TLW's Irelandscope™ (Ireland Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: July 24, 2017. Last Update: Mar. 18, 2019.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Ireland and Ireland's history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
About 4000 B.C.E. tombs at Loughcrew in County Meath, Ireland align with the rising Sun at the spring and autumn equinoxes.
About 3200 B.C.E. the 200K-ton Newgrange Tomb in County Meath, Ireland is built; each winter solstice the Sun shines through an opening above the entrance for about 15 min., illuminating a 60-ft.-long passage; discovered in 1699 C.E.
The Celts begin fighting for their free-ee-ee-dom? About 3000 B.C.E. the Celts (from the Greek word Keltoi, meaning hidden people), a fusion of Mediterranean, Alpine, and Nordic strains, incl. a dark Iberian and a blonde stock, and known, like Slavs, for big beards (compared to Chinese who have stubble beards, Ethiopians who have curly beards, and Am. aborigines, who are bare-faced) appear in N Europe; their Indo-European Gaelic Language drops the p sound in the initial or medial position (Lat. porcus becomes Gael. orc); they eventually form more than 150 distinct tribes, incl. the Britons in Britain, the Gauls in France, and the Goidels (Gaels) (Gael. "gwyddel" = savages) in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man; Goidelic Gaelic splits from Brythonic Galic by preserving the hard c sound, which turns into p in Brythonic (Irish mac becomes Welsh map); they practice the Druid Religion (Gr. "drus" = oak tree), which worships trees (rowans), practices magical ceremonies, and believes in the Sun god Belenus (Beli Mawr) ("the shining one"), the goddess of victory Andraste (Andrasta) (Andred), tree genies, Earth gods, and elfin demons; they fail to develop a written lit., relying on oral transmission by bards, filid (poets), scelaige (narrators), and entertainers; although they have no alphabet, symbols they use incl. the cross, swastika (fylfot), and trefoil (trivet), plus the colors and weaves later used in Scottish tartans; the Britons are cannibals; the social org. is tribal and clannish, preventing consolidation into a central govt., which proves their weakness and undoing?
In 2680 B.C.E. the Partholon (Partholón) (Parthalán) settle in Ireland 300 years after Noah's Food, multiply from 1K to 4K, then all die of plague in a single week.
In 2500 B.C.E. the Passage Graves are built in Ulster, Ireland. Maes How (Maeshowe), a huge burial mound (tumulus) is built in Orkney. Loughcrew Cairns burial mound in Ireland contains carvings which could be attempts to evoke trances.
In 2459 B.C.E. 5he traditional date of Noah's Great Flood; 489-y.-o. Noah (b. -2948) saves all air-breathing life on his Ark, incl. his four sons and their wives; after landing on Mt. Ararat in Turkey (highest mountain in the Middle East), the ramps come down and the Earth is repopulated; Ireland is populated by Magog, son of Japheth? - there must have been land bridges to all continents, right? Mt. Ararat is in the Caucasus Mts., so that's where White (Caucasian) is Right came from?
In 2350 B.C.E. 5he Nemedians ("holy", "privileged") arrive in Ireland in one of 44 ships that set out from the Caspian Sea a year and a half earlier, and defeat the semi-divine Fomorians; later they are defeated by the Fir Bolg ("bag men", "bright ones"), who are defeated by the Tuatha De Danann (People of the Goddess Dana or Danu), who are defeated by the Sons of Mil Espaine (Milesians) from the NW Iberian Peninsula, after which they are led underground into the Sidhe (Shee) Mounds by the god Dagda ("good god"), assuming invisibility, with the power to reappear in human form, becoming the Fairy Folk, with their goddess Eriu giving Ireland its name; thus, modern-day Ireland contains two races, one visible, the other invisible? - depending on how much whiskey you've drunk?
In 2250 B.C.E. portal tombs incl. the Kempe Stones in Newtownards are built in Ulster, Ireland.
About 1500 B.C.E. the Picts traditionally migrate from Brittany to Ireland, are refused permission to stay, but allowed to settle in NE Scotland on the condition that each Pictish king marry an Irish princess, since Pict society is matriarchal.
In 1351 B.C.E. Amenhotep III dies (from complications caused by abscesses in his teeth?), and his son (co-regent since -1353) Amenhotep (Amenophis) ("Amun is satisfied") IV (-1384 to -1334) (later Akhenaten) becomes king #10 of the 18th Egyptian Dynasty at Thebes; his sister-wife is luscious eye liner-wearing ruby-red-lipped "Lady of the Two Lands" Nefertiti (Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten) (-1370 to -1330) ("Nefer" = beautiful, "Titi" = er, arrived), daughter of the equally luscious Queen Tiy; they have six daughters, incl. the three "senior princesses" Meritaten (Merytaten) (Meryetaten) (-1350 to ?) ("beloved of Aten"), who marries her brother Smenkhkare, Meketaten (-1349 to ?) ("protected by Aten"), and Ankhesenpaaten (Ankhesenamen) (-1348 to -1323), who marries King Tutankhamun, and whose statue is discovered in the 1930s by English archeologist Mary Chubb (1903-2003); Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Tut have elongated skulls, spawning theories that they are part alien; in 1955 Irish archeologist Sean P. O'Riordan (1905-57) of Trinity College, Dublin discovers a necklace of Egyptian-style fired faience beads in the Mount of Hostages in Tara, Ireland, along with a golden collar similar to Tutankhamun's, proving intercourse with the Celts?
By 1200 B.C.E. the Celts in Britain consist of two stocks, the Goidels (Gaels) in N Ireland and the Scottish highlands, and the Cimbri (Cymbri) (Cymri) (Combroges) ("co-landers") (Welsh) and Britons (Brythons) (kin to the Belgae in Gaul) in Wales and the lowlands; the Cimbri may have started in Jutland, giving their name to Cumberland, and might have been Germanic; their religion is dominated by the Druids; gold is mined in Ulster, Ireland.
In the 6th cent. B.C.E. the Erainn (Euerni) (Firbolg) tribe of Celtic Belgii from N Gaul begins arriving in the British Isles, claiming to be descended from the god Daire and his son Lugaid, going on to invade and settle in Eire (Ireland), subduing the Neolithic inhabitants and creating the Fifths of Ireland, incl. Ulster (north), Connaught (west) (home of the Wild West family of Connaught Eastwood?), Leinster (east), and (East and West, or undivided?) Munster (Muma) (south) (home of Herman and Lily?) - the gall of it?
In the 3rd cent. B.C.E. the Laginian tribe of Celts from Armorica (Brittany) migrates to Leinster (Laighi), Ireland; a branch called the Galioin (Gailenga) settle N of Dublin and Meath and begin warring with the Firbolgs (Erainn), pushing them out of NW Connacht.
In 215 B.C.E. Greek poet Apollonius of Rhodes (b. -293) dies, leaving the epic poem Argonautica of Orpheus, containing the story of Jason and the Golden Fleece; it mentions Ierne (Iernis) (Ireland?), which is later called Hibernia and Juverna by classical writers; according to tradition, Ireland is inhabited by the Nemedians, Fomorians, Firbolgs, and Tuatha De Danann, who are eventually subdued by the Milesians (Scots?).
In the 2nd cent. B.C.E. the Iron Age reaches Ulster; agriculture declines for the next four cents. in Ireland.
About 150 B.C.E. the Celtic Gaelic-speaking Gaels (Milesians) AKA Sons of Mil begin fleeing Roman incursions in N Spain and S Gaul and settling in Ireland, landing at the mouth of the Boyne River in E Ireland and Kerry in S Ireland, the first group settling in N Leinster and setting up the Kingship of Tara, the latter group settling in Cashel ("stone ringfort") in modern-day County Tipperary.
In the 1st cent. B.C.E. Black Pig's Dyke is built by the Ulaid and Cruithin along the S border of SW Ulster and NE Connacht in Ireland.
They worship the Marlboro Man? In 177 C.E. Smyrna-born (St.) Irenaeus (125-203) was appointed bishop of Lugdunum (Lyons) to attempt the conversion of the Druidic Gauls, and goes to Rome to plead with Eleutherius to deal with the ascetic Montanist movement in Phrygia, which extols virginity, uses Hebrews 6:4-6 to claim that sins committed after baptism cannot be forgiven, and whose prophets go into ecstasy and speak with God's voice in the first person, claiming to supersede the Gospels, which later turns on Romanized Carthaginian Tertullian (160-230), who becomes a Montanist and writes De Ecstasi; followers of Eastern Christianity are driven across the English Channel during the persecutions of Lyons, carrying it with them and founding the Celtic Church in Britain, which takes until 1172 to conform with the Roman Catholic Church in rites and ceremonies (664 in England, 1153 in Scotland and Ireland).
Early in the 5th cent. C.E. Christianity reaches Ireland.
In 405 C.E. Irish raids on Britain end after Niall Noigiallach (Gael. "Niall of the nine hostages"), Celtic high king of Ireland since 379 is KIA at sea.
In 431 C.E. Pope Celestine I sends Bishop Palladius (-461) on a mission to convert Ireland, becoming Ireland's first Christian bishop.
On July 28, 432 Pope Celestine I sends Scottish-born Roman future monk Patricius, AKA (St.) Patrick (387-461) (who was captured by Irish pirates in the Severn Estuary at age 16 along with thousands of others, and lived as their slave on townless roadless Pirate Island Ireland as a shepherd in Mayo County for six years, developing a love for the Emerald Isle, then escaped to England and became the pupil of Germanus of Auxelle) back to Ireland as bishop after special training to help Palladius in converting the Druids and Arians; he lands in Saul (Gael. "Sabhall Phadraig" = Patrick's Barn) in County Down E of Downpatrick ("Patrick's Stronghold") in SW Ireland, quickly converting local chieftain Dichu, who gives him a barn for church services; allegedly the Druids had predicted his arrival with the prophecy: "Adze-head [the Irish form of tonsure, done to the front part of the head] will come with a crook-head staff [crosier]; in his house head-holed [the first reference to the chasuble, named after a cottage or casa] he will chant impiety from his table [the altar]; from the front [the eastern] part of his house all his household [attendant clerics] will respond, 'So be it! So be it!' [Amen! Amen!]", as mentioned in Muirchu's 683 Life of St. Patrick; too bad, he allegedly introduces the distillation of usquebaugh (whisky) (whiskey) ("water of life") from oat and barley beer to the Irish, causing the Dalriadic Scots to later bring it with them to Scotland; Ireland is ruled by king Loigaire MacNeill, who presents Patrick with great obstacles, and after lighting a paschal fire on the Hill of Slane opposite the king's council on the Hill of Tara and inviting the Druids to do their worst, he goes on to baptize 120K and found 300 churches in Meath, Ulster, and Connaught, establishing the bishopric of Armagh in Ulster; it takes a cent. after his 461 death to convert all of Ireland, meanwhile turning it into a center of learning, causing it to later begin sending mendicant peregrini (wanderers for Christ) throughout Europe as far as Kiev, wearing the half-corona hairstyle (bald across the front), rough-spun habits, and cowls with rope belts and sandals, bringing literacy to Dark Age Europe, eventually setting up stalls at Charlemagne's court, shouting "Knowledge for sale"; St. Patrick allegedly creates the Celtic Cross by adding the Irish Sun.
In 441 C.E. St. Patrick spends 40 days of Lent in prayer and fasting for the people of Ireland on Croagh Patrick (St. Patrick's Stack) AKA the Reek, a cone-shaped mountain in County Mayo 5 mi. from Westport; a pilgrimage later begins on the last Sunday in July, and later a white Statue of St. Patrick holding a crook in his left hand and a shamrock in his right hand is erected overlooking the Galway Races - Erin go Bragh?
On Mar. 17, 461 C.E. (by tradition) Ireland's patron St. Patrick (b. 387) dies in Saul after having allegedly driven the snakes out of Ireland and used the 3-leaf hop clover shamrock to illustrate the concept of the Trinity, foiling the evil Arians and Druids at the same time; "May the enemies of Ireland never eat bread nor drink whisky, but be tormented with itching without benefit of scratching" (traditional St. Patrick's Day toast); really dies in 493?; really lives to age 120?; buried in Downpatrick (Gael. "Dun Padraig" = "Patrick's stronghold") 20 mi. S of modern-day Belfast.
