Wamba of Spain (-687) Garcia I of Leon (871-914) Ordoño II of Leon (873-924) Bermudo II the Gouty of Leon (953-99) Count Henrique I of Portugal (1066-1112) Countess Theresa of Portugal (1080-1130) Alfonso I Henriques of Portugal (1109-85) Philippa Plantagenet of Lancaster (1360-1415) Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
Gil Eannes of Portugal (1395-) Nuno Tristão Vasco da Gama (1469-1524) Dom Francisco de Almeida (1450-1510) Philip II of Spain (1527-98) Duke John of Braganza (1543-83) Manuel Teles da Silva, 3rd Marquis de Alegrete (1682-1736) Joseph I the Reformer of Portugal (1714-77) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782)

TLW's Portugalscope™ (Portugal Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: July 14, 2017. Last Update: July 26, 2017.

Joao (John) VI of Portugal (1767-1826) Miguel I of Portugal (1802-66) Maria II da Gloria of Portugal (1819-53) Dom Pedro II of Portugal (1825-99) Pedro (Peter) V de Alcantara of Portugal (1837-61) Carlos I of Portugal (1863-1908) Ruy Barbosa of Brazil (1849-1923) Manuel II of Portugal (1889-1932) Teófilo Braga of Portugal (1843-1924)
Fatima Children, 1917 Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro of Portugal (1861-1944) Bernardino Machado of Portugal (1851-1944) Sidonio Pais of Portugal (1872-1918) Gen. Manuel Gomes da Costa of Portugal (1863-1929) António José de Almeida of Portugal (1866-1929) António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona of Portugal (1869-1951) Gen. António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal (1889-1970) Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes of Portugal (1894-1964)
Holden Roberto of Angola (1923-2007) Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane of Mozambique (1920-69) Marcello Caetano of Portugal (1906-80) Maj. Ernesto Augusto de Melo Antunes of Portugal (1933-99) Gen. Antonio de Spinola of Portugal (1910-96) Gen. Francisco da Costa Gomes of Portugal (1914-2001) Gen. Vasco dos Santos Goncalves of Portugal (1922-2005) Mario Soares of Portugal (1924-2017) Anibal Cavaco Silva of Portugal (1939-)

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What Is A Historyscope?

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Portugal's history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Portugal is interesting because it's a fairly large country isolated on the SW corner of Europe with the great wide expanses of the Atlantic Ocean open to it, causing it to have to live off fishing and maritime commerce, selling its yummy wine. In its heyday its explorers reached Africa, India, and South America, building a huge thalassocracy (maritime empire) of mean Roman Catholic Jesuits and the Inquisition, only to systematically crumble, go bankrupt, lose it, and turn into an innocuous secularized party country where people party all night and sleep to noon. Where else do people eat the dessert before the main course? :)

About 1200 B.C.E. the port of Lisbon on the Tagus River in Lusitania ("land of the raven people") (modern-day Portugal) (orginally called Allis Ubbo, meaning "safe harbor" in Phoenician, later corrupted to Ulisaypo or Olissipo from the belief that Ulysses of Trojan War fame founded it) is founded by Celts and an aboriginal pop., who later form the Cempsi tribe, known for convex-head arched-neck Lusitanian (Lusitano) horses, the best for chariot racing.

In the 1st millennium B.C.E. Cynetes (Conii) people live in S Portugal (until -600); inscriptions in Southwest Script are later uncovered by archeologists in the area.

In 205 B.C.E. Lisbon (Olissipo) comes under Roman rule; it is allegedly already 1K-y.-o.; the Celtic Bracarenses tribe controls the area around Braga, Portugal.

Viriathus (-180 to -139)

In 143 B.C.E. the Third Numantine War (ends -133) in Numantia (W Spain/Portugal) begins when Lusitanian leader (since -147) Viriathus (-180 to -139) leads a revolt against the Romans, scoring several Vs until his own men murder him in his sleep after the Romans under Macedonicus defeat the Arevaci in NC Hispania; "It seemed as if in that thoroughly prosaic age, one of the Homeric heroes had reappeared." (Theodor Mommsen)

In 80 B.C.E. Roman gen. Quintus Sertorius begins the Sertorian War (ends -72) against dictator Sulla, and (in -57?) captures Ebora (Evora) (Évora) (Gael. "of the yew trees") (AKA Liberalitas Julia) in Portugal 68 mi. SE of Lisbon, where a Roman aqueduct and temple of Diana are later built, organizing the tribes of Hispania and Lusitania to form an independent province and launch guerrilla war; Julius Caesar later renames Olissipo (Lisbon) to Felicitas Julia.

In 19 B.C.E. the Cantabri (Cantabrians) (modern-day (Basques) in NW Spain and SW France, known for car-door ears and their Euskera (Euskara) language unrelated to anything else known are defeated by the Romans under Marcus Agrippa, ending the Cantabrian Wars (begun -29), and NW Spain is completely conquered and absorbed into the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis (ends 459 C.E.) N of Hispania Lusitania (modern-day Portugal) and Hispania Baetica (modern-day Andalusia) - until they invent gunpowder and Coca-Cola to make kalimotxo AKA cold pussy?

In the 5th cent. C.E. the Roman Catholic Church divides up the Roman Empire for admin. purposes: the Diocese of Gaul, with the Rhine River as the N boundary; the Diocese of Spain, incl. Portugal and Morocco; the Diocese of Britain, which excludes Scotia (modern Ireland) and Pictland (modern Scotland); the Prefecture of Italy, divided into the N Diocese of Italy, run by the Langobards, and the S Diocese of Rowe (Goth Italy), incl. Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Diocese of Africa; the Prefecture of Illyricum incl. Greece, Albania ("land of the eagle") and Yugoslavia W of the Danube; the Prefecture of the East incl. Turkey through Egypt.

In 540 C.E. the Visigoths capture the seaport of Portus Cale (modern-day Oporto) in NW Portugal on the right bank of the Douro River 2 mi. from its mouth (until 716).

Wamba of Spain (-687)

In 672 C.E. Reccesuinth dies, and his son Wamba (Gothic "big belly") (643-87) becomes Visigoth king of Spain (until 680), immediately facing a revolt by Count Hilderic of Nimes, gov. of Nimes, who is supported by Bishop Gunhild of Maguelonne and the Spanish Jewish pop., causing Wamba to send a force under Hispano-Roman duke Flavius Paulus, who arrives in Narbonne, then flops and converts to Judaism and proclaims himself king, with Hilderic backing him, going on to send emissaries to the Basques to join up, pissing-off Wamba, who personally leads his army to the W Pyrenees and kicks Basque butt; meanwhile Flavius Paulus is crowned with a golden crown given by late king Retarded, er, Reccared to the Church of Gerona, causing the Visigoth cities in Gaul and most of NE Spain to join his side, while Jewish hit men begin assassinating nobles loyal to Wamba, who regroups, marches into Narbonensis and Tarraconensis, and wins back most of the rebel cities.

In 712 C.E. Gen. Tariq's master Musa bin Nusayr lands in Spain, and the Moors go on to conquer Cordoba, Malaga, Granada, and the Visigoth capital of Toledo, being greeted as liberators by the oppressed masses, esp. the Jews, and executing many of the hated nobles; the Church of St. Acisclus successfully shelters the remaining Christian refugees, who are allowed to live with the usual restrictions; they also mop up Medina Sidonia, Seville, Merida and Saragossa, renaming the area Andalusia (Andaluz) (Arab. "land of the Vandals") (Vandalusia?); the S tip of Portugal is called Al-Gharb (Algarve) (Arab. "the west"), which is not reconquered until 1251; they also conquer Ebora (Evora) (Évora) (Gael. "of the yew trees") in C Portugal (until 1166); by 718 all of Spain (except Asturias in the Cantabrian Mts. in NW Spain) is conquered, and becomes a Muslim state with Tariq as gov., who builds a fortified castle along the NW slope of Gibraltar, which the Muslims hold until 1309; under the command of his master Musa ben Nusayr (a Berber recognized by Jews as of the tribe of Simeon) the Jews are freed, and a period of prosperity for them begins in Spain, along with Christians, who are treated generously and protected from excesses by the new govt., making it one happy haven in a dark Christian Europe?; too bad, just as they are getting ready to cross the Pyrenees and take the rest of Europe, the jealous caliph summons Musa and Tariq to Damascus, where Tariq dies? - the whole invasion was a Jewish conspiracy to wrest control of Europe from the papacy, but if so, too bad the caliph messed it up for them?

In 716 C.E. the Muslims conquer Lisbon (built on seven hills like Rome) (until 1147) and Porto (Oporto) in NW Portugal (until 997), giving them control of the entire Spanish Peninsula, leaving Narbonensis beyond the Pyrenees as the last Gothic province.

Garcia I of Leon (871-914) Ordoño II of Leon (873-924)

On Dec. 20, 910 Alfonso III the Great (b. 866) dies in Zamora after building the Church of Santo Adriano de Tunon (Tuñón) in Tunon, Asturias on Jan. 24, 891), and his kingdom is divided among his three sons by Jimena of Pamplona, with eldest son Garcia I (871-914) becoming king of the new macho-sounding Kingdom of Leon (León) (Sp. "lion"), 2nd son Ordono (Ordoño) II (873-924) becoming king of the new Kingdom of Galicia (modern-day Portugal) (until 924) (also Leon after Garcia dies in 914), and youngest son Fruela (Froila) II of Asturias (875-925) becoming king of tried-true Asturias based in Oviedo (until 925), which is still considered to have primacy.

In early summer 924 Fruela II (b. 875) of leprosy, and his son Alfonso Froilaz (the Hunchback) (-926) succeeds, but the sons of Ordono II make a comeback and depose him, and he flees to become king of Galicia (Portugal) (until 926), while they split the rest up, with Alfonso IV (the Monk) (890-933) becoming king of Leon and Asturias (until 931), and Sancho I Ordonez (895-929) taking Froilaz down and becoming king of Galicia next year (until 929).

Bermudo II the Gouty of Leon (953-99)

In 982 the nobles of Galicia rebel against weak tyrant Ramiro III of Leon and proclaim Ordono III's son Bermudo (Vermudo) II the Gouty (953-99) as king of Galicia (until 999), which later becomes Portugal.

In 997 the Christians recapture the seaport of Oporto in NW Portugal, which was held by the Muslims since 716.

Count Henrique I of Portugal (1066-1112) Countess Theresa of Portugal (1080-1130) Pinot Noir Grapes

In 1093 after giving up on inheriting Burgundy from his older brothers and joining the Reconquista in Spain, then helping Alfonso VI of Castile-Leon conquer Galicia and N Portugal, French knight Henrique (Henry) of Burgundy (1066-1112) founds the County of Portugal with lands given him by Alfonso VI, marrying his illegitimate daughter (by Ximena Moniz) Theresa of Portugal (1080-1130) and becoming Count Henrique I of Portugal (his son makes it a kingdom), founding the long-lived "We're #2, We Try Harder" Avis Dynasty of Portuguese rulers (ends 1580); not the kind to be caught without something to drink, he introduces the Pinot noir grape into Portugal from France, becoming the forerunner of modern port wines; the old Celtic town of beautiful Braga, held by the ancient Romans (as Bracara Augusta), Suevi, Visigoths and Moors becomes the capital of Portugal (until 1147).

On June 24, 1128 after Alfonso VI of Leon appoints her to govern Galicia, and the pop. revolts, Battle of Sao Mamede near Guimaraes sees Afonso I Henriques defeat his mother Teresa and her lover Galician Fernao Peres de Trava, giving himself the title of prince of Portugal in 1129; she ends up in a monastery; Guimaraes becomes the first capital of Portugal.

Alfonso I Henriques of Portugal (1109-85)

The happy Christian home people celebrate in Portugal? On July 25, 1139 (St. James Day) the badly outnumbered Portuguese defeat the Murabitun at the Battle of Ourique in Alentejo, S Portugal, and victorious Count Alfonso (Afonso) I Henriques (the Conquistador) (1109-85) proclaims himself the first king of Muslim-free Portugal (until Dec. 6, 1185), claiming to have vanquished and slain five Moorish kings; he then calls the first assembly of the estates-gen. of Portugal at Lamego, and is crowned by the bishop of Braga, confirming Portugal's independence from Leon and Castile; later St. James the Great is venerated for allgedly miraculously intervening in the battle, becoming known as the Miracle of Ourique, the founding myth of Portugal.

Afonso I Henriques of Portugal (1100-85)

On Oct. 5, 1143 self-proclaimed Spanish emperor Alfonso VII of Leon finally recognizes the independence of Portugal in the Treaty of Zamora, with king (since July 26, 1139) Afonso I Henriques (1109-85) as king #1 (until Dec. 6, 1185), and marries Petronila of Aragon (daughter of Ramiro II the Monk of Aragon) to Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona, uniting Aragon and Catalonia.

In Sept. 1165 Portuguese El Cid Gerald the Fearless (Geraldo Sem Pavor) (Geraldo Geraldes) (-1173) reconquers Ebora (Evora) (Évora) in C Portugal from the Moors, who held it since 715; next year it comes under the rule of Alfonso I Henriques.

St. Vincent of Saragossa (-304) Lisbon Coat of Arms Monastery of Sao Vicente de Fora, 1147

In 1173 the relics of Spanish Christian martyr St. Vincent of Saragossa (Huesca) (-304) are shipped by Portuguese king Afonso I Henriques from his shrine in Cape St. Vincent to the new Augustinian Romanesque Monastery of Sao Vicente de Fora (begun 1147) in Lisbon, which ends up depicted on the Lisbon Coat of Arms; the monastery becomes the royal pantheon for the Portuguese Braganza monarchs, after which in 1582 it is remodeled in the Mannerist style by orders of Philip II of Spain, and in 1834 after religious orders are dissolved in Portugal, it becomes a palace for the archbishops of London, with Ferdinand II ordering the pantheon transferred to the old refectory.

On May 23, 1179 after he conquers lands to the S to which no other Christian monarch had claim, Pope Alexander III issues the bull Manifestis Probabum, officially recognizing Alfonso I Henriques as the first king of the independent Roman Catholic kingdom of Portugal and no longer a vassal of the kingdom of Leon.

In 1249 Portuguese king Alfonso II drives the Moors out of Portugal after conquering the Algarve (al-Garb) ("the west") (S tip) from the Moors, who held it since 712.

In 1255 Lisbon becomes the new capital of Portugal.

