Two Scorpions in a Bottle Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Polar Bear on Melting Ice Floe 'How to Survive the Coming Ice Age' fake Time mag. cover, 2007 Greenhouse Gas Theory Busted Science Denial Characteristics
John Dalton (1766-1844) Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) John Tyndall (1820-93) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) G.S. Callendar (1898-1964) Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) Roger Revelle (1909-91)

TLW's Climatescope™ (Climate Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: May 30, 2018. Last Update: Feb. 17, 2019.

Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)
Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Tim Ball (1938-) James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Hoggan (1946-) Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-) Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)
Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-) H. Jay Zwally Gregory Wrightstone William Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-) Christiana Figueres of Costa Rica (1956- Naomi Oreskes (1958-) Joe Bastardi (1955-) Anthony Watts (1958-)

Alternate url for this page:

This historyscope has 4,500 hyperlinks including 1,300 Wikipedia links and 800+ YouTube links.

Quick Jump Table

-4,400,000,000 -1,000,000,000 -100,000,000 -1,000,000 -300,000 -4,004 1040 1700 1800 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

What Is A Historyscope?

"Nothing is created by coincidence (at random), rather there is reason and necessity for everything." - Leucippus (d. -420)

"Any man can make mistakes, but only an idiot persists in his error." - Marcus Tullius Cicero (-106 to -43)

"Nothing is so firmly believed as that which we least know." - Michael de Montaigne (1533-92)

"For when propositions are denied, there is an end of them, but if they bee allowed, it requireth a new worke." - Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

"Idols of the Theatre are those which are due to sophistry and false learning. These idols are built up in the field of theology, philosophy, and science, and because they are defended by learned groups are accepted without question by the masses. When false philosophies have been cultivated and have attained a wide sphere of dominion in the world of the intellect they are no longer questioned. False superstructures are raised on false foundations, and in the end systems barren of merit parade their grandeur on the stage of the world." - Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

"There is a toy, which I have heard, and I would not have it given over, but waited upon a little. They say it is observed in the Low Countries (I know not in what part), that every five and thirty years the same kind and suit of years and weathers comes about again; as great frosts, great wet, great droughts, warm winters, summers with little heat, and the like, and they call it the prime it is a thing I do the rather mention, because, computing backwards, I have found some concurrence." - Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

"In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual." - Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

"E pur si muove (And yet it moves)." - Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

"You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time." - Jacques Abbadie (1654-1727)

"Falsehood flies, and the Truth comes limping after it." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"Reasoning will never make a man correct an ill opinion, which by reasoning he never acquires." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"There are few, very few, that will own themselves in a mistake, though all the World sees them to be in downright nonsense." - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

"Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities." - Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)

"A thing is not proved just because no one has ever questioned it. What has never been gone into impartially has never been properly gone into. Hence skepticism is the first step toward truth. It must be applied generally, because it is the touchstone." - Denis Diderot (1713-84)

"It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts." - Patrick Henry (1736-99)

"Most men only care for science so far as they get a living by it, and they worship even error when it affords them a subsistence." - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

"Two systems are before the world... One looks to pauperism, ignorance, depopulation, and barbarism; the other to increasing wealth, comfort, intelligence, combination of action, and civilization. One looks towards universal war; the other towards universal peace. One is the English system; the other... the American system, for... elevating while equalizing the condition of man throughout the world." - Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879)

"Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"Every age has its peculiar folly: Some scheme, project, or fantasy into which it plunges, spurred on by the love of gain, the necessity of excitement, or the force of imitation." - Charles Mackay (1814-89)

"From Seine's cold quays to Ganges' burning stream,/ The mortal troupes dance onward in a dream;/ They do not see, within the opened sky,/ The Angel's sinister trumpet raised on high./ In every clime and under every sun,/ Death laughs at ye, mad mortals, as ye run;/ And oft perfumes herself with myrrh, like ye/ And mingles with your madness, irony!" - Charles Baudelaire (1821-67), The Dance of Death in Les Fleurs du Mal (1857)

"The difference between genius and stupidity is genius has its limits." - Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-95)

"The improver of natural knowledge absolutely refuses to acknowledge authority, as such. For him, skepticism is the highest of duties; blind faith the one unpardonable sin... The man of science has learned to believe in justification, not by faith, but by verification." - Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95)

"The great tragedy of science - the slaying of a lovely hypothesis by an ugly fact." - Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95)

"There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such trifling investment of facts." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"How easy it is to make people believe a lie, and hard it is to undo that work again." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"There isn't anything so grotesque or so incredible that the average human being can't believe it." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"No accident ever comes late; it always arrives precisely on time." - Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

"A scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it." - Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947)

"It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence; it biases the judgment. And, the temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of our profession." - Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (1859-1930)

"Simple solutions seldom are. It takes a very unusual mind to undertake analysis of the obvious." - Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

"Give me one just one generation of youth, and I'll transform the whole world." - Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin (1870-1924)

"The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widespread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible." - Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (1872-1970)

"The fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt. Even those of the intelligent who believe that they have a nostrum are too individualistic to combine with other intelligent men from whom they differ on minor points. " - Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (1872-1970)

"Some say the world will end in fire,/ Some say in ice./ From what I've tasted of desire / I hold with those who favor fire./ But if it had to perish twice,/ I think I know enough of hate/ To say that for destruction ice/ Is also great/ And would suffice." - Robert Frost (1874-1963), Fire and Ice, 1923

"It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it." - Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)

"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. The important thing is to never stop questioning; never lose a holy curiosity." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Blind obedience to authority is the greatest enemy of the truth." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"The essence of science is that it is always willing to abandon a given idea, however fundamental it may seem to be, for a better one; the essence of theology is that it holds its truths to be eternal and immutable." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, most of them imaginary." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"For every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong." - Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken (1880-1956)

"The human mind is capable of infinite self-deception." - Charles Lee Smith (1887-1964)

"The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age." - H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937)

"Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present - and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific/technological elite." - U.S. Pres. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

"You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete." - Richard Buckminster Fuller (1893-1985)

"That propaganda is good which leads to success. It is not propaganda's task to be intelligent, its task is to lead to success." - Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945)

"No President, Academy, Court of Law, Congress or Senate on this Earth has the knowledge or power to decide what will be the knowledge of tomorrow." - Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957)

"The less justified a man is in claiming excellence for his own self, the more ready he is to claim all excellence for his nation, his religion, his race or his holy cause." - Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), The True Believer, 1951

"There is perhaps in all misfits a powerful secret craving to turn the whole of humanity into misfits. Hence partly their passionate advocacy of a drastically new social order. For we are all misfits when we have to adjust ourselves to the wholly new." - Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), The Passionate State of Mind and Other Aphorisms, 1954

"The charlatan is not usually a cynical individual who preys on the credulous. It is the credulous themselves who manifest a propensity for charlatanism. When we believe ourselves in possession of the only truth, we are likely to be indifferent to common everyday truths. Self-deception, credulity and charlatanism are somehow linked together." - - Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), The Passionate State of Mind and Other Aphorisms, 1954

"The explosive component in the contemporary scene is not the clamor of the masses but the self-righteous claims of a multitude of graduates from schools and universities. This army of scribes is clamoring for a society in which planning, regulation, and supervision are paramount and the prerogative of the educated." - Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), The Ordeal of Change, 1959

"The best education will not immunize a person against corruption by power... Forty years ago the philosopher Alfred North Whitehead thought it self-evident that you would get a good government if you took power out of the hands of the acquisitive and gave it to the learned and the cultivated. At present, a child in kindergarten knows better than that." - Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), Before the Sabbath, 1979

"A theory that explains everything explains nothing." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"Whenever a theory appears to you as the only possible one, take this as a sign that you have neither understood the theory nor the problem which it was intended to solve." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"There is an almost universal tendency, perhaps an inborn tendency, to suspect the good faith of a man who holds opinions that differ from our own opinions." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"True ignorance is not the absence of knowledge, but the refusal to acquire it." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"The attempt to make heaven on earth invariably produces hell. It leads to intolerance. It leads to religious wars, and to the saving of souls through the inquisition. And it is, I believe, based on a complete misunderstanding of our moral duties. It is our duty to help those who need help; but it cannot be our duty to make others happy, since this does not depend on us, and since it would only too often mean intruding on the privacy of those towards whom we have such amiable intentions." - Karl Popper (1902-94)

"He who controls the past controls the future. He who controls the present controls the past." – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (1903-50)

"The further a society drifts from the truth, the more it will hate those who speak it." - George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (1903-50)

"Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them." - George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (1903-50)

"We do not believe any group of men adequate enough or wise enough to operate without scrutiny or without criticism. We know that the only way to avoid error is to detect it, that the only way to detect it is to be free to inquire. We know that in secrecy error, undetected, will flourish and subvert." - Julius Robert Oppenheimer (1904-67)

"Most institutions demand unqualified faith; but the institution of science makes skepticism a virtue." - Robert King Merton (1910-2003)

"Political extremism involves two prime ingredients: an excessively simple diagnosis of the world's ills, and a conviction that there are identifiable villains back of it all." - John William Gardner (1912-2002)

"You can't have healthy people on a sick planet." - Fr. Thomas Berry (1914-2009)

"A great deal of intelligence can be invested in ignorance when the need for illusion is deep." - Saul Bellow (Solomon Bellows) (1915-2005)

"Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts." Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"It does not make any difference how beautiful your guess is, it does not make any difference how smart you are, who made the guess, or what his name is - if it disagrees with experiment, it is wrong. That is all there is to it." - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"Have no respect whatsoever for authority; forget who said it and instead look what he starts with, where he ends up, and ask yourself, 'Is it reasonable?'" - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"You see, one thing is, I can live with doubt, and uncertainty, and not knowing. I think it's much more interesting to live, not knowing, than to have answers which might be wrong." - Richard Feynman (1918-88)

"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that 'my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge'." - Isaac Asimov (1920-92)

"Clearly, a civilization that feels guilty for everything it is and does will lack the energy and conviction to defend itself." - Jean Francois Revel (1924-2006)

"In all science there is a strong 'herd instinct', and interactions occur largely within these herds. They may argue vigorously about details, but they maintain solidarity, or close ranks, when challenged by other herds or individuals. The herd instinct is strengthened greatly if those making funding decisions are members of that herd. Strays do not get funded, and their work, no matter how innovative, is neglected as the herd rumbles on. Herd members will change their views rapidly, however, if the herd leaders change direction. By contrast, if the innovators are not part of the herd it becomes very difficult, or impossible, for them to change the herd's direction." - Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002)

"Genuine science is the opposite of dogmatism, but that does not keep dogmatists from invoking the name of science in order to shut off debate. Science is a method of analysis, rather than simply a set of conclusions. In fact, much of the history of science is a history of having to abandon the prevailing conclusions among scientists in light of new evidence or new methods of analysis." - Thomas Sowell (1930-)

"One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we've been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We're no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It's simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we've been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back." - Carl Sagan (1934-96), The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (1995)

"To me, consensus seems to be the process of abandoning all belief, principles, values and policies. So it is something in which no one believes and to which no one objects." - Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (1925-2013)

"Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"The greatest challenge facing mankind is the challenge of distinguishing reality from fantasy, truth from propaganda. Perceiving the truth has always been a challenge to mankind, but in the information age (or as I think of it, the disinformation age) it takes on a special urgency and importance." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had." - John Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

"Scientists are skeptics. It's unfortunate that the word 'skeptic' has taken on other connotations in the culture involving nihilism and cynicism. Really, in its pure and original meaning, it's just thoughtful inquiry." - Michael Brant Shermer (1954-)

"When the Lamb broke the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, 'Come and see!' I looked, and behold, there was before me a pale horse, and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following close behind him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth." - Book of Revelation 6:7-8

"So dark the con of man (Madonna on the Rocks)." - Dan Brown (1964-), The Da Vinci Code (2003)

"Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it." - Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900)

"Predict catastrophe no sooner than five years hence but no later than 10 years away, soon enough to terrify but distant enough that people will forget if you are wrong." - Gregg Easterbrook's Law of Doomsaying

"I don't know what you could say about a day in which you have seen four beautiful sunsets." - John Glenn (1921-2016)

"I should like to close by citing a well-recognized cliche in scientific circles. The cliche is 'In God we trust, others must provide data'." - Edwin R. Fisher, 1978

"The climate system is a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible." - IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001

Global Temperatures 500 Million Years Ago
Global Temperatures 2500 B.C. to 2040 A.D.
Deep Sea Sediment Core Climate Cycles
Historical Chart of Atmospheric CO2

CO2 Over Last 800K Years
Weight of CO2 in Earth's Atmosphere
Greenland GISP2 Ice Core - Last 10,000 Years Interglacial Temperature
Climate Warm Periods

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Earth's climate and Earth's climate history along with the history of climate change science and the great debate on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) (anthropogenic climate change) incl. radiative (climate) forcing. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

"For over 180 years scientists have been demonstrating that increased atmospheric CO2 causes global temperature increase. Among them, Joseph Fourier in 1824 and 1827; Eunice Foote in 1856; John Tyndall in 1859; Svante Arrhenius in 1896; C.J. Fox in 1909; John Henry Poynting in 1909; A. Angstron in 1918; Chamberlain and Fowle in 1916; Alexander Graham Bell in 1917; E.O. Hulburt in 1931; S.G. Callendar in 1937; Professor Gilbert Plass in 1956; Carl Sagan in 1972; Stephen Hawking in 1960; Isaac Asimov in 1968; Wally Broecker in 1975; Richard Feynman and 'The Jasons' in 1979; and over 660 science organization in 35 countries with one dissent." - David Rice. If you believe that without question I've got some swampland in Florida to sell you.

The climate change industry is currently a $22B/year to $1.5T/year enterprise, depending on whom you talk to, the higher figure amounting to $4B/day, the same spent on online retail sales. Right now the global warming scientists and climate skeptic scientists are divided into two hardened camps who don't talk to each other. At least the skeptics regularly look at the other side's publications, because they can't avoid them, but the establishment-backed-and-funded warmists have their minds locked in cages, unwilling or unable to seriously consider the skeptics' publications. Whoever you are, if you would like to know enough to decide for yourself if this expenditure is justified, this is the best historyscope on Earth's climate and climate science ever created, worthy of serious study, and really the only place to study the subject seriously with equal consideration given to both/all sides. No, it doesn't attempt to solve the science, but to chronicle the efforts to solve the science, with plenty of hyperlinks to explore the details for yourself. Yes, supergeneralist pansophist master of science & technology TLW has an opinion after all this research, his two cents worth, see the end of the file for the link.

Note to newbies: This isn't just another Internet blog article, it's a Historyscope, an intensive online course for people who want to know it all not just bits and pieces, a production of the awesome astounding power of the Historyscoper, containing thousands of embedded hyperlinks and hundreds of YouTube links to relevant sources, requiring long hours of serious study to be absorbed fact-by-fact, turning each weakness into a strength, with the comfort that you know that when you're done you're on top of the whole subject better than even the so-called experts in the field who didn't study it. It's important to click all the hyperlinks and at least scan them to give you a 3-D vision into history. Ditto the embedded YouTube videos, try listening to them while you're reading. Caveat: It's subject to change at any time, so refresh your browser before each study session. Is this propaganda? Heck no, it's education. Since a Historyscoper takes the cool impassioned view of what events will look like 500 years from now, this Historyscope presents all sides and lets the readers decide what to get passionate about; nothing is censored. If you've already made up your mind then at least don't lock it in a cage, open the door to new information and try to keep up with my other students and don't fall behind and be called a piker. Take this journey with me and go from probably knowing next to nothing about this subject to knowing everything worth knowing, and become a Climate Historyscoper. Note: Don't take TLW's word for anything, go ahead and click the sources first. TLW's personal comments and wisecracks are set off in italics and may be ignored, although they can be quite instructive and educational. :)

Before starting, you should be sure you're familiar with the main logical fallacies incl. Argumentum ad hominem (appealing to the person), Argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to authority), Argumentum ad populum (appeal to the people), Confirmation bias, Conspiracist ideation, Cum hoc ergo propter hoc (with this therefore because of this), Post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this therefore because of this), Causal reductionism (reduction fallacy) (fallacy of the single cause), Unfalsifiability (must take on faith), Non sequitur (formal or deductive fallacy), Petitio principii (begging the question), Red herring, Reification (concretism) (hypostatization) (misplaced concreteness), Slippery slope, Suppressing evidence (cherry picking), Tribalism, Tu quoque (appeal to hypocrisy).


Purple Rain by Prince Man in the Moon

About 4.4B B.C.E. the Purple Rain (from the zircons that form) of comets and/or asteroids greater than 100 km in dia. begins on Earth and the Moon (ends -3.9B); the mares are formed on the Moon, creating the plains of solidified lava forming the Man in the Moon; each impact on Earth vaporizes the oceans and conveniently sterilizes any existing life (incl. the gods on Mount Olympus?) while reforming the Earth's surface, furnishing it with most of its life-essential elements incl. carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; the intense heat creates an underground habitat where single cell "unboilable bacteria" thrive, according to Oleg Abramov et al. of the U. of Colo. in 2009. Between comets, does Earth actually get cool enough (100 C) for liquid water to form? The Four Legos of Life, the first primordial peptides are formed?

About 4B B.C.E. the Sun rotates 10x faster than today, generating a stronger magnetic field and sunspot activity, incl. several hundred times as much UV and X-ray radiation. About 4B B.C.E. the Faint Young Sun Paradox (70% intense as in modern times), pub. in 1972 by Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen tries to explain why the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%. Venus forms basalt continents and Mars forms shield volcanoes, with neither having differentiation or plate tectonics; Venus goes into a runaway greenhouse effect and loses water?; Mars loses its CO2 quickly and becomes too cold for liquid water and goes into permanent deep-freeze, whether or not it once had oceans?; Mars and Venus end up as the only two other Solar System planets with CO2 atmospheres - the soda pop planets? Eat your heart out, Ray Bradbury? As the bombardment slows, the Earth stabilizes and cools, and its surface becomes resurfaced for the last time and solidifies, the crust differentiates into the earliest felsic crust (first continents), and the initial atmosphere outgasses; a heavy rain floods the surface, forming the deep highly alkaline Archaean (Archean) (Soda) Ocean (Sea) by -3.9B, according to S. Kempe and E.T. Degens (1985), causing the thioredoxin enzymes to be developed, which are chemically stable at temps up to 58F (32C)?.

About 3.8B B.C.E. the first water-related sediments on Earth are found.

About 3.5B B.C.E. the Isuan Era (begun -3.8B) ends, and the Swazian Era of the Archean Eon begins (ends -2.8B); the oldest known oceanic crust is formed. Earth's strong magnetic field begins to decrease as the core nucleates (ends -2.8B). The earliest known fossil cells are from complex mat-forming microbial communities in W Australia that leave Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS); the Big Bang of Life occurs as two different prokaryote genomes fuse into a eukaryote genome in yeast within the next 2B years?

About 3.4B B.C.E. the first photosynthetic bacteria appear on Earth, absorbing near-infrared rather than visible light and producing sulfurous compounds; their pigments are predecessors to chlorophyll. The oldest fossilized single-cell organisms date to this era; they are anerobic bacteria.

About 3.2B B.C.E. the Earth has its first tides, and the lunar month is only 20 days, while the Earth year is 550 days.

About 2.8B B.C.E. the Swazian Era ends, and the Randian Era of the Hadean Eon begins in South Africa (ends -2.45B), when life gets randy and cyanobacteria begin photosynthesis using visible light, which releases CO2 into the atmosphere. The Earth's magnetic field stops its decline.

About 2.7B B.C.E. there is barely enough CO2 in the atmosphere to compensate for the faint young Sun, along with significant amounts of greenhouse gases incl. methane.

About 2.45B B.C.E. the Great Oxidation Event (Crisis) (Catastrophe) (Holocaust) (Revolution) sees the appearance of photosynthesis cause a sudden rise in oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere as oxygen-producing cyanobacteria in shallow waters crank it up; they were preceded by manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis?; the collective genome undergoes an expansion, bringing 27% of all modern gene families into existence; the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating CO2 and chilling the Earth, causing the Earth's First Ice Age; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 2.4B B.C.E. the Randian Era (begun -2.8B) ends, and the Huronian Era (Glaciation) begins (ends -2.1B) after the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating less powerful greenhouse gas CO2 and chilling the Earth, becoming Earth's first and longest ice age, causing a mass extinction of the simple unicellular life on Earth; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 1.4B B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels on Earth are 10x-200x greater than modern levels (7% vs. 0.35%).

About 1.1B B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia (Russ. "to give birth") emerges, causing land to cover 30% of the Earth's surface instead of only 5%; it ends up being surrounded by the single Iapetus Ocean in the S Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia by -600M; the Grenville Orogeny causes the Laurentian Mts. to be formed.

About 1B B.C.E. supercontinent Rodinia breaks up after plunging into a snowball state with ice-covered oceans from pole to pole; oxygen builds up in the atmosphere, along with the ozone layer, permitting terrestrial life; the number of eukaryotic species burgeons; the first Earth land life appears in the form of a biocrust of bacteria - try Head On, if it doesn't work we'll give you your money back?


About 750M B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia begins to separate into Euramerica, Siberia, and the largest, Gondwana (Gondwanaland), composed of modern-day South Am., Africa, S Europe, a large portion of the Middle East, India, Australia, New Zealand, and much of Antarctica; it extends from the low N latitudes to the high S latitudes; its index fossil is the Glossopteris; as a land bridge it allows manatees to migrate to W Africa, the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, and lemurs to Africa, Madagascar and India; they really reached Magadascar via rafting? The Neoproterozoic period, Earth's 2nd Ice Age sees a Snowball Earth (end -550M) covered by a series of global ice sheets, making it a giant snowball subject to a runaway albedo effect, according to Paul F. Hoffman et al. in 1998.

About 720M B.C.E. the Tonian Period ends, and the Cryogenian Period of the Neoproterozoic Era begins (ends -635M), seeing the Sturtian Glaciation (named after Sturt River Gorge in South Australia) and the Marinoan Glaciation (named after Marino near Adelaide, South Australia), the two greatest ice ages in Earth history, creating either a Snowball Earth or Slushball Earth (band of open sea near the equator); global avg. temp is 5C; CO2 level is 1300 ppm; O2 is 60% of modern level; the end of the glaciation releases methane from equatorial permafrost.

About 650M B.C.E. Snowball Earth sees Earth's surface become entirely frozen; really just a Slushball Earth with a thin equatorial band of seasonally open water?

About 550M B.C.E. atmospheric oxygen on Earth rises from 3% to the modern-day level of 21%, causing complex multicellular animal life to arise; carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration is 20x modern-day levels.

Car 54 Jehovah, where are you? Now which triangle is big, Mister Pockets? Is that a trilobite in your pocket, or are you just happy to see me? Working, working up a fast sweat in the o-zone? The family that plays together stays together? Oxygen in the air makes new big living things explode on sea and land in the combinatorial Cambrian Explosion? God's living Windows (Mac?) operating system size jumps from gigabyte to tetrabyte, er, trilobyte, er, trilobite?

The Original One Billion Served? It takes 4 billion years for Earth to evolve past single-celled life and start cooking Kentucky Plucked Chicken O'Fergus (Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) (King Philip Can Only Fight Giant Squids), ending in Big MacUs?

Lighting-Fast Cambrian Explosion? Trilobite Graptolite Brachiopods Conodont Annelids Sea Squirt Ctenophore Echinoderm Molluscs Sponges Foraminifera Radiolarian Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)

The breath of life really blows? About 540M B.C.E. the Hadrynian Era (begun -1B) ends; the 500M-year Precambrian Eon ends along with the (Late) Precambrian Era along with the Ediacaran Period (begun -600M), and the lightning fast (55.6M-year) Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era of the Phanerozoic (Present) Eon begins (ends -500M); named after the Cambrian (Welsh "Cymru" = Wales") Mts. of Wales by British geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) (who carried a lucky trilobite in his pocket, or was he just happy to see me?), who divided the period into Lower, Middle, and Upper based on the presence of Olenellus, Paradoxides and Olenus trilobites; the Earth now has the Western Interior Seaway and the Hudson Seaway, shallow seas covering parts of continents, and the modern-day continent of North Am. has two big inland seas, one on the E, where the large mountainous island of Appalachia (modern-day E seaboard of the U.S. and Canada) exists, and the other on the W, where the large mountainous island (peninsula?) of Cascadia (modern-day Alaska, British Columbia, Wash., Ore., N Calif.) exists; the ozone layer and atmosphere are developed sufficiently to permit a Cambrian Explosion (Radiation) of thousands of new species (incl. all the modern phyla or basic body plans); the first animals with egg, sperm, embryo, and blastula appear; Saccorhytus coronarius, with a large mouth and no anus is the first living creature?; hard-shelled arthropods appear, the most abundant being the 1-18-in.-long (usually 1-4) swimming, bottom-feeding, 3-lobed trilobites with gills, walking legs, and crescent-shaped eyes (distantly related to the modern horseshoe crab), also coelenterates (with stingers), graptolites (colonial organisms with a skeleton of tough chitinlike material), small, mollusc-like, shelled brachiopods (lampshells), conodonts (cone teeth), annelids (segmented worms), chordates (sea squirts), ctenophores (comb-bearers), echinoderms (starfish), molluscs, sponges; also foraminifera (single-shelled protists with shells), dinomastigotes, radiolarians; it was caused by a cascade of events, according to Paul Smith of Oxford U. and David Harper of Durham U - this Instant Powdered Life in the Murky Mud seems so hokey that to prohibit the teaching of alternates to Darwinian Evolutionary Theory in public schools seems like brainwashing, and parents should pull their kids out in protest?

About 485M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); CO2 content of the atmosphere is 4.2K ppm.

Abou 400M B.C.E. the ice age ends; the year is 400 days, the Moon is closer than it is now and the Earth is spinning faster. The appearance of vascular plants (tracheophytes) and large predatory fish coincide with increased oxygen levels; the first fires appear?

About 359M B.C.E. the Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Mississippian (Lower or Early Carboniferous) Period (coal-forming) of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -323M), with avg. global temps of 20C (68F), cooling during the Middle Carboniferous to 12C (54F), with 22.4-hour day creating a stronger Coriolis effect and winds, and atmospheric oxygen content of 35% allowing terrestrial invertebrates esp. insects and amphibians to grow to great sizes; lower sea levels than in the Devonian Period allow swamps and forests to expand in North Am. and Europe, and the first bark-bearing trees to appear along with wood fiber lignin and waxy bark-sealing suberin enjoying a lack of enzymes for them in bacteria, allowing large quantities of wood to be buried; marine beds are common in E North Am. in the early part of the period, almost disappearing by the end; trilobites become uncommon, and marine life becomes rich in crinoids (sea lillies) and other echinoderms, as well as brachiopods (lamp shells); coniferous trees appear in the late Carboniferous, on higher ground; petroleum arises from layers of dead plants and animals?

About 350M B.C.E. the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air is about the same as modern times, rising by 200M B.C.E. to 4x-5x modern-day levels.


-335,000,000 Earth turns over a new leaf? The supercontinent of Pangaea (Pangea) is formed by Gondwana and Laurasia; the vast global Panthalassa Ocean is born (until -175M; the Ancestral Rockies are formed.

About 323M B.C.E. the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Pennsylvanian (Upper or Late Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -299M); mountains are raised along the E coast of North Am. and C Europe; lush, moist seed-bearing fern forests populated by amphibians and winged insects in the N hemisphere produce vast coal reserves composed primarily of carbon.

About 300M B.C.E. the Permo-Carboniferous Era begins (ends -250M), becoming the longest and severest glaciation of the Phanerozoic Eon, with an ice sheet covering a circle spanning 50 deg of latitude around the South Pole, and CO2 levels of 313-344 ppm, giving the first evidence for continental drift.

About 290M B.C.E. the Pennsylvanian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Permian Period (7th and last) of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -252M), characterized by glaciation in the S Hemisphere incl. permafrost, the final folding of the Appalachians and C European ranges, and reefs in warm N seas; the coal forests decline, and conifers (firs) and ferns replace them; the first cycads and ammonites appear; the trilobites become extinct; amniotes (egg-layers) diversify into large amphibians, mammal-like and bird-like, and lizards incl. dinosaurs (archosaurs), which surpass the amphibians; atmospheric CO2 concentration is 900 ppm, and avg. surface temp is about 16C, with 23% O2 in the atmosphere.

The Tris are Sick Period begins, or, Die Trilobites, die, or, Heads up, it's hairspray? The worst mass-extinction of all time?

230 Million B.C.E. - Triassic

About 252M B.C.E. the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era (Age of the Reptiles) begins (ends -201M); the hot flat dry C-shaped supercontinent of Pangea encloses the Tethys Sea (Ocean), and has a hothouse climate with inland deserts; the three subperiods are Buntsandstein (Lower), Muschelkalk (Middle) (Ger. "shellbearing limestone"), and Keuper (Upper); lava flows in E North Am.; ferns and cycads dominate land plants; insects of modern types appear. Over the next 5M-10M years the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event (Great Dying) (Earth's third) loses 75%-95% of all species, mostly in the sea, incl. 80%-96% of the marine species and 57% of all marine families, plus 70% of land species, incl. gigantopterids; crinoids are hard-hit; 36 of 48 families of amphibians and reptiles die out; sea urchin species drop from 20-30 to 1-2; trilobites and pelycosaurs become extinct; the mass extinction peaks at -252.28 and lasts less than 200K years, with most of the extinction lasting about 20K years; it takes 10M years for a fully-functioning ecosystem to develop; parareptiles are not affected?; was this extinction triggered by an impact event of a comet or 7-mi.-diam. asteroid (Luann Becker et al. of the U. of Wash., 2001), or volcanoes (the Siberian Traps) in Siberia (triggering the poisoning of marine life with carbon dioxide and methane, and the extinction of terrestrial life via a global greenhouse effect), or a geomagnetic reversal, or a mammoth undersea methane bubble, caused by the Methanosarcina microbe, or did the lack of scattered continents and cold poles cause the ocean to become stagnant and fill with CO2? (Andrew H. Knoll of Harvard U., 1996)?; computer models by researchers Justin Penn and Curtis Deutsch of the U. of Wash., and Jonathan Payne and Erik Sperling of Stanford U. in 2018 find that the warmer oceans lost about 80% of their oxean, and about half of the ocean sea floor became oxygen-free, favoring species living in the tropics - maybe this is where the part in the Bible about giants in the Earth and Noah's Flood comes in?

About 251M B.C.E. the Siberian Traps in Siberia are formed by a massive volcanic eruption that lasts 2M years, leaving 7M sq. km of basaltic rock with a vol. of 4M cubic km. by modern times.

About 230M (-234M?) B.C.E. the Carnian Pluvial Episode (Event) (Raibi Event) sees widespread extinction of green algae, bryozoa, ammonoids, and conodonts, along with radiation of dinosaurs, corals, crinoids, and calcareous nanofossils; the earliest known dinosaur is dog-sized Eoraptor in Argentina; it rains for 2M years? Watch video.

About 144M B.C.E. the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era ends, and the Cretaceous Period (Lat. "creta" = chalk) of the Mesozoic Era begins (ends -66M), an era of a greenhouse climate (warmest period in the last 600M years), with no ice in the polar regions and the climate of Alaska like that of Oregon; the spread of reptiles and the development of flowering plants begins; bony fish begin a major radiation; in the U.S. the Lower Cretacean is also called the Comanchean, after the Comanches of Texas; another mass-extinction occurs, and most sauropods in the N Hemisphere, along with stegosaurus, allosaurus, ceratosaurus, ornitholestes et al. become extinct - no likey de steam baths?

About 137M B.C.E. after high levels of CO2 raise global temp and melt polar ice, a sudden sea temp. drop in the Atlantic Gulf Stream from 13C (55F) to 4C-7C (39F-44F) occurs, leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs by -65M, not a meteor, according to Gregory Price et al. of Plymouth U.


In 81M B.C.E. the 3.6K-mi. Pacific Ocean Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain of volcanoes rises from the Hawaiian hotspot, which is located far from tectonic plate boundaries.

The worst day in history? A Millennium Fever 6-6-6 megalennium, and what happens? The Double-Edge Swordoid? A giant asteroid impact giveth, and taketh away? Do you love the asteroids or do you hate them?

In 66M B.C.E. the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event sees a 1T-ton 6-mi.-dia. asteroid or smaller comet impact in the area of Chicxulub, Mexico, apparently causing the 5th worldwide (2nd largest) mass-extinction (75% of all species), leaving the K-PG (Cretaceous-Paleogene) Boundary, a thin layer of sediment with high levels of iridium; too bad, the Chicxulub crater lacks iridium; the 24km diam. Boltysh Crater in Ukraine happens several thousand years earlier?; at first sulfur chokes the atmosphere and blocks the Sun for years or decades, causing land temps to plummet by 28C (50F), after which increased CO2 levels cause global warming by 5C (9F) for 100K-300K years; the dinosaurs are wiped out, along with many primitive species of Cretaceous birds, allowing the mammals to inherit the Earth, rapidly increasing their max size from 10kg to 17 tons, a factor of 1Kx; the ammonites become extinct; plankton and small wormlike creatures recover in the silty crater seafloor within a few years; birds have to rediscover how to fly after only flightless emu-like species survive; mixotrophs, which can consume organic matter in the absence of sunlight help smaller organisms survive?; the mass exinction of the dinos was really caused by the Earth traveling through a thin disk of dark matter running through the Galaxy?; long-term climate change kills off the dinosaurs, not a rogue asteroid, according to German paleontologist Michael Prauss; the precise date is 66,038,000 B.C.E.; the decline of plant-eating dinosaur species in the last few million years is what doomed them? Within 400K years rat-sized placental Protungulatum donnae emerges in North Am., becoming the ancestor of all placental mammals, which branch into 5.4K modern-day species?

About 65M B.C.E. the Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic Era (begun -144M) ends, and the Paleocene (Palaeocene) ("old recent") Subperiod (Epoch) of the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era (Age of Mammals) begins (until -56M); the other subperiods are Eocene ("dawn new"), Oligocene ("few new"), Miocene ("less new"), and Pliocene ("more new") - pee on Moe? The Earth's atmosphere goes from 35% to 21% oxygen. The Laramide Orogeny begins, producing the Rocky Mountains. The 1.5K-mi.-long 137-strong Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, riding on the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain begin to be formed by a chain of volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire; despite not being in an earthquake zone, the accretion of material on top of volcanoes causes regular collapses which generate earthquakes; the Hawaiian coastline is 750 mi. (1,210km) long, 4th longest in the U.S. after Alaska, Fla., and Calif. - giving a visit to paradise a caffeine edge?

About 56M B.C.E. the Paleocene Period of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Eocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period begins (ends -33.9M); Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India separate from and begin colliding with the Eurasian continent, raising the Rockies, Andes, and Alps; the Eurasian Plate crumples and overrides the Indian Plate, creating the Himalayas ("abode of snows"); Mount Everest forms; Antarctica breaks away from Australia, opening the Greenland-Norwegian Sea; Australia ends up as the continent with the smallest distance between its high and low points (7.5K ft.), as well as the highest low point and the lowest high point; air masses forced over the Himalayas to the E become bone dry, creating the Gobi Desert, and the Great Loess (Huangtu) Plateau of C China, which later becomes the center of Chinese rice production. A volcano in Scotland is as big as the 1883 Krakatoa eruption, helping trigger the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)?

About 55.5M B.C.E. the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) sees global sea surface temps rise 5C-8C (11F) (from 3C to 8C-11) and sea temps reach 20C for 200K years because of degassing methane ice deposits (clathrates) lasting 20K years, causing mass extinctions of foraminifera, allowing plankton to migrate to higher latitudes along with land animals and plants; the avg. temp. at the North Pole is 23C (74 F), with alligator ancestors and palm trees caused by a greenhouse effect?; mammals begin to proliferate; the warming was caused by massive release of mostly volcanic greenhouse gases, which was still slow enough for negative feedbacks to mitigate ocean acidification?

About 55M B.C.E. the Arctic region around the North Pole is subtropical, with surface sea temps of 23C (73F) (until -49M). Angiosperm herbs and trees with fruit, and grasses appear; associated with this is a significant increase in the diversity of birds and insects (cabbage-sized mosquitoes?). Mammals spread from Eurasia to Africa and India.

About 49M B.C.E. the ocean around the North Pole is closed off by the continents, creating a freshwater sea at about 10C (50F); breatfruit trees and crocodiles thrive on the shores of the Arctic Ocean; too bad, low salinity causes Azolla ferns to multiply, consuming the carbon dioxide and cooling it down?

About 40M B.C.E. the avg. global temp is 88F (31C) due to high CO2 levels of 900-1K ppm.

About 18M B.C.E. the Miocene Climatic Optimum begins (ends -16M). The W half of the Grand Canyon begins to open from crustal stretching, eroding at 1-2 in. every 1K years?; the Great Uniformity of the Grand Canyon took more than erosion? - how did the Grand Canyon get dug? Two Jews dropped a penny?

About 16M B.C.E. an enormous volcano in the Pacific Northwest erupts, covering modern-day Wash., Ore. and Idaho with lava for 750K years, which become the Columbia River Flood Basalts, bringing global warming along with elevated CO2 levels; the Langhian stage of the Miocene Epoch begins (ends -13.65M), continuing the warming period until -14.8M to -14.1M, when a major growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet along with increased production of cold Antarctic deep waters brings cooling along with a wave of extinctions of aquatic and terrestrial life forms.

About 15M B.C.E. the Earth becomes cooler and more arid, but the climate is still very warm, up to 6C (11F) warmer than today, with almost all the ice melting, and CO2 levels as high as modern times; alligators live in England.

About 12M B.C.E. the Earth shifts relative to its spin axis, causing Greenland to move far enough toward the North Pole to kick off the ice age that began about 3.2M B.C.E.?

About 10M-6M B.C.E. the North Pole has ice-free summers, and the sea surface temp reaches 4C-9C (39F-48F), with sea levels about 100m higher than today.

About 7.2M B.C.E. the Messinian Age (Salinity Crisis) begins (ends -5.3M), in which the Mediterranean becomes separated from the Atlantic and becomes shallow, losing 5K ft. of depth, with a retraction of the shores that washes out underground oil and gas with river streams in the Nile Delta, and forms a saltwater sea gorge invading the Nile as far S as Aswan; primates migrate from Africa to S Spain across dry land (Am. Museum of Nat. History); some Atlantic eels, which breed in the Sargasso Sea (S of Bermuda) become separated E of Gibraltar, making that their new breeding ground? - what an eely mess?

About 5.33M B.C.E. the Gibraltar Dam keeping the Atlantic out of the Mediterranean breaks, causing the Zanclean Flood (Deluge), flooding the Mediterranean desert with 1 mi. of saltwater within 50 years, creating the 40-mi. x 9-24 mi. x 1K ft. deep Strait of Gibraltar, with entrance at the Pillars of Hercules incl. the Rock of Gibraltar (world's most famous rock?) on the S point of the Iberian Peninsula, and Mt. Abila (Abyla) (Sierra Bullones) (Monte Hacho) in Ceuta, N Africa, or Jebel Musa in Morocco, N Africa.

About 4.5M B.C.E. the Pliocene Warm Period begins (ends -3.5M); the Bering Sea is ice-free and full of life.

The Pleistocene is the nice icy place for modern man to be seen? Meanwhile, farewell mammoths?

About 2.588M B.C.E. the Pliocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Pleistocene Epoch (AKA Ice Age) (named by Charles Lyell) of the Quaternary Period begins (ends -9.7K), characterized by cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch Cycles; global cooling leads to frequent Ice Ages and glaciers covering more than 25% of the Earth's land surface; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covers North Am. (Canada and the N U.S. as far S as Penn., as far W as the Missouri River, incl. the Great Lakes and the area between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers), reaching 2 mi. thuck in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, along with volcanoes along the W coast of the U.S., and another glacier from the Rocky Mts. S and E to the Mississippi River as far S as St. Louis, Mo., and more glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mts. as far S as New Mexico; yet more glaciers cover Scandinavia S and E across N Germany and W Russia and SW over the British Isles; yet another giant glacier covers Siberia; the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada Mts., Glacier Nat. Park in the Rocky Mts., Bonneville Lake (which shrinks to Great Salt Lake), the Great Lakes, Lake Algonquin, Lake Iroquois, and the Finger Lakes are left when they recede, along with the Red River Valley of Manitoba, left by glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained into Hudson Bay - a huge gulp of time is the pleis to be cene?

About 1.8M B.C.E. after the Nubian Swell, a geologic structural uplift going E-W separating the lower Nile River from the Sudan basin causes the Nile River to dry up (until -0.8M), the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and Eurasia via a land bridge in the Levant halts; Homo erectus becomes the first human ancestor to migrate out of Africa.


About 800K B.C.E. equatorial ice sheets exist on Earth, indicating a high angle of Earth tilt before the Moon exerts full control; the Moon just happens to keep the Earth from wobbling from 0-85 deg. over time, causing the regular change of seasons which keep temperatures in the livable range, and provide for rain; the Moon just happens to be relatively larger than the moons of the giant planets, and serves as a useful light by night - score one zillion for God or Chance?

About 781K B.C.E. the Brunhes Matuyama Reversal sees the Earth's magnetic field undergo geomagnetic reversal within the space of a human lifetime, becoming one of 83 reversals from 83M B.C.E. to modern times; scientists predict the next one in the next cent., killing communications satellites and allowing cosmic rays to bombard Earth.


About 300,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation in the Alps (named after the Riss River in Upper Swabia) begins (ends -128K), along with the Saale Glaciation (ends -128K).

About 128,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation ends, and the Eeemian (Sangamonian) (Ipswichian) (Mikulin) (Kaydayky) (Valdivia) (Riss-Wurm) Warming begins (ends -113K), becoming the last interglacial period; Northern Hemisphere winters are warmer and wetter than today, with some areas slightly cooler; the hippopotamus ranges as far N as the Rhine and Thames Rivers; trees grow as far N as S Baffin Island (vs. Kuujjuaq, N Quebec today); the Great Plains prairie-forest boundary is near Lubbock, Tex. (vs. Dallas, Tex. today).

About 123,000 B.C.E. forests reach as far N as North Cape, Norway above the Arctic Circle; hazel and oak grow as far N as Oulu, Finland.

About 113,000 B.C.E. the Eemian Warming ends, and the Wurm (Würm) Glaciation (named after a river in Bavaria), the Last glacial period begins in Europe (ends -9.7K), becoming the last ice age in the Alpine region, and the youngest major glaciation to extend beyond the Alps, with avg. yearly temps below -3C; this period sees 25 Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) Events, rapid warming over decades followed by global cooling over a few cents., expanding the polar front S across the North Atlantic Ocean; each is preceded by a Heinrich Event, in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic, depositing rock matter on the sea floor and adding extensive amounts of fresh water.

About 100K B.C.E. the Sahara is cool and wet enough to support sparse hunter-gatherer pops., and from thence modern humans spread to North Africa and the Near East? Kilauea (Hawaiian "spewing", "much spreading") emerges above sea level, becoming one of five volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii, and the most active, emitting 2K deg. F basalt lava, the hottest known, enough to pave 20 mi. of 2-line highway per day in modern times. 90% of modern-day Earth species came into being about this time? Condors emerge in North Am.

Are races born out of fire or ice? About 73,000 B.C.E. the Toba Volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia supererupts, burying human sites containing stone tools; no humans arrive in S Asia until after this; did 6-10 years of global volcanic winter followed by a 1K-y. cooling episode cause rapid genetic divergence in modern races of humans?; did humans actually thrive after the eruption?

About 73,000 B.C.E. a long cooling period begins in Europe (ends -9K); the Wisconsin Glaciation, the last glaciation begins in North Am., reaching a max ice extent approx. 21K B.C.E.; it is responsible for the disappearance of Neanderthals, not displacement by modern humans, who simply were better able to adapt to cold?

About 60,000-40,000 B.C.E. buried wood trunks dug up in 1999 indicate that surface temps are 2C-3C warmer than today, even though atmospheric CO2 is 200 ppm.

About 40,000 B.C.E. a climate-changing volcanic eruption in Liguria on the Italian Rivera in the Phlegraean Fields W of modern-day Naples devastates Europe, wiping out most of the Homo sapiens, with some surviving in rock shelters incl. Riparo Bombrini.

About 24,000 B.C.E. sea level reaches a minimum as ice sheets jutting out from Antarctica become fully attached to the sea floor; about 12,000 B.C.E. the West Antarctic Ice Sheet contracts to a small size, then collapses and calves into the sea about 10,300 B.C.E., after which inland glaciers begin breaking up 200-1,400 years later; the Larsen Ice Shelf in the N Antarctic Peninsula collapses in 2002 C.E.

About 19,000 B.C.E. the Last Glacial Maximum sees a cold Earth whose N continents are covered by vast ice sheets, with low atmospheric CO2 levels.

About 17,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Glacial Retreat begins, seeing the glacial ice sheet begin its retreat to the N, accelerating about -13K and ending about -9.7K with abrupt warming and rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of Europe and North Am.; melting ice causes a global sea level rise until -4K, averaging 10mm/year (1m/cent.), with rapid jumps of up to 2.5m/cent.; sea levels continue to rise to modern times at a rate of 2.8mm/year, for a total of 120m (400 ft.).

About 16,000 B.C.E. the Wurm Glaciation in the European Alps reaches its maximum extent in the Gschnitz Stadial; there is a mi.-thick glacier on Manhattan Island, Seattle, Berlin, and London, and a continuous belt of winter sea ice extending S to Cape Hatteras. The Older Dryas (end -13K), based on oxygen isotope ratio cycles and the marker species Dryas octopetaia is a climatic period during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian Glaciation in N Europe. The last ice age in the S Hemisphere ends in response to warming in the N Hemisphere?

About 12,900 B.C.E. a comet hits E Canada, causing wildfires followed by chilly weather that helps wipe out the woolly mammoths along with three-fourths of the large mammals plus the Clovis people, as indicated by tiny diamonds found in Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island off Calif. and other sites in 2009?; the real cause of mammoth extinction was inbreeding?

About 12,500 B.C.E. the Sahara Desert becomes moist and wet, with a savanna climate, peaking about 4,000 B.C.E., when the Sahara reverts to desert conditions, causing a marked decline in the magnitude of Nile River floods between 2,700 B.C.E. and 2,100 B.C.E.

About 11,800 B.C.E. (-12.7K to -11.5K) Meltwater Pulse 1A causes global sea level to rise 16m-25m (52 ft.-82 ft.) in 400-500 years (40mm-60mm/year).

About 10,900 B.C.E. start of the Younger Dryas (-10.8K?) (ends -9.4K) (named after an Arctic plant of the rose family which appears), last cold snap of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) Epoch (begun -2.586M), caused by an inrush of fresh glacial meltwater from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans greater than the volume of all the Great Lakes combined, causing abrupt (10 years) cooling in Europe and North Am. and return of near-glacial conditions for 1K years, leading to extinction of megafauna in North Am. incl. mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and giant short-faced bears, and the extinction of the Clovis Culture; it is caused by a comet impact (over the Great Lakes?) that set large areas of North Am. on fire and caused the extinction of most of its megafauna along with mass starvation of humans?; the melting of continental ice sheets reverses in Scotland and Norway; abrupt drought in the Near East brings on the beginnings of agriculture, the creation of granaries to store food, etc., ending the mobile way of life, and causing pop. concentrations around sources of water, changing Stone Age hunter-gatherers into the world's first farmers, and the first domestication and genetic selection of plants incl. wheat and grains; at the same time Antarctica heats up by 1°C, coupled with rising CO2; it is caused by a comet ripping through North Am., according to Douglas J. Kennett et al. of the U. of Ore. in 2009; in 2010 C. Vance Haynes of the U. of Ariz. finds evidence for a comet to be lacking; nanodiamond evidence is inconclusive and tends to contradict the comet theory?; in 2013 Mukul Sharma et al. of Dartmouth College claim conclusive evidence of an asteroid or comet impact.

About 9,700 B.C.E. the Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period (begun -2.586M) ends, and the Holocene (Recent) Epoch of the Quaternary Period begins (until ?); Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa is topped with ice (until 2021?).

About 9,000 B.C.E. the Boreal Age begins in N Europe, based on the study of Danish peat bogs and named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Semander, characterized by a pollen zone.

Colin Renew (1937-)

About 7,800 B.C.E. the last ice age ends, and the Atlantic Period Begins (ends -4.8K), AKA the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Thermal Maximum) (Megathermal) (Hypsithermal) (Mid-Holocene Warm Period), becoming the warmest period of the Holocene, a warmer climate than today; humans are still mainly at the hunter-gatherer stage; meanwhile complex trade routes begin to be set up in the Mediterranean basin between now and -5000, according to British archeologists Colin Renfew (1937-) et al.

About 7,500 B.C.E. the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase) begins (ends -3500), bringing wet rainy conditions to North Africa incl. a Green (Wet) Sahara; the climate of Britain warms up to modern conditions, and Britain is reforested; Periodic tidal waves over the next 2K years inundate 1K sq. mi. of land now under the North Sea.

About 7,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Thermal Maximum (Climatic Optimum) begins (ends -3K); Hinlopen Strait in Svalbard is 4C-7C warmer than modern times even though CO2 concentration is 260 ppm; Eden-like conditions exist in Egypt?

About 6,200 B.C.E. after melting glaciers pour cold fresh water into the North Atlantic, a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) begins (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, cooling the climate of Europe, Greenland, and SW Asia and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile drier summers reduce crop yields, causing Catal Huyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to be abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.

Jason and the Argonauts Hero and Leander Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) William B.F. Ryan

About 5,600 B.C.E. according to geologists Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) and William B.F. Ryan of Columbia U. in 1997, a catastrophic Great Flood creates the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) when the Mediterranean creates a giant 30-mi. by 1-to-4 mi. crack called the Dardanelles (Gk. Hellespontus) (Turk. Cannakkale bogazi) (between Asia Minor and the Gallipoli Peninsula of Europe), connecting the Aegean (Mediterranean) Sea with the Sea of Marmara (Propontis), and then flushes over the even narrower (20 mi. x 0.5-2.75 mi. x 400 ft. deep) crack called the Bosporus (Bosphorus) Straits (Bosporus Thracius) (Karadeniz Bogazi) (Gk. "Ox Ford", since the goddess Io turned into a heifer and swam it) (originally a spillway for freshwater flowing into the Aegean Sea), and floods the freshwater Euxine Lake (should be White Is Right Lake?) (the S end later called the Golden Horn, one of the largest natural harbors on Earth) with a force 400x that of Niagara Falls, the sound carrying for 60 mi. and turning it into a mixed 6K-7K ft. deep, 165K sq. mi. (750 mi. x 380 mi.) fresh-saltwater body characterized by brutal (mainly winter) storms and a lethal anoxic bottom layer full of hydrogen sulfide, with the freshwater flowing toward the Bosporus on the top, while the saltwater comes in underneath 40 ft. down above the anoxic sublayer in a swift current (made swifter for 10 mo. of each year by winds), causing it to become impassable, and the shores unlivable, and the Epic of Gilgamesh to later call it "the waters of death", Pliny the Elder to call it Pontus Axenus (Pontos Axeinos) (Inhospitable Sea), and the Turks to call it Karadeniz (Harbinger of Death); later some jokesters call it the Pontos Euxeinos (Hospitable Sea); the Greeks call the Dardanelles the Hellespontus because Helle alleged drowns there while fleeing with the Golden Fleece; Leander (Gk. "lion man") dies in the Hellespont during a nightly crossing from Abydos to visit his virgin-vowed babe Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, whose usual lamp in the tower is extinguished by a storm, and when his body washes ashore in front of her she throws herself in after him and drowns; lame Lord Byron swims it in 1810 C.E. to prove he's a lion man hero and not a girlie man?; the Black Sea becomes a challenge to sailors, engendering the 7-11 (July-Aug.-Sept.-Oct.-Nov.) story of Jason and the Argonauts (sent from Thessaly to fetch it from Colchis in modern-day W Georgia by his uncle King Pelias of Thessaly, he gets Hercules to join, but Herc's boyfriend Hylas is lured by nymphs on the coast of Mysia in Asia Minor, causing him to jump ship to look for him), until they figure out how to hop from island to island between storms, and drag a 40-ft. anchor to let the saltwater layer tug them along; the flood causes dispersion of farmers to Europe and Asia, incl. proto Indo-Europeans up the Dnieper River, Semites and Ubaids S to the Levant and Mesopotamia, Kartvelians to the Caucasus Mts., Linearbandkeramik (LBK) farmers up the Dnieper River over the Carpathians through Prague into the Rhineland N of the Alps (continually leapfrogging for reasons unknown?), Vincas farmers up the Danube River into the Hungarian Basin, Hamangians into Thrace, Danilo-Hvars through the Aegean and Ionian Seas into the Dinaric Alps on the E coast of the Adriatic, and Tocharians E to the Tarim Basin S of the Tien Shan Mts. and N of the Tibetan Plateau in Chinese Turkestan (later the route of the Silk Road).


Madam, in Eden I'm Adam? Name no one man? This is everything I wanted, this is just for men? Our brochure will give you the answers? The beginning of the Leta (Let's Exterminate the Aliens) the Swan Story? The darkest alley in the Great Track of Time has the most profound consequences for who, me, yes, you?

Adam and Eve, by Giulio Clovio (1546) Rivers of Eden Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) Satan

In 4004 B.C.E. the nightfall (6:00 p.m.) before Oct. 23 (Sun.) (autumnal equinox) is the date of the Creation, according to Protestant Bible fundamentalists, based on the work of Irish Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656), who in "The Annals of the World" (1658) dates the birth of Christ in 4 B.C.E. (so Darwinian evolution is the Fall of the House of Ussher?); end of the Sixth Day (land animals and man created); Adam (d. -3074) (Heb. "red", as in dirt or maybe blood, the sacred mojo of Jehovah?) is created from the dust of the Earth (Gen. 2:7); Noah's birth is 1,056 years ahead (-2992); (the original think outside the bun wasn't a good idea?) the Garden of Eden, the birthplace of the human race, is the source of four rivers, the Euphrates (Prath), Gihon, Pishon (which encircles the entire land of Havilah), and Tigris (Hidekel), indicating either that it is in the snow-covered mountains or that there is no snow but that it receives a constant source of rainfall, making it a lush garden where food and medicine grow on trees and all humans have to do is tend them and live practically forever, as long as they don't disobey God (i.e. sin), which he tests them by telling them that one special tree is not to be eaten from, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad (Evil), which is not necessarily special in itself but is just an easy-to-obey test, which doesn't stop them from doing it anyway, introducing Sin into the world, causing God to instantly judge them as worthy of death and have them expelled from Eden so they can be die eventually despite any and all technology they can come up with to feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in the cruel world, while being barred from directly talking with God anymore, leaving them to their new god, I hope you know my name, please allow me to introduce myself, Satan, Heaven's Top Model, originally the 2nd of God's sons (the Logos being the first), who was originally given the prestige job of "covering angel" for newly-created humans, the first material creatures created in God's image (hence all the complicated gray junk in our skulls), and are given God's Blessing of living forever while multiplying and filling the Earth and subduing it through the seed of the original perfect sinless man Adam, who can talk directly with God if he wants to and doesn't need a Savior yet? Too bad, Satan gets tired of working in the department store and letting little humans sit on his knee, and grows envious of God, figures these inferior humans can be subverted to worship him instead, and goes to work with the Great Deception, appearing in the form of a naughty girl's toy and getting a little too friendly with "weaker vessel" Eve (the first cunnilingus?), after which "the Serpent beguiled me and I did eat" of the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and sin (disobey an order of God, who made sinning both so easy and so hard, depending on whether you love him); then, even worse, she leads her lawfully-married-under-God husband Adam to do it for fear of losing his helpmate (tailor-made just for him out of his rib) and ending up as a lonely people counting crows again? Too bad, this leaves God standing in the wind, as sin is the ultimate grief man can give their all-loving Creator, who, as an all-just judge, must reverse the Blessing and institute the Curse, kick them out of the Garden of Eden (where life is easy and food and medicine grow on trees, and animals are all tame and vegetarian), and bar them from the gates by an angel with a flaming sword (Gen. 3:24), after which the area turns into a sour grapes forbidden zone overgrown with vegetation? Once he's past that problem, the fallen angel Satan (opposer) (serpent) (Rev. 12:9), AKA Lucifer (Light-Bringer, appearing to be Light) (Isaiah 14:12-13) and Devil (liar, slanderer) (1 Peter 5:8) (the original Elvis?), who sinned first, before Eve and Adam, and who is himself doomed to die and knows it, decides he'd rather rule in hell than serve in heaven, and keeps his new groupies deceived that the world is still their oyster, death is natural, but that if they stick with him and do his walk they're going to become as gods and know right from wrong on their own outside of God's favor, therefore stayin' alive, stayin' alive forever, when actually they're his slaves, told what to think and do, and led down the er, garden path as they are under judgment of eternal death by their wronged Creator and Supreme Court? So what do they do? The wrong thing? Instead of repenting, telling Satan to stuff it and trying to get right with God, they continue to sin and let themselves be used, abused and losed by Sick Santa, spreading their sin to their children, and filling a fallen Earth with fallen people more and more openly worshiping Satan as their god after totally alienating themselves from the Real Thing Big J (Jehovah)? Never fear, God-And-Man-No-Religion-Modern-Love, the Sun's coming up, as Big J knows the End from the Beginning, and is already an infinite number of moves ahead of his opponent Jim the Bow Snake, and has already put a Redemption Plan (Gen. 3:15) in place to turn the Curse back into the Blessing, after man earns it, not by doing good works expecting to pay the fine and avoid the death sentence, but by being faithful to the Invisible God no matter what bull Satan can tempt him with, and paying the one and only ransom God will accept, namely, not all of Nature Talks To Me, but Jesus swinging in the breeze? But that's where you come in? As a day is as a thousand (or thousands) of our years with God (2 Peter 3:8, Psalms 90:4), it will end up taking 4K+ years to implement, as humans reproduce into the billions and all the variations on the board get played? Meanwhile, God makes the Earth livable, but with no free lunch, i.e., only at the expense of eternal toil, pain in childbirth, sickness and disease caused by the loss of perfection (Gen. 3:16-19)? You got X-ray eyes? Too bad, until the game is played out this is Satan's world now, and he keeps accusing God of being unable to maintain the loyalty of man without giving him everything for free, and even appears in his court (Job chap. 1) to make a motion to allow him to have a free hand to afflict him with curses to show God he's right that even a righteous man will blame and curse God instead of him?

About 3,900 B.C.E. the 5.9 Kiloyear Event begins (ends -3400), bringing five cents. of colder climate in northernly latitudes, launching the modern dessication of the Sahara and triggering human immigration to the Nile River Valley.

About 3,250 B.C.E. the Great Shock of 3250 B.C.E. sees 1K years of wet stormy weather begin (ends -1500).

About 3,040 B.C.E. the climate of North Am., along with vegetation cover and sea levels achieve modern levels.

In 2600 B.C.E. the pop. in the Indus Valley and Sarasvati River regions begins to mushroom due to farming (ends -2000), building two large cities by -2500 at Harappa on the Indus River S of Lahore in W Punjab, Pakistan, and Mohenjo-Daro near Larkana in S Sindh, Pakistan, with public bldgs. and sanitation, leaving the sculptures Dancing Girl and Priest-King; discovered in the 1920s; too bad, starting about 2500 B.C.E. a climate change begins, causing summer monsoon rains to gradually dry up, causing the Harappa culture to abandon their cities and move to smaller villages in the Himalayan foothills by 1800 B.C.E.

Noah's Ark Noah's Great Flood, -2348

In 2,348 B.C.E. Methuselah (b. -3317) dies at age 969 (Gen. 5:27); 600-y.-o. Noah (b. -2948) finishes Noah's Ark, 300 cubits long x 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high (438 ft. x 73 ft. x 44 ft.) (Gen. 6:15-16), which has 1.4M cubic ft. of cargo space and 96K sq. ft. of floor space on 3 floors (same as the Titanic) and holds at least the bare minimum of 43 kinds of mammals, 74 kinds of birds, and 10 kinds of reptiles necessary to restock the Earth; the waters of the Great Flood of Noah (Noah's Flood) (Genesis Flood) (Deluge) begin to fall in Nov. (Gen. 7:11); allegedly a protective water canopy hovering over Earth falls, at first drowning everything that breathes air, then part of it freezes, leaving a permanently raised ocean level with a new continental configuration (avg. ocean depth 2.5 mi., avg. land elev. 0.5 mi.) (incl. the 277-mi.-long 18-mi.-wide 6,093-ft.-deep Grand Canyon, the world's largest gorge?); since then we get too much direct radiation, causing the life span to plummet (and also conveniently causing all the hereditary skin colors?); whether the Great Flood happened or not, glaciers end up occupying 5.8M sq. mi. of the world's land surface, about 10%, an area the size of South Am.; if the Earth were to be flattened out, water would cover it to a depth of 2 mi.; if the Antarctic ice were melted, the ocean level would rise 240 ft., submerging one-quarter of the world's land mass.

About 2,200 B.C.E. shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation cause the 4.2 Kiloyear Aridification Event to begin (ends -2100), causing a 200-year mega global drought that devastates civilizations from Egypt to China, causing the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu Culture in the Lower Yangtze River Basin, also probably causing the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization, spurring migration of Indo-European speaking people into India, plus mass migrations from Egypt, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, and the Yangtze River Valley; a drought begins in the Akkadian Empire, causing migration away from urban centers followed by a collapse of the govt. known as the Third Millennium Mesopotamian Urban Crisis; the Meghalayan Age in modern-day Meghalaya, India begins.

About 1,800 B.C.E. the Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch begins (ends -1500), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic region, along with severe volcanic eruptions in Mt. Vesuvius (-1660), Mount Aniakchak (-1645), and Mt. Thera in Minoa (-1620).

In 800 C.E. a cent.-long drought begins in the Yucatan Empire, causing the disintegration of the Mayan civilization.

About 950 B.C.E. the Homeric Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends -800).

About 900 B.C.E. the Iron Age Cold Epoch (Neoglaciation) (Climate Pessimum) begins (ends 300 B.C.E.), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic, peaking during the expansion of Greece era about 450 B.C.E.

About 250 B.C.E. the Roman Warm Period (Climatic Optimum) in Europe and North Am. begins (ends 400 C.E.), causing Theophrastus to write that date trees can grow in Greece but can't set fruit, as in modern times; the mild weather conditions help Hannibal cross the Alps with his elephants.

B.C.E. represents the numerical position in the alphabet of the first three prime numbers (2,3,5) (G=7, K=11, M=13, Q=17, S=19, W=23)?

So divideth the B.C.E., the Don't-Say-B.C.-Before-Christ Butt Crack of Eternity (Before Common Era) from the C.E., the Don't-Say-A.D.-Anno-Domini-Year-of-the-Lord-Christ Scratch-and-Dent-Sale Common Era?

About 180 C.E. Mt. Taupo (Hatepe) in New Zealand erupts (VEI-7, the most powerful volcanic eruption in history?), ejecting 7.2 cu mi. of Earth in a few min., turning the sky red over Rome and China; luckily New Zealand is uninhabited?

In 535 C.E. Krakatoa Volcano (Rabul Volcano near Papua, New Guinea?) in Malaysia (at 105 deg. E, 5 deg. S) explodes, splitting the island of Sumatra asunder and creating the islands of Java and Sumatra separated by the Sunda Strait, reducing daylight to four hours and affecting crop growth for 10 years, causing seven years of crop failures, encouraging fleas in Africa to multiply, bringing the plague 3x.

I'm a walkin' in the rain, tears are fallin' and I feel a pain, a wishin' you were here by me to end this misery. The worst year to be alive in human history?

In 536 C.E. extreme weather events become the most severe protracted short-term cooling events in the Northern Hemisphere until ?, with effects extending to Ireland, Europe, the Middle East, Peru, and China, where snow falls in Aug. and summer temps fall 1.5C-2.5C; "For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year" (Procopius); did this accelerate the coming of the Dark Ages? In 536-9 C.E. there is a bread famine in Ireland. In 536 C.E. a piece of Halley's Comet slams into Earth, cooling it and leading to Justinian's Plague of 541-2?; the plague is really caused by a series of volcanic eruptions, starting in 536 with a massive eruption in Iceland?

In 892 C.E. a 220-year drought begins in Calif. (ends 1112), followed by a 140-year one in 1209 to 1350, causing water levels to drop 50+ ft.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) Medieval Warm Period

About 950 C.E. the Medieval Climate Optimum (Climatic Anomaly) (Warm Period) in the North Atlantic begins (ends 1250), becoming the warmest period in the Northern Hemisphere since the Roman Warm Period of -250 to 400, with temps 1C-1.4C higher than modern temps; the tropical Pacific region is colder than normal; Tree Ring Growth in this half-cent. and the next cent. are especially rapid, indicating a warm period; the warmest period is between 950-1100, becoming the warmest period of the last 2K years prior to the 20th cent., allowing commercial winemaking in S England to compete with France 500 km to the N, and vineyards in Germany to be planted at 780m above sea level (vs. 560m today); first proposed by English climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) in his 1965 report "The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel, based on data from the realms of botany, historical document research and meteorology", whose diagram of global temperature variations over the last thousand years is pub. in the IPCC's First Assessment Report in 1990, massaged to obliterate the Medieval Warm Period?; it was global? Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - David Deming.


About 1040 the Oort Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends 1080).

About 1250 the Medieval Climate Optimum (begun 950) along with the optimal climate conditions in Europe since 1000 end, and the Little Ice Age (ends 1850) begins as Atlantic ice pack begins growing, bringing poor harvests, famine, and disease, and changing the sociopolitical landscape with a pop. reduction, uprooted vagabond farmers, and a blind rage against the rich and Jews; Europe begins to be rapidly deforested, leading to a shortage of wood for heating and cooking by 1500, along with a decline of wild game and a food shortage; luckily, in the 16th cent. potatoes and corn (maize) are brought in from the New World, and soft coal begins to be used as fuel.

In 1258 after an unusually mild winter in 1249 where flowers sprout in Jan. before turning cold in Apr.-May, the summer in England is unusually wet and cool, leading to crop failures and famine in winter, killing 20K in London, with people driven to eating tree bark.

About 1280 the Wolf Minimum of minimum solar activity begins (ends 1350).

About 1300 farm expansion in Europe halts because of the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which lasts until 1850; less cattle is raised, and the herring supply starts to slide; food production slides in Greenland and Scandinavia, and the coast of Greenland grows icebound, causing the settlements to dwindle; Greenland has a pop. of 3K colonists living on 300 farms along the W coast, but the worsening weather dooms them to eventual near-extinction.

In spring 1315 bad weather leads to the Great Famine of 1315-17, which kills millions in Europe and Russia, causing cannibalism, infanticide, disease, and crime, ending the period of growth and prosperity begun in the 11th cent.

About 1460 the Sporer (Spörer) Minimum begins (ends 1550), a 90-year span of low solar activity first proposed in 1976 by John A. Eddy based on analysis of C-14 in tree rings, and named for German astronomer Gustav Sporer.

On Feb. 28-Sept. 19, 1540 the European Super Drought of 1540 causes Milan, Italy to be completely dry for 5 mo., while in Zurich it only rains 4x, causing the water table in Switzerland to drop over 1.5M and thousands along the Ruhr River to die of poisoning from dirty water; Lindau Island becomes connected to the mainland after the water level in the Bodensee sinks; the water flow in the Elbe River is reduced to one-tenth normal, allowing people to walk across them, along with the Rhine and Seine Rivers; by Aug. trees begin shedding their leaves early, after which fires destroy more communities than in the preceding millennium, causing a blanket of smoke to shroud Europe, turning the Sun and Moon into flaming red balls; prices for flour and bread zoom sky high.

'The Hunters in the Snow' by Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-69), 1565

In Dec. 1565 winter in N Europe is super-cold, killing birds and fruit trees; on Dec. 25-Jan. 13 the Thames River freezes solid, and Elizabeth I becomes fond of daily trips on the ice; portrayed by Dutch Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel (Bruegel) the Elder (1525-69) in his 1565 painting The Hunters in the Snow (Return of the Hunters); stark portrayal of global cooling?

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Robin Williams (1951-)

In 1581 with clocklike precision, Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) discovers that the time taken by a swinging lamp in the Cathedral of Pisa does not depend on the angle through which it swings (i.e., a pendulum swings isochronously). In 1591 he drops a 1 lb. and a 100 lb. weight from the Tower of Pisa simultaneously to prove a point in physics about bodies falling at the same speed regardless of mass, refuting the know-it-all Aristotelians. In 1593 he invents the Thermoscope, a primitive uncalibrated thermometer used as a novelty perpetual motion machine.

Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)

In 1610 after beating Galileo by 4 mo. and making the first drawing of the Moon through a telescope on July 26, 1609, English astronomer Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) discovers sunspots - you're the cream in my coffee?

On Aug. 24-25, 1635 the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 brushes Jamestown, Va. before hitting SE New England incl. Mass Bay Colony and R.I., creating 14-20-ft. storm surges, destroying thousands of trees and many houses, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since colonization; the small barque Watch and Wait of Isaac Allerton founders off Cape Ann killing 21 of 23 aboard, later becoming the subject of John Greenleaf Whittier's poem "The Swan Song of Parson Avery"; Boston is spared the high tides, which sweep over Dorchester.

In 1645 the Maunder Minimum (period of low sunspot counts) begins (ends 1715); the Thames River freezes every winter, and there is famine throughout Europe and China.

In 1659 the Central England Temperature Record (CET) is established, becoming the longest-running set of temperature data on Earth; it starts out with 0.5C accuracy, increasing to 0.1C in 1699-1706 and Nov. 1722-present; in 1772 it goes from monthly to daily.

In Dec. 1683 the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow - all them scientific brains and no mention of Global Cooling?

Edmond Halley (1656-1742)

In 1686 London-born English astronomer Edmond (Edmund) Halley (1656-1742) pub. Weather Map in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, a map of the trade winds and monsoons in the seas of the tropics; the first weather map?


Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

An Irish satirist predicts U.N.-backed climate scientists 300 years in advance? In 1704 Dublin-born Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) pub. A Tale of a Tub; his first major work, pub. anon.; satire about three brothers, each representing a major branch of Christianity; despite getting his cousin Thomas to claim authorship, it damages his prospects in the Church of England; "Seamen have a custom, when they meet a whale, to fling him out an empty tub by way of amusement, to divert him from laying violent hands upon the ship"; "There are certain common privileges of a writer, the benefit whereof, I hope, there will be no reason to doubt; particularly, that where I am not understood, it shall be concluded, that something very useful and profound is couched underneath; and again, that whatever word or sentence is printed in a different character, shall be judged to contain something extraordinary either or wit of sublime"; "Bread is the staff of life"; "Books, the children of the brain"; "As boys do sparrows, with flinging salt upon their tails"; "He made it a part of his religion never to say grace to his meat"; "It is a maxim, that those to whom everybody allows the second place have an undoubted title to the first." In 1726 he pub. Gulliver's Travels (Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships); Lemuel Gulliver visits the countries of Lilliput and Blefuscu (6-in. tall people, Lilliput's capital city Mildendo is surrounded by a 2.5-ft. wall), Brobdingnag (60-ft. tall giants), Laputa (flying island of scientific quacks), Glubdubdrib (sorcerers), Luggnag (island where the Stuldbrugs live forever while suffering the infirmities of old age), the land of the Houyhnhnms, where intelligent horses rule over savage humanoid Yahoos, and Balnibarbi (failed inventors and projectors, capital Lagado); a satire of all things English, or just English modernism?; "If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put 'Gulliver's Travels' among them" (George Orwell); "He [the emperor of Lilliput] is taller by almost the breadth of my nail, than any of his court, which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders"; "I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives [Brobdingnag] to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth"; "He had been eight years upon a project for extracting sunbeams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in vials hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the air in raw inclement summers [Laputa]"; "I said the thing which was not. (For they have no word in their language to express lying or falsehood.) [Houyhnhnms]"; "Poor Nations are hungry, and rich Nations are proud, and Pride and Hunger will ever be at Variance [Houyhnhnms]"; "And he gave it for his opinion, that whosoever could make two ears of corn or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together."

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) Anders Celsius (1701-44)

In 1714 Danzig, Poland-born Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) of Amsterdam invents mercury-in-glass thermometer, followed in 1724 by the 0-32-212 Fahrenheit Scale, which becomes popular with beer brewers. In 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-44) proposes the 0-100 Celsius (Lat. "centigrade" = 100 steps) Scale for use in lab work to the Royal Swedish Society. with 0 for the boiling point and 100 for the freezing point; in 1745 Carolus Linnaeus inverts it; mercury solidifies at -39 C; after the Celsius scale is adopted by the internat. scientific community, only the U.S. sticks with the Fahrenheit scale. In 1724 Fahrenheit discovers the phenomenon of supercooling (undercooling), the ability of a liquid or gas to be lowered below its freezing point, for example when water doesn't freeze in clouds.

George Graham (1674-1751) Anders Celsius (1704-44)

In 1727 after discovering slight magnetic fluctuations on his compass to be correlated with the latter's observations of aurorae, English watchmaker George Graham (1674-1751) and Swedish scientist Anders Celsius (1701-44) discover that sunspots are really magnetic storms.

Pierre Bouguer (1698-1758) Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-77)

In 1729 French scientist Pierre Bouguer (1698-1758) pub. Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumiere (lumière), a study of the quantity of light lost passing through the atmosphere, announcing the Beer-Lambert Law, which states that the absorbance is directly proportional to its path length; in June 1760 Swiss superbrain scientist Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-77) pub. Photometria, establishing a complete system of photometry (Gr. "photos" + "metria" = light + measurement), quoting Bouguer's 1729 paper proposing the Beer-Lambert Law and ending up getting credit; in 1852 German Jewish scientist August Beer (1825-63) pub. another version, stating that the intensity of light transmitted through a solution at a given wavelength decreases exponentially with the path length and the concentration of the solute - let's have a beer?

