|Scotland||Duncan I (1010-40)||1034||1040|
|France||Henri I (1008-60)||1031||Aug. 4, 1060|
|Germany||HRE Henry III the Black (1017-56)||1039||1056|
|Papacy||Benedict IX (1020-85)||1032||1044|
1040 The Oort Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends 1080). Early in the year the Lombards of S Italy, led by Argyrus and Pandulf III's son Atenulf rebel against the Byzantines, and kill catapan (since 1039) Nicephorus (Nikephoros) II Doukeianos (Dulchiano) (b. ?) in Ascoli, whipping the locals up, and causing the Normans under William Iron Arm to join them. On Mar. 17 English king (since Nov. 12, 1035) Harold I Harefoot (b. 1015) dies in Oxford, and his brother Hardicanute (Harthacnut) (1018-42) (Dan. "tough knot") arrives in England and is elected king of Denmark and England (18th monarch of England) (until June 8, 1042), going on to charge aa "fleet tax", causing his subjects to begin to resent the hard-drinking Viking bully? On May 23 the Battle of Dandanaqan sees the up-and-coming Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids, making them masters of Khurasan, going on to expand into Transoxiana and Persia. In the summer Henry III of Germany invades Bohemia, but is defeated at the Battle of Brudek and withdraws. In Aug. in an attempt to end the threat to the succession from King Dub's descendants, Scottish king Duncan I (b. 1010) leads an army into Moray (N Scotland) against Macbeth (MacBeth) (Macbethad) (1005-57), mormaor (mormaer) (earl) of Ross and Moray, but it backfires when Macbeth defeats and kills him at Pitgaveny near Elgin, or alternatively, murders him at Macbeth's castle in Inverness on the mouth of the Ness River on Beauly Firth (120 mi. N of Perth), and becomes king in his place (until 1057); too bad, Donald's kiddie sons Malcolm and Donald Bane (Domnall Ban) are spirited away to refuge with the Norse-Gaelic rulers of the Hebrides, ending up in Northumbria with Earl Siward under protection of Edward the Confessor, which ends up backfiring as Malcolm gets infected with Anglo-Saxon culture and later brings it back to wild-and-wooly Gaelic Scotland with him?; Macbeth is regarded as a good ruler until Shakespeare smears him, and later historians overreact and paint him as a good ruler, but now it's anybody's guess? After Norman barons Ralph de Gace et al. won't accept an illegitimate son as their leader, Duke William's guardian Count Gilbert of Brionne (b. 1000) is KIA by Ralph de Wacy and Robert de Vitot, causing his eldest sons Richard fitz Gilbert and Baldwin fitz Gilbert to flee to the protection of Count Baldwin V of Flanders; on his return to Normandy, Richard is rewarded with the lordship of Bienfaite and Orbec, accompanying him to England in 1066 and gaining great favor. The March of Carniola in modern-day Slovenia is separated from Carinthia, with capital Krainburg, and largest city Laibach/Ljubljana. Casimir I (the Restorer) (1016-58) becomes Piast duke of Poland (until 1058). A Truce of God is proclaimed in Aquitaine by the Roman Catholic Church, prohibiting fighting from 9 p.m. Wed. to 3 a.m. Mon., or on holy days, leaving only 80 days a year for fighting. The NW and W Bulgarians, led by Peter Delyan (-1041), son of Gabriel Radomir (descendant of Tsar Samuel) revolt against the Byzantines over their replacement of taxation in kind with taxation in cash and other gravamina, er, grievances, attacking Salonika (Thessalonica), which holds out. King Ferdinand of Castile and Leon expels the Moors from Braga, Portugal. The Byzantine fleet defeats the Sicilian Saracens at the Battle of Dragina in Sicily. The Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Dandanqan near Merv, and win control of Khurasan, moving W. Jayasimha II (b. 1015) dies, and his son Somesvara I (1042-68) becomes king of Western Chalukya in S India, founding the city of Kalyani (modern-day Basavakalyana) as his capital. The Berber Muslim Almoravid Dynasty of the Sahara is founded, going on to rule N Africa and parts of Spain (ends 1147). Architecture: Romanesque Wurzburg Cathedral is begun (finished 1225). Inventions: In this decade Bi Sheng (990-1051) of China invents movable type printing, made of baked clay, and prints calendars. Nonfiction: Petrocellus of Salerno, Practica; medical work. Births: Hungarian Arpad king (1074-77) Geza I (d. 1077); later baptized as Magnus. Hungarian Arpad