S. and Canada) exists, and the other on the W, where the large mountainous island (peninsula?) of Cascadia (modern-day Alaska, British Columbia, Wash., Ore., N Calif.) exists; the ozone layer and atmosphere are developed sufficiently to permit a Cambrian Explosion (Radiation) of thousands of new species (incl. all the modern phyla or basic body plans); the first animals with egg, sperm, embryo, and blastula appear; Saccorhytus coronarius, with a large mouth and no anus is the first living creature?; hard-shelled arthropods appear, the most abundant being the 1-18-in.-long (usually 1-4) swimming, bottom-feeding, 3-lobed trilobites with gills, walking legs, and crescent-shaped eyes (distantly related to the modern horseshoe crab), also coelenterates (with stingers), graptolites (colonial organisms with a skeleton of tough chitinlike material), small, mollusc-like, shelled brachiopods (lampshells), conodonts (cone teeth), annelids (segmented worms), chordates (sea squirts), ctenophores (comb-bearers), echinoderms (starfish), molluscs, sponges; also foraminifera (single-shelled protists with shells), dinomastigotes, radiolarians; it was caused by a cascade of events, according to Paul Smith of Oxford U. and David Harper of Durham U - this Instant Powdered Life in the Murky Mud seems so hokey that to prohibit the teaching of alternates to Darwinian Evolutionary Theory in public schools seems like brainwashing, and parents should pull their kids out in protest?

About 485M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); CO2 content of the atmosphere is 4.2K ppm.

Abou 400M B.C.E. the ice age ends; the year is 400 days, the Moon is closer than it is now and the Earth is spinning faster. The appearance of vascular plants (tracheophytes) and large predatory fish coincide with increased oxygen levels; the first fires appear?

About 359M B.C.E. the Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Mississippian (Lower or Early Carboniferous) Period (coal-forming) of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -323M), with avg. global temps of 20C (68F), cooling during the Middle Carboniferous to 12C (54F), with 22.4-hour day creating a stronger Coriolis effect and winds, and atmospheric oxygen content of 35% allowing terrestrial invertebrates esp. insects and amphibians to grow to great sizes; lower sea levels than in the Devonian Period allow swamps and forests to expand in North Am. and Europe, and the first bark-bearing trees to appear along with wood fiber lignin and waxy bark-sealing suberin enjoying a lack of enzymes for them in bacteria, allowing large quantities of wood to be buried; marine beds are common in E North Am. in the early part of the period, almost disappearing by the end; trilobites become uncommon, and marine life becomes rich in crinoids (sea lillies) and other echinoderms, as well as brachiopods (lamp shells); coniferous trees appear in the late Carboniferous, on higher ground; petroleum arises from layers of dead plants and animals?

About 350M B.C.E. the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air is about the same as modern times, rising by 200M B.C.E. to 4x-5x modern-day levels.

About 323M B.C.E. the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Pennsylvanian (Upper or Late Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -299M); mountains are raised along the E coast of North Am. and C Europe; lush, moist seed-bearing fern forests populated by amphibians and winged insects in the N hemisphere produce vast coal reserves composed primarily of carbon.



The Tris are Sick Period begins, or, Die Trilobites, die, or, Heads up, it's hairspray? The worst mass-extinction of all time?

230 Million B.C.E. - Triassic

About 252M B.C.E. the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era (Age of the Reptiles) begins (ends -201M); the hot flat dry C-shaped supercontinent of Pangea encloses the Tethys Sea (Ocean), and has a hothouse climate with inland deserts; the three subperiods are Buntsandstein (Lower), Muschelkalk (Middle) (Ger. "shellbearing limestone"), and Keuper (Upper); lava flows in E North Am.; ferns and cycads dominate land plants; insects of modern types appear. Over the next 5M-10M years the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event (Great Dying) (Earth's third) loses 75%-95% of all species, mostly in the sea, incl. 80%-96% of the marine species and 57% of all marine families, plus 70% of land species, incl. gigantopterids; crinoids are hard-hit; 36 of 48 families of amphibians and reptiles die out; sea urchin species drop from 20-30 to 1-2; trilobites and pelycosaurs become extinct; the mass extinction peaks at -252.28 and lasts less than 200K years, with most of the extinction lasting about 20K years; it takes 10M years for a fully-functioning ecosystem to develop; parareptiles are not affected?; was this extinction triggered by an impact event of a comet or 7-mi.-diam. asteroid (Luann Becker et al. of the U. of Wash., 2001), or volcanoes (the Siberian Traps) in Siberia (triggering the poisoning of marine life with carbon dioxide, and the extinction of terrestrial life via a global greenhouse effect), or a geomagnetic reversal, or a mammoth undersea methane bubble, caused by the Methanosarcina microbe, or did the lack of scattered continents and cold poles cause the ocean to become stagnant and fill with CO2? (Andrew H. Knoll of Harvard U., 1996)? - maybe this is where the part in the Bible about giants in the Earth and Noah's Flood comes in?

In 230M (-234M?) B.C.E. Carnian Pluvial Episode (Event) (Raibi Event) sees widespread extinction of green algae, bryozoa, ammonoids, and conodonts, along with radiation of dinosaurs, corals, crinoids, and calcareous nanofossils; the earliest known dinosaur is Eoraptor in Argentina; it rains for 2M years? Watch video.

About 144M B.C.E. the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era ends, and the Cretaceous Period (Lat. "creta" = chalk) of the Mesozoic Era begins (ends -66M), an era of a greenhouse climate (warmest period in the last 600M years), with no ice in the polar regions and the climate of Alaska like that of Oregon; the spread of reptiles and the development of flowering plants begins; bony fish begin a major radiation; in the U.S. the Lower Cretacean is also called the Comanchean, after the Comanches of Texas; another mass-extinction occurs, and most sauropods in the N Hemisphere, along with stegosaurus, allosaurus, ceratosaurus, ornitholestes et al. become extinct - no likey de steam baths?

About 137M B.C.E. after high levels of CO2 raise global temp and melt polar ice, a sudden sea temp. drop in the Atlantic Gulf Stream from 13C (55F) to 4C-7C (39F-44F) occurs, leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs by -65M, not a meteor, according to Gregory Price et al. of Plymouth U.



The worst day in history? A Millennium Fever 6-6-6 megalennium, and what happens? The Double-Edge Swordoid? A giant asteroid impact giveth, and taketh away? Do you love the asteroids or do you hate them?

In 66M B.C.E. the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event sees a 1T-ton 6-mi.-dia. asteroid or smaller comet impact in the area of Chicxulub, Mexico, apparently causing the 5th worldwide (2nd largest) mass-extinction (75% of all species), leaving the K-PG (Cretaceous-Paleogene) Boundary, a thin layer of sediment with high levels of iridium; too bad, the Chicxulub crater lacks iridium; the 24km diam. Boltysh Crater in Ukraine happens several thousand years earlier?; at first sulfur chokes the atmosphere and blocks the Sun for years or decades, causing land temps to plummet by 28C (50F), after which increased CO2 levels cause global warming by 5C (9F) for 100K-300K years; the dinosaurs are wiped out, along with many primitive species of Cretaceous birds, allowing the mammals to inherit the Earth, rapidly increasing their max size from 10kg to 17 tons, a factor of 1Kx; the ammonites become extinct; plankton and small wormlike creatures recover in the silty crater seafloor within a few years; birds have to rediscover how to fly after only flightless emu-like species survive; mixotrophs, which can consume organic matter in the absence of sunlight help smaller organisms survive?; the mass exinction of the dinos was really caused by the Earth traveling through a thin disk of dark matter running through the Galaxy?; long-term climate change kills off the dinosaurs, not a rogue asteroid, according to German paleontologist Michael Prauss; the precise date is 66,038,000 B.C.E.; the decline of plant-eating dinosaur species in the last few million years is what doomed them? Within 400K years rat-sized placental Protungulatum donnae emerges in North Am., becoming the ancestor of all placental mammals, which branch into 5.4K modern-day species?

About 56M B.C.E. the Paleocene Period of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Eocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period begins (ends -33.9M); Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India separate from and begin colliding with the Eurasian continent, raising the Rockies, Andes, and Alps; the Eurasian Plate crumples and overrides the Indian Plate, creating the Himalayas ("abode of snows"); Mount Everest forms; Antarctica breaks away from Australia, opening the Greenland-Norwegian Sea; Australia ends up as the continent with the smallest distance between its high and low points (7.5K ft.), as well as the highest low point and the lowest high point; air masses forced over the Himalayas to the E become bone dry, creating the Gobi Desert, and the Great Loess (Huangtu) Plateau of C China, which later becomes the center of Chinese rice production.

About 55.5M B.C.E. the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) sees global sea surface temps rise 5C-8C (11F) (from 3C to 8C-11) and sea temps reach 20C for 200K years because of degassing methane ice deposits (clathrates) lasting 20K years, causing mass extinctions of foraminifera, allowing plankton to migrate to higher latitudes along with land animals and plants; the avg. temp. at the North Pole is 23C (74 F), with alligator ancestors and palm trees caused by a greenhouse effect?; mammals begin to proliferate.

About 55M B.C.E. the Arctic region around the North Pole is subtropical, with surface sea temps of 23C (73F) (until -49M). Angiosperm herbs and trees with fruit, and grasses appear; associated with this is a significant increase in the diversity of birds and insects (cabbage-sized mosquitoes?). Mammals spread from Eurasia to Africa and India.

About 49M B.C.E. the ocean around the North Pole is closed off by the continents, creating a freshwater sea at about 10C (50F); the low salinity causes Azolla ferns to multiply, consuming the carbon dioxide and cooling it down?

About 40M B.C.E. the avg. global temp is 88F (31C) due to high CO2 levels of 900-1K ppm.

About 18M B.C.E. the Miocene Climatic Optimum begins (ends -16M).

About 16M B.C.E. an enormous volcano in the Pacific Northwest erupts, covering modern-day Wash., Ore. and Idaho with lava for 750K years, which become the Columbia River Flood Basalts, bringing global warming along with elevated CO2 levels; the Langhian stage of the Miocene Epoch begins (ends -13.65M), continuing the warming period until -14.8M to -14.1M, when a major growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet along with increased production of cold Antarctic deep waters brings cooling along with a wave of extinctions of aquatic and terrestrial life forms.

About 15M B.C.E. the Earth becomes cooler and more arid, but the climate is still very warm, up to 6C (11F) warmer than today, with almost all the ice melting, and CO2 levels as high as modern times; alligators live in England.

About 10M-6M B.C.E. the North Pole has ice-free summers, and the sea surface temp reaches 4C-9C (39F-48F), with sea levels about 100m higher than today.

About 7.2M B.C.E. the Messinian Age (Salinity Crisis) begins (ends -5.3M), in which the Mediterranean becomes separated from the Atlantic and becomes shallow, losing 5K ft. of depth, with a retraction of the shores that washes out underground oil and gas with river streams in the Nile Delta, and forms a saltwater sea gorge invading the Nile as far S as Aswan; primates migrate from Africa to S Spain across dry land (Am. Museum of Nat. History); some Atlantic eels, which breed in the Sargasso Sea (S of Bermuda) become separated E of Gibraltar, making that their new breeding ground? - what an eely mess?

About 5.33M B.C.E. the Gibraltar Dam keeping the Atlantic out of the Mediterranean breaks, causing the Zanclean Flood (Deluge), flooding the Mediterranean desert with 1 mi. of saltwater within 50 years, creating the 40-mi. x 9-24 mi. x 1K ft. deep Strait of Gibraltar, with entrance at the Pillars of Hercules incl. the Rock of Gibraltar (world's most famous rock?) on the S point of the Iberian Peninsula, and Mt. Abila (Abyla) (Sierra Bullones) (Monte Hacho) in Ceuta, N Africa, or Jebel Musa in Morocco, N Africa.

About 4.5M B.C.E. the Pliocene Warm Period begins (ends -3.5M); the Bering Sea is ice-free and full of life.

About 2.586M B.C.E. the Pliocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Pleistocene Epoch (AKA Ice Age) (named by Charles Lyell) of the Quaternary Period begins (ends -9.7K); global cooling leads to frequent Ice Ages and glaciers covering more than 25% of the Earth's land surface; great glaciers covering W North Am. (as far S as Penn., as far W as the Missouri River, incl. the Great Lakes and the area between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers), and NW Europe, along with volcanoes along the W coast of the U.S., and another glacier from the Rocky Mts. S and E to the Mississippi River as far S as St. Louis, Mo., and more glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mts. as far S as New Mexico; yet more glaciers over Scandinavia S and E across N Germany and W Russia and SW over the British Isles; yet another giant glacier over Siberia; the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada Mts., Glacier Nat. Park in the Rocky Mts., Bonneville Lake (which shrinks to Great Salt Lake), the Great Lakes, Lake Algonquin, Lake Iroquois, and the Finger Lakes are left when they recede, along with the Red River Valley of Manitoba, left by glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained into Hudson Bay - a huge gulp of time is the pleis to be cene?

About 1.8M B.C.E. after the Nubian Swell, a geologic structural uplift going E-W separating the lower Nile River from the Sudan basin causes the Nile River to dry up (until -0.8M), the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and Eurasia via a land bridge in the Levant halts; Homo erectus becomes the first human ancestor to migrate out of Africa.

-300,000

About 300,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation in the Alps (named after the Riss River in Upper Swabia) begins (ends -128K), along with the Saale Glaciation (ends -128K).

About 128,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation ends, and the Eeemian (Sangamonian) (Ipswichian) (Mikulin) (Kaydayky) (Valdivia) (Riss-Wurm) Warming begins (ends -113K), becoming the last interglacial period; Northern Hemisphere winters are warmer and wetter than today, with some areas slightly cooler; the hippopotamus ranges as far N as the Rhine and Thames Rivers; trees grow as far N as S Baffin Island (vs. Kuujjuaq, N Quebec today); the Great Plains prairie-forest boundary is near Lubbock, Tex. (vs. Dallas, Tex. today).

About 123,000 B.C.E. forests reach as far N as North Cape, Norway above the Arctic Circle; hazel and oak grow as far N as Oulu, Finland.

About 113,000 B.C.E. the Eemian Warming ends, and the Wurm (Würm) Glaciation (named after a river in Bavaria), the Last glacial period begins in Europe (ends -9.7K), becoming the last ice age in the Alpine region, and the youngest major glaciation to extend beyond the Alps, with avg. yearly temps below -3C; this period sees 25 Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) Events, rapid warming over decades followed by global cooling over a few cents., expanding the polar front S across the North Atlantic Ocean; each is preceded by a Heinrich Event, in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic, depositing rock matter on the sea floor and adding extensive amounts of fresh water.

Are races born out of fire or ice? About 73,000 B.C.E. the Toba Volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia supererupts, burying human sites containing stone tools; no humans arrive in S Asia until after this; did 6-10 years of global volcanic winter followed by a 1K-y. cooling episode cause rapid genetic divergence in modern races of humans?; did humans actually thrive after the eruption?

About 73,000 B.C.E. a long cooling period begins in Europe (ends -9K); the Wisconsin Glaciation, the last glaciation begins in North Am., reaching a max ice extent approx. 21K B.C.E.; it is responsible for the disappearance of Neanderthals, not displacement by modern humans, who simply were better able to adapt to cold?

About 40,000 B.C.E. a climate-changing volcanic eruption in Liguria on the Italian Rivera in the Phlegraean Fields W of modern-day Naples devastates Europe, wiping out most of the Homo sapiens, with some surviving in rock shelters incl. Riparo Bombrini.

About 24,000 B.C.E. sea level reaches a minimum as ice sheets jutting out from Antarctica become fully attached to the sea floor; about 12,000 B.C.E. the West Antarctic Ice Sheet contracts to a small size, then collapses and calves into the sea about 10,300 B.C.E., after which inland glaciers begin breaking up 200-1,400 years later; the Larsen Ice Shelf in the N Antarctic Peninsula collapses in 2002 C.E.

About 19,000 B.C.E. the Last Glacial Maximum sees a cold Earth whose N continents are covered by vast ice sheets, with low atmospheric CO2 levels.

About 17,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Glacial Retreat begins, seeing the glacial ice sheet begin its retreat to the N, accelerating about -13K and ending about -9.7K with abrupt warming and rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of Europe and North Am.; melting ice causes a global sea level rise until -4K, averaging 10mm/year (1m/cent.), with rapid jumps of up to 2.5m/cent.; sea levels continue to rise to modern times at a rate of 2.8mm/year, for a total of 120m (400 ft.).

About 16,000 B.C.E. the Wurm Glaciation reaches its maximum extent in the Gschnitz Stadial. The Older Dryas (end -13K), based on oxygen isotope ratio cycles and the marker species Dryas octopetaia is a climatic period during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian Glaciation in N Europe. The last ice age in the S Hemisphere ends in response to warming in the N Hemisphere?

About 12,900 B.C.E. a comet hits E Canada, causing wildfires followed by chilly weather that helps wipe out the woolly mammoths along with three-fourths of the large mammals plus the Clovis people, as indicated by tiny diamonds found in Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island off Calif. and other sites in 2009?; the real cause of mammoth extinction was inbreeding?

About 12,500 B.C.E. the Sahara Desert becomes moist and wet, with a savanna climate, peaking about 4,000 B.C.E., when the Sahara reverts to desert conditions, causing a marked decline in the magnitude of Nile River floods between 2,700 B.C.E. and 2,100 B.C.E.

About 11,800 B.C.E. (-12.7K to -11.5K) Meltwater Pulse 1A causes global sea level to rise 16m-25m (52 ft.-82 ft.) in 400-500 years (40mm-60mm/year).

About 10,900 B.C.E. start of the Younger Dryas (-10.8K?) (ends -9.4K) (named after an Arctic plant of the rose family which appears), last cold snap of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) Epoch (begun -2.586M), caused by an inrush of fresh water from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans greater than the volume of all the Great Lakes combined, causing abrupt (10 years) cooling in Europe and North Am. and return of near-glacial conditions for 1K years, leading to extinction of megafauna in North Am. incl. mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and giant short-faced bears, and the extinction of the Clovis Culture; it is caused by a comet impact (over the Great Lakes?) that set large areas of North Am. on fire and caused the extinction of most of its megafauna along with mass starvation of humans?; the melting of continental ice sheets reverses in Scotland and Norway; abrupt drought in the Near East brings on the beginnings of agriculture, the creation of granaries to store food, etc., ending the mobile way of life, and causing pop. concentrations around sources of water, changing Stone Age hunter-gatherers into the world's first farmers, and the first domestication and genetic selection of plants incl. wheat and grains; at the same time Antarctica heats up by 1 deg C, coupled with rising CO2; it is caused by a comet ripping through North Am., according to Douglas J. Kennett et al. of the U. of Ore. in 2009; in 2010 C. Vance Haynes of the U. of Ariz. finds evidence for a comet to be lacking; nanodiamond evidence is inconclusive and tends to contradict the comet theory?; in 2013 Mukul Sharma et al. of Dartmouth College claim conclusive evidence of an asteroid or comet impact.

About 9,700 B.C.E. the Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period (begun -2.586M) ends, and the Holocene (Recent) Epoch of the Quaternary Period begins (until ?); Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa is topped with ice (until 2021?).

About 9,000 B.C.E. the Boreal Age begins in N Europe, based on the study of Danish peat bogs and named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Semander, characterized by a pollen zone.

Colin Renew (1937-)

About 7,800 B.C.E. the last ice age ends, and the Atlantic Period Begins (ends -4.8K), AKA the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Thermal Maximum) (Megathermal) (Hypsithermal) (Mid-Holocene Warm Period), becoming the warmest period of the Holocene, a warmer climate than today; humans are still mainly at the hunter-gatherer stage; meanwhile complex trade routes begin to be set up in the Mediterranean basin between now and -5000, according to British archeologists Colin Renfew (1937-) et al.

About 7,500 B.C.E. the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase) begins (ends -3500), bringing wet rainy conditions to North Africa incl. a Green (Wet) Sahara; the climate of Britain warms up to modern conditions, and Britain is reforested; Periodic tidal waves over the next 2K years inundate 1K sq. mi. of land now under the North Sea.

About 7,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Thermal Maximum (Climatic Optimum) begins (ends -3K); Hinlopen Strait in Svalbard is 4C-7C warmer than modern times even though CO2 concentration is 260 ppm; Eden-like conditions exist in Egypt?

About 6,200 B.C.E. after melting glaciers pour cold fresh water into the North Atlantic, a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) begins (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, cooling the climate of Europe, Greenland, and SW Asia and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile drier summers reduce crop yields, causing Catal Huyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to be abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.

Jason and the Argonauts Hero and Leander Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) William B.F. Ryan

About 5,600 B.C.E. according to geologists Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) and William B.F. Ryan of Columbia U. in 1997, a catastrophic Great Flood creates the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) when the Mediterranean creates a giant 30-mi. by 1-to-4 mi. crack called the Dardanelles (Gk. Hellespontus) (Turk. Cannakkale bogazi) (between Asia Minor and the Gallipoli Peninsula of Europe), connecting the Aegean (Mediterranean) Sea with the Sea of Marmara (Propontis), and then flushes over the even narrower (20 mi. x 0.5-2.75 mi. x 400 ft. deep) crack called the Bosporus (Bosphorus) Straits (Bosporus Thracius) (Karadeniz Bogazi) (Gk. "Ox Ford", since the goddess Io turned into a heifer and swam it) (originally a spillway for freshwater flowing into the Aegean Sea), and floods the freshwater Euxine Lake (should be White Is Right Lake?) (the S end later called the Golden Horn, one of the largest natural harbors on Earth) with a force 400x that of Niagara Falls, the sound carrying for 60 mi. and turning it into a mixed 6K-7K ft. deep, 165K sq. mi. (750 mi. x 380 mi.) fresh-saltwater body characterized by brutal (mainly winter) storms and a lethal anoxic bottom layer full of hydrogen sulfide, with the freshwater flowing toward the Bosporus on the top, while the saltwater comes in underneath 40 ft. down above the anoxic sublayer in a swift current (made swifter for 10 mo. of each year by winds), causing it to become impassable, and the shores unlivable, and the Epic of Gilgamesh to later call it "the waters of death", Pliny the Elder to call it Pontus Axenus (Pontos Axeinos) (Inhospitable Sea), and the Turks to call it Karadeniz (Harbinger of Death); later some jokesters call it the Pontos Euxeinos (Hospitable Sea); the Greeks call the Dardanelles the Hellespontus because Helle alleged drowns there while fleeing with the Golden Fleece; Leander (Gk. "lion man") dies in the Hellespont during a nightly crossing from Abydos to visit his virgin-vowed babe Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, whose usual lamp in the tower is extinguished by a storm, and when his body washes ashore in front of her she throws herself in after him and drowns; lame Lord Byron swims it in 1810 C.E. to prove he's a lion man hero and not a girlie man?; the Black Sea becomes a challenge to sailors, engendering the 7-11 (July-Aug.-Sept.-Oct.-Nov.) story of Jason and the Argonauts (sent from Thessaly to fetch it from Colchis in modern-day W Georgia by his uncle King Pelias of Thessaly, he gets Hercules to join, but Herc's boyfriend Hylas is lured by nymphs on the coast of Mysia in Asia Minor, causing him to jump ship to look for him), until they figure out how to hop from island to island between storms, and drag a 40-ft. anchor to let the saltwater layer tug them along; the flood causes dispersion of farmers to Europe and Asia, incl. proto Indo-Europeans up the Dnieper River, Semites and Ubaids S to the Levant and Mesopotamia, Kartvelians to the Caucasus Mts., Linearbandkeramik (LBK) farmers up the Dnieper River over the Carpathians through Prague into the Rhineland N of the Alps (continually leapfrogging for reasons unknown?), Vincas farmers up the Danube River into the Hungarian Basin, Hamangians into Thrace, Danilo-Hvars through the Aegean and Ionian Seas into the Dinaric Alps on the E coast of the Adriatic, and Tocharians E to the Tarim Basin S of the Tien Shan Mts. and N of the Tibetan Plateau in Chinese Turkestan (later the route of the Silk Road).

-4,004



Madam, in Eden I'm Adam? Name no one man? This is everything I wanted, this is just for men? Our brochure will give you the answers? The beginning of the Leta (Let's Exterminate the Aliens) the Swan Story? The darkest alley in the Great Track of Time has the most profound consequences for who, me, yes, you?

Adam and Eve, by Giulio Clovio (1546) Rivers of Eden Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) Satan

In 4004 B.C.E. the nightfall (6:00 p.m.) before Oct. 23 (Sun.) (autumnal equinox) is the date of the Creation, according to Protestant Bible fundamentalists, based on the work of Irish Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656), who in "The Annals of the World" (1658) dates the birth of Christ in 4 B.C.E. (so Darwinian evolution is the Fall of the House of Ussher?); end of the Sixth Day (land animals and man created); Adam (d. -3074) (Heb. "red", as in dirt or maybe blood, the sacred mojo of Jehovah?) is created from the dust of the Earth (Gen. 2:7); Noah's birth is 1,056 years ahead (-2992); (the original think outside the bun wasn't a good idea?) the Garden of Eden, the birthplace of the human race, is the source of four rivers, the Euphrates (Prath), Gihon, Pishon (which encircles the entire land of Havilah), and Tigris (Hidekel), indicating either that it is in the snow-covered mountains or that there is no snow but that it receives a constant source of rainfall, making it a lush garden where food and medicine grow on trees and all humans have to do is tend them and live practically forever, as long as they don't disobey God (i.e. sin), which he tests them by telling them that one special tree is not to be eaten from, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad (Evil), which is not necessarily special in itself but is just an easy-to-obey test, which doesn't stop them from doing it anyway, introducing Sin into the world, causing God to instantly judge them as worthy of death and have them expelled from Eden so they can be die eventually despite any and all technology they can come up with to feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in the cruel world, while being barred from directly talking with God anymore, leaving them to their new god, I hope you know my name, please allow me to introduce myself, Satan, Heaven's Top Model, originally the 2nd of God's sons (the Logos being the first), who was originally given the prestige job of "covering angel" for newly-created humans, the first material creatures created in God's image (hence all the complicated gray junk in our skulls), and are given God's Blessing of living forever while multiplying and filling the Earth and subduing it through the seed of the original perfect sinless man Adam, who can talk directly with God if he wants to and doesn't need a Savior yet? Too bad, Satan gets tired of working in the department store and letting little humans sit on his knee, and grows envious of God, figures these inferior humans can be subverted to worship him instead, and goes to work with the Great Deception, appearing in the form of a naughty girl's toy and getting a little too friendly with "weaker vessel" Eve (the first cunnilingus?), after which "the Serpent beguiled me and I did eat" of the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and sin (disobey an order of God, who made sinning both so easy and so hard, depending on whether you love him); then, even worse, she leads her lawfully-married-under-God husband Adam to do it for fear of losing his helpmate (tailor-made just for him out of his rib) and ending up as a lonely people counting crows again? Too bad, this leaves God standing in the wind, as sin is the ultimate grief man can give their all-loving Creator, who, as an all-just judge, must reverse the Blessing and institute the Curse, kick them out of the Garden of Eden (where life is easy and food and medicine grow on trees, and animals are all tame and vegetarian), and bar them from the gates by an angel with a flaming sword (Gen. 3:24), after which the area turns into a sour grapes forbidden zone overgrown with vegetation? Once he's past that problem, the fallen angel Satan (opposer) (serpent) (Rev. 12:9), AKA Lucifer (Light-Bringer, appearing to be Light) (Isaiah 14:12-13) and Devil (liar, slanderer) (1 Peter 5:8) (the original Elvis?), who sinned first, before Eve and Adam, and who is himself doomed to die and knows it, decides he'd rather rule in hell than serve in heaven, and keeps his new groupies deceived that the world is still their oyster, death is natural, but that if they stick with him and do his walk they're going to become as gods and know right from wrong on their own outside of God's favor, therefore stayin' alive, stayin' alive forever, when actually they're his slaves, told what to think and do, and led down the er, garden path as they are under judgment of eternal death by their wronged Creator and Supreme Court? So what do they do? The wrong thing? Instead of repenting, telling Satan to stuff it and trying to get right with God, they continue to sin and let themselves be used, abused and losed by Sick Santa, spreading their sin to their children, and filling a fallen Earth with fallen people more and more openly worshiping Satan as their god after totally alienating themselves from the Real Thing Big J (Jehovah)? Never fear, God-And-Man-No-Religion-Modern-Love, the Sun's coming up, as Big J knows the End from the Beginning, and is already an infinite number of moves ahead of his opponent Jim the Bow Snake, and has already put a Redemption Plan (Gen. 3:15) in place to turn the Curse back into the Blessing, after man earns it, not by doing good works expecting to pay the fine and avoid the death sentence, but by being faithful to the Invisible God no matter what bull Satan can tempt him with, and paying the one and only ransom God will accept, namely, not all of Nature Talks To Me, but Jesus swinging in the breeze? But that's where you come in? As a day is as a thousand (or thousands) of our years with God (2 Peter 3:8, Psalms 90:4), it will end up taking 4K+ years to implement, as humans reproduce into the billions and all the variations on the board get played? Meanwhile, God makes the Earth livable, but with no free lunch, i.e., only at the expense of eternal toil, pain in childbirth, sickness and disease caused by the loss of perfection (Gen. 3:16-19)? You got X-ray eyes? Too bad, until the game is played out this is Satan's world now, and he keeps accusing God of being unable to maintain the loyalty of man without giving him everything for free, and even appears in his court (Job chap. 1) to make a motion to allow him to have a free hand to afflict him with curses to show God he's right that even a righteous man will blame and curse God instead of him?

About 3,900 B.C.E. the 5.9 Kiloyear Event begins (ends -3400), bringing five cents. of colder climate in northernly latitudes, launching the modern dessication of the Sahara and triggering human immigration to the Nile River Valley.

About 3,250 B.C.E. the Great Shock of 3250 B.C.E. sees 1K years of wet stormy weather begin (ends -1500).

About 3,040 B.C.E. the climate of North Am., along with vegetation cover and sea levels achieve modern levels.

Noah's Ark Noah's Great Flood, -2348

In 2,348 B.C.E. Methuselah (b. -3317) dies at age 969 (Gen. 5:27); 600-y.-o. Noah (b. -2948) finishes Noah's Ark, 300 cubits long x 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high (438 ft. x 73 ft. x 44 ft.) (Gen. 6:15-16), which has 1.4M cubic ft. of cargo space and 96K sq. ft. of floor space on 3 floors (same as the Titanic) and holds at least the bare minimum of 43 kinds of mammals, 74 kinds of birds, and 10 kinds of reptiles necessary to restock the Earth; the waters of the Great Flood of Noah (Noah's Flood) (Genesis Flood) (Deluge) begin to fall in Nov. (Gen. 7:11); allegedly a protective water canopy hovering over Earth falls, at first drowning everything that breathes air, then part of it freezes, leaving a permanently raised ocean level with a new continental configuration (avg. ocean depth 2.5 mi., avg. land elev. 0.5 mi.) (incl. the 277-mi.-long 18-mi.-wide 6,093-ft.-deep Grand Canyon, the world's largest gorge?); since then we get too much direct radiation, causing the life span to plummet (and also conveniently causing all the hereditary skin colors?); whether the Great Flood happened or not, glaciers end up occupying 5.8M sq. mi. of the world's land surface, about 10%, an area the size of South Am.; if the Earth were to be flattened out, water would cover it to a depth of 2 mi.; if the Antarctic ice were melted, the ocean level would rise 240 ft., submerging one-quarter of the world's land mass.

About 2,200 B.C.E. shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation cause the 4.2 Kiloyear Aridification Event to begin (ends -2100), causing a 200-year mega global drought that devastates civilizations from Egypt to China, causing the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu Culture in the Lower Yangtze River Basin, also probably causing the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization, spurring migration of Indo-European speaking people into India, plus mass migrations from Egypt, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, and the Yangtze River Valley; a drought begins in the Akkadian Empire, causing migration away from urban centers followed by a collapse of the govt. known as the Third Millennium Mesopotamian Urban Crisis; the Meghalayan Age in modern-day Meghalaya, India begins.

About 1,800 B.C.E. the Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch begins (ends -1500), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic region, along with severe volcanic eruptions in Mt. Vesuvius (-1660), Mount Aniakchak (-1645), and Mt. Thera in Minoa (-1620).

In 800 C.E. a cent.-long drought begins in the Yucatan Empire, causing the disintegration of the Mayan civilization.

About 950 B.C.E. the Homeric Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends -800).

About 900 B.C.E. the Iron Age Cold Epoch (Neoglaciation) (Climate Pessimum) begins (ends 300 B.C.E.), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic, peaking during the expansion of Greece era about 450 B.C.E.

About 250 B.C.E. the Roman Warm Period (Climatic Optimum) in Europe and North Am. begins (ends 400 C.E.), causing Theophrastus to write that date trees can grow in Greece but can't set fruit, as in modern times; the mild weather conditions help Hannibal cross the Alps with his elephants.

In 535 C.E. Krakatoa Volcano (Rabul Volcano near Papua, New Guinea?) in Malaysia (at 105 deg. E, 5 deg. S) explodes, splitting the island of Sumatra asunder and creating the islands of Java and Sumatra separated by the Sunda Strait, reducing daylight to four hours and affecting crop growth for 10 years, causing seven years of crop failures, encouraging fleas in Africa to multiply, bringing the plague 3x; extreme weather events become the most severe protracted short-term cooling events in the Northern Hemishere until ?, with effects extending to Ireland, Europe, the Middle East, Peru, and China, where snow falls in Aug.; did this accelerate the coming of the Dark Ages? In 536 C.E. there is a bread famine in Britain and Ireland. In 536 C.E. a piece of Halley's Comet slams into Earth, cooling it and leading to Justinian's Plague of 541-2?; the plague is really caused by a series of volcanic eruptions?

In 892 C.E. a 220-year drought begins in Calif. (ends 1112), followed by a 140-year one in 1209 to 1350, causing water levels to drop 50+ ft.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) Medieval Warm Period

About 950 C.E. the Medieval Climate Optimum (Climatic Anomaly) (Warm Period) in the North Atlantic begins (ends 1250), becoming the warmest period in the Northern Hemisphere since the Roman Warm Period of -250 to 400, with temps. 1C-1.4C higher than modern temps; the tropical Pacific region is colder than normal; Tree Ring Growth in this half-cent. and the next cent. are especially rapid, indicating a warm period; the warmest period is between 950-1100, becoming the warmest period of the last 2K years prior to the 20th cent., allowing commercial winemaking in S England to compete with France 500 km to the N, and vineyards in Germany to be planted at 780m above sea level (vs. 560m today); first proposed by English climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) in his 1965 report "The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel, based on data from the realms of botany, historical document research and meteorology", whose diagram of global temperature variations over the last thousand years is pub. in the IPCC's First Assessment Report in 1990, massaged to obliterate the Medieval Warm Period?

1040

About 1040 the Oort Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends 1080).

About 1250 the Medieval Climate Optimum (begun 950) along with the optimal climate conditions in Europe since 1000 end, and the Little Ice Age (ends 1850) begins as Atlantic ice pack begins growing, bringing poor harvests, famine, and disease, and changing the sociopolitical landscape with a pop. reduction, uprooted vagabond farmers, and a blind rage against the rich and Jews; Europe begins to be rapidly deforested, leading to a shortage of wood for heating and cooking by 1500, along with a decline of wild game and a food shortage; luckily, in the 16th cent. potatoes and corn (maize) are brought in from the New World, and soft coal begins to be used as fuel.

In 1258 after an unusually mild winter in 1249 where flowers sprout in Jan. before turning cold in Apr.-May, the summer in England is unusually wet and cool, leading to crop failures and famine in winter, killing 20K in London, with people driven to eating tree bark.

About 1280 the Wolf Minimum of minimum solar activity begins (ends 1350).

About 1300 farm expansion in Europe halts because of the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which lasts until 1850; less cattle is raised, and the herring supply starts to slide; food production slides in Greenland and Scandinavia, and the coast of Greenland grows icebound, causing the settlements to dwindle; Greenland has a pop. of 3K colonists living on 300 farms along the W coast, but the worsening weather dooms them to eventual near-extinction.

In spring 1315 bad weather leads to the Great Famine of 1315-17, which kills millions in Europe and Russia, causing cannibalism, infanticide, disease, and crime, ending the period of growth and prosperity begun in the 11th cent.

About 1460 the Sporer (Spörer) Minimum begins (ends 1550), a 90-year span of low solar activity first proposed in 1976 by John A. Eddy based on analysis of C-14 in tree rings, and named for German astronomer Gustav Sporer.

On Feb. 28-Sept. 19, 1540 the European Super Drought of 1540 causes Milan, Italy to be completely dry for 5 mo., while in Zurich it only rains 4x, causing the water table in Switzerland to drop over 1.5M and thousands along the Ruhr River to die of poisoning from dirty water; Lindau Island becomes connected to the mainland after the water level in the Bodensee sinks; the water flow in the Elbe River is reduced to one-tenth normal, allowing people to walk across them, along with the Rhine and Seine Rivers; by Aug. trees begin shedding their leaves early, after which fires destroy more communities than in the preceding millennium, causing a blanket of smoke to shroud Europe, turning the Sun and Moon into flaming red balls; prices for flour and bread zoom sky high.

'The Hunters in the Snow' by Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-69), 1565

In Dec. 1565 winter in N Europe is super-cold, killing birds and fruit trees; on Dec. 25-Jan. 13 the Thames River freezes solid, and Elizabeth I becomes fond of daily trips on the ice; portrayed by Dutch Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel (Bruegel) the Elder (1525-69) in his 1565 painting The Hunters in the Snow (Return of the Hunters); stark portrayal of global cooling?

Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)

In 1610 after beating Galileo by 4 mo. and making the first drawing of the Moon through a telescope on July 26, 1609, English astronomer Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) discovers sunspots - you're the cream in my coffee?

On Aug. 24-25, 1635 the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 brushes Jamestown, Va. before hitting SE New England incl. Mass Bay Colony and R.I., creating 14-20-ft. storm surges, destroying thousands of trees and many houses, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since colonization; the small barque Watch and Wait of Isaac Allerton founders off Cape Ann killing 21 of 23 aboard, later becoming the subject of John Greenleaf Whittier's poem "The Swan Song of Parson Avery"; Boston is spared the high tides, which sweep over Dorchester.

In 1645 the Maunder Minimum (period of low sunspot counts) begins (ends 1715); the Thames River freezes every winter, and there is famine throughout Europe and China.

In Dec. 1683 the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow - all them scientific brains and no mention of Global Cooling?

1700

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) Anders Celsius (1701-44)

In 1714 Danzig, Poland-born Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) of Amsterdam invents mercury-in-glass thermometer, followed in 1724 by the 0-32-212 Fahrenheit Scale, which becomes popular with beer brewers. In 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-44) proposes the 0-100 Celsius (Lat. "centigrade" = 100 steps) Scale for use in lab work to the Royal Swedish Society. with 0 for the boiling point and 100 for the freezing point; in 1745 Carolus Linnaeus inverts it; mercury solidifies at -39 C; after the Celsius scale is adopted by the internat. scientific community, only the U.S. sticks with the Fahrenheit scale. In 1724 Fahrenheit discovers the phenomenon of supercooling (undercooling), the ability of a liquid or gas to be lowered below its freezing point, for example when water doesn't freeze in clouds.

George Graham (1674-1751) Anders Celsius (1704-44)

In 1727 after discovering slight magnetic fluctuations on his compass to be correlated with the latter's observations of aurorae, English watchmaker George Graham (1674-1751) and Swedish scientist Anders Celsius (1701-44) discover that sunspots are really magnetic storms.

Rene Antoine de Reaumur (1683-1757)

In 1731 French entomologist Rene (René) Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (Réaumur) (1683-1757) invents an alcohol thermometer with the 0-80 (freezing-boiling) Reaumur (Réaumur) Temperature Scale - he should have used the 20-80 rule and made it 0-100?

In 1751 atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is measured retroactively back to this year at the Law Dome Ice Core: 277 in 1751-71, 278 in 1772-1784, 279 in 1785-88, and 280 in 1789-91.

In July 1757 the July 1757 Heat Wave in Europe becomes the hottest summer in Europe until 2003.

In the 1770s the mean Jan. temp is 34.3F (1.3C), becoming a low point, after which a steady warming trend sees the mean Jan. temp rise to 40.5F (4.7C) in the 1920s.

In 1774 records of sea level begin to be kept in Stockholm, Sweden, showing a yearly decrease of 3.81 +/- 0.32 mm/year, which modern global warmists modify to account for supposed land uplift to become a rise of 1.55 mm/year, increasing to 3 mm/year starting in 1980. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Oct. 9-20, 1780 the 200 mph Great Hurricane (of the Antilles) of 1780 (Huracán San Calixto) kills 20K-27K in the Lesser Antilles, becoming the deadliest Atlantic hurricane (until ?).

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In fall 1792 Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. pub. the first (1793) ed. of The (Old) Farmer's Almanac; by the late 1860s circ. zooms from 3K to 200K.

John Dalton (1766-1844)

In 1793 English meteorologist John Dalton (1766-1844) pub. his first work Meteorological Observations and Essays (2nd ed. 1834), based on his habit of M.O., which goes on from 1787-1844, later used to propose the Dalton Minimum of low sunspot counts in 1796-1820 (1790-1830?).

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)

In 1798 Westcott, Surrey, England-born cleric Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) pub. An Essay on the Principle of Population (June); pub. under the alias Joseph Johnson; 2nd ed. 1803; 6th ed. 1826; a response to William Godwin's view of the "perfectibility of society" in "Political Justice" (1793), dissing the English Poor Laws and supporting the Corn Laws (taxes on grain imports), claiming that the pop. can double in 25 years, causing the food supply to run out in two generations, and proposes Malthus' Iron Law of Pop. (Wages), that "Food is necessary to the existence of man", "The passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present stage", thus the "power of population is infinitely greater than the power in the Earth to produce subsistence for man"; "The mighty law of self-preservation expels all the softer and more exalted emotions of the soul... In so short a period as withing fifty years, violence, oppression, falsehood, misery, every hateful vice, and every form of distress, which degrade and sadden the present state of society, seem to have been generated by the most imperious circumstances, by laws inherent in the nature of man, and absolutely independent of its human regulations"; as a corollary, a rising pop. causes a rising labor supply, leading to lower wages, causing passage of the British Census Act of 1800; despite its uncorked exponential scientific assumptions, it gets used to justify war as a way to keep the non-white (or less-white) pop. down for the common good of whites (or more-whites) everywhere. In modern times globalist Malthusians openly talk about mass extermination of human beings like slugs, giving the U.N. a reason to push a false narrative of global warming to reduce CO2 and curtail the food supply?

1800

Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)

In 1800 German-born English astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers Infrared Light (beyond the red end of the spectrum) using prisms and thermometers on solar rays; he also discovers a connection between 11-year sunspot cycles and wheat prices, becoming the first theory of economic cycles.

Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857)

In 1805 County Meath, Ireland-born hydrographer and British rear adm. Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) devises the Blowfart, er, Beaufort Wind Scale (0-12) for gauging wind force at sea: 0:0-1 mph (calm), 1:2-3 (light air), 2:4-7 (slight breeze), 3:8-12 (gentle breeze), 4:13-18 (moderate breeze), 5:19-24 (fresh breeze), 6:25-31 (strong breeze), 7:32-38 (moderate gale), 8:39-46 (fresh gale), 9:47-54 (strong gale), 10:55-63 (whole gale), 11:64-72 (storm), 12:73-82 (hurricane).

On Feb. 10, 1807 the U.S. Coast Survey is established by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, becoming the first U.S. scientific agency, changing to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878; in 1870 the U.S. Nat. Weather Bureau is formed, followed on May 22, 1917 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps (NOAA Corps); on Oct. 3, 1970 the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) is formed, which founds seven internal research labs incl. the U.S. Surface Climate Reference Network (USCRN), and the Air Resources Lab (ARL), which in Oct. 2005 is merged with the Aeronomy Lab, the Climate Diagnostics Center, the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab, the Environmental Technology Lab, and the Forecast Systems Lab to form the Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) in Boulder, Colo.

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In 1816 the Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7; Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. in his Old Farmer's Almanac (founded 1792) mistakenly forecasts snow in July and Aug., but before he can send out replacements it actually does snow in the summer, making him into a genius and boosting his almanac's popularity?

The Old Farmer's Almanac, 1818-

In 1818 The Farmer's Almanac is founded in Morristown, N.J. by David Young and Jacob Mann; in 1851 Samuel Hart Wright succeeds Young, and is succeeded in 1875 by his son Berlin Hart Wright; in 1934 Ray Geiger becomes ed., followed in 1994 by his son Peter Geiger; each new ed. is released in Sept., and covers 16 mos., covering seven U.S. climatic zones using a "top secret mathematical and astronomical formula, that relies on sunspot activity, tidal action, planetary position and many other factors"; the forecaster is named Caleb Weatherbee; 80% forecast accuracy is claimed by the publishers, but meteorologists regard it ias pseudoscience.

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

In 1822 French mathematician Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) pub. On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies (Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur), his mathematical theory of heat conduction, introducing his hot new Fourier Series, expansions of piecewise continuous functions as trigonometrical series. In 1825 he discovers the Greenhouse Effect. Watch video. Watch video.

Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)

In 1824 French physicist Nicolas Leonard (Léonard) Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) pub. Reflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop That Power), which shows that the transformation of heat into motive power depends on the quantity of heat (caloric) and the temperature difference, while the efficiency of a steam engine is a function of the temperature difference between the hot and cold chambers (source and sink), the "free energy", a preliminary formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics; it also introduces the reversible Carnot Cycle.

Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) James Prescott Joule (1818-89) Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

In Feb. 1840 German physician Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) sails from Rotterdam in the 3-masted ship Java, and after docking at Surabaya he notices that the venous blood of sailors he's bleeding is brighter red, indicating less oxygen being consumed than in colder climates, causing him to have a bright idea that food is oxidized to create not only animal heat but work, hence that heat and work are interchangeable in some way. In 1842 he announces an improved value for the mechanical equivalent of heat, calculated by an apparatus pulled by a horse that stirs paper pulp in a cauldron, and proposes the law of conservation of energy, which holds even for living systems, and also states that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy on Earth; too bad, not being a recognized scientist (member of a prof. assoc. of stuffed shirts), he is ignored; he says that a weight falling 365m will lose enough potential energy to warm an equal weight of water by 1 deg C, corresponding to a mechanical equivalent of heat of 3.56 Joules per calorie, not far from the real figure of 4.184. The tendency of learned societies of know-nothings to keep newbies out follows the dismal example of established churches? In 1843 British (Manchester) brewer and obsessive amateur scientist James Prescott Joule (1818-89) calculates the first fairly accurate value (41.54M ergs or 4.154 Joules per calorie) for the mechanical equivalent of heat; later 10M ergs is called a Joule in his honor; at first his work is disregarded since he's not a recognized academic, and is refused by the Royal Society and learned journals, forcing him to get it pub. in 1847 in a Manchester newspaper on which his brother is the music critic; a few mo. later he is allowed to present it at a scientific gathering, and 23-y.-o. Scottish physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) gets it accepted, causing it to be taken up by respectable German scientist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-94), who ends up getting credit for the law of conservation of energy instead of amateurs Joule and Mayer in 1847; Joule finally gets to present his paper to the Royal Society in 1849, making him look like a beer-brewing copycat? Meanwhile in 1840 James Prescott Joule pub. the I^2*R law for the heat given off by a conductor of resistance R carrying a current I (Joulean heat) - the reason Easy-Bake Ovens work?

On Oct. 29, 1842 a Category 2 (60 mph) hurricane hits SW Spain after passing near Madeira.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In 1842 French mathematician Joseph Alphonse Adhemar (Adhémar) (1797-1862) pub. Revolutions of the Sea, proposing the astronomical theory of Ice Age causation, which evolves into the theory of Milkanovich Cycles in the 1920s by Serbian mathematician Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958).

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93)

In 1843 German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) discovers 11-year Solar Cycles of sunspot counts, with Cycle 1 set in 1755-66 by Swiss astronomer Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93) in 1848, who devises the Wolf (Zurich) (Internat. Sunspot) (Relative Sunspot) Number for the number of visible sunspots and sunspot groups; in 1852 Wolf et al. discover the link between the Wolf Cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.

In 1850 the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which has kept Europe cold and half-starved suddenly ends in a span of a few years; the Great Glacier Retreat begins (ends ?) - giving Euros a chance to create a peaceful Paradise or a war-torn Hell?

Rudolf Clausius (1822-88)

The original Rudolf the Red-Nosed Rain On Your Parade, Dear? In 1850 German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-88) formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Kinetic Theory of Gases. In 1865 he coins the term "entropy", and reformulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics using it: "The entropy of the Universe is constantly increasing to an eventual maximum" - that sounds good and bad at the same time?

On Feb. 6, 1851 after intense heat and drought in 1850, the Black Thursday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia kill 1M sheep, thousands of cattle, and 12 humans; "The temperature became torrid, and on the morning of the 6th of February 1851, the air which blew down from the north resembled the breath of a furnace. A fierce wind arose, gathering strength and velocity from hour to hour, until about noon it blew with the violence of a tornado. By some inexplicable means it wrapped the whole country in a sheet of flame - fierce, awful, and irresistible." (Picturesque Atlas of Austalasia, 1886)

Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

The lukewarm Love Train, or, There are only two kinds of people, those who think that there is a God, and those who believe they are God? Right in your face mask? In 1851 English physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) begins pub. papers on the laws of conservation and dissipation of energy, generalizing Carnot's 1824 paper and formulating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the idea of degradation of energy and the eventual heat death of the Universe, in which there is a uniform temperature throughout, hence none of its energy can be converted into useful work; "Though the total energy of the Universe is constant, the amount of free energy decreases steadily"; luckily there is still enough free energy left for trillions of years?

In 1856 the Battery Tide Gage in New York City begins keeping records of sea level rise, showing 2.84 +/- 0.09 mm/year through 2014; too bad, on Mar. 30, 2016 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists nearly double sea level rise projections for 2100, because of Antarctica, about a recent paper by Robert M. DeConto of the U. of Mass. and David Pollard of Penn. State U., predicting a future rapid melt of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with the soundbyte: "In their worst-case scenario, the sea level could rise by six feet by the end of this century", which would be 10x the historical rate.

Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75)

On Sept. 1-2, 1859 the Solar (Super) Storm of 1859 (Carrington Event) sees a solar storm induce a geomagnetic solar storm in the Earth's magnetsphere, creating auroras that can be seen from Cuba to Hawaii, so bright that people in the NE U.S. can read their newspapers by its light, and creating an EMP that interferes with telegraphs, but doesn't shut them down; it is all recorded by London, England-born amateur astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75), proving the existence of solar flares; in 1863 his observations of sunspots reveal the differential rotation of the Sun.

John Tyndall (1820-93)

In 1859 Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) discovers that gases incl. water vapor and CO2 can absorb infrared radiation, and suggests that they could be used to bring climate change, AKA the Greenhouse Effect, going further in a lecture on Feb. 7, 1861, claiming that changes in CO2 and H20 in the atmosphere explain all climate changes so far identified by geological research - all ahead full? Too bad, in 1856 Am. scientist Eunice Foote already pub. it.

Josef Stefan (1835-93) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

In 1879 using experimental data from Irish physicist John Tyndall, Austrian (Carinthian Slovene) mathematician-physicist Josef Stefan (1835-93) pub. the paper Über die Beziehung zwischen der Wärmestrahlung und der Temperatur (On the relation between heat radiation and temperature), announcing the Stefan (Stefan-Boltzmann) Law, that the total energy per unit time radiated from a black body per unit surface area is directly proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature, using it to calculate the temp of the Sun's surface as 5,430C (9,810F); in 1884 Austrian physicist Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906) (founder of Statistical Mechanics, and coiner of the term "ergodic") pub. Ableitung des Stefan'schen Gesetzes, betreffend die Abhängigkeit der Wärmestrahlung von der Temperatur aus der electromagnetischen Lichttheorie (Derivation of Stefan's Law, concerning the dependency of heat radiation on temperature, from the electromagnetic theory of light), extending Stefan's Law to grey body emissions.

On Jan. 12-13, 1883 (Thur.-Fri) a blizzard from Canada blows in suddenly, causing a trick of Nature on a beautifully warm 70 F day in the midst of miserably cold Jan. as the temp drops suddenly by 100 F and leads to the death of 500+ pioneers, incl. 100+ lightly-dressed children walking home from school in the plains of the Dakotas, Minn., and Neb. in the Big Brash (School Children's) Blizzard; as far away as Denver, Colo. the temp drops to -18 F with 60 mph winds, but little snow.

Eruption of Krakatoa, Aug. 26-27, 1883

Atlas cracks his toa in Indonesia? Krakonesia, biggest volcano grave on Earth? On Aug. 26-27, 1883 the small volcanic island of Krakatoa (Krakatau) in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra (100 mi. W. of Batavia) erupts with a ginormous explosive force of 200 megatons (Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6), ejecting 6 cu. mi. of rock, creating a 120-ft.-high tsunami which travels 5,450 mi. to South Africa in 12 hours and drowns 36K; a Dutch warship in Batavia (Djakarta) 100 mi. away is washed ashore and left stranded .5 mi. inland 30 ft. above sea level; the sound (largest noise ever heard by man?) is heard 2.2K mi. away in Alice Springs and 2.97K mi. away in Rodrigues Island near Mauritius; at Batavia people have to light their lamps during the day; for the next two years a thin haze of particles can be seen in the night sky as far away as London, and for three years all over the world sunrise and sunset are brilliantly colored; the explosion leaves a 2,667-ft. cone, and the island shrinks from 18 sq. mi. to 6 sq. mi.; the explosion causes the Muslims of Indonesia to see it as a sign from Allah and begin a jihad to push the Dutch out; the volcanic ash in the atmosphere causes global cooling next year, with aftereffects lasting almost a cent., offsetting anthropogenic global warming?

Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912)

On Aug. 19, 1886 a 150 mph hurricane wipes out the town of Indianola, Tex., killing 74 and causing $200K damage, preceded by four and followed by three more this year; on Aug. 31 a 7.3 North Am. Plate earthquake rocks "the most polite city in America" Charleston, S.C., killing 110 and causing $5M in damage in a 200-mi. radius of the town, which is built on an unstable sandy coastal plain; Am. geologist Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912) studies the earthquake, discovering a method for determining its depth of focus; in 1889 he coins the term "isostasy".

Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906)

In 1889 after attempting to determine the surface temp of the Moon by measuring infared radiation reaching the Earth, using the angle in the sky to estimate CO2 and water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) pub. The Temperature of the Moon: from Studies at the Allegheny Observatory.

Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)

In Apr. 1896 Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age; "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"; in 1906 after winning the 1905 Nobel Chem. Prize he pub. The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations, amending his views, lowering his estimates to 1.6C-3.9C and considering increased CO2 to be beneficial; "Since, now, warm ages have alternated with glacial periods, even after man appeared on the earth, we have to ask ourselves: Is it probable that we shall in the coming geological ages be visited by a new ice period that will drive us from our temperate countries into the hotter climates of Africa? There does not appear to be much ground for such an apprehension. The enormous combustion of coal by our industrial establishments suffices to increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air to a perceptible degree"; In ? he pub. Worlds in the Making, containing the soundbytes: "Another process which withdraws carbonic acid [carbon dioxide] from the air is the assimilation of plants... [If] the percentage of carbon dioxide be doubled, the absorption by the plants would a lso be doubled. If, at the same time, the temperature rises by 4C, the vitality will increase in the ratio of 1:1.5, so that the doubling of the carbon dioxide percentage will lead to an increase in the absorption of carbonic acid by the plant approximately in the ratio of 1:3. An increase of the carbon dioxide percentage to double its amount may hence be able to raise the intensity of vegetable life... threefold"; "We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind."

Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928)

In 1896 German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900.

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928)

On Nov. 1, 1899 Mattoon, Ill.-born geologist Thomas Chrowder "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, which promotes the theory that atmospheric CO2 concentration can drive changes in the climate for the purposes of climate engineering (geoengineering); "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate."; "A study of the life of the geological periods seems to indicate that there were very notable fluctuations in the total mass of living matter. To be sure there was a reciprocal relation between the life of the land and that of the sea, so that when the latter was extended upon the continental platforms and greatly augmented, the former was contracted, but notwithstanding this it seems clear that the sum of life activity fluctuated notably during the ages. It is believed that on the whole it was greatest at the periods of sea extension and mild climates, and least at the times of disruption and climatic intensification. This factor then acted antithetically to the carbonic acid freeing previously noted, and, so far as it went, tended to offset its effects. It now becomes necessary to assign agencies capable of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate sufficiently above the normal rate of supply, at certain times, to produce glaciation; and on the other hand, capable of restoring it to the atmosphere at certain other times in sufficient amounts to produce mild climates."

1900

In the 20th cent. the amount of atmospheric dust on Earth doubles.

In 1900 the Modern Maximum of solar activity esp. sunspots begins, ramping up in the 1940s and reaching the highest level since the warm Boreal Period in 7K B.C.E. during the late 1950s, reaching a double peak in the 1950s and another in the 1990s, with the highest level of solar magnetic activity for most of the past 11.4K years.

Galveston Flood, Sept. 8, 1900

Galveston, oh Galvesto-o-n? On Sept. 8, 1900 Galveston, Tex., the #2 wealthiest city in the U.S. after New York City is struck by the Category 4 (145 mph) 1900 (Great) Galveston Hurricane (Aug. 27-Sept. 17), killing 6K-12K and almost wiping the city off the map, throwing smug Americans who thought they ruled the world into denial, becoming the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history (until ?); the authorities failed to order evacuation, thinking they were immune from Mother Nature?

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) Max Planck (1858-1947)

In 1900 English physicist John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) pub. the Rayleigh-Jeans Law (improved by Sir James Jeans in 1905), claiming that the spectral radiance (emission at a single frequency) of a "black body" (perfect absorber of radiation, radiating an amount equal to that which it is absorbing) is proportional to the frequency to the fourth power, which heads toward infinity as the frequency approaches infinity, causing the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the prediction that a black body emits radiation with infinite power; on Oct. 19 after ruminating not on that but on why Wien's 1896 Displacement Law breaks down at low frequencies, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) announces to the Berlin Physical Society his revolutionary Planck's Radiation Law, proposing the (Old) Quantum Theory to account for the radiation from a black body, explaining that it is emitted in discrete quanta, each being of an energy value equal to Planck's constant h times the frequency, and violating the ancient maxim "Natura non facit saltum" (Nature doesn't make jumps); as he can't explain the meaning of his new constant, he delves into atomic theory to try and find a clue; meanwhile herr Wilhelm Wien proposes the formula E = (3/4) * M * C^2 for the relation between electromagnetic mass and electromagnetic energy - don't complain about the wienie in your neighbor's eye when you have a planck in your own?

In 1900 a reliable record of Atlantic hurricane landfalls is started.

In mid-June-early Aug. 1901 the 1901 Eastern U.S. Heat Wave sees Philly experience 12 straight days above 90F starting June 25, with several institutionalized individuals in New York City committing suicide in 95F heat, and dead horses becoming a source of contamination; July becomes the hottest month in the contiguous U.S. until the Julys of 1931, 1934, 1936, and 2012; a drought in the Upper Midwest and Ohio Valley gives Ill. its driest year until ?; a total of 9.5K are killed.

In early Sept. 1902 after an unusually hot dry season and high winds, forest fires rage in every part of Greece.

On July 8, 1905 Calif. sets a record high avg. temp of 104F (until ?), with more than half the state above 105F and more than a third 110F or above; Orland in N Calif. is 120F; CO2 concentration is 300 ppm.

Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941)

In 1906-12 German chemist Walter Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) formulates the Third Law of Thermodynamics, that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

On Aug. 20-21, 1910 the Great Fire (Big Blowup) of 1910, a giant forest fire in W Mont., N Idaho, and NE Wash. burns 3M acres in two days, killing 87 (mostly firefighters) becming the deadliest forest fire in U.S. history (until ?), making firefighters into heroes and permanently changing the focus of the U.S. Forest Service to fire prevention.

In early July-Sept. 11, 1911 the 1911 U.K. Heat Wave sets high temperature records throughout England, with a max of 36.7C (98.1F), which isn't broken until 1990. On Aug. 8 after a nationwide strike of transport workers is called by Labour Party leader Keir Hardie, riots in Liverpool are quashed by troops, who fire on demonstrators, killing two; meanwhile 50K troops are rushed to London as famine looms; just at the worse time, on Aug. 9 the temp. in London reaches a record 98. 1 deg F.

On June 6-8, 1912 Mount Katmai in Novarupta, Alaska (Lat. "newly erupted") erupts violently, forming the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (named by Robert F. Griggs), and becoming the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th cent.

Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964)

In 1912 Austrian-born Am. physicist Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) discovers Cosmic Rays with a hot air balloon during a near-total eclipse, measuring rising radiation at rising altitudes despite the Moon blocking most of the Sun's visible radiation, winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize; "The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above."

On July 10, 1913 after a record hot summer Death Valley, Calif. reaches a high air temp of 134 F (56.7 C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth), followed by the record highest ground surface temp on Earth of 201F (93.9C) on July 15, 1917.

On Sept. 1-8, 1913 daily afternoon temps in Steffenville, Mo. reach 100F+, peaking at 109F.

Charles Fabry (1867-1945) Henri Buisson (1873-1944)

In 1913 after the spectrum of radiation from the Sun is found to be blocked 97%-99% at 200nm-315nm in the ultraviolet end, French physicists Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1873-1944) discover the Earth's Ozone Layer, located at 12-19 mi. (20-30km) above the surface, containing 10 ppm of ozone (O3), compared to 0.3 ppm for the rest of the atmosphere.

USS Cyclops, 1910-18

On Mar. 4, 1918 the 542-ft. 19K-ton U.S. Navy collier USS Cyclops (AC-4) (launched May 7, 1910) (largest ship in the U.S. Navy) en route from the West Indies to Baltimore carrying manganese ore disappears without a trace along with all 309 crew and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle, becoming the first mysterious ship disappearance there; its last message is "Weather Fair, All Well"; the Germans disavow knowledge.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In the 1920s Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate changes by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun.

In Aug. 1922 the 1922 China-Japan Heat Wave sees temperatures averaging 100F, with several days in Peking and Tientsin at 115F.

On Sept. 13, 1922 the highest temp. ever recorded on Earth (136.4 F) (58.0 C) is recorded in 'Aziziya (El Azizia) (Al-Azizyah), Libya (until ?) - get used to it?

C.E.P. Brooks (1888-1957)

In 1922 English geologist-climatologist Charles Ernest Pelham "C.E.P." Brooks (1888-1957), later asst. dir. of the climatological div. of Britain's Meteorological Office pub. the book The Evolution of Climate, followed in 1926 by the std. textbook Climate Through the Ages, which attributes the onset of the ice ages to geographical changes incl. evolving continental shapes, denying any role for astronomical forces except for solar activity variations, which he relegates to fluctuations of 100K years or less, rejecting CO2 as a cause of climate change; it contains the humorous soundbyte: "There are at least nine and twenty ways of constructing a theory of climate change, and there is probably some truth in quite a number of them"; in 1951 he pub. the article Geological and Historical Aspects of Climate Change in Compendium of Meteorology (ed. Thomas F. Malone), pub. by the Am. Meteorological Assoc., containing the soundbyte about the CO2 Greenhouse Gas Warming Theory: "It was never widely accepted and was abandoned when it was found that all the long-wave radiation absorbed by CO2 is absorbed by water vapor."

In summer 1926 the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927 begins after heavy summer rains swell the river to 60 mi. width below Memphis, Tenn. by next May, causing flooding over a 27K sq. mi. area that submerges towns and farmland up to 30 ft. depth, displacing 640K from La. to Ill. before subsiding in Aug. 1927, after which the 1928 U.S. Flood Control Act is passed on May 15, 1928, creating the world's longest system of levees; on Jan. 1-May 1, 1927 the Great Mississippi Flood strikes the Lower Mississippi Valley, killing 246, destroying 130K homes, causing $350M in property damage, and displacing 700K; similar to the 2005 flood only slower?

On Sept. 11, 1926 the Category 4 (150 mph) 1926 Great Miami Hurricane forms in the C Atlantic Ocean, moving N of the Virgin Islands on Sept. 15, and reaching peak intensity on Sept. 16, hitting the Turks and Caicos Islands and the Bahamas before making landfall in Miami, Fla. on Sept. 18, traversing the Fla. Peninsula and emerging near Fort Myers, Fla. and hitting Ala., Miss., and La. before dissipating on Sept. 22 after killing 372-539 and causing $100M damage.

Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

In 1930 English mathematician-geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) describes the photochemical mechanisms underlying the Earth's ozone layer; early in this decade he and his student V.C.A. Ferraro predict the existence of the magnetosphere.

In July-Nov. 1931 the 1931 China (Yangtze-Huai River Floods) kill 422K-4M, becoming one of the most lethal natural disasters of the cent., and most deadly flood in known history; on Aug. 21 floods in Hankow spread over thousands of sq. mi. and make 30M homeless, causing the Communists to blame corrupt govt. officials of embezzlement of the dyke fund.

In 1934 the Great Drought begins in the U.S. (ends 1937), creating the Am.-Canadian Dust Bowl of 1935-8, covering 150K sq. mi. (75%) of the Great Plains, incl. parts of Okla., Tex., Kans., Colo., and N.M., becoming the worst drought in 1K years; caused by the planting of wheat during WWI on former grazing land to make a quick profit? On July 20, 1934 Keokuk, Iowa reaches a state temp record of 118F (48C). In July 1934 80% of the U.S. is in extreme or severe drought.

In 1934 the U.S. Nat. Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is established in New Orleans, La. to archive weather data, moving to Asheville, N.C. in 1951 and renamed to the Nat. Weather Records Data Center (NWRC), and the modern name in 1993; in 2015 it is merged with the Nat. Geophysical Data Center and the Nat. Oceanic Center into the Nat. Centers for Environmental Info. (NCEI), becoming part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) along with Ariz. State U. and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, which runs five Earth surface stations, 6K temperature stations, 7.5K precipitation stations, and 2K pressure stations, with the avg. temp record going back to the late 1950s, incl. data collected since 1697, with 1,650 records greater than 100 years, and 220 greater than 150 years.

In Mar. 1935 dust storms begin plaguing Kansas, and on Apr. 8 after the air in Washington D.C. turns copper from dust blowing in from the W end of the Okla. Panhandle, the U.S. Emergency Relief Appropriation Act is passed, appropriating $4B to be used at FDR's discretion, along with $880M in previously unspent appropriations; in Apr. Congress approves the Works Progress Admin. (WPA), which begins operating on May 6. On Apr. 14, 1935 (p.m.) Black Sunday, a terrific 200-mi.-wide dust storm begins in Cimarron County, Okla., crossing into Kansas, dropping the temp. 25 deg. in an hour, and permanently blinding many people; 4.7 tons of dust per acre are dumped on W Kan., denting cartops; the wind blows at 40 mph or greater for 100 straight hours, displacing 300M tons of topsoil from the prairies; later the southern plains are plagued by up to 14M grasshoppers per sq. mi. after natural predators are killed by the dust; in July 1940 Woody Guthrie releases his debut album Dust Bowl Ballads, becoming one of the first concept albums, featuring Great Dust Storm Disaster; "On the 14th day of April 1935,/ There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky./ You could see that dust storm comin', the cloud looked deathlike black,/ And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track./ From Oklahoma City to the Arizona line,/ Dakota and Nebraska to the lazy Rio Grande,/ It fell across our city like a curtain of black rolled down,/ We thought it was our judgment, we thought it was our doom./ The radio reported, we listened with alarm the wild and windy actions of this great mysterious storm." On Aug. 25, 1936 the St. Louis Star-Times pub. the article Month Heat Toll Mounts to 33 in Prolonged Spell, with the subtitle "Mercury Stayed Below 100 Yesterday First Time in 13 Days". On Aug. 29-Sept. 10, 1935 the 1935 Labor Day U.S. Hurricane destroys Islamorada and Key West, Fla., causing $6M damage and killing 423, becoming the first known Category 5 Hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland, first and worst of three to hit the U.S. during the 20th cent. (1969 Hurricane Camille, 1992 Hurricane Andrew).

In Oct. 1935-Mar. 1936 the U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. experiences the 5th-coldest weather for the contiguous U.S.; in Dec. 1935-Feb. 1936 the 1936 North Am. Cold Wave is worse in the Midwest U.S. and the Canadian Prairies, missing the SW U.S. and Calif., becoming the worst in North Am. in cents.; Feb. is the coldest on record in the contiguous U.S., narrowly beating Feb. 1899; in June-Sept. 1936 the Summer 1936 North Am. Heat Wave kills 5K in the U.S. and 1180 in Canada, esp. in urban centers sans air conditioning; and destroys massive numbers of crops, becoming the hottest summer until 2012.

In 1936 record heat, floods, and tornadoes hit the U.S., setting almost 250 all-time max temp records, which isn't matched until ?; on Feb. 8-23 Ashland, Kan. warms 91 deg F from -7F to 84F; on Mar. 19 The Cincinnati Enquirer carries the headline: "Hunger and Disease Peril Pittsburgh as City's Most Disastrous Flood Ebbs: Crest to Be 58 or 60 Feet in City Monday"; on Mar. 20 The New York Daily News carries the headline: "All Eastern America Under Flood Waters: Terrible Duststorm Rages in West", along with a front page article titled "President Signs Appeal as Capitol Flooded: 100 Cities and 14 States Affected"; on Apr. 7 The New York News carries the headline: "Great Property Damage", with the opening paragraph: "A tornado - one of a series of storms which for several days has harassed six southern States - today struck three cities with great force, leaving behind it many dead. At least 200 have already been identified. Gainesville in Georgia, Tupelo in Mississippi, and Colombia in Tennessee were the hardest hit"; on July 25 The Bend Bulletin carries the headline: "Heat Wave Toll Over 2,000 in 86 Cities in Week", talking about "temperatures of 100 degrees and higher throughout a large part of the nation" - high atmospheric CO2 had nothing to do with it?

On Sept. 9-23, 1938 the Category 3 Great 1938 New England Hurricane AKA the Long Island Express and Yankee Clipper hits Long Island, N.Y. on Sept. 21, killing 682, damaging or destroying 57K homes and 6K fishing boats, and causing $306M property damage, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since the 1635 Colonial Hurricane; damaged trees and bldgs. are still seen as late as 1951.

On Oct. 9, 1938 The New York Times pub. the article Forest Fires, One Every 3 Minutes in 1937, Burned 21,980,500 Acres at $20,668,800 Loss.

G.S. Callendar (1898-1964)

In 1938 using 147 widespread land-based weather stations Montreal, Canada-born British steam engineer Guy Stewart "G.S." Callendar (1898-1964) pub. the Callendar (Greenhouse) Effect caused by the burning of fossil fuels, assessing climate sensitivity at 2 deg C and claiming that it would be beneficial, delaying a "return of the deadly glaciers", meeting with widespread skepticism but leading to attempts to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Hawaii in 1958; only about 60 stations are needed?

Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957)

In 1939 Swedish-born Am. meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby (1898-1957) of the U.S. Weather Bureau and U. of Chicago discovers Rossby Waves in the Earth's atmosphere, due to the variation in the Coriolis effect with latitude, leading to large-scale meanders of the Jet Stream (which he also identifies) that cause masses of cold or warm air to detach and become low-strength cyclones and anticyclones, driving daily weathern patterns at mid-latitudes, making the E coast of the U.S. colder than the W coast at a given latitude.

1940

In 1943 the free market small govt. think tank Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) is founded in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia by 54 people, with close ties to the Australian Liberal Party, advocating deregulation and privatization, and opposing unions and climate change science.

Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93)

Long after the Indians showed them the Rain Dance? On July 14, 1946 after pioneering work by Am. chemist-physicist Irving Langmuir (assoc. dir. of research at Gen. Electric in 1932-50), his asst., self-taught Am. chemist-meteorologist Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93) of GE Labs in Schenectady, N.Y. pioneers the principle of Cloud Seeding on Mt. Washington in N.H.; on Nov. 13 the first Artificial Snow is produced by seeding clouds with crushed dry ice at Mt. Greylock, Mass. in the Berkshire Mts., causing a major snowstorm; next Oct. 13 Project Cirrus is begun by the USAF, U.S. Office of Naval Research, and the U.S. Army Signal Corps to seed a hurricane with 180 lb. of crushed dry ice, after which the hurricane changes direction and makes landfall near Savannah, Ga., causing the public to blame them and the project to be canceled, with the govt. not admitting it had seeded it until 1959; in 1962 NOAA launches Project Stormfury to weaken cyclones by flying aircraft into them and seeding them with silver iodide; too bad, it doesn't work, and the last flight is flown in 1971, and the project canceled in 1983; in 2010 Pinhas Alpert et al. of Tel Aviv U. review past data and conclude that cloud seeding isn't very effective.

Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965)

In 1946 English physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) discovers that sunspots emit radio waves.

On May 31, 1947 the Warwick Daily News pub. the article Danger Seen in Mysterious Warming of Arctic Climate, about a speech at the U. of Calif. by Swedish geophysicist Hans Ahlmann, who claims an increase in Arctic temps of 10F since 1900, threatening mass melting and floods of coastal regions, with the soundbyte: "The Arctic change is so serious that I hope an international agency can speedily be formed to study conditions on a global basis."

1950

On Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1953 the huge North Sea Flood of 1953, caused by winter storms kills 2,551 incl. 1,836 in SW Netherlands (esp. Zeeland) and Belgium, 307 in England, 28 in Belgium, 19 in Scotland, and 361 at sea, incl. 133 on the British ferry MV Princess Victoria (launched Aug. 27, 1946) in the Irish Sea on Jan. 31, becoming the deadliest maritime disaster in U.K. waters since WWII; 4K bldgs. are destroyed, and 70K are left homeless, causing the govt. to spend $8B over the next 30 years fortifying the coastline with a system of sophisticated dikes, incl. a 6-mi.-long movable hydraulic steel curtain that closes when the water rises 6 ft., after which there are no flood deaths in the Netherlands until ?; meanwhile London builds new flood gates on the Thames Estuary; it is found that gypsum (calcium sulfate) can undo the effect of seawater on flooded areas of Holland and Britain when spread on the ground to be later washed in by rainwater. On Aug. 24-Sept. 6, 1953 the Late Summer U.S. Heat Wave of 1953 sees the N.E. U.S. record 1,097 temps over 90F, 546 over 95F, and 129 over 100F, incl. 107F in Md. on Aug. 31. On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1953 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 68 and causing $460M in damage; on Sept. 2-5 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, and on Oct. 15 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 19, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $136M in property damage.

Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973)

In 1953 Wilton, N.H.-born astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) (former asst. of Charles Pierpont Langley), dir. since 1907 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (inventor of the solar cooker, solar boiler, and solar still) discovers a link between sunspot cycles and Earth climate, claiming to be able to predict climate patterns 50 years in advance.

On July 11, 1954 Sedgwick, Colo. records a temp of 114F, becoming the hottest temp ever recorded in Colo. (until ?); Boulder, Colo. reaches a record 104F, part of four straight days over 100F; Neb. reaches 116F, Kan. 115F, Okla. 112F, and Mo. 110F.

On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1954 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 72 and causing $462M in damage; on Sept. 2-15 Category 3 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, killing 21 and causing $42.8M damage in New England, causing the heaviest rainfall in New York City in 45 years, and power outages affecting 260K incl. Cape Cod, becoming the costliest hurricane in Maine (until ?); on Oct. 15 after killing 400+ in Haiti, Category 4 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 95, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $382M property damage in the U.S. followed by 81 deaths near Toronto, Canada after merging with a cold front.

On Oct. 6, 1954 Atlanta, Ga. sets a record high temp of 95F (35C).

'Dynamics of Climate', 1955

On Oct. 26-28, 1955 the Conference on the Application of Numerical Integration Techniques to the Problem of the Gen. Circulation (Dynamics of Climate) is held at Princeton U., led by big brain physicist John von Neumann, head of the Inst. for Advanced Study, discussing "radiation studies covering problems involved in introducing the long-wave radiative effects and the potential theory formulation of radiative-heat transfer", but not focusing on CO2 or the Greenhouse Effect?; the contributors become leading figures in atmospheric physics until the early 1980s.

James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

On July 1, 1957-Dec. 31, 1958 the Internat. Geophysical Year (IGY) is participated in by 67 nations, who cooperate to sponsor research on the year's high solar sunspot activity; the idea was originated in 1950 by scientists James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) of the U. of Iowa, and British geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) on England; the Antarctic is the initial focus of activity with Operation Deep Freeze (1955-6) using a network of 60 research stations; on Sept. 18, 1958 the temp. in the Antarctic reaches a record low of -102.1 F (-74.5 C).

Roger Revelle (1909-91) Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93)

In 1957 Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) and Vienna, Austria-born Am. chemist-physicist Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) pub. the paper "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades" in Tellus, which suggests that the rate of absorption of excess CO2 by Earth's oceans is lower than previously estimate, threatening a greenhouse effect leading to global warming, and proposing the Revelle Factor, the resistance to absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean surface layer due to bicarbonate chemistry, which is higher in warm waters, leading to more anthropogenic CO2; Revelle goes on to help create the Internat. Geophysical Year in 1958, and the Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean (CCCO), help found the U. of Calif. San Diego (UCSD), and become Al Gore's professor and mentor.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005)

In Mar. 1958 Am. chemist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) begins measuring atmospheric CO2 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the Internat. Geophysical Year, obtaining an initial reading of 314 ppm, which grows to 387 ppm in 50 years, becoming known as the Keeling Curve.

C.P. Snow (1905-80)

On May 7, 1959 Leicester, England-born physical chemist-novelist Charles Percy "C.P." Snow, Baron Snow (1905-80) delivers the speech The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in the Senate House at Cambridge U., claiming that literary intellectuals and scientists don't understand or trust each other, and that there is an impassable gulf based on the problem that "the scientific mind was progressive and the literary mind was reactionary"; "A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare's? I now believe that if I had asked an even simpler question – such as, What do you mean by mass, or acceleration, which is the scientific equivalent of saying, Can you read? – not more than one in ten of the highly educated would have felt that I was speaking the same language. So the great edifice of modern physics goes up, and the majority of the cleverest people in the western world have about as much insight into it as their Neolithic ancestors would have had" - is there a way to reunite them with a 21st cent. historyscoping education, or did I get ahead of myself?

Edward Teller (1908-2003)

On Nov. 4, 1959 Hungarian-born Am. H-bomb physicist Edward Teller (1908-2003) gives a speech at Columbia U. in New York City for the Energy and Man Symposium commemorating the 100th anniv. of the founding of the oil industry, organized by the Am. Petroleum Inst. and attended by 300 oil execs, govt. officials, and academics, uttering the soundbyte: "Ladies and gentlemen, I am to talk to you about energy in the future. I will start by telling you why I believe that the energy resources of the past must be supplemented. First of all, these energy resources will run short as we use more and more of the fossil fuels... But I would... like to mention another reason why we probably have to look for additional fuel supplies. And this, strangely, is the question of contaminating the atmosphere... Whenever you burn conventional fuel, you create carbon dioxide... The carbon dioxide is invisible, it is transparent, you can't smell it, it is not dangerous to health, so why should one worry about it? Carbon dioxide has a strange property. It transmits visible light but it absorbs the infrared radiation which is emitted from the earth. Its presence in the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect... It has been calculated that a temperature rise corresponding to a 10 per cent increase in carbon dioxide will be sufficient to melt the icecap and submerge New York. All the coastal cities would be covered, and since a considerable percentage of the human race lives in coastal regions, I think that this chemical contamination is more serious than most people tend to believe."

1960

On Jan. 2, 1960 Oodnadatta, South Australia 542 mi. N of Adelaide reaches 50.7C (123.3F), becoming the highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania (until ?).

Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90) I.M. Pei (1917-) Mesa Lab, 1967

In 1960 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is founded in the foothills of beautiful Boulder, Colo. by West Bridgewater, Mass.-born physicist-astronomer Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90), who becomes dir. #1 (until 1968), backing anthropogenic climate change and pub. The Climate Mandate in 1979 with Henry Lansford, which results in Greenhouse Glasnost being discussed at the 1989 Sundance Symposium on Global Climate Change. In 1967 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab Bldg. in Boulder, Colo. (begun 1961) is completed, making a star of Guangzhou, China-born architect Ieoh Ming "I.M." Pei (1917-); situated in the foothills, you can walk out the door and greet deer.

On Nov. 17, 1961 The Twilight Zone episode #75 The Midnight Sun debuts, with Rod Serling narrating the introduction: "The word that Mrs. Bronson is unable to put into the hot, still, sodden air is 'doomed,' because the people you've just seen have been handed a death sentence. One month ago, the Earth suddenly changed its elliptical orbit and in doing so began to follow a path which gradually, moment by moment, day by day, took it closer to the sun. And all of man's little devices to stir up the air are now no longer luxuries - they happen to be pitiful and panicky keys to survival. The time is five minutes to twelve, midnight. There is no more darkness. The place is New York City and this is the eve of the end, because even at midnight it's high noon, the hottest day in history, and you're about to spend it in the Twilight Zone." "In an attempt to console Mrs. Bronson, Norma shows her an oil painting of a waterfall cascading into a lush pond. Mrs. Bronson deliriously claims that she can feel the coolness and delightfully splashes in the imaginary waters before dying from heat stroke. Norma sits in shock as the thermometer surges past 130 °F (54 °C) and shatters." The ending is a shocking plot twist: "The scene cuts to the apartment at night with heavy snow outside the windows. The thermometer reads -10 °F (-23 °C). Norma has been bedridden with a high fever, Mrs. Bronson and a doctor have been tending to her. The Earth moving closer to the sun is revealed to be only a fever dream. In reality, the Earth is moving away from the sun, and the world is freezing to death." Serling's closing narration: "The poles of fear, the extremes of how the Earth might conceivably be doomed. Minor exercise in the care and feeding of a nightmare, respectfully submitted by all the thermometer-watchers in the Twilight Zone." Watch clip.

'The Day the Earth Caught Fire', 1961

On Nov. 23, 1961 Val Guest's The Day the Earth Caught Fire (British Lion Films) (Universal-International) debuts, starring Edward Judd, Leo Mckern, and Janet Munro in an apocalyptic film about U.S.-Soviet nuclear weapons tests knocking the Earth out of orbit, causing it to move closer to the Sun; watch trailer.

Reid Bryson (1920-2008)

In 1962 after observing dust clouds in India obscuring his view of the ground, Am. climate scientist Reid Bryson (1920-2008) proposes the idea of the "human volcano" increasing aerosol loading of the atmosphere and causing global cooling, with the soundbyte: "The continued rapid cooling of the earth since WWII is in accord with the increase in global air pollution associated with industrialisation, mechanisation, urbanisation and exploding population"; in 1973 Bryson testifies before Congress that anthropogenic global warming is unstoppable, with the soundbyte: "There is no way right now that we can control the climate to make it more benign. Even if we were to say 'let us stop using fossil fuels so that we do not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, because that impacts the world climate,' how on earth could you stop using fossil fuels? Even those countries that are most heavily impacted by the climatic change are the ones who say it is our turn to be affluent and it is in the use of fossil fuels that one gains affluence"; he goes on to dismiss the theory that climate change is anthropogenic, uttering the soundbyte: "All this argument is the temperature going up or not, it's absurd. Of course it's going up. It has gone up since the early 1800s, before the Industrial Revolution, because we're coming out of the Little Ice Age, not because we're putting more carbon dioxide into the air."

Marcus Raskin (1934-) John Cavanaugh (1955-) Janet Redman

In 1963 the Inst. for Policy Studies (IPS) leftist progressive think tank is founded in Washington, D.C. by ex-JFK advisors Marcus Raskin (1934-) and religious anti-globalist Richard Jackson Barnet (1929-2004) after they get fed up with JFK's failure to unilaterally disarm the U.S.; it starts out opposing the Vietnam War, and becomes a magnet for far leftists after their paradise Soviet Union falls, going on to promote women's liberation and environmentalism incl. curbs on carbon dioxide to curb or eliminate the fossil fuel industry; the motto is "Ideas Into Action for Peace, Justice, and the Environment"; in 1998 Am. economist John Cavanaugh (1955-) becomes dir. (until ?); in ? the Climate Policy Program is created, dir. by Janet Redman, who in ? becomes exec dir. of Oil Change Internat.

Edward Norton Lorenz (1917-2008)

In 1963 after his 12-variable computer weather model gives grossly different weather patterns depending on minute variations in the initial values of the variables, Am. mathematician Edward Norton "Ed" Lorenz (1917-2008) pub. the paper Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, in which he describes the Lorenz Attractor, and coins the term Butterfly Effect, issuing the soundbyte "One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct, one flap of a seagull's wings could change the course of weather forever", with Ray Bradbury's butterfly (from a 1952 short story) later substituted, becoming the beginning of Chaos Theory, the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions; "Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future." (Lorenz) Watch video.

Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) Alexander King (1909-2007)

In Apr. 1968 the Club of Rome think tank is founded at the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, Italy by super-rich David Rockefeller and 30 brain people, incl. Italian industrialist Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) and Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007), to discuss the long-term dismal future of overpopulated humanity using computerized predictions, going on to pub. the manifesto The Predicament of Mankind, followed by The Limits to Growth in 1972, followed by The First Global Revolution in 1991; "The resultant ideal sustainable population is hence more than 500 million people but less than one billion"; future members incl. Henry Kissinger, Desmond Tutu, Ted Turner, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Bill Gates, Kofi Annan, Javier Perez de Cuellar, Gro Harlem Bruntland, and the Dalai Lama; "The Earth has cancer and the cancer is Man." - let's hope they only discuss? They go on to either conceive or bankroll the idea of runaway global warming because of its yummy Malthusian conclusions?

Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1968 Stanford U. biology prof. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) pub. the bestseller (3M copies) The Population Bomb (rev. ed. 1971, 2nd ed. 1978), freaking at the news of the 200M U.S. pop., predicting that 65M Americans will starve to death in the 1970s, that India is doomed, that "Sometime in the next 15 years the end will come... an utter breakdown of the capacity of the planet to support humanity", and that "England will not exist in the year 2000", founding Zero Pop. Growth (ZPG) (Pop. Connection) with a Conn. atty. and a Yale forestry prof., advocating two children max per family; "The battle to feed all of humanity is over. In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now. At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate"; instead, grain farmers in the 1980s suffer economic losses from overproduction, and Ehlich's doom-and-gloom predictions prove a hoax?

On Aug. 14-22, 1969 175 mph Category 5 Hurricane Camille strikes Cuba and the Gulf Coast (La., Miss., Ala.) (Aug. 17), killing 259, leaving 200K homeless and causing $1.43B in damage, becoming the 2nd known Category 5 hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland since the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane and the most severe storm since Hurricane Audrey in 1957.

In 1969 Russian meteorologist Mikhail I. Budyko pub. the article The effect of solar radiation variation on the climate of the Earth in Tellus, which is later independently derived by William D. Sellers of the U. of Ariz., resulting in the low-order Budyko-Sellers Global Climate Model incorporating ice-albedo feedback and equator-to-pole heat transport to show the possibility of an ice-covered Earth.

1970

Nimbus 4, 1970

On Apr. 8, 1970 the NASA Nimbus 4 weather satellite is launched from Vandenberg AFB in Lompoc, Calif., sending data until Sept. 30, measuring the infrared emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere, along with vertical temperature profiles and water vapor, solar UV radiation, and atmospheric ozone, revealing a V-shaped notch in the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum at 13-17 microns, caused by the 325 ppm CO2 content, which only cuts 2/3 of the way into the surface radiation spectrum, allowing 1/3 of the energy to escape into space?; the notch is saturated, meaning that higher CO2 concentrations can't increase the so-called Greenhouse Effect?

On July 18, 1970 The New York Times pub. the article U.S. And Soviet Press Studies of a Colder Arctic by Walter Sullivan, which begins: "The United States and the Soviet Union are mounting large-scale investigations to determine why the Arctic climate is becoming more frigid, why parts of the Arctic sea ice have recently become ominously thicker and whether the extent of that ice cover contributes to the onset of ice ages."

William Doyle Ruckelshaus of the U.S. (1932-)

On Oct. 2, 1970 the U.S. Clean Air Extension (Muskie) Act is passed, amending the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act; on Dec. 2 Congress creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor and protect the public from airborne contaminants, along with the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) on Oct. 3, growing to the largest U.S. regulatory agency by 1975, with 9K employees and a budget of $700M a year; on Dec. 12 William Doyle Ruckelshaus (1932-) becomes dir. #1 of the EPA (until Apr. 1973); after legislative pressure, on Dec. 31 Pres. Nixon signs amendments to the act, giving automakers six years to develop engines that are 90% emission-free; too bad, existing smokestack plants are grandfathered, and pollution standards only apply to new plants, causing greedy owners to extend the life of the smoky old plants as long as they can for decades to come - takes my breath away?

In 1970 the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by John Adams, Richard Ayres, John Bryson, Gus Speth, and Edward Strohbehn to fight for environmental causes, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; of course, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump. Watch video.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97)

In 1971 the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia in Norwich, England is founded by climatologist Hubert Horace "H.H." Lamb (1913-97) (known as the Ice Man for predicting a coming ice age before switching to global warming after the hot summer of 1976), and supported by Sir Graham Sutton, Lord Solly Zuckerman et al., with financial support from British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, the Nuffield Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and later the Wolfson Foundation, pioneering the idea of the variability of the climate; in the late 1970s it begins contracting with the U.S. Dept. of Energy; in the mid-1980s British PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a strong backer; in 1964 Lamb pub. the book The English Climate, followed in 1977 by Climatic History and the Future (rev. 1985), showing how studies of fossil pollen point to "great rapidity of climate change", but concluding "On balance, the effects of increased carbon dioxide on climate is almost certainly in the direction of warming but is probably much smaller than the estimates which have commonly been accepted." In 1982 he pub. Climate, History and the Modern World (2nd ed. 1995), with the ad blurb: "We live in a world that is increasingly vulnerable to climatic shocks - affecting agriculture and industry, government and international trade, not to mention human health and happiness. Serious anxieties have been aroused by respected scientists warning of dire perils that could result from upsets of the climatic regime", reviewing the Piora Oscillation (-13K), the Holocene Climate Cycle (-1.3K), the Medieval Warming Period, the Little Ice Age (1300-1850), and the modern era of 1700-1950, followed by global cooling along with local warming, claiming it might be CO2-induced but is expected to peak about 2100, with the next age by 2K years.

In 1971 Environment Canada (EC) is founded as part of the Canadian Dept. of the Environment; in 1991 after passage of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, it becomes the leading federal dept. in charge of cleaning up hazardous waste and oil spills; in ? it changes its name to Environment and Climate Change Canada, or Environment Canada.

John Paul Holdren (1944-) Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1971 Sewickley, Penn.-born environmental scientist John Paul Holdren (1944-) and Philadelphia, Penn.-born ecologist Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) (author of the 1968 bestseller "The Population Bomb", predicting global famine and proposing a OWG with sweeping powers to set up a "Planetary Regime") pub. the essay Overpopulation and the Potential for Ecocide, warming, er, warning of a coming ice age caused by industrial soot, farm dust, deforestation, and urbanization, with the soundbytes: "The effects of a new ice age on agriculture and the supportability of large human populations scarcely need elaboration here. Even more dramatic results are possible, however; for instance, a sudden outward slumping in the Antarctic ice cap, induced by added weight, could generate a tidal wave of proportions unprecedented in recorded history"; "If man survives the comparatively short-term threat of making the planet too cold, there is every indication he is quite capable of making it too warm not long thereafter. For the remaining major means of interference with the global heat balance is the release of energy from fossil and nuclear fuels. As pointed out previously, all this energy is ultimately degraded to heat. What are today scattered local effects of its disposition will in time, with the continued growth of population and energy consumption, give way to global warming... Again, the exact form such consequences might take is unknown; the melting of the ice caps with a concomitant 150-foot increase in sea level might be one of them"; no mention of greenhouse gases?; Holdren goes on to propose a drastic decline in U.S. fertility, with the soundbyte: "210 million now is too many and 280 million in 2040 is likely to be much too many", and get appointed by Pres. Obama as his dir. #9 of the Office of Science and Technology Policy on Mar. 19, 2009-Jan. 20, 2017.

Stephen Schneider (1945-2010)

In 1971 New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) pub. the paper "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Science" in Science mag., containing the soundbyte: "[I]t is projected that man's potential to pollute will increase six- to eightfold in the next 50 years. If this increased rate of injection of particulate matter in the atmosphere should raise the present background opacity by a factor of 4, our calculations suggest a decrease in global temperature by as much as 3.5 °K. Such a large decrease in the average temperature of Earth, sustained over a period of few years, is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age. However, by that time, nuclear power may have largely replaced fossil fuels as a means of energy production"; in 1974 after deciding that he underestimated the warming effect of CO2 by a factor of three, Schneider pub. a retraction, and in 1976 he pub. the book The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, discussing the balance between short-term cooling due to aerosols and long-term warming due to CO2, deciding that CO2 wins and going on to become a major advocate of global warming and the Greenhouse Theory; in Oct. 1989 he pub. an article in Discovery Mag., containing the soundbyte: "We need to capture the public's imagination, make simplified, dramatic statements. We have to offer up scary scenarios and make little mention of any doubts we might have. This 'double ethical bind' we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both"; too bad, climate skeptics take to misquoting him by taking out all the parts about fairness, causing him to write the soundbyte: "[N]ot only do I disapprove of the 'ends justify the means' philosophy of which I am accused, but, in fact have actively campaigned against it in myriad speeches and writings." In 1989 Schneider pub. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century?; on Nov. 3, 2009 he and Tim Flannery pub. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth's Climate; in Oct. 2010 he and Michael D. Mastrandrea pub. Preparing for Climate Change, advocating big-buck projects. Watch video.

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015)

On June 5-6, 1972 after the Soviet Union dissolves in 1991, ending the balance of powers era of internat. relations, and 152 experts from 58 countries submit data for the report "Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet", the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment of reps. from 114 nations (with the slogan "Only One Earth") meets in Stockholm, Sweden, and agrees on 200 points regarding environmental improvement, proclaiming a declaration of 26 principles on June 16, and agreeing to a Global Governance Agenda, with a plan for a permanent secretariat to coordinate progress; China insists that pop. is not a world problem; China and France insist on the right to stage atmospheric nuclear tests; the U.S. refuses to spend money on internat. environmental problems; the U.N. founds the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya (first U.N. agency with HQ in the Third World), with Socialist Canadian oil exec ("Father of the Global Environmental Movement") Maurice Frederick Strong (1929-2015) (member of the Malthusian Club of Rome) as dir. #1 (until 1976), who utters the soundbytes: "Isn't the only hope for the planet that the industrialized civilizations collapse? Isn't it our responsibility to bring that about?", "It is the responsibility of each human being today to choose between the force of darkness and the force of light. We must therefore transform our attitudes, and adopt a renewed respect for the superior laws of Divine Nature", and "Current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class - involving high meat intake, use of fossil fuels, appliances, air-conditioning, and suburban housing - are not sustainable"; too bad, his real agenda is pop. reduction via abortion et al., fueled by his devotion to New Age pagan religion, run from the New Age Manitou Centre on the 200K-acre Baca Ranch near Crestone, Colo. (founded 1978), which spawns several other pagan centers; in 1992 Strong becomes chmn. of Ontario Hydro, going on to destroy Ontario's economy, taking it from the top performer among Canada's provinces to the bottom; the UNEP goes on to underpin the U.N. effort to use CO2-driven global warming as the excuse for massive transfer of wealth from wealthy to poor countries; "What's truly alarming about Maurice Strong is his actual record. Strong's persistent calls for an international mobilization to combat environmental calamities, even when they are exaggerated (population growth) or scientifically unproven (global warming), have set the world's environmental agenda" (Neil Hrab); "Strong was using the U.N. as a platform to sell a global environment crisis and the Global Governance Agenda" (Elaine Dewar).

On July 9, 1972 Russia's Kola Peninsula reaches a record high temperature of 32.9C (91.2F) (until ?); meanwhile forest fires rage across Arctic Norway.

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing

In 1972 Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen propose the Faint Early (Young) Sun Paradox (Problem), that the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%.

Donella Meadows (1941-2001) and Dennis L. Meadows (1942-)

In 1972 MIT scientists Donella H. "Dana" Meadows (1941-2001), her husband Dennis L. Meadows (1942-), Jorgen (Jørgen) Randers (1945-), and William W. Behrens III pub. the bestseller (30M copies) The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind, using primitive computer programs to predict a polluted depleted overpopulated planet, ramping up the environmentalist movement by giving it a religious mission; "If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity"; too bad, the predictions fail to materialize by 1990, but time is on their side, and they pub. new eds. in 1992 and 2002; "The scarcest resource is not oil, metals, clean air, capital, labour, or technnology. It is our willingness to listen to each other and learn from each other and to seek the truth rather than seek to be right." (Donella Meadows)

In 1973 NASA begins pub. NASA Historical Data Book, which contains the tabular data collected between 1958-68; in 1988 they reissue it along with two more vols., followed by vol. 4 in 1994, vol. 5 in 1999, vol. 6 in 2000, vol. 7 in 2008, and vol. 8 in 2012; in 2003 it pub. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy, followed in 2006 by NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook, which asks a series of questions about Earth's climate, incl. 2) What are the primary forcings of the Earth system? a) What trends in atmospheric constituents and solar radiation are driving global climate? b) What are the motions of Earth's interior, and how do they directly impact our environment? 3) How does the Earth system respond to natural and human-induced changes? a) What are the effects of clouds and surface hydrologic processes on Earth's climate? b) How do ecosystems, land cover, and bioggeochemical cycles respond to and affect global environmental change? c) How can climate variations induce changes in the global ocean circulation? d) How do atmospheric trace constituents respond to and affect global environmental change? e) How is global sea level affected by natural variability and human-induced change in the Earth system? In ? NASA pub. the article WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY FORCINGS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM?, which starts out: "The Sun is the primary forcing of Earth's climate system. Sunlight warms our world. Sunlight drives atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Sunlight powers the process of photosynthesis that plants need to grow. Sunlight causes convection which carries warmth and water vapor up into the sky where clouds form and bring rain. In short, the Sun drives almost every aspect of our world's climate system and makes possible life as we know it", and concludes: "Other important forcings of Earth's climate system include such 'variables' as clouds, airborne particulate matter, and surface brightness. Each of these varying features of Earth's environment has the capacity to exceed the warming influence of greenhouse gases and cause our world to cool." Too bad, they delete it from their Web site around 2010.

On June 24, 1974 Time mag. pub. the article Another Ice Age?, containing the soundbyte: "As they review the bizarre and unpredictable weather pattern of the past several years, a growing number of scientists are beginning to suspect that many seemingly contradictory meteorological fluctuations are actually part of a global climatic uphead. However widely the weather varies from place to place and time to time, when meteorologists take an average of temperatures around the globe they find that the atmosphere has been growing gradually cooler for the past three decades. The trend shows no indication of reversing. Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age." Watch video.

On July 28, 1974 (3:42 a.m.) the 7.6 Great 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Tangshan, Hebei, N China kills 242K+ and causes 10B Chinese renminbi damage, becoming the worst earthquake in Chinese history (until ?).

In Aug. 1974 the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) secretly pub. A Study of Climatological Research as it Pertains to Intelligence Problems, which starts out: "The western world's leading climatologists have confirmed recent reports of a detrimental global climatic change. The stability of most nations is based upon a dependable source of food, but this stability will not be possible under the new climatic era. A forecast by the University of Wisconsin projects that the earth's climate is returning to that of the non-boreal era (1600-1850) - an era of drought, famine, and political unrest in the western world"; "Climate has not been a prime consideration of intelligence analysis because, until recently, it has not caused any significant perturbations to the status of major nations. This is so because during SO of the last 60 years the Earth has, on the average, enjoyed the best agricultural climate since the eleventh century. An early twentieth century world food surplus hindered U.S. efforts to maintain and equalize farm production and incomes. Climate and its effect on world food production was considered to be only a minor factor not worth consideration in the complicated equation of country assessment. Food production, to meet the growing demands of a geometrically expanding world population, was always considered to be a question of matching technology and science to the problem"; "The climate change began in 1960, but no one including the climatologists recognized it. Crop failures in the Soviet Union and India during the first part of the sixties were attributed to the natural fluctuation of the weather. India was supported by massive U.S. grain shipments that fed over 100 million people. To eat, the Soviets slaughtered their livestock, and Premier Nikita Khrushchev was quietly deposed"; "Scientists are confident that unless man is able to effectively modify the climate, the northern regions, such as Canada, the European part of the Soviet Union, and major areas in northern China, will again be covered with 100 to 200 feet of ice and snow. That this will occur within the next 2,500 years they are quite positive; that it may occur sooner is open to speculation." It is not declassified and released until Dec. 2, 2015.

Ed Crane (1944-) Koch Brothers Charles G. Koch (1935-) and David H. Koch (1940-) Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95) James Mahoney

In 1974 Edward Harrison Crane III (1944-), a leader in the U.S. Libertarian Party (quits in 1983) founds major corp.-backed conservative-libertarian think tank Cato Inst. (originally the Charles Koch Foundation) along with rich Wichita, Kan.-based Koch Industries CEO Charles de Ganahi Koch (1935-) and Austrian libertarian economist Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), which goes on to oppose environmental groups and back climate change/global warming denial, work to eliminate the U.S. depts. of agriculture, commerce, educate, energy, interior and labor, and propose privatizing Social Security, with Crane uttering the soundbyte "I think Franklin Roosevelt was a lousy president. What he did, which is to impose this great nanny state on America, was a great mistake"; after the Cocks, er, Kochs start a war to replace its stockholders with a 12-member board subservient to themselves, Crane retires as pres. on Oct. 1, 2012 after building it to a staff of 127 and a $21M/year budget. James Mahoney is hired by Koch Industries Inc. in 1988, rising to vice-pres. for operations excellence and compliance and serving as chmn. of the Nat. Petrochemical and Refineries Assoc. (NPRA) (later the Am. Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers) in 2007-8, whose official position on greenhouse gas regulations is: "AFPM believes that using this 40-year-old law [the Clean Air Act] to control of[sic] greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions threatens our nation's economic and energy security."

Kenneth P. Green Joel Wood (1981-)

In 1974 the Fraser Inst. (named after the Fraser River) libertarian-conservative public policy think tank is founded in Vancouver, B.C., Canada by Canadian economist Michael Walker (1945-) et al., going on to pub. the annual Economic Freedom Index, Human Freedom Index, Survey of Mining Cos., School Report Cards, and Tax Freedom Day et al. while backing climate change skeptics Ross McKitrick et al. and influencing the Canadian Conservative Party to deny climate change; of course, critics put their donor list under the microscope, striking pay dirt with the Charles G. Koch Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, Exxon Mobil et al.; senior dir. of natural resource studies is environmental scientist Kenneth P. "Ken" Green; senior research economist for their Centre for Environmental Studies and Centre for Risk and Regulation is Joel Wood (1981-). Watch video - Kenneth P. Green.

Frank Wentz (1947-) Carl Mears (1963-)

In 1974 Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) is founded in Northern Calif. by Frank Wentz (1947-) to process microwave data from NASA satellites, going on to work with Carl A. Mears (1963-) to develop a satellite temperature record; in June 2017 version 4 revises the global warming trend from 1979 from .135K/decade to .184K/decade.

Iben Browning (1918-91) Evelyn Browning-Garriss

In 1974 the Browning Newsletter is founded by Edna, Tex.-born self-proclaimed climatologist Iben Browning (1918-91) and James Fraser; in 1975 Browning and Nels Winkless III pub. the book Climate and the Affairs of Men, which denies manmade climate change and claims that the Earth's long warm period is ending and will be replaced by a dangerous cooling phase; too bad, he makes a notorious failed prediction of a major earthquake on the New Madrid fault on Dec. 2-3, 1990, stinking himself up before dying on July 18, 1991 in Albuquerque, N.M.; in 1991 Iben's daughter Evelyn Browning-Garriss takes over the newsletter, later uttering the soundbyte: "We had a Medieval warm period. We had a little ice age. Now the little ice age is over and it's getting warming. It's not surprising; you end an ice age, temperatures do get warmer. Climate change is standard. The concern should really be: in the past, mankind adjusted to climate change. We need to adjust to the change in climate... We need to be thinking in terms of shifting with the climate, because the climate shifts. The climate changes."

On Apr. 28, 1975 Newsweek pub. the article The Cooling World by Peter Gwynne, which claims that evidence of a coming ice age is accumulating "so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it."

Wallace Smith Brocker (1931-)

On Aug. 8, 1975 Chicago, Ill.-born geophysicist Wallace Smith "Wally" Broecker (1931-) pub. the paper Climate Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? in Science mag., coining the term "global warming", going on to utter the soundbyte: "Climate is an angry beast and we are poking at it with sticks."

On June 23-July 8, 1976 the 1976 Great Britain and Ireland Heat Wave sees the hottest avg. summer temperatures in the U.K. since records began, accompanied by a severe drought and constant blue skies from May until Sept., becoming the driest summer until 1995; on June 28 Southampton, England sets a June temp record at 35.6C (96.1F) (until ?).

On Sept. 13, 1976 after DeuPont is first confronted with evidence that their product is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer in 1974, the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences reports that Freon (CFCs) used in spray cans is depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere, increasing deadly UV radiation on the ground.

Klaus Hasselmann (1931-)

In Dec. 1976 German oceanographer Klaus Hasselmann (1931-) pub. the Hasselmann Stochastic Climate Model, linking weather variability to climate fluctuations by regressing fluctuations in top-of-atmosphere radiation against near-surface air temperature, which unfortunately fails to explain year-to-year observation variability; the model is improved by Cristian Proistosescu et al. in an article pub. on May 14, 2018 in Geophysical Research Letters, eliminating random atmospheric and oceanic processes such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, and reducing the data to three driving or forcing sources with different feedbacks and timescales.

Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81)

In 1979 Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) pub. The Charney Report (Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment), which concludes: "We estimate the most probable global warming for a doubling of CO2 to be near 3°C with a probable error of ± 1.5°C"; too bad, it never mentions the Greenhouse Gas Theory?

1980

Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980

On Mar. 27, 1980 (Thur.) Mount St. Helens in Washington State (dormant for 123 years) erupts with ash and steam at 1.1K F; a crater forms at the summit and the N flank begins to bulge; on May 18 (8:32 a.m.) it explodes with the force of 500 A-bombs, losing over 1.3K ft. of elevation (9,677 to 8,364) and gaining a 2-mi.-long 1-mi.-wide crater; 57 people are killed or missing; 51M cu. yds. of debris is dumped into the Columbia River.

William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1980 Congress requests the Nat. Academy of Science to review the science of climate change, with Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), Roger Revelle's successor at the Scripps Inst. of Oceanography as chmn. of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, and economists William D. Nordhaus of Yale U. and Thomas Schelling of Harvard U. joining major physical scientists; it goes on to pub. the report Changing Climate in 1983, backing up the Charney conclusions of a likely global warming of 1.5C-4.5C after a doubling of CO2, greater by 2x-3x over the poles as over the tropics, with a sea level rise of 70 cm over a cent., concluding that while rising CO2 is a cause for concern, no action should be taken without more study and a careful program of monitoring and analysis; global warmists later claim that climate change denier Nierenberg slanted the conclusions toward inaction, and "in doing so arguable launched the climate change debate, transforming the issue from one of scientific concern to one of political controversy."

1980 is the first year when global warming effects become noticeable?; this year the yearly number of wildfires in Calif. reaches a peak, bottoming-out in ?

In 1980 the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and the Internat. Council for Science (ICSU); in 1993 it is sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO; in 1995 the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) of WCRP establishes the Coupled model intercomparison project to coordinate research on Climate models incl. Gen. circulation models (GCMs). Watch video.

John Coleman (1934-2018)

On May 2, 1982 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history". Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - anti-John Coleman.

'Blade Runner', starring Harrison Ford (1942-), 1982 Daryl Hannah (1960-) in 'Blade Runner'

On June 25, 1982 Ridley Scott's Blade Runner debuts, the first sci-fi film noir, based on the 1968 Philip K. Dick story "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep"; stars Harrison Ford and Edward James Olmos as Nov. 2019 climate-fucked LA cops Rick Deckard and Gaff, who must track down pesky "replicants", humanoid robots Daryl Hannah ("Pris"), Joanna Cassidy ("Zhora"), Brion James ("Leon Kowalski"), led by Rutger Hauer ("Roy Batty"), who are programmed to die in days and are searching for their maker Eldon Tyrell (Joe Turkel), finally getting to him through his asst. J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson), only to discover he's a replicant too; meanwhile Deckard falls for replicant Rachael (Sean Young), and has to decide between eloping or terminating her; Deckard is a replicant?; score by Vangelis features Rachel's Song, End Theme; watch trailer; view clip; TLW's favorite sci-fi flick other than Star Trek and Star Wars; should have been set in Nov. 2049 not Nov. 2019?

Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1982 after claiming that climate sensitivity is only about 0.3C, and that NASA's global warming predictions are "about 10 times too great", and that global warming will have a beneficial effect on agriculture, Thief River Falls, Minn.-born physicist Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) pub. Carbon Dioxide: Friend or Foe? An inquiry into the climatic and agricultural consequences of the rapidly rising CO content of Earth's atmosphere, highlighting CO2's benefits, becoming the first anti-global warming (AGW) book; the next one doesn't appear until July 1, 1989, his Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Earth in Transition; only four anti-global warming (AGW) books are pub. in 1989, growing to 19 in the 1990s, 15 in 2000-5, 54 in 2005-9, and 15 in 2010. In 1997 he pub. Global Warming: The Science and the Politics, which contains the soundbyte: "I find no compelling reason to believe that the earth will necessarily experience any global warming as a consequence of the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide concentration"; in 1998 he pub. the paper "CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic's view of potential climate change", containing the soundbyte: "Several of these cooling forces have individually been estimated to be of equivalent magnitude, but of opposite sign, to the typically predicted greenhouse effect of a doubling of the air's CO2 content, which suggests to me that little net temperature change will ultimately result from the ongoing buildup of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere." On Jan. 7, 2011 Sherwood and his son Craig Idso pub. The Many Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

In summer 1983 the U.S. Summer 1983 Heat Wave sees 100F+ temps in the drought-stricken Corn Belt and Upper Midwest states of Iowa, Mo., Ill., Mich., Wisc., Ind., Ohio, Minn., Neb., and Ky., along with the SE and Mid-Atlantic states; the city of St. Louis, Mo. sets up cooling centers for people without air conditioning.

On July 21, 1983 the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica records a record low ground level temp of -89.2C (-128.6F) (until ?).

Fred L. Smith Jr.

On Mar. 9, 1984 the libertarian think tank Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) in Washington, D.C. is founded by lobbyist Fred L. Smith Jr. to fight against big govt., going on to lead climate change skeptics. Watch video - Fred L. Smith Jr..

Joseph Lee Bast (1958-)

In 1984 the libertarian-conservative think tank Heartland Inst. is founded in Arlington Heights (near Chicago), Ill. by Chicago investor David H. Padden (1948-), becoming known for backing free market policies before working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke in the 1990s, going on in 2008 to back climate change/global warming denial, holding regular conferences and back the Tea Party; Kimberly, Wisc.-born Joseph Lee Bast (1958-) becomes CEO #1 (until ?), building it up to 8.3K supporters by 2015 incl. 160+ elected officials who serve on its legislative forum. Watch video. Watch video.

Robert Jastrow (1925-2008) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1984 the George C. Marshall Inst. (GMI) is established in Arlington, Va. as a conservative think tank with a focus on science and public policy issues (esp. to back Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program AKA Strategic Defense Initiative) by NASA astronomer Robert Jastrow (1925-2008), Am. solid state physicist Frederick "Fred" Seitz (1911-2008), and Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), later becoming a major critic of climate change science; in 2015 it morphs into the CO2 Coalition.

On May 16, 1985 scientists Joe Farman, Brian Gardner, and Jonathan Shanklin studying the South Pole pub. an article in Nature announcing the finding of an "ozone hole" the size of the U.S. in the ozone layer of the atmosphere over Antarctica with depletion as much as 70% in austral spring, allowing dangerous UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface.

Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) Bert Bolin (1925-2007) Gordon McBean

On Oct. 9-15, 1985 the Internat. Conference of the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts is held by the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), and the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) in Villach, Austria, led by Canadian climatologist Fredrick Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) and Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007), and chaired by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, after which the U.N. Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases is founded by the U.N. Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Org. (WMO), and the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions, holding its last meeting in 1990 after being replaced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988). In 1975 Bolin helped the Swedish govt. pass a bill on future energy policy containing the soundbyte: "It is likely that climatic concerns will limit the burning of fossil fuels rather than the size of the natural resources", earning him a rep as the man who got the world to agree on climate. In ? McBean becomes asst. deputy minister of Environment Canada (EC), increasing the funding of climate change research (esp. climate models) so much ($6.8B in 1997-2005) that the Canadian Auditor Gen. (CAG) investigates them. On Nov. 15, 2007 Bolin pub. the semi-autobio. book A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) Boyd Ray Strain

In 1985 Am. agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) and Am. biologist Boyd Ray Strain pub. the paper Carbon dioxide levels in the biosphere: Effects on plant productivity in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, touting the benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "An increase in plant growth due to 'fertilization' of extra CO2 has not been measured, but a 5 to 10% increase may already have occurred. Current data indicate that plants growing at higher than normal CO2 levels are more tolerant of water, temperature, light, and atmospheric pollutant stresses. There are effects on carbon metabolism, plant growth and development, microbial activity, and terrestrial and aquatic plant communities." On Sept. 1, 1987 Wittwer pub. Feeing a Billion: Frontiers of Chinese Agriculture, followed by Food, Climate, and Carbon Dioxide: The Global Environment and World Food Production (Oct. 30, 1995).

Dennis A. Tirpak Joel B. Smith

In June 1986 the House Subcommittee on Pollution of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee hold hearings on the Greenhouse Effects and its implications for public policy, requesting the U.S. EPA to undertake studies, and in May 1989 after it commissions 55 studies by govt. and academic scientists, Dennis A. Tirpak (deputy dir. of the EPA Global Climate Change Div. in 1984-92) and Joel B. Smith of the U.S. EPA present Congress with the report The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, which is pub. by the EPA in Dec. 1989; it concludes that warmer weather "could have an enormous impact upon human health through the 21st century", even if people acclimatize; Tirpak goes on to become a lead author of the 2007 Fourth IPCC Assessment Report; Smith goes on to become a lead author of the 2001 Third, 2007 Fourth, and 2014 Fifth IPCC Assessment Reports.

The year 1987 is the warmest on record based on studies by NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies in New York, and by a team at the U. of East Anglia in Britain led by Thomas Wigley; starting this year CO2 emissions go on to constitute 50% of all atmospheric CO2 by 2014; 40% since 1990; 30% since 2000.

On Sept. 14-16, 1987 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed by 46 nations, effective Jan. 1, 1989, calling for a 50% reduction in the use of all substances responsible for ozone layer depletion esp. chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000; 197 U.N. members eventually ratify it; the ozone layer depletion stops by 1995, and is projected to return to 1980 levels in 2050-2070.

Peter Wadhams (1948-)

In 1987 British physicist Peter Waldhams (1948-) becomes dir. of the Scott Polar Inst. at Cambridge U. (until 1992), winning the W.S. Bruce Medal in 1977 and the Polar Medal in 1987 before becoming prof. of ocean physics at Cambridge U. in 1992-2015, making 40+ expeditions to the polar regions, revealing that the thick icecap covering the Arctic Ocean is beginning to thin and shrink, calling sea ice the "canary in the mine" of global climate change; on Sept. 26, 2016 he pub. the article The Global Impact of Rapidly Disappearing Arctic Sea Ice, containing the soundbytes: "Few people understand that the Arctic sea ice 'death spiral' represents more than just a major ecological upheaval in the world's Far North. The decline of Arctic sea ice also has profound global climatic effects, or feedbacks, that are already intensifying global warming and have the potential to destabilize the climate system. Indeed, we are not far from the moment when the feedbacks themselves will be driving the change every bit as much as our continuing emission of billions of tons of carbon dioxide annually"; "The most worrisome feedback involves the release of seabed methane from the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean"; "These changes represent a spiritual impoverishment of the earth, as well as a catastrophe for humanity." In Sept. 2016 he pub. the book Farewell to Ice, claiming that the retreat of sea ice in the Arctic generates feedbacks that impact the entire global climate system, accelerating the rate of warming, the rate of sea level rise, the emission of methane from the Arctic, and the occurrence of weather extremes affecting food production, arguing that catastrophic consequences cannot be avoided without making an all-out effort to develop ways of directly capturing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere; he goes on to predict the disappearance of summer Arctic sea ice for the first time in 10K years, not in 2050 but in 2016, 2017, 2018, ... Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams.

James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Edward Hansen (1941-)

In summer 1988 the Summer 1988 U.S. Heat Wave sees a drought reminiscent of the Dust Bowl years, killing 5K-17K; Yellowstone burns, and the Mississippi River nearly dries up; too bad, the U.S. Nat. Climate Assessment erases it from their graph of the 20th-21st cent. to make it seem like global warming is happening? On June 23, 1988 after pub. the first Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) Global Temperature Analysis in 1981, top NASA climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) addresses the U.S. Congress on a particularly hot day with broken air conditioning, uttering the soundbyte that global warming has already arrived, claiming a 0.5C-0.7C global warming in the past cent., with the four warmest years all in the 1980s, and the two warmest in 1981 and 1987, making him 99% sure that the Earth is the warmest since instrumental data began to be collected in 1980, that there is a clear cause-effect relationship with the Greenhouse Effect, and that global warming is steadily increasing the likelihood of freak weather incl. superstorms, becoming "the opening salvo of the age of climate change", supercharging the One World Govt. (OWG) types and letting them loose like a roving lion to create a new money-hungry OWG religion complete with priests, bishops, and a pope (Al Gore)?, and CO2 as their Devil?; in 1999 the GISS study is updated, reporting 1998 as the warmest year on record despite slight cooling in the E U.S. and W Atlantic, mainly due to the El Nino; Hansen says that coal-fired power plants with no CO2 (carbon) capture technology should be eliminated in the U.S. by 2025, and the rest of the world by 2030; this despite the problem that carbon capture takes 3x-5x as much energy as can be gained by burning the fuel, which ultimately must come from burning fossil fuels, creating more CO2?; Hansen's runaway climate predictions focus the spotlight on the Petroleum (fossil fuel) industry and its Fossil fuels lobby, turning its great benefit to humanity into something sinister, based on pie-in-the-sky future gloom and doom predictions treated as sure things, targeting it with fossil fuel divestment, causing opponents of global warming to counter with global warming conspiracy theory; too bad, after his runaway climate predictions fall flat, and he insists on keeping his job, on Aug. 29, 2000 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario, admitting that the net global warming observed so far is likely due to non-CO2 gases and black carbon, because CO2 is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted via fossil fuel burning. On Feb. 13, 2013 global warming scientist James A. Hansen of NASA is arrested outside the White House along with Sierra Club dir. Michael Brune, 350.org co-founder Bill McKibben, civil rights activist Julian Bond, and actress Daryl Hannah while protesting the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline. Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - Tony Heller on James Hansen.

On Sept. 26, 1988 climate experts make the claim that all 1,1916 of the Maldives Islands will drown in 30 years.

John Henry Sununu of the U.S. (1939-) Lee Atwater of the U.S. (1951-91)

On Nov. 17, 1988 pres.-elect Bush announces his choice of conservative Havana, Cuban-born Repub. N.H. gov. #75 (1983-9) John Henry Sununu (1939-) (an Arab-Am. of Lebanese extraction and Greek Orthodox faith) to be White House chief of staff #14 (Jan. 20, 1989-Dec. 15, 1991), and his Atlanta, Ga.-born campaign mgr. Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater (1951-91) to succeed Frank Fahrenkopf Jr. as chmn. of the Rep. Nat. Committee, becoming known for dirty tricks incl. the "jumper cable" episode, rumors that Dukakis had been treated for mental illness and his wife had burned a U.S. flag, and the Willie Horton ad smear campaign; before he dies of a brain tumor in 1991 Atwater converts to Roman Catholicism and issues written apologies; during the campaign Bush's son George W. Bush is given an office across from Atwater's to be his dad's "eyes and ears", and they become good friends; Sununu's refusal to back the 1986 proclamation condemning the U.N. resolution defining Zionism as racism causes concerns by Jews, but Bush owes him for his help in the N.H. primary; Sununu goes on to join a "policy action" group to advise Bush incl. Allan Bromley (science), Michael Biskin (economics), Dick Darman (budget), and Roger Porter (domestic policy) and convince Bush to becoming a global warming skeptic and "not commit to policies that would result in trillion dollar changes in the U.S. economy until there were then more adequate technical bases for such a position." Sununu goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming crisis is just the latest surrogate for an over-arching agenda of anti-growth and anti-development. This agenda grew and gathered support in the years following World War II"; "Nature will eventually do what nature has always done. It will respond in a self-stabilizing manner over the long term with moderate variability over multi-decade periods and with occasional significant variability over the short term"; "But waiting for 'eventually' to prove the alarmists wrong is not the wisest course of action. Unfullfillable ambitions to stifle growth will devastate a world trying to deal with the complexities of economics, stability, and the environment. Quality of life depends on access to energy. Noble intentions about 'C02-free' sources of energy are not sufficient, if their agenda of eliminating coal as a source, and turning their back on nuclear, are allowed to be part of our near-term policies." Watch video - John Sununu.

Bert Bolin (1925-2007)

In 1988 after the speech by James Hansen, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) to prove an objective scientific view of climate change and its political-economic impacts, with Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007) as chmn. #1, receiving endorsement by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Resolution 43/53; too bad, it is taken over by sinister OWG globalists of the Club of Rome et al. who want to force the rich nations to cough-up their wealth and give it to the poor nations to supposedly atone for their sins, ensuring that all nations will be poor?; they also know that CO2 is good not bad, and must be limited to keep the teeming billions from being fed to keep the pop. down?; "The aim of the IPCC is to ignore recognized standards of science, frame mankind for a nonexistent crime, and shackle human society. It's the next planned slavery. The developing countries, who will be denied cheap and reliable energy, will bear the heaviest chains." (Pierre Gosselin)

On June 30, 1989 Peter James Spielmann pub. the AP news article U.N. Predicts Disaster if Global Warming Not Checked, quoting senior U.N. environmental official Noel Brown that world govts. have a 10-year window of opportunity to solve the greenhouse effect before it goes runaway; climate alarmists love the 10-year doomsday number?

On July 26, 1989 Philip Shabecoff pub. the article U.S. Data Since 1895 Fail to Show Warming Trend in The New York Times, reporting on a study led by Kirby Hanson of the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) pub. in Geophysical Research Letters, explaining that it is only about the U.S. not global temps, which are warming; in 1999 James A. Hansen of NASA falsifies the record by shaving 0.5C off 1934 and adding it to 1998 then lying about it?

1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989 1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989

On Oct. 17, 1989 (5:04 p.m.) the 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta (Watsonville) (San Francisco) Earthquake, centered in the Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi. NE of Santa Cruz hits the San Francisco (N Calif.) area minutes before the start of World Series Game 3, killing 63, injuring 3,757 and causing $5.6-$6B in damage; the WS is delayed for 10 days.

The Emperor Has No Clothes

On Nov. 1, 1989 M.S. Reilly, D. Arasteh, and M. Rubin of Lawrence Berkeley Lab pub. the study The Effects of Infrared Absorbing Gasses on Window Heat Transfer: A Comparison of Theory and Experiment in Solar Energy Materials, which finds experimentally that CO2 is useless in trapping heat or delaying cooling when used in multipane windows, showing up the global warming scientists who tout CO2 as a major "greenhouse gas" as the Emperor Has no Clothes, with the conclusion: "The effect of the infrared radiation properties of CO2 is unnoticeable".

Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-2013)

On Nov. 8, 1989 chemistry-trained British Conservative PM (1979-90) Margaret Hilda Thatcher (nee Roberts) (1925-2013) AKA the Iron Lady gives a Speech on Climate Change to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, warning of the dangers of rising CO2 and calling for an internat. framework convention on climate change, with the aim being "to prevent rather than just cure a global environmental problem", becoming the first world leader to put climate change at the top of the global agenda; Watch video. In 2002 Thatcher pub. the book Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, which contains the soundbyte in Ch. 11: "Actually, President Bush was quite right to reject the Kyoto protocol... Kyoto was an anti-growth, anti-capitalist, anti-American project which no American leader alert to his country's national interests could have supported."

Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003)

In Nov. 1989 Birmingham, England-born MIT meteorologist Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003) (known for talking the Mass. legislature into a harbor tunnel in 1969) pub. the article Has the Globe Really Warmed?, revealing that ocean surface temperature logs kept by merchant-marine captains around the world dating back to 1856 "appears to have... little or no global warming over the past century", going on to become a global warming skeptic and losing federal funding despite being considered one of the world's top meteorologists; on Aug. 12, 1990 he participates in the British documentary film The Greenhouse Conspiracy along with Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, Sherwood Iso, and Pat Michaels, containing the soundbyte "Man-Made Climate Change is Absolute Crap", becoming one of the first to suggest a conspiracy to deny funding to scientists critical of global warming. Watch video - Reginald E. Newell.

In 1989 the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) is founded in Washington, D.C. by an internat. lobbyist group of businesses incl. Exxon, Phillips Petroleum Co., the Am. Petroleum Inst., the Nat. Coal Assoc., the Am. Forest and Paper Assoc., the Edison Electric Inst., and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to oppose the Kyoto Protocol and challenge the science of global warming, becoming the largest climate policy group, representing over 230K businesses; too bad, in 1995 an internal advisory committee produces the 17-page report "Future Climate Change: A Primer", which admits "The scientific basis for the Greenhouse Effect and the potential impact of human emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 on climate is well established and cannot be denied", and in 1996 after a campaign by environmental groups British Petroleum (BP) withdraws, followed in 1997 by Royal Dutch Shell, Ford Motor Co. in 2000, Texaco in 1999, the Southern Co. in 2000, GM in 2000, and Daimler-Chrysler in 2000, after which it folds in 2001 after U.S. Pres. George W. Bush withdraws the U.S. from the Kyoto process, but not before gleefully posting on its Web site: "At this point, both Congress and the Administration agree that the U.S. should not accept the mandatory cuts in emissions required by the protocol."

1990

In the 1990s after ozone depletion is discovered in 1984, Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) are introduced to replace ozone-depleting cloroflurocarbons (CFCs) such as freon in refrigerators, air conditioners, and insulating foam; too bad, while the ozone shield recovers, the HFCs cause a super greenhouse effect, with 4,470x the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide (CO2?)

On June 27-July 2, 1990 the Painted Cave Fire in the Santa Ynez Mts. of Calif. explode across Santa Barbara County, fed by heat, drought, and arson, destroying 427 bldgs. (most in Calif. history until ?)) from Santa Barbara to San Diego, and killin 1; Calif. Gov. George Deukmejian offers $50K rewards for arsonists, later identifying Leonard Ross as the perp; the fires cause Michael Jackson's 2.7K-acre Neverland Valley Ranch N of Santa Barbara, Calif. to be mentioned in the press for the first time; it even has a Ferris wheel.

On Aug. 1-4, 1990 the 1990 U.K. Heat Wave sees highs of 37.1C (98.8F) on Aug. 3 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, breaking the 1911 record (until 2003).

On Nov. 16, 1990 the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 is enacted by the 101st U.S. Congress, requiring research into global warming and related issues along with a report to Congress every four years, which becomes known as the Nat. Climate Assessment.

Sir John T. Houghton (1931-)

In 1990 the First Assessment Report (FAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., serving as the basis of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change of June 4, 1992; Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) is the lead author of Working Group I, which reaches the following conclusions: "We are certain of the following: there is a natural greenhouse effect...; emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases: CO2, methane, CFCs and nitrous oxide. These increases will enhance the greenhouse effect, resulting on average in an additional warming of the Earth's surface. The main greenhouse gas, water vapour, will increase in response to global warming and further enhance it"; "We calculate with confidence that: ...CO2 has been responsible for over half the enhanced greenhouse effect; long-lived gases would require immediate reductions in emissions from human activities of over 60% to stabilise their concentrations at today's levels..." "Based on current models, we predict: under [BAU] increase of global mean temperature during the [21st] century of about 0.3 oC per decade (with an uncertainty range of 0.2 to 0.5 oC per decade); this is greater than that seen over the past 10,000 years; under other ... scenarios which assume progressively increasing levels of controls, rates of increase in global mean temperature of about 0.2o C [to] about 0.1o C per decade"; the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios uses statistical techniques to predict CO2 emissions for the next cent., which later turn out to be moose hockey?

In 1990 the Aspen Global Change Inst. in Aspen, Colo. is founded, "dedicated to advancing the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary workshops, research and consulting, and education and outreach."

In 1990 the Centre for Internat. Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) at the U. of Oslo is founded by the govt. of Norway.

Richard A. Betts Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Met Office Hadley Centre

In 1990 the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research of the U.K. Met Office is established, going on to employ 1.5K staff incl. 200 in its climate research unit, incl. Richad A. Betts as head of High-End Climate Impacts and Extremes (Helix), and John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) as head of the Climate Change Group, rising to chief scientist in 2002-8 and dir. of climate science in 2008-10, becoming the most cited scientist on the topic of global warming, getting knighted in 2001; the climate unit goes on to develop the HadCM3 climate model, and the HadCRUT4 dataset in Mar. 2012, which is riddled with errors; in the 1990s the U.K. Met Office's Hadley Centre's temperature chart begins a clear rise, which levels off about 2000 (until ?); the result of more CO2 or cleaner air and more sunshine?

Hal Lewis (1923-2011)

In 1990 UCSB physicist Harold Warren "Hal" Lewis (1923-2011) (student of J. Robert Oppenheimer) pub. Technological Risk, which contains the soundbyte: "All models agree that the net effect [of increasing greenhouse gases] will be a general and global warming of the earth; they only disagree about how much. None suggest that it will be a minor effect, to be ignored while we go about our business", adding that reducing the effects incl. sea level rise would "require global cooperation and sacrifice now, to avert something far in the future, and a conjectural something at that. There is no evidence in human history that this is in the cards, but one can always hope"; too bad, after 20 years of further thinking, combined with the Nov. 2009 Climategate Scandal, on Oct. 8, 2010 he writes a letter of resignation to Am. Physical Society (APS) pres. Curtis Callan, resigning after 67 years because it has been "corrupted by the money flood", which has "become the raison d'etre of much physics research, the vital sustenance of much more, and it provides the support for untold numbers of professional jobs", adding that it is "the global warming scam, with the (literally) trillions of dollars driving it, that has corrupted so many scientists, and has carried APS before it like a rogue wave. It is the greatest and most successful pseudoscientific fraud I have seen in my long life as a physicist", making him a climate denier celeb; in its Nov. 2010 newsletter the APS responds, with the soundbyte: "In his letter, Lewis speculated that Council's policy positions on climate change must be driven by financial interest, adding that Callan's own physics department 'would lose millions a year if the global warming bubble burst'. The APS press release categorically rejected the notion that APS as an organization is benefitting financially from climate change funding and further pointed out that the vast majority of the Society's members do not work on climate and derive no personal benefit from such research support"; too bad, Lewis dies on May 26, 2011 before he can properly respond.

David Suzuki (1936-)

In 1990 Canadian environmental activist David Takayoshi Suzuki (1936-) co-founds the David Suzuki Foundation to attempt to reverse global climate change, er, global warming, adding clean energy and sustainability to the goals, along with opposition to GMOs, uttering the soundbyte: "Canada, more than any other nation, will be affected by rising sea leavels from global warming"; too bad, in Sept. 2013 he gives an interview to Australia's ABC-TV, revealing complete ignorance about the main temperature data sets on which global warming theories are based?

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

In Jan. 1991 the Kuwaiti oil fires are set by Iraqi forces retreating from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm of the Persian Gulf War, igniting 605-732 oil wells plus oil lakes and fire trenches; the last well is not capped until Nov. 6; meanwhile Am. astronomer Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) debates Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) on ABC-TV's "Nightline", with Sagan claiming that the smoke could cause a Nuclear Winter, which only requires 100 oil fires emitting smoke that rises to 48K ft., and Singer correctly claiming that the smoke would only rise to 3K ft. before being rained out in 3-5 days; in 1995 Sagan pub. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, admitting that he was wrong, with the soundbyte: "It was pitch black at noon and temperatures dropped 4–6 °C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."

Mount Pinatubo, June 12, 1991

On June 9-16, 1991 Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupts for the first time in 400 years, killing 450 (most on June 15-16), becoming the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the cent. after Novarupta, Alaska in 1912, complicated by the arrival of Typhoon Yunya, causing tens of thousands to be evacuated, after which mudslides raise the death toll to 700; the particulates ejected into the stratosphere are the greatest since Krakatoa in 1883, forming a global sulfuric acid haze that drops global temps by 0.5C (0.9F) in 1991-3, increasing ozone depletion; volcanoes generate 200M tons of CO2 each year, vs. 24B from human activities; the eruption pumps more pollution into the atmosphere than the entire history of man?

Alexander King (1909-2007)

On Sept. 3, 1991 Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007) (co-founder of the Club of Rome) and Bertrand Schneider (1929-) pub. The First Global Revolution: A Report by the Council of the Club of Rome, a sequel to the 1972 bestseller "The Limits to Growth", claiming that time has run out and it's now or never for radical environmental actions; "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself."

Rush Limbaugh (1951-)

On Feb. 4, 1992 Al Gore debates conservative radio talk show host Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (1951-) on Ted Koppel's Nightline, with Limbaugh calling him an "environmentalist wacko". On Apr. 2, 2007 Limbaugh utters the soundbyte that the so-called scientific consensus on climate is "just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition." Watch video - debate part 1. Watch video - debate part 2.

Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-)

On June 3-14, 1992 the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development) is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, producing the 27-principle Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, based on the principle of sustainable development, a Rio Declaration on Forests, the Rio Framework Convention on Climate Change (June 4), and the 40-chapter $600B Agenda 21 along with an agreement to establish a Sustainable Development Commission to monitor the progress in i mplementing the Rio Declaration, becoming the largest and most costly diplomatic gathering in world history to date but failing to agree on an internat. ban on whaling, followed on June 13-22 by the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development, in which U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda) utters the soundbyte to the audience: "We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy", going on to become undersecy. of state #1 for global affairs for the U.S. State Dept. in 1993-7, lead U.S. negotiator for the Kyoto Climate Conference, and pres. #1 of the United Nations Foundation in 1998-2013; activists claim that the Earth has only 10 years left to get global warming under control; meanwhile a climate skeptic conference is held in Heidelberg, Germany, resulting in the Heidelberg Appeal by Michel Salomon to be pub., signed by 492 scientists, calling on govt. to quit following "junk" environmental science for their "balanced" policies, calling it "pseudoscientific arguments or false and nonrelevant data", pissing-off the global warmists, who call it tobacco and asbestos industry agitprop, which doesn't stop it from having influence, after which Philip Morris pays APCO & Assocs. the create the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC) in 1993, headed by Steve Milloy; In Dec. 2011 U.N. Foundation pres. Tim Wirth utters the soundbyte that Pres. Obama has a "last window of opportunity" to put in place dramatic carbon dioxide restrictions necessary to keep future warming "anywhere approaching" the 2 degree Celsius tipping point and avert catastrophic climate change, but "I don't know who and where the climate leadership in the administration is. It doesn't exist. There is no resolve in the Obama administration to do anything, and I think they look at Congress and say, 'We can't do anything, so why break our pick now?'"

On June 4, 1992 the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is opened for signatures at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, entering into force on Mar. 21, 1994, with the objective to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system", setting non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions with no enforcement mechanisms.

Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) Roger Revelle (1909-91) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Dennis T. Avery (1936-)

In summer 1992 the article "What to do about greenhouse warning: Look before you leap", by Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) is pub. in Cosmos: A Journal of Engineering Issues, which contains the soundbyte: "Drastic, precipitous - and, especially, unilateral - steps to delay the putative greenhouse impacts can cost jobs and prosperity and increase the human costs of global poverty, without being effective. Stringent economic controls now would be economically devastating particularly for developing countries", and concludes: "The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses"; too bad, Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer ("Father of Global Warming") Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) adds his name to the article after Singer allegedly hoodwinks him, causing Revelle's grad student Justin Lancaster to to call Singer's actions "unethical", after which Singer sues with the support of the Center for Public Interest in Washington, D.C., receiving a letter of apology from Lancaster sans admission of wrongdoing, only to withdraw his letter in 2006 after Robert Balling et al. continue to claim that Revelle is the article's real author, while Revelle waffles until his 1991 death; meanwhile in June 1992 Dem. vice-pres. candidate Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. the NYT bestseller (first by a sitting U.S. sen. ince JFK's "Profiles in Courage") Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, proposing a Global Marshall Plan to save the planet. In Feb. 2007 Singer and Am. food policy analyst Dennis T. Avery (1936-) (dir. of the Center for Global Food Issues at the Hudson Inst.) pub. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years, containing the soundbytes: "The Earth is warming but physical evidence from around the world tells us that human-emitted carbon dioxide has played only a minor role in it. Instead, the mild warming seems to be part of a natural 1,500-year climate cycle (plus or minus 500 years) that goes back at least one million years"; "Considered collectively, there is clear and convincing evidence of a 1,500-year climate cycle. And if the current warming trend is part of an entirely natural cycle, as Singer and Avery conclude, then actions to prevent further warming would be futile, could impose substantial costs upon the global economy and lessen the ability of the world's peoples to adapt to the impacts of climate change"; "Sunspots and cosmic rays have a 79 percent correlation with our thermometer record since 1860. Meanwhile the CO2 correlation is a mere 22 percent." On Sept. 9, 2007 Hannity's America airs footage of Al Gore landing in late Aug. in a fuel-inefficient private Gulfstream jet at the San Francisco airport and taking off in another fuel-inefficient town car. On Jan. 3, 2011 Singer pub. the article Estimated 40 Percent of Scientists Doubt Manmade Global Warming in the bulletin of the Nat. Assoc. of Scholars. On Feb. 29, 2012 Singer pub. the article Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name in American Thinker, attempt to position himself on the fence. In 2015 he steps away from the Greenhouse Warming crowd, with the soundbyte: "I should note that I am somewhat out of step here with my fellow skeptics. Few of them would agree with me that the climate sensitivity (CS) is indeed close to zero. I will have to publish the analyses to prove my point and try to convince them. Of course, nothing, no set of facts, will ever convince the confirmed climate alarmists." On Apr. 2, 2018 Singer pub. the article Does the Greenhouse Gas CO2 Cool the Climate? in American Thinker, which concludes: "A greenhouse gas produces cooling of the climate when its molecular transitions are in a region of positive lapse rate. One example is CO2 and the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude. Another example is temperature over the winter poles. While the climate cooling is not obvious, it counters [conventional] GH warming. This at-least-partial cancellation might explain the puzzling absence of CO2-based GH warming in the 20th century. It could also help explain the cause of the [hotly] contested climate 'pause'. Much further work awaits!" On May 15, 2018 S. Fred Singer pub. the article The Sea is Rising, but Not Because of Climate Change in The Wall Street Journal, causing a flurry of denials and rebuttals by scientists. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery.

On Sept. 11, 1992 Category 4 (145 mph) Hurricane Iniki (Hawaiian "strong and piercing wind") (formed Sept. 5) hits Kauai, Hawaii, becoming the first hurricane to hit Hawaii since Hurricane Iwa in 1982, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959, killing six, damaging 1.4K houses and severely damaging 5K more, causing $3.1B damage before it dissipates on Sept. 13, becoming the most costly tropical cyclone to hit Hawaii (until ?).

