|England||Ethelred II the Unready (968-1016)||Mar. 18, 978||Apr. 23, 1016|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||Oct. 24, 996||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE Otto III (980-1002)||Dec. 25, 983||Jan. 23, 1002|
|Poland||Boleslaus I the Mighty of Poland (967-1025)||992||Apr. 18, 1025|
|Papacy||Sylvester II (946-1003)||Apr. 2, 999||May 12, 1003|
1000 World pop.: 200M-300M; Constantinople: 300K, Rome: 35K, Paris: 20K; the thriving Chinese Bei (Northern) Song Dynasty (960-1127) is the world's most populous empire; the Muslim Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) and remnants of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-) thrive in Spain, N Africa, the Middle East, and C Asia; there are 45K Christians in Baghdad; early in this cent. W Europe develops its first urban society. India share of global GDP: 28.9%, sliding to 24.4% in 1700, 16.1% in 1820, and 4.2% in 1950, rising to 7.1% in 2015. A third of world Christians still live in Asia, and a tenth in Africa; by the end of the 14th cent. they are virtually wiped out by Islamic persecution. The original myth of the female orgasm? This was the last year of the 10th cent. in the Julian Calendar as well as the last year of the first millennium, and was a leap year starting on Mon.; the papal chancery now dated all documents using the Anno Domini (A.D./B.C.) system for the Julian Calendar - perhaps they now can't cover up that the world has a long future ahead of it before (if ever) he comes baaack, but don't want the world to regress to the pagan state that existed before he arrived? The Terreur de l'An Mil (Millennium Fever) (MF) gave many in Christendom a big buzz, mainly in France, which used the Julian Calendar, and mainly among monks, since the clerks still used regnal years, although rumors spread to the gen. pop. The Medieval Climate Anomaly begins, bringing a warm climate; the sea level rises 0.5mm a year for the next four cents; Europe begins a period of optimal climate conditions for agriculture, producing large harvests until c. 1250 - good era for producing those legions of young unmarried stags who will go on military expeditions looking for the Three P's, poon, er, the Three B's? The Early Middle Ages end, and the High Middle Ages begin, with major changes in W European life, incl. the rise of medieval communes, the resurgence of city life, the appearance of the burgher class, the revival of long-distance trade with the Mediterranean, the founding of the first univs., the rediscovery of Roman law, and the beginnings of vernacular lit.; meanwhile the Byzantine Empire enjoys its Golden Age in Greece and Turkey. In this cent. Venetian aristocrats begin using hereditary surnames, and by the end of the cent. returning Crusaders spread the custom throughout Europe, incl. Anglo-Saxon England. In this cent. the failure of Christ to return causes him to go from being portrayed as "Christ triumphant" to "the Christ of pain", becoming his main act by the 13th cent. Please allow me to introduce myself, I'm a man of wealth and fame? On Mar. 11 after "Emperor of the World" HRE Otto III makes Rome the permanent residence of the HREs, then makes a pilgrimage to Aachen, where he opens his hero Charlemagne's Tomb, and finds him seated in a marble throne, which is used for the coronation of Holy Roman emperors for cents., then continues to Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno (in Poland), and venerates the shrine of Adalbert, he attends the Congress of Gniezno (Gnesen) in Gniezno in WC Poland, held by Boleslav (Boleslaus) (Boleslaw) I Chobry (the Brave) (the Mighty) (the Great) (967-1025), setting up the independent archbishopric of Gniezo, with Radim Gaudentius (970-1020) as the first Polish archbishop - the heady power of the zero in the year one-zero-zero-zero, man this must be like being king of the world at the batting-1000 point in Christian history? Attila the Hun rolls over in his grave? On Mar. 27 Pope Sylvester II grants the title of king (apostolic majesty) to Hungarian ruler (St.) Stephen I (the Great) (969-1038), and appoints him papal vicar for his new Roman Catholic country, with a mission to kick Orthodox Christian and pagan butt, and he goes on to found St. Peter and St. Paul Monastery in Buda. On Sept. 9 Olaf I Tryggvason (b. 969) of Norway is killed in his ship Long Serpent by Svein Forkbeard (Sweyn I) of Denmark and Earl Eric, son of Earl Hakon in the naval Battle of Svolder (Svold) (Swold), giving Denmark control of part of Norway under King Cnut's Norwegian brother-in-law Earl Eric of Lade (d. 1015). Ethelred II the Unready of England finally gets ready and ravages Cumberland and Anglesey, then invades Normandy, getting his butt kicked by Duke Richard II the Good, and returning after signing a treaty. David III of Tao (Tayk) (b. 930), lord of the Armenian-Iberian borderlands is murdered by his nobles, and Byzantine emperor Basil II takes over his lands. Bohemia and Moravia are united. Castile is burned by the Muslims, and the pop. messed up medievally. Mahmud of Ghazni launches the first of 17 Expeditions into India across the Afghan frontier, kicking Indian butt, stealing everything that isn't nailed down (and that too), and slowly turning the Punjab region into a dependency while forcing conversion to Muslim or enslaving millions; by 1525 as many as 60M-80M are killed by Muslim invaders and rulers. The people of Capua oust their prince Adhemar, and invite Landulf di Sant'Agata (-1007), brother of Pandulf II the Old of Benevento to be their new prince. Burchard of Wurms (Worms) (-1025) becomes bishop of Wurms (Worms) (until 1025). A new millennium, a new kind of hog for the Hell's Angels? In this decade the Norwegian ex-Viking Normans, having settled in France and adopted Christianity and the French language, and abandoned their old Viking long ship pirate ways for PC cavalry warfare, seek to expand into S Italy and Sicily - now that they are PC? Early in this cent. the Saxons settle in Bristol (modern-day pop. 454K/1.0M) on the banks of the Avon River at its confluence with the Frome River, about 120 mi. W of London; they originally call it Bricg Stowe ("settlement by the bridge"); it receives a royal charter in 1155, going on to make it to the top three cities after London in tax receipts by the 13th cent. until it is surpassed by Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool during the Industrial Rev., becoming the launch point for exploration of North Am. by John Cabot in 1497, and a center for shipping African slaves to North Am. in 1700-1807, carrying 500K slaves on 2K ships. In this decade I-can-only-imagine Venice extends its rule to the Dalmatian coast and the Adriatic Sea, causing once-boss Aquileia to start shriveling down to the size of a small fishing village - go daddy dot com? Early in the decade the Khitans of Manchuria invade Korea (Koryo) for a 2nd time, but withdraw when their supply lines become overextended. Tiahuanaco in Bolivia is wiped out by invaders, but a few of the white settlers (of 500 years earlier) escape to the sea? In this cent. the Welsh still fail to achieve political unity, producing nearly 100 different rulers - those wild Celts still like to be hillbillies? In this cent. Greenland becomes part of the German diocese of Hamburg-Bremen, but doesn't get its own bishop until 1126. In this cent. German traders set up shop in the Baltic island of Gothland (Gotland) (Gottland) and in London. In this cent. the Kingdom of Goryeo (Koryo) (founded in 918) builds a summer palace in the "Southern Capital", which becomes known as Seoul (modern-day pop. 10.1M/25.6M); in 1392 the new Joseon (Chosun) (Choson) Dynasty (ends 1897) moves its capital to Seoul. In this cent. the port city of Quanzhou, China becomes China's major port for foreign traders until the 14th cent., becoming known for its mosques incl. the 13th cent. Qingjing Mosque. In this cent. the O'Shaughnessy sept becomes dominant in S Ui Fiachra. In this cent. the Wari civilization in the Andean highlands declines, making way for the Inca. In this cent. C.E. Bantu-speaking peoples evolve the Zimbabwe culture at the Great Zimbabwe royal palace in Africa near Lake Mutirikwe (ends 15th cent.) In the 11th cent. the tall warrior-dominated Bantu-speaking Hutu arrive in modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, soon outnumbering the native Twa and Tutsi. In this cent. nomadic Berber (Zenaga) tribes from Mauretania begin moving S into the valleys of the Gambia and Casamance Rivers on the W bulge of Africa, meeting African tribes from the S and forming the country of Senegal. In this cent. potatoes and corn are planted in Peru. In this cent. the ruined seaport of Brindisi in S Italy is rebuilt as a port of embarkation for Crusaders. About this time there are 46 monasteries on Mt. Athos in Greece, where women aren't allowed; down to 20 by modern times. In this cent. the U. of Parma in Italy is founded. In this cent. Walter Giffard, Norman vassal of the king (William I's standardbearer at the 1066 Batttle of Hastings) becomes the first earl of Buckingham. In this cent. the House of Wettin is founded, acquiring Wettin Castle in Wettin on the Saale River in Saxony-Anhalt, becoming the ancestor of many Euro dynasties incl. the dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, British Prince Albert, and Edward VII of Britain; in 1917 the British royal family changes its name to Windsor. Modern-day Norwegians claim that Oslo is founded this year. In this cent. Dhaka, Bangladesh is founded. Early in this cent. the town of Lille (Ryssel) in Nord, France (66 mi. SE of Calais) (named after the L'Isle Castle) is founded by the counts of Flanders, becoming a manufacturing center and the medieval capital of Flanders. In this cent. the Mayan civilization in Yucatan reaches its zenith. In this cent. the tribes in the N highlands of Ecuador form the kingdom of Quito ("Middle of the World"). The Fremont People on the Colorado Plateau mysteriously vanish after 3K years. In this cent. the 3K-5K inhabitants of Mesa Verde move into adobe villages, then by the end of the cent. move under the rim. In this cent. the spiritual center of Judaism begins switching from Mesopotamia to Spain, where Muslim protection from Millennium Fever is a selling point. About this time Arabic speakers in India change the pronunciation of the word "sinhu" (people living E of the Indus River) to "hindu". In this decade Arabs and Jews begin arriving in backwards Germany to become court physicians. In this cent. Islam's scholarly groups begin a fierce factional rivalry, incl. bloody street battles, which lasts until the 13th cent. In this cent. the village of Alpbach in W Austria in the Tyrol is first settled; its parish church is dedicated to St. Oswald of Northumbria. Early in this cent. the secret Muslim Druse (Druze) sect in Syria and Lebanon is founded by Ismail al-Darasi (al-Darazi) (al-Durzi) (-1020) ("the tailor"). King Gryffull ab Aynam of North Wales reforms the order of Welsh bards, separating the professions of bard and minstrel. In this cent. the Arabs introduce the lemon plant to Sicily and Spain. In this cent. French and other European men begin to wear their hair in one or two cues, bound up with ribbons and lying over the shoulders from the back - the original pull my cue trick? Pottery made in Guatemala in this cent. contains the first pictorial record of smoking tobacco; the Mayan term for smoking is "sik'ar". About this time the Chateau de Goulaine vineyard in the Loire Valley of France is founded. About this time the Fonderia Pontificia Marinelli bell foundry is founded in Italy. About this time the Roman Catholoic Diocese of Kolobrzeg in Poland is founded by Bishop Reinbern (-1015). In this cent. the Frisians of the Netherlands begin building dykes. Architecture: A wave of new church-building sweeps Christendom starting this year, due to you guessed it. Otto II begins the Basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola in Rome to host the relics of St. Bartholomew. The Basilica San Pietro de' Cassinensi in Perugia, Italy is built in this cent. In this cent. the Bridge of Ten Thousand Ages in Foochow (Fuzhou), China is built. The Shiwa Temple in Prambanan, Java is founded in this cent. Cahokia Mounds across the Mississippi River from modern-day St. Louis are built in this cent., incl. 100-ft.-high Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas. Inventions: Stay busy, stay beautiful, no sweat? Since Jeezy didn't come back, maybe it's time to figure out how to sweat a living out of the ground more efficiently? In this cent. the Horse Collar comes into use in Europe, permitting horses to replace oxen, increasing food production; the Horseshoe permits all-terrain and all-weather horse use; the 3-Field System is the hat trick for a thousand years of progress out of the Dark Ages. In this cent. the Welsh Fidicula, AKA Crwth (pr. "CROOTH") (crowd) (crouth) (cruit) (chorus) (crotta) (rote) (from the Welsh word meaning a hump?), a type bowed of lyre and a forerunner of the modern violin is invented; the names Crowder, Crowther, MacWhirter and MacWhorter denote crwth players - far from the madding crwths, look it up in the Guinness Book of Records? In this cent. Gears become common in the Arab world, used with water wheels and water clocks. About this time Arab brain man Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) (965-1039) invents the Camera Obscura (pinhole camera), and reverses Aristotle, correctly claiming that light comes from the object seen into the eye and not vice-versa. In this cent. the people of coastal Ecuador learn to smelt platinum to make small beads, although how their method of achieving high temps is unknown. According to chronicler William of Malmesbury Abbey in England, fellow monk Eilmer (981-1061) tries to fly by attaching wings to his arms and legs to form a tailless glider, and launches himself from a tower, flying 200m (660 ft.) before crashing and breaking both legs. About this time Euro scribes invent the letter W (also written UU). In this cent. walrus ivory chess pieces are made on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides (Scotland), and rediscovered in the early 19th cent., becoming the earliest known chess pieces. Science: In this cent. a calendar with a 360-day year divided into 12 mo. of 27-28 days, with an extra month added at regular intervals is introduced in India. In this cent. a 7-day week is introduced to China by Persians or C Asian merchants, superseding the 10-day week. In this cent. Chinese scholars decide that not only the Moon but the Sun has a role in controlling tides. In this decade Persian superbrain Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037) claims two causes for mountains: "Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the Earth, or they are the effect of water, which cuts itself a new route and denudes the valleys." Nonfiction: In this cent. the anon. Senchus Fern Alban (History of the Men of Scotland) is written. Abu al-Biruni (973-1048), Vestiges of the Past (Chronology of Ancient Nations) (Al-Athar al-Baqiyah fi Qanun al-Khaliyah); the calendars and festivals of various religions, trying for objectivity; "We must clear our minds... from all causes that blind people to the truth - old custom, party spirit, personal rivalry or passion, the desire for influence." Poetry: About this time the Anglo-Saxon Christian poem The Dream of the Rood (Crucifix) is written in Britain, preserved in the Vercelli Book, written late in this cent. Fiction: Diary of a Mayfly (Kagerofu no Nikki) is written by an anon. Japanese woman. In this cent. Gregorian monk Euthymios writes The Legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, about Christian saints who allegedly lived in India in the 3rd or 4th cent. C.E. but is really a ripoff of the story of Buddha; it gets mistakenly attributed to 7th cent. writer John of Damascus. Sei Shonagon, Makura no Soshi (The Pillow Book) (1000-1015); diary of a woman at the imperial Japanese court. Births: Muslim Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012-28) Qawam al-Daula (al-Dawla) (Au'l-Fawaris) (d. 1028) in Apr. French duke of Normandy #5 (1027-35) Robert II (I) (the Devil) (le Diable) (the Magnificent) (d. 1035) on June 22; son of Richard II the Good (963-1027) and Judith of Brittany (982-1017); father of bastards William the Conqueror (1026-87) and Adelaide of Normandy (1026-90) by Herleva, daughter of Falais tanner Fulbert. Norman count of Brionne and Eu Gilbert (Giselbert Crispin (d. 1040); son of Count Geoffrey of Eu (962-1010); father of Ritchard fitz Gilbert (1034-90) and Baldwin fitz Gilbert (-1090); guardian of William I. French duke of Upper Lorraine (1047-8) Adalbert (1000-1048); son of Gerhard II de Bouzonville, count of Metz and Gisela. Roman Byzantine emperor #145 (1042-55) Constantine IX Monomachus (Monomachos) (d. 1055) in Constantinople; husband (1942-) of Empress Zoe. Greek patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58) (author of the Great Schism) Michael I Cerularius (Caerularius) (Kerularios) (d. 1058). Arab rhetorician Ibn Rashiq (d. 1070). German archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg (1043-72) ("Vicar of the North") Adalbert (Adelbert) (Albert) I (d. 1072) in Goseck Castle, Hassegau, Saxony; son of Count Friedrich von Goseck, regent of HRE Henry IV, and Agnes of Weimar. French scholastic theologian Berengar (Berengarius) of Tours (d. 1088) in Tours. English monk Gamel de Spofforth (d. ?); father of Gamelbar de Spofforth (1037-?). Deaths: German nun Roswitha of Gandersheim (b. 935), leaving Six Plays of Roswitha of Gandersheim, and Carmen de Gestis Ottonis about her patrons Otto I-III. Norwegian (995-1000) king Olaf I Tryggvason (b. 969) on Sept. 9 (KIA). English queen consort (964-75) Aelfthryth (Elfrida) (b. 945) on Nov. 17; wife of Edgar (943-75). Spanish king Garcia IV of Pamplona (b. ?). Persian astronomer Al-Khujandi (b. ?). Toltec ruler Tlilcoatzin (b. ?).
1001 On Feb. 6 Count Gregory I of Tusculum (d. 1012) is named head of the Roman Repub. after leading a revolt against HRE Otto III and expelling the Crescentii; too bad, the latter return to power next year and expel him. On Dec. 25 (Christmas Day) (St.) Stephen I (the Great) (969-1038) of Hungary is crowned by HRE Otto III with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II - put the maximum-bridge-builder-to-God's magic passkey on and you're set? The Byzantines under Basil II renew their campaign against Bulgarian khan Samuel I, who rules from the Adriatic to the Black Sea, and was raiding into C Greece. Sancho III the Great of Navarre unites with Navarre and begins the conquest of Leon (ends 1035). HRE Otto III appoints Werner I (978-1028), son of Lanzelin of Altenburg (-991) as bishop of Strasbourg (until 1028); he and his brothers Rudolph I (-1063) and Radbot of Klettgau (985-1045) are the first members of the all-new-ugly-betty Hapsburg (Habsburg) Family. Brian Boru leads his army from Kincora to Athlone on the Shannon River S of Lough Ree in C Ireland to attend a gathering. Architecture: Kaiyuan Temple in Dingzhou, China is begun (finished in 1055). The domed cruciform Great Cathedral of Ani in Armenia (E Turkey) is completed in the reign of Gagik I (d. 1020); in 1319 an earthquake collapses the dome; in 1988 another earthquake collapses the NW corner. Births: English earl of Wessex (1019-53) Godwin of Wessex (d. 1053) in Sussex; father of Earl Sweyn of Herefordshire, Harold II Godwinson (1022-66), Earl Tostig of Northumbria, Queen Edith of Wessex (1029-75) (wife of Edward the Confessor), Earl Gyrth of East Anglia, Earl Leofwine of Kent, and Wulfnoth. Arab Abbasid caliph (1031-75) (Sunni Muslim) Al-Qa'im (d. 1075); son of Al-Qadir (991-1031); husband (1056-) of Arslan Khatun Khadija, son of Chaghri Beg (989-1060).
1002 On Jan. 24 Otto III (b. 980) dies, and after a struggle is succeeded as German king by his 2nd cousin (son of Duke Henry II the Wrangler, and great-grandson of Henry the Fowler) (St.) Henry II (the Saint) (973-1024), the 5th and last Saxon king of Germany; on his orders Otto III is buried beside Charlemagne in Aachen; Otto of Worms (-1004), who lost the duchy of Carinthia in 978 withdraws from the election in return for receiving it back. In the summer Cordoban emir Hajib al-Mansur (Almanzor) (b. 938) captures Caceres (Cáceres), then dies of illness on Aug. 8 in Castle Calatanazor as he is preparing to cross the Pyrenees, and his son Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar (the Victorious) (-1008) becomes emir of Cordoba (until 1008), after which the Cordovan caliphate begins disintegrating. The Danish Pearl Harbor? On Nov. 15 (St. Brice's Day), by order of King Ethelred II the Unready, Redeless, and Devoid of Counsel, thousands of Danish settlers are massacred around Britain, incl. the sister of Svein Forkbeard, pissing the later off; anxious for alliances to help fight the devilish Danes Ethelred II marries Emma (Aelfgifu) of Normandy (985-1052), sister of Duke Richard II the Good of Normandy, giving Normandy a future claim on the English throne - big mistake? Irish high king Brian Boru defeats the Norse. St. Stephen I of Hungary defeats an anti-Christian revolt in Transylvania - run secretly by Dracula? The Byzantines under Basil II defeat the Bulgarians at the Battle of Vidin and regain Moesia. Vrsovichi (Vrsovici) nobles organize a revolt against weak Bohemian duke Boleslaus III the Red-Eyed, who flees to the protection of Henry I of Austria in Germany, who at first arrests them releases him and promises support; meanwhile Boleslaus' alcoholic kinsman Vladivoj (981-1003) becomes duke of Bohemia (until Jan. 1003). The city of Erlangen in Bavaria on the Regnitz River 11 mi. NW of Nuremberg (modern-day pop. 110K) is first mentioned under the name Villa Erlangon; in 1361 it is acquired by HRE Charles IV, who makes it part of Czech.; in 1364 a city is built near the village, which in 1374 is granted its own mint, and in 1398 is granted municipal rights by Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia; in 1402 it is acquired by the House of Hohenzollern as part of the Principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (Brandenburg-Bayreuth starting in 1603); in 1810 it is acquired by the kingdom of Bavaria; in 1686 the first French Huguenots fleeing persecution arrive, and margrave Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth assigns the land to them and builds Neustadt for them; in 1706 the old town burns down, and is rebuilt, and in 1812 the two towns merge. Architecture: The 3-naved buttressed basilica St. Paul's Chapter Church in Worms is built by Bishop Burchard. Births: Bohemian Premyslid duke (1035-) ("the Bohemian Achilles") Bretislaus (Bretislav) I (d. 1055); son of Oldrich and Bozena; kidnaps his wife Judith of Schweinfurt in 1119 from a monastery, and marries her in 1030; father of Vladislav II (-1092), Spitigniev (Spytihnev) (1031-61), Conrad I (-1092), and Jaromir (-1088). Roman Byzantine emperor #152 (1078-81) Nicephorus III Botaniates (Nikephoros III Botaneiates) (d. 1081); descended from the Phokas family. Deaths: Spanish Muslim statesman-gen. Al-Mansur (Almanzor) (b. 938) on Aug. 8. German HRE Otto III (b. 980) on Jan. 24 in Paterno; buried near Charlemagne, whose body he had dug up to pray before.
1003 On Feb. 9 after Vladivoj drinks himself to death, Boleslaus III is restored as duke of Bohemia with the support of Boleslav of Poland, causing his brothers Jaromir (whom he castrates) and Oldrich to flee to Merseburg, Germany under the protection of Henry II, but after he orders the Vrsovici nobles massacred at Vysehrad on the Vlata River during Lent, slaying his own son-in-law with his sword, Boleslav hears about it and gets pissed, then invites him to a castle and has him blinded and imprisoned, and takes over Bohemia, declaring himself duke; Boleslaus dies in captivity 34 years later; meanwhile Jaromir promises to hold Bohemia as a vassal of Henry II, placing it within the jurisdiction of the HRE. Early in the year with pesky Al-Mansur out of the way, Count Ramon Borrell of Barcelona leads an alliance of Catalonian counts to defeat a 17K-man force from the Caliphate of Cordoba at the Battle of Tora (Torŕ) at Tora, Lleida, causing Al-Mansur's son Abd al-Malik to raid his county to show he can fill daddy's shoes, and capture his brother Ermengol I of Urgell, imprisoning him in Albesa until a ransom is paid; on Feb. 25 after the Cordobans retreat to their own territory, the Battle of Albesa near Balaguer sees the united Christian forces of Catalonia lose Bishop Berngar of Elne, while the Cordobans lose Said bin Musa of Elvira. On May 12 Pope (since 999) Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurillac) (b. 946) dies; because he is learned and has studied with the Muslim Moors he is regarded by the common people as a magician in league with the Devil, e.g., he is said to have tried to impose the Arabic (really Hindu) number system on Christians, incl. the newfangled zero, and to have invented the pendulum clock (that newfangled zero must have seemed groovy to the worldly, and pure terror to the pious?); on June 13 Crescentius II' son John gets Pope (#141) John XVII (-1003) elected, but he dies on Nov. 6.; he then gets Pope (#142) (St.) John XVIII (-1009) elected next Jan. The Byzantines under Basil II raid Macedonia and capture Skopje (Scopje) from the Bulgarians; in 2004 the Skopje Border Stone of Samuel is discovered near Petrich, reading "Samuel the Bulgarian Autocrat", pissing off the citizens of Skopje, who had been claiming he was Macedonian. The Danes under Sweyn land in Britain, and attack Oxford, Exeter, Norwich et al. Count Adelfer of Avellino leads a rebellion against Prince Pandulf II the Old of Benevento, and ousts him and his son, but they make a comeback in 1005. Icelandic Viking anything-goes-man Leif Ericson (Ericsson) (970-1020), son of Erik the Red buys Bjarni Herjulfson's ship, then sails with a 35-man crew from Greenland in a SW direction, running into North Am., first at Baffin Island, which he calls Helluland, then Labrador, which he calls Markland, and finally Newfoundland, which he calls Vinland the Good (Land of Grapes/Berries/Meadows), a place where wild grapes and wheat are seen growing; they winter there, building a village of "big houses", encountering the Beothuk people; in the 1960s Helge Ingstad finds evidence of Vinland in L'Anse aux Meadows (Fr. "L'Anse-aux-Meduses" = jellyfish cove) in Newfoundland; did they bring back native women? Kung Fu master "White Eyebrow Priest" Pai Mei avenges an insult by massacring 60 eagle claw Kung-Fu Shao Lin monks, introducing the "Five Finger Palm Exploding Heart Technique", a single blow so powerful that the victim takes five steps and then his heart explodes :) (Quentin Tarantino). Births: English (penultimate Anglo-Saxon) king #19 (1042-66) Edward III the Confessor (d. 1066); son of Ethelred II the Unready (968-1016) and 2nd wife Emma of Normandy; half-brother of Edmund II Ironside (988-1016); half Anglo-Saxon and half Norman; raised as a Norman; feast day: Oct. 13. Deaths: Greek Byzantine monk St. Athanasios of Trebizond (b. 920) on Mount Athos; killed when the cupola of his church collapses. Norwegian explorer Erik the Red (b. 950) in Iceland (plague).
1004 German King Henry II goes on his first Italian campaign, defeats Ardoin, and is crowned king of Lombardy in Pavia; he then begins a war with Boleslav I of Poland over his acquisition of Lusatia and Silesia on the Polish border (ends 1018), and drives him out of Bohemia, allowing his 2nd son Jaromir (-1035) to occupy Prague and declare himself the new duke (until 1012), although Boleslav still holds Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia. Duke Otto I of Worms (brother of Pope Gregory V) dies, and his 3rd son Conrad I (975-1011) succeeds as duke of Carinthia (until 1011). Garcia Sanchez II the Trembler dies, and his son Sancho III Garces (El Mayor) (the Great) (the Large) (985-1035) becomes king of Navarre (incl. Aragon) (until 1035), and sues Cordoba for peace; he spends his career uniting the Spanish kingdoms. The Saracens sack Pisa - I prefer mine in a cardboard box? China becomes tributary to the Tungusic Khitans, paying 100K oz. of silver and 200K bolts of silk. Rajaraja Chola I of S India finishes conquering Ceylon (Sri Lanka), funneling Singhalese revenues to his baroque Dravidian Great Pagoda of Rajarajesvara in Tanjore, and endowing a Buddhist monastery in Negapatam built by a king of Sumatra (Srivijaya). Leif Ericsson returns to Vinland, and is given the honorary name of Leif the Lucky; he gives his ship to his brother Thorvald (Torvald) Ericsson (-1005) (the Unlucky?), who leaves for Vinland in the fall. Architecture: Against episcopal objections Henry II founds the bishopric of Bamberg, building the Romanesque Bamberg Cathedral (finished in 1012), and richly endowing it as a German outpost against the pesky Slavs, beginning the anti-Slav prejudice of the "pure Aryan" Germans that culminates in the Nazi atrocities of WWII?; the cathedral later houses his tomb. Births: Spanish count #2 of Urgell (1010-38) Ermengol (Armengol) II (the Pilgrim) (d. 1038); son of Ermengol I (974-1010). Islamic Isma'ili (Assassin) theologian-poet Nasir-i Khusraw (d. 1008) in Balkh.
1005 I'm through with you Snowflake, it's time to say goodbye to your fat pants? In the summer while exploring the St. Lawrence Region, Thorvald and his crew attack a band of Skraelings (skrellings) (Indians), killing eight; the natives retaliate by ambushing them and killing Thorvald, making him the first white Euro killed in North Am.? On Nov. 16 Aelfric of Abingdon dies, and Winchester bishop (St.) Aelfheah (Elphege) (Alfege) (Godwine) (954-1012) becomes Canterbury archbishop #29 (until Apr. 19, 1012). There's a new sheriff in town? Malcolm II (the Aggressor) (the Destroyer) (980-1034) defeats and kills Kenneth III and his son Giric in Monzievaird in Strathearn, and becomes king of lily-white Alba (Scotland) (until Nov. 25, 1034), becoming the king of ruthless as he imposes his authority over the Scottish mainland, extends the borders far to the S, and keeps a check on his Moray kinsmen via alliances with the Norse rulers of Orkney; at first three kingdoms share Scotland: Alba in the N, Lothian in the SE, and Strathclyde in the SW. The Byzantines under Basil II recover Durres (Durazzo) (Dyrrachion) in S Albania from the Bulgarians with the help of the Chryselioi; too bad, the Byzantines hit a wall and fail to make any significant gains for the next several years (until 1014). Le Hoan dies, and Le Long Dinh (Le Ngoa Trieu) (986-1009), "the reclining emperor" becomes king of Vietnam (until 1009). Aelfric the Grammarian (the Homilist) of Eynsham (Cerne) (955-1020) becomes abbot of Eynsham, England, going on to write Letter to the Monks of Eynsham, Introduction to the Old and New Testament (1008), et al., reforming the language of Alfred the Great and replacing it with Late Wset Saxon. Islington in C London starts out as a manor named Giseldone, later (1062) Gislandune (Gisla's Dun or Hill), which changes to Isledon until the mid-17th cent. Births: Spanish count of Barcelona (1018-35) Berenguer Ramon (Berengar Raymond) I (the Crooked) (the Hunchback) (d. 1035); son of Raymond Borrell and Ermesinde of Carcassonne (972-1057); father of Ramon Berenguer I (1035-76). Scottish king (1040-57) Macbeth (MacBeth) (Macbethad) (d. 1057); cousin of Malcolm II; husband of Gruoch (Lady Macbeth), daughter of Gillacomgain and granddaughter of Kenneth Mac Duib, son of King Dub. Roman Byzantine emperor #148 (1057-9) Isaac I Comnenus (Komnenos) (d. 1061); founder of the Comnenus Dynasty (1081-1185). English archbishop of Canterbury (1070-89) Lanfranc (d. 1089) in Pavia, Italy.
1006 Malcolm II launches a plundering raid into N England, but his army is routed in the Battle of Durham, causing his men to go home without booty, hurting the new king's prestige; meanwhile Brian Boru adopts the title of "Emperor of the Gael" to signal to Malcolm that he is the #1 Gaelic king. Rudolph III of Burgundy appoints Henry II as his heir, leading to unrest and a revolt led by Baldwin of Flanders (ends 1007); Robert II the Pious of France allies with Henry II. Muslims settle in NW India - where the Hindus welcome the Religion of Peace? Suryavarman I (-1050) becomes king of Angkor (Cambodia), extending his kingdom to the N and W. The Book of Kells is stolen from Kells, Ireland, and is recovered 2 mo. and 20 days later buried under sod, with its cover of jewel-studded gold gone. Science: A magnitude 9 supernova is observed in the constellation Lupus, becoming the brightest known. Births: Norman duke Walderne, 1st Lord of Saint-Clair (d. 1047); nephew of duke Richard II; father of William Sinclair, 1st baron of Rosslyn (1028-70). Roman Byzantine emperor #149 (1059-67) Constantine X Ducas (Doukas) (d. 1067).
1007 English King Ethelred II pays 30K pounds in Danegeld to gain two years of freedom from attacks and ransacking. The Viking settlers abandon Vinland to the pesky Skraelings, and Leif Ericson's dead brother Thorvald is returned to him in Greenland for burial - where do all these Skraelings come from on such a small island, duh? Baldwin of Flanders is defeated in Burgundy. Malcolm II marries one of his daughters to Jarl Sigurd the Mighty (-1014) of Orkney, whose realm stretches from Dornoch Firth and Shetland to the Hebrides, securing Malcolm's N frontiers and leaving him free to concentrate on the S. Landulf di Sant'Agata dies, and his brother Pandulf III the Old of Benevento succeeds as prince of Capua, reuniting them for the first time since 981. Elvira of Castile becomes a nun, and Alfonso V assumes personal rule (until 1028), going on to spend his reign trying to pick up the pieces after the Muslim incursions. The Nestorians convert 200K Kerait Turks this year and next. Hammad ibn Buluggin founds the Hammadid Dynasty in Algeria (until 1152). Henry II begins the vigorous Gorzian monastic reform, marked by many confiscations and secularization. Architecture: Hammad ibn Buluggin of Algeria builds the Al-Qala ("fortress") in the Hodna Mts. W of Setif, then builds a palace and mosque which become famous in the Muslim world. Count Fulk III of Anjou builds Beaulieu-les-Loches Abbey. Births: Hungarian prince (St.) Emeric (d. 1031); son of Stephen I and Gisela of Bavaria. Italian cardinal bishop of Ostia (1057-) (St.) Peter Damian (Pietro Damiani) (d. 1072); friend of Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII); feast day: Feb. 23. Chinese poet Ou Yang Hsiu (d. 1072). Deaths: Arabic poet Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadhani (b. 967) in Herat; leaves The Maqamat.
1008 In May John Curcua (Curcuas) (Giovanni Antipati da Cusira) (-1010), former strategos of Samos (of Armenian descent) becomes Byzantine catapan of Italy (until 1010). Al-Muzaffar, son of al-Mansur dies, and his brother Abd al-Rahman (Sanchuelo) (983-1009) succeeds as chief minister (until 1009), getting Hisham II to proclaim him as his heir, causing a revolt led by Muhammad II al-Mahdi (d. 1010), great-grandson of Abd-al-Rahman III. The Vikings raid Galicia, and kill Count Mendo Goncalo of Portugal. Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the piss-poor Hindus at the Battle of Peshawar. Architecture: Castle Veldenstein near Nuremberg is built. Inventions: The first known water-operated wool-processing plant operates in Ludi near Milan. Nonfiction: The Leningrad Codex is written, becoming the oldest complete copy of the Old Testament to survive to modern times - giving skeptics plenty of hay to fork? Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #68 (1016-36) Go-Ichijo (Atsuhira) (d. 1036) on Oct. 12; 2nd son of Ichijo (980-1011); brother of Go-Suzaku (1009-45). French king (1031-60) Henri I Capet (d. 1060) in Reims, Champagne; son of Robert II the Pious. English bishop of Worcester (962-95) (St.) Wulstan (Wulfstan) (d. 1095): feast day: Jan. 19.
1009 On Feb. 14 after being thrown out of Hungary in 1003 for trying to convert Eastern Orthodox nobles, then being sent by Vladimir I of Kiev to evangelize the nomadic pagan Turkic Pechenegs between the Danube and Don Rivers, where he baptizes 30 lucky duckers and consecrates a bishop for them, then moving to Yotvingia, Prussia (on the border with Lithuania and Kiev) and consecrating the first bishop of Sweden, and writing The Five Martyred Brothers (about his friend Benedict, who was killed along with four companions by robbers in 1003), (St.) Bruno (Brun) (Boniface) of Querfurt (974-1009) runs out of luck and is beheaded by a pagan duke, while his companions are hanged, after which he is soon sainted and called "the second apostle of the Old Prussians", and the town of Braunsberg (Braniewo) in Prussia (founded 1241) is later named after him - is it satire or is it slander? In early Feb. Sanchuelo (b. 983) heads S to confront the rebels, but his army deserts and he is arrested and executed; Muhammad II al-Mahdi deposes caliph Hisham II, and destroys Hajib al-Mansur's palace complex of Al-Madinat al-Zahira outside Cordoba on Feb. 15; in June he expels the Berbers, who camp at Calatrava, where Berber gens. nominate Sulayman (Suleiman) (Sulaiman) il ibn Hakam II al-Mustain (-1016) (another descendant of Abd-al-Rahman III) as a rival Umayyad caliph #5, and he seeks the aid of Count Sancho Garcia of Castile against Muhammad II; in Nov. the joint Berber-Castilian army defeats the Andalusian militia of Muhammad II and sacks Cordoba, and Sulayman II is proclaimed caliph; the civil war causes power in once-solid Andalusia (Muslim Spain) to be divided between three petty kingdoms called Taifas (ends 1086), playing into Christian hands. On May 9 Lombard nobleman Melus (Melo) of Bari (-1020) rebels against Byzantine catapan John Curcua in Baria, Apulia, S Italy, spreading the rebellion to other cities. In July Pope (since 1004) John XVIII dies, and on July 31 Peter Pig's Snout (Bucca Porci), son of Peter the Shoemaker is elected Pope (#143) Sergius IV (-1012). Chief Seljuk, founder of the Turkish Sunni Muslim Seljuk (Seljuq) Empire on the Jaxartes River and in Transoxiana dies, and is succeeded by his son Arslan ("the lion") Isra'il (Yabgu) (-1032). The Muslims lay waste to Leon. Caliph Al-Hakim orders the destruction of all churches and synagogues in Jerusalem; his men sack and nearly destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The First Imperial Diet is held in Goslar. Le Long Dinh dies, and the Le Dynasty (begun 980) in Vietnam comes to an end after Buddhist monk-raised Ly Cong Uan (Ly Thai To) (974-1028), cmdr. of the palace guard seizes the throne supported by the Buddhist establisment, founding the Ly Dynasty (ends 1225). New bishop Thietmar of Merseburg (975-1018) begins his Chronicles of the reigns of emperors Otto III and Henry II, covering the years 908-1018. Architecture: On Aug. 29 Mainz Cathedral (begun 975) is dedicated to St. Martin of Tours; too bad, the same day a fire extensively damages it, and new archbishop Bardo has it rebuilt by 1037 after Archbishop Willigis (b. 940) is buried in nearby St. Stephan's Church in 1011. Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #69 (1036-45) Go-Suzaku (Atsunaga) (d. 1045) on Dec. 14; son of Ichijo (980-1011); younger brother of Go-Ichijo (1008-36); father of Go-Sanjo (1034-73). Deaths: Arab astronomer Ibn Junis (b. 950); leaves the Hakimite Tables of Planetary Motions. German Christian bishop St. Bruno of Querfurt (b. 970) on Feb. 14 in Yotvingia, Prussia (near the Lithuanian-Kievan border) (martyred). Spanish Muslim gen.-statesman Abd al-Rahman (Sanchuelo) (b. 983) in Feb.
|England||Ethelred II the Unready (968-1016)||Mar. 18, 978||Apr. 23, 1016|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||Osct. 24, 996||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE St. Henry II (973-1024)||June 7, 1002||July 13, 1024|
|Papacy||Sergius IV (Peter Pig's Snout) (-1012)||July 31, 1009||May 12, 1012|
1010 England under Ethelred II the Unready breaks down into anarchy; "At last there was not a chief man who would gather a force, but each fled as he best might; nor even at last would any shire assist another." (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) In Mar. after Lombard nobeleman Melus (Meles) (Milus) (Melo)of Bari (-1020) takes Ascoli and Troina, and kills Byzantine catapan John Curcua, pissed-off new catapan Basil Argyros Mesardonites (970-1024), arrives and gathers a large army to fight him. On May 5 the East Anglians are defeated by the Vikings at the Battle of Ringmere Heath in East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle laments that "not a chief man would gather a force" to fight for the incompetent king Aethelred. On May 22 after fleeing to Toledo and obtaining the aid of Barcelona Count (since 992) Ramon Borrell (972-1017), his brother, Urgel (pr. ur-HELL) Count (since 992) Ermengol (Armengol) I (974-1010), and Count Bernard of Besalu (AKA Taillefer) (-1020), Muhammad II of Cordoba defeats the Berbers of Umayyad caliph #5 (since 1009) Sulayman (Sulaiman) II ibn al-Hakam al-Mustain (-1016) at the Battle of Aqabat al-Baqar, then defeats them again in June at the Battle of the Guadiaro River near Ronda, then reclaims Cordoba, supported by Slav Gen. Wadih; Catalonia is now safe from Moorish dominion; in July Muhammad II is assassinated, and Hisham II is restored as caliph by his followers (until 1013); on Sept. 1 Ermengol I dies after being wounded in Cordoba, and next year his 6-y.-o. son Ermengol (Armengol) II (the Pilgrim) (1004-38) becomes count #2 of Urgell (until 1038), with his uncle Ramon Borrell as regent (until 1018); never-say-die Sulayman II al-Mustain and his beaten Berbers encamp in Madinat al-Zahra and siege Cordoba for the next 2.5 years; meanwhile the city of Granada is destroyed. Later Ly Dynasty founder-ruler (1009-28) Ly Thai To (974-1028) moves the capital of Dai Viet from Hoa-Lu to Dai La Citadel in La-Thanh, claiming to see a dragon ascending the Red River and renaming it Thang Long ("ascending dragon"), and the former "pacified south province" of China is kicking ass, with its own destiny; in 1397 the capital of Dai Viet is moved to Tay Do (Thanh Hoa), which becomes Dong Do ("Eastern Capital"); in 1802 the Nguyen Dynasty moves its capital to Hue, changing the name to Thang Long ("soaring dragon"); in 1831 Nguyen emperor renames it Hanoi (modern-day pop. 7.6M/16.1M). Leif Ericson's brother-in-law Thorfinn Karlsefni ("real man") attempts to found a settlement in Vinland with 60 men and five women (250 colonists?); in 1004-13 Thorfinn's wife gives birth to a son, Snorri Thorfinnsson (-1090) (sounds like Sneezy, Dopey, Sleepy?), the first lily-white Euro child born in America; the problem of too few women soon becomes apparent - and the solution is Skraeling poon? Robert II of France proclaims the "Peace and Truce of God". In this decade the dualistic Bogomils sect is established in Serbia. Nonfiction: Richer of St. Remy, Historia Remensis Ecclesiae. Firdawsi (939-1020), The Book of Kings (Shahs) (Shahnamah) (Shahnameh); the great epic poem of Persia, containing 60K couplets (double lines) (2,804 pages) about Persia's legendary history, incl. the Zoroastrian Adam Zayamurth (who reigns 700 years), and big hero Rustam, son of Zal, who serves three kings and retires at age 400, after which when he reaches 500 his daddy gives him a brother; also his equally long-lived horse Rakhsh, his love babe Tahmineh of Turkey, and their son Sohrab, who fights his father in war and is mortally wounded before they find out each other's identities; he spends 35 years on it; after Sultan Mahmud promises him a gold dinar for each couplet, then reneges and gives him silver dirhems instead, he gives the money to a bath attendant and sherbet seller and flees to Herat, hiding for 6 mo. in a bookshop, then holes-up with Prince Shariyar of Shirzad in Tabaristan; after he writes a bitter satire against the sultan, the prince pays 100K dirhems to buy and destroy it; he then goes to Baghdad, and writes Yusuf and Zuleika (Joseph and Potiphar's Wife), and returns to his hometown of Tus, after which 10 years later the sultan is taken by one of his couplets, learns who it is, and sends a caravan with 60K gold dinars worth of indigo and an apology, but as it enters Tus the poet's funeral is being held. Births: Spanish king of Leon (1028-37) Bermudo (Vermudo) III (d. 1037); son of Alfonso V and Elvira Mendes; last of the Peter of Cantabria line to rule Leon. Scottish king (1034-40) Duncan (Donnchad) ("Gael. brown warrior") I Mac Crinain (d. 1040); son of Crinan of Atholl (-1045) and Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II; cousin of Macbeth. Roman Byzantine emperor #? (1034-41) Michael IV the Paphlagonian (d. 1041) in Paphlagonia; husband (1034-41) of Empress Zoe (978-1050). German archbishop of Cologne (1056-75) (St.) Anno II (d. 1075); of the Swabian von Steusslingen family; educated at Bamberg; canonized in 1183. Deaths: Spanish count of Urgell (992-1010) Ermengol I (b. 974) on Sept. 1 in Castell de Bacar.
1011 On June 11 after sieging the rebels in Bari and forcing Melus of Bari and his son Dattus (Dattos) to flee, catapan Basil Mesardonites enters Bari and reestablishes Byzantine authority, and sends the family of Melus of Bari to Constantinople; in Oct. he allies with Prince Guaimar III of Salerno (who simultaneously protects Melus?), then visits Monte Cassino and talks abbot Atenulf (brother of Pandulf IV of Capua) into expelling Dattus, who flees to papal territory, where Pope Benedict VIII gives him a fortified tower on the Garigliano River. On July 25 emperor (since 986) Ichijo (b. 980) dies, and in 1016 his 2nd son Go-Ichijo (Atsuhira) (1008-36) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #68 (until 1036). On Sept. 8-29 after raiding England again, the Danes siege and sack Canterbury, taking Canterbury archbishop St. Aelfheah (954-1012) POW for 7 mo. (until Apr. 19); meanwhile Ethelred II invades S Wales, but the Canterbury V causes him to sue for peace again, and give them more Danegeld. On Dec. 15 Conrad I (b. 975) dies, and since his 8-y.-o. son Conrad II (b. 1003) is too young, Adalbero of Eppenstein (980-1030) becomes duke of Carinthia (until 1035). Anthony Pechersky of Kiev (the Caves) (983-1073) is sent to Kiev to continue its conversion to Christianity and expand monasticism, becoming known as "the Father of Russian Monasticism". There is a Jewish pogrom (Russ. "riot") in Muslim Camelot Cordoba. Bedfordshire (Beda's Ford") in EC England is first mentioned. The Handkerchief of St. Veronica is given its own special altar in Rome. The year (13-Reed) that the 5th and last Sun (creation of the world) occurs for the Aztecs. Nonfiction: Alhazen (965-1038), Book of Optics (7 vols.) (1011-21); written in a dark cell under house arrest in Cairo; reverses Aristotle, who taught that light is physical, and Ptolemy, who taught that the eye emits light, with the experimental discovery that some objects are sources of primary light (which travels in straight lines) that are reflected by other objects; first accurate description of the camera obscura and pinhole camera; computes the height of the Earth's atmosphere as 49 mi. (real value 50 mi.) Births: Hungarian king (1038-41, 1044-6) Stephen Otto Orseolo (Urseolo) (d. 1059) in Venice, Italy; son of doge Ottone Orseolo of Venice and Mary of Hungary (daughter of Stephen I). French duke of Burgundy (1032-76) Robert I Capet (the Old) (Tete-Hardi) (d. 1076); son of Robert II (972-1031); brother of Henry I (1008-60). Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #66 (986-1011) Ichijo (b. 980) on July 25. German archbishop (of Mainz) St. Willigis (b. ?); feast day: Feb. 23.
