|England||Canute I the Great (995-1035)||1016||Nov. 12, 1035|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||996||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE Conrad II (990-1039)||1024||1039|
|Papacy||John XIX (-1032)||1024||1032|
1030 On Apr. 30 Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (b. 971) dies after conquering 680K sq. mi. in the Near East from the Indian Ocean N to the Amu Darya River, and from the Tigris River E to the Ganges River; the Ghaznavid Empire in Afghanistan begins to disintegrate. On July 29 Canute defeats and kills Christian Norwegian king Olaf I Haraldsson (Tryggvason) in the Battle of Stiklestad, and Canute's son Sweyn Estridsen becomes king of Norway (until 1035), ruling like a tyrant until he is deposed. On Aug. 31 a solar eclipse is recorded in Britain. The Germans under Conrad II unsuccessfully attack Stephen of Hungary, but Conrad's jealousy causes an attack against Hungary in Slovakia by Bohemian duke Oldrich to fail, causing Bohemian forces to refuse to take the field for Conrad next year, starting a pissing contest. The Magyars under King Aba conquer Vienna, but HRE Henry III recaptures it. The Byzantines suffer a severe defeat in a campaign against the Muslim emirs attacking Syria. After allying with Sergius IV of Naples, Norman adventurer Rainulf Drengot is given the former Byzantine stronghold of Aversa N of Naples, with the title of count and his sister in marriage; when she dies in 1034, he marries the daughter of the duke of Amalfi, niece of Sergius' enemy Pandulf IV of Capua, allowing him to expand his territory at the expense of the Abbey of Montecassino. In this decade Rajendra Choladeva of S India sends his navy to exact tribute from Pegu, Malaiyur (Malay Peninsula), and the Srivijaya Empire. Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev conquers and builds a fort in Tartu under the name of Jurjev, becoming the first written mention. The Wettin Family in Saxony receives the Eastern March (Ostmark) as a fief. Ballenstedt in Saxony on the N rim of the Harz Mt. range (6 mi. SE of modern-day Quedlinburg) is first mentioned. Science: About this time Persian Shiite Muslim scholar Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni (973-1048) determines reaction time using the first experimental method in psychology? Nonfiction: Abu al-Biruni (973-1048), History of India (Tarikh al-Hind); waxes lyrical about the Bhagavad Gita; after uttering the soundbyte: "India has produced no Socrates; no logical method has there expelled fantasy from science", for funners he trans. Euclid and Ptolemy into Sanskrit for them. Music: Parallel fourths become considered more pleasant to the ear than parallel fifths in Roman Church music. Births: Russian grand prince of Kiev (1078-93) Vsevolod I (Andrew) Yaroslavich (d. 1093); 5th son of Yaroslav I the Wise and Ingigerd Olafsdottir. German monk (St.) Bruno of Cologne (d. 1101) in Cologne; founder of the Carthusian Order; feast day: Oct. 6; usually represented with a death head in his hands; not to be confused with Benedictine abbot St. Bruno (1048-1123). Deaths: Persian Muslim Buyid Platonist philosopher-historian Abu Miskawayh (b. 932) in Isfahan; leaves The Experiences of the Nations (Tajarib al-umam), and Refinement of Morals (Tahdib al-Akhlaq), the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics. French duke of Aquitaine (990-1030) William V (b. 969) on Jan. 31. Afghan ruler Mahmud of Ghazni (b. 971) on Apr. 30 in Ghazna.
