|England||William II Rufus (1057-1100)||1087||Aug. 2, 1100|
|Scotland||Edgar I the Peaceable (1074-1107)||1097||1007|
|France||Philip I (1052-1108)||1060||July 29, 1108|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||1056||1106|
|Papacy||Paschal II (-1118)||1099||Jan. 21, 1118|
1100 Pop. of Iceland: 70K-80K. About this year the High Middle Ages begin in Europe (end 1350); Europeans begin adopting baptismal surnames; the origin of most surnames is either occupation, personal description, land/estate, geography, patrimonial/matrimonal ancestry, or patronage; by this time the toponym Martin is the most common one in Europe from Spain to Poland. On Feb. 23 Song Zhe Song dies, and his younger brother Song We Zong (Huizong) (Zhao Ji) (1082-1135) becomes Bei (Northern) Song emperor #8 of China (until Jan. 18, 1126), going on to become an art lover and the top tea expert in Chinese history. In Apr. nine mo. after the fall of Jerusalem six elders of the Karaite Jewish community of Ashkalon (Ascalon) write the Letter of the Karaite Elders of Ashkalon to the Jewish elders in Alexandria, describing their ordeal in ransoming captured Jews and holy relics from the new Latin rulers of Jerusalem. On July 18 Godfrey (Geoffrey) de Bouillon (b. 1058), Baron and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre dies, and is buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; on Dec. 25 his youngest brother Baldwin (Baudouin) I (1058-1118) is crowned Latin king #1 of Jerusalem (until Apr. 2, 1118). On Aug. 2 English king (since 1087) William II Rufus (the Red) (b. 1057) is killed in his New Forest by an arrow through the lung shot by Sir Walter Tyrell (Tirel), 3rd Lord of Poix (1065-110?) while hunting, and dies without receiving last rites, being found the next day by some peasants, who call in the nobles, who split quick; the clergy, who hate his guts for what he did to Anselm refuse to give him a church funeral, and blacken his name; Tyrel flees to France under suspicion that the shooting was no accident; on Aug. 2 his brother Henry Beauclerc (4th son of William I the Conqueror) seizes the throne as Henry I Beauclerc (1068-1135), becoming the 23rd English monarch (until Dec. 1, 1135); Henry I, who was in the hunting party himself (waiting in the wings like LBJ at Dealey Plaza?), soon proclaims that a man who kills another man during archery practice is absolved of murder; not to deny that the king is under law, however, upon ascending the throne he signs the Charter of Liberties, which reads almost exactly like the later Magna Charta; knowing that his brother Robert III Curthose is out on the First Crusade, he cuts him off at the pass by riding hard to Winchester to secure possession of the royal treasury and crown; meanwhile Henry I pub. the charter to remedy many of the perceived grievances against Rufus and win the people's favor; in Sept. after Canterbury archbishop (since 1093) Anselm returns from exile and he gets him to call a council of bishops to declare that she had never been a nun, although she had spent most of her life in a nunnery and was veiled, he marries Scottish babe Matilda (Edith) of Scotland (1079-1118), daughter of Malcolm III and St. Margaret, who becomes queen consort of England (until May 1, 1118), uniting the Norman and Anglo-Saxon bloodlines, and he begins a policy of using his "brood of bastards" (illegitimate children, which he has plenty of, 20+) to strengthen his power by marrying off the daughters to nobles and magnates; meanwhile Matilda (who only has two children) becomes popular with her subjects, wowing them by going to church barefoot on Lent and kissing the hands of the sick, causing her to become known as "Matilda the Good Queen" and "Matilda of Blessed Memory"; they marry in the church in her hometown of Dunfermline near the Firth of Forth, becoming the first written mention, after which she establishes a new church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, which grows into an abbey in 1128 under Malcolm III's son David I, after which in 1160 its graveyard becomes the burial place of Scottish monarchs, starting with Alexander I and ending with Robert I the Bruce (1329); meanwhile in 1107 Norman baron Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare (1065-1117), who was present at the "accident" and kept his mouth shut gets his reward in the form of lands in Wales, incl. Cardigan Castle, making the de Clare name big in Norman England, and the terror of Wales (until 1314); Henry brings hanging back as the main means of execution for many crimes after William I and William II only hanged one each, the latter only for poaching royal deer (William of Aldrie in 1096). On Sept. 8 Antipope (since 1080) Clement III (Guibert) (b. 1025) dies in Civita Castellana, and bishop Theodorus of St. Rufina is elected antipope in his place, but never holds any real power - you can't compete with a successful foreign war? In Sept. a large army of Lombard Crusaders, mainly peasants, led by Archbishop Anselm IV of Milan leaves from Milan; too bad, when they reach Byzantine territory they begin pillaging, causing Byzantine emperor Alexius I to arrive with his troops and escort them to a camp outside Constantinople, after which they break out, invade the big city and pillage his Blachernae Palace, killing his pet lion, after which the Byzantines round them up and ferry them across the Bosporus to Nicomedia. Melitene (Malatya) (Malatia) in E Anatolia, which guards one of the Cilician Gates through the Taurus Mts., ruled by wealthy Greek Orthodox Armenian soldier Gabriel of Melitene (-1103) is attacked by a large force of Danishmend Turks under Malik Ghazi Gumushtekin (Gumushtakin), emir of Sebastaea (Sivas) in C Anatolia, causing the Armenians to request military aid from Bohemond I of Antioch, who in Aug. marches N with only 300 knights and a small infantry force, and is ambushed and encircled by the Turks at the Battle of Melitene (Malatya), killing most of the Crusaders and capturing Bohemond along with his cousin Richard of Salerno, who are held for ransom; after a request by Gabriel of Melitene, King Baldwin I of Jerusalem relieves Melitene, and becomes its overlord; Baldwin of Courcq (Bourg) (1060-1131) (cousin of Godfrey of Bouillon) is appointed the new count of Edessa (until 1118), marrying Gabriel of Melitene's daughter Morphia of Melitene (-1126) next year. Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in NW Spain, a major stop on the pilgrimage route is raised to an archiepiscopal see by the late Pope Urban II; the Cathedral of St. James has a golden mollusc shell on the altar which pilgrims get to kiss, spreading germs? In W Europe town life begins to revive; France develops the commune, a collective legal feudal person, incl. Amiens (chartered in this cent.), Saint-Quentin (by 1080), and Rouen (1145), and the consulate, a southern commune with greater rights than the northern, incl. Roussillon, Provence, Languedoc, Gascony, and Guienne. Syrian Arab emir Abu Imran Fadl ibn Rabi'ah expels Toghtekin, Burid ruler of Damascus and forms a pact with Sadqaa, Mazyadid ruler of Hillah to the S, only to see him defect to the Seljuks, causing him to disappear. In this cent. the region of Hesse in SW Germany (named after the Frankish Hessi tribe) becomes a part of the landgraviate of Thuringia (until 1247). In this cent. the Moon-worshiping Chimu Culture is founded by the Kingdom of Chimor on the coast of N Peru (ends 1476), with capital at the adobe city of Chan Chan in the Mochey Valley 3 mi. W of Trujillo, competing for lebensraum with the Sun-worshiping Inca and becoming the largest Pre-Columbian city in South Am. In this cent. a Jewish colony is founded in Kaifeng in China, flourishing through the 15th cent. In this cent. the Romani (Romany) (Roma) (Gypsy) from NW India reach the Balkans. In this cent. the Malinke Empire begins ruling Mali. In this cent. the Cemetery of the Holy Innocents (Saints-Innocents) is established in Paris, France, becoming the oldest and largest cemetery in Paris, often used for mass graves; it is closed in 1780 due to overcrowding, and in 1786 the corpses are moved to the Paris Catacombs near Montparnasse. In this cent. the English monarch begins a tradition of distributing alms to the poor on Maundy Thursday (the day before Good Friday), giving two purses of Maundy coins ("n" pence in each) to n men and n women, where n is the the age of the sovereign in years; it is held at a different cathedral every year. In this cent. the short stout Gurkhas (Sans. "cowherds") of Rajputana, known for their large, broad-bladed kukri knives begin invading Nepal. In this cent. the Malays first come to 287K-sq.-mi. Borneo (third largest island on Earth, on the equator at the W end of the Pacific), meeting up with the native headhunting cannibalistic blowpipe-using coastal Iban (Sea Dyaks), converting them to Islam and intermarrying with them; meanwhile the native Kyans and Punans of the interior remain pagan and polytheist. Polynesia is colonized from South Am. about this time (according to Heyerdahl of Kon-Tiki fame). Coal is discovered in Liege early in this cent. In this cent. the Tarascan (Purepecha) state in Michoacan, S Mexico centered around Lake Patzcuaro is founded (ends 1530), becoming enemies of the Aztecs and making stirrup-shaped long-necked bottles and round Yacata temples. Early in this cent. (during the reign of Henry I) the town of Cambridge in England is founded on the Cam River 47 mi. NNE of London on a natural route between the coast and interior, receiving extensive privileges as a river port and toll station. In this cent. The Strand in Westminster, C London, which runs along the N bank of the Thames River becomes popular with the British upper classes, who build many mansions incl. Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, Savoy Palace, Durham House, and Cecil House before moving to the West End in the 17th cent., allowing the area to be taken over by coffee shops, restaurants and taverns, followed by music halls and theatres in the 19th cent.; celebs Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Virginia Woolf live there. In this cent. Chimkent (Shymkent) ("turf city") 70 mi. N of Tashkent in modern-day S Kazakhstan is founded to protect the Silk Road town of Sayram 6 mi. to the E, becoming a market center; in 1914-24 it is renamed Chernyaev. In this cent. the hilltop fortress town of Cuneo is founded in the Piedmont region of N Italy on between the Stura and Gesso Rivers (55 mi. S of Turin). In this cent. the town of Mantua (Mantova) in Lombardy is surrounded on all four sides by artficial lakes from the waters of the Mincio River, called Lake Superior, Lake Middle, Lake Inferior, and Lake Pajolo; the latter dries up by the end of the 18th cent. The town of Old Oraibi is founded on the Third Mesa in NE Ariz. by the Hopi, surviving to modern times as the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in the U.S. About this time a Japanese fishing boat lands on the Ecuadorian coast after probably being blown off-course by storms. In this cent. the town of Vologda on the Vologda River 290 mi. NNE of Moscow is founded. In this cent. Pisa U. in Italy is founded by law students and teachers from Bologna, issuing the first doctorates of law - we all switch from bologna to pisa sooner or later? In this cent. the Dutch begin developing powerful towns with wealthy merchants challenging the nobles who rule the countryside; the sport of speedskating is begun on frozen canals. In this decade Henry I of England establishes the yard as the distance from the point of his nose to the end of his thumb when his arm is outstretched; a fathom is the length of both arms outstretched. In this cent. the Za mercantile and craft guilds in Japan are organized (until 1590). In this cent. the wandering student Goliards ("Goliaths") of Europe write satirical Latin verse while serving as minstrels and jesters. In this cent. the earliest Celtic lit. is written. Thanks to the haughty Normans trying to force the Anglo-Saxons to give up their funky German for French, a bastard language begins to emerge, which unfortunately ends up taking over half the world? In this cent. the French-speaking Norman invasion causes the indefinite article "a" to begin to emerge in Old English, which begins to diverge from the alphabetic principle in orthography, creating the "world's worst spelled language"; the Old English "gefeoht" (battle) becomes defunct; Middle English begins to supersede Old English; meanwhile in this cent. the dialect of the Ile-de-France becomes prevalent in France. In this cent. French nuns begin giving gifts in St. Nicholas' name on his feast day of Dec. 6. Sports: In this cent. the game of Checkers is born when the ancient Egyptian board game of Alquerque begins to be played on a chess board. Architecture: In this cent. Norman Romanesque architecture undergoes the transformation to light-lofty-airy Gothic Architecture in France, spreading to England by the end of the cent. In this cent. the Church of St. Sofia is built in Sredetz (modern-day Sofia), Bulgaria on the highest point of the city. the Church of St. Germain-des-Pres in Paris is built about this time. Castle Chillon near Geneva, Switzerland is built about this time. In this cent. the Gothic St. Severus Cathedral in Erfurt, Germany is begun (finished in the 14th cent.), along with the Predigerkirche, and the Reglerkirche. Inventions: In this cent. Sicily begins producing silk, and the practice later spreads to Italy, Spain, and France. In this cent. Arabs begin cultivating sugar cane in Sicily and Spain, causing it to become popular as an alternative to honey in Europe. In this cent. the rocket is invented in China - that's why it has a red glare? In this cent. Edam cheese begins to be manufactured in the Little Ye River Valley in N Holland, sold as paraffin-coated balls which don't spoil easily, causing it to become the world's most popular cheese until the 19th cent. In this cent. Fontina cheese begins to be manufactured in the Aosta