king (1077-95) (St.) Ladislaus (Ladislas) Laszlo (László) I (d. 1095) on June 27; son of Bela I (1016-63) and Richeza (Rixa) of Poland. Arab Muslim Abbadid ruler of Seville (1069-91) (bi) Muhammad ibn Abbad Al-Mutamid (Al-Mu'tamid) (d. 1095); son of Abbad II al-Mu'tadid (-1069). Norman nobleman Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (Robert of Meulan) (d. 1118); eldest son of Roger de Beaumont (1015-94) and Adeline of Meulan (-1081); one of the 15 Proven Companions of William Conqueror at the 1066 Battle of Hastings. Deaths: French count of Anjou (987-40) Fulk III the Black (b. 972) on June 21 in Metz. English king (1035-40) Harold Harefoot (b. 1015) on Mar. 17 in England. Armenian king (since 1020) Smbat III (b. ?)
1041 In early Mar. the 1.2K-man 12-leader Norman army under William Iron Arm takes Malfi, followed by Venosa, Ascoli, and Levello; on Mar. 16 new Byzantine catapan Michael III Doukeianos (Dulchiano) the Young, under orders to take POWs to send back to the emperor for his amusement meets the Lombard and Norman rebels near Venosa on the Olivento River and tries to negotiate, giving them three days and nights to leave Italy, and when they tell him that they have travelled too far to return, Hugh Tudebod mongos, er, punches the horse of the Greek envoy in the head, killing it with one blow, then give him a fresh horse to give the message to their leader; on May 4 they fight the Battle of Montemaggiore near Cannae, and the numerically greater Byzantines are routed, and many of them are drowned in the Ofanto River while retreating, causing Doukeianos to be sent to Sicily; on Sept. 3 after new Byzantine catapan Exaugustus Boioannes, son of Byzantine gen. Boioannes arrives with a Variangian Guard contingent, and whips them up with a great Get Greek Speech reminding them of the achievements of Achilles and Alexander the Great, concluding with the soundbyte: "Try to follow in the footsteps of your ancestors, and forget any idea of fleeing. All the world should know that you are men of courage. Besides, who should fear the Frankish people in battle, for they are inferior in numbers and courage?", he gets his butt kicked at the Battle of Montepeloso; Boioannes is captured by the Normans and handed over to Pandulf III's son Atenulf in Benevento, who ransoms him for a large sum, keeping it all for himself, and Boiannes is sent packing with his tail between his legs; too bad, Arduin is bought off by the Greeks, and Atenulf is elected the new leader and given the title of prince of Benevento, but he too is bought off next Feb., being replaced by Argyrus, who is also bought off by emperor Constantine IX, who makes him the new catapan of Italy, causing the Normans to give up on the Lombards and take control of the revolt, with big ideas about taking everything for themselves. On Dec. 10 after putting his able brothers in high office, and resigning and becoming a monk, Byzantine emperor (since Apr. 11, 1034) Michael IV (b. 1010) dies right after taking his oaths, and his nephew and adopted son Michael V Kalaphates (the Caulker) (1015-42) becomes Byzantine emperor #144 (until Apr. 20, 1042), banishing his adoptive mother Zoe on Apr. 18/19 to become sole emperor), causing a popular revolt, with a mob surrounding the palace and demanding her restoration, causing her to depose him on Apr. 20; he flees to the Stoudion Monastery, but is dragged out, arrested, blinded, and castrated, dying as a monk on Aug. 24; Zoe Porphyrogenita (978-1050) becomes sole Roman emperor until next Apr. 19, when her younger sister Theodora II (980-1056) becomes co-emperor, causing Zoe to bed-hop again, marrying 3rd hubby Constantine IX next June to get her to step down, only to see Michael V exile him to Mytilene in Lesbos - anything to get away from that bitch Zoe? Henry III invades Bohemia, skirts the border defenses and invades Poland, advancing to Prague and forcing Bretislaus I of Bohemia to give up his Polish conquests except Moravia and pay tribute. After his movement is split by rival Alusian, son of John Vladislav, Peter Delyan is defeated and captured by the Byzantines, ending the Bulgarian revolt; the independent church of Ochrid is gobbled up by the Byzantine church. A power struggle ensues in the House of Arpad in Hungary as Peter Urseolo is driven out by the Magyar nobility, who back his brother-in-law (husband of Stephen I's sister) Samuel Aba (Abo) (d. 1044), who becomes king of Hungary (until 1044), while Peter flees to Germany the protection of HRE Henry III and claims the throne. Siward murders Eardwulf and becomes the sole ruler of Northumbria. Music: Magister Franco writes works on music, becoming the first music critic? Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #? (1034-41) Michael IV the Paphlagonian (b. 1010) on Dec. 10 in Constantinople; dies in the Monastery of the Holy Anargyroi.
