|England||Canute I the Great (995-1035)||1016||Nov. 12, 1035|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||Dec. 30, 987||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE St. Henry II (973-1024)||June 7, 1002||July 13, 1024|
|Papacy||Benedict VIII (-1024)||May 18, 1012||Apr. 9, 1024|
1020 On June 12 Lyfing dies, and Aethelnoth (Ethelnoth) (Egelnodus) (Ednodus) (the Good) (-1038) becomes Canterbury archbishop #31 (until Oct. 29, 1038). On June 15 after a siege, Byzantine catapan of Italy (1017-27) Gen. Basil Boioannes (Bugiano), aided by Pandulf IV of Capua captures the fortress tower of Dattus (Datto), brother-in-law of Melus of Bari (-1020) on the Garigliano River, then has him tied in a sack with a monkey, rooster, and snake and tossed into the sea; meanwhile on ? (Easter) Pope Benedict VIII arrives in Bamberg, Germany to request aid from HRE Henry II, seeing exiled Melus of Bari die a broken man, and giving him a lavish funeral and tomb in the new Bamberg Cathedral; to get even for Dattus, Henry II sends a large army next year to get even. Pisa annexes Corsica. Canute conquers ever-wild Scotland, becoming the first king of a united realm of England, bringing 20 years of peace; the Faroes, Shetlands, and Orkneys recognize Olaf Haraldsson as king. The Council of Leon, comprised of nobles and bishops is formed as a nat. parliament, granting to the city of Leon a charter of self-govt., making it the first autonomous commune in medieval Europe; it goes on to grant charters to other cities to raise funds to fight the Muslims. Armenian king (since 989) Gagik I dies, and his eldest son Hovhannes-Smbat (Sembat) III becomes Bagratid king of Armenia (Ani), but is dethroned next year by his brother Ashot IV Qadj (the Brave) (-1040), but they strike a compromise where Smbat II rules the area around the capital (until 1040) and Ashot IV rules the areas toward Persia and Georgia (until 1039); too bad, they keep fighting, weakening the whole kingdom. Duke Bernard II of Saxony rebels. Architecture: Pope Benedict VIII consecrates Bamberg Cathedral. The Crypt of Chartes Cathedral is built. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple ("Great God of the Cave") in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India is completed by King Vidhyadhara of the Chandela Dynasty. Births: French Norman earl (1067-) William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford (d. 1971); relative of William I the Conqueror. English long-haired bareback riding babe Lady Godiva (Godgifu) ("God's gift") (d. 1080); wife of Earl Leofric III of Mercia (968-1057) - dirty old man cradle-robber? Italian archdeacon of Aosta (founder of the Great St. Bernard Hospice) (St.) Bernard of Menthon (Montjoux) (d. 1081) in Chateau de Menthon, Savoy County. Norman priest (chaplain of Duke William of Normandy) and historian William of Poitiers (d. 1090); trained as a knight. Chinese "Early Spring" landscape painter Guo Xi (Kuo Hsi) (d. 1090) in Henan Province. Chinese polymath scientist-statesman Su Song (Zirong) (d. 1101) near Quanzhou. Deaths: Norwegian Vinland vacationer Leif Ericsson (b. ?). Persian "Shahnama" poet Firdawsi (b. 939); his 1,000th birthday is celebrated worldwide in 1934. English abbot Aelfric of Eynsham (b. 955); leaves Homilies, denying the Immaculate Birth of the Virgin Mary and the Roman doctrine of Transubstantiation, and Heptateuch (Gr. "seven books"), a trans. of the first seven books of the Old Testament and the Book of Job. Bavarian duke (1101-20) Welf II/V (b. 1072) on Sept. 24; dies without heirs. Lombard leader Melus of Bari (b. ?) in Bamberg, Germany.