Valley, known for its yummy 45% fat content. Science: In this cent. science in the Muslim World begins a slow permanent decline. Nonfiction: Early in this cent. Theophilus Presbyter writes On Divers Arts. About this time Bonedd y Sant (Lineages of the Saints) and Life of St. Cadoc are written in Ireland. Music: In this cent. the first secular music is performed in the West. In this cent. the Music School of St. Martial in Lomoges develops the polyphonic style. In this cent. the earliest music is written for guitars, used by troubadours. In this cent. the bagpipe becomes known in England. In this cent. the French Rondeau is born. Plays: About this time The Play of the Wise and Silly Virgins is written by anon. About this time Krishnamisra writes the allegorical play Prahodha ("undying flood of wisdom") Chandro-Daia. In this cent. the Passion Play, about Christ's Passion (suffering and death) originates in Europe, which lends itself to anti-Semitic demagogues trying to whip illiterate Christian mobs into homicidal acts to "get even with them for killing our Lord"; not being able to read, they never 'get' that the "gospel" (good news) is that Christ came out all right in the end, hence no harm no foul? Poetry: The French heroic poem Chanson de (Song of) Roland, about a battle in 778 C.E. is composed about this time. In this cent. Jayadeva of Puri, Orissa composes the love poem Gita Govinda (Song of Govinda), about Krishna and the cowgirls (gopis) of Vrindavana, esp. cute little cowgirl Radha. Births: Danish king (1137-46) Eric (Erik) III Hakonssson Lam ("Lamb") (d. 1146) in Fyn (Funen) Island; grandson of Eric I; nephew of Eric II. English "History of the Kings of Britain" bishop-chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth (d. 1155) (b. 1095?) in Monmouth, Wales; educated at Oxford U.; bishop of St. Asaph (1152-). Moroccan Muslim geographer Abu Abd Allah Mohammed (Muhammad) al-Idrisi (al-Idrissi) (d. 1165); in the service of Roger II of Sicily he helps transmit Islamic scientific knowledge to the backward Christian West. German (Brandenburg) margrave #1 (1150-70) Albert the Bear (d. 1170) ; only son of Count Odo of Ballenstedt and Eilika, daughter of Duke Magnus Billung of Saxony. French Anglo-Norman "Roman de Rou" poet Robert Wace (d. 1174) (b. 1110?) in Jersey; grows up in Caen, Normandy. French Scholastic philosopher William of Conches (d. 1155) (b. 1090?) in Conches, Normandy. Deaths: Indian Buddhist master Naropa (b. 1016). Frankish First Crusade leader Godfrey of Bouillon (b. 1058) on July 18 in Jerusalem. French Benedictine monk (St.) Adelelmus (Lesmes) (Aleaunie) (b. ?); born in Laudun, Poitou; starts out in the military; feast day: Jan. 30.
1101 After a call for another crusade by Pope Paschal II, the Crusade of 1101 (Crusade of the Faint-Hearted) (composed mainly of those who turned back from the First Crusade) sees the Crusader group from Milan join up in Nicomedia ith a more prof. group of French, Burgundians, and Germans incl. Count Stephen II of Blois (1045-1102)) (who had been shamed by his wife (St.) Adela of Blois (1067-1137) ever since returning from the siege of Antioch in 1098 without capturing Jerusalem, and was pressured into joining this Crusade), Count Stephen I of Burgundy, Duke Eudes I of Burgundy, Conrad, HRE Henry IV's constable of Jerusalem, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, who is appointed leader; at the end of May after some Pecheneg mercenaries under Gen. Tzitas arrive from Constantinople, they march towards Dorylaeum along the 1097 First Crusade route, but break off the route to Konya after the Lombards clamor to rescue Bohemund I of Antioch in Niksar, capturing Ancyra on June 23, sieging Gangra (modern-day Cankiri), then continuing N to Kastamonu; too bad, after being attacked by the Seljuks under Kilij Arslan I they turn E instead of W, still going for Bohemund, and stumble into a combined Seljuk-Danishmend army under Kilij Arslan I, Ridwan of Aleppo, Malik-Ghazi of Sebastia, and Karaja of Harran, fighting the Battle of Mersivan (Merzifon) near the Paphlagonian Mts. in NC Anatolia in early Aug., which sees them surrounded and crushed them in a 4-day battle, the Muslims capturing most of the horseless Lombards along with the Crusader camp, incl. women, children, and priests; Raymond, Stephen of Blois, and Stephen of Burgundy flee N to Sinope, then return to Constantinople by sea; a new force from Bari, Italy then arrives in Constantinople under William II of Nevers, and sieges Konya (Iconium) in SC Anatolia, only to be ambushed at Heraclea Cybistra by Kilij Arslan I, who wipes them out except for the count and a few of his men; the last Crusader army then arrives, led by Duke William IX of Aquitaine (1071-1127) (the first troubador), Count Hugh the Younger of Vermandois (1057-1101) (son of Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev), and Duke Welf I of Bavaria (-1101), who brings along Austrian Babenberg queen Ida (Itha) of Formbach-Ratelnberg (1055-1101) (wife of Leopold II and mother of Leopold III of Austria), complete with her own army, and they split into two forces, one headed straight for the brass ring of the White House, er, Palestine via sea, the rest (15K) under Count William (Guillaume) II of Nevers (1088-1148) traveling by land, only to be ambushed and massacred in Sept. in Heraclea Cybistra, the survivors arriving on Oct. 18 in Tarsus, where Hugh dies of his wounds; Ida is KIA (and is rumored to be captured end up as the mother of Crusader enemy Zengi); on Nov. 6 after preventing a fight between the Crusaders and some Byzantine Pecheneg mercenaries pissed-off oat their pillaging of Byzantine territory, Welf I dies in Paphos, Cyprus on his way back;after all the remaining Crusaders regroup at Tarsus, they capture Tortosa with the help of a Genoese fleet, and arrive in Antioch by the end of the year. On June 22 Roger I (b. 1031) dies, and his 8-y.-o. eldest son Simon of Hauteville (1093-1105) becomes count of Sicily (until 1105), with his mother Adelaide del Vasto as regent; meanwhile he gets in a fight with his younger brother Roger II, who beats him and tells him that he isn't king material but after he becomes king of Sicily he will make him a bishop or even pope. On Sept. 7 the First Battle of Ramla (Ramlah) (Ramleh) sees Baldwin I of Jerusalem take on the Egyptian Fatimid fortress of Ascalon with only 260 knights and 900 infantry in six divs. against 10K Egyptians; after the first two divs. are wiped out, the Egyptians pursue the 3rd one into the arms of the other three, allowing the Christians to show their viciousness in close quarter combat, causing the fatigued Fatimids to get timid and retreat in panic to Ascalon. On Nov. 9 Welf IV dies in Paphos, and his eldest son Welf V (1072-1120) becomes duke of Bavaria (until 1120). Royally pissed-off Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) of Normandy invades England, landing secretly in Portsmouth, but his younger brother Henry I meets him in Alton and persuades him to withdraw without