John (Joao) I of Portugal (1357-1433) St. Nuño Alvares Pereira (1360-1431)

In Apr. 1385 John (Joao) I (1357-1433) is chosen king of Portugal in violation of the rights of the Infanta Beatrice, wife of Juan (John) I of Castile; at his accession an uprising occurs, and Queen Leonora calls on Juan I of Castile to help her daughter Beatrice take the throne; Joao I, master of the Order of Avis is supported by John of Gaunt, who wants the crown of Castile; a 300-man Castilian force under seven capts. raids Portugal, and the 200-man Trancoso garrison under Joao Fernandes Pacheco intercepts them, driving them off with heavy losses, only one Castilian capt. surviving; on Aug. 14 Joao I of Portugal, aided by the English defeats an invasion by Juan I of Castile (aided by the French) at the Battle of Aljubarrota, killing 4K-5K French and Castilians vs. less than 1K of his own, and securing his throne; Dom Nuno (Nuño) Alvares (Álvares) Pereira (1360-1431) becomes Portugal's hero, and a shoe-in for saint; Juan I supporter Don Pero Lopez de Ayala (1332-1407) is captured, and ransomed in 1398 for 30K doubloons, using his prison time to become a writer and churn out some cool works.

On May 9, 1386 the Treaty of Windsor, sealed by the promised marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster (duke of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster) establishes a mutual support pact and recognizes John I as the undisputed king of Portugal; it is not rescinded until ?.

Philippa Plantagenet of Lancaster (1360-1415)

On Feb. 11, 1387 after defeating an invasion, a reluctant Juan I of Castile (b. 1357) makes peace with John of Gaunt and marries Philippa Plantagenet of Lancaster (1360-1415) in return for Gaunt giving up his claim to Castile, becoming the final step in the Anglo-Portuguese alliance against the French-Castile axis; after an icy initial period she bears him 9 sons and 3 daughters, becoming known as the Illustrious or Marvelous Generation they came out so well, incl. Edward (Duarte) I "the Philosopher" "the Eloquent" (1391-1438) Duke Peter (Pedro) of Coimbra (1392-1449), Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy (1397-1471), John the Constable Prince (1400-42), and Ferdinand the Holy Prince (1402-43), becoming virtual ruler of Portugal (until July 19, 1415).

In 1410 finances are so bad in Portugal that Queen Philippa issues a fiat money in the form of leather tokens as legal tender.

In 1411 peace between Portugal and Castile ends 26 years of war, but throws the war economy into chaos; the well-read Queen Philippa proposes sending a military expedition to the Muslim kingdom of Fez in order to strike an alliance with Prester John and gain access to the Indian spice trade, and sends spies to North Africa, who discover Timbuktu, the center of importation of Muslim gold.

Flag of Ceuta, 1415 Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches (1390-1449)

On July 19, 1415 (July 9 Old Style) Queen Philippa of Lancaster (b. 1360) dies of plague after making her children promise her on her deathbed to gain access to the Indies), and on July 25 (July 15 Old Style) a fleet of 200 Portuguese vessels carrying 45K men sails for Africa, led by her hubby John I and their sons Prince Duarte, Prince Pedro, and Infant Henrique, AKA Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) (who is wounded), which on Sept. 1 (Aug. 22 Old Style) after an early a.m. surprise attack and only two days of fighting captures the African port of Ceuta (Sabtah) (Seba) off the N coast of Morocco (the Maghrib) from the Moors, becvoming the first European foothold in Africa, giving John I the new title of Lord of Ceuta while spurring a rising of Sufi sheiks in reaction to lead the defense against the *!?*! infidels; Alvaro (Álvaro) Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches (1390-1449) hoists the new Flag of Ceuta, a flag of Lisbon with the Portuguese coat of arms added to the center; the Portuguese retain control until it decides to be controlled by Spain in 1640; John I's eldest son Duarte (Edward) is knighted; Almada is knighted for his services by Duke Peter of Coimbra, and June 1423 John I appoints him adm. of the sail fleet, outranking the adm. of the galley fleet, after which he is created 1st count of Avranches on Aug. 8, 1444 by Henry VI of England; Moorish POWs soon reveal that they trade salt for gold from Saharan traders, whetting their appetites to become a player - and they owe it all to a woman?

In 1420 the Portuguese send Thome (Thomé) Pires to the new Chinese capital of Peking (Beijing).

Joao Goncalves Zarco (1390-1471)

In 1420 Sugar cane from Sicily is planted in the Madeira Islands after Portuguese navigator Joao Concalves Zarco (1390-1471) et al. discover it the year before.

In 1420 Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) becomes gov. of the Order of Christ (until 1460); the order traces back to the Knights Templar?

In 1421 Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), equipped with the Muslim secret weapon of the astrolabe, making his Portuguese fleet the only Euro fleet able to navigate open waters assembles Europe's leading maritime experts in Sagres on Cape St. Vincent, and develops the amazing small, light, 3-masted (square, lateen, or both) Caravel, which can outrun other vessels even when fitted with cannons, and/or carry more cargo, becoming a quantum leap in oceangoing technology, enabling the Portuguese to win the Tour de Lance in colonizing Africa, India, America et al.

In 1422 Lisbon becomes Portugal's seat of govt.

In 1425 Prince Henry the Navigator wrests the Canary Islands (W limit of the known world) from Castile in order to cut off their trade with W Africa.

In 1427 The uninhabited Azores (eyesores?) are discovered by Portuguese mariner Diogo de Silves (de Sevilla); actually, the map was smudged by ink in 1869, and it could be 1432 or 1437.

Duarte (Edward) I of Portugal (1391-1438)

On Aug. 14, 1433 king (since Apr. 6, 1385) John I (b. 1357) dies of the plague, and his son by Queen Philippa of Portugal Duarte (Edward) I "the Philosopher" "the Eloquent" (1391-1438) becomes king #11 of yellow jacket trap Portugal (until Sept. 9, 1438), going on to summon the Cortes (nat. assembly) 5x to help guide him while financing his brother Henry the Navigator in the maritime exploration of Africa.

Gil Eannes of Portugal (1395-) Afonso Goncalves Baldaia (1415-81)

In 1434 after sailing from Lagos, Portuguese explorer Gil Eannes (Eanes) (1395-) rounds Cape Bojador (Bulging Cape) S of the Canary Islands on the W coast of Africa (modern-day Mauritania) in a modified fishing barquentine, and discovers the Rio de Ouro (Oro) to the S, bringing back wild roses to Sagres to prove their success, after 10 years of trying and 14th attempts, delighting Prince Henry the Navigator and opening the Portuguese Age of Discovery in Africa; next year he and and Afonso Goncalves Baldaia (1415-81) sail two ships 150 mi. S of the cape, reaching the African coast; the year after that Baldaia sails farther S along the coast of Western Sahara and collects thousands of monk seal skins before becoming the first Euro to cross the Tropic of Cancer and reach Pedra da Gale (Galha Point), becoming the first commercial cargo brought to Europe from West Africa; too bad, failure to find any natives to kidnap causes Prince Henry to not authorize another expedition until 1441 - more big strong Mandingos to kidnap?

On Sept. 13-Oct. 19, 1437 after Duarte I's brothers Prince Henry the Navigator and Ferdinand the Holy Prince talk him into, against the advice of the pope, Duke Peter of Coimbra, and Infante John, the Battle of Tangier (Siege of Tangiers) is a decisive D for 6K-8K Portuguese after a relief army of 100K Moroccans led by vizier Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi (-1448) arrives, encircles them, and starves them into submission until Prince Henry signs a treaty giving back the citadel of Ceuta (captured in 1415) and surrendering his brother Prince Ferdinand as a hostage; too bad, he later reneges, and Ferdinand dies in captivity in 1443; the Portuguese unsuccessfully siege the city 3x more in this cent.

Afonso V the African of Portugal (1432-81) Duke Peter of Coimbra (1392-1449)

On Sept. 9, 1438 king (since Aug. 14, 1433) Edward (Duarte) I the Philosopher/Eloquent (b. 1391) dies of the plague (grief over his impisoned son Ferdinand?) after appointing his unpopular foreign wife Eleanor of Aragon as regent, who wants his 6-y.-o. son Afonso V to be king instead of the older brothers, causing the burghers assembled by Infante John, Constable of Portugal to appoint Prince Pedro, Duke of Coimbra (b. 1392) as regent instead (until June 6, 1448), and on Sept. 13 his 6-y.-o. son Afonso (Alfonso) V (the African) (1432-81) becomes king #12 of Portugal (until Aug. 28, 1481).

Nuno Tristão

In 1441 Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristao (Tristão) (Tristam) sails to Cabo Blanco (Cape Blanc) S of Cape Bojador in West Africa, and finds the first loose African negroes running around without pink slips and dog tags, prompting plans to restart the slave trade; he brings back some Moors, who when they get to Portugal are allowed to return after trading themselves for "black Moors" with kinky hair; Portuguese Order of Christ member Antao Goncalves makes the first European landing on the W coast of Africa at Rio de Oro (Ouro) (Gold River) S of Cape Bojador, then brings the first black African slaves to Europe via the Atlantic Ocean (12 black Muslim Azanaghis) (before this they had all been brought via the Mediterranean, but weren't as good as the ones from the W coast?), which Goncalves gives as a gift to his boss Prince Henry the Navigator - I did what I did before love came to town?

Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal (1394-1460)

In 1442 Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) bequeaths his gift of African slaves to Pope Eugene IV, who in the bull Illius Qui (Those Who) confers upon him title to all lands E of Cape Blanc, causing Portugal to eagerly go into the African slave trade.

In 1445 Antao Goncalves of Portugal visits the Bay of Arguin and contracts with Muslim merchant Ahude Meymam to purchase 10 black slaves, along with some gold dust and ostrich eggs, becoming the first recorded purchase of West Africans by Europeans in West Africa?

In 1445 Portuguese explorer Dinis Dias (Diniz Diaz), who was of retirement age but decided "he was unwilling to let himself grow soft in the well-being of repose" discovers and rounds Cape Verde (800km S of Cap Blanc) the westernmost point of Africa, and increases the Portuguese trade with West Africa; he misses the Cape Verdes Islands.

In 1446 Guinea-Bissau on the W coast of Africa is discovered by Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristao.

By 1448 approx. 1K black Africans have been carried to Portugal or its newly-acquired Atlantic islands Azores and Madeira.

In 1448 Danish nobleman Vallarte, who had joined the court of Portugal's Prince Henry the Navigator becomes the first N European on record to sail to West Africa; he is captured and killed off Goree.

Afonso V the African of Portugal (1432-81) Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza (1377-1461) Duke Peter of Coimbra (1392-1449) Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches (1390-1449)

On May 20, 1449 after Afonso V the African(1438-81) reaches majority and comes under the influence of his uncle Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza (1377-1461), dismissing his regency (begun 1439), reversing his acts, and dismissing his apointees, boxing him into a corner, Portuguese infanta Prince Pedro, Duke of Coimbra (b. 1392) rebels, and is KIA along with his protege Alvaro (Álvaro) Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches (b. 1390) in the Battle of Alfarrobeira near Alverca do Ribatejo in Vialonganear Lisbon; Afonso V assumes the rulership of Portugal as his uncle's puppet.

On June 18, 1452 after requests by Afonso V of Portugal, Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, authorizing him to conquer and subdue diverse dumb Saracens and pagans and consign them to indefinite slavery, launching the West African slave trade; it is really just a call for another Crusade against the Muslims, and isn't about African slavery?; Pope Calixtus III renews it in his 1456 bull "Etsi Cuncti", Pope Sixtus IV renews it again in 1481, and Pope Leo X ditto in his 1514 bull "Precelse Denotionis".

Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Afonso V the African of Portugal (1431-81)

In 1453 C.E. European invasion of Africa really started when the Ottoman Muslims after hundreds of yearly attempts finally captured the eastern Christian outpost stronghold of Constantinople, freaking the entire Christian world and leading to perversions and flukes like Vlad Dracula the Impaler, causing the Portuguese under Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) to accelerate their search for escape routes to the south, having already discovered the Azores (1432) and West Africa (1433) after they broke down and stooped to use the infidel Muslim astrolabe then made their own technological leap of a 3-masted vessel that allowed them to finally navigate in open waters around 1420. In 1441 the lucky Portuguese discovered cocoa puff African blacks, which they immediately recognized as two-legged animals that would be useful as slaves, setting up Elmina Castle in Ghana in 1482, which became the world's #1 slave-trading post, it's as big as a horse, ask me about it sometime, gag. In 1486 they finally rounded the Cape of Good Hope, allowing them to go east and reach India and China. Meanwhile on June 18, 1452 after requests by Portuguese king (1438-81) Afonso V the African (1431-81), Pope Nicholas V issued the bull Dum Diversas, authorizing him to conquer and subdue diverse dumb African Saracens and pagans, and consign them to indefinite slavery, launching the West African slave trade. Too bad, on Jan. 8, 1455, after getting over the shock of the 1453 Ottoman Muslim capture and rape of Constantinople, and wanting to bless the adventurous but devout Portuguese and Spanish with global holy mojo, Nicholas V finally decided to take off the gloves and issued the bigger bull Romanus Pontifex, creating the Roman Catholic Doctrine of Discovery, with the soundbyte "We bestow suitable favors and special graces on those Catholic kings and princes... athletes and intrepid champions of the Christian faith... to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and ... to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply and appropriate ... possessions and goods, and to convert them to ... their use and profit." Not that I mind it when it comes to horrible Muslims, but when it ends up being used to enslave people just for not having white skin, it stinks.

On Jan. 8, 1455 Pope Nicholas V provides formal legitimization for Portugal's overseas conquests in the papal bull Romanus Pontifex, written to Afonso V, giving Portugal the primary right over other Christian nations to enslave non-Christian peoples on newly discovered lands in specific regions, creating the Roman Catholic Doctrine of Discovery, with the soundbyte: "We bestow suitable favors and special graces on those Catholic kings and princes... athletes and intrepid champions of the Christian faith... to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and... to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply and appropriate... possessions and goods, and to convert them to... their use and profit"; it also grants exclusive trading rights between Morocco and the Indies to the Portuguese; he later extends it to all territories Portugal takes in the future - the Christian counter-jihad is on?

In 1455 the uninhabited Cape Verde Islands 400 mi. W of Cape Vert, Senegal are discovered by Alvise Cadamosto (Alvide da Ca'da Mosto) (1432-83), a Venetian in the service of Portuguese Prince Henry, who goes on to explore most of Cape Vert (home of modern-day Dakar), the Senegal and Gambia Rivers (until 1457) - if only they had kept going west?

Fra Mauro World Map, 1459

In 1457 Portuguese king Afonso V commissions Italian cartographer Fra Mauro (-1464) (a Camaldolese monk from Murano Island near Venice) to make the 2mx2m Fra Mauro Map, of Africa, Asia, and Europe, which is finished on Apr. 24, 1459, and sent to his uncle Prince Henry the Navigator along with a letter encouraging funding of new explorations, becoming the best map to date by the Euro world, ending Bible-based geography and launching scientific geography; claims that the Earth is spherical with a diam. of 22.5K-24K mi. (34.5-43.1km) (true value 24,860 mi. = 40,008km; the first mention of Java in a Euro map; show the Cape of Diab as the southernmost point of Africa; no mention of America, only Greenland (Grolanda).