1012 On Apr. 12 Jaromir is deposed by his brother Oldrich (Ulrich) (975-1034), who becomes duke of Bohemia (until 1034) and recognizes the suzerainty of the HRE, then dumps his barren wife and marries the peasant woman Bozena. On Apr. 19 after refusing ransom to be paid for him, St. Aelfheah is killed by the Vikings in Greenwich on the future site of St. Alfege's Church, becoming the first Canterbury archbishop to die a violent death, and Lyfing (-1020) becomes Canterbury archbishop #30 (until June 12, 1020); Ethelred II pays the Danes another 24 tons of Danegeld; Thorkel the Tall switches sides to Ethelred, protecting London from Svein Forkbeard in return for his own Danegeld, which he gives part of to Ulf of Sweden? On May 12 Pope (since 1009) Sergius IV dies, along with the head of the Crescentii clan, giving the rivals their chance, and on May 18 Count Theophylact of Tusculum (son of Count Gregory of Tusculum) is elected Pope (#144) Benedict VIII (980-1024), becoming the first of the Tusculan popes (until Apr. 9, 1024), although he is a layman (being a count counted?); meanwhile on May 18 layman Antipope Gregory VI is crowned by a small faction, claiming to have been crowned first, and after being expelled from Rome he goes to see HRE Henry II, who promises to look into his case while stripping him of his papal insignia. Murchad, son of Irish high king Brian Boru of Munster curses Maelmordha, king of Leinster for giving advice to his opponent in chess, then opens old wounds by referring to his 999 defeat, saying, "How wonderfully you advised the Norsemen that day they were smashed by us at Glenn Mama", pissing him off and causing him to reply, "I'll advise them again, but this time the outcome will be different", to which Murchad snipes, "Be sure and have a yew tree ready", causing Maelmordha to stomp out of Boru's court and begin a revolt of the N kings (ends 1014). The Taifa of Almeria in SE Spain, under Aftah and Jayran (Jairan) declares independence from the caliphate of Cordoba (until 1091), becoming known for its fine harbor and silk industry complete with 5K looms; it later fights with the Taifa of Seville (1023-91). The first Cathars are called heretics in Limousin. The first persecution of heretics in Germany. The city of Poznan (Polish "poznac" = recognize) (Posen) between the Warta and Cybina Riers in WC Poland (modern-day pop. 551K/1.1M) is first mentioned by chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg in an entry referring to the bishop of Poznan in 970, and another referring to the city of Poznan in 1005; it goes on to become the home of St. John's Fair (Jarmark Swietojansk), St. Martin's croissants, and Adam Mickiewicz U. (1919). Architecture: Heinrich Cathedral in Bamberg (begun 1004) is finished. Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo (begun 990) is finished by Fatimid caliph al-Aziz. Nonfiction: Bishop Burchard (OE "castle strong") of Worms (-1026) begins writing the 20-vol. Decretum, a collection of canon law. Deaths: African Muslim ascetic theologian-mystic al-Qabisi (b. 936). English Canterbury archbishop (1006-12) #29 St. Aelfheah (b. 954) on Apr. 19 in Greenwich, Kent (murdered).
1013 - The Vikings take over England and throw the Anglo-Saxons into the arms of the far worse Normans?
1013 Danish king Svein (Sweyn) (Swegen) Haraldsson Forkbeard (d. 1014) and his pagan son Knut Sveinsson, AKA Canute (Cnut) (Knut) II (995-1035) ("knot") invade England, and, supported by the people of the Old Danelaw, advance across Watling St., causing Ethelred II to flee with his wife Emma of Normandy to the court of his brother-in-law Richard II of Normandy; in late Dec. Svein is crowned king of the restored Danelaw, and the Danes become masters of England, undoing the work of Alfred the Great (until 1042). In May Cordoba surrenders to the Berbers, who sack it, and proclaim Sulayman II al-Mustain as caliph again (until 1016); Hisham II disappears soon after; during all the commotion there is a big slaughter of Jews in Cordoba, caused by their intervention in fights for the caliphate. In late summer Maelmordha of Leinster takes refuge from Brian Boru's forces with Viking king Sigtrygg in fortified Dublin, and are sieged until Christmas, when Brian's army disperses for the winter, allowing Sigtrygg to sail N to the Viking-held Western Isles looking for allies, and finding reinforcements from as far as Russia, incl. Jarl (Earl) Sigurd the Mighty (Stout) of Orkney, and Brodir of the Isle of Man (with 20 ships); Brodir's partner Ospak joins Brian. A multitude of Catholic relics is allegedly found in Arras, right after Duke Richard II the Good of Normandy issues a letter claiming that the world is about to end? The Romanesque Church of San Miniato al Monte in Florence, Tuscany on the site of an 8th cent. shrine to St. Miniato (Minas) (an Armenian prince who became a martyr under 3rd cent. Roman emperor Decius) is begun by Bishop Alibrando as a Benedictine monastery, endowed by HRE Henry II; it later passes to the Cluniacs followed in 1373 by the Olivetans. Births: Norman prince of Salerno (1027-52) Guaimar IV (d. 1052); eldest son of Guaimar III (984-1027) and Gaitelgrima (daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento); father of Gisulf II (-1090). Deaths: Spanish Muslim physician Al-Qasim (Abulcasis) (b. 936); leaves the 30-vol. Kitab al-Tasrif (The Method of Medicine), the leading Euro medieval textbook on surgery till the Renaissance.
1014 On Feb. 3 five weeks after occupying the English throne and one day after his Polish wife Princess Gunhild Swietoslava dies, Svein Forkbeard (b. 960) falls off his horse and dies in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and his son Canute (Cnut) I (995-1035) is proclaimed king of England by the Danish fleet then ravaging the country; meanwhile the Witan summons Ethelred II to England from exile in Normandy, and he gets the help of Christian Viking (St.) Olaf (Olav) II Haraldsson (995-1030), forcing Canute to flee to Denmark after burning down the wooden London Bridge to divide the Danish forces. On Feb. 14 after Henry II goes on his 2nd Italian campaign and expels Gregory VI in favor or Benedict VIII, the latter crowns him HRE in Rome (until July 13, 1024), and Henry II gets the Nicene Creed inserted together with the filioque clause into the Roman Mass, going on to become the only German king to be canonised. Pass the shillelaghs? On Apr. 23 (Good Friday) 73-y.-o. Irish (Dal Cais) high king Brian Boru (b. 940) (pr. BRAN boh-ROO) of Munster with an army of 20K from Munster, the Midlands and S Connacht defeats the Norse and Leinster Irish at the Battle of Clontarf Plain near Dublin, breaking Norse power in Ireland forever, although they still dominate some cities; Boru has a shield wall formed around him because he won't use a weapon on Good Friday, letting his son Murchad, grandson Toirdelbach (b. 999) and cousin Conaing take command, and later begins praying in a tent in Tomar's Wood; after the Banshee of Dalcais Aibell warns him and he ignores it, Brian is murdered in his tent behind the lines after his big V when his men go off pursuing fugitives by loose Dane Brodir of Man, despite Brian's young son Tadg trying to protect him, cutting off the boy's arm and the king's head; Brodir and his companions are captured and executed by being tied to a tree with their own intestines; Jarl Sigurd, Dubhgall and Maelmordha are KIA, and no Viking of rank is left alive; Brian's younger brother Malachy (-1022) becomes Irish high king; Brian's grandson Toirdelbach drowns, his nephew Conaing is KIA, and his son Murchad dies the next morning of a wound; total losses are 6.7K Vikings, 1.1K Leinstermen, and 4K of Brian's men; Sigtrygg continues to rule Dublin until 1034; no foreign Scandinavian army fights on Irish soil for the next cent. and a half; Ireland falls into anarchy as the O'Brians of Munster (S Ireland)), the O'Neils of Ulster (N Ireland), and the O'Connors of Connacht (Connaught) (W Ireland) begin a struggle for supremacy - slainte? On May 7 Bagrat III (b. 960) dies, and his son George (Giorgi) I (998-1027) becomes king of Georgia (until Aug. 16, 1027), going on to wage a bloody unsuccessful war against the Byzantines. The mother and child reunion is only a motion away, or It's time for a good spring cleaning of loose burgers? On July 29 Byzantine Emperor Basil II the About-to-Be-Bulgar-Slayer outmaneuvers "invincible" tsar (since 997) Samuel I (-1014) and separates him from his force, then scores a big V at the Battle of Balathista (Belasitsa) Kleidion (Klidi) Pass on the Struma River near Serres (Seres) (Serrai) (Serai) on the N end of Lake Akihinou about 40 mi. NE of Salonika, gaining the W part of Bulgaria; Bulgar Slayer Basil II takes 15K POWs, blinds 99 out of every 100 of them, then blinds one eye of the 100th so he can lead the others home, sending them back to the Bulgarian capital of Ochrid (Ohrida) (Ochrida) (Achrida) (modern-day Ohrid) on Macedonia Lake in SW Macedonia (known for having 365 churches, causing it to be known as "the Jerusalem of the Balkans"), where shocked Samuel faints at the er, sight, and dies two days later on Oct. 6 of sorrow (stroke?) at Prespa in Macedonia, ending his 34-year reign; Basil II gives thanks to the Virgin Mary in Athens, then celebrates a triumph in Constantinople; Samuel's son Gabriel (Gavril) Radomir (Romanus) (970-1015) becomes tsar of Blind Bulgaria (until Aug. 1015), and tries to make peace, conceding the spoils and the Byzantine monopoly on the silk trade - where's my quill, I can't find it? On Sept. 28 (St. Michael's Eve) a great sea flood swamps much of England, engulfing settlements farther inland than any previous flood and drowning thousands. Boniface III (985-1052), lord (since 1007) of Canossa, Brescia, Florence, Verona, Mantua, Pisa et al. assists HRE Henry II in putting down self-style king of Italy (since 1002) Arduin, Margrave of Ivrea (955-1015); in 1027 he becomes margrave of Tuscany, going on to father Matilda of Canossa in 1046. Berber chief Zawi ibn Ziri (-1019), leader of the Sanhaja confederation and a member of the Tunisian royal family makes Granada his capital, founding the independent kingdom of Granada, which lasts for five cents. (until 1492). In Feb. Pandulf III the Old dies, and his son Landulf V (-1053) becomes prince of Benevento, while his nephews Pandulf (Pandulph) (Pandolf) IV (-1050) (AKA the Wolf of the Abruzzi) and Pandulf II the Black (the Young) (985-1022) (son of Landulf VII of Capua) become joint princes of Capua (until 1022). Rajaraja I dies, and his son Rajendra Choladeva (-1042) becomes king of the Chola dynasty in S India, and begins another invasion of Ceylon (ends 1017). Hammad ibn Buluggin (d. 1028) of Algeria recognizes the Abbassid caliphate in Baghdad, splitting with his Zirid family to the E, who recognize the Fatamids in Egypt, and causing them to try to rein him back in, but he holds them off, arranging a cease-fire in 1016 and gaining recognition of his independence in 1018. Avicenna arrives at the court of emir Majd al-Dawla in Jabal. Archbishop Wulfstan preaches the Latin homily Wulfstan's Address to the English. The Holmgang ("go to a small island") (3-7 day fight to the death for an insult to one's honor) is outlawed in Norway. Nonfiction: Abhinavagupta (950-1020), Greater Commentary on the Pratyabhijna Darshana. Novels: Japanese baroness Lady Murasaki (973-1031), who was widowed in 1001 by the death of her husband Nobutaka Fujiwara and became lady-in-waiting to empress Akiko in Kyoto writes The Tale of Genji (Genji Monogatari) to entertain her, about Hikaru ("Shining") Prince Genji (most handsome and sexually irresistible man on Earth) and his adventures in upper class society, becoming the world's first full novel; Prince Genji is modeled after Minamoto no Toru (822-95). Births: Hungarian king (1047-61) Andras (Andrew) I Arpad (d. 1060); son of Vazul; grandson of Michael; older brother of Bela I. Arabian Andalusian geographer-historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (d. 1094) in Huelva; lives in Cordoba. Bulgarian tsar (997-1014) Samuel (Samuel) (b. ?) on Oct. 6 in Prespa, Macedonia (grief?) (stroke?). Deaths: Georgian king (1008-14) Bagrat III (b. 960) on May 7.
1015 On July 15 Vladimir I the Saint (b. 858) dies after being crowned grand prince of Rus on June 11 (sad that Jeezy didn't come?), and his son Sviatopolk I (the Accursed) (980-1019) becomes king of Kiev (until 1019); his brothers Yaroslav I (978-1054), Mstislav (-1036), Boris (-1015), and Gleb (-1015) begin a war for the throne (ends 1019). Canute returns to England with a large fleet and conquers Wessex. (St.) Olaf II Haraldsson (995-1030) becomes king of Norway (until 1028), and restores Norwegian independence from the Danes, along with Christianity, ending up as Norway's patron saint - good morning angels; good morning Olaf? The Arabs conquer Sardinia. The Banu Hammad led by the Zirid gov. of E Algeria revolt from the Fatimids, and found the Hammadid Dynasty in C and E Algeria (ends 1152). Malcolm II takes advantage of the death of Jarl Sigurd the Once Mighty of Orkney to help his young grandson (Sigurd's successor) Thorfinn (the Mighty) Sigurdsson (1009-64). This year and next Ramon Borrell of Barcelona makes expeditions to the Ebro and Segre Rivers, gaining booty to insure the loyalty of his barons, and becomes the first Catalan ruler to mint his own coins. After exploring Long Island, the Hudson River, and possibly Chesapeake Bay, Thorfinn Karlsefni and his Viking settlers return from Vinland to Greenland because of hostile Skraelings (Indians) (Alonquins, probably of the extinct Micmac or Beothuk tribe?) and/or the problem of too few white women (or vice-versa?); did some of the Norsemen move inland to Ontario? A plague is recorded in Leinster, Ireland. The Slav settlement of Leipzig (Slav "lipa" = lime tree) (founded before 1000?) is first mentioned as "Urbs Lipzi" in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar von Mersenburg. The duchy of Burgundy in the NW part of the old Merovingian territory becomes a French Capetian possession (until 1363). Benevento institutes the Communitas, the first municipal self-govt. The Bitola Inscription records info. about Bulgarian tsar Samuel. Architecture: About this time Strasbourg Cathedral de Notre-Dame begins to be built in the pate de foie gras-producing river port of Strasbourg (Strassburg) 2 mi. W of the Rhine River 90 mi N of Basel and 350 mi. SE of Paris (founded by the Romans in the 1st cent. C.E.); Bishop (since 1001) Werner I of Strasbourg lays the first stone. Music: Sight singing is introduced at Pomposa Monastery near Ravenna, Italy. Births: English king (1035-40) Harold Harefoot (d. 1040); son of Canute (-1035) and Aelgifu (995-1040). Deaths: Russian (Kievan) grand prince St. Vladimir I (b. 858) on July 15 in Berestovo. Norwegian king Eric of Lade (b. ?).
1016 An earthquake in Jerusalem causes the Muslim Dome of the Rock to collapse; it is rebuilt in 1022 by Caliph al-Hakim. On Apr. 23 Ethelred II of England (b. 968) dies in London, and Canute, who has captured all of England except London gets a rump Witan to choose him as the new king, while the citizens of London proclaim his son Edmund II (Ironside) (988-1016) as the 15th monarch of England, causing Canute to siege London twice and fight five battles, first getting defeated at the Battle of Oxford in Kent, then (bearing a cool white silk flag embroidered with a raven) decisively kicking Ironside's ashcan on Oct. 18 at the Battle of Ashingdon (Assandun) in Essex, resulting in the Treaty of Olney, spliting England between them, like in the time of Alfred the Great; on Nov. 30 Edmund (b. 988) dies (murdered with a sword up his ashcan in the lavatory?), leaving Canute as sole ruler of England, ruling from London, his first act being to order the execution of some of the more pesky English chiefs and banish Edmund's two young sons, Edmund Aetheling (1016), who dies in Wessex, and Edward Aetheling the Exile (1017-57), who is sent to the court of King Olof Skotkonung in Sweden and ordered murdered, but lucks out and gets secretly sent to Kiev, ending up in Hungary, then recalled to England by Edward the Confessor and made his heir. Gabriel Radomir (b. 970) is murdered by his cousin, and John (Ivan) Vladislav (Ladislaus) (-1018) becomes Bulgarian tsar (-1018), continuing the doomed war against the Byzantines; meanwhile the Byzantines ally with Mstislav of Chernigov and invade the Crimea, then capture Khazar warlord (Jewish?) George (Georgius) Tzul (based in Kerch), giving them control of the S Crimea. Berber caliph Sulayman II al-Mustain is deposed and executed in Cordoba by a Berber gen. - what Kingdom of Cordoba? In Tunisia Sunnis, mainly in urban areas riot against Shiite control of the state (ends 1017). The new Drano Family of Italy? After his brother Osmond Drengot (985-1018) is exiled by Richard I of Normandy for murdering his relative William Repostel in revenge for sleeping with one of his daughters, and Rainulf (Ranulf) Drengot (de Quarrel) (-1045) accompanies him along with other brothers Gilbert Buatere Drengot (985-1018), Asclettin Drengot, 1st Count of Acerenza, and Rudolph (Ralph) Drengot, plus 250 Norman warriors to S Italy on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Michael the Archangel in Mount Gargano in Apulia, where they set up a fort and join forces with Melus of Bari, becoming anti-Byzantine mercenaries (until 1030). Like Thorkel in 1012, Canute makes his Danegeld payment to Ulf, father of Karsi and Gerbjorn, which is recorded on the Borrestad Memorial Stone at Yttergarde, Uppland, Sweden. Anselan Okyan, king of S Ulster arrives in Scotland at Argyllshire, and is put in the service of the king against the Danes, becoming the first lord of Buchanan on Loch Lomondside. Births: Polish king (1034-58) Casimir (Casimire) (Kazimierz) (Kazimir) (Slav. "bringing peace") I (the Restorer) (d. 1058). Hungarian Arpad king (1061-3) Bela I (d. 1063); 3rd son of Duke Vazul (-1037); younger brother of Andras I (1014-61). Births: German Salian king #2 (1028-56) and HRE (1046-56) Henry III (the Black) (the Pious) (d. 1056) on Oct. 28; eldest son of Conrad II (990-1930) and Gisela of Swabia (995-1043). English heir apparent Edward Aetheling (the Exile) (d. 1057); son of Edmund II Ironside (988-1016) and Ealdgyth. Polish Piast duke (1040-58) Casimir I (the Restorer) (d. 1058) in Crakow; son of Mieskzo II (990-1934) and Richensa of Lotharingia (995-1063) (granddaughter of HRE Otto I); father of Boleslaus II the Bold (1038-81). Norwegian king (1045-66) Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) Sigurdsson (d. 1066). Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (Lat. "the Fox"), Duke of Apulia (d. 1085); brother of Roger Guiiscard; husband (1058-) of Sikelgaita of Lombardy (1040-90); father of Bohemund I de Hauteville (1058-1111), Roger Guiscard, and Roger Borsa (1060-1111). Indian Buddhist master Naropa (d. 1100). Deaths: English king (978-1016) Ethelred II (b. 968) on Apr. 23 in London. English king (1016) Edmund II Ironside (b. 988) on Nov. 30 in London (Oxford?); Canute's agents hide beneath a lavatory and thrust a sword up his arse, assassinating him?
1017 In Jan. the Witan acknowledges Canute (Cnut) the Great (995-1035) as king of all England (16th English monarch) (until 1035); he divides his kingdom into four earldoms: Northumbria (Northumberland) (north), East Anglia (east), Mercia (central) and Wessex (south); he then does a chameleon act and goes from a mean to a nice guy, marrying Emma of Normandy, widow of Ethelred II the Unready (he's Eveready II?), and becomes a (Greek?) Christian, giving himself the title of Basileus, and never wearing his crown but instead hanging it on the head of a Christ on a crucifix (according to Henry of Huntingdon), and once ordering the sea back but getting his feet wet, saying "Let all men know how empty and worthless is the power of kings, for there is none worthy of the name but He whom heaven, earth and sea obey by eternal laws"; he chooses Danes as earls for the first three, but picks Saxon supporter Godwin (1001-53) for earl of Wessex; not wanting to play the conqueror, he sends his army home, keeping only a 3K-4K-man bodyguard known as the housecarles, and restores peace and prosperity to Merry Ole England; "Merry sang the monks at Ely as Cnut the king rowed by"; during Canute reign, the seaport of Bristol in W England becomes a center for the Irish wool trade - I like a good piece of what? In May after Melus of Bari, backed by the Norman force of Rainulf Drengot invades Apulia in a surprise attack, they defeat the Byzantine forces of new catapan Leo Tornikios Kontoleon on the Fortore River at Arenula, seize all the territory to the Trani River by Sept., and ravage Apulia while kicking Kontoleon's can in Civita and again at Vaccaricia (future site of Troia), causing him to be canned in Oct. in favor of Basil III Boioannes (-1027), who is backed by emperor Basil II's Varangian Guards and is much tougher. Henry II loses his struggle (begun 1003) with Boleslav I over Lusatia and Silesia. After returning to Constantinople for a triumph over his Crimean Vs, Basil II heads E and attacks the Persians over control of Armenia (a Byzantine tributary since 1000). Raymond Borrel (b. 972) dies, and his son Berenguer Ramon I (the Crooked) (the Hunchback) (1005-35) becomes count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona (until 1035), with his mother Ermesinde as regent (until 1023), who goes on to continue to rule with him as an adult, proving far more eager to go after pesky Muslims. Alfonso V and his wife Elvira (Geloria) Mendes grant the first franchises of Leon. Rajendra Choladeva finishes conquering Ceylon (begun 1014), this time taking the throne of Pandya. Births: Spanish king of Castile and Leon (1037-65) and all spain (1056-65) Ferdinand I (the Great) (d. 1065); son of Sancho III of Navarre (-1035). Italian marchioness Beatrice (Beatrix) of Bar (d. 1076); daughter of Duke Frederick II of Upper Lorraine (995-1026) and Matilda of Swabia; wife (1037-52) of Boniface III of Tuscany (985-1052) and Duke Godfrey of Lower Lorraine (997-1069); mother of Matilda of Tuscany (1046-1115). Greek Byzantine Platonist philosopher Michael Psellos (Psellus) (d. 1079). Deaths: Japanese Buddhist priest-theologian Eshin Sozu (b. 942); leaves Collection on the Essentials for Attaining Birth (Ojo Yo Shu). Spanish count of Barcelona (992-1017) Ramon Borrell (b. 972).
1018 On Oct. 1 the Second Battle of Cannae on the Ofanto River near Cannae in SE Italy (site of Hannibal's big V in 216 B.C.E.) is a V for the Byzantines under gen. Basil III Boioannes over the rebel Lombards of Melus of Bari and his 250 Norman knight allies, reestablishing the Byzantines in S Italy; Rainulf Drengot's brothers Gilbert and Osmond are KIA, and only 10 Normans survive; Melus flees back to Amatus in the papal territory, while his son Dattus flees back to his tower; Boioannes goes on to build a fortress in the Appenines guarding the entrance to Apulia, and garrison Troia with his own Norman troops, obtaining the submission of all of the Mezzogiorno except the duchy of Benevento, which remains faithful to the pope; meanwhile Melus ends up wandering to the court of Henry II in Bamberg, Germany, where he is given the title of duke of Apulia, and Rainulf withdraws to Campania, where he plays both ends against the middle for mercenary money, "never desiring any of the Lombards to win a decisive victory, in case this should be to his own disadvantage, but by supporting one side and then the other, he prevented anyone being completely ruined". The Byzantines under Basil II the Bulgar Slayer finish off the last pesky Bulgarians at the Battle of Dyrrhachium (modern-day Durazzo or Durres) on the Albanian coast, killing John Vladislav, who only has young sons, causing the Bulgar leaders to throw in the towel; Byzantium regains Macedonia, and incorporates Bulgaria into the empire, with themes (governors) in Bulgaria and Paristrium, ending the First Bulgarian Empire; for the next 168 years Bulgaria is integrated into the Byzantine empire (until 1185); the Bulgarian patriarchate is abolished, but the archbishop of Okhrid retains autonomy; the Bulgarian aristocracy moves to Constantinople and merges into the leading Greek families; the Byzantines restore their ancient Danube River for the first time in four cents.; Big Man Basil II celebrates a triumph in Athens before returning to Constantinople. Malcolm II of Alba (Scotland), allied with King Owen (Ywain) the Bald of Strathclyde defeats the Northumbrian Saxons at the Battle of Carham on the Tweed River, confirming his absorption of the Anglo-Saxon district of Lothian N of the Tweed, leaving only Strathclyde, whose king soon dies from wounds received in the battle, allowing him to absorb it too, dividing mainland Britain into two major monarchies - now if they can just keep it that way? Canute levies a heavy Danegeld on England which he uses to pay off his Danish warriors; meanwhile his brother King Harald of Denmark dies, and he goes to secure his hold over that kingdom, becoming king of both England and Denmark; England's 16th king becomes its first emperor, with a great northern empire rivaling the HRE; the Council of Oxford is held, and Canute confirms the laws of Edgar - Copenhagen, Anglia, come on pretty momma? Henry I dies, and Adalbert the Victorious (-1055) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1055). The war between Germany and Poland (begun 1004) ends with the Treaty of Bautzen, whereby Boleslav I gives up Bohemia but keeps Lusatia as an imperial fief, making Poland one of the strongest states of Europe; Boleslav I conquers part of Prussia and converts some of the tribes, but the main body stays proudly pagan until the 1230s. Holland on the North Sea coast becomes independent of Lorraine, with its own count. The Muslims invade India; the sacred Indian city of Muttra is pillaged by Mahmud of Ghazni - don't touch my muttra? The Khitans of Manchuria invade Koryo (Korea) for the 3rd time since 993, and are bloodily repulsed. Heribert (970-1021) becomes archbishop of Milan, setting up the carroccio (arc of municipal patriotism), expanding Milan's power on the Lombard plain. Architecture: The Brihadisvara (Bridadisvara) Rasvamin Temple in Tangore, India is built. Births: Danish king (1040-2) and English king (1040-2) Hardicanute (Harthacanut) (Dan. "tough knot") (Canute III) (d. 1042) in England (not to be confused with Tippecanoe and Tyler too?); son of Canute (995-1035) and Emma of Normandy. Georgian Bagrationi king (1027-72) Bagrat IV (d. 1072); son of George I (998-1027) and 1st wife Mariam of Vaspurakan. Seljuk statesman-writer Nizam al-Mulk (d. 1092). Deaths: Spanish count of Barcelona (992-1017) Raymond Borrel (b. 972). German bishop-chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg (b. 975) on Dec. 1. Scottish (Strathclyde) king Owen (Ywain) the Bald in Carham (KIA).
1019 Vladimir I's son Yaroslav (Jaroslav) (Russ. "beauty of spring") I (the Wise) (978-1054) becomes the most powerful grand prince of Kiev so far, and begins building Russia up and codifying its laws, promulgating the first written code (under Byzantine influence), the Russkaya Pravda (Russian Truth); his last surviving brother Mstislav of Chernigov (-1036) is given the territory E of the Dnieper River until his death. Nonfiction: Anon., Life of St. Goueznou. Births: Indian mathematician-astronomer-astrologer Sripati (d. 1066). Chinese scholar, statesman, and #1 historian Ssu-ma Kuang (Sima Guang) (d. 1086) in Yucheng, Shanxi.
|England||Canute I the Great (995-1035)||1016||Nov. 12, 1035|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||Dec. 30, 987||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE St. Henry II (973-1024)||June 7, 1002||July 13, 1024|
|Papacy||Benedict VIII (-1024)||May 18, 1012||Apr. 9, 1024|
1020 On June 12 Lyfing dies, and Aethelnoth (Ethelnoth) (Egelnodus) (Ednodus) (the Good) (-1038) becomes Canterbury archbishop #31 (until Oct. 29, 1038). On June 15 after a siege, Byzantine catapan of Italy (1017-27) Gen. Basil Boioannes (Bugiano), aided by Pandulf IV of Capua captures the fortress tower of Dattus (Datto), brother-in-law of Melus of Bari (-1020) on the Garigliano River, then has him tied in a sack with a monkey, rooster, and snake and tossed into the sea; meanwhile on ? (Easter) Pope Benedict VIII arrives in Bamberg, Germany to request aid from HRE Henry II, seeing exiled Melus of Bari die a broken man, and giving him a lavish funeral and tomb in the new Bamberg Cathedral; to get even for Dattus, Henry II sends a large army next year to get even. Pisa annexes Corsica. Canute conquers ever-wild Scotland, becoming the first king of a united realm of England, bringing 20 years of peace; the Faroes, Shetlands, and Orkneys recognize Olaf Haraldsson as king. The Council of Leon, comprised of nobles and bishops is formed as a nat. parliament, granting to the city of Leon a charter of self-govt., making it the first autonomous commune in medieval Europe; it goes on to grant charters to other cities to raise funds to fight the Muslims. Armenian king (since 989) Gagik I dies, and his eldest son Hovhannes-Smbat (Sembat) III becomes Bagratid king of Armenia (Ani), but is dethroned next year by his brother Ashot IV Qadj (the Brave) (-1040), but they strike a compromise where Smbat II rules the area around the capital (until 1040) and Ashot IV rules the areas toward Persia and Georgia (until 1039); too bad, they keep fighting, weakening the whole kingdom. Duke Bernard II of Saxony rebels. Architecture: Pope Benedict VIII consecrates Bamberg Cathedral. The Crypt of Chartes Cathedral is built. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple ("Great God of the Cave") in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India is completed by King Vidhyadhara of the Chandela Dynasty. Births: French Norman earl (1067-) William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford (d. 1971); relative of William I the Conqueror. English long-haired bareback riding babe Lady Godiva (Godgifu) ("God's gift") (d. 1080); wife of Earl Leofric III of Mercia (968-1057) - dirty old man cradle-robber? Italian archdeacon of Aosta (founder of the Great St. Bernard Hospice) (St.) Bernard of Menthon (Montjoux) (d. 1081) in Chateau de Menthon, Savoy County. Norman priest (chaplain of Duke William of Normandy) and historian William of Poitiers (d. 1090); trained as a knight. Chinese "Early Spring" landscape painter Guo Xi (Kuo Hsi) (d. 1090) in Henan Province. Chinese polymath scientist-statesman Su Song (Zirong) (d. 1101) near Quanzhou. Deaths: Norwegian Vinland vacationer Leif Ericsson (b. ?). Persian "Shahnama" poet Firdawsi (b. 939); his 1,000th birthday is celebrated worldwide in 1934. Indian philosopher Abhinavagupta (b. 950) in Mangam, Kashmir. English abbot Aelfric of Eynsham (b. 955); leaves Homilies, denying the Immaculate Birth of the Virgin Mary and the Roman doctrine of Transubstantiation, and Heptateuch (Gr. "seven books"), a trans. of the first seven books of the Old Testament and the Book of Job. Bavarian duke (1101-20) Welf II/V (b. 1072) on Sept. 24; dies without heirs. Lombard leader Melus of Bari (b. ?) in Bamberg, Germany.
1021 Europe is plagued by a St. Vitus' Dance epidemic this year. HRE Henry II goes on his 3rd Italian campaign and sieges Byzantine-held Troia, but the town holds out, and happy Gen. Boioannes grants it privileges for its loyalty. Basil II kicks Persian butt and wins control of Armenia for the first time in two cents.; he then builds a strongly-fortified frontier, which the Seljuk Turks later knock down through incompetence of his successors. Caliph Al-Hakim vanishes (assassinated?) near Cairo; the Druzes claim him as the hidden imam who will one day return. Births: Chinese Song Dynasty poet-statesman Wang-Anshi (An-Shih) (d. 1086) in S China. Spanish Neo-Platonic philosopher-poet (Jewish) Solomon (Shelomo) ben Yehuda (Judah) ibn Gabirol (AKA Avicebron) (d. 1070) (b. 1022?) in Malaga, Cordoba; raised in Zaragoza; originator of the doctrine that all things incl. intellect and soul are composed of matter and form, emphasizing the divine will. Deaths: German archbishop (999-1022) Heribert of Cologne (b. 970) on Mar. 16 in Cologne.
1022 HRE Henry II of Germany takes Apulia in S Italy away from the Greeks, then goes on a pilgrimage to Garganus, where an angel allegedly causes a hip injury; meanwhile he sends a detachment under Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne to take Capua, which captures pesky Pandulf IV and installs Count Pandulf of Teano, who becomes Prince Pandulf V of Capua in his place (until 1026); Pandulf IV is saved from execution when Pilgrim intervenes on his behalf with Henry II, and he is sent to imprisonment in Germany instead (until 1024). Iceland enters into its first treaty with a foreign country when it makes an agreement with King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway concerning the rights of Icelanders in Norway and Norwegians in Iceland. The remains of the Venerable Bede are stolen from Jarrow by a monk named Aelfred, the sacrist at Durham Cathedral to put alongside the remains of St. Cuthbert and increase revenues. A group of heretics in the French city of Orleans become among the first in W Europe to be executed. The Synod of Pavia insists on celibacy for the higher clergy. Architecture: Hollingsworth Manor in Cheshire, England is built. The Goa Gajah (Elephant Cave) in Bali is built. Births: English Anglo-Saxon king #20 (last) (1066) Harold II Godwinson (Godwinsson) (d. 1066); son of Earl Godwin (1001-1053) of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdotir (sister-in-law of Canute the Great); brother of Sweyn (1020-52), Edith of Wessex (1025-75), Tostig (1026-66), Gyrth (1032-66), Leofwine (1035-66), and Wulfnoth (-1094). Deaths: Greek theologian St. Symeon (b. 949). German bishop St. Bernward of Hildesheim (b. 960) on Nov. 20. Swedish king Eric the Saint. French monk Notker Teutonicus of St. Gallen; leaves translations of Boethius, Aristotle, and the Psalter.
1023 On Jan. 10 a solar eclipse is recorded in Britain, followed by a lunar eclipse on Jan. 24. Duke Richard II the Good of Normandy survives a shipwreck, and builds the Cote de Grace in gratitude - that's good of him? The Mirdasid Dynasty is founded in Aleppo and its hinterland (until 1079) by the N Syrian desert tribe of Banu Kilab (allied to the Fatimids), after defeating the Hamdanid Gen. Lu'lu' and his Turkish troops, who are backed by the Byzantines; the dynasty plays off the Fatmids and Byzantines and survives on diplomacy while bringing prosperity for half a cent. The Taifa of Seville declares independence from the caliphate of Cordoba (until 1091), with Abu al-Qasim (-1042), becoming ruler #1 Abbad I (until 1042), founding the Abbadid Dynasty (ends 1091), ruling from Seville and going on to start an expansion giving it most of S Spain, incl. Andalusia (except the SE corner) and Murcia by 1080, incl. the city of Cordoba. King Olaf christens Vang. Raoul Amaury d'Abbetot (d'Abitot) de Tancarville (b. 990), chamberlain of Normandy and later guardian of Egbert von Lüttich makes a systematic collection of German proverbs. Song Zhen Zong dies, and Song Ren Zong (Jen Chung) (-1064) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #4 of China. Architecture: Duke William of Normandy founds Boscherville Abbey. Birth: Italian pope (1073-85) Gregory VII (Hildebrand of Sovana) (d. 1085) (b. 1015?) in Sovana, Tuscany.
1024 On Apr. 9 Pope (since 1012) Benedict VIII dies, and in May his brother Romanus, another layman is elected Pope (#145) John XIX (-1032), becoming the first pope to grant an indulgence in return for alms bestowed - give a mouse a cookie and he'll ask for a glass of milk? On July 13 HRE Henry II of Germany (b. 973) dies, and Conrad (Konrad) (OG "courageous advice") II (the Salian) (the Salic) (990-1039), founder of the Salian (Franconian) Dynasty (ends 1125) succeeds him; the Saxon Dynasty (founded 963) ends, and the great imperial age of Germany begins; Conrad continues Henry II's policies, and nurtures the churches of Limburg and Speyer while using lay ministers of servile origin in many church admin. posts; at the request of Prince Guaimar III of Salerno, he releases Pandulf IV of Capua, hoping to make him his ally, but he turns around and sieges Capua with the help of Norman adventurer Rainulf Drengott (-1045), obtaining more help from Byzantine Gen. Boioannes next year (until 1026). Prince Boleslaus I (the Mighty) is crowned king of Poland officially a year before his death. Rajendra Choladeva, ruler of the Chola dynasty in S India invades and conquers Bengal, establishing a new capital near Trichinopoly then building a navy. Muslim Shiite Asad al-Daula Salih ibn Mirdas (-1029) becomes Mirdasid emir #1 of Aleppo (until 1029), founding a dynasty that rules 50+ years. The town of Yaroslavl in Russia at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl Rivers (160 mi. NE of Moscow) is founded. Births: Spanish count of Barcelona (1035-76) Ramon Berenguer I (the Old) (d. 1076); son of Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (1005-35) and Sancha Sanchez (daughter of Sancho I Garces of Castile). Russian grand prince of Kiev (1054-78) Iziaslav (Yiziaslav) I (d. 1078); eldest son of Yaroslav I the Wise and 2nd wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir. French abbot of Cluny (1049-1109) (St.) Hugh the Great (d. 1109) in Semur. Deaths: German Saxon king #5 (1002-24) and HRE (1014-24) St. Henry II (b. 973) on July 13.
1025 About this time settlers from West Polynesia begin arriving in the Marquesas Islands (until 1290). On Apr. 18 duke (since 992) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) I the Brave (Great) (Mighty) (b. 967) is crowned king of Poland, then dies on June 17, and on Dec. 25 and his son Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034) succeeds him as king of Poland (until 1031), but the feudal division of the domain among his brothers weakens the kingdom and invites neighboring rulers to take a piece - the beginning of Pollock jokes? On Dec. 15 after restoring much of S Italy to his control, and appointing Alexius Studites (-1043) as ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (until 1043), Byzantine emperor (since 963) Basil II (b. 958) dies while planning an expedition to recover Sicily, leaving the Byzantine Empire the dominant power of the Balkans and Middle East, with secure frontiers along the Danube, the Armenian highlands beyond the Euphrates; dying without leaving a male heir, his younger brother (his complete opposite, as tall and graceful as he was short and stocky, a luxury lover who would never live with the troops and subsist on their rations, and who avoids state business while appointing cruddy officials, who soon drop Basil's land reform laws and let the wealthy land-owning aristocrats go back to decentralizing authority (like in the Frankish Carolingian monarchy) Constantine VIII (960-1028) becomes sole Roman Byzantine emperor #141 (until Nov. 11, 1028), presiding over a final downturn in Byzantine power as the Muslim Seljuk Turks begin contracting them and softening them up for the Muslim Ottoman Turks - pass the olives and wine? Alexius becomes patriarch of Constantinople. Mahmud of Ghazni conquers the fabulously wealthy port city of Somnath in Prabhasa, Gujarat, India capturing the Somnath Temple after 50K faithful die trying to defend it, then personally hammering the golden lingam (phallus) to pieces, having the temple's stones carted back to Ghazni for use as the steps to his Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque). Gipuzkoa Province is Basque Country in N Spain is first mentioned, becoming the province where the Basque language is most extensively used in modern times. Nonfiction: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037), Al-Qanun fi at-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) (5 vols.); synthesizes Greek and Arab medicine, basing medicine on experiment and reason, dominating backward Western medicine until the mid-17th cent. Music: In 1025-6 Italian Benedictine monk Guido d'Arezzo (991-1050) writes Micrologus ("short explanation"), introducing the 4-line staff and solmisation (u, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti) to music, whose syllables are taken from the initial syllables of the first six verses of the hymn to John the Baptist Ut Queant Laxis: "Ut queant laxis, Resonare fibris, Mira gestorum, Famuli tuorum, Solve polluti, Labii reatum"; Pope John XIX invites him to Rome to explain it to him. Births: German duke of Swabia (1057-79) and German anti-king (1077-80) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (d. 1080); son of Count Kuno of Rheinfelden; brother-in-law of Henry IV of Germany; husband of Matilda of Swabia, and Adelaide of Savoy. Armenian Cilicia prince #1 (1080-95) Ruben (Roupen) (Rupen) I (d. 1095). German count #2 of Hapsburg (1045-96) Werner I (the Pious) (d. 1096) (b. 1030?); son of Count Radbot of Hapsburg (Klettgau) (985-1045) and Ida de Lorraine (von Lothringen) (granddaughter of Hugh the Great); nephew of Bishop Werner of Strasbourg; ancestor of Rudolph I; husband (1057-) of Reginlinde of Nellenbourg (1027-90); father of Otto II (-1111) and Albert (Adalbert) (Albrecht) II. Deaths: Byzantine emperor (976-1025) Basil II the Bulgar Slayer (b. 958) on Dec. 15; buried in the Church of St. John the Evangelist in the Hebdomon Palace outside the walls of Constantinople; his grave is ravaged by Fourth Crusaders in 1204. Polish duke (992-1025) and king (1025) Boleslaus I the Mighty (b. 967) on June 17 in Cracow. Indian sage Abhinavagupta (b. 975); leaves Light on the Tantra (Tantraaloka). German bishop (1000-25) Burchard of Worms (b. ?) on Aug. 20.
1026 This is the first year of the Kala Chakra time system of Tibet, which synchs up with the Indian system this year. Canute and Olaf fight the indecisive Battle of Holy River (Helgea) in Sweden; a V for Canute? Duke (since 1004) Henry V of Bavaria dies without an heir, and Conrad II makes his son Henry III the Black (the Pious) (1016-56) into Duke Henry VI of Bavaria. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-To orders the royal coin storehouses opened to help the poor. The Hoysala Empire in S India in modern-day Karnataka is founded (ends 1343), with capital at Belur, replacing the Sanskrit language with Kannada, and building many temples. Richard of St. Vaast leads a large pilgrimage to Jerusalem, anticipating the end of the world in 1033. Canute makes a pilgrimage to Rome (until 1026), sending his subjects a letter showing that he's just a soul whose intentions are good, and he never meant to take it out on you, blah blah - oh Lord don't let me be misunderstood? Copenhagen ("merchant's harbor") on Zealand and Amager Islands across the Oresund from Malmo, Sweden is first mentioned in documents. Births: Austrian Babenberg margrave (1055-75) Ernest the Brave (d. 1075); son of Adalbert the Victorious (b. 1055). The original Darth Helmet? English Norman king #1 (1066-87) and duke #6 of Normandy (1035-87) William (OG "will-helmet", "resolute protection") I (the Conqueror) (Duke William or Guillaume II the Bastard) (d. 1087) in Falaise; illegitimate son of Robert II the Devil (1000-35) and Herleva (Arlette) (Herlette), daughter of Falaise tanner Fulbert, causing his line to be known as the devil's brood, hatched from a she-devil?; brother of Adelaide of Normandy (1026-90); husband (1053-) of Matilda of Flanders (1031-83); father of Robert Curthose (1053-1134), William II Rufus (1057-1100) and Henry I (1068-1135) - how would you like to know that you're a bastard and your father is the devil, and 6-6-66 is coming up on your 40th birthday in 1066? German Benedictine mystic scholar-abbot William of Hirsau (d. 1091); writer on music theory. Chinese astronomer Shen Kua (d. ?). Deaths: Chinese poet Lin Pu (b. 965).
1027 The first Peace and Truce of God (Pax Dei) in W Europe (a gen. truce among warring lords and factions, issued by the local clergy) is introduced in Catalonia during the reign of Ramon Berenguer I the Old of Barcelona. On Mar. 26 German king (since 1024) Conrad II the Salian (990-1039) is crowned HRE by Pope John XIX in Rome; attendees incl. Canute the Great, and Rudolf III of Burgundy. On Aug. 16 George I (b. 998) dies, and his son Bagrat IV (1018-72) becomes king of Georgia (until Nov. 24, 1072), going on to secure Georgian sovereignty from the Byzantines and Seljuks. Enter Duke William of Normandy, or, I like my babes tanned? On Aug. 28 Richard II the Good (b. 958) dies, and his son Richard III (997-1027) succeeds, but dies mysteriously, and his younger brother Robert II the Devil (the Magnificent) (1000-35) becomes duke #5 of Normandy (until 1035), the suspicions of fratricide giving him his nickname - let me introduce myself, I'm a man of wealth and fame? St. Stephen of Hungary conquers Slovakia from Poland. The Byzantines under gen. Constantine Diogenes (980-) drive the Patzinaks out of the Balkans and back over the Danube River. Hisham III (-1031) becomes the last Umayyad caliph of corroding Cordoba (until 1031). Boniface III/IV (985-1052) of the House of Canossa becomes margrave of Tuscany, adding to his titles of count of Modena, Reggio, Mantua, and Ferrara. Inventions: Lu Tao-lung of China invents the first odometer, an 8-wheeled cart that strikes a drum each li (third of a mi.) and rings a bell every 10 li. Nonfiction: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037), The Book of Healing (The Cure) (4 vols.), written to cure ignorance of the soul, dividing knowledge into logic, metaphysics, natural science, and math (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Wan Weiyi, The Illustrated Manual on Points for Acupuncture and Moxibustion; revises the locations of the acupuncture points. Deaths: Norman duke (996-1027) Richard II (b. 963) on Aug. 28. Georgian king (1014-27) George I (b. 998) on Aug. 16.
1028 On Apr. 14 (Easter Day) Henry III the Black (the Pious) (1016-56), son of Conrad II is crowned Salien king of Germany #2 in Aachen (until Oct. 5, 1056) by archbishop (1021-36) Pilgrim of Cologne (985-1036). On Aug. 7 king (since 999) Alfonso V the Noble (b. 994) is killed by an arrow while sieging the Muslim-held town of Viseu in N Portugal, and his son Bermudo (Vermudo) III (1010-37) becomes king of Leon (until Sept. 4, 1037), becoming the last king of the Perez Dynasty founded by Peter of Cantabria; in 1025 he is called emperor in Galicia. On Nov. 15 Constantine VIII (b. 960) dies childless, and 60-y.-o. Romanus III Argyrus (Romanos III Argyros) (968-1034) becomes Byzantine emperor #142 (until Apr. 11, 1034), marrying Constantine VIII's 50-y.-o. 3rd daughter Zoe (Gr. "life") Porphyrogenita (978-1050), becoming #1 of her three emperor husbands (Michael IV in 1034-41, Constantine IX in 1042-50), soon turning Romanus III off with her infertility and hooking up with courtier Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-41) and plotting to take the throne - talk about late bloomers? Power the ultimate aphrodisiac? Canute, king of England and Denmark conquers Norway from Olaf II, completing his northern empire and gaining control of the Baltic and North Sea - ding-a-ling come on it's lovely weather for a sleigh ride with yuse subjects? King Sancho III the Great of Navarre becomes count of Castile (until 1035). The Raumaus Tribe of Romerike in SE Norway battles King Olav Haraldsson. Later Ly Dynasty fuler (since 1009) Ly Thai To (b. 974) dies, and his posth. son Ly Phat Ma (Ly Thai Tong) (1000-54) becomes emperor of Vietnam, going through six reignal titles and proving himself a brilliant leader who knows how to work the bureaucracy and Buddhist clergy. Hammad ibn Buluggin dies, and Al-Qaid ibn Hammad (-1045) and Muhsin ibn Qaid (-1045) become rulers of Algeria, going on to reestablish relations with the Fatimids. Architecture: The Castle of Habichtsburg (Habsburg) (Hapsburg) (Ger. "Hawk's Castle") on the Aar River in Aargau in modern-day N Switzerland is built by Count Radbot of Klettgau (985-1045) and his older brother bishop of Strasbourg (since 1001) Werner I (978-1028), descendants of Count Guntram the Rich (d. 950), becoming the ancestral seat of the Hapsburg (Habsburg) family; Radbot's son Werner I (1025-96) becomes the 1st/2nd count of Habsburg. The Romanesque Cathedral of San Romolo in Fiesole is begun. The Greek Orthodox Church of the Virgin of the Braziers in Thessalonica is built. Births: French Norman baron William "the Seemly" Sinclair, 1st Baron of Roslyn (d. 1078) in St. Claur-sur-Elle, Manche; son of Walderne (Waldonius) (1006-47) and Helene le Bon; cousin of William I the Conqueror; founder of Clan Sinclair in the Scottish Highlands; father of Henry the Holy Sinclair, Henry II Sinclair, and Richilde Sinclair. Irish monk-chronicler Marianus Scotus (d. 1082); devotee of St. Brigid. French abbot (co-founder of the Cistercian Order) (St.) Robert of Molesme (d. 1111) in Troyes, Champagne; feast day: Apr. 29. Deaths: Vietnamese Later Ly Dynasty ruler (1009-28) Ly Thai To (b. 974) in Thang Long, Dai Co Viet. German bishop of Strasbourg (1001-28) Werner I (b. 978) on Oct. 28 near Constantinople; dies on the banks of the Bosphorus Strait en route to Contantinople. Muslim Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012-28) Qawam al-Daula (b. 1000) in Oct./Nov.