fighting after buying him off with the Treaty of Alton, which promises him a year stipend of 3K marks in return for recognizing Henry I as king of England and receiving a possession in Normandy, recognizing each other as heirs, granting amnesty to all participants except "traitors", whom they are to assist each other in punishing, with Count Robert of Meulan (Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (1040-1118) uttering the soundbyte: "Soothe them with promises, so they can be driven into exile." Balaguer in Spain is reconquered from the Moors. Viking leader Magnus III Barefoot of Norway stages piratical forays into Ireland. Prince Boris Vsevolodovitch founds the town of Borisov in Belarus; Minsk becomes the capital of an independent principality. The Synod of Cashel in Ireland; Murtagh O'Brien (Muircheartach Ua Briain) cedes Cashel Castle (Rock of Cashel) (Gael. "cashel" = castle) in County Tipperary, Munster (political capital of the Eoghanacht Dynasty) to the Church, conceding an end to Druidism. Births: Hungarian Arpad king (1116-31) Stephen (Istvan) II (d. 1131); son of Kalman (1070-1116) and Felicia (daughter of Roger I of Sicily). French abbess Heloise Abelard (d. 1164); student and secret wife of Peter Abelard (1079-1142). Deaths: Chinese superbrain Su Song (b. 1020); leaves Xinyi Xiangfayo et al. German monk (St.) Bruno of Cologne (b. 1030) on Oct. 6. Norman count of Sicily (1071-1101) Roger I (b. 1031) on June 22. Chinese poet-painter Su Tung-P'o (b. 1036). Austrian queen Ida of Austria (b. 1055) in Heraclea Cybistra (KIA); captured by the Seljuks? French count Hugh the Younger of Vermandois (b. 1057) on Oct. 18 in Tarsus. Bavarian duke (1070-7, 1096-1101) Welf I/IV (b. ?) on Nov. 9 in Paphos. Kashmiri king (since 1089) Harisha (b. ?).
1102 On Jan. 24 Constantin I dies, and his eldest son Toros (Thoros) I (-1129) becomes king #3 of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (until 1129), establishing his capital at Sis (modern-day Kozan, Turkey), going on to extend alliances with the new Crusader states in Syria, avenging Gagik II by killing his assassins, repelling invasions of Turks from the N. On ? (Easter) the Crusaders of 1101 arrive in Jerusalem as pilgrims, getting their religious brownie points; most then disperse back to Europe, the rest joining Baldwin I's pitiful contingent. In Apr.-May the Christians, led by El Cid's widow Jimena evacuate Valencia; the Almoravids (Murabitun) under Mazdali, ibn Tilankan and Muhammad ibn Fatima occupy the city; of the Taifa states only Zaragoza, Mallorca, and Albarracin remain independent. On May 17 the Second Battle of Ramla (Ramlah) (Ramleh) sees Baldwin I of Jerusalem bring only 500 knights against thousands of Egyptian Fatimids, and after the latter surprise them, the cocky Christian fools charge into the enemy lines only to be slaughtered, incl. Stephen of Blois and Hugh VI of Lusignan, after which Baldwin saves himself by barricading himself in Ramlah's only tower, then escaping under cover of darkness to Arsuf, where he talks an English ship capt. into breaking the Egyptian blockade of Jaffa, then rounds up a fleet of French and German Crusaders along with the True Cross for moral support and scores a V on May 27 against the way bigger Egyptian army at the Battle of Jaffa, using his cavalry to break the Egyptian lines and force them to flee to Ascalon, taking big booty; Stephen II of Blois is KIA in the final charge from the tower of Ramlah, where Conrad, constable of Jerusalem is captured, after which Stephen II's eldest son Guillaume is passed over for mental weakness, and his 2nd son Count Theobald II of Champagne (b. 1090) becomes count Theobald IV of Blois and Chartres (until 1151); Joscelin of Courtney decides to remain in Palestine, and ends up as count of Edessa in 1118; having kicked Crusader butt out of Asia Minor, Kilij Arslan I establishes his capital in Konya, and becomes a big man in the Muslim world, the first to kick Crusader butt; since he blocks the land route from Constantinople to Jerusalem, only the sea route remains for pilgrims; Tancred uses this fact to consolidate his power in Antioch without Byzantine interference, capturing Tarsus, Adana, and Massissa in Cilicia (SC Anatolia). Hungary finishes conquering Dalmatia, defeating Croatian king Petar, incorporating almost all of Croatia under a viceroy (ban), while the landed Croat magnates retain their local assembly, and the Adriatic port of Dubrovnik (Ragusa) becomes an independent city-repub.; Croatia finally separates from the other southern Slavs and goes Western (Roman Catholic). Prince Vladislav I Herman dies, and his son Boleslav (Boleslaus) III Krzywousty (the Wry-Mouthed) (1086-1138) becomes duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia, and Sandomierz until 1107, followed by king of Poland (until Oct. 28, 1138), beginning a violent wry-mouthed struggle with his straight-mouthed brother duke Zbigniew (Zbygniew) of Poland (1073-1114) - wipe that wry off your mouth? Raymond of Toulouse captures the Spanish city of Tortosa. Bishop Diego Gemirez (Gemírez) of Santiago de Compostela, Spain uses force to carry off the relics of St. Victor and St. Frucuosus from Braga, which was recently reinstated as a metropolitan see. Count (since 1092) Ermengol V (b. 1078) dies of wounds from fighting Moors, and his Valladolid-born son Ermengol (Armengol) VI "Castilla" (1096-1154) becomes count of Urgell in Spain (until 1102). To forestall an invasion, a nat. synod of Irish bishops emancipates all English slaves. The Kingdom of Cochin in SW India is founded (ends 1949), becoming known for its spice-trading capital city of Kochi, "Queen of the Arabian Sea". The tomb of Edward the Confessor (d. 1066) is opened, and it smells sweet like flowers and his body is perfectly preserved? - the poor Saxon dogs have to have something to celebrate? Births: English HRE (1114-25) and queen (lady of the English) (1035-41?) (first female ruler of England) Empress Matilda (Maud) (Maude) (d. 1167) in Feb. 7 in Winchester; only legitimate daughter of Henry I of England (1068-1135) and Queen Matilda-Edith of Scotland (1080-1118); wife of HRE Henry V (1086-1125) and Count Geoffrey V of Anjou (1113-51); mother of Henry II (1133-89), Count Geoffrey VI of Anjou (1134-58), and Count William of Poitou (1136-64); not to be confused with English Queen Matilda, Countess of Boulogne (1105-52). French duke of Normandy and count #14 of Flanders (1127-8) William Clito (Lat. "royal blood") (same as Anglo-Saxon "Aetheling" and German "Adelinus") (d. 1128) on Oct. 25 in Rouen; son of Robert Curthose (1051-1134) and Sybilla of Conversano (-1103); 1st cousin of William Aetheling (son of Henry I); husband of Joanna of Monteferrat (half-sister of Adelaide de Maurienne, wife of Louis VI). ) Deaths: French Crusader Stephen II of Blois (b. 1045) on May 19 in Ramlah, Palestine. German king (1087-98) and Italian king (1093-98) Conrad II of Italy (b. 1074) on July 27 in Florence; buried in Santa Reparata (Santa Maria del Fiore).
