TLW's Prisonscope™ (Prison Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Mar. 8, 2017. Last Update: Mar. 29, 2017.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to prison history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
In ancient times most crimes were punished with execution. The earliest prisons were usually dungeons.
In 1078 in order to overawe the pesky Anglo-Saxon dogs, William I the Big Bad Conqueror orders the construction of the Tower of London outside the E wall of the city of London on the N Middlesex bank of the Thames River by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester as a "symbol of his power, a fortress for his defense, and a prison for his enemies"; it takes 30+ years to complete; a prophesy that when the ravens abandon it the English monarchy is supposed to fall causes seven clipped ravens to be kept there; the 90-ft. White Tower (royal residence) is built with stones from Normandy, with three square and one round turret (NE corner), and a single 2nd-story entrance on the S side reached by an external staircase; the jail is on the top, so that anybody attempting to jump better think twice; it contains a garderobe, toilet stalls facing away from the city.
In 1188 the Saladin Tithe in place, Newgate Prison in London at the corner of Newgate St. and Old Bailey just inside the city walls is built at the site of a gate of the Roman London Wall by orders of Henry II, going on to be extended and rebuilt many times until it is closed in 1902 and demolished in 1904 after becoming infamous for its unhealthy conditions.
In 1357 the Bastille (originally Bastille Saint-Antoine Castle) is built to protect the strategic gateway of the Port Saint-Antoine on the E side of Paris from the pesky English; construction drags along until the 1370s; in 1417 it becomes a state prison; Louis XIV uses it to imprison nobles and Huguenots; by 1789 it houses 5,279 prisoners, some of whom write autobios. complaining of bad conditions, causing reforms to be implemented and the prison pop. to be considerably reduced by the time of the July 14, 1789 Bastille Day.
The original I Have a Dream? In 1516 English brain man Sir (St.) Thomas More (1478-1535) pub. Utopia (Gr. "no place" - pun on "good place"); Amerigo Vespucci crewmember Ralph Hythlodaye tells about his visit to an island where land is owned in common by the snobs (with plenty of slaves for the menial work), everybody has a job, and there is universal education and religious toleration, contrasting this perfect society with the hellhole of England; it recommends penal slavery instead of death as a punishment for crimes, eventually spawning the English Poor Laws, and becomes the father of Communism?; influences Nostradamus?; since More wears an itchy-scratchy goat hair shirt for most of his life, judge it by the source?
In 1517 after claiming to see a "column of fire", St. Cyril of Novozeno founds a Russian Orthodox monastery on Ongenny Ostrov Island (Russ. "Fiery Island") on beautiful White Lake in the Vologda region of C Russia; after the Oct. 1917 Russian Rev. it is converted into a prison by the Bolsheviks, with small inhuman 2-man cells that prisoners must stay in for 22.5 hours/day.
In 1585 Old Bailey is first mentioned as the sessions house of the lord mayor and sheriffs of the city of London and of Middlesex, located next to the Newgate Gaol, funded by wealthy former mayor of London Sir Richard "Dick" Whittington (1354-1423); it burns down during the 1666 Great Fire of London, and is rebuilt in 1674, with an open court to prevent the spread of disease until 1734, when it was enclosed, leading to typhus outbreaks, with 60 dying in 1750 incl. the lord mayor and two judges; it is rebuilt again in 1774, and a 2nd courtroom added in 1824; in 1674-1834 100K+ criminal trials are held.
In 1764 Italian criminologist Cesare Beccaria (Bonesana-Beccaria), Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villaregio (1738-94) pub. On Crimes and Punishments (Tratto dei delitti e delle pene), which condemns torture and the death penalty, founding the field of Penology (Lat. "poena" + "logia" = punishment + study) along with the Classical School of Penology based on the Enlightenment, incl. Jeremy Bentham, with the slogan: "Man is a calculating animal", meaning that the punishment must fit the crime incl. being swift, which influences the U.S. Founding Fathers.