Patrick J. Michaels (1950-) Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) Chip Knappenberger (1964-) Oliver W. Frauenfeld Robert E. Davis (1960-)

On Oct. 15, 1992 Berwyn, Ill.-born climatologist (global warming skeptic) Patrick J. "Pat" Michaels (1950-) pub. Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming, claiming that there is no scientific foundation for a coming global warming apocalypse a la Al Gore. On Dec. 31, 1998 Michaels pub. the paper Long Hot Year: Latest Science Debunks Global Warming Hysteria for the Cato Inst. In 2000 Michaels and Ariz. State U. geography prof. Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) pub. The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air About Global Warming. On Dec. 20, 2002 Michaels pub. the article Revised 21st century temperature projections along with Paul C. "Chip" Knappenberger (1964-), Oliver W. Frauenfeld, and Robert E. Davis (1960-) in Climate Research, containing the soundbyte that the Earth will see "a warming range of 1.3–3.0°C, with a central value of 1.9°C" for the 1990 to 2100 period (an analysis far smaller than the IPCC's average predictions)." In 2004 Michaels pub. Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media, "Patrick Michaels fully exploits his incomparable wit and credentialed expertise to dismantle the claim that catastrophic climate change is upon us. Using dozens of examples, this working-stiff climatologist exposes the exaggerations and outright falsehoods promoted by a media industry hungry for ?if it bleeds, it leads? stories." On Nov. 28, 2005 he edited the book Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming. On Feb. 23, 2007 Mihaels pub. an article calling Al Gore's big global warming scare film "science fiction... The main point of [Gore's] movie is that, unless we do something very serious, very soon about carbon dioxide emissions, much of Greenland's 630,000 cubic miles of ice is going to fall into the ocean, raising sea levels over twenty feet by the year 2100. Nowhere in the traditionally refereed scientific literature do we find any support for Gore's hypothesis. Instead, there's an un-refereed editorial by NASA climatefirebrand James E. Hansen, in the journal Climate Change - edited by Steven Schneider, of Stanford University, who said in 1989 that scientists had to choose 'the right balance between being effective and honest' about global warming - and a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that was only reviewed by one person, chosen by theauthor, again Dr. Hansen. These are the sources for the notion that we have only ten years to 'do' something immediately to prevent an institutionalized tsunami. And given that Gore only conceived of his movie about two years ago, the real clock must be down to eight years! It would be nice if my colleagues would actually level with politicians about various 'solutions' for climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, if fulfilled by every signatory, would reduce global warming by 0.07 degrees Celsius per half-century." On Sept. 29, 2007 Michaels gives an interview to The Washington Post, explaining why he resigned as the state climatologist of Va., with the soundbyte: "I was told that I could not speak in public.... Michaels has argued that the climate is becoming warmer but that the consequences will not be as dire as others have predicted. Gov. Kaine had warned Michaels not to use his official title in discussing his views. 'I resigned as Virginia state climatologist because I was told that I could not speak in public on my area of expertise, global warming, as state climatologist,' Michaels said in a statement this week provided by the libertarian Cato Institute, where he has been a fellow since 1992. 'It was impossible to maintain academic freedom with this speech restriction.'" On Nov. 21, 2007 Andrew Dessler pub. the soundbyte in Grist Magazine: "While some people claim there are lots of skeptical climate scientists out there, if you actually try to find one, you keep turning up the same two dozen or so (Singer, Lindzen, Michaels, Christy, etc., etc.) These skeptics are endlessly recycled by the denial machine, so someone not paying close attention might think there are lots of them out there - but that's not the case." On Sept. 23, 2009 Michaels pub. the article The Dog Ate Global Warming in National Review, containing the soundbyte: "Steel yourself for the new reality, because the [Hadley Center] data needed to verify the gloom-and-doom warming forecasts have disappeared." In 2009 Michaels pub. Climate of Extremes: Global Warming Science They Don't Want You to Know (w/Robert Balling Jr.). On Apr. 16, 2011 Michaels edited Climate Coup: Global Warming's Invasion of Our Government and Our Lives. In 2015 Michaels and Knappenberger pub. Global Lukewarming: A New Synthesis of Climate Change, proposing a third group after climate alarmists and climate deniers; "Climate change is real, it is partially man-made, but it is clearer than ever that its impact has been exaggerated - with many of the headline-grabbing predictions now being rendered implausible or impossible." Michaels is known for the soundbytes: "Surface temperatures are indeed increasing slightly: They've been going up, in fits and starts, for more than 150 years, or since a miserably cold and pestilential period known as the Little Ice Age. Before carbon dioxide from economic activity could have warmed us up, temperatures rose three-quarters of a degree Fahrenheit between 1910 and World War II. They then cooled down a bit, only to warm again from the mid-1970s to the late '90s, about the same amount as earlier in the century"; "It's hardly news that human beings have had a hand in the planetary warming that began more than 30 years ago. For nearly a century, scientists have known that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide would eventually result in warming that was most pronounced in winter, especially on winter's coldest days, and a cooling of the stratosphere. All of these have been observed... The best policy is to live with some modest climate change now and encourage economic development, which will generate the capital necessary for investment in the more efficient technologies of the future"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something." Balling is known for the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence argues against the existence of a greenhouse crisis, against the notion that realistic policies could achieve any meaningful climatic impact, and against the claim that urgent action is necessary to reduce the greenhouse threat"; "Life has existed on our planet for billions of years, and the climate over that time has changed from ice ages to periods much warmer than today. There is little doubt that as our cities grow, heat waves will be more severe in the urban areas. If global warming does in fact add to the problem, we will adapt to the new world, just as humans have done for millions of years"; "All of us engage in activities that involve burning fossil fuels, and according to some self-proclaimed environmentalists we should feel guilty doing so due to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) which can lead to ever-dreaded global warming. However, the botanical literature is full of 1,000s of articles showing that elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will be beneficial for plants throughout the world... We see the forest and we see the trees, and they both thank us for the CO2 we're adding to the atmosphere... So drive out to the forest and feel good about the CO2 coming out of your tailpipe!"; "Elevated atmospheric CO2 will produce biological miracles all over the world." Knappenberger is known for the soundbytes: "It's expected that the Arctic is going to warm more than the rest of the world. Now, does that mean it's all doom and gloom? There, I take exception to that... Some particular elements of the press like to focus on the losers – and pretend like the winners don't exist at all. But in that same annual Arctic report card from NOAA, there is plenty of good to be found there"; "The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently reached a 'milestone' of 400 parts per million (ppm). In some circles, this announcement has been met with consternation and gnashing of teeth. The proper reaction is celebration." Davis is known for the soundbytes: "The question everyone should ask is not 'Is the earth warming,' but, 'How is the warming being felt across the planet? Where is it warming? When? And by how much?' It turns out that most of the warming is occurring in the high latitudes, in the winter, and across the planet, at night"; "The temperature record at the surface is a contaminated record and urbanization needs to be factored out of that if we're going to get any kind of accurate representation of how surface temperatures have changed over the last hundred years." Frauenfeld is known for the soundbytes: "Without question, much more progress is necessary regarding our current understanding of climate and our abilities to model it"; "Only after we identify these factors and determine how they affect one another, can we begin to produce accurate models. And only then should we rely on those models to shape policy. Until that time, climate variability will remain controversial and uncertain." Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Robert C. Balling Jr.. Watch video - Chip Knappenberger.

Henry Way Kendall (1926-99)

In Dec. 1992 former Union of Concerned Scientists chmn. Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (1990 Nobel Physics Prize) pub. World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, a reponse to the June 14 Heidelberg Appeal, signed by 1.7K leading scientists incl. most Nobel Prize science laureates, starting out: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course", and incl. the soundbyte: "We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water... We must stabilize population"; in Nov. 2017 "A World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: Second Notice" is pub., signed by 15,364 scientists, calling for drastically lowering per capita consumption of fossil fuels, meat, et al., and limiting population growth, detailing 13 specific steps to transition to sustainability, becoming the most scientist cosigners for a journal article (until ?).

William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-)

In 1992 Albuquerque, N.M.-born Yale U. economist William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-) pub. the paper An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases, which introduces the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) Model. In 1993 he pub. the book Reflections on the Economics of Climate Change. On Oct. 4, 1994 he pub. the book Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, which makes him a global warming/climate change star. On Aug. 11, 2003 he pub. the book Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, describing his DICE-99 (Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) and RICE-99 (Regional Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) models of the economics of climate change. On June 24, 2008 he pub. the book A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, which becomes a std. work. On Nov. 26, 2013 he edits the book Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change (Resources for the Future). In Nov. 2013 he pub. the book The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World, calling coal the #1 cause of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), calling for a $40/ton carbon tax (which would result in 3.5C global warming?). On June 16, 2017 he pub. an article in the book Global Carbon Pricing: The Path to Climate Cooperation. In 2018 he is awarded the 2018 Nobel Econ. Prize for "integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis".

Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber (1950-)

In 1992 the Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (PIK) is founded by the German govt. and German physicist Hans-Joachim "John" Schelnhuber (1950-), an expert on climatological tipping points, who becomes dir. in 1993, going on to propose the 2C guardrail for global warming in 1995 and grow PIK to one of the world's top climate research institutes (300+ employees) before moving to the Tyndall Centre in 2001-5 and returning to the U. of Potsdam in time to see his Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) be jointly awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. On Aug. 19, 2018 the German online newspaper Augsburger Allgemeinen pub. an interview with Schellnhuber, in which he utters the soundbyte: "On Earth, ice ages and warm periods have alternated for millions of years. We have shown in studies that the industrial society, with its historic greenhouse gas emissions, has already interrupted this cycle and there will probably never be another ice age. So my colleagues and I brought up the question: Can our climate system be stabilized in the currently prevailing warm period state, or are we putting planetary processes in motion that are driving us into a hot period? The difference is, roughly speaking, the continued existence of civilization as we know it. With a long-term increase in temperature of five or six degrees and a sea level of around 60 meters, it will not be possible maintain it", receiving criticism from climate skeptics for his cluelessness.

In 1992 English climate scientist Chris Folland (1944-) of the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre utters the soundbyte about the 1990 IPCC Report: "The data doesn't matter. We're not basing our recommendations on the data. We're basing them on the climate models"; in 2014 after the quote is spread over the Internet by climate warming skeptics, he confirms it but claims that since 1995 the data began coming in and the models are no longer as important.

In 1992 the documentary film The Greening of Planet Earth: The Effects of Carbon Dioxide on the Biosphere is released, produced by the Greening Earth Society (Inst. for Biospheric Research), a front for the Western Fuels Assoc., and narrated by Sherwood Idso, praising rising CO2 levels as beneficial to agriculture and life itself while and knocking govt. policies designed to lower them, becoming popular with the George H.W. Bush admin. esp. chief of staff John H. Sununu; in 1998 the sequel "The Greening of Planet Earth Continues" is released. Watch Pt. 1. Watch Pt. 2.

William 'Will' Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-)

In 1993 Princeton U. physicist William "Will" Happer (1939-), dir. of energy research at the U.S. Dept. of Energy testifies before Congress that the scientific data doesn't support the hypothesis of anthropogenic global warming, pissing-off Al Gore, who gets him fired, after which in 2008 Happer utters the soundbyte: "I had the privilege of being fired by Al Gore, since I refused to go along with his alarmism. I did not need the job that badly"; on Feb. 25, 2009 he speaks to the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, uttering the soundbyte: "I believe that the increase of CO2 is not a cause for alarm and will be good for mankind. I predict that future historians will look back on this period much as we now view the period just before the passage of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution to prohibit 'the manufacturing, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors.' At the time, the 18th amendment seemed to be exactly the right thing to do – who wanted to be in league with demon rum? It was the 1917 version of saving the planet. More than half the states enacted prohibition laws before the 18th amendment was ratified. Only one state, Rhode Island, voted against the 18th amendment. Two states, Illinois and Indiana, never got around to voting and all the rest voted for it. There were many thoughtful people, including a majority of Rhode Islanders, who thought that prohibition might do more harm than good. But they were completely outmatched by the temperance movement, whose motives and methods had much in common with the movement to stop climate change. Deeply sincere people thought they were saving humanity from the evils of alcohol, just as many people now sincerely think they are saving humanity from the evils of CO2. Prohibition was a mistake, and our country has probably still not fully recovered from the damage it did. Institutions like organized crime got their start in that era. Drastic limitations on CO2 are likely to damage our country in analogous ways." On Mar. 2, 2009 Happer pub. the article Global Warming in Perspective: A Note from William Happer, In June 2011 Happer pub. the paper The Truth About Greenhouse Gases, containing the soundbyte: "CO2 does indeed cause some warming of our planet, and we should thank Providence for that, because without the greenhouse warming of CO2 and its more potent partners, water vapor and clouds, the earth would be too cold to sustain its current abundance of life. Other things being equal, more CO2 will cause more warming. The question is how much warming, and whether the increased CO2 and the warming it causes will be good or bad for the planet." On May 8, 2013 Happer and former NASA astronaut (geologist) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.) (1977-83) Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (1935-) pub. the op-ed article In Defense of Carbon Dioxide in The Wall Street Journal, arguing that "the demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlations with global temperature", pissing-off the global warmists and causing the Columbia Journalism Review to call the article "shameful, even for the dismal standards" of the WSJ (journalism standards or scientific standards?); Happer later gives an interview claiming that "temperature always changes first, and CO2 follows", there has been no global temp increase since 1998, and "A thousand parts per million of CO2 would actually help the planet... If you look around the world, many greenhouse operators put several thousand parts per million into their greenhouses"; he later utters the soundbyte: "There's a whole area of climate so-called science that is really more like a cult... it's like Hare Krishna or something like that. They're glassy-eyed and they chant. It will potentially harm the image of all science"; in 2017 Happer meets with new Pres. Trump to discuss being appointed as his science adviser. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer.

In 1993 the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Research Station in Gakona, Alaska is established to develop ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance; conspiracy theorists claim that it can be used to modify weather and cause catastrophes incl. the 2010 Haiti Earthquake; in 2018 Indian environmental minister Anil Madhav Dave accuses the U.S. govt. of using it to cause global warming and reduce yields of major crops incl. wheat and maize.

In 1993 the InterAcademy Panel: The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP) is founded by 106+ nat. science academies to advise the public on scientific aspects of critical issues through its Gen. Council, which meets every 3rd year, going on to pub. official statements incl. pop. growth (1994), the future of cities (1996), sustainability (2000), human cloning (2003), access to scientific info. (2003), biosecurity (2005), the teaching of evolution (2006), ocean acidification (2009), tropical forests and climate change (2009), and the IPCC (2010); in 2002 it founds the InterAcademy Council (IAC).

David Bellamy (1933-) George Monbiot (1963-)

In 1994 English King's College London physical chemist Jack Barrett pub. an article in New Scientist claiming that the lowest 30m of the troposphere already contains all the CO2 necessary to absorb all the radiation reflected and emitted back by the earth's surface at most infrared wavelengths, except for the "window" between 7.5 and 14 micrometres, through which radiation escapes back into space, that fossil fuel burning can only result in an increase of CO2 levels to 1400 ppm, and that the most likely consequence would be flourishing vegegation not runaway global warming. In July 1990 Barrett pub. the article Grave Discrepancies Between Theory and Experiment, containing the soundbyte: "There is still argument about the magnitude of the climate sensitivity and the impossibility of doubling the carbon dioxide level." On May 2, 2007 Barrett and English U. of Nottingham botanist-environmentalist David James Bellamy (1933-) pub. the paper Climate stability: an inconvenient proof in Civil Engineering, claiming to prove that even if atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles in the next decade, it "will amount to less than 1 deg C of global warming". In Jan. 2005 Bellamy utters the soundbyte: "Global warming is a largely natural phenomenon. The world is wasting stupendous amounts of money on trying to fix something that can't be fixed"; On June 24, 2007 Bellamy pub. the article The Global Warming Myth, containing the soundbyte: "I don't like being called a denier because deniers don't believe in facts. There are no facts linking the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide with imminent catastrophic global warming, there are only predictions based on complex computer models"; on Nov. 19, 2009 The Telegraph quotes him as uttering the soundbyte: "I’m sceptical about man-made climate change. There’s absolutely no proof that carbon dioxide will kill us all. It's not a poison, it's the most important gas in the world. Carbon dioxide is an airborne fertiliser. How can farmers grow increasing amounts of food without a rise in CO2?" Too bad, he pub. a letter in New Scientist on Apr. 16, 2005 suggesting that 555 of 625 world glaciers are growing, causing English activist environmentalist George Joshua Richard Monbiot (1963-) to call him on it in a May 10 article titled Junk Science, after which he backs down and "decided to draw back from the debate on global warming", threatening his position as pres. of Plantlife Internat. and the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts; on Nov. 18, 2014 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Growth: the destructive god that can never be appeased in The Guardian; on Oct. 20, 2017 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown in The Guardian; on Oct. 27, 2017 Monbiot gives an interview to Novara Media, containing the soundbyte: "The political system is completely out of phase with the environmental crisis", proposing the term "climate breakdown" to replace "climate change"; on Dec. 11, 2007 he pub. the op-ed Mass starvation is humanity's fate if we keep flogging the land to death in The Guardian, with the subtitle: "The Earth cannot accomodate our need and greed for food. We must change our diet before it's too late", concluding: "There are no easy answers, but the crucial change is a shift from an animal- to a plant-based diet"; on Sept. 26, 2018 he pub. the op-ed While economic growth continues we'll never kick our fossil fuels habit in The Guardian; on Oct. 8, 2018 Monbiot tweets the soundbyte: "But deeper than any of this are the stories we tell ourselves: that progress means growth means wellbeing. What #climatebreakdown and the rest of the environmental crisis reveal is that perpetual growth is the greatest threat to our wellbeing." Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy and George Monbiot.

Kerry Emanuel (1955-)

In 1994 MIT meteorologist Kerry Andrew Emanuel (1955-), known for his novel method of computer modeling that did a reasonable job of simulating past hurricane fluctuations proposes the hypercane, a superpowerful hurricane that could form if the avg. sea temp increases another 15C, making him a rising star among global warming scientists. In Aug. 2005 he pub. a paper in Nature finding that cyclones have become more destructive over the past 30 years, with long-lived and more intense storms; in early Sept. he follows with another paper in Nature that concludes that modern cyclones are stronger but less common than 35 years ago, which, combined with Hurricane Katrina in Aug. 2005 make him a superstar. In May 2008 he pub. the paper The Hurricane-Climate Connection in Bulletin of the Am. Meteorological Society, predicting that global warming is likely to increase the intensity but reduce the frequency of hurrricane and cyclone activity, with the soundbyte: "The weight of available evidence suggests that multidecadal variability of hurricane season tropical Atlantic SST and Northern Hemispheric surface temperature... is controlled mostly by time-varying radiative forcing owing to solar variability, major volcanic eruptions, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases, though the response to this forcing may be modulated by natural modes of variability", making him a bigger star, after which his co-author Gabriel Vecchi of NOAA utters the soundbyte: "While his results don't rule out the possibility that global warming has contributed to the recent increase in activity in the Atlantic, they suggest that other factors - possibly in addition to global warming - are likely to have been substantial contributors to the observed increase in activity." In Nov., 2013 he co-authors an open letter with James Hansen, Tom Wigley, and Ken Caldeira, stating that "continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity's ability to avoid dangerous climate change." "The hurricanes are following the tropical ocean temperature.... [which] is following the Northern Hemisphere. And it's very hard now to believe that there's anything natural about that." (Emanuel) Watch video - James Hansen, Tom Wigley, Kerry Emanuel, Ken Caldeira.

In 1994 M.E. Schlesinger and Navin Ramankutty pub. the paper An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years in Nature, identifying the Atlantic Multidecal Oscillation (AMO), irregular cyclical temperature changes in the Atlantic, which are used by climate skeptics to explain away any greenhouse gas effect.

1995

On Jan. 1, 1995 a 61-ft.-high Draupner Wave (rogue wave) is observed via satellite in the Bermuda Triangle, supposedly solving the mystery; in Feb. a pair of rogue waves up to 95 ft. high hit the Queen Elizabeth II, injuring 50 passengers.

David Deming (1954-) David John Karoly (1955-)

On June 16, 1995 Terre Haute, Ind.-born U. of Okla. geophysicist David Deming (1954-) pub. a paper in Science reviewing published analysis of borehole temperature data in North Am., concluding: "The magnitude of the observed warming... is still within the range of estimated natural variability... A cause and effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and climatic warming cannot be demonstrated unambiguously at the present time", pissing-off global warmists; in 1998 he adds that worldwide borehole temperature records are not anomalously warm "when compared to the period of time over which human civilization rose, present day temperatures are colder than average. Even if mean global temperature were to rise another degree, it would still be colder than it has been for much of the last 10,000 years." In Mar. 2005 he pub. an op-ed in Investor's Business Daily, comparing Naomi Oreskes' claim of 100% scientific consensus on global warming "to the October 2002 election in Iraq, where Saddam Hussein received 100% of the vote", dissing a Dec. 26, 2004 op-ed by Oreskes in the Washington Post in which she wrote the soundbyte "We need to stop repeating nonsense about the uncertainty of global warming" and ending with a quotation from Francis Bacon: "If we begin in certainty, we will end in doubts." On Dec. 6, 2006 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, with the soundbyte: "The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause - human or natural - is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria." On Mar. 1, 2007 Deming debates Australian-born U. of Okla. meteorology prof. David John Karoly (1955-), uttering the soundbyte: "[S]ome people want to enlist science in a moral crusade. Science is a disinterested search for truth... Global warming is a scientific question, not a moral one... The projection that the temperatures are becoming warmer is nothing more than speculation." On Dec. 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Washington Times titled "Year of Global Cooling", containing the soundbyte: "In 2007, hundreds of people died, not from global warming, but from cold weather hazards", adding that "The mean planetary temperature hasn't increased significantly for nearly nine years", and concluding that "Global warming has long since passed from scientific hypothesis to pseudo-scientific mumbo-jumbo."

On July 12-16, 1995 the 1995 Chicago, Ill. Heat Wave peaks, with a high of 106F (41C) on July 13 (warmest since 100F/43C on July 23, 1934), causing 739 deaths, mostly elderly who can't afford air conditioning; additional deaths occur in St. Louis, Mo. and Milwaukee, Wisc.

'Waterworld', 1995

On July 28, 1995 Kevin Reynolds' Waterworld (Universal Pictures) ("A man with a serious drinking problem") debuts, gobbling up $172M in production and causing star Costly Kevin, er, Kevin Costner to call in his chips, becoming known as Fishtar and Kevin's Gate; stars Costner as man-fish Mariner, who helps the good human survivors of global flooding, esp. his babe Jeanne Tripplehorn look for Dryland while fighting Dennis Hopper's mean Smokers on a floating set anchored off Hawaii that is once lost during a tropical storm; does $264.2M box office; it could be the best or the worst sci-flick yet made, wait till the secondary markets are milked?; view trailer.

Will Alexander (1924-)

In Aug. 1995 South African U. of Pretoria U.N. scientist William John Richard "W.J.R." "Will" Alexander (1924-) pub. the peer-reviewed article Floods, droughts and climate change in South Africa Journal of Science; in Jan. 2004 he pub. the article Climate Change - There is no Need for Concern in The Water Wheel, concluding: "The general conclusion, therefore, is that global warming has not caused any environmental damage in South Africa in the past, and that future increases in global warming are more likely"; on Mar. 1, 2005 he pub. the peer-reviewed article Linkages Between Solar Activity and Climatic Responses in Energy & Environment, claiming that "statistically significant 21-year periodicity is present concurrently in South African annual rainfall, river flow, flood peak maxima, groundwater levels, lake levels and the Southern Oscillation Index. This is directly related to the double sunspot cycle. The first years of the periodic sequences are characterised by sudden, regular and therefore predictable, reversals from sequences of well below average rainfall and river flow (droughts) that are suddenly broken by sequences of well above average events (floods). These reversals are directly related to corresponding six-fold increases in sunspot activity at this time. The two sunspot cycles that comprise the double sunspot cycle also have fundamentally different effects on the hydrometeorological responses. These observations are solidly based and will require a re-assessment of the nature of the solar activity that gives rise to them"; in Feb. 2007 she pub. the peer-reviewed article Locally-Developed Climate Model Verified, describing his climate model for water resource development and mgt. based on a 21-year periodicity, pissing-off the PC global warmist scientists at the South African Nat. Biodiversity Inst., who claim it wasn't peer-reviewed to slam him; in June 2007 he co-authors the paper Linkages between solar activity, climate predictability and water resource development, in Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, detailing linkages between solar activity, climate predictability, and water resource development, with the soundbyte: "This study is based on the numerical analysis of the properties of routinely observed hydrometeorological data which in South Africa alone is collected at a rate of more than half a million station-days per year, with some records approaching 100 continuous years in length. The analysis of the data demonstrates an unequivocal synchronous linkage between these processes in South Africa and elsewhere, and solar activity. This confirms observations reported by others in many countries during the past 150 years. It is also shown with a high degree of assurance that there is a synchronous linkage between the statistically significant, 21-year periodicity in these processes and the acceleration and deceleration of the sun as it moves through galactic space. Despite a diligent search, no evidence could be found of trends in the data that could be attributed to human activities", which draws stony silence. In Dec. 2007 he pub. the article The IPCC: Structure, Processes and Politics Climate Change – the Failure of Science in Energy & Environment, containing the soundbyte: "The IPCC has been in existence for nearly 20 years but its final report is newhere in sight. The essence of the difficulty is the impossibility of applying process theory to a problem that can only be solved by applying observation theory. Nowhere in the world is process theory used to design systems and structures exposed to climatic extremes. If climate change scientists had applied well-established observation theory instead of abstract process theory, they would have studied the wealth of published climate-related data extending back for more than the past 100 years. They would have observed the unequivocal linkage between variations in solar activity and synchronous climatic responses. The nations of the world would not be in the position where they are debating the necessity for implementing costly, and in all likelihood fruitless, greenhouse gas emissions control measures based on seriously flawed science. These measures must inevitably damage their economies and the reputation of science as an honest profession." In June 2008 he pub. the article The likelihood of a global drought in 2009-2016 in Civil Engineering, which draws stony ditto at a summit on climate change in Midrand in early Mar. 2009, after which on Mar. 26, 2009 he pub. the article Climate change - the clash of theories, lamenting the closed minds of the U.N. climatologists, with the soundbyte: "The whole climate change issue is about to fall apart - Heads will roll." List of articles by Will Alexander.

Helmut Metzner (1925-99) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

On Nov. 9-10, 1995 a conference in Leipzig, Germany organized by German plant physiologist Helmut Metzner (1925-99) produces the Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change, written by Austrian-born Am. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and his Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEP) (founded 1990) in Arlington, Va., and signed by 80 scientists and 25 TV meteorologists, opposing the claims of global warming; in 1997 it is updated to opppose the Kyoto Protocol after a conference on Nov. 10-11 in Bonn, Germany; in 2005 it is revised again; global warming advocates call it a disinfo. campaign.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Phil Jones (1952-), Ben Santer (1955-), and Tom Wigley (1940-)

On Nov. 27-29, 1995 the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is approved by the 5th session of IPCC Working Group I in Madrid, Spain, and pub. in 1996, dropping attempts at making forecasts, with the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide remains the most important contributor to anthropogenic forcing of climate change; projections of future global mean temperature change and sea level rise confirm the potential for human activities to alter the Earth's climate to an extent unprecedented in human history; and the long time-scales governing both the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the response of the climate system to those accumulations, means that many important aspects of climate change are effectively irreversible"; Working Group III pub. Summary for Policymakers, causing an uproar when it seems to put a money value on people, suggesting that people living in poor countries are worth less than people living in rich countries; meanwhile Am. scientist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) of the Mauna Loa Observatory reports that the annual spring-time carbon dioxide drop in the N Hemisphere is occurring earlier each year in response to increasing global CO2 levels, lengthening the overall growing season about 12 days in recent decades; by 2005 it is a full month; "I honestly believe that we are standing at the edge of a very, very large mass extinction, and top-of-mountain species are going to be the first ones to go." (Terry Root, Stanford U.); too bad, overzealous CRU scientist Benjamin David "Ben" Santer (1955-) is lead author of Chapter 8: "Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes", rewriting the conclusions of the other authors in their final draft meeting in Madrid, changing "None of the studies cited above has shown clear evidence that we can attribute the observed [climate] changes to the specific cause of increases in greenhouse gases" and "While some of the pattern-base discussed here have claimed detection of a significant climate change, no study to date has positively attributed all or part of climate change observed to man-made causes" to: "There is evidence of an emerging pattern of climate response to forcing by greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols... from the geographical, seasonal and vertical patterns of temperature change... These results point toward a human influence on global climate" and "The body of statistical evidence in chapter 8, when examined in the context of our physical understanding of the climate system, now points to a discernible human influence on the global climate", taking the IPCC report over the top with the public as proof of a scientific consensus about human-caused climate change after a quick peer-reviewed article is pub. in Nature on July 4, 1996 by Santer, Tom Wigley, Phil Jones et al. backing the report up, with Dennis Avery and Fred Singer issuing the soundbyte: "Santer single-handedly reversed the 'climate science' of the whole IPCC report and with it the global warming political process! The 'discernible human influence' supposedly revealed by the IPCC has been cited thousands of times since in media around the world and has been the 'stopper' in millions of debates among nonscientists"; after the Climategate scandal breaks, Santer sends an email threatening to beat the crap out of Pat Michaels for exposing the fraud in an article in Nature pub. on Dec. 12, 1996? On July 21, 2018 Santer et al. pub. an article in Science, dissing the U.S. Congress for failing to acknowledge human-caused global warming, and announcing that four decades of satellite data have led to the conclusion that for the first time humans are pushing seasonal temperatures out of balance, giving odds of "roughly 5 in 1 million" of it being purely natural. Watch video - Ben Santer. Watch video - Ben Santer.

Piers Corbyn (1947-)

In 1995 English weather-forecasting physicist Piers Richard Corbyn (1947-) founds WeatherAction to sell weather predictions based on his secret Solar Weather Technique which considers past weather patterns and solar observations, and Sun-Earth magnetic connectivity; in 1990 his successful prediction of severe weather makes him a star when it becomes a year of "the worst extremes"; he goes on to deny anthropogenic global warming, with the soundbytes: "CO2 has never driven, does not drive and never will drive weather or climate. Global warming is over and it never was anything to do with CO2. CO2 is still rising but the world is now cooling and will continue to do so", "Climate change is a hoax by gravy-train scientists", "Superfloods, hellish heat is normal, sellout science is not", and "The global warming nonsense will collapse." Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn.

Jonathan Patz

On Jan. 17, 1996 Am. physician Jonathan Patz pub. the paper Global Climate Change and Emerging Infectious Disease in the Journal of the Am. Medical Assoc., becoming the first climate policy paper of the Am. Public Health Assoc. (APHA), going on to become a global warming star salesman, scaring people with stories of stranded polar bears, thriving poison ivy, yellow fever, Zika virus, sewer overflow et al., all the while pushing American guilt and confusing global warming with air pollution?; he goes on to claim that the health benefit for each ton of CO2 eliminated is $200, vs. $30/ton for doing it; on Oct. 2, 2017 he gives a lecture at Colo. State U. in Fort Collins titled Solving the Global Climate Crisis Will Be the Health Cure of the Century. Watch video - Jonathan Patz. Watch video - Jonathan Patz.

Murry Salby (1951-)

On May 23, 1996 U. of Colo. atmospheric scientist Murry Lewis Salby (1951-) pub. the textbook Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, followed in 2011 by Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate, questioning anthropogenic climate change, with the soundbyte: "Because of the saturation effect in the energy absorption of CO2 molecules with increasing concentration and short residence time, the further increase in temperature could be therefore only at most a few tenths of a degree, if at all. However, the known fossil reserves would be exhausted by then"; too bad, in 20015 after his findings cast doubt on the U.N. IPCC global warming bureacracy, the Nat. Science Foundation begins framing, er, investigating him for funding irregularities, causing him to resign in 2008 and move to Macquarie U., only to be fired in 2013 after hosting the conference Global Emission of Carbon Dioxide: The Contribution from Natural Sources at the Sydney Inst. on Aug. 2, 2011. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby.

In Dec. 1996 the 1996 El Nino develops (ends Aug. 1997), bringing unusually warm (4C) water to the South Am. coastline.

William Sebastian Cohen of the U.S. (1940-)

On Apr. 28, 1997 U.S. defense secy. #20 (1997-2001) William Sebastian Cohen (1940-) utters the soundbyte: "Others, terrorists are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations. It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our counter-terrorism efforts."

Arthur B. Robinson (1942-) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008)

On Dec. 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol is signed by 192 parties incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the U.S., effective Feb. 16, 2005, extending the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commiting all parties to reduce greenhouse emissions esp. CO2; the Oregon Petition (Global Warming Petition Project), organized by Chicago, Ill.-born biochemist Arthur Brouhard "Art" Robinson (1942-), pres. of the Ore. Inst. of Science and Medicine in Cave Junction, Ore. (founded in 1980) and endorsed by Frederick Seitz (1911-2008), pres. #17 of the U.S. Nat Academy of Sciences in 1962-9 has 31K degreed signatories incl. 39 climatologists, urging the U.S. to reject the Kyoto Protocol, with the soundbytes: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth"; "The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind."

Jeremy Grantham (1938-)

In 1997 billionaire British investor Robert Jeremy Goltho Grantham (1938-), founder of Grantham, Mayo & van Otterloo (GMO) establishes the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, giving money to entities that protect the environment; in 2017 he launches the GMO Climate Change Fund to invest in wind and solar cos.; Grantham goes on to correctly predict the bursting of the Dot.com bubble in 2000 and the market downturn in 2008 while seeing his assets under mgt. drop $124B in June 2014 to $71B in Mar. 2018; no surprise, on June 12, 2018 he gives a speech at the Morningstar Investment Conference in Chicago, Ill. calling on capitalists and mainstream economists to recognize the looming threat of climate change, with the soundbyte: "We deforest the land, we degrade our soils, we pollute and overuse our water and we treat air like an open sewer, and we do it all off the balance sheet", blaming corps. for short-sightedness, with the soundbytes: "Anything that happens to a corporation over 25 years out doesn't exist for them, therefore, as I like to say, grandchildren have no value", and "Capitalism and mainstream economics simply cannot deal with these problems. Mainstream economics largely ignore them." Watch video - Jeremy Grantham.

1998

1998 is the warmest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, with an avg. temp. for the first 10 mo. of 1.25 deg. F above normal, according to NASA, blamed on the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (Niño) (warmer water than usual), which formed in the C and E equatorial Pacific in the first half of the year, disrupting worldwide weather patterns and feeding Millennium Fever with wildfires in Indonesia, Brazil, and Central Am., crop losses in SE Africa, record rains in the S U.S., the warmest spring in Canadian records, and the worst natural diaster in Latin Am. records (Hurricane Mitch); Jan.-Feb. are the warmest and wettest in U.S. records; the global avg. temp. this year is 14.57 C, compared to 14.0 C avg. from 1960-90; high sea temps cause massive coral bleaching in the Seychelles, Maldives and W Australian coral reefs, although coral bleaching has been happening for 400 years, and was far worse in the 1750s and 1890s? In 1998 (hockey stick year) the Global Warming Pause (Hiatus) (Slowdown) begins (ends 2013), causing global warming proponents to do somersaults until NOAA scientists Thomas R. Karl et al. pub. the article Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus in Science on June 4, 2015, claiming that the hiatus disappears after the datasets are "adjusted", which doesn't phase climate deniers, who claim it as more evidence of a govt. conspiracy. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - The Corbett Report. Watch video - ABC Science. Watch video - Robert Fanney. Watch video. Watch video - Jay Lawrimore. Watch video.

On Jan. 4-10, 1998 after a low pressure system stalls over the Great Lakes, pumping warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the St. Lawrence Valley, the Great North Am. Ice Storm of 1998 sees five successive ice storm hit a narrow swath of land from E Ontario to S Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, bordering U.S. areas from N New York to C Maine, damaging trees and electrical infrastructures, leading to long-term power outages that affect millions, causing the largest deployment of Canadian military personnel since the Korean War (16K incl. 12K in Quebec and 4K in Ontario).

On Feb. 13, 1998 (Fri.) BBC News pub. the article Scientists blame sun for global warming, about a meeting of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science in Philly where climatologists and astronomers attribute global warming to changes in sunspot activity rather than CO2, and speculate on a coming mini ice age.

Rod Serling on Climate Change Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Willie Soon (1966-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-) Chris de Freitas (1948-2017)

Man-made global warming or Mann-made global warming? On Apr. 23, 1998 Am. climatologists Michael Evan Mann (1965-) (Penn. State U.), Raymond S. "Ray" Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes pub. the article Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries in Nature, proposing the Hockey Stick Graph based on reconstructions of the temp record on Earth over the past 600 (later 1K years), showing an abrupt rise in temps over the last 150 years, ramping up the Global Warming Controversy over whether there is a coming runaway heat wave; his graph hides the Medieval Warm Period of 950-1250?; on Jan. 31, 2003 fossil fuel industry-funded Malaysian-born Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (1966-) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years in Climate Research, blasting Mann's hockey stick, with the soundbytes: "Our results suggest a different interpretation of the multiproxy climates compared to recent conclusions of Mann et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)", "Our current lack of understanding of the Earth's climate system does not allow us to determine reliably the magnitude of climate change that will be caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, let alone whether this change will be for better or for worse", and "Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest or a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which is quickly adopted by the Pres. G.W. Bush admin. as a basis for amending the first EPA Report on the Environment, causing a firestorm of controversy causing 10 of 20 editors to resign and German-born publisher Otto Kinne (1923-2015) to cut the authors loose and blame the ed. who passed the paper, Trinidad and Tobago-born Kiwi climate scientist Christopher Rhodes "Chris" de Freitas (1948-2017), who on May 9, 2006 pub. an article in the New Zealand Herald with the soundbyte: "There is evidence of global warming. The climate has warmed about 0.6 °C in the past 100 years, but most of that warming occurred prior to 1940, before the post World War II industrialisation that led to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions. But warming does not confirm that carbon dioxide is causing it. Climate is always warming or cooling. There are natural variability theories of warming"; he also writes the soundbytes: "I am not a global warming skeptic. I accept that rising human-caused CO2 from fossil sources could 'change the climate'. The basic physics is there to support this view. But where is the evidence that the putative change would be large or damaging?" and "Climate is not responding to greenhouse gases in the way we thought it might. If increasing carbon dioxide is in fact increasing climate change, its impact is smaller than natural variation. People are being misled by people making money out of this"; on June 5, 2001 Baliunas pub. the paper Climate History and the Sun, containing the soundbyte: "But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case … measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident." On May 9, 2003 she speaks out against U.K. climate change policy, with the soundbyte: "Fear often dominates discussion about the earth's climate. Many people have been led to believe that drastic measures are necessary to prevent the risk of negative future outcomes, such as global warming. As such, we now face a situation where politicians are misallocating resources because they are responding to manufactured problems, which are based on public anxiety rather than sound scientific evidence. Ineffective measures like the Kyoto Protocol, built on fear rather than science, will not reduce the future burden of greenhouse gases and will cause many more problems than they solve." On Nov. 14, 2011 Baliunas pub. the press release Human Activity is Not Cause of Global Warming via the George C. Marshall Inst., containing the soundbyte: "The science does not suggest dangerous global warming. If there is any trace at all of a greenhouse warming, it is too small to be seen in the climate record. That means that future warming due to human activities will be quite small - well under one degree C." On Sept. 27, 2016 Mann pub. The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial Is Threatening Our Planet, Destroying Our Politics, and Driving Us Crazy. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Michael E. Mann et al.. Watch video - Sally Baliunas.

Christine Stewart of Canada (1941-2015)

In Dec. 1998 Christine Susan Stewart (1941-2015), Canadian Liberal Party minister of the environment utters the soundbyte to the Calgary Herald: "No matter if the science of global warming is all phony... climate change provides the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world."

In 1998 the Global Climate Science Communications Plan is created by the Global Climate Science Communications Team to create a "one-stop resource on climate science for members of Congress, the media, industry and all others concerned", combined with a public relations and lobbying campaign funded with $600K from the Am. Petroleum Inst., known for the soundbyte: "Victory will be achieved when... Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'", later being accused of deliberately trying to confuse the public.

Bjørn Lomborg (1965-)

In 1998 Danish environmentalist Bjorn (Bjørn) Lomborg (1965-) pub. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (English trans. pub. in 2001), questioning the statistical data supporting global warming claims along with deforestation, water shortages, overpop. and species loss, and questioning the wisdom of govt. policies incl. the Paris Accord, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is by no means our main environmental threat", causing a firestorm of controversy. On Feb. 11, 2015 Lomborg pub. the article The Alarming Thing About Climate Alarmism in The Wall Street Journal, claiming that climate change alarmists are like the boy that cried wolf, with the soundbyte: "Much of the data about climate change are encouraging", causing an outcry by scientists. On Aug. 31, 2018 Lomborg pub. the article The world gets better every day in the Mail & Guardian of Africa. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Lenoir, N.C.-born Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) (co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Chem. Prize) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, in which he disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money. Watch video - Kary Mullis.

Craig D. Idso Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1998 after getting pissed-off when his global warming skeptic physicist father Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) is attacked by U.S. senator Al Gore in an attempt to discredit him, Ariz. State U. geographer Craig D. Idso, his father, and his brother Keith E. Idso (botanist) found the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change in Tempe, Ariz., promoting the idea that carbon dioxide (CO2) has mostly positive environmental effects; no surprise, climate warmists later find out that he was receiving $11K/mo. from the Heatland, er, Heartland Inst. in 2012, using it to give the finger to all his scientific arguments without detailed scientific analysis Marxist style; famed agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer joins. On Feb. 24, 2009 Craig Idso pub. CO2, Global Warming and Coral Reefs. On June 1, 2009 Craig Idso and S. Fred Singer pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: The Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), released on conjunction with the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change, claiming to refute the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. On Jan. 31, 2011 Craig and Sherwood Idso pub. Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path, which concludes: "Why would anyone in their right mind give the governments of the world a mandate to totally restructure human society to fight a hypothetical problem of vastly greater complexity than the very real and clearly-identified problems we currently face? Why should we not rather confront these genuine energy and health threats with all due haste and with every modern tool we have at our disposal?" On Sept. 1, 2011 Craig Idso and Robert M. Carter pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report on the Nongovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In 2015 Craig Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer pub. Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming: Second Edition: The NIPCC Report on Scientific Consensus (2nd ed. May 9, 2018), containing the soundbyte: "Probably the most widely repeated claim in the debate over global warming is that '97% of scientists agree' that climate change is man-made and dangerous. This claim is not only false, but its presence in the debate is an insult to science"; Watch video - Craig D. Idso. Watch video - Sherwood B. Idso.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Nobel-Prize-winning Lenoir, N.C.-born biochemist Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, which disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.

Joanne Nova U.S. Postal Charges Drive Global Warming - Joanne Nova

On June 3, 1999 J.R. Petit, J. Jouzel., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius et al. pub. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica in Nature, becoming the first significant examination of the long-term Antarctic ice core record, upsetting IPCC's apple cart, with Euan Means writing: "In their seminal paper on the Vostok Ice Core, Petit et al. (1999) note that CO2 lags temperature during the onset of glaciations by several thousand years but offer no explanation. They also observe that CH4 and CO2 are not perfectly aligned with each other but offer no explanation. The significance of these observations are therefore ignored. At the onset of glaciations temperature drops to glacial values before CO2 begins to fall suggesting that CO2 has little influence on temperature modulation at these times"; Lorius et al. pub. the article Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years in Science on Aug. 10, 2007, with the soundbyte: "Our [East Antarctica, Dome C] ice core shows no indication that greenhouse gases have played a key role in such a coupling [with radiative forcing]"; too bad, the IPCC crowd studiously ignores these results. In Oct. 2008 Australian science writer Joanne Nova (nee Codling) pub. the article The 800 year lag in CO2 after temperature – graphed, with the subtitle "Carbon dioxide follows temperature in the Vostok Ice Cores", and the soundbytes: "In the 1990's the classic Vostok ice core graph showed temperature and carbon in lock step moving at the same time. It made sense to worry that carbon dioxide did influence temperature. But by 2003 new data came in and it was clear that carbon lagged behind temperature. The link was back to front. Temperatures appear to control carbon, and while it's possible that carbon also influences temperature these ice cores don't show much evidence of that. After temperatures rise, on average it takes 800 years before carbon starts to move. The extraordinary thing is that the lag is well accepted by climatologists, yet virtually unknown outside these circles. The fact that temperature leads is not controversial. Its relevance is debated." "The bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise. Carbon may still influence temperatures, but these ice cores are neutral on that. If both factors caused each other to rise significantly, positive feedback would become exponential. We'd see a runaway greenhouse effect. It hasn't happened. Some other factor is more important than carbon dioxide, or carbon's role is minor." She also utters the soundbytes: "Anything that heats the planet will melt ice, shift Lemurs and cause droughts. None of these things tell us why the planet got warmer"; "In the head-spinning cosmos of climate change, everyday hundreds of people claim there are 'thousands of papers' in support of a theory, yet no one can actually name one single paper with empirical evidence that shows carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of global warming"; "Let the historic dissection begin. Man-made global warming is a dying market and a zombie science"; "Everything on our dinner table - the meat, cheese, salad, bread, and soft drink - requires carbon dioxide to be there. For those of you who believe that carbon dioxide is a pollutant, we have a special diet: water and salt!" In 2009 she pub. The Skeptic's Handbook, followed by Global Bullies Want Your Money (2009), and Climate Money. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova.

Robert W. Felix

In 1999 Am. former architect Robert W. Felix pub. Not by Fire but by Ice: Discover What Killed the Dinosaurs...and Why It Could Soon Kill Us, predicting a coming ice age after a reversal of the magnetic poles.

2000

In 2000 the Earth enters the Anthropocene epoch of geological history, the first period of geological time shaped by a single species, characterized by the 6th largest mass extinction in Earth's history?

In 2000 the Earth's spin abruptly turns E and speeds up 2x to 17cm (17 in.) a year, moving toward the British Isles instead of Hudson Bay; in 2016 it is traced to lost water in Eurasia from climate change.

In 2000 U.S. utilities begin a new push to build coal-fired electric power plants, with 150 projects under planning or construction by spring 2007; meanwhile the U.N. IPCC-led global warming lobby plots the total shutdown of all plants around the world.

D. James Baker (1937-) Robert E. Stevenson (1921-2001)

On Mar. 24, 2000 Long Beach, Calif.-born oceanographer Donald "D." James Baker (1937-) of NOAA announces that since the late 1940s there "has been warming to a depth of nearly 10,000 feet in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In each ocean basin, substantial temperature changes are occurring at much deeper depths than we previously thought", according to research conducted at NOAA's Ocean Climate Laboratory; the same day Sydney Levitus, John L. Antonov, Timothy P. Boyer, and Cathy Stephens of NOAA pub. the paper Warming of the World Ocean in Science mag. giving the details, with the soundbyte: "We quantify the interannual-to-decadal variability of the heat content (mean temperature) of the world ocean from the surface through 3000-meter depth for the period 1948 to 1998. The heat content of the world ocean increased by ~2 × 1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s, representing a volume mean warming of 0.06°C. This corresponds to a warming rate of 0.3 watt per meter squared (per unit area of Earth's surface). Substantial changes in heat content occurred in the 300- to 1000-meter layers of each ocean and in depths greater than 1000 meters of the North Atlantic. The global volume mean temperature increase for the 0- to 300-meter layer was 0.31°C, corresponding to an increase in heat content for this layer of ~1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s. The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have undergone a net warming since the 1950s and the Indian Ocean has warmed since the mid-1960s, although the warming is not monotonic", warming the cockles of the climate alarmists' hearts, after which Richard A. Kerr writes the soundbyte: "The ocean-induced delay in global warming also suggests to some climatologists that future temperature increases will be toward the top end of the models' range of prediction", and James A. Hansen of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies writes the soundbyte: "Now the ocean-warming data imply that climate sensitivity [to the greenhouse effect] is not at the low end of the spectrum"; too bad, in summer 2000 Fullerton, Calif.-born Kauai, Hawaii-based climate skeptic oceanographer ("Father of Space Oceanography") Robert Everett "Bob" Stevenson (1921-2001) pub. the article Yes, the Ocean Has Warmed; No, It's Not 'Global Warming' in 21st Century, with the conclusions: "For the past two decades at least, and possibly for the past seven decades, the Earth's true surface air temperature has likely experienced no net change; there should have been a sizable CO2-induced increase in atmospheric radiative forcing during that time, but there wasn't. That must mean that a suite of compensatory feedbacks overwhelmed the 'greenhouse' impetus for warming; implying, therefore, that the planet will not warm from any man-produced increases in CO2; indicating [that] any increases in temperature will likely fit the global trend of +0.048 deg C/decade, that is, about 0.5 deg C this century - the rate of warming that has existed since the Little Ice Age, centered around 1750 in Europe, South America, and China; suggesting that the heat storage in the upper ocean takes place in the upper 100 meters, and the magnitude provides a rise in temperature at those depths of 0.5 deg C in the past 50 years (in those part of the ocean for which we have data); this global warming (and cooling) of the ocean occurs on biennial, ENSO, decadal and interdecadal period scales; thence, the ocean thermal changes on centennial-period scales, which appear as the warming trend through the past 50 to 100 years, can be explained by means of intrinsic internal modes of the Earth going through their normal cycle of warming and cooling, independent of both radiative and anthropogenic influences", ending with the soundbyte: "I guess what I'm really wondering is 'Why did Syd Levitus, and his associates, write their paper in the first place?'"

David E. Wojick (1942-)

On May 30, 2000 Am. epistemologist and civil engineer David E. Wojick (1942-), Richard S. Courtney, Hugh Ellsaesser, Vincent Gray, Wibjorn Karlin, Ross McKitrick et al. form the Science Integrity Team to review IPCC's Third Assessment Report and brief members of Congress, news media et al. about why climate change isn't an important issue. On Oct. 1, 2002 Wojick pub. the article A skeptic's guide to global warming in the National Post, containing the soundbyte: "The problem is that the earth is very large and the temperature is always changing, everywhere, so how can we possibly tell if overall it is a mere half-degree warmer today than it was around 1902? The origin of the theory of global warming (for it is just a theory) lies in taking the thermometer readings we happen to have from the last 100 years and massaging them in various ways. Some places have clearly warmed, others have clearly cooled. Many have gone up and down but with little apparent trend. To get a global result requires a lot of statistical manipulation... Even if the earth has warmed a little bit there is still the very real possibility that this warming is natural, that the models are no good, that warming is beneficial, etc." On May 19, 2016 Wojick and Patrick J. Michaels pub. the article Climate Modeling Dominates Climate Science, containing the soundbyte: "To summarize, it looks like something like 55% of the modeling done in all of science is done in climate change science, even though it is a tiny fraction of the whole of science. Moreover, within climate change science almost all the research (97%) refers to modeling in some way." On Dec. 1, 2017 Wojick writes the soundbyte: "The motion of climate change is highly chaotic, poorly understood and at this point completely unpredictable within certain broad limits. In fact, there is strong evidence that the natural climate is capable of warming or cooling several degrees very quickly... The true shame is that teachers read this stuff and believe it, then teach it to their students, spreading it like a disease. What is lacking are alternative skeptical sources of sound science for teachers and students."

On Aug. 19, 2000 the New York Times pub. the fake news article Ages-Old Icecap at North Pole Is Now Liquid, Scientists Find, claiming "The thick ice that has for ages covered the Arctic Ocean at the pole has turned to water, recent visitors there reported yesterday... An ice-free patch of ocean about a mile wide has opened at the very top of the world, something that has presumably never before been seen by humans and is more evidence that global warming may be real and already affecting climate. The last time scientists can be certain the pole was awash in water was more than 50 million years ago."

Richard S. Courtney Harry N.A. Priem Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Gerd Rainer Weber

On Nov. 21, 2000 the 6th Global Warming Conference (COP6) sees nations in a standoff, with the scientists continuing to assail the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the U.S. willing to compromise but unwilling to sacrifice core principles. On Nov. 21, 2000 the Cooler Heads Coalition (founded May 6, 1997 by the Nat. Consumer Coalition "to dispel the myths of global warming by exposing flawed economic, scientific, and risk analysis") (which runs the Web site GlobalWarming.org) holds a briefing titled "Climate is Not Warming - Has Not Warmed in 60 Years", featuring Nat. Coal Board (British Coal) senior material scientist Richard S. Courtney, Dutch U. of Utrecht geophysicist Harry N.A. Priem, Austrian-born Am. physicist-engineer Siegfried Frederick Singer (1924-), and German meteorologist Gerd Rainer Weber; global warming proponents content themselves with gloating at alleged oil and coal industry ties. Watch video - Gerd Rainer Weber.

Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen

In 2000 the first issue of the journal Energy & Environment is pub., becoming the journal climate skeptics can turn to after being rejected by the mainstream peer-reviewed science journals; ed. #1 is physical geographer Sonja A. Boehmer-Christiansen, who goes on to repub. the infamous 2003 Willie Soon-Sallie Balinius article from Climate Research; it doesn't become peer-reviewed until SAGE acquires it in Feb. 2018, promising to shut-out you know who, causing her to resign.

In 2000 the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, named after 19th cent. scientist John Tyndall is founded in the U.K. by the U. of East Anglia, Cambridge U., Cardiff U., U. of Manchester, Newcastle U., Oxford U., U. of Southampton, and U. of Sussex; Fudan U. joins in May 2011.

On June 6, 2001 the Summer of the Shark begins with a shark attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast in Santa Rose Island, followed by 76 more attacks and five deaths, turning into sensationalist publicity after a July 4 weekend attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast, ending with the 9/11 attacks; in 2000 there were 85 attacks and 12 deaths, but no big publicity.

James K. Glassman (1947-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-)

On June 25, 2001 Washington, D.C.-born govt. specialist James Kenneth Glassman (1947-) of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the article Bush Is Right on Global Warming in The Weekly Standard, claiming that climate change "is not a calamity but a truism", with the soundbytes: "Evidence from ice cores, glaciers, boreholes and tree rings, deposits of microscopic animals on the sea floor, pollen in lake beds, and mineral deposits in caves show clearly that surface temperatures in some centuries have been very different from temperatures in others"; "Because there is considerable uncertainty in current understanding of how the climate system varies naturally and reacts to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, current estimates of the magnitude of future warming should be regarded as tentative and subject to future adjustments (either upward or downward)"; "Global warming is not a here-and-now problem. If the computers are right, the dire effects will unfold slowly over the century. But signs now indicate that the models vastly overstate the problem. We'll see." On July 5, 2005 Glassman gives an interview to C-Span in which he opposes the Kyoto Protocol and questions the science behind climate change, with the soundbyte: "It is not clear, the President does not believe it is clear, that human intervention causes increased emissions which cause the climate to heat up. We know the climate has heated up. It's gone up about one-degree Fahrenheit in the last one-hundred years. The question is, why is that? Is it because of humans, or is it because of simply a solar cycle. You know, the planet's been warmer than it has been today long before there was such a thing as an SUV or anything like that."

On July 15, 2001 the Internat. Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in Amsterdam pub. the Amsterdam Declaration on Earth System Science, proposing the term "Anthropocene", a new geological epoch to succeed Holocene about 10K B.C.E., caused by human alteration of the "Earth system", as coined by Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer, going on to unsuccessfully lobby the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to adopt it before running out of funding.

On Aug. 20-24, 2001 the First Internat. Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age at Dalhousie U. in Halifax, N.S. is organized by Petr Chylek and Glen Lesins, and co-sponsored by the Am. Meteorological Society, the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, and the European Space Agency, with speakers on all sides of the global warming issue.

World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 The Pentagon, Sept. 11, 2001

On Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) the infamous 9/11 Attacks forever change the U.S.

Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) Sir John T. Houghton (1931-) Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Richard Lindzen (1940-) Freeman Dyson (1923-) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-) Vincent Richard Gray (1922-2018)

In 2001 the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., summarizing the predominant scientific opinion on climate change, concluding that the global avg. surface temp has risen 0.6C +/-0.2 C since the late 19th cent., and 0.17C/decade in 1971-2001, with the soundbyte: "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" esp. greenhouse gases methane and CO2, predicting a temp increase of 1.4C-5.8C between 1990 an 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continue, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in some types of extreme weather, becoming more negative as warming increases; leaders of the IPCC Working Group incl. chmn. Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) (knighted in 2012), co-chmn. Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) and Sir John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) of Hadley Centre (lead author of the Second Assessment Report); in May a joint statement of support is issued by the science academies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Caribbean, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, New Zealand, Sweden, and U.K.: "We recognise the IPCC as the world's most reliable source of information on climate change and its causes, and we endorse its method of achieving consensus"; critics incl. Am. MIT atmospheric physicist (leading climate expert) Richard Siegmund Lindzen (1940-), lead author of Ch. 7 "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks", who woke up later and calls it "climate alarmism", uttering the soundbytes: "[We] have focused on the greenhouse picture despite the fact that this is probably not the major factor in climate change. That is to say, we have accepted the basic premise of the first [dominant] narrative. Mea culpa", and "Climate is a remarkably complex system that cannot be reduced to a CO2 knob, something you turn up or down like a house thermostat to control global temperature", and the soundbyte: "Why do we need to deconstruct global warming? Simply because it has been an issue that has been routinely treated with misinformation and sophistry abetted by constant repetition, institutional endorsements, and widespread ignorance even (perhaps especially) among the educated... To a great extent, global warming has been merely a device for implementing broader agendas"; in 2001 Lindzen pub. the Iris Hypothesis, that a warmer climate enhances precipitation efficiency, leading to less clouds in the troposphere from convection, allowing more infrared radiation to escape into space, creating a strong climate-stabilizing negative feedback loop preventing further warming; on Oct. 9, 2018 Lindzen gives a lecture in London with the title Global Warming for the Two Cultures, containing the soundbyte: "An implausible conjecture backed by false evidence and repeated incessantly has become politically correct 'knowledge', and is used to promote the overturn of industrial civilization"; another critic is English-born Am. physicist Freeman John Dyson (1923-), Albert Einstein's successor at the Inst. for Advanced Physics at Princeton U., who acknowledges that CO2 drives global warming but doubts that existing climate simulation models are accurate enough "to describe the real world we live in", pointing in 2009 out that "What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago", suggesting that China and India should choose to burn coal and get rich instead of staying poor, noting that "the main effect of carbon dioxide... is to make the planet greender, feeding the growth of green plans of al kinds, increasing the fertility of farms and fields and fields", suggesting that planting 1T trees could remove all excess CO2 in the atmosphere; in Apr. 2013 Dyson gives an interview to Paul Mulshine of the N.J. Star-Ledger, uttering the soundbytes: "I just think they [climatologists] don't understand the climate. Their computer models are full of fudge factors. The models are extremely oversimplified. They don't represent the clouds in detail at all. They simply use a fudge factor to represent the clouds"; in 2000 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognising that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world"; in Apr. 2002 after presure from ExxonMobil et al. he is replaced as IPCC chmn. by Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-), who resigns in Feb. 2015 after sexual harassment allegations; in 2010 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The mistakes all appear to have gone in the direction of making it seem like climate change is more serious by overstating the impact. That is worrying. The IPCC needs to look at this trend in the errors and ask why it happened." Adding "We should always be challenged by sceptics. The IPCC's job is to weigh up the evidence. If it can't be dismissed, it should be included in the report. Point out it's in the minority and, if you can't say why it's wrong, just say it's a different view." Another critic is London-born Kiwi chemist Vincent Robert Gray (1921-2018), who pub. the books The Greenhouse Delusion: A Critique of 'Climate Change 2001' (Aug. 2002), and Confessions of a Climate Skeptic, going on in Mar. 2008 to call for the IPCC to be abolished, calling it "fundamentally corrupt" and unable to handle criticism, with the soundbytes: "The claims of the IPCC are dangerous unscientific nonsense", "The two main 'scientific' claims of the IPCC are the claim that 'the globe is warming' and 'Increases in carbon dioxide emissions are responsible'. Evidence for both of these claims is fatally flawed", "There is not a scrap of evidence in any IPCC reports that human emissions of CO2 have any harmful effect on the climate", and "Nobody seems to realise that the most elaborate and comprehensive conflict of interest that has been inflicted on the public is the 'Global Warning" Theory'... I have been an Expert Reviewer on every one of the Reports of IPCC", ending up commenting on every pub. of the IPCC, with 1,898 comments on the 2007 report alone. On Nov. 10, 2015 he pub. his last book The Global Warming Scam and Climate Change Superscam. Watch video - Freeman Dyson.

In 2001 the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (CES) is founded in Arlington, Va. as a successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change to work with policymakers and stakeholders to promote pragmatic and effective policies to fight global warming at all levels from state to internat., growing to become the largest U.S.-based assoc. of cos. working to advance business and policy solutions to climate change, growing from 13 members in 2001 to 44 in 2008, with a total market capitalization of $2.8T, and 30 mainly Fortune 500 cos. by 2018 with a total of 3.5M employees; it goes on to found the Make an Impact Program to assist employees and individuals in reducing their carbon footprints.

In Feb. 2002 the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (originally the U.S. Global Change Research Program) is established under the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 to coordinate and integrate research on global warming, issuing 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs), along with three Nat. Climate Assessment Reports starting in 2000, followed by 2009 and 2014.

Geoffrey G. Duffy

On May 4, 2002 the NASA Boeing Aqua (EOS PM-1) satellite is launched from Vanderberg AFB, settling into a Sun-synchronous orbit with several other satellites to measure water on the Earth's surface and atmosphere, becoming the 2nd major component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) after Terra (EOS AM-1) (launched in 1999) (clouds, water, ice, land surface, carbon monoxide, aerosols) and Aura (EOS CH-1) (launched July 15, 2004) (climate, air quality, ozone layer). Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer and climate change skeptic Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy utters the soundbyte: "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'."

Tom Harris

In 2002 the Canadian nonprofit group Friends of Science (FoS) is founded in Calgary, Alberta by mechanical engineer Tom Harris et al., and "comprised mainly of active and retired earth and atmospheric scientists, engineers, and other professionals" whose main concern is "the abuse of science displayed in the politically inspired Kyoto protocol"; their goal is "To educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue"; climate alarmists gloat over the fact that they are partly funded by the fossil fuel industry; they go on to pub. the killer climate change essay Providing Insight into Climate Change. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris.

U.S. Sen. John McCain (1936-2018) U.S. Sen. Joe Lieberman (1942-)

On Oct. 30, 2003 the U.S. McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act, drafted by U.S. Repub. Ariz. Sen. (1987-2018) John Sidney McCain III (1936-2018) and Indep. Conn. Sen. (1989-2013) Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman (1942-) is defeated in the U.S. Senate by 55-43; it would have capped 2010 CO2 emissions at the 2000 level and established a scholarship at the Nat. Academy of Sciences for students of climatology; similar acts are defeated in 2005 (38-60) and 2007 (dies in committee); on May 12, 2008 during the 2008 U.S. pres. campaign as the Repub. candidate, McCain gives a speech on climate change in Portland, Ore., with the soundbytes: "Today I'd like to focus on just one of those challenges, and among environmental dangers it is surely the most serious of all. Whether we call it 'climate change' or 'global warming', in the end we're all left with the same set of facts. The facts of global warming demand our urgent attention, especially in Washington. Good stewardship, prudence, and simple commonsense demand that we to act meet the challenge, and act quickly"; "Some of the most compelling evidence of global warming comes to us from NASA. No longer do we need to rely on guesswork and computer modeling, because satellite images reveal a dramatic disappearance of glaciers, Antarctic ice shelves and polar ice sheets"; "We have many advantages in the fight against global warming, but time is not one of them. Instead of idly debating the precise extent of global warming, or the precise timeline of global warming, we need to deal with the central facts of rising temperatures, rising waters, and all the endless troubles that global warming will bring. We stand warned by serious and credible scientists across the world that time is short and the dangers are great. The most relevant question now is whether our own government is equal to the challenge." On Oct. 29, 2003 Charles River Associates reports that the impact on the U.S. economy of the McCain-Liberman Act would incl. 20% higher electricity bills, a 25-cent/gal. increase in the price of gasoline, and a cost of $300+/year/household in reduced consumption, with spokesman James K. Glassman of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) issuing the soundbyte: "The cost analysis of McCain-Lieberman reinforces what we've come to learn about global warming policy measures since Kyoto. We do know that they'll be very costly and damaging to the U.S. economy, and we don't know if they'll have any measurable effect on the earth's climate."

Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

On Jan. 17, 2003 Chicago, Ill.-born "Jurassic Park" novelist John Michael Crichton (1942-2008) gives a lecture at Caltech titled Aliens Cause Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had. Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period"; on Dec. 7, 2004 he pub. the NYT bestseller (1.5M copies) State of Fear, about ecoterrorists plotting mass murder to publicize the dangers of global warming, which the book attempts to refute with scientific arguments that are pooh-poohed by climate warmists, making it more popular? On Sept. 28, 2005 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, uttering the soundbyte: "I want to state emphatically that nothing in my remarks should be taken to imply that we can ignore our environment, or that we should not take climate change seriously. On the contrary, we must dramatically improve our record on environmental management. That is why a focused effort on climate science, aimed at securing sound, independently verified answers to policy questions, is so important now." Watch video - Michael Crichton.

Hans Jelbring

In May 1, 2003 Swedish U. of Stockholm meteorologist Hans Roger Jelbring pub. the paper The "Greenhouse Effect" as a Function of Atmospheric Mass in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "The main reason for claiming a scientific basis for 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Warming (AGW)' is related to the use of 'radiative energy flux models as a major tool for describing vertical energy fluxes within the atmosphere. Such models prescribe that the temperature difference between a planetary surface and the planetary average black body radiation temperature (commonly called the Greenhouse Effect, GE) is caused almost exclusively by the so called greenhouse gases. Here, using a different approach, it is shown that GE can be explained as mainly being a consequence of known physical laws describing the behaviour of ideal gases in a gravity field... A noteworthy implication is that the calculated values of AGW, accepted by many contemporary climate scientists, are thus irrelevant and probably quite insignificant (not detectable) in relation to natural processes causing climate change"; in Jan. 2012 he writes the soundbyte: "IPCC should not only be defunded, it should be deleted as an agency. The reason is its misuse of the concept of science. It has never been meant to rely on correct science and uses science for one simple reason. People believe in science, since people have seen the result of powerful applications of it during 100 years. IPCC uses this fact to 'sell' its political message to get support from ordinary people. Science is a 'brand' for selling propaganda. The only way to keep the IPCC is for it to skip any claim of being scientific at all and clearly declare what it really is: a political organization. My tutor when writing my exam paper in meteorology was Bert Bolin, the founder of IPCC. He was for sure a screwed influential politician and a dishonest and ordinary scientist."

In July-Aug. 2003 the Summer 2003 European Heat Wave kills 70K, becoming the hottest summer in Europe since 1540; on Aug. 10 a record of 38.5C (101.3F) is set in Faversham, Kent, England; on Sept. 25 France reports a death toll of 14,802, mostly elderly people without air conditioning from the summer heat wave; the young people were vacationing at the time, and arrived back to find thousands of negelected dead old people bottled up in their hot apts.?

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014)

On Sept. 29-Oct. 9, 2003 the World Climate Change Conference in Moscow, Russia, convened by Russian Federation pres. Vladimir Putin endorses the IPCC Third Assessment Report; too bad, several scientists break ranks, incl. Putin's scientific advisor Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), vice-chmn. of the IPCC (until Sept. 2008) who utters the soundbytes: "The Kyoto Protocol is overly expensive, ineffective, and based on bad science", and: "The people of Bangladesh, who live at sea level, may face problems if the Indian Ocean rises. Still, their resettlement would be much cheaper than projected Kyoto Protocol expenses", causing conference participant Andreas Fischlin to get pissed-off and utter the soundbyte: "However, concerning the scientific content of the conference, we had also to struggle with considerable difficulties. Unfortunately, there were not only leading scientists present, but also some colleagues who used the conference to express personal, political opinions based on value judgement instead of scientific facts and rigorously derived, scientific insights and thorough understanding. Thereby, I believe, principles of proper scientific conduct were violated too often and sometimes, I am afraid having to say so, even systematically. This contrasts sharply with the principles upheld by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), which allow only to assess the current knowledge based on the best available, peer reviewed scientific literature and which do not allow for any non-scientific value judgements, let alone policy recommendations"; Izrael goes on to putin, er, put in his two cents worth, with the soundbytes: "Climate change is obvious, but science has not yet been able to identify the causes of it"; "There is no proven link between human activity and global warming"; "Global temperatures will likely rise by 1.4-5.8 degrees during the next 100 years. The average increase will be three degrees. I do not think that this threatens mankind. Sea levels, due to rise by 47 cm in the 21st century, will not threaten port cities"; "I think the panic over global warming is totally unjustified. There is no serious threat to climate"; "There is no need to dramatize the anthropogenic impact, because the climate has always been subject to change under Nature's influence, even when humanity did not even exist"; "There is no scientifically sound evidence of the negative processes that allegedly begin to place at such temperatures"; no surprise, global warmist scientists pooh-pooh him and resort to ad hominem attacks, with Quirin Shiermeier and Byron MacWilliams calling him a "fossil communist fighting for fossil fuel".

Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In late 2003 after getting pissed-off at the Canadian govt.'s promotion of the Kyoto Protocol, Canadian mining consultant Stephen "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the paper Corrections to the Mann et al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series in Energy and Environment, alleging errors in principal component analysis in Mann's 1998 hockey stick graph that underrepresent the Medieval Warm Period, turning the hockey stick into er, moose hockey and launching the Hockey Stick Debate (Controversy); on Oct. 15, 2004 Richard A. Muller pub. the paper Global Warming Bombshell in MIT Technology Review (subtitle: A prime piece of evidence linking human activity to climate change turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics), containing the soundbyte: "McIntyre and McKitrick obtained part of the program that Mann used, and they found serious problems. Not only does the program not do conventional PCA, but it handles data normalization in a way that can only be described as mistaken. Now comes the real shocker. This improper normalization procedure tends to emphasize any data that do have the hockey stick shape, and to suppress all data that do not. To demonstrate this effect, McIntyre and McKitrick created some meaningless test data that had, on average, no trends. This method of generating random data is called 'Monte Carlo' analysis, after the famous casino, and it is widely used in statistical analysis to test procedures. When McIntyre and McKitrick fed these random data into the Mann procedure, out popped a hockey stick shape!... That discovery hit me like a bombshell, and I suspect it is having the same effect on many others. Suddenly the hockey stick, the poster-child of the global warming community, turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics. How could it happen?" - now that ain't my radio it's my weather gauge? McIntyre later utters the soundbyte: "The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann... for the estimation of temperature from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal componenets and other quality control defects." McKitrick later utters the soundbytes: "I have been probing the arguments for global warming for well over a decade. In collaboration with a lot of excellent coauthors I have consistently found that when the layers get peeled back, what lies at the core is either flawed, misleading or simply non-existent", and "The world still awaits a proper inquiry into climategate: one that is not stacked with global warming advocates and one that is prepared to cross-examine evidence, interview critics as well as supporters of the CRU and other IPCC players, and follow the evidence where it clearly leads." In 2002 McKitrick and Christopher Essex pub. Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming, accusing politicians of claiming more certainty that is justified by the science.

George Marshall (1964-)

In 2003 English environmental activist George Marshall (1964-) founds Climate Outreach to engage the public on climate change; in 2007 he pub. Carbon Detox, a how-to manual for personal emissions reduction; in 2014 he pub. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change, about stepping away from Green Guilt, becoming a hit. Watch video - George Marshall.

Andrew Revkin (1956-)

In 2003 New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) reports from a research camp located on drifting sea ice near the North Pole, advertising a sign that reads "The North Pole Was Here", going on to pub. The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World on Apr. 22, 2006. In 2010 he becomes a member of the new Anthropocene Working Group of the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy, which was founded to develop the idea that human impact on Earth's climate is creating the new Anthropocene geological epoch, presenting its official recommendation on Aug. 29, 2016, which isn't officially approved until ?.

Nir Shaviv (1972-) Jan Veizer (1941-)

In 2003 Ithaca, N.Y.-born Hebrew U. of Jerusalem climatologist Nir Joseph Shaviv (1972-) and Slovakian-born U. of Ottawa geochemist Jan Veizer (1941-) pub. the article Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? in GSA Today, proposing that Earth's passes through the spiral arms of the Milky Way along with cosmic rays may have caused Earth's major ice ages over the past billion years, containing the soundbyte: "Pending further confirmation, one interpretation of the above result could be that the global climate possesses a stabilizing negative feedback. A likely candidate for such a feedback is cloud cover. If so, it would imply that the water cycle is the thermostat of climate dynamics, acting both as a positive (water vapor) and negative (clouds) feedback, with the carbon cycle 'piggybacking' on, and being modified by, the water cycle." On Apr. 19, 2007 Shavov and Veizer pub. the paper Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate in the journal of the Geological Society of Am., demonstrating that a temperature reconstruction of the Phanerozoic Eon (began -541M) correlates with cosmic ray flux but not with CO2, placing a low upper limit on the climatic effect of CO2, causing climate scientists Stefan Rahmstorf at al. to criticize them in the June 3, 2011 article Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate in Eos (Am. Geophysical Union), with the conclusion: "The correlation of CRF [cosmic ray flux] and climate over the past 520 m.y. appear to not hold up under scrutiny." On June 16, 2015 Shaviv pub. the article The IPCC and others blame CO2 for increases in sea levels, ignoring evidence that shows the sun to be the cause. On Dec. 19, 2017 Shaviv et al. pub. the article Increased ionization supports growth of aerosols into cloud condensation nuclei in Nature Communications, starting out: "Ions produced by cosmic rays have been thought to influence aerosols and clouds", showing that "the mass-flux of small ions can constitute an important addition to the growth caused by condensation of neutral molecules. Under atmospheric conditions the growth from ions can constitute severl percent of the natural growth".

In 2004 the Antarctic Polar Night begins (ends 2016), with 100 different locations on the East Antarctic Plateau reaching temps of -98C (-144F), beating the record low air temp of -89.2C (-129F) of July 23, 1983.

In 2004 the 2004 African Locust Infestation ravages crops across the N third of Africa, leaving millions at risk of starvation; in 2006 another swarm reaches 3 sq. mi. in area as it moves across Mauritania; meanwhile a drought in Niger combined with desert locust damage destroys the fall crop, leaving 3.6M short of food, causing a food crisis in 2005-6.

Tim Phillips (1964-)

On Mar. 10, 2004 the conservative-libertarian political advocacy group Americans for Prosperity is founded in Arlington, Va., funded by the billionaire Koch Brothers, going on to turn the Obama-era Tea Party into a political force, organizing opposition to Obama admin. initiatives on global warming, Medicaid expansion, economic stimulus, Obamacare, cap and trade, federal min. wage et al., helping achieve a Repub. majority in the House in 2010 and the Senate in 2014; in 2008 it launches the No Climate Tax Pledge, which is signed by 411 politicians incl. 25% of U.S. senators and 33% of U.S. reps by July 213 incl. 9 of 12 Repubs. on the House Energy and Commerce Committee; in 2005 Spartanburg, S.C.-born Repub. political strategist Tim Phillips (1964-) becomes pres. (until ?).

