|England||William I the Conqueror (1026-87)||Dec. 25, 1066||Sept. 9, 1087|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||1057||1093|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||Oct. 5, 1056||Dec. 31, 1105|
|Papacy||Alexander II (-1073)||1061||Apr. 21, 1073|
1070 In this decade the 6th cent. Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian Code) of Byzantine emperor (527-65) Justinian I the Great is accidentally discovered and studied in Italy and N Europe, causing the abandonment of the barbaric German legal system and the rise of the faceless magistri or civil lawyer slash bureaucrat class. On Apr. 11 ecclesiastical councils held in the presence of papal legates deprive Stigand of his see, and substitute Norman clergymen for English; on Aug. 15 Lanfranc (1005-89) of Caen (of Lombard descent) becomes archbishop #35 of Canterbury (until 1089), leading the papal program of reform in England, becoming William's chief adviser of state affairs (PM); after deciding that the Anglo-Saxon clergy are too addicted to hunting, gaming, and marriage, he replaces them with Normans, and in an effort to raise their moral and intellectual level draws up the Customs of Canterbury, a new monastic constitution; clerical celibacy begins to be enforced, and bishops are given their own courts with separate jurisdiction, beginning the separation of canon and common law; tithes are levied on the pop. to support the church, and William I decrees that only he can approve papal bulls and legates; the nat. assembly of bishops is separated from the Witan, with its decrees subject to approval by the king; Lanfranc leads the attack on Berengar of Tours for denying the doctrine of transubstantiation; Lanfranc's pupil Anselm of Italy succeeds him as prior of the monastery of Bec in Normandy, and becomes abbot in 1078. A small band of Anglo-Saxons led by Hereward the Wake establish themselves on the Isle of Ely, using the fens to protect them, but are no threat to William I, who is now complete master of Norman England, and proceeds to found Feudalism ("legalized anarchy") (king-lord-overlord, tenant-in-chief, mesne tenant, etc.) in England for the next two cents. Baldwin VI of Flanders (b. 1030) dies, and his son Arnulf III (1055-71) is attacked by his uncle Robert the Frisian; Philip I of France intervenes at the request of Arnulf's mother Richildis. Am I old enough to go to the pubs now, mum and dad? 20-y.-o. HRE Henry IV (b. 1050) finally achieves independence from his prince-regents, and bestows Bavaria upon duke Welf I/IV (-1101) (until 1077, then 1096-1101). Older men dating much younger women, is it taboo or today's trend? After her chaplain and confessor Turgot claims that both she and her younger sister Christina (who later becomes abbess of Romsey) had planned on becoming nuns, and persuasive Malcolm talks her out of it, Hungarian-raised Margaret Aetheling, sister of Edgar Aetheling and grandniece of Edward the Confessor marries Malcolm III Canmore and finally quits making excuses and becomes his 2nd wife, Queen Margaret of Scotland, busily working to Anglicize the realm (vaginally and otherwise?, bringing the Black (Holy) Rood, an ebony crucifix allegedly containing a portion of Jesus' Cavalry cross, which she uses as a powerful magic mamba-jamba to fight the crypto-Druid Celtic Christian religion, assembling leading Scottish clerics to tell them what's what, and writing to Canterbury archbishop Lanfranc to send a colony of Benedictine monks to found a monastery near the royal stronghold at Dunfermline; meanwhile she expresses herself and jazzes up the crude Scottish court with Old English sophistication, introducing Anglo-Saxon and Frankish clothing and hairstyles, court ceremonies and refined tableware (it's all about freedom of expression?); their first four sons Edward (1070-1093), Edmund (1071-?), Aethelred (1072?-?), and Edgar (1074-1007) are named after Margaret's male progenitors from father to great-great-grandfather in anticipation of their returning to rule England after the expected native revolt that will drive the Norman crackerjackers into the sea, and Malcolm passes over his sons by Ingibjorg for them as his chosen successors; the names of the last two, Alexander I (1077-1124) and David I (1080-1153) reflect guess what kind of influence?; all future Scottish kings incl. John I Balliol and Robert I the Bruce descend from this god-gifted Saxon breed mare. Chola Virarajendra dies, and his two sons vie for the throne of Kalyani in India (until 1074). A group of monks from Calabria in S Italy led by Ursus (of the Merovingian bloodline?) travel to the Ardennes Forest in NE France, and are given patronage by Godfrey (Godfroi) de Bouillon's aunt and foster mother Matilda of Tuscany (1046-1115), who gives them land in Orval (Fr. "valley of gold", named by Matilda after she loses her wedding ring in a spring and it is returned by a trout) near Stenay, site of the assassination of Dagobert II; they mysteriously disappear by 1108; one of them is Peter the Hermit, who becomes Godfrey's tutor and sparks the First Crusade? After being given permission by Egyptian caliph Ali az-Zahir, the Hospital (Order) of St. John the Baptist (Hospitalers) (Knights Hospitaller) (black mantle with a white cross) is founded in the