On Aug. 5, 1775 Spanish Lt. Juan Manuel de Ayala (1745-97) (who left Monterey on July 26) becomes the first Euro explorer to sail through the Golden Gate of San Francisco Bay in Calif., naming three islands incl. Alcatraz (Sp. "pelican") Island and anchoring his packet ship Punta de San Carlos (which he takes command of by luck after captain Don Miguel Manrique goes mad?) at Angel Island (Isla de Los Angeles) to wait for the overland expedition of Capt. Juan Bautista de Anza, then on Sept. 18 returns to San Blas via Monterey, telling them how the harbor beats Monterey for having less fog, and how friendly the natives are. In 1850 Pres. Millard Fillmore orders the island to be set aside as a U.S. military reservation to protect San Francisco Bay, and in 1859 Alcatraz Fortress is built, becoming a military prison in 1868; on Aug. 11, 1934 it reopens as Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, housing the nation's most dangerous criminals until it closes on Mar. 21, 1963. On June 11/12, 1962 (night) the Big Alcatraz Escape sees IQ-133 Frank Lee Morris (1926-), John William Anglin (1930-), and brother bank robber Clarence Anglin (1931-) make the first escape from supposedly escape-proof Alcatraz federal prison in San Francisco Bay; their fate is not officially resolved (until ?), and the prison is shut down next year; on Oct. 14, 2013 three men duplicate the escape for charity.
In 1776 Walnut Street Jail (Gaol) in Philadelphia, Penn. opens to receive overflow from High Street Jail, becoming the first U.S. prison with individual cells and work details; on Jan. 9, 1793 Jean-Pierre Blanchard makes the first manned balloon flight in North Am. from the prison yard in front of a crowd that incl. Pres. George Washington, Vice-pres. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe, crossing the Delaware River and making a safe landing after 45 min. in Deptford, N.J.; 1795 it is converted into Wall Street Penitentiary, pioneering the Quaker idea of combating crime via solitary confinement; it closes in 1838.
In 1779 after the Am. Rev. closes the U.S. as a destination for transported felons, Britain passes the Penitentiary Act, drafted by jurist William Blackstone and reformer John Howard, recommending imprisonment over death or transportation, ordering the construction of a network of state-operated prisons, becoming the first; too bad, Parliament drags its feet and only creates two new prisons in London.
In 1791 English social reformer (founder of modern utilitarianism) Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) pub. Panopticon, containing his idea of a prison where one guard can observe all the prisoners without being seen, keeping them on their toes.
In 1797 Newgate Prison opens in Greenwich Village, N.Y. at West 10th St. on the Hudson River near the Chistopher St. Pier, designed by French-born architect Joseph-Francois Mangin (1758-?), who later helps design New York City Hall; warden #1 (until 1801) is Quaker prison reformer Thomas Eddy (1758-1827), who starts out trying provide a humanitarian place for rehabiliation and watches it degenerate into an overcrowded disease-filled violent hellhole, with 817 inmates by 1821 in a bldg. designed for 432; since it's N of New York City, sentencing to it is called being "sent up the river", which carries over to Sing Sing; it closes in 1829.
In 1816 Millbank Prison in Millbank, Pimlico, London, England opens as the British Nat. Penitentiary, used to hold prisoners slated for transportation to Australia, becoming the first modern prison; by the end of 1817 it houses 103 men and 109 women, growing to 452 and 326 women by 1822; prisoners considered likely to reform are offered 5-10 years there instead of transportation; it closes in 1890.
In 1818 Auburn Prison (later Auburn Correctional Facility in 1970) in Auburn, N.Y. opens on land that once housed a Cayuga village, becoming the 2nd state prison in N.Y. after Newgate, becoming known for the Auburn (New York) (Congregate) System of solitary confinement, stripey uniforms, lockstep, silence, and harsh labor in congregate workshops, created by warden #2 (1821-25) Capt. Elam Lynds (1784-1855), which he brings with him to Sing Sing in 1825-30; in 1848 the Copper John statue of an Am. Rev. War statue is mounted atop the facility; too bad, it has a big stiff dong, which is filed off in Aug. 2004; in 1890 Auburn becomes the site of the first court-ordered electrocution.
In 1826 Sing Sing Prison (Native Am. "sinck sinck" = stone upon stone), built by the N.Y. legislature in Ossining Village on Mount Pleasant in Westchester County 30 mi. N of New York City opens, employing the Auburn (New York) (Congregate) System that imposes absolute silence on prisoners enforced by whipping and brutal punishments, becoming a model prison because it turns a profit for the state; it is completed in Oct. 1828.; in 1970-85 it becomes Ossining Correctional Facility; by 1972 614 men and women are executed on death row's Old Sparky.
