|England||Ethelred II the Unready (968-1016)||978||1016|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||996||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE St. Henry II (973-1024)||1002||July 13, 1024|
|Papacy||Sergius IV (Peter Pig's Snout) (-1012)||1009||May 12, 1012|
1010 England under Ethelred II the Unready breaks down into anarchy: "At last there was not a chief man who would gather a force, but each fled as he best might; nor even at last would any shire assist another." (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) In Mar. after Melus of Bari (-1020) takes Ascoli and Troina, and kills Byzantine catapan John Curcua, pissed-off new catapan Basil Argyros Mesardonites (-1016), arrives and gathers a large army to fight him. On May 22 after fleeing to Toledo and obtaining the aid of Barcelona Count (since 992) Ramon Borrell (972-1017), his brother, Urgel (pr. ur-HELL) Count (since 992) Ermengol I (974-1010), and Bernard of Besalu, Muhammad II of Cordoba defeats the Berbers of Sulayman II al-Mustain (-1016) at the Battle of Aqabat al-Baqar, then defeats them again in June at the Battle of the Guadiaro River near Ronda, then reclaims Cordoba, supported by Slav Gen. Wadih; Catalonia is now safe from Moorish dominion; in July Muhammad II is assassinated, and Hisham II is restored as caliph by his followers (until 1013); on Sept. 1 Ermengol I dies after being wounded in Cordoba, and his 6-y.-o. son Ermengol II (the Pilgrim) (1004-38) becomes count #2 of Urgell (until 1038), with his uncle Ramon Borrell as regent (until 1018); never-say-die Sulayman II al-Mustain and his beaten Berbers encamp in Madinat al-Zahra and siege Cordoba for the next 2.5 years; meanwhile the city of Granada is destroyed. Ly Thai-To moves the Vietnamese capital from Hoa-Lu to La-Thanh, changing its name to Thang-Long (Ascending Dragon) (modern-day Hanoi), and the former "pacified south province" of China is kicking ass, with its own destiny. Leif Ericson's brother-in-law Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in Vinland with 60 men and five women (250 colonists?); Thorfinn's wife gives birth to a son, Snorri (sounds like Sneezy, Dopey, Sleepy?), the first lily-white Euro child born in America; the problem of too few women soon becomes apparent - and the solution is Skraeling poon? The English are defeated by the Vikings at the Battle of Ringmere in East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle laments that "not a chief man would gather a force" to fight for the incompetent king Aethelred. Robert II of France proclaims the "Peace and Truce of God". In this decade the dualistic Bogomils sect is established in Serbia. Nonfiction: Richer of St. Remy, Historia Remensis Ecclesiae. Firdawsi (939-1020), The Book of Kings (Shahs) (Shahnamah) (Shahnameh); the great epic poem of Persia, containing 60K couplets (double lines) (2,804 pages) about Persia's legendary history, incl. the Zoroastrian Adam Zayamurth (who reigns 700 years), and big hero Rustam, son of Zal, who serves three kings and retires at age 400, after which when he reaches 500 his daddy gives him a brother; also his equally long-lived horse Rakhsh, his love babe Tahmineh of Turkey, and their son Sohrab, who fights his father in war and is mortally wounded before they find out each other's identities; he spends 35 years on it; after Sultan Mahmud promises him a gold dinar for each couplet, then reneges and gives him silver dirhems instead, he gives the money to a bath attendant and sherbet seller and flees to Herat, hiding for 6 mo. in a bookshop, then holes-up with Prince Shariyar of Shirzad in Tabaristan; after he writes a bitter satire against the sultan, the prince pays 100K dirhems to buy and destroy it; he then goes to Baghdad, and writes Yusuf and Zuleika (Joseph and Potiphar's Wife), and returns to his hometown of Tus, after which 10 years later the sultan is taken by one of his couplets, learns who it is, and sends a caravan with 60K gold dinars worth of indigo and an apology, but as it enters Tus the poet's funeral is being held. Births: Spanish king of Leon (1028-37) Bermudo (Vermudo) III (d. 1037); son of Alfonso V and Elvira Mendes; last of the Peter of Cantabria line to rule Leon. Scottish king (1034-40) Duncan (Donnchad) ("Gael. brown warrior") I Mac Crinain (d. 1040); son of Crinan of Atholl (-1045) and Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II; cousin of Macbeth. Roman Byzantine emperor #? (1034-41) Michael IV the Paphlagonian (d. 1041) in Paphlagonia; husband (1034-41) of Empress Zoe (978-1050). German archbishop of Cologne (1056-75) (St.) Anno II (d. 1075); of the Swabian von Steusslingen family; educated at Bamberg; canonized in 1183. Deaths: Spanish count of Urgell (992-1010) Ermengol I (b. 974) on Sept. 1 in Castell de Bacar.