Rene Antoine de Reaumur (1683-1757)

In 1731 French entomologist Rene (René) Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (Réaumur) (1683-1757) invents an alcohol thermometer with the 0-80 (freezing-boiling) Reaumur (Réaumur) Temperature Scale - he should have used the 20-80 rule and made it 0-100?

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82)

In 1738 Swiss physicist-mathematician Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82) pub. Hydrodynamica, which lays the basis for the Kinetic Theory of Gases, that they consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, with their impact on a surface causing gas pressure, and heat simply their kinetic energy of motion; he announces Bernoulli's Law (Principle), a pressure-velocity (PV) relationship for fluids explaining the loss of vis viva in fluid flow using the idea of conservation of energy, stating that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in the fluid's pressure or potential energy, founding the field of Hydrodynamics; derives Boyle's Law by considering a gas as a collection of atoms which collide with the container wall, but everybody overlooks it until it's rediscovered in 1859 - they still teach all that in Top Gun school?

In 1751 atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is measured retroactively back to this year at the Law Dome Ice Core: 277 in 1751-71, 278 in 1772-1784, 279 in 1785-88, and 280 in 1789-91.

In July 1757 the July 1757 Heat Wave in Europe becomes the hottest summer in Europe until 2003.

In the 1770s the mean Jan. temp is 34.3F (1.3C), becoming a low point, after which a steady warming trend sees the mean Jan. temp rise to 40.5F (4.7C) in the 1920s.

In 1774 records of sea level begin to be kept in Stockholm, Sweden, showing a yearly decrease of 3.81 +/- 0.32 mm/year, which modern global warmists modify to account for supposed land uplift to become a rise of 1.55 mm/year, increasing to 3 mm/year starting in 1980. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Oct. 9-20, 1780 the 200 mph Great Hurricane (of the Antilles) of 1780 (Huracán San Calixto) kills 20K-27K in the Lesser Antilles, becoming the deadliest Atlantic hurricane (until ?).

In 1782 the Great Tenmei Famine in Japan begins (ends 1788), killing 1M of 30M.

On Feb. 4, 1783 a series of earthquakes begins in Calabria, Italy killing 50K, becoming the first earthquake to be investigated scientifically.

In June 1783 Laki Volcano in SE Iceland begins erupting for the next 8 mo. (until Feb.), killing 50%+ of the cattle and most of the crops, leading to a famine that kills 25% of the human pop., becoming the worst in Icelandic history (until ?); after 120M tons of sulfur dioxide is spewed into the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, global temps drop, causing crop failures in Alaska and droughts in North Africa and India.

On Aug. 4, 1783 after small eruptions on May 9 and a larger eruption on July 26, Mt. Asama 85 mi. N of Tokyo, Japan erupts bigtime, destroying four villages plus an 18 sq. km primeval forest and killing thousands, worsening the Great Tenmei Famine; in 1820 Dutch ambassdor Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812) pub. an account of the eruption.

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In fall 1792 Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. pub. the first (1793) ed. of The (Old) Farmer's Almanac; by the late 1860s circ. zooms from 3K to 200K.

John Dalton (1766-1844)

In 1793 English meteorologist John Dalton (1766-1844) pub. his first work Meteorological Observations and Essays (2nd ed. 1834), based on his habit of M.O., which goes on from 1787-1844, later used to propose the Dalton Minimum of low sunspot counts in 1796-1820 (1790-1830?).

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)

In 1798 Westcott, Surrey, England-born cleric Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) pub. An Essay on the Principle of Population (June); pub. under the alias Joseph Johnson; 2nd ed. 1803; 6th ed. 1826; a response to William Godwin's view of the "perfectibility of society" in "Political Justice" (1793), dissing the English Poor Laws and supporting the Corn Laws (taxes on grain imports), claiming that the pop. can double in 25 years, causing the food supply to run out in two generations, and proposes Malthus' Iron Law of Pop. (Wages), that "Food is necessary to the existence of man", "The passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present stage", thus the "power of population is infinitely greater than the power in the Earth to produce subsistence for man"; "The mighty law of self-preservation expels all the softer and more exalted emotions of the soul... In so short a period as withing fifty years, violence, oppression, falsehood, misery, every hateful vice, and every form of distress, which degrade and sadden the present state of society, seem to have been generated by the most imperious circumstances, by laws inherent in the nature of man, and absolutely independent of its human regulations"; as a corollary, a rising pop. causes a rising labor supply, leading to lower wages, causing passage of the British Census Act of 1800; despite its uncorked exponential scientific assumptions, it gets used to justify war as a way to keep the non-white (or less-white) pop. down for the common good of whites (or more-whites) everywhere. In modern times globalist Malthusians openly talk about mass extermination of human beings like slugs, giving the U.N. a reason to push a false narrative of global warming to reduce CO2 and curtail the food supply?


Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)

In 1800 German-born English astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers Infrared Light (beyond the red end of the spectrum) using prisms and thermometers on solar rays; he also discovers a connection between 11-year sunspot cycles and wheat prices, becoming the first theory of economic cycles.

William Henry (1774-1836)

The Soda Pop Law? On Jan. 1, 1803 English chemist William Henry (1774-1835) pub. the paper Experiments on the Quantity of Gases Absorbed by Water, at Different Temperatures, and under Different Pressures, proposing Henry's Law, which states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase, with the soundbyte: "Water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c., the volume absorbed under the common pressure of the atmosphere."

Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857)

In 1805 County Meath, Ireland-born hydrographer and British rear adm. Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) devises the Blowfart, er, Beaufort Wind Scale (0-12) for gauging wind force at sea: 0:0-1 mph (calm), 1:2-3 (light air), 2:4-7 (slight breeze), 3:8-12 (gentle breeze), 4:13-18 (moderate breeze), 5:19-24 (fresh breeze), 6:25-31 (strong breeze), 7:32-38 (moderate gale), 8:39-46 (fresh gale), 9:47-54 (strong gale), 10:55-63 (whole gale), 11:64-72 (storm), 12:73-82 (hurricane).

On Feb. 10, 1807 the U.S. Coast Survey is established by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, becoming the first U.S. scientific agency, changing to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878; in 1870 the U.S. Nat. Weather Bureau is formed, followed on May 22, 1917 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps (NOAA Corps); on Oct. 3, 1970 the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) is formed, which founds seven internal research labs incl. the U.S. Surface Climate Reference Network (USCRN), and the Air Resources Lab (ARL), which in Oct. 2005 is merged with the Aeronomy Lab, the Climate Diagnostics Center, the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab, the Environmental Technology Lab, and the Forecast Systems Lab to form the Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) in Boulder, Colo.

On Apr. 10, 1815 the Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island in Indonesia erupts with a force(VEI-7) 100Kx Mt. St. Helens (most powerful recorded volcanic explosion in history), killing 90K, mostly from starvation after it destroys the crops; its ash affects the weather as far away as England, blackening skies around the globe and blocking sunlight for three years, triggering a blizzard in Upstate New York in June 1816 and killer frosts in New England in July-Aug. 1816, making 1816 "the year without a summer", causing a new genre of Gothic fiction incl. Frankenstein and human vampires to emerge?

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In 1816 the Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7; Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. in his Old Farmer's Almanac (founded 1792) mistakenly forecasts snow in July and Aug., but before he can send out replacements it actually does snow in the summer, making him into a genius and boosting his almanac's popularity?

The Old Farmer's Almanac, 1818-

In 1818 The Farmer's Almanac is founded in Morristown, N.J. by David Young and Jacob Mann; in 1851 Samuel Hart Wright succeeds Young, and is succeeded in 1875 by his son Berlin Hart Wright; in 1934 Ray Geiger becomes ed., followed in 1994 by his son Peter Geiger; each new ed. is released in Sept., and covers 16 mos., covering seven U.S. climatic zones using a "top secret mathematical and astronomical formula, that relies on sunspot activity, tidal action, planetary position and many other factors"; the forecaster is named Caleb Weatherbee; 80% forecast accuracy is claimed by the publishers, but meteorologists regard it ias pseudoscience.

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

In 1822 French mathematician Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) pub. On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies (Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur), his mathematical theory of heat conduction, introducing his hot new Fourier Series, expansions of piecewise continuous functions as trigonometrical series. In 1825 he discovers the Greenhouse Effect; "In short, if all the strata of air of which the atmosphere is formed, preserved their density with their transparency, and lost only the mobility which is peculiar to them, this mass of air, thus become solid, on being exposed to the rays of the sun, would produce an effect the same in kind with that we have just described. The heat, coming in the state of light to the solid earth, would lose all at once, and almost entirely, its power of passing through transparent solids: it would accumulate in the lower strata of the atmosphere, which would thus acquire very high temperatures. We should observe at the same time a diminution of the degree of acquired heat, as we go from the surface of the earth." Watch video. Watch video.

Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)

In 1824 French physicist Nicolas Leonard (Léonard) Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) pub. Reflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop That Power), which shows that the transformation of heat into motive power depends on the quantity of heat (caloric) and the temperature difference, while the efficiency of a steam engine is a function of the temperature difference between the hot and cold chambers (source and sink), the "free energy", a preliminary formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics; it also introduces the reversible Carnot Cycle.

Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart (1801-76)

In 1828 French botanist Adolphe-Theodore (Adolphe-Théodore) Brongniart (1801-76) begins pub. Histoire des végétaux fossiles (History of fossil plants) (2 vols.) (1838-37), which infers a warm humid climate from the vegetation present in the fossil record of the late Devonian and early Carboniferous periods, finding that the Pteridophyta (ferns) predominate in the Palaeozoic Period, the Gymnosperms in the Mesozoic Period, and the Angiosperms in the Cenozoic Period, founding the science of Paleobotany, and giving later researchers incl. Eunice Newton Foote the idea that the atmosphere contained a high CO2 concentration of about 600 ppm.

Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803-79)

In 1828 German scientist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803-79) discovers that tropical cyclones rotate counterclockwise in the N hemisphere and clockwise in the S hemisphere.

Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) James Prescott Joule (1818-89) Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

In Feb. 1840 German physician Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) sails from Rotterdam in the 3-masted ship Java, and after docking at Surabaya he notices that the venous blood of sailors he's bleeding is brighter red, indicating less oxygen being consumed than in colder climates, causing him to have a bright idea that food is oxidized to create not only animal heat but work, hence that heat and work are interchangeable in some way. In 1842 he announces an improved value for the mechanical equivalent of heat, calculated by an apparatus pulled by a horse that stirs paper pulp in a cauldron, and proposes the law of conservation of energy, which holds even for living systems, and also states that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy on Earth; too bad, not being a recognized scientist (member of a prof. assoc. of stuffed shirts), he is ignored; he says that a weight falling 365m will lose enough potential energy to warm an equal weight of water by 1°C, corresponding to a mechanical equivalent of heat of 3.56 Joules per calorie, not far from the real figure of 4.184. The tendency of learned societies of know-nothings to keep newbies out follows the dismal example of established churches? In 1843 British (Manchester) brewer and obsessive amateur scientist James Prescott Joule (1818-89) calculates the first fairly accurate value (41.54M ergs or 4.154 Joules per calorie) for the mechanical equivalent of heat; later 10M ergs is called a Joule in his honor; at first his work is disregarded since he's not a recognized academic, and is refused by the Royal Society and learned journals, forcing him to get it pub. in 1847 in a Manchester newspaper on which his brother is the music critic; a few mo. later he is allowed to present it at a scientific gathering, and 23-y.-o. Scottish physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) gets it accepted, causing it to be taken up by respectable German scientist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-94), who ends up getting credit for the law of conservation of energy instead of amateurs Joule and Mayer in 1847; Joule finally gets to present his paper to the Royal Society in 1849, making him look like a beer-brewing copycat? Meanwhile in 1840 James Prescott Joule pub. the I^2*R law for the heat given off by a conductor of resistance R carrying a current I (Joulean heat) - the reason Easy-Bake Ovens work?

On Oct. 29, 1842 a Category 2 (60 mph) hurricane hits SW Spain after passing near Madeira.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In 1842 French mathematician Joseph Alphonse Adhemar (Adhémar) (1797-1862) pub. Revolutions of the Sea, proposing the astronomical theory of Ice Age causation, which evolves into the theory of Milkanovich Cycles in the 1920s by Serbian mathematician Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) to explain long-term climate changes by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun after he had the idea that variations in the Earth's orbit could have a major effect, and found that solar flux in July at 65 deg. N lat. can vary by as much as 25%.

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93)

In 1843 German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) discovers 11-year Solar Cycles of sunspot counts, with Cycle 1 set in 1755-66 by Swiss astronomer Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93) in 1848, who devises the Wolf (Zurich) (Internat. Sunspot) (Relative Sunspot) Number for the number of visible sunspots and sunspot groups; in 1852 Wolf et al. discover the link between the Wolf Cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.

George Perkins Marsh (1801-82)

In 1847 big brain Renaissance man (7 languages) U.S. Rep. (Whig-Vt.) (1843-9) George Perkins Marsh (1801-82) (architect of the Washington Monument) gives a speech to the Agricultural Society of Rutland County, Vt., becoming the first modern thinker to theorize that man's activities influence climate, but never mentioning carbon dioxide, with the soundbyte: "Man cannot at his pleasure command the rain and the sunshine, the wind and frost and snow, yet it is certain that climate itself has in many instances been gradually changed and ameliorated or deteriorated by human action. The draining of swamps and the clearing of forests perceptibly effect the evaporation from the earth, and of course the mean quantity of moisture suspended in the air. The same causes modify the electrical condition of the atmosphere and the power of the surface to reflect, absorb and radiate the rays of the sun, and consequently influence the distribution of light and heat, and the force and direction of the winds. Within narrow limits too, domestic fires and artificial structures create and diffuse increased warmth, to an extent that may effect vegetation. The mean temperature of London is a degree or two higher than that of the surrounding country, and Pallas believed, that the climate of even so thinly a peopled country as Russia was sensibly modified by similar causes." In 1864 Perkins pub. the book Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (which he repub. in 1874 as "The Earth as Modified by Human Action"), drawing lessons from ancient Mediterranean civilizations that ruined soil productivity, with the soundbyte: "The operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the moon", pointing to current trends in the U.S., causing a sensation that helps launch the modern conservation movement and the U.S. Nat. Forest Service; "Whereas [others] think the earth made man, man in fact made the earth"; "[He was] unwilling to leave the world worse than he found it."

In 1850 the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which has kept Europe cold and half-starved suddenly ends in a span of a few years; the Great Glacier Retreat begins (ends ?) - giving Euros a chance to create a peaceful Paradise or a war-torn Hell?

Rudolf Clausius (1822-88)

The original Rudolf the Red-Nosed Rain On Your Parade, Dear? In 1850 German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-88) formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Kinetic Theory of Gases. In 1865 he coins the term "entropy", and reformulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics using it: "The entropy of the Universe is constantly increasing to an eventual maximum" - that sounds good and bad at the same time?

On Feb. 6, 1851 after intense heat and drought in 1850, the Black Thursday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia see the temp in Melbourne peak at 47.2C (117F) at 11:00 a.m., whipping winds up to tornado-like force and starting a fire that burns 5M hectatres and kills 1M sheep, thousands of cattle, and 12 humans; "The temperature became torrid, and on the morning of the 6th of February 1851, the air which blew down from the north resembled the breath of a furnace. A fierce wind arose, gathering strength and velocity from hour to hour, until about noon it blew with the violence of a tornado. By some inexplicable means it wrapped the whole country in a sheet of flame - fierce, awful, and irresistible." (Picturesque Atlas of Austalasia, 1886)

Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

The lukewarm Love Train, or, There are only two kinds of people, those who think that there is a God, and those who believe they are God? Right in your face mask? In 1851 English physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) begins pub. papers on the laws of conservation and dissipation of energy, generalizing Carnot's 1824 paper and formulating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the idea of degradation of energy and the eventual heat death of the Universe, in which there is a uniform temperature throughout, hence none of its energy can be converted into useful work; "Though the total energy of the Universe is constant, the amount of free energy decreases steadily"; luckily there is still enough free energy left for trillions of years?

In 1853 the Polar Vortex is first described, an upper-level low-pressure area over each pole up to 1K km in diam., rotating eastward via the Coriolis effect, extending from the middle-upper troposphere into the stratosphere, below which lies a large mass of cold dense Arctic air; in 1952 sudden stratospheric warming of up to 50C (120F) in a few days caused by disturbances in the Polar jet stream is first observed via radiosondes at 20km+ alt. Watch video.

British Vice-Adm. Robert FitzRoy (1805-65)

In 1854 the Met (Meteorological) Office is founded in England under English meteorologist Capt. (later vice-adm.) Robert FitzRoy (1805-65) (captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's voyage in 1831-6), who coins the term "forecast" in 1859 after a big storm on Oct. 25-26, 1859 in the Irish Sea that sinks 133 ships, badly damages 90, and kills 800 incl. the steam clipper Royal Charter off the NE coast of Anglesey, Wales.

On Aug. 23, 1856 after attending the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and signing the Declaration of Feelings, Goshen, Conn.born Eunice Newton Foote (1819-88) of Seneca Falls, N.Y. speaks at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, and delivers her paper Circumstances affecting the Heat of the Sun's Rays, describing her experiments that proved that cylinders filled with CO2 and exposed to the Sun's rays heated more than others filled with air, with the soundbyte: "The receiver containing the gas became itself much heated - very sensibly more so than the other - and on being removed, it was many times as long in cooling. An atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a high temperature; and if as some suppose, at one period of its history the air had mixed with a larger proportion than at present, an increased temperature from its own action as well as from increased weight must have necessarily resulted. On comparing the sun's heat in different gases, I found it to be in hydrogen gas, 104F; in common air, 106F; in oxygen gas, 108F; and in carbonic acid gas, 125F"; too bad, as a woman her scientific contribution to the discovery of the Greenhouse Gas Effect was ignored so that men could later take credit?

In 1856 the Battery Tide Gage in New York City begins keeping records of sea level rise, showing 2.84 +/- 0.09 mm/year through 2014; too bad, on Mar. 30, 2016 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists nearly double sea level rise projections for 2100, because of Antarctica, about a recent paper by Robert M. DeConto of the U. of Mass. and David Pollard of Penn. State U., predicting a future rapid melt of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with the soundbyte: "In their worst-case scenario, the sea level could rise by six feet by the end of this century", which would be 10x the historical rate.

Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75)

On Sept. 1-2, 1859 the Solar (Super) Storm of 1859 (Carrington Event) sees a solar storm induce a geomagnetic solar storm in the Earth's magnetsphere, creating auroras that can be seen from Cuba to Hawaii, so bright that people in the NE U.S. can read their newspapers by its light, and creating an EMP that interferes with telegraphs, but doesn't shut them down; it is all recorded by London, England-born amateur astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75), proving the existence of solar flares; in 1863 his observations of sunspots reveal the differential rotation of the Sun.

John Tyndall (1820-93)

In 1859 Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) discovers that gases incl. water vapor, CO2, and coal gas (methane) can absorb infrared radiation, and suggests that they could be used to bring climate change, AKA the Greenhouse Effect, going further in a lecture on Feb. 7, 1861, claiming that changes in CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere explain all climate changes so far identified by geological research; too bad, in 1856 Am. scientist Eunice Foote already pub. it. In Sept. 1861 Tyndall pub. On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connection of Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction in Philosoophical Mag., followed in 1861 by On Radiation through the Earth's Atmosphere in the same mag.; "Now if, as the above experiments indicate, the chief influence be exercised by the aqueous vapour, every variation of this constituent must produce a change of climate. Similar remarks would apply to the carbonic acid diffused through the air; while an almost inappreciable admixture of any of the hydrocarbon vapours would produce great effects on the terrestrial rays and produce corresponding changes of climate. It is not therefore necessary to assume alterations in the density and height of the atmosphere, to account for different amounts of heat being preserved to the earth at different times; a slight change in its variable constituents would suffice for this. Such changes in fact may have produced all the mutations of climate which the researches of geologists reveal." On Jan. 25, 1862 The American Railway Times pub. the article Radiation and Absorption. In 1873 Tyndall pub. Further Researches on the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gaseous Matter (1862) in Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat, containing the soundbyte: "As a dam built across the river causes a local deepening of the stream, so our atmosphere, thrown as a barrier across the terrestrial rays produces a local heightening of the temperature of the Earth's surface." On Sept. 7, 1878 the New-York Daily Tribune pub. the article A Cosmical Atmosphere, with the soundbyte: "Tyndall, by subsequent researches on radiation, showed that certain gases, in amount too small to affect considerably the barometic pressure, might influence powerfully climate conditions, and suggested that in the former presence in the atmosphere of moderate quantities of a gas like carbonic acid might be found a solution of the problem of the climates of former geologic ages."

Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) Gatling Gun, 1862

On Apr. 12, 1861-May 9, 1865 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use.

On Aug. 1, 1861 the first Public Weather Forecast by the Met Office is pub. in the London Times, becoming the first daily weather forecast in Britain.

Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-92)

In Nov. 1863 Norwich, Conn.-born geologist-chemist Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-92) pub. the article On the Earth's Climate in Paleozoic Times in Am. Journal of Science and Arts, building upon the greenhouse gas research of John Tyndall to propose that climate change in the Carboniferous Period was caused by CO2 and that it continues to modern times; too bad, he believes that atmospheric CO2 in the past was of cosmic not volcanic origin; "Now we have only to bear in mind that there are the best of reasons for believing that during the earlier geological periods all of the carbon since deposited in the forms of limestone and of mineral coal existed in the atmosphere in the state of carbonic acid, and we see at once an agency which must have aided greatly to produce the elevated temperature that prevailed at the earth's surface in former geological periods." In June 1868 Mechanics' Mag. pub. the article Primitive Climate of the Earth, which starts out: "The primitive atmosphere of the earth was greatly richer in carbonic acid than the present, and therefore unfit for the respiration of the warm-blooded animals. The agency of planets in purifying the atmosphere was long ago pointed out, and the great deposits of fossil fuel have been derived from the decomposition of this excess of carbonic acid by the ancient vegetation. In this connection the vegetation of former periods presents the phenomenon of tropical plants growing within the polar circle. Prof. T. Sterry Hunt considers as unsatisfactory the ingenious hypotheses proposed to account for the warmer climate of ancient times, and thinks that the true solution of the problem is to be found in the constitution of the early atmosphere, when considered in the light of Dr. Tyndall's researches on radiant heat. He has found that the presence of a few hundreths of carbonic acid gas in the atmosphere, while offering almost no obstacle to the passage of the solar rays, would suffice to prevent almost entire the loss by radiation of obscure heat, so that the surface of the land, beneath such an atmosphere, would become like a vast orchard house, in which the conditions of climate necessary to a luxuriant vegetation would be extended even to the polar regions." On Jan. 30, 1869 Scientific Am. pub. a report on Hunt, with the soundbyte: "Another curious question solved, if these views are correct, is the fact that in the polar regions, where thre is now little or no vegetation whatever, there existed in former ages plants now confined to the tropics. Many hypotheses have been framed to account for this change of climate; but the true solution is undoubtedly to be found in the composition of the atmosphere at this period - the mixed gases heretofore described. These gases imprisoned, so to speak, the sun's heat, so that the earth might be compared to an immense greenhouse. The high temperature at the poles was then the consequence of impeded radiation."

On Sept. 7, 1865 the Manchester Guardian pub. the British Assoc. for the Advancement of Science's President's Address, containing the soundbyte: "The light and heat which are emitted from the sun reach the earth without great diminution by the absorbtive action of the atmosphere; but the waste of heat from the surface of our planet through radiation into space is prevented, or rather lessened, by this same atmosphere... The vaporous atmosphere acts like warm clothing to the earth. By an augmented quantity of vapour dissolved, and water suspended in the air, the waste of surface heat of the earth would be impeded; the soil, the water, and the lower parts of the atmosphere would grow warmer; the climates would be more equalised; the general conditions more like what has been supposed to be the state of land, sea, and air during the geological period of the coal measures."

On Jan. 10, 1871 the Brisbane Courier in Australia pub. the article Imaginary Changes of Climate from the Pall Mall Gazette, which starts out: "Three consecutive years of drought, while they have stimulated the inventive resources of practical agriculturists, have had the natural effect of calling forth a plentiful crop of speculation from weather prophets and projectors, and half-instructed meteorologists, and all the philosophic tribe of Laputa in general, to whom the periodical press now affords such fatal facilities. We have often noticed that in the tabular statements of those compilers of weather records who write to the Times, useful and welcome as their communications are, every season is sure to be 'extraordinary,' almost every month one of the driest or wettest, or windiest, coldest or hottest, ever known. Much observation, which ought to correct a tendency to exaggerate, seems in some minds to have rather a tendency to increase it. And many seem now to regard three dry hot years in succession as betokening some general change of climate, as if it was not perfectly certain, in the wide range of the table of what we call changes, that with our existing conditions of climate such a combination must every now and then recur."

William Ferrel (1817-91)

In 1874 Fulton County, Penn.-born meteorologist William Ferrel (1817-91) pub. Tidal Researches, which explains his tide prediction machine that works on the principle of harmonic motion. In 1877 he pub. Meteorological Researches, which states Ferrel's Law, that moving objects are deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and left in the S hemisphere, explaining cyclones and anticyclones and Foucault's Pendulum.

On Jan. 9, 1875 the temp in Denver, Colo. reaches a record low of -29F (-34C) (until ?).

In 1875-8 the Great Drought causes the Great Indian (Madras) Famine of 1876-8 in India, the N Chinese Famine of 1876-9 and other famines in Africa, SE Asia, Australia, and NE Brazil in 1876-8 that kill 30M-6M incl. 5.5M in India and 9M-13M in China, aided by an El Nino in 1877-8.

Johann Josef Loschmidt (1821-95)

In 1876 after becoming the first to estimate the Avogadro Constant in 1865, Austrian physicist-chemist Johann Josef Loschmidt (1821-95) pub. the results of experiments with columns of air, finding that gravity causes it to form a stable non-zero vertical temperature gradient of maximum entropy, which applies to every planet's troposphere, which is disputed by his colleagues Ludwig Boltzmann and James Clerk Maxwell, who get all the publicity?

Louis Paul Cailletet (1831-1913) Raoul Pictet (1846-1929)

On Dec. 22, 1877 French physicist Louis-Paul Cailletet (1832-1913) and Swiss physicist Raoul Pictet (1846-1929) simultaneously send telegrams to the Academy of Science in Paris announcing their invention of machines for liquefying oxygen; Picet goes on to liquefy nitrogen and demonstrate that radiation from a cold object cannot heat a warmer object - picture their yipee-yo-cay-yay?

Josef Stefan (1835-93) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

In 1879 using experimental data from Irish physicist John Tyndall, Austrian (Carinthian Slovene) mathematician-physicist Josef Stefan (1835-93) pub. the paper Über die Beziehung zwischen der Wärmestrahlung und der Temperatur (On the relation between heat radiation and temperature), announcing the Stefan (Stefan-Boltzmann) Law, that the total energy per unit time radiated from a black body per unit surface area is directly proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature, using it to calculate the temp of the Sun's surface as 5,430C (9,810F); in 1884 Austrian physicist Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906) (founder of Statistical Mechanics, and coiner of the term "ergodic") pub. Ableitung des Stefan'schen Gesetzes, betreffend die Abhängigkeit der Wärmestrahlung von der Temperatur aus der electromagnetischen Lichttheorie (Derivation of Stefan's Law, concerning the dependency of heat radiation on temperature, from the electromagnetic theory of light), extending Stefan's Law to grey body emissions.

On Dec. 7, 1882 Nature pub. the article Pollution of the Air by H.A. Phillips, containing the soundbyte: "According to Professor Tyndall's researches, hydrogen, marsh gas and ethylene have the property in a very high degree of absorbing and radiating heat, and so much so that a very small proportion, of only say one-thousandth part, had very great effect. From this we may conclude that the increasing pollution of the atmosphere will have a marked influence on the climate of the world. The mountainous regions will be colder, the Arctic regions will be colder, the tropics will be warmer, and throughout the world the nights will be colder and the days warmer. In the temperate zone winter will be colder, and generally differences will be greater, winds, storms, rainfall greater." On Jan. 11, 1883 Joseph John Murray replies to Phillips, with the soundbyte: "Mr. H.A. Phillips... thinks that the effect of the increasing quantity of hydrocarbons in the air from the combustion of coal will be to make climates more extreme. It seems to me the effect will be the direct contrary. Gaseous and vaporous hydrocarbons absorb heat much more powerfully than air, and whatever makes the atmosphere absorb and retain more solar heat than at present will tend to equalise temperatures between day and night, and also between different latitudes. I think, however, that any possible effect of hydrocarbons will be quite insignificant in comparison with the effect of the watery vapour of the atmosphere, which, as Tyndall has shown, moderates climates by its power of absorbing solar heat." On Jan. 18, 1883 H.A. Phillips replies to Murphy, with the soundbyte: "In answer to Mr. Joseph John Murphy's letter... stating that the radiation of marsh gas (from the incomplete combustion of coal) would be insignificant compared to that of vapour, I would like to say that their behaviour in the atmosphere is different; the moisture in the air is there, so to speak, on sufferance as long as the pressure and temperature allow it; that is, it is held in suspension by what might be called the capillary attraction of the air of a certain pressure and temperature. If you reduce the temperature you reduce the capacity of air for vapour, first by its reducing the capillary attraction, and secondly, by reducing one of the conditions that makes OH2 a vapour. If you reduce the pressure, you enlarge the spaces between the molecules and reduce the capillary attraction, if I may apply this term to a gas. This is borne out by the balloon ascents of Mr. Glaisher. At 4 miles high the temperature was 8 deg., the dew-point was -15 deg., or a difference of 23 deg.; at 5 miles it was 28 deg., and at 30,000 feet he states that there is no doubt that the dew-point is a difference of 50 deg.; that is, the higher, the less vapour. But this will not be the case with marsh gas, as it is a permanent gas, and being of less density than even vapour, or about half the density of air, there is no reason why it should not be found in larger quantities at greater altitudes; and I think that its effect there would be that in the temperate zones and at the poles it would radiate its temperature of say from -8 deg. at 30,000 to -30, and produce cold and rain, snow and floods as the storms on the Alps and the floods on the Continent, and in the Tropics to make the nights colder. In fact, it will have a tendency to do the reverse of vapour; a vapour retains our heat and shields us from the cold of space. This radiator and absorber will tend to radiate the cold to us or to the vapour in the lower atmosphere, and produce rain and wind."

On Jan. 12-13, 1883 (Thur.-Fri) a blizzard from Canada blows in suddenly, causing a trick of Nature on a beautifully warm 70 F day in the midst of miserably cold Jan. as the temp drops suddenly by 100 F and leads to the death of 500+ pioneers, incl. 100+ lightly-dressed children walking home from school in the plains of the Dakotas, Minn., and Neb. in the Big Brash (School Children's) Blizzard; as far away as Denver, Colo. the temp drops to -18 F with 60 mph winds, but little snow.

Eruption of Krakatoa, Aug. 26-27, 1883

Atlas cracks his toa in Indonesia? Krakonesia, biggest volcano grave on Earth? On Aug. 26-27, 1883 the small volcanic island of Krakatoa (Krakatau) in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra (100 mi. W. of Batavia) erupts with a ginormous explosive force of 200 megatons (Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6), ejecting 6 cu. mi. of rock, creating a 120-ft.-high tsunami which travels 5,450 mi. to South Africa in 12 hours and drowns 36K; a Dutch warship in Batavia (Djakarta) 100 mi. away is washed ashore and left stranded .5 mi. inland 30 ft. above sea level; the sound (largest noise ever heard by man?) is heard 2.2K mi. away in Alice Springs and 2.97K mi. away in Rodrigues Island near Mauritius; at Batavia people have to light their lamps during the day; for the next two years a thin haze of particles can be seen in the night sky as far away as London, and for three years all over the world sunrise and sunset are brilliantly colored; the explosion leaves a 2,667-ft. cone, and the island shrinks from 18 sq. mi. to 6 sq. mi.; the explosion causes the Muslims of Indonesia to see it as a sign from Allah and begin a jihad to push the Dutch out; the volcanic ash in the atmosphere causes global cooling next year, with aftereffects lasting almost a cent., offsetting anthropogenic global warming?

On Feb. 19-20, 1884 the U.S. South is rocked by the 15-hour Enigma Tornado Outbreak of 50-60 tornadoes in Ala., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Miss., N.C., and S.C., Tenn. and Va., killing 178-1.2K and causing destroying 10K bldgs., causing $3M-$4M damage; on Aug. 28 the first photograph of a tornado is taken near Howard, S.D. - is this like when Jesus died and the sky darkened?

Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912)

On Aug. 19, 1886 a 150 mph hurricane wipes out the town of Indianola, Tex., killing 74 and causing $200K damage, preceded by four and followed by three more this year; on Aug. 31 a 7.3 North Am. Plate earthquake rocks "the most polite city in America" Charleston, S.C., killing 110 and causing $5M in damage in a 200-mi. radius of the town, which is built on an unstable sandy coastal plain; Am. geologist Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912) studies the earthquake, discovering a method for determining its depth of focus; in 1889 he coins the term "isostasy".

Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906)

In 1889 after attempting to determine the surface temp of the Moon by measuring infared radiation reaching the Earth, using the angle in the sky to estimate CO2 and water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) pub. The Temperature of the Moon: from Studies at the Allegheny Observatory.

John Muir (1838-1914)

On May 28, 1891 Dunbar, Scotland-born Am. conservationist ("John of the Mountains") ("the Father of Nat. Parks") John Muir (1838-1914) and a group of professors from UCB and Stanford U. found the Sierra Club in a 14-room mansion in San Francisco, Calif. to protect the Sierra Nevada, with Muir as pres. #1 (until Dec. 24, 1914), going on to get federal protection for the Yosemite Valley and get Glacier Nat. Park and Mount Rainier Nat. Park established.

Edvard Munch (1863-1944) 'The Scream' by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), 1893

In 1893 Norwegian Expressionist painter Edvard Munch (1863-1944) paints his masterpiece The Scream (Norwegian "Skrik" = Shriek), which he repaints in four versions by 1910; painted after witnessing a blood-red sunset over Oslo in 1892 caused by Krakatoa and rare nacreous (polar stratospheric) clouds, writing in his diary that he felt "a great, undending scream piercing through Nature"; the 1895 version sells for almost $120M.

On Feb. 24, 1895 The New York Times pub. the article PROSPECTS OF ANOTHER GLACIAL PERIOD; Geologists Think the World May Be Frozen Up Again, which starts out: "The question is again being discussed whether recent and long-continued observations do not point to the advent of a second glacial period, when the countries now basking in the fostering warmth of a tropical sun will ultimately give way to the perennial frost and snow of the polar regions."

Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)

In Apr. 1896 Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, using values for the radiant heat of the full moon at different elevations above the horizon supplied by Samuel Pierpont Langley to compute the heat absorbed by the atmosphere, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age, with the conclusion: "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"; too bad, he only proves that atmospheric CO2 absorbs and blocks infrared energy before returning it to space, not that it can return any of it to the surface?; in 1906 after winning the 1905 Nobel Chem. Prize he pub. The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations, amending his views, lowering his estimates to 1.6C-3.9C and considering increased CO2 to be beneficial; "Since, now, warm ages have alternated with glacial periods, even after man appeared on the earth, we have to ask ourselves: Is it probable that we shall in the coming geological ages be visited by a new ice period that will drive us from our temperate countries into the hotter climates of Africa? There does not appear to be much ground for such an apprehension. The enormous combustion of coal by our industrial establishments suffices to increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air to a perceptible degree." Too bad for modern climate alarmists, in 1906 he pub. Worlds in the Making: The Evolution of the Universe ("Världarnas utveckling"), which is trans. to German in 1907 as "Das Werden der Welden", and to English in 1908, containing the soundbytes: "Another process which withdraws carbonic acid [carbon dioxide] from the air is the assimilation of plants... [If] the percentage of carbon dioxide be doubled, the absorption by the plants would also be doubled. If, at the same time, the temperature rises by 4C, the vitality will increase in the ratio of 1:1.5, so that the doubling of the carbon dioxide percentage will lead to an increase in the absorption of carbonic acid by the plant approximately in the ratio of 1:3. An increase of the carbon dioxide percentage to double its amount may hence be able to raise the intensity of vegetable life... threefold"; "We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind."

Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928)

In 1896 German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900.

In Nov. 1897 Thomas C. Chamberlin pub. the article A group of hypotheses bearing on climatic changes in The Journal of Geology, discussing how changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration affect climate, with the soundbyte: "[Arrhenius] does not, however, postulate the conditions which control the enrichment and depletion of the atmosphere which has been the essential endeavor of this paper."

Léon Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913)

In 1898 French meteorologist Leon (Léon) Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) pub. a paper in Comptes Rendus detailing his experiments with high-flying hydrogen balloons, announcing his discovery of a temperature inversion that ends the lapse rate at approx. 11 km alt., going on to coin the terms "troposphere", "tropopause", and "stratosphere".

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928)

On Nov. 1, 1899 Mattoon, Ill.-born geologist Thomas Chrowder "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, which promotes the theory that atmospheric CO2 concentration can drive changes in the climate for the purposes of climate engineering (geoengineering); "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate."; "A study of the life of the geological periods seems to indicate that there were very notable fluctuations in the total mass of living matter. To be sure there was a reciprocal relation between the life of the land and that of the sea, so that when the latter was extended upon the continental platforms and greatly augmented, the former was contracted, but notwithstanding this it seems clear that the sum of life activity fluctuated notably during the ages. It is believed that on the whole it was greatest at the periods of sea extension and mild climates, and least at the times of disruption and climatic intensification. This factor then acted antithetically to the carbonic acid freeing previously noted, and, so far as it went, tended to offset its effects. It now becomes necessary to assign agencies capable of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate sufficiently above the normal rate of supply, at certain times, to produce glaciation; and on the other hand, capable of restoring it to the atmosphere at certain other times in sufficient amounts to produce mild climates."


In the 20th cent. the amount of atmospheric dust on Earth doubles.

In 1900 the Modern Maximum of solar activity esp. sunspots begins, ramping up in the 1940s and reaching the highest level since the warm Boreal Period in 7K B.C.E. during the late 1950s, reaching a double peak in the 1950s and another in the 1990s, with the highest level of solar magnetic activity for most of the past 11.4K years.

Galveston Flood, Sept. 8, 1900

Galveston, oh Galvesto-o-n? On Sept. 8, 1900 Galveston, Tex., the #2 wealthiest city in the U.S. after New York City is struck by the Category 4 (145 mph) 1900 (Great) Galveston Hurricane (Aug. 27-Sept. 17), killing 6K-12K and almost wiping the city off the map, throwing smug Americans who thought they ruled the world into denial, becoming the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history (until ?); the authorities failed to order evacuation, thinking they were immune from Mother Nature?

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) Max Planck (1858-1947) Planck's Law, 1900

In 1900 English physicist John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) pub. the Rayleigh-Jeans Law (improved by Sir James Jeans in 1905), claiming that the spectral radiance (emission at a single frequency) of a "black body" (perfect absorber of radiation, radiating an amount equal to that which it is absorbing) is proportional to the frequency to the fourth power, which heads toward infinity as the frequency approaches infinity, causing the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the prediction that a black body emits radiation with infinite power; on Oct. 19 after ruminating not on that but on why Wien's 1896 Displacement Law breaks down at low frequencies, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) announces to the Berlin Physical Society his revolutionary Planck's Radiation Law, proposing the (Old) Quantum Theory to account for the radiation from a black body, explaining that it is emitted in discrete quanta, each being of an energy value equal to Planck's constant h times the frequency, and violating the ancient maxim "Natura non facit saltum" (Nature doesn't make jumps); as he can't explain the meaning of his new constant, he delves into atomic theory to try and find a clue; meanwhile herr Wilhelm Wien proposes the formula E = (3/4) * M * C^2 for the relation between electromagnetic mass and electromagnetic energy - don't complain about the wienie in your neighbor's eye when you have a planck in your own?

In 1900 a reliable record of Atlantic hurricane landfalls is started.

In 1901-50 the Early Twentieth Cent. Warming (ETCW) starts with Indian monsoon failures, followed by heat waves and droughts in North Am. in the 1930s, drought in Australia in 1937-45, and droughts and heat waves in Europe in the late 1940s-early 1950s.

Nils Gustaf Ekholm (1848-1923)

In Jan. 1901 Swedish meteorologist Nils Gustaf Ekholm (1848-1923) (lifelong friend of Svante Arrhenius and believer in the ability of atmospheric CO2 to control the mean temp of the Earth) pub. the article On the variations of the climate of the geological and historical past and their causes in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, containing the soundbyte: "Yet we must expect that secular variations of the quantity of carbonic acid in the atmosphere will occur and cause climatic variations of the same kind as those revealed by geological science. Thus a future Ice Age might possibly occur. But here we find a remarkable circumstance that has hitherto been unexampled in the history of the earth. This is the influence of Man on climate... Thus it seems possible that Man will be efficaciously to regulate the future climate of the earth and consequently prevent the arrival of a a new Ice Age. By such means also the deterioration of the climate of the northern and Arctic regions, depending on the decrease of the obliquity of the ecliptic, may be counteracted. It is too early to judge of how far Man might be capable of thus regulating the future climate. But already the view of such a possibility seems to me so grand that I cannot help thinking that it will afford to Mankind hitherto unforeseen means of evolution." In 1905 Ekholm founds the Swedish storm warning system, with 27 warning stations on the W coast, expanding to cover the entire coastline by 1913.

In mid-June-early Aug. 1901 the 1901 Eastern U.S. Heat Wave sees Philly experience 12 straight days above 90F starting June 25, with several institutionalized individuals in New York City committing suicide in 95F heat, and dead horses becoming a source of contamination; July becomes the hottest month in the contiguous U.S. until the Julys of 1931, 1934, 1936, and 2012; a drought in the Upper Midwest and Ohio Valley gives Ill. its driest year until ?; a total of 9.5K are killed.

In July 1901 Popular Science Monthly pub. the article Climate and Carbonic Acid by Bailey Willis, detailing how U. of Chicago prof. Thomas Crowder Chamberlin has worked out how Earth's climate is driven by variations in atmospheric carbonic acid.

In early Sept. 1902 after an unusually hot dry season and high winds, forest fires rage in every part of Greece.

On Oct. 23, 1902 the Morganton, N.C. News Herald pub. the article Hint to Coal Consumers, which starts out: "A Swedish professor, Svend Arrhenius, has evolved a new theory of the extinction of the human race. He holds that the combustion of coal by civilized man is gradually warming the atmosphere so that in the course of a few cycles of 10,000 years the earth will be baked in a temperature close to the boiling point. He bases his theory on the accumulation of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, which acts as a glas in concentrating and refracting the heat of the sun."

On July 8, 1905 Calif. sets a record high avg. temp of 104F (until ?), with more than half the state above 105F and more than a third 110F or above; Orland in N Calif. is 120F; CO2 concentration is 300 ppm.

On Jan. 21, 1906 U.S. temps measured by USHCN stations see almost half over 60F, and 20% over 70F; on Jan. 22 it reaches 80F in Boston, Mass.; on Jan. 26 the Junction City Union of Junction City, Kan. carries the soundbyte: "A warm wave which scores the highest record in temperature since 1890, prevailed Sunday throughout the region between the Mississippi valley and the Atlantic coast. Its crest was in Ohio, where the temperature as reported to the weather bureau ranged from 70 to 74 degrees."

In 1906 after claiming that it was ice-free in 1903, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen becomes the first to sail the Northwest Passage after determining the position of the magnetic North Pole. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941)

In 1906-12 German chemist Walter Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) formulates the Third Law of Thermodynamics, that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

Robert Williams Wood (1868-1955)

In 1909 Concord, Mass.-born physicist Robert Williams "R.W." Wood (1868-1955) pub. the article Note on the Theory of the Greenhouse in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Mag., containing the soundbyte: "There appears to be a widespread belief that the comparatively high temperature produced within a closed space covered with glass, and exposed to solar radiation, results from a transformation of wave-length, that is, that the heat waves from the sun, which are able to penetrate the glass, fall upon the walls of the enclosure and raise its temperature: the heat energy is re-emitted by the walls in the form of much longer waves, which are unable to penetrate the glass, the greenhouse acting as a radiation trap. I have always felt some doubt as to whether this action played any very large part in the elevation of temperature. It appeared much more probable that the part played by the glass was the prevention of the escape of the warm air heated by the ground within the enclosure. If we open the doors of a greenhouse on a cold and windy day, the trapping of radiation appears to lose much of its efficacy. As a matter of fact I am of the opinion that a greenhouse made of a glass transparent to waves of every possible length would show a temperature nearly, if not quite, as high as that observed in a glass house. The transparent screen allows the solar radiation to warm the ground, and the ground in turn warms the air, but only the limited amount within the enclosure. In the 'open,' the ground is continually brought into contact with cold air by convection currents"; he goes on to describe an experiment he performed confirming this, concluding: "Is it therefore necessary to pay attention to trapped radiation in deducing the temperature of a planet as affected by its atmosphere? The solar rays penetrate the atmosphere, warm the ground which in turn warms the atmosphere by contact and by convection currents. The heat received is thus stored up in the atmosphere, remaining there on account of the very low radiating power of a gas. It seems to me very doubtful if the atmosphere is warmed to any great extent by absorbing the radiation from the ground, even under the most favourable conditions."


On Aug. 20-21, 1910 the Great Fire (Big Blowup) of 1910, a giant forest fire in W Mont., N Idaho, and NE Wash. burns 3M acres in two days, killing 87 (mostly firefighters) becming the deadliest forest fire in U.S. history (until ?), making firefighters into heroes and permanently changing the focus of the U.S. Forest Service to fire prevention.

In early July-Sept. 11, 1911 the 1911 U.K. Heat Wave sets high temperature records throughout England, with a max of 36.7C (98.1F), which isn't broken until 1990. On Aug. 8 after a nationwide strike of transport workers is called by Labour Party leader Keir Hardie, riots in Liverpool are quashed by troops, who fire on demonstrators, killing two; meanwhile 50K troops are rushed to London as famine looms; just at the worse time, on Aug. 9 the temp. in London reaches a record 98. 1 deg F.

In Mar. 1912 Popular Mechanics pub. the article Remarkable Weather of 1911: The Effect of the Combustion of Coal on the Climate - What Scientists Predict for the Future by Francis Molena, containing the soundbyte: "The furnaces of the word are now burning about 2,000,000,000 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries."

On June 6-8, 1912 Mount Katmai in Novarupta, Alaska (Lat. "newly erupted") erupts violently, forming the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (named by Robert F. Griggs), and becoming the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th cent.

Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964)

In 1912 Austrian-born Am. physicist Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) discovers Cosmic Rays with a hot air balloon during a near-total eclipse, measuring rising radiation at rising altitudes despite the Moon blocking most of the Sun's visible radiation, winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize; "The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above."

Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947)

In Jan. 1913 Yale U. geographer Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947) pub. the article Changes of Climate and History in Am Historical Review, followed by the book The Climatic Factor (1914), the book Civilization and Climate (1915) (which tries to justify the evident superiority of the white Euro race and its superior civilization by the fact it lived in a colder climate than yellow Asians, black Africans, etc.), the article Climatic Change and Agricultural Exhaustion as Elements in the Fall of Rome in Quarterly Journal of Economics (Feb. 1917), Climatic Changes: Their Nature and Causes (w/Stephen Sargent Visher of Indiana U.) (1922), and The Human Habitat (1927) (which further develops the human development vs. climate theme). In "Climatic Changes" he writes the soundbyte: "

On July 10, 1913 after a record hot summer Death Valley, Calif. reaches a high air temp of 134F (56.7C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth); on July 8-14 temps are 128 and higher, incl. 130F on July 12,and 131F on July 13; this is followed by the record highest ground surface temp on Earth of 201F (93.9C) on July 15, 1917.

On Sept. 1-8, 1913 daily afternoon temps in Steffenville, Mo. reach 100F+, peaking at 109F.

Charles Fabry (1867-1945) Henri Buisson (1873-1944)

In 1913 after the spectrum of radiation from the Sun is found to be blocked 97%-99% at 200nm-315nm in the ultraviolet end, French physicists Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1873-1944) discover the Earth's Ozone Layer, located at 12-19 mi. (20-30km) above the surface, containing 10 ppm of ozone (O3), compared to 0.3 ppm for the rest of the atmosphere.

Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942)

In 1913 Harvard chemist-biologist Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942) pub. The Fitness of the Environment: An Inquiry into the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter, "an inquiry into the biological significance of the properties of matter", becoming the first major book to develop the concept of fine tuning in the Universe; "The properties of matter and the course of cosmic evolution are now seen to be intimately related to the structure of the living being and to its activities; they become therefore, far more important in biology than has been previously suspected. For the whole evolutionary process, both cosmic and organic, is one, and the biologist may now rightly regard the universe in its very essence as biocentric"; "One of the remarkable physical properties of carbon dioxide is its degree of solubility in water. This quality varies enormously in different substances. For example, at ordinary pressures and temperatures, water can absorb only about 5 per cent of its own volume of oxygen, while it can take up about 1300 times its own volume of ammonia. Now for carbon dioxide, unlike most gases, the volume that can be absorbed by water is nearly the same as the volume of the water. The volumes vary, however, according to temperature, being absolutely the same at a temperature of about 15ºC. or 59ºF., which is close to the ideal temperature for man's physical health and practically the same as the mean temperature of the earth's surface when all seasons are averaged together"; "Hence, when water is in contact with air, and equilibrium has been established, the amount of free carbonic acid in a given volume of water is almost exactly equal to the amount in the adjacent air. Unlike oxyzen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, carbonic acid enters water freely; unlike sulphurous oxide and ammonia, it escapes freely from water. Thus the waters can never wash carbonic acid completely out of the air, nor can the air keep it from the waters. It is the one substance which thus, in considerable quantities relative to its total amount, everywhere accompanies water. In earth, air, fire, and water alike, these two substances are always associated"; "Accordingly, if water be the first primary constituent of the environment, carbonic acid is inevitably the second, - because of its solubility possessing an equal mobility with water, because of the reservoir of the atmosphere never to be depleted by chemical action in the oceans, lakes, and streams. In truth, so close is the association between these two substances that it is scarcely correct logically to separate them at all; together they make up the real environment and they never part company."

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

USS Cyclops, 1910-18

On Mar. 4, 1918 the 542-ft. 19K-ton U.S. Navy collier USS Cyclops (AC-4) (launched May 7, 1910) (largest ship in the U.S. Navy) en route from the West Indies to Baltimore carrying manganese ore disappears without a trace along with all 309 crew and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle, becoming the first mysterious ship disappearance there; its last message is "Weather Fair, All Well"; the Germans disavow knowledge.


About 1920 the Warming in the North begins (ends 1960), which sees the salinity of North Atlantic water passing through the Faroe-Shetland Channel into the Norwegian Sea peak, and the West Greenland banks warm by 2C+, disolocating biogeographical boundaries for plankton, fish, mammals, and birds.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In the 1920s Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate changes by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun.

On Nov. 27, 1920 Scientific American mag. pub. the article Carbonic Acid Gas to Fertilize the Air by Alfred Gradenwitz, praising CO2's role as a plant food and advocating pumping more into the atmosphere via blast furnaces.

On Dec. 16, 1920 (7:05:53 p.m. local time) a 7.8 earthquake in Gansu (Kansu) Province in W China destroys 30K sq. mi. and kills 273.4K.

On Apr. 29, 1922 The Mail pub. the article Flood threat from polar ice, which starts out: "'We're doing about the most we can do right now to study the possible collapse of the west ice sheet,' said Dr. Richard Cameron, NSF program, manager for glaciology. 'It has become an area of concern because we could be on the brink of a rise of sea levels.' The staggering aspect of the research is the discovery of a potentially catastrophic phenomenon that had been totally unexpected. 'We're seeing the west ice sheet on its way out,' said Cameron. 'It seems to be doing something completely different than the east ice sheet. It has nothing to do with a warmer climate, just the dynamics of unstable. ice.'"

In Aug. 1922 the 1922 China-Japan Heat Wave sees temperatures averaging 100F, with several days in Peking and Tientsin at 115F.

On Sept. 13, 1922 the highest temp. ever recorded on Earth (136.4 F) (58.0 C) is recorded in 'Aziziya (El Azizia) (Al-Azizyah), Libya (until ?) - get used to it?

On Nov. 2, 1922 The Washington Post pub. an AP article about a report relayed by the U.S. consul in Norway to the U.S. State Dept. in Oct. and pub. in the Monthly Weather Review, which begins: "The Arctic seems to be warming up. Reports from fisherman, seal hunters, and explorers who sail the seas about Spitzbergen and the eastern Arctic, all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, and hitherto underheard-of high temperatures in that part of the earth's surface.... Ice conditions were exceptional. In fact, so little ice has never before been noted. The expedition all but established a record, sailing as far north as 81° 29' in ice-free water. This is the farthest north ever reached with modern oceanographic apparatus... In connection with Dr. Hoel's report, it is of interest to note the unusually warm summer in Arctic Norway and the observations of Capt. Martin Ingebrigsten, who has sailed the eastern Arctic for 54 years past. He says that he first noted warmer conditions in 1918, that since that time it has steadily gotten warmer, and that to-day the Arctic of that region is not recognizable as the same region of 1868 to 1917. Many old landmarks are so changed as to be unrecognizable. Where formerly great masses of ice were found, there are now often moraines, accumulations of earth and stones. At many points where glaciers formerly extended far into the sea they have entirely disappeared" - what's CO2 got to do with it?

C.E.P. Brooks (1888-1957)

In 1922 English geologist-climatologist Charles Ernest Pelham "C.E.P." Brooks (1888-1957), later asst. dir. of the climatological div. of Britain's Meteorological Office pub. the book The Evolution of Climate, followed in 1926 by the std. textbook Climate Through the Ages, which attributes the onset of the ice ages to geographical changes incl. evolving continental shapes, denying any role for astronomical forces except for solar activity variations, which he relegates to fluctuations of 100K years or less, rejecting CO2 as a cause of climate change; it contains the humorous soundbyte: "There are at least nine and twenty ways of constructing a theory of climate change, and there is probably some truth in quite a number of them"; in 1951 he pub. the article Geological and Historical Aspects of Climate Change in Compendium of Meteorology (ed. Thomas F. Malone), pub. by the Am. Meteorological Assoc., containing the soundbyte about the CO2 Greenhouse Gas Warming Theory: "Arrhenius and Chamberlin saw in this a case of climatic changes, but the theory never widely accepted and was abandoned when it was found that all the long-wave radiation absorbed by CO2 is absorbed by water vapor."

On Apr. 4, 1923 The Advertiser pub. the article The North Pole, Causes of Change of Climate, which starts out: "Is the North Pole going to melt entirely? Are the Arctic regions warming up, with prospect of a great climatic change in that part of the world? Science (says 'Popular Science') is asking these questions. Reports from fishermen, seal hunters, and explorers who sail the seas around Spitzbergen and the eastern Arctic all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, with hitherto unheard-of high temperatures on that part of the earth's surface. Observations to that effect have covered the last five years during which the warmth has been steadily increasing. In August of this year the Norwegian Department of Commerce sent an expedition to Spitzbergen and Bear Island under the leadership of Dr. Adolf Hoel, professor of geology in the University of Christinia, the object in view to survey and chart areas productive of coal and other minerals. The expedition sailed as far north as 81 deg. 29 min. N. latitude in ice free water. Such a thing, hitherto, would have been deemed impossible. The United States Consul at Bergen, Norway, Mr. Ifft, also reports the recent extraordinary warmth in the Arctic. He quotes incidentally the statements of Captain Martin Ingebrigtsen, a mariner who has sailed those seas for 51 years. The captain says that he first noted an unusual warmth in 1918; and since then temperatures have risen steadily higher. Today the eastern Arctic is 'hardly recognisable as the same region of 1868 to 1917.' Many of the old landmarks are greatly altered, or no longer exist. Where formerly there were great masses of ice, these have melted away, leaving behind them accumulations of earth and stones such as geologists call 'moraines.' At many points where glaciers extended far into the sea half a dozen years ago they have now entirely disappeared. The change in temperature has brought great changes in the plant and animal life of the Arctic. Formerly vast shoals of whitefish were found in the waters round Spitzbergen, but last summer the fishermen sought them in vain. Seals, which used to be plentiful in those seas, have almost entirely disappeared. It would seem as if the ocean must have become uncomfortably warm for some of its denizens which formerly frequented those latitudes, causing them to flock northward towards the Pole. On the other hand, other kinds of fishes, hitherto unknown so far north, have made their appearance. Shoals of smelt have arrived, and immense schools of herring are reported by fishermen along the west coast of Spitzbergen. Formerly the waters about Spitzbergen have held an even summer temperature in the neighborhood of 5 deg. above freezing point. This year it rose as high as 28 deg. Last winter the ocean did not freeze over even on the north coast of Spitzbergen. This is on the authority of Dr. Hoel. This state of affairs is a cause of much surprise and even astonishment to scientists, who wonder whether the change is merely temporary or the beginning of a great alteration of climatic conditions in the Arctic, with consequent melting of the polar ice sheet."

In summer 1926 the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927 begins after heavy summer rains swell the river to 60 mi. width below Memphis, Tenn. by next May, causing flooding over a 27K sq. mi. area that submerges towns and farmland up to 30 ft. depth, displacing 640K from La. to Ill. before subsiding in Aug. 1927, after which the 1928 U.S. Flood Control Act is passed on May 15, 1928, creating the world's longest system of levees; on Jan. 1-May 1, 1927 the Great Mississippi Flood strikes the Lower Mississippi Valley, killing 246, destroying 130K homes, causing $350M in property damage, and displacing 700K; similar to the 2005 flood only slower?

On Sept. 11, 1926 the Category 4 (150 mph) 1926 Great Miami Hurricane forms in the C Atlantic Ocean, moving N of the Virgin Islands on Sept. 15, and reaching peak intensity on Sept. 16, hitting the Turks and Caicos Islands and the Bahamas before making landfall in Miami, Fla. on Sept. 18, traversing the Fla. Peninsula and emerging near Fort Myers, Fla. and hitting Ala., Miss., and La. before dissipating on Sept. 22 after killing 372-539 and causing $100M damage.

On July 6, 1928 in Potter, Neb. a hailstone is found measuring 17 in. (43.2 cm.) and weighing 1.51 lb. (680 g), becoming the world's largest (until ?).


Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

In 1930 English mathematician-geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) describes the photochemical mechanisms underlying the Earth's ozone layer; early in this decade he and his student V.C.A. Ferraro predict the existence of the magnetosphere.

Avg. winter temp at Spitsbergen in 1931-5: -8.6C; in 1900-15: -17.6C.

In July-Nov. 1931 the 1931 China (Yangtze-Huai River Floods) kill 422K-4M, becoming one of the most lethal natural disasters of the cent., and most deadly flood in known history; on Aug. 21 floods in Hankow spread over thousands of sq. mi. and make 30M homeless, causing the Communists to blame corrupt govt. officials of embezzlement of the dyke fund.

Joseph Burton 'J.B.' Kincer (1874-1954)

In Sept. 1933 Am. meteorologist Joseph Burton "J.B." Kincer (1874-1954), head of the climate and crop weather div. of the Weather Bureau in Washington, D.C. pub. the article Is Our Climate Changing? A Study of Long-Time Temperature Trends in Monthly Weather Review, which contains the soundbyte: "In concluding this study, other weather features directly related to general temperature conditions were examined such as the occurrence of frost in the fall and spring, the number of days in winter with certain low temperatures, the occurrence of freezing weather in the fall and spring se.asons, the length of the winters, as indicated by the first frost in fall and the last in spring, etc. All of these confirm the general statement that we are in the midst of a period of abnormal warmth, which has come on more or less gradually for many years. An example of this auxiliary evidence is shown in figure 12, in which the general trend of the number of days with freezing weather in fall and in spring at Washington, D.C., is charted for a period of 6O years (data in table 2). It will be noted that for the 20 years ending with 1892 there was for the spring months (after February) a total of 354 days with minimum temperature 32° or lower, and for the 20 years, ending with 1933, this had dropped to 237 days, a reduction of one third from the early total, or an average difference of 6 days a year." On Nov. 28, 1937 Herbert Hollander pub. an interview with Kincer in the Baltimore Sun, uttering the soundbyte: "Our study, based on authentic statistical data, definitely proves that the climate generally has been growing noticeably milder. The temperature and other records are supplemented by our knowledge of the accelerated melting of the polar ice caps. Those middle-aged and elderly folk who claim the winters today are decidedly less severe than when they were young are not deceived... As a matter of fact, this long-time trend is national and, indeed, international", never mentioning carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and adding: "It is quite possible that the trend will be in the other direction. When the infants of today become graybeards they may sit before some crackling fire and remember 'the nice, comfortable, open winters we used to have.'"

On Feb. 3, 1934 The Cairns Post pub. the article "World Heating Up", with the subtitles: "Ice Dissolving at Poles" and "Sea Will Rise 40 Feet", starting out: "The world is gradually becoming both warmer and drier. One day the great Polar icecaps may melt - raising the level of the oceans from 40 to 50 feet, and wiping half of England from the map. These suggestions were made by Sir Douglas Mawson (the famous Polar explorer) and Dr. C.E.P. Brooks (of the British Meteorological Office), who is a leading authority on the effect of Polar conditions on climate. "This warm-up process is slow," said Sir Douglas. "In fact, all we may expect is a rise in average temperatute of 2 or 3 degress Fahr. each 1000 years."

In 1934 the Great Drought begins in the U.S. (ends 1937), creating the Am.-Canadian Dust Bowl of 1935-8, covering 150K sq. mi. (75%) of the Great Plains, incl. parts of Okla., Tex., Kans., Colo., and N.M., becoming the worst drought in 1K years; caused by the planting of wheat during WWI on former grazing land to make a quick profit? On July 20, 1934 Keokuk, Iowa reaches a state temp record of 118F (48C). In July 1934 80% of the U.S. is in extreme or severe drought.

In 1934 the U.S. Nat. Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is established in New Orleans, La. to archive weather data, moving to Asheville, N.C. in 1951 and renamed to the Nat. Weather Records Data Center (NWRC), and the modern name in 1993; in 2015 it is merged with the Nat. Geophysical Data Center and the Nat. Oceanic Center into the Nat. Centers for Environmental Info. (NCEI), becoming part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) along with Ariz. State U. and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, which runs five Earth surface stations, 6K temperature stations, 7.5K precipitation stations, and 2K pressure stations, with the avg. temp record going back to the late 1950s, incl. data collected since 1697, with 1,650 records greater than 100 years, and 220 greater than 150 years.

In Mar. 1935 dust storms begin plaguing Kansas, and on Apr. 8 after the air in Washington D.C. turns copper from dust blowing in from the W end of the Okla. Panhandle, the U.S. Emergency Relief Appropriation Act is passed, appropriating $4B to be used at FDR's discretion, along with $880M in previously unspent appropriations; in Apr. Congress approves the Works Progress Admin. (WPA), which begins operating on May 6. On Apr. 14, 1935 (p.m.) Black Sunday, a terrific 200-mi.-wide dust storm begins in Cimarron County, Okla., crossing into Kansas, dropping the temp. 25 deg. in an hour, and permanently blinding many people; 4.7 tons of dust per acre are dumped on W Kan., denting cartops; the wind blows at 40 mph or greater for 100 straight hours, displacing 300M tons of topsoil from the prairies; later the southern plains are plagued by up to 14M grasshoppers per sq. mi. after natural predators are killed by the dust; in July 1940 Woody Guthrie releases his debut album Dust Bowl Ballads, becoming one of the first concept albums, featuring Great Dust Storm Disaster; "On the 14th day of April 1935,/ There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky./ You could see that dust storm comin', the cloud looked deathlike black,/ And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track./ From Oklahoma City to the Arizona line,/ Dakota and Nebraska to the lazy Rio Grande,/ It fell across our city like a curtain of black rolled down,/ We thought it was our judgment, we thought it was our doom./ The radio reported, we listened with alarm the wild and windy actions of this great mysterious storm." On Aug. 25, 1936 the St. Louis Star-Times pub. the article Month Heat Toll Mounts to 33 in Prolonged Spell, with the subtitle "Mercury Stayed Below 100 Yesterday First Time in 13 Days". On Aug. 29-Sept. 10, 1935 the 1935 Labor Day U.S. Hurricane destroys Islamorada and Key West, Fla., causing $6M damage and killing 423, becoming the first known Category 5 Hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland, first and worst of three to hit the U.S. during the 20th cent. (1969 Hurricane Camille, 1992 Hurricane Andrew).

In Oct. 1935-Mar. 1936 the U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. experiences the 5th-coldest weather for the contiguous U.S.; in Dec. 1935-Feb. 1936 the 1936 North Am. Cold Wave is worse in the Midwest U.S. and the Canadian Prairies, missing the SW U.S. and Calif., becoming the worst in North Am. in cents.; Feb. is the coldest on record in the contiguous U.S., narrowly beating Feb. 1899; in June-Sept. 1936 the Summer 1936 North Am. Heat Wave kills 5K in the U.S. and 1180 in Canada, esp. in urban centers sans air conditioning; and destroys massive numbers of crops, becoming the hottest summer until 2012.

In 1936 record heat, floods, and tornadoes hit the U.S., setting almost 250 all-time max temp records, which isn't matched until ?; on Feb. 8-23 Ashland, Kan. warms 91 deg F from -7F to 84F; on Mar. 19 The Cincinnati Enquirer carries the headline: "Hunger and Disease Peril Pittsburgh as City's Most Disastrous Flood Ebbs: Crest to Be 58 or 60 Feet in City Monday"; on Mar. 20 The New York Daily News carries the headline: "All Eastern America Under Flood Waters: Terrible Duststorm Rages in West", along with a front page article titled "President Signs Appeal as Capitol Flooded: 100 Cities and 14 States Affected"; on Apr. 7 The New York News carries the headline: "Great Property Damage", with the opening paragraph: "A tornado - one of a series of storms which for several days has harassed six southern States - today struck three cities with great force, leaving behind it many dead. At least 200 have already been identified. Gainesville in Georgia, Tupelo in Mississippi, and Colombia in Tennessee were the hardest hit"; on July 25 The Bend Bulletin carries the headline: "Heat Wave Toll Over 2,000 in 86 Cities in Week", talking about "temperatures of 100 degrees and higher throughout a large part of the nation" - high atmospheric CO2 had nothing to do with it?

Robert K. Merton (1910-2003)

In Dec. 1936 Philadelphia, Penn.-born sociologist (founder of the field of the sociology of science) Robert King Merton (Meyer Robert Schkolnick) (1910-2003) pub. the essay The Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action in Am. Sociological Review, which popularizes the Law of Unintended Consequences, incl. unexpected benefit, unexpected drawback, and perverse result; "The distinctive intellectual contributions of the sociologist are found primarily in the study of unintended consequences... of social practices as well as in the study of anticipated consequences."

G.S. Callendar (1898-1964)

In Apr. 1938 using 147 widespread land-based weather stations, Montreal, Canada-born British steam engineer Guy Stewart "G.S." Callendar (1898-1964) pub. the paper The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on temperature (submitted May 19, 1937) in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Sociey, announcing the Callendar (Greenhouse) Effect ("sky radiation") caused by the burning of fossil fuels, assessing climate sensitivity at 2°C and claiming that it would be beneficial, delaying a "return of the deadly glaciers", meeting with widespread skepticism until 1950 then leading to attempts to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Hawaii in 1958; only about 60 stations are needed?; "By fuel combustion man has added about 150,000 million tons of carbon dioxide to the air during the past half century. The author estimates from the best available data that approximately three quarters of this has remained in the atmosphere. The radiation absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide and water vapour are used to show the effect of carbon dioxide on 'sky radiation.' From this the increase in mean temperature, due to the artificial production of carbon dioxide, is estimated to be at the rate of 0.003°C. per year at the present time. The temperature observations at 200 meteorological stations are used to show that world temperatures have actually increased at an average rate of 0.005°C. per year during the past half century."

On Sept. 9-23, 1938 the Category 3 Great 1938 New England Hurricane AKA the Long Island Express and Yankee Clipper hits Long Island, N.Y. on Sept. 21, killing 682, damaging or destroying 57K homes and 6K fishing boats, and causing $306M property damage, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since the 1635 Colonial Hurricane; damaged trees and bldgs. are still seen as late as 1951.

On Oct. 9, 1938 The New York Times pub. the article Forest Fires, One Every 3 Minutes in 1937, Burned 21,980,500 Acres at $20,668,800 Loss.

On Jan. 13, 1939 after a stationary high pressure system over the Tasman Sea leads to a heat wave, the Black Friday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia burn 4.942K acres, kill 71, burn 1.3K homes, 3.7K bldgs., and 69 sawmills.

On Jan. 24-25, 1939 an 8.3 earthquake strikes Concepcion, Chile, killing 10K; heavy aftershocks follow on Jan. 30, killing 30K, with 50K sq. mi. razed.

Auschwitz Camp Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II results in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and features the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis - I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps? The whole experience turns Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which has its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announces in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers don't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. does nada. After the war ends and Americans tour the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally gets what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which doesn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still doesn't ratify until 1988.

On Sept. 29, 1939 the Wodonga and Towong Sentinel pub. the article What Is the World Coming To?, which starts out: "Scientists have confirmed the fact that the Arctic regions around Spitzbergen are warming up at the rate of approximately one degree in every two years. Since 1910, when observations first started in those regions, the cumulative rise of winter temperature has amounted to nearly 16 degrees. Such a profound change has been attended by new and strange phenomena over the whole area surrounding the Polar basin. It has been found that the Polar icefields are receding gradually northwards, while soil which at one time remained solidly frozen throughout the year now undergoes a partial thaw during the Arctic summers. In the Barents Sea area where, during earlier observations, only small patches became free from ice, large spaces of open water now occur at frequent intervals. Ice-breakers and other vessels which regularly make journeys to the far North are now able to penetrate with comparative ease into regions which could not be reached twenty years ago. There has been a gradual drift northward of several kinds of fish into areas once completely ice covered. The milder conditions have not been confined to areas north of the Russian coast. From parts of Greenland comes evidence of a higher winter temperature, with considerably less snow, than was the case in the early part of the twentieth century. When this warming-up process was first noticed, says a writer in the "Evening Standard," scientists were inclined to attribute it to a temporary increase in the volume of the North Atlantic Drift, or even to a change in the course of the river of warmth, but subsequent events point to this theory being only partially correct. Parts of the Polar regions not affected by the warm waters have grown decidedly warmer in the last 20 years, while temperatures have become higher in the far north-east of Siberia and well inland - remote from oceanic effects. In support of the belief that the Atlantic river of warmth cannot be wholly responsible for the widespread rise in temperature there are the trustworthy records obtained by Mr. J. B. Kincer, of the Weather Bureau at Washington, which show that the rise in temperature at places as far apart as Canada and Africa, South America and Asia, Bombay and Santiago (Chile) has been well marked since the middle of last century. It is possible that the world as a whole is becoming warmer. One scientist puts forward the theory that an increase in carbon dioxide (due to the huge amounts of coal being used) may be responsible for such a change, while astronomers look to the sun for an explanation. Quite apart from any fluctuations in the sun's actual output of radiative energy, it is possible that the warmth received from the sun may vary from time to time due to the earth passing through regions of space in which meteoric dust is unevenly distributed."

On Dec. 17, 1939 the Harrisburg Sunday Courier pub. the article Greenland's glaciers melting, says scientist, quoting Swedish geologist Hans Ahlmann, who recently visited the Arctic: "Everything points to the fact that the climate in that region has been growing warmer during recent years. It may without exaggeration be said that the glaciers, like those in Norway, face the possibility of a catastrophic collapse."

Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957)

In 1939 Swedish-born Am. meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby (1898-1957) of the U.S. Weather Bureau and U. of Chicago discovers Rossby Waves in the Earth's atmosphere, due to the variation in the Coriolis effect with latitude, leading to large-scale meanders of the Jet Stream (which he also identifies) that cause masses of cold or warm air to detach and become low-strength cyclones and anticyclones, driving daily weathern patterns at mid-latitudes, making the E coast of the U.S. colder than the W coast at a given latitude.

George Rippey Stewart Jr. (1895-1980)

In 1939 Sewickley, Penn.-born historian-novelist George Rippey Stewart Jr. (1895-1980) pub. East of the Giants. In 1941 he pub. Storm, about a Pacific storm named Maria, causing the U.S. Nat. Weather Service to begin naming tropical storms after people, and inspiring Lerner and Loewe's song "They Call the Wind Maria" from "Paint Your Wagon" (1951). In 1948 Fire, about a forest fire in the Sierra Nevada Mts. of Calif. In 1949 he pub. Earth Abides, a post-apocalyptic sci-fi novel about Isherwood "Ish" Williams, Emma, and the community they found in Berkeley, Calif. after civilization is destroyed by a plague; wins the first Internat. Fantasy Award in 1951.


On Oct. 13, 1940 the Hartford Courant Mag. pub. the article Ice in Arctic Melting Rapidly by Thomas R. Henry, which begins: "The ice of the Arctic Ocean is melting so rapidly that more than one-third of it has disappeared in 50 years"; too bad, it conflicts with NASA's global warming story, so no surprise, on Sept. 27, 2009 Tom Wigley of the Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) sends an email to Phil Jones of the the U. of East Anglia, with the soundbyte: "Here are some speculations on correcting SSTs to partly explain the 1940s warming blip. If you look at the attached plot you will see that the land also shows the 1940s blip (as I'm sure you know). So, if we could reduce the ocean blip by, say, 0.15 degC, then this would be significant for the global mean - but we'd still have to explain the land blip... It would be good to remove at least part of the 1940s blip, but we are still left with 'why the blip'." Watch video - Tony Heller.

In 1943 the free market small govt. think tank Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) is founded in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia by 54 people, with close ties to the Australian Liberal Party, advocating deregulation and privatization, and opposing unions and climate change science.

Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93)

Long after the Indians showed them the Rain Dance? On July 14, 1946 after pioneering work by Am. chemist-physicist Irving Langmuir (assoc. dir. of research at Gen. Electric in 1932-50), his asst., self-taught Am. chemist-meteorologist Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93) of GE Labs in Schenectady, N.Y. pioneers the principle of Cloud Seeding on Mt. Washington in N.H.; on Nov. 13 the first Artificial Snow is produced by seeding clouds with crushed dry ice at Mt. Greylock, Mass. in the Berkshire Mts., causing a major snowstorm; next Oct. 13 Project Cirrus is begun by the USAF, U.S. Office of Naval Research, and the U.S. Army Signal Corps to seed a hurricane with 180 lb. of crushed dry ice, after which the hurricane changes direction and makes landfall near Savannah, Ga., causing the public to blame them and the project to be canceled, with the govt. not admitting it had seeded it until 1959; in 1962 NOAA launches Project Stormfury to weaken cyclones by flying aircraft into them and seeding them with silver iodide; too bad, it doesn't work, and the last flight is flown in 1971, and the project canceled in 1983; in 2010 Pinhas Alpert et al. of Tel Aviv U. review past data and conclude that cloud seeding isn't very effective.

Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965)

In 1946 English physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) discovers that sunspots emit radio waves.

On Jan. 21-Mar. 21, 1947 the 1946-7 U.K. Winter sees cold spells hit on Jan. 21, bringing snowstorms that leave large snowdrifts that block the transport of coal to electric power stations, causing severe hardships incl. shutdown of businesses; in mid-Mar. warm weather returns, causing massive snow melting that brings widespread flooding affecting 100K bldgs., causing a 10% drop in industrial production along with a 10% reduction in cereal and potato crops and 25% of the sheep herds freezing to death, all causing the Labour Party to lose popularity and the English pound to be devalued from $4.03 to $2.80; meanwhile cold and famine in Berlin kills 150, businesses close in Ireland, and civil unrest rocks the Netherlands, contributing to the introduction of the Marshall Plan in Europe.

On May 31, 1947 the Warwick Daily News pub. the article Danger Seen in Mysterious Warming of Arctic Climate, about a speech at the U. of Calif. Geophysical Inst. by Swedish geophysicist Hans Ahlmann, who claims an increase in Arctic temps of 10F since 1900, threatening mass melting and floods of coastal regions, with the soundbytes: ""A mysterious warming of the climate is slowly manifesting itself in the Arctic, and if the Antarctica ice regions and the major Greenland ice caps should reduce at the same rate as the present rate of melting oceanic surfaces would rise in catastrophic proportions and people living in lowlands along the shores would be inundated"; "The Arctic change is so serious that I hope an international agency can speedily be formed to study conditions on a global basis."

In Dec. 1948 freaky weather begins in W Europe, starting with London, which has five straight days of fog, costing workers £3.750M/day, while the fog lasts for up to 10 days in other parts of W Europe; on Jan. 3, 1949 wild gales cause the English Midlands to freeze over, while gusts of 162 mph are reported by observers on top of the Eiffel Tower; in Feb. 1949 the English winter ends prematurely and is replaced by warm spring weather, causing village wells in Suffolk to run dry for the first time in Feb. and grass fires to break out on golf courses, while in Apr. England has its hottest Apr. night in 50 years, causing Londoners to sleep in parks; in spring a drought begins, causing the British Weather Bureau to declare a state of absolute drought in May after 15 days with no rainfall; in July parts of England suffer record temperatures; in Sept. reservoirs begin to run dry, threatening unemployment in NE England as houses are rationed at three bucks of water/day, a 20-mi. stretch of the Liverpool Leeds Canals dries up, throwing bargemen out of work for 2 mo., while London has freak 90-sec. thunderstorms; in Oct. two weeks of flooding rains along with the worst gale in living memory on the Sussex coast cause 5 ft. of water in Hastings; in Dec. England and Greece suffer Gales, Morocco suffers snow, and Normandy enjoys summerlike sunshine with spring flowers; in Jan. 1950 England enjoys one of its longest mild winter spells in memory, turning to gales of up to 102 mph in Feb., causing the Severn River to rise 8 ft. in 24 hours, and the Wye River to flood in Somerset; in Apr. 1950 a 92 mph gale hits Blackpool so suddenly that people have to cling to lamp posts; in Apr. 1950 England suffers its heaviest Apr. snowstorm in 31 years, causing power lines to fall and electricity to be rationed; in May 1950 freak storms ravage Bedfordshire, along with the first tornado in England in 22 years, lifting pets 50 ft. into the air; in June another heat wave causes 50 servicepersons to collapse while rehearsing a King's birthday parade; similar freaky weather spreads through W Europe, Sweden, Austria, Spain, Turkey, and the U.S.

Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) Jay Wright Forrester (1918-) Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002)

In 1948 Columbia, Mo.-born mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) pub. Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine, defining Cybernetics (Gr. "steer", "navigate") as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine", anticipating the Computer Rev. His Anselmo, Neb.-born student Jay Wright Forrester (1918-) founds System Dynamics. His Vienna, Austria-born student Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002) comes up with the Doomsday Equation, predicting that world. pop. will become infinite on Nov. 13, 2026 (Fri.); the Soviet Union bans the book until the death of Joseph Stalin on Mar. 5, 1953, then does a 180 and begins embracing computers.

On Sept. 24, 1949 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article The Earth Is Getting Warmer by Dr. Everhuis, with the subtitle: "Dr. Everhuis, a Dutch scientist, here reviews evidence which suggests that instead of cooling-off, the earth is growing warmer. One result of this is to change the climate of several countries, with potential benefit to some and disaster to others", continuing: "Scientists are gathering more and more proofs that a climatological revolution is going on around our globe. Very slowly but surely the earth is getting warmer. Until recently the scientific world has kept quiet about this, but now the phenomenon has even penetrated to the political field. Talking of Greenland, the largest island in the world, the Prime Minister of Denmark stated: 'During the past generation changes have taken place which will have a decisive influence on the entire social life. The climate is changing, and with that the economic outlook. This change has already been observed in several parts of the world...' The changes in Greenland have been very noticeable. About six centuries ago, at the time of a change for the worse often referred to as the 'small ice-period,' man and beast had to withdraw from the advancing masses of ice. Even the Eskimos had to give in when at the beginning of the 19th century - the height of the cold period - Greenland became practically uninhabitable. During the present century, however, this largest island of the world has become milder. Glaciers have retreated and the landscape has changed completely. For the first time for centuries some agriculture is possible while more and more species of fish are being caught. Following the warmer streams the cod has made its appearance off Greenland's shores and has become part of the island diet. During the past 27 years this fish has advanced about nine degrees to the north. Herrings also are moving northward, while Greenland now knows many birds which hitherto remained far to the south. These changes are of the greatest strategical importance. Norway's most northern harbour of Spitzbergen, where at the beginning of this century coal could be loaded only for a period of three months, is now ice free for seven months of the year. The average winter temperature of Russian harbours such as Kola and Archangel has risen steadily too. The entire Northern Ice Sea is becoming softer. When Fnedjor Nansen ploughed his way through the ice with the Fram towards the end of the last century, the average thickness of the ice was 145 inches. Members of the crew of the Soviet icebreaker Sedow not long ago found that the ice was only 85 inches thick and that floes have become considerably less. The greatest changes have taken place on the American side. The huge Muir glacier in Alaska has withdrawn 14 miles in the past half century - at the rate of about 409 yards a year. These changes would be of the greatest importance in a future war. Permanent ice-free harbours and a reasonable passage through the ice sea would, for instance, give the Soviet Union a tremendous advantage. Change of climate is not only noticeable near the poles. Near the equator conditions are becoming hotter. This may prove disastrous. For example it has been proved that the Sahara is creeping towards the south as well as towards the north at the rate of a mile a year. If this continues, the African natives will have to move to another continent eventually, for the coastal areas will become over-populated. It was the 'drying out' of Central Asia, after all, which moved Asiatic peoples in the past to invade Europe. And so it appears that the world is leaving the so-called small ice period, which started around 1300. In Holland, the first European country to register weather and climatological conditions at the beginning of the 18th century, it is shown by records that the average winter temperature has been rising continuously. The reason is that the sun has apparently opened a new 'warmth offensive.' It has been known for a long time that the sun has its whims. Otherwise it cannot be explained how under the masses of ice which cover Greenland and Spitzbergen, black coal should be found. Obviously there was a time when jungle forests grew in that zone."


On Apr. 29, 1950 the Advocate pub. the article World is Getting Warmer, Experts Claim, which starts out: "The World is getting warmer, but cooler temperatures will come again. This is the conclusion which emerges from a 100-odd page report on "recent climatic fluctuations" issued by the Danish Royal Geographical Association. Stating that the world's average temperature rose by 0.35 degrees centigrade in the period from 1910 to 1940, the report declares: 'The greatest temperature rise, of more than 3 degrees, has taken place in Greenland, but Spitsbergen, North Asia and northern parts of North America can also show appreciable rises of more than 2 degrees. Otherwise, the rises are in the neighborhood of 1 degree in the North Temperate Zone. It is remarkable that the temperature rises at the great lakes of North America are less than in the districts to the east, north and west of them. The most extensive fall appears to have taken place in East Asia and Australia.' The year 1934, the report continues, was particularly warm in central Europe and in Scandinavia - in several places it was the warmest year ever recorded. In 1947 there was a continuous severe winter in places in south Scandinavia, central Europe and England, but an unusually mild winter in South Greenland. In the Polar regions and mountains a considerable melting of glaciers has taken place, a process which has been particularly advanced by longer and warmer summers and shorter and milder winters, with more rain and less snow. Mild winters alone cannot cause the glaciers and Polar ice to dwindle. The precipitation, evaporation and temperature of the other seasons have also a decided significance for the reduction. Danish experts do not attempt to predict any date when the world's ice caps will be completely melted. Such an event is regarded as 'absolutely impossible'. Sooner or later, the experts believe, the present upward trend in world temperatures will stop, and the world will slowly revert to the climatic conditions which were normal at the turn of the century. 'White Christmases' will then return to those areas of the earth which at one time regarded snow at this time of the year as inevitable. There may even be skating again on a frozen Thames."

On Aug. 22, 1950 the Barrier Miner pub. the article The World's Weather Is Just Crazy by Carl Wallis, which starts out: "The floods and record rains that bedevilled the eastern States recently were part of a world cycle of unusual weather, said the chief meteorologist at Sydney's Weather Bureau (Mr. J. Hogan). The cause of this cycle was that bands of high and low pressure had shifted from their normal place on the earth's surface. No one knows yet why they shifted, but meteorologists all over the world are trying to find out. I f and when they do find out, the secret of long range weather forecasting will be in their grasp. That's because the force and direction of the winds, which blow from high pressure to low pressure areas, depend on where those areas are. And the nature of the moving air - hot, cold, dry, moist - decides whether or not the winds will bring rain with them."

On Sept. 29, 1951 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article Glaciers, Icebergs Melt As World Gets Warmer by Gavin Souter, Air Mail From New York, which contains the soundbyte: "Summers are getting warmer and, despite the unusual temperatures this year along Australia's east coast, winters generally are not as cold as they used to be. This climatic fluctuation which began a century ago and has become more noticeable in the last 20 years has been discussed since the nineteen-twenties almost exclusively in scientific circles. Recently, however, it has become a subject of more than academic interest. The scientists hasten to assure the world that there is no immediate cause for alarm. The change is merely part of the endless cycle of heat and cold which started with the first ice age about one million years before the birth of Christ. There is not yet reason to assume, say the scientists, that the mercury in the world's thermometers will now rise any higher than it would have risen during two or three other unusually warm periods since the beginning of our calendar. These were not years which scorched the globe as fatally as the ice ages had frozen it. But they were years of mild winters and hard summers. In some parts of Central Europe, Africa and the Americas they brought drought."

On Feb. 18, 1952 The Cairns Post pub. the article Polar Ice Thaw Increasing, which begins: "Dr. William S. Carlson, an Arctic expert, said to-night that the Polar icecaps were melting at an astonishing and unexplained rate and were threatening to swamp seaports by raising the ocean levels... 'The glaciers of Norway and Alaska are only half the size they were 50 years ago. The temperature around Spitsbergen has so modified that the sailing time has lengthened from three to eight months of the year,' he said."

On Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1953 the huge North Sea Flood of 1953, caused by winter storms kills 2,551 incl. 1,836 in SW Netherlands (esp. Zeeland) and Belgium, 307 in England, 28 in Belgium, 19 in Scotland, and 361 at sea, incl. 133 on the British ferry MV Princess Victoria (launched Aug. 27, 1946) in the Irish Sea on Jan. 31, becoming the deadliest maritime disaster in U.K. waters since WWII; 4K bldgs. are destroyed, and 70K are left homeless, causing the govt. to spend $8B over the next 30 years fortifying the coastline with a system of sophisticated dikes, incl. a 6-mi.-long movable hydraulic steel curtain that closes when the water rises 6 ft., after which there are no flood deaths in the Netherlands until ?; meanwhile London builds new flood gates on the Thames Estuary; it is found that gypsum (calcium sulfate) can undo the effect of seawater on flooded areas of Holland and Britain when spread on the ground to be later washed in by rainwater. On Aug. 24-Sept. 6, 1953 the Late Summer U.S. Heat Wave of 1953 sees the N.E. U.S. record 1,097 temps over 90F, 546 over 95F, and 129 over 100F, incl. 107F in Md. on Aug. 31. On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1953 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 68 and causing $460M in damage; on Sept. 2-5 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, and on Oct. 15 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 19, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $136M in property damage.

Gilbert Norman Plass (1920-2004

On May 25, 1953 Time mag. pub. the article Science: Invisible blanket, containing an interview with Toronto, Ont., Canada-born infrared physicist Gilbert Norman Plass (1920-2004) of John Hopkins U., who warns of increasing CO2 atmospheric concentrations, with the soundbytes: "This spreading envelope of gas around the earth, says Johns Hopkins Physicist Gilbert N. Plass, serves as a great greenhouse. Transparent to the radiant heat from the sun, it blocks the longer wave lengths of heat that bounce back from the earth", and "At its present rate of increase, the CO2 in the atmosphere will raise the earth's average temperature 1.5° Fahrenheit every 100 years... For centuries to come, if man's industrial growth continues, the earth's climate will continue to grow warmer"; in May 1956 after proving that the absorption bands of H20 and CO2 don't completely overlap, leaving CO2 with its own free band, Plass pub. the article The Carbon Dioxide Theory of Climatic Change in Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, becoming the earliest reference to the term "climate change"; the abstract starts out: "The most recent calculations of the infra-red flux in the region of the 15 micron CO2 band show that the average surface temperature of the earth increases 3.6° C if the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is doubled and decreases 3.8° C if the CO2 amount is halved, provided that no other factors change which influence the radiation balance. Variations in CO2 amount of this magnitude must have occurred during geological history; the resulting temperature changes were sufficiently large to influence the climate."

Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973)

In 1953 Wilton, N.H.-born astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) (former asst. of Charles Pierpont Langley), dir. since 1907 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (inventor of the solar cooker, solar boiler, and solar still) discovers a link between sunspot cycles and Earth climate, claiming to be able to predict climate patterns 50 years in advance.

On Apr. 19, 1954 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article Expert Believes Our Weather Is Changing, with the soundbyte: "The thesis advanced by a majority of climatologists overseas - though not necessarily accepted by all - is that meridional interchange has been increasing over the last half-century or so. In seeking to explain this, scientific opinion tends to the belief that the output of heat from the sun is a variable, and that it is increasing to a measurable extent. An American astro-physicist, Dr. L. B. Aldrich, of the Smithsonian Institute, claims to have measured an increase of one quarter of one per cent, in the sun's radiation over the last 20 years. Mr. Deacon points out, in referring to climatic changes observed in the northern hemisphere, that 'glaciological studies... have demonstrated a notable retreat and thinning of glaciers in many areas, trends which have in most cases accelerated since about the beginning of the century.' The climatological evidence points to an increased transport of heat into high latitudes by the general circulation of the atmosphere during this period, with an appreciable increase particularly in the mean winter temperatures over large areas, mainly in high latitudes. 'A similar study for the southern hemisphere,' he adds, 'is handicapped by lack of data for high latitudes and by the shorter period of instrumental observations.'

On July 11, 1954 Sedgwick, Colo. records a temp of 114F, becoming the hottest temp ever recorded in Colo. (until ?); Boulder, Colo. reaches a record 104F, part of four straight days over 100F; Neb. reaches 116F, Kan. 115F, Okla. 112F, and Mo. 110F.

On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1954 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 72 and causing $462M in damage; on Sept. 2-15 Category 3 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, killing 21 and causing $42.8M damage in New England, causing the heaviest rainfall in New York City in 45 years, and power outages affecting 260K incl. Cape Cod, becoming the costliest hurricane in Maine (until ?); on Oct. 15 after killing 400+ in Haiti, Category 4 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 95, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $382M property damage in the U.S. followed by 81 deaths near Toronto, Canada after merging with a cold front.

On Oct. 6, 1954 Atlanta, Ga. sets a record high temp of 95F (35C).

'Dynamics of Climate', 1955

On Oct. 26-28, 1955 the Conference on the Application of Numerical Integration Techniques to the Problem of the Gen. Circulation (Dynamics of Climate) is held at Princeton U., led by big brain physicist John von Neumann, head of the Inst. for Advanced Study, discussing "radiation studies covering problems involved in introducing the long-wave radiative effects and the potential theory formulation of radiative-heat transfer", but not focusing on CO2 or the Greenhouse Effect?; the contributors become leading figures in atmospheric physics until the early 1980s.

Roger Revelle (1909-91) Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93)

On May 28, 1956 Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) pub. the article One Big Greenhouse in Time mag., containing the soundbyte: "As the air gets warmer, sea water will get warmer too, and CO2 dissolved in it will return to the atmosphere. More water will evaporate from the warm ocean, and this will increase the greenhouse effect of the CO2. Each effect will reinforce the other, possibly raising the temperature enough to melt the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland, which would flood the earth's coastal lands." In 1957 Revelle and and Vienna, Austria-born Am. chemist-physicist Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) pub. the paper "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades" in Tellus, which suggests that the rate of absorption of excess CO2 by Earth's oceans is lower than previously estimated, threatening a greenhouse effect leading to global warming, and proposing the Revelle Factor, the resistance to absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean surface layer due to bicarbonate chemistry, which is higher in warm waters, leading to more anthropogenic CO2; Revelle goes on to help create the Internat. Geophysical Year in 1958, and the Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean (CCCO), help found the U. of Calif. San Diego (UCSD), and become Al Gore's professor and mentor at Harvard, later flopping and pub. the article What to do about Greenhouse Warming: Look Before You Leap in the Summer 1991 ed. of Cosmos mag., expressing strong doubts that CO2 causes global warming, with the soundbyte "The scientific basis for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time", causing Gore to call him senile; Revelle never really flopped, and the Cosmos article was actually written by S. Fred Singer, who tricked him into allowing his name to be listed as co-author? "Human beings are now carrying out a large-scale geophysical experiment of a kind that could not have happened in the past nor be reproduced in the future." (Revelle)

Marion King Hubbert (1903-89)

In 1956 San Saba, Tex.-born geophysicist Marion King Hubbert (1903-89) pub. his Hubbert Peak Oil Theory, which claims that oil production for any given region will peak and decrease over time via a Bell Curve; in the 1970s U.S. oil production peaks at 10.2M barrels/day; too bad, fracking is discovered, causing it to reach 10M barrels/day in Nov. 2017. On Mar. 29, 2012 George Wuerthner pub. the article The Myth of Peak Oil in counterpunch, with the subtitle: "The Real Problem is Not Too Little Oil, But Too Much", blowing the lid off the Hubbert myth for some, resetting the depletion date foward for others. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

On July 1, 1957-Dec. 31, 1958 the Internat. Geophysical Year (IGY) is participated in by 67 nations, who cooperate to sponsor research on the year's high solar sunspot activity; the idea was originated in 1950 by scientists James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) of the U. of Iowa, and British geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) on England; the Antarctic is the initial focus of activity with Operation Deep Freeze (1955-6) using a network of 60 research stations; on Sept. 18, 1958 the temp. in the Antarctic reaches a record low of -102.1 F (-74.5 C).

'The Unchained Goddess', 1958

On Feb. 12, 1958 Frank Capra's Meteora: The Unchained Goddess debuts on the Bell Science Hour, starring Richard Carlson and Dr. Frank C. Baxter, warning of CO2-driven global warming and melting of the polar ice caps, with the soundbyte: "An inland sea would fill a good portion of the Mississippi Valley. Tourists in glass-bottomed boats would be viewing the drowned towers of Miami through 150 feet of tropical water"; it goes on to be shown in U.S. middle school science classrooms for decades; watch video.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005)

In Mar. 1958 Am. chemist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) begins measuring atmospheric CO2 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the Internat. Geophysical Year, obtaining an initial reading of 314 ppm, which grows to 387 ppm in 50 years, becoming known as the Keeling Curve.

On Sept. 1, 1958 (midnight) after colder sea temps cause cod to migrate S and Iceland to expand its fishery zone from 4 to 12 nmi., the Cod Wars begin between Iceland and Britain over fishing rights in the North Atlantic (ends Mar. 11, 1961); followed by the Second Cod War (Sept. 1972-Nov. 1973), Third Cod War (Nov. 1975-June 1976), ending with a V for Iceland, with Britain conceding their 200-nmi. exclusive economic zone, which is adopted by the U.N. in 1982.

In Sept. 1958 Harper's Mag. pub. the article The Coming Ice Age: A true scientific detective story by Betty Friedan, starting out: "How a rising of the ocean waters may flood most of our port cities within the foreseeable future - and why it will be followed by the growth of a vast glacier which may eventually cover much of Europe and North America", and continuing: "This is the story of two scientists, who started five years ago - with a single radiocarbon clue from the ocean bottom and a wild hunch - to track down one of the earth's great unsolved mysteries: What caused the ancient ice ages? Their search led over many continents and seas, to drowned rivers and abandoned mountain caves, into far-removed branches of science. It took them down through recorded history, from the stone tablets of primitive man to contemporary newspaper headlines. These two serious, careful scientists - geophysicist Maurice Ewing, director of Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory, and geologist-meteorologist William Donn believe they have finally found the explanation for the giant glaciers, which four times during the past million years have advanced and retreated over the earth. If they are right, the world is now heading into another Ice Age. It will come not as sudden catastrophe, but as the inevitable culmination of a process that has already begun in northern oceans. As Ewing and Donn read the evidence, an Ice Age will result from a slow warming and rising of the ocean that is now taking place. They believe that this ocean flood - which may submerge large coastal areas of the eastern United States and western Europe - is going to melt the ice sheet which has covered the Arctic Ocean through all recorded history. Calculations based on the independent observations of other scientists indicate this melting could begin, within roughly one hundred years. It is this melting of Arctic ice which Ewing and Donn believe will set off another Ice Age on earth. They predict that it will cause great snows to fall in the north - perennial unmelting snows which the world has not seen since the last Ice Age thousands of years ago. These snows will make the Arctic glaciers grow again, until their towering height forces them forward. The advance south will be slow, but if it follows the route of previous ice ages, it will encase in ice large parts of North America and Europe. It would, of course, take many centuries for that wall of ice to reach New York and Chicago, London and Paris. But its coming is an inevitable consequence of the cycle which Ewing and Donn believe is now taking place."

On Oct. 19, 1958 The New York Times pub. the article The Changing Face of the Arctic, which starts out: "Some scientists estimate that the polar ice pack is 40 per cent thinner and 12 per cent less in area than it was a half-century ago, and that even within the lifetime of our children the Arctic Ocean may open, enabling ships to sail over the North Pole, as the submarines Nautilus and Skate recently sailed under it... Although the idea that a solid ice sheet covers the central Arctic has lingered stubbornly in the popular fancy, the northern cap of ice worn by our planet is actually a thin crust - on the whole, only about seven feet thick - over an ocean two miles deep in places."

C.P. Snow (1905-80)

On May 7, 1959 Leicester, England-born physical chemist-novelist Charles Percy "C.P." Snow, Baron Snow (1905-80) delivers the speech The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in the Senate House at Cambridge U., claiming that literary intellectuals and scientists don't understand or trust each other, and that there is an impassable gulf based on the problem that "the scientific mind was progressive and the literary mind was reactionary"; "A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare's? I now believe that if I had asked an even simpler question – such as, What do you mean by mass, or acceleration, which is the scientific equivalent of saying, Can you read? – not more than one in ten of the highly educated would have felt that I was speaking the same language. So the great edifice of modern physics goes up, and the majority of the cleverest people in the western world have about as much insight into it as their Neolithic ancestors would have had" - is there a way to reunite them with a 21st cent. historyscoping education, or did I get ahead of myself?

Edward Teller (1908-2003)

On Nov. 4, 1959 Hungarian-born Am. H-bomb physicist Edward Teller (1908-2003) gives a speech at Columbia U. in New York City for the Energy and Man Symposium commemorating the 100th anniv. of the founding of the oil industry, organized by the Am. Petroleum Inst. and attended by 300 oil execs, govt. officials, and academics, uttering the soundbyte: "Ladies and gentlemen, I am to talk to you about energy in the future. I will start by telling you why I believe that the energy resources of the past must be supplemented. First of all, these energy resources will run short as we use more and more of the fossil fuels... But I would... like to mention another reason why we probably have to look for additional fuel supplies. And this, strangely, is the question of contaminating the atmosphere... Whenever you burn conventional fuel, you create carbon dioxide... The carbon dioxide is invisible, it is transparent, you can't smell it, it is not dangerous to health, so why should one worry about it? Carbon dioxide has a strange property. It transmits visible light but it absorbs the infrared radiation which is emitted from the earth. Its presence in the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect... It has been calculated that a temperature rise corresponding to a 10 per cent increase in carbon dioxide will be sufficient to melt the icecap and submerge New York. All the coastal cities would be covered, and since a considerable percentage of the human race lives in coastal regions, I think that this chemical contamination is more serious than most people tend to believe."


On Jan. 2, 1960 Oodnadatta, South Australia 542 mi. N of Adelaide reaches 50.7C (123.3F), becoming the highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania (until ?).

On Feb. 29, 1960 (23:40 WET) the 5.8 shallow Agadir Earthquake in SW coastal Morroco kills 12K-15K out of 45K in Agadir and injures 12K, leaving 35K homeless and causing the city to have to be rebuilt, becoming the deadliest earthquake in Morocan history (until ?).

On June 15, 1960 (midnight) the town of Kopperl, Tex. experiences "Satan's Storm", in which a heat burst from a dying thunderstorm causes superheated air to compress and fall on the town, bursting thermometers at 140F (60C), with wind gusts of up to 75 mph (121 km/hr), popping corn on the stalks.

Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90) I.M. Pei (1917-) Mesa Lab, 1967

In 1960 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is founded in the foothills of beautiful Boulder, Colo. by West Bridgewater, Mass.-born physicist-astronomer Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90), who becomes dir. #1 (until 1968), backing anthropogenic climate change and pub. The Climate Mandate in 1979 with Henry Lansford, which results in Greenhouse Glasnost being discussed at the 1989 Sundance Symposium on Global Climate Change. In 1967 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab Bldg. in Boulder, Colo. (begun 1961) is completed, making a star of Guangzhou, China-born architect Ieoh Ming "I.M." Pei (1917-); situated in the foothills, you can walk out the door and greet deer.

In 1960 the JASON Group (named after Greek mythological figure Jason by Mildred Goldberger, wife of member Murph Goldberger to replace the lame name Project Sunrise) of independent elite scientists is founded by John Wheeler and Charles H. Townes of MITRE Corp. to advise the U.S. govt. on science and technological matters of a sensitive (classified) nature, growing to 30-60 members and pioneering the Vietnam war's McNamara Line of electronic barriers along with early work on global warming science and acid rain; members incl. Nobel Prize winners Luis Walter Alvarez, Val Fitch, Murray Gell-Mann, Donald Glaser, Henry Way Kendall, and Steven Weinberg; chairmen incl. Marvin Leonard Goldberger (1960-66), Harold Lewis (1966-73), William Happer (1987-90), Curtis Callan (1990-5), Gerald Joyce (2011-14), and Russell J. Hemley (2014-).

On Jan. 30, 1961 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists Agree World Is Colder by Walter Sullivan, with the subtitle: "But Climate Experts Meeting Here Fail to Agree on Reasons for Change"; it begins: "After a week of discussions on the causes of climate change, an assembly of specialists from several continents seems to have reached unanimous agreement on only one point: it is getting colder."

On Nov. 17, 1961 The Twilight Zone episode #75 The Midnight Sun debuts, with Rod Serling narrating the introduction: "The word that Mrs. Bronson is unable to put into the hot, still, sodden air is 'doomed,' because the people you've just seen have been handed a death sentence. One month ago, the Earth suddenly changed its elliptical orbit and in doing so began to follow a path which gradually, moment by moment, day by day, took it closer to the sun. And all of man's little devices to stir up the air are now no longer luxuries - they happen to be pitiful and panicky keys to survival. The time is five minutes to twelve, midnight. There is no more darkness. The place is New York City and this is the eve of the end, because even at midnight it's high noon, the hottest day in history, and you're about to spend it in the Twilight Zone." "In an attempt to console Mrs. Bronson, Norma shows her an oil painting of a waterfall cascading into a lush pond. Mrs. Bronson deliriously claims that she can feel the coolness and delightfully splashes in the imaginary waters before dying from heat stroke. Norma sits in shock as the thermometer surges past 130 °F (54 °C) and shatters." The ending is a shocking plot twist: "The scene cuts to the apartment at night with heavy snow outside the windows. The thermometer reads -10 °F (-23 °C). Norma has been bedridden with a high fever, Mrs. Bronson and a doctor have been tending to her. The Earth moving closer to the sun is revealed to be only a fever dream. In reality, the Earth is moving away from the sun, and the world is freezing to death." Serling's closing narration: "The poles of fear, the extremes of how the Earth might conceivably be doomed. Minor exercise in the care and feeding of a nightmare, respectfully submitted by all the thermometer-watchers in the Twilight Zone." Watch clip.

'The Day the Earth Caught Fire', 1961

On Nov. 23, 1961 Val Guest's The Day the Earth Caught Fire (British Lion Films) (Universal-International) debuts, starring Edward Judd, Leo Mckern, and Janet Munro in an apocalyptic film about U.S.-Soviet nuclear weapons tests knocking the Earth out of orbit, causing it to move closer to the Sun; watch trailer.

On June 12, 1962 The Guardian pub. the article The ice age cometh, with the subtitle: "As glaciers start to advance again, evidence suggests that the Earth may be entering a new ice age".

In Dec. 1962-Mar. 1963 the Big Freeze of 1963 (English Winter of 1962-3) sees an avg. temp of 28.2F (-2.1C) in Jan. 1963, freezing the sea out 1 mi. from shore in Herne Bay, Kent, followed by a 36-hour blizzard in Mar. that bring 20 ft. snowdrifts and 81 mph winds (119 mph on the Isle of Man), becoming the coldest month in C England since Jan. 1814, and the coldest winter since records began to be kept in 1895; in 1985 Dream Academy releases the single Life in a Northern Town, with the lyrics: "In winter 1963/ It felt like the world would freeze/ With John F. Kennedy and the Beatles", referring to the winter of 1963-4 instead by mistake.

Reid A. Bryson (1920-2008)

In 1962 after observing dust clouds in India obscuring his view of the ground, Am. climate scientist ("Father of Scientific Climatology") Reid A. Bryson (1920-2008) proposes the idea of the "human volcano" increasing aerosol loading of the atmosphere and causing global cooling, with the soundbyte: "The continued rapid cooling of the earth since WWII is in accord with the increase in global air pollution associated with industrialisation, mechanisation, urbanisation and exploding population"; in 1973 Bryson testifies before Congress that anthropogenic global warming is unstoppable, with the soundbyte: "There is no way right now that we can control the climate to make it more benign. Even if we were to say 'let us stop using fossil fuels so that we do not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, because that impacts the world climate,' how on earth could you stop using fossil fuels? Even those countries that are most heavily impacted by the climatic change are the ones who say it is our turn to be affluent and it is in the use of fossil fuels that one gains affluence"; he goes on to dismiss the theory that climate change is anthropogenic, uttering the soundbyte: "All this argument is the temperature going up or not, it's absurd. Of course it's going up. It has gone up since the early 1800s, before the Industrial Revolution, because we're coming out of the Little Ice Age, not because we're putting more carbon dioxide into the air." On June 18, 2007 Bryson pub. an interview in the Capital Times of Wisc., dissing Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbytes: "Don't make me throw up. It is not science. It is not true"; "There is no question the earth has been warming. It is coming out of the Little Ice Age. However, there is no credible evidence that it is due to mankind and carbon dioxide. We've been coming out of a Little Ice Age for 300 years. We have not been making very much carbon dioxide for 300 years. It's been warming up for a long time"; "[CO2-driven warming is] like there is an elephant charging in [sic, the room] and you worry about the fact that there is a fly sitting on its head. It's just a total misplacement of emphasis. It really isn't science because there's no really good scientific evidence"; "Why are so many thousands not concerned about it?" Bryson shot back. "There is a lot of money to be made in this. If you want to be an eminent scientist you have to have a lot of grad students and a lot of grants. You can't get grants unless you say, 'Oh global warming, yes, yes, carbon dioxide.'"

J.G. Ballard (1930-2009)

In 1961 Shanghai-born British New Wave writer James Graham "J.G." Ballard (1930-2009) pub. his first novel The Wind from Nowhere, about hurricanes destroying civilization. In 1962 he pub. the novel The Drowned World, set in flooded deserted London in 2145 after global warming causes the polar ice caps to melt; these two novels help found the genre of climate fiction (cli-fi).

On Mar. 12, 1963 the Conservation Foundation of New York City hosts a conference, with top climate scientists attending incl. Gilbert Plass, Charles Keeling and Erik Eriksson, going on to pub. the report Implications of rising carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, warning of the danger to humanity from fossil fuel burning, starting out: "It is known that the carbon dioxide situation, as it has been observed within the last century, is one which might have considerable biological, geographical and economic consequences within the not too distant future. What is important is that with the rise of carbon dioxide, by way of exhaust gases from engines and other sources, there is a rise in the temperature of the atmosphere and oceans. It is estimated that a doubling of the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere would produce an average atmospheric temperature rise of 3.8 degrees Fahrenheit. This could be enough to bring about an immense flooding of the lower portions of the world's land surface, resulting from increased melting of glaciers. So far, the increase of carbon dioxide has been of the order of 10 percent, and the oceans are already experiencing some rise of temperature."

On July 1, 1963 F. Möller pub. the article On the influence of changes in the CO2 concentration in air on the radiation balance of the Earth's surface and on the climate in Journal of Geophysical Research, with the abstract: "The numerical value of a temperature change under the influence of a CO2 change as calculated by Plass is valid only for a dry atmosphere. Overlapping of the absorption bands of CO2 and H2O in the range around 15 µ essentially diminishes the temperature changes. New calculations give delta T = + 1.5° when the CO2 content increases from 300 to 600 ppm. Cloudiness diminishes the radiation effects but not the temperature changes because under cloudy skies larger temperature changes are needed in order to compensate for an equal change in the downward long-wave radiation. The increase in the water vapor content of the atmosphere with rising temperature causes a self-amplification effect which results in almost arbitrary temperature changes, e.g. for constant relative humidity delta T = +10° in the above mentioned case. It is shown, however, that the changed radiation conditions are not necessarily compensated for by a temperature change. The effect of an increase in CO2 from 300 to 3300 ppm can be compensated for completely by a change in the water vapor content of 3 per cent or by a change in the cloudiness of 1 per cent of its value without the occurrence of temperature changes at all. Thus the theory that climatic variations are effected by variations in the CO2 content becomes very questionable." - what downward long-wave radiation?

On July 18, 1963 The Canberra Times pub. the AAP-Reuter article Glaciers Grow in Norway on p. 44, which begins: "Norway's glaciers are in the process of becoming thicker again after a period of 200 years of gradually melting down, according to glaciologist, Mr. Olav Liestol. Last year nearly all glaciers increased by more than one metre - approximately four feet."

Lyndon Baines Johnson of the U.S. (1908-73)

On Nov. 27, 1963 as Americans mourn the late Pres. Kennedy, Pres. Johnson delivers LBJ's First Address to Congress, calling for "the earliest possible passage of the Civil Rights Bill and a tax cut as the best way of honoring" him, with the soundbyte: "All I have I would have given gladly not to be standing here today. The greatest leader of our time has been struck down by the foulest deed of our time. Today, John Fitzgerald Kennedy lives on in the immortal words and works that he left behind. He lives on in the mind and memories of mankind. He lives on in the hearts of his countrymen", receiving a 2-min. ovation after 32 bursts of applause; Johnson mentions global warming, with the soundbyte that industrial emissions had "altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale". On Feb. 8, 1965 Johnson delivers his Special Message to Congress on Conservation and Restoration of Natural Beauty, containing the soundbyte: "Air pollution is no longer confined to isolated places. This generation has altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale through radioactive materials and a steady increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels." In Nov. 1965 the president's Science Advisory Committee pub. the report Restoring the Quality of the Environment, recommending special taxes against polluters; a subcommittee chaired by Roger Revelle writes a chapter predicting a rise of atmospheric CO2 by 30% by 2000, with the soundbyte: "Man is unwittingly conducting a vast geophysical experiment. Within a few generations, he is burning the fossil fuels that accumulated in the earth over the past 500 million years."

Kenneth Allison Roberts of the U.S. (1912-89)

On Dec. 17, 1963 after U.S. Rep. (D-Ala.) (1963-5) Kenneth Allison Roberts (1912-89) introduces it on July 9, Pres. Johnson signs the U.S. Clean Air Act, strengthening the 1955 Air Pollution Control Act by giving the federal govt. an active role, and incl. the first provision for citizen lawsuits; in 1967 the U.S. Air Quality Act is passed, followed by the U.S. Clean Air Extension Act in 1970, and more restrictive amendments in 1977 and 1990 - how long until the government taxes each breath?

Marcus Raskin (1934-) John Cavanaugh (1955-) Janet Redman

In 1963 the Inst. for Policy Studies (IPS) leftist progressive think tank is founded in Washington, D.C. by ex-JFK advisors Marcus Raskin (1934-) and religious anti-globalist Richard Jackson Barnet (1929-2004) after they get fed up with JFK's failure to unilaterally disarm the U.S.; it starts out opposing the Vietnam War, and becomes a magnet for far leftists after their paradise Soviet Union falls, going on to promote women's liberation and environmentalism incl. curbs on carbon dioxide to curb or eliminate the fossil fuel industry; the motto is "Ideas Into Action for Peace, Justice, and the Environment"; in 1998 Am. economist John Cavanaugh (1955-) becomes dir. (until ?); in ? the Climate Policy Program is created, dir. by Janet Redman, who in ? becomes exec dir. of Oil Change Internat.

Edward Norton Lorenz (1917-2008)

In 1963 after his 12-variable computer weather model gives grossly different weather patterns depending on minute variations in the initial values of the variables, Am. mathematician Edward Norton "Ed" Lorenz (1917-2008) pub. the paper Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, in which he describes the Lorenz Attractor, and coins the term Butterfly Effect, issuing the soundbyte "One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct, one flap of a seagull's wings could change the course of weather forever", with Ray Bradbury's butterfly (from a 1952 short story) later substituted, becoming the beginning of Chaos Theory, the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions; "Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future." (Lorenz) Watch video.

On Nov. 5, 1965 the President's Science Advisory Committee (SAC) sends a report to Pres. Johnson, warming, er, warning of the risk of CO2-driven global warming, claiming that it might melt polar ice, calling for efforts to forestall it; it is followed in 1966 by a report by the Nat. Research Council backing them up.

On Nov. 4-5, 1966 the 1966 Arno River Flood in Florence, Italy kills 101, destroys 15K cars, leaves 20K homeless, and damages the Uffizi Gallery, destroying 1.5K works of art, and soaks 1.5M vols. at the Biblioteca Nazionale, causing celebs incl. Sen. Edward M. Kennedy and Richard Burton to pitch in to help; on Nov. 4 Venice is also flooded after the Po River overflows, killing 12 and making another 10K homeless.

On Feb. 7, 1967 (Black Tues.) after a wet spring leads to prolific grass growth, the 1967 Tasmanian Fires burn 653K acres, kill 62, injure 900, leave 7K homeless, destroy 1,293 houses, and cause Australian $101M damage, becoming the most deadly bushfires in Tasmania (until ?).

Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) Alexander King (1909-2007)

In Apr. 1968 the Club of Rome think tank is founded at the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, Italy by super-rich David Rockefeller and 30 brain people, incl. Italian industrialist Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) and Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007), to discuss the long-term dismal future of overpopulated humanity using computerized predictions, going on to pub. the manifesto The Predicament of Mankind, followed by The Limits to Growth in 1972, followed by The First Global Revolution in 1991, containing the soundbytes: "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome"; "The resultant ideal sustainable population is hence more than 500 million people but less than one billion"; future members incl. Henry Kissinger, Desmond Tutu, Ted Turner, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Bill Gates, Kofi Annan, Javier Perez de Cuellar, Gro Harlem Bruntland, and the Dalai Lama; "The Earth has cancer and the cancer is Man." - let's hope they only discuss stuff?

Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002)

On July 22, 1968 Viking pub. Unless Peace Comes: A Scientific Forecast of New Weapons, ed. by Nigel Calder, containing the article How to Wreck the Environment by Mexican-born UCLA geophysics prof. Gordon James Fraser "J.F." MacDonald (1929-2002) (member of JASON and Pres. Johnson's Scientific Advisory Committee) explaining how CO2 could be weaponized, going on to launch a JASON project in 1969 to model climate change, which causes him to believe that fossil fuel-burning will cause global warming that will overwhelm the cooling effects of industrial aerosols, going on The MacNeil/Lehrer Report in 1979 and People's Mag. in 1980 to warm, er, warn the public, followed on Apr. 8, 1980 by testimony to the 96th Congress U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (title: "Carbon Dioxide Building in the Atmosphere"), warning that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 would "probably have a profound effect on agriculture, on all aspects of energy use and generation, and on water and land use", adding" "The dilemma we face is of historic proportions. Economies around the world depend on the energy derived from carbon-based fuels. The continued use of these fuels will irreversibly change global climate, placing heavy stresses on societies around the world"; too bad, in 1964-7 he served on the Nat. Science Foundation Panel for Weather Modification that was attacked as "nonsense". Watch video.

Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1968 Stanford U. biology prof. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) pub. the bestseller (3M copies) The Population Bomb (rev. ed. 1971, 2nd ed. 1978), freaking at the news of the 200M U.S. pop., predicting that 65M Americans will starve to death in the 1970s, that India is doomed, that "Sometime in the next 15 years the end will come... an utter breakdown of the capacity of the planet to support humanity", and that "England will not exist in the year 2000", founding Zero Pop. Growth (ZPG) (Pop. Connection) with a Conn. atty. and a Yale forestry prof., advocating two children max per family; "The battle to feed all of humanity is over. In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now. At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate"; instead, grain farmers in the 1980s suffer economic losses from overproduction, and Ehlich's doom-and-gloom predictions prove a hoax?

On Aug. 14-22, 1969 175 mph Category 5 Hurricane Camille strikes Cuba and the Gulf Coast (La., Miss., Ala.) (Aug. 17), killing 259, leaving 200K homeless and causing $1.43B in damage, becoming the 2nd known Category 5 hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland since the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane and the most severe storm since Hurricane Audrey in 1957.

On Nov. 15, 1969 Science News pub. the article Danger: The Globe Is Cooling, quoting meteorologist J. Murray Mitchell Jr. with the soundbyte: "How long the current cooling trend continues is one of the most important problems of our civilization", adding that if the cooling continues for 200-300 years the Earth could be plunged into an ice age.

Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001)

In 1969 after his 1956 book "Heat Balance of the Earth's Surface" transforms climatology into a quantitative physical science, Russian meteorologist (physical climatologist) Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001) pub. the article The effect of solar radiation variation on the climate of the Earth in Tellus, proposing Arctic amplification, a larger temperature change at the poles than the equator because of ice-albedo feedback, possibly leading to runaway positive global temperature feedback, which is later independently derived by William D. Sellers of the U. of Ariz., resulting in the low-order Budyko-Sellers Global Climate Model incorporating ice-albedo feedback and equator-to-pole heat transport to show the possibility of an ice-covered Earth; in 1972 Budyko calculates that a few tenths of 1% increase in solar radiation or a 50% increase in atmospheric CO2 could melt the ice caps, while a 50% reduction of atmospheric CO2 could lead to a "complete glaciation of the Earth", predicting that the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean could completely melt by 2050; in 1974 he proposes Budyko's Blanket, the release of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere via balloons, aircraft, or artillery to cool the atmosphere.


On Jan. 11, 1970 The Washington Post pub. the article Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age - Scientists See Ice Age in the Future by David R. Boidt, which starts out: "Get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters - the worst may be yet to come. That's the long-long-range weather forecast being given out by 'climatologists,' the people who study very long-term world weather trends. Some of them say the world is in a 'cold snap' that started in 1950 and which could last hundreds of years, even bringing on the start of another Ice Age. In the meantime, it would mean more snow, and more arctic freezes, like the one Washington is now shivering through"; actually, no peer-reviewed scientific journal in ths 1970s pub. an article predicting an imminent Ice Age?

Nimbus 4, 1970

On Apr. 8, 1970 the NASA Nimbus 4 weather satellite is launched from Vandenberg AFB in Lompoc, Calif., sending data until Sept. 30, measuring the infrared emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere, along with vertical temperature profiles and water vapor, solar UV radiation, and atmospheric ozone, revealing a V-shaped notch in the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum at 13-17 microns, caused by the 325 ppm CO2 content, which only cuts 2/3 of the way into the surface radiation spectrum, allowing 1/3 of the energy to escape into space?; the notch is saturated, meaning that higher CO2 concentrations can't increase the so-called Greenhouse Effect?

Gaylord Anton Nelson of the U.S. (1916-2005) John McConnell (1915-2012) Denis Hayes (1944-)

On Apr. 22, 1970 (Lenin's birthday) the U.S. environmental movement is born with the first Earth Day, proposed in 1969 by UNESCO and founded by U.S. Sen. (D-Wisc.) (1963-81) and former Wisc. gov. #35 (1959-63) Gaylord Anton Nelson (1916-2005), organized by the Earth Week Committee of Philadelphia, Penn., and celebrated in the U.S. by 22M people with demonstrations against pollution of Spaceship Earth (coined by Adlai E. Stevenson) amid herds of massive leaded-gas-slurping V8 sedans, a nation filled with smoky industrial smokestacks, and a coverup of a fuel rod meltdown at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant near Aiken, S.C. (acknowleged in 1988); the idea was first proposed in 1969 by Davis City, Iowa-born John McConnell (1915-2012) (designer of the Earth Flag) to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, then coordinated by environmental activist Denis Allen Hayes (1944-), and supported by U Thant, Margaret Mead et al.; meanwhile on Jan. 14-23 Nelson goes for a double and holds the Nelson Hearings on the safety of combined oral contraceptive pills, resulting in the first side-effect disclosure for a pharmaceutical drug in the U.S.; too bad, zany incorrect predictions are made, incl. "Population will inevitably and completely outstrip whatever small increases in food supplies we made, the death rate will increase until at least 100-200 million people per year will be starving to death during the next ten years (Stanford U. biologist Paul Ehrlich); "Air pollution... is certainly going to take hundreds of thousands of lives in the next few years alone" (Ehrlich); "Civilization will end within 15 or 30 years unless immediate action is taken against problems facing mankind" (Harvard biologist George David Wald); "In a decade urban dwellers will have to wear gas masks to survive air pollution... By 1985 air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching Earth by one half" (Life mag.); "By the year 2000, if present trends continue, we will be using up crude oil at such a rate... that there won't be any more crude oil. You'll drive up to the pump and say, 'Fill 'er up, buddy', and he'll say, 'I am very sorry, there isn't any'." (ecologist Kenneth Watt)

On July 18, 1970 The New York Times pub. the article U.S. And Soviet Press Studies of a Colder Arctic by Walter Sullivan, which begins: "The United States and the Soviet Union are mounting large-scale investigations to determine why the Arctic climate is becoming more frigid, why parts of the Arctic sea ice have recently become ominously thicker and whether the extent of that ice cover contributes to the onset of ice ages."

On July 20, 1970 after drought in Afghanistan becomes the worst in known history, an urgent request is sent to the U.S. for 100K tons of wheat which isn't approved until Aug. 1971, by which time the request is upped to 250K tons; it ends in 1971; the next worst is in 2000.

William Doyle Ruckelshaus of the U.S. (1932-)

On Oct. 2, 1970 after Pres. Nixon delivers a Special Message to Congress on July 9, with the soundbyte: "Our national government today is not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which debase the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land that grows our food. Indeed, the present governmental structure for dealing with environmental pollution often defies effective and concerted action", the U.S. Clean Air Extension (Muskie) Act is passed, amending the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act; on Dec. 2 Congress creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor and protect the public from airborne contaminants, along with the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) on Oct. 3, growing to the largest U.S. regulatory agency by 1975, with 9K employees and a budget of $700M a year; on Dec. 12 William Doyle Ruckelshaus (1932-) becomes dir. #1 of the EPA (until Apr. 1973); after legislative pressure, on Dec. 31 Pres. Nixon signs amendments to the act, giving automakers six years to develop engines that are 90% emission-free; too bad, existing smokestack plants are grandfathered, and pollution standards only apply to new plants, causing greedy owners to extend the life of the smoky old plants as long as they can for decades to come - takes my breath away?

On Nov. 3-13, 1970 the 150 mph 1970 Bhola Cyclone in E Pakistan and W Bengal results in a storm surge that floods the low-lying islands of the Ganges Dleta, killing 500K and causing $86.4M damage, becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history (until ?).

In winter 1970/1 a drought in North China becomes the worst since records began to be kept in 1951, until one in winter 2010/11.

John Hamilton Adams (1936-) Richard E. Ayres John E. Bryson (1943-) Gus Speth (1942-) Edward L. Strohbehn Jr.

In 1970 after Adams became disgusted seeing raw sewage floating by on the Hudson River as he sat on a bench in Battery Park eating a liverwurst sandwich, the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by attys. John Hamilton Adams (1936-) (exec. dir.), Richard E. Ayres, John E. Bryson (1943-), James Gustave "Gus" Speth (1942-) (senior atty. until 1977), and Edward L. Strohbehn Jr. to fight for environmental causes, becoming the first nat. environmental advocacy group in the U.S. focusing on bringing change through the courts, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; no surprise, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump. Watch video.

On Jan. 18, 1971 due to warm Santa Ana winds, Palm Springs and Los Angeles, Calif. reach 95F, becoming the highest recorded temp for Jan. (until ?).

In Jan. 1971 after heavy monsoon rains the 1971 Kuala Lumpur Floods in Malaysia kill 32 and affect 180K, becoming the worst in Malaysia since 1926, causing a flood control project to be set up.

On Feb. 20, 1971 (eve.) the 1971 Okla. Blizzard in NW Okla. brings a record 36 in. of snow (until ?), leaving 20 ft. snowdrifts; it also hits the Tex. Panhandle.

On Feb. 21, 1971 the 33-hour 15-min. Feb. 1971 Mississippi Delta Tornado Outbreak sees 19 tornadoes reported, killing 123 in three states, incl. the first F5 tornado in La. (until ?), causing $45.9M damage, becoming the 2nd deadliest tornado outbreak in Feb. after the 1884 Enigma tornado outbreak, later followed by the 2008 Super Tues. tornado outbreak.

On Feb. 21, 1971 after 30 hours of torrential rain incl. 11.4 in. (.29m) in 24 hours, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand experiences its largest flood ever, after which dams are built on the Huatoki, Waimea, and Mangaotuku Rivers.

On Mar. 3-5, 1971 the E Canadian Blizzard of Mar. 1971 sees the worst 24-hour snowfall on record in Montreal, Quebec (17 in.) (.43m), killing 30 incl. 17 in Montreal and becoming known as "Quebec's Storm of the Century".

On Mar. 14, 1971 The New York Times pub. an article about drought in Argentina causing a beef crisis; the next worst drought happens in 2009.

On Apr. 5, 1971 The New York Times pub. an article reporting the worst drought in S Fla in 15 years, incl. in the Everglades, with less than 5 in. of rainfall in Miami since Oct. (vs. 23 in. the previous year), causing scientists to resort to cloud seeding, which doesn't stop 400K acres of the Everglades from burning.

On Apr. 9, 1971 the NBC Evening News, hosted by Frank McGee issues the soundbyte that Tex. is experiencing its worst drought since the 1950s.

On July 9, 1971 The Washington Post pub. the article U.S. Scientist Sees New Ice Age Coming by Victor Cohn, with the lead: "The world could be as little as 50 or 60 years away from a disastrous new ice age", quoting an article in Science by S.I. Rasool and S.H. Schneider of NASA, with the soundbyte: "In the next 50 years, the fine dust man constantly puts into the atmosphere by fossil fuel-burning could screen out so much sunlight that the average temperature could drop by six degrees", adding that this were sustained over "five to 10" years, "such a temperature decrease could be sufficient to trigger an ice age."

On Aug. 1, 1971 the Red River Delta Flood in North Vietnam kills 100K and affects 2.7M, getting called a "250-year flood".

In Dec. 1971 the 1971 Iraq Poison Grain Disaster sees methylmercury-treated seed grain imported from Mexico and the U.S. to fight the drought ending up being consumed despite the telltale pink color, killing 459-4.5K by next Mar.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97)

In 1971 the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia in Norwich, England is founded by climatologist Hubert Horace "H.H." Lamb (1913-97) (known as the Ice Man for predicting a coming ice age before switching to global warming after the hot summer of 1976), and supported by Sir Graham Sutton, Lord Solly Zuckerman et al., with financial support from British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, the Nuffield Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and later the Wolfson Foundation, pioneering the idea of the variability of the climate; in the late 1970s it begins contracting with the U.S. Dept. of Energy; in the mid-1980s British PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a strong backer; in 1964 Lamb pub. the book The English Climate, followed in 1977 by Climatic History and the Future (rev. 1985), showing how studies of fossil pollen point to "great rapidity of climate change", but concluding "On balance, the effects of increased carbon dioxide on climate is almost certainly in the direction of warming but is probably much smaller than the estimates which have commonly been accepted." In 1982 he pub. Climate, History and the Modern World (2nd ed. 1995), with the ad blurb: "We live in a world that is increasingly vulnerable to climatic shocks - affecting agriculture and industry, government and international trade, not to mention human health and happiness. Serious anxieties have been aroused by respected scientists warning of dire perils that could result from upsets of the climatic regime", reviewing the Piora Oscillation (-13K), the Holocene Climate Cycle (-1.3K), the Medieval Warming Period, the Little Ice Age (1300-1850), and the modern era of 1700-1950, followed by global cooling along with local warming, claiming it might be CO2-induced but is expected to peak about 2100, with the next age by 2K years.

In 1971 Environment Canada (EC) is founded as part of the Canadian Dept. of the Environment; in 1991 after passage of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, it becomes the leading federal dept. in charge of cleaning up hazardous waste and oil spills; in ? it changes its name to Environment and Climate Change Canada, or Environment Canada.

Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016)

In 1971 after meeting with the Club of Rome, Anselmo, Neb.-born computer-systems engineer (System Dynamics founder) Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016) pub. World Dynamics, which attempts to model the complex interactions of the world economy, pop., and ecology, founding the field of Global Modeling.

John Paul Holdren (1944-) Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1971 Sewickley, Penn.-born environmental scientist John Paul Holdren (1944-) and Philadelphia, Penn.-born ecologist Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) (author of the 1968 bestseller "The Population Bomb", predicting global famine and proposing a OWG with sweeping powers to set up a "Planetary Regime") pub. the essay Overpopulation and the Potential for Ecocide in the book Global ecology: Readings toward a rational strategy for man, warming, er, warning of a coming ice age caused by industrial soot, farm dust, deforestation, and urbanization, containing the soundbytes: "It seems, however, that a competing effect has dominated the situation since 1940. This is the reduced transparency of the atmosphere to incoming light as a result of urban air polution (dust), and volcanic ash. This screening phenomenon is said to be responsible for the present world cooling trend - a total of about .2 deg C in the world mean surface temperature over the past quarter century. This number seems small until it is realized that a decrease of only 4 deg C would probably be sufficient to start another ice age"; "The effects of a new ice age on agriculture and the supportability of large human populations scarcely need elaboration here. Even more dramatic results are possible, however; for instance, a sudden outward slumping in the Antarctic ice cap, induced by added weight, could generate a tidal wave of proportions unprecedented in recorded history"; "If man survives the comparatively short-term threat of making the planet too cold, there is every indication he is quite capable of making it too warm not long thereafter. For the remaining major means of interference with the global heat balance is the release of energy from fossil and nuclear fuels. As pointed out previously, all this energy is ultimately degraded to heat. What are today scattered local effects of its disposition will in time, with the continued growth of population and energy consumption, give way to global warming... Again, the exact form such consequences might take is unknown; the melting of the ice caps with a concomitant 150-foot increase in sea level might be one of them"; no mention of greenhouse gases?; on Aug. 11, 1975 Holdren pub. the article Too much energy, too soon, a hazard in The Windsor Star, containing the soundbyte: "The United States is threatened far more by the hazards of too much energy, too soon, than by the hazards of too little, too late. The hazards of too much, which have been as widely underestimated as the liabilities of too little have been exaggerated, including diverting financial resources from compelling social needs, making hasty commitments to unproved technologies, and generating environmental and social costs that harm human welfare more than the extra energy improves it"; in 2009 Holdren gives an interview to CBS, with the soundbyte: "If you lose the summer sea ice, there are phenomena that could lead you not so very long thereafter to lose the winter sea ice as well. And if you lose that sea ice year round, it's going to mean drastic climatic change all over the hemisphere."

Stephen Schneider (1945-2010)

In 1971 New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) pub. the paper "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Science" in Science mag., containing the soundbyte: "[I]t is projected that man's potential to pollute will increase six- to eightfold in the next 50 years. If this increased rate of injection of particulate matter in the atmosphere should raise the present background opacity by a factor of 4, our calculations suggest a decrease in global temperature by as much as 3.5 °K. Such a large decrease in the average temperature of Earth, sustained over a period of few years, is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age. However, by that time, nuclear power may have largely replaced fossil fuels as a means of energy production"; in 1974 after deciding that he underestimated the warming effect of CO2 by a factor of three, Schneider pub. a retraction, and in 1976 he pub. the book The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, discussing the balance between short-term cooling due to aerosols and long-term warming due to CO2, deciding that CO2 wins and going on to become a major advocate of global warming and the Greenhouse Theory; in Oct. 1989 he pub. an article in Discovery Mag., containing the soundbyte: "We need to capture the public's imagination, make simplified, dramatic statements. We have to offer up scary scenarios and make little mention of any doubts we might have. This 'double ethical bind' we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both"; too bad, climate skeptics take to misquoting him by taking out all the parts about fairness, causing him to write the soundbyte: "[N]ot only do I disapprove of the 'ends justify the means' philosophy of which I am accused, but, in fact have actively campaigned against it in myriad speeches and writings." In 1989 Schneider pub. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century?; on Nov. 3, 2009 he and Tim Flannery pub. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth's Climate; in Oct. 2010 he and Michael D. Mastrandrea pub. Preparing for Climate Change, advocating big-buck projects. Watch video.

George J. Kukla (1930-2014)

On Jan. 26-27, 1972 42 Am. and Euro scientists led by Czech-born Columbia U. climate scientist (Quaternary geologist) George J. Kukla (1930-2014) and Am. geologist Robert K. Matthews hold the conference titled The Present Ingerglacial, How and When Will It End? at Brown U., going on to pub. a summary on Oct. 13 in Science; on Dec. 3 they send a letter to Pres. Nixon warning of a coming global cooling, with the soundbyte: "It could not be excluded however that the cooling now under way in the Northern Hemisphere is the start of the expected shift. The present rate of the cooling seems fast enough to bring glacial temperatures in about a century, if continuing at the present pace", warning of the potential for "floods, snowstorms and deadly frosts, as well as 'substantially lowered' food production" and "warned that the Soviet Union was probably already considering a response"; Kukla utters the soundbyte: "I feel we're on pretty solid ground in interpreting orbit around the sun as the primary driving force behind ice-age glaciation. The relationship is just too clear and consistent to allow reasonable doubt"; in 1973 after this kick in the pants the U.S. State Dept. forms a Panel on the Present Interglacial, while Congress holds hearings on the state of U.S. climate research and U.S. preparedness, causing a series of bills to create a nat. climate program to be introduced, which backfires on them when they are barnstormed by the global warming lobby, spreading to the U.N.; in 1974 BBC-TV debuts The Weather Machine, starring Kukla; 2000 Kukla leads a symposium at Columbia U. where he moves the coming ice age to 5K years from now, and utters the soundbyte: "What I think is this: Man is responsible for a part of global warming. Most of it is still natural." Watch video - George J. Kukla.

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015)

On June 5-6, 1972 after the Soviet Union dissolves in 1991, ending the balance of powers era of internat. relations, and 152 experts from 58 countries submit data for the report "Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet", the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment of reps. from 114 nations (with the slogan "Only One Earth") meets in Stockholm, Sweden, and agrees on 200 points regarding environmental improvement, proclaiming a declaration of 26 principles on June 16, and agreeing to a Global Governance Agenda, with a plan for a permanent secretariat to coordinate progress; China insists that pop. is not a world problem; China and France insist on the right to stage atmospheric nuclear tests; the U.S. refuses to spend money on internat. environmental problems; the U.N. founds the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya (first U.N. agency with HQ in the Third World), with Socialist Canadian oil exec ("Father of the Global Environmental Movement") Maurice Frederick Strong (1929-2015) (member of the Malthusian Club of Rome) as dir. #1 (until 1976), who utters the soundbytes: "Isn't the only hope for the planet that the industrialized civilizations collapse? Isn't it our responsibility to bring that about?", "It is the responsibility of each human being today to choose between the force of darkness and the force of light. We must therefore transform our attitudes, and adopt a renewed respect for the superior laws of Divine Nature", and "Current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class - involving high meat intake, use of fossil fuels, appliances, air-conditioning, and suburban housing - are not sustainable"; too bad, his real agenda is pop. reduction via abortion et al., fueled by his devotion to New Age pagan religion, run from the New Age Manitou Centre on the 200K-acre Baca Ranch near Crestone, Colo. (founded 1978), which spawns several other pagan centers; in 1992 Strong becomes chmn. of Ontario Hydro, going on to destroy Ontario's economy, taking it from the top performer among Canada's provinces to the bottom; the UNEP goes on to underpin the U.N. effort to use CO2-driven global warming as the excuse for massive transfer of wealth from wealthy to poor countries; "What's truly alarming about Maurice Strong is his actual record. Strong's persistent calls for an international mobilization to combat environmental calamities, even when they are exaggerated (population growth) or scientifically unproven (global warming), have set the world's environmental agenda" (Neil Hrab); "Strong was using the U.N. as a platform to sell a global environment crisis and the Global Governance Agenda" (Elaine Dewar).

On June 30, 1972 Mount Copeland in British Columbia reports 964 in. of snowfall in the 1971/2 season (began July 1), becoming the greatest snowfall in Canada in one season (until ?).

On July 9, 1972 Russia's Kola Peninsula reaches a record high temperature of 32.9C (91.2F) (until ?); meanwhile forest fires rage across Arctic Norway.

Donella Meadows (1941-2001) and Dennis L. Meadows (1942-)

In 1972 MIT scientists Donella H. "Dana" Meadows (1941-2001), her husband Dennis L. Meadows (1942-), Jorgen (Jørgen) Randers (1945-), and William W. Behrens III pub. the bestseller (30M copies) The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind, using primitive computer programs to predict a polluted depleted overpopulated planet, ramping up the environmentalist movement by giving it a religious mission; "If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity"; too bad, the predictions fail to materialize by 1990, but time is on their side, and they pub. new eds. in 1992 and 2002; "The scarcest resource is not oil, metals, clean air, capital, labour, or technnology. It is our willingness to listen to each other and learn from each other and to seek the truth rather than seek to be right." (Donella Meadows)

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing

In 1972 Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen propose the Faint Early (Young) Sun Paradox (Problem), that the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 25%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%.

In 1972 British meteorologist John Stanley Sawyer (1916-2000) pub. the study Man-made Carbon Dioxide and the "Greenhouse" Effect in Nature, summarizing the known science and accepting the theory of CO2-driven anthropogenic global warming, with the brilliant conclusion: "The increase of 25% CO2 expected by the end of the century therefore corresponds to an increase of 0.6°C in the world temperature - an amount somewhat greater than the climatic variation of recent centuries."

Paul M. Weyrich (1942-2008) Ed Feulner (1941-) Kay Coles James (1949-)

On Feb. 16, 1973 the right-wing Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C. is founded with financial backing by Colo. Coors beer magnate Joseph Coors and Philly banking heir Richard Mellon Scaife, headed by Wisc.-born Paul M. Weyrich (1942-2008), a Roman Catholic turned Greek Orthodox religious zealot, whose 180-employee think tank begins grinding out studies against gay rights, abortion, marijuana, gun control, and big govt., gaining support from evangelicals, helping found the Moral Majority with Rev. Jerry Falwell, and growing into the largest public policy research inst. in the U.S. in 1977 Chicago, Ill.-born climate skeptic Edwin John "Ed" Feulner Jr. (1941-) becomes pres. until Apr. 3, 2013, when he is succeeded by former U.S. Sen. Jim DeMint, who resigns on May 2, 2017, when Feulner becomes pres. again until Jan. 1, 2018; on Jan. 10, 2018 Feulner pub. the article Al Gore Blames the 'Climate Crisis' for Cold Weather. But Actually, It's Just January. On Dec. 5, 2018 in response to the 2018 Nat. Climate Assessment Feulner pub. the article Warming Up to the Cold Facts About Climate. On Jan. 1, 2018 2018 Kay Coles James (nee Madeline Kay Coles) (1949-), former dir. of the U.S. Office of Personnel Mgt. (2001-5) and Va. secy. of health and human resources #6 (1994-6) becomes pres. #6 of the Heritage Foundation (until ?), the first African-Am. woman. Watch video - Paul M. Weyrich. Watch video - Ed Feulner. Watch video - Kay Coles James.

Michael E. Mann (1965-) and Warren M. Washington (1936-)

In 1973 the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement is founded at USC by John and Alice Tyler; no surprise in 1974 the first prizes are given to Canadian globalist Marxist Maurice Strong et al.; after the climate change hoaxers take over the environmental movement, the 2019 prizes are awarded to you-guessed-it-CO2-greenhouse-warming-proponents Michael Evan Mann (1965- and climate modeler Warren M. Washington (1936-), while pressure builds to add climate change science to the Nobel Prizes - one prize Al Gore isn't qualified for?

James Lovelock (1919-) Veerabhadran Ramanathan (1944-)

In 1973 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system proposes that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have a global warming effect; in 1975 Indian atmospheric scientist Veerabhadran Ramanathan (1944-) finds that a CFC molecule is 10,000x more effective than a CO2 molecule in absorbing infrared radiation, with the soundbyte: "The effect of greenhouse gases on global warming is, in my opinion, the most important environmental issue facing the world today", causing climate scientists to eventually conclude that CFCs along with methane and other trace gases can have almost as important a climate effect as CO2. Watch video - Tony Heller.

In 1973 NASA begins pub. NASA Historical Data Book, which contains the tabular data collected between 1958-68; in 1988 they reissue it along with two more vols., followed by vol. 4 in 1994, vol. 5 in 1999, vol. 6 in 2000, vol. 7 in 2008, and vol. 8 in 2012; in 2003 it pub. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy, followed in 2006 by NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook, which asks a series of questions about Earth's climate, incl. 2) What are the primary forcings of the Earth system? a) What trends in atmospheric constituents and solar radiation are driving global climate? b) What are the motions of Earth's interior, and how do they directly impact our environment? 3) How does the Earth system respond to natural and human-induced changes? a) What are the effects of clouds and surface hydrologic processes on Earth's climate? b) How do ecosystems, land cover, and bioggeochemical cycles respond to and affect global environmental change? c) How can climate variations induce changes in the global ocean circulation? d) How do atmospheric trace constituents respond to and affect global environmental change? e) How is global sea level affected by natural variability and human-induced change in the Earth system? In ? NASA pub. the article WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY FORCINGS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM?, which starts out: "The Sun is the primary forcing of Earth's climate system. Sunlight warms our world. Sunlight drives atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Sunlight powers the process of photosynthesis that plants need to grow. Sunlight causes convection which carries warmth and water vapor up into the sky where clouds form and bring rain. In short, the Sun drives almost every aspect of our world's climate system and makes possible life as we know it", and concludes: "Other important forcings of Earth's climate system include such 'variables' as clouds, airborne particulate matter, and surface brightness. Each of these varying features of Earth's environment has the capacity to exceed the warming influence of greenhouse gases and cause our world to cool." Too bad, they delete it from their Web site around 2010.

George J. Kukla (1930-2014)

On Jan. 29, 1974 The Guardian pub. the article Space satellites show new Ice Age coming fast by Anthony Tucker, which begins: "Worldwide and rapid trends towards a mini Ice Age are emerging from the first long term analyses of satellite weather pictures.... A preliminary analysis carried out at Columbia University, New York by European climatologists George and Helana Kukla (1930-2014) indicates that snow and ice cover of the earth increased by 12 per cent during 1967-1972. This appears to be in keeping with other long-term climatic changes, all of which suggest that after reaching a climax of warmth between 1935 and 1955, world average temperatures are now falling. But the rate of increase of snow and ice cover is much faster than would be expected from other trends."

On June 24, 1974 Time mag. pub. the article Another Ice Age?, containing the soundbyte: "As they review the bizarre and unpredictable weather pattern of the past several years, a growing number of scientists are beginning to suspect that many seemingly contradictory meteorological fluctuations are actually part of a global climatic uphead. However widely the weather varies from place to place and time to time, when meteorologists take an average of temperatures around the globe they find that the atmosphere has been growing gradually cooler for the past three decades. The trend shows no indication of reversing. Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age." Watch video.

Mario J. Molina (1943-) Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012)

On June 28, 1974 Mexican-born Am. chemist Mario J. Molina (Jose Mario Molina-Pasquel Henriquez) (1943-) and Delaware, Ohio-born chemist Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (1927-2012) pub. a paper in Nature claiming that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants are accelerating the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, with one chlorine molecule able to destroy up to 100K ozone molecules, winning them the 1995 Nobel Chem. Prize; meanwhile high acidity in lakes in NE U.S. and E Canada are traced to coal-burning plants in the U.S. Midwest; in 1978 the U.S. bans CFC-based aerosols in spray cans.

Richard Feynman (1918-88)

In June 1974 Queens, N.Y.-born Caltech physicist Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) gives his commencement address Cargo Cult Science, explaining the difference between real science and pseudoscience as "a kind of leaning over backwards" to make sure scientists don't fool themselves or others, using transparent methods that give transparent results so that others may verify them, with the soundbyte: "There is one feature I notice that is generally missing in cargo cult science... It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty - a kind of leaning over backwards. For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid - not only what you think is right about it; other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked - to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated. Details that could throw doubt on your interpretation must be given, if you know them. You must do the best you can - if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong - to explain it. If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. There is also a more subtle problem. When you have put a lot of ideas together to make an elaborate theory, you want to make sure, when explaining what it fits, that those things it fits are not just the things that gave you the idea for the theory; but that the finished theory makes something else come out right, in addition. In summary, the idea is to try to give all of the information to help others to judge the value of your contribution, not just the information that leads to judgment in one particular direction or another."

On July 28, 1974 (3:42 a.m.) the 7.6 Great 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Tangshan, Hebei, N China kills 242K+ and causes 10B Chinese renminbi damage, becoming the worst earthquake in Chinese history (until ?).

On Aug. 27, 1974 the Christian Science Monitor pub. the article Earth Seems to be Cooling Off Again, containing the soundbyte that the North Atlantic is "cooling down about as fast as an ocean can cool", glaciers have "begun to advance", and "growing seasons in England and Scandinavia are getting shorter."

In Aug. 1974 the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) secretly pub. A Study of Climatological Research as it Pertains to Intelligence Problems, which starts out: "The western world's leading climatologists have confirmed recent reports of a detrimental global climatic change. The stability of most nations is based upon a dependable source of food, but this stability will not be possible under the new climatic era. A forecast by the University of Wisconsin projects that the earth's climate is returning to that of the non-boreal era (1600-1850) - an era of drought, famine, and political unrest in the western world"; "Climate has not been a prime consideration of intelligence analysis because, until recently, it has not caused any significant perturbations to the status of major nations. This is so because during SO of the last 60 years the Earth has, on the average, enjoyed the best agricultural climate since the eleventh century. An early twentieth century world food surplus hindered U.S. efforts to maintain and equalize farm production and incomes. Climate and its effect on world food production was considered to be only a minor factor not worth consideration in the complicated equation of country assessment. Food production, to meet the growing demands of a geometrically expanding world population, was always considered to be a question of matching technology and science to the problem"; "The climate change began in 1960, but no one including the climatologists recognized it. Crop failures in the Soviet Union and India during the first part of the sixties were attributed to the natural fluctuation of the weather. India was supported by massive U.S. grain shipments that fed over 100 million people. To eat, the Soviets slaughtered their livestock, and Premier Nikita Khrushchev was quietly deposed"; "Scientists are confident that unless man is able to effectively modify the climate, the northern regions, such as Canada, the European part of the Soviet Union, and major areas in northern China, will again be covered with 100 to 200 feet of ice and snow. That this will occur within the next 2,500 years they are quite positive; that it may occur sooner is open to speculation." It is not declassified and released until Dec. 2, 2015.

In mid-Dec. 1974 the 1974-75 Central Australian Bushfires begin with the Moolah-Corinya Bushfires in Far West NSW, and end in 1975 with 11M acres burned.

On Dec. 29, 1974 The New York Times pub. the article Forecast For by Alan Anderson Jr., which features the soundbyte about climate cooling that it will result in "mass deaths by starvation and probably anarchy and violence."