In Aug. 476 C.E. Flavius Odoacer (Odovacer) (435-93), Herulian Visigoth chief gen. of the Germanic tribes in the Roman army leads a revolt over a baksheesh matter (free homes in Italy), captures Ravenna, and kills Orestes in Pavia; on Sept. 4 (Sept. 7 Gregorian) (Mon.) Romulus Augustus (461-77?) (AKA Augustulus), the boy emperor of Rome in Ravenna becomes the Last Roman Emperor of the West as he is deposed and exiled to the castle of Lucullus in Campania in S Italy (with 6K pieces of gold per annum allowance) by Odoacer, who proclaims himself Roman emperor of the West, petitioning Emperor Zeno to recognize him as a patrician and ruler of Italy on behalf of the Eastern Empire; Zeno accepts on the last part, but insists that exiled Julian Nepos (d. 480) remain Roman emperor, which he does, on coins; Odoacer uses the old Roman law of hospitality providing for the quartering of Roman soldiers to force Roman landowners to surrender a third of their estates for use by his soldiers; many non-aristocratic Romans welcome the new boss because he will abolish the taxation and police system, while aristocratic Romans in Gaul circle the wagons and create private armies; 753 + 476 - 1 = 1228?; the Dark Ages begin as 1.2K years of progress of civilization becomes kaput in Europe thanks to barbarians and Christian hostility to paganism, which to them incl. all pagan scientific, literary, historical, and cultural works, making all scientists forever suspect of being in league with the Devil by the Christian masses, an impediment that ends in ?, and the very idea of wanting to live for "the world" when the Kingdom of Heaven is dangled in front of your eyes to seem pointless?; "So it was in utter social decay and collapse that the great slave-holding 'world-ascendency' of the god-Caesars and the rich men of Rome came to an end" (H.G. Wells, Ch. 37) - so who is the last emperor, Romulus Augustus or Nepos?
In 476 C.E. after the Western Roman Empire falls, the new Visigoth masters of Italy, Gaul, Spain, and North Africa aren't into Science much, and as they were themselves squeezed by more German barbarians and Byzantine armies, Europe descends into the Dark Ages, where literacy is almost kaput, and money disappears, requiring barter; the onset of the Muslim Great Jihad in the 600s closes the last doors; literacy survives mainly in outlying monasteries in Ireland that only copy religious lit.
In 482 C.E. the Battle of Ocha at Faughan Hill in County Meath sees high king Alill Molt (Alill mac Nath i) KIA by the sons of Niall, fixing the high kingship of Ireland in one family for the next five cents.
About 500 C.E. the three islands of Aran in Galway Bay, Ireland are inhabited by Christian monks (until 800).
In 544 C.E. the first mention of bubonic (blefed) plague in Ireland.
In 549 C.E. the plague returns to Ireland.
On May 12, 563 Celtic Christian Irish missionary (St.) Columba (Colmcille) (521-97) and his 12 companions from Ireland run into and settle on the 5-sq.-mi. island of Iona off the Isle of Mull on the W coast of Scotland (part of the kingdom of Dalriata), going on to found the Mother Church of Scotland, which becomes a monastic center of learning, and later produces St. Aidan, apostle of Northumbria and St. Finian, apostle of Wales.
In 590 C.E. Meath (Leinster)-born (St.) Columbanus (543-615) (Lat. "white dove") of Bangor Abeey in County Down, Northern Ireland starts a missionary tour of France with 12 disciples, and founds the Luxueil Abbey in Burgundy, France, spreading Celtic Christianity (half-corona tonsure, different date of Easter and consecration of bishops, and a more austere rule than the Benedictines) on the Continent in competition with Roman; he later founds monasteries at Annegray (in the Vosges Mts.), and Fontaines-les-Luxeuil; his disciple St. Gall (Gallen) (Gallus) (550-646) founds the St. Gallen Monastery in Switzerland, which Charlemagne makes into an imperial abbey and goes on to evolve into one of the world's largest breweries.
In the 6th cent. C.E. Skellig Michael Monastery 7.2 mi. W of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland is founded (7th cent.?); it is abandoned in the late 12th cent.
In the 7th cent. C.E. Skellig Michael (Michael's Rock) one of the three Skellig ("splinter") islands 10 mi. off the coast of Ireland is inhabited by monks, who develop a cashless society (until 1200).
In 603 C.E. Columbanus is charged by a synod of Frankish bishops with the error of keeping Easter according to Celtic custom; meanwhile, the Celtic Church orders him to return to Ireland to answer for accepting other Roman Catholic rules, but he refuses to go and writes them a letter instead.
In 604 C.E. the joint high kings of Tara in Ireland are assassinated.
In 697 C.E. (St.) Adamnan (Adomnán) (Adamnan) (Adamnán) (624-704), abbot #9 of Iona Abbey (679-704) (St. Columba's biographer) and Iish high king Loingsech mac Óengusso (-703) in convoke the Synod of Birr in Birr (modern-day County Offaly), Ireland on the boundary between the N half of Ireland (dominated by the Ui Neill) and the S half (dominated by the Eoganachta kings of Munster), which proclaims the Cain (Law of) Adamnain (Adomnáin) (Law of the Innocents) in Ireland, protecting women, children, and clerics in war, prohibiting women warriors, and punishing domestic abuse of women incl. vulgar language and groping; the N Irish church submits to Roman Catholic usage, but the bond with Rome isn't, ahem, real close?
In 703 C.E. British raiders are defeated by the Ulaid tribe of NE Ireland (who gave their name to Ulster) at Ars peninsula in Ireland.
About 800 C.E. the Book of Kells (Columba) (named after the Abbey of Kells in County Meath, 40 mi. NW of Dublin) is created, consisting of the Latin Gospels written in Irish majuscule script with fantastic artwork; compiled at Iona?; it orginally has a cover of gold studded with precious stones.
In 812 C.E. the Vikings found the city of Limerick (Luimneach) (Loch Luimnigh) (modern-day pop. 94K/162K) in midwest Ireland (Munster) as a walled city on King's Island in the Shannon River.
In 834 C.E. the pagan Danish Vikings are successful in Ireland, overrunning the N and taking Dorestad (934-7), along with Dublin (Gael. "Diblinn" = black pool) (a dark tidal pool where the Poddle River enters the Liffey River at the site of the Castle Gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle?) (Gael. Baile Atha Cliath, "town of the ford of the hurdles", from the wattled frames spanning the Liffey River) in EC Ireland (Leinster) at the mouth of the Liffey River on Dublin Bay (inlet of the Irish Sea) (modern-day pop. 500K), and ruling a unified Ireland until 841; all the main highways of Ireland meet at Ath Cliath near Dublin, where 40-ft.-high. 80-ft.-diam Thingmote Hill is used as an assembly location (destroyed 1685); no main place names in Ireland (except Waterford) end up getting named by the Norse, unlike in Scotland, although Ulster, Munster, and Leinster are indicative of an earlier Norse-Gaelic pidgin?; the Vikings begin their attacks on England and the continent, approaching the mouth of the Thames River just as King Egbert of Wessex thinks he has England sewn up for Christ, starting small with hit-and-run raids, alternating with raids on the continent, then working up to a serious invasion in 865.
In 841 C.E. the Vikings begin to permanently settle Dublin and Limerick, wintering over until 842.
In 915 C.E. the Vikings occupy and expand the 6th cent. monastic settlement (founded by St. Finbarr) of Cork (Gael. "corcach" = marsh) on the Lee River in Munster, SW Ireland (modern-day pop. 125K/208K), turning it into a trading port, with its harbor becoming one of the largest natural harbors on Earth by navigational area; the city is granted a charter by Prince John in 1185.
In 980 after the C Asian silver mines become exhausted, causing their Russian trade routes to collapse, dormant Danish Vikings wake up and again begin to sail their dragon ships to England in hopes of plunder, especially silver, attacking Chester, Southampton, and Thanet; the Vikings from Dublin under Ragnall (Reginald), son of ex-pagan Viking king of Dublin (since 945) Olaf Cuaran (927-81) (known for his love of pillaging churches before converting to Christianity in the 940s) are defeated by the Gaelic Irish of Meath under Malachy II (Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill) (949-1022) at the Battle of Tara in Ireland, giving the Irish control of the kingdom of Dublin; Ragnall is KIA, and Olaf Curan gets Millennium Fever, abdicating and sailing to Iona in the Hebrides as a penitent, where he dies within a year; Malachy II takes Dublin in a 3-day siege and frees all the slaves, gaining a stronger hand in his rivalry with Munster king Brian Boru.
In 988 C.E. the town of Dublin ("dark pool") in Ireland at the confluence of the Poddle and Liffey Rivers (modern-day pop. 550K/1.9M) is first settled on the site of the 841 Viking settlement of Dyflin near the Christian Gaelic settlement of Ath Cliah ("ford of hurdles").
In 997 Brian Boru of Munster and Malachy II of Meath meet in Clonfert and make a truce giving rule of S Ireland to Boru and the high kingship and rule of N Ireland to Malachy II, agreeing to hand over their hostages next year and begin working against the Norse of Dublin for the first time; too bad, the Leinsterman ally with the Norse of Dublin and revolt against Boru, and on Dec. 30, 999 the Battle of Glenmama near Lyons Hill between Windmill Hill and Blackchurch in Ardclough, County Kildare (ancient stronghold of the kings of Leinster) is a crushing V for the Munster-Meath army over the Leinster-Dublin army, leaving the road to Dublin "free and unimpeded for the victorious legions of Brian and Mael Schlainn."
Why am I dressed up like a baby, I've no clue? There's no MF way over here? On Dec. 30, 999 after Irish king Maelmordha (Mael Morda) Mac Murchada (-1014) of Leinster allies with Viking king Sigtrygg (Sihtric) II Silkybeard Olafsson (970-1042) of Dublin (known for minting the first Irish coins), and revolts against Irish Ard Ri (high king) Brian Boru (Boruma) (940-1014) of Munster and Meath Ard Ri (high king) Malachy II (Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill) (949-1022) who defeat them on Dec. 30 them in the Battle of Glenn Mama (Glenmama) (Glen of the Gap) in the foothills of the Wicklow Mts. near Lyons Hill between Windmill Hill and Blackchurch in Ardclough, County Kildaire; the V leaves the road to Dublin "free and unimpeded for the victorious legions of Brian and Mael Sechlainn" (Dictionary of English History); Maelmordha escapes by hiding in a yew tree; Brian Boru magnanimously reinstates both of them in their kingdoms, but the humiliation festers for years.
In 1001 C.E. Brian Boru leads his army from Kincora to Athlone on the Shannon River S of Lough Ree in C Ireland to attend a gathering.
In 1002 C.E. Irish high king Brian Boru defeats the Norse.
In 1006 C.E. Malcolm II launches a plundering raid into N England, but his army is routed in the Battle of Durham, causing his men to go home without booty, hurting the new king's prestige; meanwhile Brian Boru adopts the title of "Emperor of the Gael" to signal to Malcolm II that he is the #1 Gaelic king.