'The Day After Tomorrow', 2004

On May 17, 2004 Roland Emmerich's The Day After Tomorrow (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Dennis Quaid as climatologist Jack Hall, who must save the world from super-fast global warming er, cooling, which incl. New York being taken over by a new ice age; Jake Gyllenhaal plays his stranded son Sam; #7 movie of 2004 ($187M in the U.S. and $544.3M worldwide on a $125M budget); watch trailer; view clip.

Alister McFarquhar

On Oct. 18, 2004 Cambridge-educated Scottish agricultural economist Alister McFarquhar of the Adam Smith Inst. pub. a letter to the ed. in The Telegraph, complaining about biased coverage of the 2005 Kyoto Protocol, which he calls "too costly", with the soundbyte: "There is no clear evidence of warming in weather satellites and balloons in the 20th century. Predictions of warming depend on models involving arbitrary assumptions and science hypotheses. The relation between CO2, water vapour and putative warming seems very obscure."

Ferenc Miskolczi

In Oct. 2004 after studying radiosonde observations from around the world, NASA scientist Ferenc Miskolczi pub. the paper The greenhouse effect and the spectral decomposition of the clear-sky terrestrial radiation in the Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, describing a "greenhouse constant" that keeps the greenhouse effect in equilibrium with rising CO2 levels, maintaining a constant value of 1.87 total infrared optical thickness of the atmosphere, making warming by back-radiation along with runaway greenhouse theories moose hockey that contradict energy balance equations; too bad, his supervisors at NASA begin to shun him and refuse to pub. his results, causing him to resign on Oct. 28, 2005.

David E. Parker

On Nov. 18, 2004 David E. Parker of Hadley Center in Exeter, England pub. the article Climate: Large-scale warming is not urban in Nature, showing that the urban heat island effect doesn't affect the historical temperature record, with the soundbyte: "The reality and magnitude of global-scale warming is supported by the near-equality of temperature trends on windy nights with trends based on all data"; too bad, other studies show the opposite.

Nick Mabey Tom Burke John Ashton (1956-)

In 2004 the climate change think tank E3G (Third Generation Environmentalism is founded by Nick Mabey, Tom Burke, and British diplomat John Ashton (1956-), with offices in London, Brussels, Berlin, and Washington, D.C., going on to play a pivotal role in getting Russia to ratify the Kyoto Protocol; in 2009 it creates the Transform UK Coalition, leading to the founding of the Green Investment Bank (Group) in London in 2012.

Phil Klotzbach (1977-) William M. Gray (1929-2016)

In 2004 Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist Phil Klotzbach (1977-) begins authoring Atlantic basin hurricane forecasts with Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist William Mason "Bill" Gray (1929-2016); in 2006 Klotzbach becomes the first author of the seasonal hurricane forecasts, developing the 2-week forecasts used in Aug.-Oct. in the peak months of the hurricane season, later developing the Landfalling Hurricane Probability Webpage along with the GeoGraphics Lab of his alma mater Bridgewater State College, providing hurricane landfall probabilities for the entire U.S. coastline from Brownsville, Tex. to Eastport, Maine incl. the Caribbean Sea. On Sept. 9, 2018 after Hurricane Florence is born, Klotzbach utters the soundbyte that storms in the NE Pacific have generated the most "accumulated cyclone energy" on record through the first week of Sept., with nine named storms in the Atlantic and 15 in the Pacific since their hurricane seasons began on June 1 and May 15, respectively; the last time this happened was in 2016, and before that in 1998.

H. Jay Zwally

In 2004 leading climate alarmist scientists D.T. Shindell and G.A. Schmidt of NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies pub. the paper Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases in Geophysical Research Letters, with the abstract: "While most of the Earth warmed rapidly during recent decades, surface temperatures decreased significantly over most of Antarctica", going on to try to link it to increased greenhouse gases and Antarctic ozone depletion; in 2004 NASA pub. a map of Antartica showing the cooling, only to change the data in a 2009 map to portray an Antarctic ice sheet collapse? On Oct. 30, 2015 NASA scientist H. Jay Zwally et al. pub. the paper Mass Gains of Antarctic Ice Sheet Greater than Losses, which says that "an increase in Antarctic snow accumulation that began 10,000 years ago is currently adding enough ice to the continent to outweigh the increased losses from its thinning glaciers", with the soundbyte: "The research challenges the conclusions of other studies, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) 2013 report, which says that Antarctica is overall losing land ice. According to the new analysis of satellite data, the Antarctic ice sheet showed a net gain of 112 billion tons of ice a year from 1992 to 2001. That net gain slowed to 82 billion tons of ice per year between 2003 and 2008", revealing that ice sheet growth in E Antarctica of 147B tons/year outweighs the losses in W Antarctica, pissing-off warmist scientists, who pub. a rebuttal on June 13, 2018 in Nature claiming that Antarctica is losing a net of 200B tons of ice/year, adding 0.02" (0.5mm) a year to the sea level, which Zwally claims is moose hockey. Watch video. Watch video - Tony Heller.

2005

On Feb. 1-3, 2005 after an invitation by British PM Tony Blair, Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases is held at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter, Devon, England, chaired by Dennis Tirpak to take action on the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report and achieve the objectives of the 1991 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, concluding that the runaway level of 2C of global warming would likely happen after the atmospheric CO2 level reaches 550ppm, and that action must be taken when it is still below 400ppm because if it reaches 450 ppm then there is only a 50% likelihood of stopping the global warming from reaching 2C, also that if no action is taken for 20 years, emission reduction rates will have to be 3x-7x greater to achieve the same temperature target, causing the U.K. to change its target in its Climate Change Act from 60% to 80% by 2050.

On Feb. 16, 2005 the Kyoto Protocol (signed Dec. 11, 1997) becomes effective for all 84 signatories and 192 parties, incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, South Sudan, and later Canada and the U.S.

On June 8, 2005 the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season begins (ends Jan. 6, 2006), becoming the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, causing a total of 3,913 deaths and $180.7B damage (vs. $282.1B for the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season).

John Raymond Christy (1951-) Roy W. Spencer (1955-) Scott Denning

On Aug. 11, 2005 the online ed. of Science pub. three reports by Carl Mears and Frank Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems, reporting that old temp. records used to feed calculations indicating that there is no global warming contained errors, and that the troposphere has warmed during the last two decades; U. of Ala. atmospheric scientists John Raymond Christy (1951-) and Roy Warren Spencer (1955-), who developed the original records (first successful satellite temperature record) concede the error, but say that the warming rate calculated is too small to be a concern. In 2006 Spencer criticizes Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbyte: "Mr. Gore claims that the Earth is now warmer than it has been in thousands of years. Yet the latest National Academies of Science (NAS) report on the subject has now admitted that all we really know is that we are warmer now than we were during the last 400 years, which is mostly made up of the 'Little Ice Age'", adding the soundbyte in a New York Post op-ed of Feb. 26, 2007: "Contrary to popular accounts, very few scientists in the world - possibly none - have a sufficiently thorough, 'big picture' understanding of the climate system to be relied upon for a prediction of the magnitude of global warming. To the public, we all might seem like experts, but the vast majority of us work on only a small portion of the problem"; on Feb. 28, 2007 he gives an interview to Rush Limbaugh, with the soundbyte the he doesn't believe that "catastrophic manmade global warming" is occurring, criticizing climate models with the soundbyte: "The people that have built the climate models that predict global warming believe they have sufficient physics in those models to predict the future. I believe they don't. I believe the climate system, the weather as it is today in the real world shows a stability that they do not yet have in those climate models", later billing himself as "official climatologist of the Rush Limbaugh Show". In 2008 Spencer and William Braswell pub. a paper in Journal of Climate suggesting that natural variations in cloud formation could be causing temperature changes, rather than vice-versa, leading to overestimates of the sensitivity of Earth's climate to greenhouse gas emissions, with the soundbyte: "Our paper is an important step toward validating a gut instinct that many meteorologists like myself have had over the years... that the climate system is dominated by stabilizing processes, rather than destabilizing processes – that is, negative feedback rather than positive feedback." In 2011 Spencer and Braswell pub. a paper in Remote Sensing concluding that more energy is radiated back to space and released earlier than previously thought, with the soundbyte: "The satellite observations suggest there is much more energy lost to space during and after warming than the climate models show. There is a huge discrepancy between the data and the forecasts that is especially big over the oceans", causing a firestorm of controversy resulting in ed.-in-chief Wolfgang Wagner to resign. In 2011 Spencer debates Colo. State U. pro-global warming climate scientist Scott Denning at the Heartland Inst. Internat. Conference on Climate Change, their only non-climate skeptic. On Feb. 14, 2012 Christy pub. a study that found that snowfall in the Sierra Nevada Mts. has not changed in 130 years, pissing-off climate change advocates. On Aug. 28, 2012 Spencer pub. The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists, showing how recent global warming is the result of chaotic internal natural cycles, and that the climate models fail to account for the complexities of clouds. In Feb. 2014 Spencer posts the soundbyte on his blog that those who use the derogatory term climate change deniers should be called global warming Nazis, with the soundbyte: "These people are supporting policies that will kill far more people than the Nazis ever did", pissing-off the Anti-Defamation League, who calls it "just the latest example of a troubling epidemic of comparisons to Hitler and the Holocaust", to which Spencer responds that they didn't criticize syndicated columnist Ellan Goodman's assertion that "global warming deniers are now on a par with Holocaust deniers". In Apr. 2015 Spencer and Christy give an interview to Albama.com, containing the soundbyte by Christy: "The American Meteorological Society did their survey and they specifically asked the question, Is man the dominate controller of climate over the last 50 years? Only 52 percent said yes. That is not a consensus at all in science... Roy and I have both made the statement that we are in the 97 percent because we believe in some (man-made) effect." On Aug. 19, 2017 Spencer pub. An Inconvenient Deception: How Al Gore Distorts Climate Science and Energy Policy, an attempt to drive the last nail in Gore's coffin, outselling Gore's book. Too bad, Spencer associates himself with the Intelligent Design crowd, and the libertarians, drawing derision for comments incl. "I view my job a little like a legislator, supported by the taxpayer, to protect the interests of the taxpayer and to minimize the role of government." Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Scott Denning.

On Sept. 28, 2005 the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. releases data that the Arctic ice cap is shrinking, reaching its smallest-ever size this summer, and that the cause is probably global warming from human-generated greenhouse gases; they also speculate that the change is becoming self-sustaining as the holes in the ice allow the sea to absorb solar energy; they also claim that the permafrost is disappearing, coastal areas are being inundated, and polar bears are losing hunting grounds.

Nicola Scafetta

On Sept. 28, 2005 Italian-born scientist Nicola Scafetta and physics prof. Bruce West of Duke U. pub. a paper in Geophysical Research Letters, which claims that "the sun may have minimally contributed about 10 to 30 percent of the 1980-2002 global surface warming", with Scafetta's Wikipedia bio stating: "At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system, claiming that the only reasonable explanation is that the climate system is modulated by astronomical oscillations. Natural cycles known with certainty are the 11 (Schwabe) and 22 (Hale) year solar cycles, the cycles of the planets and luni-solar nodal cycles. Jupiter has an orbital period of 11.9 years while Saturn has an orbital period of 29.4 years. These periods predict three other major cycles which are associated with Jupiter and Saturn: about 10 years, the opposition of two planets; about 20 years, their synodic cycle; and about 60 years, the repetition of the combined orbits of the two planets. The major lunar cycles are about 18.6 and 8.85 years. Scafetta's climate model is based primarily on a numerological comparison of secular periodic changes of global surface temperature and the Sun's periodic movement around barycenter of the Solar System caused by the revolving planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Periodic modulation of Moon´s orbital parameters by these planets and subsequent modulation of lunar tides is also discussed. According to Scafetta, who provides no physical explanation of that process, "external forcing of celestial origin simply drives the adjustment of the natural rhythms by letting their own energy flow with the same frequency of the forcing. It just passes to the climatic system the information of how it has to oscillate, not the entire energy to make it oscillate. The effect of a periodic external forcing, even if weak, may become macroscopic and all components of the system gradually synchronize with it." In Dec. 2009 Scafetta pub. the paper Empirical analysis of the solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, reconstructing major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar-induced temperature changes. In 2011 Scafetta and Am. ecologist Craig Lohle pub. the paper Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data in the Open Atmospheric Science Journal, forecasting that the world climate "may remain approximately steady until 2030-20040, and may at most warm 0.5-1.0°C by 2100 at the estimated 0.66°C/century anthropogenic warming rate." Scafetta goes on to pub. four more major papers starting in Jan. 2012, only to see the PC global warming scientist community respond with yawns, uttering the soundbyte: "The fact is that I can hindcast major properties observed in climate and solar records for decades, centuries and millennia, as my papers demonstrate while the mainstream climate community cannot do it. My models overcome any IPCC GCM for accuracy that is also demonstrated in one of my recent peer review publications just published."

On Oct. 15, 2005 Category 5 (185 mph) Hurricane Wilma starts as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica, going W and turning into a tropical storm on Oct. 17, then turning S and becoming a hurricane on Oct. 18, growing to Category 5 on Oct. 19, becoming the strongest storm in the Atlantic in recorded history as it wobbles its way through the Caribbean, hitting the Yucatan Peninsula on Oct. 21-22 then entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane, sideswiping Cuba on Oct. 23 and accelerating to Category 3 on Oct. 24 before hitting Cape Romano, Fla. with 120 mph winds, crossing Fla. while weakening to Category 2 and reintensifying to Category 3 as it reaches the Atlantic Ocean and dissipating on Oct. 27, killing 87 incl. 13 in Haiti and Jamaica, causing $27B damage, becoming the 3rd most costly hurricane in history after Katrina and Andrew, and the 8th hurricane to hit Fla. in 15 mo., after which no major hurricane hits the continental U.S. until Hurricane Harvey on Aug. 26, 2017 after 11 years 10 mo.; no hurricane hits Fla. until Hurricane Hermine in 2016, and no major hurricane until Hurricane Irma in Sept. 2017.

In Dec. 2005 U. of Kan. researcher Johannes Feddema et al. in Science predict that the deforestation of Amazon jungles could strengthen the summer monsoon in the SW U.S., adding 2 in. to the precipitation and offsetting some of global warming's effects; global deforestation is going at a rate of 50K sq. mi. a year.

In 2005 the Climate Inst. of Australia is founded in Sydney to encourage progressive policies for managing climate change in Australia.

Tim Flannery (1956-)

In 2005 Australian environmentalist Timothy Fridtjof "Tim" Flannery (1956-) pub. The Weather Makers: The History and Future Impact of Climate Change, which claims that high enough CO2 levels can cause mass species extinctions, and has already contributed to the conflict in Darfur, dissing the coal industry and the U.S. Repub. Party, making fans of Sir Richard Branson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, British Columbia PM Gordon Campbell, and Zhou Ji, pres. of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. In Aug. 2018 he pub. the book The Big Melt.

2006

In 2006 the U.S. Hurricane Drought begins, with no Category 3 or higher hurricane making landfall until 2017; the mean frequency of W North Pacific tropical cyclones is 18% lower in 1997-2014 than in 1980-96; the avg. value of total annual accumulated cyclone energy between 2006-16 is less than 60% of the 1900-2017 avg.; no increase in hurricane landfall frequency from 1900-2017; no correlation between tropical cyclone frequency and sea surface temperature over the W North Pacific basin.

James Lovelock (1919-)

In Jan. 2006 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system pub. an op-ed. in the British newspaper The Independent, claiming that as a result of global warming "billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable" by the end of the 21st cent., going on to predict that by 2040 the 6B world pop. will be culled by famine, flood, and droughts, with "the people of Southern Europe, as well as South-East Asia,... fighting their way into countries such as Canada, Australia and Britain", adding that "By 2040, parts of the Sahara desert will have moved into middle Ruope. We are talking about Paris - as far north as Berlin. In Britain we will escape because of our oceanic position", and "If you take the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions, then by 2040 every summer in Europe will be as hot as it was in 2003 - between 110F and 120F. It is not the death of people that is the main problem, it is the fact that the plants can't grow - there will be almost no food grown in Europe"; he finally predicts that 80% of humanity will perish by 2100 C.E., and that this global warming will last 100K years, adding in 2010 that "democracy must be put on hold for the time being"; too bad, in Apr. 2012 he gives an interview to MSNBC-TV, flopping on the issue, saying that he is no longer an "alarmist", with the soundbytes: "All right, I made a mistake", and had been "extrapolating too far"; when it comes to the claim that the science is settled, he utters the soundbytes: "One thing that being a scientist has taught me is that you can never be certain about anything. You never know the truth. You can only approach it and hope to get a bit nearer to it each time. You iterate towards the truth. You don't know it"; "It just so happens that the green religion is now taking over from the Christian religion"; "I don't think people have noticed that, but it's got all the sort of terms that religions use... The greens use guilt. That just shows how religious greens are. You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air"; "The problem is we don't know what the climate is doing. We thought we knew 20 years ago. That led to some alarmist books – mine included – because it looked clear-cut, but it hasn't happened"; "The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now. The world has not warmed up very much since the millennium. Twelve years is a reasonable time... it (the temperature) has stayed almost constant, whereas it should have been rising - carbon dioxide is rising, no question about that." He goes on to back nuclear energy, natural gas, and fracking. Watch video - James Lovelock. Watch video - James Lovelock.

James Hoggan (1946-)

In Jan. 2006 the DeSmog Blog is founded by public relations exec James "Jim" Hoggan (1946-) of Vancouver, B.C., Canada to push the global warming theory and oppose "a well-funded and highly organized public relations campaign" that is "poisoning" the climate change debate. On Sept. 29, 2009 he and Richard Littlemore pub. Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming; "Explains how the propaganda generated by self interest groups has purposely created confusion about climate change. It's an imperative read for a successful future." - Leonardo DiCaprio

Steven J. Milloy

On Feb. 1, 2006 Am. health science specialist Steven J. "Steve the Junkman" Milloy, founder of the Web site Junk Science (1996), known for funding by Am. tobacco cos. before becoming a vocal climate skeptic utters the soundbyte: "Our opposition to global warming alarmism is based on three points. First, we don't believe the available scientific data indicate that human activity is measurably changing global climate - history shows that natural climate change can be far more significant than any slight change in climate that may have occurred over the last 200 years. Second, even if human activity is altering global climate to some extent, such climate change might actually be beneficial - historically, civilization has fared better in warmer climatic conditions as opposed to cooler climatic conditions. Third, even if humans are undesirably affecting global climate, the best path forward may be adaptation to that climate change rather than harming the global economy through the expenditure of hundreds of billion dollars under the questionable rationale that greenhouse gas regulation can act as some sort of global thermostat. When the Clean Air Act was enacted in 1970, air pollution in the U.S. was more of an aesthetic than a public health problem. That is even more the case today. Few people realize this after 30 years of non-stop junk science-fueled alarmism from environmental activists"; on Apr. 20, 2006 he pub. the article The Greenhouse Myth on Fox News, containing the soundbytes: "[The] doubling of atmospheric CO2 from pre-Industrial Revolution days might increase global temperature from between 0.5 degrees Centigrade to 1.5 degrees Centigrade - that is, not much"; "[Anthropogenic climate change is not based on] actual temperature measurements and greenhouse physics - rather it comes from manmade computer models relying on myriad assumptions and guesswork." On Apr. 22, 2014 he speaks at the Heritage Foundation's Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement, with the soundbyte: "Of the many guises of the 'War on Coal,' global warming is perhaps the most used excuse... Simple math shows that the Obama war on coal, for purposes of climate control, is futile. Even if U.S.' CO2 emissions stopped today and were to be zero for the remainder of this century, atmospheric CO2 levels would only decrease by about 3%. There would be no measurable impact on global climate, at a cost of 25% of global GDP. We can debate the science of global warming to our heart's content, and we should, but the reality is worldwide hydrocarbon use is increasing. By itself, China is adding the equivalent of the entire U.S. coal fleet between now and 2020, India is adding 71 gigawatts of coal power between now and 2018 - almost as much as the Obama EPA has already shuttered. Obama's unilateral actions are all based on 'junk science' that will accomplish nothing except hurt our standard of living, devastate coal communities, raise electricity prices for all, and cause power outages." Watch video - Steven J. Milloy. Watch video - Steven J. Milloy.

David C. Archibald (1955-)

In Mar. 2006 Australian geologist David C. Archibald (1955-), dir. of the climate skeptic Lavoisier Group pub. the paper Solar Cycles 24 [Dec. 2008] and 25 [2019] and Predicted Climate Response in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "Based on solar maxima of approximately 50 for solar cycles 24 and 25, a global temperature decline of 1.5°C is predicted to 2020, equating to the experience of the Dalton Minimum. To provide a baseline for projecting temperature to the projected maximum of solar cycle 25, data from five rural, continental US stations with data from 1905 to 2003 was averaged and smoothed. The profile indicates that temperatures remain below the average over the first half of the twentieth century", launching a scientific movement connecting sunspots with Earth's climate; in Mar. 2008 he pub. the paper Solar Cycle 24: Implications for the United States, which starts out: "Do we live in a special time in which the laws of physics and nature are suspended? No, we do not. Can we expect relationships between the Sun’s activity and climate, that we can see in data going back several hundred years, to continue for at least another 20 years? With absolute certainy"; in Sept. 2008 he pub. the article Warming or cooling? in Oil & Gas Journal, arguing that the IPCC's claimed water vapor feedback effect is negative not positive, and there is no need to worry about runaway global warming; in Mar. 2009 he pub. the article Solar Cycle 24: Expectations and Implications, predicting global cooling during the upcoming Solar Cycles 24 and 25; on July 20, 2009 he pub. the article The Future of Energy in Australia, claiming the global warming issue is blocking consideration of the real problem of declining oil self-sufficiency; on Oct. 5, 2011 he gives the talk Peak Oil and Climate Change: The Threat to Agriculture and Food Security, advocating a switch to nuclear power; on Mar. 24, 2014 he pub. the book The Twilight of Abundance: Why Life in the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutiish, and Short, warning of a future prolonged global cooling period, and how nuclear power and transformation of coal into liquid fuels can help survive it, going on a book tour that pisses-off global warming advocates, who call him a fringe scientist. In 2012 Jan-Erik Solheim, Kjell Stordahl, and Ole Humlum take up where Archibald left off, with the paper The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24 in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, with the abstract: "Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0 deg C from solar cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 for the stations and areas analyzed." Watch video - David C. Archibald. Watch video - David C. Archibald.

Stephen Harper of Canada (1959-) Gordon McBean Andrew John Weaver (1961-) Kenneth Denman

On Apr. 6, 2006 60 scientists (incl. 19 Canadians) send an open letter titled 61 Scientists Request a Review of Climate Science to new Canadian PM #23 (since Feb. 6) (until Nov. 4, 2015) Stephen Joseph Harper (1959-), arguing against the Dec. 11, 1997 Kyoto Protocol (which became effective on Feb. 16, 2005) and questioning its scientific basis, causing 90 climate scientists led by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, Canadian climate modeling scientist Andrew John Weaver (1961-), and U. of Victoria ocean scientist Kenneth "Ken" Denman to send him an open letter calling for an effective nat. climate change strategy, resulting in the introduction of the Clean Air and Climate Change Act, which never becomes law, although the Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) is established to support govt. efforts to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, resulting in Canadian greenhouse emissions dropping from 749M tons to 726M tons during Harper's time in office, compared to an increase of 600M-749M tons in 1993-2006 during the previous Liberal govt., although this is due to the decreased economic output during the Great Recession of Dec. 2007-June 2009, and emissions began increasing in 2010 after the economy began recovering. On Aug. 26, 2008 Weaver pub. Keeping Our Cool: Canada in a Warming World, followed on May 1, 2011 by Generation Us: The Challenge of Global Warming. In Oct. 2012 Weaver joins the Green Party of British Columbia, becoming its leader on Dec. 9, 2015. In Dec. 2012 after announcing it in Dec. 2011, Harper withdraws Canada from the Kyoto Protocol, becoming the first country. On Mar. 21, 2018 never-say-die Weaver gives a speech to the British Columbia legislature, warning of climate change and saying that society needs to "rise to the challenge and not shy away from it".

Bob Carter (1942-2016) Stewart Franks

In Apr. 2006 English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) pub. the soundbyte: "There IS a problem with global warming... It stopped in 1998... That industrial carbon dioxide is not the primary cause of earth's recent decadal-scale temperature changes doesn't seem at all odd to many thousands of independent scientists. They have long appreciated - ever since the early 1990s, when the global warming bandwagon first started to roll behind the gravy train of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - that such short-term climate fluctuations are chiefly of natural origin"; on Nov. 3, 2006 he pub. the soundbyte in The Australian: "The empirical data stressed by climate rationalists will ultimately prevail over the predictions of the unvalidated computer models. Perhaps then we will be able to attend to the real climate policy problem, which is to prepare response plans for extreme weather events, and for climate warmings as well as coolings, in the same way we prepare to cope with all other natural hazards"; in Sept. 2014 he and Tom Harris pub. an op-ed in The New York Post, with the soundbyte: "Science is never settled, but the current state of 'climate change' science is quite clear: There is essentially zero evidence that carbon dioxide from human activities is causing catastrophic climate change." On Apr. 15, 2009 the Australian Parliament's Select Committee on Climate Policy takes testimony from climate skeptics incl. English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) and English "hydro-climatologist" Stewart "Stewie" Franks of the U. of Tasmania, who utters the soundbyte: "Our climate policies here in the west are already killing people and climate change has never been shown to have killed a single person"; Franks goes on to utter the soundbytes: "I don't think anybody knows the real role of carbon dioxide in climate change. To say it will be catastrophic is wrong. There is no evidence that CO2 drives climate change, but it continues to be used to scare people into action"; "A key concern is that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which advises governments around the world, has used the Murray-Darling Basin and incorrect science as an example of CO2-induced climate change"; "It is worth pointing out that the CO2 forcing in the IPCC models is only the start of their chain of disaster. It is actually the qualitative feedback with the clouds that generates the extreme disasters of runaway climate. It is not CO2 at all; it is a knock-on consequence. That has no empirical or scientific justification whatsoever. They could very much easily have built in negative feedback and found that the warming was actually reduced... We do not actually monitor what is the most important parameter for this planet; this is, its reflectivity—its albedo. We do not even measure that. A very small changed in the planetary albeit it would completely swamp any additional forcing by CO2 and we do not even measure it. How can we say CO2 is a scientifically proven theory of disastrous climate change? We cannot. We can be concerned about the future, but until it shows itself demonstrably there is no empirical evidence of CO2 leading to this runaway climate change." Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Stewart Franks. Watch video - Stewart Franks.

Steve Goreham

In Apr. 2006 the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition (NZCSC) is founded "To represent accurately, and without prejudice, facts regarding climate change; to provide considered opinion on matters related to both natural and human-caused climate effects; and to comment on the economic and socio-political consequences of climate change"; in 2007 the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC) is founded by the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition, with the goal of "moving the debate away from implementation of costly and ineffectual 'climate control' measures", providing an "international response to what has become a very international, heavily funded climate alarmist effort around the world"; "ICSC also focuses on publicizing the repercussions of misguided plans to solve the 'climate crisis'. This includes, but is not be limited to, the dangerous impacts of attempts to replace conventional energy sources with wind turbines, solar power, biofuels and other ineffective and expensive energy sources"; it goes on to create the Australian Climate Coalition and the Climate Science Coalition of Am., headed by Am. electrical engineer Steve Goreham; on Apr. 7, 2008 Canadian mechanical engineer Tom Harris (1953-) becomes exec. dir. of the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC), going on to engage in a media campaign and pub. articles giving the climate skeptic side; too bad, U.S. Dem. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse claims they're funded by the "Web of Deceit", "a web of deceit conceived and bankrolled by the Koch brothers and other self-interested billionaires to advocate for very selfish and unpatriotic politics. This web of deceit has infiltrated and populated the Trump administratin, and it is swamping the interests of everyday Americans." On Apr. 1, 2010 Goreham pub. the book Climatism! Science, Common Sense, and the 21st Century's Hottest Topic, "an overview of the science, politics, and energy policy implications of the world's misguided efforts to stop warming", defining Climatism as the belief that humans cause global warming, with the soundbytes: "The science clearly shows that global warming is due to natural causes, despite the tidal wave of world belief in man-made climate change"; "The global wind industry is built on a foundation of sand - the hypothesis that man-made global warming is destroying Earth's climate"; On Aug. 31, 2012 Goreham pub. the book The Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism: Mankind and Climate Change Mania (2nd ed. Aug. 31, 2012), with the ad blurb: "Is it true that... by driving electric cars, we can stop the seas from rising?... The good news is that, contrary to what our newspaper, our professor, or our political leader tells us, global warming is natural and cars are innocent." On May 1, 2017 Goreham pub. the book Outside the Green Box: Rethinking Sustainable Development, with the ad blurb: "Today, businesses are trapped in the green box of sustainable development. Academics, government leaders, public opinion, and thousands of laws and regulations demand the adoption of sustainability. In response, companies spend billions on renewable energy, carbon credits, biofuels, and other green policies in an effort to counter the coming environmental apocalypse. But a look at data and trends shows that the ideology of environmental sustainable development is based on false concepts. Population growth is slowing, nations continue to reduce air and water pollution, climate change is dominated by natural factors, with the effects from human greenhouse emissions negligible, and societal access to resources continues to grow. Society and business should adopt a policy that is sensibly green, continuing to reduce air and water pollution, but avoid other policies aimed at stopping global warming and halting hydrocarbon use. These policies do little for Earth's environment." Watch video - Steve Goreham.

Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) 'An Inconvenient Truth' by Al Gore (1948-), 2006

On May 24, 2006 Washington, D.C.-born former U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) (1985-93) and Dem. U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It; pub. by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Penn.; the cover photo shows huge smokestacks belching a complete tornado; "I am Al Gore, and I used to be the next president of the United States of America"; "You see that pale, blue dot? That's us. Everything that has ever happened in all of human history, has happened on that pixel. All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars all the famines, all the major advances... it's our only home. And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization. I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future"; "As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives"; "Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us"; "Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, 'What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had a chance?' We have to hear that question from them, now"; "The scientists are virtually screaming from the rooftops now. The debate is over! There's no longer any debate in the scientific community about this. But the political systems around the world have held this at arm's length because it's an inconvenient truth, because they don't want to accept that it's a moral imperative"; "It is appropriate to have an over representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis"; "An Inconvenient Truth is so convincing that it makes opposers of the argument as credible as Holocaust deniers" (Jon Niccum); released along with a film (May 24), which does $24M U.S. and $26M worldwide box office, which is followed by An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power (July 28, 2017), which only grosses $5M worldwide; "I don't think anybody can prepare on a physical level. It isn't possible to prepare for what is about to happen. The Pentagon gives us one to three years left of normal life on this planet. Now you have Al Gore's movie 'An Inconvenient Truth', whom I find very optimistic, as he gives us ten years. But I don't know a single scientist on the planet who gives us ten years or anybody else who gives us that long. What the Pentagon talks about is the rapid changes in climate, making it impossible to live in certain areas. Exactly where those areas are, they don't know" (Drunvalo Melchizedek); the book is followed by the sequel Our Choice (original title: The Path to Survival) (Nov. 2009) - or, drowning polar bears, submerged mainly Dem. Manhattan and San Fran, and why I shoulda been president then grew a beard to save electricity? On May 31, 2006 Jonathan Freeland pub. the article Born again in The Guardian, containing the soundbyte: "Patiently, and surely for the 10,000th time, he explains what's going wrong. The atmosphere is like a coat of varnish around the globe, he says. When it's thin, as it should be, heat naturally escapes. But when it gets thicker, thanks to carbon dioxide emitted by us, it traps in the heat and the world gets warmer. 'It's cooking and wilting the most vulnerable parts of the eco-system, melting all the mountain glaciers, the north polar ice cap, parts of Antarctica, parts of Greenland.' That molten ice-water will raise sea-levels, flooding food-producing areas that all of us rely on. Eventually it will submerge whole cities, from San Francisco to Shanghai. The site of the Twin Towers will not be a memorial garden: it will be underwater. 'This could literally end civilisation.' He smiles. 'I know it sounds alarmist, as if this is hyperbole, like a man with a white beard holding a placard, saying the end of the world is near... but this really is a planetary emergency'." On Nov. 5, 2007 Gore utters the soundbyte on NBC-TV's "Today Show": "There are still people who believe that the Earth is flat... you don't search out for someone who still believes the Earth is flat and give them equal time"; on Mar. 30, 2008 he appears on CBS-TV's "60 Minutes" to unveil a $300M advertising blitz to force a debate on climate change during the U.S. pres. elections, uttering the soundbyte about climate change skeptics: "I think that those people are in such a tiny, tiny minority now with their point of view, they're almost like the ones who still believe that the Moon landing was staged in a movie lot in Arizona and those who believe the earth is flat. That demeans them a little bit, but it's not that far off." In Mar. 2008 Gore's Law is formulated: "As an online climate change debate grows longer, the probability that denier arguments will descend into attacks on Al Gore approaches 1." Gore became a millionaire from hawking climate change, going from a net worth of $1.7M in 2000 to $200M in 2017, buying an $8.8M 6.5K sq. ft. seafront home in Calif. and traveling in a gas hog private jet while claiming to travel on cheap Southwest Airlines? Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Drew Johnson and Tucker Carlson on Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore on the Rubin Report. Watch video - Thomas Sowell on Al Gore.

Thomas Wysmuller

On Aug. 6, 2006 former NASA meteorologist Thomas "Tom" Wysmuller founds the Web site The Colder Side of Global Warming, containing the articles The Recent Temperature and CO2 Disconnect, and The Inconvenient CO2/Sea Level Non-Linkage, which contain the soundbytes: "There has been a stunning disconnect involving land temperatures globally and CO2, whether man-made or naturally sourced. The oceans continue to warm, while the surface record flatlines.... It is obvious that the surface records are NOT going up - they are basically in a 0.2C flatline"; "If CO2 is to be considered a major driver of temperatures, it is doing a counterintuitive dance around the numbers." Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller. Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller. Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller.

On Sept. 26, 2006 James Hansen et al. of NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies warn that the Earth's temperature is the warmest in 12K years, and has been warming .036F (0.2C) per decade for the past 30 years; 1.7K plant, animal, and insect species move poleward at an avg. rate of 4 mi. (6.5km) per decade in the last half of the 20th cent.

Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-)

On Sept. 27, 2006 the Calif. Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 is signed by Calif. Repub. Gov. (2003-11) Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (1947-), establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse emissions from all sources in the state, strengthening his Executive Order S-3-05 of June 1, 2005 establishing greenhouse emissions targets.

Don J. Eastbrook (1936-)

On Oct. 23, 2006 Western Wash. U. geologist Don J. Eastbrook (1936-) pub. the paper The Cause of Global Warming and Predictions for the Coming Century, containing the soundbyte: "If the cycles continue as in the past, the current warm cycle should end soon and global temperatures should cool slightly until about 2035, then warm about 0.5°C from ~2035 to ~2065, and cool slightly until 2100. The total increase in global warming for the century should be ~0.3 °C, rather than the catastrophic warming of 3-6°C (4-11°F) predicted by the IPCC." On Mar. 10, 2009 Eastbrook speaks at the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte that a decades-long global cooling spell is coming, deeper than the one in the mid-20th cent., maxing-out energy sources, with the soundbyte: "We want to reduce pollution, increase efficiency, decrease dependence on foreign oil. The difficulty I see is greater demands and fewer resources." Watch video - Don J. Eastbrook.

Nicholas Stern (1946-)

On Oct. 30, 2006 the 550-page Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is pub. by the British govt., written by 20 writers supervised by British economist Nicholas Herbert Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford (1946-), containing the soundbyte: "Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. The evidence on the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming... The problem of climate change involves a fundamental failure of markets: those who damage others by emitting greenhouse gases generally do not pay", recommending large environmental taxes incl. carbon taxes and carbon trading to supposedly circumvent a 5%-20% GDP loss per year, causing criticism of his freewheeling application of discount rates; Stern goes on to advocate vegetarianism to mitigate climate change. In Oct.-Dec. 2006 The Stern Review: A Dual Critique (2 parts) is pub. in World Economics, with Part 1 written by Robert M. Carter, C.R. de Freitas, Indur M. Goklany, David Holland, and Richard S. Lindzen, with the conclusion: "We conclude that the Stern Review is biased and alarmist in its reading ofthe science. In particular, it displays: (1) a failure to acknowledge the scope and scale of the knowledge gaps and uncertainties in climate science (2) credulous acceptance of hypothetical, model-based explanations of the causality of climate phenomena (3) massive overestimation of climate impacts through an implausible population scenario and one-sided treatment of the impacts literature,including reliance on agenda-driven advocacy documents (4) lack of due diligence in evaluating many pivotal research studies despite the scandalous lack of disclosure of data and methods in these studies (5) lack of concern for the defects and inadequacies of the peer reviewprocess as a guarantor of quality or truth"; Part 2 concludes: "(1) it greatly understates the extent of uncertainty as to possible developments, in highly complex systems that are not well understood, over a period of two centuries or more (2) its treatment of sources and evidence is persistently selective and biased." Watch video - Nicholas Stern.

Anthony Watts (1958-) Tony Heller (1957-)

On Nov. 17, 2006 Am. TV meteorologist Willard Anthony Watts (1958-) launches the blog Watts Up With That? (WUWT), opposing proponents of anthropogenic climate change esp. by CO2, going on to help spread the Climatic Research Unit controversy in Nov. 2009, and becoming the #1 climate change blog on Earth (until ?); Tony Heller (1957-) of Boulder, Colo. builds up a rep on the blog under the alias Steven Goddard with allegations that NASA has been falsely claiming the year 1998 as the hottest in U.S. history when it was really 1934 after "adjusting" temperature data in a way which is "highly subjective, and subject to software and algorithm errors", going on to launch his own blog The Deplorable (Real) Climate Science Blog, with the motto: "Pulling Back the Curtain on Junk Science", continuing to expose govt. agencies incl. NASA, NOAA, the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, and the Japanese Meteorological Agency as data fakers, and paint a picture of the "global warming religion"; in Aug. 2007 NASA admits that 1934 is the hottest year on record for the U.S., but claims that the hottest year on Earth for the past cent. is still 2005. On Sept. 2, 2018 Heller exposes the New York Times for climate fraud. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller.

In Nov. 2006 the Nat. Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP) pub. a survey on climate change, with 82% claiming that global warming is real and measurable, 67% claiming that the U.S. is not doing enough to combat it, 66% claiming that global warming is a serious problem, 40% wanting the automotive industry regulated, and 39% wanting carbon emissions regulated.

Nancy Pelosi of the U.S. (1940-)

On Mar. 8, 2007 after Calif. Dem. Rep. (since Jan. 3, 1993) Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (1940-) (House Speaker #52 since Jan. 4) announced it on Jan. 18, the U.S. House Select Committee for Energy Independence and Global Warming, which is disbanded on Jan. 6, 2011 after the Repubs. gain control of the House for the 112th Congress on Jan. 3. Calvin Beisner (1955-) Lawson R. Bader

In 2006 the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (originally the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance), "the most influential evangelical anti-environmentalist in the United States" is founded by evangelical Christian Ernest Calvin Beisner (1955-) to fight environmentalism as "one of the greatest threats to society and the church today", and "the greatest threat to Western civilization", with the soundbyte: "Earth and its ecosystems - created by God's intelligent design and infinite power and sustained by His faithful providence – are robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting, admirably suited for human flourishing, and displaying His glory. Earth's climate system is no exception"; Protect the Poor: Ten Reasons to Oppose Harmful Climate Change Policies starts out: "As the product of infinitely wise design, omnipotent creation, and faithful sustaining, Earth is robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting. "Although Earth and its subsystems, including the climate system, are susceptible to some damage by ignorant or malicious human action, God's wise design and faithful sustaining make these natural systems more likely - as confirmed by widespread scientific observation p to respond in ways that suppress and correct that damage than magnify it catastrophically"; the "Evangelical Declaration on Global Warming" states: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human contribution to greenhouse gases is causing dangerous global warming." Its parent group, the James Partnership is funded by the secretive Donors Trust, chaired since Sept. 2015 by Lawson R. Bader, former CEO of the Competitive Enterprise Inst. In 2010 the Cornwall Alliance releases the film Resisting the Green Dragon, which calls environmentalism a "false religion" and "global government" power grab; "In what has become one of the greatest deceptions of our day, radical environmentalism is striving to put America and the world under its destructive control. This so-called Green Dragon is seducing your children in our classrooms and popular culture. Its lust for political power now extends to the highest global levels, and its twisted view of the world elevates Nature above the needs of people, of even the poorest and most helpless. With millions falling prey to its spiritual deception, the time is now to stand and resist." Watch video.

Augie Auer Jr. (1940-2007)

In 2006 St. Louis, Mo.-born Kiwi meteorologist August H. "Augie" Auer Jr. (1940-2007) co-founds the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition to fight claims for anthropogenic global warming, calling on the Kiwi govt. to institute a royal commission on climate change because the public are "being given incomplete, inaccurate and biased information about the effects of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere", claiming that "global warming caused by man-made emissions of greenhouse gases... cannot be substantiated", which they refuse; on May 19, 2007 Auer gives an interview to The Timaru Herald newspaper, containing the soundbyte: "Water vapour was responsible for 95 per cent of the greenhouse effect, an effect which was vital to keep the world warm... If we didn't have the greenhouse effect the planet would be at minus 18 °C but because we do have the greenhouse effect it is plus 15 °C, all the time. The other greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, and various others including CFCs, contributed only five per cent of the effect, carbon dioxide being by far the greatest contributor at 3.6 per cent. It would be like trying to increase the temperature of bath tub full of water using one drop from an eye dropper"; too bad, on June 10 he drops dead in Melbourne on his 67th birthday.

Andrew Dessler (1964-) Kate Marvel (1978-)

In 2006 Houston, Tex.-born Texas A&M climate scientist Andrew Dessler (1964-) and Edward A. Parson pub. The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate (2nd ed. 2009), which becomes a hit for teaching climate science from the global warmist viewpoint; on Oct. 10, 2011 he follows it with Introduction to Modern Climate Change. On Jan. 16, 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, claiming that climate warming is real and "humans are now in the driver's seat... we have our foot on the gas, but unfortunately we don't have our hands on the wheel", adding "We know that, over the next century, if nothing is done to rein in emissions, temperatures will likely increase enough to profoundly change the planet." After a front page article is pub. in The New York Times discussing the theory that clouds might offset the effects of increased greenhouses gases, he pub. an article in 2011 in Geophysical Research Letters that "offered some evidence that clouds will exacerbate the long-term planetary warming", calling climate change skeptics believers in an "alternate reality", causing him to be targeted by climate change skeptics, making him more popular? - pretending to predict global climate in 2100 isn't an alternate reality? On June 18, 2015 Columbia U./NASA Goodard Inst. for Space Studies climate scientist Kate Marvel (1978-) (big proponent of CO2-driven global warming) pub. the article THe Hidden Importance of Clouds, discussing the power of clouds to moderate global warming, speculating that "It seems unlikely, though, that clouds will completely nullify the effects of our carbon dioxide emissions. They may at most buy us time and delay the consequences of our actions." On June 8, 2018 Scientific American launches its Climate Science Column, written by Kate Marvel. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Kate Marvel. Watch video - Kate Marvel. Watch video - Kate Marvel.

Patrick Moore (1947-)

In 2006 Port Alice, B.C., Canada-born former Greenpeace pres. (1977-86) Patrick Moore (who left after it "took a sharp turn to the political left" and "evolved into an organization of extremism and politically motivated agendas" writes a letter to the British Royal Society, claiming that there is "no scientific proof that mankind was causing global climate change", and that it "has a much better correlation with changes in solar activity than CO2 levels", adding that global warming can be good if it creates more arable land, advocating adaptation to it; on Feb. 27, 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Senate, uttering the soundbytes: "There is no scientific proof that human emissions of carbon dioxide are the dominant cause of the minor warming of the Earth's atmosphere over the past 100 years. If there were such a proof it would be written down for all to see. No actual proof, as it is understood in science, exists"; "When modern life evolved over 500 million years ago, CO2 was more than 10 times higher than today, yet life flourished at this time. Then an Ice Age occurred 450 million years ago when CO2 was 10 times higher than today. There is some correlation, but little evidence, to support a direct causal relationship between CO2 and global temperature through the millennia. The fact that we had both higher temperatures and an ice age at a time when CO2 emissions were 10 times higher than they are today fundamentally contradicts the certainty that human-caused CO2 emissions are the main cause of global warming"; "Today, we live in an unusually cold period in the history of life on Earth and there is no reason to believe that a warmer climate would be anything but beneficial for humans and the majority of other species"; "Humans just aren't capable of predicting global temperature changes." Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore.

2007

Christopher C. Horner 'The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming' by Christopher C. Horner, 2007

On Jan. 1, 2007 Am. atty. Christopher C. "Chris" Horner (senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Inst.) pub. the NYT bestseller The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming (and Environmentalism), followed by Red Hot Lies: How Global Warming Alarmists Use Threats, Fraud, and Deception to Keep You Misinformed (Oct. 21, 2008), Power Grab: How Obama's Green Policies Will Steal Your Freedom and Bankrupt America (Apr. 19, 2010), and The Liberal War on Transparency: Confessions of a Freedom of Information "Criminal" (Oct. 2, 2012), becoming "instrumental in orchestrating the attacks on climate scientists over the past decade in the form of vexatious and frivolous FOIA demands, efforts to force scientists to turn over all of their personal email" (Michael Mann, a victim); too bad, his acceptance of funding by coal cos. is used by his critics to go low?; "The longtime go-to guy on global warming extremism." (Rush Limbaugh) Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner.

On Jan. 14, 2007 (14:30 GMT) the Doomsday Clock is set to 5 min. to midnight, becoming the 4th forward set since 1991, prompted by nuclear standoffs with Iran and N Korea and warnings of climate change; "Global warming could kill millions. We should have a war on global warming rather than the war on terror" (Stephen W. Hawking, Jan. 17); China's emissions increase 8% this year, causing it to overtake the U.S. as the top producer of greenhouse gases (14% higher), although the U.S. still leads on a per capita basis, 19.4 tons, vs. 11.8 in Russia, 8.6 in the EU, 5.1 in China, and 1.8 in India.

'Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?', by William Hunt, 2009

On Jan. 22, 2007 Am. geologist-environmentalist William Hunt pub. the article The Nonsense of Global Warming, containing the soundbytes: "Global warming, geologic dating techniques, and uniformitarianism all can be considered junk science as much of the physical evidence argues against them"; "The facts, such as we can observe and calculate them, do not support the idea of man-made global warming. Natural processes completely eclipse anything that man can accomplish - a minor rainstorm expends more energy than a large nuclear explosive releases and the lowest category of hurricane expends more energy than all of the nuclear weapons ever produced in a short time. Most geologists and indeed, most scientists in the U.S., do not accept the idea that global warming resulting from human activities is a viable theory - because most have an appreciation for the kind of power inherent in natural systems. Conversely, most biologists do accept the idea of mancaused global warming and quote scientists in other fields, without understanding those other fields sufficiently to make a logical judgment as to whether the studies were reasonable in their methods and claims. They simply take it on faith that the scientistspropounding global warming are correct in their methods and assumptions. The problem with computer [climate] modeling is that only a tiny percentage of the literally millions of variables involved can be written into a program. It's currently impossible for us to accurately model Earth's climate and we are not aware of all of the variables yet"; in 2007 he pub. the audio series Global Warming Exposed, followed on June 10, 2009 by the book Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?

Henrik Svensmark (1958-) Nigel Calder (1931-2014)

On Jan. 25, 2007 Danish physicist Henrik Svensmark (1958-) pub. the paper Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges in Astronomy and Geophysics, tracing climate change to solar activity and their effect on cosmic rays, not CO2; in 2007 Svensmark and British science writer Nigel David Calder (McKail-Ritchie-Calder) (1931-2014) pub. the book The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change; in 1980 Calder predicted that by 2000 "the much-advertised heating of the earth by the man-made carbon dioxide 'greenhouse' fails to occur; instead, there is renewed concern about cooling an an impending ice age." "The hypothesis is that solar variability is linked to climate variability by a chain that involves the solar wind, cosmic rays, and clouds"; "Those who are absolute certain that the rise in temperature is due solely to carbon dioxide have no scientific justification. It's pure guesswork." On Mar. 20, 2015 (08:30 GMT) (Fri.) (equinox) a full-supermoon-vernal-equinox-solar eclipse knocks out solar-generated electricity in Europe, where 100x as much power is generated from the Sun than during the last eclipse in 1999; first total solar eclipse to coincide with the northern spring equinox since 1662; next on Mar. 20, 3034; the 2:47 eclipse causes Svalbard Island in Norway to experience a sudden temperature drop from 8F to -7F, disproving that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and proving Henrik Svensmark right? Watch video.

Peter Hadfield

On Jan. 26, 2007 Potholer54 (former BBC journalist Peter Hadfield) launches a YouTube channel, going on to release videos attempting to debunk climate change denialists, reaching 27K subscribers by Mar. 2010, and 157K by 2018; watch sample video.

In Jan. 2007 Seth Shulman et al. of the Union of Concerned Scientists pub. Smoke, Mirrors & Hot Air: How ExxonMobil Uses Big Tobacco's Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science, with the intro: "In an effort to deceive the public about the reality of global warming, ExxonMobil has underwritten the most sophisticated and most successful disinformation campaign since the tobacco industry misled the public about the scientific evidence linking smoking to lung cancer and heart disease. As this report documents, the two disinformation campaigns are strikingly similar. ExxonMObil has drawn upon the tactics and even some of the organizations and actors involved in the callous disinformation campaign the tobacco industry waged for 40 years", drawing a big bead on climate skeptic Patrick J. Michaels.

On Feb. 9, 2007 Sir Richard Branson offers a $25M reward for the invention of a way to suck greenhouse gases out of the air - plant trees?

On Feb. 25, 2007 the 79th Academy Awards, hosted by Ellen Degeneres are held at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.; 306 films are eligible for consideration; the Oscars officially go green; the best picture Oscar for 2006 goes to The Departed, along with best dir. to sentimental favorite Martin Scorsese on his 6th try (beating Paul Greengrass' better United 93?); best actor goes to Forest "Idi Amin" Whitaker for The Last King of Scotland, best actress goes to Helen "Liz II" Mirren for The Queen ("Our Leaders. Ourselves.") (10-y.-o. Abigail Breslin, who played Olive Hoover in Little Miss Sunshine is passed over, as is Meryl Streep, who played Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada, her 14th nomination, two more than Jack Nicholson and Kate Hepburn), best supporting actor goes to Alan Alda in Little Miss Sunshine (Eddie Murphy, who plays James Brown clone James "Thunder" Early is passed over, perhaps because of his crude toilet-humor world's fattest woman flick Norbit, which comes out just at the wrong time, causing him to storm out of the awards show), and best supporting actress goes to Jennifer Hudson for playing Effie White in Dreamgirls (proving that rejection by Simon Cowell on "American Idol" is the ticket to fame?); Al Gore wins for the global warming documentary An Inconvenient Truth (dir. by Davis Guggenheim) ("By far the most terrifying film you will ever see"), which also garners Lezzie Lezzeridge, er, Melissa Etheridge a best song Oscar for I Need to Wake Up; before going to the stage she gives her wife a big kiss, then dedicates the win to her and her four kids (the highlight of the evening?); Gore utters the soundbyte: "People all over the world, we need to solve the climate crisis. It's not a political issue, it's a moral issue"; sound engineer Kevin O'Connell of Apocalypto sets a record with 19 straight Oscar nominations and 0 wins, losing to Dreamgirls; Pilobolus Dance Theatre provides the briefest numbers yet seen, despite one of the longest Oscar ceremonies ever.

'The Great Global Warming Swindle', 2007

On Mar. 8, 2007 Martin Durkin's The Great Global Warming Swindle (original title: "Apocalypse my arse") debuts on BBC Channel 4, questioning the scientific consensus on global warming, calling it "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times", with the soundbytes: "This is a story about how a theory about climate turned into a political ideology"; "People have decided you have to convince other people that since no scientist disagrees you shouldn't disagree either, but whenever you hear that in science that's pure propaganda"; "I don't like to call it the environmental movement anymore, because really it is a political activist movement, and they have become hugely influential at a global level": "It is the story of the distortion of a whole area of science"; "Climate scientists need there to be a problem in order to get funding"; "We have a vested interest in creating panic because then money will flow to climate science": "There is one thing you shouldn't say, and that is this might not be a problem"; "It is the story of how a political campaign turned into a bureaucratic bandwagon"; "The fact of the matter is that tens of thousands of jobs depend on global warming right now. It's a big business"; "It's become a great industry in itself. And if the whole global warming fraud would collapse, there's be an awful lot of people out of jobs and looking for work"; "This is a story of censorship and intimidation"; "I have seen and heard them spitting fury at anybody that might disagree with them, which is not the scientific way"; "It is a story about Westerners invoking the threat of climatic disaster to hinder vital industrial progress in the developing world"; "One clear thing that emerges from the environmental debate is the point that somebody came to kill the African Dream, and the African Dream is to develop"; "The environmental force has developed into the strongest force there is for preventing development in the developing countries"; "The global warming story is a cautionary tale of how a media scare became the defining idea of a generation"; "The whole global warming business has become like a religion, and people who disagree are called heretics... the makers of this program are all heretics"; "Global warming has become a story of huge political significance; environmental activists using scare tactics to further their cause; scientists adding credence to secure billions of dollars in research money; politicians after headlines and a media happy to play along. No one dares speak against it for risk of being unpopular, losing funds and jeopardizing careers", pissing-off the PC police, causing U.K. broadcasting regulatory agency Ofcom to come down on them, making them rebroadcast it and correct three errors. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - complete movie.

On Mar. 21, 2007 Al Gore appears before Congress with a boxes full of petitions to take action on global warming, becoming his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Jan. 2001.

Václav Klaus of Czech. (1941-)

In Mar. 2007 global warming skeptic economist-politician Vaclav (Václav) Klaus (1941-), pres. #2 of the Czech Repub. in 2003-13 gives a speech at the Cato Inst. in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte: "Environmentalism should belong in the social sciences, along with other isms such as communism, feminism, and liberalism", and compared environmentalism to a religion, a "modern counterpart of communism that seeks to change peoples' habits and economic systems." In June 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Financial Times, calling environmentalism "the biggest threat to freedom, democracy, a market economy and prosperity", calling on readers to oppose the term "scientific consensus", adding that "it is always achieved only by a loud minority, never by a silent majority." In Sept. 2007 he he speaks at the 2007 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling for a second IPCC to be established to produce competing reports, and for countries to be left alone to set their priorities and prepare their own plans for the problem. In 2007 he pub. the book Blue Planet in Green Shackles, which contains the soundbyte: "The theory of global warming and the hypothesis on its causes, which has spread around massively nowadays, may be a bad theory, it may also be a valueless theory, but in any case it is a very dangerous theory." In Sept. 2009 he speaks at the 2009 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling it "propagandistic" and "undignified". On July 26, 2011 he speaks at the Nat. Press Club, calling global warming "a Communist conspiracy." On May 21, 2012 he speaks at the Heartland Inst. 7th Internat. Conference on Climate Change. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus.

On Apr. 2, 2007 the U.S. Supreme (Roberts) Court rules 5-4 in Mass. vs. EPA (the Endangerment Finding) to rebuke the Bush admin. for inaction on global warming, declaring that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act, and that the EPA has the authority to regulate those emissions from new cars and trucks, after which on Dec. 15, 2009 the EPA pub. its Final Endangerment Findings with Respect to Greenhouse Gases, followed on Aug. 13, 2010 by EPA's Denial of the Petitions To Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, pissing-off climate skeptics, who begin lobbying to overturn it, forming the Fourteen Amici, representing the Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc., who file a lawsuit in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia on May 27, 2011 against the EPA and its head Lisa P. Jackson, which claims that "the EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious", with the soundbyte: "[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures." Watch video. Watch video.

Steven F. Hayward (1958-)

On Apr. 12, 2007 the documentary film An Inconvenient Truth... or Convenient Fiction? debuts, starring conservative scholar Steven F. Hayward (1958-), aping Al Gore's PowerPoint presentation, agreeing with many of his points but dissing "global warming extremists" for slanting it toward an Armageddon, with the soundbyte: "What I disagree with is overall pessimism"; he later claims that there was global warming between 1978-98, when it suddenly stopped despite atmospheric CO2 continuing to rise, causing climate change models to be falsified. Watch video - Steven F. Hayward.

Glenn Beck (1964-)

On May 2, 2007 Exposed: The Climate of Fear debuts on CNN, hosted by Everett, Wash.-born Glenn Lee Beck (1964-) (his last show before moving to Fox-TV), featuring prominent climate change skeptics and deniers incl. Tim Ball, John Christy, Bjorn Lomborg, Patrick Michaels, Patrick Moore, and Roy Spencer; "Yes, Al Gore, there is another credible side." Watch video - Global Warming Exposed - ad. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 1. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 2. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 3. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 4. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 5.

On May 24, 2007 J.P. Donnelly and J.D. Woodruff pub. the article Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the West African monsoon, in PubMed, concluding from an examination of 5K years of sediment cores from the Caribbean that increased frequency of intense tropical cyclones is due to variations in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the strength of the West African moonson rather than sea surface temps.

On May 25, 2007 Richard Seager et al. pub. the paper Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America, predicting "a permanent drought by 2050 throughout the Southwest", with 1930s Dust Bowl conditions from Calif. to Kan.; on Jan. 26, 2009 NOAA issues the press release Irreversible climate change because of carbon dioxide emissions, with the soundbyte: "The climate change that is taking place because of increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop... Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the 'dust bowl' era and inexorable sea level rise"; on Oct. 19, 2010 Aiguo Dai of NCAR pub. the paper Drought under global warming: a review, claiming that if atmospheric CO2 reaches 520 ppm in 2050 and 700 in 2100, much of the U.S. and large parts of the rest of the world could experience worse levels of drought than in the 1930s Dust Bowl but affecting 10x-100x as many people, with the soundbyte: "The United States and many other heavily populated countries face a growing threat of severe and prolonged drought in coming decades... possibly reaching a scale in some regions by the end of the century that has rarely, if ever, been observed in modern times"; on Dec. 14, 2010 Connie Woodhouse et al. of the U. of Ariz. pub. a paper predicting "a Medieval-style drought with even warmer temperatures" in the Am. Southwest by 2100; New Study puts the 'hell' in Hell and High Water, on July 11, 2011 a 2-mi.-high 50-mi.-wide Dust Storm envelops Phoenix, Ariz., causing Brian Williams of NBC-TV to call it "The Dust Storm that Swallowed Up an American City", and Joseph Romm to pub. an article in energycentral.com, calling it a "haboob... just the shape of things to come for the entire Southwest".

Live Earth, 2007

On June 26, 2007 David de Rothschild and William Van Roden pub. The Live Earth Global Warming Survival Handbook: 77 Essential Skills to Stop Climate Change as an official companion book to the Live Earth concerts; on July 7 400K attend the globally-televised Live Earth concert at Copacabana Beach in Brazil and 10 other locations around the world to spotlight climate change, sponsored by Save Our Selves, founded by Kevin Wall with backing by Al Gore et al., receiving a record 15M live video streams, becoming a hit in Canada and a flop in the U.K. and U.S.

R. Timothy 'Tim' Patterson

On June ?, 2007 Canadian Carleton U. geologist R. Timothy "Tim" Patterson pub. an article in the Financial Post of Canada, predicting a general climatic cooling as the Sun enters Cycle 25 about 2018; "Despite this clear and repeated correlation, the measured variations in incoming solar energy were, on their own, not sufficient to cause the climate changes we have observed in our proxies. In addition, even though the sun is brighter now than at any time in the past 8,000 years, the increase in direct solar input is not calculated to be sufficient to cause the past century's modest warming on its own. There had to be an amplifier of some sort for the sun to be a primary driver of climate change. Indeed, that is precisely what has been discovered. In a series of groundbreaking scientific papers starting in 2002, Veizer, Shaviv, Carslaw, and most recently Svensmark et al., have collectively demonstrated that as the output of the sun varies, and with it, our star's protective solar wind, varying amounts of galactic cosmic rays from deep space are able to enter our solar system and penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. These cosmic rays enhance cloud formation which, overall, has a cooling effect on the planet. When the sun's energy output is greater, not only does the Earth warm slightly due to direct solar heating, but the stronger solar wind generated during these 'high sun' periods blocks many of the cosmic rays from entering our atmosphere. Cloud cover decreases and the Earth warms still more. The opposite occurs when the sun is less bright. More cosmic rays are able to get through to Earth's atmosphere, more clouds form, and the planet cools more than would otherwise be the case due to direct solar effects alone. This is precisely what happened from the middle of the 17th century into the early 18th century, when the solar energy input to our atmosphere, as indicated by the number of sunspots, was at a minimum and the planet was stuck in the Little Ice Age. These new findings suggest that changes in the output of the sun caused the most recent climate change... By comparison, CO2 variations show little correlation with our planet's climate on long, medium and even short time scales.... Solar scientists predict that, by 2020, the sun will be starting into its weakest Schwabe solar cycle of the past two centuries, likely leading to unusually cool conditions on Earth. Beginning to plan for adaptation to such a cool period, one which may continue well beyond one 11-year cycle, as did the Little Ice Age, should be a priority for governments. It is global cooling, not warming, that is the major climate threat to the world, especially Canada." In Nov. 2015 he speaks to the Canadian Internat. Council (CIC), telling them that in addition to concerns over the long-term impact of global warming it would be prudent for Canadian policymakers and planners to be aware that "climatic cooling associated with Solar Cycle 25 and a corresponding trough in the Gleissberg Cycle may negatively impact the Canadian agricultural sector. During any climatic warming agricultural methods used to the south can be immediately adapted. However, cooling such as may occur beginning about 2018 would be an agricultural and national disaster as no one is farming north of us." Watch video - Tim Patterson.

Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014)

On July 7, 2007 German mathematical physicists Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014) and Ralf D. Tscheuschner pub. the killer paper Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics, with the abstract: "The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33 degrees Celsius is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified, and (f) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, pissing-off global warmists, who pub. alleged refutations, resulting in both sides sticking to their guns; "The CO2-greenhouse effect of the Earth atmosphere is pure fiction of people who like to use big computers, without physical fundamentals"; "The main strategy of modern CO2-greenhouse gas defenders seems to hide themselves behind more and more pseudo explanations, which are not part of the academic education or even of the physics training."

Al Gore (1948-) and Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-)

On Oct. 12, 2007 the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize is awarded jointly to U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (1948-) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) chmn. (2002-15) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-), "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"; they accept it on Dec. 10.

Terry Wimberley (1949-)

On Nov. 1, 2007 Am. marine-environmental scientist Edward T. "Terry" Wimberley (1949-) of Fla. Gulf Coast U. writes the soundbyte: "At issue is how big of a problem is human produced CO2 emissions. Undoubtedly to some marginal degree - which scientists debate about - it is a problem, but is it the major cause of global warming? No. More important is the interaction of solar activity (solar winds) with penetrating cosmic rays into the earth's atmosphere. When cosmic ray activity is great a large volume of rays penetrate the earth's lower atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation and cool the earth. However, when there is a lot of solar activity, solar winds tend to blow away just enough of the cosmic rays to thwart cloud formation at the lower levels resulting in fewer clouds and global warming. This phenomenon can be documented over hundreds if not thousands of years - well before humans were able to affect atmosphere. Scientists do not dispel the problem of global warming - that is real - but rather the CO2 theory of global warming, which unfortunately is not verified by geological and climate records going back thousands of years or by observed fact. The CO2 theory of climate change is based upon a computer simulation model and flawed data that has been widely criticized in scientific literature. The theory has acquired ‘political legs' because there are interests who see benefit to be derived from their ideological positions by pursuing some of the policies that can be justified by aggressively responding to a global warming threat."

Michael Oppenheimer (1946-) Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-) Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-) Jim Salinger (1947-) Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-)

On Nov. 17, 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988) pub. its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): Climate Change 007 in Paris, written by hundreds of thousands of scientists (really only 52?) led by New York City-born geoscientist Michael Oppenheimer (1946-), Argentine-born Am. economist Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-), German climatologist Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-), Kiwi scientist Michael James "Jim" Salinger (1947-), German economist Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-) of the Potsdam Inst. et al., citing 6K+ peer-reviewed scientific studies and concluding that "warming of the climate system is unequivocal", "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions", warning that human activity poses a risk of "abrupt or irreversible changes" on Earth, and proposing the Carbon Credit Emissions Trading Market, which is adopted by the Kyoto Protocol; the 996-page report Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis is pub. by Working Group I as an addendum to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, describing causes and consequences of global warming; it has 620 authors; IPCC head Rajendra Pachauri utters the soundbyte: "If there's no action before 2012, that's too late"; the IPCC is awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize along with former U.S. vice-pres. Al Gore (1948-), whose acceptance speech contains the New Age OWG soundbyte: "The climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity. It is also our greatest opportunity to lift Global Consciousness to a higher level." Rahmstorf goes on to found the blog RealClimate, which becomes one of the most popular pro-climate change blogs. Watch video - Stefan Rahmstorf.

In Nov. 2007 2,264 sq. mi. C19A becomes the largest iceberg on Earth after 4.4K sq. mi. B15 cracks in two.

On Dec. 8-9, 2007 the Development and Climate Days at UNFCC COP13 in Bali, Indonesia features a community-based adaptation to climate change panel, and another one titled "increasing clean development investments in developing countries to enable them to leapfrog onto a clean development pathway" - who pays for it in the end?

Wieslaw Maslowski

On Dec. 12, 2007 BBC News science reporter Jonathan Amos pub. a report touting the claims of scientists Wieslaw Maslowski et al. that Arctic summers may be ice-free by 2013, and that this estimate might be "too conservative"; too bad, the Arctic isn't sea-ice-free in 2013, and grew from the record low of 2012, causing Maslowski to revise his prediction to 2016 +/- 3 years.

Antonino Zichichi

On Dec. 13, 2007 an Open Letter to U.N. Secy.-Gen. Ban Ki-Moon is signed by 100 internat. scientists, describing global warming as a natural phenomenon, and carbon dioxide as a "non-polluting gas that is essential to plant photosynthesis", calling the reports of the IPCC "inadequate as justification" for climate policy, and all attempts to control the Earth's climate "ultimately futile", with the soundbytes: "It is not possible to stop climate change, a natural phenomenon that has affected humanity through the ages. Geological, archaeological, oral and written histories all attest to the dramatic challenges posed to past societies from unanticipated changes in temperature, precipitation, winds and other climatic variables"; "In stark contrast to the often repeated assertion that the science of climate change is 'settled,' significant new peer-reviewed research has cast even more doubt on the hypothesis of dangerous human-caused global warming"; "The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued increasingly alarming conclusions about the climatic influences of human-produced carbon dioxide (CO2), a non-polluting gas that is essential to plant photosynthesis. While we understand the evidence that has led them to view CO2 emissions as harmful, the IPCC's conclusions are quite inadequate as justification for implementing policies that will markedly diminish future prosperity. In particular, it is not established that it is possible to significantly alter global climate through cuts in human greenhouse gas emissions"; "The IPCC Summaries for Policy Makers are the most widely read IPCC reports amongst politicians and non-scientists and are the basis for most climate change policy formulation. Yet these Summaries are prepared by a relatively small core writing team with the final drafts approved line-by-line by ­government ­representatives. The great majority of IPCC contributors and reviewers, and the tens of thousands of other scientists who are qualified to comment on these matters, are not involved in the preparation of these documents. The summaries therefore cannot properly be represented as a consensus view among experts." Signers incl. Antonino Zichichi, co-founder and pres. of the World Federation of Scientists.

David Robert Whitehouse

On Dec. 19, 2007 English astrophysicist David Robert Whitehouse (BBC's science correspondent in 1988-2006) pub. the article Has global warming stopped? in New Statesman, containing the soundbytes: "The fact is that the global temperature of 2007 is statistically the same as 2006 and every year since 2001"; "Global warming has, temporarily or permanently, ceased. Temperatures across the world are not increasing as they should according to the fundamental theory behind global warming - the greenhouse effect. Something else is happening and it is vital that we find out what or else we may spend hundreds of billions of pounds needlessly"; on May 22, 2009 he is quoted in the U.K. Register as criticizing the BBC's environmental coverage as "evangelical and inconsistent", and its reporting on other scientific issues "narrow, shallow and sparse", with the soundbyte: "Reporting the consensus about climate change... is not synonymous with good science reporting. The BBC is at an important point. It has been narrow minded about climate change for many years and they have become at the very least a cliché and at worst lampooned as being predictable and biased by a public that doesn't believe them anymore"; on Apr. 30, 2013 he is quoted in the article Global Warming Alarm: Continued Cooling May Jeopardize Climate Science And Green Energy Funding! by Larry Bell: "If we have not passed it already, we are on the threshold of global observations becoming incompatible with the consensus theory of climate change. If the standstill (lower temperatures) continues for a few more years, it will mean that no one who has just reached adulthood, or younger, will have witnessed the Earth get warmer during their lifetime"; on Oct. 3, 2014 he is quoted in the article Climate consensus: scientists and sceptics suspend hostilities in The Guardian by Sophie Yeo: "Both sides are really fed up with the outrageous alarmists who are not representing science properly. Both don't like those who shout about it and call people names and take a polarised point of view"; he goes on serve on the Academic Advisory Council of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF), pub. the article Internal Climate Variability or Climate Warming? on their Web site on Aug. 14, 2015, followed by The Hiatus and the Hostage on Oct. 29, 2015, 2015 Global Temp, or How Some Scientists Deliberately Mistook Weather for Climate on Jan. 22, 2016, Pacific Stalagmites Cast Doubt on Climate Models and Projections on June 1, 2016, Standing Up for Free Speech in Science on Mar. 31, 2017, Cosmic Rays-Climate Link Found on Dec. 19, 2017, and the article Climate and the Subtle Sun on Sept. 13, 2018. Watch video - David Whitehouse.