Muristan Christian district of Jerusalem near the Holy Sepulchre by Amalfi Merchants led by Mauro of Pantaleone to take care of sick pilgrims who just came in from the rough 5-mo. journey from W France, establishing the Abbey of St. Mary of the Latins and the Nunnery of St. Mary Magdalene, manned by Benedictine monks from Montecassino, who in the 1060s established the Hospital of St John on the site of the Monastery of St. John the Baptist; in 1099 during the First Crusade they are militarized as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by the Blessed Gerard Thom (Thom) (Tum) (Tune) (Tenque) (1040-1120), and formally recognized by Pope Paschal II on Feb 15, 1113. Rashi (Shlomo Yitzchaki) (1040-1105) founds a Qabbala school in Troyes, France. The Comte de Vaudemont on Mt. Semita in France proclaims himself "vassal of the Queen of Heaven", the Merovingian statue of the Virgin of Sion, protectress of Lorraine, with a festival held each May. In this decade (after the Norman Conquest) hawking becomes a fad with the Norman royalty and nobility, with the type of hawk carried on the wrist becoming a badge of rank: gyrfalcon for king, peregrine for earl, goshawk for yeoman, sparrow hawk for priest, and kestrel for servant; the gyrfalcon and peregrine are "dark-eyed" or "long-winged" hawks, the others "yellow-eyed" or "short-winged"; a female (falcon) is larger and more powerful than a tiercel (male), and is preferred. The silver Maine Penny from the reign of King Olaf Kyrre is found at an Indian site in Maine. Architecture: Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent (founded 597) is rebuilt (finished 1077); in the early 1100s the E end is greatly enlarged. Inventions: Roquefort Cheese is first made in a cave near Roquefort, France - peeeyuuu? Nonfiction: William of Jumieges (Guillaume de Jumieges) (1000-71), Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes), becoming the principal Norman history, by a monk of Jumieges nicknamed Calculus, who was commissioned by Duke Richard I, his half-brother Count Rodulf of Ivry, and his son Duke Richard II, covering the reigns of Richard II, Richard II (1026-7), Robert I (1027-35), and William the Conqueror,through 1070. Births: Danish king (1095-1103) Eric (Erik) I Ejegod (Evergood) of Man Loving (d. 1103) (b. 1060?) in Slangerup, North Zealand; son of Sweyn II Estridsson (1019-74); brother of Olaf I Hunger (1050-95); half-brother of Canute IV (1043-86); father of Canute Lavard (1090-1131) and Eric II (1090-1137); grandfather of Valdemar I (1131-82). Hungarian king (1095-1116) and Croatian king (1097-) Kalman (Coloman) (Koloman) (the Book Lover) (d. 1116); son of Geza I (1040-77) and Sophia von Looz; brother of Prince Almos (-1129). French bimbo Bertrada (Bertrade) of Monfort (d. 1117); daughter of Simon I de Monfort (1025-87) and Countess Agnes of Evreux. French scholar Guillaume de Champeaux (d. 1122). German Ascanian count of Anhalt #1 Otto of Ballenstedt (d. 1123); eldest son of Adalbert II and Adelheid, daughter of Margrave Otto I of Meissen; son-in-law of Duke Magnus of Saxony' father of Albert the Bear. French troubadour Guillaume de Poitou (d. 1127). French mystery man (Knights Templar grand master #1) Hugues (Hugh) de Payens (Pajens) (Payns) (d. 1136) in Troyes. Deaths: Arab rhetorician Ibn Rashiq (b. 1000). Spanish Jewish philosopher Gabirol (b. 1021).
1071 On Jan. 18 the Battle of Pedroso between Braga and the Cavado Riversees Garcia II of Galicia suppress the rebellion of his Portuguese subjects under Nuno II Mendes, who is KIA; in Apr. Garcia II is captured by his brother Sancho II of Castile, but purchases his release and retires to the court of his tributary Al-Mutamid of Seville, and Galicia is divided between his brothers Sancho II and Alfonso VI. On Feb. 22 Robert the Frisian defeats Arnulf and his allies, and Arnulf is slain. There goes the restored Roman Empire? On Apr. 16 after a 3-year siege the Normans in S Italy led by Robert Guiscard defeat the hated Byzantines at the Battle of Bari (their last possession in Italy), and finally eject them from Italy. Here cum da Turks so kiss the world goodbye, destination Moon? On Aug. 26 (Fri.) after rejecting all offers, the orthodox Sunni On Aug. 26, 1071 (Fri.) after first proposing a peace treaty, which is rejected, 30K orthodox Sunni Seljuk Turks from Turkestan under Sultan Alp Arslan ("Lion Hero") (Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri) (1029-72) decisively defeat a 70K-man Byzantine force under Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) (Melasgird) N of Lake Van, killing 2K-8K incl. the entire Varangian Guard along with the Norse and Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, and 2K Turkish mercenaries, capturing him after Andronicus Dukas and other magnates desert him along with 20K-35K mainly Frankish and Norman mercenaries, taking 4K POWs; Alp Arslan has the dusty tattered Romanus IV brought before him, and places his foot symbolically on his neck, then orders him to be treated as a king, releasing him after eight days for a 1.5M solidi ransom and a guarantee of 360K more each year; Turkoman chief Atsiz seizes and conquers Palestine; the Turks now control Jerusalem and have an open gate to the C Anatolian plateau, which they occupy and dechristianize (Muslimize) over the next two cents., cutting off all pilgrim routes to Jerusalem until the First Crusade in 1095; less-than-competent junior emperor (since May 22, 1067) Michael VII Ducas (Parapinakes) (Minus a Quarter) (1050-90), son of Constantine X is forced to assume rule by the bureaucrats as Roman Byzantine emperor #151 (until Mar. 24, 1078), appointing Byzantine scholar Michael Psellos (1017-78) as his chief adviser while devoting himself to learning instead of govt. admin., causing his military to deteriorate further; the Caliphate of Cairo in Egypt is still intact, as are the Dominions of the Almoravids in Africa and Spain; meanwhile Malik Danishmend founds a Seljuk principality in N and C Anatolia, which later becomes a rival to Rum. Alp Arslan returns from his campaign agains the Byzantines and deposes ruler (since 1054) Abu Nasr Mamlan II, ending the Rawwadid Dynasty (founded 979). Matilda of Canossa (1046-1114) assumes control of the former Carolingian feudal territory of Tuscany, becoming known as Matilda of Tuscany, giving Florence a considerable degree of self-govt., and becoming known as the "Great Countess". The English town of Boston is founded. Architecture: Richmond Castle in Yorkshire, England is built. Architecture: The Abbey of Orval (Abbaye Notre-Dame d'Orval) (Fr. "Val d'Or" = Golden Valley) in Gaume, Belgium (Luxembourg) is founded by Benedictines from Calabria, Italy; donated by the foster mother of First Crusade leader Godfrey de Bouillon?; site that actually issues the prophecies of Nostradamus? Births: Scottish Canmore king (1094-7) Edmund I (d. 1098); 2nd son of Malcolm III Canmore (-1093) and St. Margaret Aetheling (1045-93). French duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and count of Poitou (the first troubadour) William IX (the Troubador) (Guillaume de Poitiers) (d. 1127) on Oct. 22; son of William VIII (1025-86) and 3rd wife Hildegarde of Burgundy. Deaths: Norman lord William FitzOsbern, 1st earl of Hereford (b. 1020) on Feb. 22 in Flanders. English archbishop Stigand (b. ?) on Feb. 22.
In early Jan. the Battle of Golpejera (Golpejar)
sees Sancho II of Castile defeat and capture his brother Alfonso VI the Brave of Leon (1037-1109)
near the Carrion River (25 mi. from Palencia), and imprison him in the Monastery of Sahagun, but he escapes and seeks refuge in Toledo
with Almamun, whom he calls "a knight although a Moor"; on Oct. 7 Sancho II is assassinated while attacking Alfonso's men in Zamora,
so Alfonso VI returns and inherits the joint kingdom of Leon-Castile (as Alfonso VI of Leon and Alfonso I of Castile) (until 1109),
going on to reign 37 more years and become the most powerful Christian ruler in Spain, the self-proclaimed "emperor of all Spain",
the stuff of which legends are made, protecting Muslims in his realm, minting coins with Arabic inscriptions, bedding refugee Muslim princess
Zaida of Seville, marrying his daughters Urraca, Teresa, and Elvira to French princes, and pleasing the papacy by dumping the Mozarabic rite
(missal of St. Isidore) for the Roman ritual; Alfonso VI donates the village of Valladolid to
Count Pedro Ansurez (Ansúrez) (-1118), who becomes the first lord of Valladolid,
ramping up its size starting with a palace, putting it on track to become the seat of the court of Castile and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile in 1469.
After being released by the Seljuks and returning to Constantinople, Emperor Romanus IV attempts to regain his throne, but John Doukas and Michael Psellos
repudiate his agreement with Alp Arslan and declare war on him, forcing his wife Eudoxia into a nunnery, after which Romanus IV's army is defeated in Dokeia,
and he retreats to the fortress of Tyropoion, then to Adana in Cilicia before surrendering after first sending Arslan all the money he has as a downpayment
on the ransom, clinging to the chance; too bad, after he resigns on condition of sparing his life, John Doukas reneges and has him blinded on June 29,
sending him to exile in Prote in the Sea of Marmara, where he soon dies from infection.
On Nov. 24 Bagrat IV (b. 1018) dies, and his son George (Giorgi) II (1054-1112)
becomes king of Georgia (until 1089), going on to become overwhelmed by Seljuk attacks and internal strife.
William I of England, pissed-off at his harboring of the Anglo-Saxon royals invades Scotland by land and sea, causing Malcolm III Canmore to chicken out, submit to William at Abernethy
on the Tay River and pay homage, promising to expel the exiles, esp. pesky Edgar Aetheling, and surrendering his eldest son Donald (Donnchad) as hostage.
Sultan Alp Arslan is murdered by one of his captives, and his son
Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah (Maliq Shah) (Malek Shak) (Malikshah) (-1092)
becomes sultan #3 of the Seljuk Empire, which stretches from the Oxus River to the Mediterranean,
retaining Alp's vizier Nizam al-Mulk, and finishing the subjugation of Syria and Palestine.
The Normans under Robert Guiscard conquer Palermo, which has been in Muslim hands since 831.
George Voitech (-1073) begins a revolt against the Byzantines in Bulgaria. Ly Thang-Tong dies, and his son
Ly Can Duc (1066-1127) becomes emperor of Vietnam (until 1127), beginning border enroachments with China that piss-off Chinese emperor Wang Anshi.