Pass the shillelaghs? On Apr. 23, 1014 (Good Friday) 73-y.-o. Irish (Dal Cais) high king Brian Boru (b. 940) (pr. BRAN boh-ROO) of Munster with an army of 20K from Munster, the Midlands, and S Connacht defeats the Norse and Leinster Irish at the Battle of Clontarf Plain near Dublin, breaking Norse power in Ireland forever, although they still dominate some cities; Boru has a shield wall formed around him because he won't use a weapon on Good Friday, letting his son Murchad, grandson Toirdelbach (b. 999) and cousin Conaing take command, and later begins praying in a tent in Tomar's Wood; after the Banshee of Dalcais Aibell (guardian spirit of the Dalcassians or O'Brien clan) warns him and he ignores it, Brian is murdered in his tent behind the lines after his big V when his men go off pursuing fugitives by loose Dane Brodir of Man, despite Brian's young son Tadg trying to protect him, cutting off the boy's arm and the king's head; Brodir and his companions are captured and executed by being tied to a tree with their own intestines; Jarl Sigurd, Dubhgall and Maelmordha are KIA, and no Viking of rank is left alive; Brian's younger brother Malachy McDonnell (Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill) (949-1022) becomes Irish high king (until Sept. 2, 1022); Brian's grandson Toirdelbach drowns, his nephew Conaing is KIA, and his son Murchad dies the next morning of a wound; total losses are 6.7K Vikings, 1.1K Leinstermen, and 4K of Brian's men; Sigtrygg continues to rule Dublin until 1034; no foreign Scandinavian army fights on Irish soil for the next cent. and a half; Ireland falls into anarchy as the O'Brians of Munster (S Ireland)), the O'Neils of Ulster (N Ireland), and the O'Connors of Connacht (Connaught) (W Ireland) begin a struggle for supremacy - slainte?
In 1015 a plague is recorded in Leinster, Ireland.
In 1139 Irish archbishop of Armagh (1132-8) (St.) Malachy (1094-1148) journeys to Rome via Scotland, England, and France, where he visits St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and beccomes papal legate for Ireland before returning, writing St. Malachy's Prophecy of the Succession of the Popes, which becomes near and dear to Millennium Feverists, predicting all 110 future popes through Pope Paul II, and naming only two more, the last to be called Peter the Roman, who will preside over the end of the Church and the coming of Christ.
In 1156 C.E. the Mac Alexander revolt in Scotland (begun 1153) ends with the capture of Donald Mac Malcolm, who is imprisoned with his daddy Malcolm at Roxburgh; Somerled heads to the Scottish isles with his son, and, although he is part Norse claims to descend from Irish Gaelic kings in the Hebrides dating back to the 7th cent., sees his chance and decides to take Argyll and the Hebrides from the new Norse king (since 1153) Godfred V, and defeats him with his 80 ships, and they agree to split the Manx kingdom, with Godfred getting the part N of Ardnamurchan and Somerled getting the S part; Godfred rules over Dublin for a short time also.
In 1156 high king (since 1120) Turlough Mor O'Connor (b. 1088) dies, and his son Rory O'Connor (Ruaidri mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair) (1116-98) becomes ard ri (high king) of Connacht in W Ireland, followed in 1166 by Ireland's last high king before the Norman invasion.
In 1156 Norman philosopher-historian (pupil of Peter Abelard) John of Salisbury (1115-80) obtains from Pope Adrian IV the bull Laudabiliter ("It is praiseworthy"), AKA the Donation of Ireland, bestowing Ireland on English king (since 1154) Henry II of England (1133-89), along with a ring as the symbol of his investiture.
In 1166 Rory (Roderick) (Gael. "high longing") O'Connor (Ruaidri Ua Conchobair) (1116-98) becomes the last Ard Ri (high king) of Ireland (until Dec. 2, 1198), which still suffers from the 1014 Irish clan feud; meanwhile Leinster king (since 1126) Dermot (Dermod) (Diarmaid) (Gael. "without envy") MacMurrough (MacMorrogh) (MacMorrow) (Mac Murchada) (1110-71) is forced to flee Ireland after abducting a neighbor's wife, Dervogilla, from Brefney (Breifne) king (since 1124) Ternan O'Rourke (Tigernan Ua Ruairc) (-1172) (modern-day County Leitrim), launching the Brefney Curse, that their shades must wander Ireland forever together until one Irishman forgives them; in the meantime MacMurrough is defeated and banished by O'Connor, and he seeks the protection of Henry II - big mistake, since it invites the stankin' English into the Emerald Isle?
In 1167 the Normans of the Welsh marches are recruited by Richard FitzGilbert "Strongbow" de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1130-76) allegedly to help Dermot MacMurrough return and win back some of his ancestral lands, and after claiming to be invited, the stankin' Norman English plan on invading the Emerald Isle of Ireland and never leaving - causing it turn 40 shades of green?
In May 1169 the first contingent of English under Strongbow lands in Ireland, meeting paltry resistance, beginning the Norman Invasion of Ireland (ends 1175).
In 1170 sick of Henry II's infidelity, Eleanor moves to Poitiers, France; Henry II assigns Brittany to his son Geoffrey to hold of his brother Henry the Young King (b. 1155), assigns Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine to his son Richard Lionheart to hold directly of the French king, and assigns no lands to his youngest son John, causing him to be called "Lackland", even though daddy later conquers Ireland for him; the premature taste, combined with daddy's bad rep over what he did to Becket backfires and causes his sons to become rebellious, becoming known as the "lion's brood".
In May 1171 Ireland's deposed king Dermot McMurrough dies, and Strongbow claims the throne by marriage to his daughter, conquering a strip of territory from Dublin to Cork and threatening the establishment of an independent Norman kingdom in Ireland; in Oct. Henry II, with papal sanction lands in Waterford to assert his supremacy, and Strongbow submits without a fight, swearing loyalty to Henry, who holds his court in Dublin, making it a dependency of the English city of Bristol next year; the English-ruled Pale in Ireland (Land of Ire) is established, where strong Norman barons (the Fitzmaurices, Carews, Gerards, Davids, and Barries) outvote weak English justiciars (with no English garrisons) (under an English viceroy with orders from Henry II to be fair to the natives, pissing-off the Normans?) to gangbang the Irish for fun and profit without establishing any organized govt.; by the end of the 15th cent. it is reduced to an area on the E coast from Dalkey (S of Dublin) to Dundalk (N of Drogheda), with the W boundary from Leixlip N to Kells. In Sept. Henry II confiscates Caerlon in Wales from Iorwerth ap Owain Wan; next year William Fitz Robert
In 1174 Henry II of England visits Ireland uninvited and records the use of whiskey (aquae vitae).
In Oct. 1175 Rory O'Connor of Ireland signs the Treaty of Windsor, recognizing Henry II as the Irish overlord, although he remains nominal high king of Ireland and king of Connacht; haughty Normans begin to move into Ireland and lord it over the local "dogs"?
In 1177 after the Normans defeat the Ulaid of Ulster, Henry II's youngest son Evil Prince John Lackland is made the first Lord of Ireland (ends 1542), and as a haughty Norman he soon begins treating the natives like serfs, giving large chunks of land to his friends, incl. Tipperary to his butler; a Norman earldom is established in Ulster (until 1333); he doesn't come to live in his new domain until 1185, and soon is recalled, leaving a group of haughty Normans behind to sow the seeds of centuries of ire?; the eternal battleground city of Belfast (modern-day pop. 340K/483K) on Belfast Lough, an inlet of the North Channel at the mouth of the Lagan River with a fine harbor is founded with a castle built to defend a ford over the river; 800+ years of direct English rule of Ireland begins.
In 1178 the first English invasion of Connaught, Ireland is repulsed, with the town of Galway becoming an anti-English citadel for cents.
In 1185 Henry II's son John Lackland, lord of Ireland goes to Ireland to finish the English conquest and organize the govt. (so he finally has some land?), but the haughty conduct of his council incl. laughing at the big beards of Irish chieftains causes disturbances, and he is soon recalled, failing to establish either task, making him even meaner. Philip II Augustus wins his baron war (begun 1181), increasing the royal domain at their expense.
On June 11, 1534 after hearing rumors that his father has been executed in the Tower of London and that he's next, Irish patriot "Silken" Thomas Fitzgerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (1513-37) declares a revolt against the stankin' English in front of the council at St. Mary's Abbey in Dublin with 140 horsemen wearing silk fringes on their helmets, then in July after gaining recruits sieges Dublin Castle, which has been held by the stankin' English since the Strongbow (Richard Fitz Gilbert) era in 1171; too bad, on July 28 after his army is routed, he has archbishop John Alen (Allen) of Clontarf (b. 1476) executed for trying to mediate, alienating the Irish clergy.
In Mar. 1535 Silken Thomas' Maynooth Castle in County Kildare, Ireland is taken by an English force under Sir William Skeffington by bribing a guard while Fitzgerald is away in gathering reinforcements, putting the garrison to death after promising them a pardon, which becomes known as the "Maynooth Pardon", after which Fitzgerald, failing to spark a gen. uprising against the stanking' English s surrenders to new Irish lord deputy Leonard Grey, 1st Viscount Grane (1479-1541) under the promise of the king's mercy, after which the dope is sent to the Tower in Oct., then hanged, drawn and quartered in Tyburn, England with his five uncles on Feb. 3, 1537 - I thought maybe, but they really are stankin' English?
In 1536 the cent.-long Tudor Reconquest of Ireland begins (ends 1730), with English under Henry VIII forcing Irish nobles to give up their Gaelic custom of electing chieftains in favor of Roman, er, English-style male primogeniture - so they'll become as corrupt as they are?
On Oct. 18, 1541 Margaret Tudor (b. 1489) dies in Methven Castle in Scotland; meanwhile Henry VIII convenes the Irish Parliament to pass the 1542 Crown of Ireland Act on June 18, abolishing the high kingship of Ireland changing his old title of lord of Ireland (conferred by the pope) to king of Ireland, making make him head of the Irish Church, discarding the old fiction that Ireland is a feudal province of the Church and that England was still a Roman Catholic country and establishing the new Kingdom of Ireland (ends Jan. 1, 1801); meanwhile in actual fact the Irish fight for every chance to break free from the stankin' English, who to them are nothing but plunderers - which only makes the Irish pop. more determined to never become Protestant?
In Feb. 1565 after the Old English (descendants of those who moved to Ireland in the 12th-13th cents.) families Butler of Ormonde and Fitzgerald of Desmond in Munster in S Ireland almost end their 13th cent. feud with the "Battle That Never Was" in 1560, when the widowed Countess of Ormonde marries the Earl of Desmond, only to die in 1564, leaving her Protestant pro-Elizabeth I son Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormonde (1531-1614) and his Roman Catholic hereditary enemy Gerald Fitzgerald (FitzGerald), 15th Earl of Desmond (1533-83) (head of the Geraldines) to go back to their billy goat ways, they escalate it to all-out war and fight the private Battle of Affane in County Waterford in Munster in SE Ireland, one of the last private battles in the British Isles, which is a V for the Butlers but leads to the Desmond Rebellions in 1569-73 and 1579-83 in Munster; the feud doesn't end until 1629.
In Aug. 1568 Sir Peter Carew (1514-75) sails to S Ireland by leave of Elizabeth I to stake a murky legal claim to lands granted to a remote ancestor by Henry II, and ends up stepping on the toes of the Anglo-Norman Butler family, headed by Protestant Sir Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormonde (1531-1614), starting the Butler Wars, which trigger the Desmond Rebellions (1569-73, 1579-83) after they all step on the toes of the Roman Catholic Desmond (Gael. "south Munster") family in Munster, led by the Protestant FitzGerald (Geraldine) family, devastating Munster.
On Mar. 8, 1574 English Capt. William Martin sieges Rockfort Castle on Clare Island in Connaught (Connacht), W Ireland, stronghold of notorious female Irish pirate ("Pirate/Sea Queen of Connacht") ("Dark Lady of Doona") Granuaile (Grainne) (Grace) O'Malley (1530-1600), and after 18 days gives up, enhancing her rep.; in 1577 she offers her services along with three galleys and 200 men to English gov. Sir Henry Sidney in Galway, but ends up getting caught raiding English lord Earl of Desmond, and imprisoned until 1581.
In 1592 Trinity College (College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity) in Dublin, Ireland is founded by Elizabeth I for Anglicans only, with the intention of building a univ. around it, which never happens, causing it to also be known as the U. of Dublin; in 1793 Roman Catholics and Dissenters are admitted, but under restrictions that aren't lifted until 1873; in 1871-1970 the Roman Catholic Church prohibits members from attending without permission; women are admitted in Jan. 1904.