1031 On July 20 Robert II the Pious (b. 972) dies, and his son Henri I (1008-60) succeeds him as Capetian king #3 of France (until Aug. 4, 1060); during his reign feudal power in France reaches its height; Henry I's brother Robert I the old (1011-76) rebels against him, supported by his mother (Robert II's 3rd wife) Constance d'Arles ends 1032). History has turned a page, uh-huh? On Sept. 2 Prince Emeric of Hungary is killed by a wild boar; since he is soon sainted, the names Heinrich, Henricus, Henry, Emericus, Amerigo, et al. derived from his name become popular in Christian countries; thus is America's future name born as the Continent of Henry? Conrad II concludes a successful disciplinary expedition against the Poles, recovering Lusatia and forcing the Poles to pay homage; Oldrich of Bohemia reacquires Moravia from Poland, while Yaroslav of Russia takes Ruthenia, and Canute of Denmark takes Pomerania; Oldrich's son Bretislaus invades Hungary to prevent its expansion. On Nov. 29 Abbasid caliph (since 991) Al-Qadir (b. 947) dies, and his son Al-Qa'im (1001-75) succeeds him (until Apr. 2, 1075); Hisham III dies, and the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba is abolished, causing over 40 Muslim-ruled petty Abbasid kingdoms known as taifas (run by emirs) to spring up in Moorish Spain, the main ones being Badajoz (1009-94), Toledo (1010-85), Valencia (1010-94), Almeria (1011-91), Zaragoza (1018-46), Cordoba (1031-91), Granada (1013-90), and Seville (1023-91); meanwhile the former situation where the Christian kingdoms of N Spain had to pay tribute to the all-powerful caliphate of Cordoba begins to be reversed, and the fractured taifas end up paying tribute (parias) to them; when they call on brother Muslims from N Africa to help them, the latter try to absorb their taifas into their N African kingdoms, causing them to finally hire Christian mercenaries such as El Cid. The Byzantines reverse their losses against the Muslim emirs in Syria with the brilliant Vs of gen. Georgios Maniakes (Maniakis) (-1043). Canute leads a large army into N England and receives an acknowledgement of superiority from kings Mael Baeda, Echmarcach (sea-king of the Irish Sea region), and Malcolm II of Scotland, which is later used for political hay by the English kings, but at the time gives them no real authority in Scottish affairs as the army can't stay there forever, so Canute puts strongman Earl Siward in control of Northumbria to contain Malcolm II; meanwhile Malcolm II gives the rule of Strathclyde to his grandson Duncan (Donnchad) I (1010-40) (Gael. "brown warrior"), son of his daughter Bethoc and Crinan (-1045), ruler of Atholl, who decides to enter the Church, and becomes abbot of Dunkeld in Fortriu. The frontier Treaty of Pol-Hung is negotiated. Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne obtains the dignity of archchancellor of Italy for himself and his successors. Births: English 4'2" queen consort Matilda (Maud) of Flanders (d. 1083); daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders and Adele (1000-79) (daughter of Robert II of France); wife (1053-) of William I the Conqueror, whom she initially rebuffs because she is too high-born to marry a bastard, causing him to drag her from church by her long braids and throw her down in the street, turning her on? Scottish king (1057-93) Malcolm III Canmore (Gael. "great head or chief") (d. 1093); son of Duncan I (1010-40); brother of Donald Bane (1033-1107). Chinese statesman-scientist Shen Kuo (Kua) (d. 1095) in Qiantang. Norman count of Sicily (1071-1101) Roger I (Bosso) (the Great Count) (d. 1101); youngest son of Trancred of Hauteville and 2nd wife Fredisenda; husband of Adelaide del Vasto (1075-1118); father of Simon of Hauteville (1093-1105) and Roger II (1095-1154). Deaths: Arab Abassic caliph (991-1031) Al-Qadir (b. 947) on Nov. 29 in Baghdad. French king (996-1031) Robert II the Pious (b. 972) on July 20. Japanese novelist-poet Lady Murasaki (b. 973).