Ed Crane (1944-) Koch Brothers Charles G. Koch (1935-) and David H. Koch (1940-) Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95) James Mahoney

In 1974 Edward Harrison Crane III (1944-), a leader in the U.S. Libertarian Party (quits in 1983) founds major corp.-backed conservative-libertarian think tank Cato Inst. (originally the Charles Koch Foundation) along with rich Wichita, Kan.-based Koch Industries CEO Charles de Ganahi Koch (1935-) and Austrian libertarian economist Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), which goes on to oppose environmental groups and back climate change/global warming denial, work to eliminate the U.S. depts. of agriculture, commerce, educate, energy, interior and labor, and propose privatizing Social Security, with Crane uttering the soundbyte "I think Franklin Roosevelt was a lousy president. What he did, which is to impose this great nanny state on America, was a great mistake"; after the Cocks, er, Kochs start a war to replace its stockholders with a 12-member board subservient to themselves, Crane retires as pres. on Oct. 1, 2012 after building it to a staff of 127 and a $21M/year budget. James Mahoney is hired by Koch Industries Inc. in 1988, rising to vice-pres. for operations excellence and compliance and serving as chmn. of the Nat. Petrochemical and Refineries Assoc. (NPRA) (later the Am. Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers) in 2007-8, whose official position on greenhouse gas regulations is: "AFPM believes that using this 40-year-old law [the Clean Air Act] to control of[sic] greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions threatens our nation's economic and energy security."

Kenneth P. Green Joel Wood (1981-)

In 1974 the Fraser Inst. (named after the Fraser River) libertarian-conservative public policy think tank is founded in Vancouver, B.C., Canada by Canadian economist Michael Walker (1945-) et al., going on to pub. the annual Economic Freedom Index, Human Freedom Index, Survey of Mining Cos., School Report Cards, and Tax Freedom Day et al. while backing climate change skeptics Ross McKitrick et al. and influencing the Canadian Conservative Party to deny climate change; of course, critics put their donor list under the microscope, striking pay dirt with the Charles G. Koch Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, Exxon Mobil et al.; senior dir. of natural resource studies is environmental scientist Kenneth P. "Ken" Green; senior research economist for their Centre for Environmental Studies and Centre for Risk and Regulation is Joel Wood (1981-). On Feb. 5, 2007 after the IPCC releases its "Summary for Policy Makers as part of its Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change (AR4), the Fraser Inst. release the report Independent Summary for Policymakers, written by Ian Clark, Joseph D'aleo, Christopher Essex, Wibjorn Karlen, Madhav Khandekar, William Kininmonth, Tad Murty et al., with the ad blurb: "An independent review of the latest United Nations report on climate change shows that the scientific evidence about global warming remains uncertain and provides no basis for alarmism", and "There will remain an unavoidable element of uncertainty as to the extent that humans are contributing to future climate change, and indeed whether or not such change is a good or bad thing." Watch video - Kenneth P. Green.

Frank Wentz (1947-) Carl Mears (1963-)

In 1974 Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) is founded in Northern Calif. by Frank Wentz (1947-) to process microwave data from NASA satellites, going on to work with Carl A. Mears (1963-) to develop a satellite temperature record; in June 2017 version 4 revises the global warming trend from 1979 from .135K/decade to .184K/decade by tampering with the data?

Iben Browning (1918-91) Evelyn Browning-Garriss

In 1974 the Browning Newsletter is founded by Edna, Tex.-born self-proclaimed climatologist Iben Browning (1918-91) and James Fraser; in 1975 Browning and Nels Winkless III pub. the book Climate and the Affairs of Men, which denies manmade climate change and claims that the Earth's long warm period is ending and will be replaced by a dangerous cooling phase; too bad, he makes a notorious failed prediction of a major earthquake on the New Madrid fault on Dec. 2-3, 1990, stinking himself up before dying on July 18, 1991 in Albuquerque, N.M.; in 1991 Iben's daughter Evelyn Browning-Garriss takes over the newsletter, later uttering the soundbyte: "We had a Medieval warm period. We had a little ice age. Now the little ice age is over and it's getting warming. It's not surprising; you end an ice age, temperatures do get warmer. Climate change is standard. The concern should really be: in the past, mankind adjusted to climate change. We need to adjust to the change in climate... We need to be thinking in terms of shifting with the climate, because the climate shifts. The climate changes."

On Jan. 1, 1975 S. Manabe and R.T. Wetherald pub. the paper The Effects of Doubling the CO2 Concentration on the climate of a General Circulation Model in Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, describing their simplified 3-D gen. climate model based on circulation rather than radiation and convection, which when CO2 is increased raises the temperature of the troposphere (lowest level) while lowering that of the stratosphere, resulting in a 2C temp rise when CO2 is doubled.

On Mar. 1, 1975 Science News pub. the article The Ice Age Cometh!, containing the soundbyte: "The threat of a new ice age must now stand alongside nuclear war as a likely source of wholesale death and misery for mankind"; the cover shows glaciers crushing a city.

On Mar. 2, 1975 the Chicago Tribune pub. the article B-r-r-r-r: New ice age on way soon, containing the soundbyte: "Many climatologists see these signs as evidence that a significant shift in climate is taking place - a shift that could be the forerunner of an Ice Age like that which gripped much of the Northern Hemisphere before retreating 10,000 years ago"; on Mar. 16, 1986 they flip-flop and pub. the article "The Rising Seas", predicting massive floods.

Peter Gwynne (1942-)

On Apr. 28, 1975 Newsweek pub. the 9-paragraph article The Cooling World by England-born science ed. Peter Gwynne (1942-), which claims that evidence of a coming ice age is accumulating "so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it", and that "The drop in food output could begin quite soon, perhaps only ten years from now", spawning copycat articles by Nat. Geographic and The New York Times and becoming a hit with global warming skeptics incl. Forbes, U.S. Sen. James Inhofe, Sean Hannity, Lou Dobbs, Rush Limbaugh, and Donald Trump; on Jan. 10, 2014 Scientific American pub. the article How the "Global Cooling" Story Came to Be, with the subtitle: "Nine paragraphs written for Newsweek in 1975 continue to trump 40 years of climate science. It is a record that has its author amazed", claiming that Gwynne now believes in CO2-driven global warming, although his story "was accurate at the time".

On May 21, 1975 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists Ask Why World Climate is Changing: Major Cooling May Be Ahead by Walter Sullivan, containing the soundbytes: "Sooner or later a major cooling of the climate is widely considered inevitable. Hints that it may already have begun are evident. The drop in mean temperatures since 1950 in the Northern Hemisphere has been sufficient, for example, to shorten Britain's growing season for crops by two weeks"; "The first half of this century has apparently been the warmest period since the 'hot spell' between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago immediately following the last ice age. That the climate, at least in the Northern Hemisphere, has been getting cooler since about 1950, is well established - if one ignores the last two winters."

Wallace Smith Broecker (1931-)

On Aug. 8, 1975 Chicago, Ill.-born Columbia U. geophysicist Wallace Smith "Wally" Broecker (1931-) pub. the paper Climate Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? in Science mag., coining the terms "global warming" and "climate change", predicting an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 403 ppm by 2010 along with a global temp increase of 1.10C, with the soundbyte: "If man-made dust is unimportant as a major cause of climatic change, then a strong case can be made that the present cooling trend will, within a decade or so, give way to a pronounced warming induced by carbon dioxide. By analogy with similar events in the past, the natural climatic cooling which, since 1940, has more than compensated for the carbon dioxide effect, will soon bottom out. Once this happens, the exponential rise in the atmospheric carbon dioxide content will tend to become a significant factor and by early in the next century will have driven the mean planetary temperature beyond the limits experienced during the last 1000 years"; he goes on to utter the soundbyte: "Climate is an angry beast and we are poking at it with sticks", becoming known as "the Godfather of Global Warming". Watch video - Wallace Broecker. Watch video - Wallace Broecker. Watch video - Wallace Broecker.

Margaret Mead (1901-78) William Welch Kellogg (1917-2007) Stephen Schneider (1945-2010) George M. Woodwell (1930-) John Holdren of the U.S. (1944-)

On Oct. 26-29, 1975 Philly-born anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-78), pres. of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and climate scientist William Welch Kellogg (1917-2007) of the RAND Corp. organize the Endangered Atmosphere Conference at the Nat. Inst. of the Environment in Research Triangle Park, N.C., declaring that "the whole planet may be endangered" by anthropogenic global warming, leading to the destruction of human life, blaming it ultimately on pop. growth, proclaiming a new Law of the Atmosphere where clean nuclear power is taboo, with the soundbyte: "It is inevitable that there will be clash between those concerned with immediate problems and those who concern themselves with long-term consequences"; attendees incl. New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) (close friend of Paul Ehrlich), George M. Woodwell (1930-) (founder of the Environmental Defense Fund in 1967 and Woods Hole Research Center in 1985), and John Paul Holdren (1944-) (co-author of several books with Paul Ehrlich); in 1976 Mead and Kellogg pub. The Atmosphere: Endangered and Endangering, promoting the idea that each nation "should control carbon dioxide emissions", making the conference into the place where the global warming hoax was born?

On June 23-July 8, 1976 the 1976 Great Britain and Ireland Heat Wave sees the hottest avg. summer temperatures in the U.K. since records began, accompanied by a severe drought and constant blue skies from May until Sept., becoming the driest summer until 1995; on June 28 Southampton, England sets a June temp record at 35.6C (96.1F) (until ?).

On Sept. 13, 1976 after DeuPont is first confronted with evidence that their product is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer in 1974, the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences reports that Freon (CFCs) used in spray cans is depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere, increasing deadly UV radiation on the ground.

Klaus Hasselmann (1931-)

In Dec. 1976 German oceanographer Klaus Hasselmann (1931-) pub. the Hasselmann Stochastic Climate Model, linking weather variability to climate fluctuations by regressing fluctuations in top-of-atmosphere radiation against near-surface air temperature, which unfortunately fails to explain year-to-year observation variability; the model is improved by Cristian Proistosescu et al. in an article pub. on May 14, 2018 in Geophysical Research Letters, eliminating random atmospheric and oceanic processes such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, and reducing the data to three driving or forcing sources with different feedbacks and timescales.

Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006)

In Dec. 1976 English geologist-paleoclimatologist Sir Nicholas John Shackleton (1937-2006) (great-nephew of explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton) et al. pub. the paper Variations in the Earth's orbit: Pacemaker of the ice ages in Science, correlating climate oscillations over the past few million years with variations in the orbital and positional relationship of the Earth and Sun (100K-year Milankovitch Cycles) despite the slight change in sunlight, proving that feedbacks susceptible to small changes drive the climate system.

Lowell Ponte (1946-)

In 1976 Am. journalist Lowell Ponte (1946-) pub. the book The Cooling: Has the Next Ice Age Already Begun? Can We Survive It?, with foreword by U.S. Sen. Claiborne Pell and preface by U. of Wisc. climatologist Reid A. Bryson, which becomes a hit and goes through five printings; it warns that global cooling is going to be "the primary cause of world food shortages" as a new ice age lasting from 200-10K years results in "rivers of solid ice again as far south as Yosemite in California and Cincinnati, Ohio", claiming that scientists have proposed 60 theories to explain it; he proposes a manmade space heater pointed toward Earth in order to "convert the American southwestern deserts into verdant green valleys" and "stave off world famine".

On Jan. 16-21, 1977 the Jan. 1977 Cold Wave brings snow to the greater Miami, Fla. area for the first time ever (until ?), damaging citrus crops and causing $350M damage; on Jan. 28-Feb. 1 the Blizzard of 1977 hits W New York and S Ontario, bringing 100 in. of snowfall and snowdrifts of 40 ft.; 1976/7 and 1976/8 become the coldest and snowiest winters in the U.S. until ?.

U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter (1924-)

On Jan. 20, 1977 leftist nutcase James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. (1924-) becomes Dem. U.S. pres. #39 (until Jan. 20, 1980), creating the 13-member Nat. Commission on Air Quality (NCAQ), with its mission incl. the stabilizing of climate; it is terminated upon pub. of its final report on Mar. 3, 1981; Carter also establishes the Office of Carbon Dioxide Effects in the U.S. Dept. of Energy, which disburses $200M in 1980; meanwhile Carter's EPA dir. assembles a climate science squad that immediately begins pub. reports linking coal burning to catastrophic CO2 emissions; by 1979 the U.S. federal govt. is employing several dozen full-time global warming scientists.

On Jan. 5, 1978 The New York Times pub. the article International Team of Scientists Finds No End in Sight to 30-Year Cooling Trend in Northern Hemisphere by Walter Sullivan, which begins: "An international team of specialists has concluded from eight indexes of climate that there is no end in sight to the cooling trend of the last 30 years, at least in the Northern Hemisphere... In almost all cases it has been found that the year-to-year variations in climate are far more marked than the long-term trend. The long-term trend often becomes evident only when data from a number of years are displayed. The report, prepared by German, Japanese and American specialists, appears in the Dec. 15 issue of Nature, the British journal. The findings indicate that from 1950 to 1975 the cooling, per decade, of most climate indexes in the Northern Hemisphere was from 0.1 to 0.2 degrees Celsius, roughly 0.2 to 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Data from the Southern Hemisphere, particularly south of latitude 30 south, are so meager that reliable conclusions are not possible, the report says. The 30th parallel of south latitude passes through South Africa, Chile, and southern Australia. The cooling trend seems to extend at least part way into the Southern Hemisphere but there have been indications of warming at high southern latitudes."

On Jan. 25-27, 1978 the Great Blizzard of 1978 strikes the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region incl. Ill., Ind., Ky., Mich., Ohio, and SE Wisc. (40 in. of snow) along with SW Ont., Canada, with atmospheric pressure dropping 40 millibars in 24 hours accompanyed by wind gusts of up to 100 mph and wind chills of -51C (-60F), becoming the worst blizzard in U.S. history (until ?) and the worst in Ohio history (until ?) (51 killed), with the 3rd lowest non-tropical atmospheric pressure in mainland U.S. history (until ?), reaching 956.0 millibars (28.23 in. Hg) on Jan. 26 in Mount Clemens, Mich., doing $73M damage and killing 71+.

In May 1978 the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Office of Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment pub. a Plan for Research into the Global Climate Cycle and Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide, which spawns more papers incl. The Long-Term Impact of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Climate, pub. in Apr. 1979 by JASON scientists Gordon MacDonald et al., and culiminating with The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States in Dec. 1989.

Douglas Vogt

In 1978 Am. geologist Douglas "Doug" Vogt and Gary Sultan pub. the book Reality Revealed: The Theory of Multidimensional Reality, with the ad blurb: "The first information theory of existence explains many of the hardest phenomena in the Universe such as: the causes of the ice ages, polar reversals, mass extinctions, gravity, light, pyramid energy, kirlian photography, psychic phenomena, and more!" In 1997 Vogt founds the Diehold Foundation in Jacksonville, Fla. to do research on the cause of the Ice Ages, with the soundbytes: "The purpose for the Foundations' research is to see if global warming is caused by a collapsing magnetic field on the Earth and the Sun which will eventually culminate in a geomagnetic reversal then an ice age on the Earth. Reports and videos will be made as the research progresses"; "We believe we can determine what side of the earth will be facing the sun when it novas during the next geomagnetic reversal (polar reversal)." In 2007 Vogt pub. the book God's Day of Judgment: The Real Cause of Global Warming, explaining why he's obsessed with sudden geomagnetic reversals, viz., belief in the Bible, giving his critics ammo for calling him a religious kook - he'll prove God right on Judgment Day? Watch video - Douglas Vogt. Watch video - Douglas Vogt.

On Feb. 12-23, 1979 the First World Climate Conference is held in Geneva by the World Meteorological Org. and attended by scientists from 50 nations, who unanimously demand urgent action to stop CO2-induced global warming, resulting in the establishment of the World Climate Programme (WCP) and the World Climate Research Programme, which lead to the creation of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 after the conference pub. the conclusion: "It appears plausible that an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can contribute to a gradual warming of the lower atmosphere, especially at higher latitudes... It is possible that some effects on a regional and global scale may be detectable before the end of this century and become significant before the middle of the next century."

On Mar. 11, 1979 the Lawrence Journal World pub. the article Experts assess world's changing climate on p. 8, which contains the soundbyte: "One thing is indisputable: The world has been cooling off since World War II, something like one degree Fahrenheit. But that may be only a temporary swing in climate. Dr. J. Murray Mitchell, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says the world has been cooling off in the long run. "On an average it's cooled down by something like one degree Fahrenheit or half-a-degree Celsius, that that cooling began around World War II."

On Mar. 26, 1979 Edward Garvey, Henry Shaw, Wallace Broecker, and Taro Takahashi of Exxon makes a proposal to help NOAA assess the greenhouse effect, actually wanting to assess the impact on Exxon's business and enhance its public relations image, acknowledging that increase atmospheric CO2 levels could be the result of fossil fuel combustion; on Nov. 19 Exxon's Henry Shaw sends a memo to H.N. Weinberg on Exxon's research on the "potential greenhouse effect", urging that Exxon participate to "influence possible legislation on environmental controls" while starting a "very aggressive defensive program"; on Jan. 29, 1980 Exxon's Walt Eckelmann sends a memo to Morey O'Loughlin, reporting that Exxon's Science and Technology Dept. views the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere as a "potentially serious problem requiring the results of a huge world-wide research effort", detailing ongoing research efforts incl. the $600K/year program to determine whether the primary cause of atmospheric CO2 buildup is fossil fuels or forest clearing; on June 9, 1980 Exxon's H.N. Weinberg sends a memo to H. Shaw and N.R. Werthamer about Exxon's Greenhouse Program, detailing an argument over whether the oceans can act as a global carbon sink, with Weinberg claiming that the oceans can release CO2 at "the upwelling zones"; on Dec. 18, 1980 Exxon's Henry Shaw sends a memo to T.K. Kett reporting that forests are a CO2 sink, hence deforestation is partly responsible for increased atmospheric CO2 levels, and that another CO2 sink must be found, citing disputes over climate sensitivity, with the soundbyte: "General concensus [sic] will not be reached until such time as a significant temperature increase can be detected above the natural random temperature fluctuations in average global climate. The earliest that such discreet signals will be able to be measured is after the year 2000"; on Sept. 2, 1982 Exxon's Roger Cohen sends a memo to Al Natkin summarizing company climate model research, with the soundbyte that a "clear scientific consensus has emerged regarding the effects of increased atmospheric CO2."

Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81)

In May 1979 the Office of Science and Technological Policy requests the Nat. Research Council to assess the CO2 global warming issue, causing Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) of MIT to assemble a collection of oceanographers, meteorologists and climate modelers in a mansion in Woods Hole, Mass. joined by officials from the EPA, NOAA, and the U.S. Depts. of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, and State; on July 23-27, 1979 the Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon Dioxide and Climate is held in Woods Hole, Mass., going on in 1979 to pub. the report Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (The Charney Report) to the Climate Research Board of the U.S. Nat. Research Council, containing the conclusion: "When it is assumed that the CO2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a global surface warming of between 2°C and 3.5°C, with greater increases at high latitudes... We estimate the most probable global warming for a doubling of CO2 to be near 3°C with a probable error of ± 1.5°C... We have tried but have been unable to find any overlooked or underestimated physical effects that could reduce the currently estimated global warmings due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 to negligible proportions or reverse them altogether"; too bad, it never mentions the Greenhouse Gas Theory?

In 1979 the Manifesto Research Group (MRG) is founded, turning into the Comparative Manifesto Project in 1989, which analyzes the climate views of 13 right-wing Euro political parties.


1980 is the first year when global warming effects become noticeable?; this year the yearly number of wildfires in Calif. reaches a peak, bottoming-out in ?

On Jan. 15-31, 1980 Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe forms NE of Mauritius and moves W-SW, passing N of Reunion and S of E Madagascar, dropping 3.3 ft. (1m) of rain on Reunion, and 239.5 in. (6.083m) of rainfail on Commerson's Crater, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone on record (until ?), destroying 2K houses and causing $167M damage.

Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980

On Mar. 27, 1980 (Thur.) Mount St. Helens in Washington State (dormant for 123 years) erupts with ash and steam at 1.1K F; a crater forms at the summit and the N flank begins to bulge; on May 18 (8:32 a.m.) it explodes with the force of 500 A-bombs, losing over 1.3K ft. of elevation (9,677 to 8,364) and gaining a 2-mi.-long 1-mi.-wide crater; 57 people are killed or missing; 51M cu. yds. of debris is dumped into the Columbia River.

On Apr. 3, 1980 U.S. Sen. (D-Mass.) Paul Tsongas convenes the first Congressional hearing on the Greenhouse Effect (Effects of Carbon Dioxide Buildup in the Atmosphere); Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002) recommends a coordinated U.S.-U.N. energy policy, but doesn't endorse synfuels, recommending nuclear and solar; CBS-TV Evening News host Walter Cronkite makes a report on it, emphasizing alarmist fears.

On Oct. 29-31, 1980 a 3-day conference in St. Petersburg. Fla. of 24 experts invited by the Nat. Commission on Air Quality at the request of Congress is attended by David H. Slade, dir. of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Div. of the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the U.S. Dept. of Energy, along with reps from the nuclear industry, environmental movement, and EPA, with all attendees provided copies of Charney's report; attendees agree on the need to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, but disagree on the transition's timeline, the basic urgency of the problem, with Slade believing that evidence of anthropogenic warming might not manifest within the lifetimes of the assembled, while environmentalists argue that by the time humans detect anthropogenic warming it could be too late; the group fails to agree on a wording for the opening paragraph of their joint statement, and the war is on?

On June 30, 1980 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Energy Security Act, consisting of six major acts incl. synthetic fuels corp., biomass energy and alcohol fuels, renewable energy resources, solar energy and energy conservation, solar energy and energy conservation bank, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conservation acts, directing the Nat. Academy of Science (NAS) to fund analyses of climate change.

William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1980 after Congress requests the Nat. Academy of Science to review the science of climate change, Pres. Carter commissions a $1M analysis of the CO2 problem, with Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), Roger Revelle's successor at the Scripps Inst. of Oceanography as chmn. of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, and economists William D. Nordhaus of Yale U. and Thomas Schelling of Harvard U. joining major physical scientists; on Oct. 19, 1983 it announces their 500-page report Changing Climate at a gala in the Nat. Academy of Science's Great Hall, backing up the Charney conclusions of a likely global warming of 1.5C-4.5C after a doubling of CO2, greater by 2x-3x over the poles than over the tropics, with a sea level rise of 70 cm over a cent., along with massive ice melts, famines, and cannibalism, concluding that while rising CO2 is a cause for concern, no action should be taken without more study and a careful program of monitoring and analysis; global warmists later claim that climate change denier Nierenberg slanted the conclusions toward inaction, and "in doing so arguably launched the climate change debate, transforming the issue from one of scientific concern to one of political controversy."

In 1980 the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and the Internat. Council for Science (ICSU); in 1993 it is sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO; in 1995 the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) of WCRP establishes the Coupled model intercomparison project to coordinate research on Climate models incl. Gen. circulation models (GCMs). Watch video.

Gus Speth (1942-)

On Jan. 13, 1981 UPI carries the article A Report from President Carter's environmental advisers warned Tuesday...; about a report from Pres. Carter's Council on Environmental Quality to Pres. Carter warning that CO2-driven global warming might melt Antarctice ice, raising sea levels by 5m-8m, and forcing agriculture toward the poles, with council chmn. James Gustave "Gus" Speth (1942-) uttering the soundbyte: "The carbon dioxide problem is too important and too close upon us to be safely neglected in the making of energy policy. We must begin to take the CO2 problem seriously in charting our energy future", calling the consequences of a climate change in the next 40 years "much too risky" to ignore; the report says that fossil fuel use will have to peak in the early decades of the next cent. to forestall critical changes that could come from a doubling of atmospheric CO2, but Speth adds that the obvious solution of nuclear energy is "too risky"; the report calls on the U.S. as the world's biggest energy consumer to take the lead in energy planning and develop a "philosophical and ethical perspective"; the article carries the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere permits sunlight to enter, but prevents heat from escaping into space."

On Feb. 22, 1981 UPI carries the story Global warming trend 'beyond human experience' by Edward Roby, talking about the new U.S. Dept. of Energy report Environmental and Societal Consequences of a Possible CO2-Induced Climate Change: A Research Agenda; on Feb. 23 he follows with Warming trend could 'pit nation against nation', with the soundbyte: "Future coal use by the United States, China and the Soviet Union will have an important effect on the so-called greenhouse effect."

On Aug. 22, 1981 The New York Times pub. a front-page story by Walter Sullivan titled Study Finds Warming Trend That Could Raise Sea Levels, about NASA'a James Edward Hansen and his forthcoming global warming paper in Science, conceding that the past century's warming lays within the range of historical averages but predicting the emergence of an anthropogenic global warming signal, with the soundbytes: "A team of Federal scientists says it has detected an overall warming trend in the earth's atmosphere extending back to the year 1880. They regard this as evidence of the validity of the 'greenhouse' effect, in which increasing amounts of carbon dioxide cause steady temperature increases. "The seven atmospheric scientists predict a global warming of 'almost unprecedented magnitude' in the next century. It might even be sufficient to melt and dislodge the ice cover of West Antarctica, they say, eventually leading to a worldwide rise of 15 to 20 feet in the sea level. In that case, they say, it would 'flood 25 percent of Louisiana and Florida, 10 percent of New Jersey and many other lowlands throughout the world' within a century or less." "Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is primarily a result of mankind's burning of fuels, is thought to act like the glass of a greenhouse. It absorbs heat radiation from the earth and its atmosphere, heat that otherwise would dissipate into space. Other factors being equal, the more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the warmer the earth should become, according to the theory"; "Dr. Hansen and his colleagues cite the observed surface temperatures of Mars and, particularly, Venus as support for their predicted greenhouse effect. The surface of Venus, with an atmosphere formed largely of carbon dioxide, is at about 900 degrees Fahrenheit"; "The possibility that the greenhouse effect could alter the earth's temperature has long been debated. Scientists have agreed that carbon dioxide is increasing, but disagree on whether temperatures are also increasing. The major difficulty in accepting the greenhouse theory 'has been the absence of observed warming coincident with the historic carbon dioxide increase,' the scientists wrote. Researchers were further confounded by an apparent cooling trend since 1940. As a result, many atmospheric scientists concluded that the climatic effects of increased carbon dioxide might not become detectable for many decades. But the Government scientists say they see clear evidence that carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution has already warmed the climate"; "Their conclusion that the climate has warmed by almost one degree in the last century is based on a re-analysis of global observations, paying special attention to the Southern Hemisphere. 'The common misconception that the world is cooling,' they say, 'is based on Northern Hemisphere experience to 1970.'"

James Edward Hansen (1941-)

On Aug. 28, 1981 NASA climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) et al. pub. the study Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Science, with the abstract: "The global temperature rose 0.2°C between the middle 1960s and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4°C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980s. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage"; no surprise, it recommends abandoning fossil fuels; within a few mo. Hansen is promoted to dir. of NASA's Inst. of Space Studies at Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98)

In 1981 Newark, N.J. U. of Md. business admin. prof. Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98) pub. the book The Ultimate Resource, which challenges the Malthusians, arguing that as intelligent beings, humans are capable of innovating their way out of shortages, which proves true (until ?); rev. ed. pub. in 1996 under title "The Ultimate Resource 2"; on Sept. 29, 1980 he makes the Simon-Ehrlich Wager with biologist Paul Ehrlich, betting that the prices of five metals would decrease over a decade; on Sept. 29, 1990 (payoff date) Ehrlich loses after all five commodities decline in price.

John Coleman (1934-2018)

On May 2, 1982 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history". Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - anti-John Coleman.

'Blade Runner', starring Harrison Ford (1942-), 1982 Daryl Hannah (1960-) in 'Blade Runner'

On June 25, 1982 Ridley Scott's Blade Runner debuts, the first sci-fi film noir, based on the 1968 Philip K. Dick story "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep"; stars Harrison Ford and Edward James Olmos as Nov. 2019 climate-fucked LA cops Rick Deckard and Gaff, who must track down pesky "replicants", humanoid robots Daryl Hannah ("Pris"), Joanna Cassidy ("Zhora"), Brion James ("Leon Kowalski"), led by Rutger Hauer ("Roy Batty"), who are programmed to die in days and are searching for their maker Eldon Tyrell (Joe Turkel), finally getting to him through his asst. J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson), only to discover he's a replicant too; meanwhile Deckard falls for replicant Rachael (Sean Young), and has to decide between eloping or terminating her; Deckard is a replicant?; score by Vangelis features Rachel's Song, End Theme; watch trailer; view clip; TLW's favorite sci-fi flick other than Star Trek and Star Wars; should have been set in Nov. 2049 not Nov. 2019?

Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1982 after claiming that climate sensitivity is only about 0.3C, and that NASA's global warming predictions are "about 10 times too great", and that global warming will have a beneficial effect on agriculture, Thief River Falls, Minn.-born physicist Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) pub. Carbon Dioxide: Friend or Foe? An inquiry into the climatic and agricultural consequences of the rapidly rising CO content of Earth's atmosphere, highlighting CO2's benefits, becoming the first anti-global warming (AGW) book; the next one doesn't appear until July 1, 1989, his Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Earth in Transition. In 1997 he pub. Global Warming: The Science and the Politics, which contains the soundbyte: "I find no compelling reason to believe that the earth will necessarily experience any global warming as a consequence of the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide concentration"; in 1998 he pub. the paper "CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic's view of potential climate change", containing the soundbyte: "Several of these cooling forces have individually been estimated to be of equivalent magnitude, but of opposite sign, to the typically predicted greenhouse effect of a doubling of the air's CO2 content, which suggests to me that little net temperature change will ultimately result from the ongoing buildup of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere." On Jan. 7, 2011 Sherwood and his son Craig Idso pub. The Many Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

In summer 1983 the U.S. Summer 1983 Heat Wave sees 100F+ temps in the drought-stricken Corn Belt and Upper Midwest states of Iowa, Mo., Ill., Mich., Wisc., Ind., Ohio, Minn., Neb., and Ky., along with the SE and Mid-Atlantic states; the city of St. Louis, Mo. sets up cooling centers for people without air conditioning.

On July 21, 1983 the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica records a record low ground level temp of -89.2C (-128.6F) (until ?).

Fred L. Smith Jr.

On Mar. 9, 1984 the libertarian think tank Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) in Washington, D.C. is founded by lobbyist Fred L. Smith Jr. to fight against big govt., going on to lead climate change skeptics. Watch video - Fred L. Smith Jr..

On Oct. 5, 1984 the NASA Ball Aerospace Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is launched by Space Shuttle Challenger, which can measure the greenhouse effect without relying on climate models, showing that clouds have a large cooling effect; it is deactivated on Oct. 14, 2005.

Joseph Lee 'Joe' Bast (1958-)

In 1984 the libertarian-conservative think tank Heartland Inst. is founded in Arlington Heights (near Chicago), Ill. by Chicago investor David H. Padden (1948-), becoming known for backing free market policies before working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke in the 1990s, going on in 2008 to back climate change/global warming denial, holding regular conferences and back the Tea Party; Kimberly, Wisc.-born Joseph Lee "Joe" Bast (1958-) becomes CEO #1 (until ?), building it up to 8.3K supporters by 2015 incl. 160+ elected officials who serve on its legislative forum. Watch video - The Heartland Inst. Watch video - anti-Heartland Inst. Watch video - Joseph Bast. Watch video - Joseph Bast.

Robert Jastrow (1925-2008) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1984 the George C. Marshall Inst. (GMI) is established in Arlington, Va. as a conservative think tank with a focus on science and public policy issues (esp. to back Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program AKA Strategic Defense Initiative) by NASA astronomer Robert Jastrow (1925-2008), Am. solid state physicist Frederick "Fred" Seitz (1911-2008), and Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), later becoming a major critic of climate change science; in 2015 it morphs into the CO2 Coalition.

On Feb. 1, 1985 the town of Maybell, Moffatt County, Colo. sets a state low temp record of -61F (-51.7C).

On Mar. 22, 1985 the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is signed by 28 nations, becoming effective on Sept. 22, 1988 after ratification by 20 states, growing to 197; it doesn't contain legally binding CFC reduction goals, but creates the Meeting of Ozone Research Mgrs. to assess ozone depletion and climate change research and produce reports for the Conference of Parties.

On May 16, 1985 British scientists Joe Farman, Brian Gardner, and Jonathan Shanklin studying the South Pole pub. an article in Nature announcing the finding of an "ozone hole" the size of the U.S. in the ozone layer of the atmosphere over Antarctica, with depletion as much as 70% in austral spring, allowing dangerous UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface; too bad, "The urgency of the alarm seemed to have everything to do with the phrase 'a hole in the ozone layer', which charitably put, was a mixed metaphor. For there was no hole and there was no layer... In satellite images colorized to show density the darker region appeared to depict a void. When F. Sherwood Rowland... spoke of an 'ozone hole' in a university slide lecture in November 1985, the crisis had found its catchphrase. The New York Times used it the same day in its article about the British team's findings, and while scientific journals initially refused to use the term within a year it was unavoidable." (Nathaniel Rich)

Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) Bert Bolin (1925-2007) Gordon McBean

On Oct. 9-15, 1985 the Internat. Conference of the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts is held by the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), and the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) in Villach, Austria, led by Canadian climatologist Fredrick Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) and Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007), and chaired by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, after which the U.N. Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases is founded by the U.N. Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Org. (WMO), and the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions, holding its last meeting in 1990 after being replaced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988). In 1975 Bolin helped the Swedish govt. pass a bill on future energy policy containing the soundbyte: "It is likely that climatic concerns will limit the burning of fossil fuels rather than the size of the natural resources", earning him a rep as the man who got the world to agree on climate. In ? McBean becomes asst. deputy minister of Environment Canada (EC), increasing the funding of climate change research (esp. climate models) so much ($6.8B in 1997-2005) that the Canadian Auditor Gen. (CAG) investigates them. On Nov. 15, 2007 Bolin pub. the semi-autobio. book A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) Boyd Ray Strain

In 1985 Am. agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) and Am. biologist Boyd Ray Strain pub. the paper Carbon dioxide levels in the biosphere: Effects on plant productivity in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, touting the benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "An increase in plant growth due to 'fertilization' of extra CO2 has not been measured, but a 5 to 10% increase may already have occurred. Current data indicate that plants growing at higher than normal CO2 levels are more tolerant of water, temperature, light, and atmospheric pollutant stresses. There are effects on carbon metabolism, plant growth and development, microbial activity, and terrestrial and aquatic plant communities." On Sept. 1, 1987 Wittwer pub. Feeing a Billion: Frontiers of Chinese Agriculture, followed by Food, Climate, and Carbon Dioxide: The Global Environment and World Food Production (Oct. 30, 1995).

John Chafee of the U.S. (1922-99) Sir Robert Watson (1948-) Dennis A. Tirpak Joel B. Smith

On June 10-11, 1986 after Chafee utters the soundbyte: "Ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect can no longer be treated solely as scientific questions. They must be seen as critical problems facing the nations of the world, and they are problems that demand solutions", the House Subcommittee on Pollution of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee chaired by liberal U.S. Sen. (R-R.I.) (1976-99) John Lester Hubbard Chafee (1922-99) holds back-to-back hearings on CFCs and CO2, the Greenhouse Effect and its implications for public policy, featuring British atmospheric chemist Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) of NASA for CFCs, and James E. Hansen, George Woodwell, and Al Gore for CO2, after which Chafee urges the U.S. State Dept. to negotiate an internat. solution to "global warming", making the term immediately popular; the subcommittee requests the U.S. EPA to undertake studies, and in May 1989 after it commissions 55 studies by govt. and academic scientists, Dennis A. Tirpak (deputy dir. of the EPA Global Climate Change Div. in 1984-92) and Joel B. Smith of the U.S. EPA present Congress with the report The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, which is pub. by the EPA in Dec. 1989; it concludes that warmer weather "could have an enormous impact upon human health through the 21st century", even if people acclimatize; Tirpak goes on to become a lead author of the 2007 Fourth IPCC Assessment Report; Smith goes on to become a lead author of the 2001 Third, 2007 Fourth, and 2014 Fifth IPCC Assessment Reports.

The year 1987 is the warmest on record based on studies by NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies in New York, and by a team at the U. of East Anglia in Britain led by Thomas Wigley; starting this year CO2 emissions go on to constitute 50% of all atmospheric CO2 by 2014; 40% since 1990; 30% since 2000.

Joseph Robinette 'Joe' Biden of the U.S. (1942-)

On Jan. 29, 1987 U.S. Sen. (D-Del.) (1973-2009) Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden (1942-) introduces the Global Climate Protection Act for creation of a nat. climate strategy, becoming the first Senate bill dealing with climate change, directing the U.S. pres. to establish a Task Force on Global Climate to do R&D and implement a nat. strategy on global climate and deliver a U.S. Strategy on Global Climate to the U.S. pres. within a year, which he is required to report to specified members of Congress, while appointing an ambassador at large to coordinate U.S. govt. efforts in multinat. efforts to fight global warming, also requiring the U.S. pres. to give climate protection top priority in his agenda of U.S.-Soviet relations; the U.S. secy. of state is directed to promote an Internat. Year of Global Climate Protection; too bad, it doesn't pass.

On Aug. 26, 1987 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed by 46 nations, effective Aug. 26, 1989, calling for a 50% reduction in the use of all substances responsible for ozone layer depletion esp. chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000; 197 U.N. members eventually ratify it; the ozone layer depletion stops by 1995, and is projected to return to 1980 levels in 2050-2070.

John C. Topping

On Oct. 27, 1987 Rockefeller Repub. John C. Topping, (former EPA official under Pres. Reagan), 1986 founder of the Climate Inst. in Washington, D.C. hosts the First North Am. Conference on Preparing for Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach in Washington, D.C., backed by Big Oil fossil fuel cos. incl. BP, G.E., and the Am. Gas Assoc., featuring the usual suspects Gordon J.F. MacDonald, George M. Woodwell, and Stephen H. Schneider of NCAR (known for calling the CO2 Greenhouse Effect "one of the best established theories in atmospheric science"), becoming the largest gathering so far on the climate change subject, and the first time that climatologists and climate impact scholars meet with a broad array of policy makers from industry and govt., recruiting 250 business and environmental lobbyists to the global warming hoax, er, cause; on Dec. 6-8, 1988 the 2nd North Am. Conference on Preparing for Climate Change is held in Washington, D.C. In 1988 Topping ed. the book Preparing for Climate Change, followed in 1989 by Coping with Climate Change. In 2008 Topping, Michael C. MacCracken, and Frances Moore ed. the book Sudden and Disruptive Climate Change: Exploring the Real Risks and how We Can Avoid Them, with the killer ad blurb: "While changes in emissions and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are projected to be slow and smooth, the intensity and impacts of climate change on the environment and society could be abrupt and erratic. Surprising and nonlinear responses are likely to occur as warming exceeds certain thresholds, inducing relatively rapid and disruptive changes in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, precipitation intensity and patterns, coastal inundation, the occurrence of wildfire, the ranges of plant and animal species and more."

Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-)

In Nov. 1987 after the U.S. Congress holds eight days of climate hearings by three committees and both chambers, U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda) unveils a package of legislation aimed at "converting the science of climate change into a new national energy policy".

In 1987 the Environmental Change Inst. is founded by Oxford U. "to organize and promote interdisciplinary research on the nature, causes and impact of environmental change and to contribute to the development of management strategies for coping with future environmental change", going on to found the U.K. Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP,, "the world's largest climate modelling experiment for the 21st century", with 350K people running climate simulations to better understand regional climate patterns, and the Global Ecosystems Monitoring Network (GEM) program in remote forest locations in South Am., Asia, and Africa.

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014) Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001)

In 1987 Russian meteorologist Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), dir. of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Inst. of Global Climate and Ecology and Russian meteorologist Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001), dir. of the State Hydrological Inst.'s Div. for Climate Change Research pub. the study Anthropogenic Climate Change, concluding that parts of the Northern Hemisphere would benefit from some climate change; on Oct. 30, 1998 Budyko gives the speech Global Climate Warming and Its Consequence, with the soundbyte: "On balance, it is very difficult to conclude with higher accuracy whether the projected global warming would be globally beneficial to human society or not."

Peter Wadhams (1948-)

In 1987 British physicist Peter Wadhams (1948-) becomes dir. of the Scott Polar Inst. at Cambridge U. (until 1992), winning the W.S. Bruce Medal in 1977 and the Polar Medal in 1987 before becoming prof. of ocean physics at Cambridge U. in 1992-2015, making 40+ expeditions to the polar regions, revealing that the thick icecap covering the Arctic Ocean is beginning to thin and shrink, calling sea ice the "canary in the mine" of global climate change; on Sept. 26, 2016 he pub. the article The Global Impact of Rapidly Disappearing Arctic Sea Ice, containing the soundbytes: "Few people understand that the Arctic sea ice 'death spiral' represents more than just a major ecological upheaval in the world's Far North. The decline of Arctic sea ice also has profound global climatic effects, or feedbacks, that are already intensifying global warming and have the potential to destabilize the climate system. Indeed, we are not far from the moment when the feedbacks themselves will be driving the change every bit as much as our continuing emission of billions of tons of carbon dioxide annually"; "The most worrisome feedback involves the release of seabed methane from the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean"; "These changes represent a spiritual impoverishment of the earth, as well as a catastrophe for humanity." In Sept. 2016 he pub. the book Farewell to Ice, claiming that the retreat of sea ice in the Arctic generates feedbacks that impact the entire global climate system, accelerating the rate of warming, the rate of sea level rise, the emission of methane from the Arctic, and the occurrence of weather extremes affecting food production, arguing that catastrophic consequences cannot be avoided without making an all-out effort to develop ways of directly capturing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere; he goes on to predict the disappearance of summer Arctic sea ice for the first time in 10K years, not in 2050 but in 2016, 2017, 2018, ... Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams.

James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Edward Hansen (1941-) S. Ichtiaque Rasool (1930-2016)

In summer 1988 the Summer 1988 U.S. Heat Wave sees a drought reminiscent of the Dust Bowl years, killing 5K-17K; Yellowstone burns, and the Mississippi River nearly dries up; too bad, the U.S. Nat. Climate Assessment erases it from their graph of the 20th-21st cent. to make it seem like global warming is happening? On June 23, 1988 after the first Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) Global Temperature Analysis is pub. in 1981, and his mentor S. Ichtiaque Rasool (1930-2016) announces a new NASA CO2 research program, with the soundbyte: soundbyte: "No respectable scientist would say that you already have a signal", and foreign diplomats and environmental activists get U.S. Sen. Tim Wirth to call it, top NASA climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) addresses the U.S. Senate in a hearing on a particularly hot day with broken air conditioning (after he and Wirth sabotaged it?), uttering the soundbyte that "with 99% confidence" CO2-driven global warming has already arrived, claiming a 0.5C-0.7C global warming in the past cent., with the four warmest years all in the 1980s, and the two warmest in 1981 and 1987, making him 99% sure that the Earth is the warmest since instrumental data began to be collected in 1980, that there is a clear cause-effect relationship with the Greenhouse Effect, and that global warming is steadily increasing the likelihood of freak weather incl. superstorms, becoming "the opening salvo of the age of climate change", supercharging the One World Govt. (OWG) types and letting them loose like a roving lion to create a new money-hungry OWG religion complete with priests, bishops, and a pope (Al Gore)?, and CO2 as their Devil?; outside the hearing room Hansen declares "The greenhouse effect is here"; in 1999 the GISS study is updated, reporting 1998 as the warmest year on record despite slight cooling in the E U.S. and W Atlantic, mainly due to the El Nino; Hansen says that coal-fired power plants with no CO2 (carbon) capture technology should be eliminated in the U.S. by 2025, and the rest of the world by 2030; this despite the problem that carbon capture takes 3x-5x as much energy as can be gained by burning the fuel, which ultimately must come from burning fossil fuels, creating more CO2?; Hansen's runaway climate predictions focus the spotlight on the Petroleum (fossil fuel) industry and its Fossil fuels lobby, turning its great benefit to humanity into something sinister, based on pie-in-the-sky future gloom and doom predictions treated as sure things, targeting it with fossil fuel divestment, causing opponents of global warming to counter with global warming conspiracy theory; too bad, after his runaway climate predictions fall flat, and he insists on keeping his job, on Aug. 29, 2000 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario, admitting that the net global warming observed so far is likely due to non-CO2 gases and black carbon, because CO2 is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted via fossil fuel burning. On Feb. 13, 2013 global warming scientist James A. Hansen of NASA is arrested outside the White House along with Sierra Club dir. Michael Brune, co-founder Bill McKibben, civil rights activist Julian Bond, and actress Daryl Hannah while protesting the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline. Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - Tony Heller on James Hansen.

On June 27-30, 1988 the World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Security in Toronto, Canada, hosted by Canadian U.N. ambassador H.E. Stephen Lewis is attended by 300 scientists and politicians from 46 nations, who unanimously sign a comminique calling the greenhouse effect and the ozone problem a present problem threatening internat. security which "are already having harmful consequences over many parts of the globe", asserting a 0.7C global temp rise in the past cent. and calling for a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2005 along with a formal Plan for the Protection of the Atmosphere and a World Atmosphere Fund "financed in part by a levy on the fossil fuel consumption of industrialized countries".

On Sept. 8-19, 1988 Category 5 Hurricane Gilbert, "the storm of the century" smashes into the Gulf coast, Jamaica (Sept. 12) (45 dead, $1B damage), the Yucatan Peninsula (Sept. 14), and the Mexican coast (Sept. 16), killing 318 and causing $2.98B damage, becoming the most intense tropical cyclone to strike Mexico (until ?), and deadliest hurricane of 1988.

On Sept. 26, 1988 climate experts make the claim that all 1,1916 of the Maldives Islands will drown in 30 years.

John Henry Sununu of the U.S. (1939-) Lee Atwater of the U.S. (1951-91)

On Nov. 17, 1988 pres.-elect Bush announces his choice of conservative Havana, Cuban-born Repub. N.H. gov. #75 (1983-9) John Henry Sununu (1939-) (an Arab-Am. of Lebanese extraction and Greek Orthodox faith) to be White House chief of staff #14 (Jan. 20, 1989-Dec. 15, 1991), and his Atlanta, Ga.-born campaign mgr. Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater (1951-91) to succeed Frank Fahrenkopf Jr. as chmn. of the Rep. Nat. Committee, becoming known for dirty tricks incl. the "jumper cable" episode, rumors that Dukakis had been treated for mental illness and his wife had burned a U.S. flag, and the Willie Horton ad smear campaign; before he dies of a brain tumor in 1991 Atwater converts to Roman Catholicism and issues written apologies; during the campaign Bush's son George W. Bush is given an office across from Atwater's to be his dad's "eyes and ears", and they become good friends; Sununu's refusal to back the 1986 proclamation condemning the U.N. resolution defining Zionism as racism causes concerns by Jews, but Bush owes him for his help in the N.H. primary; Sununu goes on to join a "policy action" group to advise Bush incl. Allan Bromley (science), Michael Biskin (economics), Dick Darman (budget), and Roger Porter (domestic policy) and convince Bush to becoming a global warming skeptic and "not commit to policies that would result in trillion dollar changes in the U.S. economy until there were then more adequate technical bases for such a position." Sununu goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming crisis is just the latest surrogate for an over-arching agenda of anti-growth and anti-development. This agenda grew and gathered support in the years following World War II"; "Nature will eventually do what nature has always done. It will respond in a self-stabilizing manner over the long term with moderate variability over multi-decade periods and with occasional significant variability over the short term"; "But waiting for 'eventually' to prove the alarmists wrong is not the wisest course of action. Unfullfillable ambitions to stifle growth will devastate a world trying to deal with the complexities of economics, stability, and the environment. Quality of life depends on access to energy. Noble intentions about 'C02-free' sources of energy are not sufficient, if their agenda of eliminating coal as a source, and turning their back on nuclear, are allowed to be part of our near-term policies." Watch video - John Sununu.

Bert Bolin (1925-2007)

In 1988 after the speech by James Hansen, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) to prove an objective scientific view of climate change and its political-economic impacts, with Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007) as chmn. #1, receiving endorsement by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Resolution 43/53; too bad, it is taken over by sinister OWG globalists of the Club of Rome et al. who want to force the rich nations to cough-up their wealth and give it to the poor nations to supposedly atone for their sins, ensuring that all nations will be poor?; they also know that CO2 is good not bad, and must be limited to keep the teeming billions from being fed to keep the pop. down?; "The aim of the IPCC is to ignore recognized standards of science, frame mankind for a nonexistent crime, and shackle human society. It's the next planned slavery. The developing countries, who will be denied cheap and reliable energy, will bear the heaviest chains." - Pierre Gosselin Watch video.

In 1988 Shell's Greenhouse Effect Working Group creates the confidential report The Greenhouse Effect, admitting that fossil fuels play a dominant role in driving greenhouse gas emissions, incl. Shell's own products, recommending that early action be taken before major changes are observed in the climate.

In 1989 only four anti-global warming (AGW) books are pub., growing to 19 in the 1990s, 15 in 2000-5, 54 in 2005-9, and 15 in 2010.

On Jan. 26, 1989 The New York Times pub. the article U.S. Data Since 1895 Fail To Show Warming Trend by Philip Shabecoff, which begins: "After examining climate data extending back nearly 100 years, a team of Government scientists has concluded that there has been no significant change in average temperatures or rainfall in the United States over that entire period. While the nation's weather in individual years or even for periods of years has been hotter or cooler or drier or wetter than in other periods, the new study shows that over the last century there has been no trend in one direction or another. The study, made by scientists for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was published in the current issue of Geophysical Research Letters. It is based on temperature and precipitation readings taken at weather stations around the country from 1895 to 1987"; no surprise, "Dr. Hansen of NASA said today that he had 'no quarrel' with the findings in the new study. He noted that the United States covered only 1.5 percent of Earth. 'If you have only one degree warming on a global average, how much do you get at random' when taking measurements in such a relatively small area, he asked rhetorically. 'We are just arguing now about whether the global warming effect is large enough to see,' he added. 'It is not surprising we are not seeing it in a region that covers only 1.5 percent of the globe.' Dr. Hansen said there were several ways to look at the temperature readings for the United States, including as a 'statistical fluke'"; how convenient that outside the U.S. there are hardly any weather stations to collect accurate data?; in 1999 James Hansen of NASA falsifies the record by shaving 0.5C off 1934 and adding it to 1998 then lying about it? Watch video - Tony Heller, t=10:38.

On June 30, 1989 Peter James Spielmann pub. the AP news article U.N. Predicts Disaster if Global Warming Not Checked, quoting senior U.N. environmental official Noel Brown that world govts. have a 10-year window of opportunity to solve the greenhouse effect before it goes runaway; climate alarmists love the 10-year doomsday number?

1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989 1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989

On Oct. 17, 1989 (5:04 p.m.) the 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta (Watsonville) (San Francisco) Earthquake, centered in the Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi. NE of Santa Cruz hits the San Francisco (N Calif.) area minutes before the start of World Series Game 3, killing 63, injuring 3,757 and causing $5.6-$6B in damage; the WS is delayed for 10 days.

The Emperor Has No Clothes

On Nov. 1, 1989 M.S. Reilly, D. Arasteh, and M. Rubin of Lawrence Berkeley Lab pub. the study The Effects of Infrared Absorbing Gasses on Window Heat Transfer: A Comparison of Theory and Experiment in Solar Energy Materials, which finds experimentally that CO2 is useless in trapping heat or delaying cooling when used in multipane windows, showing up the global warming scientists who tout CO2 as a major "greenhouse gas" as the Emperor Has no Clothes, with the conclusion: "The effect of the infrared radiation properties of CO2 is unnoticeable".

On Nov. 7, 1989 the First Global Diplomatic Climate Conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands is attended by reps from 67 nations, 11 internat. orgs., and the Commission of the European Community (EC); too bad, after a stunt by activists who lower the U.S., Soviet, and Japanese flags to half-mast and use French govt. photographers to take photos that are plastered across Europe, pissing them off, the conference fails to reach a consensus, after which the fossil fuel industry mobilizes to fight the climate change lobby, leading the U.S. Senate to reject the Kyoto Protocol.

Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-2013)

On Nov. 8, 1989 chemistry-trained British Conservative PM (1979-90) Margaret Hilda Thatcher (nee Roberts) (1925-2013) AKA the Iron Lady gives a Speech on Climate Change to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, warning of the dangers of rising CO2 and calling for an internat. framework convention on climate change, with the aim being "to prevent rather than just cure a global environmental problem", becoming the first world leader to put climate change at the top of the global agenda; Watch video. In 2002 Thatcher pub. the book Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, which contains the soundbyte in Ch. 11: "Actually, President Bush was quite right to reject the Kyoto protocol... Kyoto was an anti-growth, anti-capitalist, anti-American project which no American leader alert to his country's national interests could have supported."

Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003)

In Nov. 1989 Birmingham, England-born MIT meteorologist Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003) (known for talking the Mass. legislature into a harbor tunnel in 1969) pub. the article Has the Globe Really Warmed?, revealing that ocean surface temperature logs kept by merchant-marine captains around the world dating back to 1856 "appears to have... little or no global warming over the past century", going on to become a global warming skeptic and losing federal funding despite being considered one of the world's top meteorologists; on Aug. 12, 1990 he participates in the British documentary film The Greenhouse Conspiracy along with Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, Sherwood Iso, and Pat Michaels, containing the soundbyte "Man-Made Climate Change is Absolute Crap", becoming one of the first to suggest a conspiracy to deny funding to scientists critical of global warming. Watch video - Reginald E. Newell.

On Dec. 7, 1989 the Santa Cruz Sentinel pub. the article Debate over global warming heats up, containing the soundbyte: "'Analysis of warming since 1881 shows most of the increase in global temperature happened before 1919 - before the more recent sharp rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,' said Thomas Karl, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C. 'While global climate warmed overall since 1881, it actually cooled from 1921 to 1979,' Karl said. 'In spite of all the well-publicized concern about global warming, you must that there is still considerable uncertainty among scientific experts about a number of critical factors which determine global warming,' NOAA administrator John Knauss said."

In 1989 the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) is founded in Washington, D.C. by an internat. lobbyist group of businesses incl. Exxon, Phillips Petroleum Co., the Am. Petroleum Inst., the Nat. Coal Assoc., the Am. Forest and Paper Assoc., the Edison Electric Inst., and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to oppose the Kyoto Protocol and challenge the science of global warming, becoming the largest climate policy group, representing over 230K businesses; too bad, in 1995 an internal advisory committee produces the 17-page report "Future Climate Change: A Primer", which admits "The scientific basis for the Greenhouse Effect and the potential impact of human emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 on climate is well established and cannot be denied", and in 1996 after a campaign by environmental groups British Petroleum (BP) withdraws, followed in 1997 by Royal Dutch Shell, Ford Motor Co. in 2000, Texaco in 1999, the Southern Co. in 2000, GM in 2000, and Daimler-Chrysler in 2000, after which it folds in 2001 after U.S. Pres. George W. Bush withdraws the U.S. from the Kyoto process, but not before gleefully posting on its Web site: "At this point, both Congress and the Administration agree that the U.S. should not accept the mandatory cuts in emissions required by the protocol."


In the 1990s after ozone depletion is discovered in 1984, Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) are introduced to replace ozone-depleting cloroflurocarbons (CFCs) such as freon in refrigerators, air conditioners, and insulating foam; too bad, while the ozone shield recovers, the HFCs cause a super greenhouse effect, with 4,470x the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide (CO2?)

In 1990 annual global CO2 emissions are 22.4B tons, rising to 35.8B in 2013 (60%).

On June 27-July 2, 1990 the Painted Cave Fire in the Santa Ynez Mts. of Calif. explode across Santa Barbara County, fed by heat, drought, and arson, destroying 427 bldgs. (most in Calif. history until ?)) from Santa Barbara to San Diego, and killin 1; Calif. Gov. George Deukmejian offers $50K rewards for arsonists, later identifying Leonard Ross as the perp; the fires cause Michael Jackson's 2.7K-acre Neverland Valley Ranch N of Santa Barbara, Calif. to be mentioned in the press for the first time; it even has a Ferris wheel.

On Aug. 1-4, 1990 the 1990 U.K. Heat Wave sees highs of 37.1C (98.8F) on Aug. 3 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, breaking the 1911 record (until 2003).

On Nov. 16, 1990 the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 is enacted by the 101st U.S. Congress, requiring research into global warming and related issues along with a report to Congress every four years, which becomes known as the Nat. Climate Assessment.

Sir John T. Houghton (1931-)

In 1990 the First Assessment Report (FAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., serving as the basis of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change of June 4, 1992; Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) is the lead author of Working Group I, which reaches the following conclusions: "We are certain of the following: there is a natural greenhouse effect...; emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases: CO2, methane, CFCs and nitrous oxide. These increases will enhance the greenhouse effect, resulting on average in an additional warming of the Earth's surface. The main greenhouse gas, water vapour, will increase in response to global warming and further enhance it"; "We calculate with confidence that: ...CO2 has been responsible for over half the enhanced greenhouse effect; long-lived gases would require immediate reductions in emissions from human activities of over 60% to stabilise their concentrations at today's levels..." "Based on current models, we predict: under [BAU] increase of global mean temperature during the [21st] century of about 0.3 oC per decade (with an uncertainty range of 0.2 to 0.5 oC per decade); this is greater than that seen over the past 10,000 years; under other ... scenarios which assume progressively increasing levels of controls, rates of increase in global mean temperature of about 0.2o C [to] about 0.1o C per decade"; "There is no convincing evidence of an acceleration in global sea level rising during the twentieth century. For longer periods, however, there is weak evidence for an acceleration over the last 2-3 centuries"; the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios uses statistical techniques to predict CO2 emissions for the next cent., which later turn out to be moose hockey?

In 1990 the Aspen Global Change Inst. in Aspen, Colo. is founded, "dedicated to advancing the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary workshops, research and consulting, and education and outreach."

In 1990 the Centre for Internat. Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) at the U. of Oslo is founded by the govt. of Norway.

Richard A. Betts Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Met Office Hadley Centre

In 1990 the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research of the U.K. Met Office is established, going on to employ 1.5K staff incl. 200 in its climate research unit, incl. Richad A. Betts as head of High-End Climate Impacts and Extremes (Helix), and John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) as head of the Climate Change Group, rising to chief scientist in 2002-8 and dir. of climate science in 2008-10, becoming the most cited scientist on the topic of global warming, getting knighted in 2001; the climate unit goes on to develop the HadCM3 climate model, and the HadCRUT4 dataset in Mar. 2012, which is riddled with errors; in the 1990s the U.K. Met Office's Hadley Centre's temperature chart begins a clear rise, which levels off about 2000 (until ?); the result of more CO2 or cleaner air and more sunshine?

'Race to Save the Planet', 1990

In 1990 the 10-part PBS-TV series Race to Save the Planet debuts, hosted by Meryl Streep and narrated by Roy Scheider; "By the year 2000, that's less than 10 years away, the Earth's climate will be warmer than it's been in over 100,000 years. If we don't do something, there will be enormous calamities in a very short time" (Streep); watch episode.

Hal Lewis (1923-2011)

In 1990 UCSB physicist Harold Warren "Hal" Lewis (1923-2011) (student of J. Robert Oppenheimer) pub. Technological Risk, which contains the soundbyte: "All models agree that the net effect [of increasing greenhouse gases] will be a general and global warming of the earth; they only disagree about how much. None suggest that it will be a minor effect, to be ignored while we go about our business", adding that reducing the effects incl. sea level rise would "require global cooperation and sacrifice now, to avert something far in the future, and a conjectural something at that. There is no evidence in human history that this is in the cards, but one can always hope"; too bad, after 20 years of further thinking, combined with the Nov. 2009 Climategate Scandal, on Oct. 8, 2010 he writes a letter of resignation to Am. Physical Society (APS) pres. Curtis Callan, resigning after 67 years because it has been "corrupted by the money flood", which has "become the raison d'etre of much physics research, the vital sustenance of much more, and it provides the support for untold numbers of professional jobs", adding that it is "the global warming scam, with the (literally) trillions of dollars driving it, that has corrupted so many scientists, and has carried APS before it like a rogue wave. It is the greatest and most successful pseudoscientific fraud I have seen in my long life as a physicist", making him a climate denier celeb; in its Nov. 2010 newsletter the APS responds, with the soundbyte: "In his letter, Lewis speculated that Council's policy positions on climate change must be driven by financial interest, adding that Callan's own physics department 'would lose millions a year if the global warming bubble burst'. The APS press release categorically rejected the notion that APS as an organization is benefitting financially from climate change funding and further pointed out that the vast majority of the Society's members do not work on climate and derive no personal benefit from such research support"; too bad, Lewis dies on May 26, 2011 before he can properly respond.

David Suzuki (1936-)

In 1990 Canadian environmental activist David Takayoshi Suzuki (1936-) co-founds the David Suzuki Foundation to attempt to reverse global climate change, er, global warming, adding clean energy and sustainability to the goals, along with opposition to GMOs, uttering the soundbyte: "Canada, more than any other nation, will be affected by rising sea leavels from global warming"; too bad, in Sept. 2013 he gives an interview to Australia's ABC-TV, revealing complete ignorance about the main temperature data sets on which global warming theories are based?

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

In Jan. 1991 the Kuwaiti oil fires are set by Iraqi forces retreating from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm of the Persian Gulf War, igniting 605-732 oil wells plus oil lakes and fire trenches; the last well is not capped until Nov. 6; meanwhile Am. astronomer Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) debates Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) on ABC-TV's "Nightline", with Sagan claiming that the smoke could cause a Nuclear Winter, which only requires 100 oil fires emitting smoke that rises to 48K ft., and Singer correctly claiming that the smoke would only rise to 3K ft. before being rained out in 3-5 days; in 1995 Sagan pub. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, admitting that he was wrong, with the soundbyte: "It was pitch black at noon and temperatures dropped 4–6 °C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."

Mount Pinatubo, June 12, 1991

On June 9-16, 1991 Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupts for the first time in 400 years, killing 450 (most on June 15-16), becoming the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the cent. after Novarupta, Alaska in 1912, complicated by the arrival of Typhoon Yunya, causing tens of thousands to be evacuated, after which mudslides raise the death toll to 700; the particulates ejected into the stratosphere are the greatest since Krakatoa in 1883, forming a global sulfuric acid haze that drops global temps by 0.5C (0.9F) in 1991-3, increasing ozone depletion; volcanoes generate 200M tons of CO2 each year, vs. 24B from human activities; the eruption pumps more pollution into the atmosphere than the entire history of man?

Alexander King (1909-2007)

On Sept. 3, 1991 Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007) (co-founder of the Club of Rome) and Bertrand Schneider (1929-) pub. The First Global Revolution: A Report by the Council of the Club of Rome, a sequel to the 1972 bestseller "The Limits to Growth", claiming that time has run out and it's now or never for radical environmental actions; "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself."

David Viner

In Sept. 1991 David Viner begins working at the U. of East Anglia (UEA) Climatic Research Unit, moving after 17 years to Natural England, followed by the British Council, and Mott MacDonald in 2012; in 2000 he utters the soundbyte: "[Snowfall will become] a very rare and exciting event... Children just aren't going to know what snow is."

In 1991 Royal Dutch Shell debuts the documentary film Climate of Concern; "If the weather machine were to be wound up to such new levels of energy, no country would remain unaffected. Global warming is not yet certain, but many think that to wait for final proof would be irresponsible. Action now is seen as the only safe insurance."

* Rush Limbaugh (1951-)

On Feb. 4, 1992 Al Gore debates conservative radio talk show host Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (1951-) on Ted Koppel's Nightline, with Limbaugh calling him an "environmentalist wacko". On Apr. 2, 2007 Limbaugh utters the soundbyte that the so-called scientific consensus on climate is "just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition." Watch video - debate part 1. Watch video - debate part 2.

Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-)

On June 3-14, 1992 the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development) is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, producing the 27-principle Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, based on the principle of sustainable development, a Rio Declaration on Forests, the Rio Framework Convention on Climate Change (June 4), and the devilish Marxist globalist 40-chapter $600B Agenda 21 along with an agreement to establish a Sustainable Development Commission to monitor the progress in implementing the Rio Declaration, becoming the largest and most costly diplomatic gathering in world history to date but failing to agree on an internat. ban on whaling, followed on June 13-22 by the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development, in which U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda) utters the soundbyte to the audience: "We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy", going on to become undersecy. of state #1 for global affairs for the U.S. State Dept. in 1993-7, lead U.S. negotiator for the Kyoto Climate Conference, and pres. #1 of the United Nations Foundation in 1998-2013; activists claim that the Earth has only 10 years left to get global warming under control; meanwhile a climate skeptic conference is held in Heidelberg, Germany, resulting in the Heidelberg Appeal by Michel Salomon to be pub., signed by 492 scientists, calling on govt. to quit following "junk" environmental science for their "balanced" policies, calling it "pseudoscientific arguments or false and nonrelevant data", pissing-off the global warmists, who call it tobacco and asbestos industry agitprop, which doesn't stop it from having influence, after which Philip Morris pays APCO & Assocs. the create the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC) in 1993, headed by Steve Milloy; In Dec. 2011 U.N. Foundation pres. Tim Wirth utters the soundbyte that Pres. Obama has a "last window of opportunity" to put in place dramatic carbon dioxide restrictions necessary to keep future warming "anywhere approaching" the 2 degree Celsius tipping point and avert catastrophic climate change, but "I don't know who and where the climate leadership in the administration is. It doesn't exist. There is no resolve in the Obama administration to do anything, and I think they look at Congress and say, 'We can't do anything, so why break our pick now?'" Watch video - Glenn Beck and Rosa Koire. Watch video - Glenn Beck and Rosa Koire. Watch video - Patrick Wood.

On June 4, 1992 the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is opened for signatures at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, entering into force on Mar. 21, 1994, with the objective to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system", setting non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions with no enforcement mechanisms.

Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) Roger Revelle (1909-91) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Dennis T. Avery (1936-)

In summer 1992 the article "What to do about greenhouse warning: Look before you leap", by Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) is pub. in Cosmos: A Journal of Engineering Issues, which contains the soundbyte: "Drastic, precipitous - and, especially, unilateral - steps to delay the putative greenhouse impacts can cost jobs and prosperity and increase the human costs of global poverty, without being effective. Stringent economic controls now would be economically devastating particularly for developing countries", and concludes: "The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses"; too bad, Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer ("Father of Global Warming") Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) adds his name to the article after Singer allegedly hoodwinks him, causing Revelle's grad student Justin Lancaster to to call Singer's actions "unethical", after which Singer sues with the support of the Center for Public Interest in Washington, D.C., receiving a letter of apology from Lancaster sans admission of wrongdoing, only to withdraw his letter in 2006 after Robert Balling et al. continue to claim that Revelle is the article's real author, while Revelle waffles until his 1991 death; on June 1, 1989 Singer pub. the book Global Climate Change: Human and Natural Influences; meanwhile in June 1992 Dem. vice-pres. candidate Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. the NYT bestseller (first by a sitting U.S. sen. ince JFK's "Profiles in Courage") Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, proposing a Global Marshall Plan to save the planet. In Feb. 2007 Singer and Am. food policy analyst Dennis T. Avery (1936-) (dir. of the Center for Global Food Issues at the Hudson Inst.) pub. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years, containing the soundbytes: "The Earth is warming but physical evidence from around the world tells us that human-emitted carbon dioxide has played only a minor role in it. Instead, the mild warming seems to be part of a natural 1,500-year climate cycle (plus or minus 500 years) that goes back at least one million years"; "Considered collectively, there is clear and convincing evidence of a 1,500-year climate cycle. And if the current warming trend is part of an entirely natural cycle, as Singer and Avery conclude, then actions to prevent further warming would be futile, could impose substantial costs upon the global economy and lessen the ability of the world's peoples to adapt to the impacts of climate change"; "Sunspots and cosmic rays have a 79 percent correlation with our thermometer record since 1860. Meanwhile the CO2 correlation is a mere 22 percent." On Sept. 9, 2007 Hannity's America airs footage of Al Gore landing in late Aug. in a fuel-inefficient private Gulfstream jet at the San Francisco airport and taking off in another fuel-inefficient town car. On Jan. 3, 2011 Singer pub. the article Estimated 40 Percent of Scientists Doubt Manmade Global Warming in the bulletin of the Nat. Assoc. of Scholars. In Aug. 2011 Singer pub. the article NIPCC vs. IPCC: Addressing the Disparity between Climate Models and Observations: Testing the Hypothesis of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), exposing some of IPCC's dirty laundry incl. the failure to prove a tropical tropospheric hotspot, with the soundbyte: "While AR4 now asserts to be 90-99% sure that the warming of the late 20th century is anthropogenic, they have no solid evidence to back this claim. To the contrary, their own data demonstrate the opposite. All IPCC climate models show an amplification of trends in the tropical zone, with a 'hot spot' in the upper troposphere - while the temperature data from radiosondes (both the Hadley Centre analysis and the RATPAC analysis by NOAA) do not show this feature." On Feb. 29, 2012 Singer pub. the article Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name in American Thinker, attempt to position himself on the fence. In 2015 he steps away from the Greenhouse Warming crowd, with the soundbyte: "I should note that I am somewhat out of step here with my fellow skeptics. Few of them would agree with me that the climate sensitivity (CS) is indeed close to zero. I will have to publish the analyses to prove my point and try to convince them. Of course, nothing, no set of facts, will ever convince the confirmed climate alarmists." On Apr. 2, 2018 Singer pub. the article Does the Greenhouse Gas CO2 Cool the Climate? in American Thinker, which concludes: "A greenhouse gas produces cooling of the climate when its molecular transitions are in a region of positive lapse rate. One example is CO2 and the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude. Another example is temperature over the winter poles. While the climate cooling is not obvious, it counters [conventional] GH warming. This at-least-partial cancellation might explain the puzzling absence of CO2-based GH warming in the 20th century. It could also help explain the cause of the [hotly] contested climate 'pause'. Much further work awaits!" On May 15, 2018 S. Fred Singer pub. the article The Sea is Rising, but Not Because of Climate Change in The Wall Street Journal, causing a flurry of denials and rebuttals by scientists. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery.

On Sept. 11, 1992 Category 4 (145 mph) Hurricane Iniki (Hawaiian "strong and piercing wind") (formed Sept. 5) hits Kauai, Hawaii, becoming the first hurricane to hit Hawaii since Hurricane Iwa in 1982, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959, killing six, damaging 1.4K houses and severely damaging 5K more, causing $3.1B damage before it dissipates on Sept. 13, becoming the most costly tropical cyclone to hit Hawaii (until ?).