In 1827 Ft. Leavenworth is established in NE Kansas (25 mi. NW of Kansas City) on bluffs above the Missouri River to guard wagon trains moving W on branches of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails, which cross the river there; in 1829 the Rookery, the oldest house in Kansas is built there for the commanders, being used by the first gov. of Kansas Territory; on Sept. 21, 1866 the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment is formed there, becoming home of the African-Am. Buffalo soldiers; the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks is founded in 1874, becoming the U.S. Defense Dept.'s only maximum security prison.
In 1829 Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, Penn. opens, pioneering the Separate (Penn.) System based on separation of inmates in 4-8 radiating (wagon wheel) wings of prison blocks around a central hall, with prisoners required to wear masks and work inside their cells, known as the Penn. (Separate) System, which becomes influential with other prisons; celeb prisoners incl. Al Capone and Willie Sutton; it closes in 1971.
In 1842 due to overcrowding, disease, and high costs at Millbank Prison, Pentonville Prison in Barnsbury, London, England opens to take over Millbank Prison's role as the British Nat. Penitentiary, with Millbank used only for holding prisoners for 3 mo. before being transported, reaching 4K/year by 1850-3, then tapering off until it closes in 1890; in 1902 Pentonville takes over responsibility for executions.
In 1844 Reading Gaol (HM Prison Reading) next to Reading Abbey on the Kennet River in Reading, Berkshire, England opens, utilizing the newfangled Separate System and executing its first prisoner next year before a crowd of 10K, followed by 1,867 more until 1913; celeb prisoners incl. Oscar Wilde and actor Stacy Keach.
In 1851 Charles Street (Suffolk County) Jail in Boston, Mass. opens, designed in the form of a cross with four wings holding 220 8'x10' granite cells, going on to house celeb inmates Malcolm X, and Sacco and Vanzetti along with suffragist protesters and German U-boat POWs; it closes in 1990, and is reopened in 2007 as a luxury hotel.
In July 1852 San Quentin State Prison on Point Quentin (named after Coast Miwok warrior Quentin) in Marin County, Calif. on the N side of San Francisco Bay opens, with 700 male inmates housed on death row by Dec. 2015; celeb prisoners incl. Merle Haggard, Charles Manson, actor Danny Trejo, and Sirhan Sirhan; country singer Johnny Cash holds concerts there in 1958 and Feb. 24, 1969.
In 1852 penal settlements are founded in French Guiana around the mouth of the Maroni River and the Iles de Salut, incl. lovely isolated Devil's Island, used to imprison political prisoners incl. Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (closes 1953).
In 1858 Joliet (Ill. State) Penitentiary in Joliet, Ill. opens, later made famous by the 1980 film "The Blues Brothers"; it closes in 2002.
In 1861 the Colo. Territorial Correctional Facility in Canon City, Colo. opens, becoming the first prison in Colo., housing Colo.'s death row from the 1890s to the 1990s, when it is moved to the Colo. State Penitentiary; in 2012 after a lawsuit by Aurora Chuck-E-Cheese death row prisoner Nathan Dunlap over lack of outdoor exercise facilities, death row prisoners are housed in the Sterling Correctional Facility; in 2013 Colo. Gov. John Hickenlooper grants Dunlap a temporary reprieve.
In Jan. 1864 Andersonville Prison (originally named Camp Sumter) is built by the Confeds. in Sumter County, SW Ga. (40 mi. from Butler), opening in Feb. and going on to house 45K Union POWs over the next 14 mo. (until Apr. 1865), of which 12K die from Southern hospitality from exposure, disease, or starvation, not to mention those killed by sharpshooters for crossing the Dead Line around the camp.
In 1880 Folsom State Prison in Calif. on the site of the Stony Bar mining camp on the American River 20 mi. NE of Sacramento opens, becoming known for dark stone cells; in 1895 it becomes the first prison in the U.S. with er, electricity from the new Folsom Power House; on Dec. 13, 1895 it hangs its first prisoner, followed by 92 more by Dec. 3, 1937, after which Calif. executions are transferred to the gas chamber in San Quentin; on Jan. 13, 1968 Johnny Cash performs two shows, which are released as an album, featuring the hit song "Folsom Prison Blues".