1103 On Mar. 23 Eudes I the Red (b. 1058) dies after returning from the Crusade of 1101, and his son Hugh II (1084-1143) becomes duke of Burgundy (until 1143). Olavsson III Magnus (Barefoot), king of Norway is KIA while invading Ireland; his three sons Olaf Magnusson (1099-1115), Eystein I Magnusson (1088-1123), and Sigurd I Magnusson Jorsalafari (the Crusader) (1090-1130) split Norway three ways and become kings. Kalman I of Hungary becomes king of Croatia. The Danishmend Turks under Malik Ghazi Gumushtekin attack Melitene again, but the Crusaders fail to aid it because they're negotiating the release of Bohemond I of Antioch, and they conquer it and capture Gabriel of Melitene, who is executed outside the walls of a castle held by his men who refuse his order to surrender; meanwhile Byzantine emperor Alexius I tries to get even for Bohemond breaking his oath not to keep Antioch for himself, offering Gumushtekin 260K dinars for him, causing his overlord Kilij Arslan I to demand a 50% override on threat of an attack, after which Bohemond proposes a 130K dinar ransom cutting Alexius I out, which is paid by Baldwin I of Jerusalem, and after exchanging oaths of friendship with Kilij Arslan I, Bohemond returns in triumph to Antioch in Aug., then hooking up with Baldwin II of Edessa next Jan. to attack Harran. Ali, brother of Muhammad ibn al-Hajj, Murabitun gov. of Granada is KIA in battle with the Castilians in the Battle of Talavera. David IV of Georgia begins a campaign to end the seasonal migrations of Turks into Georgia, reducing key fortresses on the way to big jewel Tbilisi (ends 1118). The Public Peace of Mainz is declared for the Holy Roman Empire by HRE Henry IV (ends 1107); last in 1085; next in 1152. After Henry I of England's chief advisor (a Norman count) is excommunicated by Pope Paschal II, who threatens Henry I with ditto, they get into a dispute over lay investiture, with Archbishop Gerard of York writing the Anonymous of York treatises, defending the royal investitute of ecclesiastics via the traditions of Anglo-Saxon theocratic kingship; meanwhile Anselm gets in the middle, and is exiled to Rome for three years. Nonfiction: Anon., Ying Tsao Ea Shih (Method of Architecture); written in China. Births: Japanese emperor #74 (1107-23) Toba (Munehito) (d. 1156) on Feb. 24; son of Horikawa (1079-1107). English prince William Adelin (Atheling) (OE "son of the King") (d. 1120) in Winchester; only son of Henry I and Matilda-Edith. Norwegian king (1130-6) Harald IV Gille (Gilla Crist) ("servant of Christ") (d. 1136) in Ireland or Scotland; bastard son of Magnus Barefoot. French count of Tripoli (1105-9), count of Rouergue (1109-48), and count of Toulouse (1112-48) Alfonso Jordan (Alfons I) (d. 1148) in Mont Pelerin Castle, Tripoli; son of Raymond IV of Touluse and 3rd wife Elvira of Castile; father of Raymond V (1134-94), Alfonso, Faydiva (-1154), Agnes (-1187), and Laurentia. English queen consort (1121-35) Adeliza (Adelicia) (Adela) (Aleidis) of Louvain (d. 1151; 2nd wife of Henry I (1068-1135); daughter of Count Godfrey I of Louvain (1060-139). English queen consort Matilda of Boulogne (d. 1152) in Boulogne, France; wife of Stephen I, and bitter opponent of Henry I's daughter Empress Matilda; mother of Eustace IV (1130-53) and William I of Blois (1137-59). Deaths: French duke of Burgundy (1079-1103) Eudes I (b. 1058) on Mar. 23. Danish king (1095-1103) Eric I (b. 1070) on July 10 in Paphos, Cyprus; dies on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; his wife Bodil continues on, and dies on Oil Mountain.
1104 On May 7 after faking a retreat for 2 (3?) days then suddenly turning and making their stand, catching the Crusaders not wearing their armor, the Battle of Harran 12 mi. of Harran near ar-Raqqah is a decisive V for the Seljuk Turks under Mosul gov. Jikirmish and Sokman, Artuqid lord of Mardin over the Crusader states of Antioch under Bohemond I and Edessa under Baldwin II, allied with Prince Tancred of Galilee, Joscelin of Courtenay, Antioch patriarch Bernard of Valence, Jerusalem patriarch Daimbert of Pisa, and Edessa archbishop Benedict, becoming the first major battle after the First Crusade, stopping Frankish expansion; Baldwin II and Joscelin are captured, and not ransomed until 1108; the Byzantines take advantage of the D to recapture Latakia and parts of Cilicia, while many towns ruled by Antioch revolt and are reoccupied by Muslim troops, and Armenian territories revolt in favor of Armenia or the Byzantines; Bohemond I makes Tancred regent of Antioch and returns to Italy and raises a huge Frankish army, takes it to Epirus and unsuccessfully sieges Durazzo, while emperor Alexius I avoids open battle; Baldwin I of Jerusalem retakes Acre, making it the chief Crusader port, taking advantage of the spice trade to make them wealthy, growing to 25K pop. by the 1130s; after their troops bear the brunt of the D at Harran, Edessa limps along until 1144, surviving only because of divisions among the Muslims. On Sept. 28 king (since 1094) Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona (b. 1068) dies, and his brother Alfonso I (the Battler) (the Warrior) (1073-1134) becomes king of Aragon and Pamplona (until Sept. 8, 1134); in 1109 he marries Queen Urraca of Castile, Leon, and Galicia, taking the title of emperor of Spain. Sultan Kilij Arslan I of Rum begins a war with the Danishmends. Henry V rebels against his father HRE Henry IV with the approval of Pope Paschal II. The Venice Arsenal (shipyard and naval depot) (Arab. "Dar al Sina'a" = dockyard) is founded in Venice, Italy in the Castello Sestiere. The Hekla Volcano in Iceland erupts, destroying numerous farmsteads. Births: English king (1135-54) Stephen I of Blois (d. 1054); son of Count Stephen II of Blois and Adela (daughter of William I the Conqueror).