Count Robert I of Flanders concludes a peace treaty with Philip I of France; the terms require him to marry his obese stepdaughter
Bertha of Holland (1055-93) (his 1st wife), who takes nine years to produce him an heir.
The seaport of Ostend ("East End") on the North Sea, 77 mi. WNW of Brussels is founded.
William I the Conqueror appoints Serlo (-1104)
as the first Norman abbot of Gloucester, who rebuilds Gloucester Abbey in 1089-1104.
The Norman Romanesque churches of St. Etienne
and La Trinite (Trinité)
in Caen are built by William I the Conqueror using Caen stone, which he uses for everything serious, such as the Tower of London; William's
tomb ends up in St. Etienne, and Queen Matilda's in La Trinite.
Kuo Hsi (1020-90), Early Spring;
hanging scroll, ink and color on silk.
Bavarian duke (1101-20)
1073 On Apr. 21 Pope (since Oct. 1, 1061) Alexander II dies, and on Apr. 22 his faithful midget chancellor Hildebrand of Sovana is elected Pope #156 Gregory VII (1023-85) (until May 25, 1085), going on to initiate the Gregorian Reform to stamp out sin in the Church, incl. the keeping of wives and mistresses by priests, and work to make the papacy strong, clericalize the Church, and arrogate supreme authority to the papacy over all the rising rulers and princes around him, requiring them to literally kiss his foot, causing German bishops to oppose his confirmation; as a safety move, he prohibits Bible reading as leading to pesky heresy; meanwhile he keep his own mistress, Countess Mathilda of Tuscany (Canossa) (1046-1115), whose husband Duke Godfrey IV the Hunchback (-1076) spreads stories about him being an atheist; not that he's all bad, since he gets off on scourging himself and watching others being scourged - sad reversal of the Jesus story? On June 15 emperor (since 1068) Go-Sanjo (b. 1034) dies, and his eldest son Shirakawa (1053-1129) (personal name Sadahito) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #72 (until 1087). In June the Revolt of the Saxon Princes in Saxony begins (ends 1075) over statutory labor required to build royal strongholds, and is joined by the free peasants of Eastphalia, who stink themselves up with atrocities, allowing the king to recruit nobles to fight against their own. In summer while advancing S to defeat the starving Fatimid Empire in Egypt, the Sunni Turkic Great Seljuk Empire under emir Atsiz ibn Uvaq (Abq) (-1079) captures Jerusalem from the Fatimids. After the ulama of Transoxiana invite them in the Seljuks defeat the Qarakhanids, gaining control of Samarkand and the Western Khanate in 1089. The Voitech Revolt in Bulgaria is quashed. The English church is reorganized by the Normans, with York subordinated to Canterbury. Architecture: The emir of Granada rejects the Castilian demand for tribute, but the emir of Seville offers to pay instead; a joint Muslim-Castilian force builds the Fortress of Belillos, from which they can raid into Granada. The Pueblo ruins at Mesa Verde (Sp. "green table") in SW Colo. are built, incl. the 151-room Cliff Palace, the largest cliff dwelling in North Am. The Dravidian Airava Tesh Vara Temple in Darasuram, India is begun. Births: Georgian Barationi king #5 (1089-1125) David IV/II/II (the Builder) (d. 1125) in Kutaisi; son of George II (1054-1112). Spanish king of Aragon and Navarre (1104-34) Alfonso I (the Battler) (the Warrior) (d. 1134) (b. 1074?); 2nd son of Sancho Ramirez (1042-94); brother of Peter I (1068-1104). Austrian Babenberg margrave (1095-1136) (patron saint of Austria) (St.) Leopold III (the Good) (d. 1136) in Babenberg Castle, Gars am Kamp; son of Leopold II (1050-95) and Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg; father of Otto of Freising (1114-1158). feast day: Nov. 15. Deaths: Russian monk St. Anthony Pechersky (b. 983) on July 9 in Kiev. Japanese emperor #71 (1068-73) Go-Sanjo (b. 1034) on June 15.