U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-) Habibullo Abudssamatov (1940-) Geoffrey G. Duffy Andrey Kapitsa (1931-2011) Miklós Zágoni José Delgado Domingos Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009)

On Dec. 20, 2007 the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, chaired by U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-) pub. the U.S. Senate Minority Report on Global Warming, listing 400 prominent scientists who dispute manmade global warming, increasing it to 650 on Dec. 11, 2008, 687 in July 2009, and 1K+ on Dec. 8, 2010; the list incl. prominent internat. scientists (incl. former U.N. IPCC scientists who flip-flopped), of whom only about 10% are climate scientists, and about 15% have pub. in related fields; critics incl. eminent Russian space scientist Habibullo Ismailovich Abdussamatov (1940-), who calls CO2 "insignificant" in climate change, and expresses fears of a future "deep temperature drop", predicting a new mini-ice age in 2014-2055 in the Heartland Inst.'s 4th Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Ill. in May 2010 and the 9th conference in Las Vegas on July 7-9, 2014; also Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy, who uttered the soundbyte: "Even doubling our tripling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapor and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate and local weather is forever changing. Sure we must minimize pollution of our air and water systems with obnoxious chemical and particulates, and not treat them as 'sewers'. But even doubling or trebling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapour and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate has forever been changing and will continue to do so. The major driver is the Sun and the radiation from it. The main atmospheric 'intermediary' between the Sun and Earth is water, and thus it dictates the behaviour of the Earth's climate"; "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'"; "So what are the key players in 'Climate Change'? The major driver is the Sun. Warming depends on the Sun. Cooling is due to the lack of Sun's energy"; another critic is famed Russian geographer and explorer (discoverer of subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctica) Andrey Petrovich Kapitsa (1931-2011), who utters the soundbyte: "The Kyoto theorists have put the cart before the horse. It is global warming that triggers higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not the other way around... A large number of critical documents submitted at the 1995 U.N. Conference in Madrid vanished without a trace. As a result, the discussion was one-sided and heavily biased, and the U.N. declared global warming to be a scientific fact", calling global warming "the biggest ever scientific fraud"; another critic is Hungarian physicist Miklos Zagoni (Miklós Zágoni), who started out supporting the Kyoto Protocol then flopped after reading the works of Hungarian climate skeptic Ferenc Miskolczi, uttering the soundbytes: "Nature's regulatory instrument is water vapor: more carbon dioxide leads to less moisture in the air, keeping the overall GHG content in accord with the necessary balance conditions"; "I am positively convinced that the anthropogenic global warming theory is wrong. New developments in the physics of greenhouse effect and radiative transfer show that the accepted theory leads to largely exaggerated global warming projections"; another critic is leading Portuguese environmental scientist Jose (José) Delgado Domingos (1935-2014), founder of the Numerical Weather Forecast Group, who on Jan. 28, 2008 gives an interview to Sabado Noticias (Saturday News) mag., containing the soundbytes: "There are measurable climate changes but there is also an enormous manipulation in reducing everything to CO2 and equivalents. The main gas producing the greenhouse effect is water vapour. The present alarm on climate change is an instrument of social control, a pretext for major businesses and political battle. It became an ideology, which is concerning", adding that when it comes to the Kyoto Protocol, "Everything made to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is positive, because it implies a reduction in energy consumption. But creating an ideology pegged to carbon dioxide is a dangerous nonsense. It is preferable for us to prepare for the natural climate evolutions. To adapt ourselves and be ready in case it happens, meaning, among other things, not destroying the dunes on the pretext of national interest, not building in flood stream beds, not turning the soils impermeable to avoid the effects of potential and natural heat waves, etc"; on Nov. 31, 2009 he pub. an op-ed in the newspaper Expresso damning the Climategate emails of the Climate Research Unit of the U. of East Anglia as a scientific fraud that compromises the credibility of climate science; another critic is Japanese Chubu U. scientist Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) (proponent of nuclear energy and critic of recycling), which contains the soundbyte: "CO2 emissions make absolutely no difference one way or another... Every scientist knows this, but it doesn't pay to say so... Global warming, as a political vehicle, keeps Europeans in the driver's seat and developing nations walking barefoot"; in Jaa. 2017 and on July 4, 2018 he gives lectures on Japanese TV calling global warming a hoax, saying that the focus should be on cooling instead of warming; another critic is Portland, Ore.-born nuclear physicist Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009), who uttered the soundbytes: "Earth is in the final stages of a typical 10,000 year plus interglacial when both atmospheric temperature and CO2 content tend to increase long term from natural causes, as they have after every ice age. The next major stage is the start of a new ice age which hopefully is more than a thousand years in the future" (Feb. 2008); "Man has been putting increasingly large amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Age and rapidly increasing the last 60 years as shown in all the references. However, the amount of CO2 man has added to the atmosphere is less than 1 % of the CO2 that is there from natural causes"; "Current atmospheric temperatures and CO2 content are no higher than they have been at various times during the past million years. The so-called Climate Optimum 1000 to 1300 A.D. was 1-3 degrees C warmer than now, and apparently provided better living conditions for humans, animals, and vegetation. For example, Greenland was green and habitable by farmers. Water vapor (H2O) is the primary greenhouse gas, contributing roughly 80 % of the greenhouse effect. Without the warming effect of the greenhouse gases, the Earth would be roughly 10 degrees cooler, and probably uninhabitable by humans. It has been estimated that the warming effect of CO2 is roughly one thousandth that of water vapor" "The analytical models used to predict higher atmospheric CO2 content and temperature have not been validated, and do not predict the measured values from the last 200 years; e.g., the cooling of roughly 1 degree C from about 1940 to 1975. Thus they are not valid and should not be used. They are not valid because they do not include major effects on the climate such as clouds, rain, electric currents, cosmic rays, sun spots, etc." Watch video - Habibullo Abdussamatov. Watch video.

Martin Hertzberg Hans Schreuder

In 2007 Am. physical chemist Martin Hertzberg (former U.N. Navy meteorologist), Am. science writer Alan Siddons, and Am. analytical chemist Hans Schreuder (1946-) pub. the paper Role of greenhouse gases in climate change, with the abstract: "This study examines the concept of 'greenhouse gases' and various definitions of the phenomenon known as the 'Atmospheric Radiative Greenhouse Effect'. The six most quoted descriptions are as follows: (a) radiation trapped between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere; (b) the insulating blanket of the atmosphere that keeps the Earth warm; (c) back radiation from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface; (d) Infra Red absorbing gases that hinder radiative cooling and keep the surface warmer than it would otherwise be – known as 'otherwise radiation'; (e) differences between actual surface temperatures of the Earth (as also observed on Venus) and those based on calculations; (f) any gas that absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the Earth's surface towards free space. It is shown that none of the above descriptions can withstand the rigours of scientific scrutiny when the fundamental laws of physics and thermodynamics are applied to them." On Feb. 9, 2017 Hertzberg pub. the immortal soundbyte: "In comparison to water in all of its forms, the effect of the carbon dioxide increase over the last century on the temperature of the earth is about as significant as a few farts in a hurricane!" Watch video - Martin Hertzberg.

Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) Roger A. Pielker Jr. (1968-)

In 2007 Am. meteorologist Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) breaks ranks with the herd and utters the soundbyte: "As I have summarized on the Climate Science weblog, humans activities do significantly alter the heat content of the climate system, although, based on the latest understanding, the radiative effect of CO2 has contributed, at most, only about 28% to the human-caused warming up to the present. The other 72% is still a result of human activities!", going on to criticize the IPCC for its conclusions on CO2 and global warming, accusing it of selectively choosing data to support their view; in 2010 he answers the question from Andrew Revkin: "Is most of the observed warming over the last 50 years likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations" with the soundbytes: "The 2010 answer ... remains NO", and "The added greenhouse gases from human activity clearly have a role in increasing the heat content of the climate system from what it otherwise would be... there are other equally or even more important significant human climate forcings... We now know, however, that the natural variations of atmospheric and ocean circulation features within the climate system produces global average heat changes that are substantially larger than what was known in 2005. The IPCC models have failed to adequately simulate this effect." His son Roger A. Pielke Jr. (1968-) has been labeled a climate skeptic or climate change denier, which he denies, although he denies that the trend of increasing damage from hurricane is due to change in frequency and intensity, tracing it to increase in wealth density. On Nov. 1, 2014 Roger A. Pielke Jr. pub. The Rightful Place of Science: Disasters and Climate Change, disproving the claim that climate change has made disasters worse, lamenting the attack on the legitimacy of climate skeptics and the refusal to address the issues, e.g., when Pres. Obama's science adviser John Holdren dissed his testimony before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in 2014 by calling it outside the "scientific mainstream", causing U.S. Rep. Raul Grijalva to launch an unsuccessful investigation to discover secret fossil fuel co. funding.

In 2007 The Climate Registry (TCR) is founded in Calif. to continue the work of the Calif. Climate Action Registry (CCAR), created by the State of Calif. in 2001 to design and operate voluntary and compliance greenhouse gas reporting programs, signing up 30+ U.S. states and 17 Canadian provinces and territories by 2009.

Indur M. Goklany (1946-)

In 2007 Indian-Am. electrical engineer (former IPCC member) Indur N. "Gok" Goklany (1946-), asst. dir., science & technology police, Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Dept. of the Interior pub. Is a Richer-But-Warmer World Better Than Poor-But-Cooler Worlds, containing the soundbyte: "Strictly from the perspective of human well-being, the richest-but-warmest world characterized by the A1FI scenario would probably be superior to the poorer-but-cooler worlds at least through 2085, particularly if one considers the numerous ways GDP per capita advances human well-being"; in Aug. 2009 he appears in the Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) video Policy Peril: Why Global Warming Policies Are More Dangerous than Global Warming Itself, narrated by climate change skeptic Marlo Lewis, taking apart Al Gore's film "An Inconvenient Truth". in Oct. 2015 he pub. the GWPF report Carbon Dioxide: The Good News, with a foreword by Freeman Dyson, praising the benefits of atmospheric CO2, causing a controversy over whether it was peer-reviewed or just not pub. in a peer-reviewed journal; "It is very likely that the impact of rising carbon dioxide concentrations is currently net beneficial for both humanity and the biosphere generally. These benefits are real, whereas the costs of warming are uncertain"; "Firstly, the global climate has not been warming as rapidly as projected in the IPCC assessment reports... Models have been running hotter than reality. But these are the projections that governments have relied on to justify global warming policies, including subsidies for biofuels and renewable energy while increasing the overall cost of energy to the general consumer - costs that disproportionately burden those that are poorer"; "Finally, assessments of climate change impacts usually give short shrift to the potential positive impacts of anthropogenic global warming." He also uttered the soundbytes: "[O]ver the foreseeable future, the magnitude of the problem due to unmitigated climate change is generally smaller than that due to non-climate change related factors, and, where it is not, as in the case of coastal flooding, it is more economical to remedy it via adaptation. Therefore, global warming is unlikely to be the most important environmental problem facing the world, at least for most of the remainder of this century"; "Climate change is not now - nor is it likely to be for the foreseeable future—the most important environmental problem facing the globe, unless present-day problems such as hunger, water-related diseases, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and indoor air pollution are reduced drastically"; "Future generations should, moreover, have greater access to human capital and technology to address whatever problems they might face, including climate change. Hence the argument that we should shift resources from dealing with the real and urgent problems confronting present generations to solving potential problems of tomorrow's wealthier and better positioned generations is unpersuasive at best and verging on immoral at worst"; "Considering that future generations will be far better off than current generations even after accounting for climate change, it would be more equitable for today's industrialized world to help solve the real problems facing today's poorer developing world than to mitigate climate change now to help reduce the burden on future populations that would not only be wealthier but also technologically superior." In May 2017 Goklany is charged by the Trump admin. with the task of rewriting Web pages and policies of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior on climate change. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

2008

On Jan. 1, 2008 the U.N. Gen. Assembly declares the Internat. Year of Planet Earth to increase awareness of the importance of Earth sciences.

On Jan. 4, 2008 (Dec.?) Solar Cycle 24 begins (ends 2018?), with the lowest recorded sunspot activity since records began in 1750 (1755), with a min. count of 2.2, 489 spotless days, and a double-peaked solar maximum of 99 in 2011 and 101 (81.8?) in early 2014, lowest since the 17th cent. Dalton Minimum; it is expected to end in mid-late 2018, and be succeeded by Solar Cycle 25 in late 2019 through 2030.

In Jan. 2008 the European Climate Foundation (ECF), a "foundation of foundations" is established to lead Europe into a low-carbon society and mitigate global climate change; the current dir. is Keith Allott - how does the magnet know that there's a refrigerator nearby to be attracted to?

Joanne Simpson (1923-2010)

In Feb. 2008 eminent Am. meteorologist Joanne Simpson (nee Gerould) (1923-2010) (first woman to receive a Ph.D. in meteorology) releases her Public Citizen Statement on global warming, containing the soundbyte: "Since I am no longer affiliated with any organization nor receiving any funding, I can speak quite frankly. Few of these people seem to have any skeptical self-criticism left, although virtually all of the claims are derived from either flawed data sets or imperfect models or both. The term 'global warming' itself is very vague. Where and what scales of response are measurable? One distinguished scientist has shown that many aspects of climate change are regional, some of the most harmful dangers caused by changes in human land use. No one seems to have properly factored in population growth and land use, particularly in tropical and coastal areas... What should we as a nation do? Decisions have to be made on incomplete information. In this case, we must act on the recommendations of Gore and the IPCC because if we do not reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the climate models are right, the planet as we know it will in this century become unsustainable. The main basis of the claim that man's release of greenhouse gases is the cause of the warming is based almost entirely upon climate models. We all know the frailty of models concerning the air-surface system. We only need to watch the weather forecasts", going on to recommend the use of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to test the predictions of climate models; too bad, her quote is regularly edited to take out her endorsement of Gore and the IPCC to make her a stronger climate change denier; in 2012 she pub. the soundbyte: "A vocal minority of scientists so mistrusts the models and the complex fragmentary data, that some claim that global warming is a hoax. They have made public statements accusing other scientists of deliberate fraud in aid of their research funding. Both sides are now hurling personal epithets at each other, a very bad development in Earth sciences."

Asmunn Moene Stanley B. 'Stan' Goldenberg (1956-)

On Mar. 2-9, 2008 the Heartland Inst. (founded in Arlington Heights, Ill. in 1984, and known for working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke) holds the First Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1) in New York City, with the purpose being "to generate international media attention to the fact that many scientists believe forecasts of rapid warming and catastrophic events are not supported by sound science, and that expensive campaigns to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not necessary or cost-effective", endorsing the Nongovernmental Internat. Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) and pub. the article Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate, criticizing the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), followed by the Manhattan Declaration, which states "That there is no convincing evidence that CO2 emissions from modern industrial activity has in the past, is now, or will in the future cause catastrophic climate change", declaring that carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for all life, and calling for an immediate halt to tax-funded attempts to counteract climate change, demanding that "all taxes, regulations, and other interventions intended to reduce emissions of CO2 be abandoned forthwith", with the soundbytes: "Assertions of a supposed 'consensus' among climate experts are false"; leaders incl. Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), former adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher; signers incl. Syun-Ichi Akasofu, Timothy F. Ball, David Bellamy, Robert M. Carter, Piers Corbyn, Nils-Axel Morner, Ian Plimer, S. Fred Singer, Roy W. Spencer, Anthony Watts, and Antonino Zichichi, plus Norwegian meteorologist Asmunn Moene, known for the soundbyte: "Global mean temperature changes are unpredictable... There is no significant relationship between the IPCC predicted trend and the two other curves which are generated by random changes. The random updating is of fundamental importance... An increase of the CO2-content in the atmosphere should create a greater warming trend in the lower troposphere i.e .a greenhouse effect. It is evident that this is actually not the case"; by 2017 12 conferences are held. On Mar. 9, 2008 Am. meteorologist Stanley B. "Stan" Goldenberg (1956-) of the Hurricane Research Div. of NOAA in Miami, Fla. speaks at the First Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1), with a speech titled The Mythical Link Between Hurricanes and Global Warming, followed in Mar. 2009 by the speech Is There a Link Between Global Warming and Hurricane Activity at the Second Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC2) in Mar. 2009, and another at ICCC9 on July 9, 2014. He utters the soundbytes: "Just because climate change has happened doesn't mean AGW. Just because weather disasters happen doesn't mean AGW. And an inconvenient truth that most of the media are speaking of, CAGW – that's very important. They're not just talking about AGW, but catastrophic [anthropogenic global warming]. If we just have a little bit of warming from manmade causes, nobody really cares, but they're talking about it's going to be catastrophic"; "[The scientific consensus] is a blatant lie put forth in the media that makes it seem there is only a fringe of scientists who don't buy into anthropogenic global warming"; "Not a single, to my knowledge – not a single scientist at the National Hurricane Center, the Hurricane Research Division, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center – I'm trying to find out about the Central Pacific Hurricane Center – believe that hurricanes – numbers, activity – that there's any measurable impact from any so-called global warming." Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg.

On Mar. 31-Apr. 4, 2008 the Bangkok Climate Change Talks are held in Bangkok, Thailand, featuring climate change proponents Dennis Tirpak of the IPCC, Andrew Howard of the UNFCC Secretariat, and Artur Runge-Metzger of the European Community, along with greedy Third World reps Martin Khor, Fernando Abad et al. calling for big bucks to mitigate the problems caused by the rich bad countries; similar conferences begin to be held regularly all over the Third World.

Nigel Lawson (1932-)

On Apr. 10, 2008 British Conservative MP (1974-92) and journalist Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby (1932-) pub. An Appeal to Reason: A Cool Look at Global Warming, acknowledging global warming but denying that the science is settled, opposing the scientific consensus of the 2007 IPCC Report and claiming that global warming would bring benefits as well as harm, calling for gradual adaptation instead of radical action, with the soundbyte: "I don't question for a moment that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that, all things being equal, this will lead to warming of the atmosphere. And that it's true that scientists differ greatly on how big the effect is, but there is huge agreement that there is some effect. But we account for less than two percent of global carbon emissions. And so it is crazy for us–we can't do anything on our own – and if the rest of the world... is not going to go down this route... it's not doing any good. I have long since come to the conclusion... that [climate change] is an economic issue... My judgement is the most cost-effective way of dealing with it is though adaptation, and I believe that is perfectly do-able", pissing-off global warmists incl. Jean Palutikof and IPCC head Robert Watson, and the Hadley Centre, which admits that there has been no global warming since 2000 but blames it on the early 2007 La Nina - circular reasoning or gymnophobia?

Nicholas Drapela

On Apr. 28, 2008 Ore. State U. chemist Nicholas Drapela gives the slideshow presentation Global Warming Cracked Open: A Peek Inside, containing the soundbytes: "Global Warming doctrine is no longer just a scientific theory; it is a populist social and political tool. Many groups in our society benefit from the existence of the global warming doctrine. The coercion and propaganda used to advance this doctrine are disturbing, and have borrowed from other historical political movements. The benefactors of global warming theory are the rich and powerful; the losers are the rest of the world"; no surprise, his univ. lets him go on May 29, 2012 sans warning after 10 years and a 2004 award for outstanding teacher.

On June 23, 2008 (20th anniv. of his speech to Congress) top NASA climate scientist James A. Hansen gives a speech to the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, claiming the world has long passed the "dangerous level" for greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and needs to return to the 1988 levels or in a couple of decades there will be mass extinction, ecosystem collapse, and dramatic sea level rises, with the soundbyte: "We're toast if we don't get on a very different path. This is the last chance... We see a tipping point occurring right before our eyes. The Arctic is the first tipping point and it's occurring exactly the way we said it would", adding that "in five to 10 years, the Arctic will be free of sea ice in the summer". Watch video - Tony Heller.

On June 28, 2008 U.S. scientist Mark C. Serreze of the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. predicts that the North Pole may becoming ice-free for the first time in recorded history by the end of the summer, with the soundbyte "The Arctic is screaming", becoming one of several gloomy predictions; luckily, they are all wrong, which doesn't stop them from renewing their predictions regularly?; on Apr. 17, 2018 pub. the book Brave New Arctic: The Untold Story of the Melting North, which claims that computer models are no longer providing reliable predictions of Arctic temperatures, and that the North Pole may be ice-free in 2018, and the whole Arctic in 2030.

Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-)

In July 2008 Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-) pub. the article Climate Sensitivity Reconsidered in the newsletter of the Am. Physical Society, which contains the soundbytes: "More importantly, the conclusion is that, perhaps, there is no 'climate crisis', and that currently-fashionable efforts by governments to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions are pointless, may be ill-conceived, and could even be harmful", and "Global warming will not affect us for the next 2,000 years, and if it does, it won't have been caused by us", ramping up the scientific climate change denial movement; on Oct. 18 he posts the online article "More in Sorrow than in Anger, Open letter from The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley to Senator John McCain about Climate Science and Policy", dissing U.S. Sen. John McCain for a speech he made at a wind farm pushing anthropogenic climate change. On ?, 2018 Monckton pub. the article On an error in defining temperature feedback, claiming that climatologists have been forgetting that the Sun was shining, predicting a climate sensitivity of 2C-4.5C, when it is really 1.17C after accounting for sunshine and pre-industrial greenhouse gas warming; he follows on July 30, 2018 with the article Climatology's startling error – an update, containing the soundbyte: "Bottom line: global warming is not a problem after all. Enjoy the sunshine climatologists forgot about"; he follows on Aug. 15, 2018 with the article Climatology's startling error of physics: answers to comments, containing the soundbyte: "Erroneously, IPCC (2013, p. 1450) defines temperature feedback as responding only to changes in reference temperature. However, feedback also responds to the entire reference temperature. Climatology thus omits the sunshine from its sums and loses the opportunity to find, directly and reliably, the Holy Grail of climate-sensitivity studies - the system-gain factor." Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton and Stefan Molyneux. Watch video - anti-Lord Christopher Monckton.

Todd Wynn

In July 2008 Am. economist Todd Wynn is hired as a policy analyst by the conservative Cascade Policy Inst. in Ore. to conduct "climate change and energy policy research", rising to vice-pres. in 2010-Sept. 2011, when he moves to the conservative Am. Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) until Sept. 2013, working to pass pro-fossil fuel legislation; meanwhile he becomes an outspoken climate skeptic, starting with the article Global Warming? No! It is Now Called Climate Change on June 22, 2009 in the Oregon Catalyst, with the soundbytes: "Global warming used to be the defining term to represent the increase in the average temperature of the earth during the past 100 years. Recently, the more politically popular term, climate change, has replaced global warming. Why? One main reason is because the earth is currently cooling"; "It is hard to advocate for overbearing regulations that attempt to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions when global temperatures have been stable or declining. In fact, in at least the last seven years, global temperatures have declined, despite increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide"; he also utters soundbytes: "It's absolutely ridiculous to say that they know that human activity is the major part of that [climate change]. We've had a temperature record a very spurious one for the maybe past 100 years, in the last 30 years a satellite temperature record. And then all the calculations for the predictions of the future are based on models... We've already seen that they're way off on their predictions"; "Climate change is a perfect scapegoat for environmentalists. They can use that to change the behavior, the lifestyle, and the standard of living of every single citizen on the planet. We also have to look at the benefits of higher global temperatures, a lot of places that weren't arable land before are now going to be. And I think that's important, that you need to weigh those costs and benefits. I think that global warming could be a net benefit for the planet in fact." In Oct. 2017 Wynn becomes dir. of the Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs of the U.S. Interior Dept. (until ?). Watch video - Todd Wynn.

Walter 'Walt' Cunningham of the U.S. (1932-)

In the July/Aug. 2008 issue of Launch Mag. NASA Apollo 7 astronaut Ronnie Walter "Walt" Cunningham (1932-) pub. the article In Science, Ignorance is not Bliss, containing the soundbytes: "Saying the Earth is warming is to state the obvious. Since the end of the ice age, the Earth's temperature has increased approximately 16 degrees Fahrenheit and sea levels have risen a total of 300 feet. That is certain and measurable evidence of warming, but it is not evidence of AGW - human-caused warming. We can track the temperature of the Earth back for millennia. Knowing the temperature of the Earth, past or present, is a matter of collecting data, analyzing it, and coming up with the best answer to account for the data. Collecting such data on a global basis is a NASA forte. I believe in global climate change, but there is no way that humans can influence the temperature of our planet to any measurable degree with the tools currently at their disposal. Any human contribution to global temperature change is lost in the noise of terrestrial and cosmic factors. Our beautiful home planet has been warming and cooling for the last 4.8 billion years. Most recently, it has been warming - be it ever so slightly - but there is nothing unusual about it! The changes and rates of change in the Earth's temperature, just since the Industrial Revolution, have occurred many times in our climatic history. While climate scientists generally agree that the Earth's temperature is always changing, not many of them would say that humans are responsible for those changes"; "It doesn't help that NASA scientist James Hansen was one of the early alarmists claiming humans caused global warming. Hansen is a political activist who spreads fear even when NASA's own data contradict him"; “NASA should be at the forefront in the collection of scientific evidence and debunking the current hysteria over human-caused, or Anthropogenic GlobalWarming (AGW). Unfortunately, it is becoming just another agency caught up in the politics of global warming, or worse, politicized science. Advocacy is replacing objective evaluation of data, while scientific data is being ignored in favor of emotions and politics"; "I do see hopeful signs that some true believers are beginning to harbor doubts about AGW. Let's hope that NASA can focus the global warming discussion back on scientific evidence before we perpetrate an economic disaster on ourselve"; "The reality is that atmospheric CO2 has a minimal impact on greenhouse gases and world temperature. Water vapor is responsible for 95 percent of the greenhouse effect. CO2 contributes just 3.6 percent, with human activity responsible for only 3.2 percent of that. That is why some studies claim CO2 levels are largely irrelevant to global warming. Without the greenhouse effect to keep our world warm, the planet would have an average temperature of minus 18 degrees Celsius. Because we do have it, the temperature is acomfortable plus 15 degrees Celsius. Based on the seasonal and geographic distribution of any projected warming, a good case can be made that a warmer average temperature would be even more beneficial for humans." Watch video - Walt Cunningham. Watch video - Walt Cunningham.

Guy LeBlanc Smith Ross Garnaut (1946-)

On Aug. 16, 2008 Australian geologist Guy LeBlanc Smith writes the soundbyte: "I have yet to see credible proof of carbon dioxide driving climate change, yet alone manmade CO2 driving it. The atmospheric hot-spot is missing and the ice core data refute this. When will we collectively awake from this deceptive delusion? I contend that those professional scientists and advisors that are knowingly complicit in climate science fraud and all that is derived from it, will continue to be exposed by the science itself. There is no atmospheric hot-spot from 'greenhouse CO2' despite over 20 years of serious looking for it. Occam's razor would point to the sun as the driver of climate change of significance. Human generated carbon dioxide is arguably around 3% of the total carbon dioxide budget, and in the light of the above, we are effectively irrelevant to the natural climate change continuum." On Sept. 30, 2008 Australian economist Ross Gregory Garnaut (1946-), pub. the Garnaut Climate Change Review for the Australian govt., recommending a global CO2 level of 450 ppm and a fall-back position of 550 ppm, requiring emissions reductions of 25% on 2000 levels by 2020, and 90% by 2050, causing Smith to pub. a letter to Garnaut, containing the soundbyte: "I am strongly supportive of measures that promote effective and efficient use of all resources and reduction of pollution in all its forms - smart use. I contend that carbon tax will be amongst the most damaging and misguided use of a tax since the dark middle ages tax on light. The empirical evidence from ice core data do not support anthropogenic carbon dioxide impacts of significance. I have this data and my graphs and interpretations show substantive natural climate variations over records as long as 800,000 years, where CO2 is clearly a response after temperature change, and not a driver of change. I attach a few graphs of thisdata (with references) for your consideration. I have been in research for over 30 years in geoscience, ten of which with the CSIRO, and Iremain open to be convinced there is credible evidence to substantiate Item 1 of your terms of reference. I am yet to be persuaded by evidence not based on assumptions, that humankindhas any control over climate changes of significance. My reading of the rock and ice records is currently favouring an interpretation that our climate is poised for a major fall in temperatures, which will have a far more immediate and damaging impact of human populations should snowfall over northern land masses not melt across summer, effectively initiating continental ice sheets, and mass migrations. The Romanssuffered this when the Dark Ages Ice age took effect and northern tribes were forced south..."; "There is an abundance of information that does not support the current alarmist stance that humankind is causing climate change. My current view, based on evidence to hand, is that this contention is a fraud bordering on a crime against humanity. Hypothetically, I wonder if the Hague will get involved should carbon taxes of significance be levied, and subsequently be found to be unwarranted?"

On Aug. 24, 2008 the 33rd Internat. Geology Congress in Norway sees about two thirds of the presenters and question-askers hostile to the IPCC (International panel on climate change) and the idea that the Earth's climate was responding to human influences.

David Dilley

In Aug. 2008 Am. meteorologist David A. Dilley, 1992 founder of Global Weather Oscillations Inc. (formerly employed by the USAF, NOAA, and Nat. Weather Service) pub. the e-book Global Warming - Global Cooling, Natural Cause Found, in which he predicts that "the first stage of global cooling will begin during 2008 and 2009", followed in Feb. 2012 by the ebook Earth's Natural Climate Pulse, which claims that "wide swings in carbon dioxide levels will likely occur every 230 years as earth goes through natural global warming and cooling cycles", and "predicts that the Arctic warm water pulse will cool within the next 8 years. This will allow rapid global cooling to begin around the year 2020, with temperatures becoming similar to those experienced in the 1800's", containing the soundbyte: "Earth's temperature changes seasonally due to the seasonal tilt of the earth, with longer term cycles due to the PFM Natural Pulse cycles every 10-years, 230 years and 130 thousand years. Carbon dioxide concentrations are a naturally occurring cycle connected to the short-term global warming cycles that occur approximately every 230 years, and the longer term 130 thousand year glacial and inter-glacial cycles.... Earth's current temperatures and carbon dioxide levels are perfectly normal for global warming cycle that was occurring up to the year 2012 (now beginning to slip into global cooling for the next 150 years", and ending with the soundbyte: “Natural cycles of global cooling are potentially more dangerous than global warming. These natural cycles are a natural regulatory rhythm which is required by nature. Humans need sleep after a period of activity, and earth likewise requires active and rest periods. "In 2008, earth entered phase I global cooling. Phase II cooling will begin around the year 2020, this will usher in very dramatic global cooling, hurling temperatures quickly back to where they were in the cold 1950s and 1960s, and then further back to the climate seen in the 1800s. Coldest temperatures will be from about the year 2024 to 2050. There will be rapid ice pack regeneration until the peak of the next global warming cycle in the year 2140. Due to the Lunisolar gravitation stress on the outer liquid core and floating plates beneath the earth's crust, there will be a historically strong climate changing volcano around 2020 to 2030. There will also be increased earthquake activity from 2008 through 2024." Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 1/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 2/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 3/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 4/4.

John Droz. Jr. (1946-)

On Oct. 2, 2008 Am. solid state physicist and environmental activist John Droz Jr. (1946-) pub. the paper The Power of Energy, containing the soundbytes: "Is Global Warming a scientifically resolved matter? No. There is some very convincing evidence (and scientists) that indicate that there is such a thing as Global Warming. But there are some very qualified scientists (with good evidence) that suggest just the opposite. More importantly, statements often appearing in the media like 'the majority of scientists' believe in Global Warming, are meaningless. First of all, no legitimate survey has ever been done, and secondly, science is not about the number of people who advocate a position"; on Jan. 2012 after becoming an opponent of wind energy, he utters the soundbyte: "When I first heard about wind energy I was a supporter. Quite frankly, I never liked the looks of turbines but felt that we would have to live with the unsightliness as a trade-off for the good I initially assumed they were doing. Then I did some research and Critical Thinking. My conclusion now (as a scientist, economist, and environmentalist) is that industrial Wind Energy is not based on sound science"; in 2013 Droz founds the Alliance for Wise Energy Decisions (AWED), whose basic position is that wind energy "is not a technically sound solution to provide electricity, or to meaningfully reduce global warming; is not an economically viable source of energy on its own; and is not environmentally responsible"; on June 17, 2014 he pub. a position paper on climate change titled Global Warming: The Scientific View, containing the soundbytes: "As a scientist I have been asked to elaborate a bit on my position regarding the Global Warming proposition - and how it relates to wind energy. These are very legitimate (and important) questions. The main hypothesis put forward is technically called Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), where the fancy term 'anthropogenic' means 'man-made.' Although I am not a climatologist, as a scientist I know how to do thorough and objective research. (BTW, skepticism is a key ingredient of true scientists.) In my capacity as a scientist, I have read literally hundreds of reports and studies on this climate issue, from numerous experts. After digesting these studies and reports, it is very clear to me that AGW is still a scientifically unresolved matter. This is what is called a hypothesis." Watch video - John Droz Jr. Watch video - John Droz Jr.

'Lost City Raiders', 2008

On Oct. 31, 2008 Jean de Sigonzac's Lost City Raiders debuts, starring James Brolin, Ian Somerhalder, Ben Cross, and Jamie King on globally-warmed 2048 New Vatican, where Cardinal Battaglia wants to use the Scepter of Moses to stop a global flood; "Waterworld without the budget" (Tampa Tribune); view trailer.

Roger Helmer of the U.K. (1944-)

In Oct. 2008 British climate change skeptic European Parliament member Roger Helmer (1944-) of the conservative Tory Party becomes a member of its Temporary Committee on Climate Change, calling himself "a lone voice crying in the wilderness" and debating a draft EU Integrated Policy on Climate Change; in Mar. 2012 he switches to the U.K. Independence Party (UKIP); on Nov. 16, 2009 he pub. a letter in the Leicester Mercury accusing the Church of England of having "abandoned religious faith entirely and taken up the religion of climate alarmism instead", spending more time "preaching climate change than the gospel of salvation", urging the Church to "get back to the gospel", with the soundbyte: "The recent multi-faith conference at Windsor suggests that other world religions are taking the same line on climate change. This is particularly ironic at a time when the world is cooling and when more and more scientists around the world are breaking cover to challenge the theory of man-made global warming. Perhaps world religions should have more faith in God, and less in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change"; on Nov. 18, 2009 Helmer convenes the conference titled "Have Humans Changed the Climate?" in the European Parliament, hosting top climate change deniers incl. Dutch scientist Hans Labohm, Canadian economist Ross McKitrick, Australian scientist Ian Plimer, Norwegian geologist Tom Segalstad, and Am. scientist S. Fred Singer; in Dec. 2010 after attending the 2010 U.N. Climate Change Conference on Nov. 29-Dec. 10, Helmer uses £9K of EU funds to mount a billboard campaign in his constituency criticizing climate change policy and calling green climate policies "probably unnecessary", "certainly ineffectual", and "ruinously expensive"; he goes on to utter the soundbytes: "I believe, AGW is simply a kind of collective hysteria with no basis in science"; "But it's the temperature driving the CO2, and not, as Gore wrongly asserts, the CO2 driving the temperature. The records clearly show the CO2 graph around 800 years or so behind the temperature graph"; "By geo-historical standards, today's atmospheric CO2 levels are remarkably - indeed dangerously - low. We need CO2 in the air to support plant growth and agricultural yields, and more would be better"; "In the last hundred years, average global temperature has risen a mere 0.7 degrees Celsius. There is ample evidence that results from ground-based weather stations have been contaminated by urban sprawl, tarmac, car parks, vehicles, buildings and air-conditioning units"; "Temperature data from satellites over the last 30 years show some warming, but less than that from ground stations... This slight 0.7 degree rise is entirely consistent with well-established, long-term, natural climate cycles"; "The truth is that climate alarmism has become the most expensive, and the most wasteful, project in the history of the world. It is junk economics built on junk science. It amounts to no more than hot air, yet it looks set to beggar our grandchildren." On June 1, 2017 after Pres. Trump announces his withdrawal from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, he tweets the soundbyte: "President Trump is a Climate Hero. This is American Leadership in action. Well done that man." Watch video - Roger Helmer. Watch video - Roger Helmer. Watch video - Roger Helmer.

Barack Hussein Obama II of the U.S. (1961-)

On Nov. 19, 2008 after several Euro countries approach his transition team to signal his intentions to diplomats gathering in Poland in Dec. to draft a successor to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on Feb. 16, 2005 while the U.S. never joined, pres.-elect #44 (2009-17) Barack Hussein Obama II (1961-) sends a videotaped Speech on Global Climate Change to 700 delegates from 19 countries at a global warming conference in Los Angeles, Calif. held by the London-based Climate Group and backed by Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, promising "a new chapter in America's leadership on climate change", incl. a federal cap and trade system, and establishment of annual targets aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by 2020 and an additional 80% by 2050, promising that the U.S. will "help lead the world toward a new era of global cooperation on climate change"; "Few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change. The science is beyond dispute and the facts are clear." In Mar. 2009 the Cato Inst. pub. an ad titled With all due respect, Mr. President, that is not true, signed by dozens of scientists, reading: "We, the undersigned scientists, maintain that the case for alarm regarding climate change is grossly overstated. Surface temperature changes over the past century have been episodic and modest and there has been no net global warming for over a decade now. After controlling for population growth and property values, there has been no increase in damages from severe weather-related events. The computer models forecasting rapid temperature change abjectly fail to explain recent climate behavior. Mr. President, your characterization of the scientific facts regarding climate change and the degree of certainty informing the scientific debate is simply incorrect."

Bryony Worthington, Baroness Worthington (1971-) Cal Worthington and his dog Spot Christopher Booker (1937-) Philip Ball (1962-)

On Nov. 26, 2008 the Climate Change Act of 2008 by the British Parliament is given royal assent, making it the duty of the secy. of state for energy and climate change to ensure that the net carbon account for all six Kyoto greenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline, aiming to make the U.K. a low-carbon economy with ministers given powers to introduce measures to achieve a wide range of greenhouse gas reduction targets; an independent Committee on Climate Change is established; the act's lead author is Wales-born Bryony Katherine Worthington, Baroness Worthington (1971-), who flops and accepts nuclear power as long as the fuel is thorium; no relation to Southern Calif. car dealer Cal Worthingon (1920-2013) and his dog Spot?; British journalist Christopher John Penrice Booker (1937-) calls the act "the most expensive piece of legislation ever put through Parliament", with projected costs in the hundreds of billions over 40 years; on Oct. 17, 2009 Booker pub. the bestseller The Real Global Warming Disaster: Is the Obsession with 'Climate Change' Turning Out to Be the Most Costly Scientific Blunder in History?, denying a scientific consensus on climate change, denying that it is manmade, and calling govt. measures to combat it "one of the most expensive, destructive, and foolish mistakes the human race has ever made", labeling it Groupthink, with British science writer Philip Ball (1962-) (ed. of Nature) in The Observer (a critic) calling it "the definitive climate skeptics' manual... [in which] he has rounded up just about every criticism ever made of the majority scientific view that global warming, most probably caused by human activity, is under way, and presented them unchallenged"; Ball reverses the Groupthink argument with the observation that to accept Booker's position one must believe: "1) Most of the world's climate scientists, for reasons unspecified, decided to create a myth about human-induced global warming and have managed to twist endless measurements and computer models to fit their case, without the rest of the scientific community noticing. George W Bush and certain oil companies have, however, seen through the deception. 2) Most of the world's climate scientists are incompetent and have grossly misinterpreted their data and models, yet their faulty conclusions are not, as you might imagine, a random chaos of assertions, but all point in the same direction." On Oct. 14, 2018 Booker pub. the article The UN's latest mega-panic climate change report is based on pure fantasy in The Telegraph, containing the soundbyte: "However much those behind this report may delude themselves and try to delude the rest of us, the fact is that the rest of the world is no longer being taken in by their make-believe." Watch video - Baroness Worthington. Watch video - Baroness Worthington. Watch video - Christopher Booker. Watch video - Ian Plimer.

Sheldon Whitehouse of the U.S. (1955-)

In 2008 the nonprofit news org. Climate Central is founded in Princeton, N.J. to conduct scientific research on climate change and energy issues and produce and distribute multimedia content; on June 20, 2018 after NBC News reports how its Climate Change Education Partnership (founded 2010) helped educate 500+ TV weathercasters across the U.S. on global warming and its impacts, Repub. Sens. Ted Cruz of Tex., Rand Paul of Ky., James Lankford of Okla., and Jim Inhofe of Okla. call for the foundation's inspector gen. Allison Lerner to investigate their $4M program to increase climate reporting by meteorologists, calling it "propagandizing" instead of science, causing CEO Ben Strauss to utter the soundbyte: "Climate Central is not an advocacy organization, and the scientific consensus on climate change is not a political viewpoint", and U.S. Sen. (D-R.I.) (2007-) Sheldon Whitehouse (1955-) to utter the soundbyte: "Calling education on the irrefutable science of climate change 'political' would be laughable if it didn't reveal such a sobering truth about Republicans in Congress. Climate deniers still exist on Capitol Hill and the way fossil fuel money holds sway over the Republican Party permits antics like attacking this sensible grant."

2009

In 2009-2010 the 2009-2010 El Nino is a warm pool El Nino, rapidly decaying to a strong La Nina.

Rex Murphy (1947-)

On Jan. 8, 2009 Newfoundland-born Canadian conservative commentator and climate change skeptic Rex Murphy (1947-) pub. the op-ed Armageddon theory: Vancouver in the Globe and Mail, pointing out the coldness of the weather in Vancouver as throwing doubt on global warming theories, with the soundbytes: "Now I introduce this spotty survey not in any spirit of contention or with intent to counter what so many people hilariously refer to as the 'science' of global warming. One season's weather is not a guide to another, an insight captured more poetically by the proverb 'one swallow does not make a spring.' I am, most certainly, not going to make the error of our global warming hierophants who leap with troubling eagerness on any 'extreme weather event' and pilot it with ferocity to the conclusion that we are all doomed. They are rhetoricians of less scruple than I"; "I tie it all to Vancouver. So much of what the alarmists promised was supposed to be happening now isn't happening. So many events are running counter to their near-term projections, they've decided to go all Armageddon with their long-term ones, projections for a future that none of us will be around to check. So here's the test: The colder it gets in Vancouver, the hotter the dubious scenarios for the globe a hundred years from now will be." On Nov. 21, 2015 Murphy is listed as #1 in the 10 grumpy conservative voices Canadians are better off not listening to about climate science. On Oct. 12, 2018 after the Oct. 8 pub. of the new Doomsday IPCC Report, hhe pub. the article The UN climate-change panel that cried wolf too often in the National Post, containing the soundbytes: "You can't set multiple deadlines for Doomsday. It's a kind of one-off by nature. Do it too often and people cease to take notice or even care"; "The trouble with apocalypses is that they can't be plural. You only get one by definition. Neither can you set multiple deadlines for Doomsday. It's a kind of one-off by nature. Do it too often and people cease to take notice or even care. Everyone knows the sad story of Cassandra, the woman given the gift of true prophecy by the gods and simultaneously cursed to have no one believe her. The IPCC's problem, up to now, is like that but reversed. Always off, but generously credited. I think that string has run out. They can play Wagner and whistle the Ride of the Valkyries all they want from here on. People are tired of that music, and sick of the band." Watch video - Rex Murphy. Watch video - Rex Murphy.

John S. Theon (1934-)

On Jan. 15, 2009 NASA atmospheric scientist John S. Theon (1934), former supervisor of NASA climate change king James A. Hansen writes a letter to the Minority Office of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, with the soundbytes: "I appreciate the opportunity to add my name to those who disagree that global warming is man made"; "As Chief of several of NASA Headquarters' programs, I was responsible for all weather and climate research in the entire agency, including the research work by James Hansen"; "Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA's official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind's effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress"; "Climate models are useless... My own belief concerning anthropogenic climate change is that the models do not realistically simulate the climate system because there are many very important sub-grid scale processes that the models either replicate poorly or completely omit. Furthermore, some scientists have manipulated the observed data to justify their model results. In doing so, they neither explain what they have modified in the observations, nor explain how they did it. They have resisted making their work transparent so that it can be replicated independently by other scientists. This is clearly contrary to how science should be done. Thus there is no rational justification for using climate model forecasts to determine public policy."

On Jan. 17, 2009 Robin McKie pub. the article President 'has four years to save Earth': US must take the lead to avert eco-disaster, reporting that NASA climate guru James A. Hansen warmed Pres. Obama that he has to save the Earth in his first administration, with the soundbyte: "We cannot afford to put off change any longer. We have to get on a new path within this new administration. We only have four years left for Obama to set an example to the rest of the world. America must take the lead", claiming that atmospheric CO2 levels are already to high to prevent runaway greenhouse warming, and only the U.S. has the political muscle to lead the world to halt the rise.

In Jan. 2009 Scottish-born Canadian geologist A. Neil Hutton (1934-) pub. Climate Change in Reservoir, the mag. of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, a balanced treatment pissing-off global warmists for its fairness to the climate skeptic side.

Richard Blumenthal of the U.S. (1946-) Michael Oppenheimer (1946-)

On Feb. 5, 2009 Dem. Conn. atty. gen. #23 (1991-2011) Richard Blumenthal (1946-) along with 17 other states and two cities issue a joint letter calling on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) head Lisa P. Jackson to comply with an Apr. 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision ordering it to determine whether CO2 is a danger to human health and welfare and must be regulated, with Blumenthal writing the soundbyte: "I urge the new Obama EPA to declare carbon dioxide a danger to human health and welfare so we can at last begin addressing the potentially disastrous threat global warming poses to health, the environment and our economy. We must make up for lost time before it's too late to curb dangerous warming threatening to devastate the planet and human society"; on Dec. 7 the EPA issues its Endangerment Finding that greenhouse gas pollution threatens human health and the environment, putting it under Section 202(a) of the U.S. Clean Air Act, causing Blumenthal to comment: "No reputable climate scientist disputes the reality of global warming. It is fact, plain and simple. Dithering will be disastrous"; New York City-born geoscientist Michael Oppenheimer (1946-) supplies a lone affadavit claiming that CO2 influences sea level rise, going on to smear CO2 as responsible for global warming effects incl. damage to coral reefs and ice sheets, linking climate change to crop yields and U.S.-Mexico cross-border migration.

Mike Pompeo of the U.S. (1963-)

On Feb. 8, 2009 after moving to Wichita, Kan., home of the Koch Brothers, which back him up all the way, Orange, Calif.-born Ayn Rand-loving Repub. U.S. Army vet and Harvard Law School grad Michael Richard "Mike" Pompeo (1963-) is congratulated by the Koch brothers-funded Americans for Prosperity (founded 2003) for signing its No Climate Tax Pledge, which reads: "I pledge to the taxpayers of the State of __ and to the American people that I will oppose any legislation relating to climate change that includes a net increase in government revenue"; on June 25, 2013 Pompeo appears on the TV show Washington Journal, uttering the soundbyte: "There are scientists who think lots of different things about climate change. There's some who think we're warming, there's some who think we're cooling, there's some who think that the last 16 years have shown a pretty stable climate environment"; on Jan. 3, 2011 he becomes a U.S. rep. from Kan. (until Jan. 23, 2017); on Nov. 30, 2015 Pompeo issues a press release ahead of Pres. Obama's trip to the U.N. Climate Change Summit in Paris, with the soundbyte: "The President has his priorities dangerously wrong. He is now headed to Paris to bow down to radical environmentalists, all the while refusing to stand up to radical Islamists. In this city that has suffered an enormous tragedy at the hands of jihadists, our President stands ready to handcuff the global economy instead of the barbarians that seek to kill Americans, our allies, and others all over the world... President Obama has called climate change the biggest national security threat of our lifetime, but he is horribly wrong. His unwillingness to acknowledge the true threat posed by Islamic extremism will get Americans killed. His perverse fixation on achieving his economically harmful environmental agenda instead of defeating the true threats facing the world shows just how out of sync his priorities are with Kansans and the American people"; on Jan. 12, 2017 he faces a U.S. Senate confirmation hearing, refusing to acknowledge NASA's endorsement of climate change, with the soundbyte: "I, frankly, as the director of CIA, would prefer today not to get into the details of the climate debate and science. It seems my role is going to be so different and unique to that. It is going to be to work alongside warriors keeping Americans safe and so I stand by the things I've said previously with respect to that issue", after which he is confirmed as CIA dir. #6 on Jan. 23, 2017 until Apr. 26, 2018, when he becomes U.S. secy. of state #70 (until ?), succeeding Rex Tillerson; watch video - Mike Pompeo.

Anthony J. 'Tony' Sadar

On Feb. 23, 2009 Geneva College environmental scientist-meteorologist Anthony J. "Tony" Sadar, a conservative Christian who believes in the Theory of Intelligent Design pub. the article In Global Warming We Trust in The Washington Times, containing the soundbytes: "Everyone has been conditioned to believe that an extremely complex climate system is largely controlled by a single simple gas - carbon dioxide - even though the biggest single climate regulator on Earth is most likely water... Besides, could other uncontrollable factors like variation in incoming solar radiation and cosmic rays, as some atmospheric scientists have proposed, have a dominant influence over climate?"; "But wait. Aren't we all just essentially being pressured to believe in a long-range climate forecast? And isn’t this pressure largely being applied by politicians and political organizations no less? Who today would bet serious money on a weather prediction made a month in advance let alone decades ahead? Yet the developed nations of the world are under the gun to invest hundreds of billions of dollars on a climate prophecy when worldwide financial stability is tottering. Doesn't President Barack Obama have enough global headaches to buffer to worry about a trillion-dollar climate prescription?"; on Aug. 20, 2012 he pub. the book In Global Warming We Trust: A Heretic's Guide to Climate Science (rev. ed. Apr. 5, 2016), comparing the U.N. IPCC-driven global warming lobby to a religious cult that wants to spend a trillion dollars canceling the Industrial Rev., relegating millions to lifelong poverty.

On Feb. 24, 2009 NASA's $280M Orbiting Carbon Laboratory, designed to detect worldwide carbon emissions plunges into the ocean after launch from Vandenberg AFB in Calif. when the nose cone fails to come off, weighting it down; on July 2, 2014 NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 is launched to study CO2 concentrations and distribution in Earth's atmosphere; watch video.

On Mar. 8-9, 2009 the Heartland Inst.'s Second Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-2) is held in New York City, with the theme "Global Warming: Was It Ever Really a Crisis?", with the keynote address given by Czech Repub. pres. Vaclav Klaus.

'The Age of Stupid', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Franny Armstrong's The Age of Stupid (Spanner Films) (Dogwood Pictures) debuts, a documentary starring Pete Postlethwaite as a historyscoper living alone in the devastated world of 2055, watching archival footage from guess what year while asking "Why didn't we stop climate change when we had the chance?"; spawns the 10:10 Project in the U.K. to encourage everybody to reduce their carbon emissions by 10% in 12 mo. Watch the movie.

'Knowing', 2009 Caleb's Number Sheet from 'Knowing', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Alex Proyas' Knowing (Summit Entertainment), based on an idea by novelist Ryne Douglas Pearson debuts, starring Rose Byrne/Lara Robinson as Lucinda Embry-Wayland, who is visited by ETs in 1959 and puts a sheet of numbers in her school's time capsule, which is opened in 2009 by fellow student Caleb Koestler (Chandler Canterbury), whose father Jonathan "John" Koestler (Nicolas Cage) is an MIT astrophysics prof.; the numbers turn out to be dates and coordinates of major disasters, the last one of which is "EE" (everyone else), after which a solar flare wipes out all life on Earth right before some ETs arrive in spaceships to rescue a lucky few; does $187.9M box office on a $50M budget; "Now, I want you to think about the perfect set of circumstances that put this celestial ball of fire at just the correct distance from our little blue planet for life to evolve, making it possible for you to be sitting here in this riveting lecture. But that's a nice thought, right? Everything has a purpose, an order to it, is determined. But then there's the other side of the argument, the theory of randomness, which says it's all simply coincidence. The very fact we exist is nothing but the result of a complex yet inevitable string of chemical accidents and biological mutations. There is no grand meaning. There's no purpose. What about you, Professor Koestler? What? Well, what do you believe? I think shit just happens. But that's me." View trailer. Watch movie clip.

Kevin Edward Trenberth (1944-) Trenberth Global Energy Flow Diagram

In Mar. 2009 Christchurch, New Zealand-born Kevin Edward Trenberth (1944-) of the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (lead author of the 2001 and 2007 IPCC Assessment Reports) pub. the article Earth's Global Energy Budget in Proceedings of the Am. Meteorological Society, displaying a Global Energy Flow Diagram that purports to show how "back radiation" of 333 W/sq. m causes global warming, even though the incoming solar radiation is only 341.3 W/sq. m; this is moose hockey because it ignores the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and doesn't mention that back radiation is mathematical science fiction that creates an imaginary second Sun?

Marc Morano (1968-) David Rothbard (-2018) Craig Rucker Richard Mellon Scaife (1932-2014) Michael Goetz

In Apr. 2009 Washington, D.C.-born former Rush Limbaugh aide Marc Morano (1968-) founds the climate change denial Web site Climate Depot, sponsored by the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) of Washington, D.C. (founded in 1985 by David Rothbard (-2018) and Craig Rucker to "relentlessly infuse the environmental debate with a balanced perspective on environmental stewardship"), going on to help spread news of the Climategate scandal, debate Bill Nye the Science Guy on CNN's "Piers Morgan Tonight" in Dec. 2012 and Sierra Club exec dir. Michael Brune on ditto in Jan. 2013, and produce the documentary Climate Hustle, which debuts on Dec. 7, 2015 at the COP 21 U.N. Climate Change Summit in Paris, and in U.S. theaters on May 2, 2016; the film is produced by the Committee for Contructive Tomorrow (CFACT), which is funded by major oil corps. and right-wing billionaire Richard Mellon "Dickie" Scaife (1932-2014). On Feb. 26, 2018 Morano pub. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Climate Change, which claims that climate change is not about science but about fundamentally changing society to eliminate capitalism in favor of central planning run by the U.N. Am. atty. Michael Goetz is vice-pres. of CFACT Europe, which on Dec. 15, 2009 after bribing the crew with doughnuts puts a CFACT banner on the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior reading "Ship of Lies", later unfurling another banner reading "Propaganda Warrior"; CFACT's official policy on climate change is contained in the soundbytes: "The continuing scandal over falsified and destroyed temperature data, manipulated climate models, and a perverted scientific and peer review process further demonstrates that there is no valid basis for this anti-energy, wealth-redistribution, global governance Copenhagen treaty"; "Hundreds of climate scientists and thousands of other scientists disagree with that assertion [that climate change is occurring], as frequently noted by Lord Christopher Monckton, former science advisor to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and a CFACT advisor." Watch video - Marc Morano. Watch video - Marc Morano. Watch video - Marc Morano. View trailer. View clip. Watch video - Climate Hustle. Watch video - Michael Goetz. Watch video - David Rothbard. Watch video - Craig Rucker. Watch video - Craig Rucker.

On May 1, 2009 John M. Broder pub. the article Saving the Planet, With a Thesaurus, explaining how the term "global warming" is become dated for marketing purposes, as is the term "climate change", and the latest proposal by ecoAmerica is the term "deteriorating atmosphere".

Ian Plimer (1946-) William Kininmonth

On May 1, 2009 Australian global warming skeptic earth scientist (geologist) Ian Rutherford Plimer (1946-) pub. the bestseller Heaven and Earth: Global Warming - The Missing Science, dissing climate models for overemphasis on CO2 and not giving enough weight to solar variation; in June he gives an interview to ABNNewswire, containing the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide has an effect on the atmosphere and it has an effect for the first 50 parts per million and once it's done its job then it's finished and you can double it and quadruple it and it has no effect because we've seen that in the geological past, and we've seen it in times gone by when the carbon dioxide content was 100 times the current content. We didn't have runaway global warming, we actually had glaciation, so there's immediately a disconnect. So carbon dioxide is absolutely vital for living on earth; it's plant food, all of life lives off carbon dioxide. To demonize it shows that you don't understand school child science"; he also utters the soundbyte: "There is no problem with global warming. It stopped in 1998. The last two years of global cooling have erased nearly thirty years of temperature increase"; in 2014 he pub. Not for Greens: He Who Sups with the Devil Should Have a Long Spoon. In 2004 he helps fellow Australian global warming skeptic meteorologist William Robert Kininmonth pub. his book Climate Change, a Natural Hazard. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer.

Gareth Morgan (1953-)

On May 8, 2009 after he can't make up his mind about climate change and hires top scientists on both sides to answer his questions, wealthy Kiwi economist and investor Gareth Huw Morgan (1953-) along with John McCrystal pub. Poles Apart: Beyond the Shouting, Who's Right About Climate Change? (The Great Climate Change Debate), explaining why he began accepting it despite problems with the hockey stick, with the order in which CO2 growth and warming occur at the end of an ice age, and the arcane language of the IPCC reports; in Feb. 2012 he makes a voyage in Antarctica from Bluff to Scott Base carrying top scientists to gauge Antarctica's sensitivity to climate change. Watch video - Gareth Morgan. Watch video - Gareth Morgan.

On June 11, 2009 after returning from a trip to China and Alaska, U.S. Dem. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi issues the soundbyte that the U.S. and China have been "each using the other as the excuse for doing nothing" to stop global warming, adding: "The debate over whether or not the planet is warming and whether we are causing the problem no longer exists."

Tom Segalstad

On June 23, 2009 a letter is sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) titled A Scientific Challenge of EPA's Proposed Finding of Endangerment that CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons, Perflouorocarbons, and Sulfur Hexafluoride, Collectively or Individually, Are Causal Agent(s) or Contributors of Climate Change, which contains the soundbyte: "There is no 'cause and effect' relationship between CO2 and GTA (Global Temperature Anomalies)"; signers incl. Norwegian U. of Oslo environmental geologist Tom Victor Segalstad, who is slammed by the EPA with the soundbyte: "[Segalstad's work] does not address the lifetime of a change in atmospheric concentration of CO2, but rather the lifetime in the atmosphere of an individual molecule of CO2", which they claim are "two different concepts", based on his hot, er, cool Dec. 1995 paper The distribution of CO2 between atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere; minimal influence from anthropogenic CO2 on the global "Greenhouse Effect", containing the soundbyte: "Man's contribution to atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels is small, maximum 4% found by carbon isotope mass balance calculations. The 'Greenhouse Effect' of this contribution is small and well within natural climatic variability... The global climate is primarily governed by the enormous heat energy stored in the oceans and the latent heat of melting of the ice caps, not by the small amount of heat that can be absorbed in atmospheric CO2; hence legislation of 'CO2 taxes' to be paid by the public cannot influence on the sea level and the global climate"; Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad.

Sarah Louise Palin of the U.S. (1964-) Henry Waxman of the U.S. (1939-) Ed Markey of the U.S. (1946-)

On June 30, 2009 Repub. Alaska Gov. #9 (2006-9) Sarah Louise Palin (nee Heath) (1964-) announces that she doesn't support the Am. Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (1975-2015) Henry Arnold Waxman (1939-) and U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1976-2013) Edward John "Ed" Markey (1946-), chmn. of the U.S. House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming since 2007, "calling it a case of one size doesn't fit all", which was approved 219-212 by the House on June 26 and is never brought to a vote in the Senate; on Aug. 7, 2010 after calling 2010 the hottest year on record, Markey suggests that global warming deniers start their own country on an iceberg, with the soundbyte: "An iceberg four times the size of Manhattan has broken off Greenland, creating plenty of room for global warming deniers to start their own country", adding that it is "unclear how many giant blocks of ice it will take to break the block of Republican climate deniers in the US Senate who continue hold this critical clean energy and climate legislation hostage", on Mar. 20, 2011 Markey ridicules Repubs. for trying to pass the U.S. Upton-Inhofe Bill to overturn the EPA's rules on climate pollution and its endangerment finding, with the soundbyte: "Mr. Chairman, I rise in opposition to a bill that overturns the scientific finding that pollution is harming our people and our planet. However, I won't physically rise, because I'm worried that Republicans will overturn the law of gravity, sending us floating about the room. I won't call for the sunlight of additional hearings, for fear that Republicans might excommunicate the finding that the Earth revolves around the sun. Instead, I'll embody Newton's third law of motion and be an equal and opposing force against this attack on science and on laws that will reduce America's importation of foreign oil", later uttering the soundbyte: "Scientists agree the Arctic is a canary in a coal mine that provides clear warmings on climate"; on Aug. 18, 2011 Markey appears on MSNBC's "The Last Word", dissing Repub. U.S. pres. candidates who want to dismantle the EPA, with the soundbyte: "Rick Perry and these other guys are allergic to science...too many of the Tea Party people, who basically don’t believe in science, are now controlling the Republican Party." Watch video - Ed Markey. Watch video - Ed Markey. Watch video - Ed Markey and Judith Curry. Watch video - Ed Markey, Judith Curry, and Mark Steyn. Watch video - Ed Markey.

Alan Carlin

In June 2009 U.S. Sen. James Inhofe and the Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) write a letter to EPA head Lisa Jackson calling for a congressional investigation of the suppression of a report casting doubt on the existence of CO2-driven global warming written by Caltech physics-trained MIT economics-trained economist Alan Carlin (dir. of EPA's Implementation Research Div. in 1971-4), which they deny, making him more popular with climate skeptics?; on Feb. 12, 2010 he pub. the article Why the Whole AGW/Warmist Narrative Is Even Weaker than Its Components, containing the soundbyte: "There is very little empirical evidence for rising GHG levels as the primary cause for global warming. Ice core data suggests that CO2 levels follow temperatures rather than the other way around. In fact, the all-important scientific tests of this hypothesis show that increases in GHG levels are not a significant cause of warming." Watch video - Alan Carlin. Watch video - Alan Carlin.

Prince Charles of Wales (1948-)

On July 8, 2009 funny ears British Prince Charles of Wales (1948-) gives a speech to industrialists and environmentalists at St. James's Palace, claiming that we have just 96 mo. [8 ears, er, years] left to save Earth from "irretrievable climate and ecosystem collapse and all that goes with it", hence must give up capitalism and consumerism along with the "age of convenience" via "coherent financial incentives and disincentives", with the soundbytes: "We face the dual challenges of a world view and an economic system that seem to have enormous shortcomings, together with an environmental crisis – including that of climate change - which threatens to engulf us all", and "But for all its achievements, our consumerist society comes at an enormous cost to the Earth and we must face up to the fact that the Earth cannot afford to support it. Just as our banking sector is struggling with its debts – and paradoxically also facing calls for a return to so-called 'old-fashioned', traditional banking – so Nature's life-support systems are failing to cope with the debts we have built up there too. If we don't face up to this, then Nature, the biggest bank of all, could go bust. And no amount of quantitative easing will revive it."

Ralph B. Alexander

On July 10, 2009 Australian physicist Ralph B. Alexander pub. the book Global Warming False Alarm: The Bad Science Behind the United Nations; Assertion That Man-Made CO2 Causes Global Warming, containing the soundbytes: "Global warming may be real, but there's hardly a shred of good scientific evidence that it has very much to do with the amount of CO2 we're producing, or even that temperatures have risen as much as warmists say"; "The link between extreme weather and global warming has as much scientific basis as the pagan rite of human sacrifice to ensure a good harvest"; "Climate-change skeptics might be regarded as modern-day witches because they think that global warming comes from natural forces. However, it's superstitious alarmists, who believe that extreme weather originates in our CO2 emissions and who have a dread of impending disaster, who are really the witches"; "I am offended that science is being perverted in the name of global warming - today's environmental cause celebre." On Dec. 10, 2012 he pub. the article Extreme Weather and Superstition in The New York Post, which claims that there is no link between anthropogenic climate change and extreme weather events. On Sept. 1, 2018 Science Under Attack: The Age of Unreason, attacking global warmists while expanding the list of hot-button issues to vaccination and the health of dietary fat, with the soundbytes: "Conventional scientific wisdom holds that global warming and consequent changes in the climate are primarily our own doing. But what few people realize is that the actual scientific evidence for a substantial human contribution to climate change is flimsy"; "It requires highly questionable computer climate models to make the connection between global warming and human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)"; "The multiple lines of evidence which do exist are simply evidence that the world is warming, not proof that the warming comes predominantly from human activity"; "The supposed proof relies entirely on computer models that attempt to simulate the Earth's highly complex climate and include greenhouse gases as well as aerosols from both volcanic and man-made sources – but almost totally ignore natural variability."

On Sept. 28-30, 2009 the 4 Degrees and Beyond Internat. Climate Conference: Implications of a Global Climate Change of 4+ Degrees for People, Ecosystems and the Earth-system is held in Oxford, U.K., sponsored by Oxford U., the Tyndall Centre, and the Met Office Hadley Centre.

On Oct. 18, 2009 Australian atmospheric physicist John Reid pub. an article dissing Al Gore as nothing but a religious cult leader, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is the central tenet of this new belief system in much the same way that the Resurrection is the central tenet of Christianity. Al Gore has taken a role corresponding to that of St Paul in proselytizing the new faith... My skepticism about AGW arises from the fact that as a physicist who has worked in closely related areas, I know how poor the underlying science is. In effect the scientific method has been abandoned in this field."

Jim Puplava

On Oct. 24, 2009 Financial Sense Newshour (founded 1988), hosted by Am. investment analyst James Joseph "Jim" Puplava pub. an interview with climate change skeptic Ian Plimer about his book "Heaven and Earth: Global Warming, the Missing Science", who utters the soundbyte: "My view shows us that in the past we've had massive climate changes far far bigger than anything we've measured today", adding that increased CO2 in the atmosphere is a "gift" because it improves crop production; Puplava adds the soundbyte: "History shows that depopulation, social disruptions, extinctions, disease, and catastrophic droughts take place in cold times yet life blossoms and economies bloom in warm times. If indeed there is a period of global warming, why are we afraid of it?"

Tony Abbott of Australia (1957-)

In Oct. 2009 future Australian Liberal PM #28 (2013-15) Anthony John "Tony" Abbott (1957-) gives a speech in Victoria, in which he utters the soundbyte: "I observed that the so-called settled science of climate change was 'absolute crap'"; in July 2014 his govt. abolishes Labor's 2011 carbon tax and replaces it with the Emissions Reduction Fund, which lets cos. bid for $2.5B in public funds to implement emissions reduction projects; on Oct. 9, 2017 he gives the speech Daring to Doubt at the Global Warming Policy Foundation in London, calling green ideology a symptom of the decline of Western civilization, and climate change an insidious new religion that has replaced Christianity in many Western societies, with the soundbytes: "Beware the pronouncement, 'the science is settled'. It's the spirit of the Inquisition, the thought police, down the ages. Almost as bad is the claim that '99 per cent of scientists believe', as if scientific truth is determined by votes rather than facts", "Contrary to the breathless assertions that climate change is behind every weather event, in Australia the floods are not bigger, the bushfires are not worse, the droughts are not deeper or longer, and the cyclones are not more severe than they were in the 1800s. Sometimes, they do more damage but that's because there's more to destroy, not because their intensity has increased. More than 100 years of photography at Manly Beach in my electorate does not suggest that sea levels have risen despite frequent reports from climate alarmists that this is imminent", "In what might be described as Ridley's paradox, after the distinguished British commentator: at least so far, it's climate change policy that's doing harm; climate change itself is probably doing good; or at least, more good than harm", "The growing evidence that records have been adjusted, that the impact of urban heat islands has been downplayed, and that data sets have been slanted in order to fit the theory of dangerous anthropogenic global warming does not make it false; but it should produce much caution about basing drastic action upon it", "Unsurprisingly, the recipients of climate change subsidies and climate change research grants think action is very urgent indeed. As for the general public, of course saving the planet counts – until the bills come in and then the humbug detector is switched on", with the concluding soundbyte: "A tendency to fear catastrophe is ingrained in the human psyche. Looking at the climate record over millions of years, one day it will probably come; whatever we do today won't stop it, and when it comes, it will have little to do with the carbon dioxide emissions of mankind." Watch video - Tony Abbott.

On Nov. 12, 2009 scientists Joseph Francisco of Purdue U. and Timothy Lee of NASA pub. an article in the Journal of Physical Chemistry A, revealing that carbon dioxide and methane are outclassed in their climate warming potential by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur and nitrogen fluorides because they "contain fluorine atoms, [which] are far more efficient at blocking radiation in the 'atmospheric window'..., the frequency in the infrared region through which radiation from Earth is released into space, helping to cool the planet."

Phil Jones (1952-) Tom Wigley (1940-) Petr Chylek

On Nov. 17, 2009 Climategate starts when a hacker breaks into computers at the U. of East Anglia in England and finds emails of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) scientists faking global warming data at will and bragging about it, dogging the Dec. Copenhagen Summit; CRU dir. Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones (1952-) is in charge of the two key data sets used by the U.N. Intergovt. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to draw up its reports, along with Australian climate scientist Tom Wigley (1940-) (Hubert Lamb's successor at the CRU), causing them to be known as Jones and Wigley; "Here are some speculations on correcting SSTs to partly explain the 1940s warming blip... So, if we could reduce the ocean blip by, say, 0.15 degC, then this would be significant for the global mean -- but we'd still have to explain the land blip... It would be good to remove a least part of the 1940s blip, but we are still left with 'why the blip'" (Wigley, Sept. 27, 2009); Los Alamos Nat. Lab researcher Petr Chylek sends an email titled "Open Letter to the Climate Research Community" to 100 of his climate research peers, containing the soundbyte that the climate science community has "substituted the search for truth with an attempt at proving one point of view", concluding "Let us drastically modify or temporarily discontinue the IPCC" and appealing for climate scientists to stop making "unjustified claims and exaggerated projections about the future even if the editors of some eminent journals are just waiting to publish them"; on Nov. 22 Climategate II sees another batch of email released, causing Myron Ebell, dir. of the Competitive Enterprise Inst. Center on Energy and Environment to utter the soundbyte: "If there were any doubts remaining after reading the first Climategate e-mails, the new batch of e-mails that appeared on the web today make it clear that the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an organized conspiracy dedicated to tricking the world into believing that global warming is a crisis that requires a drastic response"; too bad, it comes too near the Copenhagen Summit to stop it, despite U.N. climate scientist panel head Rajendra Pachauri uttering the soundbyte: "The internal consistency from multiple lines of evidence strongly supports the work of the scientific community, incl. those individuals singled out in these email exchanges." Watch video - Climategate - The Corbett Report. Watch video - Climategate = RT. Watch video - Climategate - Wikileaks. Watch video - Tom Wigley. Watch video - Climategate. Watch video - Climategate - The Corbett Report. Watch video - Climategate - James Delingpole. Watch video - Climategate - Stefan Molyneux. Watch video - Climategate II.

James Delingpole (1965-)

On Nov. 20, 2009 English conservative-libertarian writer-journalist (non-scientist) James Mark Court Delingpole (1965-) pub. the article Climategate: The Final Nail in the Coffin of 'Anthropogenic Global Warming' in the London Daily Telegraph, containing the soundbytes: "The conspiracy behind the Anthropogenic Global Warming myth (aka AGW; aka ManBearPig) has been suddenly, brutally and quite deliciously exposed", and "A contretemps with a Climate Bully who wonders whether I have a science degree. (No I don't. I just happen to be a believer in empiricism and not spending taxpayers' money on a problem that may well not exist)." He goes on to popularize the term "Climategate" and use anthropogenic global warming as a whipping boy, calling NOAA scientists "talentless low-lives who cannot be trusted", climate change scientists "abject liars", climate activists "eco nazis", "eco fascists", and "scum-sucking slime balls", humorously suggesting that global warming scientists like Michael E. Mann should be "hanged", "given the electric chair", or "fed to the crocodiles".