In 1462 Portuguese settlers found a settlement in the Cape Verde Islands off the W coast of Africa 400 mi. W of Dakar, Senegal, which they call Ribeira Grande, becoming the first permanent Euro settlement in the African tropics; Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra explores inland from Freetown Habor, naming the surrounding hill formation Serra de Leao (Sierra Leone) (Lion Mts.), AKA Sierra Leone, then goes on to explore the Benin Empire; in 1495 a fort and trading post are built in Freetown Harbor by Portuguese traders, which becomes a trading center for African slaves.

In 1472 the Portuguese discover Cameroon, naming it after the giant shrimp (Port. camaroes) they find there.

In 1472 the Portuguese push past the equator, and Fernando Po (Póo) (Fernao do Po) discovers Fernando Po Island in the Bight of Biafra on the W coast of Africa, becoming strategically important as an entry port to the diseased "White Man's Grave" of the African equatorial zone.

Isabella I the Catholic of Castile (1451-1504) Ferdinand II the Catholic of Aragon (1452-1516) Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516) and Isabella I of Castile (1451-1504) Juana la Beltraneja of Castile (1462-1530) Beltrán de la Cueva, 1st Duke of Alburquerque (1443-92)

The final Roman Catholic V against the Muslims in Spain is owed to a king with a limp dick and/or dry nuts? On Dec. 11, 1474 Castile-Leon king (since 1454) Henry IV the Impotent (b. 1425) dies without a male heirs and his half-sister Isabella I the Catholic of Castile and Leon (1451-1504) and her hubby Ferdinand II the Catholic of Aragon (1452-1516) (royal cousins, married in 1469) jointly succeed him as Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Castile and Leon (until 1504), uniting all of Spain except Moorish Granada, but not without a little War of the Castilian Succession (ends 1479), with Afonso V of Portugal supporting the claim of Henry IV's only child, 12-y.-o. daughter (Isabel's and Afonso's niece) Juana (Joanna) la Beltraneja (1462-1530), going through with an extreme marriage with her next May 30 in Plasencia in Extremadura (W Spain); too bad, even though John IV made his nobles promise to support her as queen, not only was he a weak king, but he was known for shooting blanks, having divorced his 1st wife Blanca in 1453, leaving her a virgin after 13 years of marriage, and it is widely rumored that Juana is really the below-the-belt daughter of Beltran (Beltrán) de la Cueva y Alfonso de Mercadeo, 1st Duke of Albuquerque (1443-92) (hence her nickname La Beltraneja), which was reinforced when John's 2nd wife Juana had a love child with the nephew of Bishop Fonseca, causing him to divorce her - you're combat ineffective, do you understand me?

In Feb. 1476 after the Castilians under Ferdinand V siege Portuguese-held Zamora, Alfonso V comes to Zamora's relief, then withdraws towards Toro in Castile-Leon; Ferdinand and his 8K men and 2.5K3K horsemen pursues and catches them on Mar. 1 only 5 mi. from Toro as they negotiate a narrow pass beside the Duero River, and fight the Battle of Toro; 1K of 8K Portuguese footmen and 3.5K horsemen are KIA, but the rest escape to fight again, despite Isabella I and Ferdinand II beginning to assume the Spanish throne; next Nov. Afonso V flirts with making his son John II co-king before retiring to a monastery in Sintra and remaining king until his 1481 death.

(Joao) John II the Perfect Prince of Portugal (1455-95)

On Aug. 28, 1481 king (since Sept. 13, 1438) Alfonso V (b. 1432) dies in a monastery in Sintra, and his son Joao (John) II "the Perfect Prince" (1455-95) becomes lucky king #13 of Portugal, going on to reestablish the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorate the economy, and renew exploration of Africa and the East, also becoming the one to snub Columbus then get smart and work to get Portugal's hands on the dark Christless New World and perfect it?

Diogo Cao (1452-86)

In summer 1482 Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao (Diego Cam) (1452-86) becomes the first European to sight and enter the Congo River, discovering Angola (1482-4). On July 6, 1484 Diego Cam discovers and explores the mouth of the Congo River; later Nzinga Myemba, king of Congo (who later takes the name Dom Alfonso) invites the Portuguese to Christianize and Europeanize his kingdom.

Bartholomeu Dias (1450-1500)

Sounds like a hot night with a high class hooker? On Feb. 4, 1488 after reaching Walvis Bay in Dec., discovering the Westerlies and exploring Table Bay at the N end of the Cape Peninsula, then rounding the Horn, reaching a record S latitude for a European, becoming the first European to reach the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean, then turning NE and sailing for 30 days, Portuguese explorer Bartholomeu (Bartolomeo) Dias (Diaz) (1450-1500) discovers Mossel Bay, then turns back after reaching the mouth of Bushman's River on Mar. 12; in May on his return he discovers the Cape of Good Hope, which he calls the Cabo Tormentoso (Cape of Storms) before returning to Lisbon in Dec.; King John II later renames it in the spirit of Erik the Red to keep his sailors from bolting; he discovers Robben Island in Table Bay in South Africa, then returns to Lisbon in Dec.

Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon) (1451-1506) Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon) (1451-1506) Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon) (1451-1506) Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon) (1451-1506) Martin Alonzo Pinzon (1441-93) Vicente Yañez Pinzon (1461-1515) Ferdinand II the Catholic of Castile-Aragon (1452-1516) Isabella I the Catholic of Castile-Aragon (1451-1504) Boabdil with the Keys of Granada, 1492 Luis de Santangel of Spain (-1498)

781 years, and it was more than worth it? On Jan. 2, 1492 the keys of Granada are surrendered to the forces of "Los Reyes Catolicos" (the Catholic Kings) Ferdinand II (1452-1516) and Isabella I (1451-1504) of Aragon and Castile by Boabdil (Muhammad XII) (1460-1533), who flees to Fez in N Africa, ending a 10-year effort by the Catholic kings, and becoming the final defeat of the Muslims in Spain, who invaded way back in 711, and were on the loser's team since the 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, ending the Christian Reconquista (Sp. "reconquest") of Spain (begun 722); as Boabdil and his family leave the city, they pause at El Ultimo Suspiro del Moro (The Moor's Last Sigh) Bridge to look back at the glorious Alhambra ("red fortress"), and his mother tells him, "Weep like a woman for what you could not defend like a man"; meanwhile, wasting no time, after pulling strings with wealthy Marranos (closet Jews) Luis de Santangel(o), Gabriel Sanchez, and Juan Cabrero, auburn-haired (Marrano?) (front man for a Jewish conspiracy?) Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) meets with Ferdinand II and Isabella I in the Alhambra in Granada to beg for support for his proposed expedition to Cathay via the new improved westward ho route, promising to bring back gold and silver to finance an expedition to reclaim the Holy Land for Dear Christ, but they don't go for it, and he finally gives up and starts back for France to give their king the chance to become the next rich and admired Christian hero, but Isabella she-ain't-called-the-Catholic-for-nothing changes her mind at the last minute and sends messengers to stop him at the Bridge of Pinos, and they sign an agreement on Apr. 17, and the rest is, er, history - now America's ass is grass and whitey's got the lawnmower? Two, two, two expulsions in one, or, You must really try these strawberries and blueberries, we can take care of you wandering Jews? On Feb. 1 Spanish inquisitor-gen. Tomas de Torquemada (1420-98) gives Spanish Jews 3 mo. to accept Roman Catholic Christinsanity, er, Christinanity, er, Christianity or leave the country, and when they prove stiff-necked like always, on May 1 (Omer 19) Catholic Kings Ferdinand II and Isabella I order the Expulsion of the Spanish Jews, incl. all 250K non-converted Swine from Spain (50K families); after frantically trying to get something of value for their possessions (exchanging a house for an ass, a vineyard for a piece of cloth, etc.), and swallowing their gold and silver coins before going through custom posts, the last boatload leaves on Aug. 3; the ban on Jews is not lifted until 1968; Portuguese-born Jewish royal adviser Isaac Abravanel (1437-1508) is expelled; a massive number of Sephardic Jews migrate to N Africa, where they find themselves more educated, connected, and sophisticated than the Muslims, finding toleration and moving into govt. positions, which ends up stretching Muslim tolerance; many emigrate to the Ottoman Empire, where Sultan Beyazid II welcomes them into Constantinople, Izmir, Salonika, and other cities in Anatolia, the Balkans and Arab lands; others emigrate to England and Am. - no shortage of bankers, doctors, and lawyers now? How to lose 93 million friends in ten days, or, When he started out he didn't know where he was going, when he got there he didn't know where he was, and when he got back he didn't know where he'd been, until he looked between his legs? The biggest TV reality show without teleprompter or cue cards? On Aug. 3 (same day the Jews are expelled from Spain by Ferdinand II and Isabella I) after receiving 17K ducats from baptized Jewish finance minister Luis de Santangel (-1498) (who talked the monarchs into it), and allegedly receiving a vision from the Holy Spirit to bear Christ to the West Indies (or a vision from the Devil to carry his Catholic Church there?), writing "I could feel his hand upon me to sail to the Indies... There was no question that the inspiration was from the Holy Spirit", 41-y.-o. Christopher (Gr. "Christ-bearer") Columbus (Lat. "dove") (1451-1506) (who is really working for the Illuminati, since his real name is Cristobal, i.e. "anointed of Baal or Satan", plus Colombo (It.) = Colom (Catalan) = Colon (Sp.) = anus?, and Lat. "paloma" = dove = penis?), and who has never been farther E than the Aegean Sea begins his First Voyage for Asia by going W instead of E, setting sail from Paloma, er, Palos, Spain for the island of La Gomera in the Canary Islands to pick up wine and water, getting into a romance with gov. Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio (1462-1501) and staying for 1 mo. (returning in 1493 and 1498, when she marries somebody else), who gives him sugar cane cuttings, after which he sails for the "West Indies" (West Asia), thinking that his voyage will lead him to Cathay (China), Cipango (Japan), the Spice Islands (the Moluccas), then India in three ships with a total crew of 88, incl. five Marranos (converted Jews), incl. interpreter Luis de Torres, surgeon Marco, physician Bernal, and sailors Alonzo de la Calle and Gabriel Sanchez (who later sells Columbus on the idea of capturing 500 Indians to sell as slaves in Seville, becoming the beginning of Am. slavery); the crew is really Catalonian?; the ships incl. the caravel Pinta (Sp. "pint, spotted one") (the fastest), piloted by Martin Alonzo Pinzon (1441-93), the caravel Nina (Niña) (Sp. "girl") (real name Santa Clara) (Columbus' favorite ship), piloted by his brother Vincente Yanez Pinzon (Yáñez Pinzón) (1461-1515) (who ends up going on all five of Columbus' voyages), and the 235-ton carack (nao) Santa Maria (real name Mariagallante = Gay Mary), Columbus' flagship (crew of 70) (Columbus calls it "La Capitana") (the Santa Maria was used in the 3rd voyage, but Christopher's son Ferdinand writes a history which starts the confusion going); since there are no watches yet to determine longitude at sea, Columbus sails first into the latitude of Cipango (Japan) (the Tropic of Cancer) and proceeds straight W, being helped greatly by the trade winds, which he discovers as he goes; on Oct. 10 the crew nearly mutinies, and makes Columbus promise to return home if land isn't sighted in two days (sounds like a fairy tale concocted later to make them seem to enjoy divine favor?); on Oct. 11 (10 p.m.) a UFO is sighted, consisting of "a light glimmering at a great distance", which disappears and reappears several times, moving up and down "in sudden and passing gleams" - let me guess, a welcome signal from ETs? The Ultimate Thank God It's Friday? On Oct. 12 (Oct. 22 Gregorian) (Fri.) (2:00 a.m.) (after 36 days and 2.6K mi.), Pinta's crow's nest sailor Rodrigo de Triana (Juan Rodrigo Bermejo) (1469-?) does guess what, you guessed it, sights land (and later gets so pissed-off at not being given a reward that he moves to Africa and converts to Islam?), and Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and his crew anchor at San Salvador (Sp. "Holy Savior") (Watlings) Island (called Guanahani by the aborigines) in the Bahamas just N of the Tropic of Cancer, at 23.5 deg. N 75 deg. W (the log books say 24 deg. N 75.5 deg. W) (named after pious pirate Watling, who forbade pillaging on Sundays, the residents renaming it San Salvador in 1926 to claim it as the place of Columbus' first landfall after 434 years of controversy, but it is never conclusively decided, with Cat Island and Samana Cay proposed), and Columbus dresses in full admiral's regalia to take possession of the new land in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella; having never seen a ship, the natives don't see them until a shaman convinces them that they're real, after which they greet Columbus with warm hospitality, causing him to write "They willingly traded everything they owned... They do not bear arms... They would make fine servants... They could easily be made Christians... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want"; after the natives present them with tobacco leaves, which they discard, they sail SW through the Great Bahama Bank, landing on Cuba on Oct. 17, thinking it is the Chinese continent, searching in vain for the magnificent cities described by Marco Polo; on Oct. 20 Columbus writes "I shall set sail for another very large island which I believe to be Cipango, according to the indications I receive from the Indians on board", which proves to be Hispaniola, and he finally lands on Haiti on Dec. 5. On Nov. 3 after invading France to punish it for supporting Perkin Warbeck, Henry VII of England forces them to agree to the Peace (Treaty) of Etaples (Étaples) (official end of the Hundred Years' War), in which France expels Warbeck and pays England an indemnity of £159K. In Nov. a gift of tobacco leaves from the Arawaks (Aruacans) is kept this time after Santa Maria crewman Rodrigo de Jerez learns to smoke from the natives, and brings back the habit to his hometown of Ayamonte, causing his wife to denounce him as a man who "swallows fire, exhales smoke, and is surely possessed by the devil", after which he is imprisoned by the Spanish Inquisition for seven years, by which time the super-addictive habit of smoking has caught on. On Dec. 21 (St. Thomas' Day) Columbus discovers Port St. Thomas in Haiti, and on Dec. 22 he has his first meeting with Marien chief (cacique) Guacanagaric (Guacanagarix) (Guacanagari), who allows him to found the settlement of La Navidad; too bad, the settlers are killed by a rival tribe before Columbus returns on his 2nd voyage. On Dec. 24 (Dec. 15 Old Style) Columbus writes in his journal that he is very impressed by the aborigines, who are of "pleasing appearance with fine features and medium height with muscular bodies", adding, "A better race there cannot be, and both the people and the lands are in such quantity that I know not how to write it... All here have a loving manner and gentle speech". On Dec. 25 the Santa Maria sinks off Hispaniola (La Espanola) (Haiti); it was first shot with a cannonball by Columbus' flagship to disable it on Caracol Beach, and rechristened Ft. Natividad, housing the men Columbus left behind until the natives attacked and burned it?; he left the men behind to force Isabella into financing a 2nd voyage?; her overseers, the fleet's master at arms, comptroller, and secy. were left behind to avoid being contradicted when he told Isabella he had discovered India? - she had to leave to give birth to Santa Claus? On Dec. 26 Columbus writes in his journal that he had been hoping to find gold "in so great quantity that the Sovereigns within three years would undertake and prepare to go and conquer the Holy Places [Holy Land]"; chickens and rats are introduced to America; smallpox is also introduced to native Ams. as a get-unwell card by 1518; Jews are also introduced next year, with Portuguese Jews settling in St. Thomas Island, later becoming the first large plantation owners, running sugar factories with 3K African slaves; too bad, when the new discovery doesn't fulfill the original mission of furnishing a route to India and China, desperation sets in, causing the need to milk the New World for plunder and profit to take over, resulting in a mean cold systematic mass murder machine that goes on for cents. and reduces the native pop. to almost nil; Columbus hangs natives 13 at a time in honor of Christ and the 12 Apostles? Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) directs the defense of the Portuguese colonies from the French on the coast of Guinea.