1074 On Jan. 18 HRE Henry IV grants the citizens and Jews of Worms, Frankfurt, and other cities privileges with fees and import duties. On Feb. 2 after coming to terms with the pope, and playing one Saxon faction off against the other, HRE Henry IV signs the Peace of Gerstungen, with with the Saxons, winning the Bavarian baronage; too bad, it is ended next June after Henry IV resumes his war. After Pope Alexander II sends legate Rudolph to Prague to investigate the rivalry between bishop Jaromir of Prague and bishop John of Olomouc, and Jaromir snubs him, Rudolph is deposed, and new Pope Gregory VII convokes an Easter synod in Rome, ordering Jaromir's brother Vratislaus II of Bohemia to remove him; he then sends a Letter Calling for a Crusade, but because of the investiture controversy with HRE Henry IV, plus the Norman expansion in Italy under Robert Guiscard, it fizzles and no infidel Muslims get butchered in the name of Christ this year; he excommunicates mean old Norman Robert Guiscard, along with all married priests - Jesus did not marry Mary Magdalene? On July 19 El Cid marries Jimena (Ximena) Diaz (1046-1116), going on to have four children, one of whom dies with him on the battlefield. Philip I of France seizes Corbie, an outpost in the direction of Flanders from Robert the Frisian, claiming it as part of the dowry of his aunt Audele, wife of Baldwin IV of Flanders. Solomon is defeated by Bela's sons (by Richesa of Poland) Geza and Ladislas; Prince Geza appeals to Pope Gregory VII for support, but when popey asks for total submission, he refuses and has himself crowned king Geza I (1040-77) of Hungary (until Apr. 25, 1077), with a crown supplied by the Byzantine emperor. Emperor Michael VII Parapinakes signs a treaty with the Seljuks in order to secure their aid against his pretender uncle, and they defeat him but invite themselves into a large part of Anatolia. The sons of Chola Virarajendra of Kalyani have each other assassinated, ending their line; the Chalukya-Chola Dynasty (ends 1267) is founded, with infant Rajendra of Kanchi (1070-), son of the king of Vengi and son of a Chola princess, who takes the vacant throne of Kanchi and rules Vengi through a viceroy, being recognized by the Ganga king of Kalinga. HRE Henry IV's Charter of Worms becomes the first imperial charter issued directly to the citizens without episcopal intervention. Burgos, Spain becomes an episcopal see (until 1574). Parma Cathedral (begun 1058) finishes construction; consecrated by Pope Paschal II in 1116. Births: German king (1087-98) and Italian king (1093-98) Conrad II of Italy (d. 1101) on Feb. 12 in Hersfeld Abbey; 2nd son of HRE Henry IV (1050-1106) and Bertha of Savoy (Turin) (1051-87); not to be confused with HRE Conrad II (990-1039). Scottish Canmore king (1098-1107) Edgar I (d. 1107); 4th son of Malcolm III Canmore and Margaret Aetheling. French count of champagne (1093-1125) Hugh I (d. 1125; 3rd son of Count Theobald III of Blois and Adele of Valois, countess of Bar-sur-Aube; brother of Count Odo V of Troyes (-1093).
1075 On June 9 the First Battle of Langensalza sees forces sent by HRE Henry IV kick rebel Saxon prince butt on the Unstrut River; too bad, on June 10 Henry's man Ernest the Brave (b. 1027) bravely and earnestly dies of his wounds, and his son Leopold II (the Fair) (1050-95) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1095), ruling from Gars Am Kamp in Lower Austria, and later wisely taking HRE Henry IV's side in the investiture dispute, like his daddy did; meanwhile HRE Henry IV ignores German bishops and sanctions Pope Gregory VII's confirmation, but after he defeats the Saxon rebels he flops, as the abolition of lay investiture (secular princes granting bishops and abbots the lands constituting their benefices along with the political rights and duties they exercise, incl. when the benefices are sold and free election of bishops is denied) would reduce his power in Germany, and begins the Investiture Dispute (Controversy) (Contest) (ends 1122), one of the biggest church-state struggles in the Middle Ages; Gregory VII opens play by condemning the practice under penalty of excommunication, issuing the 27-point bull Dictatus Papae, formalizing the claims of world dominance of the Roman Catholic Church and the supreme authority of the popey pope pope pope over both church and state; no slouch himself, William I of England defies the pope and continues to control the appointment of English bishops and abbots, allowing no pope to be acknowledged without his consent, and forbidding the entrance of papal legates or letters into England without royal permission - love isn't enough to keep them together? Toledo takes Cordoba from Seville with the help of Castilian troops. William I of England uses the fyrd (nat. fighting force) successfully against a group of rebel Norman vassals. The Irish wrest control of Dublin from the Danes for the last time. Caliph (since 1031) Al-Qaim (b. 1001) dies, and Al-Muqtadi (1056-94) succeeds him as Abbassid caliph in Baghdad (until 1094). Vietnamese troops attack China, defeating the Song navy and sacking several towns; meanwhile Vietnam institutes its first exams for bureaucratic office, and found a nat. Confucian college next year, but abandon the exams in 1077 when the students prove they need more time (and/or the Chinese invasion stops them)? The Kingdom of Mapungubwe ("place of jackals") in S Africa at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo Rivers S of Great Zimbabwe is founded, becoming the first class-based social system in S Africa, lasting until 1220 and helping give rise to the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. The bishopric of Sarum near Salisbury, England is founded (ends 1220); their form of the Latin rite becomes the prevalent form in England before the Reformation. Architecture: St. James' Cathedral in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain is begun in the reign of Alfonso VI of Castile under new bishop Diego Pelaez after it becomes an episcopal see to house the alleged remains of you know who discovered in 814 on one of the main stops on the pilgrimage route (finished 1128). The Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity in Chichester, West Sussex, England is founded after the bishop of Selsey transfers there. Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway (250 mi. N of Oslo) is founded over the tomb of St. Olaf II, becoming the site of Norwegian coronations. Nonfiction: St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), Monologion: A Monologue on the Reason for Faith (Monologium de Ratione Fidei) (1975-6); AKA "An Example of Meditation on the Reason for Faith" (Exemplum Meditandi de Ratione Fidei); based on St. Augustine's "De Trinitate", giving reasons for belief in God sans appeal to authority. Births: Norman First Crusade leader (prince of Antioch and Galilee) Tancred (d. 1112); son of Emma of Apulia (sister of Bohemund of Taranto); maternal grandson of Robert Guiscard and 1st wife Alberada of Buonalbergo. German Saxon king (1125-37) and HRE (1133-7) Lothair (Lothar) III/II of Luxembourg (d. 1137) in June; son of Count Gebhard of Supplinburg, born a few days after he was KIA on June 9. Spanish "The Kuzari" Jewish physician-poet-philosopher Judah (Yehuda) ben Shmuel Halevi (ha-Levi) (d. 1141) in Toledo; grows up in Granada; student of Moses ibn Ezra. English (Norman) chronicler (Benedictine monk) Orderic Vitalis (d. 1142) in Atcham, Shropshire; eldest son of French priest Odeler of Orleans. Deaths: Arab Abbasid caliph (1031-75) Al-Qa'im (b. 1001) on Apr. 2. German archbishop of Cologne (1056-75) St. Anno II (b. 1010) on Dec. 4 in Siegburg Abbey. Austrian margrave Ernest the Brave (b. 1027) on June 10; KIA in the First Battle of Langensalza.