Roger Tattersall Viv Forbes Nils-Axel Mörner (1938-) Claes Göran Johnson

On Nov. 29, 2009 English engineer and climate skeptic Roger Tattersall AKA Rog Tallbloke founds the blog TallBloke's Workshop, going on to co-found Clexit on July 7, 2016 along with the usual suspects Bernard Beauzamy, Paul Driessen, Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy, Don J. Eastbrook (1936-), Kesten Green, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Paul Homewood, Craig D. Idso, Claes Goran (Göran) L. Johnson, Madhav Khandekar, William Robert Kininmonth, Hans H.J. Labohm, Alan Moran, Patrick Moore, Joanne Nova (nee Codling) (1967-), Ian R. Plimer (1946-), Willie Wei-Hock Soon, Thomas "Tom" Wysmuller, Australian geologist Viv Forbes of the The Carbon Sense Coalition et al. to fight climate change alarmists, lobbying Pres. Trump to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, etc., with the soundbyte: "There is no justification for the War on carbon dioxide - CO2 does not drive global temperature and Earth's climate cannot be tweaked by erecting windmills or putting taxes on carbon dioxide. CO2 is naturally sequestered by oceans and the biosphere. Burning natural hydrocarbons merely recycles Earth's carbonaceous nutrients vital to all life - already world food production and global forests have benefitted from the small increases in carbon dioxide plant food in Earth's atmosphere." In Jan. 2010 Tattersall pub. the soundbyte: "Why do we spend our time working on obscure stuff about the way the planets and sun bob about in space? Because changes in solar output are the primary driver of climate change on Earth not changes in the atmosphere." In 2016 Tattersall pub. the soundbyte: "We think that the variation of the sun, and the variation of the orbital parameters of the planets in the solar system has a much bigger effect on changes in Earth's surface temperature than the changing concentration of a minor trace gas such as carbon dioxide." Swedish applied mathematician Claes Johnson goes on to deny CO2 back radiation as a fiction, using mathematics to prove it, with the soundbytes: "[Climate science may be the] "biggest scientific fraud ever"; "If thermodynamics is the main mechanism of the atmosphere as an air conditioner or heat transporter, then CO2 will not cause warming, and IPCC climate alarmism collapses"; "The realization that carbon dioxide alarmism has no scientific basis spreads rapidly among the world's scientists. Today, there are many scientists who know that the carbon dioxide alarmism preached by the IPCC and the Stockholm Resilience Centre is based on scientific falsehoods revealed partly by Climategate. There are many scholars who know that there is no evidence to suggest that a little more carbon dioxide in the air could be dangerous", calling the blogosphere the perfect "arena of skepticism" because it can't be censored by the govt. Another co-founder of Clexit is Swedish geophysicist Nils-Axel Morner (Mörner) (1938-), who in 2007 pub. the booklet The Greatest Lie Ever Told, disputing the IPCC view that the sea level has been rising at 2mm-3mm/year over the last cent, claiming it was 1.0 mm/yr in 1986-96, with the soundbyte: "The last 20th century sea level rise rate lacks any sign of acceleration. Satellite altimetry indicates virtually no changes in the last decade." He also utters the soundbyte: "You frighten a lot of scientists. If they say that climate is not changing, they lose their research grants. And some people cannot afford that; they become silent, or a few of us speak up, because we think that it's for the honesty of science, that we have to do it." Watch video - Roger Tattersall. Watch video - Roger Tattersall. Watch video - Claes Johnson. Watch video - Nils-Axel Morner.

Vijay Kumar Raina

In Nov. 2009 retired Indian geologist Vijay Kumar Raina pub. the paper Himalayan Glaciers: A State-of-the-Art Review of Glacial Studies, Glacial Retreat and Climate Change, which claims that the retreat and advance of Himalayan and other glaciers have no discernible link to global climate change, with the soundbyte: "This is one of the many issues of climate change science that we do not fully understand", pissing-off global warmists.

Harry Wilkinson

In Nov. 2009 the think tank Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) is founded in London, England by Lord Nigel Lawson to challenge "extremely damaging and harmful policies" proposed by govts. to mitigate anthropogenic global warming, taking the position that the science is not yet settled, causing warmists to lump them with climate change deniers; Lawson's aide in the House of Lords is Harry Wilkinson, who became a researcher at the GWPF in Nov. 2015 and calls the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) "the cult of anti-CO2", with the soundbyte: "The CCC is an organization that has a set conclusion and finds 'evidence' to back it up. In doing so it has the backing of most of the British establishment, who always seem to benefit from the subsidies and policies it advocates." On Sept. 7, 2018 Wilkinson pub. the article Arctic Sea Ice Just Won't Play the Game in The Conservative Woman, with the soundbyte: "Arctic sea ice is proving remarkably reluctant to enter its appointed 'death throes', despite the usual suspects having already planned the funeral. Climate Change Anxiety Disorder, it turns out, is yet to impose its angst on the actual climate, no matter how hard the BBC tries to make it. The latest observations show that Arctic sea ice is on course to have a greater minimum extent than in 2015 and 2016, and is running higher than levels seen a decade ago. Back then, the BBC reported that Arctic summers may be ice-free by 2013, although this estimate was described as being 'too conservative'. That prediction was spectacularly wrong, and contrary to warnings of an 'Arctic death spiral', sea ice extent has been remarkably stable in the last decade. No one can say what exactly will happen next; if this humbling affair teaches anything it should be precisely that."

On Dec. 7, 2009 the U.S. Environmental Protection Admin. (EPA) announces that greenhouse gases endanger public health and welfare, opening the way for the Obama admin. to impose its own curbs on emissions with or without approval from Congress.

On Dec. 7, 2009 the Hopenhagen.org Web site sponsored by Coca-Cola, Siemens, and SAP corps. opens, inviting the world's citizens to sign a petition demanding world leaders draft binding agreements on climate changes; meanwhile Europe has its coldest winter in 50 years, snowing uninterruptedly starting on Dec. 13; Coca-Cola spearheads a coalition of 100+ cos. pushing a U.N. climate treaty, which commits the world's wealthiest nations to $10T in foreign aid, and possible create an internat. "super-grid" for regulating and distributing electric power; on Dec. 7-18 the 2009 U.N. Climate Change (Copenhagen) Conference attended by 15K reps from 192 nations is held in Copenhagen, Denmark to attempt to reach an internat. agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, with U.N. Climate Change Secretariat head Yvo de Boer uttering the soundbyte: "The clock has ticked down to zero. After two years of negotiations the time has come to deliver"; developing nations will be offered aid to cut emissions; on Dec. 8 a leaked document showing that world leaders will be asked to sign an agreement handing more power to rich countries and sidelining the U.N.'s role in all future climate negotiations causes an uproar, after which African reps. walk out on Dec. 14; on Dec. 14 Al Gore gives a speech, claiming that polar ice may vanish in 5-7 years (summer 2014), rather than in 2030 like other scientists estimate, citing Wieslav Maslowski, who later disclaims it; on Dec. 18 Pres. Obama visits it, originally planning to pledge a 17% emissions cut by 2020, and 83% by 2050, but ending up frantically trying to rescue it from a stalemate after China balks at a real deal, getting snubbed by the Chinese PM then crashing a meeting to work a last-minute toothless deal in order to claim a V; the last day of the conference is blanked with 4 in. of snow; Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-), former science adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher claims that the real purpose of the conference is to lay the foundation for a OWG, but since it was a dud he must have been mistaken?; the rival Copenhagen Climate Challenge Conference is held by climate skeptics, with Australian earth scientist Ian Plimer as the star speaker, who utters the soundbyte: "They've got us outnumbered, but we've got them outgunned, and that's with the truth"; on Dec. 12 Danish police arrest 968 of 100K pro-global-warming protesters in Copenhagen; next July U.N. climate chief Yvo de Boer resigns. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton on Copenhagen Summit.

On Dec. 7-8, 2009 after the New York Times announces on Nov. 14, 2009 that "President Obama and other world leaders have decided to put off the difficult task of reaching a climate change agreement... agreeing instead to make it the mission of the Copenhagen conference to reach a less specific 'politically binding' agreement that would punt the most difficult issues into the future", the 15th U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen, Denmark is a bust, failing to achieve a binding agreement for long-term action.

Bernard Beauzamy

On Dec. 11, 2009 French mathematician Bernard Beauzamy, founder of the Mathematical Calculation Society pub. a letter in the Financial Times, which claims that out "knowledge of the general climate of the planet is so small that statements such as the 'hottest decade for the planet' are scientifically meaningless", and that "the part of the earth that is covered by [meteorological stations] is still extremely small; for instance, we know almost nothing about temperatures in the oceans in general, or in high atmosphere." In Sept. he pub. the paper The battle against global warming: an absurd, costly and pointless crusade, which claims that climate change is not caused by man, and that reducing CO2 emissions "serves absolutely no purpose", with the soundbytes: "There is not a single fact, figure or observation that leads us to conclude that the world's climate is in any way 'disturbed'. It is variable, as it has always been, but rather less so now than during certain periods or geological eras. Modern methods are far from being able to accurately measure the planet's global temperature even today, so measurements made 50 or 100 years ago are even less reliable. Concentrations of CO2 vary, as they always have done; the figures that are being released are biased and dishonest. Rising sea levels are a normal phenomenon linked to upthrust buoyancy; they are nothing to do with so-called global warming. As for extreme weather events - they are no more frequent now than they have been in the past. We ourselves have processed the raw data on hurricanes. We are being told that 'a temperature increase of more than 2ºC by comparison with the beginning of the industrial age would have dramatic consequences, and absolutely has to be prevented'. When they hear this, people worry: hasn't there already been an increase of 1.9ºC? Actually, no: the figures for the period 1995-2015 show an upward trend of about 1ºC every hundred years! Of course, these figures, which contradict public policies, are never brought to public attention"; "Direct aid for industries that are completely unviable (such as photovoltaics and wind turbines) but presented as 'virtuous' runs into billions of euros, according to recent reports published by the Cour des Comptes (French Audit Office) in 2013. But the highest cost lies in the principle of 'energy saving', which is presented as especially virtuous. Since no civilization can develop when it is saving energy, ours has stopped developing: France nowhas more than three million people unemployed - it is the price we have to pay for our virtue"; "Human beings cannot, in any event, change the climate. If we in France were to stop all industrial activity (let's not talk about our intellectual activity, which ceased long ago), if we were to eradicate all trace of animal life, the composition of the atmosphere would notalter in any measurable, perceptible way. To explain this, let us make a comparison with the rotation of the planet: it is slowing down. To address that, we might be tempted to ask the entire population of China to run in an easterly direction. But, no matter how big China and its population are, this would have no measurable impact on the Earth's rotation"; "One might wonder about the potential consequences of so-called global warming for human beings and the natural world. The answer is very simple: the natural world will adjust very well, as it has always done. Plants, in particular, would enjoy an increase in CO2 concentrations. In France, the positive effects would far outweigh the negative ones. If there were such a thing as global warming, then we should celebrate. And if it does not exist, then we shall simply have to carry on switching on the central heating nine months a year"; "In a democracy, there is an opposition, and this opposition has a right, in principle, to express its views: this is what distinguishes democracy from dictatorship. But when it comes to the questions about global warming that we are talking about here, the opposition – people who do not believe in global warming - have been told to shut up: no public debate, no contradictory discourse, no articles in scientific journals. They have simply been toldthat the case is proven and it is time to take action. In law, there is a fundamental principle known as the 'adversarial principle'. A case can bethrown out of court if the defense is not informed of every known element of the accusation. Even if twenty people have witnessed the abominable criminal commit his offense, if the defense has not had access to blood-sample analyses, the case will be thrown out. In the case of global warming, a number of bodies are telling us they have all the evidence, but refuse to tell us what it is. The data have been processed, but how? Time series have been altered, but why? Some phenomena have been left out of the equation, but on what grounds? We do not know, and we are simply required to keep quiet and do what we are told. No second opinion is permitted. It is on the debris of the fundamental principles of the law and of democracy that this White Paper has been written."

In 2009 Gabriel Calzada Alvarez et al. of Univ. Rey Juan Carlos pub. Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources, which finds that Spanish solar energy subsidies "destroyed 2.2 jobs for every 'green job' created."

Geraldo Luis Lino

In 2009 Brazilian geologist Geraldo Luis Lino pub. the book The Global Warming Fraud: How a Natural Phenomenon Was Converted into a False World Emergency, going on to utter the soundbytes: "The Anthropogenic Global Warming Hypothesis (AGWH, for short) is simple, direct and appealing; the only problem is that it flunks the scientific method test"; "Hundreds of billions of dollars have been wasted with the attempt of imposing a Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory that is not supported by physical world evidences... AGW has been forcefully imposed by means of a barrage of scare stories and indoctrination that begins in the elementary school textbooks."

Garth Paltridge (1940-)

In 2009 retired Australian U. of Tasmania atmospheric scientist Garth William Paltridge (1940-) pub. the book The Climate Caper: Facts and Fallacies of Global Warming (foreword by Lord Monckton), claiming that anthropogenic global warming is real, but the warming is probably too small to be a threat; on Jan. 22, 2014 he pub. the article Climate Change's Inherent Uncertainties in Quadrant Online, containing the soundbytes: "Virtually all scientists directly involved in climate prediction are aware of the enormous uncertainties associated with their product. How is it that they can place hands over hearts and swear that human emissions of carbon dioxide are wrecking the planet?"; "The chances of proving that climate change over the next century will be large enough to be disastrous are virtually nil. For the same reason, the chances of a climate sceptic, or anyone else for that matter, proving the disaster theory to be oversold are also virtually nil. To that extent there is a level playing field for the two sides of the argument. The problem is that climate research necessarily involves enormous resources, and is a game for institutions and organisations. Scepticism is an occupation for individuals. Things being as they are in the climate-change arena, scepticism by an individual within the system can be fairly career-limiting. In any event, most individual scientists have a conscience, and are reluctant to put their heads above the public parapet in order to propound a view of things that may be inherently unprovable. In short, there is more than enough uncertainty about the forecasting of climate to allow normal human beings to be at least reasonably hopeful that global warming might not be nearly as bad as is currently touted. Climate scientists, and indeed scientists in general, are not so lucky. They have a lot to lose if time should prove them wrong." He also utters the soundbyte: "The broad theory of man-made global warming is acceptable in the purely qualitative sense. If humans continue to fill the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, there can be little doubt that the average temperature of the world will increase above what it would have been otherwise. The argument about the science is, and always has been, whether the increase would be big enough to be noticed among all the other natural variations of climate. The economic and social argument is whether the increase, even if it were noticeable, would change the overall welfare of mankind for the worse." Watch video - Garth Paltridge. Watch video - Garth Paltridge. Watch video - critic of Garth Paltridge.

Hajo Smit

In 2009 after the Climategate scandal turns him off to global warming science, Dutch climate modeler Hajo Smit (member of the Dutch U.N. IPCC committee) launches the Web site Climategate.nl, uttering the soundbyte: "Gore prompted me to start delving into the science again and I quickly found myself solidly in the skeptic camp... Climate models can at best be useful for explaining climate changes after the fact." Watch video - Hajo Smit.

Charles Battig

In 2009 the Northern Va. Chapter of Scientists and Engineers for Energy and Environment (VA-SEEE) is founded by electrical engineer and prominent global warming skeptic S. Fred Singer of the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP), with the aim of "educating the public on the issues of climate, energy and environment"; members incl. Kenneth Haapala; pres. of the Piedmont Chapter (since 2009) is retired physician and electrical engineer Charles Battig; on Dec. 6, 2009 Battig pub. an op-ed titled Investigate data behind global-warming theory in DailyProgress.com in Charlottesville, Va., containing the soundbytes: "The climate science community has been shaken by the posting of thousands of e-mails and internal documents originating from the Climate Research Unit at East Anglia University, England. The inconvenient truths of the workings of this science community cast doubt on the integrity of some promoting catastrophic climate change. Documents show a small cabal of climate scientists actively suppressed dissenting views, denied opposing views publication in journals they control and fostered manipulation of temperature data to conform to global warming dogma. It is proclaimed that failure to impose a new, worldwide energy rationing system and wealth redistribution scheme will provoke a global climate meltdown. A global government is promoted to administer the redistribution of wealth and energy. Government, industry, research institutions and the financial community are giddy with the prospects of a trillion-dollar-a-year funding source. Our own government is pushing 'cap and trade' as necessary because 'the science is settled.' There may be ample reason now to believe there is 'something rotten in the state of Denmark.' The scientific community and the public deserve a full and open investigation of the data behind the conclusions made to support the global-warming theory." On July 10, 2014 he pub. the article Climate Change Hysteria and the Madness of Crowds, containing the soundbyte: "Years of relentless doomsday prognostications by a variety of public voices spanning the political-scientific spectrum have found their mark in a gullible and guilt-prone public. There is a Medusa-like quality in the serpentine web of doomsday prophets, including members of the Club of Rome, Paul Ehrlich's 'Population Bomb,' and the current White House science advisor, John Holdren. Al Gore came to discover 'Inconvenient Truths,' later found to be not so truthful. Al Gore's contribution to making climate change a co-equal amongst the four horsemen of the apocalypse is matched by M. Mann's reinterpretation of global temperature history. Repeated refutations of 'faulty' science and failed predictions of climate calamities have not deterred these marketers of doom. Cut the head off, yet it lives on." On Dec. 23, 2016 he pub. the article The next great sucking sound in American Thinker, containing the soundbyte: "President-Elect Trump has pierced the veils surrounding the holy of holies wherein reside the eco-dogmatists of the EPA and the U.N. and promises the rightful return of respect to the essence of scientific research... skepticism." Watch video - Charles Battig.

2010

Between 2000 and 2010 humans add about 100 billion tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, which is about 25% of all the CO2 put there by humanity since 1750.

In Jan.-Feb. 2010 the U.S. experiences its coldest winter in 25 years, while Canada experiences its warmest winter on record.

Paul Driessen (1948-) Roger Bezdek

On Jan. 1, 2010 Am. ex-environmentalist Paul Driessen (1948-) pub. his first book Eco-Imperialism: Green Power Black Death, slamming the environmental movement as a group of affluent Westerners imposing their views on backward impoverished Third World peoples, violating their basic rights and denying them economic opportunities, going on to promote the use of fossil fuels and pooh-poohing climate change alarmists, going on to utter the soundbytes: "Not using fossil fuels is tantamount to not using energy. It is economic suicide and eco-manslaughter"; "Had today's technophobic zealots [environmental activists] been in charge in previous centuries, we would have to roll human progress back to the Middle Ages – and beyond, since even fire, the wheel and organic farming poserisks, and none would have passed the 'absolute safety' test the zealots demand. Putting them in charge now would mean an end to progress, and perpetual deprivation for inhabitants of developing nations"; "No Real-World evidence supports a 'dangerous manmade climate change' thesis. In fact, a moderately warmer planet with more atmospheric carbon dioxide would hugely benefit crop, forest and other plant growth, wildlife and humans – with no or minimal climate effect. A colder planet with less CO2 would punish them. And a chillier CO2-deprived planet with less reliable, less affordable energy (from massive wind, solar and biofuel projects) would threaten habitats, species, nutrition and the poorest among us"; "Climate has always changed. It is far better to have energy, technology, modern housing and wealth to adapt to, survive, recover from and even thrive amid inevitable warming, cooling and weather events, than to forego these abilities (on the absurd assumption that humans can control climate and weather) - and be forced to confront nature's onslaughts the way previous generations had to"; "As to climate change, numerous studies demonstrate that there is no credible evidence that manmade carbon dioxide is causing dangerous global warming. oreover, rising CO2 emissions from China, India and other rapidly developing nations vastly exceed any imaginable US reductions"; "A couple degrees warmer would be good for humanity and planet, especially with more plant-fertilizing carbon dioxide in the air... But a couple degrees colder would bring serious adverse consequences for habitats, wildlife, agriculture and humanity." Driessen's co-author on CFACT is economist Roger H. Bezdek, who on June 1, 2015 uttered the soundbytes: "CO2 is not harmful and is actually good for the planet"; "The federal SCC (social costs of carbon) estimates do not adequately consider the benefits of fossil fuels and CO2 emission"; "There is no convincing evidence that anthropogenic global warming (AGW) will produce catastrophic climate changes:; in Dec. 2014 he utters the soundbyte: "CO2 is basically plant food, and the more CO2 in the environment the better plants do." Watch video - Paul Driessen. Watch video - Paul Driessen. Watch video - Paul Driessen. Watch video - Roger Bezdek. Watch video - Roger Bezdek.

David Rose (1959-)

On Jan. 9, 2010 London-born Oxford-educated British conservative Daily Mail on Sunday (founded May 2, 1982) investigative journalist (since 2008) David Rose (1959-) pub. the article The mini ice age starts here; on Oct. 30, 2011 he pub. the article Scientist who said climate change sceptics had been proved wrong accused of hiding truth by colleague, an interview with climate skeptic Judith Curry and flopped climate skeptic Richard Muller; on Oct. 13, 2012 he pub. the article Global warming stopped 16 years ago, reveals Met Office report quietly released... and here is the chart to prove it, exposing the global warming pause in 1997-Aug. 2012; on Feb. 24, 2013 he pub. the article Eco-tastrophe! How MPs in the pay of subsidised eco-firms set insane new carbon targets that send your bills sky-rocketing... and drag us to a new Dark Age, containing the insert "Exploding the Myths About Climate Change", pissing-off the PC global warming establishment; on Mar. 16, 2013 he pub. the article The Great Green Con no. 1: The hard proof that finally shows global warming forecasts that are costing you billions were WRONG all along, with the subtitle: "No, the world ISN'T getting warmer (as you may have noticed). Now we reveal the official data that's making scientists suddenly change their minds about climate doom. So will eco-funded MPs stop waging a green crusade with your money? Well... what do YOU think?", causing a huge public reaction pro and con; on Sept. 7, 2013 he pub. the article And now it's global COOLING! Return of Arctic ice cap as it grows by 29% in a year; too bad, his articles draw personal insults and threats despite a mea culpa statement that he believes in global warming, causing him to pub. the article Climate of Hate: His children are urged to kill him, he's compared to Adolf Hitler and labelled a 'denier' – even though he's Jewish. Disturbing article reveals what happens if you dare to doubt the Green prophets of doom on Jan. 31, 2015 in the er, U.K. Daily Mail, which he spoils on Oct. 17, 2016 when he attends a Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) lecture at the Royal Society in London, sitting next to English climate skeptic James Delingpole; on Nov. 26, 2016 Rose pub. the article Stunning new data indicates El Nino drove record highs in global temperatures suggesting rise may not be down to man-made emissions, claiming a 1C global avg. land temp drop caused by the end of the El Nino; on Feb. 4, 2017 Rose pub. the article Exposed: How world leaders were duped into investing billions over manipulated global warming data, with the lead: "The Mail on Sunday today reveals astonishing evidence that the organisation that is the world's leading source of climate data rushed to publish a landmark paper that exaggerated global warming and was timed to influence the historic Paris Agreement on climate change", going on to report about "high-level whistleblower", NOAA climate scientist John Bates and his allegations; too bad, the global warming scientists come down on him with several alleged refutations, incl. the leftist U.K. newspaper The Guardian, which on Feb. 5, 2017 pub. an article by John Abraham titled Mail on Sunday launches the first salvo in the latest war against climate scientists, slaming him, after which in Sept. 2017 the U.K. press regulator Independent Press Standards Org. censures Daily Mail for running it, causing them to censor further climate articles, replacing him with pro-warming alarmist Joe Pinkstone, who on Oct. 16, 2018 pub. the article How climate change is threatening BEER supplies: Lager could DOUBLE in price as severe droughts and heatwaves decimate barley fields, study says - the Empire Strikes Back? Watch video - David Rose and David Whitehouse.

Tucker Carlson (1969-) Michael Bastach

On Jan. 11, 2010 The Daily Caller conservative Web site is founded in Washington, D.C. by San Francisco, Calif.-born Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson (1969-) (son of U.S. ambassador to Seychelles Richard Warner Carlson and Swanson Foods heiress Patricia Caroline Swanson [1945-], and great-nephew of U.S. Sen. J. William Fulbright ([1905-95]) and Neil Patel with a $3M budget and a reporting staff of 21, battling the liberal The Huffington Post and reaching 35M page views/mo. and 200K comments/mo. by 2013, surpassing The Washington Times, Politico, and Forbes, becoming known for supporting climate change denial while receiving mucho funding from the Koch brothers; reporters incl. Michael Bastach.

Andrew W. Montford

In Jan. 2010 English chemist-writer-accountant Andrew W. Montford, founder of the global warming skeptic blog Bishop Hill on Nov. 21, 2006 pub. the U.K. bestseller The Hockey Stick Illusion: Climategate and the Corruption of Science, a layperson's approach to the Hockey Stick Debate based on climate skeptic Stephen McIntyre's blog Climate Audit; no surprise, it pisses-off the pro-global warming clique.

Phil Jones (1952-)

On Feb. 13, 2010 after the Climategate scandal causes Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones (1952-) to temporarily step aside as dir. of the U. of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit (CRU), BBC News pub. an article titled Q&A: Phil Jones, an interview by BBC journalist Roger Harrabin, who asks him if the rates of global warming from 18860-80, 1910-40, and 1978-98 are identical, to which he replies: "The warming rates for all four periods are similar and not statistically significantly different from each other"; to the question: "DO you agree that from January 2002 to the present there has been statistically significant global warming?" he replies: "No. This period is even shorter than 1995-2009. The trend this time is negative (-0.12C per decade), but this trend is not statistically significant"; to the question: "There is a debate over whether the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) was global or not. If it were to be conclusively shown that it was a global phenomenon, would you accept that this would undermine the premise that mean surface atmospheric temperatures during the latter part of the 20th Century were unprecedented?", he replies: "There is much debate over whether the Medieval Warm Period was global in extent or not. The MWP is most clearly expressed in parts of North America, the North Atlantic and Europe and parts of Asia. For it to be global in extent the MWP would need to be seen clearly in more records from the tropical regions and the Southern Hemisphere. There are very few palaeoclimatic records for these latter two regions. Of course, if the MWP was shown to be global in extent and as warm or warmer than today (based on an equivalent coverage over the NH and SH) then obviously the late-20th century warmth would not be unprecedented. On the other hand, if the MWP was global, but was less warm that today, then current warmth would be unprecedented. We know from the instrumental temperature record that the two hemispheres do not always follow one another. We cannot, therefore, make the assumption that temperatures in the global average will be similar to those in the northern hemisphere"; to the question: "When scientists say 'the debate on climate change is over', what exactly do they mean - and what don't they mean?", he replies: "It would be supposition on my behalf to know whether all scientists who say the debate is over are saying that for the same reason. I don't believe the vast majority of climate scientists think this. This is not my view. There is still much that needs to be undertaken to reduce uncertainties, not just for the future, but for the instrumental (and especially the palaeoclimatic) past as well." Watch video - Phil Jones.

On May 1, 2010 the Antarctic Volcanoes Project Blog is launched by TLW, who claims that global warming is good not bad, and more not less CO2 and H2O need to be pumped into the atmosphere to create more living space and food supplies, calling for a global scientific effort to evaluate the potential of reactivating underwater volcanoes in the Antarctic.

Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera Lonnie G. Thompson Syun-Ichi Akasofu

On May 16-18, 2010 the Heartland Inst.'s Fourth Internat. Conference on Climate Change is held, with the theme "Reconsidering the Science and Economics"; U. of Mexico geophysicist Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera gives a talk titled The New Solar Minimum and the Mini Ice Age of the Twenty-First Century, containing the soundbyte that the models and forecasts of the U.N. IPCC "are incorrect because they only are based on mathematical models and presented results at scenarios that do not include, for example, solar activity", claiming that solar activity is diminishing and that the Earth will see a small ice age lasting from 60-80 years, claiming that "In this century glaciers are growing", pissing-off Ohio State U. geologist Lonnie G. Thompson, who led 50+ expeditions to 15+ countries since 1978 to collect ice cores, becoming the founder of tropical alpine paleoclimatology after discovering that the Quelccaya tropical ice cap in Peru is not only retreating, but accelerating; meanwhile on Nov. 17, 2009 Alaskan geophysicist and climate skeptic Syun-Ichi Akasofu, founder of the Internat. Arctic Research Center (ARC) at the U. of Alaska in 1998 pub. the paper "Natural Components of Climate Change over the last few 100 years", containing the soundbyte: "Climate change during the last few hundred years may be interpreted mainly in terms of a combination of the recovery effect and the multi-decadal oscillation. These are natural changes. Thus, there is a possibility that only a small fraction of the warming between 1900 and 2000 may be attributable to the greenhouse effect. In this view, the predicted temperature change in 2100 is about 0.5°C ± 0.2°C", followed in Nov. 2010 by the paper On the recovery from the Little Ice Age, with the abstract: "We learn that the recovery from the LIA has proceeded continuously, roughly in a linear manner, from 1800-1850 to the present. The rate of the recovery in terms of temperature is about 0.5°C/100 years and thus it has important implications for understanding the present global warming. It is suggested on the basis of a much longer period covering that the Earth is still in the process of recovery from the LIA; there is no sign to indicate the end of the recovery before 1900. Cosmic-ray intensity data show that solar activity was related to both the LIA and its recovery. The multi-decadal oscillation of a period of 50 to 60 years was superposed on the linear change; it peaked in 1940 and 2000, causing the halting of warming temporarily after 2000. These changes are natural changes, and in order to determine the contribution of the manmade greenhouse effect, there is an urgent need to identify them correctly and accurately and remove them." Watch video - Syun Akasofu. Watch video - Indur M. Goklany.

Christiana Figueres of Costa Rica (1956-

In July 2010 Costa Rican diplomat Karen Christiana Figueres (1956-) is appointed exec secy. of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); on Feb. 3, 2015 she utters the soundbyte at a conference in Brussels: "This is probably the most difficult task we have ever given ourselves, which is to intentionally transform the economic development model, for the first time in human history. This is the first time in the history of mankind that we are setting ourselves the task of intentionally, within a defined period of time to change the economic development model that has been reigning for at least 150 years, since the industrial revolution. That will not happen overnight and it will not happen at a single conference on climate change, be it COP 15, 21, 40 - you choose the number. It just does not occur like that. It is a process, because of the depth of the transformation."

On Aug. 30, 2010 after a 4-mo. review the InterAcademy Council of the 106 nat. science academy InterAcademy Panel (founded 1993) pub. Review of the IPCC: An evaluation of the procedures and processes of the InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change, detailing "significant shortcomings in each major step of IPCC's assessment process", causing the New Scientist mag. and the Financial Times to call for the resignation of IPCC chmn. Rajendra Pachauri, and British environmental correspondent Geoffrey Lean to call the IPCC an "amateurish, ramshackle operation"; on Aug. 31 the U.K. Times pub. the headline This discredited science body must be purged.

Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-)

On Nov. 4, 2010 German economist Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-) of the Potsdam Inst. gives an interview to the Swiss newspaper Neue Zurcher (Zürcher) Zeitung, containing the soundbytes: "One must free oneself from the illusion that international climate policy is environmental policy. [What we're doing] has almost nothing to do with the climate. We must state clearly that we use climate policy to redistribute de facto the world's wealth"; he adds the soundbyte: "Climate policy has almost nothing to do anymore with protecting the environment. The next world climate summit in Cancun is actually an economic summit during which distribution of the world's resources will be negotiated"; too bad, he really said: "First of all, we as industrialized countries have quasi expropriated the atmosphere of the world community. But one must explicitly say: We de facto redistribute the world's wealth due to climate politics. That the owners of coal and oil are not enthusiastic about this is obvious. One has to free oneself from the illusion that international climate politics is environmental politics. This has almost nothing to do any more with environmental politics, [as it was] with problems such as deforestation or the ozone hole"; before that he said: "Fundamentally, it is a big mistake to discuss climate politics separately from the big issues of globalization. The climate summit in Cancun at end of the month is not a climate conference, but one of the largest economic conferences since the Second World War. Why? Because we have 11,000 gigatons of carbon in the coal reserves under our feet - and we can only add 400 gigatons more to the atmosphere if we want to stay within the 2 °C target. 11,000 to 400 - we have to face the fact that a large part of the fossil reserves must remain in the ground. De facto, this is the expropriation of the countries with these natural resources. This leads to an entirely different development than the one that has been initiated with development policy."

On Nov. 29-Dec. 10, 2010 the 16th U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP16) in Cancun, Mexico.

Berkeley Earth Richard A. Muller (1944-)

In 2010 Berkeley Earth is founded by UCB physicist Richard A. Muller (1944-) and Elizabeth Muller to perform the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project to reanalyze the Earth's surface temperature record in the light of concerns by skeptics, going on to pub. their findings in 2012 and go non-profit in Feb. 2013; they conclude that potential biases from data selection, data adjustment, poor station quality, and the urban heat island effect did not unduly bias the record, and that the overreliance on large and complex global climate models by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the attribution of the recent temperature increase to anthropogenic forcings could be replaced by a simple model that included a volcanic term and, as an anthropogenic proxy, CO2 concentration, concluding that the record could be reproduced by just these two contributions, and that inclusion of direct variations in solar intensity did not contribute to the fit; members incl. Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter (1959-), UCB physicist Jonathan Wurtele (1957-), UCB physicist Arthur Hinton "Art" Rosenfeld (1926-2017), physicist Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Pamela Hyde, and UCB physicist Robert Andrew Rhode, who writes the software to search databases for global temp records and merge them into a unified record, which he compares to "Hercules' enormous task of cleaning the Augean stables", extending the temp record back to 1753; in Oct. 2011 Richard Muller pub. an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal, containing the soundbyte: "When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didn't know what we'd find. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been very careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. They managed to avoid bias in their data selection, homogenization and other corrections. Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help cool this portion of the climate debate. How much of the warming is due to humans and what will be the likely effects? We made no independent assessment of that." Watch video - Richard A. Muller.

In 2010 the U.N. Green Climate Fund is established in Incheon, South Korea to fight global warming via Climate finance under the UNFCCC; on June 1, 2017 Pres. Trump calls it a scheme to redistribute wealth from rich to poor countries; on July 4, 2018 Australian diplomat Howard Bamsey, dir. since Jan. 2017 resigns after a board meeting approves no new projects.

Donna Laframboise

In 2010 Canadian investigative journalist (non-scientist) Donna Laframboise organizes a "citizen audit" of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, finding that 21 of its 44 chapters used fewer than 60% peer-reviewed sources; in 2011 she pub. the book The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World's Top Climate Expert, exposing the rottenness of the IPCC incl. its ties to environmental activist orgs. and no conflict of interest policy until May 2011; on Sept. 9, 2013 she pub. the book Into the Dustbin: Rajendra Pachauri, the Climate Report & the Nobel Peace Prize, criticizing IPCC chmn. Rajendra Pachauri for padding his resume, and claiming that the IPCC bases its conclusions solely on peer-reviewed lit. while advising IPCC personnel to claim that they are Nobel laureates; no surprise, the PC press attacks her personally, just making her more popular?; "There are two ways to get a scientific consensus. One is to present the data and the analysis in a manner that is so persuasive that everyone is convinced. The other way is to exclude or marginalize anyone who does not agree... The response to Susan's work is politically motivated, not an argument against her conclusions." (Mitchell Taylor) Watch video - Donna Laframboise.

In 2010 Alan J. Moran (ed.) pub. Climate Change: The Facts, pub. by the Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) in Australia, containing 23 essays expounding the climate skeptic viewpoint from several authors; in 2015 a 2nd ed. is pub. by IPA and the Canadian right wing pundit Mark Steyn, containing 21 essays; in 2017 Jennifer Marohasy (ed.) pub. Climate Change: The Facts 2017, containing 22 essays, sponsored by the IPA; "However, our understanding of how the climate operates is incomplete and it is critically important to challenge the view that the planet is facing a global warming catastrophe."

2011

Tim Ball (1938-) John O'Sullivan

On Jan. 18, 2011 Canadian U. of Winnipeg geographer-climatologist Timothy Francis "Tim" Ball (1938-), Charles Anderson, Martin Hertzberg, Claes Johnson, Joseph Olson, John O'Sullivan, and Hans Schreuder pub. Slaying the Sky Dragon - Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory, claiming to disprove the theory of manmade global warming by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; a product of Principia Scientific Internat. (PSI), founded in the U.K. in 2010 by Tim Ball and British-born Canadian-Am. atty. John O'Sullivan to push the claim that CO2 is not a greenhouse gas. In 2011 hockey stick man Michael Mann sues Tim Ball for defamation for the soundbyte that Mann "should be in the State Pen, not Penn State". On Jan. 21, 2014 Ball pub. The Deliberate Corruption of Climate Science, dissing the progressive left for politicizing what should only be a science. On Sept. 5, 2016 Ball pub. Human Caused Global Warming. Watch video - Tim Ball.

20111 Fukushina Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, Mar. 11, 2011

On Mar. 11, 2011 the 9.0 2011 Tohoku Japan Earthquake (biggest ever) strikes off Senai (near Tokyo), causing tsunami alerts in 20+ countries, with a 33-ft. wall of water swamping town in N Japan, killing 10K and causing $35B in damage; an explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi (No. 1) Power Plant nuclear reactor 170 mi. NE of Tokyo causes radiation to hit 1Kx the safe level, causing a 6-mi. exclusion zone to be placed around it, after which a 2nd power plant explodes; on Mar. 14 the 3rd nuclear power plant explosion occurs, causing panicked residents of Tokyo to flee as the U.S. braces for possible radioactive fallout; the earthquake shortens the length of the day by 1.8 microsec.; on Mar. 15 100K protesters throughout Germany call for closing of nuclear power stations; on Mar. 17 German chancellor Angela Merkel orders Germany's older nuclear reactors to be temporarily shut down for a safety check; on Mar. 18 Pres. Obama orders a review of nuclear power plants, while standing strong on the need for more; on Mar. 26 after radioactive iodine spikes 1.2K times higher than normal in nearby seawater, Japanese authorities order the evacuation zone to be expanded to 18 mi.; on Apr. 12 Japan raises the crisis level at Fukushima to 7 (highest), equal to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.

Nasif S. Nahle

On Mar. 11, 2011 biologist Nasif S. Nahle pub. the article Recycling of Heat is Impossible, revealing the inanities of global warming scientists with their energy budget diagrams, starting with the soundbyte: "Some diagrams on the Earth's energy budget depicts an exchange of energy between the surface and the atmosphere and their subsystems, considering each system as if they were blackbodies with emissivities and absorptivities of 100%. This kind of analyses show a strange 'multiplication' of the heat transferred from the surface to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere to the surface which is unexplainable from a scientific viewpoint. The authors of those diagrams adduce that such increase of energy in the atmosphere obeys a 'recycling' of the heat coming from the surface by the atmosphere, as if the atmosphere-surface were a furnace or a thermos and the heat was a substance. Such 'recycling' of heat by the atmosphere does not occur in the real world by the reasons I will expose later in this paper...", and concluding with the soundbyte: "Key diagrams that purport to show the annual energy budget of Earth show a recycling in the atmosphere of the heat emitted by the surface. But they are wrong. The lengthening of the wavelength of quantum/waves emitted by the absorber systems and the decrease of their frequency inhibit any possibility of re-absorption of the absorbed energy - in the form of infrared radiation - by the same absorber once it has been emitted out from the absorber system. Additionally, this assessment confirms that the second law of thermodynamics is applicable to molecular and quantum levels. The carbon dioxide does not act like a warmer of the Earth's surface, but rather like a coolant of the Earth's surface."

Katharine Hayhoe and Andrew Farley (1972-) Katharine Hayhoe with Leonardo DiCaprio and Pres. Barack Obama

On Mar. 21, 2011 Canadian-Am. climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe and her husband, West Tex. evangelical pastor Andrew Farley (1972-) pub. A Climate for Change: Global Warming Facts for Faith-Based Decisions, attempting to reconcile climate change wth evangelical Christianity, making fans of Leonardo DiCaprio and Pres. Obama; on Nov. 14, 2016 she writes an open letter to Pres. Trump, pleading with him to accept that climate change is real and not a hoax. Watch video - Katharine Hayhoe.

In Apr. 2011 the monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal Nature Climate Change is founded to cover global warming research; ed.-in-chief #1 is Olive Heffernan.

On May 25-27, 2011 the 2011 Geological and Mineralogical Assoc. of Canada (GAC-MAC) Conference is held at the U. of Ottawa in Canada, pissing-off global warmists by giving ample space to global warming skeptics incl. Bob Carter, Ian Plimer, and Henrik Svensmark.

John L. Casey

On May 31, 2011 former White House nat. space policy adviser John L. Casey pub. Cold Sun, blaming perceived global warming on the Sun; on Aug. 19, 2014 he pub. Dark Winter: How the Sun Is Causing a 30-Year Cold Spell, predicting a coming "solar hibernation" bringing a long-term drop in Earth temperatures along with record earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Watch video - John L. Casey. Watch video - John L. Casey.

Ben Davidson (1983-)

In May 2011 Ben Davidson (1983-) founds SuspiciousObservers to promote the role of the Sun in climate change and predict a coming Grand Solar Minimum. Watch video.

Gina Rinehart (1954-) Cory Bernardi of Australia (1969-)

In May 2011 Australian billionaire (Australia's richest woman) Georgina Hope "Gina" Rineheart (nee Hancock) (1954-) writes the soundbyte: "I have never met a geologist or leading scientist who believes adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere will have any significant effect on climate change, especially not from a relatively small country like Australia"; she also utters the soundbytes: "I am yet to hear scientific evidence to satisfy me that if the very, very small amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (approximately 0.38%) was increased, it could lead to significant global warming""; "Let''s consider climate change - the world has constantly changed climate and will continue to do so. Even before human civilisation, the world went through ice ages and periods of global warming"; "There will always be changes that affect our climate, even if we close down all thermal-fired power stations, steel mills and other manufacturing operations, putting employees out of work and drastically changing our way of life. Furthermore, there will always be geothermal activity that spew out heat and ash and this activity does affect the climate"; on July 17, 2018 Graham Readfearn of DeSmog Blog reveals to have donated $4.5M to the climate skeptic think tank Inst. of Public Affairs in 2016-7, almost half their income; in Dec. 2016 he and her fellow climate change denier friend, Australian Conservative politician Cory Bernardi (1969-) of South Australia meet with pres.-elect Donald Trump's campaign team incl. Rudy Giuliana and campaign mgr. Kellyanne Conway, and on Feb. 7, 2017 he announces that he's leaving the Liberal Party to form his own party called the Australian Conservatives.

Ivar Giaever (1929-)

On June 26, 2011 Bergen, Norway-born Am. physicist Ivar Giaever (1929-) (co-winner of the 1973 Nobel Physics Prize) utters the soundbyte in the Aftenposten (Norway's largest newspaper): "It is amazing how stable temperature has been over the last 150 years", resigning from the Am. Physical Society on Sept. 13, 2011, with the soundbyte: "In the APS it is OK to discuss whether the mass of the proton changes over time and how a multi-universe behaves, but the evidence of global warming is incontrovertible?"; at the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting he utters the soundbyte: "Is climate change pseudoscience? If I'm going to answer the question, the answer is: absolutely." Watch video - Ivar Giaever.

William M. Gray (1929-2016)

In June 2011 Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist William Mason "Bill" Gray (1929-2016) (authority on tropical cyclone forecasting) pub. the paper On the Hijacking of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), containing the soundbyte: "I am very disappointed at the downward path the AMS has been following for the last 10-15 years in its advocacy of the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis. The society has officially taken a position many of us AMS members do not agree with. We believe that humans are having little or no significant influence on the global climate and that the many Global Circulation Climate Model (GCMs) results and the four IPCC reports do not realistically give accurate future projections. To take this position which so many of its members do not necessarily agree with shows that the AMS is following more of a political than a scientific agenda.... We AMS members have allowed a small group of AMS administrators, climate modelers, and CO2 warming sympathizers to maneuver the internal workings of our society to support AGW policiesirrespective of what our rank-and-file members might think. This small organized group of AGW sympathizers has indeed hijacked our society"; the paper was greeted with stony silence - you can't handle the truth? Watch video - William M. Gray.

Christian Parenti

On July 12, 2011 Am. journalist Christian Parenti pub. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence, claiming a link between climate change and political unrest in mid-lat. regions of Earth.

On Aug. 18, 2011 The Guardian of U.K. pub. the article Aliens may destroy humanity to protect other civilisations, say scientists, reporting on the article Would contact with extraterrestrials benefit or harm humanity? A scenario analysis by Seth D. Baum, Jacob D. Haqq-Misra, and Shawn D. Domagal-Goldman of Penn. State U. and the NASA Planetary Science Division, speculating that extraterrestrial environmentalists could be so pissed-off at our pollution that they come to view us as a threat to the intergalactic ecosystem and decide to destroy us - how, with messy polutting nukes?

Henri A. Masson

On Sept. 1, 2011 the SEII (European Society of Engineers and Industrialists) in Belgium cancels a climate change event featuring Am. climate change skeptic S. Fred Singer and Swedish climate change skeptic Claes-Goran Johnson, pissing-off organizer (chemical engineer) Henri A. Masson, who resigns, blaming pressure from the IPCC, and holds a private meeting instead; he goes on to utter the soundbytes: "Temperature records over time in a given location show a chaotic behaviour. Our finding proofs mathematically that any forecast of temperature in a given point is meaningless on the medium or longer term, which is intuitively obvious from weather forecasts"; "An indirect consequence of the complexity of the climate system is the danger of writing non-comprehensive executive summaries for decision makers, based only on mathematical models, as the UN IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) usually does"; "Consequently, there is a serious risk that climate related socio-economic or geopolitical decisions made by political decision-makers are based on unsubstantiated scientific evidence. The development of a low carbon economy, the promotion of, and subsidies for alternative energies, electrical vehicles, underwater or underground carbon trapping, cap and trade mechanisms, etc. could be part of such unsubstantiated decisions with huge global consequences for the competitiveness of industries, and of nations in attracting these industries." Other Belgian climate change skeptics incl. chemical engineer Anne Debeil and welding engineer Fred Goldberg (-2016).

Arun Ahluwalia

On Oct. 14, 2011 Indian petroleum geologist Arun Ahluwalia speaks at the climate skeptic Conference on Climate Change: Shifting Science and Changing Policy in Mumbai, India, hosted by the Liberty Inst. and Mumbai U., giving a presentation titled Climate Change or Global Warming: Man Made or Natural or Both?, with the soundbytes: "Man indeed may be a pygmy before nature and incapable of causing or reversing a global warming or climate change. To err on the side of caution let us presume man may be contributing a minor fraction towards warming of the earth. The planet has a great resilience we must not however forget", and "The IPCC has actually become a closed circuit; it doesn't listen to others. It doesn't have open minds... I am really amazed that the Nobel Peace Prize has been given on scientifically incorrect conclusions by people who are not geologists."

Julia Eileen Gillard of Australia (1961-)

On Nov. 8, 2011 to fight global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions, the Clean Energy Act of 2011, introduced by the Labor govt. of Australian PM #27 (2010-13) Julia Eileen Gillard (1961-) is passed, establishing an emissions trading scheme preceded by a 3-year period of fixed carbon pricing, with the goal being to "drive substantial changes in patterns of energy production and energy use"; on July 1, 2014 it is repealed by the Labor govt. of Tony Abbott.

On Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 2011 the 2011 U.N. Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa fails to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions, but does agree to establish a legally binding deal comprising all countries by 2015, to take effect in 2020; despite conference pres. Maite Nkoana-Mashabane declaring it a success, environmental groups and scientists warnt that it is not sufficient to avoid global warming beyond 2C.

Melanie Phillips (1951-)

On Dec. 13, 2011 Hammersmith, London-born British journalist Melanie Phillips (1951-) pub. the book The World Turned Upside Down: The Global Battle Over God, Truth, and Power, arguing that the loss of religious belief has meant the West has replaced reason and truth with ideology and prejudice, resulting in a form of mass derangement, as truth and falsity, right and wrong, victim and aggressor have become confused, citing the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the scientists who resigned when they realized it was a political-ideological rather than scientific body with an agenda to replace capitalism with world socialism. Watch video - Melanie Phillips.

On Dec. 15, 2011 the Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources holds a 2-hour Hearing on Climate Change, with speakers incl. climate change skeptics Ian Clark, Ross McKitrick, Tim Patterson, Roger Pielke, and Jan Veizer. Watch video.

In Dec. 2011 the 2011-2017 Calif. Drought begins (ends Mar. 2017), killing 102M trees in 2011-16, and 62M in 2016 only, after which severe floods are caused by Pacific storms, causing the Calif. Drought Manipulation Conspiracy Theory to be proclaimed by various sources, claiming it was manufactured via weather modification.

Alex Epstein (1980-)

In 2011 after becoming an Ayn Rand fan, Duke U. philosophy graduate Alexander Joseph "Alex" Epstein (1980-) founds the Center for Industrial Progress to "bring about a new industrial revolution". In 2013 Rolling Stone lists Epstein among the top global warming deniers, causing him to write a rebuttal in Forbes, dissing the term "global warming denier" as a smear tactic to lump them with Holocaust deniers. On Nov. 13, 2014 he pub. the NYT bestseller The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels, making the case for fossil fuels as a great benefit to humanity and knocking wind, solar, and biofuels as too expensive and unreliable while dissing climate alarmists; "If our goal is human flourishing and we look at the full context there is a strong moral case for using more fossil fuels, not less"; "This is not a debate over facts. It's a debate over philosophy and our assumptions"; "Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere from 0.03 per cent to 0.04 per cent has not caused and is not causing catastrophic runaway global warming. Dishonest references to '97 per cent of scientists' equate a mild warming influence, which most scientists agree with and more importantly can demonstrate, with a catastrophic warming influence - which most don't agree with and none can demonstrate." In 2016 Epstein testifies before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, chaired by climate change denier James Inhofe (R-Okla.), claiming that rising CO2 levels "benefit plants and Americans", pissing-off Dem. rep. Barbara Boxer, who says she doesn't "appreciate being lectured by a philosopher and not a scientist." He goes on to make his t-shirt slogan "I love fossil fuels" famous and to utter the soundbytes: "Before fossil fuels brought power to the masses we experienced climate helplessness, not climate safety. Now, empowered by fossil fuels, we experience climate mastery and therefore unprecedented climate safety"; "Nature doesn't give us a stable, safe climate that we make dangerous. It gives us an ever-changing, dangerous climate that we need to make safe." Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein and Glenn Beck. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein vs. Bill McKibben. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein. Watch video - Alex Epstein.

Ole Humlum (1949-)

In 2011 Danish physical geographer Ole Humlum (1949-) et al. pub. the article Identifying natural contributions to late Holocene climate change in Global and Planetary Change, claiming that changes in the Sun's and Moon's influence on the Earth may explain most of the historical and current climate change, drawing fire from several pro-anthropogenic warming scientists; in 2013 he predicts that the climate will most likely grow colder in the next 10–15 years.

2012

Benjamin Zycher

On Jan. 17, 2012 prolific Am. RAND/UCLA climate skeptic pro-fossil fuel economist Benjamin Zycher of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) pub. the article Wind and solar power, part 1: Uncooperative Reality, and part 2: How persuasive are the rationales? in Journal of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (JAEI), followed by Would a carbon dioxide tax be efficient? on Aug. 30, 2012 in The American, Benjamin Zycher response to Bicameral Task Force on Climate Change on Feb. 14, 2013 in JAEI, Benjamin Zycher response to Bicameral Task Force on Climate Change - Round 2 on Apr. 12, 2013 in JAEI, The 'Science' of Global Warming, Part 2 on Oct. 8, 2013 in The American, IPCC: Apocalypse not on Oct. 8, 2013 in JAEI, The Unbearable Lightness of the Climate Change Industrial Complex on Nov. 14, 2013 in The American, Opposition to Keystone XL: Global warming as the all-purpose excuse on Nov. 21, 2013 in JAEI, and many more. Watch video - Benjamin Zycher.

Gene Dedrick Robinson

On Jan. 20, 2012 geoscientist Gene "G." Dedrick Robinson and his atty. son Gene D. Robinson III pub. the book Global Warming-Alarmists, Skeptics and Deniers: A Geoscientist Looks at the Science of Climate Change, with the ad blurb: "Dr. Robinson knows that geological science is essential for placing the global warming controversy in proper prospective. One cannot hope to understand how humans might be causing climate change without an understanding of the magnitude and speed natural processed are capable of when it comes to climate change. Earth history is the only yardstick we have to determine whether recent climate change is unusual or not. Yet, inexplicably, a vast repository of geologic data has been ignored in this contentious issue"; "The author makes it very clear that a changing climate is not unusual. It is in fact the norm, but often so slow that humans cannot detect it directly. This may be the single most important contribution of this well-written and fact-filled book." (Dr. S. Fred Singer)

Claude J. Allègre Vincent Courtillot (1949-) Peter H. Gleick (1956-)

On Jan. 27, 2012 the op-ed No Need to Panic About Global Warming is pub. in The Wall Street Journal, signed by 16 scientists, with the headline: "There's no compelling scientific argument for drastic action to 'decarbonize' the world's economy", claiming that "a large and growing number of distinguished scientists and engineers do not agree that drastic actions on global warming are needed" and calling on elected officials to avoid implementing climate change policy because it would "divert resources from real needs and are based on alarming but untenable claims of incontrovertible evidence", only four signers have pub. peer-reviewed climate research articles, only two in the past 30 years?; it's just a cheap propaganda ploy that avoids the need to pub. a peer-reviewed scientific article proving their claims? signers incl. French leading climate skeptic (geochemist) Claude J. Allegre (Allègre), a flip-flopper who signed the 1992 "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity", known for the soundbyte: "We do not deny climate change, but we consider that global warming is not the essential phenomenon. If the temperature increases by 1 or 2° C per century and the sea level rises 25 centimeters, this does not seem catastrophic. We think, for our part, that the essential phenomenon is the increased frequency of extreme events: heat waves or Russian winter, heavy rains with flooding and drought with lack of clean water, and frequent violent tornadoes. All with seemingly random geographic distributions"; his French colleague Vincent Courtillot (b. 1949?) is known for the soundbytes: "It is true that carbon dioxide has increased dramatically in recent decades. And if I am not persuaded that the effect on global temperatures is shown, nothing prevents these effects occurring in the future (one of the main risks is ocean acidification)"; "It is clear that oil, gas and coal resources will eventually be depleted someday and to be reasonably cautious about decreasing consumption is a necessity. It does not need to be related to a legal precautionary principle"; "We have shown that some specific features of the magnetic field were remarkably well correlated with some variations in the sun's activity - which in itself was not surprising - but the fact that it also correlated with the mean global temperature of the lower atmosphere came to us as a real surprise. This is how I started to get interested in climatology at the decadal to centennial time scale, an area which is not my specialty, though I had already encountered climatologists at the million year time scale with the Indian volcanism." On Jan. 27, 2012 water resources scientist Peter H. Gleick (1956-), 1987 co-founder of the Pacific Inst. for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security pub. the article Remarkable Editorial Bias on Climate Science at the Wall Street Journal in Forbes mag., questioning the credentials of the 16 scientists that signed the Wall Street Journal op-ed, claiming that two years earlier 255 members of the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences incl. Gleick signed a pro-global warming essay titled Climate Change and the Integrity of Science that was rejected by them and pub. by Science mag. on May 7, 2010; too bad, on Feb. 20, 2012 Gleick announces his responsibility for distributing documents from the pesky Heartland Inst., incl. a forged 2-page "Strategy Memo", with the soundbyte: "My judgment was blinded by my frustration with the ongoing efforts - often anonymous, well-funded, and coordinated - to attack climate science and scientists and prevent this debate, and by the lack of transparency of the organizations involved."

On Jan. 29, 2012 David B. Lobell et al. of Stanford U. pub. an article in Nature Climate Change revealing that images from the MODIS Earth observation satellite show wehat in the Ganges Plain of India turning from green to brown earlier when avg. temps are higher, predicting yield losses 50% greater than today if global temps rise by 2C - meaning that a Paradise Earth won't have Wheaties?

U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-) U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-)

On Feb. 7, 2012 U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-), chmn. of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) in 2003-7 and 2015-17, known for opposing same-sex marriage and wanting to make English the U.S. nat. language pub. The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future, claiming on the Senate floor that "manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people", once bringing a snowball with him to disprove global warming, and claiming that schools are "brainwashing" children about climate change, making it necessary to "unbrainwash them when they get out", earning him the top position on the Top Ten Climate Deniers List.

Anthony R. Lupo (1966-)

On Feb. 20, 2012 environmental activist Peter Gleick admits to hacking into the computers of the Heartland Inst. and stealing internal documents that show it paying six univ. profs. to provide consulting services, causing U. of Mo. atmospheric science prof. Anthony R. "Tony" Lupo (1966-) to be unsuccessfully put under the microscope to 'get' hiim for his belief that humans are causing global warming, with the soundbyte: "There's no doubt the climate is changing; that's a given. But the question is: What's causing it. Is it mankind alone, which a lot of people say? Is it some mix of man and nature? Or is it nature? I would say nature is mostly responsible. There may be a role for man in there somewhere, but how much, I don't know"; he goes on to speak at the 7th Heartland Inst. Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Ill. in May 2012, and the 9th in Las Vegas, Nev. on July 7-9, 2014. Watch video - Anthony R. Lupo.

Andrew James Breitbart (1969-2012) Steven Kevin 'Steve' Bannon (1953-)

On Mar. 1, 2012 after founding the far-right Web site Breitbart.com in mid-2007, Los Angeles, Calif.-born conservative writer Andrew James Breitbart (b. 1969) dies, and Norfolk, Va.-born Stephen Kevin "Steve" Bannon (1953-) takes over, receiving $10M from Rebekah Mercer to pump it up to the #29 site in the U.S., passing The Huffington Post, while changing it to alt-right, calling himself an economic nationalist and advocating immigration reduction, free trade restrictions with China and Mexico, higher federal income tax for those making $5M+/year, and reduction of U.S. military intervention abroad, going on to champion Donald Trump's election as U.S. pres., calling him the "John Wayne of politics", who will "set back the destruction of America", becoming a climate change denier, calling global warming a "manufactured crisis", and hiring British pundit James Delingpole, who writes the soundbyte: "One of [Bannon's] pet peeves is the great climate change con. It's partly why he recruited a notorious skeptic like myself. Basically, we won"; on Dec. 2, 2015 Bannon declares that Pope Francis has "fallen into this hysteria" about climate change, responding to the comment of theologian Thomas D. Williams that his encyclical is "closely aligned to a redistributionist mentality" about poor countries "looking for handouts under the guise" of reducing CO2 emissions with "Yes, that's the climate justice"; on Nov. 15, 2016 Trump appoints Bannon as his chief strategist; in Jan. 2017 he gives him a seat on the principals committee of the Nat. Security Council (until Apr. 5, 2017); too bad, on Aug. 18, 2017 Bannon is fired from the White House, then steps down as exec chmn. of Breitbart News in Jan. 2018 after Pres. Trump says that he "lost his mind" for calling Ivanka Trump "dumb as a brick" and a meeting by Donald Trump Jr. with Russians "treasonous", causing climate change denier Marc Morano to call it "bad news for climate skeptics". Watch video - Steve Bannon. Watch video - Marc Morano on Steve Bannon.

On Mar. 1, 2012 Barbel Honisch et al. of Columbia U. pub. an article in Science announcing that the Earth's oceans may be turning acidic from human carbon emissions faster than during the last four major extinctions over 300M years. Watch video.

On Mar. 1-27, 2012 the Mar. 2012 North Am. Heat Wave sees 7K+ daily temperature records tied or broken, with Chicago, Ill. reching 80F+ every day between Mar. 14-18; S Canada also sees record-breaking high temps.

On Apr. 1, 2012 the article New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century reports a new study by Dean Roemmich of Scripps Inst. of Oceanography contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with modern readings reveals an upward global ocean warming trend spanning 100+ years, with a 0.33C (0.59F) avg. increase in the surface up to 700m (2,300 ft.) depth, decreasing to 0.12C (0.22F) at 900m (2,950 ft.) depth.

H. Leighton Steward Harold H. Doiron

On Apr. 11, 2012 49 former NASA employees incl. "top astronauts, scientists, and engineers" and "NASA experts, with more than 1000 years of combined professional experience" send a letter to the head of NASA, containing the soundbytes: "We, the undersigned, respectfully request that NASA and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) refrain from including unproven remarks in public releases and websites"; "We believe the claims by NASA and GISS, that man-made carbon dioxide is having a catastrophic impact on global climate change are not substantiated, especially when considering thousands of years of empirical data. With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in the catastrophic forecasts, coming particularly from the GISS leadership, it is clear that the science is NOT settled"; "As former NASA employees, we feel that NASA's advocacy of an extreme position, prior to a thorough study of the possible overwhelming impact of natural climate drivers is inappropriate"; "We request that NASA refrain from including unproven and unsupported remarks in its future releases and websites on this subject. At risk is damage to the exemplary reputation of NASA, NASA's current or former scientists and employees, and even the reputation of science itself." In Jan. 2013 the Right Climate Stuff Research Team, composed of 20 "Apollo era NASA retirees" incl. Harold H. "Hal" Doiron and James M. Peacock pub. a climate report along with a press release, claiming that anthropogenic global warming is not "settled" and is of no pressing concern; the project is headed by former oil-gas exec and geologist H. Leighton Steward (1936-), who runs the Web site CO2 Is Green and founded the group Plants Need CO2 in 2009.

Klaus-Eckart Puls

On Apr. 19, 2012 German meteorologist-physicist Klaus-Eckart Puls of the European Inst. for Climate and Energy (EIKE) (founded in Feb. 2007 in Hanover, Germany) pub. the article Climate Panic Orchestra Now Playing in Antarctica, containing the soundbyte: "Antarctica is cooling and the ice belt is growing." On May 8, 2012 he gives an interview to the Swiss mag. Factum, containing the soundbytes: "Until 10 years ago I simply parroted unchecked what the IPCC told us. At some point I attempted to verify the allegations. The result is I started with doubts and ended with horror and the realization that a lot of what the IPCC and the media say about climate change is not true and is not covered by scientific facts and measurements. I am ashamed today for what I used to 'retell' unchecked as a scientist in my lectures. The CO2 climate hysteria in Germany is propagated by people who are in it for lots of money, attention, and power."

In Apr. 2012 Obama admin. agriculture secy. Tom Vilsack announcing the new Forest Planning Rule for the 155 U.S. nat. forests and grasslands, heavily influenced by leftist environmentalists, with plan components incl. "Restore and maintain forests and grasslands", "Provide habitat for plant and animal diversity and special conservation" et al., in practice making forest fires more likely by prohibiting the clearing of brush and cutting of dead trees since environmentalists can't stand the sight of a logger in a nat. park?

Heartland Inst. Unabomber ad, May, 2012

On May 3-4, 2012 the Heartland Inst. runs a billboard ad campaign comparing believers in global warming to the Unabomber, pissing them off along with some supporters, causing them to pull the billboard and not follow it with more featuring Charles Manson, Fidel Castro, and Osama bin Laden.

Jan-Erik Solheim

On June 15, 2012 U. of Oslo astrophysicist Jan-Erik Solheim pub. the article ; it's moose hockey? Watch video - Jan-Erik Solheim. Watch video - Jan-Erik Solheim.

U.S. Pres. Donald John Trump (1946-)

On Nov. 6, 2012 (Obama's reelection day) billionaire real estate playboy Donald John Trump (1946-) tweets the soundbyte: "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive"; on Sept. 26, 2016 Trump denies he said that in a debate with Hillary Clinton; this is Trump's first of 20 strong climate skeptic statements before becoming Repub. U.S. pres. #45 on Jan. 20, 2017. Watch video - Donald Trump.

On Nov. 15, 2012 Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Michael L. Roderick pub. the article Little change in global drought over the past 60 years, questioning the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI).

On Nov. 26-Dec. 8, 2012 the 2012 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP18) is held in Doha, Qatar, agreeing to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol until 2020. Watch video.

Sir Matt Ridley (1958-)

On Dec. 18, 2012 English libertarian journalist Sir Matthew White "Matt" Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley (1958-), known for his lukewarm view of climate change and distrust of renewable energy policy pub. the article Cooling Down the Fears of Climate Change, claiming that evidence points to a further global temp rise of just 1C by 2100, and arguing that the net effect on Earth may be beneficial; on Jan. 4, 2013 he pub. the article How Fossil Fuels Have Greened the Planet in The Wall Street Journal explaining the satellite evidence for the CO2 fertilisation effect (global greening), becoming the first in the mainstream media; on Sept. 17 he pub. the article Dialing Back the Alarm on Climate Change, claiming that the forthcoming (Sept. 27) IPCC Fifth Assessment Report will lower its estimates on global warming; in 2013 he pub. a report for the Global Warming Policy Foundation, containing the soundbyte: "I have written about climate change and energy policy for more than 25 years. I have come to the conclusion that current energy and climate policy is probably more dangerous, both economically and ecologically, than climate change itself. T his is not the same as arguing that climate has not changed or that mankind is not partly responsible. That the climate has changed because of man-made carbon dioxide I fully accept. What I do not accept is that the change is or will be damaging, or that current policy would prevent it"; in 2015 he comments on the CO2 fertilisation effect in a report about Indian-Am. scientist Indur M. Goklany: "As Goklany demonstrates, the assessments used by policy makers have overestimated warming so far, underestimated the direct benefits of carbon dioxide, overestimated the harms from climate change, and underestimated the human capacity to adapt"; his critics ignore his arguments and satisfy themselves with observations on his ownership of coal mine land. On Sept. 4, 2014 he pub. the article Whatever Happened to Global Warming? in The Wall Street Journal, examining "climate scientists' implausible explanations for why the 'hiatus' has passed the 15-year mark". Watch video - Matt Ridley. Watch video - Matt Ridley.

Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-)

In 2012 German chemist Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) and German geologist Sebastian Luning (Lüning) (1970-) pub. "Die Kalte Sonne: Warum die Klimakatrasphoe nicht Statfindet", which is pub. in English on June 15, 2015 as The Neglected Sun: Why the Sun Precludes Climate Catastrophe, which claims that the Sun and four concurrent solar cycles control weather on Earth, not CO2, making the doomsday global warming predictions of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change into moose hockey, a castle built on sand, because a future ice age is a possibility after the Earth cools 0.2-0.3 C by 2035; their book is heavily criticized by climate scientists.

In 2012-13 the coldest winter in 50 years in Russia, with abnormally cold weather in Europe, India, China, and the U.S.; China has its coldest winter in 30 years; Moscow has its deepest snowfall in 134 years; in Jan. 2013 New Delhi records its lowest temperature in 44 years; in Mar. 2013 Britain experiences its 2nd coldest Mar. since 1910; in Apr. 2013 3,318 sites in the U.S. record their lowest temps ever; on Mar. 31, 2013 an article in the Herald of Germany contains the soundbyte: "German meteorologists say that the start of 2013 is now the coldest in 208 years - and now German media has quoted Russian scientist Dr Habibullo Abdussamatov from the St. Petersburg Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory [saying this] is proof as he said earlier that we are heading for a 'Mini Ice Age.' Talking to German media the scientist who first made his prediction in 2005 said that after studying sunspots and their relationship with climate change on Earth, we are now on an 'unavoidable advance towards a deep temperature drop.'"

2013

In early Jan.-Mar., 2013 after a pool of hot air settles over the center of the continent in Sept. combined with lack of cloud cover, the 90-day Australian Angry (Extreme) Summer sees 123 weather records broken incl. hottest Jan., hottest summer, hottest week (avg. of 39C or 102F), and hottest day in Australia (Jan. 7, 40.30C or 104.54F); no surprise, the U. of Melbourne claims a link to anthropogenic global warming.

On Jan. 8-9, 2013 wild cold wet weather hits the Middle East, with snow in Jordan.

On Jan. 10, 2013 British retired geologist Aziz I. Adam pub. the book New Emperors' New Clothes - Climate Change Analysed, with the ad blurb: "Like the boy in the fairy tale, the author points out that the climate 'emperor' also has no clothes. Making extensive use of documentary evidence from across the scientific spectrum he demonstrates that the alleged "consensus" of the climate scientists is non-existent. T he writer examines in detail the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and finds there is no credible scientific evidence to back up the claims of imminent climate catastrophe. The present book has particular significance, given that the developing world will suffer most if deprived of sources of urgently needed cheap energy as a result of the West's futile, indeed hypocritical, crusade to 'save the planet' by outlawing fossil fuels."

On Jan. 20-21, 2013 after announcing that he's converting his campaign org. into a permanent lobby org., the 57th U.S. Pres. Inauguration is held; Pres. Obama's 2nd Inaugural Address lays out an unabashedly liberal agenda, making climate change his #1 priority; it incl. the soundbytes: "My fellow Americans, we are made for this moment, and we will seize it, so long as we seize it together. For we, the People understand that our country cannot succeed when a shrinking few do very well and a growing many barely make it"; "Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires, and crippling drought, and more powerful storms"; "We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that failure to do so would betray our children and future generations"; it features the first-ever layperson invited to give the invocation, Myrlie Evers-Williams (1933-); Obama makes the first-ever reference to gay rights; during his first term Obama increased the nat. debt by $50,521 per household, more than the first 42 presidents in 53 terms combined; the number of Americans "not in the labor force" increased by 8,332,000; the number of Americans collecting disability increased by 1,385,418 (1 per 13 full-time workers, vs. 1 in 51 in Dec. 1968); Obama's first term approval rating averaged 49.1%, among the least for post-WWII presidents. On Jan. 28 Am. climate change skeptic Rupert Darwall pub. the article Second-Term Climate Change in the Nat. Review Online, containing the soundbyte: "It was characteristically bold of President Obama in his second inaugural to speak of the overwhelming judgment of science on global warming, given that we are well into the second decade of average global temperatures that indicate no statistically significant warming trend. The temperature standstill was not predicted by climate scientists, leaving them struggling to rationalize its significance... Even if climate science is as robust as the president asserts, in the absence of a global agreement on carbon emissions, mandates and subsidies to produce renewable energy will have negligible impact on global temperatures and on the weather. A 1998 study on the effect of the Kyoto Protocol estimated that, if fully implemented, it would delay the rise in global temperatures by four to 14 years over the course of the current century and have a minimal effect on the rise of sea levels. However, the cost of the attempt would be at the expense of the competitiveness of American business and American taxpayers and consumers."

Douglas Cotton

On Feb. 15, 2013 Australian atmospheric physicist Douglas J. Cotton writes the article (pub. Dec. 1, 2016) Planetary Core and Surface Temperatures, ditching the radiative greenhouse effect and presenting a new main heat transfer mechanism in all planets, accusing the climatologist-dominated U.N. IPCC of avoiding review of their papers by physicists; on Dec. 23, 2016 he pub. the article Comprehensive Refutation of the Radiative Forcing Greenhouse Hypothesis, writing the soundbyte: "Greenhouse gases do not raise the surface temperature by 33 degrees. Instead gravity raises it by about 40 or more degrees and then greenhouse gases lower it back by a few degrees"; too bad, after stubbornly sticking to his assertion that colder objects can heat warmer objects, pissing-off people on both sides, he gets banned from posting in some blogs.

Ed Caryl

On Mar. 2, 2013 the climate skeptic blog NoTricksZone pub. the article The Carbon Cycle - Nature or Nurture? by Ed Caryl, which claims that man injects only about 4% of the annual CO2 flux, the resting coming from oceans and land plants, concluding: "It is ten times as likely that atmospheric CO2 is coming from natural sources, namely the warming ocean surface, as it is likely that it is coming from anthropogenic sources. The changes in CO2 track ocean surface temperature, not global carbon emissions. Burning fossil fuels is not increasing atmospheric CO2. Recovery from the Little Ice Age, driven by the sun, is causing the oceans to release CO2. It is temperature driving CO2 release, not the other way around. Just as it has always been. As the sun gets quiet in the next few years, sea surface temperature will begin to fall, and the rise in CO2 will cease. If the sun stays quiet for 30 or 40 years, ocean surface temperatures will fall far enough to reverse the CO2 rise, the globe will enter a new little ice age, and things will get really interesting"; it turns out to be fake news? On Oct. 15, 2015 Caryl pub. the article Social Benefit Of Carbon Is Ten To A Hundred Times The Estimated Social Cost. On July 13, 2018 the blog pub. the article Five New Studies From Around the World Show Today's Weather Fully Within Range of Natural Variability! by Pierre Gosselin. Watch video.

On Apr. 10, 2013 the Business for Innovative Climate and Energy Policy Coalition (BICEP) releases the Climate Declaration urging Congress to act on climate change, with the soundbyte that "asserting that a bold response to the climate challenge is one of the greatest American economic opportunities of the 21st century"; signers incl. 30 cos. incl. Nike, Starbucks, and eBay.