On May 4, 1493 (June 28 Gregorian) Pope Alexander VI issues the bull Inter Caetera Divina ("Among other works"), dividing the New World between Portugal and Spain along a N-S line 100 leagues W of the Cape Verde islands, giving Portugal Africa and the E side of South America, but since they didn't realize yet that most of South America lies way E of North America, Spain ended up with most of the New World in both North and South America.

On June 7, 1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas, moving the pope's demarcation line 170 leagues to the W.

Manuel I the Fortunate of Portugal (1469-1521)

On Oct. 25, 1495 king (since Aug. 28, 1481) Joao (John) II the Perfect Prince (b. 1455) dies, and since his son Infante Alfonso (1475-91) died in a horse-riding acceident near the Tagus River on July 13, 1491, his fortunate first cousin the duke of Beja becomes Emanuel (Manuel) I (the Great) (the Fortunate) (1469-1521), king #14 of Portugal (until Dec. 13, 1521), reigning over the country's golden era, when it becomes the first country in world history to acquire a global overseas empire.

In 1497 a papal bull by Pope Alexander VI launches the Portuguese Inquisition of Marranos (Sp. "swine"), secret Jews forced to feign conversion to Roman Catholicism - to test them make them eat swine flesh?

Vasco da Gama (1469-1524)

Just what the Indians need? On May 20, 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469-1524) becomes the first European to sail around Africa to reach India as he arrives in Kappakadavu near Calcutta on the Malabar coast, finding that Arab merchants already live there; on Aug. 29 he departs for Portugal, sailing against the monsoon winds, taking 132 days to reach the Arab-run coastal town of Malindi (pop. 6K) next Jan. 7 (vs. 23 days the other way to India), during which time half of his crew dies, and the rest get scurvy; Game Vasco meets with the sheik of Malindi to sign a trade agreement, and hires a guide for his voyage to India, erecting a coral pillar, which survives to modern times; next year the Portuguese establish a trading post in Malinda, followed in 1509 by a custom house, which is abandoned in 1512, although Malindi remains the center of Portuguese activity in E Africa until 1593.

Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) Martin Waldseemüller (1470-1520)

On Apr. 6, 1499 after being sent by Manuel I of Portugal, Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) allegedly reaches the South Am. mainland, then returns to Cadiz on Oct. 15. On May 14, 1501 Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) leaves Lisbon and sails along the coast of South Am., spreading joy to the natives, and convincing himself that this isn't Asia but a vast unexplored new continent, which he calls Mondus Novus (the New World). On Jan. 1, 1502 Amerigo Vespucci reaches Bahia de Todos Santos, then travels down the coast of South Am. to the River Plata; he returns to Lisbon on July 22, and concludes that South Am. is an independent continent, and is not India. In 1502 Vespucci pub. Letters About the American Indians; explicit soft-core letters with juicy details about how they go around naked, their sexual habits, cannibalism, communism, etc., which go through many reprints in many languages throughout the cent., becoming one of the first printed bestsellers - the first porno on the Internet? In 1507 the name "America" is first used by German cleric-cartographer Martin Waldseemueller (Waldseemüller) (1470-1520) of the Monastery of Saint-Die-des-Vosges in Lorraine, France in his Cosmographiae Introductio in honor of Amerigo Vespucci; it contains a world map titled Universalis Cosmographia incl. the first depiction of the Western Hemisphere, showing America as an island surrounded by water, and saying "It is fitting that this fourth part of the world, inasmuch as Americus discovered it, be called Amerige, or let us say, land of Americi, that is, America"; the depiction of a body of water to the W of America before the discovery of the Pacific Ocean remains a modern mystery; on Apr. 30, 2007 (500th anniv.) it is officially given to the U.S. by German chancellor Angela Merkel.

Alonso de Ojeda (Alonzo de Hojeda) (1468-1515)

On May 16, 1499 Alonzo de Hojeda (Alonso de Ojeda) (1468-1515) (cmdr.), Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512) (pilot), and Juan de la Cosa (the Biscayan) (1450-1510) (navigator and cartographer, co-discoverer of America with Columbus and owner of the Santa Maria) leave Cadiz, Spain, and sail to the mouth of the Amazon River, discovering Curacao (Curaçao) (40 mi. N of Venezuela) and Bonaire on July 29, and Lake Maracaibo on Aug. 9, naming Venezuela (Sp. "little Venice") for Venice because the inhabitants live in houses built over the water; they also explore the Arawak island of Aruba 18 mi. off the coast of Venezuela; Ojeda becomes the Neil Armstrong of (first white Euro to set foot on) the South Am. continent; after discovering the Amazon River, they sail to Cape de la Vela, then reach Espanola with slaves and pearls, only to be accused of trespassing on Columbus' turf; Vespucci observes Venezuelan natives chewing coca leaves, writing: "They kept this herb in their mouths to stave off thirst."

On Aug. 10, 1500 (St. Lawrence's Day) Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias becomes the first Euro to sight Madagascar, naming it Sao Lourenco, connecting it with the Arabic Island of the Moon reported in 1490 by Portuguese explorer Pero da Covilha (Pêro da Covilhã) (1460-1527).

In 1501 Portuguese explorer Joao de Nova (1460-1509) discovers Ascension Island off the W coast of Africa; too bad, he fails to report it, causing fellow Portugese explorer Alphonse d'Albuquerque to rediscover it in 1503 on Ascension Day and name it; otherwise barren, it is a good place to hunt egg-laying green turtles. In 1502 he discovers uninhabited Saint Helena Island. in the S Atlantic Ocean 1.2K mi. W of Africa on the same latitude as the Angolan-Namibian border. In 1502 Portuguese traders take the first peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa; they reach China by 1573.

In 1503 Portuguese merchant-explorer Antonio de Saldanha discovers Table Bay at the N end of the Cape Peninsula at the base of Table Mountain in South Africa (later home of Robben Island of Nelson Mandela fame).

In 1505 Sri Lanka (Ceylon) is discovered by Portuguese explorer Lourenco de Almeida (1480-1508) (son of Francisco de Almeida), who founds a settlement.

Tristao da Cunha of Portugal (1460-1540)

In 1506 after having to pass up a job as viceroy of India due to temporary blindness, Portuguese explorer Tristao da Cunha (1460-1540) (cousin of Afonso de Albuqueraue) sails to the E coast of Africa in a fleet of 15 ships to conquer Socotra Island, discovering the five volcanic Tristan da Cunha Islands 1.2K mi. from Saint Helena Island, the most remote archipelago on Earth, which remains uninhabited until 1810, visiting Madagascar and Mozambique before conquering Socotra - you don't even have a rear window wiper?

In 1507 after discovering Socotra Island in 1503, Portuguese navigator Diogo Fernandes Pereira discovers volcanic mountainous reefed Mauritius Island 500 mi. E of Madagascar, naming it Ilha do Dirne, but doesn't settle it; he also discovers the rest of the Mascarenhas Archipelago incl. Mauritius, Reunion, and Rodrigues, becoming the first Euro to sail E of Madagascar.

Dom Francisco de Almeida (1450-1510)

On Mar. 1, 1510 after getting caught stealing cattle, a Portuguese exploration party led by Portuguese viceroy Dom Francisco de Almeida (b. 1450) (first Portuguese viceroy of India) is massacred at Table Bay by the native Khoikhoi (Hottentots), who kill 64 soldiers and 11 captains along with Almeida, causing the Portuguese to decide to stick to the E coast of Africa.

On Apr. 9, 1520 a Portuguese embassy led by Dom Rodrigo de Lima arrives in Massawa, Ethiopia, meeting with emperor Dawit II on Oct. 19, who tells him that the Muslim threat to Ethiopia is kaput, and he finally leaves in 1526.

Joao (John) III the Pious of Portugal (1502-57)

Greeeen-acres is the place for me? On Dec. 13, 1521 king (since Oct. 25, 1495) Manuel I the Fortunate (b. 1469) dies, and his son Joao (John) III (the Pious) (the Grocer) (1502-57) becomes king #15 of Portugal (until June 11, 1557) at the height of its grate powah, piously establishing the Inquisition in 1536 and riding it over the hump to the start of its downward slope, going on to preside over the colonization of Brazil, abandoning Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Eurpe, improving trade relations with England, Flanders, and the Baltic and Rhineland regions, while securing a monopoly over the spice trade (cloves and nutmeg) from the Maluku Islands, gaining then nickname "the Grocer King"; during his reign the Portuguese become the first Euros to make with China (Ming Dynasty) and Japan (Muromachi Period); despite unleashing the Inquisition, he supports humanists incl. poet-playwright Gil Vicente (1465-1536), mathematician Pedro Nunes (1502-78), and physician Garcia de Orta (d'Orta) (1501-68); when he dies the Portuguese empire has reached 4M sq. km. (1B acres).

On Mar. 7-9, 1529 imam Ahmad ibn Ibraham al-Ghazi Gragn ("left-handed") (the Conqueror) (1507-43) of Adal in N Somalia launches the bloody Ethiopian-Adal War (Futuh al Habash) (Conquest of Abyssinia) (ends 1543) for the Muslim sultanate of Adal in the N Horn of Africa, using Ottoman-supplied cannons and a largely Somali army equipped with matchlocks to win the Battle of Shimbra Kure against emperor (since Aug. 13, 1507) Dawit II (Lebna Dengel), suffering such heavy losses that he withdraws for two years before returning and occupying two-thirds (three-fourths?) of Ethiopia before dying on Feb. 21, 1543, after which his forces withdraw; in 1577 Muhammad Jasa transfers the Ada capital from Harar to Aussa, after which the sultanate (founded 1415) ends in 1559 amid infighting with Afar tribes; after the Ethiopians are supplied with cannons by the Portuguese, the war becomes easier to fight.

On May 23, 1536 after Manuel I's request in 1515 is stalled until after his death, Joao (John) III the Pious establishes the Portuguese Inquisition (until 1821), and places the U. of Coimbra under Jesuit control; now those who got too much loot from America can get it redistributed legally after they are rocketed to Hell? - that's smokin' pious of ya, kingey?

Sebastian I of Portugal (1554-78)

On June 11, 1557 king (since 1521) Joao III the Pious (b. 1502) dies, and his 3-y.-o. grandson Sebastian (Sabastiao) I (the Desired) (1554-78), son of Prince John Manuel and Joanna of Austria, and grandson of John III and HRE Charles V becomes Avis king #16 (next-to-last) of Portugal (until Aug. 4, 1578) - at least the port's still good?

In 1562 the Goa Inquistiion in SW India begins (ends 1812), trying 16,202 by 1774, executing 57, and burning 64 in effigy; it is suspended in 1774-8; the inquisition causes Roman Catholic settlers to begin migrating N to Canara (Kanara) (until 1763), creating the Mangalorean Catholics.

Sir John Hawkins (1532-95)

In 1562 English profiteer Sir John Hawkins (Hawkyns) (1532-95) (2nd cousin of Sir Francis Drake, who starts out as his apprentice) sails to the New World along with three ships, kidnapping 301 African slaves from a Portuguese slave ship in Sierre Leone before reaching Borbuta, Venezuela, then Rio Hacha in Colombia, selling the slaves for sugar, ginger, and pearls in Santo Domingo after flaunting the Spanish, who try to impose taxes, which he laughs off with a threat of burning them down, causing them to ban all English ships from trading in the West Indies; he then returns to England via the French colony in Fla., arriving next Sept., giving his backers a tidy 60% profit, becoming the first to run the Triangular Trade to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and make a profit, interesting Queen Elizabeth I, who takes shares in his expeditions in 1564 and 1567, during which he makes improvements to English ships that help them win against the Spanish Armada in 1588, for which he is promoted to rear adm., while he introduces tobacco smoking to English sailors, along with sweet potatoes; thanks to Hawkins late in this cent. the Transatlantic Triangular Slave Trade is developed between W Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe (ends early 19th cent.).

In 1573 Spanish viceroy Francisco de Toledo draws up rules for creation of reducciones (reductions) in South Am., self-sufficient Jesuit frontier settlements of a few thousand people each with their own churches and a barter-based economy, which become a bastion against Portuguese encroachment while stirring the jealousy of other Spanish settlers; 1.4M Indios of the former Inca Empire are resettled into 840 communities.

In 1575-1600 192K slaves are transported from West Africa by the Portuguese.

In 1575 the Portuguese occupy and rebuild the destroyed town of Anfa (Casablanca) on the Moroccan coast, and name it Casa Branca (Casablanca); the surrounding Muslim tribes keep it under constant attack until they abandon it after an earthquake in 1755.

Paulo Dias de Novais (1510-89)

On Jan. 25, 1576 attracted by the silver mines of Cambambe, the Portuguese colonize Angola in Africa, and found the port city of Sao Paolo de Luanda (São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda) (modern pop. 6M) with 400 settlers (100 families) and 400 soldiers under Paulo Dias de Novais (1510-89) - luanda take a little boat trip?.

Sultan Al-Mansur of Morocco (1549-1603) King-Cardinal Henry (Henrique) I of Portugal (1512-80)

Rocking the suburbs, just like Michael did? Pushy Portugual goes too far, tries to reverse 7/11, and ends up zonking itself, letting Spain take it over? On Aug. 4, 1578 after ambitious king (since June 11, 1557) Sebastian I of Portugal (b. 1554) leads an expedition to Morocco to Christianize the Muslim Moors in alliance with deposed sultan al-Mutawakkil, his 20K-man army is drowned and he is KIA along with al-Mutawakkil at the Battle of the Three Kings (Alcacer Quibir) in Alcazar; since his body is never found, his subjects keep hoping for his return, calling him "the Desired"; Portugal begins its decline after his death; his regent and great-uncle Cardinal Henrique, the penultimate male prince of the legitimate line of the House of Braganza (Braganca) (founded 1442) becomes Henry (Henrique) I (1512-80), king #17 of zonked Portugal, which on his watch falls under Spanish control for 60 years; Abd al-Malik dies, and his brother Ahmad I al-Mansur the Victorious (El-Mansour Eddahbi) (1549-1603) becomes emir of Morocco (until Aug. 25, 1603), building the El Badi ("Marvelous") Grand Palace in Marrakesh and claiming the caliphate; Philip II of Spain orders the aged Duke of Alva on his last mission for the House of Hapsburg to conquer Portugal.