Patrick J. Michaels (1950-) Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) Chip Knappenberger (1964-) Oliver W. Frauenfeld Robert E. Davis (1960-)

On Oct. 15, 1992 Berwyn, Ill.-born climatologist (global warming skeptic) Patrick J. "Pat" Michaels (1950-) pub. Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming, claiming that there is no scientific foundation for a coming global warming apocalypse a la Al Gore. On Dec. 31, 1998 Michaels pub. the paper Long Hot Year: Latest Science Debunks Global Warming Hysteria for the Cato Inst. In 2000 Michaels and Ariz. State U. geography prof. Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) pub. The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air About Global Warming. On Dec. 20, 2002 Michaels pub. the article Revised 21st century temperature projections along with Paul C. "Chip" Knappenberger (1964-), Oliver W. Frauenfeld, and Robert E. Davis (1960-) in Climate Research, containing the soundbyte that the Earth will see "a warming range of 1.3–3.0°C, with a central value of 1.9°C" for the 1990 to 2100 period (an analysis far smaller than the IPCC's average predictions)." In 2004 Michaels pub. Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media, "Patrick Michaels fully exploits his incomparable wit and credentialed expertise to dismantle the claim that catastrophic climate change is upon us. Using dozens of examples, this working-stiff climatologist exposes the exaggerations and outright falsehoods promoted by a media industry hungry for 'if it bleeds, it leads' stories." On Nov. 28, 2005 Michaels edited the book Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming. On Feb. 23, 2007 Michaels pub. an article calling Al Gore's big global warming scare film "science fiction... The main point of [Gore's] movie is that, unless we do something very serious, very soon about carbon dioxide emissions, much of Greenland's 630,000 cubic miles of ice is going to fall into the ocean, raising sea levels over twenty feet by the year 2100. Nowhere in the traditionally refereed scientific literature do we find any support for Gore's hypothesis. Instead, there's an un-refereed editorial by NASA climatefirebrand James E. Hansen, in the journal Climate Change - edited by Steven Schneider, of Stanford University, who said in 1989 that scientists had to choose 'the right balance between being effective and honest' about global warming - and a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that was only reviewed by one person, chosen by the author, again Dr. Hansen. These are the sources for the notion that we have only ten years to 'do' something immediately to prevent an institutionalized tsunami. And given that Gore only conceived of his movie about two years ago, the real clock must be down to eight years! It would be nice if my colleagues would actually level with politicians about various'solutions' for climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, if fulfilled by every signatory, would reduce global warming by 0.07 degrees Celsius per half-century." On Sept. 29, 2007 Michaels gives an interview to The Washington Post, explaining why he resigned as the state climatologist of Va., with the soundbyte: "I was told that I could not speak in public.... Michaels has argued that the climate is becoming warmer but that the consequences will not be as dire as others have predicted. Gov. Kaine had warned Michaels not to use his official title in discussing his views. 'I resigned as Virginia state climatologist because I was told that I could not speak in public on my area of expertise, global warming, as state climatologist,' Michaels said in a statement this week provided by the libertarian Cato Institute, where he has been a fellow since 1992. 'It was impossible to maintain academic freedom with this speech restriction.'" On Nov. 21, 2007 Andrew Dessler pub. the soundbyte in Grist Magazine: "While some people claim there are lots of skeptical climate scientists out there, if you actually try to find one, you keep turning up the same two dozen or so (Singer, Lindzen, Michaels, Christy, etc., etc.) These skeptics are endlessly recycled by the denial machine, so someone not paying close attention might think there are lots of them out there - but that's not the case." On Sept. 23, 2009 Michaels pub. the article The Dog Ate Global Warming in National Review, containing the soundbyte: "Steel yourself for the new reality, because the [Hadley Center] data needed to verify the gloom-and-doom warming forecasts have disappeared." In 2009 Michaels and Robert Balling Jr. pub. Climate of Extremes: Global Warming Science They Don't Want You to Know. On Apr. 16, 2011 Michaels edited Climate Coup: Global Warming's Invasion of Our Government and Our Lives. In 2015 Michaels and Knappenberger pub. Global Lukewarming: A New Synthesis of Climate Change, proposing a third group after climate alarmists and climate deniers; "Climate change is real, it is partially man-made, but it is clearer than ever that its impact has been exaggerated - with many of the headline-grabbing predictions now being rendered implausible or impossible." Michaels is known for the soundbytes: "Surface temperatures are indeed increasing slightly: They've been going up, in fits and starts, for more than 150 years, or since a miserably cold and pestilential period known as the Little Ice Age. Before carbon dioxide from economic activity could have warmed us up, temperatures rose three-quarters of a degree Fahrenheit between 1910 and World War II. They then cooled down a bit, only to warm again from the mid-1970s to the late '90s, about the same amount as earlier in the century"; "It's hardly news that human beings have had a hand in the planetary warming that began more than 30 years ago. For nearly a century, scientists have known that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide would eventually result in warming that was most pronounced in winter, especially on winter's coldest days, and a cooling of the stratosphere. All of these have been observed... The best policy is to live with some modest climate change now and encourage economic development, which will generate the capital necessary for investment in the more efficient technologies of the future"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something." Balling is known for the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence argues against the existence of a greenhouse crisis, against the notion that realistic policies could achieve any meaningful climatic impact, and against the claim that urgent action is necessary to reduce the greenhouse threat"; "Life has existed on our planet for billions of years, and the climate over that time has changed from ice ages to periods much warmer than today. There is little doubt that as our cities grow, heat waves will be more severe in the urban areas. If global warming does in fact add to the problem, we will adapt to the new world, just as humans have done for millions of years"; "All of us engage in activities that involve burning fossil fuels, and according to some self-proclaimed environmentalists we should feel guilty doing so due to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) which can lead to ever-dreaded global warming. However, the botanical literature is full of 1,000s of articles showing that elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will be beneficial for plants throughout the world... We see the forest and we see the trees, and they both thank us for the CO2 we're adding to the atmosphere... So drive out to the forest and feel good about the CO2 coming out of your tailpipe!"; "Elevated atmospheric CO2 will produce biological miracles all over the world." Knappenberger is known for the soundbytes: "It's expected that the Arctic is going to warm more than the rest of the world. Now, does that mean it's all doom and gloom? There, I take exception to that... Some particular elements of the press like to focus on the losers – and pretend like the winners don't exist at all. But in that same annual Arctic report card from NOAA, there is plenty of good to be found there"; "The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently reached a 'milestone' of 400 parts per million (ppm). In some circles, this announcement has been met with consternation and gnashing of teeth. The proper reaction is celebration." Davis is known for the soundbytes: "The question everyone should ask is not 'Is the earth warming,' but, 'How is the warming being felt across the planet? Where is it warming? When? And by how much?' It turns out that most of the warming is occurring in the high latitudes, in the winter, and across the planet, at night"; "The temperature record at the surface is a contaminated record and urbanization needs to be factored out of that if we're going to get any kind of accurate representation of how surface temperatures have changed over the last hundred years." Frauenfeld is known for the soundbytes: "Without question, much more progress is necessary regarding our current understanding of climate and our abilities to model it"; "Only after we identify these factors and determine how they affect one another, can we begin to produce accurate models. And only then should we rely on those models to shape policy. Until that time, climate variability will remain controversial and uncertain." Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Robert C. Balling Jr.. Watch video - Chip Knappenberger.

Henry Way Kendall (1926-99)

In Dec. 1992 former Union of Concerned Scientists chmn. Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (1990 Nobel Physics Prize) pub. World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, a reponse to the June 14 Heidelberg Appeal, signed by 1.7K leading scientists incl. most Nobel Prize science laureates, starting out: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course", and incl. the soundbyte: "We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water... We must stabilize population"; in Nov. 2017 "A World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: Second Notice" is pub., signed by 15,364 scientists, calling for drastically lowering per capita consumption of fossil fuels, meat, et al., and limiting population growth, detailing 13 specific steps to transition to sustainability, becoming the most scientist cosigners for a journal article (until ?).

William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-)

In 1992 Albuquerque, N.M.-born Yale U. economist William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-) pub. the paper An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases, which introduces the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) Model. In 1993 he pub. the book Reflections on the Economics of Climate Change. On Oct. 4, 1994 he pub. the book Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, which makes him a global warming/climate change star. On Aug. 11, 2003 he pub. the book Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, describing his DICE-99 (Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) and RICE-99 (Regional Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) models of the economics of climate change. On June 24, 2008 he pub. the book A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, which becomes a std. work. On Nov. 26, 2013 he edits the book Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change (Resources for the Future). In Nov. 2013 he pub. the book The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World, calling coal the #1 cause of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), calling for a $40/ton carbon tax (which would result in 3.5C global warming?). On June 16, 2017 he pub. an article in the book Global Carbon Pricing: The Path to Climate Cooperation. In 2018 he is awarded the 2018 Nobel Econ. Prize for "integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis".

Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber (1950-)

In 1992 the Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (PIK) is founded by the German govt. and German physicist Hans-Joachim "John" Schelnhuber (1950-), an expert on climatological tipping points, who becomes dir. in 1993, going on to propose the 2C guardrail for global warming in 1995 and grow PIK to one of the world's top climate research institutes (300+ employees) before moving to the Tyndall Centre in 2001-5 and returning to the U. of Potsdam in time to see his Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) be jointly awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. On Mar. 15, 2017 pub. an interview with "Father of the 2C Limit" Schellnhuber, in which he "urges scientists to come out of their ivory towers to fight climate denial", adding: "We are at the crossroads now... We will end up with a planet warming by 4, 5, 6 or even 12 deg C. It would be the end of the world as we know it." On Aug. 19, 2018 the German online newspaper Augsburger Allgemeinen pub. an interview with Schellnhuber, in which he utters the soundbyte: "On Earth, ice ages and warm periods have alternated for millions of years. We have shown in studies that the industrial society, with its historic greenhouse gas emissions, has already interrupted this cycle and there will probably never be another ice age. So my colleagues and I brought up the question: Can our climate system be stabilized in the currently prevailing warm period state, or are we putting planetary processes in motion that are driving us into a hot period? The difference is, roughly speaking, the continued existence of civilization as we know it. With a long-term increase in temperature of five or six degrees and a sea level of around 60 meters, it will not be possible maintain it", receiving criticism from climate skeptics for his cluelessness.

In 1992 English climate scientist Chris Folland (1944-) of the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre utters the soundbyte about the 1990 IPCC Report: "The data doesn't matter. We're not basing our recommendations on the data. We're basing them on the climate models"; in 2014 after the quote is spread over the Internet by climate warming skeptics, he confirms it but claims that since 1995 the data began coming in and the models are no longer as important.

In 1992 the documentary film The Greening of Planet Earth: The Effects of Carbon Dioxide on the Biosphere is released, produced by the Greening Earth Society (Inst. for Biospheric Research), a front for the Western Fuels Assoc., and narrated by Sherwood Idso, praising rising CO2 levels as beneficial to agriculture and life itself while and knocking govt. policies designed to lower them, becoming popular with the George H.W. Bush admin. esp. chief of staff John H. Sununu; in 1998 the sequel "The Greening of Planet Earth Continues" is released. Watch Pt. 1. Watch Pt. 2.

In early Mar. 1993 the U.S. East Coast is smothered in a superstorm affecting 26 states and killing 270.

In 1993 the multinat. Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), led by Indian scientist Veerabhadran Ramanathan discovers anthropogenic atmospheric brown clouds covering the Indian Ocean, finding that they cause surface cooling that masks as much as 50% of the surface heating caused by CO2 and reduce precipitation during the Indian monsoon.

William 'Will' Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-)

In 1993 Princeton U. physicist William "Will" Happer (1939-), dir. of energy research at the U.S. Dept. of Energy testifies before Congress that the scientific data doesn't support the hypothesis of anthropogenic global warming, pissing-off Al Gore, who gets him fired, after which in 2008 Happer utters the soundbyte: "I had the privilege of being fired by Al Gore, since I refused to go along with his alarmism. I did not need the job that badly"; on Feb. 25, 2009 he speaks to the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, uttering the soundbyte: "I believe that the increase of CO2 is not a cause for alarm and will be good for mankind. I predict that future historians will look back on this period much as we now view the period just before the passage of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution to prohibit 'the manufacturing, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors.' At the time, the 18th amendment seemed to be exactly the right thing to do – who wanted to be in league with demon rum? It was the 1917 version of saving the planet. More than half the states enacted prohibition laws before the 18th amendment was ratified. Only one state, Rhode Island, voted against the 18th amendment. Two states, Illinois and Indiana, never got around to voting and all the rest voted for it. There were many thoughtful people, including a majority of Rhode Islanders, who thought that prohibition might do more harm than good. But they were completely outmatched by the temperance movement, whose motives and methods had much in common with the movement to stop climate change. Deeply sincere people thought they were saving humanity from the evils of alcohol, just as many people now sincerely think they are saving humanity from the evils of CO2. Prohibition was a mistake, and our country has probably still not fully recovered from the damage it did. Institutions like organized crime got their start in that era. Drastic limitations on CO2 are likely to damage our country in analogous ways"; he goes on to declare that there is a CO2 drought. On Mar. 2, 2009 Happer pub. the article Global Warming in Perspective: A Note from William Happer, In June 2011 Happer pub. the paper The Truth About Greenhouse Gases, containing the soundbyte: "CO2 does indeed cause some warming of our planet, and we should thank Providence for that, because without the greenhouse warming of CO2 and its more potent partners, water vapor and clouds, the earth would be too cold to sustain its current abundance of life. Other things being equal, more CO2 will cause more warming. The question is how much warming, and whether the increased CO2 and the warming it causes will be good or bad for the planet." On May 8, 2013 Happer and former NASA astronaut (geologist) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.) (1977-83) Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (1935-) pub. the op-ed article In Defense of Carbon Dioxide in The Wall Street Journal, arguing that "the demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlations with global temperature", pissing-off the global warmists and causing the Columbia Journalism Review to call the article "shameful, even for the dismal standards" of the WSJ (journalism standards or scientific standards?); Happer later gives an interview claiming that "temperature always changes first, and CO2 follows", there has been no global temp increase since 1998, and "A thousand parts per million of CO2 would actually help the planet... If you look around the world, many greenhouse operators put several thousand parts per million into their greenhouses"; he later utters the soundbyte: "There's a whole area of climate so-called science that is really more like a cult... it's like Hare Krishna or something like that. They're glassy-eyed and they chant. It will potentially harm the image of all science"; in 2017 Happer meets with new Pres. Trump to discuss being appointed as his science adviser. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer.

In 1993 the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Research Station in Gakona, Alaska is established to develop ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance; conspiracy theorists claim that it can be used to modify weather and cause catastrophes incl. the 2010 Haiti Earthquake; in 2018 Indian environmental minister Anil Madhav Dave accuses the U.S. govt. of using it to cause global warming and reduce yields of major crops incl. wheat and maize.

In 1993 the InterAcademy Panel: The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP) is founded by 106+ nat. science academies to advise the public on scientific aspects of critical issues through its Gen. Council, which meets every 3rd year, going on to pub. official statements incl. pop. growth (1994), the future of cities (1996), sustainability (2000), human cloning (2003), access to scientific info. (2003), biosecurity (2005), the teaching of evolution (2006), ocean acidification (2009), tropical forests and climate change (2009), and the IPCC (2010); in 2002 it founds the InterAcademy Council (IAC).

David Bellamy (1933-) George Monbiot (1963-)

In 1994 English King's College London physical chemist Jack Barrett pub. an article in New Scientist claiming that the lowest 30m of the troposphere already contains all the CO2 necessary to absorb all the radiation reflected and emitted back by the earth's surface at most infrared wavelengths, except for the "window" between 7.5 and 14 micrometres, through which radiation escapes back into space, that fossil fuel burning can only result in an increase of CO2 levels to 1400 ppm, and that the most likely consequence would be flourishing vegegation not runaway global warming. In July 1990 Barrett pub. the article Grave Discrepancies Between Theory and Experiment, containing the soundbyte: "There is still argument about the magnitude of the climate sensitivity and the impossibility of doubling the carbon dioxide level." On May 2, 2007 Barrett and English U. of Nottingham botanist-environmentalist David James Bellamy (1933-) pub. the paper Climate stability: an inconvenient proof in Civil Engineering, claiming to prove that even if atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles in the next decade, it "will amount to less than 1°C of global warming". In Jan. 2005 Bellamy utters the soundbyte: "Global warming is a largely natural phenomenon. The world is wasting stupendous amounts of money on trying to fix something that can't be fixed"; On June 24, 2007 Bellamy pub. the article The Global Warming Myth, containing the soundbyte: "I don't like being called a denier because deniers don't believe in facts. There are no facts linking the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide with imminent catastrophic global warming, there are only predictions based on complex computer models"; on Nov. 19, 2009 The Telegraph quotes him as uttering the soundbyte: "I'm sceptical about man-made climate change. There's absolutely no proof that carbon dioxide will kill us all. It's not a poison, it's the most important gas in the world. Carbon dioxide is an airborne fertiliser. How can farmers grow increasing amounts of food without a rise in CO2?" Too bad, he pub. a letter in New Scientist on Apr. 16, 2005 suggesting that 555 of 625 world glaciers are growing, causing English activist environmentalist George Joshua Richard Monbiot (1963-) to call him on it in a May 10 article titled Junk Science, after which he backs down and "decided to draw back from the debate on global warming", threatening his position as pres. of Plantlife Internat. and the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts; on Nov. 18, 2014 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Growth: the destructive god that can never be appeased in The Guardian; on Oct. 20, 2017 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown in The Guardian; on Oct. 27, 2017 Monbiot gives an interview to Novara Media, containing the soundbyte: "The political system is completely out of phase with the environmental crisis", proposing the term "climate breakdown" to replace "climate change"; on Dec. 11, 2007 he pub. the op-ed Mass starvation is humanity's fate if we keep flogging the land to death in The Guardian, with the subtitle: "The Earth cannot accomodate our need and greed for food. We must change our diet before it's too late", concluding: "There are no easy answers, but the crucial change is a shift from an animal- to a plant-based diet"; on Sept. 26, 2018 he pub. the op-ed While economic growth continues we'll never kick our fossil fuels habit in The Guardian; on Oct. 8, 2018 Monbiot tweets the soundbyte: "But deeper than any of this are the stories we tell ourselves: that progress means growth means wellbeing. What #climatebreakdown and the rest of the environmental crisis reveal is that perpetual growth is the greatest threat to our wellbeing." Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy and George Monbiot.

Kerry Emanuel (1955-)

In 1994 MIT meteorologist Kerry Andrew Emanuel (1955-), known for his novel method of computer modeling that did a reasonable job of simulating past hurricane fluctuations proposes the hypercane, a superpowerful hurricane that could form if the avg. sea temp increases another 15C, making him a rising star among global warming scientists. In Aug. 2005 he pub. a paper in Nature finding that cyclones have become more destructive over the past 30 years, with long-lived and more intense storms; in early Sept. he follows with another paper in Nature that concludes that modern cyclones are stronger but less common than 35 years ago, which, combined with Hurricane Katrina in Aug. 2005 make him a superstar. In May 2008 he pub. the paper The Hurricane-Climate Connection in Bulletin of the Am. Meteorological Society, predicting that global warming is likely to increase the intensity but reduce the frequency of hurrricane and cyclone activity, with the soundbyte: "The weight of available evidence suggests that multidecadal variability of hurricane season tropical Atlantic SST and Northern Hemispheric surface temperature... is controlled mostly by time-varying radiative forcing owing to solar variability, major volcanic eruptions, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases, though the response to this forcing may be modulated by natural modes of variability", making him a bigger star, after which his co-author Gabriel Vecchi of NOAA utters the soundbyte: "While his results don't rule out the possibility that global warming has contributed to the recent increase in activity in the Atlantic, they suggest that other factors - possibly in addition to global warming - are likely to have been substantial contributors to the observed increase in activity." In Nov., 2013 he co-authors an open letter with James Hansen, Tom Wigley, and Ken Caldeira, stating that "continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity's ability to avoid dangerous climate change." "The hurricanes are following the tropical ocean temperature.... [which] is following the Northern Hemisphere. And it's very hard now to believe that there's anything natural about that." (Emanuel) Watch video - James Hansen, Tom Wigley, Kerry Emanuel, Ken Caldeira.

In 1994 M.E. Schlesinger and Navin Ramankutty pub. the paper An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years in Nature, identifying the Atlantic Multidecal Oscillation (AMO), irregular cyclical temperature changes in the Atlantic, which are used by climate skeptics to explain away any greenhouse gas effect.


On Jan. 1, 1995 a 61-ft.-high Draupner Wave (rogue wave) is observed via satellite in the Bermuda Triangle, supposedly solving the mystery; in Feb. a pair of rogue waves up to 95 ft. high hit the Queen Elizabeth II, injuring 50 passengers.

David Deming (1954-) David John Karoly (1955-)

On June 16, 1995 Terre Haute, Ind.-born U. of Okla. geophysicist David Deming (1954-) pub. a paper in Science reviewing published analysis of borehole temperature data in North Am., concluding: "The magnitude of the observed warming... is still within the range of estimated natural variability... A cause and effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and climatic warming cannot be demonstrated unambiguously at the present time", pissing-off global warmists; in 1998 he adds that worldwide borehole temperature records are not anomalously warm "when compared to the period of time over which human civilization rose, present day temperatures are colder than average. Even if mean global temperature were to rise another degree, it would still be colder than it has been for much of the last 10,000 years." In Mar. 2005 he pub. an op-ed in Investor's Business Daily, comparing Naomi Oreskes' claim of 100% scientific consensus on global warming "to the October 2002 election in Iraq, where Saddam Hussein received 100% of the vote", dissing a Dec. 26, 2004 op-ed by Oreskes in the Washington Post in which she wrote the soundbyte "We need to stop repeating nonsense about the uncertainty of global warming" and ending with a quotation from Francis Bacon: "If we begin in certainty, we will end in doubts." On Dec. 6, 2006 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, with the soundbyte: "The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause - human or natural - is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria." On Mar. 1, 2007 Deming debates Australian-born U. of Okla. meteorology prof. David John Karoly (1955-), uttering the soundbyte: "[S]ome people want to enlist science in a moral crusade. Science is a disinterested search for truth... Global warming is a scientific question, not a moral one... The projection that the temperatures are becoming warmer is nothing more than speculation." On Dec. 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Washington Times titled "Year of Global Cooling", containing the soundbyte: "In 2007, hundreds of people died, not from global warming, but from cold weather hazards", adding that "The mean planetary temperature hasn't increased significantly for nearly nine years", and concluding that "Global warming has long since passed from scientific hypothesis to pseudo-scientific mumbo-jumbo."

On July 12-16, 1995 the 1995 Chicago, Ill. Heat Wave peaks, with a high of 106F (41C) on July 13 (warmest since 100F/43C on July 23, 1934), causing 739 deaths, mostly elderly who can't afford air conditioning; additional deaths occur in St. Louis, Mo. and Milwaukee, Wisc.

'Waterworld', 1995

On July 28, 1995 Kevin Reynolds' Waterworld (Universal Pictures) ("A man with a serious drinking problem") debuts, gobbling up $172M in production and causing star Costly Kevin, er, Kevin Costner to call in his chips, becoming known as Fishtar and Kevin's Gate; stars Costner as man-fish Mariner, who helps the good human survivors of global flooding, esp. his babe Jeanne Tripplehorn look for Dryland while fighting Dennis Hopper's mean Smokers on a floating set anchored off Hawaii that is once lost during a tropical storm; does $264.2M box office; it could be the best or the worst sci-flick yet made, wait till the secondary markets are milked?; view trailer.

Will Alexander (1924-)

In Aug. 1995 South African U. of Pretoria U.N. scientist William John Richard "W.J.R." "Will" Alexander (1924-) pub. the peer-reviewed article Floods, droughts and climate change in South Africa Journal of Science; in Jan. 2004 he pub. the article Climate Change - There is no Need for Concern in The Water Wheel, concluding: "The general conclusion, therefore, is that global warming has not caused any environmental damage in South Africa in the past, and that future increases in global warming are more likely"; on Mar. 1, 2005 he pub. the peer-reviewed article Linkages Between Solar Activity and Climatic Responses in Energy & Environment, claiming that "statistically significant 21-year periodicity is present concurrently in South African annual rainfall, river flow, flood peak maxima, groundwater levels, lake levels and the Southern Oscillation Index. This is directly related to the double sunspot cycle. The first years of the periodic sequences are characterised by sudden, regular and therefore predictable, reversals from sequences of well below average rainfall and river flow (droughts) that are suddenly broken by sequences of well above average events (floods). These reversals are directly related to corresponding six-fold increases in sunspot activity at this time. The two sunspot cycles that comprise the double sunspot cycle also have fundamentally different effects on the hydrometeorological responses. These observations are solidly based and will require a re-assessment of the nature of the solar activity that gives rise to them"; in Feb. 2007 she pub. the peer-reviewed article Locally-Developed Climate Model Verified, describing his climate model for water resource development and mgt. based on a 21-year periodicity, pissing-off the PC global warmist scientists at the South African Nat. Biodiversity Inst., who claim it wasn't peer-reviewed to slam him; in June 2007 he co-authors the paper Linkages between solar activity, climate predictability and water resource development, in Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, detailing linkages between solar activity, climate predictability, and water resource development, with the soundbyte: "This study is based on the numerical analysis of the properties of routinely observed hydrometeorological data which in South Africa alone is collected at a rate of more than half a million station-days per year, with some records approaching 100 continuous years in length. The analysis of the data demonstrates an unequivocal synchronous linkage between these processes in South Africa and elsewhere, and solar activity. This confirms observations reported by others in many countries during the past 150 years. It is also shown with a high degree of assurance that there is a synchronous linkage between the statistically significant, 21-year periodicity in these processes and the acceleration and deceleration of the sun as it moves through galactic space. Despite a diligent search, no evidence could be found of trends in the data that could be attributed to human activities", which draws stony silence. In Dec. 2007 he pub. the article The IPCC: Structure, Processes and Politics Climate Change – the Failure of Science in Energy & Environment, containing the soundbyte: "The IPCC has been in existence for nearly 20 years but its final report is newhere in sight. The essence of the difficulty is the impossibility of applying process theory to a problem that can only be solved by applying observation theory. Nowhere in the world is process theory used to design systems and structures exposed to climatic extremes. If climate change scientists had applied well-established observation theory instead of abstract process theory, they would have studied the wealth of published climate-related data extending back for more than the past 100 years. They would have observed the unequivocal linkage between variations in solar activity and synchronous climatic responses. The nations of the world would not be in the position where they are debating the necessity for implementing costly, and in all likelihood fruitless, greenhouse gas emissions control measures based on seriously flawed science. These measures must inevitably damage their economies and the reputation of science as an honest profession." In June 2008 he pub. the article The likelihood of a global drought in 2009-2016 in Civil Engineering, which draws stony ditto at a summit on climate change in Midrand in early Mar. 2009, after which on Mar. 26, 2009 he pub. the article Climate change - the clash of theories, lamenting the closed minds of the U.N. climatologists, with the soundbyte: "The whole climate change issue is about to fall apart - Heads will roll." List of articles by Will Alexander.

Helmut Metzner (1925-99) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-)

On Nov. 9-10, 1995 a conference in Leipzig, Germany organized by German plant physiologist Helmut Metzner (1925-99) produces the Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change, written by Austrian-born Am. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) and his Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEP) (founded 1990) in Arlington, Va., and signed by 80 scientists and 25 TV meteorologists, opposing the claims of global warming; in 1997 it is updated to opppose the Kyoto Protocol after a conference on Nov. 10-11 in Bonn, Germany; in 2005 it is revised again; global warming advocates call it a disinfo. campaign.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Phil Jones (1952-), Ben Santer (1955-), and Tom Wigley (1940-)

On Nov. 27-29, 1995 the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is approved by the 5th session of IPCC Working Group I in Madrid, Spain, and pub. in 1996, dropping attempts at making forecasts, with the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide remains the most important contributor to anthropogenic forcing of climate change; projections of future global mean temperature change and sea level rise confirm the potential for human activities to alter the Earth's climate to an extent unprecedented in human history; and the long time-scales governing both the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the response of the climate system to those accumulations, means that many important aspects of climate change are effectively irreversible"; Working Group III pub. Summary for Policymakers, causing an uproar when it seems to put a money value on people, suggesting that people living in poor countries are worth less than people living in rich countries; meanwhile Am. scientist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) of the Mauna Loa Observatory reports that the annual spring-time carbon dioxide drop in the N Hemisphere is occurring earlier each year in response to increasing global CO2 levels, lengthening the overall growing season about 12 days in recent decades; by 2005 it is a full month; "I honestly believe that we are standing at the edge of a very, very large mass extinction, and top-of-mountain species are going to be the first ones to go." (Terry Root, Stanford U.); too bad, overzealous CRU scientist Benjamin David "Ben" Santer (1955-) is lead author of Chapter 8: "Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes", rewriting the conclusions of the other authors in their final draft meeting in Madrid, changing "None of the studies cited above has shown clear evidence that we can attribute the observed [climate] changes to the specific cause of increases in greenhouse gases" and "While some of the pattern-base discussed here have claimed detection of a significant climate change, no study to date has positively attributed all or part of climate change observed to man-made causes" to: "There is evidence of an emerging pattern of climate response to forcing by greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols... from the geographical, seasonal and vertical patterns of temperature change... These results point toward a human influence on global climate" and "The body of statistical evidence in chapter 8, when examined in the context of our physical understanding of the climate system, now points to a discernible human influence on the global climate", taking the IPCC report over the top with the public as proof of a scientific consensus about human-caused climate change after a quick peer-reviewed article is pub. in Nature on July 4, 1996 by Santer, Tom Wigley, Phil Jones et al. backing the report up, with Dennis Avery and Fred Singer issuing the soundbyte: "Santer single-handedly reversed the 'climate science' of the whole IPCC report and with it the global warming political process! The 'discernible human influence' supposedly revealed by the IPCC has been cited thousands of times since in media around the world and has been the 'stopper' in millions of debates among nonscientists"; after the Climategate scandal breaks, Santer sends an email threatening to beat the crap out of Pat Michaels for exposing the fraud in an article in Nature pub. on Dec. 12, 1996? On July 21, 2018 Santer et al. pub. an article in Science, dissing the U.S. Congress for failing to acknowledge human-caused global warming, and announcing that four decades of satellite data have led to the conclusion that for the first time humans are pushing seasonal temperatures out of balance, giving odds of "roughly 5 in 1 million" of it being purely natural. Watch video - Ben Santer. Watch video - Ben Santer.

Piers Corbyn (1947-)

In 1995 English weather-forecasting physicist Piers Richard Corbyn (1947-) founds WeatherAction to sell weather predictions based on his secret Solar Weather Technique which considers past weather patterns and solar observations, and Sun-Earth magnetic connectivity; in 1990 his successful prediction of severe weather makes him a star when it becomes a year of "the worst extremes"; he goes on to deny anthropogenic global warming, with the soundbytes: "CO2 has never driven, does not drive and never will drive weather or climate. Global warming is over and it never was anything to do with CO2. CO2 is still rising but the world is now cooling and will continue to do so", "Climate change is a hoax by gravy-train scientists", "Superfloods, hellish heat is normal, sellout science is not", and "The global warming nonsense will collapse." Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn.

Jonathan Patz

On Jan. 17, 1996 Am. physician Jonathan Patz pub. the paper Global Climate Change and Emerging Infectious Disease in the Journal of the Am. Medical Assoc., becoming the first climate policy paper of the Am. Public Health Assoc. (APHA), going on to become a global warming star salesman, scaring people with stories of stranded polar bears, thriving poison ivy, yellow fever, Zika virus, sewer overflow et al., all the while pushing American guilt and confusing global warming with air pollution?; he goes on to claim that the health benefit for each ton of CO2 eliminated is $200, vs. $30/ton for doing it; on Oct. 2, 2017 he gives a lecture at Colo. State U. in Fort Collins titled Solving the Global Climate Crisis Will Be the Health Cure of the Century. Watch video - Jonathan Patz. Watch video - Jonathan Patz.

Murry Salby (1951-)

On May 23, 1996 U. of Colo. atmospheric scientist Murry Lewis Salby (1951-) pub. the textbook Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, followed in 2011 by Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate, questioning anthropogenic climate change, with the soundbyte: "Because of the saturation effect in the energy absorption of CO2 molecules with increasing concentration and short residence time, the further increase in temperature could be therefore only at most a few tenths of a degree, if at all. However, the known fossil reserves would be exhausted by then"; too bad, in 20015 after his findings cast doubt on the U.N. IPCC global warming bureacracy, the Nat. Science Foundation begins framing, er, investigating him for funding irregularities, causing him to resign in 2008 and move to Macquarie U., only to be fired in 2013 after hosting the conference Global Emission of Carbon Dioxide: The Contribution from Natural Sources at the Sydney Inst. on Aug. 2, 2011. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby.

In Dec. 1996 the 1996 El Nino develops (ends Aug. 1997), bringing unusually warm (4C) water to the South Am. coastline.

Thomas Sowell (1930-)

In 1996 Gastonia, N.C.-born African-Am. economist Thomas Sowell (1930-) pub. the book The Vision of the Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy, about how liberals try to build utopias and block evidence of failure to keep expanding, resorting to ridicule and shaming of conservative critics warning of serious side effects instead of logical argument; the anointed U.N.-backed global climate clique is a case in point? On Jan. 5, 2010 Sowell pub. the book Intellectuals and Society, expounding on "the fatal misstep of intellectuals", viz., their assumption that superior ability within some superspecialist subject gives them superior wisdom and morality in everything, causing these "idea workers" to manufacture public demand for more of themselves by making alarming predictions about economics, nat. defense, and the environment incl. climate change, ending up exercising profound influence on public opinion and policy makers even though they are not only regularly wrong but personally unaccountable for the results, using their "undue influence" and "vulgar pride" to cause disaster for societies. On Apr. 1, 2010 he pub. the article Don't use word 'science' to halt global warming debate in Deseret News, with the soundbytes: "Nothing is easier than coming up with computer models that prove almost anything. Back during the 1970s, there were computer models predicting mass starvation and global cooling. The utter failure of those predictions ought to make us at least skeptical of computer models, especially computer models based on data that advocates want to keep from public view or even 'lose' when investigators start closing in"; "On climate issues, as on many other issues, the biggest argument of the left has been that there is no argument. The word 'science' has been used as a magic mantra to shut up critics, even when those critics have been scientists with international reputations as specialists in climate science"; "Stealing the aura of science for political purposes is nothing new for the left. Karl Marx called his brand of Utopianism 'scientific socialism.' Even earlier, in the 18th century, the Marquis de Condorcet referred to 'engineering' society. In the 20th century, H.G. Wells referred to the creation of a lasting peace as a heavy and complex 'piece of mental engineering'"; "Genuine science is the opposite of dogmatism, but that does not keep dogmatists from invoking the name of science in order to shut off debate. Science is a method of analysis, rather than simply a set of conclusions. In fact, much of the history of science is a history of having to abandon the prevailing conclusions among scientists in light of new evidence or new methods of analysis"; "Educators who turn schools into indoctrination centers have been going all out to propagandize a whole generation with Al Gore's movie, 'An Inconvenient Truth' - which has, in fact, carried a message that has been very convenient for Gore financially, producing millions of dollars from his 'green' activities." Watch video - Thomas Sowell on Al Gore. Watch video - Thomas Sowell.

William Sebastian Cohen of the U.S. (1940-)

On Apr. 28, 1997 U.S. defense secy. #20 (1997-2001) William Sebastian Cohen (1940-) utters the soundbyte: "Others, terrorists are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations. It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our counter-terrorism efforts."

In Apr.-May 1997 after extreme temperatures and abundant snowfall, the 1997 Red River Flood of the Red River of the North in Minn., N.D., and S Manitoba causes $3.5B damage and no deaths, becoming the river's most severe flood since 1826.

Arthur B. Robinson (1942-) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008)

On Dec. 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol is signed by 192 parties incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the U.S., effective Feb. 16, 2005, extending the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commiting all parties to reduce greenhouse emissions esp. CO2; the Oregon Petition (Global Warming Petition Project), organized by Chicago, Ill.-born biochemist Arthur Brouhard "Art" Robinson (1942-), pres. of the Ore. Inst. of Science and Medicine in Cave Junction, Ore. (founded in 1980) and endorsed by Frederick Seitz (1911-2008), pres. #17 of the U.S. Nat Academy of Sciences in 1962-9 has 31K degreed signatories incl. 39 climatologists, urging the U.S. to reject the Kyoto Protocol, with the soundbytes: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth"; "The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind."

Jeremy Grantham (1938-)

In 1997 billionaire British investor Robert Jeremy Goltho Grantham (1938-), founder of Grantham, Mayo & van Otterloo (GMO) establishes the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, giving money to entities that protect the environment; in 2017 he launches the GMO Climate Change Fund to invest in wind and solar cos.; Grantham goes on to correctly predict the bursting of the bubble in 2000 and the market downturn in 2008 while seeing his assets under mgt. drop $124B in June 2014 to $71B in Mar. 2018; no surprise, on June 12, 2018 he gives a speech at the Morningstar Investment Conference in Chicago, Ill. calling on capitalists and mainstream economists to recognize the looming threat of climate change, with the soundbyte: "We deforest the land, we degrade our soils, we pollute and overuse our water and we treat air like an open sewer, and we do it all off the balance sheet", blaming corps. for short-sightedness, with the soundbytes: "Anything that happens to a corporation over 25 years out doesn't exist for them, therefore, as I like to say, grandchildren have no value", and "Capitalism and mainstream economics simply cannot deal with these problems. Mainstream economics largely ignore them"; in Aug. 2018 he pub. the paper The Race of Our Lives Revisited, which contains the ridiculous alarmist soundbyte: "The number of floods is up by 15 times from 1950, the deaths from droughts up by 10 times, wildfires by 7 times, and extreme temperature events by 20 times." Watch video - Jeremy Grantham.


1998 is the warmest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, with an avg. temp. for the first 10 mo. of 1.25 deg. F above normal, according to NASA, blamed on the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (Niño) (warmer water than usual), which formed in the C and E equatorial Pacific in the first half of the year, disrupting worldwide weather patterns and feeding Millennium Fever with wildfires in Indonesia, Brazil, and Central Am., crop losses in SE Africa, record rains in the S U.S., the warmest spring in Canadian records, and the worst natural diaster in Latin Am. records (Hurricane Mitch); Jan.-Feb. are the warmest and wettest in U.S. records; the global avg. temp. this year is 14.57 C, compared to 14.0 C avg. from 1960-90; high sea temps cause massive coral bleaching in the Seychelles, Maldives and W Australian coral reefs, although coral bleaching has been happening for 400 years, and was far worse in the 1750s and 1890s? In 1998 (hockey stick year) the Global Warming Pause (Hiatus) (Slowdown) begins (ends 2013), causing global warming proponents to do somersaults until NOAA scientists Thomas R. Karl et al. pub. the article Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus in Science on June 4, 2015, claiming that the hiatus disappears after the datasets are "adjusted", which doesn't phase climate deniers, who claim it as more evidence of a govt. conspiracy. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - The Corbett Report. Watch video - ABC Science. Watch video - Robert Fanney. Watch video. Watch video - Jay Lawrimore. Watch video. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Jan. 4-10, 1998 after a low pressure system stalls over the Great Lakes, pumping warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the St. Lawrence Valley, the Great North Am. Ice Storm of 1998 sees five successive ice storm hit a narrow swath of land from E Ontario to S Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, bordering U.S. areas from N New York to C Maine, damaging trees and electrical infrastructures, leading to long-term power outages that affect millions, causing the largest deployment of Canadian military personnel since the Korean War (16K incl. 12K in Quebec and 4K in Ontario).

On Feb. 13, 1998 (Fri.) BBC News pub. the article Scientists blame sun for global warming, about a meeting of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science in Philly where climatologists and astronomers attribute global warming to changes in sunspot activity rather than CO2, and speculate on a coming mini ice age.

Rod Serling on Climate Change Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Willie Soon (1966-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-) Chris de Freitas (1948-2017)

Man-made global warming or Mann-made global warming? On Apr. 23, 1998 Am. climatologists Michael Evan Mann (1965-) (Penn. State U.), Raymond S. "Ray" Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes pub. the article Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries in Nature, proposing the Hockey Stick Graph based on reconstructions of the temp record on Earth over the past 600 (later 1K years), showing an abrupt rise in temps over the last 150 years, ramping up the Global Warming Controversy over whether there is a coming runaway heat wave; his graph hides the Medieval Warm Period of 950-1250?; on Jan. 31, 2003 fossil fuel industry-funded Malaysian-born Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (1966-) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years in Climate Research, blasting Mann's hockey stick, with the soundbytes: "Our results suggest a different interpretation of the multiproxy climates compared to recent conclusions of Mann et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)", "Our current lack of understanding of the Earth's climate system does not allow us to determine reliably the magnitude of climate change that will be caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, let alone whether this change will be for better or for worse", and "Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest or a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which is quickly adopted by the Pres. G.W. Bush admin. as a basis for amending the first EPA Report on the Environment, causing a firestorm of controversy causing 10 of 20 editors to resign and German-born publisher Otto Kinne (1923-2015) to cut the authors loose and blame the ed. who passed the paper, Trinidad and Tobago-born Kiwi climate scientist Christopher Rhodes "Chris" de Freitas (1948-2017), who on May 9, 2006 pub. an article in the New Zealand Herald with the soundbyte: "There is evidence of global warming. The climate has warmed about 0.6 °C in the past 100 years, but most of that warming occurred prior to 1940, before the post World War II industrialisation that led to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions. But warming does not confirm that carbon dioxide is causing it. Climate is always warming or cooling. There are natural variability theories of warming"; he also writes the soundbytes: "I am not a global warming skeptic. I accept that rising human-caused CO2 from fossil sources could 'change the climate'. The basic physics is there to support this view. But where is the evidence that the putative change would be large or damaging?" and "Climate is not responding to greenhouse gases in the way we thought it might. If increasing carbon dioxide is in fact increasing climate change, its impact is smaller than natural variation. People are being misled by people making money out of this"; on June 5, 2001 Baliunas pub. the paper Climate History and the Sun, containing the soundbyte: "But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case … measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident." On May 9, 2003 she speaks out against U.K. climate change policy, with the soundbyte: "Fear often dominates discussion about the earth's climate. Many people have been led to believe that drastic measures are necessary to prevent the risk of negative future outcomes, such as global warming. As such, we now face a situation where politicians are misallocating resources because they are responding to manufactured problems, which are based on public anxiety rather than sound scientific evidence. Ineffective measures like the Kyoto Protocol, built on fear rather than science, will not reduce the future burden of greenhouse gases and will cause many more problems than they solve." On Nov. 14, 2011 Baliunas pub. the press release Human Activity is Not Cause of Global Warming via the George C. Marshall Inst., containing the soundbyte: "The science does not suggest dangerous global warming. If there is any trace at all of a greenhouse warming, it is too small to be seen in the climate record. That means that future warming due to human activities will be quite small - well under one degree C." On Feb. 25, 2015 after Soon is named a creditor in bankruptcy filings of Peabody Energy, Canadian mathematician Christopher Essex pub. the article Save Willie: The global warming movement is anti-science, oblivious to how little we know about climate in the Financial Post, calling out the "fascistic" media for "silly hit pieces" on Soon, with the soundbyte: "Those that speak out must endure vexatious, eristic tactics rather than scientific reasoning in matters from publication, to funding, to jobs. For example, my friend Dr. Willie Soon is under assault from activist groups. An army of human bots has been released to get him fired from Harvard's Center for Astrophysics. He's shared scientist's skepticism publicly. Betraying acute ignorance, media pound him with silly hit pieces. Some perpetrators believe they fight for science, but they could not be more antiscientific, if not fascistic. If there'’s any chance at a rational policy on climate, two things must happen. First, intelligent laymen must take back the debate, by pushing currently out-of-bounds science back onto center stage. They must stop letting 'experts' do their thinking for them. Second, political attacks on scientists must be stopped. Those must be pushed out of bounds. Let's begin by saving Willie!" On Sept. 27, 2016 Mann pub. The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial Is Threatening Our Planet, Destroying Our Politics, and Driving Us Crazy. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann et al.. Watch video - Sally Baliunas. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Christine Stewart of Canada (1941-2015)

In Dec. 1998 Christine Susan Stewart (1941-2015), Canadian Liberal Party minister of the environment utters the soundbyte to the Calgary Herald: "No matter if the science of global warming is all phony... climate change provides the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world."

In 1998 the Global Climate Science Communications Plan is created by the Global Climate Science Communications Team to create a "one-stop resource on climate science for members of Congress, the media, industry and all others concerned", combined with a public relations and lobbying campaign funded with $600K from the Am. Petroleum Inst., known for the soundbyte: "Victory will be achieved when... Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'", later being accused of deliberately trying to confuse the public.

Bjørn Lomborg (1965-)

In 1998 Danish environmentalist Bjorn (Bjørn) Lomborg (1965-) pub. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (English trans. pub. in 2001), questioning the statistical data supporting global warming claims along with deforestation, water shortages, overpop. and species loss, and questioning the wisdom of govt. policies incl. the Paris Accord, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is by no means our main environmental threat", causing a firestorm of controversy. In 2006 he pub. the book How the Spend $75 Billion to Make the World a Better Place. On Feb. 11, 2015 Lomborg pub. the article The Alarming Thing About Climate Alarmism in The Wall Street Journal, claiming that climate change alarmists are like the boy that cried wolf, with the soundbyte: "Much of the data about climate change are encouraging", causing an outcry by scientists. On Aug. 31, 2018 Lomborg pub. the article The world gets better every day in the Mail & Guardian of Africa. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Lenoir, N.C.-born Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) (co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Chem. Prize) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, in which he disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money. Watch video - Kary Mullis.

Craig D. Idso Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1998 after getting pissed-off when his global warming skeptic physicist father Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) is attacked by U.S. senator Al Gore in an attempt to discredit him, Ariz. State U. geographer Craig D. Idso, his father, and his brother Keith E. Idso (botanist) found the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change in Tempe, Ariz., promoting the idea that carbon dioxide (CO2) has mostly positive environmental effects; no surprise, climate warmists later find out that he was receiving $11K/mo. from the Heatland, er, Heartland Inst. in 2012, using it to give the finger to all his scientific arguments without detailed scientific analysis Marxist style; famed agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer joins. On Feb. 24, 2009 Craig Idso pub. CO2, Global Warming and Coral Reefs. On June 1, 2009 Craig Idso and S. Fred Singer pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: The Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), released on conjunction with the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change, claiming to refute the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. On Jan. 31, 2011 Craig and Sherwood Idso pub. Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path, which concludes: "Why would anyone in their right mind give the governments of the world a mandate to totally restructure human society to fight a hypothetical problem of vastly greater complexity than the very real and clearly-identified problems we currently face? Why should we not rather confront these genuine energy and health threats with all due haste and with every modern tool we have at our disposal?" On Sept. 1, 2011 Craig Idso and Robert M. Carter pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report on the Nongovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In 2015 Craig Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer pub. Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming: Second Edition: The NIPCC Report on Scientific Consensus (2nd ed. May 9, 2018), containing the soundbyte: "Probably the most widely repeated claim in the debate over global warming is that '97% of scientists agree' that climate change is man-made and dangerous. This claim is not only false, but its presence in the debate is an insult to science"; Watch video - Craig D. Idso. Watch video - Sherwood B. Idso.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Nobel-Prize-winning Lenoir, N.C.-born biochemist Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, which disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.


Vostok Ice Core Data Euan Mearns (1957-) Joanne Nova Jeremy D. Shakun U.S. Postal Charges Drive Global Warming - Joanne Nova

On June 3, 1999 J.R. Petit, J. Jouzel., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius et al. pub. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica in Nature, becoming the first significant examination of the long-term Antarctic ice core record, with the soundbyte: "Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years"; too bad, a graph supplied with the article upsets IPCC's CO2-driven temperature apple cart, with Scottish geologist Euan Mearns (1957-) writing the soundbyte: "In their seminal paper on the Vostok Ice Core, Petit et al. (1999) note that CO2 lags temperature during the onset of glaciations by several thousand years but offer no explanation. They also observe that CH4 and CO2 are not perfectly aligned with each other but offer no explanation. The significance of these observations are therefore ignored. At the onset of glaciations temperature drops to glacial values before CO2 begins to fall suggesting that CO2 has little influence on temperature modulation at these times"; on Aug. 10, 2007 Lorius et al. pub. the article Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years in Science, with the soundbyte: "Our [East Antarctica, Dome C] ice core shows no indication that greenhouse gases have played a key role in such a coupling [with radiative forcing]"; too bad, the IPCC crowd studiously ignores these results while working overtime to generate alternative explanations, always including climate models that have atmospheric CO2 capturing heat from the surface and sending it back down. In Oct. 2008 Australian science writer Joanne Nova (nee Codling) pub. the article The 800 year lag in CO2 after temperature – graphed, with the subtitle "Carbon dioxide follows temperature in the Vostok Ice Cores", and the soundbytes: "In the 1990's the classic Vostok ice core graph showed temperature and carbon in lock step moving at the same time. It made sense to worry that carbon dioxide did influence temperature. But by 2003 new data came in and it was clear that carbon lagged behind temperature. The link was back to front. Temperatures appear to control carbon, and while it's possible that carbon also influences temperature these ice cores don't show much evidence of that. After temperatures rise, on average it takes 800 years before carbon starts to move. The extraordinary thing is that the lag is well accepted by climatologists, yet virtually unknown outside these circles. The fact that temperature leads is not controversial. Its relevance is debated." "The bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise. Carbon may still influence temperatures, but these ice cores are neutral on that. If both factors caused each other to rise significantly, positive feedback would become exponential. We'd see a runaway greenhouse effect. It hasn't happened. Some other factor is more important than carbon dioxide, or carbon's role is minor." She also utters the soundbytes: "Anything that heats the planet will melt ice, shift Lemurs and cause droughts. None of these things tell us why the planet got warmer"; "In the head-spinning cosmos of climate change, everyday hundreds of people claim there are 'thousands of papers' in support of a theory, yet no one can actually name one single paper with empirical evidence that shows carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of global warming"; "Let the historic dissection begin. Man-made global warming is a dying market and a zombie science"; "Everything on our dinner table - the meat, cheese, salad, bread, and soft drink - requires carbon dioxide to be there. For those of you who believe that carbon dioxide is a pollutant, we have a special diet: water and salt!" In 2009 she pub. The Skeptic's Handbook, followed by Global Bullies Want Your Money (2009), and Climate Money. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. On Apr. 5, 2012 paleoclimatologist Jeremy D. Shakun of Boston College et al. pub. the article Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation in Nature mag., criticizing the Vostok data as local not global, claiming to "construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO2 during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation... These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO2 concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age." Watch video - Tony Heller on potholer54. Watch video - Reply to Tony Heller by potholer54. Watch video - Reply to potholer54 by Tony Heller. Watch video - 2nd Reply to Tony Holler by potholer54.

On Aug. 25, 1999 Mount Baker, Wash. reports 1,140 in. of snowfall for the 1998-9 season, becoming the most snowfall for a single season in U.S. history (until ?); in 1971 it received 1,122 in.

David Evans (1961-

In 1999 Australian mathematician-engineer David Evans (1961-) (husband of Joanne Nova) begins working in the Australian Greenhouse Office (until 2005) to develop FullCam, a fully integrated carbon accounting model for thie Australian govt.; he goes on to utter the soundbyte: "The greenhouse signature is missing. We have been looking and measuring for years, and cannot find it. Each possible cause of global warming has a different pattern of where in the planet the warming occurs first and the most. The signature of an increased greenhouse effect is a hot spot about 10km up in the atmosphere over the tropics. We have been measuring the atmosphere for decades using radiosondes: weather balloons with thermometers that radio back the temperature as the balloon ascends through the atmosphere. They show no hot spot. Whatsoever. If there is no hot spot then an increased greenhouse effect is not the cause of global warming. So we know for sure that carbon emissions are not a significant cause of the global warming. If we had found the greenhouse signature then I would be an alarmist again"; he also utters the soundbyte: "There is no evidence to support the idea that carbon emissions cause significant global warming. None. There is plenty of evidence that global warming has occurred, and theory suggests that carbon emissions should raise temperatures (though by how much is hotly disputed) but there are no observations by anyone that implicate carbon emissions as a significant cause of the recent global warming"; Evans' views piss-off the pro-AGW scientists, who pub. rebuttals.

Robert W. Felix

In 1999 Am. former architect Robert W. Felix pub. Not by Fire but by Ice: Discover What Killed the Dinosaurs...and Why It Could Soon Kill Us, predicting a coming ice age after a reversal of the magnetic poles.

David Dunning (1960-) and Justin Kruger (1971-)

In 1999 Am. social psychologists David Dunning (1960-) and Justin Kruger (1971-) pub. the paper Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, describing the Dunning-Kruger Effect, with the soundbyte: "People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it." Guess who each side of the great climate debate blame for being unskilled?


In 2000 the Earth enters the Anthropocene epoch of geological history, the first period of geological time shaped by a single species, characterized by the 6th largest mass extinction in Earth's history?

In 2000 the Earth's spin abruptly turns E and speeds up 2x to 17cm (17 in.) a year, moving toward the British Isles instead of Hudson Bay; in 2016 it is traced to lost water in Eurasia from climate change.

In 2000 U.S. utilities begin a new push to build coal-fired electric power plants, with 150 projects under planning or construction by spring 2007; meanwhile the U.N. IPCC-led global warming lobby plots the total shutdown of all plants around the world.

D. James Baker (1937-) Robert E. Stevenson (1921-2001)

On Mar. 24, 2000 Long Beach, Calif.-born oceanographer Donald "D." James Baker (1937-) of NOAA announces that since the late 1940s there "has been warming to a depth of nearly 10,000 feet in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In each ocean basin, substantial temperature changes are occurring at much deeper depths than we previously thought", according to research conducted at NOAA's Ocean Climate Laboratory; the same day Sydney Levitus, John L. Antonov, Timothy P. Boyer, and Cathy Stephens of NOAA pub. the paper Warming of the World Ocean in Science mag. giving the details, with the soundbyte: "We quantify the interannual-to-decadal variability of the heat content (mean temperature) of the world ocean from the surface through 3000-meter depth for the period 1948 to 1998. The heat content of the world ocean increased by ~2 × 1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s, representing a volume mean warming of 0.06°C. This corresponds to a warming rate of 0.3 watt per meter squared (per unit area of Earth's surface). Substantial changes in heat content occurred in the 300- to 1000-meter layers of each ocean and in depths greater than 1000 meters of the North Atlantic. The global volume mean temperature increase for the 0- to 300-meter layer was 0.31°C, corresponding to an increase in heat content for this layer of ~1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s. The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have undergone a net warming since the 1950s and the Indian Ocean has warmed since the mid-1960s, although the warming is not monotonic", warming the cockles of the climate alarmists' hearts, after which Richard A. Kerr writes the soundbyte: "The ocean-induced delay in global warming also suggests to some climatologists that future temperature increases will be toward the top end of the models' range of prediction", and James A. Hansen of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies writes the soundbyte: "Now the ocean-warming data imply that climate sensitivity [to the greenhouse effect] is not at the low end of the spectrum"; too bad, in summer 2000 Fullerton, Calif.-born Kauai, Hawaii-based climate skeptic oceanographer ("Father of Space Oceanography") Robert Everett "Bob" Stevenson (1921-2001) pub. the article Yes, the Ocean Has Warmed; No, It's Not 'Global Warming' in 21st Century, with the conclusions: "For the past two decades at least, and possibly for the past seven decades, the Earth's true surface air temperature has likely experienced no net change; there should have been a sizable CO2-induced increase in atmospheric radiative forcing during that time, but there wasn't. That must mean that a suite of compensatory feedbacks overwhelmed the 'greenhouse' impetus for warming; implying, therefore, that the planet will not warm from any man-produced increases in CO2; indicating [that] any increases in temperature will likely fit the global trend of +0.048 deg C/decade, that is, about 0.5°C this century - the rate of warming that has existed since the Little Ice Age, centered around 1750 in Europe, South America, and China; suggesting that the heat storage in the upper ocean takes place in the upper 100 meters, and the magnitude provides a rise in temperature at those depths of 0.5°C in the past 50 years (in those part of the ocean for which we have data); this global warming (and cooling) of the ocean occurs on biennial, ENSO, decadal and interdecadal period scales; thence, the ocean thermal changes on centennial-period scales, which appear as the warming trend through the past 50 to 100 years, can be explained by means of intrinsic internal modes of the Earth going through their normal cycle of warming and cooling, independent of both radiative and anthropogenic influences", ending with the soundbyte: "I guess what I'm really wondering is 'Why did Syd Levitus, and his associates, write their paper in the first place?'"

David E. Wojick (1942-)

On May 30, 2000 Am. epistemologist and civil engineer David E. Wojick (1942-), Richard S. Courtney, Hugh Ellsaesser, Vincent Gray, Wibjorn Karlin, Ross McKitrick et al. form the Science Integrity Team to review IPCC's Third Assessment Report and brief members of Congress, news media et al. about why climate change isn't an important issue. On Oct. 1, 2002 Wojick pub. the article A skeptic's guide to global warming in the National Post, containing the soundbyte: "The problem is that the earth is very large and the temperature is always changing, everywhere, so how can we possibly tell if overall it is a mere half-degree warmer today than it was around 1902? The origin of the theory of global warming (for it is just a theory) lies in taking the thermometer readings we happen to have from the last 100 years and massaging them in various ways. Some places have clearly warmed, others have clearly cooled. Many have gone up and down but with little apparent trend. To get a global result requires a lot of statistical manipulation... Even if the earth has warmed a little bit there is still the very real possibility that this warming is natural, that the models are no good, that warming is beneficial, etc." On May 19, 2016 Wojick and Patrick J. Michaels pub. the article Climate Modeling Dominates Climate Science, containing the soundbyte: "To summarize, it looks like something like 55% of the modeling done in all of science is done in climate change science, even though it is a tiny fraction of the whole of science. Moreover, within climate change science almost all the research (97%) refers to modeling in some way." On Dec. 1, 2017 Wojick writes the soundbyte: "The motion of climate change is highly chaotic, poorly understood and at this point completely unpredictable within certain broad limits. In fact, there is strong evidence that the natural climate is capable of warming or cooling several degrees very quickly... The true shame is that teachers read this stuff and believe it, then teach it to their students, spreading it like a disease. What is lacking are alternative skeptical sources of sound science for teachers and students." On Nov. 26, 2018 Wojick pub. the article 100% Renewable Deception, with the soundbyte: "The basic point is that those who crusade for 100% renewable electricity from wind and solar, without mentioning the staggering number of big batteries required for that system, are either deceptive or painfully ignorant. I suspect it is a combination, but the problem of intermittency is too well known for it all to be ignorance. There must be a lot of 100% renewable deception. I guess deception is renewable too."

On Aug. 19, 2000 the New York Times pub. the fake news article Ages-Old Icecap at North Pole Is Now Liquid, Scientists Find, claiming "The thick ice that has for ages covered the Arctic Ocean at the pole has turned to water, recent visitors there reported yesterday... An ice-free patch of ocean about a mile wide has opened at the very top of the world, something that has presumably never before been seen by humans and is more evidence that global warming may be real and already affecting climate. The last time scientists can be certain the pole was awash in water was more than 50 million years ago."

Richard S. Courtney Harry N.A. Priem Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-) Gerd Rainer Weber

On Nov. 21, 2000 the 6th Global Warming Conference (COP6) sees nations in a standoff, with the scientists continuing to assail the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the U.S. willing to compromise but unwilling to sacrifice core principles. On Nov. 21, 2000 the Cooler Heads Coalition (founded May 6, 1997 by the Nat. Consumer Coalition "to dispel the myths of global warming by exposing flawed economic, scientific, and risk analysis") (which runs the Web site holds a briefing titled "Climate is Not Warming - Has Not Warmed in 60 Years", featuring Nat. Coal Board (British Coal) senior material scientist Richard S. Courtney, Dutch U. of Utrecht geophysicist Harry N.A. Priem, Austrian-born Am. physicist-engineer Siegfried Frederick Singer (1924-), and German meteorologist Gerd Rainer Weber; global warming proponents content themselves with gloating at alleged oil and coal industry ties. Watch video - Gerd Rainer Weber.

Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen

In 2000 the first issue of the journal Energy & Environment is pub., becoming the journal climate skeptics can turn to after being rejected by the mainstream peer-reviewed science journals; ed. #1 is physical geographer Sonja A. Boehmer-Christiansen, who goes on to repub. the infamous 2003 Willie Soon-Sallie Balinius article from Climate Research; it doesn't become peer-reviewed until SAGE acquires it in Feb. 2018, promising to shut-out you know who, causing her to resign.

Mike Hulme (1960-) Corinne Le Quéré (1966-)

In 2000 the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, named after 19th cent. scientist John Tyndall is founded in the U.K. by the U. of East Anglia, Cambridge U., Cardiff U., U. of Manchester, Newcastle U., Oxford U., U. of Southampton, and U. of Sussex; Fudan U. joins in May 2011; dir. #1 (until July 2007) is London-born Cambridge U. geographer Michael "Mike" Hulme (1960-), who in 2008 announces the "Five Lessons of Climate Change": (1) Climate change is a relative risk, not an absolute one; (2) Climate risks are serious, and we should seek to minimise them; (3) Our world has huge unmet development needs; (4) Our current energy portfolio is not sustainable; (5) Massive and deliberate geo-engineering of the planet is a dubious practice"; the dir. since ? is French-Canadian climate scientist Corinne Le Quere (Le Quéré) (1966-). On Apr. 30, 2009 Hulme pub. the book Why We Disagree About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and Opportunity, with the ad blurb: "Climate change is not 'a problem' waiting for 'a solution'. It is an environmental, cultural and political phenomenon which is re-shaping the way we think about ourselves, our societies and humanity's place on Earth. Drawing upon twenty-five years of professional work as an international climate change scientist and public commentator, Mike Hulme provides a unique insider's account of the emergence of this phenomenon and the diverse ways in which it is understood. He uses different standpoints from science, economics, faith, psychology, communication, sociology, politics and development to explain why we disagree about climate change. In this way he shows that climate change, far from being simply an 'issue' or a 'threat', can act as a catalyst to revise our perception of our place in the world." On June 15, 2010 Hulme responds to an article by Nat. Post columnist Lawrence Solomon claiming that Hulme made the claim that: "The UN's IPCC misled the press and public into believing that thousands of scientists backed its claims on manmade global warming", with the soundbyte: "The IPCC consensus does not mean - clearly cannot possibly mean – that every scientist involved in the IPCC process agrees with every single statement in the IPCC! Giving the impression that the IPCC consensus means everyone agrees with everyone else - as I think some well-meaning but uninformed commentaries do (or have a tendency to do) - is unhelpful; it doesn't reflect the uncertain, exploratory and sometimes contested nature of scientific knowledge." In 2011 he follows with the article Reducing the Future to Climate: A Story of Climate Determinism and Reductionism, with the abstract: "One hundred years ago, a popular theory contended that various aspects of climate determined the physiology and psychology of individuals, which in turn defined the behavior and culture of the societies that those individuals formed. As the ideological wars of the twentieth century reshaped political and moral worlds, environmental determinism became discredited and marginalised within mainstream academic thought. Yet at the beginning of a new century with heightening anxieties about changes in climate, the idea that climate can determine the fate of people and society has re-emerged in the form of 'climate reductionism'. This paper traces how climate has moved from playing a deterministic to a reductionist role in discourses about environment, society and the future. Climate determinism previously offered an explanation, and hence a justification, for the superiority of certain imperial races and cultures. The argument put forward here is that the new climate reductionism is driven by the hegemony exercised by the predictive natural sciences over contingent, imaginative and humanistic accounts of social life and visions of the future. It is a hegemony which lends disproportionate power in political and social discourse to model-based descriptions of putative future climates. Some possible reasons for this climate reductionism, as well as some of the limitations and dangers of this position for human relationships with the future, are suggested." In 2013 he pub. the book Exploring Climate Change through Science and in Society, and anthology of his works, with the ad blurb: "Mike Hulme has been studying climate change for over thirty years and is today one of the most distinctive and recognisable voices speaking internationally about climate change in the academy, in public and in the media. T he argument that he has made powerfully over the last few years is that climate change has to be understood as much as an idea situated in different cultural contexts as it is as a physical phenomenon to be studied through universal scientific practices. Climate change at its core embraces both science and society, both knowledge and culture." On June 4, 2014 he pub. the book Can Science Fix Climate Change?: A Case Against Climate Engineering. On June 15, 2016 he pub. the book Weathered: Cultures of Climate, with the soundbyte: "Self-evidently, dangerous climate change will not emerge from a normal scientific process of truth seeking". On Oct. 24, 2018 Hulme pub. the article Climatism and the Reification of Global Temperature, containing the soundbyte: "Global temperature does not cause anything to happen. It has no material agency. It is an abstract proxy for the aggregated accumulation of heat in the surface boundary layer of the planet. It is far removed from revealing the physical realities of meteorological hazards occurring in particular places. And forecasts of global temperature threshold exceedance are even further removed from actionable early warning information upon which disaster risk management systems can work. Global temperature offers the ultimate view of the planet - and of meteorological hazard - from nowhere."

In 2000 Canadian climate skeptic William Walter "Bill" Kay pub. The Great Global Warming Hoax, containing the soundbytes: "The problems with the human-induced-catastrophic-climate-change hypothesis are many, but the most salient are as follows. Earth's temperature is not static but rather has varied radically over the millennia, with many previous eras being much warmer than present. At others times, the temperature dropped so low that vast areas of Eurasia and North America were covered by kilometre-thick sheets of ice. No one can suggest human activity has anything to do with these changes. The generally accepted temperature records for the last 3,000 years reveal the present global temperature to be cooler than average for this period. Although fluctuations are the norm, Earth has been warming since the end of the last ice age (approximately 10,000 years ago). One of the main exceptions to this warming trend was the 'little ice age' (approximately 1300 to 1800 AD) wherein temperatures dipped considerably. As there has been a slow and steady warming trend since this time, it is impossible to determine how much, if any, appreciable warming can be attributed to fossil fuel burning because the current warming trend began prior to any possible influence from the Industrial Revolution"; "There is a clear and direct relationship between periodic increases in sunspot activity on the sun and increases in the sun's temperature. And there is a direct relationship between increases in the sun's heat output and the temperature here on Earth... Human activity has nothing to do with this relationship"; "Closely connected to this is the fact that because much of Earth's CO2 resides in the oceans, an increase in the sun's temperature causes a release of CO2 from the oceans into the atmosphere (the Coca Cola fizz effect). Hence, many scientists argue that increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere are a consequence of 'global warming' rather than a cause"; "And finally, keep in mind 'global warming' is not the first or only eco-scare. Over the last 40 years, overpopulation, energy crises, global cooling, ozone holes, desertification, deforestation, pesticide degradation, topsoil depletion, and other topics have each had their turn as scare of the day. The perpetrators of the doomsday hoaxes remain the same international environmental elite. The underlying fear within this small group of plutocrats is that unrestrained industrial growth will lead to a fundamental challenge to the prevailing property system. As surely as jacking up interest rates will slow economic development, so will high energy prices put a break on industrial progress. The 'global warming' scam is yet another effort of the most powerful and parasitic sectors of the ruling elite to hobble the forces of production with a view to the long-term preservation of an antiquated property system. Fighting for the truth about 'global warming' is fighting for the overthrow of these liars and the property regime upon which their power is based."


On June 6, 2001 the Summer of the Shark begins with a shark attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast in Santa Rose Island, followed by 76 more attacks and five deaths, turning into sensationalist publicity after a July 4 weekend attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast, ending with the 9/11 attacks; in 2000 there were 85 attacks and 12 deaths, but no big publicity.

James K. Glassman (1947-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-)

On June 25, 2001 Washington, D.C.-born govt. specialist James Kenneth Glassman (1947-) of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the article Bush Is Right on Global Warming in The Weekly Standard, claiming that climate change "is not a calamity but a truism", with the soundbytes: "Evidence from ice cores, glaciers, boreholes and tree rings, deposits of microscopic animals on the sea floor, pollen in lake beds, and mineral deposits in caves show clearly that surface temperatures in some centuries have been very different from temperatures in others"; "Because there is considerable uncertainty in current understanding of how the climate system varies naturally and reacts to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, current estimates of the magnitude of future warming should be regarded as tentative and subject to future adjustments (either upward or downward)"; "Global warming is not a here-and-now problem. If the computers are right, the dire effects will unfold slowly over the century. But signs now indicate that the models vastly overstate the problem. We'll see." On July 5, 2005 Glassman gives an interview to C-Span in which he opposes the Kyoto Protocol and questions the science behind climate change, with the soundbyte: "It is not clear, the President does not believe it is clear, that human intervention causes increased emissions which cause the climate to heat up. We know the climate has heated up. It's gone up about one-degree Fahrenheit in the last one-hundred years. The question is, why is that? Is it because of humans, or is it because of simply a solar cycle. You know, the planet's been warmer than it has been today long before there was such a thing as an SUV or anything like that."

John Stossel (1947-)

On June 29, 2001 Chicago Heights, Ill.-born libertarian ABC News "20/20" TV personality John Frank Stossel (1947-) hosts a 1-hour ABC-TV special titled Tampering with Nature, which portrays environmentalits as "preachers of doom and gloom" who would have us "running around naked, hungry for food, maybe killing a rabbit with a rock, then dying young, probably before age 40", and features three dissenters from the 2K-member U.N. IPCC, pissing-off global warmists, who call it biased. On July 5, 2006 Stossel interviews climate skeptics John R. Christy and Sallie Baliunus, issuing the soundbyte: "The fundamentalist doom-mongers ignore scientists who say the effects of global warming may be benign." On Apr. 20, 2007 Stossel pub. the article The Global Warming Myth?, an extract from his 2007 book Myth, Lies, and Downright Stupidity: Get Out the Shovel - Why Everything You Know Is Wrong. In 2013-17 Stossel hosts the Fox News TV series Green Tyranny, uttering the soundbytes: "Environmentalists collude with the EPA to block economic progress"; "So, why do I use the phrase 'green tyranny'? Because government always goes too far. Years ago, when I heard some animals were going extinct, I thought the endangered species act was a great idea. But in the hands of government lawyers, and environmental zealots, it's become an instrument of petty tyranny. Frogs, prairie dogs, beetles, take priority over people"; "One can love nature but still hate the tyranny the green movement imposes", "Global warming alarmism has turned into hysteria. Yes, the globe has warmed. Climate changes! We can adjust to it. But climate scientists who say that, like Judith Curry of Georgia Tech, are shunned as heretics", "The climate models that got the government so excited are totally wrong so far. A few degrees warming might be good... Cold waves kill many more people than heat waves." "Americans are told that fossil fuels - coal, oil, and gas - are evil. But much of civilization owes its existence to fossil fuels." Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel.

On July 15, 2001 the Internat. Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in Amsterdam pub. the Amsterdam Declaration on Earth System Science, proposing the term "Anthropocene", a new geological epoch to succeed Holocene about 10K B.C.E., caused by human alteration of the "Earth system", as coined by Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer, going on to unsuccessfully lobby the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to adopt it before running out of funding.

On Aug. 20-24, 2001 the First Internat. Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age at Dalhousie U. in Halifax, N.S. is organized by Petr Chylek and Glen Lesins, and co-sponsored by the Am. Meteorological Society, the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, and the European Space Agency, with speakers on all sides of the global warming issue.

Bob Reiss (1951-)

On Sept. 5, 2001 Am. journalist Bob Reiss (1951-) pub. the book The Coming Storm: Extreme Weather and Our Terrifying Future, attempting to freak-out readers with climate alarmism; "Bob Reiss shows how a series of freakish and colossally destructive weather events awakened... people to... a changing climate" (Eugene Linden); "The layman's guide to global warming... fair, urgent and deeply unsettling" (Ted Conover) - good timing on the publication date? On May 15, 2012 Reiss pub. The Eskimo and the Oil Man: The Battle at the Top of the World for America's Future, about the fight over offshore drilling in the Arctic as seen through the eyes of a Shell Oil exec and an Eskimo leader in Alaska, containing the soundbyte: "The Arctic century is upon us."

World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 The Pentagon, Sept. 11, 2001

On Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) the infamous 9/11 Attacks forever change the U.S.

Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) Sir John T. Houghton (1931-) Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Richard Lindzen (1940-) Freeman Dyson (1923-) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-) Vincent Richard Gray (1922-2018)

In 2001 the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., summarizing the predominant scientific opinion on climate change, concluding that the global avg. surface temp has risen 0.6C +/-0.2 C since the late 19th cent., and 0.17C/decade in 1971-2001, with the soundbyte: "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" esp. greenhouse gases methane and CO2, predicting a temp increase of 1.4C-5.8C between 1990 and 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continue, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in some types of extreme weather, becoming more negative as warming increases; it also incl. the soundbyte: "The climate system is a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible"; leaders of the IPCC Working Group incl. chmn. Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) (knighted in 2012), co-chmn. Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) and Sir John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) of Hadley Centre (lead author of the Second Assessment Report); in May a joint statement of support is issued by the science academies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Caribbean, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, New Zealand, Sweden, and U.K.: "We recognise the IPCC as the world's most reliable source of information on climate change and its causes, and we endorse its method of achieving consensus"; critics incl. Am. MIT atmospheric physicist (leading climate expert) Richard Siegmund "Dick" Lindzen (1940-), lead author of Ch. 7 "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks", who woke up later and calls it "climate alarmism", uttering the soundbytes: "We have focused on the greenhouse picture despite the fact that this is probably not the major factor in climate change. That is to say, we have accepted the basic premise of the first [dominant] narrative. Mea culpa", and "Climate is a remarkably complex system that cannot be reduced to a CO2 knob, something you turn up or down like a house thermostat to control global temperature", also the soundbyte: "When an issue becomes a vital part of a political agenda, as is the case with climate, then the politically desired position becomes a goal rather than the consequence of scientific research", and the soundbyte: "Why do we need to deconstruct global warming? Simply because it has been an issue that has been routinely treated with misinformation and sophistry abetted by constant repetition, institutional endorsements, and widespread ignorance even (perhaps especially) among the educated... To a great extent, global warming has been merely a device for implementing broader agendas"; in 2001 Lindzen pub. the Iris Hypothesis, that a warmer climate enhances precipitation efficiency, leading to less clouds in the troposphere from convection, allowing more infrared radiation to escape into space, creating a strong climate-stabilizing negative feedback loop preventing further warming; on Oct. 9, 2018 Lindzen gives a lecture in London with the title Global Warming for the Two Cultures, containing the soundbyte: "An implausible conjecture backed by false evidence and repeated incessantly has become politically correct 'knowledge', and is used to promote the overturn of industrial civilization"; in 2017 Lindzen utters the soundbyte: "To imply that a rise of temperature of a tenth of a degree is proof that the world is coming to an end - has to take one back to the dark ages. As long as you can get people excited as to whether it's a tenth of a degree warmer or cooler, then you don't have to think, you can assume everyone who is listening to you is an idiot. The whole point is so crazy because the temperature is always going up or down a little. What is astonishing is that in the last 20 years it hasn't done much of anything. What they don't mention is there has been a big El Nino in 2016 and in recent months the temperature has been dropping back into a zero trend level"; another critic is English-born Am. physicist Freeman John Dyson (1923-), Albert Einstein's successor at the Inst. for Advanced Physics at Princeton U., who acknowledges that CO2 drives global warming but doubts that existing climate simulation models are accurate enough "to describe the real world we live in", pointing in 2009 out that "What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago", suggesting that China and India should choose to burn coal and get rich instead of staying poor, noting that "the main effect of carbon dioxide... is to make the planet greender, feeding the growth of green plans of al kinds, increasing the fertility of farms and fields and fields", suggesting that planting 1T trees could remove all excess CO2 in the atmosphere; in Apr. 2013 Dyson gives an interview to Paul Mulshine of the N.J. Star-Ledger, uttering the soundbytes: "I just think they [climatologists] don't understand the climate. Their computer models are full of fudge factors. The models are extremely oversimplified. They don't represent the clouds in detail at all. They simply use a fudge factor to represent the clouds"; in 2000 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognising that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world"; in Apr. 2002 after presure from ExxonMobil et al. he is replaced as IPCC chmn. by Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-), who resigns in Feb. 2015 after sexual harassment allegations; in 2010 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The mistakes all appear to have gone in the direction of making it seem like climate change is more serious by overstating the impact. That is worrying. The IPCC needs to look at this trend in the errors and ask why it happened." Adding "We should always be challenged by sceptics. The IPCC's job is to weigh up the evidence. If it can't be dismissed, it should be included in the report. Point out it's in the minority and, if you can't say why it's wrong, just say it's a different view." Another critic is London-born Kiwi chemist Vincent Robert Gray (1921-2018), who pub. the books The Greenhouse Delusion: A Critique of 'Climate Change 2001' (Aug. 2002), and Confessions of a Climate Skeptic, going on in Mar. 2008 to call for the IPCC to be abolished, calling it "fundamentally corrupt" and unable to handle criticism, with the soundbytes: "The claims of the IPCC are dangerous unscientific nonsense", "The two main 'scientific' claims of the IPCC are the claim that 'the globe is warming' and 'Increases in carbon dioxide emissions are responsible'. Evidence for both of these claims is fatally flawed", "There is not a scrap of evidence in any IPCC reports that human emissions of CO2 have any harmful effect on the climate", and "Nobody seems to realise that the most elaborate and comprehensive conflict of interest that has been inflicted on the public is the 'Global Warning" Theory'... I have been an Expert Reviewer on every one of the Reports of IPCC", ending up commenting on every pub. of the IPCC, with 1,898 comments on the 2007 report alone. On Nov. 10, 2015 he pub. his last book The Global Warming Scam and Climate Change Superscam. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Freeman Dyson.