1076 In Jan. Pope Gregory VII is condemned by the German bishops at the Synod of Worms, and retaliates by dethroning and excommunicating Henry IV; Boleslaus I the Bold (1038-81) resumes the title of king of Poland with the pope's approval for supporting him against the nasty old Germans. On Feb. 26 (Feb. 27?) duke (since 1069) Godfrey IV (b. ?), of Lower Lorraine is assassinated in Vlaardingen while "answering the call of nature", leaving his duchy to Godfrey of Bouillon, which HRE Henry IV overrules, giving it to his son Conrad; Godfrey gets it in 1087. On Mar. 21 Robert I Capet (b. 1011) dies, and since his first son Hugh died at a young age, and his 2nd son Henry also died, Henry's son Hugh I (1057-93) succeeds as duke of Burgundy (until 1079). Ramon Berenguer I (b. 1024) dies, and his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II (the Towhead) (1053-82) and Berenguer Ramon II (the Fratricide) (1053-97) become joint counts of Barcelona. Duke Godfrey of Lower Lorraine is assassinated. After the emir of Toledo dies, Seville takes Cordoba back from his son al-Qadir. Aragon beguns ruling Navarre (until 1134). Robert Guiscard makes Salerno the capital of his dukedom of Puglia. Cambrai in N France becomes a commune. The Almoravid rulers of the Maghreb defeat the gold-rich kingdom of Ghana ("warrior king") in W Africa, but are later forced to withdraw by the Soninkes. Khawrezmian Turkish mercenaries under Atsiz ibn Uvaq conquer S Syria incl. Damascus, displacing the Arabs for the next two cents.; Atsiz ibn Uvaq becomes the first Seljuk emir of Damascus, ordering the construction of the Citadel of Damscus; too bad, next year he unsuccessfully attacks Cairo, and is chased by the Fatimids back to Syria, quelling a revolt in Jerusalem and massacring the pop. while appealing to Tutush I, brother of Great Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I, who gets pissed-off at the massacre and orders him imprisoned and strangled then takes control of his territories, appointing Aruqud Dynasty founder Artuq bin Ekseb (-1091) as gov. of Jerusalem (until 1091). The Chinese send a military force into Vietnam, which withdraws next year, causing several years of border talks. Vikramaditya VI (-1126) becomes king of Kalyani (Western Chalukya) in S India (until 1126), marrying the daughter of Chola Virarajendra and presiding over the final extinction of Buddhism by Hindus. Anantavarman Chodaganga (Codaganga) (-1150) creates the Eastern Ganga Dynasty (ends 1434) in the S part of Kalinga, India, stretching from the Ganges River to the Godavari River, and builds the Temple of Jagannath (Vishnu) in Puri (S of Cuttack); it is initially open to all Hindu castes, then barred to 15 of them. Births: Russian grand prince of Kiev (1125-32) Mstislav (Theodore) I Vladimirovich the Great (d. 1132) (AKA Waldemar of Ruthenia) on June 1 in Turov; eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh (1053-1125) and Gytha of Wessex (-1107), daughter of Harold II of Wessex; known as Harald in the Norse Sagas. Deaths: French duke of Burgundy (1032-76) Robert I Capet (b. 1011) on Mar. 21. Italian marchioness Beatrice of Bar (b. 1017) on Apr. 18. Spanish count of Barcelona (1035-76) Ramon Bereguer I the Old (b. 1024).