In 1579 Portuguese merchants set up a trading station in Bengal.

Philip II of Spain (1527-98) Duke John of Braganza (1543-83) Philip II of Spain (1527-98) Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alva (Alba) (1507-82) Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alva (Alba) (1507-82)

On Jan. 31, 1580 King-Cardinal Henry (Henrique) I (b. 1512) dies, leaving no heir (he wants to admit to?), and the Avis (Aviz) Dynasty in Portugal (founded 1385) ends (in with a Henrique, out with a Henrique?), causing the Portuguese secession crisis of 1580; in June old fart "Iron Duke" Fernando Alvarez (Álvarez) de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alva (Alba) (1507-82) and a 40K-man army of Spanish troops along with German and Italian mercenaries land in Portugal, meeting a ragtag 8.5K-man Portuguese army along with 3K African slaves at the Aug. 25 Battle of Alcantara near Lisbon, which is captured on Aug. 27, after which Henry I is succeeded by Philip II (the Prudent) of Spain (1527-98) after six other less rich claimants are dealt with, esp. Duke John of Braganza (1543-83) (grandfather of Joao IV), and crowned next Mar. 25, founding the House of Hapsburg (Philippine Dynasty) in Portugal (ends Dec. 1, 1640), ruled by three Spanish Hapsburg kings named Philip, while the Spanish under the cruel-is-cool pain-no-problemo Duke of Alva crush all opposition; Philip II now rules the original empire in which the Sun never sets, taking the title of richest ruler in history (there's a crime in every fortune, to the nth power?); Ceuta reverts from Portugal to Spain; the annexation of Portugal vastly increases Spain's already formidable naval fleet.

In 1592 the Portuguese settle at Mombasa, Kenya on the E coast of Africa, and recognize the sultan of the coastal town of Malindi, who just captured it and moved there, moving their main base to Mombasa, after which Malindi goes feral.

In 1593 Ft. Jesus on Mombasa Island is founded by Philip I of Portugal to guard the port of Mombasa, Kenya; from the air it has the shape of a man.

In 1610 a Portuguese settlement is founded at Cape Coast (Cabo Corso) 100 mi. W of Accra on the Gulf of Guinea, home of the Fante (Fanti) people.

Joao IV the Fortunate of Portugal (1604-56)

On Dec. 1, 1640 after 60 years of living under Spanish rule, only to end up overtaxed and its colonies left unprotected, the Catalan Revolt (Reapers' War) begins in Catalonia (ends Nov. 7, 1659), supported by France, helping the Portuguese expel whimpy Philip IV and the Spanish, beginning the Portuguese Restoration War (ends Feb. 13, 1668); on Dec. 15 the duke of Braganza, leader of the patriotic party becomes Joao (John) IV (the Fortunate) (the Restorer) (1604-56), king of an independent Portugal (and Brazil) (until Nov. 6, 1656), founding the bragging Braganza Dynasty (ends Oct. 5, 1910), which goes on to kick Spanish and Dutch butt and win back their possessions in South Am.; hereafter all heirs to the Portuguese throne are given the bragging rights to the title of duke of Braganza; too bad, Portugal has to put its military priorities on defending its frontiers with Spain, allowing the pesky Dutch to seize many of its colonial possessions, until the Thirty Years' War begins in 1648.

Afonso VI of Portugal (1643-83) Luisa de Guzmán of Portugal (1613-66)

On Nov. 6, 1656 king (since Dec. 1, 1640) Joao IV the Restorer (b. 1604) dies, and his son Afonso VI (the Victorious) (1643-83) becomes Braganza king #2 of Inquisition-loving Portugal (until Sept. 12, 1683), with his mother Luisa Maria Francisca de Guzman (Guzmán) y Sandoval of Medina-Sodonia (1613-66) as regent until 1662.

On Nov. 7, 1659 the badass Peace (Treaty) of the Pyrenees, signed on Pheasant Island in the Bidassoa River by Cardinal Mazarin for Louis XIV of France and Don Luis de Haro for Philip IV of Spain ends the Catalan Revolt (begun 1640) and the Franco-Spanish War between France and Spain begun in 1635 by Louis XII and Ferdinand the Catholic over Italy, with humilitating terms for Spain; Spain cedes most of Artois and parts of Flanders, Hainault, and Luxembourg, plus Roussillon and part of Cerdanya, making receding the Spanish border with France to the Pyrenees; the terms incl. a marriage between Louis XIV and Philip IV's daughter Infanta (Louis XIV's cousin) Maria Theresa (Marie Theresa) (Maria Teresa) (Marie-Therese) (1638-83) along with a renunciation of her claims to the Spanish throne, which happens next year; she goes on to lose five of her six children in childhood and die at age 44 from an abscess on her arm; her grandson Philip V inherits the Spanish throne in 1700, founding the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon, which rules untl ?.

Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705)

On May 21, 1662 I'm-too-sexy-for-my-hat Charles II of England marries unpopular Roman Catholic Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705), daughter of King Joao (John) IV of Portugal, who arrived in Portsmouth, England on May 13/14 wearing Portuguese dress; the public service in the chapel of Domus Dei is Anglican, the secret one Roman Catholic; her dowry of £300K is sweetened by the ports of Tangiers (under Moorish control) and Bombay, as well as free trade with a number of Portuguese possessions; on Sept. 30 they enter London with a large procession incl. Portuguese bagpipe players, meeting matchmaker Henrietta Maria, the Queen Mother, who wants her charms to tame him, only to see him continue hooking up with his mistresses, aided by her Old Maid status (23-y.-o.) and three miscarriages; she goes on to introduce Portuguese goods to the court incl. cane, lacquer, cotton, and porcelain, hooking Charles II on tea and causing him to introduce it to the English court; meanwhile Afonso V of Portugal (b. 1643) puts away his mother Luisa de Guzman (also the mother of Catherine of Braganza), and assumes his reign; too bad, he is partially paralyzed and mentally unstable, causing his brother Peter II to plot to put him away, which he does in Jan. 1668, banishing him to the Azores then Sintra for life (Sept. 12, 1683) and ruling as regent.

On Feb. 13, 1668 the Treaty of Lisbon between Queeen Mariana of Austria (2nd wife of late Philip IV) in the name of her young son Carlos II of Spain, and prince-regent Peter II of Portugal, with the mediation of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich sees Spain recognize Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza, ending the Portuguese Restoration War (begun 1640).

Pedro (Peter) II of Portugal (1648-1706)

On Sept. 12, 1683 cloistered king (since Nov. 6, 1656) Afonso VI (b. 1643) dies in Sintra, and his brother Pedro (Peter) II (1648-1706) (regent since Jan. 1668) becomes king of Portugal and the Algarves (until Dec. 9, 1706).

John Methuen of England (1650-1706) Sir Paul Methuen (1672-1757) Manuel Teles da Silva, 3rd Marquis de Alegrete (1682-1736)

In May 1703 after English naval Vs against Spain permit England to detach Portugal from its French alliance, English ambassador John Methuen (1650-1706) negotiates the two Methuen Treaties, the first a 4-sided treaty, negotiated by Methuen with the help of his son Sir Paul Methuen (1672-1757) for England, Karl Ernst, Graf von Waldstein for HRE Joseph I, Franciscus van Shonenberg (AKA Jacob Abraham Belmonte) (a Marrano) for the United Provinces, and King Pedro II for Portugal, establishing an offensive-defensive alliance between Britain and Portugal, and promising to send the emperor's son Archduke Charles (later HRE Charles VI) to Portugal with land forces to win the crown of Spain, along with naval protection of the Portuguese coast against French and Spanish attack, followed by the 2nd on Dec. 27 with John Methuen signing for England, and Manuel Teles da Silva, 3rd Marquis de Alegrete (1682-1736) signing for Portugal, giving Portuguese (port) wines a one-third break on English duties in return for Portugal agreeing to import all its woolens from England duty-free, which, combined with the war with France depriving English drinkers of French wine causes the popularity of Portuguese port wine in England to zoom (not just for Whigs anymore?); meanwhile the Portuguese renounce manufacturing (except porcelain) in order to guarantee the security of Brazil, losing the Industrial Rev.?; too bad, while returning from Lisbon, Waldstein is captured at sea by the French, and exchanged a year later for Villeroi, who was captured in Italy by Prince Eugene.

Joao (John) V of Portugal (1689-1750)

On Dec. 9, 1706 king (since Sept. 12, 1683) Pedro II (b. 1648) dies, and his son Joao (John) V "the Magnificent" (1689-1750) becomes Braganza king of Portugal (until July 31, 1750), beginning a 44-year reign as the gold flows in from Brazil, allying with England in the War of the Spanish Succession and raising Portugal's prestige, aggressively expanding in the Americas and India, becoming known as the Portuguese Sun King.

Palace of Queluz, 1747 Dom Pedro (1717-86) and Maria I of Portugal (1734-1816)

In 1747 after marrying Queen Maria I, the Palace of Queluz in Qeluz, Sintra (near Lisbon), Portugal is begun by Portuguese architect Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (1706-86) as a summer retreat for Dom Pedro (Peter III) of Braganza as an attempt to rival the Escorial Place in Spain, becoming one of the last great Rococo bldgs. in Europe, known as the Portuguese Versailles; after Dom Pedro's death in 1786, his consort Queen Maria I goes mad, and she is confined in the Pavilion (Pousada) of Dona Maria (finished 1792), designed by architect Miguel Caetano de Sousa (1738-1802).

Joseph I the Reformer of Portugal (1714-77) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782)

On July 31, 1750 high-living (but generous to the Church) king (since Dec. 9, 1706) Joao V the Magnanimous, the Portuguese Sun King (b. 1689) dies after obtaining the title "Most Faithful King" from Pope Benedict XIV, and his religiously liberal son Joseph (Jose) I Emanuel (the Reformer) (1714-77) becomes king of Portugal (until Feb. 24, 1777), devoting himself to hunting and the opera, collecting one of the largest collections of scores in Europe; on Aug. 2 finance minister Sebastiao Jose (Sebastião José) de Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782) becomes secy. of state for internal affairs (until Mar. 4, 1777) and for foreign affairs and war (until May 6, 1756), becoming the virtual ruler of the country, going on to attempt to bring down the Jesuits and secularize the country, claiming allegiance to the ideas of the Enlightenment while really enhancing state power, incl. increasing censorship, curtailing individual liberties, and pushing colonial expansion?; Portugal signs a treaty with Spain on South Am.

Great Lisbon Earthquake, Nov. 1, 1755 Lisbon Topographical Plan Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782)

On Nov. 1, 1755 (Sat.) (All Saints' Day) (9:40 a.m.) the 9.0 Great Lisbon Earthquake followed by a tsunami and fires kills 10K-100K, bringing out the religious prophets who call it divine retribution for Portugal's sins; the earthquake causes King Joseph I to develop severe claustrophoba, causing him to move the royal court to a tent complex in Ajuda; Portuguese PM (secy. of state for internal and foreign affairs) (since Aug. 2, 1750) Sebastiao Jose (Sebastião José) de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (1699-1782) rebuilds Lisbon (modern-day Lisbon Baixa) laid out in rectangular patterns, becoming known as the Pombaline Architectural Style, featuring prefabricated bldg. methods and other anti-seismic design features incl. a forest of buried poles, inter-terrace walls built higher than roof timbers to reduce the spread of fire, and the symmetrical wood lattice Pombaline cage (gaiola) to distribute earthquake force, with army troops marched around town to test the new bldgs.' strength.

In 1765 the Portuguese found the town of Bissau at the mouth of the Geba River in W Africa as a fort.

Queen Maria I of Portugal (1734-1816) Pedro (Peter) III of Portugal (1717-86)

On Feb. 24, 1777 king (since July 31, 1750) Joseph I the Reformer (b. 1714) dies, and his daughter Maria I (the Pious) (the Mad) (1734-1816) becomes ruler and first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal (until Dec. 16, 1815) as wife of his addlepated brother Pedro (Peter) III (1717-86) (until May 25, 1786); Spain and Portugal settle their disputes concerning their South Am. colonies, causing Brazil to be elevated from a colony to a kingdom; too bad, about the time of Peter III's death she too becomes addlepated, getting worse after her eldest son dies of smallpox in 1791, and in Feb. 1792 she is declared insane (porphyria?), causing her son Joao (John) VI to become prince regent in 1799.

On Oct. 1, 1800 under pressure from Napoleon, Spain cedes Louisiana (La.) to France by the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777, 1796), with France to take control in Nov. 1803, with Spain gaining Tuscany; the treaty also settles territorial disputes between Portugal and Spain over the Rio de Plata region; too bad, it doesn't specify the boundaries of La., causing difficulties during the 1802 Louisiana Purchase.

On May 20-June 9, 1801 the War of the Oranges sees Spain declare war on Portugal after it refuses the demand of Spanish minister Manuel de Godoy to enter into an alliance with France against its ally (since 1343) Britain as well as cede most of its territory; in Apr. French troops invade, and on May 20 they are joined by Spanish troops, taking the town of Olivenza (Olivenca) near the border, after which Godoy picks oranges at nearby Elvas and sends them to the queen of Spain with a message that he will now head toward Lisbon, after which Portugal folds, signing the Treaty of Badajoz on June 6, ceding Olivenza, Almeida and other border fortresses to Spain, and closing all ports to the British; on Sept. 29 John VI of Portugal also signs the 1801 Treaty of Madrid, agreeing to pay France a 20M franc indemnity and cede half of Guyana in N South Am., which becomes French Guiana.

Sir William Henry Clinton (1769-1846)

In July 1801 British Col. Sir William Henry Clinton (1769-1846) leads a force of 3.5K men to the Portuguese island of Madeira SW or Portugal to forestall any French or Spanish attack; they are withdrawn next Mar. after the signing of the Treaty of Amiens.