In Aug. 1594 Tyrone's Rebellion (Nine Years' War) begins (ends Mar. 31, 1603) when Gaelic Irish chieftain Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616) tries to resist the advance of the stankin' English from the Pale to the whole island, rallying Irish septs.
In 1596 Hugh O'Neill leads the Irish chieftains in an unsuccessful attack against the English, but the Second Spanish Armada, trying to support the Gaelic Confederation in Ireland is prevented from landing by bad weather; the Earl of Essex sends Capt. Lea as his messenger to present the severed head of an Irish rebel to Elizabeth I, which disgusts her.
On Aug. 14, 1598 Irish forces under "Erin go Bragh" Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616) ambush the English under Irish marshal Sir Henry Bagenal (b. 1556) at the Battle of the Yellow Ford near the Blackwater River in Ulster, and annihilate them, killing or wounding 1.2K English troops, which leaves English-held territory down to Dublin undefended; in return for sparing the remnant of Bagenal's army locked up in the Cathedral of Armagh, Tyrone is given Armagh and Portmore Fort on the Blackwater River, which becomes the home of the O'Neills; FitzGerald Land, an English colony in Ireland backed by Elizabeth is destroyed, pissing her off and convincing her that she needs to conquer Ireland once and for all; her favorite Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex (1565-1601) talks her into making him head of the English campaign against the Irish and Spanish as Lord Deputy of Ireland, commanding the largest force in Elizabeth's reign (16K infantry, 13K cavalry); the Spanish promise to help the Irish, but take till 1601, too little too late?
On Mar. 27, 1599 Essex leaves London, arrives in Dublin on Apr. 15, and loses all but 4K of his men by Aug. without engaging Hugh O'Neill directly; the Battle of the Curlieus in Aug. is the last time the Irish Gaelic clans win on Irish soil before their final defeat at Kinsdale in 1601; outnumbered 2-to-1, Essex makes a secret truce on Sept. 7 with Irish rebel Hugh O'Neill at the Ford of Bellaclynth on the River Lagon near Carrickmacross, then suddenly abandons his army on Sept. 24, rushes back to England, and reaches Westminster on Sept. 28, where he brashly barges into the queen's bedchamber all muddy before she has time to put on her weird white (lead or bismuth based?) makeup (he has really done it this time?); after ascertaining that the rumors that he was leading his army to her palace to stage a coup are unfounded, she has him put under house arrest for botching the Ireland expedition, and on Nov. 29 the Star Chamber condemns him without a trial, causing him to get (play?) sick to try and get back in the queen's favor, without success?
In 1600 World pop: 500M (doubles in the next two cents.); Am. colonies: 50K; Delhi: 500K; Lahore: 500K; Agra: 500K; Rome: 100K; France: 16M; Germany: 14.5M; Poland: 11M; Spain: 8M; Hapsburg dominions: 5.5M; England-Ireland: 2.5M; Holland: 3M; Lisbon: 100K, Madrid: 60K, Goa: 60K.
In the 1600's decade the potato is introduced to Ireland, which up till now had difficulty feeding itself, eventually causing a pop. explosion; too bad, Ireland becomes overdependent on a single crop?
On Oct. 2, 1601 the fifth and last Spanish armada lands 4K men in Kinsale (S of Cork), Ireland to help the Irish under Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616) fight the stankin' English under new lord deputy of Ireland (since 1600) Charles Blount (pr. like blunt), 8th Baron Mountjoy and 1st Earl of Devonshire (1563-1606), and on Dec. 24 (Christmas Eve) they begin the Battle (Siege) of Kinsale (Kinsala), with a night attack on the stankin' English, but take too long and don't reach them until dawn, and the poorly-trained Irish foot soldiers and spear-chucking stirrup-less Irish cavalry are easily defeated by the English cavalry and their lances, causing them to flee, after which the English encircle Kinsale and starve it out (ends Jan. 3).
On Jan. 3, 1602 the Northern Irish chieftains are defeated at the Battle (Siege) of Kinsale (Kinsala) (begun Oct. 2), effectively ending Tyrone's Rebellion (Nine Years' War) (begun Aug. 1594) and completing England's conquest of Gaelic Ireland after great cruelty is practiced on both sides, but since the English are on Irish soil they don't hesitate to destroy crops, cattle, and whole villages, and practice genocide, laying Munster and Ulster waste, causing starvation that kills more people than the war; after he destroys his own capital at Dungannon and hides in the woods as English forces under Lord Mountjoy approach, Hugh O'Neill holds out until next Mar. 31, seeing his leaders surrender one by one due to starvation.
On Jan. 17, 1603 Elizabeth I dines with Lord Thomas Howard at the Charterhouse, and creates him Lord Howard de Walden, then on Jan. 21 moves her court from Whitehall to "her warm winter box" of Richmond Palace in Surrey on the Thames River (which later becomes known for Pen Ponds in Richmond Park, which hosts open-air ice-skating), wearing summer clothes in the cold weather, and telling Lord Nottingham, "My seat hath been the seat of kings, and I will have no rascal to succeed me; and who should succeed me but a king?"; on Feb. 6 she makes her last public appearance, receiving Venetian envoy (first during her reign) Giovanni Carlo Scaramelli, supposedly to discuss curtailing English piracy in the Mediterranean, speaking to him in Italian and gloating about scoring a coup against the pope by getting the Doge to recognize her after 45 years; on Feb. 16 she okays a pardon for Tyrone, and attends the funeral of her cousin and closest female friend the Countess of Notthingham, daughter of Lord Hunsdon at Richmond, going into a depression and having to have her coronation ring sawed off after it becomes impacted, then writes to Henri IV of France that "All the fabric of my reign, little by little, is beginning to fail"; on Feb. 26 she delays a meeting with French ambassador de Beaumont; in Mar. she develops a fever, rallies on Mar. 11, relapses on Mar. 12, refuses medical treatment and food, lies on the floor on cushions in her clothes, develops pneumonia, and refuses to be put in bed, explaining that "If she once lay down, she would never rise"; on Mar. 17 after being lifted into a low chair, and being helped to rise, she remains standing for 15 hours, then is helped back onto her cushions, remaining for four more days in 3-week-old clothes, then on Mar. 21 finally takes to bed; meanwhile since she has no heirs, the rumors cause tons of people to head for Scotland to be with her cousin James VI when the good, er, bad news arrives. On Mar. 24, 1603 (Thur.) (before 3 a.m.) English queen (since Nov. 17, 1558) "Gloriana", "the Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I (b. 1533), stricken with grief over the execution of Essex and/or her close friend the countess of Nottingham dies peacefully in bed at Richmond after a bunch of woo woo woo stuff and giving her soul to Jesus, lying on her back with her face to the wall "mildly like a lamb, easily, like a ripe apple from a tree, as the most resplendent sun setteth at last in a western cloud" (her chaplain Dr. Parry); she dies after viewing William Shakespeare's Hamlet, which debuted earlier in the year; at her death there is not a single known English colonist in the New World (except possibly the lost colonists of Roanoke, who went injun); she leaves after 45 years on the throne (118 total for the Tudors), causing Scottish king (since 1567) James VI, only son of Elizabeth I's murdered rival Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots to be proclaimed king; after Sir Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth (1560-1639) (the man who broke the Border Reivers) makes a record-breaking ride N, he reaches Holyrood on the evening of Mar. 26 to carry the news to him, and after hastily preparing a magnificent progress (sparing no expense), and attending a service in the Church of St. Giles where he tells the sad crowd that he isn't abandoning them but will return every three years (actually he only returns for a short time in 1617), on Apr. 5 James VI leaves Holyrood with cannons blazing accompanied by a merrymaking procession, heads to Lord Hume's house in Dunglass, crosses the border to Berwick, putting on a great show as he is greated by crowds in every village and hamlet along the way, then arriving in London on May 7 to a great warm reception a few days after a plague arrives, being presented with the Millenary Petition signed by 1K Puritan ministers asking for the reform of abuses and elimination of all Roman Catholic ceremony from the Anglican Church, incl. the signing of the cross during baptism, confirmation, administration of baptism by lay persons, bowing at the name of Jesus, use of the surplice and cap, use of the pagan ring (Saturn?) in marriage, and the practice of giving men multiple paid ecclesiastical positions; on July 25 he is crowned James I (1566-1625) of (at his insistence) "Greater Britain" (until Mar. 27, 1625) (the 44th British monarch), causing the Union of the Crowns, ending the Tudor Dynasty, and beginning the Stuart Dynasty (ends 1714); Scotland has now had 63 kings and one queen (Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots) in an unbroken line, all being titled king or queen of Scots, not Scotland; Liz leaves him a £400K debt, having sold off many of her lands to avoid increasing taxes; a lifelong believer in the Divine Right of Kings who wants to be known as "Rex Pacificus" (peacemaker king), he seeks to end the Roman Catholic-Protestant feud along with all wars with Spain and France, and effect a "stealth union" of England and Scotland, saying that the lack of a visible natural border proves that God intended it, then fills his inner circle with Scots while granting an amnesty in Ireland, going on to rule Scotland with "government by pen", sending written orders to his privy councillors in Edinburgh (setting up the first mail service between London and Edinburgh) while making his Scottish nobles visit him by traveling the Great North Road (after too many visits piss-off the English, he limits the visits by issuing passports); in 1606 the Union Jack (Lat. "Jack" = James) (originally just called the British flag) is designed, consisting of a red English cross on a blue-white Scottish background, bringing the British lion and the Scottish unicorn together (which is considered a bad omen as the two beasts are supposed to be mortal enemies, and the unicorn is untameable except by a virgin, and he's no Virgin Queen); Scots believe that he's just turning Scotland into a 2nd class appendage of England, something they fought for cents. to avoid, and begin grumbling about being run from distant London, while James I surrounds himself with Scots on the make, causing upper class English on the make to grumble; the Jacobean Age (Era) begins (ends 1625); James I orders Fotheringhay Castle (where his mommy was beheaded) demolished, and in 1612 moves her remains from Peterborough Castle to Westminster Abbey, where she is reinterred in a far more splendid tomb than her cousin Elizabeth I, with the two queens, who never laid eyes on each other, so situated that they cannot see each other even in death; James' Lutheran-raised wife Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), who converted to Roman Catholicism in the 1590s causes embarrassment at the coronation by refusing Anglican communion; after being temporarily parted for the Union of the Crowns he tells her, "I ever preferred you to all my bairns [rugrats]"; now that he's king of a real country, he begins elevating local Scottish lairds to the peerage to control the pesky nobles he doesn't trust, devaluing all Scottish titles; thinking the Gaelic segment of his pop. to be backward savages, in 1609 he gets the Statutes of Iona passed, forcing the Highland chiefs to send their heirs to Lowland Scotland to get an English Protestant education, and puts out a hit on the MacGregor clan, ordering them outlawed by "fire and sword", hunted and executed like animals (luckily, some survive after being harbored by Highland sympathizers); having decided to call the amalgamated kingdom Greater Britain, he renames the Scottish borders "Middle Shires" and pacifies them by exiling captured rebels to Ireland, pissing-off the Irish; he never pacifies the Highlands, which remain pesky for the next two cents.; he attempts to anglicize the Scottish elite, causing poet William Drummond to switch from writing in Scots to English, the ascendancy of English dramatists being a powerful convincer?; shortly before his coronation Lord Henry Howard and Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury warn the king about the Diabolical Triplicity of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (1564-1632) (an apparent Protestant, despite the Percy family's Roman Catholic roots, known as Wizard Percy for his great wealth and scientific learning), Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618), and Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham (1564-1618), suggesting that they dabble in the occult and that Percy plans to marry pesky Arbella Stuart, which doesn't stop Percy from being appointed to the Privy Council, until the 1605 Gunpowder Plot causes him to be accused of complicity with his Roman Catholic relative Thomas Percy and imprisoned in the Tower of London for 17 years.