1077 Give me love, give me love, give me peace on Earth? A Jan. a faction of German nobles elects antiking duke of Swabia (1057-79) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (1025-80) (brother-in-law of Henry IV) with the approval of Pope Gregory VII's legates, but before the pope confirms him, in Jan. excommunicated HRE Henry IV goes as a penitent to Canossa Castle near Parma in Reggio Emilia, Italy and stands for three days in the courtyard bareheaded and barefooted awaiting an audience with the Christlike-not papa, who grants him absolution on his knees in return for abandoning all claims to the right of investiture of bishops, causing the phrase "Going to Canossa" to be coined by Bismarck in the 1870s; a civil war begins (ends 1080), in which Henry IV is supported by the towns, banning duke Welf I/IV (until 1096) et al. for backing Rudolf; meanwhile deposed Prague bishop Jaromir, now an ardent backer of HRE Henry IV becomes his chancellor under the name Gebhard. On Mar. 19 Norman monk (Lanfranc's chamberlain) Gundulf (Gundulph) (-1108) is consecrated as bishop of Rochester, England (until Mar. 7, 1108), going on to display his prowess in building castles in Rochester, Colchester, and London. On Apr. 25 Geza I (b. 1040) dies, and his brother (St.) Laszlo (László) (Ladislas) I Herman (1040-95), later patron saint of military men and exiles becomes Arpad king of Hungary (until 1095), backing the pope in his conflicts with the HRE, while restoring the prosperity and order of St. Stephen I. Mikhail of Serbia is crowned by a papal legate. William I the Conqueror of England's eldest son Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) (short hose, because he's short?) asks for the rule of Normandy and Maine, and when daddy refuses, he rebels and attempts to seize Rouen, then flees to Gerberoi (until 1080). Corsica becomes subject to the Holy See, which appoints admins. from Pisa, pissing-off Pisa's rival Genoa. Alfonso VI the Brave of Leon and Castile bravely proclaims himself "emperor of all Hispania", and shocks his people shitless by importing 10K Arab-speaking and Arab-dressing Mozarab Christian settlers from al-Andalus into the Ebro Valley. Suleiman I ibn Qutulmish (Kutalmish) (-1082) founds the Seljuk Turkish Sunni Muslim Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor) (modern-day Turkey) (ends 1307), named after Rome, since the Muslims called the Byzantines Romans and they were moving into their territory; the capital moves around between Iznik (until 1097), Konya, Kayseri, and Sivas; they eventually control most of C and W Anatolia, incl. the Analya-Alanya shoreline in S Anatolia on the Mediterrean coast and the territory of Sinop in N Anatolia on the Black Sea. After helping Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I retake territory in N Greater Khorasan from the Ghaznavids, former Turkish slave Anushtegin (Anush Tigin) Gharchai (d. 1097) is appointed gov. of Khwarezm, founding the imperial Persianate Sunni Muslim Khwarazmian (Khwarezmid) (Khwarzemsha) Dynasty, which rules parts of Greater Iran (until 1231). St. Bruno (1030-1101) makes a vow to abandon the world, going on to found the Carthusian Order (Order of St Bruno) on Aug. 15, 1084. Architecture: The first English Cluniac Monastery at Lewes in East Sussex, England is built. St. Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire, England is begun (ends 1115). Nonfiction: St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), Proslogion (Proslogium) (Discourse) (Faith Seeking Understanding) (Fides Quarens Intellectum) (An Address on God's Existence) (Alloquium de Dei Existentia); Anselm's Argument for the Existence of God, namely, that the truly greatest possible being must necessarily exist. Births: Scottish king (1107-24) Alexander I (the Fierce) (the Strong) (d. 1124) in Dunfermline; 5th son of Malcolm III Canmore and his 2nd wife Margaret Aetheling; first not given an Anglo-Saxon name, but then, not a Scottish one either, but Greek? Persian Qadiriyya Sufi order founder Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (d. 1166) in Nif. Deaths: Persian Sufi scholar Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery (b. 990) in Lahore, Pakistan; leaves Kash Al Mahjub ("Unveiling the Veiled"); his Data Durbar Mausoleum in Lahore becomes a center of Sufism. Persian historian Abolfazl Beyhagi (b. 995). Burmese Pagan Empire king #1 (1044-77) Anawrahta (b. 1014) on Apr. 11 in Pagan (Bagan). Hungarian king (1074-7) Geza I (b. 1040) on Apr. 25.
1078 On Jan. 7 after revolting against Michael VII and obtaining Seljuk troops to aid him in marching to Nicaea, Byzantine gen. Nicephorus III Botaniates (Nikephoros III Botaneiates) (1002-81) proclaims himself emperor, which is ratified by the aristocracy and clergy, causing Michael VII to abdicate and enter a monastery, then on Mar. 24 he enters Constantinople in triumph and is crowned by Patriarch Kosmas I as Roman Byzantine emperor #152 (until Apr. 1, 1081); Michael VII's wife (since 1065) Maria of Alania (Martha Bagrationi of Georgia) (1053-1118) marries the new emperor; a number of army revolts break out, all suppressed by Gen. Alexius Comnenus - the death of Michael's teacher Psellos has something to do with it? On Oct. 3 prince (since 1054) Yziaslav I (b. 1024) dies, and his brother Vsevolod (Vsvelod) Andrew) I (1030-93) becomes grand prince of Kiev (until Apr. 13, 093). Seville takes Valencia from Toledo, causing Al-Qadir of Toledo to be forced from the city by a coup, and his opponents acknowledge Al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz (in SW Spain) as their new ruler. The Almohavids take Tangier; Ceuta hangs on as the last Zanata outpost because its fleet can supply it from the sea. Odo of Lagery (future Pope Urban II) becomes cardinal bishop of Ostia. Pope Gregory VII prohibits Jews from holding offices in Christendom - Christ might get pissed? Architecture: In order to overawe the pesky Anglo-Saxon dogs, William I the Big Bad Conqueror orders the construction of the Tower of London outside the E wall of the city of London on the N Middlesex bank of the Thames River by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester as a "symbol of his power, a fortress for his defense, and a prison for his enemies"; it takes 30+ years to complete; a prophesy that when the ravens abandon it the English monarchy is supposed to fall causes seven clipped ravens to be kept there; the 90-ft. White Tower (royal residence) is built with stones from Normandy, with three square and one round turret (NE corner), and a single 2nd-story entrance on the S side reached by an external staircase; the jail is on the top, so that anybody attempting to jump better think twice; it contains a garderobe, toilet stalls facing away from the city; William I also builds Windsor (OE "river bank with a winch") Castle 22 mi. W of London on a chalky outcrop overlooking the Thames River, replacing a royal Saxon residence. Births: Arab Abbasid caliph #28 (1094-1118) Al-Mustazhir 9d. 1118); son of al-Muqtadi; father of al-Mustarshid and al-Muqtafi. Moroccan Muslim Berber reformer Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart (d. 1130) in Igiliz, Sous; founder of the Almohad sect and dynasty, considered as the Mahdi. Deaths: French baron Norman William "the Seemly" Sinclair, 1st Baron of Roslyn (b. 1028) in Northumnberlandshire, England (KIA). Russian grand prince of Kiev (1054) Iziaslav I (b. 1024) on Oct. 3 in Nezhatyna Nyva.