1032 On Sept. 6 Rudolph III of Burgundy (b. 993) dies without an heir, leaving Burgundy to HRE Conrad II, who chases pesky Count Odo II of Blois out unites it with the HRE next year as the "free county" of Burgundy (later called Franche-Comte (Franche-Comté)) (in SE France on the Swiss border), incorporating Lyons into the HRE this year; the independence of Burgundy is ended; meanwhile Robert I Capet and his brother Henry I reach a peace settlement which gives him the rest of the duchy of Burgundy (until 1076), and Robert goes on to become a robber baron who plunders his vassals; from now on there is a French duke of French Burgundy and a Palatine count of imperial Burgundy, and it takes until 1678 to reunite them as part of France. Pope John XIX (since 1024) dies, and in Oct. he is succeeded by his 12-y.-o. nephew Theophylact (grandson of Count Gregory of Tusculum, who uses his wealth and private army to get him elected) as Pope (#146) Benedict IX (1020-85) (until 1045); the new testosterone-soaked (9-in. bent?) bishop of Rome becomes known for his dissolute life, bestiality, witchcraft and Satanism, and wild bisexual orgies, whooping it up and giving the Dark Ages a bad name, ordering murders while hiding in the Lateran Palace for fear of assassination. A combined Byzantine-Ragusan fleet defeats the Saracen pirates in the Adriatic. HRE Conrad II divides Poland between Mieszko II and two of his relatives. After Duke Oldrich of Bohemia fails to appear at the Diet of Merseburg, HRE Conrad II sends his son Duke Henry VI of Bavaria, who deposes him and takes him to Bavaria, and replaces him with Jaromir. Arslan dies, and Musa (-1036) becomes ruler of the Seljuks. Malcolm II has his cousin Macbeth kill Gillacomgain Mac Maelbrigta, mormaor (mormaer) (great steward) (earl) of Moray (with a skean?) for murdering Malcolm's uncle Findlaech in 1020, then goes on a vendetta against the family of Gillacomgain's wife Gruoch ingen Boite (granddaughter via Boite of his clan rival Kenneth III, son of his uncle King Dub) (model for Shakespeare's Lady MacBeth), having her nephew killed in 1033, ending the direct male line from Kenneth III Mac Duib to clear the way for his favorite grandson Duncan; too bad, Macbeth marries Gruoch to become earl of Moray, and becomes protector of Lulach, her son by Gillacomgain - and Lady Macbeth gets the idea to kill and come again? Architecture: Canute completes the restoration of Bury St. Edmunds. Deaths: French king of Burgundy Rudolf III (b. 933) on Sept. 6.
1033 This is a Big Year for Millennium Fever, after the year 1000 proved such a big bust; Raoul Glaber (-1050) claims that Christ will return on the 1K-year anniv. of his Passion, and a mass pilgrimage is made to Jerusalem, but alas, the world goes on, and Antichrist and the Second Coming of Christ are still way in the future? King Mieszko (Mieczyslav) II of Poland is defeated by the Germans and Russians, and recognizes the suzerainty of the emperor and resigns. Castile in N Spain becomes a separate kingdom. Duke Frederick III (b. 1020) of Upper Lorraine dies, and the House of Bar becomes extinct, causing his cousin HRE Conrad II to give his duchy of Upper Lorraine to Duke Gothelo I of Lower Lorraine in order to defend it against Count Odo II of Blois. The kingdom of Arles is attached by HRE Conrad II to the Holy Roman Empire, and after that it is unity-challenged until its demise in 1246, although the German emperors like to assume the title of king of Arles. Oldrich captures, deposes and blinds Jaromir, and drives his son Bretislaus from Bohemia, then is assassinated on Nov. 9, and Jaromir renounces the Bohemian throne in favor of Bretislaus. HRE Conrad II inherits the kingdom of Burgundy, and bestows it on his son Henry III. Venice the Golden (Venetia Aurea) ends the hereditary succession of its doge, returning to an election by citizens and requiring him to govern in collaboration with a senate. Births: Scottish king (1093-97) Donald (Donnchada) Bane (Ban) (Gael. "fair-haired") (Donalbane) (Donald III) (d. 1107); son of Duncan I; brother of Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93). English Benedictine scholastic theologian and Canterbury archbishop #36 (1093-1109) (St.) Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109) in Aosta, Burgundy, Piedmont; of the noble family of Candia; feast day: Apr. 21; his emblem is a ship because he is well-traveled? Deaths: Bohemian duke (1012-34) Oldrich (b. 975) on Nov. 9 (assassinated).