1105 - The Frederick II the One-Eyed of Swabia Year?
1105 On July 21 Duke Frederick I of Swabia (b. 1050) dies, and his son (by wife Agnes of Germany, daughter of HRE Henry IV) Frederick II the One-Eyed (1090-1147) succeeds him, going on to become the daddy (by wife Judith) of Hitler's favorite Frederick I Barbarossa in 1122. On Aug. 27 the Frankish Crusaders led by Baldwin I of Jerusalem defeat the Fatimids at the Third Battle of Ramla (Ramlah) (Ramleh), which lasts most of the day and is the most bloody of the trio, ending with the Egyptians fleeing back to Ascalon again; Ridwan of Aleppo tries to take advantage of the Latin defeat at Harran by attacking Artah, but is defeated by an Antiochian army led by Tancred. Henry IV is captured by his son Henry V and abdicates, leaving his son Henry V (1081-1125) as sole king of Germany. Raymond IV of Toulouse dies, and is succeeded by his son Bertrand (-1112). Simon of Hauteville (b. 1093) dies, and his younger brother Roger II (1095-1154) becomes count of Sicily (until 1130). Berkyaruk's brother (son of Malikshah) Muhammad I Tapar (-1118) becomes Seljuk sultan (until 1118); the Seljuk Empire is rapidly disintegrating into independent dynasties in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia. Colonization of E Germany begins. Krefeld in W Germany on the Rhine River 19 mi. WSW of Essen is first mentioned (as Krinvelde); in 1255 Uerdingen is founded to the E, and they end up merging in 1929. Architecture: Angouleme Cathedral in France is built. Benedictine St. Marx (Mark's) Abbey is founded in Gueberschwihr (Geberschweier), Alsace; Abbot Theoger of St. George's Abbey in the Black Forest turns it into a subordinate nunnery in 1184; in 1710 a beer brewery is built there; during the French Rev. (1789-) it is abandoned, and in 1845 the nuns return, only to see it burn down in 1852, after which it beats the odds and survives, being reconstituted on Oct. 9, 1968 under Sister Maria Xavier; in 1919 they are expelled from Alsace and move to the former St. Trudpert's Abbey in Munstertal. Births: English queen consort (1135-41, 1141-52) Maud (Matilda) I of Boulogne (d. 1152) in Boulogne, France; daughter of First Crusader Count Eustace II of Boulogne and Princess Mary of Scotland (daughter of Malcolm III); mother of Eustace IV of Boulogne (1130-53) and William I of Blois (1137-59). Spanish king of Leon and Castile (1126-57) and Galicia (1111-57) Alfonso VII (the Emperor) (Alfonso Raimundez) (d. 1157) on Mar. 1; son of Urraca I of Castile (1082-1126) and Raymond of Burgundy (-1107); founder of the Spanish House of Burgundy; father of Sancho III of Castile (1134-58) and Ferdinand II of Leon (1137-88). Polish king (1138-46) Ladislaus (Wladyslaw) II (the Exile) (d. 1159) in Krakow; son of Boleslav III the Wry-Mouthed (1085-1138) and Zbyslava (daughter of Sviatopolk II of Kiev). Latin queen of Jerusalem (1131-53) Melisende (Melusine) (Melisanda) (d. 1161); eldest daughter of Baldwin II (1060-1131) and Morphia of Melitene (-1126); wife (1029-) of Fulk of Jerusalem (1089-43). Italian archdeacon (of Catania) (1155-) and religious scholar Henry Aristippus (d. 1162) in Santa Severina. Norman nobleman John FitzGilbert the Marshal (Marshall) (Marechal) of the Horses (d. 1165); father of William the Marshal (1146-1219). Spanish rabbi (Jewish) Joseph ben Isaac Kimchi (Kimhi) (Qimhi) (d. 1170); moves to Narbonne, Provence, France; son of Isaac Kimchi father of Moses Kimchi (1127-90) and David Kimchi (1160-125); teacher of Rabbi Menachem ben Simeona and Joseph Zabara. Deaths: German Swabian Hohenstaufen duke #1 (1079-1105) Frederick I (b. 1050) on July 21. Seljuk sultan (since 1094) Berkyaruk (b. ?).
1106 On Aug. 7 after being excommunicated again, HRE Henry IV (b. 1050) dies in Liege, leaving his son Henry V as sole and last Salian German emperor #4 (until 1125); Henry V gives the duchy of Saxony in fief to Lothair II/III of Supplinburg (1075-1137). On Sept. 2 Yusuf ibn Tashfin dies, and his son Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin (-1142) succeeds as ruler of the Almoravids (Murabitun) in Morocco and Spain. After his weak rule causes some Norman barons to seek his intervention, Henry I defeats his brother duke (since 1087) of Normandy Robert III Curthose (1053-1134) at the Battle of Tinchebrai in SW Normandy and completes his conquest of Normandy, imprisoning Robert for life (28 years) (until 1134), first in the Tower, then in a castle in Devizes in 1128, finally in Cardiff in 1132; the power base of the Anglo-Norman kingship shifts to England; pesky Edgar Aetheling is also captured while fighting for Duke Robert, and taken back to England, then pardoned because Henry's wife Matilda (Edith) is his niece, after which he retires to his estate in Hertfordshire, last being seen in Scotland around the year 1120 and ending up as the Lost King of England in history books; Henry I places Robert III's 3-y.-o. son William Clito (Lat. "royal blood") (1102-28) under the protection of Count Helias of Saint-Saens (-1128). Duke Magnus dies, and the Saxon ducal (Billung) line becomes extinct. Pope Paschal II preaches a crusade against Constantinople, and requests the aid of Henry I of England, throwing him a bone by compromising on the lay investiture issue. Ibn Tashfin dies, and his son Ali becomes Almoravid emir of al-Andalus, leaving him 17K horsemen in the country, 4K in their capital of Seville, and 1K in Cordoba and Granada. China receives a Burmese embassy, and recognizes Burma as a sovereign state. Deaths: Chinese painter Li Lung-mien (b. 1049). German Salian king #3 (1056-1106) and HRE (1084-1105) Henry IV (b. 1050) on Aug. 7 in Liege.