In 2001 the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (CES) is founded in Arlington, Va. as a successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change to work with policymakers and stakeholders to promote pragmatic and effective policies to fight global warming at all levels from state to internat., growing to become the largest U.S.-based assoc. of cos. working to advance business and policy solutions to climate change, growing from 13 members in 2001 to 44 in 2008, with a total market capitalization of $2.8T, and 30 mainly Fortune 500 cos. by 2018 with a total of 3.5M employees; it goes on to found the Make an Impact Program to assist employees and individuals in reducing their carbon footprints.

Mike Raupach (1950-2015) Corinne Le Quéré (1966-)

In 2001 the Global Carbon Project (GCP) is established to fully understand the carbon cycle under the belief (illusion?) that rising CO2 concentrations must be dealt with, going on to claim in 2006 that global CO2 emissions increased 3.2%/year since 2000, claim on Dec. 5, 2011 that CO2 released by fossil fuel burning jumped to a record 5.9%/year in 2010 vs. 1% in the 1990s, and claim that atmospheric CO2 concentration will reach 500 ppm by 2100; in 2013 they establish the Global Carbon Atlas, a tool for visualization of global carbon cycle data; dir. #1 (2001-9) is Australian climate scientist Michael Robin "Mike" Raupach (1950-2015), originator of the concept of the carbon budget; dir. #2 (2009-13) is French-Canadian climate scientist Corinne Le Quere (Le Quéré) (1966-), founder of the annual pub. of the Global Carbon Budget.


On Jan. 31, 2002 the Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Antarctic begins disintegrating, eventually collapsing into the Weddell Sea, becoming the largest series of Larsen Ice Shelf losses in decades.

In Feb. 2002 the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (originally the U.S. Global Change Research Program) is established under the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 to coordinate and integrate research on global warming, issuing 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs), along with three Nat. Climate Assessment Reports starting in 2000, followed by 2009 and 2014.

Geoffrey G. Duffy

On May 4, 2002 the NASA Boeing Aqua (EOS PM-1) satellite is launched from Vanderberg AFB, settling into a Sun-synchronous orbit with several other satellites to measure water on the Earth's surface and atmosphere, becoming the 2nd major component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) after Terra (EOS AM-1) (launched in 1999) (clouds, water, ice, land surface, carbon monoxide, aerosols) and Aura (EOS CH-1) (launched July 15, 2004) (climate, air quality, ozone layer). Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer and climate change skeptic Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy utters the soundbyte: "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'."

In summer 2002 a week-long flood in Tex. causes Canyon Lake to spill over into the Guadalupe Valley, carving a new canyon in three days - giving Creationists a magic moment?

Tom Harris

In 2002 the Canadian nonprofit group Friends of Science (FoS) is founded in Calgary, Alberta by mechanical engineer Tom Harris et al., and "comprised mainly of active and retired earth and atmospheric scientists, engineers, and other professionals" whose main concern is "the abuse of science displayed in the politically inspired Kyoto protocol"; their goal is "To educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue"; climate alarmists gloat over the fact that they are partly funded by the fossil fuel industry; they go on to pub. the killer climate change essay Providing Insight into Climate Change. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris.

Christopher Essex (1954-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In 2002 Canadian Western U. (London, Ont.) applied math prof. Christopher Essex (1954-) and and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the book Taken by Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming. In Nov. 2006 Canada's Conservative got. appoints Essex to the 21-member Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, which oversses research grants to Canadian univs., pissing-off the AGW crowd, with Canadian New Dem. Party MP Nathan Cullen uttering the soundbyte: "If you put someone in who doesn't believe in climate change and sees no urgency to fight against human-related climate change, you then skew the entire debate. It's a Republican-style approach where you fund the skeptics." Watch video - Christopher Essex. Watch video - Christopher Essex.


U.S. Sen. John McCain (1936-2018) U.S. Sen. Joe Lieberman (1942-)

On Oct. 30, 2003 the U.S. McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act, drafted by U.S. Repub. Ariz. Sen. (1987-2018) John Sidney McCain III (1936-2018) and Indep. Conn. Sen. (1989-2013) Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman (1942-) is defeated in the U.S. Senate by 55-43; it would have capped 2010 CO2 emissions at the 2000 level and established a scholarship at the Nat. Academy of Sciences for students of climatology; similar acts are defeated in 2005 (38-60) and 2007 (dies in committee); on May 12, 2008 during the 2008 U.S. pres. campaign as the Repub. candidate, McCain gives a speech on climate change in Portland, Ore., with the soundbytes: "Today I'd like to focus on just one of those challenges, and among environmental dangers it is surely the most serious of all. Whether we call it 'climate change' or 'global warming', in the end we're all left with the same set of facts. The facts of global warming demand our urgent attention, especially in Washington. Good stewardship, prudence, and simple commonsense demand that we to act meet the challenge, and act quickly"; "Some of the most compelling evidence of global warming comes to us from NASA. No longer do we need to rely on guesswork and computer modeling, because satellite images reveal a dramatic disappearance of glaciers, Antarctic ice shelves and polar ice sheets"; "We have many advantages in the fight against global warming, but time is not one of them. Instead of idly debating the precise extent of global warming, or the precise timeline of global warming, we need to deal with the central facts of rising temperatures, rising waters, and all the endless troubles that global warming will bring. We stand warned by serious and credible scientists across the world that time is short and the dangers are great. The most relevant question now is whether our own government is equal to the challenge." On Oct. 29, 2003 Charles River Associates reports that the impact on the U.S. economy of the McCain-Liberman Act would incl. 20% higher electricity bills, a 25-cent/gal. increase in the price of gasoline, and a cost of $300+/year/household in reduced consumption, with spokesman James K. Glassman of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) issuing the soundbyte: "The cost analysis of McCain-Lieberman reinforces what we've come to learn about global warming policy measures since Kyoto. We do know that they'll be very costly and damaging to the U.S. economy, and we don't know if they'll have any measurable effect on the earth's climate."

Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

On Jan. 17, 2003 Chicago, Ill.-born "Jurassic Park" novelist John Michael Crichton (1942-2008) gives a lecture at Caltech titled Aliens Cause Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had. Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period"; on Dec. 7, 2004 he pub. the NYT bestseller (1.5M copies) State of Fear, about ecoterrorists plotting mass murder to publicize the dangers of global warming, which the book attempts to refute with scientific arguments that are pooh-poohed by climate warmists, making it more popular? On Sept. 28, 2005 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, uttering the soundbyte: "I want to state emphatically that nothing in my remarks should be taken to imply that we can ignore our environment, or that we should not take climate change seriously. On the contrary, we must dramatically improve our record on environmental management. That is why a focused effort on climate science, aimed at securing sound, independently verified answers to policy questions, is so important now." Watch video - Michael Crichton.

Hans Jelbring

In May 1, 2003 Swedish U. of Stockholm meteorologist Hans Roger Jelbring pub. the paper The "Greenhouse Effect" as a Function of Atmospheric Mass in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "The main reason for claiming a scientific basis for 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Warming (AGW)' is related to the use of 'radiative energy flux models as a major tool for describing vertical energy fluxes within the atmosphere. Such models prescribe that the temperature difference between a planetary surface and the planetary average black body radiation temperature (commonly called the Greenhouse Effect, GE) is caused almost exclusively by the so called greenhouse gases. Here, using a different approach, it is shown that GE can be explained as mainly being a consequence of known physical laws describing the behaviour of ideal gases in a gravity field... A noteworthy implication is that the calculated values of AGW, accepted by many contemporary climate scientists, are thus irrelevant and probably quite insignificant (not detectable) in relation to natural processes causing climate change"; in Jan. 2012 he writes the soundbyte: "IPCC should not only be defunded, it should be deleted as an agency. The reason is its misuse of the concept of science. It has never been meant to rely on correct science and uses science for one simple reason. People believe in science, since people have seen the result of powerful applications of it during 100 years. IPCC uses this fact to 'sell' its political message to get support from ordinary people. Science is a 'brand' for selling propaganda. The only way to keep the IPCC is for it to skip any claim of being scientific at all and clearly declare what it really is: a political organization. My tutor when writing my exam paper in meteorology was Bert Bolin, the founder of IPCC. He was for sure a screwed influential politician and a dishonest and ordinary scientist."

In July-Aug. 2003 the Summer 2003 European Heat Wave kills 70K, becoming the hottest summer in Europe since 1540; on Aug. 10 a record of 38.5C (101.3F) is set in Faversham, Kent, England; on Sept. 25 France reports a death toll of 14,802, mostly elderly people without air conditioning from the summer heat wave; the young people were vacationing at the time, and arrived back to find thousands of negelected dead old people bottled up in their hot apts.?

On Aug. 10, 2003 Haversham, Kent, England reaches a record 101.3F (38.5C).

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014)

On Sept. 29-Oct. 9, 2003 the World Climate Change Conference in Moscow, Russia, convened by Russian Federation pres. Vladimir Putin endorses the IPCC Third Assessment Report; too bad, several scientists break ranks, incl. Putin's scientific advisor Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), vice-chmn. of the IPCC (until Sept. 2008) who utters the soundbytes: "The Kyoto Protocol is overly expensive, ineffective, and based on bad science", and: "The people of Bangladesh, who live at sea level, may face problems if the Indian Ocean rises. Still, their resettlement would be much cheaper than projected Kyoto Protocol expenses", causing conference participant Andreas Fischlin to get pissed-off and utter the soundbyte: "However, concerning the scientific content of the conference, we had also to struggle with considerable difficulties. Unfortunately, there were not only leading scientists present, but also some colleagues who used the conference to express personal, political opinions based on value judgement instead of scientific facts and rigorously derived, scientific insights and thorough understanding. Thereby, I believe, principles of proper scientific conduct were violated too often and sometimes, I am afraid having to say so, even systematically. This contrasts sharply with the principles upheld by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), which allow only to assess the current knowledge based on the best available, peer reviewed scientific literature and which do not allow for any non-scientific value judgements, let alone policy recommendations"; Izrael goes on to putin, er, put in his two cents worth, with the soundbytes: "Climate change is obvious, but science has not yet been able to identify the causes of it"; "There is no proven link between human activity and global warming"; "Global temperatures will likely rise by 1.4-5.8 degrees during the next 100 years. The average increase will be three degrees. I do not think that this threatens mankind. Sea levels, due to rise by 47 cm in the 21st century, will not threaten port cities"; "I think the panic over global warming is totally unjustified. There is no serious threat to climate"; "There is no need to dramatize the anthropogenic impact, because the climate has always been subject to change under Nature's influence, even when humanity did not even exist"; "There is no scientifically sound evidence of the negative processes that allegedly begin to place at such temperatures"; no surprise, global warmist scientists pooh-pooh him and resort to ad hominem attacks, with Quirin Shiermeier and Byron MacWilliams calling him a "fossil communist fighting for fossil fuel".

Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In late 2003 after getting pissed-off at the Canadian govt.'s promotion of the Kyoto Protocol, math-trained Canadian mining consultant Stephen "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) (owner of the blog Climate Audit) and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the paper Corrections to the Mann et al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series in Energy and Environment, alleging errors in principal component analysis in Mann's 1998 hockey stick graph that underrepresent the Medieval Warm Period, turning the hockey stick into er, moose hockey and launching the Hockey Stick Debate (Controversy); on Oct. 15, 2004 Richard A. Muller pub. the paper Global Warming Bombshell in MIT Technology Review (subtitle: A prime piece of evidence linking human activity to climate change turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics), containing the soundbyte: "McIntyre and McKitrick obtained part of the program that Mann used, and they found serious problems. Not only does the program not do conventional PCA, but it handles data normalization in a way that can only be described as mistaken. Now comes the real shocker. This improper normalization procedure tends to emphasize any data that do have the hockey stick shape, and to suppress all data that do not. To demonstrate this effect, McIntyre and McKitrick created some meaningless test data that had, on average, no trends. This method of generating random data is called 'Monte Carlo' analysis, after the famous casino, and it is widely used in statistical analysis to test procedures. When McIntyre and McKitrick fed these random data into the Mann procedure, out popped a hockey stick shape!... That discovery hit me like a bombshell, and I suspect it is having the same effect on many others. Suddenly the hockey stick, the poster-child of the global warming community, turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics. How could it happen?" - now that ain't my radio it's my weather gauge? McIntyre later utters the soundbyte: "The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann... for the estimation of temperature from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal componenets and other quality control defects." McKitrick later utters the soundbytes: "I have been probing the arguments for global warming for well over a decade. In collaboration with a lot of excellent coauthors I have consistently found that when the layers get peeled back, what lies at the core is either flawed, misleading or simply non-existent", and "The world still awaits a proper inquiry into climategate: one that is not stacked with global warming advocates and one that is prepared to cross-examine evidence, interview critics as well as supporters of the CRU and other IPCC players, and follow the evidence where it clearly leads." In 2002 McKitrick and Christopher Essex pub. Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming, accusing politicians of claiming more certainty that is justified by the science.

George Marshall (1964-)

In 2003 English environmental activist George Marshall (1964-) founds Climate Outreach to engage the public on climate change; in 2007 he pub. Carbon Detox, a how-to manual for personal emissions reduction; in 2014 he pub. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change, about stepping away from Green Guilt, becoming a hit. Watch video - George Marshall.

Andrew Revkin (1956-)

In 2003 New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) reports from a research camp located on drifting sea ice near the North Pole, advertising a sign that reads "The North Pole Was Here", going on to pub. The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World on Apr. 22, 2006. In 2010 he becomes a member of the new Anthropocene Working Group of the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy, which was founded to develop the idea that human impact on Earth's climate is creating the new Anthropocene geological epoch, presenting its official recommendation on Aug. 29, 2016, which isn't officially approved until ?.

Nir Shaviv (1972-) Jan Veizer (1941-)

In 2003 Ithaca, N.Y.-born Hebrew U. of Jerusalem climatologist Nir Joseph Shaviv (1972-) and Slovakian-born U. of Ottawa geochemist Jan Veizer (1941-) pub. the article Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? in GSA Today, proposing that Earth's passes through the spiral arms of the Milky Way along with cosmic rays may have caused Earth's major ice ages over the past billion years, containing the soundbyte: "Pending further confirmation, one interpretation of the above result could be that the global climate possesses a stabilizing negative feedback. A likely candidate for such a feedback is cloud cover. If so, it would imply that the water cycle is the thermostat of climate dynamics, acting both as a positive (water vapor) and negative (clouds) feedback, with the carbon cycle 'piggybacking' on, and being modified by, the water cycle." On Apr. 19, 2007 Shavov and Veizer pub. the paper Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate in the journal of the Geological Society of Am., demonstrating that a temperature reconstruction of the Phanerozoic Eon (began -541M) correlates with cosmic ray flux but not with CO2, placing a low upper limit on the climatic effect of CO2, causing climate scientists Stefan Rahmstorf at al. to criticize them in the June 3, 2011 article Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate in Eos (Am. Geophysical Union), with the conclusion: "The correlation of CRF [cosmic ray flux] and climate over the past 520 m.y. appear to not hold up under scrutiny." On June 16, 2015 Shaviv pub. the article The IPCC and others blame CO2 for increases in sea levels, ignoring evidence that shows the sun to be the cause. On Dec. 19, 2017 Shaviv et al. pub. the article Increased ionization supports growth of aerosols into cloud condensation nuclei in Nature Communications, starting out: "Ions produced by cosmic rays have been thought to influence aerosols and clouds", showing that "the mass-flux of small ions can constitute an important addition to the growth caused by condensation of neutral molecules. Under atmospheric conditions the growth from ions can constitute severl percent of the natural growth".


In 2004 the Antarctic Polar Night begins (ends 2016), with 100 different locations on the East Antarctic Plateau reaching temps of -98C (-144F), beating the record low air temp of -89.2C (-129F) of July 23, 1983.

In 2004 the 2004 African Locust Infestation ravages crops across the N third of Africa, leaving millions at risk of starvation; in 2006 another swarm reaches 3 sq. mi. in area as it moves across Mauritania; meanwhile a drought in Niger combined with desert locust damage destroys the fall crop, leaving 3.6M short of food, causing a food crisis in 2005-6.

On Feb. 21, 2004 The Guardian pub. the article Now the Pentagon tells Bush: climate change will destroy us, describing a secret report written by CIA consultant Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall of the Calif.-based Global Business Network, commissioned by Pentagon defense adviser Andrew Marshall, which warns of rioting and nuclear war due to climate change and overpop. during the next 20 years that "could result in a global catastrophe costing millions of lives in wars and natural disaster, claiming that "major European cities will be sunk beneath rising seas as Britain is plunged into a 'Siberian' climate by 2020"; "The document predicts that abrupt climate change could bring the planet to the edge of anarchy as countries develop a nuclear threat to defend and secure dwindling food, water and energy supplies. The threat to global stability vastly eclipses that of terrorism, say the few experts privy to its contents"; former chmn. of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Bob Watson utters the soundbyte: "Can Bush ignore the Pentagon? It's going be hard to blow off this sort of document. It's hugely embarrassing. After all, Bush's single highest priority is national defence. The Pentagon is no wacko, liberal group, generally speaking it is conservative. If climate change is a threat to national security and the economy, then he has to act. There are two groups the Bush Administration tend to listen to, the oil lobby and the Pentagon"; Rob Gueterbock of Greenpeace adds the soundbyte: "You've got a President who says global warming is a hoax, and across the Potomac river you've got a Pentagon preparing for climate wars. It's pretty scary when Bush starts to ignore his own government on this issue."

Tim Phillips (1964-)

On Mar. 10, 2004 the conservative-libertarian political advocacy group Americans for Prosperity is founded in Arlington, Va., funded by the billionaire Koch Brothers, going on to turn the Obama-era Tea Party into a political force, organizing opposition to Obama admin. initiatives on global warming, Medicaid expansion, economic stimulus, Obamacare, cap and trade, federal min. wage et al., helping achieve a Repub. majority in the House in 2010 and the Senate in 2014; in 2008 it launches the No Climate Tax Pledge, which is signed by 411 politicians incl. 25% of U.S. senators and 33% of U.S. reps by July 213 incl. 9 of 12 Repubs. on the House Energy and Commerce Committee; in 2005 Spartanburg, S.C.-born Repub. political strategist Tim Phillips (1964-) becomes pres. (until ?).

'The Day After Tomorrow', 2004

On May 17, 2004 Roland Emmerich's The Day After Tomorrow (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Dennis Quaid as climatologist Jack Hall, who must save the world from super-fast global warming er, cooling, which incl. New York being taken over by a new ice age; Jake Gyllenhaal plays his stranded son Sam; #7 movie of 2004 ($187M in the U.S. and $544.3M worldwide on a $125M budget); watch trailer; view clip.

Alister McFarquhar

On Oct. 18, 2004 Cambridge-educated Scottish agricultural economist Alister McFarquhar of the Adam Smith Inst. pub. a letter to the ed. in The Telegraph, complaining about biased coverage of the 2005 Kyoto Protocol, which he calls "too costly", with the soundbyte: "There is no clear evidence of warming in weather satellites and balloons in the 20th century. Predictions of warming depend on models involving arbitrary assumptions and science hypotheses. The relation between CO2, water vapour and putative warming seems very obscure."

Ferenc Miskolczi

In Oct. 2004 after studying radiosonde observations from around the world, NASA scientist Ferenc Miskolczi pub. the paper The greenhouse effect and the spectral decomposition of the clear-sky terrestrial radiation in the Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, describing a "greenhouse constant" that keeps the greenhouse effect in equilibrium with rising CO2 levels, maintaining a constant value of 1.87 total infrared optical thickness of the atmosphere, making warming by back-radiation along with runaway greenhouse theories moose hockey that contradict energy balance equations; too bad, his supervisors at NASA begin to shun him and refuse to pub. his results, causing him to resign on Oct. 28, 2005.

David E. Parker

On Nov. 18, 2004 David E. Parker of Hadley Center in Exeter, England pub. the article Climate: Large-scale warming is not urban in Nature, showing that the urban heat island effect doesn't affect the historical temperature record, with the soundbyte: "The reality and magnitude of global-scale warming is supported by the near-equality of temperature trends on windy nights with trends based on all data"; too bad, other studies show the opposite.

Nick Mabey Tom Burke John Ashton (1956-)

In 2004 the climate change think tank E3G (Third Generation Environmentalism is founded by Nick Mabey, Tom Burke, and British diplomat John Ashton (1956-), with offices in London, Brussels, Berlin, and Washington, D.C., going on to play a pivotal role in getting Russia to ratify the Kyoto Protocol; in 2009 it creates the Transform UK Coalition, leading to the founding of the Green Investment Bank (Group) in London in 2012.

Phil Klotzbach (1977-) William M. Gray (1929-2016)

In 2004 Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist Phil Klotzbach (1977-) begins authoring Atlantic basin hurricane forecasts with Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist William Mason "Bill" Gray (1929-2016); in 2006 Klotzbach becomes the first author of the seasonal hurricane forecasts, developing the 2-week forecasts used in Aug.-Oct. in the peak months of the hurricane season, later developing the Landfalling Hurricane Probability Webpage along with the GeoGraphics Lab of his alma mater Bridgewater State College, providing hurricane landfall probabilities for the entire U.S. coastline from Brownsville, Tex. to Eastport, Maine incl. the Caribbean Sea. On May 21-3, 2012 at the 7th Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-7) in Chicago, Ill., Gray presents his paper The Physical Flaws of the Global Warming theory and Deep Ocean Circulation Changes as the Primary Climate Driver, which starts out: "The main misconception of the global warmers is to assume that all the many large energy terms of the climate system remain constant over long periods and that the only changes that matter for climate alteration are the very small magnitude variations of human-induced CO2. How could the warmers be so naive as to believe that changes in CO2 are the dominate climate forcing mechanism?"; "Increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases will not be able to bring about significant climate disruption in the next 75-100 years. The main problem with the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory is the false treatment of the global hydrologic cycle which is not adequately understood by any of the AGW advocates. The water vapor, cloud, and condensation-evaporation assumptions within the conventional AGW theory and the (GCM) simulations are incorrectly designed to block too much infrared (IR) radiation to space. They also do not reflect-scatter enough short wave (albedo) energy to space. These two misrepresentations result in a large artificial warming that is not realistic. A realistic treatment of the hydrologic cycle would show that the influence of a doubling of CO2 should lead to a global surface warming of only about 0.3°C - not the 3°C warming as indicated by the climate simulations"; "The global surface warming of about 0.7°C that has been experienced over the last 150 years and the multi-decadal up-and-down global temperature changes of 0.3-0.4°C that have been observed over this period are hypothesized to be driven by a combination of multi-century and multi-decadal ocean circulation changes. These ocean changes are due to naturally occurring upper ocean salinity variations. Changes in CO2 play little role in these salinity driven ocean climate forcings." On Sept. 9, 2018 after Hurricane Florence is born, Klotzbach utters the soundbyte that storms in the NE Pacific have generated the most "accumulated cyclone energy" on record through the first week of Sept., with nine named storms in the Atlantic and 15 in the Pacific since their hurricane seasons began on June 1 and May 15, respectively; the last time this happened was in 2016, and before that in 1998.

H. Jay Zwally

In 2004 leading climate alarmist scientists D.T. Shindell and G.A. Schmidt of NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies pub. the paper Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases in Geophysical Research Letters, with the abstract: "While most of the Earth warmed rapidly during recent decades, surface temperatures decreased significantly over most of Antarctica", going on to try to link it to increased greenhouse gases and Antarctic ozone depletion; in 2004 NASA pub. a map of Antartica showing the cooling, only to change the data in a 2009 map to portray an Antarctic ice sheet collapse? On Oct. 30, 2015 NASA scientist H. Jay Zwally et al. pub. the paper Mass Gains of Antarctic Ice Sheet Greater than Losses in Journal of Glaciology, using a LIDAR altimeter to discover that the Antarctic ice sheet is growing, with the soundbytes: "An increase in Antarctic snow accumulation that began 10,000 years ago is currently adding enough ice to the continent to outweigh the increased losses from its thinning glaciers"; "The research challenges the conclusions of other studies, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) 2013 report, which says that Antarctica is overall losing land ice. According to the new analysis of satellite data, the Antarctic ice sheet showed a net gain of 112 billion tons of ice a year from 1992 to 2001. That net gain slowed to 82 billion tons of ice per year between 2003 and 2008", revealing that ice sheet growth in E Antarctica of 147B tons/year outweighs the losses in W Antarctica, pissing-off warmist scientists; on Feb. 8, 2016 Harvard chem. student Jordan Wilkerson pub. the article Why is Antarctica's Ice Sheet Growing in a Warming World?, containing the soundbyte: "An important clarification to make: this trend in ice loss in the West Antarctic is one conclusion of the NASA study not being debated. 'We're essentially in agreement with other studies that show an increase in ice discharge in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Thwaites and Pine Island region of West Antarctica,; Jay Zwally, lead author of the study said. Therefore, if the increasing rates of ice loss in the West Antarctic continue, it'll be only a few decades before they outweigh the ice gain in the East. In this respect, there is no dispute. Antarctic ice is soon going to behave how we'd expect it to on a warming Earth – if it isn't already. And when you're considering how this study fits in with climate change, that is the important conclusion to keep in mind." A rebuttal is pub. on June 13, 2018 in Nature claiming that Antarctica is losing a net of 200B tons of ice/year, adding 0.02" (0.5mm) a year to the sea level, which Zwally claims is moose hockey. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - H. Jay Zwally. Watch video - H. Jay Zwally. Watch video - Tony Heller.


On Feb. 1-3, 2005 after an invitation by British PM Tony Blair, Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases is held at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter, Devon, England, chaired by Dennis Tirpak to take action on the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report and achieve the objectives of the 1991 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, concluding that the runaway level of 2C of global warming would likely happen after the atmospheric CO2 level reaches 550ppm, and that action must be taken when it is still below 400ppm because if it reaches 450 ppm then there is only a 50% likelihood of stopping the global warming from reaching 2C, also that if no action is taken for 20 years, emission reduction rates will have to be 3x-7x greater to achieve the same temperature target, causing the U.K. to change its target in its Climate Change Act from 60% to 80% by 2050.

On Feb. 16, 2005 the Kyoto Protocol (signed Dec. 11, 1997) becomes effective for all 84 signatories and 192 parties, incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, South Sudan, and later Canada and the U.S.

On June 8, 2005 the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season begins (ends Jan. 6, 2006), becoming the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, causing a total of 3,913 deaths and $180.7B damage (vs. $282.1B for the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season).

John Raymond Christy (1951-) Roy W. Spencer (1955-) Scott Denning

On Aug. 11, 2005 the online ed. of Science pub. three reports by Carl Mears and Frank Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems, reporting that old temp. records used to feed calculations indicating that there is no global warming contained errors, and that the troposphere has warmed during the last two decades; U. of Ala. atmospheric scientists John Raymond Christy (1951-) and Roy Warren Spencer (1955-), who developed the original records (first successful satellite temperature record) concede the error, but say that the warming rate calculated is too small to be a concern. In 2006 Spencer criticizes Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbyte: "Mr. Gore claims that the Earth is now warmer than it has been in thousands of years. Yet the latest National Academies of Science (NAS) report on the subject has now admitted that all we really know is that we are warmer now than we were during the last 400 years, which is mostly made up of the 'Little Ice Age'", adding the soundbyte in a New York Post op-ed of Feb. 26, 2007: "Contrary to popular accounts, very few scientists in the world - possibly none - have a sufficiently thorough, 'big picture' understanding of the climate system to be relied upon for a prediction of the magnitude of global warming. To the public, we all might seem like experts, but the vast majority of us work on only a small portion of the problem"; on Feb. 28, 2007 he gives an interview to Rush Limbaugh, with the soundbyte the he doesn't believe that "catastrophic manmade global warming" is occurring, criticizing climate models with the soundbyte: "The people that have built the climate models that predict global warming believe they have sufficient physics in those models to predict the future. I believe they don't. I believe the climate system, the weather as it is today in the real world shows a stability that they do not yet have in those climate models", later billing himself as "official climatologist of the Rush Limbaugh Show". In 2008 Spencer and William Braswell pub. a paper in Journal of Climate suggesting that natural variations in cloud formation could be causing temperature changes, rather than vice-versa, leading to overestimates of the sensitivity of Earth's climate to greenhouse gas emissions, with the soundbyte: "Our paper is an important step toward validating a gut instinct that many meteorologists like myself have had over the years... that the climate system is dominated by stabilizing processes, rather than destabilizing processes – that is, negative feedback rather than positive feedback." In 2011 Spencer and Braswell pub. a paper in Remote Sensing concluding that more energy is radiated back to space and released earlier than previously thought, with the soundbyte: "The satellite observations suggest there is much more energy lost to space during and after warming than the climate models show. There is a huge discrepancy between the data and the forecasts that is especially big over the oceans", causing a firestorm of controversy resulting in ed.-in-chief Wolfgang Wagner to resign. In 2011 Spencer debates Colo. State U. pro-global warming climate scientist Scott Denning at the Heartland Inst. Internat. Conference on Climate Change, their only non-climate skeptic. On Feb. 14, 2012 Christy pub. a study that found that snowfall in the Sierra Nevada Mts. has not changed in 130 years, pissing-off climate change advocates. On Aug. 28, 2012 Spencer pub. The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists, showing how recent global warming is the result of chaotic internal natural cycles, and that the climate models fail to account for the complexities of clouds. In Feb. 2014 Spencer posts the soundbyte on his blog that those who use the derogatory term climate change deniers should be called global warming Nazis, with the soundbyte: "These people are supporting policies that will kill far more people than the Nazis ever did", pissing-off the Anti-Defamation League, who calls it "just the latest example of a troubling epidemic of comparisons to Hitler and the Holocaust", to which Spencer responds that they didn't criticize syndicated columnist Ellen Goodman's assertion that "global warming deniers are now on a par with Holocaust deniers". On Mar. 13, 2015 Stephen Po-Chedley, Tyler J. Thorsen, and Qiang Fu of the U. of Wash. pub. the article Removing Diurnal Cycle Contamination in Satellite-Derived Tropospheric Temperatures: Understanding Tropical Tropospheric Trend Discrepancies is pub. in the Journal of Climate of the Am. Meteorological Society, claiming that Christy and Spencer are wrong to claim that there is no "tropospheric amplification" (tropospheric temps higher than surface temps) in the tropics, because their trend measurements are not in agreement with those of NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) - and this is their best chance to claim a Dragon in the Sky? In Apr. 2015 Spencer and Christy give an interview to, containing the soundbyte by Christy: "The American Meteorological Society did their survey and they specifically asked the question, Is man the dominate controller of climate over the last 50 years? Only 52 percent said yes. That is not a consensus at all in science... Roy and I have both made the statement that we are in the 97 percent because we believe in some (man-made) effect." On Aug. 19, 2017 Spencer pub. An Inconvenient Deception: How Al Gore Distorts Climate Science and Energy Policy, an attempt to drive the last nail in Gore's coffin, outselling Gore's book. Too bad, Spencer associates himself with the Intelligent Design crowd, and the libertarians, drawing derision for comments incl. "I view my job a little like a legislator, supported by the taxpayer, to protect the interests of the taxpayer and to minimize the role of government." Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Scott Denning.

On Sept. 28, 2005 the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. releases data that the Arctic ice cap is shrinking, reaching its smallest-ever size this summer, and that the cause is probably global warming from human-generated greenhouse gases; they also speculate that the change is becoming self-sustaining as the holes in the ice allow the sea to absorb solar energy; they also claim that the permafrost is disappearing, coastal areas are being inundated, and polar bears are losing hunting grounds.

Nicola Scafetta

On Sept. 28, 2005 Italian-born scientist Nicola Scafetta and physics prof. Bruce West of Duke U. pub. a paper in Geophysical Research Letters, which claims that "The sun may have minimally contributed about 10 to 30 percent of the 1980-2002 global surface warming", with Scafetta's Wikipedia bio stating: "At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system, claiming that the only reasonable explanation is that the climate system is modulated by astronomical oscillations. Natural cycles known with certainty are the 11 (Schwabe) and 22 (Hale) year solar cycles, the cycles of the planets and luni-solar nodal cycles. Jupiter has an orbital period of 11.9 years while Saturn has an orbital period of 29.4 years. These periods predict three other major cycles which are associated with Jupiter and Saturn: about 10 years, the opposition of two planets; about 20 years, their synodic cycle; and about 60 years, the repetition of the combined orbits of the two planets. The major lunar cycles are about 18.6 and 8.85 years. Scafetta's climate model is based primarily on a numerological comparison of secular periodic changes of global surface temperature and the Sun's periodic movement around barycenter of the Solar System caused by the revolving planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Periodic modulation of Moon´s orbital parameters by these planets and subsequent modulation of lunar tides is also discussed. According to Scafetta, who provides no physical explanation of that process, "external forcing of celestial origin simply drives the adjustment of the natural rhythms by letting their own energy flow with the same frequency of the forcing. It just passes to the climatic system the information of how it has to oscillate, not the entire energy to make it oscillate. The effect of a periodic external forcing, even if weak, may become macroscopic and all components of the system gradually synchronize with it." In Dec. 2009 Scafetta pub. the paper Empirical analysis of the solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, reconstructing major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar-induced temperature changes. In 2011 Scafetta and Am. ecologist Craig Lohle pub. the paper Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data in the Open Atmospheric Science Journal, forecasting that the world climate "may remain approximately steady until 2030-20040, and may at most warm 0.5-1.0°C by 2100 at the estimated 0.66°C/century anthropogenic warming rate." Scafetta goes on to pub. four more major papers starting in Jan. 2012, only to see the PC global warming scientist community respond with yawns, uttering the soundbyte: "The fact is that I can hindcast major properties observed in climate and solar records for decades, centuries and millennia, as my papers demonstrate while the mainstream climate community cannot do it. My models overcome any IPCC GCM for accuracy that is also demonstrated in one of my recent peer review publications just published." In May 2012 Scafetta pub. the article Testing an astronomically based decadal-scale empirical harmonic climate model versus the IPCC (2007) general circulation climate models in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, claiming to have found a 60-year cycle that explains climate change sans need for greenhouse effect; no surprise, it gets pooh-poohed as a mere curve-fitting exercise.

On Oct. 15, 2005 Category 5 (185 mph) Hurricane Wilma starts as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica, going W and turning into a tropical storm on Oct. 17, then turning S and becoming a hurricane on Oct. 18, growing to Category 5 on Oct. 19, becoming the strongest storm in the Atlantic in recorded history as it wobbles its way through the Caribbean, hitting the Yucatan Peninsula on Oct. 21-22 then entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane, sideswiping Cuba on Oct. 23 and accelerating to Category 3 on Oct. 24 before hitting Cape Romano, Fla. with 120 mph winds, crossing Fla. while weakening to Category 2 and reintensifying to Category 3 as it reaches the Atlantic Ocean and dissipating on Oct. 27, killing 87 incl. 13 in Haiti and Jamaica by the time it dis, causing $27B damage, becoming the 3rd most costly hurricane in history after Katrina and Andrew, and the 8th hurricane to hit Fla. in 15 mo., after which no major hurricane hits the continental U.S. until Hurricane Harvey on Aug. 26, 2017 after 11 years 10 mo.; no hurricane hits Fla. until Hurricane Hermine in 2016, and no major hurricane until Hurricane Irma in Sept. 2017.

In Dec. 2005 U. of Kan. researcher Johannes Feddema et al. in Science predict that the deforestation of Amazon jungles could strengthen the summer monsoon in the SW U.S., adding 2 in. to the precipitation and offsetting some of global warming's effects; global deforestation is going at a rate of 50K sq. mi. a year.

In 2005 the Climate Inst. of Australia is founded in Sydney to encourage progressive policies for managing climate change in Australia.

Bud Ward Anthony Leiserowitz (1968-) Ed Maibach (1958-) Connie Roser-Renouf (1953-)

In 2005 the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC) is founded at Yale U.'s School of Forestry after the Yale Forestry and Environmental Sciences Conference in Aspen, Colo. attended by 100 evironmental, business, and other groups agree on the battle plan Americans and Climate Change: Closing the Gap between Science and Action, resulting in funding by the NSF, NOAA, and eight private philanthropies incl. the Global Climate Action Summit, composed of the Grantham Foundation, Heising-Simons Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation; they go on to found the "flow-through" Energy Foundation, which pools funds from 23 philanthropies; the purpose of the YPCCC is as follows: "We conduct scientific research on public climate change knowledge, attitudes, policy preferences and behaviours and the underlying psychological, cultural and political factors that influence them"; the YPCCC subsidiary Yale Climate Connections feeds the media with pro-AGW stories with three full-time staff and 17 regular contributors, dir. by journalist Bud Ward; in 2007 human geography prof. Anthony Leiserowitz (1968-) becomes dir. of YPCC (until ?); his 2003 U. of Ore. dissertation is Global warming in the American mind : the roles of affect, imagery, and worldviews in risk perception, policy preferences and behavior; in 2007 YPCCC and the Environmental Defense found the Center for Climate Change Communication (GMU4C) at George Mason U., which helps produce the annual Climate Change and the American Mind; lead investigators at GMU4C are Edward Wile "Ed" Maibach (1958-) and Connie Roser-Renouf (1953-); in 2009 the GMU4C launches initiative to fuse AGW with public health in order to reveal the "health harms of climate change"; in 2016 they launch the Medical Society Consortium on Climate and Health, with five nat. medical assocs. partnering; in 2009 GMU4C obtains funding from NSF to launch Climate Matters, a program to convert media weathercasters into AGW educators in partnership with the AMS, NOAA, and NASA, supplying weekly AGW packages to 600 weathercasters that reach 75% of Americans with pro-AGW agitprop, esp. the idea that local weather is getting "weird"; in 2014 they send a rep to interview Pres. Obama and convince him to speak more about AGW. Watch video - Anthony Leiserowitz. On Nov. 1, 2016 YPCCC pub. the article Global Warming's Six Americas by Michael Sloan, identifying six unique U.S. public audiences that AGW public engagement efforts need to be aware of, viz., Alarmed, Concerned, Cautious, Disengaged, Doubtful, and Dismissive.

Tim Flannery (1956-)

In 2005 Australian environmentalist Timothy Fridtjof "Tim" Flannery (1956-) pub. The Weather Makers: The History and Future Impact of Climate Change, which claims that high enough CO2 levels can cause mass species extinctions, and has already contributed to the conflict in Darfur, dissing the coal industry and the U.S. Repub. Party, making fans of Sir Richard Branson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, British Columbia PM Gordon Campbell, and Zhou Ji, pres. of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. In Aug. 2018 he pub. the book The Big Melt.


In 2006 the U.S. Hurricane Drought begins, with no Category 3 or higher hurricane making landfall until 2017; the mean frequency of W North Pacific tropical cyclones is 18% lower in 1997-2014 than in 1980-96; the avg. value of total annual accumulated cyclone energy between 2006-16 is less than 60% of the 1900-2017 avg.; no increase in hurricane landfall frequency from 1900-2017; no correlation between tropical cyclone frequency and sea surface temperature over the W North Pacific basin.

James Lovelock (1919-)

In Jan. 2006 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system pub. an op-ed. in the British newspaper The Independent, claiming that as a result of global warming "billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable" by the end of the 21st cent., going on to predict that by 2040 the 6B world pop. will be culled by famine, flood, and droughts, with "the people of Southern Europe, as well as South-East Asia,... fighting their way into countries such as Canada, Australia and Britain", adding that "By 2040, parts of the Sahara desert will have moved into middle Ruope. We are talking about Paris - as far north as Berlin. In Britain we will escape because of our oceanic position", and "If you take the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions, then by 2040 every summer in Europe will be as hot as it was in 2003 - between 110F and 120F. It is not the death of people that is the main problem, it is the fact that the plants can't grow - there will be almost no food grown in Europe"; he finally predicts that 80% of humanity will perish by 2100 C.E., and that this global warming will last 100K years, adding in 2010 that "democracy must be put on hold for the time being"; too bad, in Apr. 2012 he gives an interview to MSNBC-TV, flopping on the issue, saying that he is no longer an "alarmist", with the soundbytes: "All right, I made a mistake", and had been "extrapolating too far"; when it comes to the claim that the science is settled, he utters the soundbytes: "One thing that being a scientist has taught me is that you can never be certain about anything. You never know the truth. You can only approach it and hope to get a bit nearer to it each time. You iterate towards the truth. You don't know it"; "It just so happens that the green religion is now taking over from the Christian religion"; "I don't think people have noticed that, but it's got all the sort of terms that religions use... The greens use guilt. That just shows how religious greens are. You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air"; "The problem is we don't know what the climate is doing. We thought we knew 20 years ago. That led to some alarmist books – mine included – because it looked clear-cut, but it hasn't happened"; "The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now. The world has not warmed up very much since the millennium. Twelve years is a reasonable time... it (the temperature) has stayed almost constant, whereas it should have been rising - carbon dioxide is rising, no question about that." He goes on to back nuclear energy, natural gas, and fracking. Watch video - James Lovelock. Watch video - James Lovelock.

James Hoggan (1946-)

In Jan. 2006 the DeSmog Blog is founded by public relations exec James "Jim" Hoggan (1946-) of Vancouver, B.C., Canada to push the global warming theory and oppose "a well-funded and highly organized public relations campaign" that is "poisoning" the climate change debate. On Sept. 29, 2009 he and Richard Littlemore pub. Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming; "Explains how the propaganda generated by self interest groups has purposely created confusion about climate change. It's an imperative read for a successful future." - Leonardo DiCaprio; on Jan. 18, 2019 Graham Readfearn pub. the article Climate Advocates Underestimate Power of Fossil Fueled Misinformation Campaigns, Say Top Researchers in DeSmog Blog, calling a "myth" the assertion that the "Greenhouse effect violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics", with the reply: "2nd law talks about net flow of energy, and doesn't forbid some flow from cool to hot", adding the "fact": "Greenhouse gases are like a blanket. They trap heat, sending it back down to Earth where we measure it"; a post to the blog setting them strait was suppressed.

Steven J. Milloy

On Feb. 1, 2006 Am. health science specialist Steven J. "Steve the Junkman" Milloy, founder of the Web site Junk Science (1996), known for funding by Am. tobacco cos. before becoming a vocal climate skeptic utters the soundbyte: "Our opposition to global warming alarmism is based on three points. First, we don't believe the available scientific data indicate that human activity is measurably changing global climate - history shows that natural climate change can be far more significant than any slight change in climate that may have occurred over the last 200 years. Second, even if human activity is altering global climate to some extent, such climate change might actually be beneficial - historically, civilization has fared better in warmer climatic conditions as opposed to cooler climatic conditions. Third, even if humans are undesirably affecting global climate, the best path forward may be adaptation to that climate change rather than harming the global economy through the expenditure of hundreds of billion dollars under the questionable rationale that greenhouse gas regulation can act as some sort of global thermostat. When the Clean Air Act was enacted in 1970, air pollution in the U.S. was more of an aesthetic than a public health problem. That is even more the case today. Few people realize this after 30 years of non-stop junk science-fueled alarmism from environmental activists"; on Apr. 20, 2006 he pub. the article The Greenhouse Myth on Fox News, containing the soundbytes: "[The] doubling of atmospheric CO2 from pre-Industrial Revolution days might increase global temperature from between 0.5 degrees Centigrade to 1.5 degrees Centigrade - that is, not much"; "[Anthropogenic climate change is not based on] actual temperature measurements and greenhouse physics - rather it comes from manmade computer models relying on myriad assumptions and guesswork." On Apr. 22, 2014 he speaks at the Heritage Foundation's Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement, with the soundbyte: "Of the many guises of the 'War on Coal,' global warming is perhaps the most used excuse... Simple math shows that the Obama war on coal, for purposes of climate control, is futile. Even if U.S.' CO2 emissions stopped today and were to be zero for the remainder of this century, atmospheric CO2 levels would only decrease by about 3%. There would be no measurable impact on global climate, at a cost of 25% of global GDP. We can debate the science of global warming to our heart's content, and we should, but the reality is worldwide hydrocarbon use is increasing. By itself, China is adding the equivalent of the entire U.S. coal fleet between now and 2020, India is adding 71 gigawatts of coal power between now and 2018 - almost as much as the Obama EPA has already shuttered. Obama's unilateral actions are all based on 'junk science' that will accomplish nothing except hurt our standard of living, devastate coal communities, raise electricity prices for all, and cause power outages." Watch video - Steven J. Milloy. Watch video - Steven J. Milloy.

Ray Evans (1939-2014) David Jensen of Australia (1962-) Malcolm Turnbull of Australia (1954-)

In Feb. 2006 conservative Australian electrical engineer and Western Mining Corp. exec Ray Evans (1939-2014) (known for the soundbyte that he is a Genesis 1:20 man, meaning "Man is top of the heap", and for calling Al Gore's film "An Inconvenient Truth" "bullshit from beginning to end"), founder of the Australian climate skeptic Lavoisier Group pub. the pamphlet Nine Lies About Global Warming, followed in Feb. 2007 by Nine Facts About Climate Change, which is released during a sitting of the Australian Parliament by Johannesburg, South Africa-born climate skeptic Liberal MP (2004-16) David Geoffrey Jensen (1962-); Evans goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming scam has been, arguably, the most extraordinary example of scientific fraud in the post-War period. So many people, and institutions, have been caught up in the web of deceit, master-minded by environmental activists working through NGOs and their manipulation of the IPCC processes, that the integrity of Western science is seriously at risk"; "Environmentalism has largely superseded Christianity as the religion of the upper classes in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States", and "If Kyoto is brought into effect the economic dislocation which must follow its implementation will be unprecedented in modern times. It will be equivalent to the famines of the early 19th Century in its disruptive power (except that the famines were followed by good seasons)." On Mar. 8, 2007 Evans appears on the panel discussing the BBC Channel 4 documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle. In Sept. 2008 Evans pub. the article Satanic Gas: The Politics of Carbon Dioxide, claiming that "carbon dioxide has been wrongfully demonised", and "Since 1998... global temperatures have either been stationary or, since 2002, in decline, but despite that, CO2 concentrations have continued to increase." In Nov. 2008 Evans pub. the article Thank God for Carbon, which contains the soundbytes: "The belief that anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are responsible for raising the world's temperature during the last 30 years or so is shown here to be without any solid foundation"; and "The Emissions Trading Scheme is a much greater threat to our lives and to our nation than any increase in carbon dioxide that man can produce." The Lavoisier Group goes on to help oust Liberal Party leader and PM #29 (since Sept. 15, 2015) Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (1954-) on Aug. 24, 2018 for supporting an emissions trading scheme. Watch video - Ray Evans.

On Mar. 26, 2006 Time mag. pub. the article Earth at the Tipping Point: Global Warming Heats Up, with the subtitle "Polar Ice Caps Are Melting Faster Than Ever... More and More Land is Being Devastated by Drought... Rising Waters Are Drowning Low-Lying Communities... The climate is crashing, and global warming is to blame. Why the crisis hit so soon - and what we can do about it", starting out: "No one can say exactly what it looks like when a planet takes ill, but it probably looks a lot like Earth. Never mind what you've heard about global warming as a slow-motion emergency that would take decades to play out. Suddenly and unexpectedly, the crisis is upon us."

David C. Archibald (1955-)

In Mar. 2006 Australian geologist David C. Archibald (1955-), dir. of the Australian climate skeptic Lavoisier Group pub. the paper Solar Cycles 24 [Dec. 2008] and 25 [2019] and Predicted Climate Response in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "Based on solar maxima of approximately 50 for solar cycles 24 and 25, a global temperature decline of 1.5°C is predicted to 2020, equating to the experience of the Dalton Minimum. To provide a baseline for projecting temperature to the projected maximum of solar cycle 25, data from five rural, continental US stations with data from 1905 to 2003 was averaged and smoothed. The profile indicates that temperatures remain below the average over the first half of the twentieth century", launching a scientific movement connecting sunspots with Earth's climate; in Mar. 2008 Archibald pub. the paper Solar Cycle 24: Implications for the United States, which starts out: "Do we live in a special time in which the laws of physics and nature are suspended? No, we do not. Can we expect relationships between the Sun's activity and climate, that we can see in data going back several hundred years, to continue for at least another 20 years? With absolute certainy"; in Sept. 2008 he pub. the article Warming or cooling? in Oil & Gas Journal, arguing that the IPCC's claimed water vapor feedback effect is negative not positive, and there is no need to worry about runaway global warming; in Mar. 2009 he pub. the article Solar Cycle 24: Expectations and Implications, predicting global cooling during the upcoming Solar Cycles 24 and 25; on July 20, 2009 he pub. the article The Future of Energy in Australia, claiming the global warming issue is blocking consideration of the real problem of declining oil self-sufficiency; on Oct. 5, 2011 he gives the talk Peak Oil and Climate Change: The Threat to Agriculture and Food Security, advocating a switch to nuclear power; on Mar. 24, 2014 he pub. the book The Twilight of Abundance: Why Life in the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutiish, and Short, warning of a future prolonged global cooling period, and how nuclear power and transformation of coal into liquid fuels can help survive it, going on a book tour that pisses-off global warming advocates, who call him a fringe scientist. In 2012 Jan-Erik Solheim, Kjell Stordahl, and Ole Humlum take up where Archibald left off, with the paper The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24 in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, with the abstract: "Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0°C from solar cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 for the stations and areas analyzed." Watch video - David C. Archibald. Watch video - David C. Archibald.

Stephen Harper of Canada (1959-) Gordon McBean Andrew John Weaver (1961-) Kenneth Denman

On Apr. 6, 2006 60 scientists (incl. 19 Canadians) send an open letter titled 61 Scientists Request a Review of Climate Science to new Canadian PM #23 (since Feb. 6) (until Nov. 4, 2015) Stephen Joseph Harper (1959-), arguing against the Dec. 11, 1997 Kyoto Protocol (which became effective on Feb. 16, 2005) and questioning its scientific basis, causing 90 climate scientists led by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, Canadian climate modeling scientist Andrew John Weaver (1961-) (lead author for "Chapter 12: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility" of Working Group I's contribution to IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report), and U. of Victoria ocean scientist Kenneth "Ken" Denman to send him an open letter calling for an effective nat. climate change strategy, resulting in the introduction of the Clean Air and Climate Change Act, which never becomes law, although the Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) is established to support govt. efforts to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, resulting in Canadian greenhouse emissions dropping from 749M tons to 726M tons during Harper's time in office, compared to an increase of 600M-749M tons in 1993-2006 during the previous Liberal govt., although this is due to the decreased economic output during the Great Recession of Dec. 2007-June 2009, and emissions began increasing in 2010 after the economy began recovering. On Aug. 26, 2008 Weaver pub. Keeping Our Cool: Canada in a Warming World, followed on May 1, 2011 by Generation Us: The Challenge of Global Warming. In Oct. 2012 Weaver joins the Green Party of British Columbia, becoming its leader on Dec. 9, 2015. In Dec. 2012 after announcing it in Dec. 2011, Harper withdraws Canada from the Kyoto Protocol, becoming the first country. On Mar. 21, 2018 never-say-die Weaver gives a speech to the British Columbia legislature, warning of climate change and saying that society needs to "rise to the challenge and not shy away from it".

Bob Carter (1942-2016) Stewart Franks

In Apr. 2006 English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) pub. the soundbyte: "There IS a problem with global warming... It stopped in 1998... That industrial carbon dioxide is not the primary cause of earth's recent decadal-scale temperature changes doesn't seem at all odd to many thousands of independent scientists. They have long appreciated - ever since the early 1990s, when the global warming bandwagon first started to roll behind the gravy train of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - that such short-term climate fluctuations are chiefly of natural origin"; on Nov. 3, 2006 he pub. the soundbyte in The Australian: "The empirical data stressed by climate rationalists will ultimately prevail over the predictions of the unvalidated computer models. Perhaps then we will be able to attend to the real climate policy problem, which is to prepare response plans for extreme weather events, and for climate warmings as well as coolings, in the same way we prepare to cope with all other natural hazards"; in Sept. 2014 he and Tom Harris pub. an op-ed in The New York Post, with the soundbyte: "Science is never settled, but the current state of 'climate change' science is quite clear: There is essentially zero evidence that carbon dioxide from human activities is causing catastrophic climate change." On Apr. 15, 2009 the Australian Parliament's Select Committee on Climate Policy takes testimony from climate skeptics incl. English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) and English "hydro-climatologist" Stewart "Stewie" Franks of the U. of Tasmania, who utters the soundbyte: "Our climate policies here in the west are already killing people and climate change has never been shown to have killed a single person"; Franks goes on to utter the soundbytes: "I don't think anybody knows the real role of carbon dioxide in climate change. To say it will be catastrophic is wrong. There is no evidence that CO2 drives climate change, but it continues to be used to scare people into action"; "A key concern is that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which advises governments around the world, has used the Murray-Darling Basin and incorrect science as an example of CO2-induced climate change"; "It is worth pointing out that the CO2 forcing in the IPCC models is only the start of their chain of disaster. It is actually the qualitative feedback with the clouds that generates the extreme disasters of runaway climate. It is not CO2 at all; it is a knock-on consequence. That has no empirical or scientific justification whatsoever. They could very much easily have built in negative feedback and found that the warming was actually reduced... We do not actually monitor what is the most important parameter for this planet; this is, its reflectivity—its albedo. We do not even measure that. A very small changed in the planetary albeit it would completely swamp any additional forcing by CO2 and we do not even measure it. How can we say CO2 is a scientifically proven theory of disastrous climate change? We cannot. We can be concerned about the future, but until it shows itself demonstrably there is no empirical evidence of CO2 leading to this runaway climate change." Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Stewart Franks. Watch video - Stewart Franks.

Steve Goreham

In Apr. 2006 the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition (NZCSC) is founded "To represent accurately, and without prejudice, facts regarding climate change; to provide considered opinion on matters related to both natural and human-caused climate effects; and to comment on the economic and socio-political consequences of climate change"; in 2007 the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC) is founded by the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition, with the goal of "moving the debate away from implementation of costly and ineffectual 'climate control' measures", providing an "international response to what has become a very international, heavily funded climate alarmist effort around the world"; "ICSC also focuses on publicizing the repercussions of misguided plans to solve the 'climate crisis'. This includes, but is not be limited to, the dangerous impacts of attempts to replace conventional energy sources with wind turbines, solar power, biofuels and other ineffective and expensive energy sources"; it goes on to create the Australian Climate Coalition and the Climate Science Coalition of Am., headed by Am. electrical engineer Steve Goreham; on Apr. 7, 2008 Canadian mechanical engineer Tom Harris (1953-) becomes exec. dir. of the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC), going on to engage in a media campaign and pub. articles giving the climate skeptic side; too bad, U.S. Dem. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse claims they're funded by the "Web of Deceit", "a web of deceit conceived and bankrolled by the Koch brothers and other self-interested billionaires to advocate for very selfish and unpatriotic politics. This web of deceit has infiltrated and populated the Trump administratin, and it is swamping the interests of everyday Americans." On Apr. 1, 2010 Goreham pub. the book Climatism! Science, Common Sense, and the 21st Century's Hottest Topic, "an overview of the science, politics, and energy policy implications of the world's misguided efforts to stop warming", defining Climatism as the belief that humans cause global warming, with the soundbytes: "The science clearly shows that global warming is due to natural causes, despite the tidal wave of world belief in man-made climate change"; "The global wind industry is built on a foundation of sand - the hypothesis that man-made global warming is destroying Earth's climate"; On Aug. 31, 2012 Goreham pub. the book The Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism: Mankind and Climate Change Mania (2nd ed. Aug. 31, 2012), with the ad blurb: "Is it true that... by driving electric cars, we can stop the seas from rising?... The good news is that, contrary to what our newspaper, our professor, or our political leader tells us, global warming is natural and cars are innocent." On May 1, 2017 Goreham pub. the book Outside the Green Box: Rethinking Sustainable Development, with the ad blurb: "Today, businesses are trapped in the green box of sustainable development. Academics, government leaders, public opinion, and thousands of laws and regulations demand the adoption of sustainability. In response, companies spend billions on renewable energy, carbon credits, biofuels, and other green policies in an effort to counter the coming environmental apocalypse. But a look at data and trends shows that the ideology of environmental sustainable development is based on false concepts. Population growth is slowing, nations continue to reduce air and water pollution, climate change is dominated by natural factors, with the effects from human greenhouse emissions negligible, and societal access to resources continues to grow. Society and business should adopt a policy that is sensibly green, continuing to reduce air and water pollution, but avoid other policies aimed at stopping global warming and halting hydrocarbon use. These policies do little for Earth's environment." Watch video - Steve Goreham.

Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) 'An Inconvenient Truth' by Al Gore (1948-), 2006

On May 24, 2006 after The Washington Post writes on Jan. 26 that he "believes humanity may have only 10 years left so save the planet from turning into a total frying pan", calling him "the world's most renowned crusader on climate change", Washington, D.C.-born former U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) (1985-93) and Dem. U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It; pub. by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Penn.; the cover photo shows huge smokestacks belching a complete tornado while clouds are whitewashed out; "I am Al Gore, and I used to be the next president of the United States of America"; "You see that pale, blue dot? That's us. Everything that has ever happened in all of human history, has happened on that pixel. All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars all the famines, all the major advances... it's our only home. And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization. I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future"; "As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives"; "Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us"; "Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, 'What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had a chance?' We have to hear that question from them, now"; "The scientists are virtually screaming from the rooftops now. The debate is over! There's no longer any debate in the scientific community about this. But the political systems around the world have held this at arm's length because it's an inconvenient truth, because they don't want to accept that it's a moral imperative"; "It is appropriate to have an over representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis"; "An Inconvenient Truth is so convincing that it makes opposers of the argument as credible as Holocaust deniers" (Jon Niccum); released along with a film (May 24), which does $24M U.S. and $26M worldwide box office, which is followed by An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power (July 28, 2017), which only grosses $5M worldwide; "I don't think anybody can prepare on a physical level. It isn't possible to prepare for what is about to happen. The Pentagon gives us one to three years left of normal life on this planet. Now you have Al Gore's movie 'An Inconvenient Truth', whom I find very optimistic, as he gives us ten years. But I don't know a single scientist on the planet who gives us ten years or anybody else who gives us that long. What the Pentagon talks about is the rapid changes in climate, making it impossible to live in certain areas. Exactly where those areas are, they don't know" (Drunvalo Melchizedek); the book is followed by the sequel Our Choice (original title: The Path to Survival) (Nov. 2009) - or, drowning polar bears, submerged mainly Dem. Manhattan and San Fran, and why I shoulda been president then grew a beard to save electricity? On May 31, 2006 Jonathan Freeland pub. the article Born again in The Guardian, containing the soundbyte: "Patiently, and surely for the 10,000th time, he [Gore] explains what's going wrong. The atmosphere is like a coat of varnish around the globe, he says. When it's thin, as it should be, heat naturally escapes. But when it gets thicker, thanks to carbon dioxide emitted by us, it traps in the heat and the world gets warmer. 'It's cooking and wilting the most vulnerable parts of the eco-system, melting all the mountain glaciers, the north polar ice cap, parts of Antarctica, parts of Greenland.' That molten ice-water will raise sea-levels, flooding food-producing areas that all of us rely on. Eventually it will submerge whole cities, from San Francisco to Shanghai. The site of the Twin Towers will not be a memorial garden: it will be underwater. 'This could literally end civilisation.' He smiles. 'I know it sounds alarmist, as if this is hyperbole, like a man with a white beard holding a placard, saying the end of the world is near... but this really is a planetary emergency'." On Nov. 5, 2007 Gore utters the soundbyte on NBC-TV's Today Show: "There are still people who believe that the Earth is flat... You don't search out for someone who still believes the Earth is flat and give them equal time"; on Mar. 30, 2008 he appears on CBS-TV's "60 Minutes" to unveil a $300M advertising blitz to force a debate on climate change during the U.S. pres. elections, uttering the soundbyte about climate change skeptics: "I think that those people are in such a tiny, tiny minority now with their point of view, they're almost like the ones who still believe that the Moon landing was staged in a movie lot in Arizona and those who believe the earth is flat. That demeans them a little bit, but it's not that far off." In 2007 Gore joins the Silicon Valley venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Byers (KPCB) to help invest in green startups. In Mar. 2008 Gore's Law is formulated: "As an online climate change debate grows longer, the probability that denier arguments will descend into attacks on Al Gore approaches 1." In 2015 Gore founds the Climate Reality Project to collect donations, with the motto: "Together, we are stronger fighting against climate denial"; Gore becomes a millionaire from hawking climate change, going from a net worth of $1.7M in 2000 to $200M in 2017, buying an $8.8M 6.5K sq. ft. seafront home in Calif. and traveling in a gas hog private jet while claiming to travel on cheap Southwest Airlines? Meanwhile Gore's 10 main global warming predictions all fall flat? Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore. Watch video - Drew Johnson and Tucker Carlson on Al Gore. Watch video - Al Gore on the Rubin Report.

Seth Borenstein (1979-)

A leading example of a caged hen in media? On June 27, 2006 new Ohio-born AP journalist (self-declared science writer) Seth Borenstein (1979-) begins his long sad career of super-partisan true Gore believer pro-AGW alarmist agitprop with the article Scientists OK Gore's Movie for Accuracy, claiming he interviewed "more than 100 top climate researchers", 19 of which gave Gore "five stars for accuracy", causing the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works to issue a press release claiming that his article raises "serious questions about AP's bias and methodology", challenging him to reveal his sources, which he refuses; on July 27, 2006 Borenstein pub. an article that describes a scientist as "one of the few remaining scientists skeptical of the global warming harm caused by industries that burn fossil fuels"; on Sept. 22, 2007 Borenstein pub. the article Rising Seas Likely to Flood U.S. History, containing the soundbyte: "Ultimately, rising seas will likely swamp the first American settlement in Jamestown, Va., as well as the Florida launch pad that sent the first American into orbit, many climate scientists are predicting. In about a century, some of the places that make America what it is may be slowly erased", adding that dangerous higher sea levels "will happen regardless of any future actions to curb greenhouse gases, several leading scientists say. And it will reshape the nation... Storm surges worsened by sea level rise will flood the waterfront getaways of rich politicians—the Bushes' Kennebunkport and John Edwards' place on the Outer Banks. And gone will be many of the beaches in Texas and Florida favored by budget-conscious students on Spring Break", causing nearly two dozen prominent scientists to denounce him; on Mar. 27, 2008 Borenstein pub. an article that claims that recent satellite images showing the 160 sq. mi. Wilkins Ice Shelf in the SW Antarctic Peninsula collapsing shows that the entire Antarctic is melting, with the soundbyte: "Scientists said they are not concerned about a rise in sea level from the latest event, but say it's a sign of worsening global warming", blatantly excluding scientists and peer-reviewed studies claiming that it has cooled over the past 50 years while ice coverage has grown to record levels since satellite monitoring began in 1979; on Dec. 14, 2008 Borenstein pub. the article Obama left with little time to curb global warming in USA Today, calling global warming "a ticking time bomb that President-elect Barack Obama can't avoid", with the alarmist soundbyte: "Global warming is accelerating. Time is close to running out, and Obama knows it", pissing-off several scientists incl. Richard S. Courtney, who pub. the soundbyte: "Global warming is not 'accelerating'; global warming has stopped. There has been no statistically significant rise in (mean global temperature: MGT) since 1995 and MGT has fallen since 1998. The Earth has been warming from the Little Ice Age (LIA) for 300 years so, of course, the warmest years happened recently. But that warming from the LIA peaked in the El Nino year of 1998"; on Aug. 20, 2009 Borenstein pub. the article In Hot Water: World Sets Ocean Temperature Record, falsely claiming that the July 2009 NOAA "State of the Climate" report gives sea surface temps that are the highest since records began; on Oct. 8, 2013 Borenstein pub. the article Study Temperatures go off the charts around 2047, ignoring numerous climate models that don't agree with him to issue the alarmist conclusion: "Starting in about a decade, Kingston, Jamaica will probably be off-the-charts hot – permanently. Other places will soon follow. Singapore in 2028. Mexico City in 2031. Cairo in 2036. Phoenix and Honolulu in 2043. And eventually the whole world in 2047"; on Jan. 16, 2015 Borenstein pub. an article that falsely claims that the odds that nine of the 10 hottest years happened since 2000 are about 650 million to one; on Feb. 27, 2015 Borenstein and Luis Andres Henao pub. the article Glacial Melting in Antarctica Makes Continent the 'Ground Zero of Global Climate Change', once again excluding any scientists with views contrary to theirs; on Nov. 29, 2018 Borenstein pub. the article Climate change is more extensive and worse than once thought, which implies that the June 20, 2017 "near record" high temp of 120F (really 119F) in Phoenix, Ariz. was caused by global warming, neglecting to mention that it also saw temps of 122F in 1990 and 121F in 1995. Watch video - Seth Borenstein. Watch video - Seth Borenstein.

Thomas Wysmuller

On Aug. 6, 2006 former NASA meteorologist Thomas "Tom" Wysmuller founds the Web site The Colder Side of Global Warming, containing the articles The Recent Temperature and CO2 Disconnect, and The Inconvenient CO2/Sea Level Non-Linkage, which contain the soundbytes: "There has been a stunning disconnect involving land temperatures globally and CO2, whether man-made or naturally sourced. The oceans continue to warm, while the surface record flatlines.... It is obvious that the surface records are NOT going up - they are basically in a 0.2C flatline"; "If CO2 is to be considered a major driver of temperatures, it is doing a counterintuitive dance around the numbers." Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller. Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller. Watch video - Thomas Wysmuller.

On Sept. 26, 2006 James Hansen et al. of NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies warn that the Earth's temperature is the warmest in 12K years, and has been warming .036F (0.2C) per decade for the past 30 years; 1.7K plant, animal, and insect species move poleward at an avg. rate of 4 mi. (6.5km) per decade in the last half of the 20th cent.

Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-)

On Sept. 27, 2006 the Calif. Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 is signed by Thal, Austria-born Calif. Repub. Gov. (2003-11) Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (1947-), establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse emissions from all sources in the state, strengthening his Executive Order S-3-05 of June 1, 2005 establishing greenhouse emissions targets.

Don J. Eastbrook (1936-)

On Oct. 23, 2006 Western Wash. U. geologist Donald J. "Don" Eastbrook (1936-) pub. the paper The Cause of Global Warming and Predictions for the Coming Century, containing the soundbyte: "If the cycles continue as in the past, the current warm cycle should end soon and global temperatures should cool slightly until about 2035, then warm about 0.5°C from ~2035 to ~2065, and cool slightly until 2100. The total increase in global warming for the century should be ~0.3 °C, rather than the catastrophic warming of 3-6°C (4-11°F) predicted by the IPCC." On Mar. 10, 2009 Eastbrook speaks at the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte that a decades-long global cooling spell is coming, deeper than the one in the mid-20th cent., maxing-out energy sources, with the soundbyte: "We want to reduce pollution, increase efficiency, decrease dependence on foreign oil. The difficulty I see is greater demands and fewer resources." Watch video - Don J. Eastbrook. Watch video - Don J. Eastbrook. Watch video - Don J. Eastbrook.

Nicholas Stern (1946-)

On Oct. 30, 2006 the 550-page Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is pub. by the British govt., written by 20 writers supervised by British economist Nicholas Herbert Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford (1946-), containing the soundbyte: "Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. The evidence on the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming... The problem of climate change involves a fundamental failure of markets: those who damage others by emitting greenhouse gases generally do not pay", recommending large environmental taxes incl. carbon taxes and carbon trading to supposedly circumvent a 5%-20% GDP loss per year, causing criticism of his freewheeling application of discount rates; Stern goes on to advocate vegetarianism to mitigate climate change. In Oct.-Dec. 2006 The Stern Review: A Dual Critique (2 parts) is pub. in World Economics, with Part 1 written by Robert M. Carter, C.R. de Freitas, Indur M. Goklany, David Holland, and Richard S. Lindzen, with the conclusion: "We conclude that the Stern Review is biased and alarmist in its reading ofthe science. In particular, it displays: (1) a failure to acknowledge the scope and scale of the knowledge gaps and uncertainties in climate science (2) credulous acceptance of hypothetical, model-based explanations of the causality of climate phenomena (3) massive overestimation of climate impacts through an implausible population scenario and one-sided treatment of the impacts literature,including reliance on agenda-driven advocacy documents (4) lack of due diligence in evaluating many pivotal research studies despite the scandalous lack of disclosure of data and methods in these studies (5) lack of concern for the defects and inadequacies of the peer reviewprocess as a guarantor of quality or truth"; Part 2 concludes: "(1) it greatly understates the extent of uncertainty as to possible developments, in highly complex systems that are not well understood, over a period of two centuries or more (2) its treatment of sources and evidence is persistently selective and biased." Watch video - Nicholas Stern.

Anthony Watts (1958-) Tony Heller (1957-)

On Nov. 17, 2006 Am. TV meteorologist Willard Anthony Watts (1958-) launches the blog Watts Up With That? (WUWT), opposing proponents of anthropogenic climate change esp. by CO2, going on to help spread the Climatic Research Unit controversy in Nov. 2009, and becoming the #1 climate change blog on Earth (until ?); computer engineer Tony Heller (1957-) of Boulder, Colo. builds up a rep on the blog under the alias Steven Goddard with allegations that NASA has been falsely claiming the year 1998 as the hottest in U.S. history when it was really 1934 after "adjusting" temperature data in a way which is "highly subjective, and subject to software and algorithm errors", going on to launch his own blog The Deplorable (Real) Climate Science Blog, with the motto: "Pulling Back the Curtain on Junk Science", continuing to expose govt. agencies incl. NASA, NOAA, the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, and the Japanese Meteorological Agency as data fakers, and paint a picture of the "global warming religion"; in Aug. 2007 NASA admits that 1934 is the hottest year on record for the U.S., but claims that the hottest year on Earth for the past cent. is still 2005. On Sept. 2, 2018 Heller exposes the New York Times for climate fraud. He goes on to utter the soundbytes: "From my experience, at least 97% of what you read in the press about climate is fake news"; "Writers hide data, and do severely flawed analysis on the data they aren't hiding"; "Climate scientists are classic snake oil salesmen. They'll take whatever the current ailment is then say they have cure and you just need to give them money. And they employ Orwellian doublespeak as their standard technique.... Climate science is not a science at all. It's just the largest scam in history." On Jan. 29, 2019 Heller pub. the article Overwhelming Evidence of Climate Collusion. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - James Delingpole on Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller.

In Nov. 2006 the Nat. Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP) pub. a survey on climate change, with 82% claiming that global warming is real and measurable, 67% claiming that the U.S. is not doing enough to combat it, 66% claiming that global warming is a serious problem, 40% wanting the automotive industry regulated, and 39% wanting carbon emissions regulated.

Bruno Wiskel (1961-)

In 2006 Canadian geologist Bruno Wiskel (1961-) AKA the Prosperous Farmer pub. The Emperor's New Climate - Debunking the Myths of Global Warming. On Nov. 5, 2006 he gives an interview to Eliza Barlow of the Edmonton Sun, claiming that global warming is a "madness of the prevailing wisdom" that has turned "from a science to a religion", and is actually an eons-old force that has nothing to do with people, having been going on for about 18K years, with glaciers retreating and sea levels rising throughout, with the soundbyte: "If this happened once and we were the cause of it, that would be cause for concern. But glaciers have been coming and going for billions of years." In Nov. 2009 he pub. The Sky Is Not Falling - Putting Climate Change on Trial, containing the soundbyte: "Are you tired of the hysteria surrounding the climate change question? Do you believe that environmental groups are on the take and are simply using global warming to line their pockets? Do you think the doubt the science that the alarmists of the world are presenting? If you answered yes to any or all of these questions, then 'The Sky Is Not Falling – Putting Climate Change On Trial' is definitely the book for you."

Calvin Beisner (1955-) Lawson R. Bader

In 2006 the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation (originally the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance), "the most influential evangelical anti-environmentalist in the United States" is founded by evangelical Christian Ernest Calvin Beisner (1955-) to fight environmentalism as "one of the greatest threats to society and the church today", and "the greatest threat to Western civilization", with the soundbyte: "Earth and its ecosystems - created by God's intelligent design and infinite power and sustained by His faithful providence – are robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting, admirably suited for human flourishing, and displaying His glory. Earth's climate system is no exception"; Protect the Poor: Ten Reasons to Oppose Harmful Climate Change Policies starts out: "As the product of infinitely wise design, omnipotent creation, and faithful sustaining, Earth is robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting. "Although Earth and its subsystems, including the climate system, are susceptible to some damage by ignorant or malicious human action, God's wise design and faithful sustaining make these natural systems more likely - as confirmed by widespread scientific observation p to respond in ways that suppress and correct that damage than magnify it catastrophically"; the "Evangelical Declaration on Global Warming" states: "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human contribution to greenhouse gases is causing dangerous global warming." Its parent group, the James Partnership is funded by the secretive Donors Trust, chaired since Sept. 2015 by Lawson R. Bader, former CEO of the Competitive Enterprise Inst. In 2010 the Cornwall Alliance releases the film Resisting the Green Dragon, which calls environmentalism a "false religion" and "global government" power grab; "In what has become one of the greatest deceptions of our day, radical environmentalism is striving to put America and the world under its destructive control. This so-called Green Dragon is seducing your children in our classrooms and popular culture. Its lust for political power now extends to the highest global levels, and its twisted view of the world elevates Nature above the needs of people, of even the poorest and most helpless. With millions falling prey to its spiritual deception, the time is now to stand and resist." Watch video.