1011 On June 11 after sieging the rebels in Bari and forcing Melus of Bari and his son Dattus (Dattos) to flee, catapan Basil Mesardonites enters Bari and reestablishes Byzantine authority, and sends the family of Melus of Bari to Constantinople; in Oct. he allies with Prince Guaimar III of Salerno (who simultaneously protects Melus?), then visits Monte Cassino and talks abbot Atenulf (brother of Pandulf IV of Capua) into expelling Dattus, who flees to papal territory, where Pope Benedict VIII gives him a fortified tower on the Garigliano River. On July 25 emperor (since 986) Ichijo (b. 980) dies, and in 1016 his 2nd son Go-Ichijo (Atsuhira) (1008-36) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #68 (until 1036). On Sept. 8-29 after raiding England again, the Danes siege and sack Canterbury, taking Canterbury archbishop St. Aelfheah (-1012) POW for 7 mo. (until Apr. 19); meanwhile Ethelred II invades S Wales, but the Canterbury V causes him to sue for peace again, and give them more Danegeld. On Dec. 15 Conrad I (b. 975) dies, and since his 8-y.-o. son Conrad II (b. 1003) is too young, Adalbero of Eppenstein (980-1030) becomes duke of Carinthia (until 1035). Anthony Pechersky of Kiev (the Caves) (983-1073) is sent to Kiev to continue its conversion to Christianity and expand monasticism, becoming known as "the Father of Russian Monasticism". There is a Jewish pogrom (Russ. "riot") in Muslim Camelot Cordoba. Bedfordshire (Beda's Ford") in EC England is first mentioned. The Handkerchief of St. Veronica is given its own special altar in Rome. The year (13-Reed) that the 5th and last Sun (creation of the world) occurs for the Aztecs. Nonfiction: Alhazen (965-1038), Book of Optics (7 vols.) (1011-21); written in a dark cell under house arrest in Cairo; reverses Aristotle, who taught that light is physical, and Ptolemy, who taught that the eye emits light, with the experimental discovery that some objects are sources of primary light (which travels in straight lines) that are reflected by other objects; first accurate description of the camera obscura and pinhole camera; computes the height of the Earth's atmosphere as 49 mi. (real value 50 mi.) Births: Hungarian king (1038-41, 1044-6) Stephen Otto Orseolo (Urseolo) (d. 1059) in Venice, Italy; son of doge Ottone Orseolo of Venice and Mary of Hungary (daughter of Stephen I). French duke of Burgundy (1032-76) Robert I Capet (d. 1076); son of Robert II (972-1031); brother of Henry I (1008-60). Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #66 (986-1011) Ichijo (b. 980) on July 25. German archbishop (of Mainz) St. Willigis (b. ?); feast day: Feb. 23.
1012 On Apr. 12 Jaromir is deposed by his brother Oldrich (Ulrich) (975-1034), who becomes duke of Bohemia (until 1034) and recognizes the suzerainty of the HRE, then dumps his barren wife and marries the peasant woman Bozena. On Apr. 19 after refusing ransom to be paid for him, St. Aelfheah is killed by the Vikings in Greenwich on the future site of St. Alfege's Church, becoming the first Canterbury archbishop to die a violent death, and Lyfing (-1020) becomes Canterbury archbishop #30 (until June 12, 1020); Ethelred II pays the Danes another 24 tons of Danegeld; Thorkel the Tall switches sides to Ethelred, protecting London from Svein Forkbeard in return for his own Danegeld, which he gives part of to Ulf of Sweden? On May 12 Pope (since 1009) Sergius IV dies, along with the head of the Crescentii clan, giving the rivals their chance, and on May 18 Count Theophylact of Tusculum (son of Count Gregory of Tusculum) is elected Pope (#144) Benedict VIII (-1024), becoming the first of the Tusculan popes, although he is a layman (being a count counted?); meanwhile on May 18 layman Antipope Gregory VI is crowned by a small faction, claiming to have been crowned first, and after being expelled from Rome he goes to see HRE Henry II, who promises to look into his case while stripping him of his papal insignia. Murchad, son of Irish high king Brian Boru of Munster curses Maelmordha, king of Leinster for giving advice to his opponent in chess, then opens old wounds by referring to his 999 defeat, saying, "How wonderfully you advised the Norsemen that day they were smashed by us at Glenn Mama", pissing him off and causing him to reply, "I'll advise them again, but this time the outcome will be different", to which Murchad snipes, "Be sure and have a yew tree ready", causing Maelmordha to stomp out of Boru's court and begin a revolt of the N kings (ends 1014). The Taifa of Almeria under Jayran (Jairan) declares independence from the caliphate of Cordoba (until 1091), becoming known for its fine harbor and silk industry complete with 5K looms; it later fights with the Taifa of Seville (1023-91). The first persecution of heretics in Germany begins. Architecture: Heinrich Cathedral in Bamberg (begun 1004) is finished. Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo (begun 990) is finished by Fatimid caliph al-Aziz. Nonfiction: Bishop Burchard (OE "castle strong") of Worms (-1026) begins writing the 20-vol. Decretum, a collection of canon law. Deaths: African Muslim ascetic theologian-mystic al-Qabisi (b. 936). English Canterbury archbishop #29 St. Aelfheah (b. 954) on Apr. 19 in Greenwich (murdered).