French Adm. Pierre Charles de Villeneuve (1763-1806) British Adm. Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) William Nelson, 1st Earl Nelson (1757-1835)

Hands across the water, hands across the sky, or, Bloody Trick or Treat, What What? England gets its world-class naval hero? On Oct. 21, 1805 (Mon.) after the French fleet under vice-adm. Pierre Charles Jean Baptiste Silvestre de Villeneuve (1763-1806) breaks out of Toulon and eludes the British fleet under vice-adm. Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronte (b. 1758), then takes refuge in Cadiz and receives reinforcements from the Spanish navy, bringing them up to 33 ships (vs. 27 for the British), and slowpoke Nelson catches up and blockades it, the French break out of the harbor again, beginning the naval Battle of (Cape) Trafalgar (Britain's greatest sea battle?) between Gibraltar and Cape Roche outside Cadiz, resulting in a decisive V for the British, dashing Napoleon's hopes of invading England, and establishing British sea supremacy the next 150 years; Adm. Nelson, aboard his flagship HMS Victory leads the charge that breaks through the center of the French line, capturing 20 ships, with no British ships lost; he signals the famous message "England expects that every man will do his duty", and is wounded several times by French sharpshooters before meeting his death as the battle ends; Victory, commanded by "Kiss Me, Hardy" flies a black sail on its return voyage to England; Villenueve is captured by the English, and returned to France next year; in Nov. Adm. Horatio Nelson's elder brother William Nelson (1757-1835) is created 1st Earl Nelson of Trafalgar; Portugal restores relations with its old ally Britain, causing France to declare the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz cancelled, leading to the 1807-10 Peninsular War.

On May 30, 1806 Napoleon I issues a decree calling for an Assembly of Jewish Notables, and on July 23 the first meeting of the Sanhedrin since the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. is held in Paris at the City Hall, consisting of 111 Jewish reps. from all the depts. of France and N Italy, which pisses-off Third Coalition partners Russia, Austria, Prussia, and England, causing Napoleon on Nov. 29 after his V at Jena to give a speech in Posen making Judaism the official fifth column, er, third religion of France, proclaiming the long-disputed loyalty of the 40K Jews in France (1K in Paris) and making them into French citizens, but also depriving some Jews of their economic freedom; the anti-Semitic pressure on him only intensifies; the French appoint Mainz archbishop-elector (since 1802) Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg (1744-1817) as grand duke of Frankfurt on Main, and he orders the Jews to be given equal rights and abolishes the old law forbidding them from walking on the Anlagen main ring road, which doesn't stop the town council from issuing new regs in 1807 attempting to reestablish the ghetto, causing Dalberg to issue his "highest regulation for the equality of civil rights of the Jewish muncipality" in 1811, abolishing the requirement for Jews to live in the ghetto or pay special taxes, after the Jewish community pays a lump sum of 440K guilders; thanks to Napoleon, Portugal gives Jews their freedom in 1811, followed by Prussia in 1812, Holland in 1830, Sweden in 1834, and Switzerland in 1838; after Nappy's fall in 1815, Prussia reneges, along with France, until 1830, when it restores Nappy's laws - friends are friends but rules are rules?

Russian Adm. Dmitri Senyavin (1763-1831) French Gen. Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes (1771-1813)

On Oct. 27, 1807 the Peninsular War (ends Apr. 17, 1814) begins after France gets pissed-off at Portugal for not joining the Continental Blockade, and in early Nov. 1807 it occupies Portugal, causing King Joao VI (prince regent) to flee on Nov. 29 with mad screaming Maria I and the entire Braganza royal family incl. its 15K hangers-on in advance of French armies and transfer the Portuguese Braganza Court next Jan. to Salvador da Bahia, soon bowing to pressure and signing a commercial law opening commerce between Brazil and friendly nations esp. Britain; meanwhile in Sept. the Russian fleet under adm. Dmitri Nikolayevich Senyavin (1763-1831) leaves, arriving in Lisbon on Oct. 30, and the British navy moves in and blockades Lisbon, starting the Anglo-Russian War (ends July 18, 1812); after French forces under gen. Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes (1771-1813) overrun Lisbon, Senyavin's fleet is caught in the middle, causing Senyavin to turn diplomat in an effort to save it, starting with ignoring orders from Napoleon via the Russian embassy in Paris to replace British officers on some of his ships with French ones; Nappy's ultimate plan for Portugal is to split it into three sections, with N Portugal from the Douro to the Minho becoming the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, headed by Carlo Lodovico II of Etruria (1799-1883), the Alentejo Province and Kingdom of the Algarve merged into the Principality of the Algarves, headed by Spanish PM Manuel de Godoy, and the remaining portion directly ruled by France.

Joachim Murat of Naples (1767-1815) British Gen. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) Sir Charles Cotton, 5th Baronet (1753-1812) Sir George Scovell (1774-1861) Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867)

On Apr. 14, 1808 the Battle of Bayonne is a D for new Spanish king Joseph Bonaparte (until 1813), elder brother of Napoleon, who is transferred from Naples to be crowned on June 6, while Napoleon's fashionplate brother-in-law Joachim Murat (1767-1815) becomes king of Naples (until 1815); Ferdinand VIII is imprisoned in France; on Sept. 25 an opposition govt. is formed in Cadiz, which recognizes Ferdinand VIII as true king; in Dec. Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy by decree, after which it keeps popping up again until 1834. On July 12 British Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) leaves Cork, Ireland with 9K men for the Iberian Peninsula to fight in the Peninsular War, rendezvousing with 5K troops from Gibraltar. On Aug. 16 after the Spanish revolt and the British come to their aid, joining the Peninsular War, the French begin losing and retreating, starting with the Battle of Rolica, followed by the Battle of Cadaval Aug. 17, and the Battle of Vimeiro on Aug. 21, which are all Vs for the Anglo-Portuguese army under Gen. Arthur Wellesley over the French under Gen. Jean-Andoche Junot; too bad, on Aug. 30 the Convention of Cintra, signed in the Palace of Queluz allows the the French to evacuate Portugal, leaving the trapped Russian fleet of adm. Dmitry Senyavin to face a larger British force plus coastal artillery, which Senyavin answers by threatening to blow up his ships and fire Lisbon if attacked, resulting in British adm. Sir Charles Cotton, 5th Baronet (1753-1812) signing a makeshift convention allowing them to leave under British escort for Portsmouth, England on Aug. 31, with Senyavin given supreme command of the "joint Anglo-Russian fleet", but when they arrive on Sept. 27 the British Admiralty and the lord mayor of London get pissed-off at seeing their flags, causing them to be detained until winter so they can't return to the Baltic, after which the half-starved fleet slinks off to Riga next Aug. 5, arriving on Sept. 9, after which Senyavin is forced into retirement (until 1825); meanwhile Sir George Scovell (1774-1861) of the British Army breaks the Grand (Great) Cipher of Napoleon, helping tilt the odds against the French; the London Times sends German-educated Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867) to Spain to cover the war, becoming the first war correspondent and keeping a cool diary.

On Apr. 22, 1809 Sir Arthur Wellesley returns to Portugal to command Portuguese forces.

French Marshal Andre Massena (1758-1817)

On July 21, 1810 after Nice, Italy-born French marshal Andre (Andrea) Massena (1758-1817), "the dear child of Victory" (greatest gen. in France after Napoleon) is transferred to Spain (taking his mistress with him dressed as a dragoon), and takes over the 65K-man French army, he invades Portugal - another sock hop?

There's a place called Hidden Valley? Keep Santa smiling and waving? On Sept. 27, 1810 after French marshal Andre Massena chases the outnumbered British-Portuguese army (25K of each) led by Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) (later 1st Duke of Wellington) towards Portugal, he is unexpectedly defeated at the Battle of Bussaco (4.5K French vs. 1.25K Anglo-Portuguese casualties) after the Connaught Rangers (Devil's Own) (founded 1793) save the day; after the French regroup, they chase the Brits to a few mi. from Lisbon, where they hide behind the secretly-built (since Nov. 1809) Lines of Torres Vedras (built to defend Lisbon) (until Sept. 1810), and the French reach their zenith in Portugal; too bad, they can't breach the lines, and the onset of winter causes them to begin starving.

French Gen. Auguste Marmont (1774-1852)

On May 3-5, 1811 the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro sees the British-Portuguese army under Gen. Arthur Wellesley defeat the French under Gen. Massena, causing the Peninsular War to decisively turn against them, and the French invasion of Portugal to begin turning into a rout; on May 6 Wellesley sieges Badajoz; on May 8 Suchet sieges Tarragona; on May 10 the French garrison breaks out of Badajoz, causing the Brits to raze their siege on May 12; on May 16 the Battle of Albuhera (Albuera) is a V (push?) for the French and their Vistula Uhlan Regiment against the combined forces of Britain, Spain, and Portugal (a sobering lesson to Napoleon about his forces' limitations?), after which Wellesley resumes his siege of Badjoz on May 25, then begins retreating into Portugal on June 27; meanwhile in July French gen. Auguste Marmont (1774-1852) is hastily summoned to replace Gen. Massena in N Spain.

On May 8, 1812 after Arthur Welleseley enters Madrid, a nat. assembly elected in Cadiz, Spain promulgates the new democratic 1812 Constitution; in July Wellesley begins a retreat to Portugal.

British Gen. Rowland Hill (1772-1842)

On May 18-19, 1812 the Battle of Almaraz in Spain sees an Anglo-Portuguese army under British Gen. Lt. Gen. Rowland Hill (1772-1842) destroy a French pontoon bridge over the Tagus River, keeping French forces separated.

On June 17, 1812 the British under Gen. Arthur Wellesley siege Salamanca, Spain; on July 22 after several weeks facing each other off, the Battle of Salamanca (Battle of the Arapiles) is a V for the Brits and Portuguese under Wellesley over the French forces of Marshal Auguste Marmont, who is gravely wounded in the right arm and side and retires to France; meanwhile British Gen. Rowland Hill and his 18-man army protect Badajoz.

A colony rules its former mother country? In 1815 Brazil becomes an independent kingdom equal to Portugal, with Prince Regent Joao (John) VI (Dom John) ruling both countries from Rio de Janeiro, where he was driven into exile by the French during the Napoleonic Wars; on Dec. 16 Mad Maria I is proclaimed queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves; after Nappy is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, Maria I and her family remain in Brazil.

Joao (John) VI of Portugal (1767-1826)

On Mar. 20, 1818 bananas queen (1777-1815) Maria I the Mad (b. 1734) dies, and her son Joao (John) VI (the Clement) (1767-1826) (regent since 1792) becomes king of Portugal (until Sept. 7, 1822), going on to see Spain, France, and Britain intervene in Portugal's affairs, his wife Carlota Joaquina of Spain conspire against him repeatedly, his son Dom Pedro take Brazil independent, and his other son Dom Miguel lead a rebellion seeking to depose him; his whale-like obesity does nothing to garner respect?

Joao Baptista da Silva Leitao, Visconde de Almeida-Garrett (1799-1854)

On Aug. 24, 1820 the Portuguese Liberal Rev. of 1820 begins when Portuguese troops stimulated by the Spanish rev. mutiny in Oporto and Lisbon, and the rev. quickly and peacefully spreads throughout the country; Portuguese Romantic poet Joao Baptista da Silva Leitao, Visconde de Almeida-Garrett (1799-1854) is exiled after participating in the liberal revolt (until 1832), going on to hobnob with French Romantics and Sir Walter Scott.

On Mar. 31, 1821 the Portuguese Inquisition (founded May 23, 1536) is disbanded.

Pedro I of Brazil (1798-1834)

On Sept. 7, 1822 Joao VI's son Dom Pedro resists Portuguese pressure to reduce Brazil to colonial status, and declares independence, becoming its first emperor Pedro I (1798-1834) on Oct. 12 (until Apr. 7, 1831); a good horseman and musician, he is popular with the people.

In 1822 the 1822 Portuguese Constitution, modeled after the U.S. Constitution is proclaimed, causing Joao VI to return from Brazil next year, leaving his eldest son Dom Pedro as regent of Brazil, swearing fidelity to the new constitution, while his other son Dom Miguel plots against it - Prince Metternich was right?

On May 27, 1823 the Villafrancada erupts in the Villa Franca de Xira near Lisbon, Portugal, headed by Brig. Gen. Ferreira Sampaio and joined by Dom Miguel de Braganca and his mother the queen declares support for an absolutist monarchy and the ditching of the 1822 constitution, demanding the abdication of the king, who marches on the town and causes them all to submit, but dismisses the Cortes, forcing many liberals into exile.

On Apr. 29-30, 1824 under the pretext that a Masonic conspiracy exists to assassinate the king, Dom Miguel de Braganca (Bragança) (1802-66), youngest son of Joao VI stages the Abrilada Coup in Portugal, causing daddy to take refuge aboard British man-of-war Windsor Castle and proclaim his son a traitor; Dom Miguel is forced to yield and leave Portugal, and Joao VI is reinstated in power, restoring the liberal constitution.

Pedro IV Alcantara of Portugal (1798-1834) Maria II da Gloria of Portugal (1819-53) Miguel I of Portugal (1802-66)

On Mar. 10, 1826 king (1816-22) Joao VI (b. 1767) dies, and is succeeded by his son Dom Pedro of Brazil as Pedro (Peter) IV Alcantara (the Liberator) (1798-1834), who promulgates a moderately liberal constitution, with a parliament and guaranteed free primary education, then abdicates the Portuguese throne on May 2 in favor of his young daughter Maria II da Gloria (1819-53), with his brother (her uncle) Dom Miguel de Braganca (Miguel I) (1802-66) as regent, who marries her by proxy, anticipating her coming of age - I'm putting on a white tie and a top hat, and polishing my cane?

Miguel I of Portugal (1802-66)

On July 4, 1828 after the British force in Portugal withdraws after making Dom Miguel promise to respect the liberal constitution, and as soon as the suckers are gone he stages a palace coup, abolishes the liberal 1822 constitution, and on July 11 has himself proclaimed as King Miguel I (1802-66) (until May 26, 1834); Maria II da Gloria flees to London, obtaining the support of Dom Pedro of Brazil to fight for her restoration, and the Miguelite (Liberal) Wars (Portuguese Civil War) (War of the Two Brothers) begin (end 1834).

Pedro (Peter) II of Brazil (1825-91)

On Apr. 7, 1831 after being harassed by his parliament, Brazilian king (since 1822) Pedro I abdicates in favor of his 5-y.-o. son Pedro (Peter) II (the Magnanimous) (1825-91) (until Nov. 15, 1889), then sails to Portugal to fight his usurper brother Dom Miguel and restore Maria II da Gloria.

In July 1833 Dom Pedro (Pedro I) arrives in Lisbon and defeats Dom Miguel (Miguel I), who flees for Austria, and Maria II da Gloria is restored as queen, along with liberal govt., with Pedro as regent, going on to appropriate Church property and dismiss clergy; poet Visconde de Almeida-Garrett, who returned from exile last year to oust Pedro becomes interior minister, followed by Cortes member, going on to become the grand old man of Portuguese theater.

Maria II da Gloria of Portugal (1819-53) Maria II da Gloria of Portugal (1819-53)

On May 26, 1834 Miguel I of Portugal is finally defeated, ending the Miguelite Wars (begun 1828), and he abdicates, leaving Maria II da Gloria (1819-53) as sole ruler (until Nov. 15, 1853); she is acclaimed on Sept. 20. On May 28 Portugal abolishes monasteries, and also abolishes trade corporations and guilds to allow free trade; meanwhile radicals call a constituent assembly to write yet another constitution.