On Sept. 14, 1607 Irish rebel leader Hugh O'Neill, 2nd earl of Tyrone, fearing arrest for attempted insurrection for a new intrigue flees Ulster to Spanish-controlled Flanders with a boatload of 90 Irish noblemen incl. Rory O'Donnell, 1st earl of Tyrconnell in the Flight of the Earls, ending the era of tribalism in Ireland; using the ancient feud between the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell as a pretext, James I confiscates O'Neill's lands, along with the land in six counties of N Ulster, then creates 40 fake boroughs from small hamlets to give the English crown a permanent majority in the Irish Parliament; James I then gives the land in Northern Ireland to English and Scottish Protestants, who found the Plantation of Ulster in 1609, which eventually leads to a Protestant majority there, incl. in the ancient city of Belfast (Gael. "Beal Feirsde" = mouth of the sandbar or tidal river ford) on the Lagan River (modern-day pop. 333K/672K), which is granted city status in 1888, becoming known as "Linenopolis" for its linen industry, as well as shipbuilding industry, which builds RMS Titanic, going on to be equally split in the 20th cent. between Roman Catholic and Protestant pops. in eternal religious war; meanwhile James I proposes the Union of England and Scotland on equal terms, but is rejected by the English Parliament - pass the poteen, I think I need it?
On Apr. 13, 1640 Charles I calls Parliament, but when it goes against funding his Bishops' War with the Scots he dissolves it on May 4, and it becomes known as the Short (One Month) Parliament; Charles I's Irish viceroy Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1593-1641) obtains liberal funds for the king by balancing the number of Roman Catholics and Protestants in the Irish Parliament and holding out the promise of Catholic toleration, but fails to get either the Irish Parliament or the Short Parliament to pay for Irish troops to fight the Scots; Charles I's secy. of state (since June 1632) Sir Francis Windebank (1582-1646) (elected MP for Oxford U. in Mar.) sends an appeal for Queen Henrietta Maria to the pope asking for military and financial aid, and in Dec. when the House learns that he had signed letters of grace to recusant priests and Jesuits, they summon him to answer, but Charles I allows him to escape to Calais then Paris, where he converts to Roman Catholicism; lord high adm. Algernon Percy is one of two members of the privy council who oppose the Short Parliament's dissolution, confirming his break with Thomas Wentworth and earning him the displeasure of the king, causing him to side with the Parliamentarians - they saw "Braveheart"?
On May 12, 1641 lord deputy of Ireland (1632-40) Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (b. 1593) is executed for treason over the Irish affair in London in front of a crowd of 200K. On Oct. 23, 1641 taking advantage of the Scottish occupation army on English soil, starving Irish Roman Catholics, led by Col. Rory (Roger) O'Moore (1600-55) begin the Irish Revolt (Rebellion) of 1641 (ends May 1642) against domination by Protestant England, seizing Dublin and expelling the English, causing the Roman Catholic lords of the Pale to join and elect a supreme council called the Catholic Confederation (Union of the Irish) (ends 1652) in summer in Kilkenny, becoming a de facto govt. of Ireland loosely aligned with the English royalists and Charles I, controlling two-thirds of the island; in Oct. the Irish revolt spreads to Ulster, and up to 30K Protestants are massacred in Belfast (the Scottish Protestants are spared?), and the remaining English settlers are driven out of Ulster; Charles I sends Edward Somerset, Earl of Glamorgan (1602-67) to deal with them, and he goes so far as to promise them the predominancy of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland if they'll give up and back the king against the pesky Puritans; Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester (1619-98) and his brother Algernon Sidney (1623-83) serve on the English side in the Irish Revolt, along with James Butler, 12th Earl (later 1st Duke) of Ormonde (1610-88), who ended the pesky Butler-Fitzgerald Feud (begun in the 13th cent.) in 1629, and who has relatives on the rebel side, forcing him to try harder?; the beginning of the Irish Confederate (Eleven Years' War) (ends 1653); the first use of the Green Harp Flag by Irish Confed. troops.
On Apr. 15, 1642 after Richard Butler, 3rd Viscount Mountgarret (1578-1651) (joint gov. of Kilkenny with James Butler, earl of Ormonde) rebels and takes all the fortresses in the counties of Kilkenny, Waterford, and Tipperary, the Battle of Kilrush near Athy is a V for Ormonde, who on Sept. 16 is appointed lt.-gen. of Ireland by the king.
On Aug. 16, 1643 the Parliamentary enemies of Charles I, led by the ailing John Pym (1583-1643) sign the Solemn League and Covenant, which ultimately does Charles I in, as it promises the Scots religious reforms if they aid Parliament, specifically "the preservation of the reformed religion in the Church of Scotland... the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, disciple, and government, according to the Word of God, and the example of the best reformed churches"; the Westminster Assembly drafts the Westminster Confession of Faith, the first major Presbyterian statement of belief.
On Jan. 25, 1644 the royalists (incl. soldiers sent from Ireland) under John Byron, 1st Baron Byron (1599-1652) are routed by the Parliamentary forces under Sir Thomas Fairfax and Sir William Brereton at the Battle of Nantwich; George Monck, 1st Duke of Albermarle (1608-70) is taken POW and put in the Tower until 1647, when he convinces Parliament of his loyalty and is sent to Ireland to become gov. of Ulster; meanwhile in Jan. James Butler, 12th Earl of Ormonde (1610-88) (later promoted to 1st duke of Ormonde), who had supported Thomas Wentworth since 1640 in his campaigns in Ireland is made lord lt. (viceroy) of Ireland (until 1650), going on to assist Randal MacDonnell, 1st Marquess of Antrim (1609-83) to send an Irish Confederate expedition led by Alasdair MacColla (1610-47) into Scotland to help the Scottish royalists.
On Jan. 17, 1649 James Butler, 1st duke of Ormonde, finding that the papal nuncio in Ireland had been expelled last Sept., returns from exile in Paris with the English queen and prince of Wales and concludes a peace with the Irish Confederates guaranteeing free exercise of their religion (but no more), then after Charles I is executed he proclaims his son Charles II and becomes cmdr. of the Irish Confederate armies along with English royalist troops landed from France.
On Feb. 24, 1652 the Act of Pardon and Oblivion is passed to reconcile English Royalists; on Aug. 12 Cromwell's Act of Settlement for Ireland exempts 80K rebels from pardon, esp. pesky James Butler, earl of Ormonde, forcing them to forfeit two-thirds of their lands and receive the third from a different part of the island than that in which they lived (Ormonde loses all of his?); their forfeited estates in Connacht are given to English settlers - Cromwell's crummy name burns in infamy in Ire Ire Ireland ever after?
On Apr. 20, 1653 after hearing that they are seeking to remove him from power, Oliver Cromwell arrives in the Rump Parliament to observe it, wearing a plain black coat and gray worsted stockings; even though it fixes the date of its dissolution as next year, the impatient army, freshly returned from Ireland and Scotland forces his hand, and he dissolves it by force, telling it, "You are no Parliament... In the name of God, go!"; Cromwell then calls the Nominated Assembly (Little or Barebone's Parliament), named after Puritan member Praise-God Barebone (Barbon) (Barbone) (1598-1678), whose 140 members are elected by army officers, which meets on July 4 and lasts less than 6 mo. as everybody turns out to be a reforming fanatic; in despair, on Dec. 12 the Cromwellians in Parliament resign their powers to Cromwell, and on Dec. 16 the Instrument of Government, written by gen. John Lambert (1619-84) is adopted by Cromwell and his Council of Officers, becoming the first written constitution on Earth codifying sovereign powers until replaced in May 1657 by the Humble Petition and Advice); he takes the title of Lord Protector of the Repub. of England, Scotland, and Ireland (until Sept. 3, 1658), and becomes a constitutional king with a triennially elected parliament of 460 members (60 to be divided equally between Ireland and Scotland) that cannot be dissolved for 5 mo. and can pass a measure over the protector's veto by a simple majority, and which controls revenues; he has a cooperative council of 21, and a standing army of 30K; between sessions the protector and council can issue ordinances, but Parliament alone can grant supplies and levy taxes - so you might as well behave?
In 1655 Henry Cromwell (1628-74), Oliver Cromwell's 4th son becomes acting lord deputy of Ireland, then lord deputy in Nov. 1657 (until June 1657), slowing down the deportation of the Irish and acting impartially toward the different Protestant sects, becoming popular (for a Cromwell). After many years of plotting to take back Kent Island from Catholic Maryland, Jamestown Puritan leader William Claiborne defeats a force led by Md. gov. Stone in Providence (Annapolis), kills him, then takes control of Md., and travels to England to get official control, but they don't go for it and Sir George Calvert regains control; after the Puritan govt. in England is ousted in 1660, he finally gives up and contents himself with his little ole 5K-acre Romancoke estate on the York River in Va.
On June 14, 1690 new king of England, Scotland, and Ireland William III (William of Orange) (1650-1702) lands at Carrickfergus, then on July 1 routs deposed Roman Catholic king (1685-88) James II/IV (1633-1701) (who is supported by Louis XIV) at the Battle of the Boyne on the banks of the 70-mi.-long Boyne River (35K Protestants v. 25K Catholics), ending Roman Catholicism's final bid to become the official religion of Great Britain, causing James II to head to exile in France from Kinsale; on July 10 the French defeat the English and Dutch ships of the Grand Alliance in the naval Battle of Beachy Head, but it comes too late to keep William III from Ireland long enough for James II to organize his resistance; James Stuart sets a land-sea speed record boinging to France on July 4, believing his cause lost, giving a speech, but the Irish Catholics, who begin calling him "Jim Dung" fight on, and William holds a thanksgiving ceremony at St. Patrick's Cathedral in James' old HQ in Dublin; the Williamite V, being seen as a defeat for Louis XIV is welcomed by dope, er, Pope Alexander VIII; on July 12 Protestant Irish Orangemen celebrate the V; Dublin remains quietly under British control until 1798; one bright spot for the Irish Gaels, on Aug. 9-30 the Williamites siege Limerick, nd on the night of Aug. 10 Anglo-Norman Irishman Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan (1660-91) and his Irish (Wild Geese) Brigade of 600 Irish exiles (formed in May when five Jacobite regiments were sent from Ireland to France in exchange for a larger force of French infantry) cross Ballyvalle Ford on the Shannon River to relieve the siege, brilliantly destroying William's heavy artillery, causing the siege to fail and William to leave Ireland on Sept. 5; on Sept. 28 after a siege the Duke of Marlborough pops, er, takes Cork, followed on Oct. 15 by Kinsale in S Ireland at the mouth of the Brandon River, and the Protestants begin their total political and economic control of Ireland, and the Huguenots begin migrating there (10K in the next decade).
In July 1791 Irish sympathy for the French Rev. results in 6K in Belfast voting a congratulatory message to the French nation; meanwhile in Oct. Dublin-born ("Father of Irish Republicans") Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-98), James Napper Tandy (1740-1803), and London-born Archibald Hamilton Rowan (1751-1834) found the Society of the United Irishmen in Dublin (until 1804).
The not so soft goodbye in Fireland? On Feb. 19, 1798 the unsuccessful 1798 Irish (United Irishmen) Ruction (Rebellion) (excuse me?), led by the Society of United Irishmen and modeled on the French Rev. starts in Leinster, then spreads, with a rising of poorly-armed peasants in Wexford; British redcoats aided by Hessian mercentaries defeat them on June 21 in the Battle of Vinegar Hill; meanwhile on Aug. 23 a French force of 1.1K under United Irishmen leader Gen. Jean Joseph Amable Humbert (1767-1823) lands in Killala Bay on the W coast too late to help them, and it is quashed by Sept. 24; the gaseous nature of the revolt causes the word "ruction" to be coined; British secy. for Ireland (since 1797) Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822) (an Ulster Protestant) offers clemency to commoners supporting the ruction, and focuses on punishing the leaders; after the English stop an Irish attempt to seize Dublin, all of Ireland becomes an English garrison run from Dublin Castle, while the Irish pop. is at the mercy of a debauched landlord class with the power of judge, jury, and executioner or transporter of the "tenants", sending hundreds, incl. Presbyterian ministers and professionals without trial or charges to life imprisonment in Australia, where the "rebels of 1798" face inhuman conditions and vicious flogging, all the more because of their intelligence?; the lucky ones begin emigrating to Canada; Irish PM (since 1782) (a liberal Protestant with Catholic sympathies) John Philpot Curran (1750-1817) vigorously defends Society of United Irishmen founder Archibald Hamilton Rowan (1751-1834) and other ruction leaders, gaining a good rep., ending with the defense of Napper Tandy in 1800; meanwhile British PM Pitt sees the ruction as proof of the need for a union of the two countries - some sneak to New Orleans to drink Hand Grenades?