1034 On Apr. 11 emperor (since Nov. 15, 1028) Romanus III (b. 968) is murdered in his bath after persecuting the Monophysites of Syria and causing thousands to flee to Muslim territory (later welcoming the Seljuk advance), and low-born epileptic Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-41) becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #143 after Zoe marries him (her 2nd of three marriages) and jockeys for his bootstrap election. Scottish king (since 1005) Malcolm II MacKenneth (b. 980) dies, and his favorite grandson Duncan I (1010-40), ruler of Strathclyde becomes king of Alba (Scotland) (until 1040), completing the union of the four nuclei of Scotland (Scots, Picts, Britons, and Angles), which now adopts the name, but without a homogeneous racial or political basis, controlling all of the island N of Solway Firth and the Tweed River; Macbeth, earl of Ross and Moray serves Duncan as a general; meanwhile England keeps trying to make Scotland its vassal while Scotland is plagued with clan rivalry and plots to seize the throne. Mieszko II of Poland (b. 990) dies, and a violent civil war follows (until 1040), with his son Casimir I (the Restorer) (1016-1058) trying to keep control as the pagans rise up and burn monasteries and kill clergy, while the peasants rise up against the landlords - it's the time of the season for loving? Sancho III of Navarre seizes the capital city of Leon from Bermudo III, who retreats into Galicia; Sancho III begins calling himself "Imperator Totius Hispaniae" on his coins. Byzantine fleets manned by Scandinavian mercenaries under Harald Haardraade (Hardrada) take on the Saracen pirates off the Anatolian coast, and ravage the coasts of North Africa (1034-5). King Deokjong of Korea prohibits children and women from wearing silk clothes - what, no silk stockings? Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #71 (1068-73) Go-Sanjo (Takahito) (d. 1073) on Sept. 3; 2nd son of Go-Suzaku (1009-45); father of Shirakawa (1053-1129). Norman lord Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (d. 1090); son of Count Gilbert of Brionne (1000-1040); brother of Baldwin fitz Gilbert (-1090); husband of Rohese Giffard; father of Gilbert Fitz Richard (1066-1117). Deaths: Scottish king (1005-34) Malcolm II (b. 980).
1035 On May 26 Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (b. 1005) dies, and his son Ramon Berenguer I "the Old" (1024-76) becomes count of Barcelona, with his grandmother, manly woman Ermesinde of Carcassone as regent (until 1044); he goes on to make it #1 among the Spanish counties in Catalan, extending the borders W to Barbastro and N to Carcassonne and Razes (N of the Pyrenees), bldg. up a navy, and codifying Catalan feudal laws in the Ustages (Ustici) of Barcelona, the first full feudal law compilation in W Europe. On July 3 Robert II the Devil (b. 1000) dies on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and his 8-y.-o. illegimate son becomes William II, 6th Duke of Normandy (1027-87), and immediately has his balls tested by a series of baronial revolts (until 1047) - my father is the Devil, and I'm a bastard, so what does that make me? On Oct. 18 Imperator Totius Hispaniae Sancho III the Great of Navarre (b. 985) is murdered, causing the Jewish quarter of Castrojeriz to be slaughtered; although he had worked all his life to unite the Spanish Christian kingdoms, he divides his domains between his sons, after which it never becomes as powerful; Sancho III's eldest son Garcia VI Ramirez (the Restorer) of Navarre (1099-1150) gets Navarre incl. some territory of Old Castile, restoring the independence of Navarre from Aragon after 58 years; middle son Ramiro I of Aragon (1006-63) gets the split-off far-gone kingdom of Aragon in NE Spain SE of Navarre, E of Old Castile, and NE of New Castile (with provinces Zaragoza, Huesca, and Teruel); youngest son Ferdinand (Fernando) (OG "bold voyager") (the Great) I of Castile (1017-65) gets the new kingdom of New Castile, with capital at Burgos (130 mi. N of Madrid) (capital of Castile-Leon until 1560), and continues his daddy's work of conquering Leon; meanwhile Bermudo III marches in and reclaims the crown of Leon, and works to recover the stolen territory between the Cea and Pisuerga Rivers. On Nov. 4 Jaromir is assassinated by Vrsovci while imprisoned at Lysa, and Premyslid Bretislaus I (1002-55) ("the Bohemian Achilles"), known for kidnapping his wife Judith of Schweinfurt from