1013 - The Vikings take over England and throw the Anglo-Saxons into the arms of the far worse Normans?
1013 Danish king Svein (Sweyn) (Swegen) Haraldsson Forkbeard (d. 1014) and his pagan son Knut Sveinsson, AKA Canute (Cnut) (Knut) II (995-1035) ("knot") invade England, and, supported by the people of the Old Danelaw, advance across Watling St., causing Ethelred II to flee with his wife Emma of Normandy to the court of his brother-in-law Richard II of Normandy; in late Dec. Svein is crowned king of the restored Danelaw, and the Danes become masters of England, undoing the work of Alfred the Great (until 1042). In May Cordoba surrenders to the Berbers, who sack it, and proclaim Sulayman II al-Mustain as caliph again (until 1016); Hisham II disappears soon after; during all the commotion there is a big slaughter of Jews in Cordoba, caused by their intervention in fights for the caliphate. In late summer Maelmordha of Leinster takes refuge from Brian Boru's forces with Viking king Sigtrygg in fortified Dublin, and are sieged until Christmas, when Brian's army disperses for the winter, allowing Sigtrygg to sail N to the Viking-held Western Isles looking for allies, and finding reinforcements from as far as Russia, incl. Jarl (Earl) Sigurd the Mighty (Stout) of Orkney, and Brodir of the Isle of Man (with 20 ships); Brodir's partner Ospak joins Brian. A multitude of Catholic relics is allegedly found in Arras, right after Duke Richard II the Good of Normandy issues a letter claiming that the world is about to end? The Romanesque Church of San Miniato al Monte in Florence, Tuscany on the site of an 8th cent. shrine to St. Miniato (Minas) (an Armenian prince who became a martyr under 3rd cent. Roman emperor Decius) is begun by Bishop Alibrando as a Benedictine monastery, endowed by HRE Henry II; it later passes to the Cluniacs followed in 1373 by the Olivetans. Births: Norman prince of Salerno (1027-52) Guaimar IV (d. 1052); eldest son of Guaimar III (984-1027) and Gaitelgrima (daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento); father of Gisulf II (-1090). Deaths: Spanish Muslim physician Al-Qasim (Abulcasis) (b. 936); leaves the 30-vol. Kitab al-Tasrif (The Method of Medicine), the leading Euro medieval textbook on surgery till the Renaissance.