1042 On June 8 hard-luck Hardicanute (b. 1018), king of Denmark (1035-42) and England (since Mar. 17, 1040) dies of convulsions after a drinking party, leaving no heirs, ending Danish rule in England; Magnus I of Norway becomes king of Denmark by prior agreement; with the support of Godwin of Wessex, the most powerful earl in England, Edward III (the Confessor) (1004-66), last surviving son of Ethelred II (by his and Canute's wife Emma) returns from Normandy to assume the throne for the Wessex Dynasty with the support of the Danes, becoming England's 19th monarch and last of the House of Wessex (until Jan. 5, 1066); too bad, he's a cousin of Duke William of Normandy, and was raised a Norman, and begins to surround himself with Norman favorites and Normanize the court, to the chagrin of the Saxons; since he has no personal army like Hardicanute did, the Anglo-Saxon nobles begin plotting against him; the four great earldoms are Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria, with seven lesser earldoms; Edward finds it easy to play the earls off against each other to promote Norman favorites?; his pointless broken sword is called Curtana, "the Sword of Mercy", "of the same steel and temper as Joyeuse and Durendal". In Sept. William Iron Arm is elected count by the Normans, who petition Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno for recognition, and he gives them the landsaround Malfi in return for acknowledging him as duke of Apulia and Calabria, giving William the province of Ascoli and his brother Drogo of Hauteville the province of Venosa in a 12-part division of the conquered lands (Monopoli to Hugh Tudebod, Lavello to Arnulf, Trani to Peter, Civita to Walter, Montepeloso to Thorstein, Trivento to Herulf, Archangelo to Budolphus son of Betena, Cannae to Ralph, Ascerenza to Ascelin, and Mount Gargano to Rainulf Drengot), with the main city of Malfi divided into 12 shares, wich each Norman count having his own house; the 12 new counts then rush to build fortresses waving the blood red Norman banner, while the Greeks abandon the open country and shut themselves up in the cities; the Normans are now poised to take over S Italy completely, ta da, causing Argyrus to scramble to form an alliance with the pope against them; meanwhile the Byzantines under gen. Georgios Maniakes are kicked out of Sicily, and defeat the Normans at the Battle of Monopoli near Naples, but nothing comes of it because it's too late?; meanwhile Zoe marries her 3rd hubby Constantine IX Monomachus (the Gladiator) (-1055), a scholarly type, who becomes Byzantine emperor, and lets the military and the frontier defenses fall apart while preferring to rebuild the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Gagik II (01079) becomes the last king of the Armenian Bagratouni Dynasty. Diarmait mac Mael (-1072) claims the title of king of Leinster, and installs his son Murchad mac Diarmata (Murrough MacDermot) (-1070) as king of Dublin. The Seljuks take the region of Rayy in W Persia. Abbad I dies, and his son Abbad II al-Mu'tadid (-1069) becomes king #2 (of 3) of the Taifa of Seville (until 1062). Mu-izz al-Daula Thimal (-1062) becomes Mirdasid emir of Aleppo (until 1057, then 1061-2). Rajendra Choladeva dies, and his son Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-54) becomes Chola king of S India. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-Tong promulgates a new fairer legal code. Italian-born atty. Lanfranc (b. 1005) becomes a Benedictine monk. Births: Norse king of Dublin (989-1036) Sigtrygg II Silkbeard (b. 970) in Dublin. French pope (1088-99) (preacher of the First Crusade) Urban II (Otto, Otho, Odo or Eudes de Lagery) (d. 1099) in Lagery (near Chatillon-sur-Marne). English-born king of Denmark (1035-42) and king of England (1040-2) Hardicanute (b. 1018) on June 8 in Lambeth, England.