On July 2, 1800 after British PM William Pitt the Younger spreads the money and patronage around, the Acts of Union, sponsored by ruction-crushing Viscount Castlereagh is enacted, uniting Great Britain with Ireland as the United Kingdom (U.K.), effective next Jan. 1.
On Jan. 1, 1800 the 1800 Acts of Union with Ireland come into effect, dissolving the Irish Parliament, giving it 32 peers in the British House of Lords and 100 members of the House of Commons, with the new U.K. Parliament meeting on Jan. 22; English king (since Oct. 25, 1760) George III (1738-1820) becomes king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (until Jan. 29, 1829); his wife (since Sept. 8, 1761) Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744-1818) becomes queen, adding the title to electress of Hanover of the HRE until her hubby is promoted to king of Hanover on Oct. 12, 1814, allowing the Christmas tree to be introduced to England; Ireland begins to be all about nationalist movements springing up to get it repealed and regain home rule, lasting well into the 20th cent.
On May 5, 1823 the Roman Catholic Catholic Assoc. is founded in Ireland by Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847) ("the Liberator") ("the Emancipator") to fight for their free-ee-ee-doms, demanding complete Roman Catholic emancipation from Protestant England and justice for Ireland, organizing large-scale public protests in Ireland, becoming one of the first mass-membership political movements in Europe, scaring British home secy. Robert Peel, who utters the 1824 soundbyte: "We cannot tamely sit by while the danger is hourly increasing, while a power co-ordinate with that of the Government is rising by its side, nay, daily counteracting its views", and the Duke of Wellington to utter the soundbyte: "If we cannot get rid of the Catholic Association, we must look to civil war in Ireland sooner or later"; too bad, after they turn to the Tories to stop Catholic Emancipation, only to find that the Ultra-Tories faction is kaput, Danny wins the day - erin go bragh?
On July 5, 1828 after the exit of the liberal Tories from Wellington's cabinet creates the need for the election of a successor in County Clare in Ireland, he is defeated by Daniel O'Connell, who is barred from sitting in the English Parliament because he is a Roman Catholic; this puts pressure on Wellington to restore the rights of the Irish Roman Catholics, who have been fuming ever since the Act of Union in 1801, and they are finally permitted to hold local office.
On Apr. 13, 1829 after the threat of civil unrest led by Irish atty. Daniel O'Connell makes home secy. Robert "Orange Peel" Peel and PM the Duke of Wellington to give in, the Roman Catholic Relief (Emancipation) Act is given royal assent, repealing the 1672 Test Act and the Penal Laws resulting from the 1728 Irish Parliament Disenfranchising Act, granting emancipation to Roman Catholics in Britain, calming the Irish down by letting Roman Catholics sit in the British Parliament, although property reqts. (10 pounds instead of 40 shillings) for the counties greatly reduce the number of eligible Irish Catholic voters; the action, thought necessary to avoid a civil war is unpopular with the king and the English public, causing Wellington's admin. to tank; all 15 economists in Parliament vote to allow Roman Catholic MPs; meanwhile the Irish are still pissed off-for having to pay tithes to the Anglican Church in Ireland, forming the Ribbon Society to agitate against Orangemen.
On Mar. 29, 1839 the Young Ireland movement is founded by Protestant Thomas Osborne Davis (1814-45) at a meeting of the College Historical Society in Dublin, promoting Irish nationalism along with Catholic-Protestant unity, with the soundbyte: "The country of our birth, our educations, our recollections, ancestral, personal, national; the country of our loves, our friendships, our hopes; our country: the cosmopolite is unnatural, base - I would fain say, impossible. To act on a world is for those above it, not of it. Patriotism is human philanthropy"; he goes on to compose the influential song A Nation Once Again (July 13, 1844).
On Oct. 15, 1842 (Sat.) The Nation, official organ of the Young Ireland Movement begins pub. in Dublin, advocating "defensive physical force" against the govt. when necessary, causing a split with Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Assoc. in 1846; cooperation with Protestant leaders and Young Italy results in opposition by Pope Gregory XVI; it is shut down by the govt. on July 28, 1848, then revived in Sept. 1849 (until 1900).
In 1846 famine strikes Europe (until 1847); an economic depression caused by the potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) and other crop failures strikes France (until 1847); all of this creates good hunting for revolutionary recruiters; the Great Irish Potato Famine (Hunger) in Ireland (1845-9) results from the total failure of the potato crop after an exceptionally warm winter (Jan.-Feb.), halving the 8M pop. by 1848, with 1847 (Black '47) being the worst; about 1M die and another 1M emigrate, with the eager assistance of the Roman Catholic-hating English landlords, esp. in County Cork, who forcibly remove whole towns and villages of "disaffected" tenants, incl. Lord Kingston of Fermoy, Stephen Moore, 3rd Earl Mount Cashell (Lord Kilworth) (1792-1883), Lord Doneraile, and Baron Ennismore (Earl of Listowel), packing them off in ships for Quebec, where most die from starvation, smallpox, and typhus on the journey, and those who arrive have to clear forest and build log cabins when they have never used an axe before; others, mainly from Munster and Connacht become navvies working on canals and railroads; Ottoman sultan (1839-61) Abdul Mecid I tries to send 10K sterling to the Irish, but Queen Victoria tells him to only send 1K because she sent only 2K, which doesn't stop him from sending three ships of food to Drogheda - Jesus what?
A duck, a hen, a cuckoo and a nightingale, with more birds to come, robins and larks? In July 1848 the Young Ireland Movement starts an unsuccessful rising in famine-depleted Ireland; this time the rebels come from the middle class, and the leader is lawyer-journalist John Mitchel (1815-75), ed. of The Nation and The United Irishman, who is railroaded to 14 years in Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) for "felony treason" for his writings, is given a "ticket of leave" in Bothwell (46 mi. from Hobart Town), where he begins his Jail Journal: Five Years in British Prisons, escaping to the U.S. in 1853, returning to Ireland in 1874 and getting elected as MP for Tipperary, then refused his seat because he is a convicted escaped felon; novelist Charles Joseph Kickham (1828-82) lucks out this time, but gets 14 years in 1865, and is pardoned in 1869, sticking to lit. work afterward.
In 1860: Pop.: Russia: 76M, Italy: 25M, Britain: 23M; Ireland: 5.7M; New York City: 805K; before-the-wind Atlanta, Ga.: 9,554.
On Aug. 22-29, 1861 Queen Victoria visits Ireland along with Prince Albert and three of their nine children, landing in Kingstown (modern-day Dun Laoghaire); on Aug. 23 Prince Albert visits his eldest son Prince Edward of Wales in Curragh where he is undergoing military training; on Aug. 24 they visit Killarney where they are greeted by 10K, turning it into a tourist attraction; on Aug. 25 they go boating accompanied by 800 boats; too bad, Prince Edward is introduced to mistress Nellie Clifton at Curragh, hooking up with her again at Cambridge U., pissing-off his father and contributing to his death from typhus, causing Victoria to blame him, with the soundbyte: "I never can or shall look at him without a shudder."
In 1861 the U.K. Offences Against the Person Act is passed, making abortion a criminal offense in Ireland (until Jan. 1, 2019) - a case of their British masters using their Catholic religion against them?
On Mar. 5, 1867 the Fenian Rising in Ireland by the secret Invincibles society begins in Dublin and Kerry, and is stopped by the Irish Constabulary; in Sept. Col. Thomas Joseph Kelly (1833-1908), English leader of the Finians is arrested, and a rescue attempt kills a policeman while attempting to shoot off the lock of the van; Kelly escapes to the U.S., but three Fenians (Allen, Larkin and O'Brien) are railroaded and hanged on Nov. 23 for it, becoming known as the Manchester Martyrs; on Mar. 29 after the Fenian invasion scares them into it, the British Parliament passes the British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada on July 1, with the E provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia uniting to offset the threat of a U.S. invasion from the S; eventually 10 provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatechewan) and two territories (Northwest Territories and Yukon) join; Glasgow, Scotland-born Conservative Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815-91) becomes PM #1 of Canada (until Nov. 5, 1873), and Templemore, Ireland-born Charles Stanley Monck, 1st Viscount Monck (1819-94) (gov.-gen. of the Province of Canada since 1861) becomes gov.-gen. #1 (until Nov. 14, 1868); to induce British Columbia to join, the Canadian Parliament guarantees a transcontinental railroad within 10 years, promising 25M acres of western land, a 20-year tax exemption, and other guarantees to six millionaires in exchange for $25M, creating the Canadian Pacific Railroad, which takes until 1885 to finish; Scottish-born Toronto Globe founder George Brown (1818-80) is instrumental in leading the Reform Party to push the confederation.
On Apr. 21, 1875 Avondale, County Wicklow-born Charles Stuart (Stewart) Parnell (1841-91) enters the British House of Commons for Meath at age 29, and quickly establishes a rep. for being anti anything English, and head of the Home Rule lobbyists, followed by pres. of the Nationalist Party in 1877, and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party in 1882-91, becoming a hero and "uncrowned king of Ireland" to the Irish masses, who treat him like a Messianic figure, kissing his hands and knees and trying to touch his clothes; too bad, he gets involved in a divorce in 1890, pissing-off the good Roman Catholics, who had up till then ignored the fact that he was Protestant, causing him to die an early death in 1891; meanwhile in 1878 the Irish Nat. Land League, founded by Parnell and ex-Fenian Michael Davitt (1846-1906) in favor of poor tenant farmers against landlordism starts a boycott of English goods and English landlords, holding "monster meetings" to protest the stankin' English, with the motto "Fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure" (3Fs).
In 1880 the Free Mash-Tun (Inland Revenue) Act is passed in Britain, changing the taxation emphasis from malt to beer, removing the 1660 tax on malted barley and leaving brewers free to use other ingredients, incl. sugar in England and unmalted barley in Ireland.
In 1880 Thomas Power "Tay Pay" O'Connor (1848-1929) of Charles Stewart Parnell's Home Rule League is elected as a British MP for Galway, going on in 1885 to become the first Irishman to be elected to sit for an English borough outside Ireland (Liverpool), remaining in office for 49 years 215 days, becoming known as "Father of the House of Commons".
In Apr.-May 1882 after the English press reveals that his mistress had borne him children, Charles Stuart Parnell cops out and signs the Kilmainham Agreement (Treaty) in order to gain release from Kilmainham Jail, going back to working for Home Rule for Ireland; too bad, on May 6 the Fenians murder chief British secy. for Ireland, Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish (b. 1836) and his undersecy. Thomas Henry Burke (b. 1829) in Phoenix Park in Dublin in protest against the Coercion Act of 1881, and on Aug. 17 the Maamtrasna Murders of John Joyce and four members of his family take place, after which innocent non-English-speaking man Maolra Seoighe is hanged and four other innocent men jailed for life; Parnell distances himself from the radical Irish Nat. League and seems to be on the way to his dream until the Times of London pub. a forged letter in which he allegedly supports the murders, setting him back by making him fight it out in court to clear his name while Irish Home Rule goes down in Parliament; meanwhile the British respond by passing the Crimes Act of 1887, making the Coercion Act even more stringent.
In 1882 The British Parliament enacts its first rule of cloture in order to silence pesky Irish Home Rule MPs, with 40 MPs being able to request the speaker to close debate; in 1887 this is changed to 200 MPs, or 100 MPs if the other side has less than 40 MPs.