1021 Europe is plagued by a St. Vitus' Dance epidemic this year. HRE Henry II goes on his 3rd Italian campaign and sieges Byzantine-held Troia, but the town holds out, and happy Gen. Boioannes grants it privileges for its loyalty. Basil II kicks Persian butt and wins control of Armenia for the first time in two cents.; he then builds a strongly-fortified frontier, which the Seljuk Turks later knock down through incompetence of his successors. Caliph Al-Hakim bi Amr al-Lah (b. 985) vanishes during a nighly walk near Cairo after his half-Muslim half-Christian sister Sitt al-Mulk (970-1023) has him assassinated by her lover Gen. Ibn Daws, after which she has her boy nephew Ali az-Zahir (Abu'l Hasan 'ali az-Zahir li A'zaz li Din-ilah) (1005-36) installed as Fatimid caliph #7 (until June 13, 1036), then stabs Daws in the back, reneging on her promise of power-sharing by having him executed for murder, installing herself as regent and de facto caliph; despite his cruelty, the Druzes claim Al-Hakim as the hidden imam who will one day return. Births: Chinese Song Dynasty poet-statesman Wang-Anshi (An-Shih) (d. 1086) in S China. Spanish Neo-Platonic philosopher-poet (Jewish) Solomon (Shelomo) ben Yehuda (Judah) ibn Gabirol (AKA Avicebron) (d. 1070) (b. 1022?) in Malaga, Cordoba; raised in Zaragoza; originator of the doctrine that all things incl. intellect and soul are composed of matter and form, emphasizing the divine will. Deaths: German archbishop (999-1022) Heribert of Cologne (b. 970) on Mar. 16 in Cologne. Egyptian Fatimid caliph #6 (986-1021) Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (b. 985) on Feb. 13.
1022 HRE Henry II of Germany takes Apulia in S Italy away from the Greeks, then goes on a pilgrimage to Garganus, where an angel allegedly causes a hip injury; meanwhile he sends a detachment under Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne to take Capua, which captures pesky Pandulf IV and installs Count Pandulf of Teano, who becomes Prince Pandulf V of Capua in his place (until 1026); Pandulf IV is saved from execution when Pilgrim intervenes on his behalf with Henry II, and he is sent to imprisonment in Germany instead (until 1024). Iceland enters into its first treaty with a foreign country when it makes an agreement with King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway concerning the rights of Icelanders in Norway and Norwegians in Iceland. The remains of the Venerable Bede are stolen from Jarrow by a monk named Aelfred, the sacrist at Durham Cathedral to put alongside the remains of St. Cuthbert and increase revenues. A group of heretics in the French city of Orleans become among the first in W Europe to be executed. The Synod of Pavia insists on celibacy for the higher clergy. Architecture: Hollingsworth Manor in Cheshire, England is built. The Goa Gajah (Elephant Cave) in Bali is built. Births: English Anglo-Saxon king #20 (last) (1066) Harold II Godwinson (Godwinsson) (d. 1066); son of Earl Godwin (1001-1053) of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdotir (sister-in-law of Canute the Great); brother of Sweyn (1020-52), Edith of Wessex (1025-75), Tostig (1026-66), Gyrth (1032-66), Leofwine (1035-66), and Wulfnoth (-1094). Deaths: Greek theologian St. Symeon (b. 949). German bishop St. Bernward of Hildesheim (b. 960) on Nov. 20. Swedish king Eric the Saint. French monk Notker Teutonicus of St. Gallen; leaves translations of Boethius, Aristotle, and the Psalter.
1023 On Jan. 10 a solar eclipse is recorded in Britain, followed by a lunar eclipse on Jan. 24. Duke Richard II the Good of Normandy survives a shipwreck, and builds the Cote de Grace in gratitude - that's good of him? On Feb. 5 Sitt al-Mulk (b. 970) dies, and a group of her favorites takes power, causing the Fatimid state to descend into chaos, with famine and plague leading to anarchy. The Mirdasid Dynasty is founded in Aleppo and its hinterland (until 1079) by the N Syrian desert tribe of Banu Kilab (allied to the Fatimids), after defeating the Hamdanid Gen. Lu'lu' and his Turkish troops, who are backed by the Byzantines; the dynasty plays off the Fatmids and Byzantines and survives on diplomacy while bringing prosperity for half a cent. The Taifa of Seville declares independence from the caliphate of Cordoba (until 1091), with Abu al-Qasim (-1042), becoming ruler #1 Abbad I (until 1042), founding the Abbadid Dynasty (ends 1091), ruling from Seville and going on to start an expansion giving it most of S Spain, incl. Andalusia (except the SE corner) and Murcia by 1080, incl. the city of Cordoba. King Olaf christens Vang. Raoul Amaury d'Abbetot (d'Abitot) de Tancarville (b. 990), chamberlain of Normandy and later guardian of Egbert von Lüttich makes a systematic collection of German proverbs. Song Zhen Zong dies, and Song Ren Zong (Jen Chung) (-1064) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #4 of China. Architecture: Duke William of Normandy founds Boscherville Abbey. Births: Italian pope (1073-85) Gregory VII (Hildebrand of Sovana) (d. 1085) (b. 1015?) in Sovana, Tuscany. Deaths: Egyptian Fatimid regent Sitt al-Mulk (b. 970) on Feb. 5.