Pedro (Peter) V de Alcantara of Portugal (1837-61)

On Nov. 15, 1853 queen (since May 26, 1834) Maria II da Gloria (b. 1819) dies, and her eldest son Pedro (Peter) V de Alcantara (the Hopeful) (1837-61) becomes king of Portugal (until Nov. 11, 1861), going on to modernize Portugal incl. the govt. and infrastructure, building roads, railways, and telegraphs, and improving public health; too bad, after stopping the cholera outbreak of 1853-6, he and his brothers Joao and Fernando die of cholera in 1861, and he dies childless, leaving the throne to the remaining brother Luis I.

Luis I of Portugal (1838-89)

On Nov. 11, 1861 king (since Nov. 15, 1853) Pedro V (b. 1837) dies of cholera, and although in 1858 he married comely babe Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1837-59), she died a year later of diphtheria, leaving him childless, and his brother (2nd son of Maria II and Ferdinand II) Luis I "O Popular" (1838-89) becomes king of Portugal (until Oct. 19, 1889), having no political gifts and allowing the country to slide into stagnation and fall farther behind other W Euro nations, while coping with a series of Rotavist govts. (Liberals alternating with Conservatives) while he dabbles in vernacular poetry and oceanography, ruling for almost 30 years, collecting ocean specimens throughout the world and building the Aquario Vasco da Gama in Lisbon (opens 1898), becoming one of the first major aquariums.

Leopold II of Belgium (1835-1909)

In 1885 the Treaty of Berlin is signed, becoming the first to use the term "spheres of influence", meaning white Euro powers claiming to own black African areas (and their people?); Germany annexes Tanganyika and lets Britain have Zanzibar in exchange for Heligoland in the North Sea, and asserts rights to German East Africa, German Southwest Africa, Cameroon, and Togoland, sending explorer Gustav Nachtigal (b. 1834) as special commissioner to annex them (he dies on the return voyage on Apr. 20); Germany relinquishes its claims to Madagascar in favor of France, and Britain pledges not to interfere, dooming its independence, freaking Queen Ranavalona III out, and causing her to send trinket-style gifts (silk clothes, ivory pin, woven basket) to U.S. Pres. Grover Cleveland next year in vain hopes of help (send the Marines for more?); Britain claims a protectorate in Nigeria and Bechuanaland S of the Molopo River, also Zanzibar and British East Africa; after they draw their lines in the sand and start playing step over the line, the West African Wars begin (end 1903); Belgium declares the Congo Free State (Belgian Congo), inhabited by Negrito peoples (Pygmies) open to trade and settlement, but personally owned by Belgian king (since 1865) Leopold II (1835-1909), who benefits from treaties made with native chiefs by U.S. correspondent Henry Morton Stanley when he navigated the Congo River in 1877, and now begins to rule it with an iron hand, murdering and multilating 10M?; borders of the Portuguese colony of Angola are fixed, permitting development of the interior; Spain receives Rio Muni on the W coast of Africa, creating Spanish Guinea (modern Equatorial Guinea); the peace terms of England with the Boers are modified to delete all references to British suzerainty.

Dom Pedro II of Portugal (1825-99) Ruy Barbosa of Brazil (1849-1923)

On May 13, 1888 the Golden Law (Lei Aurea) of Brazil, pushed by lifelong abolitionist ("Eagle of the Hague") Ruy (Rui) Barbosa de Oliveira (1849-1923) and signed by regent Princess Isabel while old fart emperor (since Apr. 7, 1831) Dom Pedro II (1825-91) is away in Europe abolishes slavery in Brazil; on Dec. 14, 1890 after becoming finance minister on Nov. 15, 1889, Barbosa orders the burning of all govt. papers relating to the slave trade and slavery (conveniently preventing former slave owners from having to pay or receive indemnities?); 4M+ black slaves had been imported to Brazil over the past three cents., with 1.5M remaining.

Carlos I of Portugal (1863-1908)

On Oct. 19, 1889 king (since Nov. 11, 1861) Luis I (b. 1838) dies, and Carlos I (the Diplomat) (1863-1908) becomes king of Portugal (until Feb. 1, 1908), presiding over its capitulation in Africa to the U.K. and its double bankruptcy in 1892 and 1902.

Gen. Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca of Brazil (1827-92)

On Nov. 15, 1889 after the slaves are freed in Brazil, the military, led by Gen. Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca (1827-92) (who was removed as gov. of Rio Grande do Sul province in 1889 for repub. sympathies) overthrows Brazilian emperor (since Apr. 7, 1831) Pedro II (1825-91), who goes into exile in France, and a new Repub. of Brazil (Republica Velha) (Old Repub.) is declared (ends 1930), with Fonseca as pres. #1 (until Nov. 23, 1891), and Rio de Janeiro as the capital; on Nov. 19 a new Brazilian Flag is adopted consisting of a blue disc depicting a starry sky spanned by a curved band reading "Ordem e Progresso" (Order and Progress) and "L'amour pour principe et et l'ordre pour base; le progres pour but" (Love as a principle and order as the basis; progress as the goal) inside a yellow rhombus on a green field; two military dictatorships rule Brazil for the next four years.

On Jan. 11, 1890 the 1890 British Ultimatum to Portugal demands the retreat of Portuguese military forces from their Pink (Rose-Colored) Map in Africa connecting their colonies of Angola and Mozambique, incl. modern-day Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi; the spineless submission by Carlos I damages the monarchy and encourages the repub. movement.

Anthony the Counselor (1830-97)

In Sept. 1897 the Canudos War (begun 1896) sees 30K black, Indian, and mestizo settlers in the dry bushland Bahia Province in NE Brazil on the Vaza-Barris River led by bearded Christ-like Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel ("Anthony the Counselor") (1830-97), who claims to be a prophet heralding the return of Portuguese king Sebastian I (1554-78) and dresses in a blue tunic, straw hat, and leather sandals hold off the Brazilian army for 1 mo. before Maciel dies of dysentery on Sept. 22 and they surrender on Oct. 2, after which they are massacred and raped, the best remaining women sent to brothels, leaving only 150 survivors; 5K escape to shanty towns in large cities?; "At the end of the world, the land will change into sea, and vice-versa." (Maciel)

Manuel II of Portugal (1889-1932)

On Feb. 1, 1908 king (since Oct. 19, 1889) Carlos I (b. 1863) is assassinated in Lisbon along with his son Crown Prince Dom Luis Filipe, and his younger son Dom Manuel becomes Manuel II (the Patriot) (the Unfortunate) (1889-1932), the last king of Portugal (until Oct. 5, 1910).

Teófilo Braga of Portugal (1843-1924)

On Oct. 3-4, 1910 2K soldiers and sailors rebel, resulting on Oct. 5 in the naval Oct. 5 Rev. in Portugal, with the French-style First Portuguese Repub. (ends 1926) proclaimed at 9:00 a.m. from the balcony of the Pacos de Concelho in Lisbon; the monarchy is ended, and king (since Feb. 1, 1908) Manuel II flees to Gibraltar, then goes into exile in England, becoming the last king of Portugal, where he lives with his uncle the Duke of Orleans and plots to return until Portugual enters WWI on the side of the Allies, then lives in England until his death (1932); intellectual-poet Joaquim Teofilo (Teófilo) Fernandes Braga (1843-1924) becomes provisional pres. (until 1911); too bad, the bad economy combined with plots on the left and right keep this new repub. rocking, and it goes through 10 presidents in 16 years.

On Apr. 30, 1911 women gain the right to vote in Portugal.

Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue (1840-1917)

On Aug. 24, 1911 atty. gen. #1 (since Nov. 17, 1910) Manuel Jose (José) de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue (1840-1917) of the Repub. Party becomes pres. #1 of the First Portuguese Repub. (until May 29, 1915), which promulgates a new liberal 1911 Portuguese Constitution with a bicameral Cortes Gerais (until 1933) - and with a name like that, the ballots must've cost a fortune?

In 1911 in Portugal the monetary unit and gold coin milreis (a thousand reis) is superseded by the escudo.

On Aug. 13, 1913 Britain and Germany begin secret negotiations to create potential spheres of influence in Portugal's African possessions; they are finalized on Oct. 20.

Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro of Portugal (1861-1944) Bernardino Machado of Portugal (1851-1944)

On May 29, 1915 after monarchist revolts led by Capt. Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Cabral Couceiro (1861-1944) (gov.-gen. of Angola in 1907-9) cause Manuel de Arriaga to flee, Teofilo Braga becomes pres. #2 of the 1st Portuguese Repub., but he resigns on Aug. 6 in favor of cause Manuel de Arriaga to flee, Teofilo Braga becomes pres. #2 of the 1st Portuguese Repub., but he resigns on Aug. 6 in favor of Bernardino Luis Machado Guimaraes (Guimarães) (1851-1944), who becomes pres. #3 (until Dec. 12, 1917).

On Mar. 9, 1916 Germany and Portugal declare war on each other; on Mar. 15 Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal; the first Portuguese troops land in France next Jan., and pres. Bernardino Machado personally visits them - now they're in trouble?

On Aug. 7, 1916 Portugal joins the Allies.

On Oct. 28, 1916 a German U-boat sinks U.S. steamer Lanao off Portugal.

On Feb. 3, 1917 the 50K-man Portuguese Expeditionary Force arrives in France.

Fatima Children, 1917

In Mar. 1917 the Angel of Peace allegedly first appears to three shepherd children Lucia Santos, Jacinta Marto, and Francisco Marto at the Cova da Iria in Fatima (Fátima), Portugal, followed by the Virgin Mary next May 13, who tells them three secrets, incl. a vision of Hell, and the Virgin's request for the consecration of Russia to prevent it from spreading its errors throughout the world; the last of which was supposed to be revealed in 1960 but is sealed by the Vatican (until ?); on Oct. 13, 1930 Bishop Jose de Silva declares the miracle "worthy of belief", legitimizing the Cult of Our Lady of Fatima; on May 13, 1946 Pope Pius XII grants a canonical coronation to the venerated image in the Chapel of the Apparitions of Fatima; on Nov. 11, 1954 he raises the Sanctuary of Fatima to the status of minor basilica - he's really a she?

On June 17, 1917 the Portuguese Expeditionary Force goes into action for the first time in Flanders.

On Oct. 15-18, 1917 the Germans win the Battle of Mahiwa in German East Africa and begin invading Portuguese East Africa, advancing almost to the mouth of the Zambezi River, then falling back to Lake Nyasa and invading Rhodesia on Nov. 2, 1918 just before the armistice.

On Nov. 25, 1917 after running low at the Battle of Mahiwa, the Battle of Ngomano sees the Germans invade Portuguese East Africa to gain supplies in their manos, allowing them to last out the war.

Sidonio Pais of Portugal (1872-1918)

On Dec. 5, 1917 Portuguese pres. (since Oct. 5, 1915) Bernardino Machado is deposed by a military coup led by math prof. Gen. Sidonio (Sidónio) Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais (1872-1918), causing Machado to to into exile on Dec. 12 (until 1919); Pais becomes a dictator, getting himself elected pres. #4 of the 1st Portuguese Repub. on Dec. 27 (until Dec. 14, 1918) and PM #66 on Dec. 12 (until May 9, 1918), becoming known as the "president-king".

Gen. Manuel Gomes da Costa of Portugal (1863-1929) Joao do Canto e Castro of Portugal (1862-1934) German Gen. Ferdinand von Quast (1850-1934)

On Apr. 7, 1918 phase two of the German Offensive of 1918 is launched with the Battle of the Lys (Lys Offensive) (Fourth Battle of Ypres) (Third Battle of Flanders) (called Operation Georgette by the Germans after they scale back Operation George) (ends Apr. 29) in the British sector of Armentieres (Armentières) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France on the Lys River, with a plan to hit the city with 40K gas shells then overrun the S sector of the Ypres Salient and reach the coast between Calais and Dunkirk, starting with a 4.5-hour bombardment, followed by an attack by 14 divs. on a 10-mi. front, driving the British back, then shelling them with 2K tons of poison gas, incapacitating and blinding 8K, and killing 30K, meeting two Portuguese divs. before being stopped by the British and French on Apr. 29; on Apr. 9 the 2nd Portuguese Div. of 20K men under Gen. Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (1863-1929) stops 50K Germans (4 divs.) of the Sixth Army under Gen. Alexander Ferdinand Ludolf von Quast (1850-1934), and loses 7K men and 300 officers incl. 6K POWs, creating a 3.5-mi. gap in the British line, but shows the Germans up as pikers in one of their greatest military screwups in history; too bad, the Portuguese pop. sees it as a smashing defeat, causing dictator-pres. (since Dec. 27, 1917) Sidonio Pais (b. 1872) to be assassinated on Dec. 14 at the Rossio Railway Station in Lisbon, and on Dec. 16 marine officer Joao do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes (1862-1934) becomes pres. #5 of the 1st Portuguese Repub. (until Oct. 5, 1919), immediately facing a repub. rev. in Dec., followed by a monarchist rev. in the N next Jan.

Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro of Portugal (1861-1944)

On Jan. 19, 1919 the Kingdom of Traulitania (Portugal) (Monarchy of the North) is set up by monarchist Capt. Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Cabral Couceiro (1861-1944) sans endorsement of deposed Manuel II; it folds by Feb. 13.

António José de Almeida of Portugal (1866-1929)

On Oct. 5, 1919 pres. (since Dec. 16, 1918) Joao do Canto e Castro is succeeded as pres. #6 of the 1st Portuguese Repub. by Antonio Jose (António José) de Almeida (1866-1929) (until Oct. 5, 1923) (a medically-trained academic who founded Oporto U. and Lisbon U. in 1911), who was elected on Aug. 6 and becomes the only pres. to serve his full 4-year term, trying in vain to steady the rocking boat in Portugal, and visiting Brazil in 1922 on the occasion of its 100th independence anniv. and giving a nice speech.

Gen. Manuel Gomes da Costa of Portugal (1863-1929) 'Don Quixote' by Octavio Ocampo Jose Mendes Cabecadas Jr. of Portugal (1883-1965) António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona of Portugal (1869-1951)

On May 28, 1926 the May 28 Coup in Braga, Portugal led by Gen. Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (1863-1929) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Don Quixote?) ousts pres. (since 1925) Bernardino Machado, and on May 31 puts in marine officer (Freemason) Jose (José) Mendes Cabecadas Jr. (1883-1965) as pres. #9 of the 1st Portuguese Repub. (until June 19), but after he proves incapable of governing, da Costa becomes pres. #10 on June 29, also proving incapable, and on July 9 Antonio Oscar (António Óscar) (de) Fragoso Carmona (1869-1951) (a Freemason) ousts him in another coup, exiling him to the Azores, where he eventually returns and dies in poverty, becoming pres. #11 of Portugal on Dec. 29 (until Apr. 18, 1951); Portugal remains under either a military or civilian dictatorship with puppet presidents until 1974.