1014 On Feb. 3 five weeks after occupying the English throne and one day after his Polish wife Princess Gunhild Swietoslava dies, Svein Forkbeard (b. 960) falls off his horse and dies in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and his son Canute (Cnut) I (995-1035) is proclaimed king of England by the Danish fleet then ravaging the country; meanwhile the Witan summons Ethelred II to England from exile in Normandy, and he gets the help of Christian Viking (St.) Olaf (Olav) II Haraldsson (995-1030), forcing Canute to flee to Denmark after burning down the wooden London Bridge to divide the Danish forces. On Feb. 14 after Henry II goes on his 2nd Italian campaign and expels Gregory VI in favor or Benedict VIII, the latter crowns him HRE in Rome (until July 13, 1024), and Henry II gets the Nicene Creed inserted together with the filioque clause into the Roman Mass, going on to become the only German king to be canonised. Pass the shillelaghs? On Apr. 23 (Good Friday) 73-y.-o. Irish (Dal Cais) high king Brian Boru (b. 940) (pr. BRAN boh-ROO) of Munster with an army of 20K from Munster, the Midlands and S Connacht defeats the Norse and Leinster Irish at the Battle of Clontarf Plain near Dublin, breaking Norse power in Ireland forever, although they still dominate some cities; Boru has a shield wall formed around him because he won't use a weapon on Good Friday, letting his son Murchad, grandson Toirdelbach (b. 999) and cousin Conaing take command, and later begins praying in a tent in Tomar's Wood; after the Banshee of Dalcais Aibell warns him and he ignores it, Brian is murdered in his tent behind the lines after his big V when his men go off pursuing fugitives by loose Dane Brodir of Man, despite Brian's young son Tadg trying to protect him, cutting off the boy's arm and the king's head; Brodir and his companions are captured and executed by being tied to a tree with their own intestines; Jarl Sigurd, Dubhgall and Maelmordha are KIA, and no Viking of rank is left alive; Brian's younger brother Malachy (-1022) becomes Irish high king; Brian's grandson Toirdelbach drowns, his nephew Conaing is KIA, and his son Murchad dies the next morning of a wound; total losses are 6.7K Vikings, 1.1K Leinstermen, and 4K of Brian's men; Sigtrygg continues to rule Dublin until 1034; no foreign Scandinavian army fights on Irish soil for the next cent. and a half; Ireland falls into anarchy as the O'Brians of Munster (S Ireland)), the O'Neils of Ulster (N Ireland), and the O'Connors of Connacht (Connaught) (W Ireland) begin a struggle for supremacy - slainte? On May 7 Bagrat III (b. 960) dies, and his son George (Giorgi) I (998-1027) becomes king of Georgia (until Aug. 16, 1027), going on to wage a bloody unsuccessful war against the Byzantines. The mother and child reunion is only a motion away, or It's time for a good spring cleaning of loose burgers? On July 29 Byzantine Emperor Basil II the About-to-Be-Bulgar-Slayer outmaneuvers "invincible" tsar (since 997) Samuel I (-1014) and separates him from his force, then scores a big V at the Battle of Balathista (Belasitsa) Kleidion (Klidi) Pass on the Struma River near Serres (Seres) (Serrai) (Serai) on the N end of Lake Akihinou about 40 mi. NE of Salonika, gaining the W part of Bulgaria; Bulgar Slayer Basil II takes 15K POWs, blinds 99 out of every 100 of them, then blinds one eye of the 100th so he can lead the others home, sending them back to the Bulgarian capital of Ochrid (Ohrida) (Ochrida) (Achrida) (modern-day Ohrid) on Macedonia Lake in SW Macedonia (known for having 365 churches, causing it to be known as "the Jerusalem of the Balkans"), where shocked Samuel faints at the er, sight, and dies two days later on Oct. 6 of sorrow (stroke?) at Prespa in Macedonia, ending his 34-year reign; Basil II gives thanks to the Virgin Mary in Athens, then celebrates a triumph in Constantinople; Samuel's son Gabriel (Gavril) Radomir (Romanus) (970-1015) becomes tsar of Blind Bulgaria (until Aug. 1015), and tries to make peace, conceding the spoils and the Byzantine monopoly on the silk trade - where's my quill, I can't find it? On Sept. 28 (St. Michael's Eve) a great sea flood swamps much of England, engulfing settlements farther inland than any previous flood and drowning thousands. Boniface III (985-1052), lord (since 1007) of Canossa, Brescia, Florence, Verona, Mantua, Pisa et al. assists HRE Henry II in putting down self-style king of Italy (since 1002) Arduin, Margrave of Ivrea (955-1015); in 1027 he becomes margrave of Tuscany, going on to father Matilda of Canossa in 1046. Berber chief Zawi ibn Ziri (-1019), leader of the Sanhaja confederation and a member of the Tunisian royal family makes Granada his capital, founding the