1024 On Apr. 9 Pope (since 1012) Benedict VIII dies, and in May his brother Romanus, another layman is elected Pope (#145) John XIX (-1032), becoming the first pope to grant an indulgence in return for alms bestowed - give a mouse a cookie and he'll ask for a glass of milk? On July 13 HRE Henry II of Germany (b. 973) dies, and Conrad (Konrad) (OG "courageous advice") II (the Salian) (the Salic) (990-1039), founder of the Salian (Franconian) Dynasty (ends 1125) is elected as his successor, being coronated on Mar. 26, 1027 (until June 4, 1039); the Saxon Dynasty (founded 963) ends, and the great imperial age of Germany begins; Conrad continues Henry II's policies, and nurtures the churches of Limburg and Speyer while using lay ministers of servile origin in many church admin. posts; at the request of Prince Guaimar III of Salerno, he releases Pandulf IV of Capua, hoping to make him his ally, but he turns around and sieges Capua with the help of Norman adventurer Rainulf Drengott (-1045), obtaining more help from Byzantine Gen. Boioannes next year (until 1026). Prince Boleslaus I (the Mighty) is crowned king of Poland officially a year before his death. Rajendra Chola I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty in S India invades and conquers Bengal, establishing a new capital near Trichinopoly and building a navy. Muslim Shiite Asad al-Daula Salih ibn Mirdas (-1029) becomes Mirdasid emir #1 of Aleppo (until 1029), founding a dynasty that rules 50+ years. The town of Yaroslavl in Russia at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl Rivers (160 mi. NE of Moscow) is founded. Births: Spanish count of Barcelona (1035-76) Ramon Berenguer I (the Old) (d. 1076); son of Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (1005-35) and Sancha Sanchez (daughter of Sancho I Garces of Castile). Russian grand prince of Kiev (1054-78) Iziaslav (Yiziaslav) I (d. 1078); eldest son of Yaroslav I the Wise and 2nd wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir. French abbot of Cluny (1049-1109) (St.) Hugh the Great (d. 1109) in Semur. Deaths: German Saxon king #5 (1002-24) and HRE (1014-24) St. Henry II (b. 973) on July 13.
1025 About this time settlers from West Polynesia begin arriving in the Marquesas Islands (until 1290). On Apr. 18 duke (since 992) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) I the Brave (Great) (Mighty) (b. 967) is crowned king of Poland, then dies on June 17, and on Dec. 25 and his son Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034) succeeds him as king of Poland (until 1031), but the feudal division of the domain among his brothers weakens the kingdom and invites neighboring rulers to take a piece - the beginning of Pollock jokes? On Dec. 15 after restoring much of S Italy to his control, and appointing Alexius Studites (-1043) as ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (until 1043), Byzantine emperor (since 963) Basil II (b. 958) dies while planning an expedition to recover Sicily, leaving the Byzantine Empire the dominant power of the Balkans and Middle East, with secure frontiers along the Danube, the Armenian highlands beyond the Euphrates; dying without leaving a male heir, his younger brother (his complete opposite, as tall and graceful as he was short and stocky, a luxury lover who would never live with the troops and subsist on their rations, and who avoids state business while appointing cruddy officials, who soon drop Basil's land reform laws and let the wealthy land-owning aristocrats go back to decentralizing authority (like in the Frankish Carolingian monarchy) Constantine VIII (960-1028) becomes sole Roman Byzantine emperor #141 (until Nov. 11, 1028),presiding over a final downturn in Byzantine power as the Muslim Seljuk Turks begin contracting them and softening them up for the Muslim Ottoman Turks - pass the olives and wine? Alexius becomes patriarch of Constantinople. Mahmud of Ghazni conquers the fabulously wealthy port city of Somnath in Prabhasa, Gujarat, India capturing the Somnath Temple after 50K faithful die trying to defend it, then personally hammering the golden lingam (phallus) to pieces, having the temple's stones carted back to Ghazni for use as the steps to his Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque). Gipuzkoa