1029 The Normans establish themselves in Aversa in S Italy. Bretislaus of Bohemia drives the Poles out of E Moravia for his father Oldrich in an attempt to take Moravia. Count Garcia Sanchez of Castile is murdered by some exiled Castilian nobleman as he tries to enter the Church of St. John the Baptist in the city of Leon to marry Sancha of Leon, sister of Bermudo III of Leon, causing Sancho III of Navarre to claim the county of Castile in his wife's forgettable name and install their son Ferdinand I (the Great) (1017-65) as the new count of Castile (until Dec. 24, 1065), then force Sancha to marry Ferdinand in 1032, with Castile as her dowry; daddy Sancho then acts as overlord with the goal of permanently uniting Castile and Leon under the dynasty of Navarre, starting by seizing the borderlands between the Cea and Pisuerga Rivers N of the city of Leon. King Mathghamhain O Riagain (O'Reagan) (O'Regan) of Brega defeats Viking king Sitric of Dublin. Gudlief the Icelander embarks from Limerick, gets lost, and later claims to have discovered Irish-speaking people to the S of Vinland. The Buyid capital of Rayy in W Persia falls to Mahmud of Ghazni - don't call my Rayy, call me Buyay? Salih ibn Mirdas dies, and his son Shibl al-Daula Nasr (-1038) becomes Mirdasid emir #2 of Aleppo (until 1038). Castel Ssan Niccolo in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy is first mentioned in documents. Births: Seljuk sultan #2 (1063-72) (Sunni Muslim) Alp Arslan ("Lion Hero") (Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri) (d. 1072) on Jan. 20; great-grandson of Seljuk. Flemish count (1070-92) Robert I (the Frisian) (d. 1093) (b. 1035?); younger son of Baldwin V (-1067) and Adele (1009-79) (daughter of Robert II of France). French prelate (St.) Robert of Molesme (d. 1111).
|England||Canute I the Great (995-1035)||1016||Nov. 12, 1035|
|Scotland||Malcolm II (980-1034)||1005||1034|
|France||Robert II the Pious (972-1031)||996||July 20, 1031|
|Germany||HRE Conrad II (990-1039)||1024||1039|
|Papacy||John XIX (-1032)||1024||1032|
1030 On Apr. 30 Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (b. 971) dies after conquering 680K sq. mi. in the Near East from the Indian Ocean N to the Amu Darya River, and from the Tigris River E to the Ganges River; the Ghaznavid Empire in Afghanistan begins to disintegrate. On July 29 Canute defeats and kills Christian Norwegian king Olaf I Haraldsson (Tryggvason) in the Battle of Stiklestad, and Canute's son Sweyn Estridsen becomes king of Norway (until 1035), ruling like a tyrant until he is deposed. On Aug. 31 a solar eclipse is recorded in Britain. The Germans under Conrad II unsuccessfully attack Stephen of Hungary, but Conrad's jealousy causes an attack against Hungary in Slovakia by Bohemian duke Oldrich to fail, causing Bohemian forces to refuse to take the field for Conrad next year, starting a pissing contest. The Magyars under King Aba conquer Vienna, but HRE Henry III recaptures it. The Byzantines suffer a severe defeat in a campaign against the Muslim emirs attacking Syria. After allying with Sergius IV of Naples, Norman adventurer Rainulf Drengot is given the former Byzantine stronghold of Aversa N of Naples, with the title of count and his sister in marriage; when she dies in 1034, he marries the daughter of the duke of Amalfi, niece of Sergius' enemy Pandulf IV of Capua, allowing him to expand his territory at the expense of the Abbey of Montecassino. In this decade Rajendra Choladeva of S India sends his navy to exact tribute from Pegu, Malaiyur (Malay Peninsula), and the Srivijaya Empire. Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev conquers and builds a fort in Tartu under the name of Jurjev, becoming the first written mention. The Wettin Family in Saxony receives the Eastern March (Ostmark) as a fief. Ballenstedt in Saxony on the N rim of the Harz Mt. range (6 mi. SE of modern-day Quedlinburg) is first mentioned. Science: About this time Persian Shiite Muslim scholar Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni (973-1048) determines reaction time using the first experimental method in psychology? Nonfiction: Abu al-Biruni (973-1048), History of India (Tarikh al-Hind); waxes lyrical about the Bhagavad Gita; after uttering the soundbyte: "India has produced no Socrates; no logical method has there expelled fantasy from science", for funners he trans. Euclid and Ptolemy into Sanskrit for them. Music: Parallel fourths become considered more pleasant to the ear than parallel fifths in Roman Church music. Births: Russian grand prince of Kiev (1078-93) Vsevolod I (Andrew) Yaroslavich (d. 1093); 5th son of Yaroslav I the Wise and Ingigerd Olafsdottir. German monk (St.) Bruno of Cologne (d. 1101) in Cologne; founder of the Carthusian Order; feast day: Oct. 6; usually represented with a death head in his hands; not to be confused with Benedictine abbot St. Bruno (1048-1123). Deaths: Persian Muslim Buyid Platonist philosopher-historian Abu Miskawayh (b. 932) in Isfahan; leaves The Experiences of the Nations (Tajarib al-umam), and Refinement of Morals (Tahdib al-Akhlaq), the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics. French duke of Aquitaine (990-1030) William V (b. 969) on Jan. 31. Afghan ruler Mahmud of Ghazni (b. 971) on Apr. 30 in Ghazna.
1031 On July 20 Robert II the Pious (b. 972) dies, and his son Henri I (1008-60) succeeds him as Capetian king #3 of France (until Aug. 4, 1060); during his reign feudal power in France reaches its height; Henry I's brother Robert I the old (1011-76) rebels against him, supported by his mother (Robert II's 3rd wife) Constance d'Arles ends 1032). History has turned a page, uh-huh? On Sept. 2 Prince Emeric of Hungary is killed by a wild boar; since he is soon sainted, the names Heinrich, Henricus, Henry, Emericus, Amerigo, et al. derived from his name become popular in Christian countries; thus is America's future name born as the Continent of Henry? Conrad II concludes a successful disciplinary expedition against the Poles, recovering Lusatia and forcing the Poles to pay homage; Oldrich of Bohemia reacquires Moravia from Poland, while Yaroslav of Russia takes Ruthenia, and Canute of Denmark takes Pomerania; Oldrich's son Bretislaus invades Hungary to prevent its expansion. On Nov. 29 Abbasid caliph (since 991) Al-Qadir (b. 947) dies, and his son Al-Qa'im (1001-75) succeeds him (until Apr. 2, 1075); Hisham III dies, and the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba is abolished, causing over 40 Muslim-ruled petty Abbasid kingdoms known as taifas (run by emirs) to spring up in Moorish Spain, the main ones being Badajoz (1009-94), Toledo (1010-85), Valencia (1010-94), Almeria (1011-91), Zaragoza (1018-46), Cordoba (1031-91), Granada (1013-90), and Seville (1023-91); meanwhile the former situation where the Christian kingdoms of N Spain had to pay tribute to the all-powerful caliphate of Cordoba begins to be reversed, and the fractured taifas end up paying tribute (parias) to them; when they call on brother Muslims from N Africa to help them, the latter try to absorb their taifas into their N African kingdoms, causing them to finally hire Christian mercenaries such as El Cid. The Byzantines reverse their losses against the Muslim emirs in Syria with the brilliant Vs of gen. Georgios Maniakes (Maniakis) (-1043). Canute leads a large army into N England and receives an acknowledgement of superiority from kings Mael Baeda, Echmarcach (sea-king of the Irish Sea region), and Malcolm II of Scotland, which is later used for political hay by the English kings, but at the time gives them no real authority in Scottish affairs as the army can't stay there forever, so Canute puts strongman Earl Siward in control of Northumbria to contain Malcolm II; meanwhile Malcolm II gives the rule of Strathclyde to his grandson Duncan (Donnchad) I (1010-40) (Gael. "brown warrior"), son of his daughter Bethoc and Crinan (-1045), ruler of Atholl, who decides to enter the Church, and becomes abbot of Dunkeld in Fortriu. The frontier Treaty of Pol-Hung is negotiated. Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne obtains the dignity of archchancellor of Italy for himself and his successors. Births: English 4'2" queen consort Matilda (Maud) of Flanders (d. 1083); daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders and Adele (1000-79) (daughter of Robert II of France); wife (1053-) of William I the Conqueror, whom she initially rebuffs because she is too high-born to marry a bastard, causing him to drag her from church by her long braids and throw her down in the street, turning her on? Scottish king (1057-93) Malcolm III Canmore (Gael. "great head or chief") (d. 1093); son of Duncan I (1010-40); brother of Donald Bane (1033-1107). Chinese statesman-scientist Shen Kuo (Kua) (d. 1095) in Qiantang. Norman count of Sicily (1071-1101) Roger I (Bosso) (the Great Count) (d. 1101); youngest son of Trancred of Hauteville and 2nd wife Fredisenda; husband of Adelaide del Vasto (1075-1118); father of Simon of Hauteville (1093-1105) and Roger II (1095-1154). Deaths: Arab Abassic caliph (991-1031) Al-Qadir (b. 947) on Nov. 29 in Baghdad. French king (996-1031) Robert II the Pious (b. 972) on July 20. Japanese novelist-poet Lady Murasaki (b. 973).
1032 On Sept. 6 Rudolph III of Burgundy (b. 993) dies without an heir, leaving Burgundy to HRE Conrad II, who chases pesky Count Odo II of Blois out unites it with the HRE next year as the "free county" of Burgundy (later called Franche-Comte (Franche-Comté)) (in SE France on the Swiss border), incorporating Lyons into the HRE this year; the independence of Burgundy is ended; meanwhile Robert I Capet and his brother Henry I reach a peace settlement which gives him the rest of the duchy of Burgundy (until 1076), and Robert goes on to become a robber baron who plunders his vassals; from now on there is a French duke of French Burgundy and a Palatine count of imperial Burgundy, and it takes until 1678 to reunite them as part of France. Pope John XIX (since 1024) dies, and in Oct. he is succeeded by his 12-y.-o. nephew Theophylact (grandson of Count Gregory of Tusculum, who uses his wealth and private army to get him elected) as Pope (#146) Benedict IX (1020-85) (until 1045); the new testosterone-soaked (9-in. bent?) bishop of Rome becomes known for his dissolute life, bestiality, witchcraft and Satanism, and wild bisexual orgies, whooping it up and giving the Dark Ages a bad name, ordering murders while hiding in the Lateran Palace for fear of assassination. A combined Byzantine-Ragusan fleet defeats the Saracen pirates in the Adriatic. HRE Conrad II divides Poland between Mieszko II and two of his relatives. After Duke Oldrich of Bohemia fails to appear at the Diet of Merseburg, HRE Conrad II sends his son Duke Henry VI of Bavaria, who deposes him and takes him to Bavaria, and replaces him with Jaromir. Arslan dies, and Musa (-1036) becomes ruler of the Seljuks. Malcolm II has his cousin Macbeth kill Gillacomgain Mac Maelbrigta, mormaor (mormaer) (great steward) (earl) of Moray (with a skean?) for murdering Malcolm's uncle Findlaech in 1020, then goes on a vendetta against the family of Gillacomgain's wife Gruoch ingen Boite (granddaughter via Boite of his clan rival Kenneth III, son of his uncle King Dub) (model for Shakespeare's Lady MacBeth), having her nephew killed in 1033, ending the direct male line from Kenneth III Mac Duib to clear the way for his favorite grandson Duncan; too bad, Macbeth marries Gruoch to become earl of Moray, and becomes protector of Lulach, her son by Gillacomgain - and Lady Macbeth gets the idea to kill and come again? Architecture: Canute completes the restoration of Bury St. Edmunds. Deaths: French king of Burgundy Rudolf III (b. 933) on Sept. 6.
1033 This is a Big Year for Millennium Fever, after the year 1000 proved such a big bust; Raoul Glaber (-1050) claims that Christ will return on the 1K-year anniv. of his Passion, and a mass pilgrimage is made to Jerusalem, but alas, the world goes on, and Antichrist and the Second Coming of Christ are still way in the future? King Mieszko (Mieczyslav) II of Poland is defeated by the Germans and Russians, and recognizes the suzerainty of the emperor and resigns. Castile in N Spain becomes a separate kingdom. Duke Frederick III (b. 1020) of Upper Lorraine dies, and the House of Bar becomes extinct, causing his cousin HRE Conrad II to give his duchy of Upper Lorraine to Duke Gothelo I of Lower Lorraine in order to defend it against Count Odo II of Blois. The kingdom of Arles is attached by HRE Conrad II to the Holy Roman Empire, and after that it is unity-challenged until its demise in 1246, although the German emperors like to assume the title of king of Arles. Oldrich captures, deposes and blinds Jaromir, and drives his son Bretislaus from Bohemia, then is assassinated on Nov. 9, and Jaromir renounces the Bohemian throne in favor of Bretislaus. HRE Conrad II inherits the kingdom of Burgundy, and bestows it on his son Henry III. Venice the Golden (Venetia Aurea) ends the hereditary succession of its doge, returning to an election by citizens and requiring him to govern in collaboration with a senate. Births: Scottish king (1093-97) Donald (Donnchada) Bane (Ban) (Gael. "fair-haired") (Donalbane) (Donald III) (d. 1107); son of Duncan I; brother of Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93). English Benedictine scholastic theologian and Canterbury archbishop #36 (1093-1109) (St.) Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109) in Aosta, Burgundy, Piedmont; of the noble family of Candia; feast day: Apr. 21; his emblem is a ship because he is well-traveled? Deaths: Bohemian duke (1012-34) Oldrich (b. 975) on Nov. 9 (assassinated).
1034 On Apr. 11 emperor (since Nov. 15, 1028) Romanus III (b. 968) is murdered in his bath after persecuting the Monophysites of Syria and causing thousands to flee to Muslim territory (later welcoming the Seljuk advance), and low-born epileptic Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-41) becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #143 after Zoe marries him (her 2nd of three marriages) and jockeys for his bootstrap election. Scottish king (since 1005) Malcolm II MacKenneth (b. 980) dies, and his favorite grandson Duncan I (1010-40), ruler of Strathclyde becomes king of Alba (Scotland) (until 1040), completing the union of the four nuclei of Scotland (Scots, Picts, Britons, and Angles), which now adopts the name, but without a homogeneous racial or political basis, controlling all of the island N of Solway Firth and the Tweed River; Macbeth, earl of Ross and Moray serves Duncan as a general; meanwhile England keeps trying to make Scotland its vassal while Scotland is plagued with clan rivalry and plots to seize the throne. Mieszko II of Poland (b. 990) dies, and a violent civil war follows (until 1040), with his son Casimir I (the Restorer) (1016-1058) trying to keep control as the pagans rise up and burn monasteries and kill clergy, while the peasants rise up against the landlords - it's the time of the season for loving? Sancho III of Navarre seizes the capital city of Leon from Bermudo III, who retreats into Galicia; Sancho III begins calling himself "Imperator Totius Hispaniae" on his coins. Byzantine fleets manned by Scandinavian mercenaries under Harald Haardraade (Hardrada) take on the Saracen pirates off the Anatolian coast, and ravage the coasts of North Africa (1034-5). King Deokjong of Korea prohibits children and women from wearing silk clothes - what, no silk stockings? Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #71 (1068-73) Go-Sanjo (Takahito) (d. 1073) on Sept. 3; 2nd son of Go-Suzaku (1009-45); father of Shirakawa (1053-1129). Norman lord Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (d. 1090); son of Count Gilbert of Brionne (1000-1040); brother of Baldwin fitz Gilbert (-1090); husband of Rohese Giffard; father of Gilbert Fitz Richard (1066-1117). Deaths: Scottish king (1005-34) Malcolm II (b. 980).
1035 On May 26 Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (b. 1005) dies, and his son Ramon Berenguer I "the Old" (1024-76) becomes count of Barcelona, with his grandmother, manly woman Ermesinde of Carcassone as regent (until 1044); he goes on to make it #1 among the Spanish counties in Catalan, extending the borders W to Barbastro and N to Carcassonne and Razes (N of the Pyrenees), bldg. up a navy, and codifying Catalan feudal laws in the Ustages (Ustici) of Barcelona, the first full feudal law compilation in W Europe. On July 3 Robert II the Devil (b. 1000) dies on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and his 8-y.-o. illegimate son becomes William II, 6th Duke of Normandy (1027-87), and immediately has his balls tested by a series of baronial revolts (until 1047) - my father is the Devil, and I'm a bastard, so what does that make me? On Oct. 18 Imperator Totius Hispaniae Sancho III the Great of Navarre (b. 985) is murdered, causing the Jewish quarter of Castrojeriz to be slaughtered; although he had worked all his life to unite the Spanish Christian kingdoms, he divides his domains between his sons, after which it never becomes as powerful; Sancho III's eldest son Garcia VI Ramirez (the Restorer) of Navarre (1099-1150) gets Navarre incl. some territory of Old Castile, restoring the independence of Navarre from Aragon after 58 years; middle son Ramiro I of Aragon (1006-63) gets the split-off far-gone kingdom of Aragon in NE Spain SE of Navarre, E of Old Castile, and NE of New Castile (with provinces Zaragoza, Huesca, and Teruel); youngest son Ferdinand (Fernando) (OG "bold voyager") (the Great) I of Castile (1017-65) gets the new kingdom of New Castile, with capital at Burgos (130 mi. N of Madrid) (capital of Castile-Leon until 1560), and continues his daddy's work of conquering Leon; meanwhile Bermudo III marches in and reclaims the crown of Leon, and works to recover the stolen territory between the Cea and Pisuerga Rivers. On Nov. 4 Jaromir is assassinated by Vrsovci while imprisoned at Lysa, and Premyslid Bretislaus I (1002-55) ("the Bohemian Achilles"), known for kidnapping his wife Judith of Schweinfurt from a monastery so that he could marry her in 1030 becomes sole duke of Bohemia, helping Conrad in his war against the Lusatians. On Nov. 12 Canute (b. 995) dies at age 40 at Shaftsbury, and is buried in Winchester Cathedral; his sons split his kingdom, with England going to Harald Knutsson (Harefoot), Norway to Sweyn, and Denmark to Hardicanute; the latter is unable to come to Denmark soon enough, and the Witan elects his half-brother Harold (Harald) I Knutsson (Harefoot) (1015-40) regent of England, with the support of Leofric III, Earl of Mercia (968-1057); the Norwegians revolt and invite Olaf I Tryggvason's son Magnus I the Good (-1047) to become king of Norway; under his reign the Grey (Gray) Goose (Gragas) parchment lays down the laws of Norway, incl. weights and measures, care of the sick and poor, and policing of markets and ports, becoming the basis of the sea law of Europe transmitted by the Hanseatic League. Baldwin IV (descendant of Alfred the Great's daughter Elfrida or Aelfthryth) dies, and his son Baldwin V (-1067) becomes count of Flanders (until 1067). After receiving requests for help from Rainulf Drengot, William I "Iron Arm" of Hauteville (1009-1046), one of the 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville travels with his younger brother Drogo of Hauteville (1010-1051) to Apulia in S Italy - looking for adventure, born to be wild? Births: French bishop of Marbod (Marbode) (Marbudus) of Rennes (d. 1123) near Angers, Anjou. Deaths: Austrian duke of Carinthia (1011-35) Adalbero (b. 980) on Nov. 29 in Ebersberg, Bavaria. Norwegian king (1028-35), Danish king (1018-35) and English king (1016-35) Canute I the Great (b. 995) on Nov. 12 in Shaftsbury, England. Norman duke (1027-35) Robert II the Devil (b. 1000) on July 3. Spanish count of Barcelona (1018-35) Berenguer Ramon I (b. 1005) on May 26. Spanish count of Barcelona (1018-35) Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked (b. 1018) on May 26. Bohemian duke Jaroslav (b. ?) on Nov. 4 in Lysa (assassinated).
1036 On Feb. 5 after landing in Sussex with a Norman mercenary army in an attempt to capture London and retake the throne from Canute's son Harold Harefoot for the House of Wessex, Edward the Confessor's younger brother Alfred Aetheling (b. 1005) is betrayed in Guildown Hill W of Guildford (30 mi. SW of London) and blinded by Earl Godwin of Wessex, then sent to the monastery of Ely, where he dies; Canute's speedy son Harald (Harold) Harefoot (1015-40) is elected king Harold I of England (England's 17th monarch) by the Witan, and his brother Hardicanute (Harthacanute) launches an expedition to England to claim the throne. On May 15 emperor (since 1016) Go-Ichijo (b. 1008) dies, and his younger brother Go-Suzaku (Atsunaga) (1009-45) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #69 (until 1045). On Nov. 29 Adalbero of Eppenstein (b. 980) dies in exile after rebelling against HRE Conrad II in 1035 and getting Bishop Egilbert of Freising to beg him not to dispossess him in vain, and Conrad I's son Conrad II the Younger (the Salian) (990-1039) succeeds as duke of Carinthia (until 1039); Pope Benedict X is forced out of Rome, but returns with the help of HRE Conrad II. Musa dies, and the Seljuks, led by Chaghri (Turk. "small falcon or merlin" Beg (989-1060) and his brother Tughrul (Togrul) Beg (Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) (990-1063) (grandsons of chief Seljuk) invade Khurasan; by 1038 Tughrul becomes ruler of the Seljuks. The Zirids take Palermo from the Normans. The Flower Sermon first appears in Buddhist lit. The Tangut Script is invented by scholar Yeli Renrong (-1042) for Western Xia emperor Jing Zong. Births: Spanish king of Castile (1065-72) and Leon (1072) Sancho II (the Strong) (d. 1072); eldest son of Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) and Sancha of Leon (1013-67) (daughter of Alfonso V of Leon and Elvira Mendes); brother of Alfonso VI (1037-1109) and Garcia II (1042-90). Italian bishop of Lucca (1071-) (St.) Anselm (II) (the Younger) of Lucca (Baggio) (d. 1086) in Milan; nephew of Pope Alexander II (Anselm the Elder of Lucca); feast day: Mar. 18. Chinese poet-painter Su Tung-P'o (Su Shih) (d. 1101) in Sichuan. Deaths: Chinese emperor Wu Ben (Huaji) (b. 979). Japanese Yamato emperor #68 (1016-36) Go-Ichijo (b. 1008) on May 15. Seljuk ruler Musa (b. ?). German warrior-archbishop of Cologne (1021-36) German missionary Pilgrim (b. ?) on Aug. 25 in Cologne.
1037 On May 28 HRE Conrad II issues the Constitutio de Feudis, which makes fiefs of small holders hereditary in Italy - and the beat goes on? On Sept. 4 the Battle of Tamaron (Tamarón) sees king (since 1028) Bermudo III of Leon (b. 1017) defeated and KIA by his brother-in-law Ferdinand I the Great of Castile (falls off his horse onto the spears of his own infantry?), and since Bermudo dies without an heir, his kingdom of Leon recognizes Ferdinand as king by right of his wife (Bermudo III's sister) Sancha, and he is crowned as king of Leon and Castile in the city of Leon next June 22 (until 1072), uniting Castile and Leon under the dynasty of Navarre, and making it #1 in Christian N Spain; after overrunning Moorish-held N Galicia, he sets up a vassal as count. On Nov. 15 the Battle of Bar near Bar-le-Duc is a V for Gothelo I over Odo II (b. 983), who is KIA, firming up Gothelo II's control over all of Lorraine. Casimir I the Restorer is exiled by rebellious nobles. Guillaume III dies, and Pons II (990-1060) becomes count of Toulouse. HRE Conrad II recognizes Rainulf Drengot's title of count of Aversa. The Persianized Turkish Sunni Muslim Great Seljuk (Seljuq) Empire (ends 1307) is founded by Oghuz Turk (Qynyq branch) chieftain Tugrul (Toghril) Beg (990-1063), son of Seljuk (Seljuq) (-1038). Births: Spanish king of Leon (1065-1109), Galicia (1071-1109), Castile-Leon (1072-1109), and emperor of all Hispania (1077-1109) Alfonso VI (the Brave) (the Valiant) (d. 1109); son of Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) and Sancha of Leon (1013-67) (daughter of Alfonso V of Leon and Elvira Mendes); brother of Sancho II (1036-72) and Garcia II (1042-90); husband of Agnes of Aquitaine (daughter of William VII), Constance of Burgundy (1046-93), Bertha (daughter of Count William I of Burgundy), Isabel, and Beatrice. Deaths: Persian Muslim superbrain Avicenna (Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina) (b. 980) in June; leaves 450 treatises,of which 240 survive (150 on philosophy, 40 on medicine), incl. Kitab al-Shifa (Kitab ash-Shifa bi ta'rif huquq al Mustafa) (Book of Healing by the Explanation of the Rights of the Chosen One) (AKA Sufficientia) (18 vols.), an attempt to describe all scientific and philosophic knowledge; also Kitab al-Najat (Book of Salvation), an abridged vers. of the preceding, giving the "flying man argument" for the distinction between the body and soul, which must be strong enough to ensure its individuality, but weak enough to allow for its immortality; he also founds physiological psychology for the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, developing a system for associating changes in pulse rate with inner feelings, and developing the Tabula Rasa concept beyond Aristotle. French count of Blois (1004-37) Odo II (b. 983) on Nov. 15 near Bar-le-Duc (KIA). Spanish king of Leon (1028-37) Bermudo III (b. 1010) on Sept. 4 (KIA). Bohemian duke (999-102) Boleslaus III (b. ?) (dies in captivity).
1038 On Aug. 15 Stephen I (b. 969) dies, having allied with the Roman Catholic West, married a Bavarian princess, called in Roman Catholic officials and given them huge tracts of land, broken the power of the pagan tribal chieftains, and set up a system of frontier defense based on guarded swamps and forests; despite all this, he fails to secure a Christian prince to succeed him, and Peter Urseolo (Peter I the Venetian) (1011-59), son of Stephen's sister Maria and Doge Otto Orseolo of Venice becomes king of Hungary (until 1041). Babenberg duke Herman IV of Swabia dies, and HRE Conrad II makes his son Henry III duke of Swabia as Henry I. On Oct. 29 Aethelnoth the Good dies, and Eadsige (Edsige) (Eadsin) (Eadsimus) (-1050) becomes Canterbury archbishop #32 (until Oct. 29, 1050), going on to crown Edward the Confessor. Casimir I the Restorer succeeds with the aid of German king Henry III in reconquering his Polish domain, reestablishing the opiate of the people, er, Christianity, and restoring rents, er, order. A Byzantine army led by Gen. Georgios Maniakes, along with Norman mercenaries led by William Iron Arm (1009-46), along with a navy of Scandinavian mercenaries led by Harald Hardrada sails for Sicily, storms Messina and defeats the Sicilian Saracens at the Battle of Rametta; William Iron Arm gets his nickname after single-handedly slaying the emir of Syracuse; Greek-speaking nobleman Arduin the Lombard of Salerno is beaten by the haughty Byzantines for refusing to surrender a captured horse to them, causing him to withdraw from the campaign, taking his Lombards with him, along with the Normans and Maniakes' Varangian Guard contingent, which causes Maniakes to be recalled to Constantinople and get replaced by Michael III Doukeianos the Young, who tries to patch things up with Arduin by appointing him ruler (topoterites) of Melfi; meanwhile Argyrus (Argyros), son of Lombard hero Melus of Bari (d. 1020) returns from captivity in Constantinople (since 1018), finding Apulia in an uproar over being pressed into service in Sicily by the Byzantines, and when the soldiers return they are pissed off and ripe for revolt, which he stirs up, beginning with winning Arduin over, followed by William Iron Arm; meanwhile up-and-coming Norman guy Rainulf Drengot defeats a Byzantine force and declares himself prince, proclaiming his independence from both the Byzantines and the Lombards, then conquers Capua from Pandulf IV, creating the largest domain in S Italy, which he gets HRE Conrad II to recognize. Ermengol II the Pilgrim dies in Jerusalem on a pilgrimage, and his son (by Constance, daughter of the Count of Besalu) Ermengol (Armengol) III (1033-66) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1066). Granada under vizier Samuel Ha-Nagid (993-1056) begins an 18-year war against its Muslim neighbors, primarily Seville. The Order of Vallombrosa in Tuscany is founded. Births: Polish Piast duke (1058-76) and king (1076-9) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II (the Bold) (the Cruel) (the Generous) (d. 1083); eldest son of Casimir I the Restorer (1016-58) and Dobronega Maria of Kiev (daughter of grand duke Vladimir I of Kiev); grandson of Boleslaus I. French count of Toulouse Raymond IV (d. 1105); son of Pons II; first great prince to take the cross and go a-crusadin'? Deaths: Arab scientist Alhazen (b. 965) in Cairo. Hungarian king (997-1038) St. Stephen (b. 969) on Aug. 15 in Szekesfehervar (C Hungary). Spanish count of Urgell (1010-38) Ermengol II (b. 1004).
1039 A solar eclipse in Ireland is recorded in the Annales of Inisfallen. On June 4 HRE Conrad II (b. 990) dies, and his monklike son Henry III (the Black) (the Pious) (1017-56) (duke of Bavaria since 1026) succeeds him as Salian (Franconian) king #2 of Germany (until 1056), becoming the strongest German HRE yet, holding sway over most of Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary, encouraging the spread of the Cluniac movement in his realm (helped by being the husband of the daughter of the duke of Aquitaine, whose house founded the Cluny Abbey in 909), and building the Romanesque Goslar Palace in Kaiserpfalz; his daddy having regularly assigned dukedoms to him as they fell vacant (incl. Carinthia, which he inherits this year), he holds all but the duchies of Lorraine and Saxony, which contributes toward the feudalization of Germany, esp. when he goes on to grant duchies outside the German royal house, making Germany a "feudal volcano"; meanwhile Bretislaus I of Bohemia invades Poland, captures Poznan and sacks Gniezo, capturing the relics of St. Adalbert, then on his way back captures part of Silesia incl. Wroclaw, intending to set up an archbishopric in Prague subject only to the HRE, pissing Henry III off. Spanish king of Castile (since 1029) and Leon (since 1037) Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) proclaims himself emperor of Hispania, which he claims is independent of the HRE. Donald I of Scotland leads a plundering raid into Northumbria to reward his supporters, and suffers a humiliating defeat at the Second Battle of Durham, just like his grandfather Malcolm II did in 1006. Welsh Prince Gruffydd of Gwynedd and Powys defeats the stankin' English. Deaths: German Salian king #1 (1024-39) and HRE (1027-39) Conrad II (b. 990) on June 4 in Utrecht. Danish king (1035-40) Harold I Knutsson Harefoot (b. 1016) on Mar. 17 in Oxford, England. Armenian king (1021-39) Ashtot IV (b. ?).
|Scotland||Duncan I (1010-40)||1034||1040|
|France||Henri I (1008-60)||1031||Aug. 4, 1060|
|Germany||HRE Henry III the Black (1017-56)||1039||1056|
|Papacy||Benedict IX (1020-85)||1032||1044|
1040 Early in the year the Lombards of S Italy, led by Argyrus and Pandulf III's son Atenulf rebel against the Byzantines, and kill catapan (since 1039) Nicephorus (Nikephoros) II Doukeianos (Dulchiano) (b. ?) in Ascoli, whipping the locals up, and causing the Normans under William Iron Arm to join them. On Mar. 17 English king (since Nov. 12, 1035) Harold I Harefoot (b. 1015) dies in Oxford, and his brother Hardicanute (Harthacnut) (1018-42) (Dan. "tough knot") arrives in England and is elected king of Denmark and England (18th monarch of England) (until June 8, 1042), going on to charge aa "fleet tax", causing his subjects to begin to resent the hard-drinking Viking bully? On May 23 the Battle of Dandanaqan sees the up-and-coming Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids, making them masters of Khurasan, going on to expand into Transoxiana and Persia. In the summer Henry III of Germany invades Bohemia, but is defeated at the Battle of Brudek and withdraws. In Aug. in an attempt to end the threat to the succession from King Dub's descendants, Scottish king Duncan I (b. 1010) leads an army into Moray (N Scotland) against Macbeth (MacBeth) (Macbethad) (1005-57), mormaor (mormaer) (earl) of Ross and Moray, but it backfires when Macbeth defeats and kills him at Pitgaveny near Elgin, or alternatively, murders him at Macbeth's castle in Inverness on the mouth of the Ness River on Beauly Firth (120 mi. N of Perth), and becomes king in his place (until 1057); too bad, Donald's kiddie sons Malcolm and Donald Bane (Domnall Ban) are spirited away to refuge with the Norse-Gaelic rulers of the Hebrides, ending up in Northumbria with Earl Siward under protection of Edward the Confessor, which ends up backfiring as Malcolm gets infected with Anglo-Saxon culture and later brings it back to wild-and-wooly Gaelic Scotland with him?; Macbeth is regarded as a good ruler until Shakespeare smears him, and later historians overreact and paint him as a good ruler, but now it's anybody's guess? After Norman barons Ralph de Gace et al. won't accept an illegitimate son as their leader, Duke William's guardian Count Gilbert of Brionne (b. 1000) is KIA by Ralph de Wacy and Robert de Vitot, causing his eldest sons Richard fitz Gilbert and Baldwin fitz Gilbert to flee to the protection of Count Baldwin V of Flanders; on his return to Normandy, Richard is rewarded with the lordship of Bienfaite and Orbec, accompanying him to England in 1066 and gaining great favor. The March of Carniola in modern-day Slovenia is separated from Carinthia, with capital Krainburg, and largest city Laibach/Ljubljana. Casimir I (the Restorer) (1016-58) becomes Piast duke of Poland (until 1058). A Truce of God is proclaimed in Aquitaine by the Roman Catholic Church, prohibiting fighting from 9 p.m. Wed. to 3 a.m. Mon., or on holy days, leaving only 80 days a year for fighting. The NW and W Bulgarians, led by Peter Delyan (-1041), son of Gabriel Radomir (descendant of Tsar Samuel) revolt against the Byzantines over their replacement of taxation in kind with taxation in cash and other gravamina, er, grievances, attacking Salonika (Thessalonica), which holds out. King Ferdinand of Castile and Leon expels the Moors from Braga, Portugal. The Byzantine fleet defeats the Sicilian Saracens at the Battle of Dragina in Sicily. The Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Dandanqan near Merv, and win control of Khurasan, moving W. Jayasimha II (b. 1015) dies, and his son Somesvara I (1042-68) becomes king of Western Chalukya in S India, founding the city of Kalyani (modern-day Basavakalyana) as his capital. The Berber Muslim Almoravid Dynasty of the Sahara is founded, going on to rule N Africa and parts of Spain (ends 1147). Architecture: Romanesque Wurzburg Cathedral is begun (finished 1225). Inventions: In this decade Bi Sheng (990-1051) of China invents movable type printing, made of baked clay, and prints calendars. Nonfiction: Petrocellus of Salerno, Practica; medical work. Births: Hungarian Arpad king (1074-77) Geza I (d. 1077); later baptized as Magnus. Hungarian Arpad king (1077-95) (St.) Ladislaus (Ladislas) Laszlo (László) I (d. 1095) on June 27; son of Bela I (1016-63) and Richeza (Rixa) of Poland. Arab Muslim Abbadid ruler of Seville (1069-91) (bi) Muhammad ibn Abbad Al-Mutamid (Al-Mu'tamid) (d. 1095); son of Abbad II al-Mu'tadid (-1069). Norman nobleman Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (Robert of Meulan) (d. 1118); eldest son of Roger de Beaumont (1015-94) and Adeline of Meulan (-1081); one of the 15 Proven Companions of William Conqueror at the 1066 Battle of Hastings. Deaths: French count of Anjou (987-40) Fulk III the Black (b. 972) on June 21 in Metz. English king (1035-40) Harold Harefoot (b. 1015) on Mar. 17 in England. Armenian king (since 1020) Smbat III (b. ?)
1041 In early Mar. the 1.2K-man 12-leader Norman army under William Iron Arm takes Malfi, followed by Venosa, Ascoli, and Levello; on Mar. 16 new Byzantine catapan Michael III Doukeianos (Dulchiano) the Young, under orders to take POWs to send back to the emperor for his amusement meets the Lombard and Norman rebels near Venosa on the Olivento River and tries to negotiate, giving them three days and nights to leave Italy, and when they tell him that they have travelled too far to return, Hugh Tudebod mongos, er, punches the horse of the Greek envoy in the head, killing it with one blow, then give him a fresh horse to give the message to their leader; on May 4 they fight the Battle of Montemaggiore near Cannae, and the numerically greater Byzantines are routed, and many of them are drowned in the Ofanto River while retreating, causing Doukeianos to be sent to Sicily; on Sept. 3 after new Byzantine catapan Exaugustus Boioannes, son of Byzantine gen. Boioannes arrives with a Variangian Guard contingent, and whips them up with a great Get Greek Speech reminding them of the achievements of Achilles and Alexander the Great, concluding with the soundbyte: "Try to follow in the footsteps of your ancestors, and forget any idea of fleeing. All the world should know that you are men of courage. Besides, who should fear the Frankish people in battle, for they are inferior in numbers and courage?", he gets his butt kicked at the Battle of Montepeloso; Boioannes is captured by the Normans and handed over to Pandulf III's son Atenulf in Benevento, who ransoms him for a large sum, keeping it all for himself, and Boiannes is sent packing with his tail between his legs; too bad, Arduin is bought off by the Greeks, and Atenulf is elected the new leader and given the title of prince of Benevento, but he too is bought off next Feb., being replaced by Argyrus, who is also bought off by emperor Constantine IX, who makes him the new catapan of Italy, causing the Normans to give up on the Lombards and take control of the revolt, with big ideas about taking everything for themselves. On Dec. 10 after putting his able brothers in high office, and resigning and becoming a monk, Byzantine emperor (since Apr. 11, 1034) Michael IV (b. 1010) dies right after taking his oaths, and his nephew and adopted son Michael V Kalaphates (the Caulker) (1015-42) becomes Byzantine emperor #144 (until Apr. 20, 1042), banishing his adoptive mother Zoe on Apr. 18/19 to become sole emperor), causing a popular revolt, with a mob surrounding the palace and demanding her restoration, causing her to depose him on Apr. 20; he flees to the Stoudion Monastery, but is dragged out, arrested, blinded, and castrated, dying as a monk on Aug. 24; Zoe Porphyrogenita (978-1050) becomes sole Roman emperor until next Apr. 19, when her younger sister Theodora II (980-1056) becomes co-emperor, causing Zoe to bed-hop again, marrying 3rd hubby Constantine IX next June to get her to step down, only to see Michael V exile him to Mytilene in Lesbos - anything to get away from that bitch Zoe? Henry III invades Bohemia, skirts the border defenses and invades Poland, advancing to Prague and forcing Bretislaus I of Bohemia to give up his Polish conquests except Moravia and pay tribute. After his movement is split by rival Alusian, son of John Vladislav, Peter Delyan is defeated and captured by the Byzantines, ending the Bulgarian revolt; the independent church of Ochrid is gobbled up by the Byzantine church. A power struggle ensues in the House of Arpad in Hungary as Peter Urseolo is driven out by the Magyar nobility, who back his brother-in-law (husband of Stephen I's sister) Samuel Aba (Abo) (d. 1044), who becomes king of Hungary (until 1044), while Peter flees to Germany the protection of HRE Henry III and claims the throne. Siward murders Eardwulf and becomes the sole ruler of Northumbria. Music: Magister Franco writes works on music, becoming the first music critic? Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #? (1034-41) Michael IV the Paphlagonian (b. 1010) on Dec. 10 in Constantinople; dies in the Monastery of the Holy Anargyroi.
1042 On June 8 hard-luck Hardicanute (b. 1018), king of Denmark (1035-42) and England (since Mar. 17, 1040) dies of convulsions after a drinking party, leaving no heirs, ending Danish rule in England; Magnus I of Norway becomes king of Denmark by prior agreement; with the support of Godwin of Wessex, the most powerful earl in England, Edward III (the Confessor) (1004-66), last surviving son of Ethelred II (by his and Canute's wife Emma) returns from Normandy to assume the throne for the Wessex Dynasty with the support of the Danes, becoming England's 19th monarch and last of the House of Wessex (until Jan. 5, 1066); too bad, he's a cousin of Duke William of Normandy, and was raised a Norman, and begins to surround himself with Norman favorites and Normanize the court, to the chagrin of the Saxons; since he has no personal army like Hardicanute did, the Anglo-Saxon nobles begin plotting against him; the four great earldoms are Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria, with seven lesser earldoms; Edward finds it easy to play the earls off against each other to promote Norman favorites?; his pointless broken sword is called Curtana, "the Sword of Mercy", "of the same steel and temper as Joyeuse and Durendal". In Sept. William Iron Arm is elected count by the Normans, who petition Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno for recognition, and he gives them the landsaround Malfi in return for acknowledging him as duke of Apulia and Calabria, giving William the province of Ascoli and his brother Drogo of Hauteville the province of Venosa in a 12-part division of the conquered lands (Monopoli to Hugh Tudebod, Lavello to Arnulf, Trani to Peter, Civita to Walter, Montepeloso to Thorstein, Trivento to Herulf, Archangelo to Budolphus son of Betena, Cannae to Ralph, Ascerenza to Ascelin, and Mount Gargano to Rainulf Drengot), with the main city of Malfi divided into 12 shares, wich each Norman count having his own house; the 12 new counts then rush to build fortresses waving the blood red Norman banner, while the Greeks abandon the open country and shut themselves up in the cities; the Normans are now poised to take over S Italy completely, ta da, causing Argyrus to scramble to form an alliance with the pope against them; meanwhile the Byzantines under gen. Georgios Maniakes are kicked out of Sicily, and defeat the Normans at the Battle of Monopoli near Naples, but nothing comes of it because it's too late?; meanwhile Zoe marries her 3rd hubby Constantine IX Monomachus (the Gladiator) (-1055), a scholarly type, who becomes Byzantine emperor, and lets the military and the frontier defenses fall apart while preferring to rebuild the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Gagik II (01079) becomes the last king of the Armenian Bagratouni Dynasty. The Seljuks take the region of Rayy in W Persia. Abbad I dies, and his son Abbad II al-Mu'tadid (-1069) becomes king #2 (of 3) of the Taifa of Seville (until 1062). Mu-izz al-Daula Thimal (-1062) becomes Mirdasid emir of Aleppo (until 1057, then 1061-2). Rajendra Choladeva dies, and his son Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-54) becomes Chola king of S India. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-Tong promulgates a new fairer legal code. Italian-born atty. Lanfranc (b. 1005) becomes a Benedictine monk. Births: French pope (1088-99) (preacher of the First Crusade) Urban II (Otto, Otho, Odo or Eudes de Lagery) (d. 1099) in Lagery (near Chatillon-sur-Marne). English-born king of Denmark (1035-42) and king of England (1040-2) Hardicanute (b. 1018) on June 8 in Lambeth, England.
1043 Henry III of Germany proclaims a Day of Indulgence, forgiving all his foes and exhorting his subjects to do likewise. Gen. Georgios Maniakes revolts against new emperor Constantine IX, lands at Durazzo and prepares to march on Constantinople, but is accidentally killed; meanwhile the Russians raid Constantinople by sea - but learn about them *?!* triple walls and Greek fire? Alexius dies, and Michael I Cerularius (Caerularius) (Kerularios) (1000-58) becomes patriarch of Constantinople, from which position he becomes the author of the 2nd and final schism of the Byzantine (Greek Orthodox) and Latin (Roman Catholic) churches. Pope Benedict IX, known for hiding in the Lateran so he can indulge in total sexual degeneration finally has to celebrate a public Mass, and his enemies hatch a plot to strangle him with ropes hidden in their robes; too bad, "about the sixth hour of the day there occurred a solar eclipse which lasted until the eighth hour. All faces were as pale as death, and everything that could be seen was suffused with the colors of yellow and saffron" (Burgundian monk Rodulfus Glaber), all of which gives the pope time to flee back to the basilica for safety - people wonder how many of you there really are? Adalbert I of Saxony (1000-72) becomes archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg in Germany (until 1072), with supremacy over the Scandinavian Peninsula, most of the pesky pagan Wend lands, and all territory N of the Elbe River. (St.) Peter Damian (Pietro Damiani) (1007-72) becomes head of a hermitage near Gubbio, Italy, going on to correspond with HRE Henry III and Pope Leo IX complaining of simony, intercourse, and other clerical abuses, and urging reforms. The city of Coventry in Mercia (West Midlands), England on the Sherbourne River 94 mi. NW of London is founded by cradle-robber Earl Leofric (968-1057) as a Benedictine monastery after his beautiful long-haired blonde Saxon god's-gift-to-man wife Lady Godiva (Godgifu) (Lat. "God's gift") (1020-80) talks him into it, doing the same in Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucester. Births: Spanish Christian warrior and nat. hero Rodrigo (Ruy) Diaz, Count of Vivar (Bivar) (AKA El Cid) (Arabic "sayyid" = lord) (d. 1099) in Vivar, Burgos; called El Campeador, from the Latin for doctor of military arts. Jewish rabbi Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) (Yarchi) (d. 1108).
1044 On Apr. 19 Duke Gothelo I of Lorraine (b. 967) dies, and his eldest son Godfrey III the Bearded (997-1069) is authorized by HRE Henry III to succeed his father Gothelo I as duke of Upper Lorraine, but he refuses to let him have Lower Lorraine, promising it to the younger son Gothelo II instead, and pissing Godfrey off, causing him to plot a revolt. Samuel Aba of Hungary loses the Battle of Menfo, and is assassinated while fleeing from German emperor Henry III, and Peter Orseolo is reinstated as king of Hungary as Henry's butt-kissing vassal (until 1046), having a lot of problems ruling the largely pagan nobles, who begin a conspiracy against him. Gagik II of Armenia is entrapped by the Byzantines in Constantinople under the pretext of signing a peace treaty, then forced to abdicate; Armenia is occupied by the Byzantines (ends 1064). William Iron Arm and Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno begin the conquest of Calabria, and build Stridula Castle near Squillace. Vseslav Bryachislavich (1039-1101) becomes prince of Polotsk in Belarus (until 1101), becoming its most powerful ruler. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thai-Tong personally leads a naval expedition to Champa, defeats it, and uses the war booty to remit taxes. Anawrahta (-1077), a Hinayana Buddhist usurps the throne of Pagan (until 1077), and goes on to introduce his people to Theravada Buddhism, expand his kingdom and make it the political-religious-cultural center of Burma, developing the written Burmese language, translating Buddhist scriptures, and building great monuments inspired by Ceylon and S India. Copenhagen is first mentioned. Nonfiction: Rodolfus Glaber (985-1047), Chronicle; a history of the world since 900, trying to explain why Christ didn't return in the year 1000, making the first mention of Millennium Fever, and coining the phrase "white mantle of churches"; "the most trivial events and tales being put on exactly the same plane as the most important facts" (H.G. Wells) - who would try something like that, chuckle? Poetry: After Emperor Renzong orders it, Chinese Song Dynasty statesman-historian-poet Ouyang Xiu (Ou Yang Hsiu) (Yongshut) (1007-72) leads the creation of the New History of the Tang Dynasty. Deaths: French duke of Lorraine (1023-44) Gothelo I the Great (b. 967) on Apr. 19. Italian bishop of Ossero (St.) Gaudentius of Ossero (b. ?) on May 31 in Ancona.