Darko Butina

On Apr. 15, 2013 Slovenian-born British scientist Darko Butina (formerly with Glaxo Research, where he helped developed Sumatriptan, the first effective drug to treat migraine) pub. the article Should We Worry About the Earth's Calculated Warming at 0.7C Over Last the Last 100 Years When the Observed Daily Variations Over the Last 161 Years Can Be as High as 24C?, with the conclusions: "1. That the global warming does not exist in thermometer data since it is impossible to declare one year either warmer or colder than any other year; 2. That the Hockey Stick scenario does not exist in thermometer data and therefore it must be an artifact observed in a purely theoretical space of non-existing annual global temperatures", drawing a mocking rebuttal by HotWhopper blog on Apr. 16, 2013, pointing out that all of Butina's temperature records are for a single location, the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland from 1844-2004; on May 17, 2013 Butina pub. the article Twenty Facts About Carbon Dioxide (CO2), containing the soundbytes: "We know that no gas molecule of the open system, as our atmosphere is, can possibly control temperature"; "We know that CO2 in the atmosphere could not be detected by a standard IR-spectrometer and yet that property of CO2 has been used to argue for the existence of a greenhouse effect. "We know that all the knowledge about the physical world comes from experiments that can be validated and not from calculations that cannot be validated. And yet, everything about man-made global warming is about calculations and NOTHING about measurements"; on Feb. 15, 2017 he pub. an article announcing that three years of study of global temperature readings reveal that govt. researchers have been doctoring readings from thermometers to fit their climate models in order to justify their global warming conclusions, questioning the concept of a global temperature; on Sept. 3, 2018 he pub. an article claiming that the real data proves that the Northern Hemisphere has been cooling for the last 140 years, not warming.

On Apr. 29, 2013 the atmospheric CO2 concentration at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory reaches 400 ppm for the first time after increasing 2.1 ppm per year for the last 10 years.

Naomi Oreskes (1958-) John Cook

On May 15, 2013 after years of papers attempting to estimate scientific support for anthropogenic global warming/climate change, Australian cognitive scientist John Cook (2007 founder of the climate science blog Skeptical Science) et al. pub. the paper Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature in Environmental Research Letters, which reports on an examination of 11,944 climate abstracts pub. in 1991-2011, finding that "Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming", which is given a super boost on May 16 by Pres. Obama in a tweet; on Apr. 13, 2016 Cook, Am. historian of science Naomi Oreskes (1958-), Am. geologist Peter T. Doran et al. pub. the paper Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming in Environmental Research Letters, which concludes that "The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper", and that "the finding of 97% consensus [that humans are causing recent global warming] in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies." On June 3, 2010 Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (1965-) pub. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, which is filmed in 2004 by Robert Kenner. On Apr. 22, 2011 Cook, Haydn Washington, and Oreskes pub. Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, pissing-off the opposition by use of the cruel char. assassination terms "deniers" and "denialists". Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Naomi Oreskes. Watch video - Naomi Oreskes. Watch video.

On May 26, 2013 researchers at the U. of Hawaii pub. an article in Nature Geoscience revealing that El Nino is dependent on an unusual wind pattern that straddles the equatorial Pacific and has a 15 mo. cycle.

On May 30, 2013 Qing-Bin Lu et al. of the U. of Waterloo in Canada pub. an article in the Internat. Journal of Modern Physics B blaming chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for global warming instead of carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "Conventional thinking says that the emission of human-made non-CFC gases such as carbon dioxide has mainly contributed to global warming. But we have observed data going back to the Industrial Revolution that convincingly shows that conventional understanding is wrong. In fact, the data shows that CFCs conspiring with cosmic rays caused both the polar ozone hole and global warming. Most conventional theories expect that global temperatures will continue to increase as CO2 levels continue to rise, as they have done since 1850. What's striking is that since 2002, global temperatures have actually declined - matching a decline in CFCs in the atmosphere. My calculations of CFC greenhouse effect show that there was global warming by about 0.6 °C from 1950 to 2002, but the earth has actually cooled since 2002. The cooling trend is set to continue for the next 50-70 years as the amount of CFCs in the atmosphere continues to decline." On June 6, 2013 Rupert Darwall pub. the article Global Warming and the Gipper in the Wall Street Journal, containing the soundbyte: "Might it be that it was Ronald Reagan and not Barack Obama who began to slow the rise of the seas? That is one conclusion that could be drawn from a new paper by Canadian physicist Qing-Bin Lu of Ontario's University of Waterloo. Instead of carbon dioxide emissions, Mr. Lu argues that ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halocarbons caused global warming. Thanks to the Reagan administration and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, CFCs have been phased out by developed countries. After a lag, Mr. Lu argues that global temperatures peaked around 2002 and predicts they are set to gradually fall over the next five to seven decades. Upholders of the consensus argue that increased carbon dioxide is the only way to explain rising global temperatures. Now there is a competing explanation, with a chronology that better fits the evidence."

On June 25, 2013 Pres. Obama unveils his Nat. Climate Action Plan in a speech at Georgetown U. in Washington, D.C., with the soundbytes: "And around the same time we began exploring space, scientists were studying changes taking place in the Earth's atmosphere. Now, scientists had known since the 1800s that greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide trap heat, and that burning fossil fuels release those gases into the air. That wasn't news. But in the late 1950s, the National Weather Service began measuring the levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, with the worry that rising levels might someday disrupt the fragile balance that makes our planet so hospitable. And what they've found, year after year, is that the levels of carbon pollution in our atmosphere have increased dramatically. That science, accumulated and reviewed over decades, tells us that our planet is changing in ways that will have profound impacts on all of humankind. The 12 warmest years in recorded history have all come in the last 15 years. Last year, temperatures in some areas of the ocean reached record highs, and ice in the Arctic shrank to its smallest size on record - faster than most models had predicted it would. These are facts. Now, we know that no single weather event is caused solely by climate change. Droughts and fires and floods, they go back to ancient times. But we also know that in a world that's warmer than it used to be, all weather events are affected by a warming planet. The fact that sea level in New York, in New York Harbor, are now a foot higher than a century ago - that didn't cause Hurricane Sandy, but it certainly contributed to the destruction that left large parts of our mightiest city dark and underwater. The potential impacts go beyond rising sea levels. Here at home, 2012 was the warmest year in our history. Midwest farms were parched by the worst drought since the Dust Bowl, and then drenched by the wettest spring on record. Western wildfires scorched an area larger than the state of Maryland. Just last week, a heat wave in Alaska shot temperatures into the 90s"; "So the question is not whether we need to act. The overwhelming judgment of science - of chemistry and physics and millions of measurements - has put all that to rest. Ninety-seven percent of scientists, including, by the way, some who originally disputed the data, have now put that to rest. They've acknowledged the planet is warming and human activity is contributing to it." Watch video.

In June 2013 sociologist Riley E. Dunlap of Okla. State U. and political scientist Peter J. Jacques of the U. of Central Fla. pub. the article Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection, complaining of the lack of peer review for climate denial books, and noting that the climate denial movement has spread out from the U.S. to other countries.

'Snowpiercer', 2013

On July 29, 2013 Bong Joon-ho's Snowpiercer (Stillking Films) (CJ Entertainment) debuts, based on the 1982 French graphic novel "Le Transperceneige" by Jacques Lob, Benjamin Legrand, and Jean-Marc Rochette about a future world where botched climate engineering causes an ice age, causing the remnant of humanity to live on a massive perpetual motion-powered train that travels on a circumnavigational track, where the elite live in the opulent front cars and the scum live in the back cars under the brutal bootheel of Minister Mason (Tilda Swinton), causing a revolution led by Curtis Everett (Chris Evans) and Gilliam (John Hurt); Ed Harris plays engine creator Minister Wilford; does $86.8M box office on a $40M budget. View trailer.

In July-Aug. 2013 the 2013 China Heat Wave centered over Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province sees Fenghua, Zhejiang reach a record high temperature of 43.5C (110.3F) on Aug. 8; five provinces with a total pop. of 314M are affected.

Andreas Prokoph (-2016) R. Timothy 'Tim' Patterson

On Aug. 15, 2013 German-born U. of Ottawa and Carleton U. earth scientist (paleoclimatologist) Andreas Prokoph (-2016) and Canadian Carleton U. geologist R. Timothy "Tim" Patterson pub. the paper Mismatch of CO2 and Earth's temperatures ~35 million cyclicity over the last 420 million years in The Holocene Journal, which proposes a correlation between climate change and solar activity, containing the soundbyte: "Until ~200 million years ago, CO2 may have be a driver of global temperature change... In the past ~150Myr CO2 follows global temperature"; Prokoph also uttered the soundbyte: "Even the IPCC knows about [the urban heat island effect], and tried to adjust for it, but as [Ross] McKitrick mentioned, they adjust poorly for it." Watch video - Andreas Prokoph. Watch video - Andreas Prokoph.

On Sept. 23, 2013 Robert "Bob Tisdale pub. the ebook Climate Models Fail, taking on the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report; in Nov. 2015 he pub. the ebook On Global Warming and the Illusion of Control, Part 1; on Jan. 5, 2018 he pub. the ebook Dad, Why Are You A Global Warming Denier?: A Short Story That's Right for the Time , followed on July 24 by vol. 2 Dad, Is Climate Getting Worse in the United States?, using a lit. dialog technique to introduce readers to the climate denier viewpoint and wake them up to the ulterior motives prof. scientists have to push a political agenda; his theories are moose hockey and big fat lies?

Lisa Victoria Alexander Stefan Brönnimann Yassine Abdul-Rahman Charabi (1972-) Frank J. Dentener David R. Easterling Alexey Kaplan Peter William Thorne Martin Wild Panmao Zhai (1962-) Eric Holthaus (1981-) Warm Regards podcast crew

On Sept. 27, 2013 the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is released, concluding that: "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century"; too bad for Trump haters, the report Observations: Atmosphere and Surface in "Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", by lead authors Lisa Victoria Alexander of the U. of New South Wales in Australia, Stefan Bronnimann (Brönnimann) of the U. of Bern, Yassine Abdul-Rahman Charabi (1972-) of the Sultan Qaboos U. in Oman, Franciscus Johannes (Frank J.) Dentener of the Netherlands, David R. Easterling of NOAA, Alexey Kaplan of Columbia U., Peter William Thorne of the Hadley Centre, Martin Wild of ETH Zurich, and Panmao Zhai (1962-) of the China Meteorological Admin. contains the soundbyte: "Current data sets indicate no significant observed trends in global tropical cyclone frequency over the past century and it remains uncertain whether any reported long-term increases in tropical cyclone frequency are robust, after accounting for past changes in observing capabilities... No robust trends in annual numbers of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes counts have been identified over the past 100 years in the North Atlantic basin." On Sept. 27, 2013 after calling AR5 a "death warrant written in stark, black-and-white data", Am. blogging meteorologist ("the Rebel Nerd of Meteorology") Eric Holthaus (1981-) announces his decision to never fly again. In July 2016 Eric Holthaus, U. of Maine paleoecologist and leftist activist Jacquelyn Gill, and New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) found the weekly podcast Warm Regards (until ?); listen. Listen - Benny Peiser

On Nov. 7, 2013 D. Bozhinova et al. of the the Netherlands pub. the article Simulating the integrated summertime 14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, reporting that the 6-mo. avg. increase of CO2 concentration on the lower atmosphere (1 km) contributed by fossil fuel burning is only about 3.75% (15 ppm), with the rest coming from land-use changes and natural sources incl. ocean outgassing and plant respiration; this says nothing about the total CO2 concentration.

On Dec. 1, 2013 the Winter 2013-14 E North Am. Cold Wave begins with record cold temps across the E U.S. on Dec. 6-10, setting 150+ daily precipitation records and almost 100 daily snowfall records; on Dec. 2 a Pacific storm system hits the W U.S., spreading heavy rain and snow to the Rocky Mts., bringing 30 in. or more in Idaho, Wyo, and Mont. and 60 mph winds; on Dec. 19 the Dec. 2013 North Am. Storm Complex brings freezing rain and snow, damaging trees and power lines, killing power to 1M+ residents along with $200M damage and 27 deaths; on Dec. 20 the Early Jan. 2014 Nor'Easter brings frigid temperature and snow to the U.S. East Coast, incl. 2 ft. around Boston, Mass. before dissipating on Jan. 6, 2014; on Jan. 2, 2014 the Early 2014 North Am. Cold Wave affects the NC and upper E U.S. and parts of Canada, bringing record low temps into late Mar. before dissipating on Apr. 10; on Jan. 19-24, 2014 the Jan. 2014 North Am. Blizzard moves fast through the Mid-Atlantic U.S., dumping up to 1 ft. around the New York City area along with frigid temperatures; on Jan. 27 the Jan. 2014 Gulf Coast Winter Storm hits the E and S U.S. incl. the Gulf Coast Region and Mexico, bringing up to 10 in. of snow before dissipating on Jan. 31; on Feb. 11, 2014 the Mid-Feb. 2014 North Am. Winter Storm hits the U.S. S and East Coast, bringing up to 27.5 in. snowfall in Mount Storm, W. Va. and causing Delta Air Lines to cancel 2K+ flights on Feb. 13, killing 22 and causing 1.2M bldgs. to lose power before dissipating on Feb. 24.

On Dec. 6, 2013 Donald Trump tweets the soundbyte: "Ice storm rolls from Texas to Tennessee - I'm in Los Angeles and it's freezing. Global warming is a total, and very expensive, hoax!"

Allan Savory (1935-)

On Dec. 11, 2013 after founding the Africa Centre for Holistic Management in Zimbabwe in 1993, Zimbabwean ecologist Clifford Allan Redin Savory (1935-) pub. The Grazing Revolution: A Radical Plan to Save Earth, using holistic planned cattle grazing to reverse desertification and combat climate change, making fans of Prince Charles of Britain et al.; he becomes known for the soundbytes: "Burning one hectare of grassland gives off more, and more damaging, pollutants than 6,000 cars. And we are burning in Africa, every single year, more than one billion hectares"; "Ultimately, the only wealth that can sustain any community, economy or nation is derived from the photosynthetic process - green plants growing on regenerating soil." Watch video - Allan Savory.

On Dec. 22, 2013 researchers at the U. of Edinburgh pub. an article in Nature GeoScience claiming that a historical study of climate disproves the theory that the Sun has a major influence - except if it goes dead?

Rupert Darwall

In 2013 Cambridge-educated Am. consultant Rupert Darwall of the White House Writers Group and the Tex. Public Policy Foundation pub. the book The Age of Global Warming: A History, which examines the decades-long conspiracy by the U.N., world govts., and NGOs to soak the rich nations for bug, er, big bucks in the name of reducing CO2, basting climate scientists like turkeys. On Sept. 30, 2013 he pub.the article The Political Science of Global Warming: The U.N.'s latest climate-change report should be its last, containing the soundbyte: "If climate scientists are really as confident in their understanding of the climate as the IPCC's 95% confidence headline figure is meant to suggest, they would put a firm date by when the pause must end and temperatures bounce back to what the IPCC claims is the long-term upward trend. All too predictably, the IPCC avoids such a hard-edged test... The body's flagrant disregard for the InterAcademy Council's findings and its reluctance to address the 15-year warming pause are symptomatic of a failure of leadership. The conclusion is unavoidable: The IPCC is unreformable and the Fifth Assessment Report should be the IPCC's last." On Oct. 3, 2017 he pub. the book Green Tyranny: Exposing the Totalitarian Roots of the Climate Industrial Complex, claiming that the statement "The science is settled. We must act" is "unscientific in its premise and authoritarian in its consequence." Watch video - Rupert Darwall. Watch video - Rupert Darwall. Watch video - Rupert Darwall.

2014

On Jan. 2-8, 2014 Winter Storm Hercules, based on a life-threatening Polar Vortex blasts North Am. with the lowest temps in decades, reaching -53F in Winnipeg, and creating Chiberia in the Chicago area; on Jan. 2-Apr. 10 the Early 2014 North Am. Cold Wave, caused by a southward shift of the North Polar Vortex breaks low temperature records across the U.S. from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, killing 21 and doing $5B damage; record low temperatures continue into Mar.; meanwhile Calif. has its warmest winter on record, 4.4F above average.

On Jan. 28, 2014 Donald Trump tweets the soundbyte: "Give me clean, beautiful and healthy air - not the same old climate change (global warming) bullshit! I am tired of hearing this nonsense."

Devin Nunes of the U.S. (1973-) Bruce S. Thornton (1953-)

In Feb. 2014 during a drought in Calif., U.S. rep. (R-Calif.) (2013-) Devin Gerald Nunes (1973-) pooh-poohs any connection with global warming, uttering the soundbyte: "Global warming is nonsense", becoming one of the top climate skeptics in Congress; in Aug.-Sept. 2018 after a series of wildfires in Calif. he pub. a series of official podcasts funded by his campaign featuring classicist historian Bruce S. Thornton (1953-), who says that he isn't sure if global warming exists, mocking "the hysteria over this imagined two degrees centigrade warming that is going to make the oceans rise", and blaming the wildfires in Calif. on "the environmental movement, Earth Day, federal laws, species protection, etc."

Indur M. Goklany (1946-)

On Mar. 4, 2014 World Health Org. (WHO) scientists Cyril Caminade et al. pub. the study Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution, claiming that global warming will exacerbate hunger, malaria, dengue, hot weather, and coastal flooding, causing 250K additional deaths/year in 2030-2050; in Nov. 2014 Indian-Am. electrical engineer (former IPCC member) Indur N. "Gok" Goklany (1946-), former asst. dir., science & technology police, Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Dept. of the Interior pub. the report Unhealthy Exaggeration: The WHO Report on Climate Change, claiming that WHO misses that low income countries could "avail themselves of technology or take any commonsense steps to protect themselves", advocating the use of DDT to fight malaria.

David W. Kreutzer (1948-)

On Mar. 21, 2014 Am. Heritage Foundation economist David W. Kreutzer (1948-) pub. the article Five Myths About Extreme Weather and Global Warming, listing 1) hurricanes are becoming more frequent, 2) tornadoes are becoming more common, 3) droughts are becoming more frequent and more severe, 4) floods are becoming more frequent and severe, and 5) global warming caused the polar vortex that led to the extreme cold and snow in the eastern half of North America in the winter of 2013–2014; on Feb. 26, 2009 he pub. the soundbyte: "If species have survived repeated changes in global temperature on the order of 10 degrees; and changes in habitat brought on by sea-level ups and downs of 300 to 400 feet, why will a two-degree change global temperature or a two-foot change in sea level be their undoing?"; on Apr. 22, 2016 he pub. the soundbyte: "No consensus exists that man-made emissions are the primary driver of global warming or, more importantly, that global warming is accelerating and dangerous." On Mar. 30, 2017 after becoming a member of Pres. Trump's EPA Landing Team, advising Trump to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, he resigns from the EPA despite EPA dir. Scott Pruitt wanting him to stay. Watch video - David W. Kreutzer. Watch video - Navin Nayak and David W. Kreutzer. Watch video - David W. Kreutzer. Watch video - David W. Kreutzer.

On Apr. 2, 2014 former NASA scientist (retired chemical thermodynamics prof. at the U. of Manchester) Les Woodcock gives an interview to the Yorkshire Evening Post in England, with the soundbytes that global warming is "nonsense", the theory of anthropogenic climate change is "an unsubstantiated hypothesis", and that it is "absolutely stupid" to blame the recent U.K. floods on human activity, adidng that there is "no reproducible evidence" that carbon dioxide levels have increased over the past century, blaming the Green Movement for inflicting economic damage on ordinary people; "The term 'climate change' is meaningless. The Earth's climate has been changing since time immemorial, that is since the Earth was formed 1,000 million years ago. The theory of 'man-made climate change' is an unsubstantiated hypothesis [about] our climate [which says it] has been adversely affected by the burning of fossil fuels in the last 100 years, causing the average temperature on the earth's surface to increase very slightly but with disastrous environmental consequences. The theory is that the CO2 emitted by burning fossil fuel is the 'greenhouse gas' causes "global warming' – in fact, water is a much more powerful greenhouse gas and there is 20 time more of it in our atmosphere (around one per cent of the atmosphere) whereas CO2 is only 0.04 per cent"; "There is no reproducible scientific evidence CO2 has significantly increased in the last 100 years"; "Even the term 'global warming' does not mean anything unless you give it a time scale. The temperature of the earth has been going up and down for millions of years, if there are extremes, it's nothing to do with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, it's not permanent and it's not caused by us. Global warming is nonsense"; "Events can happen with frequencies on all time scales in the physics of a chaotic system such as the weather. Any point on lowland can flood up to a certain level on all time scales from one month to millions of years and it's completely unpredictable beyond around five days"; "The reason records seem to be being frequently broken is simply because we only started keeping them about 100 years ago. There will always be some record broken somewhere when we have another natural fluctuation in weather"; "It's absolutely stupid to blame floods on climate change, as I read the Prime Minister did recently. I don't blame the politicians in this case, however, I blame his so-called scientific advisors"; "The damage to our economy the climate change lobby is now costing us is infinitely more destructive to the livelihoods of our grand-children. Indeed, we grand-parents are finding it increasingly expensive just to keep warm as a consequence of the idiotic decisions our politicians have taken in recent years about the green production of electricity."

On Apr. 7, 2014 the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) meets to finalize their report Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, written by Working Group III headed by Ottmar Edenhofer, Ramon Pichs-Madruga, and Youba Sokona, Part 3 of their Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), reporting an acceleration of greenhouse gas emissions over the last decade.

On May 31, 2014 the Obama admin. announces a new EPA plan to reduce carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants by 30% by 2030, imposing an emission cap on existing plants; the new rules are only a draft, not expected to be finalized for another year; the announcement causes the Heritage Foundation to utter the soundbyte that the plan "will drive up energy prices for American families and businesses without making a dent in global temperatures", and House Speaker (R-Ohio) John Boehner to utter the soundbyte: "Every proposal that has come out of this administration to deal with climate change involves hurting our economy and killing American jobs"; the environmental activist group Nat. Resources Defense Council claims that the new rules will create "hundreds of thousands" of new jobs.

In May 2014 the 2014-16 El Nino (ends June 2016) sees the E equatorial Pacific Ocean warm, with unusually warm waters between the coast of South Am. and the Internat. Date Line, bringing more tropical cyclones than normal in the Pacific Ocean, and fewer than normal in the Atlantic Ocean.

Christian Schlüchter (1947-)

On June 7, 2014 after discovering chunks of wood dated to 2K B.C. at the edge of the Lower Aare Glacier in Susten, Switzerland in the 1990s, indicating that Hannibal crossed the Alps through the forest, pissing-off climate warmists who didn't want to know that glaciers retreated and later advanced, Swiss geologist Christian Schleuchter (Schlüchter) (1947-) gives an interview to the online Swiss mag. Der Bund, with the title "Our society is fundamentally dishonest", blasting the CO2 warming theory and the East Anglia Climate Centre, with the soundbytes: "Today many natural scientists are helping hands of politicians, and no longer scientists who occupy themselves with new knowledge and data", and "Inventing the devil was one of man's greatest inventions ever achieved. You can make a lot of money when you paint him on the wall."

On June 14, 2014 Pres. Obama delivers a commencement speech at the U. of Calif. Irvine, saying that he wants to "light a fire" underneath his young listeners' pants to do something about global warming, with the soundbytes: "The question is not whether we need to act. The overwhelming judgment of science, accumulated and measured and reviewed over decades, has put that to rest. The question is whether we have the will to act before it's too late"; "The climate change deniers suggest there's still a debate over the science. There's not. The talking heads on cable news suggest public opinion is hopelessly deadlocked. It's not"; he also announces a $1B fund to help communities protect against wildfires, flooding, and storm damage caused by the changing climate. Watch video.

Tom Steyer (1957-) Michael Bloomberg (1942-) Henry Paulson of the U.S. (1946-)

In June 2014 after Steyer launches NextGen America in 2013 to support climate change policies and candidates, the Risky Business Project, founded by billionaire hedge fund mgr. Thomas Fahr "Tom" Steyer (1957-), billionaire New York City mayor (2002-13) Michael Rubens Bloomberg (1942-), and former U.S. treasury secy. #74 (2006-9) Henry Merritt "Hank" Paulson Jr. (1946-) to combat climate change pub. its Nat. Report, followed by the Midwest Report (Jan. 2015), and the Calif. Report (Apr. 2015), examining the economic risks and opportunities of climate change.

Joseph D'Aleo

On July 7-9, 2014 Heartland Inst.'s Ninth Internat. Conference on Climate Change is held in Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas, Nev.; it features a speech by Am. meteorologist Joseph "Joe" D'Aleo on the subject of "Ice Age Conditions, the Cryosphere, and Recent Cold Winters"; he is known for the soundbytes: "Sunspot cycles and their effects on oceans correlate with climate changes. Studying these and other factors suggests that a cold, not warm, climate may be in our future"; "[The IPCC's] models treat the oceans as distilled water when in reality they are an infinite buffer for atmospheric CO2. Burning all the earth's fossil fuels would amount to no more than a 20 percent increase. It could never double. In any event, ice cores tell us carbon dioxide lags, not leads, the temperatures by as much as 800 years." Watch video - Joseph D'Aleo Video gallery.

In Aug. 2014 1,097 low maximum temperature records are broken across the U.S. except the West Coast.

On Aug. 29, 2014 Bardabunga Volcano in C Iceland begins erupting (until Feb. 27, 2015), emitting large amounts of sulfur dioxide but little or no volcanic ash, extruding basaltic lava covering 33 sq. mi. of terrain in 6 mo., becoming the largest basaltic lava flow since 1783, driving rapid global warming in 2014-16.

On Sept. 25, 2014 the Heritage Foundation and Tex. Public Policy Foundation host the At the Crossroads: Energy & Climate Policy Summit in Houston, Tex.; speakers incl. Roy Spencer, Judith Curry, Hal Doiron, Calvin Beisner, Rupert Darwall et al.

In Sept. 2014 the New Climate Economy of the Global Commission on the Economy and the Climate, comissioned by the U.K., Sweden, Norway, Indonesia, Colombia, and Ethiopia pub. its first report Better Growth, Better Climate: The New Climate Economy Report, pushing the usual climate alarmist agitprop. In July 2015 they pub. Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate, urging global corps. to reduce emissions while they "catalyse sustainable economic growth". In Oct. 2016 they pub. The Sustainable Infrastructure Imperative: Financing for Better Growth and Development, which "identifies barriers to financin sustainable infrastructure and suggests measures to overcome them." They go on to urge govts. to waste, er, spend $90T over the next decade to fight the "new normal" of "more frequent and more intense extreme weather events".

Naomi Klein (1970-)

In Sept. 2014 Canadian leftist anti-globalist writer-activist Naomi Klein (1970-) (member of the climate activist group 350.org) pub. the NYT bestseller This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, which claims that capitalism has waited too long to address climate change, making it necessary to cross "the river of fire" and dump it and start an ecological rev.; filmed by her hubby Avi Lewis.

Bob Seger (1945-)

On Oct. 14, 2014 Detroit, Mich.-born singer Robert Clarke "Bob" Seger (1945-) releases album #17 Ride Out (#172 in the U.S.), which features It's Your World, about climate change, uttering the soundbyte: "There are a lot of culprits in climate change, and everybody's responsible, myself included. Nobody gets a free pass on this one. We've got to change our ways and change them fast."

On Nov. 8-23, 2014 the Nov. 2014 North Am. Cold Wave hits most of the lower 48 U.S. states incl. parts of the W U.S. and most of Canada.

On Nov. 11, 2014 the Lima Draft is announced for the upcoming 20th U.N. Climate Convention (COP20) in Lima, Peru on Dec. 1-12, 2014, in which the parties agree to adopt a new universal climate agreement in Paris, France in Dec. 2015 that comes into effect in 2020.

On Nov. 18, 2014 all 50 U.S. states experience a cold wave, hitting freezing temps incl. 30F on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, smashing 1,360 daily low records across the U.S. in a single week, incl. a record 76 in. of snow near Buffalo, N.Y.; meanwhile Pres. Obama devotes his final two years in office to combating global warming :)

On Dec. 4, 2014 the Washington Post pub. the article Fall snow cover in Northern Hemisphere was most extensive on record, even with temperatures at high mark.

Mark Giampapa Tony Phillips

In 2014 U. of Ariz. solar physicist Mark S. Giampapa utters the soundbyte: "My opinion is that we are heading into a Maunder Minimum. I'm seeing a continuation in the decline of the sunspots' mean magnetic field strengths and a weakening of the polar magnetic fields and subsurface flows." In 2017 the documentary film Global Cooling: The Grand Solar Minimum is released, claiming a coming global cooling, exacerbated by the Geissberg Cycle of Solar Activity, with Tony Phillips of the Web site spaceweather.com uttering the soundbyte: "During the nadir of the sunspot cycle, the entire heliosphere changes its personality with many consequences for the space around our planet. One of the most important changes involves cosmic rays, high-energy radiation reaching Earth from deep space. As sunspot numbers decline, cosmic rays intensify", explaining that solar storm clouds incl. coronal mass ejections (CMEs) normally sweep aside cosmic rays. Watch video. Watch video.

2015

Willie Soon (1966-) Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) David Russell Legates William M. Briggs

On Jan. 8, 2015 Harvard-Smithsonisn Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Willie Wei-Hock Soon (1966-), British self-educated pansophist Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), U. of Del. climatologist David Russell Legates (former Del. State Climatologist in 2004-11), and Am. "Statistician to the Stars" William M. "Matt" Briggs pub. Why Models Run Hot: Results from an Irreducibly Simple Climate Model in the Chinese Science Bulletin, claiming that climate computer models of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tend to exaggerate global warming, and using a simple climate model to predict an overall trend of 1.0C warming in 2000-2100, pointing to an historical record of 0.34C warming in 1990-2014, with the soundbyte: "The impact of anthropogenic global warming over the next century... may be no more than one-third to one-half of IPCC's current projections", pissing-off the global warming set. On June 24, 2018 Briggs pub. the article Global Warming: Thirty Years of Hype, Hysteria and Hullabaloo, which contains the soundbyte: "Here we are, thirty years after the klaxon. Life is better, or at least no worse, as far as environmental conditions are concerned. Whatever trouble we had from global cooling, or rather global warming, was not that bothersome. We discovered there are plenty of more pressing problems to worry about. The boorish behavior of activists, the endless hectoring of politicians, the realization of what shutting off fossil fuels really meant, the whopping pile of failed predictions, all that and more, killed global warming as a mass cause. The undead corpse of global warming is animated now only by the hopes of a handful of true believers. Smarter activists see the futility of climate change and have begun the work of metamorphosing the cause into something grander. The seeds for this growth were planted in the Paris 'climate' accord, which called for 'gender equality, empowerment of women, and intergenerational equity' as well as 'climate justice.' All that was missing was transgender 'rights.' But don't worry. That's being taken care of, too." Watch video - David Legates. Watch video.

On Jan. 20, 2015 (Tues.) Pres. Obama delivers his 2015 State of the Union Speech, acting as if his party hadn't just lost a nat. election, calling climate change the greatest threat to future generations, and calling for $320B in new taxes without explicitly mentioning it, which incl. a $3K/year child care tax credit, an expanded earned income tax credit, seven days of paid sick leave, two years of free community college, a bipartisan infrastructure plan et al., praising the middle class, becoming the first SOTU speech since 9/11 to not mention al-Qaida, and first to mention LGBTs, calling same-sex marriage "America at its best", asking Congress to officially approve military action against ISIS, and ending with an appeal for "a better politics" that crosses party lines; Repubs. call his proposals income redistribution, and declare them dead on arrival; "The shadow of crisis has passed, and the state of the Union is strong"; "At this moment - with a growing economy, shrinking deficits, bustling industry, and booming energy production - we have risen from recession freer to write our own future than any other nation on Earth. It's now up to us to choose who we want to be over the next 15 years, and for decades to come"; "Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well, or will we commit ourselves to an economy that generates rising incomes and chances for everyone who makes the effort?"; too bad, although decrying anti-Semitism, he keeps covering for Islam, declaring that he will veto any new sanctions on Iran, with the soundbytes: "As Americans, we respect human dignity, even when we're threatened, which is why I've prohibited torture, and worked to make sure our use of new technology like drones is properly constrained. It's why we speak out against the deplorable anti-Semitism that has resurfaced in certain parts of the world. It's why we continue to reject offensive stereotypes of Muslims, the vast majority of whom share our commitment to peace. That's why we defend free speech, and advocate for political prisoners, and condemn the persecution of women, or religious minorities, or people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. We do these things not only because they're right, but because they make us safer"; "2014 was the planet's warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn't make a trend, but this does – 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century. I've heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they're not scientists; that we don't have enough information to act. Well, I'm not a scientist, either. But you know what – I know a lot of really good scientists at NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we'll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it." On Nov. 15, 2015 retired German meteorologist Klaus-Eckard Puls refutes climate refugee claims, saying that even the IPCC refutes them in AR5 2013/14, with the soundbyte: "The waves of refugees have many claims - climate is not among them." Watch video - Pres. Obama. Watch video - Tony Heller on Katharine Hayhoe.

On Jan. 23-31, 2015 the Great 2015 N.E. U.S. Blizzard AKA Snowmageddon 2015 drops 26.2" of snow in Mass. and 36" in New York City, shutting down New York City subways, causing 8K flights to the region to be canceled.

On Feb. 5, 2015 Maya Tolstoy et al. of the Earth Inst. at Columbia U. pub. the article Seafloor volcano pulses may alter climate: Strikingly regular patterns, from weeks to eons, showing that undersea volcanoes flare up in strikingly regular cycles ranging from 2 weeks to 100K years, always during the first 6 mo. of the year, and are apparently tied to short-term and long-term changes in Earth's orbit and sea levels, and may trigger climate swings, suggesting a connection with Milankovitch Cycles, esp. the 100K-year cycle in which Earth's orbit changes from a circle to an ellipse.

On Feb. 14, 2015 Donald Trump tweets the soundbyte: "Record low temperatuers and massive amounts of snow. Where the hell is GLOBAL WARMING?" On Feb. 15, 2015 Donald Trump tweets the soundbyte: "Wow, 25 degrees below zero, record cold and snow spell. Global warming anyone?"

In Feb. 2015 the Nat. Assoc. of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) (founded 1889) holds is winter meeting on the topic "You're Still Not Sure Global Warming is Real?", featuring speakers Judith Curry, Joe Casola, and Rajnish Barua.

On Mar. 1, 2015 the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) pub. the paper The Small Print: What the Royal Society Left Out, dissing the British Royal Society's anon. Dec. 2014 pub. A Short Guide to Climate Science, accusing it of "presenting a misleading picture of climate science", with GWPF Academy Advisory Council chmn. Ross McKitrick writing the soundbyte: "As an example, the Royal Society addresses the question of why Antarctic sea ice is growing, but in doing so they present a recently proposed hypothesis as if it were settled science. Failing to admit when the answer to an important question is simply not known does a disservice to the public. We believe that this new paper does a much better job of presenting the whole picture to the public."

Paul A. Beckwith

On Apr. 9, 2015 the govt. of Manitoba, Canada holds hearings on climate change in Winnipeg, featuring climate scientist Paul H. Beckwith of the U. of Ottawa, an alarmist known for the soundbytes: "We must declare a global climate emergency", and "This knowledge of our changing climate threat is filtering out to greater numbers of the slumbering public that has been brainwashed into lethargy by the protectors of the status quo. As more and more people see the trees dying in their back yards and their cities and houses and roads buckling under unrelenting torrential rains they are awaking to the threat. And there will be a threshold crossed and a tipping point reached in human behavior. An understanding of the reality of the risks we face. And finally global concerted action. To slash emissions. And change our ways. And retool our economies and reset our priorities. And not take our planet for granted"; he goes on to upload numerous videos to YouTube pushing the pro-global warming viewpoint, incl. the threat of a sudden huge (50G ton) methane pulse, many with alarmist titles incl. "Unrelenting heat and humanity will soon make regions uninhabitable", "Human body limit to heat stress from abrupt climate change", "Earth climate system: Terrible trajectories to hothouse", "Abrupt cryospheric tipping points in the climate system", and "Profound climate mayhem with no Arctic sea-ice". Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith.

Judith A. Curry (1952-)

On Apr. 13, 2015 (Earth Day) Pres. Obama signs the President's U.N. Climate Pledge, incl. a new Nat. Fuel Efficiency Policy of 35.5 mpg for model years 2012-16 cars, new efficiency stds. for home appliances, a new EPA regulation requiring the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions by major emitters in the U.S. et al., after which fence-sitting Am. climatologist Judith A. Curry (1952-), known for criticizing the IPCC reports for neglecting the "Uncertainty Monster", and for advocating that climatologists be more accommodating to climate change skeptics testifies before the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, uttering the soundbyte: "I bought into the argument, Don't trust what one scientist says, trust what an international team of a thousand scientists have said after years of careful deliberation. That all changed for me in November 2009 following the leaked Climategate emails that ilustrated the sausage-making and even bullying that went into building the consensus"; "The definition of 'dangerous' climate change is ambiguous, and hypothesized catastrophic tipping points are regarded as very or extremely unlikely in the 21st century. Efforts to link dangerous impacts of extreme weather events to human-caused warming are misleading and unsupported by evidence. Climate change is a 'wicked problem' and ill-suited to a 'command and control' solution. It has been estimated that the U.S. national commitments to the U.N. to reduce emissions by 28% will prevent three hundredths of a degree centigrade in warming by 2100... The articulation of a preferred policy option in the early 1990's by the United Nations has marginalized research on broader issues surrounding climate variability and change and has stifled the development of a broader range of policy options. We need to push the reset button in our deliberations about how we should respond to climate change. We should expand the frameworks for thinking about climate policy and provide a wider choice of options in addressing the risks from climate change. As an example of alternative options, pragmatic solutions have been proposed based on efforts to accelerate energy innovation, build resilience to extreme weather, and pursue no regrets pollution reduction. Each of these measures has justifications independent of their benefits for climate mitigation and adaptation. Robust policy options that can be justified by associated policy reasons whether or not human caused climate change is dangerous avoids the hubris of pretending to know what will happen with the 21st century climate"; on Jan. 4, 2017 she resigns from the chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Ga. Inst. of Tech, with the soundbyte: "A deciding factor was that I no longer know what to say to students and postdocs regarding how to navigate the CRAZINESS in the field of climate science. Research and other professional activities are professionally rewarded only if they are channeled in certain directions approved by a politicized academic establishment - funding, ease of getting your papers published, getting hired in prestigious positions, appointments to prestigious committees and boards, professional recognition, etc."; she also utters the soundbyte: "Recent data and research supports the importance of natural climate variability and calls into question the conclusion that humans are the dominant cause of recent climate change." In 2017 Curry pub. the report Climate Models for the Layman, concluding that global climate models (GCMs) are "not fit for the purpose of justifying political policies to fundamentally alter world social, economic and energy systems." because: "GCMs have not been subject to the rigorous verification and validation that isthe norm for engineering and regulatory science"; "There are valid concerns about a fundamental lack of predictability in the complex nonlinear climate system"; "There are numerous arguments supporting the conclusion that climate models are not fit for the purpose of identifying with high confidence the proportion of the 20th century warming that was human-caused as opposed to natural"; "There is growing evidence that climate models predict too much warming from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide"; "The climate model simulation results for the 21st century reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) do not include key elements of climate variability, and hence are not useful as projections for how the 21st century climate will actually evolve." Watch video - Judith A. Curry. Watch video - Judith A. Curry. Watch video - Judith A. Curry. Watch video - Judith A. Curry.

'Climate Change Denial Order', 2015

On Apr. 14, 2015 Carly Usdin's Climate Change Denial Disorder debuts, starring Ed Begley Jr., Timothy Brennan, and Susan Yeagley, winning a nomination for best digital short film in the 2015 Environmental Media Awards.

Glen P. Peters

On Apr. 30, 2015 Glen P. Peters, research dir. at CICERO in Oslo, Norway pub. the article A journey from 5C to 2C, which claims that the 2C Paris goal is no longer feasible except in climate models. Watch video - Glen P. Peters. Watch video - Glen P. Peters.

In Apr. 2015 the Province of Quebec, Canada hosts a Climate Change Summit with provincial and territorial premiers, resulting in the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of Quebec, the Government of Manitoba, and the Government of Ontario, supported by all 13 provinces and territories committing to a transition to a low-carbon economy.

Indur M. Goklany (1946-)

In Apr. 2015 the Roman Catholic Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences the pub. the joint declaration Climate Change and the Common Good: A Statement of The Problem and the Demand for Transformative Solutions, calling for deep carbonization and rapid reduction in fossil fuel use; in July 2015 Indian-Am. electrical engineer (former IPCC member) Indur N. "Gok" Goklany (1946-) pub. the paper The Pontifical Academies' Broken Moral Compass, containing the soundbytes: "The Vatican is being led astray by its advisors by statements on climate change that are scientifically lacking and ethically dubious"; "The academies say that sustainability and resilience are being destroyed by over-consumption and that fossil fuels are to blame, yet almost every indicator of human well-being from life-expectancy to health to standard of living has improved beyond measure largely because of our use of fossil fuels"; "The beneficial impact of fossil fuels has not only been on human well-being but also on nature, because fossil fuel use has allowed more intensive use of land, thus reducing the amount of wilderness that has to be diverted to agricultural use. This means that the Vatican's backing of reductions in fossil fuel use would actually reduce human well-being and increase the human impact on the planet"; "Climate change is a moral and ethical issue, but it is a strange ethical calculus that would justify wiping out the gains we have made in human well-being over the last few centuries at the same time devastating the natural world. The Vatican's advisors appear to have lost their way."

On May 24, 2015 Pope Francis pub. the encyclical Laudato Si, calling for solutions to global climate change that are rooted in our "deepest convictions about love, justice, and peace", with the soundbytes: "We have to realize that a true ecological approach always becomes a social approach; it must integrate questions of justice in debates on the environment, so as to hear both the cry of the earth and the cry of the poor"; "Obstructionist attitudes, even on the part of believers, can range from denial of the problem to indifference, nonchalant resignation, or blind confidence in technical solutions"; "The economy accepts every advance in technology with a view to profit, without concern for its potentially negative impact on human beings"; "In light of these considerations, we believe it is both unwise and unjust to adopt policies requiring reduced use of fossil fuels for energy. Such policies would condemn hundreds of millions of our fellow human beings to ongoing poverty. We respectfully appeal to you to advise the world's leaders to reject them"; "We know that technology based on the use of highly polluting fossil fuels... needs to be progressively replaced without delay"; "A true 'ecological debt' exists, particularly between the global north and south... In different ways, developing countries, where the most important reserves of the biosphere are found, continue to fuel the development of richer countries at the cost of their own present and future"; on Apr. 27 An Open Letter to Pope Francis on Climate Change is pub., organized by Carl Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance and signed by 202 mainly scientists, urging Pope Francis to reconsider his views on climate change before issuing the encyclical, containing the soundbytes: "Good climate policy must recognize human exceptionalism, the God-given call for human persons to 'have dominion' in the natural world (Genesis 1:28), and the need to protect the poor from harm, including actions that hinder their ascent out of poverty"; "The models are wrong. They therefore provide no rational basis to forecast dangerous human-induced global warming, and therefore no rational basis for efforts to reduce warming by restricting the use of fossil fuels or any other means."

On May 29, 2015 Salvatore Del Prete pub. an article predicting a coming downturn in global temps due to a droop in solar irradiance et al. On Sept. 4, 2018 he pub. the article We Must Factor In Solar/Geomagnetic Field Strength for Predictions, with the soundbyte: "My simple theory is: Very weak solar/geomagnetic fields equate to lower overall global temperatures due to lower overall oceanic sea surface temperatures (less UV/NEAR UV light) and a slight uptick in albedo. The uptick will be due to an increase in major geological activity and an increase in global cloud/snow coverage tied to an increase in galactic cosmic rays. Those increases, in turn, will be in response to very weak magnetic fields. In addition, there are threshold levels of magnetic weakness out there that could result in a major, as opposed to a slight, climatic shift. If one looks at the historical climatic record/ice core data, major/abrupt climatic changes show up more often than not."

In May 2015 the 2015 Indian Heat Wave begins, killing 2.5K by June 3 esp. in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, with high demand for electricity to power air conditioning leading to power outages; in May 2016 a new high temp record is set in Phalodi; the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) blames air conditoners for causing heat waves.

Valentina Zharkova (1953-)

On July 12, 2015 Northumbria U. math prof. Valentina Zharkova (1953-) et al. speak at the Nat. Astronomy Meeting in Wales, unveiling a new scientific model showing that the Earth is likely to experience a "mini ice age" in 2030-2040 as a result of decreased solar activity, with Zharkova uttering the soundbyte: "In cycle 26, the two waves exactly mirror each other, peaking at the same time but in opposite hemispheres of the Sun. We predict that this will lead to the properties of a 'Maunder minimum'." Watch video - Valentina Zharkova. Watch video - Valentina Zharkova. Watch video - Valentina Zharkova. Watch video - PBS Space Time. Watch video - potholer54.

In July 2015 according to NOAA, there is the hottest month in recorded history? (16.61C or 61.86F, which is 0.81C or 1.46F above the 20th cent. avg. of 15.8C or 60.4F), surpassing the 1998 record by 0.8C (0.14F); the hottest year is really 2002, and 2015 comes in 10th?

On Aug. 3, 2015 Pres. Obama unveils the Clean Power Plan ("Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units"), designed to lower carbon dioxide emissions by power generators, requiring a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions by states by 2030, mainly affecting coal-fired plants, pissing-off Repubs., who launch court challenges; on Oct. 4, 2017 the Trump admin. announces that they intend to end it. Watch video.

On Sept. 15, 2015 glaciologists Lonnie Thompson and Konrad Steffan release a video warning of erosion caused by climate change. Watch video - Lonnie Thompson and Konrad Steffan. Watch video - Hans Henrik Tholstrup. Watch video.

On Sept. 21, 2015 Donald Trump gives an interview to Hugh Hewitt, containing the soundbyte: "I'm not a believer in man-made global warming. It could be warming, and it's going to start to cool at some point. And you know, in the early, in the 1920s, people talked about global cooling... They thought the Earth was cooling. Now, it's global warming... But the problem we have, and if you look at our energy costs, and all of the things that we're doing to solve a problem that I don't think in any major fashion exists."

Roy Scranton (1976-)

On Sept. 23, 2015 Am. novelist-poet Roy Scranton (1976-) (U.S. Army Iraq War vet) pub. the novel Learning to Die in the Anthropocene: Reflections on the End of a Civilization, swallowing the runaway warming doomsday predictions of climate scientists whole, insisting on the importance of mourning in place of fake optimism and learning to live in the ruins of our current culture as part of our response to the coming climate change; on July 17, 2018 he pub. We're Doomed. Now What?: Essays on War and Climate Change, spending more time on his war experiences than climate change; "There seems no way to grasp on it, either through personal action or through this socialist chimera... We're here and it's all happening and we have to work it out together, but how do we make this transition, how do we go through this catastrophe... The real question is how we live ethically in a world that's falling apart around us and that is only going to get worse... how do we live ethically together in a world on fire"; "And so I don't know, but my suspicion is it's gonna be pretty messy"; on July 16, 2018 Scranton pub. the op-ed Climate Change Daughter Dystopia, pushing climate change birth regret, telling us how he cried in joy when his daughter was born, then in sorrow because she is doomed to life on a dystopian planet. Watch video - Roy Scranton.

On Sept. 24, 2015 Donald Trump gives an interview to CNN's "New Day", uttering the soundbyte: "You can't watch the news anymore. It's always weather.... I believe in clean air. Immaculate air. But I don't believe in climate change."

On Sept. 25, 2015 the U.S. House by 233-170 passes the U.S. Reponsibily and Professionally Invigorating Development (RAPID) Act of 2015, sponsored by Rep. (R-Penn.) Tom Marino, forbidding federal agencies from incl. the "social cost of carbon" in environmental reviews.

On Sept. 25, 2015 Chinese pres. Xi Jinping visits the White House for the first time just as Pope Francis leaves town for New York City; he and Pres. Obama announce a global climate change agreement approved by the pope, and a pact to stop state-sponsored cyberattacks; on Sept. 26 Xi Jinping meets in Seattle, Wash. with tech corp. CEOs incl. Tim Cook of Apple, Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com, and Satya Nadella of Microsoft to discuss Chinese cyber espionage and rook them into pressuring Washington, D.C. into not imposing sanctions; on Sept. 28 Jingping hosts a meeting on women's rights at the U.N., causing Hillary Clinton to call him "shameless" when he is persecuting women's activists at home, causing China to respond that she's a "demagogue" like "big mouth" Donald Trump; on Sept. 25-27 the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is approved by the U.N. Gen. Assembly to bring the internat. community "to the cusp of decisions that can help realize the... dream of a world of peace and dignity for all" (U.N. secy.-gen. Ban Ki-moon), containing 17 sustainable development goals incl. an end to world poverty and hunger, gender and wealth equality, action against climate change et al.; it's really an insidious Satanic plan for a New World Order (NWO)?

On Sept. 28-Oct. 15, 2015 Category 4 Hurricane Joaquin forms SW of Bermuda and hits Cuba, Haiti,, Greater Antilles, and Bermuda, killing 34 and causing $200M damage while failing to make landfall in the U.S. and bringing record-breaking rains and floods across N.C. and S.C., causing floods in S.C. that kill 19 in Charleston and Columbia and cause $2B damage.

C. Boyden Gray (1943-) George David Banks (1969-) Rex Tillerson of the U.S. (1952-)

On Oct. 9, 2015 after a 2-year investigation by Columbia U. Journalism School led by Susanne Rust, the Los Angeles Times and Guardian begin pub. a series of articles accusing Exxon of knowing about climate change since 1977, starting out by engaging in its own research with an oil tanker outfitted with CO2 detectors and analyzers, and building climate models before flopping to a climate change skeptic starting with the Aug. 1988 memo "The Greenhouse Effect", going on to join Mobil and Shell to fight regulations addressing climate change while quietly safeguarding their offshore platforms from it by raising the decks and protecting pipelines from coastal erosion, resulting in investigations by the attys.-gen. of Mass. and N.Y. along with an outcry by environmentalists calling for Exxon's blood, causing Exxon to fire back accusing Columbia U. of journalistic misconduct by ignoring info. they provided them incl. two op-eds they pub. in 2000 admitting that climate change may pose a "legitimate long-term risk"; on Sept. 20, 2016 the Wall Street Journal pub. an article claiming that the SEC is investigating whether Exxon filed to report the impact of climate regulations on its future businesses; on Feb. 3, 2017 current and former Exxon employees file a class action lawsuit accusing it of making false and misleading statements about the financial risks of climate change to increase earnings; on Aug. 23, 2017 Harvard U. pub. a study confirming Columbia U.'s results; meanwhile on Feb. 11, 2016 wealthy N.C.-born atty. Clayland "C." Boyden Gray (1943-), grandson of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. pres. Bowman Gray and son of Pres. Eisenhower's nat. security adviser Gordon Gray, known for serving as Pres. George H.W. Bush's White House counsel defends Exxon with the article The Misguided ExxonMobil Climate Change Inquisition in Forbes mag., with the soundbyte: "The decision to single out Exxon is especially ill conceived, because when it comes to actual proposals for real legislative action on climate change, Exxon's advocacy has been indistinguishable from some of the leading environmental organizations. The Sierra Club's former chief climate counsel has recounted how he and ExxonMobil's climate policy manager 'found common ground when we realized that we actually agreed on the best approach to climate policy' - namely a revenue neutral carbon tax - hardly the strategy one would expect from a company dedicated to covering up climate science. Exxon's carbon tax proposal is especially significant coming from an oil company, because taxing carbon emissions would advantage less carbon-intensive alternatives to gasoline, like renewable ethanol. Was this a recent political ploy by Exxon to atone for some sinister climate change cover-up? No. Exxon's carbon tax agreement with the Sierra Club came about in 2007 - ancient history for climatology - even though Congress, just two years earlier, had mandated increasing levels of renewable fuel blending in gasoline in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions." George David "David" Banks (1969-) starts out in 2009 as a partner at Boyden Gray & Assocs. before working for Sen. James Inhofe at the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works as deputy staff dir. in June 2011. On Feb. 1, 2017 ExxonMobil CEO (since 2006) Rex Wayne Tillerson (1952-) becomes U.S. secy. of state #69, pissing-off environmentalists, who jump for joy when he's fired on Mar. 31, 2018. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Marc Morano. Watch video - George David Banks.

David Siegel (1959-)

On Oct. 16, 2015 Pillar Project CEO David Seigel (1959-) pub. the article What I Learned about Climate Change: The Science is not Settled on medium.com, laying out an easy-to-understand rationale for being a climate skeptic, receiving over 200K views.

On Oct. 19, 2015 Donald Trump tweets the soundbyte: "It's really cold outside, they are calling it a major freeze, weeks ahead of normal. Man, we could use a big fat dose of global warming!"

On Oct. 29, 2015 French mathematicians of the Paris-based Societe de Calcul Mathematique pub. a Paper on the Costly and Pointless Crusade Against Global Warming, with the soundbyte: "You would probably have to go quite a long way back in human... history to find (such a) mad obsssion", pointing out that "There is not a single fact, figure... or observation that leads us to conclude the world's climate is in any way 'disturbed'. It is variable, as it has always been."

On Oct. 29, 2015 Valentina V. Zharkova, S.J. Shepherd, E. Popova, and S.I. Zharkov pub. the article Heartbeat of the Sun from Principal Component Analysis and prediction of solar activity on a millenium timescale in Scientific Reports, showing when Grand Solar Minimums are occurring, predicting a coming global coming in Solar Cycle 26, a 35-year ice age, pissing-off the IPCC, which tries unsuccessfully to get it suppressed by the Royal Astronomical Society? Watch video.

Stefan Molyneux (1966-)

On Nov. 3, 2015 Ireland-born Canadian alt-right podcaster Stefan Basil Molyneux (1966-) comes out as a climate change skeptic, based on distrust of Big (govt.-funded) Science. Watch video - Stefan Molyneux. Watch video - Stefan Molyneux.

Peter Langdon Ward (1943-)

On Nov. 3, 2015 U.S. Geological Survey geophysicist Peter Langdon Ward (1943-) pub. the book What Really Causes Global Warming? Greenhouse Gases or Ozone Depletion?, followed on Apr. 20, 2018 by the article Ozone Depletion, Not Greenhouse Gases Cause for Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "By 1993, increases of CFCs in the atmosphere stopped. By 1995, increases in ozone depletion stopped. By 1998, increases in average global temperatures stopped. The ozone layer remains depleted, the ocean continues to warm, ice continues to melt, and sea-level continues to rise, but global temperatures did not change significantly from 1998 through 2013. They also had not changed much from 1945 to 1970. Thus, humans appear to have accidentally caused the warming starting around 1970 by manufacturing large amounts of CFCs and to have accidently stopped the warming of air in 1998 while trying to limit ozone depletion. Meanwhile, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide rose linearly, but at ever-increasing rates, showing no direct relationship to the details of observed global warming. Dozens of peer-reviewed scientific papers by leading atmospheric scientists have tried to explain, based on greenhouse-warming theory, why global temperatures did not change much from 1998 through 2013, a phenomenon dubbed the global warming hiatus. While they suggest many interesting ideas, there has been little agreement." Watch video - Peter Ward. Watch video - Peter Ward. Watch video - Peter Ward.

On Nov. 23, 2015 Canadian PM Justin Trudeau issues the soundbyte that he's heading to the climate change talks in Paris with a "Canadian approach" to climate change.

Rudy Giuliani of the U.S. (1944-)

On Nov. 27, 2015 Pres. Obama gives an interview to Norah O'Donnell on "CBS This Morning", taking umbrage at Donald Trump's comment that his statement "No challenge poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change" as "One of the dumbest statements I've ever heard in politics", with the soundbyte about climate change: "What we know is that, as human beings are placed under strain, then bad things happen. And, you know, if you look at world history, whenever people are desperate, when people start lacking food, when people are not able to make a living or take care of their families, that's when ideologies arise that are dangerous." "Ninety-nine-point-five percent of scientists in the world say this is a really urgent problem. Political parties around the world. The only people who are still disputing it are either some Republicans in Congress or folks on the campaign trail"; "But, if you start seeing the oceans rise by five, six, seven feet, if you see major shifts in weather patterns so that what have been previously bread baskets to the world suddenly can no longer grow food, then you're seeing the kind of crisis that we can't deal with through the deployment of the Marines." On Dec. 2, 2015 former New York City Repub. mayor #107 (1994-2001) Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (1944-) appears on "Your World with Neil Cavuto", disputing Pres. Obama's statements linking climate change and terrorism, with the soundbyte: "The president's wrong in linking somehow by fixing climate change if he's gonna fix it, he's gonna fix terrorism. That's absurd. There's no connection between the two things. Where it's like two different things. It's like saying I'm gonna fix terrorism by curing cancer. The terrorism that we're dealing with is not emerging from desperation. Many of these people are middle class or rich people who are involved in the terrorism. This is an ideologically or religiously based - and I would say certainly a misinterpretation of the religion and a, or if you want to call it a hijacking of the religion - but the religion has been turned into an ideology. It's like saying communism was caused by climate change." Watch video - Pres. Obama.

On Nov. 30-Dec. 12, 2015 the 2015 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP21) (CMP 11) in Paris, France, attended by leaders from 147 nations negotiates the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord), signed by reps of 196 parties, agreeing to a goal of a 1.5C limit to global temperature increase by 2030 at a cost of $100T, but only reducing global temps by .086C; the U.S. agrees to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 26%-28% (below the 2005 level) by 2025, reducing GDP by $150B/year (6M jobs), while reducing global temps by 1/15,000th of 1C by 2100, postponing global warming by 8 mo.?; on Nov. 30 Pres. Obama gives a Speech on Climate Change, urging world action, with the soundbytes: "Our understanding of the ways human beings disrupt the climate advances by the day. Fourteen of the fifteen warmest years on record have occurred since the year 2000 - and 2015 is on pace to be the warmest year of all. No nation - large or small, wealthy or poor - is immune to what this means", calling the COP21 climate change conference in Paris an "act of defiance" against terrorists who attacked Paris earlier in the month; "For I believe, in the words of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., that there is such a thing as being too late. And when it comes to climate change, that hour is almost upon us. But if we act here, if we act now, if we place our own short-term interests behind the air that our young people will breathe, and the food that they will eat, and the water that they will drink, and the hopes and dreams that sustain their lives, then we won't be too late for them"; the only real goal of the U.N. is to sock U.S. taxpayers $150B/year to give to poor countries?; on Nov. 30 Bill Nye the Science Guy backs up Obama on the Paris terrorist attack, calling it "a result of climate change", adding" You can make a very reasonable argument that climate change is not that indirectly related to terrorism. This is just the start of things. The more we let [climate change] go on, the more trouble there's going to be"; of course out pop more so-called experts claiming that global climate change threatens the world's poor directly. Watch video - Pres. Obama. Watch video - Stefan Molyneux.

Ted Cruz of the U.S. (1970-) Mark Steyn (1959-)

On Dec. 8, 2015 U.S. Sen. (R-Tex.) (2013-) Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (1970-), chmn. of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee hosts the hearing Data or Dogma? Promoting Open Inquiry over the Magnitude of Human Impact on Earth's Climate, using the satellite record from Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) to argue that there has been a global warming pause for 18 years, which is later disputed; he goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence doesn't support global warming", and "They call anyone who questions the science who even points to the satellite data - they call you, a, quote, 'denier'. Denier is not the language of science. Denier is the language of religion. It is heretic. You are a blasphemer. It's treated as a theology. But it's about power and money. At the end of the day, it's not complicated. This is liberal politicians who want government power"; Canadian right wing pundit Mark Steyn (1959-), known for repeatedly accusing Penn State climate science Michael Mann and getting sued for defamation testifies at the hearing, calling climate science fraudulent and oppressive of critics, later calling govt. action to stop climate change "the most ingenious pretext for big government ever devised." Watch video - Ted Cruz. Watch video - Ted Cruz. Watch video - Ted Cruz and Carl Mears. Watch video - Mark Steyn. Watch video - Mark Steyn. Watch video - Mark Steyn.

On Dec. 17, 2015 Kip Hansen pub. the article On Ocean of Plastic, containing the soundbyte: "The Great Garbage Patch said to be floating about the Pacific is a myth... The main alleged photographs of it were taken in Manila Bay after a storm had washed the rubbish out of the streets"; "The amount of plastic waste floating in the sea is very small per cubic metre of water... It is invisible to the uninformed eye in the places where this Garbage Patch is said to be floating"; "Plastic waste quickly breaks down into tiny chunks that are then eaten by bacteria, who are not harmed by it"; "Larger chunks eaten by fish and birds are easily handled by digestive systems that have evolved over many ages to cope with much worse than the occasional lump of polystyrene foam."

Chris Shaw

In 2015 Christopher "Chris" Shaw of the U. of Sussex (senior researcher at Climate Outreach) pub. The Two Degrees Limit for Climate Change: Public Understanding and Decision Making, questioning how it was arrived at.

2016

On Jan. 12, 2016 Pres. Obama delivers his (last) 2016 State of the Union Speech (watched by 31.3M viewers), ignoring the taking of U.S. Navy hostages by Iran and waxing lyrical about the United State of America, with the soundbytes: "The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth, period. It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined", "Surveys show our standing around the world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead, they call us", and "Anyone claiming that America's economy is in decline is peddling fiction", dissing Repub. climate deniers with the soundbyte: "Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. You'll be pretty lonely, because you'll be debating our military, most of America's business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it's a problem and intend to solve it", then strangely admitting that failure to heal the Dem.-Repub. divide is "one of the few regrets of my presidency", heating the divide up himself by slapping at Donald Trump with the Muslim appeasing soundbyte claiming that singling out Muslims "betrayed" America's identity: "When politicians insult Muslims... that doesn't make us safer. It's just wrong. It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. it makes it harder to achieve our goals", dismissing ISIS as "killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed", adding: "We don't need to build them up to show that we're serious, nor do we need to push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is representative of one of the world's largest religions"; Obama reserves an empty chair for the victims of gun violence; Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) walks out before the speech starts; as Obama begins his last year in office, he has purged U.S. military brass and attempted to fill the ranks with LGBTs and Muslims, you judge a tree by its fruit- and in absolute contradiction to what liar Obama says, the U.S. was only possible because it was free of the Muslim World and Islam, as well as the Roman Catholic world?

On Jan. 18, 2016 Donald Trump gives an interview to "Fox & Friends", uttering the soundbyte: "Well, I think the climate change is just a very, very expensive form of tax. A lot of people are making a lot of money. I know much about climate change. I'd be — received environmental awards. And I often joke that this is done for the benefit of China. Obviously, I joke. But this is done for the benefit of China, because China does not do anything to help climate change. They burn everything you could burn; they couldn't care less. They have very - you know, their standards are nothing. But they - in the meantime, they can undercut us on price. So it's very hard on our business."

On Jan. 26, 2016 Al Gore's Global Warning Doomsday arrives when greenhouse gases cause the Earth to go into runaway heat death. :)

Adam Levy

On Feb. 18, 2016 Oxford U. graduate climate scientist Adam Levy opens the YouTube channel Climate Adam, using humor to push the anthropogenic climate theory. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

On Mar. 3, 2016 Canada's first ministers attend a meeting on climate change in Vancouver, B.C., issuing a communique, with the soundbyte: "We directed immediate work in four areas: clean technology, innovation, and jobs; carbon pricing mechanisms adapted to each province's and territory's specific circumstances and in particular the realities of Canada's Indigenous peoples and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions; specific mitigation opportunities; and, adaptation and climate resilience." Watch video - Rex Murphy.

On Mar. 11, 2016 an article is pub. in Science revealing that the reason for rising global methane levels since 2007 is fart, er, farming, not fracking, undercutting Pres. Obama's recent pact to cut methane emissions from oil and gas producers by 40%-45% from 2012 levels by 2025.

On Mar. 16, 2016 Zhi-Gang Shao and Peter D. Ditlevsen of the U. of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Inst. pub. the article Contrasting scaling properties of interglacial and glacial climates in Nature Communications, based on a study of Earth climate variations back 5M years, finding that climate is chaotic and difficult to predict, but is more stable during the warm interglacial period than during ice ages, the former being monofractal, the latter multifractal.

Bill Nye the Science Guy (1955-) Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-)

Cooler heads jokes here? On Apr. 14, 2016 Washington, D.C.-born "Science Guy" (bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Cornell U.) William Sanford "Bill" Nye (1955-) releases a video interview with Marc Morano of Climate Depot, er, warming to the idea of jailing climate skeptics; on Aug. 22, 2016 Nye gives an interview to CBS News, acknowledging that climate skeptics have been "surprisingly successful" in influencing public opinion, but only "because they are almost exclusively funded by the fossil fuel industry", which is challenged by Marc Morano of Climate Depot, who utters the soundbyte: "It is the environmental left that frequently enjoys amounts of fossil fuel funding that skeptics never see." Watch video - Bill Nye. Watch video - Bill Nye vs. Tucker Carlson.

On Apr. 21, 2016 Chris D'Angelo pub. the article 93 Percent of the Great Barrier Reef is Practically Dead in The Huffington Post, blaming it on climate change; really fake news, confusing bleaching with dying?

On Apr. 22, 2016 (Earth Day) the Paris Climate Agreement (Accord) is opened for signatures at the U.N. HQ in New York City, setting a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global avg. temp to below 2C above pre-industrial levels, and limiting the increase to 1.5C, with each country voluntarily setting targets and target dates, along with plans and reporting mechanisms; by May 2018 195 members sign the agreement, and 177 become a party to it.

Kevin Cramer of the U.S. (1961-) Thomas J. Pyle

In May 2016 Donald Trump selects prominent climate change skeptic and fossil fuel champion, U.S. Rep. (R-N.D.) (2013-) Kevin John Cramer (1961-) as his U.S. pres. campaign energy adviser, with Motherboard issuing the soundbyte about him that he "isn't simply a [climate change] skeptic - he's a head-in-the-sand obstructionist and mouthpiece for fossil fuel powers fighting to repeal some of the nation's strongest environmental protections. The congressman once pledged to oppose all climate change legislation, as part of the 'No Climate Tax' initiative started by the Koch-founded Americans for Prosperity conservative advocacy group"; Cramer goes on to write Trump's 4-page energy policy paper, promoting fossil fuels along with the weakening of environmental regulations, proposing that the U.S. withdraw from the 2015 Paris Agreement and repeal regulations attempting to control carbon emissions incl. the Obama admin. Clean Power Plan, uttering the soundbytes: "There is no downside in reducing emissions from fuel"; "I don't even participate in that 'climate change is real, climate change isn't real' debate. It doesn't matter to me whether it's real or it isn't real. We're dealing with it in reality, and my concern is more on the solution to it than it is on the climate change issue itself. What I do reject is the notion that somehow the power sector in the United States of America is going to bear the burden and the responsibility for fixing the entire world"; "These mandates and these wind farms are all based on this fraudulent science from the EPA, meaning their claim that CO2 is a pollutant and is causing global warming... So the idea that CO2 is somehow causing global warming is on its face fraudulent"; critics like to expose the $573,600 he received from oil and gas cos. since 1989. In Dec. 2016 climate change agnostic Thomas J. Pyle, pres. of the Inst. for Energy Research (IER) is selected to head Donald Trump's energy transition team, sending a memo outlining the "Trump Administration's Energy Plan". Watch video.

On June 13, 2016 NASA releases its monthly analysis of global avg. temps, followed on June 16 by NOAA, agreeing that May was the warmest on record, as was the period from Jan.-May, with NOAA claiming that it goes back 13 mo., becoming the longest record streak since 1880, while 13 of the warmest months occurred since Feb. 2015; May's temperature anomaly was a whopping 1C (1.8F).

Grover Glenn Norquist (1956-)

On June 16, 2016 Sharon, Penn.-born Grover Glenn Norquist (1956-), founder of Americans for Tax Reform hosts the episode The Real Science and Politics Behind Global Warming with Heartland Inst. CEO Joseph "Joe" Bast on "The Grover Norquist Show" to discuss the new book "Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming", with the soundbytes: "The Left's favorite statistic that '97% of scientists' agree that climate change is man-made is actually just a tactic to shut down debate"; "The purported proof of such a consensus consists of sloppy research by nonscientists, college students, and a highly partisan Australian blogger. Surveys of climate scientists, even those heavily biased in favor of climate alarmism, find extensive disagreement on the underlying science and doubts about its reliability." Watch video - Joseph Bast and Grover Norquist. Watch video - Grover Norquist.

Reto Knutti (1973-) Heather Stoll (1973-) Andreas Rigling (1964-)

On July 13/14, 2016 ETH Zurich establishes the Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, appointing eight profs. incl. Reto Knutti (1973-) of Switzerland, known for work with climate models, Heather Stoll (1973-), known for work in paleoclimatology, and Andreas Rigling (1964-), a researcher on forest dynamics under disruption by climate change.

Harold Hamm (1945-)

On July 20, 2016 dirt-poor-born Lexington, Okla.-born Continental Resources oil billionaire Harold Glenn Hamm (1945-), father of the Bakken shale rush gives a speech at the Repub. Nat. Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, with the soundbytes: "Every time we can't drill a well in America, terrorism is being funded", and "Climate change isn't our biggest problem, it's Islamic terrorism"; he goes on to turn down Pres. Trump's offer of U.S. energy secy. Watch video - Harold Hamm.

On July 27, 2016 Hollyweird leftist icons James Cameron and Sigourney Weaver speak at the 2016 Dem. Nat. Convention, introducing a glitzy tear-jerker film on global climate change. Watch video - Sigourney Weaver. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Sept. 22, 2016 Category 7 (165 mph) Hurricane Matthew starts as a tropical wave off the African coast, approaching E of the Leeward Islands on Sept. 18 and turning into a tropical storm E of the Lesser Antilles on Sept. 28, and a Category 5 hurricane on Oct. 1, hitting Haiti, Dominican Repub., Cuba, Bahamas et al., paralleling the Fla. coastline but staying offshore before dissipating on Oct. 10 after killing 603 and causing $15B damage. On Oct. 4, 2016 National Geographic pub. the article U.S. Hasn't Gone This Long Without a Big Hurricane in 150 Years, talking about Hurricane Matthew and its chances of hitting the U.S., with the soundbyte: "The last major hurricane - Wilma - struck Key West, Florida, with peak winds of around 120 miles per hour, in October 2005."

'Before the Flood', 2016

On Oct. 21, 2016 Fisher Stevens' Before the Flood (Nat. Geographic) debuts, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, who travels the globe supposedly watching global warming proceeding in front of his eyes and blasting climate change deniers esp. politicians and corporate lobbyists while comparing it all to Hieronymus Bosch's famous trptych "The Garden of Earthly Delights"; aired on the Nat. Geographic Channel on Oct. 31, which makes it available for free; "Before The Flood is the product of an incredible three-year journey that took place with my co-creator and director Fisher Stevens. We went to every corner of the globe to document the devastating impacts of climate change and questioned humanity's ability to reverse what may be the most catastrophic problem mankind has ever faced. There was a lot to take in. All that we witnessed on this journey shows us that our world's climate is incredibly interconnected and that it is at urgent breaking point... We wanted to create a film that gave people a sense of urgency, that made them understand what particular things are going to solve this problem. We bring up the issue of a carbon tax, for example, which I haven't seen in a lot of documentaries. Basically, sway a capitalist economy to try to invest in renewables, to bring less money and subsidies out of oil companies. These are the things that are really going to make a massive difference... W e need to use our vote... We cannot afford to have political leaders out there that do not believe in modern science or the scientific method or empirical truths... We cannot afford to waste time having people in power that choose to believe in the 2 percent of the scientific community that is basically bought off by lobbyists and oil companies." View trailer.

On Nov. 7, 2016 the U.N. Climate Megaconference in Marrakesh, Morocco.

On Nov. 18, 2016 the U.S. Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric (NOAA) reports the 3rd warmest Oct. on record behind 2014 and 2015, and the hottest year on record, with the North Pole 36F (20C) warmer than normal along with a record low sea ice extent, which is 28.5% below the 1981-2010 avg., which they attribute to global surface warming in the high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (0.94C) incl. the Arctic (6.42C); meanwhile the tropics are 0.31C warmer than usual, the Southern Hemisphere 0.15C warmer, and the Antarctic 0.92C warmer; meanwhile Arctic summers have been running consistently below normal temps over the past decade, causing ice volume to expand, and ice doesn't melt there in winter; duh, how can the Greenhouse Effect warm the Arctic in the winter when there is no sunshine there?