Province is Basque Country in N Spain is first mentioned, becoming the province where the Basque language is most extensively used in modern times. Nonfiction: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037), Al-Qanun fi at-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) (5 vols.); s ynthesizes Greek and Arab medicine, basing medicine on experiment and reason, dominating backward Western medicine until the mid-17th cent. Music: In 1025-6 Italian Benedictine monk Guido (Guy) d'Arezzo (991-1050) writes Micrologus ("short explanation"), introducing the 4-line staff and solmisation (u, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti) to music, whose syllables are taken from the initial syllables of the first six verses of the hymn to John the Baptist Ut Queant Laxis: "Ut queant laxis, Resonare fibris, Mira gestorum, Famuli tuorum, Solve polluti, Labii reatum"; Pope John XIX invites him to Rome to explain it to him. Births: German duke of Swabia (1057-79) and German anti-king (1077-80) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (d. 1080); son of Count Kuno of Rheinfelden; brother-in-law of Henry IV of Germany; husband of Matilda of Swabia, and Adelaide of Savoy. Armenian Cilicia prince #1 (1080-95) Ruben (Roupen) (Rupen) I (d. 1095). German count #2 of Hapsburg (1045-96) Werner I (the Pious) (d. 1096) (b. 1030?); son of Count Radbot of Hapsburg (Klettgau) (985-1045) and Ida de Lorraine (von Lothringen) (granddaughter of Hugh the Great); nephew of Bishop Werner of Strasbourg; ancestor of Rudolph I; husband (1057-) of Reginlinde of Nellenbourg (1027-90); father of Otto II (-1111) and Albert (Adalbert) (Albrecht) II. Deaths: Byzantine emperor (976-1025) Basil II the Bulgar Slayer (b. 958) on Dec. 15; buried in the Church of St. John the Evangelist in the Hebdomon Palace outside the walls of Constantinople; his grave is ravaged by Fourth Crusaders in 1204. Polish duke (992-1025) and king (1025) Boleslaus I the Mighty (b. 967) on June 17 in Cracow. German bishop (1000-25) Burchard of Worms (b. ?) on Aug. 20.
1026 This is the first year of the Kala Chakra time system of Tibet, which synchs up with the Indian system this year. Canute and Olaf fight the indecisive Battle of Holy River (Helgea) in Sweden; a V for Canute? Duke (since 1004) Henry V of Bavaria dies without an heir, and Conrad II makes his son Henry III the Black (the Pious) (1016-56) into Duke Henry VI of Bavaria. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-To orders the royal coin storehouses opened to help the poor. The Hoysala Empire in S India in modern-day Karnataka is founded (ends 1343), with capital at Belur, replacing the Sanskrit language with Kannada, and building many temples. Richard of St. Vaast leads a large pilgrimage to Jerusalem, anticipating the end of the world in 1033. Canute makes a pilgrimage to Rome (until 1026), sending his subjects a letter showing that he's just a soul whose intentions are good, and he never meant to take it out on you, blah blah - oh Lord don't let me be misunderstood? Copenhagen ("merchant's harbor") on Zealand and Amager Islands across the Oresund from Malmo, Sweden is first mentioned in documents. Births: Austrian Babenberg margrave (1055-75) Ernest the Brave (d. 1075); son of Adalbert the Victorious (b. 1055). The original Darth Helmet? English Norman king #1 (1066-87) and duke #6 of Normandy (1035-87) William (OG "will-helmet", "resolute protection") I (the Conqueror) (Duke William or Guillaume II the Bastard) (d. 1087) in Falaise; illegitimate son of Robert II the Devil (1000-35) and Herleva (Arlette) (Herlette), daughter of Falaise tanner Fulbert, causing his line to be known as the devil's brood, hatched from a she-devil?; brother of Adelaide of Normandy (1026-90); husband (1053-) of Matilda of Flanders (1031-83); father of Robert Curthose (1053-1134), William II Rufus (1057-1100) and Henry I (1068-1135) - how would you like to know that you're a bastard and your father is the devil, and 6-6-66 is coming up on your 40th birthday in 1066? German Benedictine mystic scholar-abbot William of Hirsau (Wilhelm von Hirschau) (d. 1091) (b. 1030?); writer on music theory and father of the Hirsau Reforms. Chinese astronomer Shen Kua (d. ?). Deaths: Chinese poet Lin Pu (b. 965).