1045 The Medieval Optimum (begun 950) ends; not such great conditions for Vikings to explore and colonize North Am. anymore? In Jan. after surviving a strangulation attempt at the altar during Mass two years earlier, 24-y.-o childish, arrogant, cruel, bisexual orgy-loving Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX is driven from the city, and on Jan. 20 out of disgust with his reign Bishop John of Sabrina is elected Pope (#147) Silvester (Sylvester) ("wooded") III (-1045); too bad, he dies on Feb. 10, and Benedict declares him an antipope and claims he's still pope, but in order that he might abdicate and still marry well, he sells the papacy for a large sum of money to his godfather, Archpriest John Gratian, who on May 5 becomes Pope (#148) Gregory VI (-1046), the first Saxon pope and the first one to form an army. Peter Urseolo again becomes king of Hungary, returning and swearing an oath of fealty to Henry III. On Feb. 7 emperor (since 1036) Go-Suzaku (b. 1009) dies, and ? becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #70 (until 1068). Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) (Sigurdsson) (1016-66) becomes king of Norway (until 1066) along with his nephew Mangus - did his wife gave him that name, or is he just bragging? French-speaking Norman-raised Edward the Confessor marries the daughter of Godwin of Wessex, his most influential earl and the one responsible for his kingship, then gives earldoms to two of Godwin's sons and to one of his nephews, cementing the latter's domination, and giving the antsy Anglo-Saxons hope for a last ditch power drive? William Iron Arm is defeated near Taranto by Argyrus. Asclettin Drengot dies, and his son Asclettin II succeeds him as count of Aversa, then dies prematurely and is succeeded by his cousin (nephew of Rainulf Drengot) Rainulf II Trincanocte (-1048), who becomes count #4 of Aversa (until 1048). Navarre conquers Calahorra from the Muslims. Constantine IX founds a law school in Constantinople. Lanfranc establishes a school at the monastery of Bec in Normandy, France. The town of Schaffhausen ("scapha" = ford) in N Switzerland on the N (right) bank of the Rhine River W of Lake Constance (northernmost canton) (modern-day pop. 36K) is first mentioned as striking its own coins, founded by the counts of Nellenburg in a finger of land surrounded on three sides by Germany, causing the pop. to be German-speaking; in 1049 the counts of Nellenburg found the Benedictine Monastery of All Saints (Kloster Allerheiligen); about 1200 it becomes an imperial free city; in 1277 HRE Rudolf I grants it a charter of liberties; in 1330 HRE Louis of Bavaria gives it to the Hapsburgs, and it takes until 1418 to regain independence, becoming a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501. Architecture: The Kaiserpfalz in Kaiserswerth (Dusseldorf), Germany is built as the temporary seat of the HRE. Births: Scottish queen (1070-93) (St.) Margaret Aetheling of Saxony (d. 1093); granddaughter of Edmund Ironside; direct descendant of Alfred the Great; niece of Edward the Confessor; elder sister of Edgar the Aetheling; wife of Malcolm III; canonized in 1250. French Crusader Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Chartres (d. 1102); son of Theobald III of Blois (1012-89) and Garsinde du Maine; husband of Adela of Normandy (1067-1137); father of Stephen I (1092-1154). Bohemian historian-priest Cosmas of Prague (d. 1125). Deaths: Japanese Yamato emperor #69 (1036-45) Go-Suzaku (b. 1009) on Feb. 7. Italian archbishop (since 1018) Heribert of Milan (b. ?).
1046 Early in the year William Iron Arm dies, and is succeeded as Norman count of Apulia and Calabria by his younger brother Drogo of Hauteville (1010-51), who founds the Norman Hauteville Dynasty in Italy, going on to defeat new Byzantine catapan (Sept. 1045-Sept. 1046) Eustathios Palatinos near Taranto, and conclude a treaty with Bari after his brother Humphrey Abagelard of Hauteville (1010-57) arrives and forces them into it; Rainulf's nephew Richard Drengot (Richard I of Capua) (-1078) arrives with 40 knights, gets too uppity and ends in prison, then gets lucky when Rainulf II Trinanocte dies in 1048, and is let out to become regent for his infant son Herman, soon getting him out of the way privately and becoming count of Aversa himself. On Apr. 10 Pope Benedict IX is reelected, and now three rival claimants for the papacy sit in Rome; in the fall German king Henry III crosses the Alps at the head of a large army to straighten things out, making the three rivals depose themselves at a synod in Rome; on May 1 Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX resigns; Pope (since 1045) Gregory VI resigns at the Council of Sutri over accusations of simony, and dies on Dec. 20; on Dec. 25 after visiting Archbishop Adalbert I of Saxony turns it down so he can continue converting the pesky pagan Wends, Henry III's choice, German (Saxon) bishop Suidger becomes Pope (#149) Clement II (-1047) (2nd German pope), crowning Henry III as HRE in Rome; Clement II becomes the first of three reforming German popes, incl. Leo IX and Victor II, who affirm the imperial right of nomination to the papacy. After exiled Prince Andras returns and makes a deal with them, the Vatha (Vata) Rising (ends 1047) of pagan tribal chiefs in Hungary, led by pagan noble Vatha (who shaves his head except for three braids and eats horse meat) ousts Peter Urseolo, massacres Christians, martyrs St. Gellert (Gerard) Sagredo of Csanad (b. 977) on Sept. 24 by pushing him off a cliff in a cart into the Danube River from Gellert (Kelenhegy) Hill in C Budapest, and goes on to wreak havoc and destroy Christian churches before being put down, becoming the last serious pagan revolt - but Jeezy didn't come back; so what, shut up? The Byzantines occupy Ani and take over Armenia, allowing the Orthodox priests to move on in. Earl Siward of Northumbria, sanctioned by Edward the Confessor invades Scotland with Malcom Mac Donald, and defeats Macbeth, then appoints Malcolm's uncle Maldred as king of Scotland, but Macbeth gathers a fresh army and returns to defeat and expel (or kill) him, solidifying his position. Buluggin ibn Muhammad ibn Hammad (-1062) becomes Hammadid ruler of Algeria (until 1062). Peter, first Norman count of Andria founds the town of Andria in S Italy 35 mi. W of Bari, which later becomes a favorite residence of HRE Frederick II. Nonfiction: Wipo of Burgundy, Gesta Chuonradi II Imperatoris; bio. of HRE Conrad II (990-1039), presented to his son Henry III. Births: Italian "Great Countess" Matilda of Canossa, Countess of Tuscany (d. 1115); daughter of Boniface III of Tuscany (985-1052) and Beatrice of Bar (1017-76) (daughter of Duke Frederick II of Upper Lorraine); big friend of Pope Gregory VII. Spanish ruler of Valencia (1099-1102) Jimena (Ximena) Diaz (d. 1116); wife (1074-99) of El Cid (1043-99). Deaths: Hungarian bishop St. Gellert (b. 977) on Nov. 24 in Budapest (martyred).
1047 On Oct. 9 Pope (since 1046) Clement II dies, and in Nov. diehard Pope Benedict IX seizes Rome, reclaiming the papacy on Nov. 8 (until 1048). Harald Hardrada becomes sole king of Norway after joint-ruler Magnus I conveniently dies; tall limping Sweyn (Sven) (Svend) (Svein) II Estridsson Ulfsson (1019-74) becomes king of Denmark (until 1074), becoming the last Viking king of Denmark, and the first medieval one. Andras (Andrew) I Arpad (1014-61), great-grandson of Taksony (via father Vazul and grandfather Michael) quells the Vatha pagan revolt (begun 1046), and becomes king of Hungary with pagan help, pardoning Vatha, but later reneges on promises to pagans to destroy Christianity in his kingdom - do you know about the Spear of Destiny? 20-y.-o. iron-balled Duke William of Normandy, with the assistance of his feudal suzerain King Henry I of France defeats the rebel barons attempting to usurp his claim to Normandy in the cavalry Battle of Val-es-Dunes near Caen, then razes their castles and ends the rebellion, ruling Normandy with an iron hand. Godfrey III the Bearded joins Baldwin of Flanders in a revolt against HRE Henry III, which is supported by Henry I of France. Drogo of Hauteville captures Benevento with the permission of HRE Henry III, who confirms him as Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria, the first official recognition; he also marries Gaitelgrima (Altrude), daughter of Guaimar III of Salerno, and his half-brother Robert Guiscard arrives in Italy to see what's up. HRE Henry III reestablishes the duchies of Carinthia, Bavaria, and Swabia. A famine among the Ulaid causes them to leave Ulster and move to Leinster, according to the Annals of the Four Masters. First written mention of Vampires (upirs) in Russia. Deaths: French monk-historian Rodulfus Glaber (b. 985) in Auxerre. Norman duke Walderne of Saint-Clair (b. 1006).
1048 On July 17 after a session with St. Bartholomew, Pope (since 1032) Benedict IX resigns for the 4th and last time, and is replaced on July 7 by Poppo as Pope (#150) Damasus (Damascus) II (-1048) (3rd German pope), ending the long era of the papacy being the political football of Roman families; too bad, he dies 23 days later on Aug. 9 from malaria; still, Benedict IX has learned his lesson and becomes a monk in St. Basil Monastery in Grottaferrata - where he gets all the nuns and altar boys he wants without having to put a wedding ring on their fingers first? The Byzantines defeat the advancing Seljuk armies at the Battle of Stragna. NE Bulgaria is raided by the Patzinaks (until 1054). Drogo of Hauteville conquers Calabria, and grants Robert Guiscard a castle in Scribla to guard the entrances. Benedictine monks in Jerusalem, devoting themselves to the care of the sick and injured gain authorization by the caliph of Egypt to build a church, convent, and hospital donated by merchants from Amalfi, Italy (near Naples), and adopt the 8-pointed white cross emblem of the Repub. of Amalfi as their badge, later calling themselves the Order of St. John Ambulance ("walking hospital"); they are officially recognized by Pope Paschal II on Feb. 15, 1113; their symbol of a white 8-pointed cross on a black background becomes an internat. symbol of first aid; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is partially restored under the reign of Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus. After founding it in 1040, Harald III Hardrada makes a trading place (kaupstad) out of the seaport of Oslo ("meadow at the foot of a hill/meadow consecrated to the gods") (modern-day pop. 672K/1.6M) on the Aker River at the N end of Oslo Fiord, 80 mi N. of the Skagerrak, going on to become the capital and most populous city in Norway; in 1624 it burns down during the reign of Christian IV, and is moved closer to Akershus Fortress and renamed Christiania in his honor (until 1925). Architecture: Bishop Aldred of Worcester founds the Benedictine Gloucester Abbey on the site of the wooden one built in 681. Births: Roman Byzantine emperor #153 (1081-1118) Alexius I Comnenus (Alexios I Komnenos) (d. 1118) (b. 1056?); 3rd son of John Comnenus; father of Anna Comnena (1083-1153) and John II Comnenus (1087-1143). Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam (Tentmaker) (Ghiyath ad-Din Abul-Fat'h Umar ibn Ibrahim Khayyam Neyshaburi) (d. 1122) on May 18 in Nishapur. Italian Benedictine abbot (St.) Bruno (d. 1123) in Solero, Piedmont; feast day: July 18; not to be confused with Carthusian Order founder St. Bruno (1030-1101). Deaths: Persian Muslim brain man Abu al-Biruni (b. 973) on Dec. 13; leaves At-Tafhim (Elements of Astrology), Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi (The Mas'udi Canon) (major work on astronomy), and Kitab as-Saydalah (treatise on medical drugs); uses Archimedes' Principle to calculate specific gravity; claims that the Earth rotates on its axis as well as around the Sun, but that the data can be equally well explained by the reverse hypothesis; speculates that the Indus Valley was once at the bottom of the sea; explains the working of artesian wells by the hydrostatic principle. German musical theorist Abbot Berno of Reichenau (b. 978). French duke Adalbert of Lorraine (b. 1000).
1049 On Mar. 12 HRE Henry III's relative Bruno is elected Pope (#151) Leo IX (1002-54) (4th German pope), launching needed reforms, causing the Church to reverse its moral degeneration for the rest of the cent. after being spurred by Italian churchman (St.) Peter Damian (Pietro Damiani) (1007-72) - he eats all the worms and spits out the germs? HRE Henry III begins the first of three campaigns against the Hungarians (ends 1052). Kiev grand prince Jaroslav I the Wise's daughter Anna Yaroslavna of Kiev (1024-75) is betrothed to French king Henry I, wowing the illiterate Frog nobles by signing her own name to the wedding contract, while they have to make Xs; he had ended up with her after all the other eligible princess prove too closely related; after being married in Reims on May 19, 1051, they go on to have sons Philip I (1052-1108), Hugh the Great, Count of Vermandois (1057-1101), and Robert (1055-60). Architecture: The 186.5' red brick Iron Pagoda (Youguo Temple) in Kaifeng, Henan, China is built on the site of a wooden one that burned down in 1044, surviving to modern times. Births: Chinese painter Li Lung-mien (d. 1106). Deaths: Syrian historian (Nestorian bishop of Nisibis from 1008) Elias bar Shinaya (b. ?); leaves Chronicle.
|England||Edward III the Confessor (1004-66)||1042||Jan. 5, 1066|
|France||Henri I (1008-60)||1031||Aug. 4, 1060|
|Germany||HRE Henry III the Black (1017-56)||Dec. 25, 1046||Oct. 5, 1056|
|Papacy||Leo IX (1002-54)||1049||Apr. 19, 1054|
1050 In this decade Roman Catholic Europe begins to pass the Greek Orthodox Byzantine Empire and the Muslim World, and to politically penetrate the Mediterranean world, ending the early Middle Ages; France and England begin forming centralized nat. govts. which check or reduce the powers of independent feudal barons, while Germany goes the other way, developing territorial lordships supported by the German emperors. In June Byzantine empress (since Nov. 15, 1029) Zoe Porphyrogenita (b. 978) dies, leaving her 3rd and last hubby (since 1042) Constantine IX Monomachus (Monomachos) (1000-55) to return from exile in Lesbos and becomes sole Roman Byzantine emperor #145 until Jan. 11, 1055), with Zoe's sister Theodora II waiting in the wings; Constantine IX goes on to support the mercantile classes and intellectuals over the military aristocracy, pissing them off, and living an extravagant life of pleasure with many mistresses while endowing the Nea Moni Monastery in Chios, the Mangana Monastery et al., becoming the emperor to preside over the Great Schism. In Sept. after Berengarius of Tours (999-1088) is summoned by Pope Leo IX over his denial of the in the Real Presence of the Eucharist, and tells him to stuff it, the Council of Vercelli condemns him, and also condemns the 200-y.-o. "De Divina Praedestinatione" (851) of Johannes Scotus Erigena. On Oct. 28 Eadsige dies, and 5 mo. later on June 29, 1051 London bishop Robert Chambert (Champart) of Jumieges (-1055) becomes Canterbury archbishop #33 (until Sept. 1052), the first Norman, traveling to Normandy and telling Duke William that Edward the Confessor wishes for him to become his heir; the whole affair pisses-off the Saxons. HRE Henry III acknowledges Norman control of S Italy; meanwhile the Normans penetrate into England, getting big ideas (wait till 1066). Egypt collapses under a military dictatorship. After Viking sea raids become a concern, the seat of the bishop of Devon and Cornwall is transferred from Crediton to Exeter, competing with a Saxon minister used by Bishop Leofric as his seat. Macbeth goes on a pilgrimage to Rome, where "he scattered money like seed corn to the poor", gaining brownie points with the Church. In this half-cent. the English manorial system reaches its apex, starting a slow decline due to the development of guilds and trade. The city of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany on the Pegnitz River (modern-day pop. 510K/3.5M) is first mentioned; in 1062 it is given the right by HRE Henry IV to hold a fair and coin money transferred to it from Furth; its patron is St. Sebald. Augustinian monk St. Bernard of Montjou founds a hospice in Switzerland in this decade; dogs aren't mentioned until the year 1695. Japanese sculptor Jocho sets up a school. Architecture: After the Monastery of Bourg-Saint-Pierre (built ca. 812) is destroyed by the Saracens in 940, the Great St. Bernard Hospice is founded in Great St. Bernard's Pass on the snow-covered path from the Aosta Valley to the Swiss canton of Valais in the Pennine Alps of Switzerland (2,469m alt.) near the Italian border by miracle-working St. Bernard of Menthon (Montjoux) (1020-81), archdeacon of Aosta, dedicated to St. Nicholas; it is first mentioned in 1125; it is placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Sion, prefect-count of Valais, putting it in Swiss territory. The Benedictine Weihenstephan Abbey (founded 768) obtains a brewing license from the city of Freising, Bavaria; meanwhile the Benedictine Weltenburg Abbey (founded 617) in Weltenburg (near Kelheim) on the Danube River in Bavaria, Germany does ditto, going on to share the title of oldest monastic brewery on Earth. The Benedictine Weltenburg Abbey in Kelheim on the Danube River in Germany (founded 620) begins brewing its famous dunkel (dark) beer, going on to become #1 in Germany to modern times. Palazzo Reale in Palermo is built in this decade. St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (begun 1045) is built in this decade by Yaroslav I of Kiev, becoming one of the first stone structures in N Russia and the first to show divergences from the Byzantine pattern; meanwhile Russian Metropolitan Hilarion of Kiev founds the Monastery of the Caves (Kiev Pechersk Lavra); the first Russian monasteries are also founded in Kiev in this decade. The white marble Jain temples on Mount Abu in Rajasthan, W India are built in this decade. Inventions: Astrolabes arrive in Europe from the East about this time. In this decade English monasteries begin to excel in embroidery. In this decade the harp arrives in Europe. In this decade polyphonic singing replaces the Gregorian chant. In this decade time values are given to musical notes. Science: Geman geographer Adam of Bremen claims that the Baltic Sea is an ocean open to the E. Music: Sys Willekomen Heirre Kerst, the first German Christmas carol is composed about this time. Nonfiction: The French biography Vie de St. Alexis (Life of St. Alexis) is written about this time. In this half-cent. The Four Branches of Mabinogi is composed. Poetry: In this half-cent the 11-story Welsh epic Mabinogion is written, mentioning the Arthurian legend and the game of chess. Births: Austrian Babenberg margrave (1075-95) Leopold II (the Fair) (d. 1095); in Tulln, Lower Austria; son of Ernest the Brave (1027-75) and Adelheid (daughter of Margrave Dedo II of Meissen). German Hohenstaufen Swabian duke #1 (1079-1105) Frederick I (d. 1105); son of Frederick von Buren, count of Riesgau and Hildegard of Egisheim-Dagsburg (daughter of Duke Otto II of Swabia, and niece of Pope Leo IX); father of Frederick II (1090-1147) and Conrad III of Germany (1093-1152). German Salian king #3 (1056-1106) and HRE (1084-1105) Henry IV (d. 1106) on Nov. 11 in Goslar; eldest son of HRE Henry III (1017-56) and Agnes of Poitou; father of HRE Henry V (1081-1125). Russian kieven prince (1093-1113) Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich (d. 1113); son of Iziaslav I (1024-78). Persian Assassins (Hashshaashins) founder Hassan ibn (Hassan-i) Sabbah (Sabah) (d. 1124) in Qom. Deaths: Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Biruni (b. 973); leaves 100+ works on natural science, mathematics, and astronomy, incl. Kitab al Athar al Baikya, and Description of India (1030). Italian music theorist Guido d'Arezzo (b. 991).
1051 On Aug. 10 Drogo of Hauteville (b. 1010) is assassinated in Montoglio by the Byzantines after promising Pope Leo IX to end Norman pillaging, and is succeeded by his younger brother Humphrey Abagelard of Hauteville (1010-57) as Norman count of Apulia and Calabria in S Italy; he goes on to punish the murderers, but fails to stop the pillaging of papal lands by Norman knights, causing Leo IX to organize an army against them. The Byzantines finally expel the Patzinaks (Pechenegs) from Bulgaria - I'm just a patzinak? After a group of Norman nobles raise hell and kill some men, Edward the Confessor orders Earl Godwin of Wessex (1001-53) to punish the townsfolk of Dover rather than his Norman friends; Godwin refuses, goes to Flanders to gather a mercenary fleet, and returns in the summer, meeting his sons who invaded from Ireland, then marches on Gloucester, advancing toward London by Sept., causing Canterbury archbishop Robert of Jumieges to flee to Rome, after which he is declared and outlaw and deposed on Sept. 14, dying in exile; Leofric III, Earl of Mercia mediates the quarrel, having it referred to the Witan, in which the earl of Northumbria supports the king, and it orders Godwin to leave England, and he goes into exile in Flanders, plotting a comeback - jealous of Godwin for all the king's favors? Danish Viking Eric of Odense sacks a monastery on the coast of Ireland, captures its brewmaster Father McBlarney and moves to Iceland, creating St. Eric Red Ale. The Asian nomad Seljuk Turks move W and capture Isfahan. The Fatimids "grant" their former N African provinces to the warlike Arab Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes, which had migrated to Egypt in the 8th cent. and kept begging for lebensraum; the Banu Sulaym stop and settle in Cyrenaica, while the Banu Hilal push on to Tunisia and E Algeria, conquering it by 1057. Births: English king (1066) Edgar Aetheling (the Outlaw) (d. 1126) in Hungary; last member of the West Saxon royal house of Cerdic; only son of Edward the Exile (1016-57); grandson of Edmund II Ironside (988-1016). Deaths: Chinese movable type printing inventor Bi Sheng (b. 990).
1052 On June 2/3 Guaimar IV (b. 1013) is assassinated, and his eldest son Gisulf (Gisulph) II (-1090) becomes Norman prince of Salerno (until 1077). Seeing the Norman favorites gaining and the Saxon earls losing, the public sentiment veers to Earl Godwin, who after a year of exile raises another army against Edward the Confessor, invades England, and sails up the Thames River to London, where he forces Edward to send his Norman advisors home and restore his estates; Godwin is now the most powerful man in England; Robert of Jumieges, Norman archbishop of Canterbury is ousted by the Witan, and Stigand (-1072) (an English Saxon) becomes Canterbury archbishop #34 (until Apr. 11, 1070); too bad, the pope will not recognize him and give him the pallium (scarf) since he is also serving as bishop of Wincester since 1047; Robert flees to Rome and remains in exile for life, his treatment by the Saxons later being used by Duke William of Normandy as a pretext to invade England; Macbeth welcomes Norman knights expelled from England to bolster his throne against Donald I's sons, now grown and waiting in the wings. Fed up with their incursions into S Italy, Pope Leo IX goes to Saxony and asks his relative HRE Henry III for help in his fight against the pesky Normans, causing Henry to give up on his campaigns against the Hungarians. Pisa takes Sardinia from the Arabs. Duke Conrad of Bavaria revolts. Germany finally subdues Hungary, making it a fief of the German crown. Denmark does homage to HRE Henry III, but soon repudiates it. Chola Rajadhiraja I of S India is KIA in a battle in the Battle of Koppam against Chalukya Somesvara I of Kalyani. No yeast, no rising, or, Split Happens? Constantinople Patriarch (since 1043) Michael I Cerularius (Caerularius) (Kerularios) (1000-58) closes down the Latin-rite churches in Byzantium for using unleavened bread in their rites, leading to the Great Schism of 1054. The Irish wrest control of Dublin from the Danes (until ?). Architecture: Edward the Confessor begins Westminster Abbey (finished 1065). Births: French Capetian king (1060-1108) Philip I (the Amorous) (the Fat) (d. 1108) on May 23; son of Henri I and Anne of Kiev (1024-75) (daughter of Grand Prince Jaroslav I of Kiev); she gives him the Greek name for horse-lover, wowing the W Euros, who begin copying it; nephew of Count Baldwin V of Flanders; great-grandson of Hugh Capet; husband of loose old fat Bertha of Holland and tight young Bertrada of Monfort. Deaths: Italian margrave Boniface III of Tuscany (b. 985) on May 6 (assassinated). Norman prince of Salerno (1027-52) Guaimar IV
1053 On Apr. 15 Earl Godwin (b. 990) dies during a banquet at Winchester, and his oldest surviving son Harold Godwinson (1022-66) becomes earl #2 of Wessex and chief advisor to the king, dominating him like his daddy did; Danegeld is finally abolished. On June 18 after Pope Leo IX returns to S Italy with a Swabian-Italian army under Prince Rudolph of Benevento, and agrees to a joint attack with the Byzantines on the Normans at Siponto (Manfredonia), he is intercepted on the way by the Normans under Count Humphrey of Hauteville and Richard I Drengot at the Battle of Civitate (Civitella del Fortore), and the Normans slaughter the pope's army even though they are outnumbered, and are inferior in stature to the German mercenaries; Pope Leo IX is captured by other Normans under Robert Guiscard (Lat. "the Fox") (1016-85) and forced to ratify their conquests in S Italy and pardon them, founding the Norman Kingdom of S Italy; the alliance between Duke William II the Bastard of Normandy (future William I the Conqueror of England) and HRE Henry III is broken, freeing William to invade England in 1066 - Pythagoras and Boudicca roll over in their graves? Henry IV (1050-1106) (son of Henry III) is elected and crowned HRE. Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople declares war on the pope and the Roman Catholic Church via a letter condemning fasting on Saturday, celibacy, and the use of unleavened bread for the Eucharist. Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen (1000-72), archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen since 1043 is appointed papal vicar of N Europe. The Murabitun (Arab. "hermits") fundamentalist Muslim sect begins taking over NW Africa (finished 1061). Architecture: The Hoodo (Jap. "hall of the phoenix") Pavilion in Byodoin, Japan is built. Births: Japanese Yamato emperor #72 (1073-87) Shirakawa (Sadahito) (d. 1129) on July 7; eldest son of Go-Sanjo (1034-73); father of Horikawa (1079-1107). Spanish count of Barcelona (1076-82) Ramon Berenguer II (the Towhead) (d. 1082); son of Ramon Berenguer I (1024-76); father of Ramon Berenguer III. (1082-1131). Spanish count of Barcelona (1076-?) Berenguer Ramon II (d. ?); twin brother of Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead (1053-82); son of Ramon Berenguer I (1024-76). Jesus Christ (d. 1086) is born this year, according to Russian topologist Anatoly Fomenko, who claims that conventional chronology is vastly inflated and contains repeated mirror images because the Russian Empire is the real heir to the Roman Empire, and all the English kings were really Byzantine kings backdated after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 by survivors who fled to the barbaric backward British island bringing their light from the East, and that ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome were actually manufactured by fiction authors during the Renaissance - didn't I hear all this before from Ensign Pavel Chekov in Star Trek? Hungarian king (1057-81) Solomon (Salamon) I (d. 1087); son of Andras I (1014-61). Byzantine empress (1071-81) Maria of Alania (Martha Bagrationi) (d. 1118) in Georgia; wife (1065-78) of Michael VII and (1078-81) Nicephorus III. Russian prince of Kiev (1113-25) Vladimir II Monomakh (d. 1125); son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia, daughter of Constantine IX Monomachos. Norman duke Robert III Curthose (d. 1134) in Normandy; wears short hose because he's a half-pint, and/or because his daddy calls him short boot (brevis ocrea)?; eldest son of William I the Conqueror (1026-87) and Matilda of Flanders; brother of William II Rufus (1057-1100) and Henry I (1068-1135). Deaths: English earl Godwin of Wessex (b. 1001) on Apr. 15 in Winchester; collapses during a royal banquet (stroke?).
1054 In Feb. Henry I of France invades Normandy with a combined force under his brother Odo, Count Rainald of Clerement, and Count Guy of Ponthieu to steal it from Duke William II the Bastard (later William I the Conqueror), and is defeated at the Battle of Mortemer by William's Norman force under Count Robert of Eu, Hugh of Gournay, Walter Giffard, Roger of Mortemer, and William de Warenne, 1st earl of Surrey, proving that the duke has iron balls and that the king can forget it? On Apr. 19 Pope (since 1049) Leo IX dies, and the papal chair remains empty for a year. On July 4 Chinese astronomers note a "guest star" in the constellation Taurus, the star Zeta Thauri in the Crab Nebula (later known as a source of gamma rays); it is visible in daylight for 23 days and at night for two years; American aborigines see it, along with Arab astronomers, but no European records it - maybe this is a sign that a new country will be born on July 4 halfway to China in America, which will never be ruled by the ever-split Church? 900 years before Joseph McCarthy a demogogue accuses the Church of infiltration by agents of an evil power, and it ends up with no head? On July 16 after Byzantine patriarch (since 1043) Michael Cerularius disputes Pope Leo IX's claim to jurisdiction in S Italy over the Norman takeover, and lifestyle disputes over unleavened bread (azymes), celibate clergy, Saturday fasts et al. reach the breaking point, Constantiopole Studion monk Niketas Stethatos (Nicetas Pectoratus) writes a bestseller, not stressing that, but instead attacking the Roman Catholics on theoretical lines, making a big thing of their addition in 633 of the 2-word "filioque" clause ("and from the Son") to the 381 First Council of Constantinople Creed, claiming it denies the supremacy of the Father in the Trinity (even though filio and non-filio churches had coexisted peacefully up till now?); after reading it and blowing his top, patriarch Michael Cerularius and his whole church are excommunicated by deceased Pope Leo IX's delegate, Benedictine cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida (Moyenmoutier) (1000-61) (Moyen Moutier), and he responds by excommunicating the pope and the entire Roman Catholic Church, and the hard-hearted Second Great Schism (last) of the churches of Rome and Constantinople begins (ends 1965?); from now on the Greek Orthodox Church, led by the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople rejects the supremacy of the Roman Catholic pope and the use of the word "purgatory", and only accepts the authority of its first seven ecumenical councils; Orthodox priests are permitted to marry, but only those from celibate monastic orders can become bishops (enjoying all the hos they can buy?); the major patriarchates are Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, with the Church of Russia added in 1598 - if you start me up, if you start me up I'll never stop? On July 27 after Edward Confessor again sanctions Earl Siward of Northumbria to invade Scotland in support of Malcolm Mac Donald (with a plan to install him as a client or puppet king), he defeats Macbeth (thane of Cawdor on the Moray Firth) in the bloody Battle of Birnam Wood Come to Dunsinane (Hill) at a hill fortress in C Scotland in the Sidlaw Hills in E Perthshire 7 mi. NE of Perth (Scone) on 1K-ft. Dunsinane Hill, overlooking the Carse of Gowrie and the Tay River Valley; Macbeth's Norman mercenary knights are wiped out; Earl Siward's eldest son is killed; too bad, Siward's V is so costly that he is forced to retire without accomplishing any objective other than putting Malcolm in control of the area S of the Firth River, causing him to have to begin a war of attrition against Macbeth, slowly pushing him N - the weird sisters were right or full of it? On Sept. 1 the Battle of Atapuerca sees the army of Ferdinand I the Great of Castile defeat that of his brother Garcia V of Navarre at Atapuerca, 12 mi. E of Burgos; several Navarrese knights pretend to join the Castilians before the battle, and one of these kills Garcia, after which his eldest son is proclaimed king Sancho IV Garces (the Noble) of Navarre (of Penalen) (1039-76) (until 1076) on the field of battle, and the war continues. Casimir I the Restorer of Poland recaptures Silesia from Bohemia, but has to give up the royal title and accept the title of grand duke, plus make numerous concessions to the nobility and clergy, incl. a yearly tribute of 117 kg of silver and 7 kg of gold, setting a bad precedent - I love it when we're cruising together? Grand prince (since 1019) Yaroslav I the Wise (b. 978) dies, and his son Yziaslav (Iziaslav) I Yaroslavich (1024-78) becomes grand prince of Kiev, which begins a downhill slide, although Yaroslav I married a Swedish princess, his sister married a Polish king, three of his daughters married kings of France, Hungary, and Norway, and a son married a Byzantine princess; the loose federation of city-states he ruled is divided among his five sons, who begin interminable civil wars while the Cuman nomads of the steppe conquer the Pechenegs then begin raiding Slavic towns for the next 150 years, carrying off entire pops. to be sold into slavery. Abbot Crinan of Dunkeld, former ruler of Atholl and father of dead Duncan I leads an uprising against Macbeth in support of his youngest son Maldred and/or eldest grandson Malcom Mac Donald, but the rising is crushed and Crinan killed. Toghrul conquers Tabriz prince (since 1019) Vahsudan (Wahsudan); his son Abu Nasr Mamlan II (-1071) becomes the 6th and last ruler of the Rawwadid Dynasty. Italy and Egypt sign a commercial treaty expanding their commercial relations. Godfrey III the Bearded (997-1069), duke of Lower Lorraine marries Beatrice (Beatrix) of Bar (1017-76), widow of Boniface III of Tuscany (d. 1052), who was one of the pope's top Italian supporters; too bad, next year HRE Henry III arrests her for marrying a traitor, and takes her back a prisoner to Germany, while summoning Godfrey to his court in Florence, which he refuses to attend, while taking over Tuscany, and surviving till Henry III dies, then reconciling with HRE Henry IV. Ly Thai-tong dies, and his son Ly Nhat Ton (Ly Thanh-Tong) (1023-72) becomes emperor of Vietnam, adopting the ritual trappings of a Chinese emperor, which worries the real one. Births: Georgian Bagrationi king (1072-89) George (Giorgi) II (d. 1112); son of Bagrat IV (1018-72); father of David IV (1073-1125). Muslim Arab poet Abu Muhammad al-Qasim al-Hariri (d. 1122) in Basra. Deaths: Russian Kievan grand prince Yaroslav I (b. 978).
1055 On Jan. 10 Bretislaus I (b. 1002) dies in Chudrim in E Bohemia while making preparations to invade Hungary, and in Mar. his son Spitigniev (Spytihnev) II (1031-61) becomes duke of Bohemia (until 1061), his coronation being celebrated with the first known rendition of Lord, Have Mercy on Us, which becomes the oldest Czech song to survive to modern times; Moravia is left to three of Bretislaus' four sons, with Vratislaus II (-1092) getting Olomouc, Conrad I (-1092) getting Znojmo, and Otto getting Brno, and Jaromir (-1088) entering the Church and becoming bishop of Prague in 1068; when Otto dies, Conrad takes that over too, becoming known as Conrad of Brno; Spitigniev immediately goes to Regensburg to receive confirmation from the HRE, then expels all Germans from his lands, becoming known for his anti-Germany policy. On Jan. 11 Byzantine emperor (since June 11, 1042) Constantine IX (b. 1000) dies after leaving the empire a mess and weakening the military, and after overpowering his counsellors (who try to get him to name Bulgarian duke Nikephoros Proteuon on his deathbed) by coming out of the convent and convening the Senate and have the imperial guard proclaim her emperor, Theodora (Gr. "gift of God") II (980-1056), younger sister of Zoe rules alone as Roman Byzantine emperor #146 (until Aug. 31, 1056), while Greek patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58) (author of the Great Schism) Michael I Cerularius (Caerularius) (Kerularios) (1000-58), pissed-off at her appointment of clerics and centralization of power tries in vain to get her to marry to ensure the succession. On May 26 Adalbert the Victorious dies in Melk, and his son Ernst the Brave (1027-75) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1055), going on to amalgamate the Bohemian and Hungarian marches into Austria and colonize the Waldviertiel, earning the epithet Brave for fighting Bela I and his son Geza I of Hungary; he ends up siding the HRE Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy, which proves fatal. In Dec. Muslim Turkish nomad Seljuk leader #2 Tughrul (Tughril) (Togrul) Begh (990-1063) moves W and takes Baghdad, then frees the Abbasid caliph from the Shiite Buyid (Buwayhid) Dynasty (founded 934), which becomes kaput, causing the caliph to recognize him as sultan, after which the Turks become the "men of the sword" (official protectors of Sunni Islam), partnering with the Persians and Arabs, who become "men of the law"; the Seljuks hold Baghdad until 1258; meanwhile they plan on moving farther W by contracting the Byzantines. After a 1-year vacancy, Swabian count Gebhard is elected Pope (#152) Victor II (1018-57) (5th and last German pope until 2005), continuing the reversal of moral degeneration by battling simony and clerical concubinage, and allying with HRE Henry III to protest the 1039 claim of Spanish king of Castile (since 1029) and Leon (since 1037) Ferdinand I the Great (1017-65) to be emperor of Spain, implying that he is usurping the HRE and claiming headship of all of Christendom? The Council of Tours, presided over by Hildebrand condemns Berengarius of Tours, causing him to sign a recantation. Siward dies, and Tostig Godwinson (1026-66), son of Godwin and brother of Harold becomes king, er, earl of Northumbria. Vijayabahu I (-1110) becomes ruler of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (until 1110), going on to share Pali Buddhist texts and monks with Anawrata of Burma. The earliest written record in the Hungarian language, a Charter for the Abbey at Tihany is written. Births: French queen consort (1072-94) Bertha (Berthe) of Holland (Frisia) (d. 1093) in Vlaardingen, Netherlands; daughter of Count Floris (Florent) I of Holland and Gertrude of Saxony (daughter of Duke Bernard II of Saxony). Austrian Babenberg queen Ida (Itha) of Formbach-Ratelnberg (d. 1101); daughter of Rapolo IV of Cham and Mathilde; wife of Leopold II; mother of Leopold III, and Ida, wife of Duke Luitpold of Moravia. Deaths Egyptian Jewish physician Isaac Israeli (b. 955); dies a lifelong bachelor; his medical textbooks written in Arabic are trans. into Hebrew and Latin, and used in Salermo and Paris. Roman Byzantine emperor #145 (1042-55) Constantine IX Monomachos (b. 1000) on Jan. 11. Bohemian duke (1035-55) Bretislaus I (b. 1002) on Jan. 10 in Chudrim; dies while preparing for another invasion of Hungary. Norman archbishop of Canterbury (1050-2) Robert of Jumieges on May 26.
1056 Call out the dancing bears? In May HRE (since 1039) Henry III the Black (b. 1017) meets with Henri I of France in Ivois, and the hotheaded French king challenges the German king to single combat, after which Henry III flees during the night back to Germany, falling ill on the way and dying on Oct. 5 in Bodfeld in the Hartz Mts.; he is succeeded by his 6-y.-o. son Henry IV (1050-1106), with his pious mother Empress Agnes (Gr. "pure") of Poitou (Poitiers) (1025-77) as regent (until 1065), who lets the lay and clerical magnates sell the store, appropriating royal resources and sovereign rights with impunity. On Aug. 31 emperor (since Jan. 11, 1055) Theodora (980) dies after selecting the elderly finance minister Michael VI Bringas Stratiokitos (Stratioticus) ("the Warlike") (Gerontas) ("the Old") (-1059) (relative of courtier Joseph Bringas) as Roman Byzantine emperor #147 (until Aug. 31, 1057), who beats off a challenge by Constantine IX's nephew Theodosios Monomachus (Monomachos) only to alienate the military by restoring the rank of ex-gen. Nikephoros Bryennios (Nicephorus Bryennius) but refusing to restore his wealth and estate, then sending him to Cappadocia with a 3K-man army, which he turns against him. Gruffydd does homage to Harold of Wessex and Leofric III of Mercia. Sheik Abdallah Ibn Yasin (-1059) founds the Almoravid Dynasty in N Africa among Saharan tribes, who jive with his brand of strict orthodox Islam (ends 1147). Beginning of the democratic anti-clerical Pataria movement in Milan, opposing simony, clerical marriage and concubinage, incubating the soil for the Cathar movement. Humbert, a constable of HRE Conrad II receives from Rudolph II, last king of Arles the part-French part-Italian territories forming the nucleus of the small subalpine state of Savoy, along with the title of count, becoming the oldest reigning family in Europe to survive to modern times (until 1946); his son Count Odo of Savoy (d. 1060) marries Countess Adelaide of Turin, greatly extending the dominions, then in the next 3 cents. the holdings are extended to the Piedmont and parts of Switzerland. Styria, attached to the duchy of Carinthia by Charlemagne becomes a mark (until 1192). HRE Henry III's confessor (St.) Anno II (1010-75) becomes archbishop of Cologne, Germany (until 1075). Architecture: Kauyuan Temple (begun 1001) is finished; it is used as a watchtower by Song soldiers for looking over the Liao border. Births: Anglo-Norman nobleman Robert of Belleme, 3rd Earl of Shewsbury (d. 1131); the real Robert the Devil? Deaths: Arab Abbasid caliph #27 (1075-94) (Sunni Muslim) Al-Muqtadi (d. 1094); son of Muhammad, son of Caliph Al-Qa'im; father of Al-Mustazhir. Flann of Monsterboice (b. ?) dies, leaving the poem Synchronisms of Flann Mainistraech. Deaths: Roman Byzantine empress (1042, 1055-6) Theodora II (b. 980) on Aug. 31 in Constantinople. German Salian king #2 (1039-56) and HRE (1039-56) Henry III the Black (b. 1017) on Oct. 5 in Bodfeld in the Hartz Mts.
1057 After receiving news of his whereabouts, Edward the Confessor sends William "the Seemly" Sinclair (St. Clair), 1st Baron Roslin (1028-70) of Normandy to Hungary to fetch his long-lost heir Edward Aetheling the Exile (1016-57), son of Edmund II Ironside and Ealdgyth (exiled since 1016, and now in the custody of HRE Henry III) in a last ditch attempt to save the Saxon royal house of England from the shenanigans of Harold Godwinson and Duke William of Normandy; too bad, he dies in Feb. after reaching England (murdered by Harold Godwinson's men?), leaving infant son Edgar the Aetheling (1051-1126). On June 28 Pope (since 1055) Victor II (b. 1018) dies in Tuscany, and on Aug. 2 (Feast of Pope St. Stephen I) Pope (#153) Stephen X (IX) (-1058) is elected, going on to prohibit matrimony among blood relations - it took this long? On Aug. 31 Leofric III (b. 968), earl of Mercia and lord of Coventry dies, and his son Alfgar (Aelfgar) (1002-59) succeeds him; earlier in the year Leofric III's wife Lady Godiva (Godgifu) (Lat. "God's gift") (1020-80) took a buck-naked horseback ride through the Coventry marketplace to induce him to lower the oppressive taxes, while Peeping Tom the Tailor, the only person to disobey the earl's orders to keep the shutters closed was struck blind? - what did she do, make him a sucker bet that he would have to lower the taxes if nobody peeped? In Aug. after crossing the Mounth, Duncan I's son and avenger Malcolm Mac Duncan kills Macbeth (b. 1005) in Lumphanan, near Aberdeen (where the road into Moray runs N from Deeside); Macbeth's army wins, though, and he is succeeded by his stepson Lulach Mac Gillcomgain (the Fatuous) (the Simpleton) (-1058) as king of listen-to-the-music-of-the-traffic-in-the-city kingdom of Scotland. On Aug. 31 after he loses the Battle of Petroe (Hades) on Aug. 20, and his lame attempts to negotiate using Michael Psellos as negotiator are ended by a riot in Constantinople, Byzantine emperor (since 1056) Michael IV (-1059) is deposed by Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople (so powerful now that he has become a kingmaker), who cuts off his hair and imprisons him in a monastery; on Sept. 1 after being proclaimed by his army on June 8, Isaac I Comnenus (Comnenos) (1005-61) of the military family of Comnenus (Komnenos) becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #148 (until Nov. 22, 1059), founding the Comnenus (Komnenos) Dynasty, which rules from 1081-1185, but for now Cerularius is the real emperor, proving it by wearing purple shoes; Isaac attempts to reform the finances, abolishing sinecures, etc., but although he saves the empire he's too old for the job and soon abdicates; he becomes the only Byzantine emperor to strike a military pose bearing a naked sword on coinage. The Normans under Robert Guiscard begin the conquest of Calabria (ends 1060). The Banu Hilal seize most of the Zirid and Hammadid territory in Tunisia and E Algeria, sacking the #3 holy city (after Mecca and Medina) of Al Qayrawan (Kirwan), and destroying its preeminence; the Arabic language starts to displace the Berber language in N Africa while the economy tanks. Anawrata of Burma conquers the Mon kingdom of Thaton. Norwegian King Harald III Hardrada begins debasing Norway's silver currency by mixing in softa reda coppera. (St.) Peter Damian (1007-72) becomes cardinal bishop of Ostia. Architecture: The Alcazaba palace-fortress is built in Malaga in S Spain on the Costa del Sol by the badass ruler Badis. Nonfiction: The Ostromir Gospel is written in Novgorod. Births: French duke of Burgundy (1076-9) and archbishop of Lyon (1081-1106) Hugh I (d. 1093); son of Henry of Burgundy (1035-71); grandson of Robert I Capet (1011-76); brother of Eudes I (1058-1103). Welsh bishop of St. David's (1091-99) Rhigyfarch (Rhygyfarch) (Ricemarch) (d. 1099); eldest son of Sulien. English Norman king #2 (1087-1100) William II Rufus (the Red) (d. 1100); William I the Conqueror (1026-87) and Matilda of Flanders; brother of Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) and Henry I (1068-1135); nicknamed from his ruddy complexion and/or red beard. French count Hugh (the Younger) of Vermandois (d. 1101); youngest son of Henry I and Anne of Kiev; younger brother of Philip I. Norman duke (First Crusade cmdr.) (prince of Antioch and Taranto) Bohemund (Bohemond) (Boamund) I de Hauteville (d. 1111); son of Robert Guiscard (1016-85). Deaths: Arab rationalist poet Abu al'-Ala' al-Ma'arri (b. 973) on May 10 (May 21?); leaves The Tinder Spark, Unnecessary Necessity (Luzumiyat), The Epistle of Forgiveness (Resalat Al-Ghufran) (inspires Dante's "Divine Comedy"?), and Paragraphs and Periods (Fusul wal Ghayat) (parody of the Quran's style); "Muslims are stumbling, Christians all astray/ Jews bewildered, Magis far on error's way./ We mortals are composed of two great schools:/ Enlightened knaves and religious fools"; "Do not suppose the statements of the prophets to be true; they are all fabrications. Men lived comfortably till they came and spoiled life. The sacred books are only such a set of idle tales as any age could produce"; "It is certain that the soul, being of the same nature in all the animal kingdom, is dissipated with a man's death as with an animal's death"; "What poets and theologians tell us about the next world is a chimera that they have made up and recited for reasons not hard to guess". Scottish king Macbeth (b. 1005) in Aug. in Lumphanan (near Aberdeen) (KIA); buried in Iona Abbey, Argyll. English heir apparent Edward the Exile (b. 1016) in Aug. (murdered?); dies two days after arriving in England and being prevented from seeing the king.