independent kingdom of Granada, which lasts for five cents. (until 1492). In Feb. Pandulf III the Old dies, and his son Landulf V (-1053) becomes prince of Benevento, while his nephews Pandulf (Pandulph) (Pandolf) IV (-1050) (AKA the Wolf of the Abruzzi) and Pandulf II the Black (the Young) (985-1022) (son of Landulf VII of Capua) become joint princes of Capua (until 1022). Rajaraja I dies, and his son Rajendra Choladeva (-1042) becomes king of the Chola dynasty in S India, and begins another invasion of Ceylon (ends 1017). Hammad ibn Buluggin (d. 1028) of Algeria recognizes the Abbassid caliphate in Baghdad, splitting with his Zirid family to the E, who recognize the Fatamids in Egypt, and causing them to try to rein him back in, but he holds them off, arranging a cease-fire in 1016 and gaining recognition of his independence in 1018. Avicenna arrives at the court of emir Majd al-Dawla in Jabal. Archbishop Wulfstan preaches the Latin homily Wulfstan's Address to the English. The Holmgang ("go to a small island") (3-7 day fight to the death for an insult to one's honor) is outlawed in Norway. Nonfiction: Abhinavagupta (950-1020), Greater Commentary on the Pratyabhijna Darshana. Novels: Japanese baroness Lady Murasaki (973-1031), who was widowed in 1001 by the death of her husband Nobutaka Fujiwara and became lady-in-waiting to empress Akiko in Kyoto writes The Tale of Genji (Genji Monogatari) to entertain her, about Hikaru ("Shining") Prince Genji (most handsome and sexually irresistible man on Earth) and his adventures in upper class society, becoming the world's first full novel; Prince Genji is modeled after Minamoto no Toru (822-95). Births: Hungarian king (1047-61) Andras (Andrew) I Arpad (d. 1060); son of Vazul; grandson of Michael; older brother of Bela I. Arabian Andalusian geographer-historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (d. 1094) in Huelva; lives in Cordoba. Bulgarian tsar (997-1014) Samuel (Samuel) (b. ?) on Oct. 6 in Prespa, Macedonia (grief?) (stroke?). Deaths: Georgian king (1008-14) Bagrat III (b. 960) on May 7.
1015 On July 15 Vladimir I the Saint (b. 858) dies after being crowned grand prince of Rus on June 11 (sad that Jeezy didn't come?), and his son Sviatopolk I (the Accursed) (980-1019) becomes king of Kiev (until 1019); his brothers Yaroslav I (978-1054), Mstislav (-1036), Boris (-1015), and Gleb (-1015) begin a war for the throne (ends 1019). Canute returns to England with a large fleet and conquers Wessex. (St.) Olaf II Haraldsson (995-1030) becomes king of Norway (until 1028), and restores Norwegian independence from the Danes, along with Christianity, ending up as Norway's patron saint - good morning angels; good morning Olaf? The Arabs conquer Sardinia. The Banu Hammad led by the Zirid gov. of E Algeria revolt from the Fatimids, and found the Hammadid Dynasty in C and E Algeria (ends 1152). Malcolm II takes advantage of the death of Jarl Sigurd the Once Mighty of Orkney to help his young grandson (Sigurd's successor) Thorfinn (the Mighty) Sigurdsson (1009-64). This year and next Ramon Borrell of Barcelona makes expeditions to the Ebro and Segre Rivers, gaining booty to insure the loyalty of his barons, and becomes the first Catalan ruler to mint his own coins. After exploring Long Island, the Hudson River, and possibly Chesapeake Bay, Thorfinn Karlsefni and his Viking settlers return from Vinland to Greenland because of hostile Skraelings (Indians) (Alonquins, probably of the extinct Micmac or Beothuk tribe?) and/or the problem of too few white women (or vice-versa?); did some of the Norsemen move inland to Ontario? A plague is recorded in Leinster, Ireland. The Slav settlement of Leipzig (Slav "lipa" = lime tree) (founded before 1000?) is first mentioned as "Urbs Lipzi" in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar von Mersenburg. The duchy of Burgundy in the NW part of the old Merovingian territory becomes a French Capetian possession (until 1363). Benevento institutes the Communitas, the first municipal self-govt. The Bitola Inscription records info. about Bulgarian tsar Samuel. Architecture: About this time Strasbourg Cathedral de Notre-Dame begins to be built in the pate de foie gras-producing river port of Strasbourg (Strassburg) 2 mi. W of the Rhine River 90 mi N of Basel and 350 mi. SE of Paris (founded by the Romans in the 1st cent. C.E.); Bishop (since 1001) Werner I of Strasbourg lays the first stone. Music: Sight singing is introduced at Pomposa Monastery near Ravenna, Italy. Births: English king (1035-40) Harold Harefoot (d. 1040); son of Canute (-1035) and Aelgifu (995-1040). Deaths: Russian (Kievan) grand prince St. Vladimir I (b. 858) on July 15 in Berestovo. Norwegian king Eric of Lade (b. ?).