Augie Auer Jr. (1940-2007)

In 2006 St. Louis, Mo.-born Kiwi meteorologist August H. "Augie" Auer Jr. (1940-2007) co-founds the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition to fight claims for anthropogenic global warming, calling on the Kiwi govt. to institute a royal commission on climate change because the public are "being given incomplete, inaccurate and biased information about the effects of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere", claiming that "global warming caused by man-made emissions of greenhouse gases... cannot be substantiated", which they refuse; on May 19, 2007 Auer gives an interview to The Timaru Herald newspaper, containing the soundbyte: "Water vapour was responsible for 95 per cent of the greenhouse effect, an effect which was vital to keep the world warm... If we didn't have the greenhouse effect the planet would be at minus 18 °C but because we do have the greenhouse effect it is plus 15 °C, all the time. The other greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, and various others including CFCs, contributed only five per cent of the effect, carbon dioxide being by far the greatest contributor at 3.6 per cent. It would be like trying to increase the temperature of bath tub full of water using one drop from an eye dropper"; too bad, on June 10 he drops dead in Melbourne on his 67th birthday.

Andrew Dessler (1964-) Kate Marvel (1978-)

In 2006 Houston, Tex.-born Texas A&M climate scientist Andrew Dessler (1964-) and Edward A. Parson pub. The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate (2nd ed. 2009), which becomes a hit for teaching climate science from the global warmist viewpoint; on Oct. 10, 2011 he follows it with Introduction to Modern Climate Change. On Jan. 16, 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, claiming that climate warming is real and "humans are now in the driver's seat... we have our foot on the gas, but unfortunately we don't have our hands on the wheel", adding "We know that, over the next century, if nothing is done to rein in emissions, temperatures will likely increase enough to profoundly change the planet." After a front page article is pub. in The New York Times discussing the theory that clouds might offset the effects of increased greenhouses gases, he pub. an article in 2011 in Geophysical Research Letters that "offered some evidence that clouds will exacerbate the long-term planetary warming", calling climate change skeptics believers in an "alternate reality", causing him to be targeted by climate change skeptics, making him more popular? - pretending to predict global climate in 2100 isn't an alternate reality? On June 18, 2015 Columbia U./NASA Goodard Inst. for Space Studies climate scientist Kate Marvel (1978-) (big proponent of CO2-driven global warming) pub. the article THe Hidden Importance of Clouds, discussing the power of clouds to moderate global warming, speculating that "It seems unlikely, though, that clouds will completely nullify the effects of our carbon dioxide emissions. They may at most buy us time and delay the consequences of our actions." On June 8, 2018 Scientific American launches its Climate Science Column, written by Kate Marvel. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Andrew Dessler. Watch video - Kate Marvel. Watch video - Kate Marvel. Watch video - Kate Marvel.

Patrick Moore (1947-)

In 2006 Port Alice, B.C., Canada-born former Greenpeace pres. (1977-86) Patrick Moore (who left after it "took a sharp turn to the political left" and "evolved into an organization of extremism and politically motivated agendas" writes a letter to the British Royal Society, claiming that there is "no scientific proof that mankind was causing global climate change", and that it "has a much better correlation with changes in solar activity than CO2 levels", adding that global warming can be good if it creates more arable land, advocating adaptation to it; on Feb. 27, 2014 he testifies before the U.S. Senate, uttering the soundbytes: "There is no scientific proof that human emissions of carbon dioxide are the dominant cause of the minor warming of the Earth's atmosphere over the past 100 years. If there were such a proof it would be written down for all to see. No actual proof, as it is understood in science, exists"; "When modern life evolved over 500 million years ago, CO2 was more than 10 times higher than today, yet life flourished at this time. Then an Ice Age occurred 450 million years ago when CO2 was 10 times higher than today. There is some correlation, but little evidence, to support a direct causal relationship between CO2 and global temperature through the millennia. The fact that we had both higher temperatures and an ice age at a time when CO2 emissions were 10 times higher than they are today fundamentally contradicts the certainty that human-caused CO2 emissions are the main cause of global warming"; "Today, we live in an unusually cold period in the history of life on Earth and there is no reason to believe that a warmer climate would be anything but beneficial for humans and the majority of other species"; "Humans just aren't capable of predicting global temperature changes." On June 1, 2016 Moore pub. the article The Positive Impact of Human CO2 Emissions on the Survival of Life on Earth, "As recently as 18,000 years ago, at the height of the most recent major glaciation, CO2 dipped to its lowest level in recorded history at 180 ppm, low enough to stunt plant growth. This is only 30 ppm above a level that would result in the death of plants due to CO2 starvation. It is calculated that if the decline in CO2 levels were to continue at the same rate as it has over the past 140 million years, life on Earth would begin to die as soon as two million years from now and would slowly perish almost entirely as carbon continued to be lost to the deep ocean sediments." Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore. Watch video - Patrick Moore.


Christopher C. Horner 'The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming' by Christopher C. Horner, 2007

On Jan. 1, 2007 Am. atty. Christopher C. "Chris" Horner (senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Inst.) pub. the NYT bestseller The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming (and Environmentalism), followed by Red Hot Lies: How Global Warming Alarmists Use Threats, Fraud, and Deception to Keep You Misinformed (Oct. 21, 2008), Power Grab: How Obama's Green Policies Will Steal Your Freedom and Bankrupt America (Apr. 19, 2010), and The Liberal War on Transparency: Confessions of a Freedom of Information "Criminal" (Oct. 2, 2012), becoming "instrumental in orchestrating the attacks on climate scientists over the past decade in the form of vexatious and frivolous FOIA demands, efforts to force scientists to turn over all of their personal email" (Michael Mann, a victim); too bad, his acceptance of funding by coal cos. is used by his critics to go low?; "The longtime go-to guy on global warming extremism." (Rush Limbaugh) Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner. Watch video - Christopher C. Horner.

On Jan. 14, 2007 (14:30 GMT) the Doomsday Clock is set to 5 min. to midnight, becoming the 4th forward set since 1991, prompted by nuclear standoffs with Iran and N Korea and warnings of climate change; "Global warming could kill millions. We should have a war on global warming rather than the war on terror" (Stephen W. Hawking, Jan. 17); China's emissions increase 8% this year, causing it to overtake the U.S. as the top producer of greenhouse gases (14% higher), although the U.S. still leads on a per capita basis, 19.4 tons, vs. 11.8 in Russia, 8.6 in the EU, 5.1 in China, and 1.8 in India.

On Jan. 18, 2007 Ian Herbert pub. the article Snowdon will be snow-free in 13 years, scientists warn in The Independent, about Mt. Snowdon (Gael. "Snow Hill") in Wales.

Thomas L. Friedman (1953-)

On Jan. 19, 2007 St. Louis Park, Minn.-born Jewish globalist journalist Thomas Loren Friedman (1953-) pub. the article A Warning from the Garden in The New York Times, followed by the article The Power of Green in ditto on Apr. 15, proposing the Green New Deal, a version of FDR's New Deal involving a massive federal intervention in environmental programs incl. economic planning and stimulus packages to create green jobs.

'Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?', by William Hunt, 2009

On Jan. 22, 2007 Am. geologist-environmentalist William Hunt pub. the article The Nonsense of Global Warming, containing the soundbytes: "Global warming, geologic dating techniques, and uniformitarianism all can be considered junk science as much of the physical evidence argues against them"; "The facts, such as we can observe and calculate them, do not support the idea of man-made global warming. Natural processes completely eclipse anything that man can accomplish - a minor rainstorm expends more energy than a large nuclear explosive releases and the lowest category of hurricane expends more energy than all of the nuclear weapons ever produced in a short time. Most geologists and indeed, most scientists in the U.S., do not accept the idea that global warming resulting from human activities is a viable theory - because most have an appreciation for the kind of power inherent in natural systems. Conversely, most biologists do accept the idea of mancaused global warming and quote scientists in other fields, without understanding those other fields sufficiently to make a logical judgment as to whether the studies were reasonable in their methods and claims. They simply take it on faith that the scientistspropounding global warming are correct in their methods and assumptions. The problem with computer [climate] modeling is that only a tiny percentage of the literally millions of variables involved can be written into a program. It's currently impossible for us to accurately model Earth's climate and we are not aware of all of the variables yet"; in 2007 he pub. the audio series Global Warming Exposed, followed on June 10, 2009 by the book Global Warming Challenged: True Climate Crisis or Media Hype?

Henrik Svensmark (1958-) Nigel Calder (1931-2014)

On Jan. 25, 2007 Danish physicist Henrik Svensmark (1958-) pub. the paper Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges in Astronomy and Geophysics, tracing climate change to solar activity and their effect on cosmic rays, not CO2; in 2007 Svensmark and British science writer Nigel David Calder (McKail-Ritchie-Calder) (1931-2014) pub. the book The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change; in 1980 Calder predicted that by 2000 "the much-advertised heating of the earth by the man-made carbon dioxide 'greenhouse' fails to occur; instead, there is renewed concern about cooling an an impending ice age." "The hypothesis is that solar variability is linked to climate variability by a chain that involves the solar wind, cosmic rays, and clouds"; "Those who are absolute certain that the rise in temperature is due solely to carbon dioxide have no scientific justification. It's pure guesswork." On Mar. 20, 2015 (08:30 GMT) (Fri.) (equinox) a full-supermoon-vernal-equinox-solar eclipse knocks out solar-generated electricity in Europe, where 100x as much power is generated from the Sun than during the last eclipse in 1999; first total solar eclipse to coincide with the northern spring equinox since 1662; next on Mar. 20, 3034; the 2:47 eclipse causes Svalbard Island in Norway to experience a sudden temperature drop from 8F to -7F, disproving that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and proving Henrik Svensmark right? Watch video. Watch video.

Peter Hadfield

On Jan. 26, 2007 Potholer54 (former BBC journalist Peter Hadfield) launches a YouTube channel, going on to release videos attempting to debunk climate change denialists, reaching 27K subscribers by Mar. 2010, and 157K by 2018; Watch video - Potholer54. Watch video - Potholer54. Smoke, Mirrors & Hot Air: How ExxonMobil Uses Big Tobacco's Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science, with the intro: "In an effort to deceive the public about the reality of global warming, ExxonMobil has underwritten the most sophisticated and most successful disinformation campaign since the tobacco industry misled the public about the scientific evidence linking smoking to lung cancer and heart disease. As this report documents, the two disinformation campaigns are strikingly similar. ExxonMObil has drawn upon the tactics and even some of the organizations and actors involved in the callous disinformation campaign the tobacco industry waged for 40 years", drawing a big bead on climate skeptic Patrick J. Michaels.

Dana Rohrbacher of the U.S. (1947-)

On Feb. 8, 2007 U.S. Rep. (R-Calif.) (1989-2019) Dana Tyrone Rohrbacher (1947-) (former Ronald Reagan speechwriter) gives a speech at a congressional hearing on climate change, theorizing that ancient climate warming cycles may have been caused by CO2 released into the atmosphere by "dinosaur flatulence", with the soundbyte: "In fact, it is assumed at best to be unproven and at worst a liberal claptrap, trendy, but soon to go out of syle in our new Congress"; on May 25 Rohrbach suggests that a possible solution to global warming is clear-cutting and replanting of rain forests, pissing-off several scientists, causing him to reply: "Once again those with a global agenda have created a straw man by misrepresenting the position of their critics. I do not believe that CO2 is a cause of global warming, nor have I ever advocated the reduction of CO2 through the clearing of rainforests or cutting down older trees to prevent global warming. But that is how my question to a witness during my subcommittee hearing on May 25th is being reported. I simply asked the witness, Dr. Todd Stern, who is a supporter of a global climate treaty that would dramatically hurt the standard of living for millions of human beings, if he was considering a policy that would address naturally emitted carbon dioxide, which makes up over 90% of emissions. To suggest that I'm advocating such a radical approach instead of s imply questioning the policy is a total misrepresentation of my position"; in Aug. 2013 he calls global warming "a total fraud" that is part of a "game plan" by liberals to "create global government"; in late 2016 he is on the shortlist for Pres. Trump's secy. of state along with Mitt Romney until Rex Tillerson is selected; too bad, he has strong pro-Vladimir Putin and pro-Russian views, giving a new meaning to Trump's remark that global warming is a Chinese conspiracy?; too bad, after a year of kissing Trump's ass he loses reelection in Nov. 2018 by 53%-47%. Watch video - Dana Rohrbacher. Watch video - Dana Rohrbacher. Watch video - Dana Rohrbacher. Watch video - Dana Rohrbacher. Watch video - Dana Rohrbacher.

On Feb. 9, 2007 Sir Richard Branson offers a $25M reward for the invention of a way to suck greenhouse gases out of the air - plant trees?

On Feb. 25, 2007 the 79th Academy Awards, hosted by Ellen Degeneres are held at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.; 306 films are eligible for consideration; the Oscars officially go green; the best picture Oscar for 2006 goes to The Departed, along with best dir. to sentimental favorite Martin Scorsese on his 6th try (beating Paul Greengrass' better United 93?); best actor goes to Forest "Idi Amin" Whitaker for The Last King of Scotland, best actress goes to Helen "Liz II" Mirren for The Queen ("Our Leaders. Ourselves.") (10-y.-o. Abigail Breslin, who played Olive Hoover in Little Miss Sunshine is passed over, as is Meryl Streep, who played Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada, her 14th nomination, two more than Jack Nicholson and Kate Hepburn), best supporting actor goes to Alan Alda in Little Miss Sunshine (Eddie Murphy, who plays James Brown clone James "Thunder" Early is passed over, perhaps because of his crude toilet-humor world's fattest woman flick Norbit, which comes out just at the wrong time, causing him to storm out of the awards show), and best supporting actress goes to Jennifer Hudson for playing Effie White in Dreamgirls (proving that rejection by Simon Cowell on "American Idol" is the ticket to fame?); Al Gore wins for the global warming documentary An Inconvenient Truth (dir. by Davis Guggenheim) ("By far the most terrifying film you will ever see"), which also garners Lezzie Lezzeridge, er, Melissa Etheridge a best song Oscar for I Need to Wake Up; before going to the stage she gives her wife a big kiss, then dedicates the win to her and her four kids (the highlight of the evening?); Gore utters the soundbyte: "People all over the world, we need to solve the climate crisis. It's not a political issue, it's a moral issue"; sound engineer Kevin O'Connell of Apocalypto sets a record with 19 straight Oscar nominations and 0 wins, losing to Dreamgirls; Pilobolus Dance Theatre provides the briefest numbers yet seen, despite one of the longest Oscar ceremonies ever.

Denis G. Rancourt (1957-)

On Feb. 27, 2007 leftist activist Canadian U. of Ottawa physicist Denis G. Rancourt (1957-) pub. the article Global Warming: Truth or Dare?, reversing the usual accusations that climate skeptics are conservatives by disputing the U.N. IPCC clique and its presentation of global warming "as the greatest potential threat to humankind and as the greatest environmental and ecological threat on the planet" and its belief that is "a problem that could be solved or contained by determined international collaboration - by political will if it were present", with the soundbytes: "I argue: (1) that global warming (climate change, climate chaos, etc.) will not become humankind's greatest threat until the sun has its next hiccup in a billion years or more (in the v ery unlikely scenario that we are still around), (2) that global warming is presently nowhere near being the planet's most deadly environmental scourge, and (3) that government action and political will cannot measurably or significantly ameliorate global climate in the present world. I also advance that there are strong societal, institutional, and psychological motivations for having constructed and for continuing to maintain the myth of a global warming dominant threat (global warming myth, for short). I describe these motivations in terms of the workings of the scientific profession and of the global corporate and finance network and its government shadows. I argue that by far the most destructive force on the planet is power-driven financiers and profit-driven corporations and their cartels backed by military might; and that the global warming myth is a red herring that contributes to hiding this truth. In my opinion, activists who, using any justification, feed the global warming myth have effectively been co-opted, or at best neutralized"; "Regarding planetary greenhouse warming, by far the most important greenhouse active atmospheric gas is water vapour – it is a major constituent of the atmosphere whereas CO2 is a trace atmospheric gas. This is well known and it is established, for example, that even doubling the present atmospheric CO2 concentration, to the unattainable value of 800 ppm (parts per million) say, without changing anything else in the atmosphere, would have little discernable effect on global temperature or climate. All of the climate models that relate CO2 concentrations to climate effects do so by arbitrarily linking a model increase in CO2 to an induced and larger increase in atmospheric water vapour. In other words, all the climate models postulate a large and positive feedback between CO2 and water vapour. Several scientists have argued that these models are computer realizations of the tail wagging the dog"; he goes on to call the global warming myth part of "the beliefs of mainstream environmentalists", which "are beliefs of the First World liberal middleclass", i.e., the evironmentalist movement has been hijacked, substituting true activism with an invention of the privileged world, with the soundbytes: He reveals how real activists understand that the AGW is not true activism, but rather an invention of the privileged world: "NGOs and environmental groups who agree to buy into the global warming thing benefit from it a lot, in the sense that the powerful interests... fund them. They have to pretend they are doing important research without ever criticizing powerful interests. They look for comfortable lies... they look for elusive, sanitized things like acid rain, global warming... it helps to neutralize any kind of dissent... if you're really concerned about saving the forest, habitat destruction and so on, then fight against habitat destruction; don't go off into this tenuous thing about CO2 concentration"; "The media are allowed to talk global warming because it does not threaten power in any significant way. Indeed, it deflects attention away from real world issues. It's perfect. The scientists can debate it. The environmental activists are largely neutralized. Everyone thinks it's about CO2. The economists can work out the carbon credits. The politicians can talk environment without actually saying anything. Those who want to do something can change their consumer habits. The others can just ignore it and continue chatting about the weather. The fact that the global warming myth has now attained this degree of media promotion and entertainment industry integration means not only that the issue is not threatening to power but that it has also come to be understood by power to be quite useful. In this regard, the global warming myth has joined the other useful media-supported myths that include: increasing crime rates, the terrorist threat, the American dream, that we live in a democracy, that greed and selfishness are unavoidable overriding consequences of human nature, that we all attain the economic status that fits our talents and efforts, that we help developing and Third World countries (that would be worse off without us), etc." Watch video - Denis G. Rancourt. Watch video - Denis G. Rancourt. Watch video - Denis G. Rancourt. Watch video - Denis G. Rancourt.

Nancy Pelosi of the U.S. (1940-)

On Mar. 8, 2007 after Calif. Dem. Rep. (since Jan. 3, 1993) Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (1940-) (House Speaker #52 since Jan. 4) announced it on Jan. 18, the U.S. House Select Committee for Energy Independence and Global Warming, which is disbanded on Jan. 6, 2011 after the Repubs. gain control of the House for the 112th Congress on Jan. 3.

'The Great Global Warming Swindle', 2007

On Mar. 8, 2007 Martin Durkin's The Great Global Warming Swindle (original title: "Apocalypse my arse") debuts on BBC Channel 4, questioning the scientific consensus on global warming, calling it "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times", with the soundbytes: "This is a story about how a theory about climate turned into a political ideology"; "People have decided you have to convince other people that since no scientist disagrees you shouldn't disagree either, but whenever you hear that in science that's pure propaganda"; "I don't like to call it the environmental movement anymore, because really it is a political activist movement, and they have become hugely influential at a global level": "It is the story of the distortion of a whole area of science"; "Climate scientists need there to be a problem in order to get funding"; "We have a vested interest in creating panic because then money will flow to climate science": "There is one thing you shouldn't say, and that is this might not be a problem"; "It is the story of how a political campaign turned into a bureaucratic bandwagon"; "The fact of the matter is that tens of thousands of jobs depend on global warming right now. It's a big business"; "It's become a great industry in itself. And if the whole global warming fraud would collapse, there's be an awful lot of people out of jobs and looking for work"; "This is a story of censorship and intimidation"; "I have seen and heard them spitting fury at anybody that might disagree with them, which is not the scientific way"; "It is a story about Westerners invoking the threat of climatic disaster to hinder vital industrial progress in the developing world"; "One clear thing that emerges from the environmental debate is the point that somebody came to kill the African Dream, and the African Dream is to develop"; "The environmental force has developed into the strongest force there is for preventing development in the developing countries"; "The global warming story is a cautionary tale of how a media scare became the defining idea of a generation"; "The whole global warming business has become like a religion, and people who disagree are called heretics... the makers of this program are all heretics"; "Global warming has become a story of huge political significance; environmental activists using scare tactics to further their cause; scientists adding credence to secure billions of dollars in research money; politicians after headlines and a media happy to play along. No one dares speak against it for risk of being unpopular, losing funds and jeopardizing careers", pissing-off the PC police, causing U.K. broadcasting regulatory agency Ofcom to come down on them, making them rebroadcast it and correct three errors. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - complete movie.

On Mar. 21, 2007 Al Gore appears before Congress with a boxes full of petitions to take action on global warming, becoming his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Jan. 2001.

Václav Klaus of Czech. (1941-)

In Mar. 2007 global warming skeptic economist-politician Vaclav (Václav) Klaus (1941-), pres. #2 of the Czech Repub. in 2003-13 gives a speech at the Cato Inst. in Washington, D.C., uttering the soundbyte: "Environmentalism should belong in the social sciences, along with other isms such as communism, feminism, and liberalism", and compared environmentalism to a religion, a "modern counterpart of communism that seeks to change peoples' habits and economic systems." In June 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Financial Times, calling environmentalism "the biggest threat to freedom, democracy, a market economy and prosperity", calling on readers to oppose the term "scientific consensus", adding that "it is always achieved only by a loud minority, never by a silent majority." In Sept. 2007 he he speaks at the 2007 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling for a second IPCC to be established to produce competing reports, and for countries to be left alone to set their priorities and prepare their own plans for the problem. In 2007 he pub. the book Blue Planet in Green Shackles, which contains the soundbyte: "The theory of global warming and the hypothesis on its causes, which has spread around massively nowadays, may be a bad theory, it may also be a valueless theory, but in any case it is a very dangerous theory." In Sept. 2009 he speaks at the 2009 U.N. Climate Change Conference, calling it "propagandistic" and "undignified". On July 26, 2011 he speaks at the Nat. Press Club, calling global warming "a Communist conspiracy." On May 21, 2012 he speaks at the Heartland Inst. 7th Internat. Conference on Climate Change. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus. Watch video - Vaclav Klaus.

On Apr. 2, 2007 the U.S. Supreme (Roberts) Court rules 5-4 in Mass. vs. EPA (the Endangerment Finding) to rebuke the Bush admin. for inaction on global warming, declaring that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act, and that the EPA has the authority to regulate those emissions from new cars and trucks, after which on Dec. 15, 2009 the EPA pub. its Final Endangerment Findings with Respect to Greenhouse Gases, followed on Aug. 13, 2010 by EPA's Denial of the Petitions To Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, pissing-off climate skeptics, who begin lobbying to overturn it, forming the Fourteen Amici, representing the Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc., who file a lawsuit in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia on May 27, 2011 against the EPA and its head Lisa P. Jackson, which claims that "the EPA's endangerment finding is not 'rational' and therefore arbitrary and capricious", with the soundbyte: "[T]he Earth's climate is not changing in an unusual or anomalous fashion. The EPA relied on instrumental data that were adjusted to exaggerate the increase in global temperatures." Watch video. Watch video.

Steven F. Hayward (1958-)

On Apr. 12, 2007 the documentary film An Inconvenient Truth... or Convenient Fiction? debuts, starring conservative scholar Steven F. Hayward (1958-), aping Al Gore's PowerPoint presentation, agreeing with many of his points but dissing "global warming extremists" for slanting it toward an Armageddon, with the soundbyte: "What I disagree with is overall pessimism"; he later claims that there was global warming between 1978-98, when it suddenly stopped despite atmospheric CO2 continuing to rise, causing climate change models to be falsified; "It's clear that the climate establishment has become as narrowly intolerant as any department of gender studies on a college campus and for the same reason. What's really masked is a will to power... Global warming was always the dream issue for environmentalists because it gave them license to commandeer the entire energy sector of the entire world, and as energy is the master resource that enables all other resource use, I would say the platform for material human progress itself, getting control of energy is the commanding height of human civilization. But what they have proposed is a transformation of the world's energy system so sweeping and so unrealistic that it would make King Canute blush with embarrassment." Watch video - Steven F. Hayward.

Glenn Beck (1964-)

On May 2, 2007 Exposed: The Climate of Fear debuts on CNN, hosted by Everett, Wash.-born Glenn Lee Beck (1964-) (his last show before moving to Fox-TV), featuring prominent climate change skeptics and deniers incl. Tim Ball, John Christy, Bjorn Lomborg, Patrick Michaels, Patrick Moore, and Roy Spencer; "Yes, Al Gore, there is another credible side." Watch video - Global Warming Exposed - ad. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 1. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 2. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 3. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 4. The Climate of Fear, Pt. 5.

On May 24, 2007 J.P. Donnelly and J.D. Woodruff pub. the article Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the West African monsoon, in PubMed, concluding from an examination of 5K years of sediment cores from the Caribbean that increased frequency of intense tropical cyclones is due to variations in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the strength of the West African moonson rather than sea surface temps.

On May 25, 2007 Richard Seager et al. pub. the paper Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America, predicting "a permanent drought by 2050 throughout the Southwest", with 1930s Dust Bowl conditions from Calif. to Kan.; on Jan. 26, 2009 NOAA issues the press release Irreversible climate change because of carbon dioxide emissions, with the soundbyte: "The climate change that is taking place because of increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop... Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the 'dust bowl' era and inexorable sea level rise"; on Oct. 19, 2010 Aiguo Dai of NCAR pub. the paper Drought under global warming: a review, claiming that if atmospheric CO2 reaches 520 ppm in 2050 and 700 in 2100, much of the U.S. and large parts of the rest of the world could experience worse levels of drought than in the 1930s Dust Bowl but affecting 10x-100x as many people, with the soundbyte: "The United States and many other heavily populated countries face a growing threat of severe and prolonged drought in coming decades... possibly reaching a scale in some regions by the end of the century that has rarely, if ever, been observed in modern times"; on Dec. 14, 2010 Connie Woodhouse et al. of the U. of Ariz. pub. a paper predicting "a Medieval-style drought with even warmer temperatures" in the Am. Southwest by 2100; New Study puts the 'hell' in Hell and High Water, on July 11, 2011 a 2-mi.-high 50-mi.-wide Dust Storm envelops Phoenix, Ariz., causing Brian Williams of NBC-TV to call it "The Dust Storm that Swallowed Up an American City", and Joseph Romm to pub. an article in, calling it a "haboob... just the shape of things to come for the entire Southwest".

In May 2007 the journal Environmental Communication is founded by the Internat. Environmental Communication Assoc. to study why lunkheads don't accept the true religion of AGW, er, to study er, forget it.

Live Earth, 2007

On June 26, 2007 David de Rothschild and William Van Roden pub. The Live Earth Global Warming Survival Handbook: 77 Essential Skills to Stop Climate Change as an official companion book to the Live Earth concerts; on July 7 400K attend the globally-televised Live Earth concert at Copacabana Beach in Brazil and 10 other locations around the world to spotlight climate change, sponsored by Save Our Selves, founded by Kevin Wall with backing by Al Gore et al., receiving a record 15M live video streams, becoming a hit in Canada and a flop in the U.K. and U.S.

R. Timothy 'Tim' Patterson

On June ?, 2007 Canadian Carleton U. geologist R. Timothy "Tim" Patterson pub. an article in the Financial Post of Canada, predicting a general climatic cooling as the Sun enters Cycle 25 about 2018; "Despite this clear and repeated correlation, the measured variations in incoming solar energy were, on their own, not sufficient to cause the climate changes we have observed in our proxies. In addition, even though the sun is brighter now than at any time in the past 8,000 years, the increase in direct solar input is not calculated to be sufficient to cause the past century's modest warming on its own. There had to be an amplifier of some sort for the sun to be a primary driver of climate change. Indeed, that is precisely what has been discovered. In a series of groundbreaking scientific papers starting in 2002, Veizer, Shaviv, Carslaw, and most recently Svensmark et al., have collectively demonstrated that as the output of the sun varies, and with it, our star's protective solar wind, varying amounts of galactic cosmic rays from deep space are able to enter our solar system and penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. These cosmic rays enhance cloud formation which, overall, has a cooling effect on the planet. When the sun's energy output is greater, not only does the Earth warm slightly due to direct solar heating, but the stronger solar wind generated during these 'high sun' periods blocks many of the cosmic rays from entering our atmosphere. Cloud cover decreases and the Earth warms still more. The opposite occurs when the sun is less bright. More cosmic rays are able to get through to Earth's atmosphere, more clouds form, and the planet cools more than would otherwise be the case due to direct solar effects alone. This is precisely what happened from the middle of the 17th century into the early 18th century, when the solar energy input to our atmosphere, as indicated by the number of sunspots, was at a minimum and the planet was stuck in the Little Ice Age. These new findings suggest that changes in the output of the sun caused the most recent climate change... By comparison, CO2 variations show little correlation with our planet's climate on long, medium and even short time scales.... Solar scientists predict that, by 2020, the sun will be starting into its weakest Schwabe solar cycle of the past two centuries, likely leading to unusually cool conditions on Earth. Beginning to plan for adaptation to such a cool period, one which may continue well beyond one 11-year cycle, as did the Little Ice Age, should be a priority for governments. It is global cooling, not warming, that is the major climate threat to the world, especially Canada." In Nov. 2015 he speaks to the Canadian Internat. Council (CIC), telling them that in addition to concerns over the long-term impact of global warming it would be prudent for Canadian policymakers and planners to be aware that "climatic cooling associated with Solar Cycle 25 and a corresponding trough in the Gleissberg Cycle may negatively impact the Canadian agricultural sector. During any climatic warming agricultural methods used to the south can be immediately adapted. However, cooling such as may occur beginning about 2018 would be an agricultural and national disaster as no one is farming north of us." Watch video - Tim Patterson.

Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014)

On July 7, 2007 German mathematical physicists Gerhard Gerlich (1942-2014) and Ralf D. Tscheuschner pub. the killer paper Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics, with the abstract: "The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33 degrees Celsius is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified, and (f) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, pissing-off global warmists, who pub. alleged refutations, resulting in both sides sticking to their guns; "The CO2-greenhouse effect of the Earth atmosphere is pure fiction of people who like to use big computers, without physical fundamentals"; "The main strategy of modern CO2-greenhouse gas defenders seems to hide themselves behind more and more pseudo explanations, which are not part of the academic education or even of the physics training."

Nasif S. Nahle

On Sept. 1, 2007 biologist Nasif Sabag Nahle, founder of the Biology Cabinet in Nuevo Leon, Mexico pub. the paper Emissivity, Absorbency and Total Emittance of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in, with the intro.: "The whole idea of global warming is based on the capacity of absorption and emissivity of carbon dioxide. The gases that have an influence on the atmosphere temperature are water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and methane. Heat Transfer science demonstrates that the effect known like 'global warming' is caused by the Solar Irradiance, Interstellar Cosmic Radiation and land and oceans. The influence of carbon dioxide is negligible", concluding: "Carbon dioxide is a conveyor of energy through convection and radiation more than an accumulator of heat." On Mar. 11, 2011 he pub. the article Recycling of Heat is Impossible, claiming the inanity of global warming scientists for using contrived energy budget diagrams, starting with the soundbyte: "Some diagrams on the Earth's energy budget depicts an exchange of energy between the surface and the atmosphere and their subsystems, considering each system as if they were blackbodies with emissivities and absorptivities of 100%. This kind of analyses show a strange 'multiplication' of the heat transferred from the surface to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere to the surface which is unexplainable from a scientific viewpoint. The authors of those diagrams adduce that such increase of energy in the atmosphere obeys a 'recycling' of the heat coming from the surface by the atmosphere, as if the atmosphere-surface were a furnace or a thermos and the heat was a substance. Such 'recycling' of heat by the atmosphere does not occur in the real world by the reasons I will expose later in this paper...", and concluding with the soundbyte: "Key diagrams that purport to show the annual energy budget of Earth show a recycling in the atmosphere of the heat emitted by the surface. But they are wrong. The lengthening of the wavelength of quantum/waves emitted by the absorber systems and the decrease of their frequency inhibit any possibility of re-absorption of the absorbed energy - in the form of infrared radiation - by the same absorber once it has been emitted out from the absorber system. Additionally, this assessment confirms that the second law of thermodynamics is applicable to molecular and quantum levels. The carbon dioxide does not act like a warmer of the Earth's surface, but rather like a coolant of the Earth's surface." No surprise, AGW proponents label his analysis as moose hockey.

Al Gore (1948-) and Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-)

On Oct. 12, 2007 the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize is awarded jointly to U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (1948-) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) chmn. (2002-15) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-), "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"; they accept it on Dec. 10.

George F. Will (1941-)

On Oct. 13, 2007 Champaign, Ill.-born Oxford-Princeton-educated conservative climate skeptic political journalist George Frederick Will (1941-) pub. the article George F. Will on Global Warming in Newsweek, praising Bjorn Lomborg's book "Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming", with the soundbyte: "Zealots say fighting global warming is a moral imperative, so cost-benefit analyses are immoral. Like our Manichaean president, they have a simple fixation: Are you with us or not? But in his book 'Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming,' the Danish economist Bjorn Lomborg suggests that global warming, although real, is not apt to be severe; that many of its consequences will be beneficial, and that the exorbitant costs of attempting to substantially curtail it would squander resources that, put to other uses, could have effects thousands of times more ameliorative." On Feb. 15, 2009 Will pub. the op-ed Dark Green Doomsayers in The Washington Post, in which he claims that according to the U. of Ill. Arctic Climate Research Center, global sea ice levels are "now equal those of 1979", concluding: "There has been no recorded global warming for more than a decade, or one-third of the span since the global cooling scare", pissing-off Ill. researcher Bill Chapman, who issues the soundbyte: "Mr. Will's statement... does not square with the data or updates issued by the school." On Feb. 16, 2014 Will gives an interview to Chris Wallace on Fox News Sunday, uttering the soundbyte: "Of course the climate is changing. It's always been changing. That's what gave us the Medieval Warm Period", adding that he doesn't "buy" Pres. Obama's climate change proposals incl. the $1B Climate Resilience Fund, adding "Neither does science." On Jan. 7, 2015 Will pub. the op-ed Climate change's instructive past in The Washington Post, containing the soundbytes: "We know, because they often say so, that those who think catastrophic global warming is probable and perhaps imminent are exemplary empiricists. They say those who disagree with them are 'climate change deniers' disrespectful of science. Atually, however, something about which everyone can agree is that of course the climate is changing - it always is. And if climate Cassandras are as conscientious as they claim to be about weighing evidence, how do they accomodate historical evidence of enormously consequential episodes of climate change not produced by human activity?" Watch video - George F. Will. Watch video - George F. Will.

Terry Wimberley (1949-)

On Nov. 1, 2007 Am. marine-environmental scientist Edward T. "Terry" Wimberley (1949-) of Fla. Gulf Coast U. writes the soundbyte: "At issue is how big of a problem is human produced CO2 emissions. Undoubtedly to some marginal degree - which scientists debate about - it is a problem, but is it the major cause of global warming? No. More important is the interaction of solar activity (solar winds) with penetrating cosmic rays into the earth's atmosphere. When cosmic ray activity is great a large volume of rays penetrate the earth's lower atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation and cool the earth. However, when there is a lot of solar activity, solar winds tend to blow away just enough of the cosmic rays to thwart cloud formation at the lower levels resulting in fewer clouds and global warming. This phenomenon can be documented over hundreds if not thousands of years - well before humans were able to affect atmosphere. Scientists do not dispel the problem of global warming - that is real - but rather the CO2 theory of global warming, which unfortunately is not verified by geological and climate records going back thousands of years or by observed fact. The CO2 theory of climate change is based upon a computer simulation model and flawed data that has been widely criticized in scientific literature. The theory has acquired ‘political legs' because there are interests who see benefit to be derived from their ideological positions by pursuing some of the policies that can be justified by aggressively responding to a global warming threat."

Michael Oppenheimer (1946-) Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-) Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-) Jim Salinger (1947-) Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-)

On Nov. 17, 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988) pub. its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): Climate Change 007 in Paris, written by hundreds of thousands of scientists (really only 52?) led by New York City-born geoscientist Michael Oppenheimer (1946-), Argentine-born Am. economist Graciela Chichilnisky (1944-), German climatologist Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-), Kiwi scientist Michael James "Jim" Salinger (1947-), German economist Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (1961-) of the Potsdam Inst. et al., citing 6K+ peer-reviewed scientific studies and concluding that "warming of the climate system is unequivocal", "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions", warning that human activity poses a risk of "abrupt or irreversible changes" on Earth, and proposing the Carbon Credit Emissions Trading Market, which is adopted by the Kyoto Protocol; the 996-page report Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis is pub. by Working Group I as an addendum to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, describing causes and consequences of global warming; it has 620 authors; IPCC head Rajendra Pachauri utters the soundbyte: "If there's no action before 2012, that's too late"; the IPCC is awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize along with former U.S. vice-pres. Al Gore (1948-), whose acceptance speech contains the New Age OWG soundbyte: "The climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity. It is also our greatest opportunity to lift Global Consciousness to a higher level." Rahmstorf goes on to found the blog RealClimate, which becomes one of the most popular pro-climate change blogs. Watch video - Stefan Rahmstorf.

In Nov. 2007 2,264 sq. mi. C19A becomes the largest iceberg on Earth after 4.4K sq. mi. B15 cracks in two.

On Dec. 8-9, 2007 the Development and Climate Days at UNFCC COP13 in Bali, Indonesia features a community-based adaptation to climate change panel, and another one titled "increasing clean development investments in developing countries to enable them to leapfrog onto a clean development pathway" - who pays for it in the end?

Wieslaw Maslowski

On Dec. 12, 2007 BBC News science reporter Jonathan Amos pub. a report touting the claims of scientists Wieslaw Maslowski et al. that Arctic summers may be ice-free by 2013, and that this estimate might be "too conservative"; too bad, the Arctic isn't sea-ice-free in 2013, and grew from the record low of 2012, causing Maslowski to revise his prediction to 2016 +/- 3 years.

Antonino Zichichi

On Dec. 13, 2007 an Open Letter to U.N. Secy.-Gen. Ban Ki-Moon is signed by 100 internat. scientists, describing global warming as a natural phenomenon, and carbon dioxide as a "non-polluting gas that is essential to plant photosynthesis", calling the reports of the IPCC "inadequate as justification" for climate policy, and all attempts to control the Earth's climate "ultimately futile", with the soundbytes: "It is not possible to stop climate change, a natural phenomenon that has affected humanity through the ages. Geological, archaeological, oral and written histories all attest to the dramatic challenges posed to past societies from unanticipated changes in temperature, precipitation, winds and other climatic variables"; "In stark contrast to the often repeated assertion that the science of climate change is 'settled,' significant new peer-reviewed research has cast even more doubt on the hypothesis of dangerous human-caused global warming"; "The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued increasingly alarming conclusions about the climatic influences of human-produced carbon dioxide (CO2), a non-polluting gas that is essential to plant photosynthesis. While we understand the evidence that has led them to view CO2 emissions as harmful, the IPCC's conclusions are quite inadequate as justification for implementing policies that will markedly diminish future prosperity. In particular, it is not established that it is possible to significantly alter global climate through cuts in human greenhouse gas emissions"; "The IPCC Summaries for Policy Makers are the most widely read IPCC reports amongst politicians and non-scientists and are the basis for most climate change policy formulation. Yet these Summaries are prepared by a relatively small core writing team with the final drafts approved line-by-line by ­government ­representatives. The great majority of IPCC contributors and reviewers, and the tens of thousands of other scientists who are qualified to comment on these matters, are not involved in the preparation of these documents. The summaries therefore cannot properly be represented as a consensus view among experts." Signers incl. Antonino Zichichi, co-founder and pres. of the World Federation of Scientists.

Nick Rahall of the U.S. (1949-)

On Dec. 18, 2007 after being introduced by U.S. Rep. (D-W.V.) (1977-2015) Nick Joe Rahall II (1949-) and promoted by Dem. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Clean Energy Act) of 2007 is passed by Congress, and signed on Dec. 19 by Pres. George W. Bush to advance his Twenty in Ten challenge to reduce gasoline consumption by 20% in 10 years, with the purpose being "to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government, and for other purposes"; too bad, it promotes biofuels incl. corn and palm oil, leading to ripple effects that create fuels with nearly double the greenhouse emissions of conventional fuels, along with topsoil depletion?

David Robert Whitehouse

On Dec. 19, 2007 English astrophysicist David Robert Whitehouse (BBC's science correspondent in 1988-2006) pub. the article Has global warming stopped? in New Statesman, containing the soundbytes: "The fact is that the global temperature of 2007 is statistically the same as 2006 and every year since 2001"; "Global warming has, temporarily or permanently, ceased. Temperatures across the world are not increasing as they should according to the fundamental theory behind global warming - the greenhouse effect. Something else is happening and it is vital that we find out what or else we may spend hundreds of billions of pounds needlessly"; on May 22, 2009 he is quoted in the U.K. Register as criticizing the BBC's environmental coverage as "evangelical and inconsistent", and its reporting on other scientific issues "narrow, shallow and sparse", with the soundbyte: "Reporting the consensus about climate change... is not synonymous with good science reporting. The BBC is at an important point. It has been narrow minded about climate change for many years and they have become at the very least a cliché and at worst lampooned as being predictable and biased by a public that doesn't believe them anymore"; on Apr. 30, 2013 he is quoted in the article Global Warming Alarm: Continued Cooling May Jeopardize Climate Science And Green Energy Funding! by Larry Bell: "If we have not passed it already, we are on the threshold of global observations becoming incompatible with the consensus theory of climate change. If the standstill (lower temperatures) continues for a few more years, it will mean that no one who has just reached adulthood, or younger, will have witnessed the Earth get warmer during their lifetime"; on Oct. 3, 2014 he is quoted in the article Climate consensus: scientists and sceptics suspend hostilities in The Guardian by Sophie Yeo: "Both sides are really fed up with the outrageous alarmists who are not representing science properly. Both don't like those who shout about it and call people names and take a polarised point of view"; he goes on serve on the Academic Advisory Council of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF), pub. the article Internal Climate Variability or Climate Warming? on their Web site on Aug. 14, 2015, followed by The Hiatus and the Hostage on Oct. 29, 2015, 2015 Global Temp, or How Some Scientists Deliberately Mistook Weather for Climate on Jan. 22, 2016, Pacific Stalagmites Cast Doubt on Climate Models and Projections on June 1, 2016, Standing Up for Free Speech in Science on Mar. 31, 2017, Cosmic Rays-Climate Link Found on Dec. 19, 2017, and the article Climate and the Subtle Sun on Sept. 13, 2018. Watch video - David Whitehouse.

U.S. Sen. James Inhofe (1934-) Habibullo Abudssamatov (1940-) Geoffrey G. Duffy Andrey Kapitsa (1931-2011) Miklós Zágoni José Delgado Domingos Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009)

On Dec. 20, 2007 the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, chaired by U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) (1994-) James Mountain Inhofe (1934-) pub. the U.S. Senate Minority Report on Global Warming, listing 400 prominent scientists who dispute manmade global warming, increasing it to 650 on Dec. 11, 2008, 687 in July 2009, and 1K+ on Dec. 8, 2010; the list incl. prominent internat. scientists (incl. former U.N. IPCC scientists who flip-flopped), of whom only about 10% are climate scientists, and about 15% have pub. in related fields; critics incl. eminent Russian space scientist Habibullo Ismailovich Abdussamatov (1940-), who calls CO2 "insignificant" in climate change, and expresses fears of a future "deep temperature drop", predicting a new mini-ice age in 2014-2055 in the Heartland Inst.'s 4th Internat. Conference on Climate Change in Chicago, Ill. in May 2010 and the 9th conference in Las Vegas on July 7-9, 2014; also Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy, who uttered the soundbyte: "Even doubling our tripling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapor and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate and local weather is forever changing. Sure we must minimize pollution of our air and water systems with obnoxious chemical and particulates, and not treat them as 'sewers'. But even doubling or trebling the amount of carbon dioxide will virtually have little impact, as water vapour and water condensed on particles as clouds dominate the worldwide scene and always will"; "Climate has forever been changing and will continue to do so. The major driver is the Sun and the radiation from it. The main atmospheric 'intermediary' between the Sun and Earth is water, and thus it dictates the behaviour of the Earth's climate"; "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'"; "So what are the key players in 'Climate Change'? The major driver is the Sun. Warming depends on the Sun. Cooling is due to the lack of Sun's energy"; another critic is famed Russian geographer and explorer (discoverer of subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctica) Andrey Petrovich Kapitsa (1931-2011), who utters the soundbyte: "The Kyoto theorists have put the cart before the horse. It is global warming that triggers higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not the other way around... A large number of critical documents submitted at the 1995 U.N. Conference in Madrid vanished without a trace. As a result, the discussion was one-sided and heavily biased, and the U.N. declared global warming to be a scientific fact", calling global warming "the biggest ever scientific fraud"; another critic is Hungarian physicist Miklos Zagoni (Miklós Zágoni), who started out supporting the Kyoto Protocol then flopped after reading the works of Hungarian climate skeptic Ferenc Miskolczi, uttering the soundbytes: "Nature's regulatory instrument is water vapor: more carbon dioxide leads to less moisture in the air, keeping the overall GHG content in accord with the necessary balance conditions"; "I am positively convinced that the anthropogenic global warming theory is wrong. New developments in the physics of greenhouse effect and radiative transfer show that the accepted theory leads to largely exaggerated global warming projections"; another critic is leading Portuguese environmental scientist Jose (José) Delgado Domingos (1935-2014), founder of the Numerical Weather Forecast Group, who on Jan. 28, 2008 gives an interview to Sabado Noticias (Saturday News) mag., containing the soundbytes: "There are measurable climate changes but there is also an enormous manipulation in reducing everything to CO2 and equivalents. The main gas producing the greenhouse effect is water vapour. The present alarm on climate change is an instrument of social control, a pretext for major businesses and political battle. It became an ideology, which is concerning", adding that when it comes to the Kyoto Protocol, "Everything made to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is positive, because it implies a reduction in energy consumption. But creating an ideology pegged to carbon dioxide is a dangerous nonsense. It is preferable for us to prepare for the natural climate evolutions. To adapt ourselves and be ready in case it happens, meaning, among other things, not destroying the dunes on the pretext of national interest, not building in flood stream beds, not turning the soils impermeable to avoid the effects of potential and natural heat waves, etc"; on Nov. 31, 2009 he pub. an op-ed in the newspaper Expresso damning the Climategate emails of the Climate Research Unit of the U. of East Anglia as a scientific fraud that compromises the credibility of climate science; another critic is Japanese Chubu U. scientist Kunihiko Takeda (1943-) (proponent of nuclear energy and critic of recycling), which contains the soundbyte: "CO2 emissions make absolutely no difference one way or another... Every scientist knows this, but it doesn't pay to say so... Global warming, as a political vehicle, keeps Europeans in the driver's seat and developing nations walking barefoot"; in Jaa. 2017 and on July 4, 2018 he gives lectures on Japanese TV calling global warming a hoax, saying that the focus should be on cooling instead of warming; another critic is Portland, Ore.-born nuclear physicist Paul Jerome Berenson (1935-2009), who uttered the soundbytes: "Earth is in the final stages of a typical 10,000 year plus interglacial when both atmospheric temperature and CO2 content tend to increase long term from natural causes, as they have after every ice age. The next major stage is the start of a new ice age which hopefully is more than a thousand years in the future" (Feb. 2008); "Man has been putting increasingly large amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Age and rapidly increasing the last 60 years as shown in all the references. However, the amount of CO2 man has added to the atmosphere is less than 1 % of the CO2 that is there from natural causes"; "Current atmospheric temperatures and CO2 content are no higher than they have been at various times during the past million years. The so-called Climate Optimum 1000 to 1300 A.D. was 1-3 degrees C warmer than now, and apparently provided better living conditions for humans, animals, and vegetation. For example, Greenland was green and habitable by farmers. Water vapor (H2O) is the primary greenhouse gas, contributing roughly 80 % of the greenhouse effect. Without the warming effect of the greenhouse gases, the Earth would be roughly 10 degrees cooler, and probably uninhabitable by humans. It has been estimated that the warming effect of CO2 is roughly one thousandth that of water vapor" "The analytical models used to predict higher atmospheric CO2 content and temperature have not been validated, and do not predict the measured values from the last 200 years; e.g., the cooling of roughly 1 degree C from about 1940 to 1975. Thus they are not valid and should not be used. They are not valid because they do not include major effects on the climate such as clouds, rain, electric currents, cosmic rays, sun spots, etc." Watch video - Habibullo Abdussamatov. Watch video - John L. Casey. Watch video - Sen. James Inhofe. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Piers Corbyn.

Martin Hertzberg Hans Schreuder

In 2007 Am. physical chemist Martin Hertzberg (former U.N. Navy meteorologist), Am. science writer Alan Siddons, and Am. analytical chemist Hans Schreuder (1946-) pub. the paper Role of greenhouse gases in climate change, with the abstract: "This study examines the concept of 'greenhouse gases' and various definitions of the phenomenon known as the 'Atmospheric Radiative Greenhouse Effect'. The six most quoted descriptions are as follows: (a) radiation trapped between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere; (b) the insulating blanket of the atmosphere that keeps the Earth warm; (c) back radiation from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface; (d) Infra Red absorbing gases that hinder radiative cooling and keep the surface warmer than it would otherwise be – known as 'otherwise radiation'; (e) differences between actual surface temperatures of the Earth (as also observed on Venus) and those based on calculations; (f) any gas that absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the Earth's surface towards free space. It is shown that none of the above descriptions can withstand the rigours of scientific scrutiny when the fundamental laws of physics and thermodynamics are applied to them." On June 13, 2008 Siddons pub. the article UN IPCC Man-Made Emissions Grossly Overstated, containing the soundbyte: "Reports by the US Dept of Energy (DOE) indicate that 97% of the annual carbon dioxide emissions come from Nature itself. The report also indicates that more than 98% of all the carbon dioxide emissions areabsorbed again by Nature. What does this mean? It means that since the start of the Industrial Revolution the increase in carbon dioxide levels of about 103ppmv are 97% due to Nature itself, that is to say that only about 3ppmv of that increase is due to manmade emissions. The absorption by Nature of 98.5% of all carbon dioxide also means that of the annual man-made carbon dioxide emissions, only 1.5% stays behind in the atmosphere - 346 million tonnes in 2004, which is the equivalent of just 0.04% of the total annual carbon dioxide emissions by Nature and mankind combined. Irrespective of its residence time or the absolute quantities, it shows that Nature is not only the main driver of carbon dioxide emissions but also that Nature is perfectly capable of dealing with those emissions, both natural and man-made. UN IPCC is shown to have grossly overestimated the amount of man-made carbon dioxide in our atmosphere and has also grossly underestimated the amount of carbon dioxide that Nature absorbs and Nature can not distinguish man-made carbon dioxide from the naturally occurring variety. Immediate demands should be made of the UN IPCC to stop its advice to Policymakers for drastic carbon dioxide emission reductions and all carbon trading schemes should be abandoned. UN IPCC advice is destroying economies around the world for no reason and neither emission reductions nor carbon trading will have any effect whatsoever on the naturally occurring carbon dioxide cycle. The greenhouse hypothesis - what most climatologists call 'the basic science' - offers a solution to a problem that doesn't exist. What passes for climate science today is mostly science fiction." On Feb. 25, 2010 Siddons pub. the article The Hidden Flaw in Greenhouse Theory, containing the soundbyte: "Meteorologists acknowledge that our atmosphere is principally heated by surface contact and convective circulation. Surrounded by the vacuum of space, moreover, the earth can only dissipate this energy by radiation. On one hand, then, if surface-heated nitrogen and oxygen do not radiate the thermal energy they acquire, they rob the earth of a means of cooling off - which makes them 'greenhouse gases' by definition. On the other hand, though, if surface-heated nitrogen and oxygen do radiate infrared, then they are also 'greenhouse gases,' which defeats the premise that only radiation from the infrared-absorbers raises the Earth's temperature. Either way, therefore, the convoluted theory we've been going by is wrong." On Feb. 9, 2017 Hertzberg pub. the immortal soundbyte: "In comparison to water in all of its forms, the effect of the carbon dioxide increase over the last century on the temperature of the earth is about as significant as a few farts in a hurricane!" Watch video - Martin Hertzberg.

Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) Roger A. Pielker Jr. (1968-)

In 2007 Am. meteorologist Roger A. Pielke Sr. (1946-) breaks ranks with the herd and utters the soundbyte: "As I have summarized on the Climate Science weblog, humans activities do significantly alter the heat content of the climate system, although, based on the latest understanding, the radiative effect of CO2 has contributed, at most, only about 28% to the human-caused warming up to the present. The other 72% is still a result of human activities!", going on to criticize the IPCC for its conclusions on CO2 and global warming, accusing it of selectively choosing data to support their view; in 2010 he answers the question from Andrew Revkin: "Is most of the observed warming over the last 50 years likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations" with the soundbytes: "The 2010 answer ... remains NO", and "The added greenhouse gases from human activity clearly have a role in increasing the heat content of the climate system from what it otherwise would be... there are other equally or even more important significant human climate forcings... We now know, however, that the natural variations of atmospheric and ocean circulation features within the climate system produces global average heat changes that are substantially larger than what was known in 2005. The IPCC models have failed to adequately simulate this effect." His son Roger A. Pielke Jr. (1968-) has been labeled a climate skeptic or climate change denier, which he denies, although he denies that the trend of increasing damage from hurricane is due to change in frequency and intensity, tracing it to increase in wealth density. On Nov. 1, 2014 Roger A. Pielke Jr. pub. The Rightful Place of Science: Disasters and Climate Change, disproving the claim that climate change has made disasters worse, lamenting the attack on the legitimacy of climate skeptics and the refusal to address the issues, e.g., when Pres. Obama's science adviser John Holdren dissed his testimony before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in 2014 by calling it outside the "scientific mainstream", causing U.S. Rep. Raul Grijalva to launch an unsuccessful investigation to discover secret fossil fuel co. funding. On Nov. 15, 2017 after Stanford prof. Mark Jacobsen files a lawsuit against a fellow researcher at the Nat. of Academy of Sciences, Roger Pielke Jr. pub. the article A Litigious Climate Threatens Scientific Norms: An energy researcher sues another over a critical paper. It's the wrong way to resolve such disputes in the Wall Street Journal, taking issue at a claim from Michael Mann's atty. invoking Am. sociologist Robert K. Merton, with the soundbyte: "Were Merton alive today he would reject Mr. Pielke's claim that science is stronger when scientists must turn the other cheek to attacks on their character", when what he wrote was: "Controversies follow the classically identified course of social conflict. Attack is followed by counterattack, with progressive alienation of each party to the conflict. Since the conflict is public, it becomes a status battle more nearly than a search for the truth. The process of social conflict would more often be halted in mid-course and instead turned into intellectual criticism if there were nonreciprocation of affect, if a stop were put to the reciprocity of contempt that typically marks these polemics." "In social conflict cognitive issues become warped and distorted as they are pressed into the service of 'scoring off the other fellow.' Nevertheless, when conflict is regulated by the community of peers, it has its uses for the advancement of the discipline", clarifying that by "nonreciprocation of affect" he means "someone has to be the bigger person", with the soundbyte that it "requires a differentiation of status between the parties, at least with respect to the occasion giving rise to the expression of hostility. When this status differentiation is present... the nonreciprocity of expressed feeling is governed by a technical norm attached to the more authoritative status in the relationship"; Merton also uttered the soundbyte: "Most institutions demand unqualified faith; but the institution of science makes skepticism a virtue." Watch video - Roger Pielke Jr. Watch video - Roger Pielke Jr. Watch video - Roger Pielke Jr. Watch video - Roger Pielke Jr., Judith Curry, John R. Christy, and Michael E. Mann

In 2007 The Climate Registry (TCR) is founded in Calif. to continue the work of the Calif. Climate Action Registry (CCAR), created by the State of Calif. in 2001 to design and operate voluntary and compliance greenhouse gas reporting programs, signing up 30+ U.S. states and 17 Canadian provinces and territories by 2009.

Peter F. Gill Avril Terri Jackson Andrew William Montford

In 2007 the prestigious 45K-member British Inst. of Physics (IOP) (originally the Inst. of Fuel, later the Energy Inst.) is hijacked by pro-AGW climate activist scientists, who shut down debate and turn it into an AGW agitprop machine, pissing-off insiders Peter F. Gill and Avril Terri Jackson (founder of the Energy Group) who blow the whistle by leaking internal emails to science writer Andrew William Montford (owner of the Bishop Hill blog), who pub. the pamphlet Institutional Bias, containing the soundbyte; "The voice of the membership is increasingly being silenced, with headquarters staff having arranged to abolish the annual representatives meeting, at which grievances had formerly been aired"; in May 2009 Jackson pub. the article Pouring cold water on global warming: Global cooling has arrived. Global warming is dead in the Belfast Telegraph, which the IOP promises to repub. then suddenly reneges. in Jan. 2019 Gill resigns as chmn. of the Energy Group in disgust, with the soundbyte: "Each of the six main hypotheses that make up the overall AGW hypotheses are wrongly based, faulted or exaggerated." Watch video - Terri Jackson.

Bill Gates (1955-)

In 2007 Seattle, Wash.-born billionaire William Henry "Bill" Gates (1955-) begins funding research in geoengineering incl. the spraying of aerosols in the upper atmosphere to block sunlight; an evil idea with the hidden intent of reducing global pop.? On Oct. 17, 2018 he pub. the article Climate change and the 75% problem, starting out: "Making electricity is responsible for only 25% of all greenhouse gas emissions each year. So even if we could generate all the electricity we need without emitting a single molecule of greenhouse gases (which we're a long way from doing), we would cut total emissions by just a quarter", talking about his Breakthrough Energy Ventures fund "which is putting more than $1 billion into helping promising companies take great ideas from the lab to market at scale", and his plan to create Breakthrough Energy Europe with 100M Euros. Watch video - Bill Gates. Watch video - Bill Gates. Watch video - Bill Gates. Watch video - Bill Gates. Watch video - Bill Gates.

Indur M. Goklany (1946-)

In 2007 Indian-Am. electrical engineer (former IPCC member) Indur N. "Gok" Goklany (1946-), asst. dir., science & technology police, Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Dept. of the Interior pub. Is a Richer-But-Warmer World Better Than Poor-But-Cooler Worlds, containing the soundbyte: "Strictly from the perspective of human well-being, the richest-but-warmest world characterized by the A1FI scenario would probably be superior to the poorer-but-cooler worlds at least through 2085, particularly if one considers the numerous ways GDP per capita advances human well-being"; in Aug. 2009 he appears in the Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) video Policy Peril: Why Global Warming Policies Are More Dangerous than Global Warming Itself, narrated by climate change skeptic Marlo Lewis, taking apart Al Gore's film "An Inconvenient Truth". in Oct. 2015 he pub. the GWPF report Carbon Dioxide: The Good News, with a foreword by Freeman Dyson, praising the benefits of atmospheric CO2, causing a controversy over whether it was peer-reviewed or just not pub. in a peer-reviewed journal; "It is very likely that the impact of rising carbon dioxide concentrations is currently net beneficial for both humanity and the biosphere generally. These benefits are real, whereas the costs of warming are uncertain"; "Firstly, the global climate has not been warming as rapidly as projected in the IPCC assessment reports... Models have been running hotter than reality. But these are the projections that governments have relied on to justify global warming policies, including subsidies for biofuels and renewable energy while increasing the overall cost of energy to the general consumer - costs that disproportionately burden those that are poorer"; "Finally, assessments of climate change impacts usually give short shrift to the potential positive impacts of anthropogenic global warming." He also uttered the soundbytes: "[O]ver the foreseeable future, the magnitude of the problem due to unmitigated climate change is generally smaller than that due to non-climate change related factors, and, where it is not, as in the case of coastal flooding, it is more economical to remedy it via adaptation. Therefore, global warming is unlikely to be the most important environmental problem facing the world, at least for most of the remainder of this century"; "Climate change is not now - nor is it likely to be for the foreseeable future - the most important environmental problem facing the globe, unless present-day problems such as hunger, water-related diseases, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and indoor air pollution are reduced drastically"; "Future generations should, moreover, have greater access to human capital and technology to address whatever problems they might face, including climate change. Hence the argument that we should shift resources from dealing with the real and urgent problems confronting present generations to solving potential problems of tomorrow's wealthier and better positioned generations is unpersuasive at best and verging on immoral at worst"; "Considering that future generations will be far better off than current generations even after accounting for climate change, it would be more equitable for today's industrialized world to help solve the real problems facing today's poorer developing world than to mitigate climate change now to help reduce the burden on future populations that would not only be wealthier but also technologically superior." In May 2017 Goklany is charged by the Trump admin. with the task of rewriting Web pages and policies of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior on climate change. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

On ?, 2007 BBC-TV debuts its One Planet Special: It Seems the Winters of Our Youth are Unlikely to Return, featuring climate scientists opining that snow is becoming a thing of the past.


On Jan. 1, 2008 the U.N. Gen. Assembly declares the Internat. Year of Planet Earth to increase awareness of the importance of Earth sciences.

On Jan. 4, 2008 (Dec.?) Solar Cycle 24 begins (ends 2018?), with the lowest recorded sunspot activity since records began in 1750 (1755), with a min. count of 2.2, 489 spotless days, and a double-peaked solar maximum of 99 in 2011 and 101 (81.8?) in early 2014, lowest since the 17th cent. Dalton Minimum; it is expected to end in mid-late 2018, and be succeeded by Solar Cycle 25 in late 2019 through 2030.

In Jan. 2008 the European Climate Foundation (ECF), a "foundation of foundations" is established to lead Europe into a low-carbon society and mitigate global climate change; the current dir. is Keith Allott - how does the magnet know that there's a refrigerator nearby to be attracted to?

Joanne Simpson (1923-2010)

In Feb. 2008 eminent Am. meteorologist Joanne Simpson (nee Gerould) (1923-2010) (first woman to receive a Ph.D. in meteorology) releases her Public Citizen Statement on global warming, containing the soundbyte: "Since I am no longer affiliated with any organization nor receiving any funding, I can speak quite frankly. Few of these people seem to have any skeptical self-criticism left, although virtually all of the claims are derived from either flawed data sets or imperfect models or both. The term 'global warming' itself is very vague. Where and what scales of response are measurable? One distinguished scientist has shown that many aspects of climate change are regional, some of the most harmful dangers caused by changes in human land use. No one seems to have properly factored in population growth and land use, particularly in tropical and coastal areas... What should we as a nation do? Decisions have to be made on incomplete information. In this case, we must act on the recommendations of Gore and the IPCC because if we do not reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the climate models are right, the planet as we know it will in this century become unsustainable. The main basis of the claim that man's release of greenhouse gases is the cause of the warming is based almost entirely upon climate models. We all know the frailty of models concerning the air-surface system. We only need to watch the weather forecasts", going on to recommend the use of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to test the predictions of climate models; too bad, her quote is regularly edited to take out her endorsement of Gore and the IPCC to make her a stronger climate change denier; in 2012 she pub. the soundbyte: "A vocal minority of scientists so mistrusts the models and the complex fragmentary data, that some claim that global warming is a hoax. They have made public statements accusing other scientists of deliberate fraud in aid of their research funding. Both sides are now hurling personal epithets at each other, a very bad development in Earth sciences."

On Mar. 1, 2008 pub. the article Expert: Arctic polar cap may disappear this summer, quoting Norwegian scientist Olav Orheim.

Asmunn Moene Stanley B. 'Stan' Goldenberg (1956-)

On Mar. 2-9, 2008 the Heartland Inst. (founded in Arlington Heights, Ill. in 1984, and known for working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke) holds the First Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1) in New York City, with the purpose being "to generate international media attention to the fact that many scientists believe forecasts of rapid warming and catastrophic events are not supported by sound science, and that expensive campaigns to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not necessary or cost-effective", endorsing the Nongovernmental Internat. Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) and pub. the article Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate, criticizing the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), followed by the Manhattan Declaration, which states "That there is no convincing evidence that CO2 emissions from modern industrial activity has in the past, is now, or will in the future cause catastrophic climate change", declaring that carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for all life, and calling for an immediate halt to tax-funded attempts to counteract climate change, demanding that "all taxes, regulations, and other interventions intended to reduce emissions of CO2 be abandoned forthwith", with the soundbytes: "Assertions of a supposed 'consensus' among climate experts are false"; leaders incl. Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-), former adviser to British PM Margaret Thatcher; signers incl. Syun-Ichi Akasofu, Timothy F. Ball, David Bellamy, Robert M. Carter, Piers Corbyn, Nils-Axel Morner, Ian Plimer, S. Fred Singer, Roy W. Spencer, Anthony Watts, and Antonino Zichichi, plus Norwegian meteorologist Asmunn Moene, known for the soundbyte: "Global mean temperature changes are unpredictable... There is no significant relationship between the IPCC predicted trend and the two other curves which are generated by random changes. The random updating is of fundamental importance... An increase of the CO2-content in the atmosphere should create a greater warming trend in the lower troposphere i.e .a greenhouse effect. It is evident that this is actually not the case"; by 2017 12 conferences are held. On Mar. 9, 2008 Am. meteorologist Stanley B. "Stan" Goldenberg (1956-) of the Hurricane Research Div. of NOAA in Miami, Fla. speaks at the First Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1), with a speech titled The Mythical Link Between Hurricanes and Global Warming, followed in Mar. 2009 by the speech Is There a Link Between Global Warming and Hurricane Activity at the Second Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC2) in Mar. 2009, and another at ICCC9 on July 9, 2014. He utters the soundbytes: "Just because climate change has happened doesn't mean AGW. Just because weather disasters happen doesn't mean AGW. And an inconvenient truth that most of the media are speaking of, CAGW – that's very important. They're not just talking about AGW, but catastrophic [anthropogenic global warming]. If we just have a little bit of warming from manmade causes, nobody really cares, but they're talking about it's going to be catastrophic"; "[The scientific consensus] is a blatant lie put forth in the media that makes it seem there is only a fringe of scientists who don't buy into anthropogenic global warming"; "Not a single, to my knowledge – not a single scientist at the National Hurricane Center, the Hurricane Research Division, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center – I'm trying to find out about the Central Pacific Hurricane Center – believe that hurricanes – numbers, activity – that there's any measurable impact from any so-called global warming." Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg. Watch video - Stanley Goldenberg.

On Mar. 31-Apr. 4, 2008 the Bangkok Climate Change Talks are held in Bangkok, Thailand, featuring climate change proponents Dennis Tirpak of the IPCC, Andrew Howard of the UNFCC Secretariat, and Artur Runge-Metzger of the European Community, along with greedy Third World reps Martin Khor, Fernando Abad et al. calling for big bucks to mitigate the problems caused by the rich bad countries; similar conferences begin to be held regularly all over the Third World.

Howard C. Hayden

In Mar. 2008 after a visit to New York City where he learns that climate alarmist billboards are being sold for $700K/month, turning him into a climate skeptic, with the soundbyte: "Someone is willing to spend a huge amount of money to scare us about global warming. Big money is behind the global warming propaganda", retired U. of Conn. physicist Howard C. Hayden, associate of U. of Colo. physicist Petr Beckmann and ed. of the Energy Advocate, known for the soundbyte "People will do anything to save the world... except take a course in science"; appears on the Alex Jones Show to discus the "global warming hoax", uttering the soundbytes: "Yes, the polar ice caps are shrinking... on Mars", and "Overall the total polar bear population has been holding steady or slightly increasing"; "The previous predictions about the horrendous warming the people expected has not come to pass... so it's just pure garbage. There's no reason to believe any of it"; "The Sun is now cooling and the past 60 years have shown the highest solar activity in the last 1400 years. So, yes the Sun is now cooling, it has been warmer, and we can expect some cooling. But there's also some change in the ocean currents that's periodic so there is expected to be some cooling within the next decade or so. And temperature history also shows that since January 2001 the temperature of the Earth has basically held almost flat." On Oct. 27, 2009 he pub. a letter addressed to the EPA which argues that increased CO2 will be beneficial not harmful, with the soundbytes: "A warmer world is a better world. Look at weather-related death rates in winter and in summer, and the case is overwhelming that warmer is better"; "The higher the CO2 levels, the more vibrant is the biosphere, as numerous experiments in greenhouses have shown. But a quick trip to the museum can make that case in spades. Those huge dinosaurs could not exist anywhere on the earth today because the land is not productive enough. CO2 is plant food, pure and simple"; "CO2 is not pollution by any reasonable definition"; "A warmer world begets more precipitation"; "All computer models predict a smaller temperature gradient between the poles and the equator. Necessarily, this would mean fewer and less violent storms." His newsletter "The Energy Advocate" pub. the soundbyte: "Perhaps there is global warming, and perhaps there is a human influence, and perhaps that is bad. But we are not on the global-warming bandwagon... There is no credible evidence that the temperature rise of the last century is anything out of the ordinary, and even less that a warmer earth would be less habitable than it is now. Nor will we attempt to scare readers with sea-rise, for it amounts to only the thickness of a nickel per year, as it has for millennia." He goes on to pub. the books The Solar Fraud: Why Solar Energy Won't Run the World (2004, 2005) ("Solar energy has its uses, many of them, but running the world isn't one of them"), and A Primer on CO2 and Climate (2007, 2008). Watch video - Howard C. Hayden. Watch video - Howard C. Hayden. Watch video - Howard C. Hayden.

Nigel Lawson (1932-)

On Apr. 10, 2008 British Conservative MP (1974-92) and journalist Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby (1932-) pub. An Appeal to Reason: A Cool Look at Global Warming, acknowledging global warming but denying that the science is settled, opposing the scientific consensus of the 2007 IPCC Report and claiming that global warming would bring benefits as well as harm, calling for gradual adaptation instead of radical action, with the soundbyte: "I don't question for a moment that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that, all things being equal, this will lead to warming of the atmosphere. And that it's true that scientists differ greatly on how big the effect is, but there is huge agreement that there is some effect. But we account for less than two percent of global carbon emissions. And so it is crazy for us–we can't do anything on our own – and if the rest of the world... is not going to go down this route... it's not doing any good. I have long since come to the conclusion... that [climate change] is an economic issue... My judgement is the most cost-effective way of dealing with it is though adaptation, and I believe that is perfectly do-able", pissing-off global warmists incl. Jean Palutikof and IPCC head Robert Watson, and the Hadley Centre, which admits that there has been no global warming since 2000 but blames it on the early 2007 La Nina - circular reasoning or gymnophobia?

Nicholas Drapela

On Apr. 28, 2008 Ore. State U. chemist Nicholas Drapela gives the slideshow presentation Global Warming Cracked Open: A Peek Inside, containing the soundbytes: "Global Warming doctrine is no longer just a scientific theory; it is a populist social and political tool. Many groups in our society benefit from the existence of the global warming doctrine. The coercion and propaganda used to advance this doctrine are disturbing, and have borrowed from other historical political movements. The benefactors of global warming theory are the rich and powerful; the losers are the rest of the world"; no surprise, his univ. lets him go on May 29, 2012 sans warning after 10 years and a 2004 award for outstanding teacher.

On June 3, 2008 Sen. Barack Obama gives a speech in St. Paul, Minn., with the soundbyte: "I am absolutely certain that, generations from now, we will be able to look back and tell our children that... this was the moment when the rise of the oceans began to slow and our planet began to heal."

On June 20, 2008 Nat. Geographic News pub. the article North Pole May Be Ice-Free for First Time This Summer, quoting U. of Manitoba scientist David Barber.

On June 23, 2008 (20th anniv. of his speech to Congress) top NASA climate scientist James A. Hansen gives a speech to the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, claiming the world has long passed the "dangerous level" for greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and needs to return to the 1988 levels or in a couple of decades there will be mass extinction, ecosystem collapse, and dramatic sea level rises, with the soundbyte: "We're toast if we don't get on a very different path. This is the last chance... We see a tipping point occurring right before our eyes. The Arctic is the first tipping point and it's occurring exactly the way we said it would", adding that "in five to 10 years, the Arctic will be free of sea ice in the summer". Watch video - Tony Heller.

On June 24, 2008 NASA top climate expert James E. Hansen utters the soundbyte to AP: "The Arctic is the first tipping point, and it's occurring exactly the way we said it would", claiming it will be ice-free in 5-10 years, causing climate skeptic U.S. Sen. (R-Okla.) to cite the recent poll and utter the soundbyte: "Hansen, Gore and the media have been trumpeting manmade climate doom since the 1980s, but Americans are not buying it", to which U.S. Rep. (D-Mas.) Ed Markey replies: "Dr. Hansen was right. Twenty years later, we recognize him as a climate prophet."

On June 28, 2008 U.S. scientist Mark C. Serreze of the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. predicts that the North Pole may becoming ice-free for the first time in recorded history by the end of the summer, with the soundbyte "The Arctic is screaming", becoming one of several gloomy predictions; luckily, they are all wrong, which doesn't stop them from renewing their predictions regularly?; on Apr. 17, 2018 pub. the book Brave New Arctic: The Untold Story of the Melting North, which claims that computer models are no longer providing reliable predictions of Arctic temperatures, and that the North Pole may be ice-free in 2018, and the whole Arctic in 2030.

Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-)

In July 2008 Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1952-) pub. the article Climate Sensitivity Reconsidered in the newsletter of the Am. Physical Society, which contains the soundbytes: "More importantly, the conclusion is that, perhaps, there is no 'climate crisis', and that currently-fashionable efforts by governments to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions are pointless, may be ill-conceived, and could even be harmful", and "Global warming will not affect us for the next 2,000 years, and if it does, it won't have been caused by us", ramping up the scientific climate change denial movement; on Oct. 18 he posts the online article "More in Sorrow than in Anger, Open letter from The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley to Senator John McCain about Climate Science and Policy", dissing U.S. Sen. John McCain for a speech he made at a wind farm pushing anthropogenic climate change. On ?, 2018 Monckton pub. the article On an error in defining temperature feedback, claiming that climatologists have been forgetting that the Sun was shining, predicting a climate sensitivity of 2C-4.5C, when it is really 1.17C after accounting for sunshine and pre-industrial greenhouse gas warming; he follows on July 30, 2018 with the article Climatology's startling error – an update, containing the soundbyte: "Bottom line: global warming is not a problem after all. Enjoy the sunshine climatologists forgot about"; he follows on Aug. 15, 2018 with the article Climatology's startling error of physics: answers to comments, containing the soundbyte: "Erroneously, IPCC (2013, p. 1450) defines temperature feedback as responding only to changes in reference temperature. However, feedback also responds to the entire reference temperature. Climatology thus omits the sunshine from its sums and loses the opportunity to find, directly and reliably, the Holy Grail of climate-sensitivity studies - the system-gain factor." Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton. Watch video - Lord Christopher Monckton and Stefan Molyneux. Watch video - anti-Lord Christopher Monckton.