1058 On Mar. 29 Pope (since 1057) Stephen X dies. On Nov. 28 Casimir I the Restorer (b. 1016) dies, and his son Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II the Bold (1038-1081) becomes duke (don't say king) of Poland (until 1076), incl. Mazovia, Silesia, and Pomerania, going on to become the first Polish monarch to produce his own coinage in great enough quantity to replace foreign coins, establishing royal mints in Cracow and Wroclaw, and becoming known as "the Generous" for founding Benedictine monasteries in Lubin, Mogilno, and Wroclaw; too bad, thanks to the fractured power structure he's always in a catfight with the Polish nobles. HRE Henry III recognizes Hungary's independence from the empire. Malcolm III Canmore slays Lulach at his stronghold in Essie in Strathbogie a few mi. N of where his stepfather Macbeth was killed, and becomes king Malcolm (Mael Coluim) Mac Donald (Donnchada) III "Canmore" (Ceann Mor) (Gael. "big head" or "big chief") (1031-93) (his wife's bragging?) of Scotland next year (until 1093) in the good ole days before the Norman Conquest, going on to fight off challenges by the still-true line of Kenneth Mac Duib while setting up his line, that of great-great-grandfather Kenneth Mac Malcolm to control the throne, founding the Canmore Dynasty (ends 1290); Macbeth's castle in Inverness is razed; despite his long exposure to Anglo-Saxon culture he doesn't sell out the Gaelic Celts yet, but does absorb Norse culture in Earl Siward's court at York? Duke William of Normandy defeats Geoffrey of Anjou in the Battle of Varaville; meanwhile HRE Henry III ravages the heart of Normandy. Isaac I Comnenus overthrows Constantinople patriarch (since 1043) Cerularius and banishes him, and the latter dies after a shipwreck; later, the emperor flops and raises his name and memory to great heights - let's talk about eternity? Sunni Muslims led by Abd al-Buhlul stage a successful revolt from the Shiite Qarmatians in Bahrain. Architecture: Abbot Desiderius (-1087) (later Pope Victor III) rebuilds the Abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy, which was burned by the pesky Muslims in 883, and the Lombards in 584, creating the unique Beneventan Script; in the 1060s Desiderius hires Byzantine mosaic experts, who teach his monks how to do it, and in 1071 the new improved abbey church is consecrated by Pope Alexander II. Parma Cathedral is begun (finished 1074). Births: French First Crusade leader Godfrey (Godfroi) (Godefroi) (Geoffrey) (OG "spear peace") de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine and Margrave of Antwerp (d. 1100); a direct descendant of Charlemagne (742-814) in the female line, and a direct descendant of Sigisbert IV (676-758), last Merovingian king in the male line, son of the count of Boulogne, son of Eustache, first count of Boulogne, son of Hugues "Long Nose" de Plantard, descendant of Dagobert II and Jewish prince Guillem de Gellone; his mother is inheritor of Brabant, lower province of Lorraine (Lotharingia) in the Meuse River Valley; brother of Eustace and Baldwin; founder of the original Priory of Sion? French duke of Burgundy (1079-1103) Eudes I Borel (the Red) (d. 1103); son of Henry of Burgundy (1035-71), son of Robert I Capet (1011-76); brother of Hugh I (1057-93). French Crusader Latin king #2 of Jerusalem (1100-1118) (gay?) Baldwin I of Edessa/Boulogne/Jerusalem (d. 1118) in Lorraine; son of Eustace II of Boulogne (1015-87) and Ida of Lorraine (1040-1113) (daughter of Duke Godfrey III of Lower Lorraine); younger brother of Godfrey of Bouillon (1060-1100) and Eustace III of Boulogne. Persian Arab #1 Sunni Sufi mystic theologian ("the St. Augustine and Immanuel Kant of Islam") Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (Algazel) (d. 1111) in Tus, Khorasan. Deaths: Persian Muslim Sunni jurist Ali al-Mawardi (b. 972); leaves The Principles of Government (Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya), arguing for the relevance of the caliphate in a world of sultanates. Greek patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58) Michael Cerularius (b. 1000); dies after a shipwreck. Polish duke (1040-58) Casimir I the Restorer (b. 1016) on Nov. 28 in Poznan. English last bishop of Sherborne (1045-58) St. Alfwold (Aelfwold) (b. ?) in Dorsetshire; dies while singing the antiphon of St. Cuthbert.
1059 On Jan. 24 Gerhard of Burgundy (Gerard de Bourgogne), bishop of Florence is elected Pope (#154) Nicholas II (-1061), holding an Easter synod which passes a new law requiring papal elections by cardinals only. On May 23 as his daddy's health fails, child Philip I is crowned co-regent of France in Reims. In Aug. the Treaty of Melfi is signed by Pope Nicholas II and the Normans, making Robert Guiscard and Richard of Aversa, prince of Capua into papal vassals with the power to take S Italy from the Greeks, and Sicily from the Muslims; Apulia is given to Robert Guiscard and raised from a county to a duchy by the pope - you're the apulia of my eye? On Nov. 22 after a successful campaign against Andrew I of Hungary and the Pechenegs that results in a peace treaty with Hungary, during which he is nearly struck by lightning while leaning against a tree, then grows ill, attributing it to God's displeasure, whipped on by Michael Psellos, Isaac I Comnenus abdicates and retires to a monastery, and on Nov. 24 is succeeded by effete intellectual anti-military snob finance official Constantine X Ducas (Doukas) (1006-67), who becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #149 (until May 22, 1067), giving free rein to civil and church officials while treating the military with suspicion, bloating its payroll with court officials, replacing standing soldiers with mercenaries, failing to repair frontier fortifications, and attempting to raise taxes, pissing-off the pop. while fatally weaking Byzantine defenses by disbanding the local militia of 50K Armenian troops just as the Seljuk Turks are advancing from the E, going on to lose most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard except Bari. Malcolm III Canmore goes to the court of Edward the Confessor to renew the oath of prior Scottish rulers to be "sworn helper" of the English king. A church council in Milan is presided over by Peter Damian, in which the pop. complains about being subject to Rome, and after Archbishop Guido promises to change it and reneges, Erlembaldo (-1074) begins a popular revolt, which ends with his death. Architecture: The Florentine Romanesque Florence Baptistery (of St. John) in Italy is begun (finished 1128). Bonn Minster is begun. Deaths: Welsh bishop Rhigyfarch (b. 1057); leaves Life of St. David Hungarian king (1038-46) Stephen Orseolo (b. 1011) on Aug. 30.
|England||Edward III the Confessor (1003-66)||1042||Jan. 5, 1066|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||1057||1093|
|France||Henri I (1008-60)||1031||Aug. 4, 1060|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||1056||1106|
|Papacy||Nicholas II (-1061)||1059||July 27, 1061|
1060 On Aug. 4 French king (since 1031) Henri I (b. 1008) dies leaving the royal demesne at its lowest point, and is succeeded by his 8-y.-o. son Philip (Gr. "horse-lover") I (the Amorous) (the Fat) (1053-1108) as Capetian king #4 (until 1108), with his mother Anne of Kiev and his uncle Count Baldwin of Flanders as regents (until 1066). Prince Bela, backed by a Polish army defeats his brother Andras I of Hungary at the Battle of the Theben Pass near the Danube-March frontier at Wieselburg, and Andras I falls from his carriage and is trampled to death by the horses; on Dec. 6 Bela I the Champion (Wisent) (1016-63), hero of the campaigns against the Germans stifles Andras' 9-y.-o. son Solomon (b. 1053), and next year becomes Arpad king of Hungary (until 1063), going on to introduce new currency incl. the silver denarius. Pons II dies, and next year Guillaume (William) IV (1040-94) becomes count of Toulouse, margrave of Provence, and duke of Narbonne (until 1094). Ferdinand I of Leon and Castile imposes an annual tribute on Muslim Zaragoza; Zaragoza emir Al-Muktadir ibn Hud drives the Slavs from Tortosa after the pop. rises against their Slav ruler. The anchovy-pizza issue begins? The Normans under brothers Robert Guiscard (1016-85) and Roger Guiscard (1031-1101) capture Rheggio, complete the conquest of Calabria, and begin the conquest of Sicily (finished 1090), which is controlled by the Saracens and Byzantines; the complete Muslim rule of Sicily that began in 965 ends next year, and they are completely ousted by 1091; meanwhile the anti-military attitude of Constantine X and his admin. causes the military to chafe and commit hostile acts? Emund the Old dies, and his son-in-law Stenkil (Steinkell) Ragnvaldsson (1028-66) becomes king of Sweden (until 1066), founding the House of Stenkil (ends 1125). Luxembourg comes under the rule of Count Conrad of Luxembourg (1040-86). After becoming the first English bishop to pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1058, Worcester bishop (since 1046) Ealdred (-1069) becomes archbishop of York (until Sept. 11, 1069). Architecture: The Romanesque Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Santigo de Compostela, Galicia, Spain is begun (finished in 1211), featuring the Portico of Glory (Portico da Gloria), commissioned by Ferdinand I of Leon and designed by architect-sculptor Master Mateo (1150-1217), finished in 1188; to the W is the Praza do Obradoiro (Port. "Square of the Workshop"). Casas Grandes, a large adobe pueblo on the Shell Trail through Ariz. and New Mexico (whose economy is based on shells from the Pacific) is built; it is abandoned in the 15th cent. Poetry: Ezzo of Bambert, The Ezzolied (Anegenge); the life of Christ; big hit in S Germany. Births: Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria Roger Borsa (d. 1111); son of Robert Guiscard (1016-85) and Sikelgaita of Lombardy (1040-90); husband of Adela of Flanders (1064-1115), daughter of Count Robert I of Flanders; father of William II of Apulia (1095-1127). English historian-theologian Eadmer (Edmer) (d. 1124). French Benedictine chronicler abbot Lambert of St. Bertin (d. 1125). Deaths: Turkish Seljuq ruler Chaghri Beg (b. 989) in Sarakhs. French king (1031-60) Henri I (b. 1008) on Aug. 4. Hungarian king (1047-60) Andrew (Andras) I (b. 1014) in Zirc.
1061 A smallpox and colic epidemic is recorded in Leinster, Ireland, which spreads throughout Ireland by 1063. On July 27 Pope (since 1059) Nicholas II dies, and on Sept. 30 reform party leader Bishop Anselm the Elder of Lucca (favorite of Hildebrand) is elected Pope (#155) Alexander II (-1073); too bad, on Oct. 28 an assembly in Basel of anti-reform German and Lombard bishops convoked by Empress Agnes (Gr. "pure") of Poitou (Poitiers) (1025-77) (regent of young HRE Henry IV), presided over by imperial chancellor Eilbert elects Bishop Peter Cadalus of Parma as Antipope Honorius II (-1072), and assemble an army to back him up. Vratislaus (Vratislav) (Bratislav) (Bretislaus) II (1060-1100) becomes duke (prince) of Bohemia, and becomes a vassal of HRE Henry IV, causing Pope Gregory VII try to woo him away by allowing him to wear the mitre and tunic for an annual payment of 100 marks. Polish duke (1058-76) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II the Bold (1038-1081) begins the reconquest of Upper Slovakia (until 1063). Malcolm III marries Ingibjorg Finnsdottir (-1069), widow of Thorfinn the Mighty of Orkney, insuring peace with the Norse as long as her sons rule in Orkney; they have two sons, Duncan (Donnchad) II and Donald (Domnall); having had his prima nocta with the Viking babe, Malcolm forgets his "sworn brother" oath with Northumbrian earl Tostig Godwinson, and takes advantage of the latter's absence on a pilgrimage to Rome to invade and sack Northumbria. The Normans under Robert and Roger Guiscard conquer Messina in Sicily opposite Italy's toe. The Estonians retake Tartu from Kiev. Berber chieftain Yusuf ibn Tashfin (Tashufin) (1061-1106) becomes leader of the Murabitun ("hermits"), AKA the Almoravids, taking the title of king next year, and going on to use strict fundamentalist Muslim ideology to justify subjugation of Morocco, Algeria, and Muslim Spain. Births: Scottish king (1093-4) Duncan II (d. 1094); eldest son of Malcolm III and 1st wife Ingibjorg Finnsdottir (widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson); grandson of Duncan I. Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #148 (1057-9) Isaac I Comnenus (b. 1005).
1062 On Apr. 14 after the army of Antipope Honorius II, backed by Empress Agnes and the nobles marches to Rome to claim the papal seat from Pope Alexander II by force, and Alexander II's backer, rich converted Jew (baptized by Pope Leo IX) Leo de Benedicto Christiano (Benedictus Christianus) (past backer of papal candidate Gerhard of Burgundy AKA Pope Nicholas II, whose son Peter later became Antipope Anacletus II, other son Giordano became the first patrician of the Roman Commune in 1143, and daughter married Roger I of Sicily) tries in vain to stop them through negotiations, a short battle gives him control of St. Peter's Church, after which Duke Godfrey III (the Bearded) of Lorraine (997-1069) arrives in May and gets the rivals to let young German king Henry IV decide the matter, causing Honorius II to withdraw to Parma and Alexander II to return to his see in Lucca; too bad, Henry IV is kidnapped in Kaiserswerth (modern-day Dusseldorf) by his princes, led by anti-Honorius Cologne archbishop (1056-75) (St.) Anno II of Cologne (1010-75), who stage a coup, send Empress Agnes to a convent in Fructuaria in Piedmont, Italy, and assume the regency under Bremen-Hamburg archbishop (since 1043) Adalbert of Bremen-Hamburg (1000-72); Anno II and Adalbert divide the monasteries between themselves, later sharing with Mainz archbishop Siegfried I, further robbing the crown blind; meanwhile in Oct. the Council of Augsburg recognizes Alexander II as pope, and gets Honorius II excommunicated next year, which doesn't stop him from holding a counter-synod in Parma, telling them to piss off, and heading back to Rome, holing-up in the Castel Sant'Angelo, owned by Leo. Tostig Godwinson of Northumbria returns from Rome and patches things up with his sworn brother Malcolm III. Ferdinand I the Great of Castile and Leon invades Muslim Toledo with a large army; emir Al-Mamun becomes a tributary of Castile; Ferdinand I invades Muslim Badajoz, and extracts tribute from emir Al-Mutadid of Seville, who steps down in favor of Abbad III al-Mu'tamid (1040-95), who becomes king #3 (last) of the Taifa of Seville (until 1091), the badass S section of Spain (except the SE corner); too bad, becoming vassals of Castile weakens Seville and softens it up for conquering by the Almoravids in 1091; al-Mudamid's soldiers fight under green flags with Islamic texts written on them, later becoming the green-white-green Arbonaida Flag of Andalusia. Shiraz is taken from the Buyids by the Seljuks. Chola Virarajendra (-1070) defeats the Chalukyas of Kalyani in S India, and founds a vedic college and hospital. The Mediterranean seaport of Bougie (Bugia) (ancient Carthaginian city of Saldae) 120 mi. E of Algiers becomes the capital of a Berber dynasty, and a chief port of N Africa. Learned Benedictine monk Lanfranc becomes prior of the Abbey of St. Stephen in Caen, France; Berengar of Tours opposes the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation, and Lanfranc becomes the man to take him on. (St.) Wulstan (Wolstan) (Ulfstan) (II) (1008-95) becomes bishop of Worcester, England, becoming one of the only Saxon bishops to be retained by William I the Conqueror, going on to rebuild the church. The city of Marrakesh (Marrakech) (modern-day pop. 928K) N of the Atlas Mts. in Morocco 360 mi. SW of Tangier, 203 mi. SW of Rabat, 149 mi. S of Casablanca, and 153 mi. NE of Agadir is founded by Berber Almoravid leader Abu Bakr ibn Umar (-1087), cousin of king Yusuf ibn Tashfin as the Almoravid capital (until 1147), going on to introduce the Maliki School of strict Islamic Sharia law to the Maghrib, and import Andalusian art and culture, politically unifying tribal Morocco, becoming known as "the Red (Ochre) City" for its many red sandstone bldgs.; Jemaa el-Fnaa (el Fna) becomes the busiest square in Africa. Births: French breed mare (St.) Adela of Normandy (Blois) (England) (d. 1137); daughter of William I of England (1026-87) and Matilda of Flanders (1031-83); sister of Henry I of England (1068-1135) and Robert Curthose; wife (1083-) of Count Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102); bears 12 children, incl. Stephen I of England (1096-1154), Bishop Henry of Blois (1101-71), and Theobald II of Champagne (1090-1151). Byzantine statesman-historian-gen. Nikephoros Bryennios (Nicephorus Bryennius) the Younger (d. 1137); husband (1097-) of Anna Comnenos (1083-1153). Deaths: Turkish Seljuq ruler Tughril Beg (b. 980) on Sept. 4.
1063 In spring Ramiro I of Aragon sieges Graus in the Pyrenees in NE Spain at the confluence of the Esera and Isabena Rivers; emir Al-Muktadir of Zaragoza leads an army N accompanied by a Castilian contingent under Prince Sancho (future Sancho II); Rodrigo (Ruy) Díaz (Diaz) de Vivar (El Cid) ("the lord") is in the Castilian contingent; Ramiro I is KIA and the Aragonese flee on May 8; meanwhile Pope Alexander II sends an internat. force to Spain under his standard bearer William of Montreuil, which incl. Italian knights, Normans (Robert Crespin, Baron of Lower Normandy), Frenchmen (Wiliam, Count of Poitiers and Duke of Aquitaine), and Spaniards (Bishop of Vic, Count Ermengol II of Urgel); in early July the expedition sieges Barbastro in the Muslim Kingdom of Lerida; the emir of Lerida (the brother of Al-Muktadir of Zaragoza) makes no attempt to relieve the siege, and after 40 days the defenders are forced to surrender when a large stone falls from the walls and blocks the only water supply; 50K inhabitants are massacred or enslaved, and a large number of Muslim singing harem girls are taken back to France by William VIII of Aquitaine; Count Ermengol II of Urgel is left as gov. on behalf of Sancho Ramirez of Aragon; Seville feels obliged to pay the Christians tribute. On Sept. 11 after he Germans wage a victorious campaign against Hungary, Bela I (b. 1016) dies after his throne collapses, and HRE Henry IV installs his boy nephew (son of Andas I and Anastasia of Russia) Solomon (Salamon) I (1053-87) as king of Hungary (until 1074). Duke William of Normandy defeats the counts of Anjou, and unites Normandy with Maine, conquering Le Mans 115 mi. SW of Paris. Boleslav II of Poland reconquers Upper Slovakia. Saxon brothers Harold and Tostig Godwinson subdue Wales. Tughril Beg dies after extending Seljuk rule throughout Iran and Iraq, and his son Alp Arslan ("lion hero") (1029-72) becomes sultan of the Seljuks, with able statesman Nizam al-Mulk (Pers. "order of the realm") (Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi) (1018-92) as his chief minister. Vratislaus II of Bohemia creates a new diocese in Olomouc, Moravia, and raises monk John of Brevnov (-1085) to bishop, taking away revenues from his priestly brother Jaromir of Prague, beginning a lifetime rivalry; after Vratislaus moves some relics from Prague there, Jaromir has them forcibly returned. A new Nestorian Christian metropolitan is ordained for Khitai in N China. Architecture: Abbaye-aux-Dames (Ladies' Abbey) in Caen, Normandy is founded by William I the Conqueror's wife Queen Matilda. The white marble Pisa Cathedral, designed by Buschetto and Rinaldo is begun (finished 1118). Deaths: Hungarian king (1061-3) Bela I (b. 1016) on Sept. 11.
1064 On Jan. 20 Ferdinand I of Leon and Castile sieges Coimbra, and takes it on July 9; the Muslim gov. who surrendered is allowed to leave with his family, but 5K inhabitants are taken captive, and all Muslims are forced out of Portuguese territory across the Mondego River; Ferdinand I retakes the area of Old Castile that had been annexed to Navarre by his father Sancho the Great. On May 31 the Council of Mantua ends the papal schism by confirming Pope Alexander II and excommunicating Honorius II, who continues to claim the papal throne to his death in 1072. Moustachioed earl of Wessex (SW England) Harold Godwinson, 2nd most powerful man in England is shipwrecked on the French coast and held for ransom by the Count of Ponthieu; Duke William of Normandy procures his release, forcing Harold to take an oath that William will become king of England upon the death of William's cousin Edward the Confessor, William claiming that Edward had already promised it to him - sure you can have it, buddy, but over my dead body? The Hungarians seize Belgrade from the Byzantines. The Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan take Ani, and ravage Armenia; the first Turkoman tribes enter Syria. The Great German Pilgrimage (ends 1065), which incl. archbishops Siegfried of Mainz and Thiemo of Salzburg, and bishops Gunther of Bamberg and Altmann of Passau opens up future Crusader routes. Song Ren Zong dies, and Song Ying Zong (Tsung) (-1067) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #5 of China; Chinese scholar Ssu-ma Kuang (Sima Guang) (1019-86) presents him with the 5-vol. Chart of Successive Years (Liniantu), a history of China from the start of the Warring States Period (403 B.C.E.) to the end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (959 C.E.); in 1066 he adds 8 more vols., covering from -403 to -207 (end of the Qin Dynasty), turning on the emperor, who orders all imperial libraries opened to him, and provides him with assistants; the next emperor Song Shen Zong changes the title to Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government (Zizhi Tongjian), and he completes it in 1084 (10 vols.). Deaths: Spanish Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm (b. 994); leaves Al Fisal (The Detailed Critical Examination), which examines various philosophies and religions incl. Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity to prove the superiority of Islam.
1065 In Apr. a civil war begins in Castile-Leon when Zaragoz emir Al-Muqtadir, aided by 500 knights from Seville sieges and captures Barbastro, killing the gov. Count Ermengol II of Urgel and putting the Spanish and French garrison to the sword; Pope Alexander II's crusade is kaput; meanwhile Al-Muqtadir breaks off relations with Castile, and Ferdinand I leads a punitive expedition into Zaragoza, taking Alquezar, then invading Valencia; despite being a Castilian tributary, Emir Mamun of Toledo leads a force in support of his son-in-law Emir Abd al-Malik; Mamun dethrones Abd al-Malik and incorporates Valencia into the Kingdom of Toledo in Nov. On June 24 (Feast of St. John the Baptist) king (since 1037) Ferdinand I the Great (b. 1017) dies after falling dangerously ill and retiring, then dressing up as a monk and lying on an ash-covered bier in front of the altar of the Church of St. Isidore; his empire is divided between his three sons, with his provocative title of emperor of Spain retired, along with the title of count of Castile: eldest son Sancho II the Strong (1036-72) becomes king of Castile, middle son Alfonso VI the Brave (1037-1109) becomes king of Leon, and youngest son Garcia II (1042-90) becomes king of Garcia, er, Galicia (Portugal); he also gives the city of Toro to his daughter Elvira, and the city of Urraca to his other daughter Zamora; too bad, Sancho II wants it all, and the War of the Three Sanchos (Castile vs. Aragon and Navarre) (ends 1067) when Aragon severely mauls the Castilians at the Battle of Viana; the status quo is restored after the Zaragozan Vali of Huesca invades Aragon from the S. HRE Henry IV (b. 1050) comes of age and begins a fight to throw off his priestly bonds and assume personal rule. The Northumbrians revolt against Northumbrian earl Tostig Godwinson, brother of Harold of Wessex, and Harold doesn't support him, causing Tostig to become bitter; the Northumbrians are subdued, but Tostig is exiled by descendants of the former earls (rivals of Harold), taking refuge at the court of Malcolm III. Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan invades Georgia. A Nestorian metropolitanate of Jerusalem is established. Architecture: The 513 ft. x 203 ft. Latin cross-shaped Benedictine Westminster Abbey (Collegiate Church of St. Peter) (begun 1052) is consecrated on Dec. 28; Edward the Confessor is not present; the nave is 38 ft. wide and 102 ft. high; the twin towers on the W are 225 ft. high; in 1245 Henry III begins enlarging it. Inventions: Oliver of Malmesbury builds an airplane, and is killed testing it. Nonfiction: Wilhelm von Hirsau (1030-91), Manuals on Musical Theory; by a Benedictine monk. Births: Bohemian duke (1109-17, 1020-5) Vladislaus I (d. 1125); son of Vratislav II (-1092) and his 2nd wife Swatawa (daughter of Casimir I of Poland); brother of Borivoj II (1064-1124); cousin of Svatopluk (-1109). Flemish count (1093-1111) Robert II "the Crusader" (d. 1111); eldest son of Robert I (1029-93) and Gertrude of Holland. English Norman baron Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare (d. 1117) in Clare, Suffolk; 2nd son of Richard Fitz Gilbert (1034-90) and Rohese Giffard. English hermit (St.) Godric (Goderic) of Finchale (d. 1170) in Walpole, Norfolk. Spanish Jewish mathematician-astronomer Abraham ben Hiyya of Barcelona (d. 1136); first to write scientific works in Hebrew rather than Arabic. Deaths: Spanish king of Castile-Leon (1029-65) Ferdinand I the Great (d. 1017) on June 24 in Leon.
1066 Pop. of Anglo-Saxon England: 1M. The Bayeux Tapestry (embroidered cloth), created by the victorious Normans starting next year tells the tale of the Norman Conquest of England in the Big Year 1066, incl. the Comet, the Big Bad Conqueror, and Harold with an Arrow in His Eye with Diamonds, complete with a cast of 600 people, 200 horses, 40 ships, and a cameo by Edward the Confessor; only 15 people are named, and only six named in standalone fashion, incl. Harold (twice), William, Robert, Eustace, and the mysterious Turold the Dwarf - the original Sgt. Pepper? I wish I was a little bit taller, like six foot nine? On Jan. 5 Edward the Confessor (b. 1003) (son of Ethelred II and Emma) dies childless in London, and his remains are entombed behind the High Altar of Westminster Abbey, starting a tradition that carries through to George II as every English monarch except Edward V and Edward VII is crowned there; he leaves no Saxon heir to the English throne, but allegedly names his 6'4" blonde brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex (grandson of prior king Hardicanute Godwin, son of Canute and Emma) as his successor on his deathbed, and on Jan. 5 the Witan elects Harold, who is crowned Harold II Godwinson(1022-66), the 20th monarch of England (last Anglo-Saxon) at Westminster Abbey on Jan. 6, after which on Mar. 20 Halley's Comet appears, which his fellow Anglo-Saxons take as a bad 666 omen (6-6-66); "And in this year also earl Harold was hallowed king; and he experienced little quiet therein, the while that he ruled the realm" (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle); his rival, Norman duke #6 William II (the Bastard) (1026-87) (1st cousin, once removed of Edward the Confessor via his mother Emma, whom he is the grandnephew of) claims the throne by right of succession, and also claims that both Edward and Harold had promised it to him, and gets Harold excommunicated by Pope Alexander II for his dirty business over the exiled Norman archbishop of Canterbury and for not deposing the Anglo-Saxon one, helping William's army by giving him a consecrated banner as a sign of papal approval in hopes of turning the English people against Harold, while assembling a fleet of 700 ships in Dives-sur-Mer on the coast of Normandy and assembling an army on the Isle of Wight, causing Harold to begin guarding the coasts of England against William during the summer; too bad, on Sept. 8 after provisions run low, a large part of Harold's force disbands in order to bring in the harvest, and he returns to London; meanwhile Harold's pissed-off brother Tostig Godwinson, earl of Northumbria sails to Norway and persuades Viking king (since 1046) Harald III Hardrada (Haardraade) (1016-66) (did his wife call him that or was he just bragging?) to help him seize the crown, and after waiting for a storm to pass on Sept. 12, they arrive together with a fleet of 270 ships, plunder the coast and burn Scarborough, then sail up the Humber River, attacking from the N at York and defeating the N earls on Sept. 20 at the Battle of Fulford Gate outside Jorvik (York); after receiving the bad news, Harold II issues the immortal gay-curious soundbyte: "I will give him just six feet of English soil, or, since they say he is a tall man, I will give him seven feet"; on Sept. 20 Harold leaves London, gathers the remainder of his coastal militia along with his thegns and household troops (leaving the S coast unwatched, which gives Duke William his chance), and makes a brilliant dash N, covering 190 mi. in five days, surprising the invaders on Sept. 25 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge 8 mi. E of Jorvik in modern-day East Riding of Yorkshire, becoming the greatest battle so far between Norse and Anglo-Saxons; the over-confident Vikings decide not to wear their armor of leather jerkins with sewn-on metal rings because of the heat, and Harald is KIA with an arrow through his throat; Tostig and many other Vikings are also KIA, and only 30 Viking ships make it back to Norway; England has now been made safe for Anglo-Saxons forever, and they can keep speaking German and there will never be a Shakespeare, right?; too bad, Duke William, promising spoils, has been busy gathering an army of 6K-12K (7.5K?) from Normandy and all over Europe, incl. France, Italy, and Spain (incl. 1K mainly landless Norman knights, plus 500 more from Flanders and Brittany), and sails from St. Valemur in Normandy in his long ships (his ship is the Mora, bought for him by his wife Matilda), landing on Sept. 28 in Pevensey (pee in the sea?) on the SW tip of Sussex (65 mi. SSE from London), proceeding to terrorize the countryside, making use of the Chevauchee to burn and pillage in order to force Harold to fight while marching E to Hastings, causing tired Harold and his brothers Gyrth Godwinson (1032-66) and Leofwine Godwinson (1035-66) to hastily attempt to gather a larger force than William (the N earls are too late, and forces end up about equal, incl. 2K-3K Saxon housecarls, and hardly any cavalry like the Normans have, because the insulated Anglo-Saxons never learned to fight on horseback), then march 58 mi. in three days, waiting for William the Bastard a few mi. from Hastings on Caldbec Hill, which with Senlac Hill (Ridge) (originally Santlache, OE for sandy stream, then renamed by the Normans to Sanguelac, Fr. for bloody lake) guards the interior; on Oct. 14 (Oct. 21 Gregorian) (Sun.) after William learns of their position, the 8-hour unhasty Battle of Hastings (Senlac) (one of the longest medieval battles) features the Companions of William the Conqueror fighting an Anglo-Saxon shield wall with feigned Norman retreats to cut them down with cavalry as they try to climb back up the hill; both sides wear chain mail at least, but the Normans have archers and knights, and the Anglo-Saxons take 4K casualties to 2.5K for the Normans, contracting them around tall, blonde, good-arm John Elway, er, Harold, until William's cavalry drives home a charge at Harold, who stands his ground surrounded by his housecarls, but is KIA by an arrow through the eye (according to the Bayeux Tapestry) in the next Norman charge, then his brothers are KIA, and his depleted army flees after losing 25% of their men, later regrouping then suffering more deaths from dysentery; the battle is so close that if Harold could have held out for another hour, an approaching Saxon fleet could have blocked off William's rear and sandwiched him in a 2-front battle, preventing reinforcements or retreat, and the Normans would have been completely crushed?; the battle wipes out the Anglo-Saxon aristrocracy, with the few survivors turned into serfs, allowing the Norman aristocracy to easily take over, and another coup replaces the Anglo-Saxon higher clergy with Normans; the first major medieval battle using knights, spawning their myth of invincibility?; William the Conqueror (Dark Horse MVP of the English Super Bowl, known for his 4th-quarter comebacks?) then plunders SW England, and advances though the Dover Strait towns (Dover, et al.) to secure his communications with Normandy, then up the Thames River looking to cross over to head to London and being repulsed until Anglo-Saxon lord Wigod (Wigot) (kindsman of Edward the Confessor) invites him to cross from W to E at Wallingford in Berkshire N of London, then E to Berkhamsted (Berkhamstead) in order to cut off any aid which Edwin and Morcar might send; meanwhile on Oct. 15 the Witan elects Edgar (the) Aetheling (1051-1126), grandson of Edmund II Ironside (last surviving rep. of the West Saxon royal house of Cerdic) as the new king, never coronating him; too bad, after exchanging letters and failing to recruit enough patriotic Anglo-Saxons from the hinterland, the undefended city of London finally capitulates, sending a delegation outside the walls to kiss foot, and William's army peacock-struts into London, where the Witan offers him the crown, and Edgar resigns on Oct. 10 at Berkhamsted (we were just kidding, you da king, you da king?), being taken back to Normandy by William and treated well until he joins the 1068 rebellion; on Dec. 25 (Christmas Day) William the Bastard becomes William the Conqueror, and is crowned William I (1026-87) (21st English monarch) at Westminster Abbey by York archbishop (since 1060) Ealdred (Aldred) (-1069), assisted by excommunicated Canterbury archbishop Stigand (who has the wealthiest estates in England after Harold), tying England to Normandy for 150 years (until 1204); the first of 3x that England has three kings in the same year (1483, 1936); William begins feudalizing England, completing it by his death in 1087; he keeps the local shires and Hundred Courts, along with the Royal Writ and cool Anglo-Saxon coronation order, but makes sure that estates are spread out over two or more counties to stop attempts at provincial autonomy; each royal tenant-in-chief has to supply from 5-60 knights (in multiples of five) to the king when ordered, a total of 5K for the country; knowing that they can only be made to serve 40 days a year, and are too expensive to transport across the Channel, William institutes scutage ("shield money"), allowing the payment of money in lieu of service so he can hire foreign mercenaries in their place, which later helps the English monarchy raise bigger armies than the French et al.; the Witan is combined with the Norman Curia Ducis (duke's court) to form the Curia Regis (king's court); 3x a year all royal vassals must attend it to hear his announcements, advise him on policy, and hear lawsuits involving the tenants-in-chief; no castles can be built without royal permission; the Anglo-Saxon title of sheriff (shire reeve) is coopted for Norman viscounts, who turn the office from weak to powerful, presiding over the shire courts, where William restores the old Carolingian (and forgotten Anglo-Saxon practice) of swearing-in juries, and acting as local agents of the royal treasury, taking on even the greatest lords in the name of the king; the hereditary rank of baron/baroness (lowest rank, below earl/countess) is created; the title of earl (deriving from the Scandinavian word jarl for chieftain) being cooler to Anglo-Saxons than the Continental title of count, the palatine earldoms of Kent, Hereford, Shrewsbury, and Chester are created, along with the barons of the Cinque Ports (Dover, Hastings, Sandwich, Romney, Hythe; later Winchelsea and Rye) to guard the coast of the Strait of Dover; the fast crushing Norman takeover leads to a loss of prestige for the Anglo-Saxons, who become "dogs", and for the next four decades the haughty superior Normans hold all Anglo-Saxon culture in utter contempt, destroying art works and mss., and turning the Anglo-Saxon language into hut talk fit only for peasants, while for the next 1.5 cents. England becomes a cultural province of France as English society begins to split into a French-speaking upper class and hut-talk-speaking middle and lower classes; the Normans introduce many French words to the Anglo-Saxon dogs, incl. boeuf, mouton, veau, porc, and poularde, which are transformed into beef, mutton, veal, pork, and poultry, along with Latin words, making the dogs want to use them to make themselves seem higher in class, e.g., turning hearty welcome into cordial reception; the Norman takeover was a blessing in disguise since otherwise their disintegrating kingdom would have been taken over by the Norse, cutting off England from exciting French cultural progress, although, duh, the retro Norse wouldn't have destroyed Anglo-Saxon culture and would have eventually been thrown out?; William I becomes Europe's most powerful monarch, setting up a new kind of kingdom that relies on law and admin. machinery rather than ideology to unify it like the Euro monarchies do, beginning the trend toward secularism and absolutism that dominates the 12th and 13th cents.; Norman Romanesque Architecture is born; Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire is begun; William I's half-brother Robert of Montain becomes earl of Cornwall, and builds Launceston Castle; the office of queen's (royal) champion is granted to Robert Marmyon, along with the castle-manor of Tamworth and the manor of Scrivelsby, with the job of riding in full armor into Westminster Hall during a coronation to fight anybody challenging the king's title (until 1377); the Norman Pierpoint family settles in a manor in West Sussex (Wessex) taken from Earl Godwin, which becomes known as Hurstpierpoint ("the wood of Pierpoint"); (a new hope?) although William I is king, Harold's partisans still hold most of the wild wild west (Wessex), incl. Barnstaple Castle in Barnstaple, North Devon at the mouth of the Taw River at the entrance to the Bristol Channel, which is granted by William I to Geoffrey de Montbray (-1093), who loses his barony in 1095 after rebelling against William II - Anglo-Saxon Jedi freedom fighters plan revenge against the haughty Norman evil emperor and his stormtroopers, but too bad, their Luke Skywalker is a wuss? On Dec. 30 the 1066 Granada Massacre sees a Muslim mob in Granada, Spain that was envious of his high position and inflamed by the anti-Semitic writings of Cordoban Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm (994-1064), storm the royal palace and murder Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela (ha-Nagid) (b. 1035), then massacre the Jewish pop. of the city, killing off 1.5K Jewish families, about 4K total, about the same as the Spanish Inquisition of 1478-1833 killed over several centuries (Islam is always light years ahead in the killing field?); poet Abu Ishaq, who helped to incite the pogrom composes a poem justifying it, with the soundbyte "Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them, the breach of faith would be to let them carry on/ They have violated our covenant with them, so how can you be held guilty against the violators?" On the alternate viewing channel? The Diet of Tribur, fueled by anti-Adalbert sentiment frees 16-y.-o. Henry IV from his control, and he begins his personal rule. Sultan Alp Arslan attacks the Byzantine Empire. After Harald III Hardrada (b. 1025) dies in York, England, Magnus II Haraldsson (1049-69) becomes king of Norway (until Apr. 28, 1069). 16, er, 15, er 14-y.-o. Philip I of France assumes personal rule. Swedish king (since 1060) Stenkil Ragnvaldsson dies, plunging Sweden into chaos until 1080 as Erik Stenkilsson, Halsten (Alstan) Stenkilsson, and Eric Hedningen (later Eric VIII "the Pagan") vie for the throne, with Halsten winning round one but getting deposed in 1070. Hoel II of Cornwall (Cornouaille) (1031-84), count of Cornouaille in NW Brittany since 1058 becomes duke of Brittany (until 1084). Ermengol III (b. 1032) dies, and his son Ermengol (Armengol) IV "Gerb" "Gerp" (1056-92) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1092), going on to introduce the Gregorian reform. Joseph, son of the Jewish vizier Samuel Ha Nagid invites Al-Mutasim of Ameria to come and rule in Granada; the Zirid Sanhaja defeat them and instigate a pogrom of the Jews in Granada, but Pope Alexander II advises the Castilian bishops to respect Jewish ways of life? China's Khitan (Qi Dan) tribe changes its name to Liao. The first black Africans in modern-day Gambia convert to Islam. William I the Conqueror agrees to respect the sovereignty of London, which becomes known as a sovereign city headed by its own lord mayor; before that it was ruled by an ealdorman or underking; William I turns the Anglo-Saxon legal system French, introducing Trial by Combat. Only three Anglo-Saxon families survive to modern times, incl. the Arden Family, named after the Arden Forest in Warwickshire, founded by Alwin (Aethelwine), sheriff of Warwickshire, nephew of Earl Leofric of Mercia, counting William Shakespeare as a descendant via his mother Mary Arden, the Berkeley Family in Gloucestershire, and the Swinton Family in Northumberland. Frenchman Geoffroi de Purelli sets down the rules for jousting tournaments, then is killed at his own tournament; jousting is just one type of Hastlitude (Lat. "lance games") - oil the quintain? After the Norman conquest, both men and women in England begin wearing their hair very long, incl. clergy and soldiers - the original Beatles, removed by centuries numbering 9? Architecture: Rochester Castle in England is built by the Normans. The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk, Belarus (begun in 1044) is finished, becoming the first church in Belarus. Births: Portuguese count #1 (1093-1112) Henrique (Henry) of Burgundy (d. 1112); son of Henry of Burgundy (1035-71) (son of Duke Robert I of Burgundy); brother of Duke Hugh I of Burgundy and Duke Eudes I of Burgundy; distant cousin of Raymond of Burgundy and Pope Callistus II. Deaths: Scottish bishop of Mecklenburg Johannes Scotus (b. 990) (murdered); sacrificed to the German god Radegast. English Saxon king (1042-66) Edward the Confessor (b. 1003) on Jan. 5 in London; canonized in 1161 by Pope Alexander III; leaves Curtana (Cortana) (Cortain) (his sword with the tip broken off by an angel), which becomes part of the English coronation ceremony, indicating the quality of mercy in the sovereign. Norwegian king Harald III Hardrada (b. 1016) on Sept. 25 near York, England (KIA). Indian mathematician-astronomer-astrologer Sripati (b. 1019). English last Saxon king (1066) Harold II Godwinson (b. 1022) on Oct. 14 near Hastings, Sussex. English earl (of Northumbria) Tostig Godwinson on Sept. 25 near York. English royals Leofwine Godwinson and Gyrth Godwinson on Oct. 14 near Hastings. Swedish king (1060-66) Stenkil Ragnvaldsson.
1067 Oh no, another Jewish conspiracy? Jews begin to move to Norman England from Europe in considerable numbers, settling in towns and following the pursuit of money-lending, at rates typically of 40%-80%, which contributes to simmering Christian animosity. Olav (Olaf) III Haraldsson (the Peaceful) (1050-93) becomes joint king of Norway (until Sept. 22, 1093); William I leaves for Norway, and disturbances arise in the unconquered regions of England, esp. N England. On May 22 Byzantine emperor (since Nov. 24, 1059) Constantine X Ducas (b. 1006) dies, and since his son Michael VII Ducas (Doukas) (1050-90) is incompetent, Romanus (Romanos) IV Diogenes (1030-72) marries Constantine's widow and Michael's regent Eudoxia (Eudokia) Makrembolitissa (1021-96) in order to rule the empire, and becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #150 next Jan. 1 (until Oct. 24, 1071). On Sept. 1 Baldwin V dies, and in 1070 his son Robert I the Frisian (1029-93) becomes count of Flanders (until 1093). The Castilian army under Sancho II and Alferez Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) sieges Zaragoza, then lifts it after Emir Al-Muqtadir pays a large ransom and promises tribute. The earliest written reference to the city of Minsk (Russ. "exchange") in the Principality of Polotsk (modern-day Belarus) on the Svislach and Nyamiha Rivers (modern-day pop. 2.1M); in 1242 it becomes part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, receiving town privileges in 1499. A UFO is sighted in the North Sea off NE England. Architecture: Canterbury (Christ's) Church (where its first archbishop St. Augustine was crowned by King Ethelbert of Kent in 597) burns down, and Lanfranc begins to build a more magnificent one in Romanesque style; part of it is destroyed by fire in 1174. The rebuilding of Monte Cassino monastery begins. William I founds Battle Abbey in Hastings to commemorate his big V over the Saxon dogs, housing a copy of the Battle Abbey Roll, listing his 500 knightly companions, the original being housed in the Dives Cathedral in Normandy; the Hastings copy is moved to Cowdray House near Midhurst, which burns down in 1793. Seljuk chief minister Nizam al-Mulk founds the Madrasa al-Nizamiyya Shafi'i religious college in Baghdad as part of a program to establish madrasas in major cities throughout the empire and throw water on the fiery rivalries among the schools of Islamic law. Art: Work begins on the 19.5 in. x 231 ft. linen Bayeux Tapestry (finished by 1082) chronicling William the Conqueror's biggest moments, and depicting 600 people, 200 horses, 20 ships, Edward the Confessor, and Halley's Comet, which ends up in the museum of Bayeux in NW France; it is forgotten in Bayeux Cathedral until the 1789 French Rev., when it is about to be used as an ammunition cover until a young lawyer snatches it away and hides it for 30 years; it contains the first drawing of a horse being used in field labor in England rather than an ox. Nonfiction: Works on Hastings hit the bestseller list at Scarborough Fair? Bishop Guy of Amiens, Carmen de Hastingae Proelio (Song of the Battle of Hastings); the battle from the English POV; how the Norman knights were supposed to take out the English archers first then go after the shield wall; claims that Harold was felled by a hit squad of four knights sent by William (to avoid single combat?), Eustace of Boulogne, Guy de Montfort, Walter Giffard the Younger, and Hugh of Ponthieu) with lances, swords and javelins, and doesn't mention any arrow in eye; one pierces his shield and strikes his chest, the 2nd lances his gut, a 3rd cuts off his leg, and the 4th cuts off his head? Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor #149 (1059-67) Constantine X Ducas (b. 1006) on May 22.
1068 Jews get Millennium Fever this year, believing it to be the 1000th since the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. On Jan. 1 Romanus IV Diogenes is crowned Byzantine emperor; an ambitious soldier, he reverses the decline of the army and attempts to turn the tide, repulsing the Seljuks, but failing to stop the Normans from taking Otranto and continue to squeeze the Byzantines out of Italy (by 1071). In early Jan. Leo de Benedicto has the gates of the Leonine City thrown open for Duke Godfrey the Bearded of Lorraine and his wife Marchioness Beatrice of Tuscany, who immediately take over Tiber Island then attack the Lateran, forcing Antipope Honorius II to flee back to Parma on Jan. 14, after which Leo allies with Hildebrand and Pope Alexander II against him, and he becomes kaput. In the spring William I overthrows Harold Godwinson's partisans, led by Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar in the W, then in the fall brings the Midlands and N into subjection, but treats the rebels leniently, although Edgar Aetheling, who joined in the rebellion flees to the Scottish court of Malcolm III, along with his sister Margaret, and Norman baron William (the Seemly) Sinclair of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, who is granted the barony of Roslin (Rosslyn) in Midlothian 7 mi. S of Edinburgh, founding Clan Sinclair line in Scotland, after which his sons get involved with the Knights Templars and the Holy Grail business - and the Da Vinci Code is on? On July 19 the Battle of Llantada (Llantadilla) on the banks of the Pisuerga River on the boundary between Leon and Castile sees the Castilians under Sancho II and El Cid defeat the Leonese; Alfonso VI of Leon flees, then leads a campaign against Badajoz, but withdraws when Emir Mamun ibn Dhi-I-Nun of Toledo intercedes; Badajoz becomes a tributary to Leon; the emir of Badajoz dies, and his two sons dispute the succession. William I sends mercenary Normans into Wales, who permanently separate it into N and S halves. Norman lord Richard fitz Gilbert (1034-90) is rewarded for his support of William I with 176 lordships and large land grants, incl. in Clare, Suffolk, where he builds Clare Castle; during William I's absence he serves as joint chief justiciar; after gaining the titles "de Clare", "and of Tonbridge", and "de Bienfaite", he founds the de Clare family, who rule the Welsh Marches, Suffolk, Surrey, Kent (Tonbridge), and later Ireland. Robert de Comyn (Comines) (Comine) (named after Comines, Flanders), who followed William I to England becomes the first Norman earl of Northumberland, founding the Clan Comyn (Cumming) line, the most powerful family in 13th cent. Scotland. The office of High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests is created for William Peverel, followed by Hugh fitz Baldric (1069-80), Hugh de Port (1081-7), Richard fitz Gotse (1088-1105), and Helgot (1105); in 1568 it is split into two sheriffs, of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Song Ying Zong dies, and Song Shen Zong (She-tsung) (-1086) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #6 of China - is that like a Song Shen Blue? Emperor (since 1045) ? (b. ?) dies, and his younger brother Go-Sanjo (Takahito) (1034-73) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #71 (until 1073). Prince Vseslav Bryachislavich (1039-1101) of Polotsk in Belarus becomes prince of Kiev (until 1069). Chalukya Somesvara I of Kalyani drowns himself during Jain rites in the sacred Tungabhadra River in S India. Vratislaus II appoints his brother-rival Jaromir (-1088) as bishop of Prague, and begins wearing his mitre and tunic at official functions to piss him off. Architecture: William I the Conqueror orders castles to be built along his line of march in the principal boroughs, incl. Arundel Castle, commanding the major bridging point of the Arun River, which guards the valley to the N through the South Downs; Arundel town later grows up on the slope below the castle to the S; Arun River is originally called the Tarrant River, and is later renamed after the castle and town, which becomes home to the future dukes of Norfolk and earls marshal of England; the lucky people born in Arundel are known locally as Mullets, due to the presence of mullet (fish) in the river; the original Nottingham Castle is established on Castle Rock (Hill) on the ruins of the Roman military outpost of Camboritum (modern-day Cambridge) by William Peveril for William I (his daddy?). Warwick Castle (pr. like warick) on the poetic Avon River is built by William I; in 1604 it is granted to poet Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628), friend and biographer of poet Sir Philip Sidney. Art: Anon., Shotoku Taishi Eden; the oldest surviving painting of the Yamato style. Nonfiction: Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014-94), Book of Highways and Kingdoms (Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik). William of Jumieges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum (History of the Norman Dukes); no mention of any arrow through the eye? Count William of Poitiers, Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum (History of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England); no mention of any arrow through the eye? Births: English Norman king #3 (1100-35) Henry I Beauclerc (d. 1135) in Selby, Yorkshire?; son of William I the Conqueror (1027-87); brother of William II Rufus (1056-1100) and Robert III Curthose (1053-1134); husband (1100-18) of Matilda of Scotland (1080-1118) and (1121-35) Adeliza (Adelicia) (Adela) (Aleidis) of Louvain (1103-51).