1016 An earthquake in Jerusalem causes the Muslim Dome of the Rock to collapse; it is rebuilt in 1022 by Caliph al-Hakim. On Apr. 23 Ethelred II of England (b. 968) dies in London, and Canute, who has captured all of England except London gets a rump Witan to choose him as the new king, while the citizens of London proclaim his son Edmund II (Ironside) (988-1016) as the 15th monarch of England, causing Canute to siege London twice and fight five battles, first getting defeated at the Battle of Oxford in Kent, then (bearing a cool white silk flag embroidered with a raven) decisively kicking Ironside's ashcan on Oct. 18 at the Battle of Ashingdon (Assandun) in Essex, resulting in the Treaty of Olney, spliting England between them, like in the time of Alfred the Great; on Nov. 30 Edmund (b. 988) dies (murdered with a sword up his ashcan in the lavatory?), leaving Canute as sole ruler of England, ruling from London, his first act being to order the execution of some of the more pesky English chiefs and banish Edmund's two young sons, Edmund Aetheling (1016), who dies in Wessex, and Edward Aetheling the Exile (1017-57), who is sent to the court of King Olof Skotkonung in Sweden and ordered murdered, but lucks out and gets secretly sent to Kiev, ending up in Hungary, then recalled to England by Edward the Confessor and made his heir. Gabriel Radomir (b. 970) is murdered by his cousin, and John (Ivan) Vladislav (Ladislaus) (-1018) becomes Bulgarian tsar (-1018), continuing the doomed war against the Byzantines; meanwhile the Byzantines ally with Mstislav of Chernigov and invade the Crimea, then capture Khazar warlord (Jewish?) George (Georgius) Tzul (based in Kerch), giving them control of the S Crimea. Berber caliph Sulayman II al-Mustain is deposed and executed in Cordoba by a Berber gen. - what Kingdom of Cordoba? In Tunisia Sunnis, mainly in urban areas riot against Shiite control of the state (ends 1017). The new Drano Family of Italy? After his brother Osmond Drengot (985-1018) is exiled by Richard I of Normandy for murdering his relative William Repostel in revenge for sleeping with one of his daughters, and Rainulf (Ranulf) Drengot (de Quarrel) (-1045) accompanies him along with other brothers Gilbert Buatere Drengot (985-1018), Asclettin Drengot, 1st Count of Acerenza, and Rudolph (Ralph) Drengot, plus 250 Norman warriors to S Italy on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Michael the Archangel in Mount Gargano in Apulia, where they set up a fort and join forces with Melus of Bari, becoming anti-Byzantine mercenaries (until 1030). Like Thorkel in 1012, Canute makes his Danegeld payment to Ulf, father of Karsi and Gerbjorn, which is recorded on the Borrestad Memorial Stone at Yttergarde, Uppland, Sweden. Anselan Okyan, king of S Ulster arrives in Scotland at Argyllshire, and is put in the service of the king against the Danes, becoming the first lord of Buchanan on Loch Lomondside. Births: Polish king (1034-58) Casimir (Casimire) (Kazimierz) (Kazimir) (Slav. "bringing peace") I (the Restorer) (d. 1058). Hungarian Arpad king (1061-3) Bela I (d. 1063); 3rd son of Duke Vazul (-1037); younger brother of Andras I (1014-61). Births: English heir apparent Edward Aetheling (the Exile) (d. 1057); son of Edmund II Ironside (988-1016) and Ealdgyth. Polish Piast duke (1040-58) Casimir I (the Restorer) (d. 1058) in Crakow; son of Mieskzo II (990-1934) and Richensa of Lotharingia (995-1063) (granddaughter of HRE Otto I); father of Boleslaus II the Bold (1038-81). Norwegian king (1045-66) Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) Sigurdsson (d. 1066). Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (Lat. "the Fox"), Duke of Apulia (d. 1085); brother of Roger Guiiscard; husband (1058-) of Sikelgaita of Lombardy (1040-90); father of Bohemund I de Hauteville (1058-1111), Roger Guiscard, and Roger Borsa (1060-1111). Indian Buddhist master Naropa (d. 1100). Deaths: English king (978-1016) Ethelred II (b. 968) on Apr. 23 in London. English king (1016) Edmund II Ironside (b. 988) on Nov. 30 in London (Oxford?); Canute's agents hide beneath a lavatory and thrust a sword up his arse, assassinating him?