On Apr. 8, 1886 British Liberal PM (since Feb. 1) William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) formally introduces the First Home Rule (Irish Govt.) Bill (first attempt to give Irish affairs over to the Irish people), giving the Irish Parliament the right to appoint the executive of Ireland, but reserving taxing power to the British Parliament; Charles Stuart Parnell supports the bill, but there is great opposition in both Ulster (N Ireland) and England, and on June 8 it is defeated in the House of Commons by 341-311, although Parnell's party stays optimistic; the Liberal Party is split asunder, and PM William Gladstone resigns on July 20; the predominantly Conservative Tory coalition Unionist govt. takes over, with the Marquess of Salisbury returning as PM on July 25 (until Aug. 11, 1892), pumping up their policy of gung-ho pip-pip bloody-bloody Empire On Which the Sun Never Sets imperialism, with the mottoes "Splendid Isolation" and "Fight Home Rule With Kindness"; in the face of this bastion of aristocratic conservatism Gladstone remains foreign secy. instead of becoming first lord of the treasury like most PMs do, and doesn't struggle back to power for six years (Aug. 15, 1892).
In fall 1891 the British Liberal Caucus proposes the unified Newcastle Reform Program, incl. Home Rule and electoral reform. On Oct. 6, 1891 Irish nationalist leader Charles Stuart Parnell (b. 1846) dies in Brighton, England (of a broken heart?); 150K attend his funderal at Glasnevin Cemetery; Oct. 6 becomes Ivy Day, when Irish Home Rule supporters wear a sprig of you know what in their clothing.
On July 4-26, 1892 after Lord Salisbury dissolves the English Parliament, the gen. election leaves the Conservatives with the greatest number of seats, but still in a minority against the combined Liberals and Irish Nationalists (Home Rulers), even though the latter are split into pro and anti Parnell factions; Salisbury resigns, and William Gladstone becomes PM again and forms his 4th cabinet, dependent on Irish Nationalist support, which tries in vain to implement the Newcastle Program.
On Apr. 21, 1893 PM William Gladstone's Govt. of Ireland Bill 1893 (Second Home Rule Bill) is approved 347-304 by the House of Commons, but fails by 41-419 in the House of Lords.
On Apr. 3, 1900 Queen Victoria makes her 2nd visit to Ireland, landing in Kingstown and visiting Dublin, where she is greeted by enthusiastic crowds (while a botched attempt is made to assassinate her son Prince Edward of Wales in Belgium), staying until Apr. 26.
On July 21, 1903 Edward VII and Queen Alexandria make their first visit to Ireland, cutting their 5-day trip short because of the news of the death of Pope Leo XIII; on Apr. 26, 1940 they return for an 8-day visit.
On July 8, 1911 George V and Queen Mary visit Ireland, becoming their first visit outside Britain, landing in Kingstown and staying five days, with The Daily Telegraph calling it "the latest and happiest conquest of Ireland"; it becomes the last visit to Ireland by a reigning monarch until ?.
On Apr. 11, 1912 the Liberal British govt. of Herbert Henry Asquith introduces the Govt. of Ireland Act 1914 (Third Irish Home Rule Bill), sponsored by Irish Roman Catholic MP (1900-18) John Edward Redmond (1856-1918) to give Ireland self-govt.; the House of Lords, egged on by Irish Unionists in Ulster tries in vain to block it for the next two years, but can't veto it anymore; on Sept. 18, 1914 it is passed along with the Welsh Church Act and the Suspensory Act, which postpones the Govt. of Ireland Act's effectiveness until the end of WWI, effectively killing it.
On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.
On Apr. 24, 1916 (Easter Mon.) after seeing their long-awaited (since 1167?) chance, Easter Rising (Week) in Dublin sees 1.6K over-optimistic Sinn Fein nationalists attempt to oust the British Empire from Ireland, marching from Liberty Hall in Dublin to the center of town then seizing several key sites and declaring an independent Irish repub. from the steps of the Gen. Post Office on O'Connell St., describing the Germans as "gallant allies"; too bad, on Apr. 22 leader Eoin MacNeill (1867-1945) cancels mobilization orders, else 5K would have shown up; the rising lasts until Apr. 29, when British forces under gen. Sir John Maxwell (1859-1929) quash it, and the nationalists surrender after 64 are killed along with 220 civilians and 134 troops and policemen; British gunboat HMS Helga destroys Liberty Hall from the sea; on May 12 15 leaders are tried and executed incl. poet Patrick Henry Pearse (b. 1879) (leader of the Irish Repub. Brotherhood), James Connolly (b. 1868) (head of the Irish Citizen Army), and repub. organizer Sean MacDermott (b. 1883); British Capt. J.C. Bowen-Colthurst orders Irish pacifist Francis Sheehy "Skeffy" Skeffington (b. 1878) (a close friend of James Joyce) a rrested for trying to stop looting, then court-martialed and executed on Apr. 26, causing outrage that forces Joyce to flee for Canada and launch his literary career to "beat the English with their own language" (Carmel McCaffrey); Skeffington later becomes a main char. in Joyce's "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"; playwright Sean O'Casey (1880-1964) takes part in the rising; math prof. Eamon de Valera (1882-1975) is saved from execution because of his U.S. citizenship, spending the war in English jails; Irish poet William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) writes the pro-Repub. Easter 1916, but waits until 1920 to pub. it; British secy. for Ireland (since 1907) Augustine Birrell resigns.
The American Irish become Mister Feelgood? By the 1920s the Irish have "arrived" in the U.S., and could probably run it if they just weren't !?!? Roman Catholic?; "There are judges by the dozen, incl. a third of the Supreme Court, three Cardinals, Senators, multi-millionaires and captains of industry by the score, like Mr. Henry Ford, the motor king, Mr. Doheny, who dominates the petrol industry, Mr. Thomas F. Ryan, the partner of King Leopold in the Congo diamond mines, Mr. Mellon, the secy. to the Treasury, Mr. Doughtery, the Atty.-Gen., Mr. Smith, the gov. of New York, Mr. Hylan, the mayor of New York, Mr. Tumulty, private secy. to Pres. Wilson, Gen. O'Ryan of the American Army, Dudly Malone, chief official of the port of New York, J.R. Ryan, the head of the Copper Trail, John Mitchel, mayor of New York, Col. Concanon, chmn. of the White Star Line, and J.A. Farrell, Pres. of the U.S. Steel Co." (Terence Sheehy) - we've been ratted out, boys?
On Oct. 14, 1920 IRA leader Sean Treacy (Tracey) (Tracy) (b. 1895) is KIA on Talbot St. in Dublin in a shootout with the stanking' English, pissing-off the IRA; on Nov. 21 (a.m.) after the British Parliament debates the Govt. of Ireland Act (Act to Provide for the Better Govt. of Ireland), dividing Ireland into two political units with some powers of self-govt. and their own parliaments, and Ulster Protestants accept the idea, but the Sinn Fein in Dublin rejects all British attempts to split Ireland, and continues the guerrilla war, causing the British to create the special auxiliary police called the Black and Tans from unemployed WWI veterans, Bloody Sun. sees the IRA kill 14 British undercover intel agents known as the Cairo Gang in Dublin, causing the Black and Tans to retaliate by killing 12 at a Dublin soccer match; in Dec. the military begins a killing and looting spree, causing £3M in damage; on Dec. 23 the Govt. of Ireland Act is passed, creating eternally-divided Northern Ireland by dividing six Unionist NE counties from the other 26, while entrapping many non-Unionists within its boundaries; two Irish parliaments are created, one (Stormont) for the north and one for the south.
On Oct. 25, 1920 Sinn Fein leader (lord mayor of Cork since Mar.) Terence James MacSwiney (b. 1879) dies after a 74-day hunger strike in Brixton Prison in Lambeth, England, becoming a martyr and bringing the Irish War of Independence to internat. attention; next Mar. 1 future cardinal Terence Cooke is born in New York City, named after him.
On Jan. 16, 1921 Michael Collins (b. 1890) becomes chmn. of the Irish provisional govt.; on May 22 (Sun.) the duly-elected parliament of Northern Ireland is opened by the English king, who gives a conciliatory speech; the southern parliament never assembles, and instead a self-constituted body called the Dail Eireann ("assembly of Ireland") (pr. doll-ERR-an) begins meeting, with Eamon de Valera (1882-1975) as pres. #1 of the Irish Free State (ends Dec. 29, 1937), which is established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty (effective Mar. 31), which requires an oath of allegiance to the crown, which Valera and other repub. leaders won't accept but Collins talks a majority of the Dail Eireann into ratifying, so that on June 28 the Irish Civil War begins between the republicans and the nationalists over the treaty (ends May 24, 1923); on July 8 a truce is agreed to, and signed by Great Britain and the IRA on July 11; Michael Collins signs it, saying he's really signed his death warrant, and is assassinated in an ambush by anti-treaty forces on Aug. 22, 1922; on Dec. 6 Great Britain gives the Irish Free State dominion status under the treaty, while six counties in Northern Ireland remain part of the U.K.
On Mar. 23, 1926 the right-center Irish repub. party Fianna Fail ("soldiers of destiny", "warriors of Fal") is founded as the official opposition to the Dail Eireann by Eamon de Valera et al. after splitting from Sinn Fein on the abstentionism issue, sharing control of the govt. with Fine Gael until 1989, then leading coalition govts. until 2011.
On Sept. 8, 1933 the liberal-conservative Fine Gael ("family/tribe of the Irish") political party is founded in Ireland as the rival of Fianna Fail, growing to the largest party in Ireland (35K members); it goes on to become a founding mbmer of the European People's Party; in 1977 the Young Fine Gael is founded as the party's youth wing (4K members).
On June 6, 1952 John Ford's The Quiet Man (Argosy Pictures) (Republic Pictures) debuts, written by Frank S. Nugent based on a 1933 short story by Maurice Walsh and filmed on location in W Ireland in County Galway and County Mayo, starring John Wayne as Yankee boxing champ Trooper Sean Thornton, who quits after killing a man in the ring, and Maureen O'Hara as Red Head Mary Kate Danaher, who is matched in marriage to him, and gets "dragged by the black roots of her red hair", and has a great kissing scene in the cottage in the storm with the big stud, along with a great comic fight scene with her brother Squire Will "Red" Danaher (Victor McLaglen); also stars Barry Fitzgerald as whiskey-loving leprechaun-like Michaleen Oge Flynn, Mildred Natwick as Widow Sarah Tillane, and Ward Bond as Father Peter Lonergan; makes Ashford Castle in County Mayo, former country seat of the Guinness family (where the cast stays) into a tourist trap; does $3.2M box office on a $1.75M budget; watch trailer.
On Dec. 14, 1955 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (Belgium, U.S., Repub. of China) for Resolution 109 to admit Albania, Jordan, Ireland, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, Austria, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Ceylon, Nepal, Libya, Cambodia, Laos, and Spain.
On Nov. 10, 1966 former hurling and Gaelic football star John Mary "Jack" Lynch (1917-99) becomes PM (Taoiseach) #4 of Ireland (until Mar. 14, 1973), becoming "the most popular Irish politician since Daniel O'Connell." (Liam Cosgrave)
On Oct. 9, 1968 Francis Ford Coppola's Finian's Rainbow (Oct. 9) (Warner Bros. - Seven Arts) debuts, based on the 1947 E.Y. Harburg-Fred Saidy musical, starring Fred Astaire as Finian McLonergan, Petula Clark as his daughter Sharon McLonergan, who abscond from Ireland with a pot of gold hidden in a carpetbag and head to Rainbow Valley in Missitucky near Fort Knox, while pissed-off Og the Leprechaun (Tommy Steele) pursues him; Barbara Hancock plays Susan the Silent; Keenan Wynn plays Sen. Billboard Rawkins; does $11.6M box office on a $3.5M budget; features songs incl. Look to the Rainbow, How Are Things in Glocca Morra; watch trailer.
On Jan. 27, 1969 hardline Protestant Northern Ireland leader Rev. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (1926-2014), leader of the loyalist opposition to the Roman Catholic civil rights movement in Northern Ireland is jailed for 3 mo. for illegal assembly, going on to help instigate the Troubles.