1069 Malcolm III of Scotland agrees to support the claim of Edgar Aetheling to the English crown in return for his sister Margaret Aetheling marrying him; meanwhile Edgar joins with King Sweyn II Estridsson of Denmark, Canute's nephew, who also claims the English throne, and their combined forces raid N England, capturing Jorvik (York); after William I the Conqueror comes N and pays the Danes to skoot, causing Edgar to skedaddle back to Scotland, he practices tough love by laying waste all the land N to Durham S of the River Tyne, and killing or driving out the pop. during a winter campaign (1069-70), messing the region up so bad that it takes more than two cents. to partially recover, and until the 19th cent. to fully recover; the Bishopric of Durham is created; the Marcher Lords of Wales (Ger. "marko" = boundary) (equivalent of a marquess, and margrave in the HRE), Norman barons ruling the border with what's left of Wales are created, controlling Cardiff on the N coast of the Bristol Channel; in the 13th cent. they are called the Earls of March, with the Mortimers on the Welsh border and the Dunbars on the Scottish border; meanwhile a shipload of Anglo-Saxons fleeing William I, incl. Anglo-Saxon royal claimant Edgar Aetheling, his mother, and sisters Christina and (St.) Margaret Aetheling of Saxony (1045-93) is shipwrecked in the Firth of Forth, and they seek protection from Malcolm III Canmore, Macbeth's successor, who had acquired Anglo-Saxon culture during his long residence at the court of Edward the Confessor, and whose invasion of Northumbria this year to grab it from William is bloodily repulsed, making him see his chance to fork into the West Saxon Dynasty and produce an heir to the restored Anglo-Saxon throne; what a coincidence, his 1st wife Ingibjorg just happens to die, leaving him a bachelor?; the Teutonic lowlands begin their domination of the Celtic highlands - lord almighty, feel my temperature rising? Magnus II Haraldsson of Norway dies, leaving Olav III Haraldsson the Peaceful (the Quiet) (Kyrre) (1050-93) as sole king of Norway. Duke (since 1058) Boleslaus (Boleslaw) II the Bold (1038-1081) of Poland conquers the Russian principality of Kiev, then boldly marches to Kiev to put one of his relatives on the Russian throne. Romanus IV continues battling the Seljuks, who keep raiding in E Anatolia. Alfonso VI of Leon overruns Badajoz early in the year; Seville takes Cordoba with an army of 1.3K men. Henry IV of Germany reconciles with his wife Bertha, sets his personal life in order and begins ruling vigorously, reverting to Otto the Great's use of the Church as a source of revenue, and promoting simony, which causes reformers to appeal to Rome; he also begins a campaign to get his lost royal lands and revenues back, esp. in Saxony, and plans a Capetian-style monarchy centered in the Harz-Goslar region. Vietnamese emperor Ly Thanh-Tong repeats his daddy's 1044 naval expedition to Champa, sparing the life of the king. Chinese chancellor Wang Anshi (1021-86) comes to power, promulgating the New Policies, stressing the well-being of the common people (farmers), and seeking to break up the monopolies and speculators; too bad, after a famine in 1074 his court enemies get him removed in 1075. Deaths: French duke of Upper Lorraine (1044-65) and Lower Lorraine (1065-9) Godfrey III the Bearded (b. 997) on Dec. 24 in Bouillon.
|England||William I the Conqueror (1026-87)||Dec. 25, 1066||Sept. 9, 1087|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||1057||1093|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||Oct. 5, 1056||Dec. 31, 1105|
|Papacy||Alexander II (-1073)||1061||Apr. 21, 1073|
1070 In this decade the 6th cent. Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian Code) of Byzantine emperor (527-65) Justinian I the Great is accidentally discovered and studied in Italy and N Europe, causing the abandonment of the barbaric German legal system and the rise of the faceless magistri or civil lawyer slash bureaucrat class. On Apr. 11 ecclesiastical councils held in the presence of papal legates deprive Stigand of his see, and substitute Norman clergymen for English; on Aug. 15 Lanfranc (1005-89) of Caen (of Lombard descent) becomes archbishop #35 of Canterbury (until 1089), leading the papal program of reform in England, becoming William's chief adviser of state affairs (PM); after deciding that the Anglo-Saxon clergy are too addicted to hunting, gaming, and marriage, he replaces them with Normans, and in an effort to raise their moral and intellectual level draws up the Customs of Canterbury, a new monastic constitution; clerical celibacy begins to be enforced, and bishops are given their own courts with separate jurisdiction, beginning the separation of canon and common law; tithes are levied on the pop. to support the church, and William I decrees that only he can approve papal bulls and legates; the nat. assembly of bishops is separated from the Witan, with its decrees subject to approval by the king; Lanfranc leads the attack on Berengar of Tours for denying the doctrine of transubstantiation; Lanfranc's pupil Anselm of Italy succeeds him as prior of the monastery of Bec in Normandy, and becomes abbot in 1078. A small band of Anglo-Saxons led by Hereward the Wake establish themselves on the Isle of Ely, using the fens to protect them, but are no threat to William I, who is now complete master of Norman England, and proceeds to found Feudalism ("legalized anarchy") (king-lord-overlord, tenant-in-chief, mesne tenant, etc.) in England for the next two cents. Baldwin VI of Flanders (b. 1030) dies, and his son Arnulf III (1055-71) is attacked by his uncle Robert the Frisian; Philip I of France intervenes at the request of Arnulf's mother Richildis. Am I old enough to go to the pubs now, mum and dad? 20-y.-o. HRE Henry IV (b. 1050) finally achieves independence from his prince-regents, and bestows Bavaria upon duke Welf I/IV (-1101) (until 1077, then 1096-1101). Older men dating much younger women, is it taboo or today's trend? After her chaplain and confessor Turgot claims that both she and her younger sister Christina (who later becomes abbess of Romsey) had planned on becoming nuns, and persuasive Malcolm talks her out of it, Hungarian-raised Margaret Aetheling, sister of Edgar Aetheling and grandniece of Edward the Confessor marries Malcolm III Canmore and finally quits making excuses and becomes his 2nd wife, Queen Margaret of Scotland, busily working to Anglicize the realm (vaginally and otherwise?, bringing the Black (Holy) Rood, an ebony crucifix allegedly containing a portion of Jesus' Cavalry cross, which she uses as a powerful magic mamba-jamba to fight the crypto-Druid Celtic Christian religion, assembling leading Scottish clerics to tell them what's what, and writing to Canterbury archbishop Lanfranc to send a colony of Benedictine monks to found a monastery near the royal stronghold at Dunfermline; meanwhile she expresses herself and jazzes up the crude Scottish court with Old English sophistication, introducing Anglo-Saxon and Frankish clothing and hairstyles, court ceremonies and refined tableware (it's all about freedom of expression?); their first four sons Edward (1070-1093), Edmund (1071-?), Aethelred (1072?-?), and Edgar (1074-1007) are named after Margaret's male progenitors from father to great-great-grandfather in anticipation of their returning to rule England after the expected native revolt that will drive the Norman crackerjackers into the sea, and Malcolm passes over his sons by Ingibjorg for them as his chosen successors; the names of the last two, Alexander I (1077-1124) and David I (1080-1153) reflect guess what kind of influence?; all future Scottish kings incl. John I Balliol and Robert I the Bruce descend from this god-gifted Saxon breed mare. Chola Virarajendra dies, and his two sons vie for the throne of Kalyani (until 1074). A group of monks from Calabria in S Italy led by Ursus (of the Merovingian bloodline?) travel to the Ardennes Forest in NE France, and are given patronage by Godfrey (Godfroi) de Bouillon's aunt and foster mother Matilda of Tuscany (1046-1115), who gives them land in Orval (Fr. "valley of gold", named by Matilda after she loses her wedding ring in a spring and it is returned by a trout) near Stenay, site of the assassination of Dagobert II; they mysteriously disappear by 1108; one of them is Peter the Hermit, who becomes Godfrey's tutor and sparks the First Crusade? After being given permission by Egyptian caliph Ali az-Zahir, the Hospital (Order) of St. John the Baptist (Hospitalers) (Knights Hospitaller) (black mantle with a white cross) is founded in the Muristan Christian district of Jerusalem near the Holy Sepulchre by Amalfi Merchants led by Mauro of Pantaleone to take care of sick pilgrims who just came in from the rough 5-mo. journey from W France, establishing the Abbey of St. Mary of the Latins and the Nunnery of St. Mary Magdalene, manned by Benedictine monks from Montecassino, who in the 1060s establish the Hospital of St John on the site of the Monastery of St. John the Baptist; in 1099 during the First Crusade they are militarized as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by the Blessed Gerard Thom (Thom) (Tum) (Tune) (Tenque) (1040-1120), and formally recognized by Pope Paschal II on Feb 15, 1113. Rashi (Shlomo Yitzchaki) (1040-1105) founds a Qabbala school in Troyes, France. The Comte de Vaudemont on Mt. Semita in France proclaims himself "vassal of the Queen of Heaven", the Merovingian statue of the Virgin of Sion, protectress of Lorraine, with a festival held each May. In this decade (after the Norman Conquest) hawking becomes a fad with the Norman royalty and nobility, with the type of hawk carried on the wrist becoming a badge of rank: gyrfalcon for king, peregrine for earl, goshawk for yeoman, sparrow hawk for priest, and kestrel for servant; the gyrfalcon and peregrine are "dark-eyed" or "long-winged" hawks, the others "yellow-eyed" or "short-winged"; a female (falcon) is larger and more powerful than a tiercel (male), and is preferred. The silver Maine Penny from the reign of King Olaf Kyrre is found at an Indian site in Maine. Architecture: Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent (founded 597) is rebuilt (finished 1077); in the early 1100s the E end is greatly enlarged. Inventions: Roquefort Cheese is first made in a cave near Roquefort, France - peeeyuuu? Nonfiction: William of Jumieges (Guillaume de Jumieges) (1000-71), Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes), becoming the principal Norman history, by a monk of Jumieges nicknamed Calculus, who was commissioned by Duke Richard I, his half-brother Count Rodulf of Ivry, and his son Duke Richard II, covering the reigns of Richard II, Richard II (1026-7), Robert I (1027-35), and William the Conqueror,through 1070. Births: Danish king (1095-1103) Eric (Erik) I Ejegod (Evergood) of Man Loving (d. 1103) (b. 1060?) in Slangerup, North Zealand; son of Sweyn II Estridsson (1019-74); brother of Olaf I Hunger (1050-95); half-brother of Canute IV (1043-86); father of Canute Lavard (1090-1131) and Eric II (1090-1137); grandfather of Valdemar I (1131-82). Hungarian king (1095-1116) and Croatian king (1097-) Kalman (Coloman) (Koloman) (the Book Lover) (d. 1116); son of Geza I (1040-77) and Sophia von Looz; brother of Prince Almos (-1129). French bimbo Bertrada (Bertrade) of Monfort (d. 1117); daughter of Simon I de Monfort (1025-87) and Countess Agnes of Evreux. French scholar Guillaume de Champeaux (d. 1122). German Ascanian count of Anhalt #1 Otto of Ballenstedt (d. 1123); eldest son of Adalbert II and Adelheid, daughter of Margrave Otto I of Meissen; son-in-law of Duke Magnus of Saxony' father of Albert the Bear. French troubadour Guillaume de Poitou (d. 1127). French mystery man (Knights Templar grand master #1) Hugues (Hugh) de Payens (Pajens) (Payns) (d. 1136) in Troyes. Deaths: Arab rhetorician Ibn Rashiq (b. 1000). Spanish Jewish philosopher Gabirol (b. 1021).
1071 On Jan. 18 the Battle of Pedroso between Braga and the Cavado Riversees Garcia II of Galicia suppress the rebellion of his Portuguese subjects under Nuno II Mendes, who is KIA; in Apr. Garcia II is captured by his brother Sancho II of Castile, but purchases his release and retires to the court of his tributary Al-Mutamid of Seville, and Galicia is divided between his brothers Sancho II and Alfonso VI. On Feb. 22 Robert the Frisian defeats Arnulf and his allies, and Arnulf is slain. There goes the restored Roman Empire? On Apr. 16 after a 3-year siege the Normans in S Italy led by Robert Guiscard defeat the hated Byzantines at the Battle of Bari (their last possession in Italy), and finally eject them from Italy. Here cum da Turks so kiss the world goodbye, destination Moon? On Aug. 26 (Fri.) after rejecting all offers, the orthodox Sunni On Aug. 26, 1071 (Fri.) after first proposing a peace treaty, which is rejected, 30K orthodox Sunni Seljuk Turks from Turkestan under Sultan Alp Arslan ("Lion Hero") (Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri) (1029-72) decisively defeat a 70K-man Byzantine force under Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) (Melasgird) N of Lake Van, killing 2K-8K incl. the entire Varangian Guard along with the Norse and Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, and 2K Turkish mercenaries, capturing him after Andronicus Dukas and other magnates desert him along with 20K-35K mainly Frankish and Norman mercenaries, taking 4K POWs; Alp Arslan has the dusty tattered Romanus IV brought before him, and places his foot symbolically on his neck, then orders him to be treated as a king, releasing him after eight days for a 1.5M solidi ransom and a guarantee of 360K more each year; Turkoman chief Atsiz seizes and conquers Palestine; the Turks now control Jerusalem and have an open gate to the C Anatolian plateau, which they occupy and dechristianize (Muslimize) over the next two cents., cutting off all pilgrim routes to Jerusalem until the First Crusade in 1095; less-than-competent junior emperor (since May 22, 1067) Michael VII Ducas (Parapinakes) (Minus a Quarter) (1050-90), son of Constantine X is forced to assume rule by the bureaucrats as Roman Byzantine emperor #151 (until Mar. 24, 1078), appointing Byzantine scholar Michael Psellos (1017-78) as his chief adviser while devoting himself to learning instead of govt. admin., causing his military to deteriorate further; the Caliphate of Cairo in Egypt is still intact, as are the Dominions of the Almoravids in Africa and Spain; meanwhile Malik Danishmend founds a Seljuk principality in N and C Anatolia, which later becomes a rival to Rum. Alp Arslan returns from his campaign agains the Byzantines and deposes ruler (since 1054) Abu Nasr Mamlan II, ending the Rawwadid Dynasty (founded 979). Matilda of Canossa (1046-1114) assumes control of the former Carolingian feudal territory of Tuscany, becoming known as Matilda of Tuscany, giving Florence a considerable degree of self-govt., and becoming known as the "Great Countess". The English town of Boston is founded. Architecture: Richmond Castle in Yorkshire, England is built. Architecture: The Abbey of Orval (Abbaye Notre-Dame d'Orval) (Fr. "Val d'Or" = Golden Valley) in Gaume, Belgium (Luxembourg) is founded by Benedictines from Calabria, Italy; donated by the foster mother of First Crusade leader Godfrey de Bouillon?; site that actually issues the prophecies of Nostradamus? Births: Scottish Canmore king (1094-7) Edmund I (d. 1098); 2nd son of Malcolm III Canmore (-1093) and St. Margaret Aetheling (1045-93). French duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and count of Poitou (the first troubadour) William IX (the Troubador) (Guillaume de Poitiers) (d. 1127) on Oct. 22; son of William VIII (1025-86) and 3rd wife Hildegarde of Burgundy. Deaths: Norman lord William FitzOsbern, 1st earl of Hereford (b. 1020) on Feb. 22 in Flanders. English archbishop Stigand (b. ?) on Feb. 22.
In early Jan. the Battle of Golpejera (Golpejar)
sees Sancho II of Castile defeat and capture his brother Alfonso VI the Brave of Leon (1037-1109)
near the Carrion River (25 mi. from Palencia), and imprison him in the Monastery of Sahagun, but he escapes and seeks refuge in Toledo
with Almamun, whom he calls "a knight although a Moor"; on Oct. 7 Sancho II is assassinated while attacking Alfonso's men in Zamora,
so Alfonso VI returns and inherits the joint kingdom of Leon-Castile (as Alfonso VI of Leon and Alfonso I of Castile) (until 1109),
going on to reign 37 more years and become the most powerful Christian ruler in Spain, the self-proclaimed "emperor of all Spain",
the stuff of which legends are made, protecting Muslims in his realm, minting coins with Arabic inscriptions, bedding refugee Muslim princess
Zaida of Seville, marrying his daughters Urraca, Teresa, and Elvira to French princes, and pleasing the papacy by dumping the Mozarabic rite
(missal of St. Isidore) for the Roman ritual; Alfonso VI donates the village of Valladolid to
Count Pedro Ansurez (Ansúrez) (-1118), who becomes the first lord of Valladolid,
ramping up its size starting with a palace, putting it on track to become the seat of the court of Castile and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile in 1469.
After being released by the Seljuks and returning to Constantinople, Emperor Romanus IV attempts to regain his throne, but John Doukas and Michael Psellos
repudiate his agreement with Alp Arslan and declare war on him, forcing his wife Eudoxia into a nunnery, after which Romanus IV's army is defeated in Dokeia,
and he retreats to the fortress of Tyropoion, then to Adana in Cilicia before surrendering after first sending Arslan all the money he has as a downpayment
on the ransom, clinging to the chance; too bad, after he resigns on condition of sparing his life, John Doukas reneges and has him blinded on June 29,
sending him to exile in Prote in the Sea of Marmara, where he soon dies from infection.
On Nov. 24 Bagrat IV (b. 1018) dies, and his son George (Giorgi) II (1054-1112)
becomes king of Georgia (until 1089), going on to become overwhelmed by Seljuk attacks and internal strife.
William I of England, pissed-off at his harboring of the Anglo-Saxon royals invades Scotland by land and sea,
causing Malcolm III Canmore to chicken out, submit to William at Abernethy on the Tay River and pay homage,
promising to expel the exiles, esp. pesky Edgar Aetheling, and surrendering his eldest son Donald (Donnchad) as hostage.
Sultan Alp Arslan is murdered by one of his captives, and his son
Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah (Maliq Shah) (Malek Shak) (Malikshah) (-1092)
becomes sultan #3 of the Seljuk Empire, which stretches from the Oxus River to the Mediterranean,
retaining Alp's vizier Nizam al-Mulk, and finishing the subjugation of Syria and Palestine.
The Normans under Robert Guiscard conquer Palermo,
which has been in Muslim hands since 831.
George Voitech (-1073)
begins a revolt against the Byzantines in Bulgaria. Ly Thang-Tong dies, and his son
Ly Can Duc (1066-1127)
becomes emperor of Vietnam (until 1127), beginning border enroachments with China that piss-off the Chinese emperor Wang Anshi.
Count Robert I of Flanders concludes a peace treaty with Philip I of France; the terms require him to marry his obese stepdaughter
Bertha of Holland (1055-93) (his 1st wife), who takes nine years to produce him an heir.
The seaport of Ostend ("East End") on the North Sea, 77 mi. WNW of Brussels is founded.
William I the Conqueror appoints Serlo (-1104)
as the first Norman abbot of Gloucester, who rebuilds Gloucester Abbey in 1089-1104.
The Norman Romanesque churches of St. Etienne
and La Trinite (Trinité)
in Caen are built by William I the Conqueror using Caen stone, which he uses for everything serious, such as the Tower of London; William's
tomb ends up in St. Etienne, and Queen Matilda's in La Trinite.
Kuo Hsi (1020-90), Early Spring;
hanging scroll, ink and color on silk.
Bavarian duke (1101-20)
1073 On Apr. 21 Pope (since 1061) Alexander II dies, and on Apr. 22 his faithful midget chancellor Hildebrand of Sovana is elected Pope #156 Gregory VII (1023-85) (until May 25, 1085), going on to initiate the Gregorian Reform to stamp out sin in the Church, incl. the keeping of wives and mistresses by priests, and work to make the papacy strong, clericalize the Church, and arrogate supreme authority to the papacy over all the rising rulers and princes around him, requiring them to literally kiss his foot, causing German bishops to oppose his confirmation; as a safety move, he prohibits Bible reading as leading to pesky heresy; meanwhile he keep his own mistress, Countess Mathilda of Tuscany (Canossa) (1046-1115), whose husband Duke Godfrey IV the Hunchback (-1076) spreads stories about him being an atheist; not that he's all bad, since he gets off on scourging himself and watching others being scourged - sad reversal of the Jesus story? On June 15 emperor (since 1068) Go-Sanjo (b. 1034) dies, and his eldest son Shirakawa (1053-1129) (personal name Sadahito) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #72 (until 1087). In June the Revolt of the Saxon Princes begins (ends 1075) over statutory labor required to build royal strongholds, and is joined by the free peasants of Eastphalia, who stink themselves up with atrocities, allowing the king to recruit nobles to fight against their own. The Voitech Revolt in Bulgaria is quashed. The Seljuks defeat the Qarakhanids. The English church is reorganized by the Normans, with York subordinated to Canterbury. The emir of Granada rejects the Castilian demand for tribute, but the emir of Seville offers to pay instead; a joint Muslim-Castilian force builds the Fortress of Belillos, from which they can raid into Granada. Architecture: The Pueblo ruins at Mesa Verde (Sp. "green table") in SW Colo. are built, incl. the 151-room Cliff Palace, the largest cliff dwelling in North Am. The Dravidian Airava Tesh Vara Temple in Darasuram, India is begun. Births: Georgian Barationi king #5 (1089-1125) David IV/II/II (the Builder) (d. 1125) in Kutaisi; son of George II (1054-1112). Spanish king of Aragon and Navarre (1104-34) Alfonso I (the Battler) (the Warrior) (d. 1134) (b. 1074?); 2nd son of Sancho Ramirez (1042-94); brother of Peter I (1068-1104). Austrian Babenberg margrave (1095-1136) (patron saint of Austria) (St.) Leopold III (the Good) (d. 1136) in Babenberg Castle, Gars am Kamp; son of Leopold II (1050-95) and Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg; father of Otto of Freising (1114-1158). feast day: Nov. 15. Deaths: Russian monk St. Anthony Pechersky (b. 983) on July 9 in Kiev. Japanese emperor #71 (1068-73) Go-Sanjo (b. 1034) on June 15.
1074 On Jan. 18 HRE Henry IV grants the citizens and Jews of Worms, Frankfurt, and other cities privileges with fees and import duties. On Feb. 2 after coming to terms with the pope, and playing one Saxon faction off against the other, HRE Henry IV signs the Peace of Gerstungen, with with the Saxons, winning the Bavarian baronage; too bad, it is ended next June after Henry IV resumes his war. After Pope Alexander II sends legate Rudolph to Prague to investigate the rivalry between bishop Jaromir of Prague and bishop John of Olomouc, and Jaromir snubs him, Rudolph is deposed, and new Pope Gregory VII convokes an Easter synod in Rome, ordering Jaromir's brother Vratislaus II of Bohemia to remove him; he then sends a Letter Calling for a Crusade, but because of the investiture controversy with HRE Henry IV, plus the Norman expansion in Italy under Robert Guiscard, it fizzles and no infidel Muslims get butchered in the name of Christ this year; he excommunicates mean old Norman Robert Guiscard, along with all married priests - Jesus did not marry Mary Magdalene? On July 19 El Cid marries Jimena (Ximena) Diaz (1046-1116), going on to have four children, one of whom dies with him on the battlefield. Philip I of France seizes Corbie, an outpost in the direction of Flanders from Robert the Frisian, claiming it as part of the dowry of his aunt Audele, wife of Baldwin IV of Flanders. Solomon is defeated by Bela's sons (by Richesa of Poland) Geza and Ladislas; Prince Geza appeals to Pope Gregory VII for support, but when popey asks for total submission, he refuses and has himself crowned king Geza I (1040-77) of Hungary (until Apr. 25, 1077), with a crown supplied by the Byzantine emperor. Emperor Michael VII Parapinakes signs a treaty with the Seljuks in order to secure their aid against his pretender uncle, and they defeat him but invite themselves into a large part of Anatolia. The sons of Chola Virarajendra of Kalyani have each other assassinated, ending their line; the Chalukya-Chola Dynasty (ends 1267) is founded, with infant Rajendra of Kanchi (1070-), son of the king of Vengi and son of a Chola princess, who takes the vacant throne of Kanchi and rules Vengi through a viceroy, being recognized by the Ganga king of Kalinga. HRE Henry IV's Charter of Worms becomes the first imperial charter issued directly to the citizens without episcopal intervention. Burgos, Spain becomes an episcopal see (until 1574). Parma Cathedral (begun 1058) finishes construction; consecrated by Pope Paschal II in 1116. Births: German king (1087-98) and Italian king (1093-98) Conrad II of Italy (d. 1101) on Feb. 12 in Hersfeld Abbey; 2nd son of HRE Henry IV (1050-1106) and Bertha of Savoy (Turin) (1051-87); not to be confused with HRE Conrad II (990-1039). Scottish Canmore king (1098-1107) Edgar I (d. 1107); 4th son of Malcolm III Canmore and Margaret Aetheling. French count of champagne (1093-1125) Hugh I (d. 1125; 3rd son of Count Theobald III of Blois and Adele of Valois, countess of Bar-sur-Aube; brother of Count Odo V of Troyes (-1093).
1075 On June 9 the First Battle of Langensalza sees forces sent by HRE Henry IV kick rebel Saxon prince butt on the Unstrut River; too bad, on June 10 Henry's man Ernest the Brave (b. 1027) bravely and earnestly dies of his wounds, and his son Leopold II (the Fair) (1050-95) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1095), ruling from Gars Am Kamp in Lower Austria, and later wisely taking HRE Henry IV's side in the investiture dispute, like his daddy did; meanwhile HRE Henry IV ignores German bishops and sanctions Pope Gregory VII's confirmation, but after he defeats the Saxon rebels he flops, as the abolition of lay investiture (secular princes granting bishops and abbots the lands constituting their benefices along with the political rights and duties they exercise, incl. when the benefices are sold and free election of bishops is denied) would reduce his power in Germany, and begins the Investiture Dispute (Controversy) (Contest) (ends 1122), one of the biggest church-state struggles in the Middle Ages; Gregory VII opens play by condemning the practice under penalty of excommunication, issuing the 27-point bull Dictatus Papae, formalizing the claims of world dominance of the Roman Catholic Church and the supreme authority of the popey pope pope pope over both church and state; no slouch himself, William I of England defies the pope and continues to control the appointment of English bishops and abbots, allowing no pope to be acknowledged without his consent, and forbidding the entrance of papal legates or letters into England without royal permission - love isn't enough to keep them together? Toledo takes Cordoba from Seville with the help of Castilian troops. William I uses the fyrd (nat. fighting force) successfully against a group of rebel Norman vassals. The Irish wrest control of Dublin from the Danes for the last time. Caliph (since 1031) Al-Qaim (b. 1001) dies, and Al-Muqtadi (1056-94) succeeds him as Abbassid caliph in Baghdad (until 1094). Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126) becomes king of Kalyani in S India, marrying the daughter of Chola Virarajendra and presiding over the final extinction of Buddhism by Hindus. Vietnamese troops attack China, defeating the Song navy and sacking several towns; meanwhile Vietnam institutes its first exams for bureaucratic office, and found a nat. Confucian college next year, but abandon the exams in 1077 when the students prove they need more time (and/or the Chinese invasion stops them)? The Kingdom of Mapungubwe ("place of jackals") in S Africa at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo Rivers S of Great Zimbabwe is founded, becoming the first class-based social system in S Africa, lasting until 1220 and helping give rise to the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. The bishopric of Sarum near Salisbury, England is founded (ends 1220); their form of the Latin rite becomes the prevalent form in England before the Reformation. Architecture: St. James' Cathedral in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain is begun in the reign of Alfonso VI of Castile under new bishop Diego Pelaez after it becomes an episcopal see to house the alleged remains of you know who discovered in 814 on one of the main stops on the pilgrimage route (finished 1128). The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Chichester, West Sussex, England is founded after the bishop of Selsey transfers there. Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway (250 mi. N of Oslo) is founded over the tomb of St. Olaf II, becoming the site of Norwegian coronations. Births: Norman First Crusade leader (prince of Antioch and Galilee) Tancred (d. 1112); son of Emma of Apulia (sister of Bohemund of Taranto); maternal grandson of Robert Guiscard and 1st wife Alberada of Buonalbergo. German Saxon king (1125-37) and HRE (1133-7) Lothair (Lothar) III/II of Luxembourg (d. 1137) in June; son of Count Gebhard of Supplinburg, born a few days after he was KIA on June 9. English (Norman) chronicler (Benedictine monk) Orderic Vitalis (d. 1142) in Atcham, Shropshire; eldest son of French priest Odeler of Orleans. Deaths: Arab Abbasid caliph (1031-75) Al-Qa'im (b. 1001) on Apr. 2. German archbishop of Cologne (1056-75) St. Anno II (b. 1010) on Dec. 4 in Siegburg Abbey. Austrian margrave Ernest the Brave (b. 1027) on June 10; KIA in the First Battle of Langensalza.
1076 In Jan. Pope Gregory VII is condemned by the German bishops at the Synod of Worms, and retaliates by dethroning and excommunicating Henry IV; Boleslaus I the Bold (1038-81) resumes the title of king of Poland with the pope's approval for supporting him against the nasty old Germans. On Feb. 26 (Feb. 27?) duke (since 1069) Godfrey IV (b. ?), of Lower Lorraine is assassinated in Vlaardingen while "answering the call of nature", leaving his duchy to Godfrey of Bouillon, which HRE Henry IV overrules, giving it to his son Conrad; Godfrey gets it in 1087. On Mar. 21 Robert I Capet (b. 1011) dies, and since his first son Hugh died at a young age, and his 2nd son Henry also died, Henry's son Hugh I (1057-93) succeeds as duke of Burgundy (until 1079). Ramon Berenguer I (b. 1024) dies, and his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II (the Towhead) (1053-82) and Berenguer Ramon II (the Fratricide) (1053-97) become joint counts of Barcelona. Duke Godfrey of Lower Lorraine is assassinated. After the emir of Toledo dies, Seville takes Cordoba back from his son al-Qadir. Aragon beguns ruling Navarre (until 1134). Robert Guiscard makes Salerno the capital of his dukedom of Puglia. Cambrai in N France becomes a commune. The Almoravid rulers of the Maghreb defeat the gold-rich kingdom of Ghana ("warrior king") in W Africa, but are later forced to withdraw by the Soninkes. The Turkomans conquer S Syria incl. Damascus, displacing the Arabs for the next two cents. The Chinese send a military force into Vietnam, which withdraws next year, causing several years of border talks. Anantavarman Codaganga (-1147) creates a kingdom in India from the Ganges River to the Godavari River, and builds the Temple of Jagannath (Vishnu) in Puri (S of Cuttack); it is initially open to all Hindu castes, then barred to 15 of them. Births: Russian grand prince of Kiev (1125-32) Mstislav (Theodore) I Vladimirovich the Great (d. 1132) (AKA Waldemar of Ruthenia) on June 1 in Turov; eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh (1053-1125) and Gytha of Wessex (-1107), daughter of Harold II of Wessex; known as Harald in the Norse Sagas. Deaths: French duke of Burgundy (1032-76) Robert I Capet (b. 1011) on Mar. 21. Italian marchioness Beatrice of Bar (b. 1017) on Apr. 18. Spanish count of Barcelona (1035-76) Ramon Bereguer I the Old (b. 1024).
1077 Give me love, give me love, give me peace on Earth? A Jan. a faction of German nobles elects antiking duke of Swabia (1057-79) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (1025-80) (brother-in-law of Henry IV) with the approval of Pope Gregory VII's legates, but before the pope confirms him, in Jan. excommunicated HRE Henry IV goes as a penitent to Canossa Castle near Parma in Reggio Emilia, Italy and stands for three days in the courtyard bareheaded and barefooted awaiting an audience with the Christlike-not papa, who grants him absolution on his knees in return for abandoning all claims to the right of investiture of bishops, causing the phrase "Going to Canossa" to be coined by Bismarck in the 1870s; a civil war begins (ends 1080), in which Henry IV is supported by the towns, banning duke Welf I/IV (until 1096) et al. for backing Rudolf; meanwhile deposed Prague bishop Jaromir, now an ardent backer of HRE Henry IV becomes his chancellor under the name Gebhard. On Mar. 19 Norman monk (Lanfranc's chamberlain) Gundulf (Gundulph) (-1108) is consecrated as bishop of Rochester, England (until Mar. 7, 1108), going on to display his prowess in building castles in Rochester, Colchester, and London. On Apr. 25 Geza I (b. 1040) dies, and his brother (St.) Laszlo (László) (Ladislas) I Herman (1040-95), later patron saint of military men and exiles becomes Arpad king of Hungary (until 1095), backing the pope in his conflicts with the HRE, while restoring the prosperity and order of St. Stephen I. Mikhail of Serbia is crowned by a papal legate. William I the Conqueror's eldest son Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) (short hose, because he's short?) asks for the rule of Normandy and Maine, and when daddy refuses, he rebels and attempts to seize Rouen, then flees to Gerberoi (until 1080). Corsica becomes subject to the Holy See, which appoints admins. from Pisa, pissing-off Pisa's rival Genoa. Alfonso VI the Brave of Leon and Castile bravely proclaims himself "emperor of all Hispania", and shocks his people shitless by importing 10K Arab-speaking and Arab-dressing Mozarab Christian settlers from al-Andalus into the Ebro Valley. Suleiman I ibn Qutulmish (Kutalmish) (-1082) founds the Seljuk Turkish Sunni Muslim Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor) (modern-day Turkey) (ends 1307), named after Rome, since the Muslims called the Byzantines Romans and they were moving into their territory; the capital moves around between Iznik (until 1097), Konya, Kayseri, and Sivas; they eventually control most of C and W Anatolia, incl. the Analya-Alanya shoreline in S Anatolia on the Mediterrean coast and the territory of Sinop in N Anatolia on the Black Sea. After helping Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I retake territory in N Greater Khorasan from the Ghaznavids, former Turkish slave Anushtegin (Anush Tigin) Gharchai (d. 1097) is appointed gov. of Khwarezm, founding the imperial Persianate Sunni Muslim Khwarazmian (Khwarezmid) (Khwarzemsha) Dynasty, which rules parts of Greater Iran (until 1231). St. Bruno (1030-1101) makes a vow to abandon the world, going on to found the Carthusian Order (Order of St Bruno) on Aug. 15, 1084. Architecture: The first English Cluniac Monastery at Lewes in East Sussex, England is built. St. Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire, England is begun (ends 1115). Births: Scottish king (1107-24) Alexander I (the Fierce) (the Strong) (d. 1124) in Dunfermline; 5th son of Malcolm III Canmore and his 2nd wife Margaret Aetheling; first not given an Anglo-Saxon name, but then, not a Scottish one either, but Greek? Persian Qadiriyya Sufi order founder Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (d. 1166) in Nif. Deaths: Persian Sufi scholar Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery (b. 990) in Lahore, Pakistan; leaves Kash Al Mahjub ("Unveiling the Veiled"); his Data Durbar Mausoleum in Lahore becomes a center of Sufism. Persian historian Abolfazl Beyhagi (b. 995). Hungarian king (1074-7) Geza I (b. 1040) on Apr. 25. Burmese king Anawrata.
1078 On Jan. 7 after revolting against Michael VII and obtaining Seljuk troops to aid him in marching to Nicaea, Byzantine gen. Nicephorus III Botaniates (Nikephoros III Botaneiates) (1002-81) proclaims himself emperor, which is ratified by the aristocracy and clergy, causing Michael VII to abdicate and enter a monastery, then on Mar. 24 he enters Constantinople in triumph and is crowned by Patriarch Kosmas I as Roman Byzantine emperor #152 (until Apr. 1, 1081); Michael VII's wife (since 1065) Maria of Alania (Martha Bagrationi of Georgia) (1053-1118) marries the new emperor; a number of army revolts break out, all suppressed by Gen. Alexius Comnenus - the death of Michael's teacher Psellos has something to do with it? On Oct. 3 prince (since 1054) Yziaslav I (b. 1024) dies, and his brother Vsevolod (Vsvelod) Andrew) I (1030-93) becomes grand prince of Kiev (until Apr. 13, 093). Seville takes Valencia from Toledo, causing Al-Qadir of Toledo to be forced from the city by a coup, and his opponents acknowledge Al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz (in SW Spain) as their new ruler. The Almohavids take Tangier; Ceuta hangs on as the last Zanata outpost because its fleet can supply it from the sea. Odo of Lagery (future Pope Urban II) becomes cardinal bishop of Ostia. Pope Gregory VII prohibits Jews from holding offices in Christendom - Christ might get pissed? Architecture: In order to overawe the pesky Anglo-Saxon dogs, William I the Big Bad Conqueror orders the construction of the Tower of London outside the E wall of the city of London on the N Middlesex bank of the Thames River by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester as a "symbol of his power, a fortress for his defense, and a prison for his enemies"; it takes 30+ years to complete; a prophesy that when the ravens abandon it the English monarchy is supposed to fall causes seven clipped ravens to be kept there; the 90-ft. White Tower (royal residence) is built with stones from Normandy, with three square and one round turret (NE corner), and a single 2nd-story entrance on the S side reached by an external staircase; the jail is on the top, so that anybody attempting to jump better think twice; it contains a garderobe, toilet stalls facing away from the city; William I also builds Windsor (OE "river bank with a winch") Castle 22 mi. W of London on a chalky outcrop overlooking the Thames River, replacing a royal Saxon residence. Births: Arab Abbasid caliph #28 (1094-1118) Al-Mustazhir 9d. 1118); son of al-Muqtadi; father of al-Mustarshid and al-Muqtafi. Moroccan Muslim Berber reformer Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart (d. 1130) in Igiliz, Sous; founder of the Almohad sect and dynasty, considered as the Mahdi. Deaths: French baron Norman William "the Seemly" Sinclair, 1st Baron of Roslyn (b. 1028) in Northumnberlandshire, England (KIA). Russian grand prince of Kiev (1054) Iziaslav I (b. 1024) on Oct. 3 in Nezhatyna Nyva.
1079 On Apr. 11 Boleslaus II the Bold (d. 1083) executes (St.) Stanislaus of Szczepanow (b. 1030), bishop of Cracow, for which he is excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII, causing him to abandon the throne, seeking exile in Hungary; his brother Prince Ladislaus (Ladislas) (Wladislaw) (Vladislav) I Herman (1040-1102), son of Casimir I the Restorer becomes a lazy ruler of Poland, and never crowns himself king - I think it's going to be sad, I think it's going to be today? Philip I of France defeats William I of Normandy. Malcolm III reneges on his 1072 oaths and takes advantage of the apparent collapse of Norman power in N England to raid and sack Northumbria. Hugh I retires to become a monk (later working his way up to abbot of the Benedictine abbey in Cluny, France), and his brother Eudes I Borel (the Red) (1058-1103) becomes duke of Burgundy (until 1103), continuing the robber baron tradition. Armenian King Gagik II is murdered in Cybistra Castle, and his body hung over the castle wall. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (-1095) becomes Seljuk sultan of Damascus (until 1095), going on to conquer S Syria from the Turkomans, then kick the Fatimids out until they only have a thin strip of coastal Palestine. The Battle of Cabra sees Rodrigo Diaz (Díaz) (El Cid) defeat emir Abd Allah of Granada, who is helped by Castilian Count García Ordonez (Ordońez) (-1108) of Najera; El Cid is entrusted by Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile with collection of tribute from Seville and Cordoba. The Battle of Coria sees King Alfonso VI of Castile-Leon defeat Al-Mutawwakkil, Muslim emir of Badajoz, who renounces control of Toledo, allowing al-Qadir to be reinstated; a Leonese garrison is established at Zorita, E of Toledo. The Battle of Sky Hill helps Godred Crovan (Gael. "white hand") (-1095) AKA King Orry become king of the Sudreys (Isle of Man and the Hebrides). Count Frederick of Biiren (-1094) is granted the dukedom of Swabia by HRE Henry IV, along with his daughter Agnes in marriage; too bad, it takes him 20 years to secure possession of er, Swabia; Frederick's son Frederick builds the first castle at Hohenstaufen (Staufen), founding the Hohenstaufen Dynasty. Architecture: Alfonso VI and Queen Constance of Castile build the Monastery of Adelelmus in Burgos, Spain for St. Adelelmus (Aleaunie) (-1100), a rootin' tootin' military-trained Benedictine monk from Poitou, who becomes its abbot and helps with the fighting against the Moors on the side. The Romanesque (Norman Gothic) Winchester Cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England is begun by Bishop Walkelin (Walchelin) (-1098) (consecrated on Apr. 8, 1093), dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Swithun, replacing the Old Minister, founded in 642, becoming one the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the longest nave and greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe. Births: Spanish queen of Leon, Castile and Galicia (1109-26) Urraca (the Reckless) (La Temeraria) (d. 1126 in Apr. in Burgos; eldest and only surviving child of Alfonso VI of Leon and 2nd wife Constance of Burgundy; wife of Raymond of Burgundy and Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre; mother of Sancha Raimundez and Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile. English queen consort (1100-1118) Matilda (Edith) of Scotland (d. 1118) in Dunfermline, Scotland; daughter of Malcolm III and St. Margaret; wife (1100-) of Henry I; mother of empress Matilda (1102-67) and William Adelin (1103-20). French conceptualist theologian-philosopher-lover (misunderstood and ahead of his time?) Peter Abelard (Pierre le Pallet) (d. 1142) in Pallet (near Nantes), Brittany; son of a noble Breton family; pupil of nominalist founder Roscellinus; follower of Johannes Scotus Erigena, and precursor of St. Thomas Aquinas, leaning toward Aristotle over Plato; rises to #1 teacher in Paris, until he gets in the pants of Heloise (1101-64) in 1117 - Peter Everhard from Nantes gets hot for Heloise's pantes? Deaths: Greek Byzantine Platonist philosopher Michael Psellos (Psellus) (b. 1018); leaves De Daemonibus (spurious?).
|England||William I the Conqueror (1026-87)||Dec. 25, 1066||Sept. 9, 1087|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||Apr. 25, 1058||Nov. 13, 1093|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||Aug. 5, 1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||Oct. 5, 1056||Dec. 31, 1105|
|Papacy||Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (1023-85)||Apr. 22, 1073||May 25, 1085|
1080 In Mar. Pope Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes HRE Henry IV again, but in June a synod of German and N Italian prelates deposes Gregory VII, electing reformer bishop (former friend of Gregory VII) Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna as Antipope Clement III (1025-1100) (until Sept. 8, 1100). On Oct. 14 the Battle of the Elster on the Weisse-Elster River is a D for Rudolf of Swabia (b. 1125), who loses his right hand then dies from an abdominal wound in Merseburg on Oct. 15; his relative Frederick I von Staufen (1050-1105) becomes duke of Swabia (until 1105), becoming the first Swabian ruler of the House of Hohenstaufen. Canute IV "the Saint" "the Holy" (1043-86) becomes king of Denmark (until July 10, 1086). Duke William Geoffrey of Guienne deposes Duke Bernard d'Armagnac of Gascony to the S, and combines the two duchies into the new Duchy of Aquitaine (Aquitania) in SW France. William I sends his eldest son Robert III Curthose to subdue Malcolm III, but they end up holding a conference in Falkirk, renewing the terms of the 1072 treaty; the Normans claim a V, but actually Robert's hasty bldg. of a new castle at the seaport of Newcastle (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) in N England (modern pop. 290K/880K) as the new county seat of Northumberland shows that Malcolm has extended his rule far S into Bernicia (between the Forth and the Tees Rivers); not to be confused with Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, WC England (modern pop. 80K); William I sieges Curthose in Gerberoi, but his wife Matilda of Flanders (Robert's mother) persuades him to make peace, and he remains in line for England and Normandy on his daddy's death in 1087, but daddy's got a surprise waiting. After refusing to administer the pagan sacrifices at the Temple of Uppsala, Inge I is exiled by his brother-in-law Blot-Svend (Blot-Sweyn) ("a swain wlling to perform the blot or pagan sacrifice), who becomes king of Sweden (until 1083). The kingdom of Lesser (Little) (Cilician) Armenia (Armenian Cilicia) in Cilicia of displaced Armenians under Prince Reuben (Roupen) (Rupen) I (1025-95) ("Lord of the Mountains") declares independence from the Byzantine Empire; it lasts almost three cents. (until 1375). By this year the commune of Saint-Quentin in N France is chartered. About this time rabbits are introduced by the Normans to Britain - no rabbit holes before the 11th cent.? Architecture: Peveril Castle is built on the Devil's Arse above the town of Castleton in England on land appropriated from Saxon dogs Gernebern and Hundline. Bishop Osmund of Salisbury builds a Norman castle in Devizes in SW England, originally known as the Castrum ad Divisas (castle at the boundaries). The Gothic Norman York Minster in England is begun by new archbishop Thomas of Bayeux (finished 1100). Nonfiction: The Toledan Table of Star Positions is compiled by Muslim astronomers in Spain. Art: About this time the Byzantic mosaic Christ Pantocrator (Almighty) is constructed in Daphni, Greece. Births: Portuguese queen (1112-28) Teresa of Leon (d. 1130); half-sister of Queen Urraca of Leon-Castile (1079-1126); mother of Afonso I (1109-85). German Christian bishop (founder of the Norbertine Order) (St.) Norbert of Xanten (d. 1134) in Xanten (near Wesel), Cologne; feast day: June 6. English #1 scientist Adelard of Bath (d. 1152). Scottish Canmore king (1124-53) David I (the Saint) (d. 1153); 6th and last son of Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93) and 2nd wife Margaret Aetheling (1045-93). English "Historia Anglorum" historian (archdeacon of Huntingdon) Henry of Huntingdon (d. 1160); grows up in the wealthy court of Robert Bloet of Lincoln. Deaths: German duke of Swabia (1057-79) Rudolf of Rheinfelden (b. 1025) on Oct. 15 in Hohenmoisen, Saxony; dies from wounds suffered at the Oct. 14 Battle of Elster.