1043 Henry III of Germany proclaims a Day of Indulgence, forgiving all his foes and exhorting his subjects to do likewise. Gen. Georgios Maniakes revolts against new emperor Constantine IX, lands at Durazzo and prepares to march on Constantinople, but is accidentally killed; meanwhile the Russians raid Constantinople by sea - but learn about them *?!* triple walls and Greek fire? Alexius dies, and Michael I Cerularius (Caerularius) (Kerularios) (1000-58) becomes patriarch of Constantinople, from which position he becomes the author of the 2nd and final schism of the Byzantine (Greek Orthodox) and Latin (Roman Catholic) churches. Pope Benedict IX, known for hiding in the Lateran so he can indulge in total sexual degeneration finally has to celebrate a public Mass, and his enemies hatch a plot to strangle him with ropes hidden in their robes; too bad, "about the sixth hour of the day there occurred a solar eclipse which lasted until the eighth hour. All faces were as pale as death, and everything that could be seen was suffused with the colors of yellow and saffron" (Burgundian monk Rodulfus Glaber), all of which gives the pope time to flee back to the basilica for safety - people wonder how many of you there really are? Adalbert I of Saxony (1000-72) becomes archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg in Germany (until 1072), with supremacy over the Scandinavian Peninsula, most of the pesky pagan Wend lands, and all territory N of the Elbe River. (St.) Peter Damian (Pietro Damiani) (1007-72) becomes head of a hermitage near Gubbio, Italy, going on to correspond with HRE Henry III and Pope Leo IX complaining of simony, intercourse, and other clerical abuses, and urging reforms. The city of Coventry in Mercia (West Midlands), England on the Sherbourne River 94 mi. NW of London (modern-day pop. 360K) is founded by cradle-robber Earl Leofric (968-1057) as a Benedictine monastery after his beautiful long-haired blonde Saxon god's-gift-to-man wife Lady Godiva (Godgifu) (Lat. "God's gift") (990-1067) talks him into it, doing the same in Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucester; her trick is to promise him that if she rides naked through town and nobody peeps, he must do it or he won't get any nookie the next night; only Peeping Tom looks, but God blinds him? Births: Spanish Christian warrior and nat. hero Rodrigo (Ruy) Diaz, Count of Vivar (Bivar) (AKA El Cid) (Arabic "sayyid" = lord) (d. 1099) in Vivar, Burgos; called El Campeador, from the Latin for doctor of military arts. Jewish rabbi Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) (Yarchi) (d. 1108).