On Aug. 6, 1890 (7:00 a.m.) after Thomas Edison helps nix his appeal in hopes that the use of Westinghouse's AC rather than his DC will give them a bad name, convicted common-law wife hatchet murderer William Francis Kemmler (b. 1860) becomes the first person to be executed on an Electric Chair as N.Y. tries out its brand-new 1888 model in Auburn Prison; after being zapped for 17 sec. with 1K volts, he is still breathing, so they juice it up to 2K volts for 70 sec., during which time he catches fire and nauseated witnesses run for it, backfiring on Edison and stinking his name up bigtime, while not harming the rep of AC - the original Green Mile?
In 1891 the U.S. Three Prisons Act is passed, authorizing the first three federal penitentiaries, incl. USP Leavenworth, USP Atlanta, and USP McNeil Island, with limited supervision by the U.S. Dept. of Justice.
In 1891 New York City Presbyterian minister Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933) becomes pres. of the New York Society for the Prevention of Crime, and does his alma mater Amherst College proud by finding that the pigs, er, police are in league with the criminals, many of whom are in Tammany Hall, giving a speech from the pulpit next Feb. 14 exposing them, causing an investigation in 1894 resulting in a number of police being arrested and convicted.
In 1898 the Neo-Baroque yellow-brick Lubyanka Bldg. on Lubyanka Square in Meshchansky District, Moscow, Russia is built for the All-Russia Insurance Co., designed by architect Alexander V. Ivanov; after the Oct. 1917 Russian Rev., it is taken over by the Bolshevik Cheka secret police, becoming known as the tallest bldg. in Moscow because Siberia can be seen from its basement by tortured prisoners.
In 1901 Miss. State Penitentiary, AKA Parchman Farm is founded in Sunflower County in the Miss. Delta region, becoming known for the Trusty System, which replaces convict leasing for inmate control, using designated inmates to punish other inmates; in 1974 a federal court rules in Gates v. Collier that it violates the 8th Amendment.
In 1918 the Gulag (Russ. "main camp admin.") system of forced labor camps is set up in Russia by the Bolsheviks, and officially legalized on Apr. 15, 1919, growing to a pop. of 100K by the 1920s, with brutal conditions and a high mortality rate; in the 1930s-1950s dictator Joseph Stalin uses them to enslave and crush all real or potential political opponents; in Mar. 1940 there are 53 Gulag camps and 423 labor colonies in the Soviet Union.
In 1923 the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon is ratified, after which in 1943 Syria and Lebanon become independent, and French troops leave them in 1946; meanwhile Tadmor (Arab. "destruction") (Palmyra) Prison 120 mi. NE of Damascus is created from a French military barracks, becoming known for brutality, torture, and summary executions; on June 27, 1980 the Tadmor Massacre sees 1K prisoners murdered by the Defense Brigades of Gen. Rifaat al-Assad after the Muslim Brotherhood almost assassinates his brother Hafez al-Assad; the prison is closed in 2001, then reopened on June 15, 2011 to house anti-govt. demonstrators; in May 2015 it is captured and blown up on May 30 by ISIS.
In 1930 the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons is established in Washington, D.C. as a subdiv. of the U.S. Dept. of Justice to administer the federal prison system consisting of 11 prisons, which expands by the end of the year to 14 prisons with 13K inmates, and by 1940 to 24 prisons with 24,360 inmates.
In the 1930s Bang Kwang Central Prison 7 mi. N of Bangkok, Thailand is founded, becoming known as "the Bangkok Hilton" and "the Big Tiger" (for eating men alive), becoming known for cruel and harsh conditions, poor food and sanitation, vermin, use of leg irons, etc., making it the world's worst prison?