a monastery so that he could marry her in 1030 becomes sole duke of Bohemia, helping Conrad in his war against the Lusatians. On Nov. 12 Canute (b. 995) dies at age 40 at Shaftsbury, and is buried in Winchester Cathedral; his sons split his kingdom, with England going to Harald Knutsson (Harefoot), Norway to Sweyn, and Denmark to Hardicanute; the latter is unable to come to Denmark soon enough, and the Witan elects his half-brother Harold (Harald) I Knutsson (Harefoot) (1015-40) regent of England, with the support of Leofric III, Earl of Mercia (968-1057); the Norwegians revolt and invite Olaf I Tryggvason's son Magnus I the Good (-1047) to become king of Norway; under his reign the Grey (Gray) Goose (Gragas) parchment lays down the laws of Norway, incl. weights and measures, care of the sick and poor, and policing of markets and ports, becoming the basis of the sea law of Europe transmitted by the Hanseatic League. Baldwin IV (descendant of Alfred the Great's daughter Elfrida or Aelfthryth) dies, and his son Baldwin V (-1067) becomes count of Flanders (until 1067). After receiving requests for help from Rainulf Drengot, William I "Iron Arm" of Hauteville (1009-1046), one of the 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville travels with his younger brother Drogo of Hauteville (1010-1051) to Apulia in S Italy - looking for adventure, born to be wild? Births: French bishop of Marbod (Marbode) (Marbudus) of Rennes (d. 1123) near Angers, Anjou. Deaths: Austrian duke of Carinthia (1011-35) Adalbero (b. 980) on Nov. 29 in Ebersberg, Bavaria. Norwegian king (1028-35), Danish king (1018-35) and English king (1016-35) Canute I the Great (b. 995) on Nov. 12 in Shaftsbury, England. Norman duke (1027-35) Robert II the Devil (b. 1000) on July 3. Spanish count of Barcelona (1018-35) Berenguer Ramon I (b. 1005) on May 26. Spanish count of Barcelona (1018-35) Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (b. 1018) on May 26. Bohemian duke Jaroslav (b. ?) on Nov. 4 in Lysa (assassinated).
1036 On Feb. 5 after landing in Sussex with a Norman mercenary army in an attempt to capture London and retake the throne from Canute's son Harold Harefoot for the House of Wessex, Edward the Confessor's younger brother Alfred Aetheling (b. 1005) is betrayed in Guildown Hill W of Guildford (30 mi. SW of London) and blinded by Earl Godwin of Wessex, then sent to the monastery of Ely, where he dies; Canute's speedy son Harald (Harold) Harefoot (1015-40) is elected king Harold I of England (England's 17th monarch) by the Witan, and his brother Hardicanute (Harthacanute) launches an expedition to England to claim the throne. On May 15 emperor (since 1016) Go-Ichijo (b. 1008) dies, and his younger brother Go-Suzaku (Atsunaga) (1009-45) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #69 (until 1045). On Nov. 29 Adalbero of Eppenstein (b. 980) dies in exile after rebelling against HRE Conrad II in 1035 and getting Bishop Egilbert of Freising to beg him not to dispossess him in vain, and Conrad I's son Conrad II the Younger (the Salian) (990-1039) succeeds as duke of Carinthia (until 1039); Pope Benedict X is forced out of Rome, but returns with the help of HRE Conrad II. Musa dies, and the Seljuks, led by Chaghri (Turk. "small falcon or merlin" Beg (989-1060) and his brother Tughrul (Togrul) Beg (Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) (990-1063) (grandsons of chief Seljuk) invade Khurasan; by 1038 Tughrul becomes ruler of the Seljuks. The Zirids take Palermo from the Normans. The Flower Sermon first appears in Buddhist lit. The Tangut Script is invented by scholar Yeli Renrong (-1042) for Western Xia emperor Jing Zong. Births: Spanish king of Castile (1065-72) and Leon (1072) Sancho II (the Strong) (d. 1072); eldest son of Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) and Sancha of Leon (1013-67) (daughter of Alfonso V of Leon and Elvira Mendes); brother of Alfonso VI (1037-1109) and Garcia II (1042-90). Italian bishop of Lucca (1071-) (St.) Anselm (II) (the Younger) of Lucca (Baggio) (d. 1086) in Milan; nephew of Pope Alexander II (Anselm the Elder of Lucca); feast day: Mar. 18. Chinese poet-painter Su Tung-P'o (Su Shih) (d. 1101) in Sichuan. Deaths: Chinese emperor Wu Ben (Huaji) (b. 979). Japanese Yamato emperor #68 (1016-36) Go-Ichijo (b. 1008) on May 15. Seljuk ruler Musa (b. ?). German warrior-archbishop of Cologne (1021-36) German missionary Pilgrim (b. ?) on Aug. 25 in Cologne.