1044 On Apr. 19 Duke Gothelo I of Lorraine (b. 967) dies, and his eldest son Godfrey III the Bearded (997-1069) is authorized by HRE Henry III to succeed his father Gothelo I as duke of Upper Lorraine, but he refuses to let him have Lower Lorraine, promising it to the younger son Gothelo II instead, and pissing Godfrey off, causing him to plot a revolt. Samuel Aba of Hungary loses the Battle of Menfo, and is assassinated while fleeing from German emperor Henry III, and Peter Orseolo is reinstated as king of Hungary as Henry's butt-kissing vassal (until 1046), having a lot of problems ruling the largely pagan nobles, who begin a conspiracy against him. Gagik II of Armenia is entrapped by the Byzantines in Constantinople under the pretext of signing a peace treaty, then forced to abdicate; Armenia is occupied by the Byzantines (ends 1064). William Iron Arm and Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno begin the conquest of Calabria, and build Stridula Castle near Squillace. Vseslav Bryachislavich (1039-1101) becomes prince of Polotsk in Belarus (until 1101), becoming its most powerful ruler. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-Tong personally leads a naval expedition to Champa, defeats it, and uses the war booty to remit taxes. Anawrahta (-1077), a Hinayana Buddhist usurps the throne of Pagan (until 1077), and goes on to introduce his people to Theravada Buddhism, expand his kingdom and make it the political-religious-cultural center of Burma, developing the written Burmese language, translating Buddhist scriptures, and building great monuments inspired by Ceylon and S India. Copenhagen is first mentioned. Nonfiction: Rodolfus Glaber (985-1047), Chronicle; a history of the world since 900, trying to explain why Christ didn't return in the year 1000, making the first mention of Millennium Fever, and coining the phrase "white mantle of churches"; "the most trivial events and tales being put on exactly the same plane as the most important facts" (H.G. Wells) - who would try something like that, chuckle? Poetry: After Emperor Renzong orders it, Chinese Song Dynasty statesman-historian-poet Ouyang Xiu (Ou Yang Hsiu) (Yongshut) (1007-72) leads the creation of the New History of the Tang Dynasty. Deaths: French duke of Lorraine (1023-44) Gothelo I the Great (b. 967) on Apr. 19. Italian bishop of Ossero (St.) Gaudentius of Ossero (b. ?) on May 31 in Ancona.
1045 The Medieval Optimum (begun 950) ends; not such great conditions for Vikings to explore and colonize North Am. anymore? In Jan. after surviving a strangulation attempt at the altar during Mass two years earlier, 24-y.-o childish, arrogant, cruel, bisexual orgy-loving Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX is driven from the city, and on Jan. 20 out of disgust with his reign Bishop John of Sabrina is elected Pope (#147) Silvester (Sylvester) ("wooded") III (-1045); too bad, he dies on Feb. 10, and Benedict declares him an antipope and claims he's still pope, but in order that he might abdicate and still marry well, he sells the papacy for a large sum of money to his godfather, Archpriest John Gratian, who on May 5 becomes Pope (#148) Gregory VI (-1046), the first Saxon pope and the first one to form an army. Peter Urseolo again becomes king of Hungary, returning and swearing an oath of fealty to Henry III. On Feb. 7 emperor (since 1036) Go-Suzaku (b. 1009) dies, and ? becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #70 (until 1068). Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) (Sigurdsson) (1016-66) becomes king of Norway (until 1066) along with his nephew Mangus - did his wife gave him that name, or is he just bragging? French-speaking Norman-raised Edward the Confessor marries the daughter of Godwin of Wessex, his most influential earl and the one responsible for his kingship, then gives earldoms to two of Godwin's sons and to one of his nephews, cementing the latter's domination, and giving the antsy Anglo-Saxons hope for a last ditch power drive? William Iron Arm is defeated near Taranto by Argyrus. Asclettin Drengot dies, and his son Asclettin II succeeds him as count of Aversa, then dies prematurely and is succeeded by his cousin (nephew of Rainulf Drengot) Rainulf II Trincanocte (-1048), who becomes count #4 of Aversa (until 1048). Navarre conquers Calahorra from the Muslims. Constantine IX founds a law school in Constantinople. Lanfranc establishes a school at the monastery of Bec in Normandy, France. The town of Schaffhausen ("scapha" = ford) in N Switzerland on the N (right) bank of the Rhine River W of Lake Constance (northernmost canton) (modern-day pop. 36K) is first mentioned as striking its own coins, founded