1081 On Jan. 18 the Battle of Pedroso between Braga and the Cavado River sees Garcia II of Galicia suppress the rebellion of his Portuguese subjects under Nuno II Mendes, who is KIA; in Apr. Garcia II is captured by his brother Sancho II of Castile, but purchases his release and retires to the court of his tributary Al-Mutamid of Seville, and Galicia is divided between his brothers Sancho II and Alfonso VI. The Ronald Reagan of the Byzantines pumps up the defense budget while promising voodoo economics? On Apr. 1 after Byzantine gen. Alexius Comnenus revolts, seizes and plunders Constantinople with a force of mercenaries, and overthrows emperor (since Mar. 24, 1078) Nicephorus III (b. 1002), who retires to a monastery and dies on Dec. 10, he is crowned Roman Byzantine emperor #153 Alexius I Comnenus (Alexios I Komnenos) (1048-1118) (until Aug. 15, 1118), refounding the Comnenus Dynasty and turning it around, beginning the Comnenian (Komnenian) Restoration (ends 1185); he goes on to appeal to the pope to help stem the Seljuk tide, as everybody can see that the supposedly moribund divided Muslim empire not only has risen again but seems on the brink of destroying them all, leading to the First Crusade in 1096-9; the military aristocracy finally takes over the empire and promises big Vs in years to come, while Alexius I reforms the finances and uses the surplus to buy off his enemies? Rodrigo Diaz, Count of Vivar ("El Cid") (1043-99) (who is called El Campeador, from the Latin "campi doctus", meaning doctor of military arts) and his trusty warhorse Babieca (Bavieca) (Sp. "stupid") are exiled by Alfonso VI from Castile, and he enters the service of the Moorish ruler of Zaragoza. The Diet of Tulln is held, and Leopold II of Austria swtiches to the pope's side in the investitute dispute after his wife Itha and Bishop Altmann of Passau talk him into it, which pisses off HRE Henry IV, who desposes him and gives Austria to Vratislav II of Bohemia, who then goes on and defeats Leopold at the Battle of Mailberg; after kissing up, Leopold gets his territory back, minus a little in S Moravia. Constantine (Konstantin) Bodin (d. 1101) founds a Serbian state in Zeta (Montenegro). At the Lenten Synod, Pope Gregory VII reiterates his excommunication of HRE Henry IV, who marches into Italy - love me tender, love me right, take me to your heart? Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (1016-85), who came to Italy as a pilgrim and began his career as a brigand in Calabria gathers a Norman army which contains a contingent of Sicilian Muslims, and crosses from Brindisi to Epirus in the reverse direction to that of Pyrrhus in the -270s, laying siege to the salad-spritzer stronghold of Durazzo (Dyracchium) in Albania, threatening the Byzantine EWmpire in the Balkans; meanwhile his brother Roger Guiscard (1031-1101) (later Roger I of Sicily) continues with the final conquest of Sicily (ends 1090). Venice negotiates a commercial treaty with the Byzantines, who grant Venice duty-free trade throughout their empire. The Castilians capture the Moorish town (since 714) of Guadalajara in C Spain. Architecture: Bamberg Cathedral in Bavaria is partially destroyed by fire (rebuilt 1111). The rebuilding of Mainz Cathedral begins. Science: Muslim astronomer Ibrahim al-Sahdi of Valencia builds the first known Celestial Globe, made of brass, 81.5 in. in diam. with 47 constellations and 1,015 stars along with magnitudes. Births: French Capetian king (1108-1137) ("the king of St. Denis") Louis VI (Le Gros) (the Fat) (the Wide-Awake) Capet (d. 1137) on Dec. 1 in Paris; son of Philip I (1052-1108) and 1st wife Bertha of Holland (1055-94) (daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and Gertrude of Saxony, daughter of Duke Bernard II of Saxony); father of Louis VII (1120-80), Archbishop Henry of Rheims (1121-75), Count Robert of Dreux (1123-88), Countess Constance of Toulouse (1124-76), Archdeacon Philip of Paris (1125-61), and Peter of Courtenay (1126-83); his mommy produces him after nine years of marriage by getting hermit Arnoul to bang, er, pray for her, and he gets to name him. German Salian king #4 (last) HRE (1106-25) Henry V (d. 1125); son of HRE Henry IV (1050-1106). French abbot of St. Denis (1122-) Suger (d. 1151); friend of Louis VI and Louis VII. English queen (1135-52) Matilda (Maud) of Boulogne (d. 1152); daughter of Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland and 2nd wife St. Margaret Aetheling; wife of Henry I; related through her mother to Edmund Ironside and Alfred the Great. Deaths: Roman Byzantine emperor (1078-81) Nichephorus III Botaniates (b. 1002) on Dec. 10 in Constantinople; dies in the monastery of St. Mary Peribleptos. French archdeacon St. Bernard of Menthon (b. 1020) in June in Novara, Italy.
1082 Robert Guiscard defeats the Byzantines allied with the Venetians (bought with extensive trade privileges) at the Battle of Pharsalus, and captures Durazzo, but is recalled to Italy, putting an end to the first Norman attack upon the Byzantine empire. The Battle of Almenar sees Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) lead the army of Al-Mutamin of Zaragoza and defeat a combined army of the kings of Valencia (Al-Mundhir), Lerida (Al-Hayib), Aragon (Sancho Ramirez), and count Berenguer Ramon II of Barcelona, capturing the latter, and earning the title "El Cid"; when Emir Al-Mutamid of Seville pays his tribute in debased coinage, Alfonso VI leads an expedition into Muslim territory; meanwhile on Dec. 5 Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead (b 1053) is killed while hunting in the woods, causing everybody to blame it on his twin brother Berenguer Ramon II and begin calling him "the Fratricide"; RB2's infant son Ramon Berenguer III (the Great) (1082-1131) becomes count of Barcelona, Girona, and Osona (until 1131), sharing rule with Berenguer Ramon II until 1097. Architecture: The Benedictine Bermondsey Abbey in Southwark, London is founded by Cluniac monks, later becoming known for alleged paranomal activity. Births: Spanish queen of Castile and Leon (1109-26) Urraca I (d. 1126); daughter of Alfonso VI (1037-1109) and 2nd wife Constance of Burgundy (1046-93) (daughter of Robert I of Burgundy). Spanish count of Barcelona (1082-1131) and count of Provence (1112-31) Ramon Berenguer (Raymond Berengar) III (the Great) (d. 1131) in Rodez; son of Ramon Berenguer III the Towhead (1053-82); nephew of Berenguer Ramon II; father of Ramon Berenguer IV (1113-62) and Berengar Raymond I of Provence (1115-44). French abbot of St Denis (1122-55) Suger (d. 1155). Deaths: Irish monk-chronicler Marianus Scotus (Maelbrigte) (b. 1028) on Dec. 22 in Mainz; leaves Chronicon, a universal history from Creation to the year 1082. Persian king Kai Kavus ibn Iskandar (b. ?); leaves Qabus Nama (Nameh) (Advice to Rulers) (from an old king to his favorite son). Spanish count of Barcelona (1076-82) Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead (b. 1053) on Dec. 5.
1083 In June-July the Almoravids take Ceuta in N Africa on the S end of the Strait of Gibraltar, last outpost of the Zanata, and execute the ruler Al-Muizz ibn Suqut; during the summer Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile reaches Tarifa overlooking the Straits of Gibraltar, and partially reconciles with El Cid. On Nov. 2 William I's 4'2" wife Matilda of Flanders (b. 1031) dies, causing him to turn tyrannical? A Norman army led by Robert Guiscard's eldest son Bohemund I de Hauteville (1058-1111) (later prince of Taranto and Antioch) defeats the Byzantines, and conquers all of Macedonia as far as the Vardar River, but a guerrilla resistance by anti-Roman Catholics along with mercenary Seljuk cavalry halts their advance at the Battle of Larissa. HRE Henry IV arrives at the gates of Rome, gives up on reconciliation, and sieges it, causing Pope Gregory VII to call on his Norman allies - five foot two, eyes of blue, has anybody seen my pope? Inge I returns to power in Sweden (until 1105). St. Stephen and his son St. Emeric of Hungary are canonized together - the century is a V for those not disappointed by Christ's failure to return because they rule more of the world now? Births: Spanish Jewish poet-philosopher Jehuda (Judah) ben Samuel (Shemuel) Halevy (Halevi) (d. 1141) (b. 1075?) in Tudela, Navarre (Toledo, Spain?). Arab Muslim Maliki scholar Qadi Ayyad ('Iyad) ibn Musa al-Yahsubi (d. 1149) in Gibraltar. Greek "Alexiad" Byzantine princess and historian (first female historian?) Anna Comnena (Komnene) (d. 1153) on Dec. 1 in Constantinople; eldest daughter of Alexius I Comnenus (1048-1118). Deaths: English queen Matilda of Flanders (b. 1031) on Nov. 2; bured in l'Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy. Polish king Boleslav II the Bold (b. 1038).
1084 A plague ("great sickness") strikes Britain. On Mar. 21 HRE Henry IV captures Rome and imprisons Pope Gregory VII in Castel del Sant'Angelo; on Mar. 24 Guibert of Ravenna is enthroned as Pope Clement III at St. Peter's, crowning Henry IV as HRE; Henry IV and Clement III then invade Apulia and Tuscany, while Robert Guiscard's Norman army sacks Rome, causing a great fire, to the delight of their contingent of Sicilian Muslims; the horrors of the sacking cause Gregory VII to leave Rome with his allies; the five great imperial Roman Forums (Original, Caesar's, Augustus', Nerva's, Trajan's), which had survived all these cents. (with appreciable deterioration) are pretty much destroyed, and the remains partially buried, with the few habitable bdgs. turned into fortresses; Henry IV has the last laugh in the Investiture Controversy, allowing monastic brewing rights to be ignored or revoked and court brewhouses (Hofbrauhauses) to be established to cash in on some of that yummy money, after which many monasteries switch to wine growing, benefitting from the Medieval Warm Period (950-1250). In fall after the Muslim Taifa kings ask his help in reconquering it from North African Muslim fundamentalist Morabitun (Almoravid) leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1061-1106), with the soundbyte "It's better to pasture camels than herd swine", the Castilians under king (since 1072) Alfonso VI the Brave (1037-1109) begin the Siege of Toledo in C Spain (ends May 25, 1085). The Muslim army of Zaragoza under El Cid defeats the Aragonese. Seljuk sultan Suleyman of Rum (d. 1086) captures Antioch, which had been under Byzantine rule since 969 (until 1098). Hoel II of Cornwall dies, and his son Alan IV Fergant (the Younger) (1063-1119) becomes duke of Brittany (until 1112), becoming the first to stand up to the claims of the dukes of Normandy and counts of Anjou and stabilize the region. Kyanzittha (-1113) becomes ruler of Bagan in Burma, synthesizing a number of ethic groups and cultures and creating a distinctive Burmese style. St. Bruno (1030-1101) founds the super-strict (half green and half yellow?) Caruthsian Order of monks in Chartreuse, France, becoming known for their green-yellow alcoholic liqueur Chartreuse made from 130 plants, first distilled in 1737. Births: Norman count of Flanders (1119-27) Charles the Good (d. 1127) in Odense, Denmark; half-brother of William II of Apulia (1095-1127). English Norman knight Richard Fitz Gilbert, 2nd Earl de Clare (d. 1136) in Hertford; son of Earl Gilbert de Clare (-1117) and Adeliza de Clermont; father of Earl Roger de Clare (1115-73). French duke of Burgundy (1103-43) Hugh II (d. 1143); son of Eudes I the Red (1058-1103).
1085 On May 25 Toledo is recaptured from the Muslims (who held it since 711) by Alfonso VI the Brave of Castile-Leon, who brings the Cistercian Order into Spain, with Gascon-born Bernard de Sedirac (d'Agen) (Le Sauvetat) (1050-1125) of France as the first archbishop of Toledo next year, and first primate of Spain in 1088, ending the isolation of the church of Leon-Castile from Sad Sack Rome; Muslims are allowed to remain and worship in their mosques, while Euros flock in to read books in their libraries; the capture immensely advances Christian knowledge of astronomy and revives the theory of the sphericity of the Earth, laying the foundations of the Renaissance; the Christians build a bizarre Hybrid Church of Toledo, with Arabic mosque architecture, complete with Arab inscriptions reading "Peace and Prosperity". On May 25 Pope (since 1073) Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (b. 1023) dies as the guest of the Normans in Salerno; the Normans then defeat the combined Byzantine and Venetian fleets at the naval Battle of Corfu; Robert Guiscard dies, leaving his property to his youngest son Roger Guiscard (1031-1101), causing his other son Bohemund Guiscard (1054-1111) to quarrel and abandon the conquest of the Balkans. The Bohemian national character is born? On June 15 Bohemian duke (since 1061) Vratislaus (Wratislaus) (Vratislav) II (-1092) becomes king #1 of Bohemia (until Jan. 14, 1092); too bad, the title is a royal grant from the HRE and is not hereditary; Moravian bishop John, whose investiture got Bohemian duke Vratislaus II's brother Jaromir of Prague deposed dies, and a reichstag convened in Mainz suppresses the Moravian See and reunites it to Prague at Jaromir's insistence; Vratislaus, pissed off at Henry IV over the loss of Meissen restores it, and raises his chaplain Wecel to bishop Andrew I of Olomouc, pissing his rival brother Jaromir off bigtime. In Dec. after "mickle deep speech" with the great council, William I sends royal commissioners to each English county to compile The Domesday Book (Book of Winchester) (2 vols.), a census and survey of land ownership to assess property and establish a tax base in an attempt to increase the old Danegeld tax on land, which he restores on the theory that all land now belongs to the Conqueror, and Englishmen who accept his rule must repurchase it; when completed with the help of hundreds of juries it contains records for 13,418 settlements in the English counties S of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the current border with Scotland); "So narrowly did he commission them that there was not a yard of land... nor even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine, that was not set down in his writ"; the book is used as the final doom or judgment in all realty disputes; after William I imposes an 8 p.m. curfew to prevent fires, lays heavy taxes upon all commercial activity incl. the use of bridges and roads, confiscates all vaults in monasteries, and deposes and jails Anglo-Saxon nobles, some patriotic Anglo-Saxons hole-up in inaccessible places to continue the resistance for over a cent., incl. Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest? Salamanca is conquered from the Muslims by the Christians. HRE Henry IV decrees a Truce (Peace) of God in a vain attempt to stop all the feuds among his German nobles. Islam arrives in the Lake Chad area of Africa. Births: Turkish atabeg of Mosul (1127-46) (founder of the Zengid Dynasty) Imad ad-Din Zengi (Zenghi) (Zangi) (Zengui) (Zenki) (Zanki) (d. 1146). Seljuk sultan of Khorasan (1097-1118) and the Seljuk Empire (1118-57) Ahmad Sanjar (Turk. "Thruster") (Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik Shah) (d. 1157) in Sinjar; son of Malik Shah I (1055-1092); brother of Mahmud I, Barkiyaruq, Malik Shah II, and Bahram of Ghazna (1084-1157); nephew of Muhammad I. Deaths: Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard (b. 1016). German pope (1073-85) Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (b. 1023) on May 25 in Salerno, Apulia.
1086 The Almoravid Dynasty revives Muslim rule in Spain, only in a retro form? In the spring the Castilians under Alfonso VI siege Zaragoza, but call it off when the backward black fundamentalist Berber Almoravids (Al-Murabitun) (Al-Morabiton) (1040-1147) (backward horsemen from the W Sahara of the Lamtuna and Gudala tribes, known for riding to war wearing veils that only leave their eyes visible, who founded their capital of Marrakesh in 1062) heed a call from bi Abbadid (not Abbasid) ruler of Seville (1069-91) Al-Mutamid (Al-Mu'tamid) (1040-95) and land in the S; in June the 500-man Almoravid advance guard takes Algeciras, and the remaining 12K-20K soon follow, with al-Mutamid not realizing that their goal is to steal his kingdom until it's too late; the Castilians under Alvar Fanez (Fáńez) (Háńez) de Minaya (-1114) (El Cid's nephew and right-hand man) install Al-Qadir as emir of Valencia; on Oct. 23 the Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeat Alfonso VI at the Battle of Zalaca (Zallaqa) (Zagrajas) (Sagrajas) in Andalusia, killing 24K Christian soldiers and shipping their heads all over Andalusia and N Africa (Allah Akbar?); happy Tashfin returns to Morocco, while the Almoravids go on to conquer all of Spain between the Tagus and Ebro Rivers by 1090, thumping their Qurans and ending the Muslim high culture incl. science and art, descending Andalusia into pure retro science-hating head-lopping fundamentalist Muhammad darkness; in Dec. El Cid and Alfonso VI are finally reconciled; meanwhile 15-y.-o. William IX (the Troubador) (1071-1127), new duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and count of Poitou inherits some Muslim harem girls, finding out that they are like geishas and sing too, copying them and becoming the first troubadour - a Christian head is a Muslim tailfin? On May 24 after Gregory VIII recommends him on his deathbed, and he stalls until the papal throne has been vacant for 12 mo. minus 1 day, Desiderius (Dauphar) (Dauferio) (Dauferius) Epifani, eldest son of Prince Landulf V (-1033) of Benevento, abbot of Monte Cassino 8 mi. S of Rome is forcibly dragged to the Church of St. Lucy and invested in the red cope with the name of Pope (#157) Victor III (1026-87), starting a winnerless contest with Antipope (since 1080) Clement III (Guibert), who forces him to flee Rome on May 28, where he resigns in Terracina and retires to Monte Cassino for almost a year - look at the list, I made the list? HRE Henry IV rewards Vratislav II of Bohemia with a non-hereditary crown; the earliest mention of a beer brewery in Prague, Bohemia. Duke William of Normandy invades Brittany, causing Alan IV Fergant to flee, then make a peace by marrying William's daughter Constance of England (1061-90), but he poisons the 30-y.-o. bitch in 1090 to get her out of the way. The Bogomils in Thrace and Bulgaria begin the Bogomil Revolt against the Byzantines (ends 1091), supported by the Patzinaks and Cumans. Suleyman is KIA in a battle against Toutouch, brother of Seljuk ruler Malik Shah between Aleppo and Antioch, leaving his son David as sultan of Rum; the Seljuk (Seljuq) Dynasty takes over Aleppo (until 1260) and Damascus (until 1104). Sweyn II dies, and his son Olaf (Olof) I Svensson "Hunger" (1050-95) (brother of Canute IV) becomes king of Denmark (until Aug. 18, 1095), his reign marked by crop failures and famines, for which he is blamed in the Rev. Jerry Falwell way (judgment of God for being ungodly). Song Shen Zong dies, and Song Zhe Zong (-1101) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #7 of China. To prevent future dismemberment of his kingdom like is happening in France, William I the Conqueror summons all main landowners in England to the Concourse of Salisbury, where they have to pledge paramount fealty to him. The Anglo-Saxon town of Enfield (Einefeld) (Enfeld) (Enfild) (OE "ean" + "feld" = lamb + field) N of London is first mentioned, becoming a small market town in Middlesex County on the edge of the forest one day's walk from London. Architecture: Affligem Abbey 25 mi. NW of Brussels in Brabant, Belgium is dedicated, becoming the #1 monastery in the Duchy of Brabant. Births: Polish king (high duke) (1102-38) Boleslav (Boleslaw) III Krzywousty (the Wry-Mouthed) (d. 1138) on Aug. 20 in Plock; son of Wladyslaw I Herman (1042-1102) and Judith of Bohemia (daughter of Vratislaus II); husband of Salome von Berg-Schelklingen (1093-1144). Deaths: Chinese scholar-historian Ssu-ma Kuang (b. 1019). Chinese poet Wang-Anshi (b. 1021). Italian bishop St. Anselm II of Luca (b. 1036) on Mar. 18. Danish king (1080-6) Canute IV the Saint.
1087 On May 9 after accepting reelection in Capua under pressure of Prince Jordan I of Capua, and being restored to power in Rome by the Normans, who drive Antipope Clement III's soldiers out of St. Peter's Church, Victor III (b. 1026) is crowned pope, then returns to Monte Cassino on May 17 while his troops take the Vatican, the Leonine City, and Trastavere, then answers a summons from his ally Countess Matilda of Tuscany to return to Rome, only to see the antipapal forces take St. Peter's Church back in late June, causing him to withdraw to Monte Cassino again; in Aug. a synod in Benevento renews Clement III's excommunication along with lay investiture, and proclaims a Crusade against the Saracens of N Africa; too bad, Pope (since 1086) Victor III (b. 1026) takes sick and dies on Sept. 16 - not even a pope can be in two places at the same time? On May 30 Conrad II of Italy (1074-1101), 2nd son of HRE Henry IV and Bertha of Savoy (Turin), and brother of future HRE Henry IV is crowned Salian king of Germany in Aachen (until 1098); too bad, Matilda of Tuscany influences him to join the papal camp; Godfrey of Bouillon (1060-1100 becomes count of Lower Lorraine. The bigger they are the harder they fall? In early Sept. after he wars with Philip I of France over boundaries and tarries in Rouen, having become so fat the he can barely move, causing Philip I to joke that he is "lying in", and there will be a grand display of candles at his funeral, pissed-off William I the Conqueror (b. 1027) vows to light Philip some candles, and sieges and burns Mantes, 30 mi. W of Paris; too bad, as he is riding among the ruins his horse stumbles, and he is thrown against the iron pommel of his saddle and falls, suffering abdominal injuries, and dies on Sept. 9 at St. Gervais Convent near Rouen after having centralized the Norman govt. of England so well that it is not successfully invaded again until ?; the downside is the subjection of not only the Celts but the Anglo-Saxons, and the worse serfdom ever seen on the island; the upside is introduction of French language and culture along with feudalism, chivalry, heraldry, and vocabulary, and better org. of agriculture; on his deathbed William I the Morbidly Obese confesses his sins, makes his will, distributes treasure to the poor and the Church, and provides for the rebuilding of Mantes; all his sons except Henry desert his deathbed to fight for the succession, while his officers and servants abscond with all the spoils they can grab; he leaves his eldest son (known for being easy-going, a fatal flaw?) Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) the duchy of Normandy, his mean middle son William II Rufus (the Red) (1057-1100) (known for his ruddy complexion and/or red beard) (Normans like to claim that their complexions are never ruddy like the Anglo-Saxon dogs) the crown of England in exchange for good behavior to his anointer and minister Lanfranc, and his youngest son (a good clark?) Henry I Beauclerc (1068-1135) 5K lbs. of silver to buy land (so he won't be called Henry Lackland?); "Red King" William II Rufus (1057-1100) is crowned (22nd monarch of England) amid dissatisfaction by the Norman barons of England; after a rustic vassal carries his remains to the Abbaye aux Hommes in Caen, William I's well-lit funeral ceremony at Norman Romanesque-style St. Stephen's Church in Caen is halted when the bishops try to squeeze his rotting corpse into a narrow sarcophagus, and the stomach bursts, spewing royal stench over the mourners, who flee?; Malcolm II's son (by Ingibjorg) Donald, who had been brought up as a Norman since 1072 is released and knighted, and elects to remain in England; shortly after William II's coronation the London Fire of 1087 (other fires in 60, 675, 1666) burns down most of Norman London, incl. St. Paul's Cathedral; William I's Fleet River Palatine tower is destroyed, and part of the stone is used to rebuilt St. Paul's, which is rebuilt in Gothic style (consecrated 1240). Alfonso VI takes Aledo Fortress in the territory of Murcia, blocking the route from Seville and Granada to the E provinces, and sends El Cid to the Levant; in May French Crusaders enter Spain to fight the Almoravids, but as the Berbers had already returned to Africa, most of them return home. The Bogomil rebels defeat a large army led by Emperor Alexius I Comnenus at the Battle of Drystra (Dorostolon), which allows the Cumans to begin ravaging the E Balkan region all the way to the gates of Big C Constantinople. Philip I of France begins steadily supporting Duke Robert of Normandy against Anglo-Norman pressure. The Normans sack the Fatimid capital of Mahdiyya (founded 912). Seljuk Sultan Malikshah visits Baghdad. Emperor (since 1073) Shirakawa (b. 1053) retires to a monastery, and his son Horikawa (1079-1107) becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #73 (until 1107). Architecture: Archbishop Lanfranc begins the Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Middlesex, England 12 mi. WNW of London on Harrow on the Hill; Lord Byron later spends many hours flogging the bishop, er, daydreaming on a stone on its grounds. Rochester Castle in England is rebuilt for William II Rufus by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester (finished 1089). Nonfiction: Cardinal Deusedit (-1097), Church Canons (4 vols.); defends Church authority against secular encroachment. Anon., Koryo Tripitaka; an ed. of the Buddhist canon printed in Korea (Koryo) from wood blocks, after being started early in the cent. in supplication to forestall Khitan attacks. Births: Byzantine emperor #154 (1118-43) John II Komnenos (Comnenus) of Kalojoannes (d. 1143) on Sept. 13 in Constantinople; son of Alexios I Komnenos (1048-1118); brother of Anna Comnena (1083-1153); husband (1104-) of Irene of Hungary (1088-1034); father of Manuel I Komnenos (1118-80). Deaths: English Norman king #1 (1066-87) William I (b. 1026) on Sept. 9 in St. Gervais Convent near Rouen, France (thrown from his horse at the Battle of Mantes 30 mi. W of Paris); buried in Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen; when his pregnant-woman-fat body won't fit in the stone sacrophagus, the owner of the land under the church demands 60 shillings during the funeral (paid by his son Henry I Beauclerc); later a fire breaks out, and by modern times only his left femur remains in the tomb. Hungarian king (1063-74) Solomon I (b. 1053).
1088 Early in the year the Norman barons of England revolt in favor of Duke Robert of Normandy, and are put down by William II Rufus largely by the aid of his English subjects. On Mar. 12 Odo (Udo) (Otho) (Otto) of Lagery (Chatillon) (a Cluny Benedictine monk born in Chatillon-sur-Marne) is elected Pope (#158) Urban II (1042-99) (2nd French pope after Sylvester II in 999) (Pope Urban I was in 220-30), continuing the fight with Antipope Clement III, excommunicating him and defeating his forces in Rome, and reexcommunicating Henry IV over his demands about investiture; meanwhile pissed-off Prague bishop Jaromir comes to Rome to protest the new Moravian bishop Andrew I, then dies in Esztergom in N Hungary as he prepares to fight him, causing Jaromir to storm off to Rome to protest to Pope Urban II; being from the Champagne region of NE France, the pope declares that the wine of Champagne (Ay) is the best in the world. William IV leaves for the Holy Land, putting his brother Raymond IV of St. Gilles (1041-1105) (great-grandfather of Eleanor of Aquitaine via his daughter and her hubby William IX of Aquitaine) in charge as count of Toulouse (until 1105). Ibn Tashfin arrives back in Algeciras, and is joined by al-Mutamid of Seville and Abd Allah of Granada, plus support from Almeria and Murcia (but not the Emirs); the combined army sieges Aledo for 4 mo., but Ibn Tashufin returns to Africa unsuccessful; meanwhile El Cid places the Levant under his protection and collects tribute, then between this year and 1089 fails to rendezvous with Alfonso VI to lift the siege of Aledo, causing him to be exiled for a 2nd time. The reason that academics are full of bologna? After city laws impose collective punishments on each "nation" of foreigners, causing them to turn into collective bargaining groups and end up hiring scholars to school them, the U. of Bologna in Italy is founded to study the balogna of the law independent of the balogna of the ecclesiastical schools, becoming the oldest continuously-operating univ. in Europe (world?) ("Alma Mater Sudiorum"), becoming the first to use the term "universitas"; in 1158 it receives a royal charter from HRE Frederick I Barbarossa; in 1219 it becgins training physicians, competing against the U. of Padua; it goes on to produce Dante, Petrarch, Torquato Tasso, Vesalius, Galvani et al. as students and faculty; motto: "Petrus ubique pater legum Bononia mater" (St. Peter is the father of all places and Bologna the master of the law"). The Patzinak Turks, AKA Pechenegs settle between the DanubeRiver and the Balkans; their horse archers, giant warriors, and drinking of blood when out of water make for good gossip. Chinese painter-priest Chung-Jen flourishes about this time, painting with India ink on silk.
Architecture: The Monastery of St. John the Theologian is founded on the island of Patmos by Ioannis Christodoulos on land ceded to him by Byzantine Emperor Alexis I Comnenus - good place to have a revelation? Otranto Cathedral in Italy is consecrated. Nonfiction: Shen Kuo, Dream Pool Essays; first description of movable type printing, invented by Bi Sheng (990-1051) of Bianliang in the Northern Song Dynasty, using clay-fired typeface; if only they had an alphabet instead of the unwieldy Chinese characters, everybody would be speaking Chinese by now? Births: Byzantine empress consort (1104-34) Irene of Hungary (Piroska) (d. 1134); daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia; mother of Manuel I Comnenus (1118-80). Byzantine emperor (1118-43) (the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius?) John II Comnenus of Kalojoannes (d. 1143) on Aug. 15; son of Alexius I Comnenus. French Crusader Count William (Guillaume) II of Nevers (d. 1148); son of Renaud II and Agnes of Beauregency; half-brother of Ermengarde of Nevers. Irish high king (1120-56) and king of Connacht (1106-56) Turlough Mor O'Connor (Tairrdelbach or Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobair) (d. 1156); youngest son of Roderic O'Connor (-1118). Deaths: French theologian Berengar of Tours (b. 1000) - he'd seen it all by now? Islamic Isma'ili theologian-poet Nasiri-i Khusraw (b. 1004); leaves a Account of Journeys to the West, 1045-52, which comments on the prosperity of Egypt and Syria compared with the E half of the Middle East. Irish abbot (of Clonmacnoise) Tigernach bua Braein (b. ?); leaves the Annals of Tigernach.
1089 On May 24 Canterbury archbishop (since 1070) Lanfranc (b. 1005) dies, and seeing his chance, William II Rufus becomes a money-hungry tyrant, leaving the archbishopric of Canterbury vacant for four years in order to secure the rich revenues of its estates for himself - need help, get help? Antipope Clement III reclaims Rome, and Pope Urban II anathematizes him from outside the city walls, going into exile in S Italy for three years. Matilda of Canossa (Tuscany) marries 17-y.-o. stud Welf II/V (1072-1120), son of ex-duke Welf I/IV of Bavaria (until 1095) to strengthen Welf ties with her friend Pope Urban II - pass the oil? Bohemund and Roger end their quarrel, and Bohemund receives part of Apulia, later using the First Crusade as a way to extend his possessions. Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102) becomes count of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux, giving him 300+ properties and making him one of the wealthiest men in Europe; his wife (since 1083?) Adela of Normandy (1062-1137), daughter of William I the Conqueror later talks him into joining the First Crusade to pay for his sins of self-indulgence? After the Seljuks begin forcing Georgia to pay tribute, Georgian king (since 1072) George II (b. 1054) abdicates in favor of his 16-y.-o. son David IV (the Builder) (1073-1125), who goes on to become Georgia's greatest king, reuniting the country, reforming the army and govt., and forming a spear to drive in the side of the pesky Seljuk Turks. The siege of Aledo is lifted sans El Cid. Henry IV invests the House of Wettin in Saxony with the March of Meissen as a fief. Harisha (-1101) becomes king of Kashmir (until 1101). Architecture: The Basilica of St. Nicholas in Bari, Italy is begun to house the bones of St. Nicholas, becoming a pilgrimage site; in 1098 the marble Bari Cathedra (Bishop's Throne) is created; the basilica is finished in 1197. Leopold II of Austria helps found the Benedictine Melk Abbey (Stift Melk) in E Austria near his summer residence of Thunau a Kamp. Inventions: On Jan. 16 Chinese superbrain Su Song (1020-1101) finishes construction of the world's first astronomical clock. Births: French count (1109-29) and Latin Jerusalem king (1131-43) Fulk (the Young) of Anjou (d. 1143) in Angers; son of Fulk IV and Bertrada of Montfort; their love child after the multiply-married lecher divorces another woman for her and dumps their son Geoffrey II Martel?; husband of Melisande (1105-61); father of Baldwin III (1130-63). Deaths: Italian-born archbishop of Canterbury (1070-89) Lanfranc (b. 1005) on May 24 in Canterbury.
|England||William II Rufus (1057-1100)||1087||Aug. 2, 1100|
|Scotland||Malcolm III Canmore (1031-93)||1057||Nov. 13, 1093|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||1056||1106|
|Papacy||Urban II (1042-99)||1088||July 29, 1099|
1090 On Apr. 30-May 8 Christian troops enter Santarem, Lisbon, and Sintra after they are ceded by Abbasid emir Al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz in return for protection from the Muslim fundamentalist Murabitun ("hermits") of NW Africa, AKA the Almoravids. In Sept. after Berber Murabitun leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1061-1106) returns to Spain for the 3rd time, he takes over the kingdoms of Granada and Malaga (but not Zaragoza), destroying the Jewish community in Granada, causing the survivors to flee to Toledo, and returns to Africa by the end of the year, leaving his nephew Ibn Abi Bakr to continue the conquest. The Normans under Roger Guiscard (1031-1101) (son of the late Robert Guiscard) complete the conquest of Sicily (begun 1060), and Jolly Roger Guiscard becomes the first Norman count of Sicily. HRE Henry IV attacks Tuscany. After Fatimid Nizar is defeated in a struggle for the caliphate in Egypt, Persian Nizari Ismaili missionary Hassan-i Sabbah (Hasan ibn Sabah) (1050-1124) founds the Shiite anti-Sunni Cult of the Assassins (Hashshashin) in Damascus (until 1113), who begin conducting political assassinations throughout the Muslim world while holing-up in fortified settlements in the midst of their enemies in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, with the first being the Fortress of Alamut in Daylam S of the Caspian Sea (the first institutionalized special ops force in history?); for ages Westerners think the name proves that they smoke hashish, but they don't, the name meaning "people faithful to Asas, the foundation of the faith", but it's such good folk etymology, who wants to give it up now? :) Laszlo I of Hungary occupies Slavonia. Rodrigo Diaz, Count of Vivar ("El Cid") and his trusty warhorse Babieca (Sp. "stupid") defeat Berenguer Ramon II for the 2nd time. In this decade in Provence (Occitania) in S France, the aristocratic musician Troubadours begin to travel from court to court spreading poems and songs of courtly love and knightly virtues - and knowledge in code of the Mary Magdelene thingy? Architecture: The Burgundian Romanesque Church of Paray-le-Monial in France is begun on the orders of Abbot St. Hugh of Cluny (finished 1110). Inventions: The first Water-Driven Mechanical Clock is built in Peking, China. Science: The Giralda Observatory in Seville, Spain is built; it doubles as a minaret. Births: Norwegian king (1103-30) Sigurd I Magnusson (Jorsalfare) (the Jerusalem-Farer) (the Crusader) (d. 1130); son of Magnus III (1073-1103); brother of Eystein I (1088-1123) and Olav (1099-1115). Danish king (1134-7) Eric II Emune (the Memorable) (d. 1137); bastard son of Eric I; gives himself his own nickname? English soldier Robert of Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester (Robert the Consul) (Rufus) (d. 1147); eldest illegitimate child of Henry I; created earl in 1121-2. French count of Champagne (1125-51) and Blois and Chartres (1102-51) Theobald (Thibaut) II the Great of Champagne (d. 1152); father of Henry I of Champagne (-1181). French scholar-preacher-reformer and Cistercian abbot-monk (St.) Bernard of Clairvaux (d. 1153) near Dijon in Burgundy; #1 spiritual figure in the West; co-founder of the Knights Templar, pope-maker, preventer of Jewish pogroms, et al.; 350 Cistercian houses are created in his name. Italian Augustinian monk-reformer Arnold (Arnaldus) of Brescia (d. 1155) in Brescia. French scholastic philosopher William of Conches (d. 1155) in Conches, Normandy. Flemish gen. William of Ypres (d. 1165); illegitimate son of Philip of Loo, son of Count Floris I of Holland and Gertrude of Saxony; earl of Kent in 1141-55. Deaths: Chinese painter Kuo Hsi (b. 1020). Norman priest William of Poitiers (b. 1020) in England; leaves Gesta Guillelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum (The Deeds of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England); earliest bio. of William the Conqueror, with an eyewitness account of the 1066 Battle of Hastings incl. the feigned flight. Norman lord Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (b. 1034) in England.
1091 Early in the year after El Cid and Alfonso VI fail to reconcile at Granada, the Murabitun under Muhammad ibn al-Hajj take Cordoba and the Guadalquivir Valley, then defeat a Castilian force under Alvar Fanez (Fáńez) (Háńez) de Minaya (-1114) who are attempting to aid Abbasid ruler of Seville (since 1069) Al-Mutamid (1040-95); in Sept. Seville surrenders without much of a fight to the Murabitun under Ibn Abi Bakr, and Al-Mutamid is deposed and exiled to Aghmat, S Morocco; Murabitun armies take Aledo and Almeria, followed by Ronda, where Murabitun cmdr. Garur executes Al-Mutamid's son al-Radi; the Almoravids institute their strict al-Maliki version of Sharia, trash the opulent trappings of their predecessors, and subject Jews and Christians to harsher taxes and intolerance, causing them to develop many enemies. HRE Henry IV captures Urban II's supporter Matilda of Canossa. William II Rufus and Robert of Normandy agree to the Treaty of Caen; Malcolm III takes advantage of William II's absence in Normandy to lead a plundering raid into England, causing William II and his elder brother Robert III Curthose to return to kick his butt out of England, then conquer Cumberland in SW Scotland, and force him to do homage and swear fealty again in return for a promise to restore his properties; Edgar Aetheling sees his chance and supports Curthose against William II, ending up in exile in Scotland again. Emperor Alexius I buys the Cumans off and uses them to annihilate the Patzinaks at the Battle of Leburnion, then quashes the Bogomil Revolt (begun 1086). The Synod of Benevento declares the Wed. following the three days of celebration of the end of winter to be Ash Wednesday. Science: Walcher of Lorraine (later prior of Malvern Abbey) records observing lunar eclipses in Italy using an astrolabe, becoming the first observational astronomy in Christian Europe. Deaths: German Benedictine abbot Wilhelm of Hirsau (b. 1026).
1092 On Jan. 14 Vratislaus II dies of a hunting wound after a 30-year reign, and is succeeded as duke of Bohemia by his brother Conrad I of Brno, ruler of Moravia, who dies on Sept. 6, and on Sept. 14 is succeeded by his nephew Bretislaus (Bretislav) II (1060-1100) (until 1100), who goes on to fight the old pagan Slavic culture. On May 15 11th cent. bimbo Bertrada (Bertrade) of Monfort (1059-1117) (daughter of Simon I of Montfort and Countess Agnes of Evreux) deserts her hubby Count Fulk IV of Anjou for Philip I of France, who deserts his older and allegedly enormously fat wife (since 1070) Big, er, Bertha (Berthe) of Holland (Frisia) (1055-93) (who only bore him heir Louis the Fat after nine years of marriage and the prayers of hermit Arnoul, who named him), and after Philip I locks Big Bertha up in the fortress of Montreuil-sur-Mer, they double-bigamously marry, starting a Medieval Scandale at the Casino Royale - Medieval fat jokes here? In Oct. Henry IV's army is defeated by Matilda of Canossa's army at the Battle of Canossa, causing his son Conrad to switch sides. In Oct. while El Cid is out of the way in Zaragoza making an alliance with the kings of Zaragoza and Aragon, the Valencians under qadi (chief judge) Ibn Jahhaf, supported by a small Almoravid (Murabitun) force drive the Castilian garrison out and assassinate their emir Yahya al-Qadir, after which Ibn Jahhaf sets himself up as emir and starts negotiating with both El Cid and the Murabitun as his own man; too bad, El Cid doesn't buy it and sieges Valencia (ends 1094), causing the Almoravids to place agents in the city; El Cid sacks La Rioja after Count Ordonez refuses to defend his lands. John II Comnenos, brother of Anna Comnena is designated Byzantine emperor by Alexius I; meanwhile Anna's mother Irene Doukaina tries to talk him into designating Anna's hubby Nikephoros Bryennios as emperor, starting a big court intrigue after Anna proves to have all the ambition. William II Rufus takes control of Carlisle (Caer Luel) on the Eden River 8 mi. S of the Scottish border (1 mi. S of Hadrian's Wall) (80 mi. SE of Glasgow), begins a colonization program, and builds Carlisle Castle, which becomes an English bulwark during wars with the pesky Scots; meanwhile William II repeatedly fails to live up to his side of the 1091 agreement in order to bait Malcolm III? Malik Shah is assassinated by the hashed-out Assassins (Nizari Isma'ilis) along with his minister Nizam al-Mulk (b. 1018), and is succeeded as ruler of the Seljuks based in Iconium by his 5-y.-o. son Mahmud I (1087-92), who is overthrown by Berkyaruq (Berqyaruq) (d. 1104); Alp Arslan's son David Kilidge-Arslan (Kilij-Arslan) (d. 1100 ("sword of the lion") becomes rival sultan of the Seljuk Turks, moving the capital from Iconium (Konya) in S Turkey to Smyrna, becoming the first Seluk sultan to face the *!?*! Crusaders; the Seljuk Empire begins to tank as Malik Shah's four warring sons split it up, just at the worst time as the schismed Christians decide to link up long enough to take back the Holy Land? Flaherty O'Flaherty (d. 1098) briefly seizes the Kingdom of Connaught from Ruadri O'Conner, proclaiming himself Ard Ri of Ireland. Ermengol IV (b. 1056) dies, and his son Ermengol (Armengol) V (Mollerussa) (1078-1102) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1102). Alexius I reforms the currency of the Byzantine Empire, placing it on a new base. Nonfiction: The Annals of Inisfallen begins to be compiled in Ireland (ends in 1450), starting in the year 433 C.E. Nan Song statesman-scholar-astronomer Su Song (1019-1101) writes Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao (New Design for an Armillary Sphere and Celestial Globe), an atlas of five star charts featuring a Mercator-like cylindrical projection with the corrected position of the Pole Star, becoming the oldest printed star map to survive to modern times. Births: Arab Abassid caliph #29 (1118-35) Al-Mustarshid Billah (d. 1135); son of al-Mustazhir. German Hohenstaufen Swabian duke #2 (1105-47) Frederick II (the One-Eyed) (d. 1147); eldest son of Frederick I (1050-1105) and Agnes of Germany (1072-1143) (daughter of HRE Henry IV); husband (1121-) of Judith of Bavaria (-1131) and Agnes of Saarbrucken (-1147); father of Frederick I (III) Barbarossa (1122-90) and Conrad of Saarbrucken (-1147). Jewish rabbi and Bible commentator Abraham ben (ibn) Ezra (d. 1157) (d. 1167?). Deaths: Bohemian king Vratislaus II (b. ?) on Jan. 14 (hunting wound). Seljuk sultan Malikshah. Seljuk minister Nizam al-Mulk (b. 1018) (assassinated by the Nizari Isma'ilis, AKA the Assassins or Hashshashins); leaves The Book of Government (Siyasat-nama) ("Mirror for Princes").
1093 On Mar. 6 after stalling for three years, with illness inducing him to repent his greed and promise good behavior, only to recover and turn into a tyrant again, William II Rufus orders the appointment of Italian Benedictine scholastic philosopher (St.) Anselm (1033-1109), abbot of Bec, the originator of the Ontological Argument for God ("There exists, therefore, beyond doubt something than which a greater cannot be imagined, both in the understanding and in the reality") as Canterbury archbishop #36, who takes office on Dec. 4 (until Apr. 21, 1109); it's all allegedly against Anselm's will since he doesn't like admin. duties; this doesn't stop him from standing for the extreme claims of the Church and provoking a struggle with the king over securing the pallium, which kingy won't let him do because he doesn't recognize either pope, but Anselm claims he has to do because ecclestical law is superior to state law; after a papal legate outwits William II in diplomacy to get Anselm his way, it leaves the king bitter, and he puts Anselm on a short rope; meanwhile on Apr. 8 in the presence of almost all of the bishops and abbots of England, the monks move from the Saxon cathedral church of the Old Minster to the brand-new Winchester Cathedral (begun 1079), "with great rejoicing and glory", while Hugh le Gros founds the Benedictine Monastery in Chester, England with the monks that had been kicked out of Scotland; meanwhile the N European Scholasticism movement isn't bought by many in Italy and S Europe? In Mar. 1093 English chancellor (since Jan. 1091) Robert Bloet (Bloett) (Bluett) (-1123) becomes bishop of Lincoln (until Jan. 10, 1123), going on to embellish Lincoln Cathedral and other religious houses, educate some of Henry I's illegitimate children, and patronize Henry of Huntingdon, Christina of Markyate, and Gilbert of Sempringham, becoming known for his ostentatious luxurious lifestyle. In Aug. Scottish king (since 1057) Malcolm III Canmore (b. 1031) travels to Gloucester to meet William II Rufus to talk about their 1091 treaty, but Rufus slights him, pissing the Gaelic warlord off (Margaret's civilizing didn't work?), causing him to return to Scotland, raise an army, and invade Northumbria in Nov., accompanied by his son and heir Edward (b. 1074); on Nov. 13 (St. Brice's Day) after capturing Alnwick Castle in Cumberland then getting bogged down in rain and mud, the Scots, led by Sir Henry Sinclair (1060-1110) are ambushed at the Battle of Alnwick by the Normans under Northumbrian earl (1086-95) Robert de Mowbray (-1125), during the ceremony where the keys to the castle are supposed to be handed over, and Malcolm is KIA near Malcolm's Well; the Scots flee, leaving Malcolm's body on the field, and on Nov. 15 Edward dies of his wounds near Jedburgh, causing his mother Margaret (b. 1045) to die on Nov. 17 after hearing the bad news on Nov. 16; the Scottish chieftains, long pissed-off at Malcolm's and Margaret's Anglicization activity see their chance and revolt, inviting Malcolm's true-test younger brother (an old fart by now) Donald (Donnchada) Bane (Ban) (1033-1107) (Gael. "fair-haired") (Donaldbane in Shakespeare) to Scotland, where he sieges Edinburgh Castle and drives Margaret's sons and their Anglo-Saxon retainers from Scotland, causing them to drop their dreams of an Anglo-Saxon revolt against the Normans and seek help from William II Rufus to get their hands on Scotland again as a good consolation prize?; Margaret's English Benedictine monastery in Dunfermline is closed and the monks expelled; next year Donald Bane is crowned king Donald III of Scotland at Scone (until 1097), becoming Scotland's last truly Gaelic king. On Apr. 13 grand prince (since 1078) Vsvelod I (b. 1030) dies, and his nephew (son of Yziaslav I) Sviatopolk (Michael) Iziaslavich II (1050-1113), ruler of Novgorod in 1078-88 becomes grand prince of Kiev (until Apr. 16, 1113), going on to let Jewish merchants and Variangian officials speculate in grain and salt, pissing-off the pop.; meanwhile he engages in rivalry with his cousin Vladimir II Monomakh (1053-1125). On Oct. 5 Robert I (b. 1029) dies, and his eldest son Robert II (1065-1111) becomes count of Flanders (until 1111), going on to become known as Robert the Crusader after joining the First Crusade. In Dec. a Murabitun army under Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahiim approaches Valencia but retreats without attacking, and El Cid's siege continues. After giving up on inheriting Burgundy from his older brothers and joining the Reconquista in Spain, then helping Alfonso VI of Castile-Leon conquer Galicia and N Portugal, French knight Henrique (Henry) of Burgundy (1066-1112) founds the County of Portugal with lands given him by Alfonso VI, marrying his illegitimate daughter (by Ximena Moniz) Theresa of Portugal (1080-1130) and becoming Count Henrique I of Portugal (his son makes it a kingdom), founding the long-lived "We're #2, We Try Harder" Avis Dynasty of Portuguese rulers (ends 1580); not the kind to be caught without something to drink, he introduces the Pinot noir grape into Portugal from France, becoming the forerunner of modern port wines; the old Celtic town of beautiful Braga, held by the ancient Romans (as Bracara Augusta), Suevi, Visigoths and Moors becomes the capital of Portugal (until 1147). Olav III the Peaceful dies, and his nephew Hakon Magnusson Toresfostre (1068-95) becomes king of Norway (until Feb. 1095). German king (since 1087) Conrad II is crowned king of Italy in Milan by Canterbury archbishop Anselm III after turning against his daddy HRE Henry IV and joining the papal camp, then is crowned again for good measure in Monza with the Iron Crown. Hugh I (-1125) becomes count of Champagne (until 1125). To secure an alliance against Robert Curthose of Normandy, Duke Alan IV Fergant of Brittany marries Ermengarde of Anjou (1067-1146), daughter of Count Fulk IV of Anjou; after he leaves for the Holy Land in 1098, she wears the britches in the family and becomes the real ruler of Brittany until 1101, helping found Cistercian abbeys, then following her hubby to the Holy Land in the 1130s and becoming a nun in Jerusalem? Architecture: Benedictine Maria Laach Abbey on the SW shore of Lake Laach near Andernach, Germany is founded by Heinrich II von Laach, 1st count palatine of the Rhine and his wife Adelheid von Orlamunde-Weimar (widow of Hermann II of Lotharingia). Science: According to the Chinese, the Muslims first use a magnetic compass for navigation; the Muslims don't document it until 1282, after the Christians do it first in 1205. Births: German Hohenstaufen king #1 (1138-52) and duke of Franconia (1115-52) Conrad (Konrad) III (d. 1152); son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes of Germany (daughter of HRE Henry IV); younger brother of Frederick II of Swabia (1090-1147); uncle of HRE Frederick I Barbarossa. Georgian Bagrationi king (1125-56) Demetre I (d. 1156); eldest son of David IV (1073-1125) and 1st wife Rusudan of Armenia. Deaths: Flemish count Robert I the Frisian (b. 1029) on Oct. 13 in Kassel. Russian grand prince of Kiev (1078-93) Vsevolod I (b. 1030) on Apr. 13 in Vyshhorod. Scottish king (1057-93) Malcolm III (b. 1031) on Nov. 13 near Alnwick (KIA). Scottish queen St. Margaret Aetheling (b. 1045) on Nov. 17; buried in Dunfermline Abbey alonside Malcolm; canonized in 1250 by Pope Innocent IV; her head gets into the possession of Mary, Queen of Scots, and later the Jesuits of Douai, but is lost during the French Rev. French queen consort (1072-92) Bertha of Holland (b. 1055) on July 30 in Montreuil, Pas-de-Calais. French duke of Burgundy (1076-9) Hugh I (b. 1057) on Aug. 29 in Cluny. Scottish heir apparent Edward (b. 1074) on Nov. 15 near Jedburgh.