In 1931 Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, N.Y. opens, housing the most dangerous criminals, with a tear gas system installed to quell riots, which doesn't stop a big one in 1971. On Sept. 9-13, 1971 after discovering racially-biased sentences and parole decisions, and hearing of the Sept. 9 shooting of San Quenin black radical prisoner George Jackson, 1.3K pissed-off prisoners seize control of the maximum-security 2.2K-inmate Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, N.Y., taking 33 hostages and beginning a siege that claims 43 lives (11 guards and 32 inmates, incl. 9 hostages) and injures 80+ before 1.5K state troopers, sheriff's deputies and prison guards move in and quell the rebellion early on Sept. 13; for the first days, authorities agree to 28 prisoner demands, but balk at amnesty and removal of the supt.; the final assault by the New York State Police pumps 2.5K hollow tip and deer slug bullets into a 50 yd. x 50 yd. enclosure for 10 min., creating mucho carnage; riot leader Samuel Joseph Melville (Grossman) (b. 1934) (leader of the Weather Underground, known for his 1969 bombings of blgs. in New York City, plus a Mar. 7, 1970 escape attempt at a federal courthouse) is killed; other leaders incl. Elliott "L.D." Barkley and Tommy Hicks; N.Y. gov. Nelson Rockefeller is called a murderer, becoming the worst Rockefeller criticism since the 1914 Ludlow Massacre; on Aug. 28, 2000 a federal court awards the survivors $8M, incl. $25K to Melville's son Josh Melville.
In 1932 Rikers Island on the East River between Queens, N.Y. and Bronx, N.Y. next to the runways of LaGuardia Airport (named after Abraham Rycken, who purchased it in 1664) opens as a replacement for the Welfare Island (near Roosevelt Island) Jail, with prisoners hauling ashes for landful, enlarging the site from 100 to 415 acres; it goes on to house 10K inmates and become notorious for neglect and abuse, along with prisoner attacks on staff; in May 2013 it is ranked one of the top-ten worst correctional facilities in the U.S.; in 2015 there are 9,424 assaults, with few murders.
On July 3, 1962 John Frankenheimer's Birdman of Alcatraz (United Artists) debuts, based on the 1955 book by Thomas E. Gaddis, starring Burt Lancaster as lifer IQ-134 ornithologist Robert Franklin Stroud (1890-1963), who is portrayed as an unjustly imprisoned mild-mannered scientist crushed by the cruelty of anti-scientific wardens like Harvey Shoemaker (Karl Malden) even though he killed two men, is not exactly mild mannered, and is a pedophile?; he had been kept in Alcatraz in 1942-59, when his failing health caused him to be moved to a federal prison hospital in Mo.; petitions are handed out in the theater lobbies for his release, and atty. Richard M. English takes up his cause, approaching the Kennedy admin., but he dies next year still petting his files in priz.
On Mar. 21, 1963 (first day of er, spring?) Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in San Francisco Bay, Calif. is closed after 29 years by order of U.S. atty.-gen. Robert F. Kennedy; Marion Federal Penitentiary in Williamson County 9 mi. S of Marion, Ill. and 120 mi. SE of St. Louis, Mo. opens to replace Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary; on Oct. 22, 1983 violence forces a long-term lockdown, making it the first control unit in the U.S., with 22-23 hours/day of solitary confinement (until 2006).
On Nov. 1, 1967 Stuart Rosenberg's Cool Hand Luke (Warner Bros.) debuts, based on the 1965 chain gang novel by Donn Pearce, featuring blue-eyed 50-hard-boiled-eggs-eating ever-smirking Paul Leonard Newman (1925-2008) in the title role, George Harris Kennedy Jr. (1925-2016) as his chain gang leader buddy Dragline, and Strother Martin as the oppressive warden, with the memorable soundbyte: "What we have here is a failure to communicate"; Pearce has a cameo as a convict named Sailor; "I'm shakin' the bush, boss"; "I got my mind right, boss"; "Sometimes nothing can be a real cool hand" (Newman).
On Oct. 6, 1978 Alan Parker's Midnight Express (Casablanca Filmworks) (Columbia Pictures) debuts, written by Oliver Stone based on the 1977 book by Billy Hayes and filmed in Malta, starring Brad Davis as young Am. student Billy Hayes, who on Oct. 6, 1970 is caught smuggling hashish out of Turkey, and gets 30 years, ending up in one of their hellhole prisons, finally escaping on Oct. 4, 1975; does $35M box office on a $2.3M budget; goes too far in portraying the Turkish culture as subhuman?; the rumping-ranging warden is played by Paul L. Smith, and in real life Hayes didn't kill him; the cool Midnight Express Theme is by Giorgio Moroder.