In 1931 the Benguella-Katanga Railroad is completed, becoming tne first trans-African railroad line, running 2,949 mi. from Benguela in Portuguese Mozambique to Beira in Portuguese Angola, and running through the copper ore town of Elisabethville in Belgian Congo.

Gen. António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal (1889-1970) António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona of Portugal (1869-1951)

On July 5, 1932 studious finance minister (since Apr. 28, 1928) Antonio (António) de Oliveira de Salazar (1889-1970) is elected PM #100 of Portugal (until Sept. 25, 1968), becoming a dictator who rules with a strong hand along with his elder protege-pres. Antonio Oscar (António Óscar) (de) Fragoso Carmona (1869-1951), founding the anti-Communist pro-Roman Catholic Estado Novo (New State) (ends 1974), with the motto: "God, Fatherland, and Family", going on to support Gen. Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and stay neutral during WWII; Salazar's doctrine of Pluricontinentalism claims that the Portuguese Empire is not a colonial empire but a single nation-stte spread across the continents.

On July 4, 1937 an assassination attempt on Portuguese dictator Antonio de Oliveira Salazar en route to say Mass at a friend's house in Lisbon fails to kill him, but he starts driving around in an armor-plated Chrysler Imperial; anarchist Emidio Santana is arrested in Britain and returned to Portugal, then sentenced to 16 years in prison.

On May 7, 1940 the Concordat of 1940 is signed in Vatican City by Portugal and the Holy See, limiting Church power in Portugal while throwing them a bone in that canonical marriages are not allowed to obtain a civil divorce, resulting in 91% of all marriages being canonical by 1960.

On June 13, 1940 Pope Pius XII issues the encyclical Saeculo Exeunte, honoring Portugal's 800th anniv., calling for it to modernize missionary work.

Gen. António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal (1889-1970) Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes of Portugal (1894-1964)

On Apr. 18, 1951 creaky Portuguese dictator pres. (since Dec. 29, 1926) Gen. Antonio de Fragoso Carmona (b. 1869) dies, and his slightly less creaky protege (an economist) Gen. Antonio (António) de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970), whom he had put in power in 1932 becomes acting pres. of the unhappy military nuthouse; on Aug. 9 young whippersnapper air force marshal Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (1894-1964) becomes puppet pres. #12 of Portugal (until Aug. 9, 1958), with Salazar remaining as PM #100 (until Sept. 25, 1968).

On Mar. 11-12, 1959 a coup attempt is discovered in Portugal by several junior officers supported by progressive Roman Catholics.

On Jan. 4, 1960 the European Free Trade Assoc. (EFTA) Convention is signed by the "Outer Seven States", Britain, Denmark, Austria, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, entering into force on May 3; Finland joins in 1961, and Liechtenstein in 1991; Britain and Denmark leave in 1973, followed by Portugal in 1986; by the end of the cent. only Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein remain.

Holden Roberto of Angola (1923-2007)

On Feb. 4, 1961 after the Portuguese insist on staying, pissing-off the Communist-led natives, the Portuguese Colonial War in Angola (ends Apr. 25, 1974) begins with an uprising of Africans in Luanda, led by the Nat. Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), founded on July 14, 1954 as the Union of Peoples of Angola (UPA) by Holden Alvaro (Álvaro) Roberto (1923-2007); on Mar. 13 Adlai E. Stevenson votes against Portuguese policies in Africa in the U.N. Security Council; on Mar. 15 4K-5K Bakongo rebels attack strategic locations in N Angola, killing 1K+ whites and seizing their farms, with Roberto uttering the soundbyte "This time the slaves did not cower"; on Apr. 18 Portugal sends its first military reinforcements to Angola; on Apr. 25 Roberto meets with Pres. Kennedy, causing Ghanaian pres. Kwame Nkrumah to turn him down for aid; in Mar. 1962 the UPA merges with the Dem. Party of Angola to form the FNLA, establishing the Rev. Govt. of Angola in Exile (GRAE) in Kinshasa on Mar. 27, with Jonas Savimbi as foreign minister, after which Roberto divorces his wife and marries a woman from the village of the wife of Zairian pres. Mobutu Sese Soko to establish a political alliance; in 1963-9 Israel gives it aid.

On Apr. 13, 1961 there is a failed coup attempt in Portugal against dictator (since 1932) Antonio de Oliveira Salazar when defense minister Botelho Moniz and other military leaders demand his resignation; Moniz is dismissed from his post.

On Dec. 18-19, 1961 Operation Vijay sees Indian troops invade and conquer the Portuguese territories of Goa, Damao, and Diu, in Portuguese possession since 1510, turning them into a territory of India - which did we love more, the shoes or the price?

On Jan. 1, 1962 Portuguese army troops led by Capt. Joao Varela Gomes, along with Roman Catholic dissident militants led by Manuel Serra attack the army barracks in Beja, Portugal.

On Jan. 15, 1962 Portugal walks out of the U.N. Gen. Assembly during a debate on Angola.

Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane of Mozambique (1920-69)

In Sept. 1962 Mozambique-born Syracuse U. sociology prof. Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane (1920-69) founds Frente de Libertacao de Mozambique (Mozambique Liberation Front) (FRELIMO) to fight against Portuguese colonial rule, launching the Mozambique War of Independence (ends June 1975); by 1964 it is gathering steam, and by 1966 they control most of the rural N; too bad, he is killed by a book bomb on Feb. 3, 1969 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

On Dec. 3, 1966 the 12-3 Incident (1-2-3 Riot) sees anti-Portuguese demonstrations held in Macau modeled after the Chinese Cultural Rev. turn into a riot, causing a curfew to be declared on Dec. 4.

On Dec. 16, 1966 the U.N. Security Council approves an oil embargo against Rhodesia, and adopts the Internat. Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Internat. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; on Dec. 17 South Africa refuses to participate, causing British PM Harold Wilson on Dec. 20 to withdraw all his offers to Rhodesia and announce that he will only agree to independence after a black majority govt. is founded; Portugal also refuses to participate.

Marcello Caetano of Portugal (1906-80)

On Sept. 21, 1968 Portuguese PM #100 (since July 5, 1932) Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970) suffers a stroke, and on Sept. 27 his ultraconservative former deputy (rector of Lisbon U. since 1959) Marcello Jose das Neves Alves Caetano (1906-80) replaces him without his knowledge, becoming PM #101 of Portugal (until Apr. 25, 1974). On July 27, 1970 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889) dies in Lisbon without knowing that he has been supplanted.

Maj. Ernesto Augusto de Melo Antunes of Portugal (1933-99) Gen. Antonio de Spinola of Portugal (1910-96) Gen. Francisco da Costa Gomes of Portugal (1914-2001) Gen. Vasco dos Santos Goncalves of Portugal (1922-2005) Luis de Almeida Cabral of Guinea-Bissau (1931-2009) Carlos Arias Navarro of Spain (1908-) Robert Stephen Ingersoll of the U.S. (1914-)

On Apr. 25, 1974 leftist officers in the armed forces led by Maj. Ernesto Augusto de Melo Antunes (1939-) ("an intellectual in uniform"), author of the Document of the Nine (Captains' Manifesto) launch the bloodless (red carnations in their gunbarrels) Captains' (Carnation) (25th of Apr.) Rev. in Portugal, deposing PM (since 1968) Marcelo Caetano (who flees to Brazil), ending 40 years of civilian dictatorship, and forming a Nat. Salvation Junta to supervise the restoration of democracy after 41 years (since 1933); too bad, the April Rev. in Angola reverses Portugal's stand against its independence; on May 15 after the new civilian govt. falls apart, conservative monocled Gen. Antonio Sebastiao (Sebastião) Ribeiro de Spinola (1910-96) (who pub. a critique in Feb. of the dictatorship's African policy, and whom Caetano insisted on surrendering to) becomes provisional pres., going on to abolish the secret police, release political prisoners, promise to restore democracy in Portugal's African colonies, and resume diplomatic relations with Cuba for the 1st time since 1917, pissing-off NATO, who fear that the new govt. will leak secrets; with guerrillas already controlling most of the countryside, Portugal gives up Portuguese Guinea, which on Sept. 10 becomes the Repub. of Guinea-Bissau, with Luis Severino de Almeida Cabral (1931-2009) as pres. #1 on Sept. 24 (until Nov. 14, 1980); Ernesto Melo Antunes is the main megotiator of the independence; on Sept. 15 Spinola meets with Zaire pres. Mobutu Sese Seko on Sal Island, Cape Verde over the future of Angola, and on Sept. 30 he resigns in protest of rushed attempts to dismantle the colonial empire, saying that "a general climate of anarchy" exists; he is succeeded by Gen. Francisco da Costa Gomes (1914-2001) (until July 13, 1976), who is known for fighting liberation movements in Moazambique in 1965-9, but now recognizes decolonization as inevitable; Portugal still has control of Angola, Mozambique, and East Timor; next Mar. Spanish PM Carlos Arias Novarro meets with U.S. deputy state secy. (1974-6) Robert Stephen Ingersoll (1914-2010), and offers to invade Portugal to stop the spread of godless Communism, but Ingersoll is satisfied with Spain remaining non-Communist and allowing the U.S. to keep its military bases there in return for supporting a future NATO membership.

On June 9, 1974 Russia and Portugal reestablish diplomatic ties for the first time since 1917.

Gen. Vasco dos Santos Goncalves of Portugal (1922-2005)

On July 13, 1974 Portugal's pres. Antonio de Spinola names army leaders to cabinet posts, incl. Army gen. Vasco dos Santos Goncalves (1922-2005) (ideological leader of the Armed Forces Movement) as PM #103 on July 18 (until Sept. 19, 1975), and vows to bring democracy to Portugal by next spring; Goncalves goes on to suggest the nationalization of banks and insurance cos.

Adm. Jose Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo of Portugal (1917-83) Alvaro Cunhal of Portugal (1913-2005) Jonas Savimbi of Angola (1934-2002) Antonio Agostinho Neto of Angola (1922-79) Chiang Ching-kuo of Taiwan (1910-88)

On Jan. 15, 1975 the People's Repub. of Angola, which has been a colony since 1576 is granted independence by Portugal (last Portuguese African colony), and on Nov. 11 it begins nationalizing banking, transport, heavy industries, and the media, and granting the vote to women; under Portuguese pres. Francisco de Costa Gomes it immediately plunges into civil war before promised elections can take place, with the Communist-backed People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) (founded Dec. 10, 1956) and the Nat. Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) (founded July 14, 1954) fighting the CIA and South Africa-backed rebel group UNITA (Union for the Total Independence of Angola) (founded Mar. 13, 1966), led by Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (1934-2002), which secretly invaded in Oct.; on Nov. 11 MPLA leader (and top Angolan poet) Antonio Agostinho Neto (1922-79) becomes Angolan pres. #1 (until Sept. 10, 1979); on Nov. 4 Fidel Castro of Cuba decides to send troops to support the MPLA, and next Jan. the Soviets fly 10 planeloads in, after which 30K Cuban troops are ultimately deployed as the conflict attracts Nicaragua on the Marxist side, and the People's Repub. of China, Israel, Cote d'Ivoire, Zaire, Morocco, and Zambia on the U.S. side.

Samora Moisés Machel of Mozambique (1933-86)

On June 25, 1975 (Wed.) the poverty-stricken People's Repub. of Mozambique becomes an independent state, ending 470 years of Portuguese rule (since 1505), with Samora Moises (Moisés) Machel (1933-86) as pres. #1 (until Oct. 19, 1986); too bad, his govt. embraces Marxism like nearby poverty-stricken Madagascar, after which in 1977 a long civil war begins (ends 1992), ruining much of the wildlife and tourist trade; meanwhile 1M flee Mozambique and other former Portuguese colonies to Portugal, causing strikes and violence.

Gen. Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes of Portugal (1935-) Mario Soares of Portugal (1924-2017)

On July 14, 1976 after Socialists win the parliamentary elections in Apr., Gen. Francisco da Costa Gomes is replaced by Gen. Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes (1935-) of the Dem. Renewal Party as pres. #16 of Portugal (until Mar. 9, 1986) (3rd after the Carnation Rev.) after winning 60.8% of the vote; on July 23 Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (1924-2017) becomes PM (until Aug. 28, 1978) with a weak minority govt., which he makes more unpopular by a strict austerity policy to pay for deficits left by previous govts.

Mario Soares of Portugal (1924-2017)

On Mar. 9, 1986 former PM #105 (1983-5) Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (1924-), a Communist-turned Socialist known for almost single-handedly talking Portugal into joining the EEC becomes pres. #17 of Portugal (until Mar. 9, 1996), and Portugal's first civilian pres. in 60 years; he defeats his opponent by 2% of the votes this time, but by 70% in 1991, pioneering the Presidencia Aberta (open presidency), which features tours around the country addressing a different issue each time.

Jorge Sampaio of Portugal (1939-)

On Mar. 9, 1996 after defeating Social Dem. Party candidate Anibal Cavaco Silva by 54%-46%, Socialist Party candidate Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio (1939-) becomes pres. of Portugal (until Mar. 9, 2006), going on to oversee the transfer of Macao's sovereignty to China in Dec. 1999 and publicly support East Timor's independence.

Anibal Cavaco Silva of Portugal (1939-)

On Jan. 22, 2006 former PM (1985-95) Anibal Antonio Cavaco Silva (1939-) (a Keynesian economist) wins the election, and on Mar. 9 is sworn-in as pres. #19 of the Portuguese Repub. (until Mar. 9, 2016), becoming the first to enjoy an absolute parliamentary majority and going on to lead Portugal into the EU and have the longest tenure of any Portuguese PM since Salazar.

On Feb. 11, 2007 a Socialist Party-backed abortion referendum in Portugal to legalize abortion up to 10 weeks is approved 59.24%-40.76%, with 43.61% of registered voters voting, which is less than 50%, hence is not legally binding, which doesn't stop Pres. Anibal Cavasco Silva from ratifying it on Apr. 10; future pres. #20 (2016-) Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa leads the opposition.

On Mar. 5, 2015 the Madrid Declaration on Developing Energy Interconnections is signed by Spain, France, Portugal, and the EU.

Antonio Costa of Portugal (1961-)

On Nov. 26, 2015 Socialist Party secy.-gen. (since Nov. 22, 2014) Antonio Luis Santos da Costa (1961-) becomes PM #119 of Portugal (until ?).

Marcelo Rubelo de Sousa of Portugal (1948-)

On Mar. 9, 2016 U. of Lisbon law prof. (Roman Catholic) (Independent) Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa (1948-) (godson of last Portuguese dictator Marcelo Caetano) becomes pres. #20 of Portugal (until ?).

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