by the counts of Nellenburg in a finger of land surrounded on three sides by Germany, causing the pop. to be German-speaking; in 1049 the counts of Nellenburg found the Benedictine Monastery of All Saints (Kloster Allerheiligen); about 1200 it becomes an imperial free city; in 1277 HRE Rudolf I grants it a charter of liberties; in 1330 HRE Louis of Bavaria gives it to the Hapsburgs, and it takes until 1418 to regain independence, becoming a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501. Architecture: The Kaiserpfalz in Kaiserswerth (Dusseldorf), Germany is built as the temporary seat of the HRE. Births: Scottish queen (1070-93) (St.) Margaret Aetheling of Saxony (d. 1093); granddaughter of Edmund Ironside; direct descendant of Alfred the Great; niece of Edward the Confessor; elder sister of Edgar the Aetheling; wife of Malcolm III; canonized in 1250. French Crusader Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Chartres (d. 1102); son of Theobald III of Blois (1012-89) and Garsinde du Maine; husband of Adela of Normandy (1067-1137); father of Stephen I (1092-1154). Bohemian historian-priest Cosmas of Prague (d. 1125). Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #69 (1036-45) Go-Suzaku (b. 1009) on Feb. 7. Italian archbishop (since 1018) Heribert of Milan (b. ?).
1046 Early in the year William Iron Arm dies, and is succeeded as Norman count of Apulia and Calabria by his younger brother Drogo of Hauteville (1010-51), who founds the Norman Hauteville Dynasty in Italy, going on to defeat new Byzantine catapan (Sept. 1045-Sept. 1046) Eustathios Palatinos near Taranto, and conclude a treaty with Bari after his brother Humphrey Abagelard of Hauteville (1010-57) arrives and forces them into it; Rainulf's nephew Richard Drengot (Richard I of Capua) (-1078) arrives with 40 knights, gets too uppity and ends in prison, then gets lucky when Rainulf II Trinanocte dies in 1048, and is let out to become regent for his infant son Herman, soon getting him out of the way privately and becoming count of Aversa himself. On Apr. 10 Pope Benedict IX is reelected, and now three rival claimants for the papacy sit in Rome; in the fall German king Henry III crosses the Alps at the head of a large army to straighten things out, making the three rivals depose themselves at a synod in Rome; on May 1 Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX resigns; Pope (since 1045) Gregory VI resigns at the Council of Sutri over accusations of simony, and dies on Dec. 20; on Dec. 25 after visiting Archbishop Adalbert I of Saxony turns it down so he can continue converting the pesky pagan Wends, Henry III's choice, German (Saxon) bishop Suidger becomes Pope (#149) Clement II (-1047) (2nd German pope), crowning Henry III as HRE in Rome; Clement II becomes the first of three reforming German popes, incl. Leo IX and Victor II, who affirm the imperial right of nomination to the papacy. After exiled Prince Andras returns and makes a deal with them, the Vatha (Vata) Rising (ends 1047) of pagan tribal chiefs in Hungary, led by pagan noble Vatha (who shaves his head except for three braids and eats horse meat) ousts Peter Urseolo, massacres Christians, martyrs St. Gellert (Gerard) Sagredo of Csanad (b. 977) on Sept. 24 by pushing him off a cliff in a cart into the Danube River from Gellert (Kelenhegy) Hill in C Budapest, and goes on to wreak havoc and destroy Christian churches before being put down, becoming the last serious pagan revolt - but Jeezy didn't come back; so what, shut up? The Byzantines occupy Ani and take over Armenia, allowing the Orthodox priests to move on in. Earl Siward of Northumbria, sanctioned by Edward the Confessor invades Scotland with Malcom Mac Donald, and defeats Macbeth, then appoints Malcolm's uncle Maldred as king of Scotland, but Macbeth gathers a fresh army and returns to defeat and expel (or kill) him, solidifying his position. Buluggin ibn Muhammad ibn Hammad (-1062) becomes Hammadid ruler of Algeria (until 1062). Peter, first Norman count of Andria founds the town of Andria in S Italy 35 mi. W of Bari, which later becomes a favorite residence of HRE Frederick II. Nonfiction: Wipo of Burgundy, Gesta Chuonradi II Imperatoris; bio. of HRE Conrad II (990-1039), presented to his son Henry III. Births: Italian "Great Countess" Matilda of Canossa, Countess of Tuscany (d. 1115); daughter of Boniface III of Tuscany (985-1052) and Beatrice of Bar (1017-76) (daughter of Duke Frederick II of Upper Lorraine); big friend of Pope Gregory VII. Spanish ruler of Valencia (1099-1102) Jimena (Ximena) Diaz (d. 1116); wife (1074-99) of El Cid (1043-99). Deaths: Hungarian bishop St. Gellert (b. 977) on Nov. 24 in Budapest (martyred).