1037 On May 28 HRE Conrad II issues the Constitutio de Feudis, which makes fiefs of small holders hereditary in Italy - and the beat goes on? On Sept. 4 the Battle of Tamaron (Tamarón) sees Bermudo III (b. 1010) defeated and killed by his brother-in-law Ferdinand I the Great of Castile (falls off his horse onto the spears of his own infantry?), and since Bermudo dies without an heir, his kingdom of Leon recognizes Ferdinand as king by right of his wife, and he is crowned as king of Leon and Castile in the city of Leon next June 22 (until 1072), uniting Castile and Leon under the dynasty of Navarre, and making it #1 in Christian N Spain; after overruning Moorish-held N Galicia, he sets up a vassal as count. On Nov. 15 the Battle of Bar near Bar-le-Duc is a V for Gothelo I over Odo II (b. 983), who is KIA, firming up Gothelo II's control over all of Lorraine. Casimir I the Restorer is exiled by rebellious nobles. Guillaume III dies, and Pons II (990-1060) becomes count of Toulouse. HRE Conrad II recognizes Rainulf Drengot's title of count of Aversa. The Persianized Turkish Sunni Muslim Seljuk (Seljuq) Empire (ends 1307) is founded by Oghuz Turk (Qynyq branch) chieftain Tugrul (Toghril) Beg (990-1063), son of Seljuk (Seljuq) (-1038). Births: Spanish king of Leon (1065-1109) and Castile (1072-1109) Alfonso VI (the Brave) (d. 1109) (AKA Alfonso I of Castile); son of Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) and Sancha of Leon (1013-67) (daughter of Alfonso V of Leon and Elvira Mendes); brother of Sancho II (1036-72) and Garcia II (1042-90); husband of Agnes of Aquitaine (daughter of William VII), Constance of Burgundy (1046-93), Bertha (daughter of Count William I of Burgundy), Isabel, and Beatrice. Deaths: Persian Muslim superbrain Avicenna (Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina) (b. 980) in June; leaves 450 treatises,of which 240 survive (150 on philosophy, 40 on medicine), incl. Kitab al-Shifa (Kitab ash-Shifa bi ta'rif huquq al Mustafa) (Book of Healing by the Explanation of the Rights of the Chosen One) (AKA Sufficientia) (18 vols.), an attempt to describe all scientific and philosophic knowledge; also Kitab al-Najat (Book of Salvation), an abridged vers. of the preceding, giving the "flying man argument" for the distinction between the body and soul, which must be strong enough to ensure its individuality, but weak enough to allow for its immortality; he also founds physiological psychology for the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, developing a system for associating changes in pulse rate with inner feelings, and developing the Tabula Rasa concept beyond Aristotle. French count of Blois (1004-37) Odo II (b. 983) on Nov. 15 near Bar-le-Duc (KIA). Spanish king of Leon (1028-37) Bermudo III (b. 1010) on Sept. 4 (KIA). Bohemian duke (999-102) Boleslaus III (b. ?) (dies in captivity).