Todd Wynn

In July 2008 Am. economist Todd Wynn is hired as a policy analyst by the conservative Cascade Policy Inst. in Ore. to conduct "climate change and energy policy research", rising to vice-pres. in 2010-Sept. 2011, when he moves to the conservative Am. Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) until Sept. 2013, working to pass pro-fossil fuel legislation; meanwhile he becomes an outspoken climate skeptic, starting with the article Global Warming? No! It is Now Called Climate Change on June 22, 2009 in the Oregon Catalyst, with the soundbytes: "Global warming used to be the defining term to represent the increase in the average temperature of the earth during the past 100 years. Recently, the more politically popular term, climate change, has replaced global warming. Why? One main reason is because the earth is currently cooling"; "It is hard to advocate for overbearing regulations that attempt to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions when global temperatures have been stable or declining. In fact, in at least the last seven years, global temperatures have declined, despite increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide"; he also utters soundbytes: "It's absolutely ridiculous to say that they know that human activity is the major part of that [climate change]. We've had a temperature record a very spurious one for the maybe past 100 years, in the last 30 years a satellite temperature record. And then all the calculations for the predictions of the future are based on models... We've already seen that they're way off on their predictions"; "Climate change is a perfect scapegoat for environmentalists. They can use that to change the behavior, the lifestyle, and the standard of living of every single citizen on the planet. We also have to look at the benefits of higher global temperatures, a lot of places that weren't arable land before are now going to be. And I think that's important, that you need to weigh those costs and benefits. I think that global warming could be a net benefit for the planet in fact." In Oct. 2017 Wynn becomes dir. of the Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs of the U.S. Interior Dept. (until ?). Watch video - Todd Wynn.

Walter 'Walt' Cunningham of the U.S. (1932-)

In the July/Aug. 2008 issue of Launch Mag. NASA Apollo 7 astronaut Ronnie Walter "Walt" Cunningham (1932-) pub. the article In Science, Ignorance is not Bliss, containing the soundbytes: "Saying the Earth is warming is to state the obvious. Since the end of the ice age, the Earth's temperature has increased approximately 16 degrees Fahrenheit and sea levels have risen a total of 300 feet. That is certain and measurable evidence of warming, but it is not evidence of AGW - human-caused warming. We can track the temperature of the Earth back for millennia. Knowing the temperature of the Earth, past or present, is a matter of collecting data, analyzing it, and coming up with the best answer to account for the data. Collecting such data on a global basis is a NASA forte. I believe in global climate change, but there is no way that humans can influence the temperature of our planet to any measurable degree with the tools currently at their disposal. Any human contribution to global temperature change is lost in the noise of terrestrial and cosmic factors. Our beautiful home planet has been warming and cooling for the last 4.8 billion years. Most recently, it has been warming - be it ever so slightly - but there is nothing unusual about it! The changes and rates of change in the Earth's temperature, just since the Industrial Revolution, have occurred many times in our climatic history. While climate scientists generally agree that the Earth's temperature is always changing, not many of them would say that humans are responsible for those changes"; "It doesn't help that NASA scientist James Hansen was one of the early alarmists claiming humans caused global warming. Hansen is a political activist who spreads fear even when NASA's own data contradict him"; “NASA should be at the forefront in the collection of scientific evidence and debunking the current hysteria over human-caused, or Anthropogenic GlobalWarming (AGW). Unfortunately, it is becoming just another agency caught up in the politics of global warming, or worse, politicized science. Advocacy is replacing objective evaluation of data, while scientific data is being ignored in favor of emotions and politics"; "I do see hopeful signs that some true believers are beginning to harbor doubts about AGW. Let's hope that NASA can focus the global warming discussion back on scientific evidence before we perpetrate an economic disaster on ourselve"; "The reality is that atmospheric CO2 has a minimal impact on greenhouse gases and world temperature. Water vapor is responsible for 95 percent of the greenhouse effect. CO2 contributes just 3.6 percent, with human activity responsible for only 3.2 percent of that. That is why some studies claim CO2 levels are largely irrelevant to global warming. Without the greenhouse effect to keep our world warm, the planet would have an average temperature of minus 18 degrees Celsius. Because we do have it, the temperature is acomfortable plus 15 degrees Celsius. Based on the seasonal and geographic distribution of any projected warming, a good case can be made that a warmer average temperature would be even more beneficial for humans." Watch video - Walt Cunningham. Watch video - Walt Cunningham.

Guy LeBlanc Smith Ross Garnaut (1946-)

On Aug. 16, 2008 Australian geologist Guy LeBlanc Smith writes the soundbyte: "I have yet to see credible proof of carbon dioxide driving climate change, yet alone manmade CO2 driving it. The atmospheric hot-spot is missing and the ice core data refute this. When will we collectively awake from this deceptive delusion? I contend that those professional scientists and advisors that are knowingly complicit in climate science fraud and all that is derived from it, will continue to be exposed by the science itself. There is no atmospheric hot-spot from 'greenhouse CO2' despite over 20 years of serious looking for it. Occam's razor would point to the sun as the driver of climate change of significance. Human generated carbon dioxide is arguably around 3% of the total carbon dioxide budget, and in the light of the above, we are effectively irrelevant to the natural climate change continuum." On Sept. 30, 2008 Australian economist Ross Gregory Garnaut (1946-), pub. the Garnaut Climate Change Review for the Australian govt., recommending a global CO2 level of 450 ppm and a fall-back position of 550 ppm, requiring emissions reductions of 25% on 2000 levels by 2020, and 90% by 2050, causing Smith to pub. a letter to Garnaut, containing the soundbyte: "I am strongly supportive of measures that promote effective and efficient use of all resources and reduction of pollution in all its forms - smart use. I contend that carbon tax will be amongst the most damaging and misguided use of a tax since the dark middle ages tax on light. The empirical evidence from ice core data do not support anthropogenic carbon dioxide impacts of significance. I have this data and my graphs and interpretations show substantive natural climate variations over records as long as 800,000 years, where CO2 is clearly a response after temperature change, and not a driver of change. I attach a few graphs of thisdata (with references) for your consideration. I have been in research for over 30 years in geoscience, ten of which with the CSIRO, and Iremain open to be convinced there is credible evidence to substantiate Item 1 of your terms of reference. I am yet to be persuaded by evidence not based on assumptions, that humankindhas any control over climate changes of significance. My reading of the rock and ice records is currently favouring an interpretation that our climate is poised for a major fall in temperatures, which will have a far more immediate and damaging impact of human populations should snowfall over northern land masses not melt across summer, effectively initiating continental ice sheets, and mass migrations. The Romanssuffered this when the Dark Ages Ice age took effect and northern tribes were forced south..."; "There is an abundance of information that does not support the current alarmist stance that humankind is causing climate change. My current view, based on evidence to hand, is that this contention is a fraud bordering on a crime against humanity. Hypothetically, I wonder if the Hague will get involved should carbon taxes of significance be levied, and subsequently be found to be unwarranted?" Watch video - potholer54.

On Aug. 24, 2008 the 33rd Internat. Geology Congress in Norway sees about two thirds of the presenters and question-askers hostile to the IPCC (International panel on climate change) and the idea that the Earth's climate was responding to human influences.

Richard A. Feely Mike Wallace

On Aug. 29, 2008 oceanographer Richard A. Feely of NOAA et al. pub. the article Ocean Acifification: The Other CO2 Problem in Annual Review of Marine Science, with the abstract: "Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will accelerate over this century unless future CO2 emissions are curbed dramatically. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Many calcifying species exhibit reduced calcification and growth rates in laboratory experiments under high-CO2 conditions. Ocean acidification also causes an increase in carbon fixation rates in some photosynthetic organisms (both calcifying and noncalcifying). The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Although ocean pH has varied in the geological past, paleo-events may be only imperfect analogs to current conditions." In 2010 Feely testifies before Congress raising alarms about ocean acidification. Too bad, in 2014 hydrologist Mike Wallace discovers a fraud in Feely's work, his omission of 80 years of data to make it look like ocean acidity has been increasing when the actual data shows it decreasing.

David A. Dilley

In Aug. 2008 Am. meteorologist David A. Dilley, 1992 founder of Global Weather Oscillations Inc. (formerly employed by the USAF, NOAA, and Nat. Weather Service) pub. the e-book Global Warming - Global Cooling, Natural Cause Found, in which he predicts that "the first stage of global cooling will begin during 2008 and 2009", followed in Feb. 2012 by the ebook Earth's Natural Climate Pulse, which claims that "wide swings in carbon dioxide levels will likely occur every 230 years as earth goes through natural global warming and cooling cycles", and "predicts that the Arctic warm water pulse will cool within the next 8 years. This will allow rapid global cooling to begin around the year 2020, with temperatures becoming similar to those experienced in the 1800's", containing the soundbyte: "Earth's temperature changes seasonally due to the seasonal tilt of the earth, with longer term cycles due to the PFM Natural Pulse cycles every 10-years, 230 years and 130 thousand years. Carbon dioxide concentrations are a naturally occurring cycle connected to the short-term global warming cycles that occur approximately every 230 years, and the longer term 130 thousand year glacial and inter-glacial cycles.... Earth's current temperatures and carbon dioxide levels are perfectly normal for global warming cycle that was occurring up to the year 2012 (now beginning to slip into global cooling for the next 150 years", and ending with the soundbyte: “Natural cycles of global cooling are potentially more dangerous than global warming. T hese natural cycles are a natural regulatory rhythm which is required by nature. Humans need sleep after a period of activity, and earth likewise requires active and rest periods. In 2008, earth entered phase I global cooling. Phase II cooling will begin around the year 2020, this will usher in very dramatic global cooling, hurling temperatures quickly back to where they were in the cold 1950s and 1960s, and then further back to the climate seen in the 1800s. Coldest temperatures will be from about the year 2024 to 2050. There will be rapid ice pack regeneration until the peak of the next global warming cycle in the year 2140. Due to the Lunisolar gravitation stress on the outer liquid core and floating plates beneath the earth's crust, there will be a historically strong climate changing volcano around 2020 to 2030. There will also be increased earthquake activity from 2008 through 2024." Dilley Debunked, by Roger Fjellstad Olsen. Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 1/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 2/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 3/4. Watch video - David Dilley - Pt. 4/4.

John Droz. Jr. (1946-)

On Oct. 2, 2008 Am. solid state physicist and environmental activist John Droz Jr. (1946-) pub. the paper The Power of Energy, containing the soundbytes: "Is Global Warming a scientifically resolved matter? No. There is some very convincing evidence (and scientists) that indicate that there is such a thing as Global Warming. But there are some very qualified scientists (with good evidence) that suggest just the opposite. More importantly, statements often appearing in the media like 'the majority of scientists' believe in Global Warming, are meaningless. First of all, no legitimate survey has ever been done, and secondly, science is not about the number of people who advocate a position"; on Jan. 2012 after becoming an opponent of wind energy, he utters the soundbyte: "When I first heard about wind energy I was a supporter. Quite frankly, I never liked the looks of turbines but felt that we would have to live with the unsightliness as a trade-off for the good I initially assumed they were doing. Then I did some research and Critical Thinking. My conclusion now (as a scientist, economist, and environmentalist) is that industrial Wind Energy is not based on sound science"; in 2013 Droz founds the Alliance for Wise Energy Decisions (AWED), whose basic position is that wind energy "is not a technically sound solution to provide electricity, or to meaningfully reduce global warming; is not an economically viable source of energy on its own; and is not environmentally responsible"; on June 17, 2014 he pub. a position paper on climate change titled Global Warming: The Scientific View, containing the soundbytes: "As a scientist I have been asked to elaborate a bit on my position regarding the Global Warming proposition - and how it relates to wind energy. These are very legitimate (and important) questions. The main hypothesis put forward is technically called Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), where the fancy term 'anthropogenic' means 'man-made.' Although I am not a climatologist, as a scientist I know how to do thorough and objective research. (BTW, skepticism is a key ingredient of true scientists.) In my capacity as a scientist, I have read literally hundreds of reports and studies on this climate issue, from numerous experts. After digesting these studies and reports, it is very clear to me that AGW is still a scientifically unresolved matter. This is what is called a hypothesis." Watch video - John Droz Jr. Watch video - John Droz Jr.

Ed Miliband of the U.K. (1969-)

On Oct. 3, 2008 British PM Gordon Brown reshuffles the cabinet to create the Dept. of Energy and Climate Change to supervise the decommissioning of the country's nuclear sites, with British Labour Party leader (son of Polish Jewish immigrants) Edward Samuel "Ed" Miliband (1969-) as secy. of state for energy and climate change #1 (until May 11, 2010), announcing on Oct. 16 that the govt. will pledge itself to cut greenhouse emissions by 80% by 2050 rather than 60% as previously announced; in Mar. 2009 Miliband attends the U.K. debut of the pro-AGW film "The Age of Stupid", where star Pete Postlethwait ambushes him and pressures him into changing the govt.'s policy on coal-fired power stations, requiring them to capture 25% of their emissions immediately, and 100% by 2025; in 2009 he represents the U.K. at the Copenhagen Summit, pledging $10B/year to fight climate change, growing to $100B/year in 2020, blaming China for keeping the conference from reaching a legally binding agreement, which China denies, accusing Britain of a "political scheme".

'Lost City Raiders', 2008

On Oct. 31, 2008 Jean de Sigonzac's Lost City Raiders debuts, starring James Brolin, Ian Somerhalder, Ben Cross, and Jamie King on globally-warmed 2048 New Vatican, where Cardinal Battaglia wants to use the Scepter of Moses to stop a global flood; "Waterworld without the budget" (Tampa Tribune); view trailer.

Roger Helmer of the U.K. (1944-)

In Oct. 2008 British climate change skeptic European Parliament member Roger Helmer (1944-) of the conservative Tory Party becomes a member of its Temporary Committee on Climate Change, calling himself "a lone voice crying in the wilderness" and debating a draft EU Integrated Policy on Climate Change; in Mar. 2012 he switches to the U.K. Independence Party (UKIP); on Nov. 16, 2009 he pub. a letter in the Leicester Mercury accusing the Church of England of having "abandoned religious faith entirely and taken up the religion of climate alarmism instead", spending more time "preaching climate change than the gospel of salvation", urging the Church to "get back to the gospel", with the soundbyte: "The recent multi-faith conference at Windsor suggests that other world religions are taking the same line on climate change. This is particularly ironic at a time when the world is cooling and when more and more scientists around the world are breaking cover to challenge the theory of man-made global warming. Perhaps world religions should have more faith in God, and less in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change"; on Nov. 18, 2009 Helmer convenes the conference titled "Have Humans Changed the Climate?" in the European Parliament, hosting top climate change deniers incl. Dutch scientist Hans Labohm, Canadian economist Ross McKitrick, Australian scientist Ian Plimer, Norwegian geologist Tom Segalstad, and Am. scientist S. Fred Singer; in Dec. 2010 after attending the 2010 U.N. Climate Change Conference on Nov. 29-Dec. 10, Helmer uses £9K of EU funds to mount a billboard campaign in his constituency criticizing climate change policy and calling green climate policies "probably unnecessary", "certainly ineffectual", and "ruinously expensive"; he goes on to utter the soundbytes: "I believe, AGW is simply a kind of collective hysteria with no basis in science"; "But it's the temperature driving the CO2, and not, as Gore wrongly asserts, the CO2 driving the temperature. The records clearly show the CO2 graph around 800 years or so behind the temperature graph"; "By geo-historical standards, today's atmospheric CO2 levels are remarkably - indeed dangerously - low. We need CO2 in the air to support plant growth and agricultural yields, and more would be better"; "In the last hundred years, average global temperature has risen a mere 0.7 degrees Celsius. There is ample evidence that results from ground-based weather stations have been contaminated by urban sprawl, tarmac, car parks, vehicles, buildings and air-conditioning units"; "Temperature data from satellites over the last 30 years show some warming, but less than that from ground stations... This slight 0.7 degree rise is entirely consistent with well-established, long-term, natural climate cycles"; "The truth is that climate alarmism has become the most expensive, and the most wasteful, project in the history of the world. It is junk economics built on junk science. It amounts to no more than hot air, yet it looks set to beggar our grandchildren." On June 1, 2017 after Pres. Trump announces his withdrawal from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, he tweets the soundbyte: "President Trump is a Climate Hero. This is American Leadership in action. Well done that man." Watch video - Roger Helmer. Watch video - Roger Helmer. Watch video - Roger Helmer.

Barack Hussein Obama II of the U.S. (1961-)

On Nov. 19, 2008 after several Euro countries approach his transition team to signal his intentions to diplomats gathering in Poland in Dec. to draft a successor to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on Feb. 16, 2005 while the U.S. never joined, pres.-elect #44 (2009-17) Barack Hussein Obama II (1961-) sends a videotaped Speech on Global Climate Change to 700 delegates from 19 countries at a global warming conference in Los Angeles, Calif. held by the London-based Climate Group and backed by Calif. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, promising "a new chapter in America's leadership on climate change", incl. a federal cap and trade system, and establishment of annual targets aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by 2020 and an additional 80% by 2050, promising that the U.S. will "help lead the world toward a new era of global cooperation on climate change"; "Few challenges facing America and the world are more urgent than combating climate change. The science is beyond dispute and the facts are clear." In Mar. 2009 the Cato Inst. pub. an ad titled With all due respect, Mr. President, that is not true, signed by dozens of scientists, reading: "We, the undersigned scientists, maintain that the case for alarm regarding climate change is grossly overstated. Surface temperature changes over the past century have been episodic and modest and there has been no net global warming for over a decade now. After controlling for population growth and property values, there has been no increase in damages from severe weather-related events. The computer models forecasting rapid temperature change abjectly fail to explain recent climate behavior. Mr. President, your characterization of the scientific facts regarding climate change and the degree of certainty informing the scientific debate is simply incorrect."

Bryony Worthington, Baroness Worthington (1971-) Cal Worthington and his dog Spot Christopher Booker (1937-) Philip Ball (1962-)

On Nov. 26, 2008 the Climate Change Act of 2008 by the British Parliament is given royal assent, making it the duty of the secy. of state for energy and climate change to ensure that the net carbon account for all six Kyoto greenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline, aiming to make the U.K. a low-carbon economy with ministers given powers to introduce measures to achieve a wide range of greenhouse gas reduction targets; an independent Committee on Climate Change is established, whose eight members all have their snouts in the Green corporate trough and are anything but independent?; the act's lead author is Welsh-born Bryony Katherine Worthington, Baroness Worthington (1971-) who flops and accepts nuclear power as long as the fuel is thorium; no relation to Southern Calif. car dealer Cal Worthingon (1920-2013) and his dog Spot?; Rupert Darwall calls it "history's most expensive virtue signal"; British journalist Christopher John Penrice Booker (1937-) calls the act "the most expensive piece of legislation ever put through Parliament", with projected costs in the hundreds of billions over 40 years; on Oct. 17, 2009 Booker pub. the bestseller The Real Global Warming Disaster: Is the Obsession with 'Climate Change' Turning Out to Be the Most Costly Scientific Blunder in History?, denying a scientific consensus on climate change, denying that it is manmade, and calling govt. measures to combat it "one of the most expensive, destructive, and foolish mistakes the human race has ever made", labeling it Groupthink, with British science writer Philip Ball (1962-) (ed. of Nature) in The Observer (a critic) calling it "the definitive climate skeptics' manual... [in which] he has rounded up just about every criticism ever made of the majority scientific view that global warming, most probably caused by human activity, is under way, and presented them unchallenged"; Ball reverses the Groupthink argument with the observation that to accept Booker's position one must believe: "1) Most of the world's climate scientists, for reasons unspecified, decided to create a myth about human-induced global warming and have managed to twist endless measurements and computer models to fit their case, without the rest of the scientific community noticing. George W. Bush and certain oil companies have, however, seen through the deception. 2) Most of the world's climate scientists are incompetent and have grossly misinterpreted their data and models, yet their faulty conclusions are not, as you might imagine, a random chaos of assertions, but all point in the same direction." On July 25, 2018 Booker pub. the article Yes it's scorching, but claims that the heatwave is down to climate change are just hot air: June was even hotter when Victoria was on the throne in the Daily Mail. On Oct. 14, 2018 Booker pub. the article The UN's latest mega-panic climate change report is based on pure fantasy in The Telegraph, containing the soundbyte: "However much those behind this report may delude themselves and try to delude the rest of us, the fact is that the rest of the world is no longer being taken in by their make-believe." Watch video - British Climate Change Act. Watch video - Baroness Worthington. Watch video - Baroness Worthington. Watch video - Christopher Booker. Watch video - Ian Plimer.

On Dec. 13, 2008 Al Gore predicts that the "entire North polarized cap" will be completely ice-free in five years.

Igor P. Semiletov Natalia Shakova

On Dec. 18, 2008 after measuring methane levels at 1,080 locations in the sea over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf since 2003, finding that 80%+ of the bottom waters and 50%+ of the surface waters are supersaturated with methane, U. of Alaska researchers Igor P. Semiletov, Natalia Shakhova et al. pub. the article Scientists Find Increased Methane Levels in Arctic Ocean; on Mar. 5, 2010 Shakhova et al. pub. the article Extensive Methane Venting to the Atmosphere from Sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in Science mag., first of a series of articles predicting a "highly possible at any time" release of 50B metric tons of methane (out of 1,500B metric tons) from thawing clathrate structures in melting permafrost that could raise global avg. temps by 0.6C-1.3C in a short period; "At a minimum we would lose our ability to grow grains"; total CO2 released into the atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Age is 350B metric tons; the release of methane is actually too slow to be a worry? Watch video - Natalia Shakhova. Watch video.

In 2008 G.V. Chilingar and L.F. Khilyuk of USC, and O.G. Sorokhtin of the Russian Academy of Sciences pub. the paper Cooling of Atmosphere Due to CO2 Emission, with the introduction: "Traditional anthropogenic theory of currently observed global warming states that release of carbon dioxide into atmosphere (partially as a result of utilization of fossil fuels) leads to an increase in atmospheric temperature because the molecules of CO2 (and other greenhouse gases) absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth's surface. This statement is based on the Arrhenius hypothesis, which was never verified (Arrhenius, 1896). The proponents of this theory take into consideration only one component of heat transfer in atmosphere, i.e., radiation. Yet, in the dense Earth's troposphere with the pressure pa > 0:2 atm, the heat from the Earth's surface is mostly transferred by convection (Sorokhtin, 2001a). According to our estimates, convection accounts for 67%, water vapor condensation in troposphere accounts for 25%, and radiation accounts for about 8% of the total heat transfer from the Earth's surface to troposphere. Thus, convection is the dominant process of heat transfer in troposphere, and all the theories of Earth's atmospheric heating (or cooling) first of all must consider this process of heat (energy) - mass redistribution in atmosphere." It ends with the conclusion: "Accumulation of large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to the cooling, and not to warming of climate, as the proponents of traditional anthropogenic global warming theory believe. This conclusion has a simple physical explanation: when the infrared radiation is absorbed by the molecules of greenhouse gases, its energy is transformed into thermal expansion of air, which causes convective fluxes of air masses restoring the adiabatic distribution of temperature in the troposphere. Our estimates show that release of small amounts of carbon dioxide (several hundreds ppm), which are typical for the scope of anthropogenic emission, does not influence the global temperature of Earth's atmosphere."

Sheldon Whitehouse of the U.S. (1955-)

In 2008 the nonprofit news org. Climate Central is founded in Princeton, N.J. to conduct scientific research on climate change and energy issues and produce and distribute multimedia content; on June 20, 2018 after NBC News reports how its Climate Change Education Partnership (founded 2010) helped educate 500+ TV weathercasters across the U.S. on global warming and its impacts, Repub. Sens. Ted Cruz of Tex., Rand Paul of Ky., James Lankford of Okla., and Jim Inhofe of Okla. call for the foundation's inspector gen. Allison Lerner to investigate their $4M program to increase climate reporting by meteorologists, calling it "propagandizing" instead of science, causing CEO Ben Strauss to utter the soundbyte: "Climate Central is not an advocacy organization, and the scientific consensus on climate change is not a political viewpoint", and U.S. Sen. (D-R.I.) (2007-) Sheldon Whitehouse (1955-) to utter the soundbyte: "Calling education on the irrefutable science of climate change 'political' would be laughable if it didn't reveal such a sobering truth about Republicans in Congress. Climate deniers still exist on Capitol Hill and the way fossil fuel money holds sway over the Republican Party permits antics like attacking this sensible grant."


In 2009-2010 the 2009-2010 El Nino is a warm pool El Nino, rapidly decaying to a strong La Nina.

On Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 2009 2009 Global Storm Activity incl. a severe drought in SW China along with Bolivia, Venezuela, Spain, Morocco, Mali, and Mauritania; meanwhile Victoria, Australia has a colder summer than usual; in June-Sept. the 2009 West Africa Floods see heavy rainfall cause the Niger, Penjari, Senegal, and Volta Rivers to overflow, affecting 940K in 12 countries, killing 193 and causing $152M damage, with 150K fleeing their homes in the Ougadougou area after one day of rainfall equals 25% of the annual avg.

Rex Murphy (1947-)

On Jan. 8, 2009 Newfoundland-born Canadian conservative commentator and climate change skeptic Rex Murphy (1947-) pub. the op-ed Armageddon theory: Vancouver in the Globe and Mail, pointing out the coldness of the weather in Vancouver as throwing doubt on global warming theories, with the soundbytes: "Now I introduce this spotty survey not in any spirit of contention or with intent to counter what so many people hilariously refer to as the 'science' of global warming. One season's weather is not a guide to another, an insight captured more poetically by the proverb 'one swallow does not make a spring.' I am, most certainly, not going to make the error of our global warming hierophants who leap with troubling eagerness on any 'extreme weather event' and pilot it with ferocity to the conclusion that we are all doomed. They are rhetoricians of less scruple than I"; "I tie it all to Vancouver. So much of what the alarmists promised was supposed to be happening now isn't happening. So many events are running counter to their near-term projections, they've decided to go all Armageddon with their long-term ones, projections for a future that none of us will be around to check. So here's the test: The colder it gets in Vancouver, the hotter the dubious scenarios for the globe a hundred years from now will be." On Nov. 21, 2015 Murphy is listed as #1 in the 10 grumpy conservative voices Canadians are better off not listening to about climate science. On Oct. 12, 2018 after the Oct. 8 pub. of the new Doomsday IPCC Report, hhe pub. the article The UN climate-change panel that cried wolf too often in the National Post, containing the soundbytes: "You can't set multiple deadlines for Doomsday. It's a kind of one-off by nature. Do it too often and people cease to take notice or even care"; "The trouble with apocalypses is that they can't be plural. You only get one by definition. Neither can you set multiple deadlines for Doomsday. It's a kind of one-off by nature. Do it too often and people cease to take notice or even care. Everyone knows the sad story of Cassandra, the woman given the gift of true prophecy by the gods and simultaneously cursed to have no one believe her. The IPCC's problem, up to now, is like that but reversed. Always off, but generously credited. I think that string has run out. They can play Wagner and whistle the Ride of the Valkyries all they want from here on. People are tired of that music, and sick of the band." Watch video - Rex Murphy. Watch video - Rex Murphy.

John S. Theon (1934-)

On Jan. 15, 2009 NASA atmospheric scientist John S. Theon (1934), former supervisor of NASA climate change king James A. Hansen writes a letter to the Minority Office of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, with the soundbytes: "I appreciate the opportunity to add my name to those who disagree that global warming is man made"; "As Chief of several of NASA Headquarters' programs, I was responsible for all weather and climate research in the entire agency, including the research work by James Hansen"; "Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA's official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind's effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress"; "Climate models are useless... My own belief concerning anthropogenic climate change is that the models do not realistically simulate the climate system because there are many very important sub-grid scale processes that the models either replicate poorly or completely omit. Furthermore, some scientists have manipulated the observed data to justify their model results. In doing so, they neither explain what they have modified in the observations, nor explain how they did it. They have resisted making their work transparent so that it can be replicated independently by other scientists. This is clearly contrary to how science should be done. Thus there is no rational justification for using climate model forecasts to determine public policy."

On Jan. 17, 2009 Robin McKie pub. the article President 'has four years to save Earth': US must take the lead to avert eco-disaster, reporting that NASA climate guru James A. Hansen warmed Pres. Obama that he has to save the Earth in his first administration, with the soundbyte: "We cannot afford to put off change any longer. We have to get on a new path within this new administration. We only have four years left for Obama to set an example to the rest of the world. America must take the lead", claiming that atmospheric CO2 levels are already to high to prevent runaway greenhouse warming, and only the U.S. has the political muscle to lead the world to halt the rise.

Peter T. Doran John Cook Sarah A. Green (1961-) David Russell Legates Naomi Oreskes (1958-)

On Jan. 20, 2009 Am. La. State U. geologist (AGW believer) Peter T. Doran and his student Maggie Kendall Zimmerman pub. the paper Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change in Eos, claiming that a survey of 1,257 Earth scientists showed a 97% consensus that there is anthropogenic global warming, with the conclusion: "It seems that the debate on the authenticity of global warming and the role played by human activity is largely nonexistent among those who understand the nuances and scientific basis of long-term climate processes. The challenge, rather, appears to be how to effectively communicate this fact to policy makers and to a public that continues to mistakenly perceive debate among scientists." On May 15, 2013 after years of papers attempting to estimate scientific support for anthropogenic global warming/climate change, Australian U. of Queensland cognitive scientist (self-employed cartoonist?) John Cook (author of the 2011 book "Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand" and 2007 founder of the climate science blog Skeptical Science: Getting skeptical about global warming skepticism), Mich. Technological U. chem. prof. Sarah A. Green (1961-) et al. pub. the paper Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature in Environmental Research Letters, which reports on an examination of 11,944 climate abstracts pub. in 1991-2011, finding that "Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming", which is given a super boost on May 16 by Pres. Obama in a tweet; the phrase "among papers taking a position" gives the conclusions away as moose hockey because only 3% of the papers he examined took a position, and 33% appeared to endorse anthropogenic global warming (AGW), so he divided 33/34 to get 97%"; in Apr. 2015 U. of Del. prof. David Russell Legates et al. pub. the paper Climate Consensus and 'Misinformation': A Rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change in Science & Education, which repeats Cook's study, finding that "only 41 papers - 0.3 percent of all 11,944 abstracts of 1.0 percent of the 4,014 expressing an opinion, and not 97.1 percent" endorsed AGW: on Dec. 3, 2004 Am. historian of science Naomi Oreskes (1958-) pub. the paper The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change in Science, containing the soundbyte: "This analysis shows that scientists publishing in the peer-reviewed literature agree with IPCC, the National Academy of Sciences, and the public statements of their professional societies. Politicians, economists, journalists, and others may have the impression of confusion, disagreement, or discord among climate scientists, but that impression is incorrect"; on Apr. 13, 2016 Cook, Orestes, and Doran pub. the paper Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming in Environmental Research Letters, which concludes that "The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper", and that "The finding of 97% consensus [that humans are causing recent global warming] in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies"; Doran cooked the study to get the result he wanted? On June 3, 2010 Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (1965-) pub. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, which is filmed in 2004 by Robert Kenner. On Apr. 22, 2011 Cook, Haydn Washington, and Oreskes pub. Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, pissing-off the opposition by use of the cruel char. assassination terms "deniers" and "denialists". On Aug. 22, 2014 Neil Stenhouse, Edard Maibach, and Sara Cobb pub. the paper Meteorologists' Views About Global Warming: A Survey of American Meteorological Society Professional Members in Journal of the Am. Meteorological Society, reporting a survey of meteorologists (only 13% of which describe climate as their field of expertise) which finds that 93% accept some kind of AGW (78% say mostly human-caused, 10% say equally caused by humans and natural processes, 5% say humans have contributed but the precise degree is unclear), 2% say global warming is mostly natural, 1% say global warming isn't happening, Watch video - John Cook. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Naomi Oreskes. Watch video - Naomi Oreskes. Watch video. Watch video - Steven F. Hayward.

Eric J. Steig Ryan O'Donnell Steve McIntyre (1947-)

On Jan. 22, 2009 U. of Wash. geochemist Eric J. Steig et al. pub. the paper Plugging data gaps shows warming across West Antarctica in Nature, claiming that a reconstruction of Antarctic surface temps in 1957-2006 suggests a warming trend of 0.1C/decade; on Apr. 15, 2011 aeronautical engineer Patrick Jeff Condon, independent researcher Nicholas "Nic" Lewis of Bath, England, Carnegie Mellon U. computer scientist Ryan O'Donnell, and math-trained Canadian mining exec Stephen George "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) pub. the rebuttal Improved Methods for PCA-Based Reconstructions: Case Study Using the Steig et al. (2009) Antarctic Temperature Reconstruction in Journal of Climate of the Am. Meteorological Society, containing the soundbyte: "Rather than finding warming concentrated in West Antarctica, the authors find warming over the period of 1957–2006 to be concentrated in the peninsula (˜0.35°C decade-1). This study also shows average trends for the continent, East Antarctica, and West Antarctica that are half or less than that found using the unimproved method. Notably, though the authors find warming in West Antarctica to be smaller in magnitude and find that statistically significant warming extends at least as far as Marie Byrd Land. This study also finds differences in the seasonal patterns of temperature change, with winter and fall showing the largest differences and spring and summer showing negligible differences outside of the peninsula"; on Feb. 1, 2011 Steig pub. West Antarctica: still warming. On Sept. 25, 2014 Nic Lewis and Judith A. Curry pub. the paper The implications for climate sensitivity of AR5 forcing and heat uptake estimates, using the data from IPCC's AR5 to lower the range of climate sensitivity from 6C to 3C, pissing them off. Watch video - Steve McIntyre. Watch video - Steve McIntyre. Watch video - Steve McIntyre.

In Jan. 2009 Scottish-born Canadian geologist A. Neil Hutton (1934-) pub. Climate Change in Reservoir, the mag. of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, a balanced treatment pissing-off global warmists for its fairness to the climate skeptic side.

Richard Blumenthal of the U.S. (1946-) Michael Oppenheimer (1946-)

On Feb. 5, 2009 Dem. Conn. atty. gen. #23 (1991-2011) Richard Blumenthal (1946-) along with 17 other states and two cities issue a joint letter calling on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) head Lisa P. Jackson to comply with an Apr. 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision ordering it to determine whether CO2 is a danger to human health and welfare and must be regulated, with Blumenthal writing the soundbyte: "I urge the new Obama EPA to declare carbon dioxide a danger to human health and welfare so we can at last begin addressing the potentially disastrous threat global warming poses to health, the environment and our economy. We must make up for lost time before it's too late to curb dangerous warming threatening to devastate the planet and human society"; on Dec. 7 the EPA issues its Endangerment Finding that greenhouse gas pollution threatens human health and the environment, putting it under Section 202(a) of the U.S. Clean Air Act, causing Blumenthal to comment: "No reputable climate scientist disputes the reality of global warming. It is fact, plain and simple. Dithering will be disastrous"; New York City-born geoscientist Michael Oppenheimer (1946-) supplies a lone affadavit claiming that CO2 influences sea level rise, going on to smear CO2 as responsible for global warming effects incl. damage to coral reefs and ice sheets, linking climate change to crop yields and U.S.-Mexico cross-border migration.

Mike Pompeo of the U.S. (1963-)

On Feb. 8, 2009 after moving to Wichita, Kan., home of the Koch Brothers, which back him up all the way, Orange, Calif.-born Ayn Rand-loving Repub. U.S. Army vet and Harvard Law School grad Michael Richard "Mike" Pompeo (1963-) is congratulated by the Koch brothers-funded Americans for Prosperity (founded 2003) for signing its No Climate Tax Pledge, which reads: "I pledge to the taxpayers of the State of __ and to the American people that I will oppose any legislation relating to climate change that includes a net increase in government revenue"; on June 25, 2013 Pompeo appears on the TV show Washington Journal, uttering the soundbyte: "There are scientists who think lots of different things about climate change. There's some who think we're warming, there's some who think we're cooling, there's some who think that the last 16 years have shown a pretty stable climate environment"; on Jan. 3, 2011 he becomes a U.S. rep. from Kan. (until Jan. 23, 2017); on Nov. 30, 2015 Pompeo issues a press release ahead of Pres. Obama's trip to the U.N. Climate Change Summit in Paris, with the soundbyte: "The President has his priorities dangerously wrong. He is now headed to Paris to bow down to radical environmentalists, all the while refusing to stand up to radical Islamists. In this city that has suffered an enormous tragedy at the hands of jihadists, our President stands ready to handcuff the global economy instead of the barbarians that seek to kill Americans, our allies, and others all over the world... President Obama has called climate change the biggest national security threat of our lifetime, but he is horribly wrong. His unwillingness to acknowledge the true threat posed by Islamic extremism will get Americans killed. His perverse fixation on achieving his economically harmful environmental agenda instead of defeating the true threats facing the world shows just how out of sync his priorities are with Kansans and the American people"; on Jan. 12, 2017 he faces a U.S. Senate confirmation hearing, refusing to acknowledge NASA's endorsement of climate change, with the soundbyte: "I, frankly, as the director of CIA, would prefer today not to get into the details of the climate debate and science. It seems my role is going to be so different and unique to that. It is going to be to work alongside warriors keeping Americans safe and so I stand by the things I've said previously with respect to that issue", after which he is confirmed as CIA dir. #6 on Jan. 23, 2017 until Apr. 26, 2018, when he becomes U.S. secy. of state #70 (until ?), succeeding Rex Tillerson; watch video - Mike Pompeo.

On Feb. 10, 2009 Susan Solomon, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Reto Knutti, and Pierre Friedlingstein pub. the paper Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions in Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, with the abstract: "This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the 'dust bowl' era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ˜1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer." - in case some of you are wondering, we're traveling at one half the speed of light. There is nothing to worry about, however, you may experience some temporary metabolic changes?

Anthony J. 'Tony' Sadar

On Feb. 23, 2009 Geneva College environmental scientist-meteorologist Anthony J. "Tony" Sadar, a conservative Christian who believes in the Theory of Intelligent Design pub. the article In Global Warming We Trust in The Washington Times, containing the soundbytes: "Everyone has been conditioned to believe that an extremely complex climate system is largely controlled by a single simple gas - carbon dioxide - even though the biggest single climate regulator on Earth is most likely water... Besides, could other uncontrollable factors like variation in incoming solar radiation and cosmic rays, as some atmospheric scientists have proposed, have a dominant influence over climate?"; "But wait. Aren't we all just essentially being pressured to believe in a long-range climate forecast? And isn't this pressure largely being applied by politicians and political organizations no less? Who today would bet serious money on a weather prediction made a month in advance let alone decades ahead? Yet the developed nations of the world are under the gun to invest hundreds of billions of dollars on a climate prophecy when worldwide financial stability is tottering. Doesn't President Barack Obama have enough global headaches to buffer to worry about a trillion-dollar climate prescription?"; on Aug. 20, 2012 he pub. the book In Global Warming We Trust: A Heretic's Guide to Climate Science (rev. ed. Apr. 5, 2016), comparing the U.N. IPCC-driven global warming lobby to a religious cult that wants to spend a trillion dollars canceling the Industrial Rev., relegating millions to lifelong poverty.

On Feb. 24, 2009 NASA's $280M Orbiting Carbon Laboratory, designed to detect worldwide carbon emissions plunges into the ocean after launch from Vandenberg AFB in Calif. when the nose cone fails to come off, weighting it down; on July 2, 2014 NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 is launched to study CO2 concentrations and distribution in Earth's atmosphere; watch video.

Pierre R. Latour

In Feb. 2009 Am. chemical process engineer Pierre R. Latour pub. a letter to the editor of Hydrocarbon Processing, defending his view that the Earth's thermostat can't be controlled with CO2 and pointing out errors in peer-reviewed journals, with the soundbyte: "The tenuous link between CO2 greenhouse effects and the Earth's temperature indicates humanity has no effective manipulated variable to control temperature; the steady-state gain dT/dCO2 is almost zero. If so, the system is uncontrollable. Kyoto will fail no matter what the political consensus may be." On Apr. 16, 2014 Latour pub. the paper Engineering Earth's Thermostat With CO2?, containing the soundbytes: "There are no greenhouse gases in physics"; "CO2 is not a pollutant; it is green plant food"; "CO2 does not affect temperature; rather temperature affects CO2"; "There is no such thing as a greenhouse gas because the atmosphere has no glass house"; "Since there are no graduate or licensed chemical process control engineers in the U.N. IPCC, U.S. Congress, Cabinet, or Supreme Court, these incompetent groups continue to waste time and money since 1997 attempting the impossible, designing Earth's thermostat using anthropogenic CO2. No one has controlled the climate of an entire planet"; "Halting all combustion of hydrocarbons (oil, gas, coal and wood) by man will not measurably affect atmospheric CO2 content, now 380 ppm. Simple material balance shows man generates 30 billion tons/year... while plants consume 7 trillion tons/year... Forest fires, rotting flora and volcanoes input most of the CO2 to the atmosphere. Total input or output is >7. The ratio is 0.03/7 = 0.0043... Cutting the 30 in half to 15 will drop CO2 by 100 ppm after 70 years"; "CO2 does not affect temperature; rather temperature affects CO2... Solubility of CO2 in water, oceans, beer and champagne decreases with temperature so solar warming of the ocean releases dissolved CO2 and cooling reaborbs it. Solar radiation drives Earth's temperature. CO2 has nothing to do with it"; "Atmospheric radiation absorption and emission is dominated by the presence of all three phases of H2O. Like all molecules, CO2 only absorbs and emits specific spectral wavelengths (14.77 microns) which constitute a tiny fraction of solar radiation energy in Earth's atmosphere. The first 50 ppm of CO2 absorbs about half of this tiny energy, each additional 50 ppm absorbs half of the remaining tiny fraction, so at the current 380 ppm there are almost no absorbable photons left. CO2 could triple to 1000 ppm with no additional discernible absorption-emission. This is the Beer-Lambert Law: the intensity of radiation decreases exponentially as it passes through an absorbing medium"; "Earth's temperature increased naturally 0.6C from 1976 to 1978 and has stabilized since, decreasing nearly 0.1C from 2005 to 2009. Forecasts of long term cooling are credible but irrelevant to the claim anthropogenic CO2 does not affect temperature. CO2 did not accelerate at the onset of the increase in hydrocarbon combustion by man after 1900"; "Warming or cooling, the rate of change of surface temperature at a moment in time, does not affect the melting or freezing rate of H2O, only the average temperature of its surroundings greater than 0C or less than 0C does. If average temperature is less than 0C, water will freeze even if the temperature is incrasing; if average temperature is >0C, ice will melt even if the temperature is decreasing. In other words ice melts because its surroundings are too warm, not because they are warming"; "What troubles me is the claim that ice melts because the temperature is warming, meaning any time the temperature increases, they say ice is going to melt. That's universal in the language in the media for 20 years, and that's not right, it's not said right"; "Earth's atmospheric temperature is not measurable. Temperature is a point property of the energy content of vibrating and radiating molecules. Physics has no rigorous definition of average temperature of bulk matter, accounting for changes in temperature, state, composition, pressure, heat capacity, velocity and reactions. Air temperature, pressure and composition change with altitude, latitude, clouds, time of day, season, weather fronts and deforestation. Wien's Law gives an average surface temperature from radiation emitted by black bodies like stars; it does not apply to bodies dominated by non-uniform, variable reflection, like Earth"; "U.N. IPCC climate models incorrectly assume Earth's radiation to space decreases as its temperature increases. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states all bodies radiate proportional to T**4... Control engineers know all matter reaches an equilibrium temperature due to this change-mitigating effect. Otherwise Earth would have exploded or frozen long ago. U.N. climate models are empirical and hence wrong"; "Earth's global emissivity is difficult to measure or determine, but Standard Global Climate Model uses e = 0.612. It increases with content of radiating gases like H20 and C02.... Doubling CO2 from 400 to 800 ppmv increases e by about 0.001 to 0.613"; "What is all the fuss about? When I was in kindergarten, Henny Penny & Chicken Little said 'The sky is falling!'. They neglected to say how fast. No astrophysics, just chemical engineering. In 1981 James Hansen, NASA, assumed Earth was a black body, e = 1.0, and deduced Earth's radiating temperature to be Tbb0 = 100(239/567*1.0)**0.25 = 254.80 (-18.3C). Since it is about +15C, he declared the Greenhouse Gas Effect to be T0 - Tbb0 = 288.08 - 254.80 = 33C. Everybody was horrified, Hansen got famous, Al Gore got rich and the rest is history." On Feb. 25, 2017 Latour pub. the paper Radiation Physics Laws Give the Effect of CO2 on Earth's Temperatures – A Primer, ditching the climatologists' non-physics-based non-quantitative statistical climate models for a chemical process control systems model of Earth's atmosphere, concluding that a 1% increase in atmospheric parameters (emissivity and absorptivity levels) yields a surface temperature DROP from 14.786C to 14.033C (delta of– 0.763C), while atmospheric temperature drops from –18.141C to –18.533C (delta of –0.392C), exploding the COW, er, CO2 Greenhouse Warming Theory as moose hockey that doesn't even exist because it violates the Laws of Thermodynamics and creates an imaginary perpetual motion machine in the sky. Watch video - Pierre R. Latour

On Mar. 8-9, 2009 the Heartland Inst.'s Second Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-2) is held in New York City, with the theme "Global Warming: Was It Ever Really a Crisis?", with the keynote address given by Czech Repub. pres. Vaclav Klaus.

'The Age of Stupid', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Franny Armstrong's The Age of Stupid (Spanner Films) (Dogwood Pictures) debuts, a documentary starring Pete Postlethwaite as a historyscoper living alone in the devastated world of 2055, watching archival footage from guess what year while asking "Why didn't we stop climate change when we had the chance?"; spawns the 10:10 Project in the U.K. to encourage everybody to reduce their carbon emissions by 10% in 12 mo. Watch the movie.

'Knowing', 2009 Caleb's Number Sheet from 'Knowing', 2009

On Mar. 20, 2009 Alex Proyas' Knowing (Summit Entertainment), based on an idea by novelist Ryne Douglas Pearson debuts, starring Rose Byrne/Lara Robinson as Lucinda Embry-Wayland, who is visited by ETs in 1959 and puts a sheet of numbers in her school's time capsule, which is opened in 2009 by fellow student Caleb Koestler (Chandler Canterbury), whose father Jonathan "John" Koestler (Nicolas Cage) is an MIT astrophysics prof.; the numbers turn out to be dates and coordinates of major disasters, the last one of which is "EE" (everyone else), after which a solar flare wipes out all life on Earth right before some ETs arrive in spaceships to rescue a lucky few; does $187.9M box office on a $50M budget; "Now, I want you to think about the perfect set of circumstances that put this celestial ball of fire at just the correct distance from our little blue planet for life to evolve, making it possible for you to be sitting here in this riveting lecture. But that's a nice thought, right? Everything has a purpose, an order to it, is determined. But then there's the other side of the argument, the theory of randomness, which says it's all simply coincidence. The very fact we exist is nothing but the result of a complex yet inevitable string of chemical accidents and biological mutations. There is no grand meaning. There's no purpose. What about you, Professor Koestler? What? Well, what do you believe? I think shit just happens. But that's me." View trailer. Watch movie clip.

Kevin Edward Trenberth (1944-)

In Mar. 2009 Christchurch, New Zealand-born Kevin Edward Trenberth (1944-) of the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (lead author of the 2001 and 2007 IPCC Assessment Reports) pub. the article Earth's Global Energy Budget in Proceedings of the Am. Meteorological Society, displaying a Global Energy Flow Diagram that purports to show how "back radiation" of 333 W/sq. m causes global warming, even though the incoming solar radiation is only 341.3 W/sq. m; this is moose hockey because it ignores the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and doesn't mention that back radiation is mathematical science fiction that creates an imaginary second Sun?

Marc Morano (1968-) David Rothbard (-2018) Craig Rucker Richard Mellon Scaife (1932-2014) Michael Goetz

In Apr. 2009 Washington, D.C.-born former Rush Limbaugh aide Marc Morano (1968-) founds the climate change denial Web site Climate Depot, sponsored by the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) of Washington, D.C. (founded in 1985 by David Rothbard (-2018) and Craig Rucker to "relentlessly infuse the environmental debate with a balanced perspective on environmental stewardship"), going on to help spread news of the Climategate scandal, debate Bill Nye the Science Guy on CNN's "Piers Morgan Tonight" in Dec. 2012 and Sierra Club exec dir. Michael Brune on ditto in Jan. 2013, and produce the documentary Climate Hustle, which debuts on Dec. 7, 2015 at the COP 21 U.N. Climate Change Summit in Paris, and in U.S. theaters on May 2, 2016; the film is produced by the Committee for Contructive Tomorrow (CFACT), which is funded by major oil corps. and right-wing billionaire Richard Mellon "Dickie" Scaife (1932-2014). On Feb. 26, 2018 Morano pub. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Climate Change, which claims that climate change is not about science but about fundamentally changing society to eliminate capitalism in favor of central planning run by the U.N. Am. atty. Michael Goetz is vice-pres. of CFACT Europe, which on Dec. 15, 2009 after bribing the crew with doughnuts puts a CFACT banner on the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior reading "Ship of Lies", later unfurling another banner reading "Propaganda Warrior"; CFACT's official policy on climate change is contained in the soundbytes: "The continuing scandal over falsified and destroyed temperature data, manipulated climate models, and a perverted scientific and peer review process further demonstrates that there is no valid basis for this anti-energy, wealth-redistribution, global governance Copenhagen treaty"; "Hundreds of climate scientists and thousands of other scientists disagree with that assertion [that climate change is occurring], as frequently noted by Lord Christopher Monckton, former science advisor to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and a CFACT advisor." Watch video - Marc Morano. Watch video - Marc Morano. Watch video - Marc Morano. View trailer. View clip. Watch video - Climate Hustle. Watch video - Michael Goetz. Watch video - David Rothbard. Watch video - Craig Rucker. Watch video - Craig Rucker.

On May 1, 2009 John M. Broder pub. the article Saving the Planet, With a Thesaurus, explaining how the term "global warming" has become dated for marketing purposes, as is the term "climate change", and the latest proposal by ecoAmerica is the term "deteriorating atmosphere".

Ian Plimer (1946-) William Kininmonth

On May 1, 2009 Australian global warming skeptic earth scientist (geologist) Ian Rutherford Plimer (1946-) pub. the bestseller Heaven and Earth: Global Warming - The Missing Science, dissing climate models for overemphasis on CO2 and not giving enough weight to solar variation; in June he gives an interview to ABNNewswire, containing the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide has an effect on the atmosphere and it has an effect for the first 50 parts per million and once it's done its job then it's finished and you can double it and quadruple it and it has no effect because we've seen that in the geological past, and we've seen it in times gone by when the carbon dioxide content was 100 times the current content. We didn't have runaway global warming, we actually had glaciation, so there's immediately a disconnect. So carbon dioxide is absolutely vital for living on earth; it's plant food, all of life lives off carbon dioxide. To demonize it shows that you don't understand school child science"; he also utters the soundbyte: "There is no problem with global warming. It stopped in 1998. The last two years of global cooling have erased nearly thirty years of temperature increase"; in 2014 he pub. Not for Greens: He Who Sups with the Devil Should Have a Long Spoon. In 2004 he helps fellow Australian global warming skeptic meteorologist William Robert Kininmonth pub. his book Climate Change, a Natural Hazard. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer. Watch video - Ian Plimer.

Gareth Morgan (1953-)

On May 8, 2009 after he can't make up his mind about climate change and hires top scientists on both sides to answer his questions, wealthy Kiwi economist and investor Gareth Huw Morgan (1953-) along with John McCrystal pub. Poles Apart: Beyond the Shouting, Who's Right About Climate Change? (The Great Climate Change Debate), explaining why he began accepting it despite problems with the hockey stick, with the order in which CO2 growth and warming occur at the end of an ice age, and the arcane language of the IPCC reports; in Feb. 2012 he makes a voyage in Antarctica from Bluff to Scott Base carrying top scientists to gauge Antarctica's sensitivity to climate change. Watch video - Gareth Morgan. Watch video - Gareth Morgan.

On June 11, 2009 after returning from a trip to China and Alaska, U.S. Dem. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi issues the soundbyte that the U.S. and China have been "each using the other as the excuse for doing nothing" to stop global warming, adding: "The debate over whether or not the planet is warming and whether we are causing the problem no longer exists."

Tom Segalstad

On June 23, 2009 a letter is sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) titled A Scientific Challenge of EPA's Proposed Finding of Endangerment that CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons, Perflouorocarbons, and Sulfur Hexafluoride, Collectively or Individually, Are Causal Agent(s) or Contributors of Climate Change, which contains the soundbyte: "There is no 'cause and effect' relationship between CO2 and GTA (Global Temperature Anomalies)"; signers incl. Norwegian U. of Oslo environmental geologist Tom Victor Segalstad, who is slammed by the EPA with the soundbyte: "[Segalstad's work] does not address the lifetime of a change in atmospheric concentration of CO2, but rather the lifetime in the atmosphere of an individual molecule of CO2", which they claim are "two different concepts", based on his hot, er, cool Dec. 1995 paper The distribution of CO2 between atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere; minimal influence from anthropogenic CO2 on the global "Greenhouse Effect", containing the soundbyte: "Man's contribution to atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels is small, maximum 4% found by carbon isotope mass balance calculations. The 'Greenhouse Effect' of this contribution is small and well within natural climatic variability... The global climate is primarily governed by the enormous heat energy stored in the oceans and the latent heat of melting of the ice caps, not by the small amount of heat that can be absorbed in atmospheric CO2; hence legislation of 'CO2 taxes' to be paid by the public cannot influence on the sea level and the global climate"; Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad. Watch video - Tom Segalstad.

Sarah Louise Palin of the U.S. (1964-) Henry Waxman of the U.S. (1939-) Ed Markey of the U.S. (1946-)

On June 30, 2009 Repub. Alaska Gov. #9 (2006-9) Sarah Louise Palin (nee Heath) (1964-) announces that she doesn't support the Am. Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (1975-2015) Henry Arnold Waxman (1939-) and U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1976-2013) Edward John "Ed" Markey (1946-), chmn. of the U.S. House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming since 2007, "calling it a case of one size doesn't fit all", which was approved 219-212 by the House on June 26 and is never brought to a vote in the Senate; on Aug. 7, 2010 after calling 2010 the hottest year on record, Markey suggests that global warming deniers start their own country on an iceberg, with the soundbyte: "An iceberg four times the size of Manhattan has broken off Greenland, creating plenty of room for global warming deniers to start their own country", adding that it is "unclear how many giant blocks of ice it will take to break the block of Republican climate deniers in the US Senate who continue hold this critical clean energy and climate legislation hostage", on Mar. 20, 2011 Markey ridicules Repubs. for trying to pass the U.S. Upton-Inhofe Bill to overturn the EPA's rules on climate pollution and its endangerment finding, with the soundbyte: "Mr. Chairman, I rise in opposition to a bill that overturns the scientific finding that pollution is harming our people and our planet. However, I won't physically rise, because I'm worried that Republicans will overturn the law of gravity, sending us floating about the room. I won't call for the sunlight of additional hearings, for fear that Republicans might excommunicate the finding that the Earth revolves around the sun. Instead, I'll embody Newton's third law of motion and be an equal and opposing force against this attack on science and on laws that will reduce America's importation of foreign oil", later uttering the soundbyte: "Scientists agree the Arctic is a canary in a coal mine that provides clear warmings on climate"; on Aug. 18, 2011 Markey appears on MSNBC's "The Last Word", dissing Repub. U.S. pres. candidates who want to dismantle the EPA, with the soundbyte: "Rick Perry and these other guys are allergic to science...too many of the Tea Party people, who basically don't believe in science, are now controlling the Republican Party." Watch video - Ed Markey. Watch video - Ed Markey. Watch video - Ed Markey and Judith Curry. Watch video - Ed Markey, Judith Curry, and Mark Steyn. Watch video - Ed Markey.

Alan Carlin

In June 2009 U.S. Sen. James Inhofe and the Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) write a letter to EPA head Lisa Jackson calling for a congressional investigation of the suppression of a report casting doubt on the existence of CO2-driven global warming written by Caltech physics-trained MIT economics-trained economist Alan Carlin (dir. of EPA's Implementation Research Div. in 1971-4), which they deny, making him more popular with climate skeptics?; on Feb. 12, 2010 he pub. the article Why the Whole AGW/Warmist Narrative Is Even Weaker than Its Components, containing the soundbyte: "There is very little empirical evidence for rising GHG levels as the primary cause for global warming. Ice core data suggests that CO2 levels follow temperatures rather than the other way around. In fact, the all-important scientific tests of this hypothesis show that increases in GHG levels are not a significant cause of warming." Watch video - Alan Carlin. Watch video - Alan Carlin.

Prince Charles of Wales (1948-)

On July 8, 2009 funny ears British Prince Charles of Wales (1948-) gives a speech to industrialists and environmentalists at St. James's Palace, claiming that we have just 96 mo. [8 ears, er, years] left to save Earth from "irretrievable climate and ecosystem collapse and all that goes with it", hence must give up capitalism and consumerism along with the "age of convenience" via "coherent financial incentives and disincentives", with the soundbytes: "We face the dual challenges of a world view and an economic system that seem to have enormous shortcomings, together with an environmental crisis – including that of climate change - which threatens to engulf us all", and "But for all its achievements, our consumerist society comes at an enormous cost to the Earth and we must face up to the fact that the Earth cannot afford to support it. Just as our banking sector is struggling with its debts – and paradoxically also facing calls for a return to so-called 'old-fashioned', traditional banking – so Nature's life-support systems are failing to cope with the debts we have built up there too. If we don't face up to this, then Nature, the biggest bank of all, could go bust. And no amount of quantitative easing will revive it."

Ralph B. Alexander

On July 10, 2009 Australian physicist Ralph B. Alexander pub. the book Global Warming False Alarm: The Bad Science Behind the United Nations; Assertion That Man-Made CO2 Causes Global Warming, containing the soundbytes: "Global warming may be real, but there's hardly a shred of good scientific evidence that it has very much to do with the amount of CO2 we're producing, or even that temperatures have risen as much as warmists say"; "The link between extreme weather and global warming has as much scientific basis as the pagan rite of human sacrifice to ensure a good harvest"; "Climate-change skeptics might be regarded as modern-day witches because they think that global warming comes from natural forces. However, it's superstitious alarmists, who believe that extreme weather originates in our CO2 emissions and who have a dread of impending disaster, who are really the witches"; "I am offended that science is being perverted in the name of global warming - today's environmental cause celebre." On Dec. 10, 2012 he pub. the article Extreme Weather and Superstition in The New York Post, which claims that there is no link between anthropogenic climate change and extreme weather events. On Sept. 1, 2018 Science Under Attack: The Age of Unreason, attacking global warmists while expanding the list of hot-button issues to vaccination and the health of dietary fat, with the soundbytes: "Conventional scientific wisdom holds that global warming and consequent changes in the climate are primarily our own doing. But what few people realize is that the actual scientific evidence for a substantial human contribution to climate change is flimsy"; "It requires highly questionable computer climate models to make the connection between global warming and human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)"; "The multiple lines of evidence which do exist are simply evidence that the world is warming, not proof that the warming comes predominantly from human activity"; "The supposed proof relies entirely on computer models that attempt to simulate the Earth's highly complex climate and include greenhouse gases as well as aerosols from both volcanic and man-made sources – but almost totally ignore natural variability."

On Sept. 22-24, 2009 the 2009 Eastern Australian Dust Storm, not driven by drought smothers dozens of towns and cities in two states with a red-orange dust cloud visible from space that is reminiscent of Mars, becoming the worst in N.S.W. in almost 70 years.

Paul Krugman (1953-)

On Sept. 25, 2009 Albany, N.Y.-born Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Robin Krugman (1953-) pub. the op-ed It's Easy Being Green in Tte New York Times, dissing global warming deniers for claiming that climate legislation would cause "immense economic damage" and accusing them of "treason against the planet"; on Sept. 27 he pub. the NYT op-ed Cassandras of Climate, claiming that climate scientists are like the Greek myth of Cassandra, who could prophesy the future but could never get anybody to believe her; on Aug. 20, 2018 he pub. the NYT op-ed The G.O.P.'s Climate of Paranoia, with the soundbytes: "Fifteen years have passed since Senator James Inhofe suggested that global warming is 'the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people.' This was and is an even crazier claim than the assertion of Trump and company that all of the tweeter in chief's woes are the product of a vast deep-state conspiracy; it's not far short of Pizzagate or QAnon territory. To take it seriously you have to believe in a vast international conspiracy involving thousands of scientists, not one of whom dares speak out", and "Climate denial is a deeply cynical enterprise; the people misrepresenting evidence and sifting through emails for 'gotcha' quotes have to know that they're not being honest. Yet their rage against 'elitists' who continue to point out inconvenient truths is very real - because it's a fact of life that many people feel special hatred for those they've mistreated." He follows with Donald and the Deadly Deniers: Climate policy is the ultimate example of Trumpian corruption on Oct. 15, 2018, The Depravity of Climate-Change Denial: Risking civilization for profit, ideology and ego on Nov. 26, 2018, and Climate Denial Was the Crucible for Trumpism on Dec. 3, 2018, attempting to defame climate change skeptics and do everything but call for them to be burned at the stake.

On Sept. 28-30, 2009 the 4 Degrees and Beyond Internat. Climate Conference: Implications of a Global Climate Change of 4+ Degrees for People, Ecosystems and the Earth-system is held in Oxford, U.K., sponsored by Oxford U., the Tyndall Centre, and the Met Office Hadley Centre.

Johan Rockström

In Sept. 2009 after agreeing that AGW is beyond dispute, 28 internat. academics led by true AGW believer Johan Rockstrem (Rockström) of Stockholm U. hold a conference to propose a new framework for govt. agencies to achieve sustainable development based on nine "planetary life support systems" that form the "safe operating space for humanity" (climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, global freshwater use, change in land use, biodiversity loss, atmospheric aerosol loading, and chemical pollution), with violation of "planetary boundaries" bringing a risk of "irreversible and abrupt environmental change" that could make the Earth less habitable; critics pan the whole idea as arbitrary and not applying globally. Watch video - Johan Rockström. Watch video - Johan Rockström. Watch video - Johan Rockström. Watch video - Johan Rockström. Watch video - Patrick Moore.

On Oct. 18, 2009 Australian atmospheric physicist John Reid pub. an article dissing Al Gore as nothing but a religious cult leader, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is the central tenet of this new belief system in much the same way that the Resurrection is the central tenet of Christianity. Al Gore has taken a role corresponding to that of St Paul in proselytizing the new faith... My skepticism about AGW arises from the fact that as a physicist who has worked in closely related areas, I know how poor the underlying science is. In effect the scientific method has been abandoned in this field."

Jim Puplava

On Oct. 24, 2009 Financial Sense Newshour (founded 1988), hosted by Am. investment analyst James Joseph "Jim" Puplava pub. an interview with climate change skeptic Ian Plimer about his book "Heaven and Earth: Global Warming, the Missing Science", who utters the soundbyte: "My view shows us that in the past we've had massive climate changes far far bigger than anything we've measured today", adding that increased CO2 in the atmosphere is a "gift" because it improves crop production; Puplava adds the soundbyte: "History shows that depopulation, social disruptions, extinctions, disease, and catastrophic droughts take place in cold times yet life blossoms and economies bloom in warm times. If indeed there is a period of global warming, why are we afraid of it?"

Tony Abbott of Australia (1957-)

In Oct. 2009 future Australian Liberal PM #28 (2013-15) Anthony John "Tony" Abbott (1957-) gives a speech in Victoria, in which he utters the soundbyte: "I observed that the so-called settled science of climate change was 'absolute crap'"; in July 2014 his govt. abolishes Labor's 2011 carbon tax and replaces it with the Emissions Reduction Fund, which lets cos. bid for $2.5B in public funds to implement emissions reduction projects; on Oct. 9, 2017 he gives the speech Daring to Doubt at the Global Warming Policy Foundation in London, calling green ideology a symptom of the decline of Western civilization, and climate change an insidious new religion that has replaced Christianity in many Western societies, with the soundbytes: "Beware the pronouncement, 'the science is settled'. It's the spirit of the Inquisition, the thought police, down the ages. Almost as bad is the claim that '99 per cent of scientists believe', as if scientific truth is determined by votes rather than facts", "Contrary to the breathless assertions that climate change is behind every weather event, in Australia the floods are not bigger, the bushfires are not worse, the droughts are not deeper or longer, and the cyclones are not more severe than they were in the 1800s. Sometimes, they do more damage but that's because there's more to destroy, not because their intensity has increased. More than 100 years of photography at Manly Beach in my electorate does not suggest that sea levels have risen despite frequent reports from climate alarmists that this is imminent", "In what might be described as Ridley's paradox, after the distinguished British commentator: at least so far, it's climate change policy that's doing harm; climate change itself is probably doing good; or at least, more good than harm", "The growing evidence that records have been adjusted, that the impact of urban heat islands has been downplayed, and that data sets have been slanted in order to fit the theory of dangerous anthropogenic global warming does not make it false; but it should produce much caution about basing drastic action upon it", "Unsurprisingly, the recipients of climate change subsidies and climate change research grants think action is very urgent indeed. As for the general public, of course saving the planet counts – until the bills come in and then the humbug detector is switched on", with the concluding soundbyte: "A tendency to fear catastrophe is ingrained in the human psyche. Looking at the climate record over millions of years, one day it will probably come; whatever we do today won't stop it, and when it comes, it will have little to do with the carbon dioxide emissions of mankind." Watch video - Tony Abbott.

On Nov. 12, 2009 scientists Joseph Francisco of Purdue U. and Timothy Lee of NASA pub. an article in the Journal of Physical Chemistry A, revealing that carbon dioxide and methane are outclassed in their climate warming potential by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur and nitrogen fluorides because they "contain fluorine atoms, [which] are far more efficient at blocking radiation in the 'atmospheric window'..., the frequency in the infrared region through which radiation from Earth is released into space, helping to cool the planet."

Phil Jones (1952-) Tom Wigley (1940-) Petr Chylek

On Nov. 17, 2009 Climategate starts when a hacker breaks into computers at the U. of East Anglia in England and finds emails of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) scientists faking global warming data at will and bragging about it, dogging the Dec. Copenhagen Summit; CRU dir. Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones (1952-) is in charge of the two key data sets used by the U.N. Intergovt. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to draw up its reports, along with Australian climate scientist Tom Wigley (1940-) (Hubert Lamb's successor at the CRU), causing them to be known as Jones and Wigley; "Here are some speculations on correcting SSTs to partly explain the 1940s warming blip... So, if we could reduce the ocean blip by, say, 0.15 degC, then this would be significant for the global mean -- but we'd still have to explain the land blip... It would be good to remove a least part of the 1940s blip, but we are still left with 'why the blip'" (Wigley, Sept. 27, 2009); Los Alamos Nat. Lab researcher Petr Chylek sends an email titled "Open Letter to the Climate Research Community" to 100 of his climate research peers, containing the soundbyte that the climate science community has "substituted the search for truth with an attempt at proving one point of view", concluding "Let us drastically modify or temporarily discontinue the IPCC" and appealing for climate scientists to stop making "unjustified claims and exaggerated projections about the future even if the editors of some eminent journals are just waiting to publish them"; on Nov. 22 Climategate II sees another batch of email released, causing Myron Ebell, dir. of the Competitive Enterprise Inst. Center on Energy and Environment to utter the soundbyte: "If there were any doubts remaining after reading the first Climategate e-mails, the new batch of e-mails that appeared on the web today make it clear that the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an organized conspiracy dedicated to tricking the world into believing that global warming is a crisis that requires a drastic response"; too bad, it comes too near the Copenhagen Summit to stop it, despite U.N. climate scientist panel head Rajendra Pachauri uttering the soundbyte: "The internal consistency from multiple lines of evidence strongly supports the work of the scientific community, incl. those individuals singled out in these email exchanges." Watch video - Climategate - The Corbett Report. Watch video - Climategate = RT. Watch video - Climategate - Wikileaks. Watch video - Tom Wigley. Watch video - Climategate. Watch video - Climategate - The Corbett Report. Watch video - Climategate - James Delingpole. Watch video - Climategate - Stefan Molyneux. Watch video - Climategate II.

James Delingpole (1965-)

On Nov. 20, 2009 English conservative-libertarian climate skeptic writer-journalist (non-scientist) James Mark Court Delingpole (1965-) pub. the article Climategate: The Final Nail in the Coffin of 'Anthropogenic Global Warming' in the London Daily Telegraph, containing the soundbytes about "Climategate" (which he coins): "The conspiracy behind the Anthropogenic Global Warming myth (aka AGW; aka ManBearPig) has been suddenly, brutally and quite deliciously exposed", and "A contretemps with a Climate Bully who wonders whether I have a science degree. (No I don't. I just happen to be a believer in empiricism and not spending taxpayers' money on a problem that may well not exist)." He goes on to popularize the term "Climategate" and use anthropogenic global warming (AGW) as a whipping boy, calling NOAA scientists "talentless low-lives who cannot be trusted", climate change scientists "abject liars", and climate activists "eco nazis", "eco fascists", and "scum-sucking slime balls" pushing "junk science". On June 22, 2010 Delingpole pub. the article 'Climate change sceptics have smaller members, uglier wives, dumber kids' says new study made up by warmists in The Telegraph, criticizing the article Expert credibility in climate change by William R.L. Anderegg, James W. Prall, Jacob Harold, and Stephen H. Schneider in Proceedings of the Nat. Acadmy of Sciences, which concludes: "We use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers", with the soundbyte that the article is "based on a petty, spiteful, Stasi-like blacklist produced by an obscure Canadian warmist - outrageously aggrandised by being published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences." On Feb. 16, 2012 Delingpole pub. the book Watermelons: How Environmentalists are Killing the Planet, Destroying the Economy and Stealing Your Children's Future, with the ad blurb: "The shocking story of how an unholy mix of junk science, green hype, corporate greed and political opportunism led to the biggest and most expensive outbreak of mass hysteria in history." On Apr. 7, 2013 Delingpole pub. the article An English class for trolls, professional offence-takers and climate activists in The Telegraph, humorously suggesting that global warming scientists like Michael E. Mann should be "hanged", "given the electric chair", or "fed to the crocodiles". On Mar. 28, 2016 Delingpole pub. the article Climate Change: The Greatest-Ever Conspiracy Against the Taxpayer in Breitbart, containing the soundbytes: "Climate change is the biggest scam in the history of the world - a $1.5 trillion-a-year conspiracy against the taxpayer, every cent, penny and centime of which ends in the pockets of the wrong kind of people, none of which goes towards a cause remotely worth funding, all of it a complete and utter waste"; "It really doesn't matter whether you believe in global warming or not because here's the reality: All that money we're being to spend on the global warming industry – that $1.5 trillion I mentioned earlier siphoned straight out of taxpayers' pockets – it isn't going to make the blindest bit of difference"; "I call climate change 'the gift that goes on giving' because day in day out I get an endless stream of stories to write about the corruption, incompetence, skullduggery of the climate alarmism industry"; "Now we have all those eco-friendly wind turbines, or as I call them, bird-slicing, bat-chomping eco-crucifixes"; On Apr. 9, 2016 Delingpole pub. the article Why Conservatives Will Always Lose the War on Climate Change, containing the soundbytes: "Most people don't realize this yet, but if a Democrat gets the keys to the White House next year it's game over for the US economy. This isn't just for the obvious reason that liberals like Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton don't understand free markets or small government. It's because the left has got its hands on the magic formula that enables it to do at both federal and local level all the things that lefties love to do – the meddling, the nannying, the taxing, the regulating, the confiscating, the cronyism – virtually unopposed by the people who should be opposing them. The formula is: 'We're saving the planet'"; "The left is cunning. Like the Taliban – 'you have the watches, we have the time' – it plays a very long game. The tactics it has been using in the environmental wars date at least back to Saul Alinsky and probably as far back as the Cultural Marxists of the 1930s Frankfurt School"; "What's certain is for several decades now - and most especially since the Fall of the Berlin Wall supposedly won the capitalist argument – the left has been using environmentalism as a cloak to disguise its usual controlling, misanthropic, puritanical, big government agenda with a kindly aura of bunny-hugging caringness." In Jan. 2018 Delingpole gives an interview to This Week, praising Pres. Trump for withdrawing from the Paris Climate Agreement, with the soundbytes: "Let's cut the crap. Donald Trump is amazing. The U.S. economy is going gangbusters. The DOW is soaring. Growth is over 3%. Hourly wages are two-and-a-half percent higher than this time last year. Unemployment for African Americans is at record lows"; "And after Trump's sweeping tax reforms, something that lesser Republicans have been trying and failing to achieve for years, we can expect massive growth ahead"; "And because he's so frank and fearless, he's even dared to take on the green crazies. He's brushed off all their scaremongering nonsense and told it like it is: global warming is just an excuse to bomb the global economy back to the dark ages"; "Au revoir, Paris Climate Accord. Hello freedom, scientific integrity, and prosperity." On Jan. 3, 2019 Delingpole pub. the article Twelve Debunked Climate Scares We Can Laugh at in 2019. Watch video - James Delingpole. Watch video - James Delingpole. Watch video - James Delingpole. Watch video - James Delingpole.