1094 Ireland has a bad winter causing many deaths. In Feb. caliph (since Apr. 1075) Al-Muqtadi dies, and his son Al-Mustazhir (1078-1118) succeeds him as Abbasid caliph #28 (until Aug. 6, 1118). By Easter Pope (since 1088) Urban II finally sits on the papal throne in Rome; meanwhile about this time Cardinal Deusedit pub. Libellus Contra Invasores et Symoniacos et Reliquos Schismaticos, giving him some ammo in the big fight, arguing that the temporal authority has no right of ecclesiastical investiture. In May after a 20-mo. siege, El Cid (Rodrigo Diaz, Count of Vivar) (1043-99) captures Valencia, then defeats the Murabitun army of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim in Cuarte in a daring night attack; the Murabitun retreat to Jativa, and El Cid executes Ibn Jahhaf by burning him alive, then becomes ruler of Valencia, which incl. a large kingdom on the Mediterranean coast, striking an alliance with Sancho's son Pedro I of Aragon; El Cid claims to rule in the name of Alfonso VI, but is really independent, and both Christians and Moors serve in his govt. and army; meanwhile the Murabitun under Ibn Abi Bakr take Badajoz and Lisbon. In May Donald Bane's eldest nephew (grandson of Duncan I) Duncan (Donnchad) II (1061-94), son of Malcolm III MacDuncan by his 1st wife Ingibjorg (whom Malcolm had passed over for the sons of Margaret on the Scottish throne because he's not half Anglo-Saxon, and whom had been kept hostage in England and turned into a good Norman knight married to Octreda, daughter of Northumbrian earl Cospatric) marches into Scotland at the head of a Norman and Anglo-Saxon army and defeats Donald Bane, and is crowned king of Scotland; he rules for a few mo. when a coup forces him to dismiss his foreign soldiers, then on Nov. 12 he is murdered in Mondynes near Stonehaven by Maelpedair, ruler of Mearns, causing Octreda to flee to England with their son William, allowing Donald Bane to regain the throne, giving a share of power to Edmund I (1071-97), 2nd and eldest surviving son of Malcolm III and Margaret (until 1097), possibly because he has no son, only a daughter, Bethoc - still hoping for an Anglo-Saxon revolt are we? Constantine Diogenes (b. 1070) claims the Byzantine throne, crosses the Danube River with an army of Cumans, and sieges Adrianople, then is defeated and KIA by Alexius I Comnenus in the Battle of Taurocomon. William IV (b. 1040) dies, and his brother Raymond IV of St. Gilles becomes permanent count of Toulouse, pissing-off his sister Philippa, who later marries William IX of Aquitaine and claims the county. The Synod (Council) of Constance excommunicates Philip I of France for adultery after he repudiates his fat loose wife Bertha for the much leaner tighter Bertrada, wife of Fulk IV of Anjou; it also hears (with priests telling her what to say behind the scenes) the laments of the wife of German HRE Henry IV, who tells how he had subjected her to prostitution; Philip I holds a parliament in Paris 2 mo. after the council ends. Ladislav I of Poland founds the bishopric of Zagreb. Architecture: St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice (begun 976) is completed and consecrated; the first Venice Carnival is held (1162?), ending on Shrove Tues., becoming known for its elaborate masks. Inventions: The first flat-bottomed Gondolas are recorded in Venice; the distinctive elongated shape and iron prow take until the 17th cent. to develop. Births: Irish archbishop of Armagh (1132-8) (St.) Malachy (d. 1148) in Armagh; real name Maelmhaedhoc O'Morgair; feast day: Nov. 3. Spanish Muslim #1 physician Abu Marwan ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (d. 1162) in Seville; #3 in six generations of famous physicians; friend of Averroes, who calls him the greatest physician since Galen. Moroccan Almohad caliph (1130-63) Abd al-Mumin (al-Mu'min) (d. 1163). Deaths: Arab geographer-historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (b. 1014) in Cordoba. Scottish king Duncan II (b. 1061) on Nov. 12 in Mondynes (near Stonehaven) (murdered).
1095 On Jan. 3 a great snowstorm hits Ireland, followed by famine and plague, which continues through 1099. On July 29 Ladislas I (b. 1040) dies, and his nephew (son of Geza I and Sophia van Looz) Kalman (Koloman) (Coloman) I (the Booklover) (1070-1116) becomes one of the stronger kings of Hungary (until 1116); being bookish is not considered a compliment by his contemporaries, so later historians call him "the Wise"? The Fatimids of Egypt under emir (sultan) Aphdal take advantage of the quarrels among the Seljuks and take Palestine incl. Jerusalem and Tyre; Peter the Hermit (Peter of Amiens) (1050-1115), a priest of Amiens in Picardy (a former soldier under the counts of Boulogne, who took holy orders after his wife got old and ugly) visits the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, gets pissed-off at the "sufferings of the natives and pilgrims of Palestine", and goes to ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (1084-1111) Nicholas III Grammaticus (-1111) lobbying for Byzantine emperor (1081-1118) Alexius I Comnenus (Alexios I Komnenos) (1048-1118) to take it back, but is stonewalled, causing him to land in Bari and meet with Pope (1088-99) Urban II (Otto de Lagery) (1042-99), who shines to the idea, telling him to go out and preach the cause, which he does with gusto in Italy and France; "His diet was abstemious, his prayers long and fervent, and the alms which he received with one hand, he distributed with the other: his head was bare, his feet naked, his meagre body was wrapped in a coarse garment; he bore and displayed a weighty crucifix; and the ass on which he rode was sanctified, in the public eye, by the service of the man of God... every breast glowed with indignation when he challenged the warriors of the age to defend their brethren, and rescue their Saviour... The most perfect orator of Athens might have envied the success of his eloquence... and Christendom expected with impatience the counsels and decrees of the supreme pontiff" - Gibbon, Ch. 58; the whole story is phony baloney, made up by later writers as a coverup?; meanwhile, after receiving a letter from Byzantine emperor Alexius I seeking help against the Seljuks, Urban II hastily summons a church council to discuss the problem (really the opportunity to unite the two churches under himself); the 200-bishop, 4K-clergy, 30K-laity Council of Placentia hears Byzantine ambassadors pleading their Western European Christian brethren to come save Constantinople from the Turks, to take the battle to Muslim Asia before the Muslim Turks take the battle to Europe (later used by U.S. Pres. George Dubya Bush?), revealing the pope's true reason for the Crusade; like Bush, he wants Congress to approve it first, so he calls the 8-day Council of Clermont in Auvergne, France (his native country), which he attends on Nov. 27 with 13 archbishops, 225 bishops, and 400 priests, while thousands of adoring laity (plus lords and knights) attend; it proclaims the Truce of God (a suspension of hostilities four days of each week), places women, priests, husbandmen and merchants under the protection of the church from the current private wars, and the nine Christian Crusades to Jerusalem begin with the First Crusade when on Nov. 27 Pope Urban II gives a Killer Sermon, calling for an end to private wars among Christians and an all-out effort to sweep the Muslim infidels back and restore the site of the Holy Sepulchre into Christian hands, sweetened by a plenary (paid in full for all sins) indulgence for enlistment, telling them not to do it for vengeance but for contrition or penance; (you had to be there, but) as the crowd shouts "God wills it, God wills it!" (Deus vult, Deus vult!) (Deus lo volt) (Deix el volt), the pope exclaims, "And let this memorable word, the inspiration surely of the Holy Spirit, be forever adopted as your cry of battle, to animate the devotion and courage of the champions of Christ. His cross is the symbol of your salvation; wear it, a red, a bloody cross, as an external mark, on your breasts or shoulders, as a pledge of your sacred and irrevocable engagement"; after great numbers of clergy and laity get red and put the bloody cross on, and ask popey to lead them into battle, he, ahem, begs that his official duties preclude him from taking time from his busy schedule, and appoints Bishop Adhemar (Ademar) of Le Puy (-1098) (the first bishop he ever elevated) as his legate to the Crusades in Dec., and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse (Raymond I of Tripoli) (Raymond of Saint-Gilles) (1038-1105) as the military cmdr., with instructions to depart for the Holy Land on Aug. 15 of next year (Festival of the Assumption); meanwhile Urban II stays far from the action, traveling around in the rear giving more speeches to raise more suckers, er, soldiers and support; not to be left out, Benedictine brain man Guibert of Nogent (1055-1124) informs the Crusaders that Jerusalem must be seized as a necessary prelude to its eventual capture by Antichrist, followed by the Second Coming of Christ, with the soundbyte "The End of the World is already near" - he meant 1099, the next available Millennium Fever year? On Oct. 12 Leopold II the Fair (b. 1050) dies, and his son (St.) Leopold III (the Good) (1073-1136) becomes margrave of Austria (until 1136). Olaf I (b. 1050) dies, and his brother Eric (Erik) I Ejegod (Evergood) of Man Loving (1060-1103) returns from exile in Sweden and becomes king of Denmark (until 1070), becoming known as a loud strapping fellow popular with the commoners who likes to party, and who visits Rome to get his half-brother Canute IV of Denmark canonized along with an archiepiscopal see for Denmark separate from Hamburg-Bremen. The Murabitun take Santarem (Santarém) in Portugal, who hold it until Mar. 15, 1147. We're Avis and we try harder? Hakon Magnusson Tesfostre dies, and Magnus III Barelegs (Barefoot) (1073-1103) becomes king of Norway, adopting the bare-legged Scottish kilt instead of Viking trousers, and becoming known for a scorched earth policy in the Western Isles (Outer Hebrides) (Harris, Lewis, et al.) and elsewhere. Prince (since 1080) Reuben I (b. 1025) dies, and his son Constantine (Gosdantin) I (1050-1102) becomes prince #2 of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (until Feb. 24, 1102). Earl Robert of Mowbray joins a revolt against William II in favor of his cousin Stephen of Aumale (1070-1127), but when the other barons chicken out, he and fellow conspirator Count William of Eu (-1096) get found out when they impound four Norwegian trading ships and keep the cargo, after which Mowbray is sieged in Bamburgh Castle, flees to Tynemouth, is sieged again, caught, dispossessed and imprisoned for life, dying a childless a monk at St. Alban's Abbey in 1125; Eu is challenged to trial by battle next Jan., defeated by Geoffrey Baynard, sheriff of Yorkshire, then blinded and castrated, after which he soon dies; meanwhile Edmund's alliance with Donald Bane pisses off his exiled family, and when he supports rebel earl Mowbray too, William II Rufus passes over Aethelred (incompetent?) and backs Edmund's younger brother Edgar for the Scottish throne, investing him with the kingship after he accompanies him on the campaign against Robert; Edmund, backed by his uncle Edgar Aetheling (Anglo-Saxon claimant to the English throne) then leads an English army into Scotland (ends 1097). Henry IV of Germany issues a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism, and continues to claim the right of investitures (confirming his bishops by giving them the ring and crozier); meanwhile his rebel son Conrad II swears an oath of loyalty to Pope Urban II in Cremona and serves as the pope's squire, leading his horse as a gesture of humility in return for a promise of the imperial crown and an arranged marriage with Constanze of Sicily, daughter of Roger I of Sicily. The Spanish city of Salamanca is conquered from the Moors by the Christians, but remains disputed until 1187. In 1095 after taking Syria from his brother Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I in 1085 (losing it in 1086 and reconquering it in 1094) and finishing the Citadel of Damascus (begun 1076), Seljuq Damascus sultan (since 1079) Tutush I is KIA in a battle with Seljuk sultan (since 1093) Berkyaruq ibn Malikshah (-1105) near Ray along with his gen. Kakuyid Ali ibn Faramurz, and his younger son Duqaq (Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (-1104) inherits Damascus, and elder son Ridwan (Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan) (-1113), inherits Aleppo, but gets ideas and seizes Damascus, launching a civil war, with Duqaq aided by Yaghi-Siyan of Antioch, and Ridwan aided by Jerusalem gov. Ilghazi and his brother Sokmen of the Artuqids; after Ridwan's atabeg Janah ad-Dawla splits and captures Homes from him, Yaghi-Siyan flops and marrries his daughter to Ridwan, and the two set out to attack Shaizar until they hear of the arrival of the infidel First Crusaders, and everybody returns home rather than unite to fight them; Tutush's kingdom in Syria falls apart as his sons contest the succession, making the Crusaders' work easier, even though the Seljuks continue to rule Syria E of the Frankish states until 1128. Jurist-theologian Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058-1111) gives up his chair at the Nizamiyya religious college in Baghdad, and begins 10 years of wandering and meditation to reconcile Suni and Sufi beliefs (until 1106). Following the example of Bishop Rudiger of Speyer, HRE Henry IV issues a charter for all Jews in his realm guaranteeing their autonomy and security. Pope Urban II introduces the Callagium, an annual tax on clergy who keep mistresses, reducing their use while increasing clerical urban, er, metro, er, homosexuality? Architecture: Pope Urban II consecrates the rebuilt Abbey Church of Cluny. Nonfiction: Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014-94), Book of Geography; first recorded mention of the city of Dubai (Dibei) (Arab. "Daba Dubai" = They came with a lot of money [to the souq]) on the SE Persian Gulf coast (modern-day pop. 2.9M), known for its pearls, as mentioned by Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi in 1580; in 1822 it has a pop. of 700-800 and is ruled by the emirs of Abu Dhabi; in 1833 the Al Bu Falasa tribe led by Ubaid bin Saeed (-1836) and Maktum bin Butti, who become joint rulers of Dubai, with Maktum establishing the Maktoum Dynasty of the Emirate of Dubai, going on to become the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Births: Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria (1111-27) William II of Apulia (d. 1127); son of Roger Borsa (1060-1111); cousin of Roger II of Sicily (1095-1154); half-brother of Charles the Good (1083-1127). English "Gesta Regum Anglorum" Benedictine monk-historian William of Malmesbury (Willelmus Malmesbiriensis) (d. 1143) (b. 1080?) in Wiltshire; Norman father, Anglo-Saxon mother; most learned man in 12th cent. W Europe? Norman Sicilian king #1 (1127-54) Roger II (d. 1154); son of Count Roger I (1031-1101) and 3rd wife Adelaide del Vasto (1075-1118); brother of Simon of Hauteville (1093-1105); husband (1117-35) of Elvira of Castile (1100-35) (daughter of Alfonso VI), (1149-50) Sybille of Burgundy (1126-50) (daughter of Hugh II), and (1151-4) Beatrix of Rethel (1131-85) (grandniece of Baldwin II of Jerusalem); father of Roger III (1118-48), Tancred (1119-38), Duke Alfonso of Naples (1120-44), William (1131-66), and Constance of Sicily (1154-98). Deaths: English bishop St. Wulstan (b. 1008). Armenian Cilicia prince #1 (1080-95) Ruben I (b. 1025) in Kormogolo. Hungarian king (1077-95) Ladislaus I (b. 1040) on July 29. Muslim ruler of Seville (1069-91) Al-Mutamid (b. 1040) in Aghmat, Moroco. Austrian Babenberg margrave (1075-95) Leopold II (b. 1050) on Oct. 12.
1096 By this year the Holy Roman Empire stretches from Italy to Jutland. In Jan. William II hangs Anglo-Saxon rebel William of Aldrie, cousin and steward of William of Eu for poaching royal deer. On Feb. 11 despite Philip I's excommunications preventing him, a lunar eclipse makes Count Hugh the Younger of Vermandois (1057-1101) decide to join the First Crusade, taking the smart route via the Alps and Rome to Bari, then across the Adriatic Sea to Illyricum, sending an "absurd message" (The Alexiad by Anna Comnena) to Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus: "Know, Emperor, that I am the King of Kings, the greatest of all beneath the heavens. It is fitting that I should be met on my arrival and received with the pomp and ceremony appropriate to my noble birth", later sending 24 envoys to the doux of Dyrrhachium with the message: "Be it known to you, Doux, that our Lord Hugh is almost here. He brings with him from Rome the golden standard of St Peter. Understand, moreover, that he is supreme commander of the Frankish army. See to it then that he is accorded a reception worthy of his rank and yourself prepare to meet him"; too bad, his fleet is lost in a storm, and he is thrown ashore near Epirus and brought to Dyrrachium, where the doux, the emperor's nephew John Comnenus (Komnenos) shows him hospitality and has him escorted by Gen. Manuel Boutoumites (Butumites) to the emperor, who talks him into swearing fealty and swearing that he will restore all former Byzantine territories lost to the Turks, and hold any conquests as fiefs; too bad, he tries to talk Godfrey of Bouillon into doing ditto, and receives the reply: "You left your own country as a ruler... with all that wealth and a strong army. Nnow from the heights you've brought yourself to the level of a slave. And then, as if you had won some great success, have you come here to tell me to do the same?", to which Hugh replies "We ought to have stayed in our own countries and kept our hands off other people's." In Mar. the Synod of Tours reconfirms the excommunication of Philip I of France, and he relents and dismisses his wife Bertrada, and is absolved by Pope Urban II in July - nothing like a healthy heart? On Apr. 20 (Easter), with Millennium Fever at a high pitch, and large numbers of unemployed mercenaries left over from Normandy and Sicily needing work, the People's Crusade (60K mainly poor knights and peasants), led by barefoot, ass-riding, cross-wearing Peter the Hermit (Peter of Amiens) (1050-1115) leaves Cologne for the Holy Land, and is soon joined by 20K German peasants led by the monk Godescal, followed by another 200K lowlifes, led by two holy mascots, a goose and a goat, who warm up by massacring prosperous Jewish colonies along the Rhine River (Cologne, Moselle, Verdun, Treves, Mentz, Spires, Worms, etc.) for fun and profit along the way after being put up to it by Count Emicho, who is killed by King Coleman of Hungary in late May; on May 3 the Crusaders drag 11 Jews into a church in Speyer, then kill them when they refuse to convert, while the rest of the Jews are protected by Bishop Johannsen, who gets some of the guilty Crusaders executed; on May 27 Archbishop Ruthard of Mainz hides 1.3K Jews in cellars, causing the Crusaders to break in and massacre 1,1014, a remnant being saved by concealment in the cathedral, and four Jews accepting baptism later committing suicide; on June 1 after Bishop Egilbert of Trier offers protection to Jews only on the condition of conversion, several women kill themselves and their children by drowning in the Moselle River; in June after the Jews of Cologne are given shelter in Christian homes while the Crusaders burn their quarter and kill stragglers, Bishop Hermann sneaks them to Christian homes in the country, but is discovered, and most of them are massacred, incl. 200 in two villages, and mass Jewish suicide in four others; on Aug. 20 after Bishop Allebranches of Worms tries to hide Jews in his palace and a crowd sieges it, he advises conversion to save themsleves, but 800 (most) commit suicide; the Jewish colonies take 70 years to recover; the first party of Crusader lumpen, lurdans, and rabble under the command of Walter de Pexejo and Walter the Penniless (Gautier Sans-Avoir) passes through Hungary safely, but are attacked in Bulgaria; Peter the Hermit and his 20K crusaders follow, but sack Belgrade and Semlin in June after seeing the clothing of 16 Crusaders on the walls of the latter, then march to Nissa (Nish) in Serbia, where they are first greeted hospitably but have their butts kicked on July 3 after an accidental quarrel; they then proceed to Constantinople, arriving in Aug.; while Peter is negotiating with the Byzantine emperor, his 300K-man army, led by the well-financed Walter the Penniless (eight horsemen for each 15K foot soldiers) is annihilated on Oct. 21 by Turkish bowmen at the Battle of the Plains of Nicaea (Nice), leaving a "pyramid of bones" (Gibbon); the Crusaders in Constantinople are shocked when they encounter the Turcopoles (Turopoliers), mixed Greek-Turkish mounted archers working for the emperor who profess to be Christian but might be Muslim inside, but they end up employing them as long as they eat at separate tables?; avg. Crusader height is 5'3", and they wear chain not plate mail, which isn't invented until the late 12th cent.; their horses are puny compared to the Muslims for lack of Arabian blood, and it takes two cents. to catch up. The second stringers are down, so call in the first string? On Aug. 15 after selling Bouillon to Bishop Orbert of Liege for 1300 marks of silver and 3 marks of gold (1 mark = 230g), bilingual (French and German) Godfrey (Godfroi) (Godefroi) (Geoffrey) de Bouillon (1058-1100), duke (since 108) of Lower Lorraine and Margrave of Antwerp, a direct descendant of Charlemagne in the female line and a descendant of Sigisbert, last Merovingian king) leaves for the Crusades with his brothers Eustace and Baldwin at the head of 80K infantry and 10K cavalry; too bad, he starts out by declaring that he would avenge the blood of Jesus upon the Jews, and kill all who won't convert, abetted by a monk who claims that an inscription on the Holy Sepulchre orders all Christians to convert them; William I the Conqueror's eldest son Robert Curthose pawns Normandy to William II Rufus for 10K marks (1% of its yearly revenue) to finance his departure for the Holy Land, his party consisting of Frankish and Norman barons Tancred (1075-1112) (nephew of Robert Guiscard by his daughter Emma and Marquess Odo), Bohemund I de Hauteville, Count of Taranto (1057-1111) (son of Robert Guiscard) (the #1 military man of the First Crusade, who allegedly fights like a starved lion among a flock of sheep), Count (since 1093) Robert II of Flanders (1065-1111), and Count (since 1089) Stephen II of Blois and Chartres (1045-1102) (known for writing gung-ho Letters to Wife Adele About the Crusade), led by papal legate Bishop Adhemar of Puy and Raymond of Toulouse in several large contingents totaling well over 100K; on Dec. 25 Godfrey's main force of 60K arrives in Constantinople, where suspicious Emperor Alexius I is at first startled because he only asked the pope for 300 top knights, and instead sees a host of heretical locusts, which he locks outside the city gates, but finally gives up on stopping them and decides to use them, making the leaders promise to do homage to him for all territory conquered from their common infidel foes in return for giving them boat passage across the Bosphorus and opening food markets - I'll bet they renege? Taking advantage of their troubles with the Crusaders, David IV of Georgia renounces tribute to the Seljuks. Welf II/V of Bavaria divorces old hag Matilda of Tuscany, allowing his daddy Welf I/IV (d. 1101) to patch things up with HRE IV and get his dukedom back next year; too bad, he never remarries and leaves the dukedom swinging in 1120. European Jewish merchants, finding it unsafe to do business because of the First Crusade resort to moneylending in a big way for the first time to finance Muslim butt-kicking - and it becomes a way of life for ever more? El Cid converts nine mosques of Valencia into Christian churches, with French bishop Jerome appointed as archbishop. The first teaching in Oxford, England. Architecture: The Nave of Norwich Cathedral in England is begun (ends 1145). Births: Danish prince (1st duke of Schleswig) (St.) Canute (Knud) Lavard (the Lord) (d. 1131) on Mar. 12 in Roskiled; only legitimate son of Eric I (1070-1103); nephew of Niels of Denmark (1064-1134); father of Valdemar I (1131-82); first Danish royal to get turned on by German knightly culture; canonized in 1170; feast day: Jan. 7. English Norman king (1135-54) Stephen I of Blois, Count of Boulogne (d. 1154) (b. 1092?) in Blois, France; son of Count Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102) and Adela (daughter of William I of England); brother of Count Theobald II of Champagne (1090-1151), and Henry of Blois (Winchester) (1098-1171); husband of Matilda I (1105-52); father of Count Eustave IV of Boulogne; Matilda de Beaumont; Countess Marie I of Boulogne, and Count William I of Boulogne. English anchoress-prioress Christina (Theodora) of Markyate (d. 1155). French Roman Catholic scholastic theologian and bishop of Paris (1159-60) Peter (the) Lombard (Petrus Lombardus) (d. 1160) in Novara, Lombardy. Deaths: German count Werner I of Habsburg (b. 1025).
1097 On Apr. 10 Bohemund arrives in Constantinople ahead of his army; Tancred arrives with the army a short time later; Duke Robert of Normandy arrives in May with the last large Crusader army; along the way Crusaders pass through Phlaginia (ancient Butelion) on the Dragur River at the foot of Mt. Pelister in Macedonia,and massacre the pop. and raze the town after discovering they are "heretics", after which a number of Greek monasteries are built in the area, causing it to be called Monastir; the principality of Lesser Armenia aids the Crusaders with equipment and troops; on May 14 the Crusaders siege Nicaea, where Turk leader Kilidge-Arslan (Soliman) holes up with 50K cavalry, and twice attacks the 6-mi.-dia. Christian camp, but the Crusaders capture it on June 19 after first bringing boats from the sea on sledges to Lake Ascanius, renaming it Iznik; the Turks agree to surrender only to Alexius, who takes over and sends the Crusader army under the guidance of a Greek general towards Phrygia, causing them to grumble that the emperor is a traitor to their cause; Soliman calls in all his markers and assembles a force of 200K-360K cavalry (Turks, Medes, Persians, Chaldeans), then catches up with the Crusaders on July 1 at the Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskishehir) 35 mi. S of Nicaea in Phyrgia in hot summer weather, and catches the 20K-man vanguard unprepared, almost defeating them with fast light mounted archers and dismounted archers who hold the bows in their feet while laying on their backs to increase the velocity until Duke Godfrey and the Count of Vermandois arrive with 60K cavalry, followed by Raymond of Toulouse, the Bishop of Puy, and the rest of the Crusader force, and rout Soliman, who evacutes Roum (Iconium) (Asia) with 10K guards, leaving the Latins to bemuse themselves with newfangled camels, then march 500 mi. through Lesser Asia unimpeded, finding the way to Syria blocked by the emirs of Cappadocia, taking Heraclea (modern-day Eregli in Konya Province) in Aug. by a cavalry charge, then coming to a desert which wastes them with heat, thirst, and steep passes on Mount Taurus in the Anti-Taurus Mts., killing 500 plus many horses incl. Baldwin's wife Gothilda, freaking him out because her lands will return to her family, making him desperate to make up for the loss by seizing and looting a city to the E; Soliman moves the capital of the Turkish Sultanate of Rum (Roum) (founded 1077) to Konya (Konia) (Iconium) in SC Anatolia, and the Byzantines recover the entire W coast of Anatolia. On Sept. 10 Tancred and Baldwin leave the main Crusader forces with 1.2K knights, capturing Tarsus and placing the Norman standard on its walls, followed by Mopsuestia (Mamistra); they then quarrel and fall out. On Oct. 21 after Bohemund and Robert of Flanders lead a foraging expedition that is attacked by the Turks outside the city on Oct. 20, the Crusaders begin the Siege of Antioch (ends June 3, 1098); Antioch, known for its strong thick walls with interlocking towers that foil battering rams is led by able Seljuk Turkish cmdr. Yagi-Shihan (-1098), known for his thick grey beard and big hairy ears, who sends the Christian pop. of the city outside the walls to dig trenches then locks them out, forcing the starving Crusaders to have to feed them too; in Dec. the Crusaders defeat a relief army from Damascus outside the city. Donald Bane and Edmund are defeated in battle by Edgar's Norman and Anglo-Saxon army, and captured; Edmund is imprisoned for awhile then becomes a Cluniac monk and dies in Montacute Abbey in Somerset; Donald Bane is blinded (at the urging of his youngest nephew David?); Edgar I (the Valiant) (1074-1107), 4th son of Malcolm III and Margaret Aetheling (and nephew of Edgar Aetheling, who supports him) becomes king of Scotland (until 1007), while William II Rufus claims the credit, beginning the Norman claim to overlordship of Scotland; satisfied, Edgar Aetheling heads to the Holy Land, bringing reinforcements to the 1098 Siege of Antioch. Berenguer Ramon II is forced into exile, and his nephew Ramon Berenguer III (1082-1131) becomes count of Barcelona, Girona and Osana, in NE Spain. Seljuk sultan (1105-18) Muhammad I (d. 1118) appoints his nephew Ahmad Sanjar (Turk. "Thruster") (1085-1157) as sultan of Khorasan (until 1118). King Philip I of France is excommunicated again after relapsing in his affair with Bertrada. Henry IV returns from Italy to Germany, allowing Pope Urban II to enter Rome accompanied by Crusaders, scaring the followers of "imbecile" antipope Guibert. The Hungarians under Kalman I begin conquering Dalmatia from the Venetian Repub. (ends 1102). Anselm of Canterbury goes into voluntary exile after a protracted scrap with William II Rufus over the supremacy of church over state, and they quit talking; while en route to Rome, Anselm is ambushed by robber baron Duke Eudes I of Burgundy, but when Anselm embraces him, with the soundbyte: "My lord duke, suffer me to embrace thee", the duke freaks, embraces him back and offers himself as Anselm's humble servant. After her betrothed (in infancy) Constantine Doukas, son of Michael VII and Maria of Alania dies after forfeiting his imperial claims, Byzantine princess Anna Comnena marries renowned statesman and historian Gen. Nikephoros Brrennios the Younger (1062-1137), going on to have four children, Alexios Komnenos (1102-67), John Doukas (1103-74), Irene Doukaini (1105-), and Maria Byrennaina Komnene (1107-). El Cid allied with Peter I of Aragon defeats the Murabitun under Ali ibn al-Hajj at the Battle of Bairen (Bairén) S of Valencia; El Cid's son Diego is killed at the Aug. 15 Battle of Consuegra by the Almoravid forces of Muhammad ibn al-Hajj. Portugal is recognized as autonomous. The Murabitun under Muhammad ibn Aisha defeat the Castilians under Alvar Fanez (Fáńez) de Minaya (-1114) (El Cid's nephew and right-hand man) at the Battle of Cuenca before ravaging the lands of Valencia. Deaths: Italian cardinal Deusedit (b. ?) in Todi; colleague of Pope Gregory VII.
1098 In Feb. Tancred and his followers return to the main Crusader force; Tancred finds Peter the Hermit fleeing to Constantinople and returns him to the Crusader force; on Mar. 9 after Godfrey of Bouillon's brother Baldwin (Baudouin) of Boulogne (1058-1118) is invited by Greek Orthodox Armenian ruler Thoros of Edessa (-1098) of Edessa (Urfa) (modern-day Sanliurfa in SE Turkey) to help resist the Seljuks, capturing Turbessel (Tell Bashir) along the way, he makes an alliance with him in Feb., talking him into adopting him as his son and heir then inciting the people against him by promising to protect them from the Seljuk, getting him assassinated on Mar. 9 and his head carried triumphantly through the streets, after which he is given possession of the city, becoming count #1 of the County of Edessa (ends 1144), the first principality of the new kingdom of Outremer ("beyond the sea"), which lasts 54 years; meanwhile the Siege of Antioch (begun Oct. 21, 1097) grinds on for 7 mo., with at least 100K dead on each side, until Bohemund finds a traitor on the other side, Syrian Christian Tony Shalhoub, er, Phirouz, cmdr. of three towers, a wealthy Armenian Christian convert to islam who accepts a bribe and throws down ladders to help the Christians invade the city in a planned night attack on June 3, allowing them to capture all of the city except the central citadel after a great indiscriminate slaughter that makes the city stink to high heaven with piles of corpses; after hearing false news of the capture of the citadel, Yagi-Shihan flees the city, repents, starts crying, and is killed by a shepherd, who mounts his head on a stick, returning it to the Franks in the city; the next day a 600K-man Seljuk relief army led by Mosul atabeg Kerboga (Kerbogha) and 28 Turkish emirs appears, and on June 5 Stephen II of Blois flees, telling the advancing Byzantine army under Alexius I that he had just seen the kerboga man and all is lost, causing him to chicken-out and return to Constantinople and later get pussy-whipped by his wife Adela to try a 2nd fatal crusade in 1102; on June 7 the Turkish relief army begins a siege of Crusader-held Antioch, demanding unconditional surrender; on June 15 just as Crusader morale is breaking, a vision of St. Andrew by priest Peter Bartholomew (Bartholemy) (-1099) of Marseille, France leads him to choose 12 disciples and miraculously dig up the Holy Lance (Spear of Destiny) (Lance of Longinus) (the head of a Saracen lance he conceals in his robes and secretes at the bottom of a 12-ft. pit when they were about to give up after 1.5 days) in St. Peter's Cathedral in Antioch in front of a big crowd; many believe in this holy farce and morale soars, and Count Raymond of Toulouse latches onto it; on June 28 the Franks led by Bohemund (most of them dismounted due to having eaten all but 200 of 60K horses) win a decisive V against the Seljuk army, aided by the Holy Lance, plus the timely and miraculous appearance of three white-robed knights in the hills, which Bishop Adhemar claims are the martyrs St. George, St. Theodore, and St. Maurice (which J.R.R. Tolkien steals for his 1955 novel "The Two Towers"?); finally the central citadel is captured; Bohemund receives Antioch as a principality; too bad the Crusaders turn the city into a brothel, and an epidemic sweeps it, killing 50K incl. Bishop Adhemar in Aug.; Count Hugh of Vermandois is sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements to emperor Alexius I, but is pooh-pooh, and returns to France rather than fulfill his vow to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, getting scorned by the pop. and threatened with excommunication by Pope Paschal II, not to mention his wife Adelaide. On Mar. 21 (St. Benedict's Day) St. Robert of Molesme (1028-1111) founds the Benedictine Citeaux Monastery, the first Cistercian (Bernardine) house (abbreviated OCist or SOCist from Lat. Sacer Ordo Cisterciensis); the monks are called White Monks because they wear the white cuccula choir robe over their habits instead of the black cucculas worn by Benedictine monks; they become known for beer brewing. In Apr. HRE Henry IV deposes his son Conrad II in the Reichstag in Mainz, and designates his younger son Henry IV as successor; Conrad becomes a lame duck and dies in 1101 at age 27 in Florence still holding the pope's bridle - gidyap? In Oct. after Castel de Sant'Angelo capitulates to Pope Urban II's forces, a council is held in Bari over the question of the Filioque. On Dec. 12 after the Crusaders in Antioch suffer from starvation despite raiding the surrounding countryside, some Crusaders led by Raymond IV of Toulouse (Raymond I of Tripoli) (Raymond of Saint-Gilles) (1038-1105) and Bohemund I de Hauteville, Count of Taranto (1057-1111) siege and occupy Marre (Marra) (Ma'arra) (modern-day Maarat al-Numaan) between Aleppo and Hama and massacre the 8K pop., but still can't find enough food, resorting to cannibalism of Muslim corpses, boiling the adults and grilling the children along with choice buttock pieces from adults; "A dainty dish is Paynim flesh, with salt and roasting due" ("The League of Antioch"). Louis VI is made coregent by Philip I of France. Donald Bane is deposed by Edgar I, who acts more like an Anglo-Saxon than Scottish king and opens Scotland to Anglicization, a policy that is continued by his brothers Alexander I (r. 1107-24) and David I (r. 1124-53), who are all tied to mommy Margaret's Saxon apron strings and go on to establish the Anglo-Norman feudal system in Scotland, which sells out the Scottish people and calls forth popular English-hating heroes like William Wallace? Magnus III Barelegs of Norway seizes the Orkneys, Hebrides, and Isle of Man, and Edgar signs a treaty with him recognizing Norwegian sovereignty over the Hebrides, even though it is the core of his ancestral kingdom of Dalriada, proving he's sold out his own people? El Cid conquers Almenara and Sagunto (Murviedro), and restores the bishopric of Valencia. Anushtegin Gharchaidies, and his son Qtb ad-Din Mohammed (d. 1127) is appointed gov. of the Khwarzem province by Seljuk sultan Berqyaruq, becoming shah #1 of Khwarezm (until 1127). Lesser Armenia is declared a kingdom as Crusader states are established along its S and E borders. Architecture: Edgar I of Scotland grants Coldigham to the monks of Durham after attributing his V over Donald Bane to the intervention of St. Cuthbert; he also recolonizes and rebuilds the monastery at Dunfermline with monks from Canterbury. Rajarani Temple at Bhubanesvara, Orissa is built, complete with hot voluptuous big-chested sculptured babes. Nonfiction: Nicholas Prevost of Tours writes Antidotarum, a collection of 2,650 medical presciptions from Salerno - anything about eye of newt? Births: German mystic Benedictine nun (St.) Hildegard of Bingen (Sibyl of the Rhine) (d. 1179) in Bermersheim vor der hohe, Rhine Palatinate.
1099 On Jan. 13 Count Raymond of Toulouse leads the ragged horseless Crusaders onward to Big J, the brass ring city of Jerusalem, while Bohemund and his followers (except Tancred) claim Antioch for their own for the 2nd Outremer principality, and refuse to recognize the suzerainty of the Byzantine emperor, causing them to go to war; on Feb. 14-Apr. 5 a contingent of Crusaders under Count Raymond of Toulouse detour to lay siege to Arqa in Syria, but fail to take the town, and the whole expedition proves a bust, exhausting his resources. On Apr. 8 to satisfy skeptics of the Holy Lance, Peter Bartholomew is put through the "Trial of Ordeal" (fire) at the insistence of conniving Flemish priest Arnulf Malecorne of Choques (Rohes) (-1118), who hopes to take Adhemar's place in the Crusader ranks; Peter runs very smooth and very sexy through the 12-in. path in a 14-ft.-long pile of 4-ft.-high burning faggots, but is badly burned and dies of his injuries on Apr. 20, and the Holy Lance "soon vanished in contempt and oblivion"; meanwhile after Jerusalem is captured Arnulf becomes Latin patriarch of Jerusalem #1 (and again in 1112-18) - Gibbon, Ch. 58. In May the ragtag Crusaders, 40K strong incl. 5K cavalry (knights) leave Antioch to Laodicea, down the seashore through Tripoli, Tyre, Sidon, Acre, Ashkelon, and Caesarea to the brass ring city of Big J, Jerusalem, arriving with 1.5K cavalry and 12K healthy foot soldiers. On June 7 after the Egyptian Fatimids under Caliph #9 Abul-Qasim Ahmad al-Mustali (Mostali) bil-Lah (1074-1101) offered safe passage to the Holy Sepulchre along with expensive gifts, all in vain, and the Crusaders waited 10 mo. after the defeat of Kerboga "to enjoy the luxury of Syria" (Gibbon), 13K Crusaders begin the Siege of Jerusalem (pop. 200K); the 40K Egyptian defenders under Iftikhar al-Dawla (Arab. "pride of the dynasty") defeat the early assaults while awaiting reinforcements, which are too late, allowing the Crusaders to conquer the city on July 15 after (you guessed it) 40 days; on July 15 First Crusade leader Godfrey (Godfroi) de Bouillon (1058-1100), duke of Lower Lorraine, whose camp was pitched on Mount Calvary enters Jerusalem, and his Crusaders merrily begin a 3-day massacre of the pop., killing 70K for Christ (incl. driving quaking Jews to their synagogue then burning them alive), while the flag of Godfrey's Jerusalem Cross flies over the city; "If you want to know what was done to the enemies found in the city, know this, that in the portico of Solomon and in his Temple, our men rode in the blood of the Saracens up to the knees of their horses" - Godfrey de Bouillon and Raymond Daimbert, Letter to Pope Urban II from Jerusalem; "They went together through the streets with their swords and spears in hand. All that they met they slew and smote right down, men, women, and children, sparing none... They slew so many in the streets that there were heaps of dead bodies, and one might not go nor pass but upon them that so lay dead... There was so much blood shed that the channels and gutters ran all with blood, and all the streets of the town were covered with dead men." (William of Tyre, 12th cent.); the Crusaders take the crescent off the top of the Dome of the Rock and replace it with a cross, then build a Christian altar, only to see the Muslims take it back in 1187 and reverse the process. On July 10 El Cid (b. 1043) dies during a Berber siege of Valencia after being shot by a stray arrow while gathering supplies, leaving the kingdom of Valencia to his widow Jimena Diaz (1046-1116) (without knowing about the big V in Big J), and after she straps his body to his trusty warhorse Babieca to lead the troops for one last battle (which they win?), she flees with his body to Burgos, where he is later buried in Burgos Cathedral; one of her four children dies with daddy on the battlefield; she succeeds her hubby as ruler of Valencia (until 1102). On July 17 a secret conclave is held, and Count Raymond of Toulouse asks for the kingship of Jerusalem, and is refused; Godfrey de Bouillon is offered ditto, and declines the title of king but suggests the title "Baron and Advocate (Defender) of the Holy Sepulchre", and is crowned by Peter the Hermit's associate King Tafur (from Calabria?); the secret conclave are mainly monks from Calabria via Godfrey's home in the Ardennes Forest who accompanied him on the Crusade, and move into the new Abbey of Mount Zion (Sion), built at Godfrey's request?; Raymond leaves Jerusalem, never to return, along with the French nobles; the new Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, based on the cities of Jerusalem (falls in 1187), Antioch (falls in 1268), and Tripoli (falls in 1289) controls only a sliver of territory along the Syrian coast, except for the County of Edessa in SE Anatolia (until 1144), and depends on the Crusades of 1148, 1188, 1202, 1217, 1228 and 1249 for reinforcements, otherwise making little dent on the Muslim world?; the last Crusader fortress of Green Acres, er, Acre falls in 1291. On Aug. 12 after mistaking the Crusaders for Byzantine mercenaries, offering them an alliance against the Seljuk Turks, only to see them capture Jerusalem from his Fatimid forces, causing him to come quick, Egyptian vizier (1094-1121) Al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066-1121) and 20K-50K Fatimids are surprised-attacked and defeated at the Battle of Ascalon by 1.2K knights and 9K infantry (last battle of the First Crusade), and Godfrey de Bouillon becomes the first king of the new Kingdom of Outremer ("Beyond the Sea") for one year with a force of 300 knights and 2K infantry, aided by Tancred; Baldwin is sent to rule Edessa; Raymond Daimbert, archbishop of Pisa becomes the patriarch of Jerusalem; one quarter of Jerusalem and Jaffa are ceded to the Church; the Muslim Dome of the Rock is converted into the Templum Domini (Temple of the Lord); Godfrey de Bouillon allegedly composes the Assizes of Jerusalem, a legal code for the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, which is kept in the Holy Sepulchre until the city is retaken by Saladin in 1187; meanwhile the Crusaders abandon Ascalon, allowing al-Afdal to use it as a base for yearly attacks until 1107, incl. three major battles in Ramla in 1101, 1102, and 1105, following by frequent raids into Frankish territory until his assassination on Dec. 11, 1121. On July 29 Pope (since 1088) Pope Urban II (b. 1042) dies without learning the good news that his bloody red Crusaders won the Super Bowl after being pumped by his rave Clermont Council pep talk of 1095, and on Aug. 13 Italian Cluniac monk and cardinal (since 1076) Rainerius is elected Pope (#159) Paschal II (-1118), carrying on Hildebrand's policy against secular investiture; Antipope (since 1080) Clement III has been beaten, and loses most of his influence. Henry V (1081-1125) is crowned joint king of Germany with his father Henry IV. The knight class is born in Europe, earning land in exchange for winning on the battlefield; they wear chain mail, not plate, and learn their siege concepts from the Muslims. The Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem is militarized as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by the Blessed Gerard Thom (Thom) (Tum) (Tune) (Tenque) (1040-1120), and formally recognized by Pope Paschal II on Feb 15, 1113. Where's my eye shadow? About this time (Crusader capture of Jerusalem) the Priory of Sion (scion of Zion?), a secret brotherhood to protect some kind of terrific secret about Jesus Christ being the secret husband of redheaded Mary Magdalene and leaving a sacred bloodline in S France is allegedly founded in Rennes-le-Chateau, France; a hoax spread by French draftsman Pierre Athanase Marie Plantard (1920-2000) in France in the 1950s, and fueled by English "Dr. Who" writer Henry Lincoln (Soskin) (1930-), who finds out that Rennes-le-Chateau master (1885-1917) Friar Francois-Berenger Sauniere (1852-1917) engaged in big spending, deducing that it came from money obtained from secret documents he sold, not knowing about a 1910 conviction for illegal trafficking in Masses?; in 1982 Lincoln, Michael Baigent (Michael Barry Meehan) (1948-2013) of New Zealand and Am.-born English writer Richard Harris Leigh (1943-2007) pub. The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, after which in 2003 Am. novelist Daniel "Dan" Brown (1964-) pub. The Da Vinci Code, and they all begin dancing with the stars? The Crusades introduce new foodstuffs into the Euro diet, incl. the apricot, orange, shallot, and sugar ("sweet salt"). The Early Arab Period in Archeology ends, and the Crusader/Ayyubid Period in Archeology begins (ends 1291). Architecture: The Church of Santa Maria del Popolo in N Rome between the Porta Flaminia gate of the Aurelian Wall near the starting point of the Via Flaminia road to Rimini (Ariminum) starts as a chapel built by Pope Paschal II to the Virgin Mary at the site of a walnut tree he chopped down that was allegedly haunted by Nero's ghost; it is rebuilt in 1472-7. The Sublime House in Rouen, France is built, becoming the oldest Jewish bldg. in Europe when it is discovered under the parking lot of the courthouse in 1976. Births: Russian Kievan prince (1149-51, 1155-7) Yuri (George) I Dolgoruky (Long Arms) (d. 1157); of Suzdal-Vladimir; son of Vladimir II Monomakh (-1125); brother of Vyacheslav (-1154); father of Andrei I Bogolyubsky (1111-74). French count #15 of Flanders (1128-68) Thierry (Dietrich) of Alsace (d. 1168); eldest son of Duke Thierry II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders). Deaths: French pope (1088-99) Urban II (b. 1042) on July 29 in Rome. Spanish Christian military hero El Cid (b. 1043) on July 10 in Valencia (KIA). North African Muslim-turned-Christian Benedictine monk Constantine the African (Constantinus Aficanus) (b. ?) dies in Monte Cassino Abbey, Italy after bringing a load of Arabic medical works with him and translating them into Latin, introducing the examination of urine and other advanced practices.