1027 The first Peace and Truce of God (Pax Dei) in W Europe (a gen. truce among warring lords and factions, issued by the local clergy) is introduced in Catalonia during the reign of Ramon Berenguer I the Old of Barcelona. On Mar. 26 German king (since 1024) Conrad II the Salian (990-1039) is crowned HRE by Pope John XIX in Rome; attendees incl. Canute the Great, and Rudolf III of Burgundy. On Aug. 16 George I (b. 998) dies, and his son Bagrat IV (1018-72) becomes king of Georgia (until Nov. 24, 1072), going on to secure Georgian sovereignty from the Byzantines and Seljuks. Enter Duke William of Normandy, or, I like my babes tanned? On Aug. 28 Richard II the Good (b. 958) dies, and his son Richard III (997-1027) succeeds, but dies mysteriously, and his younger brother Robert II the Devil (the Magnificent) (1000-35) becomes duke #5 of Normandy (until 1035), the suspicions of fratricide giving him his nickname - let me introduce myself, I'm a man of wealth and fame? St. Stephen of Hungary conquers Slovakia from Poland. The Byzantines under gen. Constantine Diogenes (980-) drive the Patzinaks out of the Balkans and back over the Danube River. Hisham III (-1031) becomes the last Umayyad caliph of corroding Cordoba (until 1031). After eliminating his rivals, Iraqi-born Ali ibn Ahmad Jarjarai (-1045), whose hands were amputated by Caliph Al-Hakim in 1013 for opening letters of the secret service becomes Fatimid vizier (until Mar. 27, 1045). Boniface III/IV (985-1052) of the House of Canossa becomes margrave of Tuscany, adding to his titles of count of Modena, Reggio, Mantua, and Ferrara. Inventions: Lu Tao-lung of China invents the first odometer, an 8-wheeled cart that strikes a drum each li (third of a mi.) and rings a bell every 10 li. Nonfiction: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037), The Book of Healing (The Cure) (4 vols.), written to cure ignorance of the soul, dividing knowledge into logic, metaphysics, natural science, and math (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Wan Weiyi, The Illustrated Manual on Points for Acupuncture and Moxibustion; revises the locations of the acupuncture points. Deaths: Norman duke (996-1027) Richard II (b. 963) on Aug. 28. Georgian king (1014-27) George I (b. 998) on Aug. 16.
1028 On Apr. 14 (Easter Day) Henry III the Black (the Pious) (1016-56), son of Conrad II is crowned Salien king of Germany #2 in Aachen (until Oct. 5, 1056) by archbishop (1021-36) Pilgrim of Cologne (985-1036). On Aug. 7 king (since 999) Alfonso V the Noble (b. 994) is killed by an arrow while sieging the Muslim-held town of Viseu in N Portugal, and his son Bermudo (Vermudo) III (1010-37) becomes king of Leon (until Sept. 4, 1037), becoming the last king of the Perez Dynasty founded by Peter of Cantabria; in 1025 he is called emperor in Galicia. On Nov. 15 Constantine VIII (b. 960) dies childless, and 60-y.-o. Romanus III Argyrus (Romanos III Argyros) (968-1034) becomes Byzantine emperor #142 (until Apr. 11, 1034), marrying Constantine VIII's 50-y.-o. 3rd daughter Zoe (Gr. "life") Porphyrogenita (978-1050), becoming #1 of her three emperor husbands (Michael IV in 1034-41, Constantine IX in 1042-50), soon turning Romanus III off with her infertility and hooking up with courtier Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-41) and plotting to take the throne - talk about late bloomers? Power the ultimate aphrodisiac? Canute, king of England and Denmark conquers Norway from Olaf II, completing his northern empire and gaining control of the Baltic and North Sea - ding-a-ling come on it's lovely weather for a sleigh ride with yuse subjects? King Sancho III the Great of Navarre becomes count of Castile (until 1035). The Raumaus Tribe of Romerike in SE Norway battles King Olav Haraldsson. Later Ly Dynasty fuler (since 1009) Ly Thai To (b. 974) dies, and his posth. son Ly Phat Ma (Ly Thai Tong) (1000-54) becomes emperor of Vietnam, going through six reignal titles and proving himself a brilliant leader who knows how to work the bureaucracy and Buddhist clergy. Hammad ibn Buluggin dies, and Al-Qaid ibn Hammad (-1045) and Muhsin ibn Qaid (-1045) become rulers of Algeria, going on to reestablish relations with the Fatimids. Architecture: Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland is founded on high ground overlooking the Viking settlement of Wood Quay by Dublin king Sigtrygg Silkbeard en route to a pilgrimage to Rome, with Dunan (Donat) as bishop #1; at first answerable to Canterbury, it goes on to become the official seat of the Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin and the Church of Ireland. The Castle of Habichtsburg (Habsburg) (Hapsburg) (Ger. "Hawk's Castle") on the Aar River in Aargau in modern-day N Switzerland is built by Count Radbot of Klettgau (985-1045) and his older brother bishop of Strasbourg (since 1001) Werner I (978-1028), descendants of Count Guntram the Rich (d. 950), becoming the ancestral seat of the Hapsburg (Habsburg) family; Radbot's son Werner I (1025-96) becomes the 1st/2nd count of Habsburg. The Romanesque Cathedral of San Romolo in Fiesole is begun. The Greek Orthodox Church of the Virgin of the Braziers in Thessalonica is built. Births: French Norman baron William "the Seemly" Sinclair, 1st Baron of Roslyn (d. 1078) in St. Claur-sur-Elle, Manche; son of Walderne (Waldonius) (1006-47) and Helene le Bon; cousin of William I the Conqueror; founder of Clan Sinclair in the Scottish Highlands; father of Henry the Holy Sinclair, Henry II Sinclair, and Richilde Sinclair. Irish monk-chronicler Marianus Scotus (d. 1082); devotee of St. Brigid. French abbot (co-founder of the Cistercian Order) (St.) Robert of Molesme (d. 1111) in Troyes, Champagne; feast day: Apr. 29. Deaths: Vietnamese Later Ly Dynasty ruler (1009-28) Ly Thai To (b. 974) in Thang Long, Dai Co Viet. German bishop of Strasbourg (1001-28) Werner I (b. 978) on Oct. 28 near Constantinople; dies on the banks of the Bosphorus Strait en route to Contantinople. Muslim Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012-28) Qawam al-Daula (b. 1000) in Oct./Nov. Norwegian leader Erling Skjalgsson (b. ?) (KIA).
1029 The Normans establish themselves in Aversa in S Italy. Bretislaus of Bohemia drives the Poles out of E Moravia for his father Oldrich in an attempt to take Moravia. Count Garcia Sanchez of Castile is murdered by some exiled Castilian nobleman as he tries to enter the Church of St. John the Baptist in the city of Leon to marry Sancha of Leon, sister of Bermudo III of Leon, causing Sancho III of Navarre to claim the county of Castile in his wife's forgettable name and install their son Ferdinand I (the Great) (1017-65) as the new count of Castile (until Dec. 24, 1065), then force Sancha to marry Ferdinand in 1032, with Castile as her dowry; daddy Sancho then acts as overlord with the goal of permanently uniting Castile and Leon under the dynasty of Navarre, starting by seizing the borderlands between the Cea and Pisuerga Rivers N of the city of Leon. In 1029 Sigtrygg Silkbeard's son Aulay (Amhladh) (Amhiaoibh) (Auliffe) (Olaf) is taken POW by Mathghamhain O Riagain (Reagan) (Regan) (a Dalcassian family descended from Riagan, son of Brian Boru's brother Brian Boru), new lord of Brega (Breagh), and ransomed for 1.2K cows, 140 British horses, 60 oz. of gold and silver, the celebrated Sword of Carlus, and the Irish hostages of Leinster and Leath Cuinn, plus 80 cows "for word and supplication" to the man who negotiated his release; soon afterward the O'Reagans are dispossessed and dispersed throughout Ieland. Gudlief Gudlaugson the Icelander embarks from Limerick, gets lost, and later claims to have discovered Irish-speaking people to the S of Vinland in Great Ireland (Hibernia Major) AKA Albania (White Men's Land). The Buyid capital of Rayy in W Persia falls to Mahmud of Ghazni - don't call my Rayy, call me Buyay? Salih ibn Mirdas dies, and his son Shibl al-Daula Nasr (-1038) becomes Mirdasid emir #2 of Aleppo (until 1038). Castel Ssan Niccolo in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy is first mentioned in documents. Births: Seljuk sultan #2 (1063-72) (Sunni Muslim) Alp Arslan ("Lion Hero") (Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri) (d. 1072) on Jan. 20; great-grandson of Seljuk. Flemish count (1070-92) Robert I (the Frisian) (d. 1093) (b. 1035?); younger son of Baldwin V (-1067) and Adele (1009-79) (daughter of Robert II of France). French prelate (St.) Robert of Molesme (d. 1111). Deaths: Norwegian king Eric Hakonarson of Lade (b. 960?).