On Apr. 17, 1969 21-y.-o. Roman Catholic civil rights activist Bernadette Devlin (1948-) (student at Queen's U. in Belfast) is elected British MP for Mid-Ulster (one of 12 MPs from Northern Ireland), becoming the youngest MP since William Pitt the Younger in 1782, winning the hearts of the English Labour Party in her maiden speech on Apr. 23 at Westminster on her 22nd birthday, going on to organize Roman Catholic resistance in Londonderry, and reaching out to working class Protestants by claiming a class rather than religious struggle, while her nemesis Rev. Ian Paisley rallies Protestant militants, no Roman Catholics allowed.
On May 1, 1969 Maj. James Dawson Chichester-Clark, Baron Moyola (1923-2002), who enjoys support from the Protestant right wing is elected to head the Ulster Unionist Party, becoming PM #5 of Northern Ireland (until Mar. 23, 1971), replacing moderate reformer Terence O'Neill; he ends up topping O'Neill's reforms, giving Catholics concessions in public housing and local elections.
On July 2, 1969 Blackpool, Cork City-born John Mary "Jack" Lynch (1917-99) is reelected PM of Ireland (until Mar. 14, 1973), and appoints Erskine Hamilton Childers (1905-74) as deputy PM, the highest post ever held by a Protestant in Ireland - lots of board meetings, we're always playing catch-up?
On July 14, 1969 Francis McClusky (b. 1902) becomes the first person killed in the Northern Ireland Troubles, which end in 1998 after 16.2K bombings, 3.5K killed, and 50K injured; by 2011 Protestants outnumber Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland by only 3%, becoming the majority in 2021; in Dec. the Provisional Irish Repub. Army (Provisional IRA) (Provos) is formed to end British rule in Northern Ireland, becoming the biggest and most active paramilitary group during the Troubles; it isn't disbanded until Apr 1998.
On Aug. 12-14, 1969 the Battle of the Bogside erupts in the Bogside area of Derry, North Ireland after a march by the Apprentice Boys of Derry turns into a riot between the Derry Citizens' Defense Assoc. and the Royal Ulster Constabulary; on Aug. 12 Repub. of Ireland Taoiseach (PM) (1966-73) John Mary "Jack" Lynch (1917-99) gives a speech to the U.N. in which he asks them to deploy a peacekeeping mission in Northern Ireland; on Aug. 14 British troops arrive in Northern Ireland to intervene after bloodshed in the six counties of Northern Island causes Catholic enclaves in Belfast and Londonderry to build barricades against the Protestant-controlled Royal Ulster Constabulary; the ongoing sectarian violence between Protestants and Catholics, known as The Troubles (1968-98) becomes so intense that the army assumes complete control of security after rioting resumes on Aug. 19; in the next 25 years over 3K (43% Catholic, 30% Protestant) are killed in a 3-way struggle between British troops, the IRA, and Protestant terrorist groups.
In 1971 Armagh-born Presbyterian minister Rev. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (1926-2014) forms the Protestant Dem. Unionist Party in Northern Ireland; meanwhile Roman Catholic leader Bernadette Devil, er, Devlin gives birth to a child out of wedlock, pissing-off her supporters, and gets a 9-mo. prison sentence; she finally marries in 1973 and runs for reelection in 1974.
On Jan. 22, 1972 the Treaty of Accession to the European Communities is signed in Brussels, allowing Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway to join the European Economic Community (EEC); the British House of Commons approves it on July 14, but Norway votes to not join after all, leaving the poor little EEC at 20 nations with 257M pop.; on July 31 Belgian PM (1938-9, 1946-9) Paul-Henri Spaak (b. 1899), co-founder of the EEC dies.
Northern Ireland finally goes into civil war over silly religion? On Jan. 30, 1972 Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland sees British parachute regiment soldiers open fire on an unarmed civilian demonstration in Londonderry, killing 13; on Feb. 2 the funerals are held, causing 25K to march to the British embassy in Belfast with replica coffins and black flags and burn it to the ground, becoming the first IRA terrorist action in Northern Ireland; on June 17, 2010 British PM David Cameron apologizes, saying "I am deeply sorry", becoming the first time that a British leader apologizes to the Irish since they took the island over in the 1170s; on Feb. 22 the Aldershot Barracks Bombing at the HQ of the 16th Parachute Brigade by the IRA kills seven incl. five women and a Roman Catholic priest; on Mar. 30 the Provisional Govt. in Northern Ireland (Stormont) is suspended, and direct rule from London is reinstated; on Apr. 14 the IRA explodes 24 bombs across North Ireland, and hold 14 shootouts with British troops; British soldiers and tanks become commonplace as they patrol war zones between Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods; during the year 1.4K bombings and 10.6K shootings are reported by police, and 470 are killed.
On July 7, 1972 English-born Provisional IRA leader Sean Mac Stiofain (Seán Mac Stíofáin) (John Stephenson) (1928-2001) holds secret talks with the British govt., giving the IRA's demands incl. unconditional release of all political prisoners, declaration of intent to withdraw from Northern Ireland by Jan. 1975, and a democracy consisting of all the people of Ireland voting together as a unit, which are all rejected, causing the IRA to ramp-up its campaign; on Nov. 19 Stiofain is arrested in Dublin after giving a TV interview to RTE's This Week, and on Nov. 25 after the interview is used as evidence of IRA membership he is sentenced to 6 mo. in Curragh Prison, where he goes on a hunger strike amid protests in Dublin; he is released in Apr. 1973 after losing his influence in the IRA. On July 21 (Fri.) (2:10 p.m. local time) Bloody Fri. sees the Provisional IRA explodes 22 bombs in Belfast in a 75-min. period, killing two British soldiers and seven civilians, and injuring 130 more civilians; on July 31 (4:00 a.m.) Operation Motorman sees 12K British soldiers with tanks and bulldozers retake "no-go" areas controlled by the IRA; on July 31 a car bomb in Claudy, County Londonderry, North Ireland kills nine civilians; no group claims credit.
On Jan. 1, 1973 Britain, Ireland, and Denmark enter the European Common Market (Community) created by the 1958 Treaty of Rome.
On Mar. 8, 1973 the Border Poll in Northern Ireland on whether Northern Ireland should remain a part of the U.K. is boycotted by Catholics, and results in a 57% yes vote; 59% of the 1M electorate turns out, but only 1% of Catholics; meanwhile on Mar. 8 the Provisional IRA explodes bombs in Whitehall and the Old Bailey in England; on Mar. 20 the British govt. releases a White Paper on a Catholic-Protestant Coalition Govt., calling for reestablishment of an assembly elected by proportional rep., with a possible All-Ireland Council.
On Apr. 11, 1973 the British House of Commons votes against restoring capital punishment by a 142-vote margin, and on May 14 it votes to abolish it in Northern Ireland.
On Apr. 28, 1973 six Irishmen incl. Joe Cahill (1920-2004) (a founder of the Provisional IRA, who was arrested for IRA involvement in 1972 and released after a 23-day hunger strike, then became the IRA chief of staff in Nov. 1972) are arrested off County Waterford, Ireland by the Irish Navy aboard the ship Claudia en route from Libya carrying 5 tons of weapons destined for the Provisional IRA; Cahill is sentenced to three years in priz after uttering the soundbyte: "If I am guilty of any crime, it is that I did not succeed in getting the contents of the Claudia into the hands of the freedom fighters of this country"; after release, he goes to the U.S., and is deported in 1984; in 2004 he dies of asbestosis after uttering the soundbyte: "I was born in a united Ireland, and I want to die in a united Ireland".
On May 17, 1973 an IRA car bomb in Knock-na-Moe Castle Hotel in Omagh, County Tyrone kills five British soldiers.
On June 25, 1973 after defeating Tom O'Higgins by 636K votes to 579K, Protestant (Anglican) Erskine Hamilton Childers (1905-74) becomes pres. #4 of Ireland (until Nov. 17, 1974), becoming a popular pres. until he suddenly dies of a heart attack next Nov. 17, after which his Roman Catholic widow (married in 1952) Rita Childers is passed over when a secret deal to make her pres. is given away by a minister with poor hearing who mishears a journalist's question, and on Dec. 19 former chief justice Cearbhall O Dalaigh (Ó Dálaigh) (1911-78) becomes pres. #5 of Ireland, only to resign on Oct. 22, 1976 after being publicly insulted by the minister of defense, after which she calls for the suspension of the office.
On June 28, 1973 elections for the Northern Ireland Assembly are held, leading to power-sharing between unionists and nationalists for the 1st time; on July 18 the Northern Ireland Constitution Act receives royal assent, abolishing the suspended Parliament of Northern Ireland along with the post of gov., providing for a devolved admin. consisting of an executive chosen by the assembly, which incl. 108 members elected by votes from Northern Ireland's 18 Westminster constituencies (5-8 seats for each); too bad, on July 31 the assembly meets for the first time, while militant protesters led by Protestant minister Ian Paisley disrupt its first sitting.
On Nov. 22, 1973 Britain announces a plan for moderate Protestants and Roman Catholics to share power in Northern Ireland, negotiated by Scottish-born British Conservative politician William Stephen Ian 'Willie' Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw (1918-99); fishing paradise County Fermanagh in the SW is replaced by a number of new districts; the exec body is given control of all affairs except security, justice, foreign relations and some financial matters - it's not how you're covered it's how you're treated?
On Dec. 9, 1973 the Sunningdale Agreement between the Protestant Unionists and Catholic Nationalists is signed in Sunningdale, Berkshire, England, attempting to end the Troubles with a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland; too bad, a loyalist gen. strike next May kills it.
On Nov. 15, 1985 PM Margaret Thatcher of Britain and PM Garret FitzGerald of Ireland sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement (Accord), giving Dublin an official consultative role in governing Northern Ireland; the British House of Commons approves it on Nov. 27, followed by the Irish Senate on Nov. 28; too bad, on Dec. all 15 Unionist Protestant MPs resign in protest.
On Nov. 2, 1986 the Sinn Fein votes to end its policy of abstentionism (refusal to take seats in the Irish parliament AKA Dail Eireann), causing about 100 to walk out, forming the Repub. Sinn Fein (RSF), claiming to represent true traditional Irish republicanism while failing to reject the use of political violence.
Peace at last in Belfast? On Apr. 10, 1998 (Good Fri.) after 22 mo. of peace talks the Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement (effective Dec. 2, 1999) restores a measure of independence to Northern Ireland, incl. their own 108-seat Catholic-Protestant parliament, decommissioning of paramilitary groups, and a Human Rights and Equality Commission; Great Britain and the Irish reps. mutually renounce claims to each other's pot o'gold on the Emerald Isle?; the British army begins dismantling its 16 watchtowers in the "bandit country" of South Armagh, erected in the mid-1980s (finished 2006); in Sept. the Red Hand Defenders are formed by loyalists opposed to the Belfast Agreement.
On Jan. 1, 1999 the Eurodollar (Euro) is launched in 11 EU countries incl. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.
On Dec. 20, 2002 Martin Scorsese's Gangs of New York (Miramax) debuts based on the 1927 book by Herbert Asbury, starring Leonardo DiCaprio as Amsterdam Vallon, son of Priest Vallon (Liam Neeson), Daniel Day-Lewis as William "Bill the Butcher" Cutting, Jim Broadbent as Boss Tweed, John C. Reilly as Happy Jack Mulraney, and Cameron Diaz as pickpocket Jenny Everdeane in an attempted recreation of hellhole Five Points, Manhattan, New York City in 1862-3 incl. the Dead Rabbits and their bitter nativist gang enemies (the Bowery Boys?); does $193.8M box office on a $100M budget; watch trailer.
On May 25, 2018 a referendum in the Repub. of Ireland overturns its longtime ban on abortion by 66.4%-33.6%, approving the 36th Amendment to the Constitution, which repeals the 8th Amendment; the Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act of 2018 is signed into law on Dec. 20, coming into force on Jan. 1.