1107 On Jan. 8 Edgar I of Scotland (b. 1074) dies (unmarried?), and is succeeded as Canmore king of Scotland (until 1124) by his younger brother (5th son of Malcolm III Canmore and Queen Margaret Aetheling) Alexander I (the Strong) (the Fierce) (1077-1124) (earl of Gowrie) (named after Pope Alexander II) as another vassal of the English crown; he marries Sibylla (1092-1122), one of Henry I's "brood of bastards", allegedly lacking in modesty and looks; meanwhile Edgar leaves his younger brother David I (1084-1153) (who lived at the court of Henry I and was Normandized) the rule of Cumbria in S Scotland (Lothian and Strathclyde) (N end of Loch Lomond to the Solway River in the S, and E into Tweeddale) in the S and W, disuniting Scotland and pissing-off Alexander I, but as David is one of Henry I's favorites he lets him have it along with additional lands in Lothian along the upper Tweed and Teviot Rives by 1113 after Henry I threatens military intervention, although it sours relations between the brothers; Alexander I gets rid of some old dirty laundry and orders poor blind Donald Bane (b. 1033), the last really Gaelic king of Scotland executed, then shows a little independence by refusing to let his St. Andrews bishops Turgot and Eadmer profess obedience to English archbishops. On Mar. 13 the Great Irish Snowstorm of 1107 kills cattle. On Apr. 21 after Henry I's sister Adela intervenes and they end their battle over lay investitute with a compromise whereby bishops and abbots are to be chosen in the presence of the king by cathedral chapters or the monks, who will do homage to him for their feudal possessions and powers, St. Anselm of Canterbury (b. 1033) dies after consecrating William Giffard of Winchester, Roger of Salisbury, Reynelm of Hereford, William Warelwast of Exeter, and Urban of Llandaff, and Ralph d'Escures (-1122) becomes Canterbury archbishop #37 (until Oct. 20, 1122). On Aug. 9 Japanese emperor (since 1087) Horikawa (b. 1079) dies, and his sole 4-y.-o. son Toba (Munehito) (1103-56) becomes Japanese emperor #74 (until 1123), while real power is wielded by his cloistered retired grandfather emperor Shirakawa. In fall Norwegian king (since 1103) Sigurd I Magnusson the Crusader (1090-1130) sails to England with 5K men in 60 ships to begin his Norwegian Crusade to Palestine (ends 1110) becoming the first Euro king to support the Crusaders; he never loses a battle. In Oct. after marrying French king Philip I's daughter Constance and uses kingy's rep to gather a large army of adventurers, Bohemond I of Antioch decides against returning to Antioch, instead leading his forces against the Byzantines for attempting to restrict the expansion of his principality since 1098, landing in Dyrrachium. The Public Peace of Mainz ends. Tancred of Antioch allied with Toros I of Little Armenia defeats the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Marash (Germanikeia), who held it since 1103. Marchidun Castle on the Scottish borders becomes the residence of the earl of Northumberland; David I later renames it Roxburgh Castle. The Concordat of London is signed, and Henry I abandons lay investiture while maintaining his authority over his bishops and abbots through ecclesiastical homage; the concordat becomes the model for the 1122 Concordat of Worms; too bad, Henry I never goes on crusade, and discontinues his father's policy of using monastic scholar in his admin., selecting secular clerks whom he later rewards for loyalty with bishoprics. Norwegian king Sigurd I Magnusson (Jorsalafare) (the Crusader) (1090-1130) sails with 60 ships to Palestine via England, Spain, and Sicily, then after fighting Muslims until his band gets too small he returns via Constantinople, the Balkans, Germany, and Denmark, arriving in 1111, his story becoming a great saga. The city of Florence, Italy seizes the city of Monte Orlandi, epanding over the surrounding countryside. The wealthy burgers of Verona, Italy (known for its 48 towers) organize it as a commune. Saracen raiders attack the Benedictine monastery of Saint Horat on the Lerins Islands in the French Riviera. Inventions: The Chinese begin printing 3-color paper currency to stop counterfeiting. Nonfiction: Emperor Huizong of Song (1082-1135), Treatise on Tea; #1 treatise on tea after Lyu Yu's "The Classic of Tea" (760); defines seven criteria for tea competitions, and describes the technique of tea spotting. Births: Chinese Song emperor #10 (1127-62) Gaozong (Zhao Gou) (Deji) (d. 1187) on June 12; 9th son of Huizong; younger brother of Qinzong. Austrian 1st count palatine of the Rhine (1140-1), duke of Bavaria (1141-56), and Austrian duke #1 (1156-77) Henry (Heinrich) II Jasomirgott (d. 1177) (Ger. "Ja so Mir Gott helfe" = "Yes, God willing"); son of margrave Leopold III (1073-1136). Arab physician-philosopher-scientist-poet Abubacer (Abu Bakr ibn Tufayl or Tufail) (d. 1185); physician-vizier of Almohad Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf in Marrakesh. Deaths: Scottish king Donald Bane (Donald III) (b. 1033) (executed); buried in Dunkeld, his remains later moved to Iona Abbey in Argyll (to be with his rival Macbeth), becoming the last Scottish king in the Gaelic tradition and the last buried in Iona. Scottish king (1097-1107) Edgar I (b. 1074); buried in Dunfermline alongside his parents in front of the high altar.