1047 On Oct. 9 Pope (since 1046) Clement II dies, and in Nov. diehard Pope Benedict IX seizes Rome, reclaiming the papacy on Nov. 8 (until 1048). Harald Hardrada becomes sole king of Norway after joint-ruler Magnus I conveniently dies; tall limping Sweyn (Sven) (Svend) (Svein) II Estridsson Ulfsson (1019-74) becomes king of Denmark (until 1074), becoming the last Viking king of Denmark, and the first medieval one. Andras (Andrew) I Arpad (1014-61), great-grandson of Taksony (via father Vazul and grandfather Michael) quells the Vatha pagan revolt (begun 1046), and becomes king of Hungary with pagan help, pardoning Vatha, but later reneges on promises to pagans to destroy Christianity in his kingdom - do you know about the Spear of Destiny? 20-y.-o. iron-balled Duke William of Normandy, with the assistance of his feudal suzerain King Henry I of France defeats the rebel barons attempting to usurp his claim to Normandy in the cavalry Battle of Val-es-Dunes near Caen, then razes their castles and ends the rebellion, ruling Normandy with an iron hand. Godfrey III the Bearded joins Baldwin of Flanders in a revolt against HRE Henry III, which is supported by Henry I of France. Drogo of Hauteville captures Benevento with the permission of HRE Henry III, who confirms him as Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria, the first official recognition; he also marries Gaitelgrima (Altrude), daughter of Guaimar III of Salerno, and his half-brother Robert Guiscard arrives in Italy to see what's up. HRE Henry III reestablishes the duchies of Carinthia, Bavaria, and Swabia. A famine among the Ulaid causes them to leave Ulster and move to Leinster, according to the Annals of the Four Masters. First written mention of Vampires (upirs) in Russia. Deaths: French monk-historian Rodulfus Glaber (b. 985) in Auxerre. Norman duke Walderne of Saint-Clair (b. 1006).
1048 On July 17 after a session with St. Bartholomew, Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX resigns for the 4th and last time, and is replaced on July 7 by Poppo as Pope (#150) Damasus (Damascus) II (-1048) (3rd German pope), ending the long era of the papacy being the political football of Roman families; too bad, he dies 23 days later on Aug. 9 from malaria; still, Benedict IX has learned his lesson and becomes a monk in St. Basil Monastery in Grottaferrata - where he gets all the nuns and altar boys he wants without having to put a wedding ring on their fingers first? The Byzantines defeat the advancing Seljuk armies at the Battle of Stragna. NE Bulgaria is raided by the Patzinaks (until 1054). Drogo of Hauteville conquers Calabria, and grants Robert Guiscard a castle in Scribla to guard the entrances. Benedictine monks in Jerusalem, devoting themselves to the care of the sick and injured gain authorization by the caliph of Egypt to build a church, convent, and hospital donated by merchants from Amalfi, Italy (near Naples), and adopt the 8-pointed white cross emblem of the Repub. of Amalfi as their badge, later calling themselves the Order of St. John Ambulance ("walking hospital"); they are officially recognized by Pope Paschal II on Feb. 15, 1113; their symbol of a white 8-pointed cross on a black background becomes an internat. symbol of first aid; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is partially restored under the reign of Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus. Norwegian king (since 1046) Harald III Sigurdsson Hardrada (1015-66) makes a trading place (kaupstad) out of the seaport of Oslo ("meadow at the foot of a hill/meadow consecrated to the gods") (founded 1040) (modern-day pop. 673K/1.59M) on the Aker River at the N end of Oslo Fiord 80 mi N. of the