On June 22, 1979 Don Siegel's Escape from Alcatraz (Paramount Pictures) debuts, based on the 1963 J. Campbell Bruce book about the 1962 Big Escape from Alcatraz, starring Clint Eastwood as Frank Morris, who duels with the warden (Patrick McGoohan) while planning his escape with fellow prisoners Clarence Anglin (Jack Thibeau) and John Angln (Fred Ward); film debut of Danny Glover; does $43M box office on an $8M budget.
On May 7, 1980 Paul Geidel (1894-1987), convicted of 2nd deg. murder is released from prison in Beacon, N.Y. after 68 years 245 days, the longest time served by a U.S. inmate (until ?), with the soundbyte "No publicity please"; he spends the rest of his life in a nursing home in Dutchess County, N.Y.
In 1980 after the Sept. 12 coup suspends the constitution and civil rights, Diyarbakir Prison in Diyarbakir, SE Turkey is founded, becoming known as "the Hell of Diyarbakir", with systematic torture killing 34 prisoners in 1981-4, mainly Kurds.
On Oct. 12, 1984 the U.S. Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 is signed by Pres. Ronald Reagan, becoming the first comprehensive U.S. criminal code revision since the early 1900s; it reinstitutes the federal death penalty, provides for civil forfeiture of assets of organized crime, and incl. the U.S. Sentencing Reform Act, standardizing criminal sentences, but on the highest of high sides, eliminating parole and leaving judges no individual discretion, causing many shocking injustices; it also incl. the U.S. Armed Career Criminal Act is also passed, providing sentence enhancements for felons committing crimes with firearms with a three strikes provision; the net result is a doubling of the federal prison pop.
On Oct. 27, 1986 after giving a TV address on Sept. 14 along with his wife Nancy, Pres. Reagan signs the U.S. Anti-Drug Abuse Actof 1986 , which appropriates $1.7B to fight the drug trade, establishes mandatory sentences, and leads to a too-black prison pop. because of the disparity in sentencing between crack and powder cocaine; on Nov. 18, 1988 the U.S. Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 makes it worse; the 2010 U.S. Fair Sentencing Act reduces but doesn't eliminate the disparity - the perfect Republican program?
On Sept. 10, 1994 Frank Darabont's The Shawshank Redemption (Castle Rock Entertainment) (Columbia Pictures) debuts, based on Stephen King's 1982 novella "Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption", starring Tim Robbins as bank vice-pres. Andy Dufresne, who is framed for murder and sentenced to the "toughest prison in the Northeast", Shawshank State Penitentiary in Maine, where he meets new best friend Ellis Boyd "Red" Redding (Morgan Freeman) and cooks the books for corrupt Bible-thumping warden Samuel Norton (Bob Gunton) before escaping with the dough to a life of ease after almost 30 years of surviving brutality and homosexual rape while tunneling with a rockhound hammer in his cell behind a poster of Rita Hayworth; does $58M box office on a $25M budget; "Fear can hold you prisoner, hope can set you free."
In Nov. 1994 after Aryan Brotherhood leader Thomas Edward "Terrible Tom" "Tommy" Silverstein (1952-) proves too much for the guards at Marion Federal Penitentiary in Ill., Florence Supermax Federal Penitentiary (AKA ADX Florence) in Fremont County, Colo. opens for men only, becoming known as "the Alcatraz of the Rockies", breaking prisoners with complete isolation.
On Aug. 5, 1997 the U.S. Nat. Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 attempts to reform the Washington, D.C. criminal justice system, ordering the Lorton Reformatory in Va. to close by Dec. 31, 2001 while transferring 6.5K prisoners from the District of Columbia around the U.S. and having the U.S. atty. gen. appoint a corrections trustee for oversight.
In 2003 Big Sandy Federal Penitentiary near Inez in E Ky. 133 mi. from Frankfort and 320 mi. from Washington, D.C. opens to house people convicted of crimes in Washington, D.C., becoming known for prisoner stabbings.
In 2006 Eglin Federal Prison Camp at Eglin AFB in Fla. closes after gaining the nickname "Club Fed" for being too cushy.
In 2008 Silivri Prison in Silivri, Istanbul opens, becoming Turkey's most modern penal facility, and Europe's largest, housing 11K of Istanbul's 16K inmates under pink roofs.