On Dec. 8, 2016 the At the Crossroads III Energy and Climate Summit is held at the Allison Auditorium in Washington, D.C., hosted by the Tex. Public Policy Foundation and the Heritage Foundation, billed as "the premier energy-and-climate policy event in America, featuring climate skeptic Patrick J. Michaels, who utters the soundbytes: "In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences you have an international team of authors who publishes a paper and then they add an American author to their next paper the chance that it will report a positive result doubles. This is very, very bad, science is very very sick"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something"; "You properly account for the fact that the Earth is getting greener, the more CO2 we put in - you can see it on satellite - it is God's getting greener Earth. If you account for all of those, what happens is the social cost of carbon becomes the social benefit of carbon"; "So what's going to have to happen is the endangerment finding is going to have to be torn apart." Watch video.

On Dec. 19, 2016 snow falls in the Sahara Desert in Ain Sefra, Algeria, becoming the first time since Feb. 1979.

On Dec. 25, 2016 The Atlantic mag. pub. the article Donald Trump and the Triumph of Climate-Change Denial, with the subtitle: "The science of man-made global warming has only grown more conclusive. So why have Republicans become less convinced it's real over the past decade and a half?"

In 2016 Sidd Mukherjee and Daniel Brouse of membrane.com pub. The Human Induced Climate Chaange Experiment, containing the soundbytes: "We are not saying that the Earth's temperature is just going to rise. In general, as energy is added to a system, the fluctuations in the system increase. So, we expect more storms, more droughts, more wildfires, more floods, more fluctuations of all kinds. What we are saying is that weather conditions will become more volatile due to the impact of humans", and "Feedback loops accelerate global warming. For example, global warming has resulted in tree deaths and deforestation. Trees are a natural carbon sink for carbon dioxide, as well as, provide shade and retain moisture. As trees die from the effects of global warming, climate change is accelerated resulting in more tree deaths" - duh, they don't know the first thing about physics?

2017

On Jan. 4, 2017 the paper Study confirms steady warming of oceans for past 75 years is pub. in Phys.org, announcing that a paper pub. in 2015 that concluded that there was no detectable global warming hiatus over the past 15 years has been confirmed by independent researchers at UCB and Zeke Hausfather of Berkeley Earth, who corrected for the "cold bias" in older ship-based buoys, finding that the oceans warmed 0.12C (0.22F) per decade since 2000, doubling previous estimates of 0.07C per decade, causing Mark Richardson of Cal Tech and JPL to utter the soundbyte: "Satellites and automated floats are completely independent witnesses of recent ocean warming, and their testimony matches the NOAA results. It looks like the NOAA researchers were right all along."

Dennis Prager (1948-)

On Jan. 16, 2017 conservative online Web site Prager U., founded in 2009 by New York City-born Repub. radio talk show host (Jewish) Dennis Mark Prager (1948-) in the San Fernando Valley pub. the video The Paris Climate Agreement Won't Change the Climate by Bjorn Lomborg, claiming that it will cost $1T/year while doing almost nothing, reducing temps by only .03F and postponing global warming by 8 mo. by 2100; they go on to pub. a package of videos skeptical of global warming, incl. the hit video Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say? by Richard Lindzen (Apr. 18, 2016); On Jan. 12, 2017 Prager pub. a video containing the soundbyte: "You know there's not a grant that goes out from this government unless there is a tie-in to the fraud of global warming? Do you know how many scientists' lives have been ruined by that fraud? That fraudulent, make-believe, created myth of global warming caused by man? Every research grant has to show a tie to global warming to be funded. Do you know how many young scientists' and old scientists' lives have been ruined because they wouldn't go along with that? I would tell Donald Trump to reach out to them and bring the real scientists back into science and into medicine, so that America can see real science and real medical research again, not the Soviet-style science that has emerged under Barry Obama from Honolulu"; too bad, in 2017 despite 1.7M subscribers YouTube begins censoring Prager U.'s videos, causing them to sue.

On Feb. 23, 2017 Richard Lindzen of the Cato Inst. sends Pres. Trump a petition urging him to pull the U.S. out of the 2015 Paris Climate Accord, starting out: "We urge the United States government, and others, to withdraw from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). We support reasonable and cost-effective environmental protection. But carbon dioxide, the target of the UNFCCC is not a pollutant but a major benefit to agriculture and other life on Earth. Observations since the UNFCCC was written 25 years ago show that warming from increased atmospheric CO2 will be benign - much less than initial model predictions", and containing the soundbyte: "In just a few weeks, more than 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals from around the world have signed the petition."

In Feb. 2017 the Unseasonably Warm Feb. 2017 in the U.S. sees trees bloom and grass grow in the SE U.S., breaking 11,500 daily high max temp records in the U.S. (and 418 daily low min temp records), becoming the warmest U.S. Feb. since 1954, finishing 7.3F above the 20th cent. avg. for the Lower 48 U.S. states; Chicago receives no snowfall until Mar. (latest since 1884).

Scott Pruitt of the U.S. (1968-)

On Feb. 17, 2017 Danville, Ky.-born Okla. Repub. atty. gen. #17 (since Jan. 10, 2011) Edward Scott Pruitt (1968-) (anthropogenic climate change denier) (activist against the EPA's activist agenda, as well as gay marriage, the Affordable Care Act, and abortion) becomes dir. #14 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), going on to work at breakneck speed to dismantle Obama admin. environmental legislation while sinking into pitty-pat personal misconduct scandals that finally turn conservatives against him, causing him to resign on July 6, 2018.

Robert O. Mendelsohn

On Mar. 23-24, 2017 Heartland Inst.'s 12th Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-12) in Washington, D.C., dropping their focus on science because it allegedly has been established beyond a reasonable doubt that human impact on climate is likely small and beneficial, and the election of Pres. Trump and Republican majorities in Congress is proof that voters agree, instead focusing on introducing Repub. politicians to climate skeptic scientists; speakers incl. Yale U. environmental economist Robert O. Mendelsohn, who describes himself as a "centrist" on climate change, known for the soundbytes: "Economists have long argued that stabilizing greenhouse gases at 550 ppm is not efficient because the costs far outweighed the benefits"; "Aggressive near-term policies lead to abatement costs that outweigh the avoided future climate damages. Strict abatement policies should be delayed into the future as damages increase. Only modest control programs are warranted in the near term." Watch video - Robert O. Mendelsohn. Watch video - Robert O. Mendelsohn.

David Richard Henderson (1950-) Charles L. Hooper

On Apr. 4, 2017 Canadian-Am. economist David Richard Henderson (1950-) (member of Pres. Reagan's Council of Economic Advisers in 1982-4) and Charles L. Hooper of the Hoover Inst. at Stanford U. pub. the article Flawed Climate Models, pointing out their lack of basic measurement accuracy, with the conclusion: "If someone with a hand-held stopwatch tells you that a runner cut his time by 0.00005 seconds, you should be skeptical. If someone with a climate model tells you that a 0.036 Wm–2 CO2 signal can be detected within an environment of 150 Wm–2 error, you should be just as skeptical."

On Apr. 19-Nov. 9, 2017 the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season sees 10 hurricanes in a row and six major hurricanes incl. Harvey, Maria, Irma, and Nate, costing a record 3K deaths and $282.16B damage, coming in #2 after the 2005 season. On Aug. 17 Hurricane Harvey starts E of the Lesser Antilles, crossing the Windward Islands on Aug. 18, then entering the Caribbean Sea after passing S of Barbados and skirting Saint Vincent, degenerating into a tropical wave N of Colombia on Aug. 19, then rapidly intensifying on Aug. 24, growing to Category 4 on Aug. 25 before making landfall near Rockport, Tex., killing seven in the U.S. and one in Guyana, causing catastrophic flooding in Houston and turning it into the Great Houston Swamp, becoming the worst disaster in Tex. history, first major hurricane to hit the U.S. since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, the first hurricane to hit Tex. since Hurricane Ike in 2008, and the strongest to hit Tex. since Hurricane Carla in 1961, also the strongest hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico since Hurricane Rita in 2005, and the strongest to make landfall in the U.S. since Hurricane Charley in 2004, joining Hurricane Matthew (2016) as the 2nd U.S. hurricane to cause tornado-like winds warnings to be issued; it was engineered and used as a weapon? On Aug. 30-Sept. 13 Category 5 Hurricane Irma starts near Cape Verde, moving to the Leeward Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Anguilla, Virgin Islands, French West Indies, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Fla. Keys, causing 52 direct and 82 indirect deaths, and $64.76B damage, becoming the first Category 5 hurricane of 2017 and the strongest hurricane in the Atlantic ever observed (until ?). On Sept. 16-Oct. 2 Hurricane Maria becomes the 2nd Category 5 hurricane and deadliest storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, devastating the NE Caribbean and becoming the worst disaster so far in Dominica and Puerto Rico, killing 146-8,580 and causing $91.61B damage. On Oct. 4-11 Hurricane Nate becomes the costliest natural disaster so far in Costa Rica, also devastating Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, and the U.S., killing 48 and causing $787M damage.

Bret Stephens (1973-)

On Apr. 28, 2017 after winning a Pulitzer Prize for Commentary in 2012, causing protests from scientists for his contrarian opinions on climate change, New York City-born neoconservative columnist Bret Louis Stephens (1973-) (part of the right-wing opposition to Pres. Trump) switches from The Wall Street Journal to The New York Times, with his debut op-ed Climate of Complete Certainty, containing the soundbyte that his view "isn't to deny climate change or the possible severity of its consequences. Rather, it's to condemn the prevailing certainty that climate change will prove catastrophic and that immediate action is warranted", concluding: "Censoriously asserting one's moral superiority and treat skeptics as imbeciles and deplorables wins few converts", dissing climate change activists for "hysterical alarmism" that distracts the public from important issues incl. terrorism, claiming that their activism is based on theological beliefs not science, an outgrowth of the Western tendency to expect punishment for sins, pointing out the irony that they would be more persuasive if they were less sure of themselves, causing a backlash from scientists that causes the editors to defend his "intellectual honesty and fairness", and New Republic mag. on May 2 to pub. the article The Rise of "Kinder, Gentler" Climate-Change Deniers, coining the term "lukewarmism" for him, claiming that it makes people apathetic, quoting John Cook of George Mason U.: "When you throw conflicting pieces of information at people, they don't know what to believe, so they stop believing in anything."

On May 6, 2017 E. Popova, V. Zharkova, S. Shepherd, and S. Zharkov pub. the paper On a role of quadruple component of magnetic field in defining solar activity in grand cycles in Journal of Atmospheric and Social-Terrestrial Physics, followed on Dec. 27, 2017 by the paper Ultraviolet Flux Decrease Under a Grand Minimum from IUE Short-wavelength Observation of Solar Analogs by Dan Lubin, Carl Melis, and David Tytler in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, predicting a Grand Solar Minimum in coming decades due to low sunspot activity, the last of which, the 18th cent. Maunder Minimum, brought the Little Ice Age, pissing off the Al Gore crowd for exposing them for pissing-away taxpayer money on useless research?

Noam Chomsky (1928-) Boy Crying Wolf

On May 11, 2017 Philly-born #1 leftist brain man Avram Noam Chomsky (1928-) gives an interview to the BBC, uttering the soundbyte that the U.S. Repub. Party is "the most dangerous organisation in human history"; when asked if that means it's worse than ISIS, he replies: "Is ISIS dedicated to trying to destroy the prospects for organised human existence? What does it mean to say not only are we not doing anything about climate change but we're trying to accelerate the race to the precipice? It doesn't matter whether they genuinely believe it or not... If the consequence of that is 'let's use more fossil fuels, let's refuse to subsidise developing countries, let's eliminate regulations that reduce greenhouse gases'. If that's the consequence, that's extremely dangerous." Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

On May 19, 2017 the hoax article The Conceptual Penis As A Social Construct is pub. in the peer-reviewed journal Cogent Social Sciences, written by Peter Boghossian and James Lindsay under aliases, which they later celebrate in an article announcing their hoax; on May 25 the Australian Senate holds a hearing on the article, in which climate change denier sen. Malcolm Roberts grills scientists over their peer-review methods. Watch video - Malcolm Roberts.

In May 2017 Global Warming Prophet Al Gore has a net worth of $300M.

On June 18, 2017 Pablo Ganguli's and Tomas Auksas' documentary In This Climate... debuts, featuring talking heads incl. Noam Chomsky, Sir David Attenborough, Christiana Figueres, actor Josh Brolin et al.; confuses bare climate change with manmade climate change? Watch video.

On June 20, 2017 119F temps in Phoenix, Ariz. cause 40 airline flights to be canceled or delayed.

On June 27, 2017 the study On the Validity of NOAA, NASA and Hadley CRU Global Average Surface Temperature Data & The Validity of EPA's CO2 Endangerment Finding, is pub. by Cato Inst. climate scientist Craig Idso, Am. meteorologist Joe D'Aleo, and Am. statistician James Wallace, finding that global surface temperature readings by scientists in recent years "are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data. Thus, it is impossible to conclude from the three published [global average surface temperature (GAST)] data sets that recent years have been the warmest ever - despite current claims of record setting warming"; "Nearly all of the warming they are now showing are in the adjustments. Each dataset pushed down the 1940s warming and pushed up the current warming. You would think that when you make adjustments you'd sometimes get warming and sometimes get cooling. That's almost never happened"; instead, measurements "nearly always exhibited a steeper warming linear trend over its entire history", which was "nearly always accomplished by systematically removing the previously existing cyclical temperature pattern. The conclusive findings of this research are that the three [global average surface temperature] data sets are not a valid representation of reality. In fact, the magnitude of their historical data adjustments, that removed their cyclical temperature patterns, are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data"; they conclude that the science underlying the EPA's authority to regulate greenhouse gases "is invalidated", and the 2009 Endangerment Finding should be reversed.

On June 28, 2017 Christiana Figueres, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Gail Whiteman, Johan Rockstrom (Rockström), Anthony Hobley, and Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Inst. pub. the article Three years to safeguard our climate in Nature, laying out a 6-point plan to turn the tide of CO2 by 2020, which they call Mission 2020, requiring vast solar farms, calling on "world leaders to be guided by the scientific evidence rather than 'hide their heads in the sand'", claiming that "entire ecosystems" are beginning to collapse, summer sea ice is disappearing in the Arctic, and coral reefs are dying from the heat, citing a report pub. in Apr., with the soundbyte: "Should emissions continue to rise beyond 2020, or even remain level, the temperature goals set in Paris become almost unattainable. Lowering emissions globally is a monumental task, but research tells us that it is necessary, desirable and achievable"; On June 28, 2017 the U.K. Independent pub. the article World Has Three Years to Prevent Dangerous Climate Change, Warn Experts, with the subheading: "Since the 1880s, the world's temperature has risen by about 1C because of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity", praising the article; on June 29 conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh airs an episode lampooning it. On July 7, 2017 Leanna Garfield pub. the article These experts say we have three years to save the planet from the worst effects of climate change in the World Economic Forum, praising the article some more. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On June 30, 2017 the Journal of Climate pub. a paper claiming that new data from Remote Sensing Systems of Calif. shows that the lower part of the Earth's atmosphere has warmed 140% faster since 1998 than previous satellite data showed, and 36% faster since 1979, shutting the climate skeptics up?

Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

On June 30, 2017 German physicists Horst-Joachim Luedecke (Lüdecke) and Carl-Otto Weiss of the European Inst. for Climate and Energy (EIKE) pub. a paper titled Harmonic Analysis of Worldwide Temperature Proxies for 2000 Years in The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, reporting on their reverse Fourier transform of a large number of global temperature proxies to construct a global temperature mean for the last 2K years that they call G7, revealing 1000, 460, and 190-year periods driven by the Sun not CO2; "It is the unprecedentedly rapid recovery of the Sun's activity over the past 300 years - far stronger than anyone had previously suspected - that has been the chief driver of global warming in recent decades. We have very little to do with it." Watch video.

Ned Nikolov and Karl Zeller

On July 1, 2017 physical scientist Ned Nikolov and meteorologist Karl F. Zeller of Wellington, Colo. pub. the article New Insights on the Physical Nature of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect Deduced from an Empirical Planetary Temperature Model in Environment Pollution and Climate Change, disproving the Greenhouse Gas Theory that greenhouse gases warm the atmosphere by trapping heat, which was based on experiments with glass boxes (miniature greenhouse) by French mathematician Joseph Fourier, causing Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius to misapply the conclusions to Earth's free convective atmosphere that has no "lid" on it, and claim that greenhouse gases can trap heat; instead, Nikolov and Zeller prove that any perceived warming results from the Sun and atmospheric pressure, with the soundbyte: "Humans cannot in principle affect the global climate through industrial emissions of CO2, methane and other similar gases or via changes in land use. All observed climatic changes have natural causes that are completely outside of human control." "The foundation of the greenhouse theory was born of an assumption, it was never shown experimentally, and our results show this is completely wrong. Our study blows the greenhouse theory completely out of the water. There is nothing left"; "Hence, the public debate on climate needs now to shift focus to the fact that the basic science concept underlying current climate projections by the UN [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] IPCC and other international bodies is physically flawed", requiring a "fundamental overhaul of climate science" incl. the possibility of a future Earth cooling period. "This is what the data shows. We didn't start with a theory, we started with the data, which is the opposite of how the greenhouse theory came about." The PC establishment tries to ignore them until ? Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)

On July 2, 2017 English physicist Stephen William Hawking (1942-2018) gives an interview to the BBC to mark his 75th birthday, uttering the soundbyte: "We are close to the tipping point where global warming becomes irreversible. Trump's action could push the Earth over the brink, to become like Venus, with a temperature of two hundred and fifty degrees, and raining sulphuric acid", adding: "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face and it's one we can prevent if we act now. By denying the evidence the climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Climate Agreement, Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children", suggesting the solution: "The best hope for the survival of the human race might be independent colonies in space." Watch video.

David Wallace-Wells

On July 9, 2017 Bronx, N.Y.-born journalist David Wallace-Wells pub. the article The Uninhabitable Earth in the New York mag., beginning with the soundbyte: "If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible", becoming the magazine's most popular article in history, with 50M page views by July 15, launching a career of interviews with scientists starting on Nov. 20, 2017 with Michael E. Mann; Slate writer Susan Matthews writes the soundbyte: "The instantly viral piece might be the Silent Spring of our time"; Eric Holthaus utters the soundbyte: "Scaring the shit out of people is a really bad strategy", causing Wallace-Wells to reply: "It didn't seem plausible to me that there was more risk at scaring people too much than there was at not scaring them enough... My feeling was, and is, if there's a one percent chance that we've set off a chain reaction that could end the human race, then that should be something that the public knows and thinks about"; on July 26, 2018 Wallace-Wells pub. the article How Did the End of the World Become Old News? in Intelligencer, containing the soundbyte: "Climate change is not a matter of 'yes' or 'no,' not a binary process where we end up either 'fucked' or 'not fucked.' It is a system that gets worse over time as long as we continue to emit greenhouse gases. We are just beginning to see the horrors that climate change has in store for us - but that does not mean that the story is settled. Things will get worse, almost certainly much, much worse"; on Oct. 10 he pub. the article UN Says Climate Genocide Is Coming. It's Actually Worse Than That in Intelligencer, reveling in climate alarmism, incl. how a New York City sea wall would take 30 years and leave all of Long Island exposed. Watch video. Watch video - David Wallace-Wells and Michael A. Mann. Watch video - David Wallace-Wells.

On July 13, 2017 the conservative Weekly Standard pub. the article Dadaist Science, knocking Stephen Hawking for his alarmist statements on global warming and questioning the 97% consensus claim, with the ad soundbyte: "Look under the hood on climate change 'science' and what you see isn't pretty."

R. Steven Nerem

On July 17, 2017 Jeff Tollefson pub. the article Satellite snafu masked true sea-level rise for decades in Nature, reporting on a July 13 paper by U. of Colo. Boulder (UCB) aerospace engineer R. Steven Nerem claiming that the pesky Global Warming Pause didn't happen because there was a miscalibrated sensor on the first sea surface level satellite radar unit of the 1992 U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite that was used until 1998, and the "revised tallies confirm that the rate of sea-level rise is accelerating as the Earth warms and the ice sheets thaw", increasing the sea level rise rate from 1.8 mm/year in 1993 to 3.9mm/year, a 140% faster warming rate since 1998, becoming a smoking gun to climate skeptics, who accuse the global warming military-industrial complex of altering the data to fit their global warming fraud, attempting to match the satellite data to the surface temperature and sea level data that NASA has already altered. Watch video.

In July 2017 Pope Francis utters the soundbyte that a personal relationship with Jesus Christ is "dangerous and harmful", calling for a OWG with the political authority to combat climate change et al.

In July 2017 1T ton Iceberg A-68 (the size of Del.) breaks off from Antarctica, causing PC media incl. CNN to paint it as proof of global climate change; too bad, in July 2018 it becomes trapped by dense ice off the coast of Antarctica.

On Aug. 5, 2017 after Pres. Trump announced his intentions in June, the U.S. formally notifies the U.N. of its intent to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, causing U.S. Dem. politicians incl. Sens. Ed Markey (Mass.), Sheldon Whitehouse (R.I.), and Ben Cardin (Md.) to stage a revolt in Bonn, Germany on Nov. 11. Watch video.

Burt Rutan (1943-) in SpaceShipOne Burt Rutan (1943-)

In Sept. 10, 2017 Estacada, Ore.-born aircraft designer (SpaceShipOne pilot) Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan (1943-) utters the soundbyte: "Those who call themselves 'Green planet advocates' should be arguing for a CO2-fertilized atmosphere, not a CO2-starved atmosphere... Diversity increases when the planet was warm AND had high CO2 atmospheric content... Al Gore's personal behavior supports a green planet – his enormous energy use with his 4 homes and his bizjet, does indeed help make the planet greener. Kudos, Al for doing your part to save the planet."

On Sept. 18, 2017 Richard J. Millar, Jan S. Fuglestveldet, Pierre Friedlingstein et al. pub. the paper Emission budgets and pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 deg C, admitting that they overestimated the radiative warming effect of CO2 by 50%, supersizing their CO2 emission goals by 2x-3x; since these authors are the same people who developed the original IPCC climate models and carbon budgets, the paper causes a firestorm of controversy, causing the authors to pub. a correction on May 14, 2018 attempting to backtrack but not every well, asking scientists to look elsewhere than CO2 for the warming difference. Watch video. Watch video.

On Sept. 20, 2017 MIT geophysicist Daniel H. Rothman pub. the paper Thresholds of catastrophe in the Earth system in Science Advances, predicting a 6th mass extinction by 2100 due to "thresholds of catastrophe" in "the mass of carbon that human activities will likely have added to the oceans". Watch video.

Ed Berry (1935-)

On Oct. 2, 2017 Am. physicist-meteorologist Edwin "Ed" Berry (1935-) of Bigfork, Mont. pub. the article Why human CO2 does not change climate, which claims that since human CO2 emissions are only 4.5 ppm/year while Nature's emissions are 98 ppm/year, it's physically impossible for the human emissions to raise the total CO2 concentration; he goes on to pub. articles blasting the IPCC and its science and climate models, incl. Why the UN IPCC is wrong about climate science (July 27, 2018), and Climate Change Emperors Have No Clothes. Watch video - Ed Berry.

Calif. Gov. Jerry Brown (1938-)

On Oct. 8-31, 2017 amid unusually high temps, the Oct. 2017 Northern Calif. Wildfires consist of 250 wildfires, 21 major, incl. the Atlas Fire in Napa County, and the Tubbs Fire (most destructive in Calif. history until ?). In Oct. wildfires in Sonoma County Wine Country in Calif. are set by illegal Mexican alien Jesus Fabian Gonzalez, who enjoys Calif.'s status as a sanctuary state. On Dec. 4 the Dec. 2017 Southern Calif. Wildfires, whipped-up by Santa Ana winds hits Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, forcing 200K to evacuate and burning over 140K acres; on Dec. 5 the Thomas Fire in Ventura County begins, forcing 50K to evacuate and becoming the largest wildfire of the 2017 Calif. wildfire season, which becomes the most destructive on record, seeing 9,133 fires burn 1,381,405 acres, destroying 9,470 bldgs. and damaging 810, killing 43 incl. two firefighters; on Dec. 10 Calif. "Gov. Moonbeam" Jerry Brown appears on CBS-TV's "60 Minutes", lamenting Pres. Trump's denial of climate change, uttering the soundbytes: "I don't think President Trump has a fear of the Lord, the fear of the wrath of God, which leads one to more humility"; "The truth of the case is that there's too much carbon being emitted, that heat-trapping gasses are building up, the planet is warming and all hell is breaking loose. So I'd say to Mr. Trump, take a deeper look. Now is not the time to undo what every country in the world is committed to." Watch video. Watch video - Tony Heller.

W. Jackson Davis (1942-)

On Oct. 10, 2017 W. Jackson Davis (1942-), dir. of the Environmental Studies Inst. in Boulder, Colo. pub. the article The relationship between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and global temperature for the last 425 million years in Climate, which "analyzed the relationship between historical temperature and atmospheric CO2 using the most comprehensive assemblage of empirical databases of these two variables available for the Phanerozoic period (522 to 0 million years before present)", finding an "apparent dissociation and even an antiphasic relationship", concluding that his analysis "demonstrates that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration did not cause temperature change in the ancient climate... [which] corroborate the earlier conclusion based on study of the Paleozoic climate that global climate may be independent of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration", adding the zinger: "Correlation does not imply causality, but the absence of correlation proves conclusively the absence of causality."

Gregory Wrightstone

On Oct. 24, 2017 Am. geologist Gregory Wrightstone pub. the bestseller Inconvenient Facts: The science that Al Gore doesn't want you to know, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that the Earth is thriving because of increasing CO2 and warmer temps. Watch video. Watch video.

Kathleen Hartnett White of the U.S. (1949-)

In Oct. 2017 Pres. Trump nominates Kathleen Hartnett White (1949-) (known for being a climate change skeptic who criticizes the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the U.S. Endangered Species Act, expressing doubts about claims of "unprecedented warming of the climate, extreme weather events, declining Arctic ice, and rising sea levels", calling "Apocalyptic Anthropogenic Global Warming" "the Left's secular religion", and "grand schemes to decarbonize human societies" part of the "unabashedly totalitarian policy of the Left", comparing the pronouncements of mainstream pro-warming scientists to "the dogmatic claims of idealogues and clerics", and calling carbon dioxide "a necessary nutrient for plant life") to be head of the Council on Environmental Quality, his senior advisor on environmental policy, telling the Senate at a confirmation hearing in Nov. that her top three environmental concerns are air quality, the potential failure of waste water and drinking water systems, and climate change, with the soundbyte: "I am not a scientist, but in my personal capacity I have many questions that remain unanswered by current climate policy. We need to have a more precise explanation of the human role and the natural role", pissing-off the U.S. Senate, which sends her nomination back on Dec. 21, only to see him resubmit it in Jan. 2018 then withdraw it in Feb. Watch video - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch video - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch video - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch video - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch video - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch vidoe - Kathleen Hartnett White. Watch video - Ed Markey on Kathleen Hartnett White.

Charles R. Anderson

On Nov. 2, 2017 Am. materials physicist Charles R. Anderson pub. the article Solving the Parallel Plate Thermal Radiation Problem Correctly Proves the Settled Science of Man-Made Global Warming Wrong, containing the soundbyte: "I will present the Consensus, Settled Science solution to the parallel plane black body radiator problem and demonstrate that it is wrong. I will show that it exaggerates the energy of electromagnetic radiation between the two planes by as much as a factor of two as their temperatures approach one another. As a result, the calculations of the so-called Consensus, Settled Science dealing with thermal radiation very often result in violations of the Law of Conservation of Energy." On Aug. 2, 2018 he pub. the article The Nested Black Body Shells Model and Extreme Greenhouse Warming And Lessons from this Model that Show Us How Limited the Greenhouse Effect Actually Is.

I don't know whether to run for the mountains or build an ark? On Nov. 3, 2017 the Climate Change Special Report (CSSR), Fourth Nat. Climate Assessment (NCA4), Vol. 1 is pub. by 13 U.S. federal agencies, "an authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States", with the executive summary claiming that the global annual avg. surface air temp has increased by 1.0C (1.8F) in 1901-2016, making this period "the warmest in the history of modern civilization", concluding that "It is extremely likely that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. For the warming over the last century, there is no convincing alternative explanation supported by the extent of the observational evidence"; "The last few years have also seen record-breaking, climate-related weather extremes, and the last three years have been the warmest years on record for the globe. These trends are expected to continue over climate timescales"; "Thousands of studies conducted by researchers around the world have documented changes in surface, atmospheric, and oceanic temperatures; melting glaciers; diminishing snow cover; shrinking sea ice; rising sea levels; ocean acidification; and increasing atmospheric water vapor"; "Heatwaves have become more frequent in the United States since the 1960s, while extreme cold temperatures and cold waves are less frequent"; "global average sea level has risen by about 7–8 inches since 1900, with almost half (about 3 inches) of that rise occurring since 1993. Human-caused climate change has made a substantial contribution to this rise since 1900, contributing to a rate of rise that is greater than during any preceding century in at least 2,800 years. Global sea level rise has already affected the United States; the incidence of daily tidal flooding is accelerating in more than 25 Atlantic and Gulf Coast cities. Global average sea levels are expected to continue to rise - by at least several inches in the next 15 years and by 1–4 feet by 2100. A rise of as much as 8 feet by 2100 cannot be ruled out. Sea level rise will be higher than the global average on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States"; "The incidence of large forest fires in the western United States and Alaska has increased since the early 1980s and is projected to further increase in those regions as the climate changes, with profound changes to regional ecosystems"; "Annual trends toward earlier spring melt and reduced snowpack are already affecting water resources in the western United States and these trends are expected to continue. Under higher scenarios, and assuming no change to current water resources management, chronic, long-duration hydrological drought is increasingly possible before the end of this century"; "The magnitude of climate change beyond the next few decades will depend primarily on the amount of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide) emitted globally. Without major reductions in emissions, the increase in annual average global temperature relative to preindustrial times could reach 9°F (5°C) or more by the end of this century. With significant reductions in emissions, the increase in annual average global temperature could be limited to 3.6°F (2°C) or less"; "The global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has now passed 400 parts per million (ppm), a level that last occurred about 3 million years ago, when both global average temperature and sea level were significantly higher than today. Continued growth in CO2 emissions over this century and beyond would lead to an atmospheric concentration not experienced in tens to hundreds of millions of years. There is broad consensus that the further and the faster the Earth system is pushed towards warming, the greater the risk of unanticipated changes and impacts, some of which are potentially large and irreversible"; "The observed increase in carbon emissions over the past 15–20 years has been consistent with higher emissions pathways. In 2014 and 2015, emission growth rates slowed as economic growth became less carbon-intensive. Even if this slowing trend continues, however, it is not yet at a rate that would limit global average temperature change to well below 3.6°F (2°C) above preindustrial levels"; Ch. 11 "Arctic Change and Their Effects on Alaska and the Rest of the United States" is written by Wieslaw Maslowski, who utters the soundbytes: "In the Arctic, it's a matter of when and not if the summer sea ice will be gone. This will affect the oceanic intake of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses"; "The United States is an Arctic nation"; "For me, sea-level rise, extreme weather and climate events, including draught, cold, floods, mud slides, and their impact on human health, lives, food, energy availability and resulting national/global stability and local/regional conflicts... These are all vulnerabilities that will impact the region." Watch video.

On Nov. 6, 2017 the 2017 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP23) is presided over by Fiji PM Frank Bainimarama, who utters the soundbyte: "The human suffering caused by intensifying hurricanes, wildfires, droughts, floods and threats to food security caused by climate change means there is no time to waste."

On Nov. 13, 2017 Glen Peters of CICERO in Oslo, Norway pub. the article Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions in Nature, reporting that global CO2 emissions are projected to grow 3.5% in 2017 after two years of decline, blamed on a 3.5% growth in Chinese coal use plus a 3.6% rise in global GDP.

On Dec. 12, 2017 the Nat. Oceanic Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) pub. the 2017 Arctic Report Card, which claims that Arctic permafrost is thawing faster than ever, and Arctic seawater is warming and sea ice is melting at the fastest rate in 1,500 years, causing the U.K. Guardian to pub. an article titled Arctic permafrost thawing faster than ever, US climate study finds, and the Washington Post to pub. an article titled Warming of the Arctic is 'unprecedented over the last 1500 years', scientists say; it's really fake news? Watch video. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Dec. 18, 2017 Pres. Trump introduces his 2018 Nat. Security Strategy, calling out Russia and China, mentioning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, dropping climate change, and restoring reference to Islam as a nat. security threat, with the soundbyte: "The primary transnational threats Americans face are from jihadist terrorists and transnational criminal organizations."

On Dec. 27, 2017 The Hill pub. the article 10 more cities sign on to Chicago climate pact, containing the soundbyte: "Ten more cities have signed on to the Chicago Climate Charter, a now 67-city pact to fight climate change in the face of President Trump's decision to pull the U.S. out of the Paris climate agreement", with Chicago Dem. mayor Rahm Emanuel issuing the soundbyte: "While the Trump administration continues to bury their heads deeper in the sand when it comes to climate change, local leaders are confronting the challenge head-on", causing JunkScience.com mgr. Steven J. Milloy on Dec. 29 to issue the soundbyte: "You could stop all greenhouse gas emissions from the United States today and keep them shut down until the year 2100 and it would hardly make any difference in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, so it's not going to have any effect on climate. I'm not quite sure what they're trying to accomplish. I just assume this is more virtue signaling/resistance activity going on."

On Dec. 28, 2017 amid a record cold spell in winter 2017, Pres. Trump tweets the soundbyte; "In the East, it could be the COLDEST New Year's Eve on record. Perhaps we could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming that our Country, but not other countries, was going to pay TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS to protect against. Bundle up!" Watch video.

On Dec. 29, 2017 the New York Times pub. the article How Climate Change Deniers Rise to the Top in Google Searches, meaning that they and their leftists friends are soon going to do something about it?

In Dec. 2017 Queensland, Australia experiences its coldest summer in a cent.

In 2017 the open access journal Environmental Pollution and Climate Change begins pub. (until ?) by OMICS Internat., which "organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members"; the ed.-in-chief is College of Southern Md. geography prof. Arthur Viterito, a climate change denier who advises the Heartland Inst. and welcomes climate change denier articles, causing global warming scientists to call it a "sham journal" and "politically motivated denialist garbage", causing OMICS to reply: "For critics grapes will always be sour" - their blanket characterization of all articles pub. by the journal as politically motivated denialist garbage is politically motivated warmist garbage?

2018

On Jan. 1, 2018 the journal Nature Climate Change pub. an article claiming that if the Paris Climate Change Accord is not honored and global temp rises by 2 deg. C by 2050, a large percentage of the Earth could become desert, and 25% of world pop. will live in perpetual drought.

Joe Bastardi (1955-) John J. Cahir

On Jan. 2, 2018 Am. meteorologist (former weightlifter) Joe Bastardi (1955-) pub. The Climate Chronicles: Inconvenient Revelations You Won't Hear From Al Gore - And Others, which debunks climate alarmists, claiming that global temps were warmer in the 1930s than today, and that the human contribution to atmospheric CO2 is too small to have an effect on global warming, which is caused by sunspots and warmer oceans; since 2011 global temps have been falling, and by 2030 will return to 1970s levels due to the "triple crown of cooling" incl. oceanic temperature cycles, solar radiation cycles, and vocanic activity; "In the entire geological history of the planet, there has been no known linkage between CO2 and temperatures"; "CO2 cannot cause global warming. I'll tell you why. It doesn't mix well with the atmosphere, for one. For two, its specific gravity is 1 1/2 times that of the rest of the atmosphere. It heats and cools much quicker. Its radiative processes are much different. So it cannot - it literally cannot cause global warming"; "A colder planet would lead to untold misery given the current policies geared toward the opposite"; in June 2018 he pub. an article calling water (H20) vapor more important than CO2, backing the 2017 idea of meteorology prof. John J. Cahir of Penn. State. U. that the best metric of global warming is water vapor saturation mixing ratios.

No hockey stick in Sweden? On Jan. 9, 2018 Swedish geologists Irina Polovodora Steman, Helena L. Filipsson, and Kjell Nordberg of the U. of Lund pub. the paper Tracing winter temperatures over the last two millennia using a NE Atlantic coastal record, describing a 2.5K-year winter temp record reconstructed using sediment cores from the Gullmar Fjord, concluding: "The most recent warming of the 20th century does not stand out, but appears to be comparable to both the Roman Warm Period and the MCA (Medieval Climate Anomaly)."

Rebekah Mercer (1973-)

In late Jan. 2018 an open letter signed by 200+ pro-global warming scientists incl. Michael E. Mann and Katharine Hayhoe calls on the Am. Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City to remove wealthy climate change denier and Pres. Trump supporter Rebekah "Bekah" Mercer (1973-) (backer of Breitbart) from its board, and to "end ties to anti-science propagandists and funders of climate science misinformation", causing a group of you know whats incl. Willie Soon, Will Happer, Richard Lindzen, Craig Idso, and Geoffrey Duffy to send AMNH an open letter begging them "not to cave in to this pressure", with the soundbyte: "The Earth has supported abundant life many times in the geological past when there were much higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is quite likely that future generations will benefit from the enrichment of Earth's atmosphere with more carbon dioxide. Make no mistake, the agitators are not defending science from quackery - quite the contrary!"

On Feb. 15-16, 2018 the 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Colombo, Sri Lanka has the theme: "Climate change and global sustainability: Action for bridging the gap", with the soundbyte: "Climate Change is no longer only a scientific concern, but it involves economics, sociology, geopolitics, national and local politics, law, and health"; read program.

On Feb. 17, 2018 independent researcher Aftab Alam Khan pub. the paper Why would sea-level rise for global warming and polar ice-melt?, disputing the U.N. IPCC's theory that global warming causes thermal expansion of the ocean, claiming that global warming and polar ice-melt do not contribute to sea level rise because melted ice occupies the same volume as the displaced water, and the floating sea ice around the polar region cools the oceans, preventing thermal expansion, plus melt water cannot move from the polar to the equatorial region because of the equatorial bulge and polar flattening; meanwhile the gravitational attraction of the Earth plays a dominant role in sea level rise, with the crust in the polar region rebounding elastically after the ice melts to achieve isostatic balancing through uplift, causing the sea level to drop.

On Feb. 18, 2018 the 2018 Calif. Wildfires begin with the Pleasant Fire in Inyo County, burning 2,070 acres by the time it is contained on Apr. 19; on June 11 the Lions fire in Madera County burns 7.8K+ acres before it is contained on ?; on June 30 the multi-county Lake-Napa-Yolo County Fire burns 90,288 acres before being contained on July 14; on July 6 record high temps are set at UCLA (111), Burbank (114), Santa Ana (114), Van Nuys (117), and Chino (120); on July 13 the Ferguson Fire in Mariposa County burns 94K+ acres before being contained on ?; on July 23 the Carr Fire in Shasta burns 167K+ acres before being contained on ?; on July 26 Redding, Calif. hits 133F as the Carr fire races out of control and causes deaths; on July 27 the Mendocino Complex Fire in Mendocino-Lake-Colusa Counties burns 283K+ acres before being contained on?; in July Fresno, Calif. reaches 100F or higher for 26 straight days, and Palm Springs, Calif. has a record July avg. temp of 97.4F, while Scripps Pier in San Diego, Calif. reaches a record 78.8F surface water temp; on Aug. 4 a nat. disaster is declared in N Calif after 4,983 fires burn 610,266 acres (2,469.66 sq. km), becoming the largest in Calif. history; on Aug. 6 twin fires N of San Francisco, Calif.; the years with the warmest summertime min. Calif. temps are 2017 (top), 2015, 2014, 2006, 2016, and 2003; manmade global warming is not a major factor, with U.S. Geological Survey fire scientist Jon Keeley uttering the soundbyte: "What's changing is not the fires themselves but the fact that we have more and more people at risk", U.S. interior secy. Ryan Zinke uttering the soundbyte: "We have been held hostage by these environmentalist terrorist groups that have not allowed public access, that refuse to allow harvest of timber", and anti-environmentalist Paul Driessen (1948-) blaming environmentalists, with the soundbyte: "Eco-purists want no cutting, no thinning - no using fire retardants in 'sensitive' areas because the chemicals might get into streams that will be boiled away by conflagrations. They prevent homeowners from clearing brush around their homes, because it might provide cover or habitat for endangered species and other critters that will get incinerated or lose their forage, prey and habitats in the next blaze. They rarely alter their policies during drought years. The resulting fires are not the 'forest-rejuvenating' blazes of environmentalist lore. They are cauldron-hot conflagrations that exterminate wildlife habitats, roast bald eagle and spotted owl fledglings alive in their nests, boil away trout and trout streams, leave surviving animals to starve, and incinerate every living organism in already thin soils.. that then get washed away during future downpours and snow melts. Areas incinerated by such fires don't recover their arboreal biodiversity for decades." Watch video - Glenn Beck.

Bernard Marr

On Feb. 21, 2018 German-born English futurist Bernard Marr pub. the article The Amazing Ways We Can Use AI to Tackle Climate Change in Forbes mag., which starts out: "While there are still some on the earth who claim climate change is a farce, the majority of us believe we need to throw everything possible into slowing down or solving the problem. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are two tools in our climate-change-halting toolbox. The more we utilize AI and machine learning technology to help us understand our current reality, predict future weather events and create new products and services to minimize our human impact our chances of improving and saving lives, creating a healthier world and making businesses more efficient, the better chance we have to stall or even reverse the climate change trajectory we're on."

On Feb. 23, 2018 the Weather Network pub. the article Arctic temps spike over 30 degrees in the midst of winter, reporting that Cape Morris Jessup in N Greenland saw temps climb from -30C to a few deg. C above zero in a few days, then roller-coaster between the -20s C and above 0C twice. Too bad, the Arctic is cooler than usual during the summer. On June 21, 2018 The Barents Observer pub. an article reporting that Russian tankers are getting trapped in ice in their Arctic port in the Gulf of Ob, becoming the worst summer there in four years, with co. rep Andrey Smirnov uttering the soundbyte: "The global warming, which there has been so much talk about for such a long time, seems to have receded a little and we are returning to the standards of the 1980s and 1990s." On Sept. 23, 2018 Jamie W. Spry pub. the article The Greenland Hockey Stick, which displays a hockey stick graph of the Greenland ice sheet, showing that it has gained 1T tons in the last two years, 40% above normal. The Arctic sea ice is really the same thickness as 60 years ago, and its annual extent tracks ocean circulation patterns not greenhouse gases, causing govt. agencies to resort to fraud to keep the scare going? Watch video. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

On Mar. 1, 2018 Time mag. pub. the article Here's What the EPA's Website Looks Like After a Year of Climate Change Censorship, reporting that the EPA Web site's Climate Change section was taken down in April 2017 after existing in various forms for more than 20 years, with the message "This page is being updated" put in its place; a search for "climate change" produced 5K results, compared to the previous 12K; resources on how local communities could combat climate change were cut from 380 to 170 pages, and a 50-page Student's Guide to Global Climate Change was not archived; on some pages, edits have been made to remove terms like "climate change", "air pollutant", and "greenhouse gas", while "carbon footprint" and "carbon accounting" were replaced with "environmental footprint" and "sustainability accounting".

On Mar. 1, 2018 David Finnigan debuts his play Kill Climate Deniers at the Griffin Theatre in Sydney; "As a classic rock band take the stage in Parliament House's main hall, 96 armed eco-terrorists storm the building and take the entire government hostage, threatening to execute everyone unless Australia ends global warming."

Dale Joseph Leuck (1950-2018)

On Mar. 21, 2018 Ind.-born agricultural economist Dale Joseph Leuck (1950-2018) pub. the article Global Warming: The Evolution of a Hoax, which is reprinted by many blogs; too bad, Leuck dies on July 10 in Va.

On Mar. 28, 2018 a federal judge in San Francisco, Calif. holds the first-ever U.S. court hearing on the impact of climate change, with lawyers for San Francisco and Oakland along with five of the largest multinat. oil cos. (BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Shell) participating in a climate change tutorial preparatory to a lawsuit claiming that rising sea levels et al. are caused by climate change traceable to the cos.; on June 18 he dismisses all the lawsuits trying to hold big oil cos. liable for global climate change, saying that the U.S. pres. and Congress are best suited to address the issue.

Catherine McKenna of Canada (1971-)

In Mar. 2018 Canadian Liberal feminist minister #26 of the environment and climate change (Environment Canada) (since Nov. 4, 2015) Catherine Mary McKenna (1971-) (AKA Climate Barbie by her critics) utters the soundbyte that citizens should "consider the gendered impacts of climate change on women, girls and children", applauding Canada for training "women negotiators" to battle manmade global warming.

On Apr. 7, 2018 the 2018 U.K. Winter reaches a death toll of 48K since Dec. 1, 20,275 more than avg., becoming the worst in 42 years; Mar. was the chilliest in 21 years.

On Apr. 27, 2018 Arjen Luijendijk et al. of the Netherlands pub. the paper The State of the World's Beaches, revealing that satellite data indicates the 48% of the world's sandy beaches are stable, 28% are accreting, and 24% are eroding at rates exceeding 0.5m/yr, incl. a majority of sandy shorelines in marine protected areas in Australia and Africa, which are the only continents with net erosion; over the last 30 years, the world's beaches have accreted an avg. of 0.33 m/yr, for a total gain of 3,663 sq. km.

In Apr. 2018 avg. temps of 38.3F are the coldest since 1874 (37.6F); some major U.S. cities have their coldest Apr. in recorded history.

On May 1, 2018 the U.N. Climate Change Secretariat releases its first annual report, calling climate change "the single biggest threat to life, security and prosperity on Earth", according to exec secy. Patricia Espinosa, and rolling out its Gender Action Plan to mobilize women to fight global warming.

Peter Ridd

On May 2, 2018 after he pub. an op-ed on Feb. 2 containing the soundbyte: "Mass bleaching events along the reef that supposedly serve as evidence of permanent human-caused devastation are almost certainly completely natural and even cyclical" along with other statements skeptical of the risks climate change poses to the Great Barrier Reef, Australian geophysicist Peter Ridd (not a climate skeptic per se) is ridded, er, fired by James Cook U. for violating their code of conduct for allegedly not showing enough respect for his colleagues and institutions, not for his skeptical views themselves, causing a big court battle in which they are willing to spend any amount, while luckily the climate skeptic community backs him financially (as if a professor's right to freedom of speech in Australia is as fragile as a reed if he doesn't kiss the establishment's butt?); on July 25, 2017 he pub. the soundbyte: "Due to the remarkable mechanisms that corals have developed to adapt to changing temperatures, especially the ability to swap symbionts, corals are perhaps the least endangered of any ecosystem to future climate change – natural or man-made"; on July 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The National Forum, containing the soundbyte: "T]here is a swindle by scientists, politicians and most green organisations regarding the health of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We are told that the reef is a third of the way to ecological extinction, is being smothered by sediments, is polluted by nutrients and pesticides, and is being cooked by global warming. Some scientists and organisations give the reef only a couple of decades before it is finished... In biological circles, it is common to compare coral reefs to canaries, i.e. beautiful and delicate organisms that are easily killed. The analogy is pushed further by claiming that, just as canaries were used to detect gas in coal mines, coral reefs are the canaries of the world and their death is a first indication of our apocalyptic greenhouse future. The bleaching events of 1998 and 2002 were our warning. Heed them now or retribution will be visited upon us. In fact a more appropriate creature with which to compare corals would be cockroaches - at least for their ability to survive. If our future brings us total self-annihilation by nuclear war, pollution or global warming, my bet is that both cockroaches and corals will survive... Corals are particularly well adapted to temperature changes and in general, the warmer the better. It seems odd that coral scientists are worrying about global warming because this is one group of organisms that like it hot. Corals are most abundant in the tropics and you certainly do not find fewer corals closer to the equator. Quite the opposite, the further you get away from the heat, the worse the corals. A cooling climate is a far greater threat." Watch video - Peter Ridd. Peter Ridd and Stefan Molyneux.

On May 3, 2018 (4:30 p.m.) after a 5.0 earthquake, Mt. Kilauea ("Madame Pele") in Hawaii erupts, causing mass evacuations from 1.5K homes; on May 4 (12:33 p.m.) a 6.9 earthquake centered near Kilauea's S flank causes more damage; on May 11 another 6.9 earthquake (biggest since 1975) threatens the Puna Geothermal Venture geothermal power plant; meanwhile on May 3 Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory announces that atmospheric CO2 has reached a record 410 ppm for Apr.

John Holdren of the U.S. (1944-)

On May 17, 2018 Pres. Obama's science adviser (2009-17) John Paul Holdren (1944-) gives a speech at the Am. Academy of Political and Social Science in Washington, D.C., calling Obama "the most science-savvy president since Thomas Jefferson" and claiming that Pres. Trump "has appointed or nominated fact-averse idealogues" to key executive branch science and technology positions, esp. EPA head Scott Pruitt and interior secy. Ryan Zinke, taking a swipe at Trump for promising to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Change Accord, another at him for "his ignorant, bigoted, bullying, prevaricating, America-alone stance [that] has demeaned his office, has damaged our democracy, and has diminished U.S. standing in the world", and another at Trump's failure to appoint him, er, his replacement as science adviser.

On May 24, 2018 Marshall Burke, W. Matthew Davis, and Noah S. Diffenbaugh pub. the article Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets in Nature, which claims that limiting global warming to 1.5C above pre-industrial temps would save more than $20T compared to 2C, while costing $300B more, giving a cost-benefit ratio of 70-1.

On May 28, 2018 Yuhan Rao and Shunlin Ling pub. the paper Land Surface Air Temperature Data Are Considerably Different Among BEST-LAND, CRU-TEM4v, NASA-GISS, and NOAA-NCEI in Journal of Geophysical Research, reporting that datasets used by UCB, NASA, NOAA, and the Climate Research Unit are plagued with anomalies, making claims of 0.1C global warming nonsense; "The mean LSAT [land surface air temperature] anomalies are remarkably different because of the data coverage differences, with the magnitude nearly 0.4°C for the global and Northern Hemisphere and 0.6°C for the Southern Hemisphere"; "This study additionally finds that on the regional scale, northern high latitudes, southern middle-to-high latitudes, and the equator show the largest differences nearly 0.8°C"; "For some areas, different datasets produce conflicting results of whether warming exists"; "The relative difference of trends estimated from different datasets can reach nearly 90% for different regions and time periods"; "The uncertainty of the LSAT [land surface air temperature] trend estimation caused by the dataset differences (i.e., RMSD) ranges from 0.035 to 0.086°C per decade for the long-term trend (i.e., 1901–2017) to 0.097–0.305°C per decade for recent decades (i.e., 1981–2017)." In Aug. 2017 Australian climate skeptic John McLean (1957-) (student of Peter Ridd) pub. his James Cook U. Ph.d thesis titled An audit of uncertainties in the HadCRUT4 temperature anomaly dataset plus the investigation of three other contemporary climate issues, examining the HadCRUT4 temperature dataset of the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, and identifying 70 problems that seriously compromise its reliability and accuracy back to 1850, all the way from failure to use a spell checker on "Venezuala", etc., and listing Alaska as a country; it contains the soundbytes: "I was aghast to find that nothing was done to remove absurd values... The whole approach to the dataset's creation is careless and amateur, about the standard of a first-year university student"; "It seems like neither organization properly checked the land or sea temperature data before using it in the HadCRUT4 dataset. If it had been checked then the CRU might have queried the more obvious errors in data supplied by different countries. The Hadley Centre might also have found some of the inconsistencies in the sea surface temperature data, along with errors that it created itself when it copied data from the hand-written logs of some Royal Navy ships"; "In May 1861 the global coverage, according to the grid-system method that HadCRUT4 uses, was 12%. That means that no data was reported from almost 90% of the Earth's surface. Despite this it's said to be a 'global average'. That makes no sense at all. The global average temperature anomaly is calculated from data that at times covers as little as 12.2% of the Earth's surface. Until 1906 global coverage was less than 50% and coverage didn't hit 75% until 1956. That's a lot of the Earth’s surface for which we have no data."

In May 2018 the workshop Direct Air Capture and Mineral Carbonation Approaches for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration is held by the Nat. Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine - on a par with a time machine? Watch video.

On June 1, 2018 the 2018 European Drought and Heat Waves (ends ?); on July 23 wildfires begin in Attica, Greece, killing 87 and damaging or destroying 1K+ bldgs; the cause is thought to be arson, which doesn't stop global warmists from claiming you know what; on Aug. 6 Johan Rockstrom et al. of the Stockholm Resilience Center, U. of Copenhagen, Australian Nat. U., and Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research pub. a study in Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences claiming that "tipping elements" incl. permafrost thaw, loss of methane hydrates from the ocean floor, weaker land and ocean carbon sinks, loss of Arctic summer ice and Antarctic sea ice and polar sheets can act like a row of dominoes leading to an unlivable Hothouse Earth.

On June 12, 2018 super-leftist Berkeley, Calif. passes a resolution declaring a climate emergency and calling for a WWII-style mobilization effort incl. pop. control, urging other Calif. cities to march in line. Watch video.

On June 21, 2018 the 2018 U.S. Summer begins, going on to have the smallest number of daily record temperatures and smallest number of all-time record max temperatures; on Sept. 6 NOAA releases a report claiming it is the 4th hottest summer on record for the U.S., tying with 1934; it's moose hockey because the 1930s were way hotter? Watch video - Tony Heller.

On June 22, 2018 the 2018 British Isles Heat Wave (ends ?).

On June 23, 2018 the 30th Anniv. of NASA Climate Scientist James Hansen's Congressional Testimony sees the establishment hailing him as a prophet despite getting virtually every prediction wrong?; or was he spot on, and the evil Koch brothers paid critics to misrepresent his three scenarios, only recognizing his first one, which assumes business as usual and no emissions cuts?; or was he just lucky? Watch video - Tony Heller.

On June 24, 2018 acting head of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce Tim Gallaudet gives a presentation announcing that the Nat. Ocean and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) (founded 1970) is returning to its traditional mission "to observe, understand and predict atmospheric and ocean conditions", dropping the mission "to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans and coasts", i.e., dropping the loaded word climate, esp. after it was accused of numerous tamperings with the Global Historical Climatology Network database to make man-made global climate change look more believable.

On June 28, 2018 the 2018 North Am. Heat Wave (ends Oct. 4); on July 27 Michael Mann of Penn. State U., Jennifer Francis of Rutgers U., and Noah Diffenbaugh of Stanford U. blame it on increased atmospheric CO2 and the jet stream; meanwhile Britain suffers an unusually wet and cold summer, and Siberia suffers record cold, with a record low of -1C in Salekhard on Aug. 2; in June-Aug. the Summer 2018 U.S. Midwest has one of its coolest summers in modern times, with only eight measurements over 100F, vs. 17,772 since 1895 and 2,624 in 1936; meanwhile in Aug. satellite data from climatereanalyzer.org show global temps falling to 0.19C, giving a YTD avg. of 0.23C, about the same as in 2002. Watch video. Watch video.

On July 3, 2018 the city of Quriyat, Oman sets a record of 108.7F (42.6C) for the highest 24-hour min. temperature on Earth, breaking the previous record of 107.4F (41.9C) set in Oman on June 27, 2011; the temp actually remains above 107.4F (41.9C) for 51 straight hours, with an afternoon high temp of 121.6F (49.8C); on July 6 Ouargla, Algeria reaches 124F (51C), setting a record for Africa, causing global warming proponents to claim it as proof; actually the heat dome phenomenon happens every few summers, and there have been far hotter summers in the past, esp. the 1930s?

Andrew R. Wheeler of the U.S. (1964-)

On July 6, 2018 amid a swarm of 14 federal investigations, EPA head (since Feb. 17, 2017) Scott Pruit resigns; U.S. Sen. (D-Mass.) Elizabeth "Pocahontas" Warren utters the soundbyte that his successor should be a believer in climate change; on July 9 Hamilton, Ohio-born coal lobbyist Andrew R. Wheeler (1964-) (former aide to climate skeptic U.S. Sen. James Inhofe) succeeds Scott Pruitt as acting admin. of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (until ?).

On July 9, 2018 Pope Francis hosts a conference at the Vatican with oil co. execs, urging them to get with it and follow his 2015 climate change encyclical "Laudato Si" despite it not being obligatory.

On July 9, 2018 the British leftist newspaper The Guardian pub. the article There are genuine climate alarmists, but they're not in the same league as deniers by Dana Nuccitelli, with the subtitle: "Deniers have conservative media outlets and control the Republican Party; climate alarmists are largely ignored", starting out: "Those who debunk climate change misinformation often face a dilemma. We're flooded with such a constant deluge of climate myths, where should we focus our efforts? Climate misinformation is propagated via congressional climate hearings, conservative media outlets, denial blogs, and even from some genuine climate alarmists. Specifically, there has recently been a debate as to whether Skeptical Science - a website with a database of climate myths and scientific debunkings, to which I'm a primary contributor – would be more useful and effective if it called out misinformation from 'alarmists,' and if it eliminated or revised its Climate Misinformers page."

On July 11, 2018 the U.N. Security Council holds its first session focusing on climate change in seven years, to consider "the cycle of conflict and climate disaster", calling for internat. coordination. Watch video.

On July 16, 2018 Am. geologist James Edward Kamis (1951-), proposer of the Plate Climatology Theory that the geothermal Earth Heat Flow Engine is an important driver of Earth's climate pub. the article Geological Activity Not 'Atlantification' Altering Arctic Ocean Temps and Salinity in Climate Change Dispatch, debunking the global warmist theory that a mysterious force called Atlantification is warming the Arctic.

On July 18, 2018 The New York Times pub. the article Climate Change Is Killing the Cedars of Lebanon, claiming that climate change is killing the ancient cedars of Lebanon, tying it to an increase in insect infestations caused by rising temperatures; it's really fake news?

On July 20, 2018 the Australian govt. releases a new-improved 2050 Great Barrier Reef Plan that for the first time admits that climate change poses a deadly threat, with the outlook "one of continuing decline over time, and in many regions, including the Great Barrier Reef, the collapse and loss of coral reef ecosystems."

On July 23, 2018 Kumagaya, Japan NW of Tokyo reaches a temperature record of 41.1C (106F) in the midst of a 2-week heat wave that kills 23, causing The Economist to pub. an article on Aug. 2 titled The world is losing the war against climate change, "Such calamities, once considered freakish, are now commonplace. Scientists have long cautioned that, as the planet warms — it is roughly 1°C hotter today than before the industrial age's first furnaces were lit — weather patterns will go berserk."

On July 23, 2018 Marshall Burke et al. pub. the article Higher Temperates Increase Suicide Rates in the United States and Mexico in Nature Climate Change, claiming that suicide rates rise by 0.7% in the U.S. and 2.1% in Mexico for each 1C increase in avg. monthly temperature, estimating a total of 9K-40K additional suicides by 2050.

On July 23, 2018 Julia Short, Sindia Sosdian, and Carrie Lear of Cardiff U. pub. the article Ocean acidification to hit levels not seen in 14 million years in Phys.org, claiming that by 2100 atmospheric CO2 concentration will be 930 ppm, dropping ocean pH from 8.1 today to 7.8, with the soundbytes: "The current pH is already probably lower than any time in the last 2 million years. Understanding exactly what this means for marine ecosystems requires long-term laboratory and field studies as well as additional observations from the fossil record", and "Our new geological record of ocean acidification shows us that on our current 'business as usual' emission trajectory, oceanic conditions will be unlike marine ecosystems have experienced for the last 14 million years."

On July 30, 2018 the article Climate taxes on agriculture could lead to more food insecurity than climate change itself is pub. in the Journal of the Internat. Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, reporting that climate change could put 24M people ar risk of hunger, while a global carbon tax would drive up food prices and push 78M more people into risk of hunger esp. in India and sub-Saharan Africa.

In July 2018 Furnace Creek in Death Valley, Calif. reports an avg. temp of 108.1F, becoming the hottest in the world; the readings are tainted by the environment around the weather station?

Werner Kirstein

On Aug. 3, 2018 Claus Kleber of German public TV ZDF delivers a report on the heat and drought across N Europe, blaming climate change, causing retired climate prof. Werner Kirstein to pub. a video rebutting him, which receives 340K+ views in a short time; it calls the global warming crisis "media propaganda" and climate protection a form of populism where governments hope to garner praise for their climate protection efforts, pointing out previous interglacials that were warmer than the current one, and explaining that CO2 rises always follow temperature rises, not vice-versa, claiming that recent climate change is due to natural causes caused by the climb out of the Little Ice Age, dissing the CO2 Greenhouse Theory as failing to understand that CO2 diffuses long wave infrared radation from the Earth and put it in the mid-upper troposphere, where it can't return to the surface, with the true greenhouse effect of CO2 being its greening of plants.

George Soros (1930-)

On Aug. 6, 2018 in a coordinated coup after viewer-losing fake news CNN puts them up to it, Facebook, Apple, YouTube, and Spotify (but not Twitter) remove "The Alex Jones Show" and its InfoWars content in a quantum leap in leftist censorship of non-leftists, causing Media Research Center pres. Brent Bozell to write the soundbyte: "It's not just a slippery slope, it's a dangerous cliff that these social media companies are jumping off to satisfy CNN and other liberal outlets"; meanwhile Hungarian-born anti-American leftist billionaire puppetmaster George Soros (1930-) and his octopus call for Facebook to remove "climate deniers", and YouTube resists the pressure, but in July starts adding info. panels to all climate videos pro and con linked to Wikipedia's super-biased article on climate change that pushes the PC global warming moose hockey and denigrates climate denialists, landmining the pages so that every stray click goes to it; they also do it with Flat Earth and NASA Moon Landing hoax videos, encouraging guilt by association?

Tim Lenton (1973-)

On Aug. 6, 2018 English U. of Exeter climatologist Timothy Michael "Tim" Lenton (1973-) (a disciple of the Gaia Hypothesis that emphasizes negative feedbacks that stabilize the Earth system) et al. pub. the article Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene, examining conditions for a possible Hothouse Earth, and ways to head it off incl. "decarbonization of the global economy, enhancement of biosphere carbon sinks, behavioral changes, technological innovations, new governance arrangements, and transformed social values"; on Aug. 8 several top Euro climate scientists pub. an update, suggesting that we have 1-2 decades to avoid it. Watch video - Paul H. Beckwith.

Amanda Maxham

On Aug. 7, 2018 the 2nd America First Energy Conference in New Orleans, La. is sponsored by the Heartland Inst. to support Pres. Trump's America First Energy Plan, featuring 30 speakers; one of the speakers is astrophysicist Amanda Maxham; the Reuters article covering it has the title "At 'America First Energy Conference', solar power is dumb, climate change is fake". Watch video - promo. Watch video - Amanda Maxham.

On Aug. 8, 2018 U. of Md. scientists Xiao-Peng Song, Matthew C. Hansen et al. pub. the article Global land change from 1982 to 2016 in Nature, revealing that 2.24M sq. km of tree cover has been added to Earth since 1982, covering 7% of Earth's surface, all because of pesky climate change; of course, global warmists manage to make it sound evil by claiming the new trees are mainly on plantations that have less diversity than the old forests.

On Aug. 11, 2018 (Sat.) Glacier Nat. Park in Mont. reaches 100F, hottest temp in its recorded history; the number of glaciers in the park is down to 26 from 150 in 1850; meanwhile Missoula, Mont. goes 40 days without rain, another record.

On Aug. 13, 2018 as five major fires rage across the state, Wash. Gov. Jay Inslee declares a state of emergency; the air over Seattle is filled with ashes and smoke; meanwhile on Aug. 16 British Columbia declares a state of emergency as 566 burn across the province, causing the evacuation of 3K and blanketing Vancouver with smoke.

On Aug. 13, 2018 retired marine engineer and organic farmer Scott Strough pub. the article Can We Reverse Global Warming?, claiming that the answer is to "change agricultural methods to high yielding regenerative models of production made possible by recent biological and agricultural science advancements."

On Aug. 14, 2018 a survey of 63K U.S. govt. scientists in 16 agencies is pub. by the Union of Concerned Scientists, with 35% of EPA employees and 47% of Nat. Parks Service employees claiming they have been asked to omit the phrase "climate change" from their work; 79% claim workforce reductions, with 87% claiming that the reductions make it harder to "fulfill their science-based missions".

On Aug. 22, 2018 the worst floods in a cent. in Kerala, India kill 400 and cause 1M to be displaced and be housed in camps.

On Aug. 22, 2018 the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission Aeolus (ADM Aeolus Earth observation satellite is launched by Airbus Defence and Space of the European Space Agency, becoming the first satellite capable of global wind-component-profile observation using laser doppler to improve weather forecasting, with a range from the surface of Earth into the stratosphere (30km).

On Aug. 24, 2018 (a.m.) Greenland reaches a temp of -30C. Watch video.

On Aug. 24, 2018 (a.m.) a group of students, scientists, and filmmakers from the U. of R.I. Inner Space Center (ISC) aboard the Russian ship Akademik Ioffe on the Nat. Science Foundation-funded Northwest Passage Project to raise awareness of global warming become stranded in ice in the Canadian Arctic in the Gulf of Boothia, causing the passengers to need to be evacuated to Yellowknife on Aug. 25; Watch video.

On Aug. 24, 2018 Watler Reid, dir of the Conservation and Science program of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation pub. the article No path to climate stability without carbon dioxide removal: The math of client change is simple and stark in the news journal of the Thomson Reuters Foundation, containing the soundbyte: "The math of climate change is simple and stark. To keep warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius, we can only emit another 600 Gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. At current rates, this will take 14 years. As a result, almost all scientific analyses assume large amounts of carbon dioxide begin to be removed from the atmosphere in the next decade, and by the second half of the century we must remove much more than we emit."

On Aug. 31, 2018 Curtis A. Duetsch et al. pub. the article Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate in Science, claiming that global warming causes insects to already consume 5%-20% of major grain crops (wheat, rice, maize), increasing 10%-25% per 1C of warming, 20%-50% for each 2C of warming, and 40%-100% for each 4C, esp. in the temperature zone incl. France and Russia.

On Aug. 31, 2018 scientists Henk Dijkstra et al. in the Netherlands and U.K. pub. a study in Earth System Dynamics (journal of the European Geosciences Union), claiming that global climate change could reach a "point of no return" in 2013.

On Aug. 31, 2018 Hurricane Florence forms in colder than normal waters near Cape Verde, ramping up to Category 4 then back down to Category 1 after reaching warmer waters before making landfall at 7:15 EDT on Sept. 14 near Wrightsville Beach, N.C. with 90mph max winds, bringing disastrous rainfall and flooding before dissipating on Sept. 19, killing 30 and causing $45B damage; on Sept. 10 Pres. Trump tweets about it, giving The Washington Post the chance to call him complicit in extreme weather in a Sept. 11 editorial; there's really been no change in intensity or frequency of hurricane strikes in Fla. in the last 118 years? Watch video - Tony Heller.

In Aug. 2018 C England has its 5th warmest summer on record since 1659, beating 1976 by half a degree, followed by 1826; the highest temperature is 35.6C on July 27 at Felsham, Suffolk.

Susan Janet Crockford (1954-)

In Aug. 2018 the Nat. Geographic mag. pub. an article titled Starving-Polar-Bear Photographer Recalls What Went Wrong, admitting that they lied in captioning a Dec. 2017 video of a starving polar bear (filmed in Aug. 2017) "This is what climate change looks like" after it was viewed by 2.5B; causing Canadian zoologist Susan Janet Crockford (1954-) of PolarBearScience.com to pub. the soundbyte: "I've called this practice of filming dead or dying bears and splashing the photos across the pages of newspapers and the Internet 'tragedy porn' - a kind of voyeurism that leaves people open to emotional manipulation"; "One starving bear is not evidence of climate change." Watch video - Susan Crockford.

In Aug. 2018 Klaus Desmet, Robert E. Kopp, Scott A. Kulp et al. pub. the paper Evaluaing the Economic Cost of Coastal Flooding, which uses an intermediate greenhouse gas concentration scenario to predict that in 200 years permanent flooding will destroy all life on Earth, er, reduce global real GDP by 0.19%, with welfare expenditures declining 0.24$ as 1.46% of world pop. escapes to places with less free handouts.

On Sept. 6, 2018 the BBC circulates an internal memo by news and current affairs dir. Fran Unsworth containing the soundbytes: "Climate change has been a difficult subject for the BBC, and we get coverage of it wrong too often"; "Manmade climate change exists: If the science proves it we should report it" "To achieve impartiality, you do not need to include outright deniers of climate change in BBC coverage, in the same way you would not have someone denying that Manchester United won 2-0 last Saturday. The referee has spoken"; on Sept. 18, 2018 climate skeptic Harry Wilkinson pub. the article BBC Climate Change 'Facts' Are Fiction. Watch video.

Pres. Obama and Hillary Clinton

On Sept. 7, 2018 ex-U.S.pres. Obama gives a speech at the U. of Ill. in Urbana-Champaign, breaking with tradition to blast Pres. Trump; Trump, ragging about how people who "pray differently" (Muslims) shouldn't be criticized, and trying to take credit for Trump's economic recovery, saying that it began during his admin., knocking Trump for his slow response to Nazi demonstrators, and dissing Trump for denying climate change, with the soundbyte: "We know that climate change isn't just coming, it is here", which Hillary Clinton backs via a tweet: "We're not fighting for the planet in some abstract sense here. We're fighting for our continued ability to live on it", taking a swing at Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh, with the soundbyte: "Replacing Kennedy with Kavanaugh would swing the Court to a new, hard-right majority that would rule against curbing greenhouse gases for years - maybe decades - that we can't afford to waste on inaction"; meanwhile on the campaign trail in Fargo, N.D., Trump responds that "I found he's very good for sleeping".

On Sept. 7, 2018 Yan Li, Eugenia Kalnay, Safa Motesharrei et al. pub. the article Climate model shows large-scale wind and solar farms in the Sahara increase rain and vegetation in Science, pushing green technology as a cure for global warming.

On Sept. 7, 2018 French scientist Camille Veyres delivers the lecture Eleven Facts You Must Know to Avoid Being Deceived by the AGW at the climate denier Porto Climate Conference at Porto U. in Portugal, trashing the science behind the Greenhouse Gas Theory and calling it a fraud.

On Sept. 8, 2018 Rise for Climate, a day for global action organized by 350.org sees protests in 90+ countries by hundreds, er, tens of thousands along with 800+ events, with Nick Byer uttering the soundbyte: "Politicians are failing. They are still protecting the interests of the fossil fuel companies over the interests of people, despite mounting evidence of the devastation these companies and this system is causing the planet." Watch video.

On Sept. 9, 2018 U.N. Paris Agreement climate talks in Bangkok, Thailand founder after the EU, U.K., and Australia fall in line with the U.S. and close their checkbooks to endless $100B/year wealth transfers to poor nations starting in 2020.

On Sept. 10, 2018 U.N. secy.-gen. Antonio Guterres warns that the world is facing "a direct existential threat" from global warming, and must rapidly shift from dependence on fossil fuels by 2020 to prevent "runaway climate change", with the soundbytes: "Climate change is moving faster than we are. We need to put the brake on deadly greehouse gas emissions and drive climate action"; "We need to rapidly shift away from our dependence on fossil fuels. We need to replace them with clean energy from water, wind and sun. We must halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and change the way we farm"; "According to a UN study, the commitments made so far by p