1017 In Jan. the Witan acknowledges Canute (Cnut) the Great (995-1035) as king of all England (16th English monarch) (until 1035); he divides his kingdom into four earldoms: Northumbria (Northumberland) (north), East Anglia (east), Mercia (central) and Wessex (south); he then does a chameleon act and goes from a mean to a nice guy, marrying Emma of Normandy, widow of Ethelred II the Unready (he's Eveready II?), and becomes a (Greek?) Christian, giving himself the title of Basileus, and never wearing his crown but instead hanging it on the head of a Christ on a crucifix (according to Henry of Huntingdon), and once ordering the sea back but getting his feet wet, saying "Let all men know how empty and worthless is the power of kings, for there is none worthy of the name but He whom heaven, earth and sea obey by eternal laws"; he chooses Danes as earls for the first three, but picks Saxon supporter Godwin (1001-53) for earl of Wessex; not wanting to play the conqueror, he sends his army home, keeping only a 3K-4K-man bodyguard known as the housecarles, and restores peace and prosperity to Merry Ole England; "Merry sang the monks at Ely as Cnut the king rowed by"; during Canute reign, the seaport of Bristol in W England becomes a center for the Irish wool trade - I like a good piece of what? In May after Melus of Bari, backed by the Norman force of Rainulf Drengot invades Apulia in a surprise attack, they defeat the Byzantine forces of new catapan Leo Tornikios Kontoleon on the Fortore River at Arenula, seize all the territory to the Trani River by Sept., and ravage Apulia while kicking Kontoleon's can in Civita and again at Vaccaricia (future site of Troia), causing him to be canned in Oct. in favor of Basil III Boioannes (-1027), who is backed by emperor Basil II's Varangian Guards and is much tougher. Henry II loses his struggle (begun 1003) with Boleslav I over Lusatia and Silesia. After returning to Constantinople for a triumph over his Crimean Vs, Basil II heads E and attacks the Persians over control of Armenia (a Byzantine tributary since 1000). Raymond Borrel (b. 972) dies, and his son Berenguer Ramon I (the Crooked) (the Hunchback) (1005-35) becomes count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona (until 1035), with his mother Ermesinde as regent (until 1023), who goes on to continue to rule with him as an adult, proving far more eager to go after pesky Muslims. Alfonso V and his wife Elvira (Geloria) Mendes grant the first franchises of Leon. Rajendra Choladeva finishes conquering Ceylon (begun 1014), this time taking the throne of Pandya. Births: German Salian king #2 (1028-56) and HRE (1045-56) Henry III (the Black) (the Pious) (d. 1056) on Oct. 28; eldest son of Conrad II (990-1930) and Gisela of Swabia (995-1043). Spanish king of Castile and Leon (1037-65) and all spain (1056-65) Ferdinand I (the Great) (d. 1065); son of Sancho III of Navarre (-1035). Italian marchioness Beatrice (Beatrix) of Bar (d. 1076); daughter of Duke Frederick II of Upper Lorraine (995-1026) and Matilda of Swabia; wife (1037-52) of Boniface III of Tuscany (985-1052) and Duke Godfrey of Lower Lorraine (997-1069); mother of Matilda of Tuscany (1046-1115). Greek Byzantine Platonist philosopher Michael Psellos (Psellus) (d. 1079). Deaths: Japanese Buddhist priest-theologian Eshin Sozu (b. 942); leaves Collection on the Essentials for Attaining Birth (Ojo Yo Shu). Spanish count of Barcelona (992-1017) Ramon Borrell (b. 972).