Skagerrak, going on to become the capital and most populous city in Norway; in 1624 it burns down during the reign of Christian IV, and is moved closer to Akershus Fortress and renamed Christiania (Kristiania) in his honor; on Jan. 1, 1838 is becomes a municipality; in 1877-97 it is renamed Kristiania; in 1925 it is renamed Oslo. Architecture: Bishop Aldred of Worcester founds the Benedictine Gloucester Abbey on the site of the wooden one built in 681. Births: Roman Byzantine emperor #153 (1081-1118) Alexius I Comnenus (Alexios I Komnenos) (d. 1118) (b. 1056?); 3rd son of John Comnenus; father of Anna Comnena (1083-1153) and John II Comnenus (1087-1143). Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam (Tentmaker) (Ghiyath ad-Din Abul-Fat'h Umar ibn Ibrahim Khayyam Neyshaburi) (d. 1122) on May 18 in Nishapur. Italian Benedictine abbot (St.) Bruno (d. 1123) in Solero, Piedmont; feast day: July 18; not to be confused with Carthusian Order founder St. Bruno (1030-1101). Deaths: Persian Muslim brain man Abu al-Biruni (b. 973) on Dec. 13; leaves At-Tafhim (Elements of Astrology), Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi (The Mas'udi Canon) (major work on astronomy), and Kitab as-Saydalah (treatise on medical drugs); uses Archimedes' Principle to calculate specific gravity; claims that the Earth rotates on its axis as well as around the Sun, but that the data can be equally well explained by the reverse hypothesis; speculates that the Indus Valley was once at the bottom of the sea; explains the working of artesian wells by the hydrostatic principle. German musical theorist Abbot Berno of Reichenau (b. 978). French duke Adalbert of Lorraine (b. 1000).
1049 On Mar. 12 HRE Henry III's relative Bruno is elected Pope (#151) Leo IX (1002-54) (4th German pope), launching needed reforms, causing the Church to reverse its moral degeneration for the rest of the cent. after being spurred by Italian churchman (St.) Peter Damian (Pietro Damiani) (1007-72) - he eats all the worms and spits out the germs? HRE Henry III begins the first of three campaigns against the Hungarians (ends 1052). Kiev grand prince Jaroslav I the Wise's daughter Anna Yaroslavna of Kiev (1024-75) is betrothed to French king Henry I, wowing the illiterate Frog nobles by signing her own name to the wedding contract, while they have to make Xs; he had ended up with her after all the other eligible princess prove too closely related; after being married in Reims on May 19, 1051, they go on to have sons Philip I (1052-1108), Hugh the Great, Count of Vermandois (1057-1101), and Robert (1055-60). Turkic Seljuk Sultan Tughril Bey conquers the unwalled city of Arzden W of Lake Van in Armenia, killing the entire pop. of 150K, plundering the town and its 800 churche, and torching it, adding insult to injury by placing big chunks of pork in the hands of the victims to insult them before carting off the women and children to Persian slavery; "Like famished dogs, bands of infidels hurled themselves on our city, surrounded it and pushed inside, massacring the men and mowing everything down like reapers in the fields, making the city a desert. Without mercy, they incinerated those who had hidden themselves in houses and churches" (eyewitness Aristakes); "That was the beginning of the misfortunes of Armenia, so lend an ear to this melancholy recital." (Matthew of Edessa) Architecture: The 186.5' red brick Iron Pagoda (Youguo Temple) in Kaifeng, Henan, China is built on the site of a wooden one that burned down in 1044, surviving to modern times. Births: Chinese painter Li Lung-mien (d. 1106). Deaths: Syrian historian (Nestorian bishop of Nisibis from 1008) Elias bar Shinaya (b. ?); leaves Chronicle.