1079 On Apr. 11 Boleslaus II the Bold (d. 1083) executes (St.) Stanislaus of Szczepanow (b. 1030), bishop of Cracow, for which he is excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII, causing him to abandon the throne, seeking exile in Hungary; his brother Prince Ladislaus (Ladislas) (Wladislaw) (Vladislav) I Herman (1040-1102), son of Casimir I the Restorer becomes a lazy ruler of Poland, and never crowns himself king - I think it's going to be sad, I think it's going to be today? Philip I of France defeats William I of Normandy. Malcolm III of Scotlandreneges on his 1072 oaths and takes advantage of the apparent collapse of Norman power in N England to raid and sack Northumbria. Hugh I retires to become a monk (later working his way up to abbot of the Benedictine abbey in Cluny, France), and his brother Eudes I Borel (the Red) (1058-1103) becomes duke of Burgundy (until 1103), continuing the robber baron tradition. Armenian King Gagik II is murdered in Cybistra Castle, and his body hung over the castle wall. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (-1095) becomes Seljuk sultan of Damascus (until 1095), going on to conquer S Syria from the Turkomans, then kick the Fatimids out until they only have a thin strip of coastal Palestine. The Battle of Cabra sees Rodrigo Diaz (Díaz) (El Cid) defeat emir Abd Allah of Granada, who is helped by Castilian Count García Ordonez (Ordońez) (-1108) of Najera; El Cid is entrusted by Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile with collection of tribute from Seville and Cordoba. The Battle of Coria sees King Alfonso VI of Castile-Leon defeat Al-Mutawwakkil, Muslim emir of Badajoz, who renounces control of Toledo, allowing al-Qadir to be reinstated; a Leonese garrison is established at Zorita, E of Toledo. The Battle of Sky Hill helps Godred Crovan (Gael. "white hand") (-1095) AKA King Orry become king of the Sudreys (Isle of Man and the Hebrides). Count Frederick of Biiren (-1094) is granted the dukedom of Swabia by HRE Henry IV, along with his daughter Agnes in marriage; too bad, it takes him 20 years to secure possession of er, Swabia; Frederick's son Frederick builds the first castle at Hohenstaufen (Staufen), founding the Hohenstaufen Dynasty. Pope Gregory VII issues a decree regulating cathedral schools, paving the way for independent univs. Architecture: Alfonso VI and Queen Constance of Castile build the Monastery of Adelelmus in Burgos, Spain for St. Adelelmus (Aleaunie) (-1100), a rootin' tootin' military-trained Benedictine monk from Poitou, who becomes its abbot and helps with the fighting against the Moors on the side. The Romanesque (Norman Gothic) Winchester Cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England is begun by Bishop Walkelin (Walchelin) (-1098) (consecrated on Apr. 8, 1093), dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Swithun, replacing the Old Minister (founded in 642), becoming one the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the longest nave and greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe. Births: Spanish queen of Leon, Castile and Galicia (1109-26) Urraca (the Reckless) (La Temeraria) (d. 1126 in Apr. in Burgos; eldest and only surviving child of Alfonso VI of Leon and 2nd wife Constance of Burgundy; wife of Raymond of Burgundy and Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre; mother of Sancha Raimundez and Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile. English queen consort (1100-1118) Matilda (Edith) of Scotland (d. 1118) in Dunfermline, Scotland; daughter of Malcolm III and St. Margaret; wife (1100-) of Henry I; mother of empress Matilda (1102-67) and William Adelin (1103-20). French conceptualist theologian-philosopher-lover (misunderstood and ahead of his time?) Peter Abelard (Pierre le Pallet) (d. 1142) in Pallet (near Nantes), Brittany; son of a noble Breton family; pupil of nominalist founder Roscellinus; follower of Johannes Scotus Erigena, and precursor of St. Thomas Aquinas, leaning toward Aristotle over Plato; rises to #1 teacher in Paris, until he gets in the pants of Heloise (1101-64) in 1117 - Peter Everhard from Nantes gets hot for Heloise's pantes? Deaths: Greek Byzantine Platonist philosopher Michael Psellos (Psellus) (b. 1018); leaves De Daemonibus (spurious?).