1018 On Oct. 1 the Second Battle of Cannae on the Ofanto River near Cannae in SE Italy (site of Hannibal's big V in 216 B.C.E.) is a V for the Byzantines under gen. Basil III Boioannes over the rebel Lombards of Melus of Bari and his 250 Norman knight allies, reestablishing the Byzantines in S Italy; Rainulf Drengot's brothers Gilbert and Osmond are KIA, and only 10 Normans survive; Melus flees back to Amatus in the papal territory, while his son Dattus flees back to his tower; Boioannes goes on to build a fortress in the Appenines guarding the entrance to Apulia, and garrison Troia with his own Norman troops, obtaining the submission of all of the Mezzogiorno except the duchy of Benevento, which remains faithful to the pope; meanwhile Melus ends up wandering to the court of Henry II in Bamberg, Germany, where he is given the title of duke of Apulia, and Rainulf withdraws to Campania, where he plays both ends against the middle for mercenary money, "never desiring any of the Lombards to win a decisive victory, in case this should be to his own disadvantage, but by supporting one side and then the other, he prevented anyone being completely ruined". The Byzantines under Basil II the Bulgar Slayer finish off the last pesky Bulgarians at the Battle of Dyrrhachium (modern-day Durazzo or Durres) on the Albanian coast, killing John Vladislav, who only has young sons, causing the Bulgar leaders to throw in the towel; Byzantium regains Macedonia, and incorporates Bulgaria into the empire, with themes (governors) in Bulgaria and Paristrium, ending the First Bulgarian Empire; for the next 168 years Bulgaria is integrated into the Byzantine empire (until 1185); the Bulgarian patriarchate is abolished, but the archbishop of Okhrid retains autonomy; the Bulgarian aristocracy moves to Constantinople and merges into the leading Greek families; the Byzantines restore their ancient Danube River for the first time in four cents.; Big Man Basil II celebrates a triumph in Athens before returning to Constantinople. Malcolm II of Alba (Scotland), allied with King Owen (Ywain) the Bald of Strathclyde defeats the Northumbrian Saxons at the Battle of Carham on the Tweed River, confirming his absorption of the Anglo-Saxon district of Lothian N of the Tweed, leaving only Strathclyde, whose king soon dies from wounds received in the battle, allowing him to absorb it too, dividing mainland Britain into two major monarchies - now if they can just keep it that way? Canute levies a heavy Danegeld on England which he uses to pay off his Danish warriors; meanwhile his brother King Harald of Denmark dies, and he goes to secure his hold over that kingdom, becoming king of both England and Denmark; England's 16th king becomes its first emperor, with a great northern empire rivaling the HRE; the Council of Oxford is held, and Canute confirms the laws of Edgar - Copenhagen, Anglia, come on pretty momma? Henry I dies, and Adalbert the Victorious (-1055) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1055). The war between Germany and Poland (begun 1004) ends with the Treaty of Bautzen, whereby Boleslav I gives up Bohemia but keeps Lusatia as an imperial fief, making Poland one of the strongest states of Europe; Boleslav I conquers part of Prussia and converts some of the tribes, but the main body stays proudly pagan until the 1230s. Holland on the North Sea coast becomes independent of Lorraine, with its own count. The Muslims invade India; the sacred Indian city of Muttra is pillaged by Mahmud of Ghazni - don't touch my muttra? The Khitans of Manchuria invade Koryo (Korea) for the 3rd time since 993, and are bloodily repulsed. Heribert (970-1021) becomes archbishop of Milan, setting up the carroccio (arc of municipal patriotism), expanding Milan's power on the Lombard plain. Architecture: The Brihadisvara (Bridadisvara) Rasvamin Temple in Tangore, India is built. Births: Danish king (1040-2) and English king (1040-2) Hardicanute (Harthacanut) (Dan. "tough knot") (Canute III) (d. 1042) in England (not to be confused with Tippecanoe and Tyler too?); son of Canute (995-1035) and Emma of Normandy. Georgian Bagrationi king (1027-72) Bagrat IV (d. 1072); son of George I (998-1027) and 1st wife Mariam of Vaspurakan. Seljuk statesman-writer Nizam al-Mulk (d. 1092). Deaths: Spanish count of Barcelona (992-1017) Raymond Borrel (b. 972). German bishop-chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg (b. 975) on Dec. 1. Scottish (Strathclyde) king Owen (Ywain) the Bald in Carham (KIA).
1019 Vladimir I's son Yaroslav (Jaroslav) (Russ. "beauty of spring") I (the Wise) (978-1054) becomes the most powerful grand prince of Kiev so far, and begins building Russia up and codifying its laws, promulgating the first written code (under Byzantine influence), the Russkaya Pravda (Russian Truth); his last surviving brother Mstislav of Chernigov (-1036) is given the territory E of the Dnieper River until his death. Nonfiction: Anon., Life of St. Goueznou. Births: Indian mathematician-astronomer-astrologer Sripati (d. 1066). Chinese scholar, statesman, and #1 historian Ssu-ma Kuang (Sima Guang) (d. 1086) in Yucheng, Shanxi.