1038 On Aug. 15 Stephen I (b. 969) dies, having allied with the Roman Catholic West, married a Bavarian princess, called in Roman Catholic officials and given them huge tracts of land, broken the power of the pagan tribal chieftains, and set up a system of frontier defense based on guarded swamps and forests; despite all this, he fails to secure a Christian prince to succeed him, and Peter Urseolo (Peter I the Venetian) (1011-59), son of Stephen's sister Maria and Doge Otto Orseolo of Venice becomes king of Hungary (until 1041). Babenberg duke Herman IV of Swabia dies, and HRE Conrad II makes his son Henry III duke of Swabia as Henry I. On Oct. 29 Aethelnoth the Good dies, and Eadsige (Edsige) (Eadsin) (Eadsimus) (-1050) becomes Canterbury archbishop #32 (until Oct. 29, 1050), going on to crown Edward the Confessor. Casimir I the Restorer succeeds with the aid of German king Henry III in reconquering his Polish domain, reestablishing the opiate of the people, er, Christianity, and restoring rents, er, order. A Byzantine army led by Gen. Georgios Maniakes, along with Norman mercenaries led by William Iron Arm (1009-46), along with a navy of Scandinavian mercenaries led by Harald Hardrada sails for Sicily, storms Messina and defeats the Sicilian Saracens at the Battle of Rametta; William Iron Arm gets his nickname after single-handedly slaying the emir of Syracuse; Greek-speaking nobleman Arduin the Lombard of Salerno is beaten by the haughty Byzantines for refusing to surrender a captured horse to them, causing him to withdraw from the campaign, taking his Lombards with him, along with the Normans and Maniakes' Varangian Guard contingent, which causes Maniakes to be recalled to Constantinople and get replaced by Michael III Doukeianos the Young, who tries to patch things up with Arduin by appointing him ruler (topoterites) of Melfi; meanwhile Argyrus (Argyros), son of Lombard hero Melus of Bari (d. 1020) returns from captivity in Constantinople (since 1018), finding Apulia in an uproar over being pressed into service in Sicily by the Byzantines, and when the soldiers return they are pissed off and ripe for revolt, which he stirs up, beginning with winning Arduin over, followed by William Iron Arm; meanwhile up-and-coming Norman guy Rainulf Drengot defeats a Byzantine force and declares himself prince, proclaiming his independence from both the Byzantines and the Lombards, then conquers Capua from Pandulf IV, creating the largest domain in S Italy, which he gets HRE Conrad II to recognize. Ermengol II the Pilgrim dies in Jerusalem on a pilgrimage, and his son (by Constance, daughter of the Count of Besalu) Ermengol (Armengol) III (1033-66) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1066). Granada under vizier Samuel Ha-Nagid (993-1056) begins an 18-year war against its Muslim neighbors, primarily Seville. The Order of Vallombrosa in Tuscany is founded. Births: Polish Piast duke (1058-76) and king (1076-9) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II (the Bold) (the Cruel) (the Generous) (d. 1083); eldest son of Casimir I the Restorer (1016-58) and Dobronega Maria of Kiev (daughter of grand duke Vladimir I of Kiev); grandson of Boleslaus I. French count of Toulouse Raymond IV (d. 1105); son of Pons II; first great prince to take the cross and go a-crusadin'? Deaths: Arab scientist Alhazen (b. 965) in Cairo. Hungarian king (997-1038) St. Stephen (b. 969) on Aug. 15 in Szekesfehervar (C Hungary). Spanish count of Urgell (1010-38) Ermengol II (b. 1004).
1039 A solar eclipse in Ireland is recorded in the Annales of Inisfallen. On June 4 HRE Conrad II (b. 990) dies, and his monklike son Henry III (the Black) (the Pious) (1017-56) (duke of Bavaria since 1026) succeeds him as Salian (Franconian) king #2 of Germany (until 1056), becoming the strongest German HRE yet, holding sway over most of Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary, encouraging the spread of the Cluniac movement in his realm (helped by being the husband of the daughter of the duke of Aquitaine, whose house founded the Cluny Abbey in 909), and building the Romanesque Goslar Palace in Kaiserpfalz; his daddy having regularly assigned dukedoms to him as they fell vacant (incl. Carinthia, which he inherits this year), he holds all but the duchies of Lorraine and Saxony, which contributes toward the feudalization of Germany, esp. when he goes on to grant duchies outside the German royal house, making Germany a "feudal volcano"; meanwhile Bretislaus I of Bohemia invades Poland, captures Poznan and sacks Gniezo, capturing the relics of St. Adalbert, then on his way back captures part of Silesia incl. Wroclaw, intending to set up an archbishopric in Prague subject only to the HRE, pissing Henry III off. Spanish king of Castile (since 1029) and Leon (since 1037) Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) proclaims himself emperor of Hispania, which he claims is independent of the HRE. Donald I of Scotland leads a plundering raid into Northumbria to reward his supporters, and suffers a humiliating defeat at the Second Battle of Durham, just like his grandfather Malcolm II did in 1006. Welsh Prince Gruffydd of Gwynedd and Powys defeats the stankin' English. Deaths: German Salian king #1 (1024-39) and HRE (1027-39) Conrad II (b. 990) on June 4 in Utrecht. Danish king (1035-40) Harold I Knutsson Harefoot (b. 1016) on Mar. 17 in Oxford, England. Armenian king (1021-39) Ashtot IV (b. ?).