1108 On May 29 after the Murabitun (Almoravids) under Yusuf ibn Tashfin's brother Tamim ibn Tashfin and Muhammad ibn Fatima (grandson of Ibn Abi Bakr) take the small town of Ucles (Uclés) S of the Tagus River E of Toledo, and a ridgetop fortress holds out, and Alfonso VI of Castile sends a relief army under Alvar Fanez (Fáñez) de Minaya (-1114) (El Cid's nephew and right-hand man), the Murabitun decisively defeat them at the Battle of Ucles (Uclés) S of the Tagus River; many Christian leaders are killed, incl. six counts and Sancho Alfonsez, Alfonso VI's only son and heir (by his Moorish mistress Zaida of Seville, daughter-in-law of Al-Mutamid); the Christians abandon Cuenca and Huete. On July 29 super-fat French king (since 1060) Philip I (b. 1052) dies, and is succeeded by his super-fat (but brave, affable, and intelligent) son (liked by the peasants, the commercial class, and the clergy) Louis VI (the Fat) (Le Gros) (the Wide-Awake) (1081-1137) as Capetian king #5 of France (until Aug. 1, 1137), becoming the first popular Capetian, enjoying a peaceful and prosperous reign which is almost entirely spent subduing the robber barons and petty lords in the Ile-de-France in Paris, which takes until 1132. Bohemond I's attack on the Byzantines fizzles with a D in Devol (Diabolis) in modern-day Albania, and he is forced to sign the Treaty of Devil with emperor Alexius Comnenus, recognizing Byzantine suzerainty over Antioch, with a Greek patriarch to be appointed; Bohemond I returns to Apulia and dies, and his nephew and regent refuses to accept the treaty, increasing distrust between the Byzantines and Crusaders; it takes until 1137 for the Byzantines to restore control, and until 1158 to make it a vassal again. The Almoravids lose the Battle of Ucles (Uclés). Toros I of Lesser Armenia, allied with Tancred of Antioch defeats the Byzantines at the Battle of Anavarza; the towns of Anavarza and Sis are incorporated into Little Armenia, which reaches to the Pyramus River. Pope Paschal II leaves Rome to raise troops against rebels who are turning Rome into "the pit of daily rebellion" (Gregorovius); super-rich Pierleoni family founder Pier Leoni (Pierleone) (-1128) (son of Jewish convert Leo de Benedicto, whose son Peter later becomes Antipope Anacletus II, other son Giordano becomes the first patrician of the Roman Commune in 1143, and daughter marries Roger I of Sicily) (owner of Tiber Island, Castel Sant'Angelo, and the Theatre of Marcellus) is made one of the regents to rule in his absence. French conceptualist philosopher Peter Abelard (b. 1079) returns to Paris after pissing-off his teacher Guillaume de Champeaux (1070-1122) for refuting his realist philosophy, then flees to Melun and Corbeil and gathers a following, going on to become BMOC, influencing Peter Lombard, Arnold of Brescia et al. Architecture: Chichester Cathedral in West Sussex, England (founded 1075) is consecrated; too bad, it burns down, and is not rebuilt until 1184. Margrave Leopold III of Austria has a vision of the Virgin Mary, who leads him to a long-lost veil of his wife Agnes, causing him to found the Klosterneuberg Monastery there, later making it his residence. The Aztec Ruins in New Mexico begin to be built. Births: German Welf duke of Bavaria (Henry X) (1126-39) and Saxony (Henry II) (1137-9) Henry the Proud (d. 1139); son of Henry the Black of Bavaria (-1126) and Wulfhild (son of Duke Magnus Billung of Saxony); father of Henry the Lion (1129-95). Austrian Babenberg margrave (1136-41) and Bavarian duke (1139-41) Leopold IV (the Generous) (d. 1141); son of Leopold III (1073-1136) and Agnes (brother of Hohenstaufen HRE Conrad III); brother of Henry II Jasomirgott (1107-77) and Adalbert; husband (1127-) of Gertrude (only child of HRE Lothair III). Deaths: Jewish rabbi Rashi (b. 1044). French king (1060-1108) Philip I (b. 1052) on July 29 in Melun; buried in Saint-Benoire-sur-Loire.
1109 On June 29 (July 1?) Alfonso VI of Castile-Leon-Galicia (b. 1037) dies, and is succeeded by his daughter (by his 2nd wife Constance of Burgundy) Urraca I (1079-1126), who was married (since 1090) to Raymond of Burgundy until he died in 1107, and whom Alfonso was trying to fix up with her 2nd cousin Alfonso I of Aragon-Navarre (known for the soundbyte "A real soldier lives with men not women"); in Oct. they marry despite Archbishop Bernard of Toledo's objections on the grounds of consanguinity. The country that has enemies on every side but doggedly won't give up? On Aug. 10 Duke Boleslav III Wrymouth of Poland defeats the Pomeranians at the Battle of Naklo in Pomerania, planning to incorporate it to gain access to the sea (by 1123), massacring so many people that heaps of unburied bones lay around for years; on Aug. 14 he defeats his older stepbrother Zbigniew, allied with HRE Henry V at the Battle of Glogow, followed on Aug. 24 by the Battle of Hundsfeld (Dog's Field) (Psie Pole) near Breslau (Wroclaw), checking the German advance, after which he has Zbigniew blinded, which ends up killing him; there are so many corpses caused by the latter battle that there is a man-eating dog pop. explosion, hence the name. On Aug. 14 the Murabitun under Tamim ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin have jihads of fun as they storm the areas around Toledo, starting with Talavera in the Tagus River Valley to the W of Toledo, then ravaging the country to the N and S of it, and finally sieging the city itself for 1 mo., with Alvar Fañez (Fanez) leading the defense; too bad, they fail to take it. Louis VI the Fat of France begins a Franco-Norman Border War with the Normans to consolidate his frontier with them (ends 1112). After Crusader Raymond of Saint-Gilles (1041-1106) spends the last five years of his life setting up for the final V, aided by Byzantine emperor Alexius I, building the Citadel of Raymond of Saint-Gilles on Mons Peregrinus (Pilgrim's Mountain), Tripoli is captured by his son Bertand (-1112), who becomes count #1 of the County of Tripoli (ends 1289), which becomes a busy port and center of silk weaving, with the pop. speaking the Lange d'Oc of Provence; the inland settlemennt of Pilgrim's Mountain grows from a citadel into a suburb, hosting the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of Pilgrim's Mountain, the Church of Saint Mary's of the Tower, and the Carmelite Church, becoming a major base for the Knights Hospitaller, who in 1142 are given the Krak des Chevaliers by Count Raymond II of Tripoli. Nonfiction: On July 1 the Silos Apocalypse illuminated ms. (begun Apr.. 18, 1091) is completed in the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos near Burgos, Spain for Spanish monk Beatus of Liebana (730-), who believed that the world would end in 800. Births: Portuguese king #1 (1139-85) Afonso (Alfonso) I Henriques (the Conquistador) (the Great) (the Founder) (d. 1185) on July 25 in Coimbra; son of Henry of Burgundy (Count Henrique of Portugal) (1069-1112) and Teresa de Leon (1080-1130); father of Sancho I (1154-1211). Arab Abbasic caliph of Baghdad (1135-6) Ar-Rashid (d. 1138); son of al-Mustarshid; father of al-Muqtafi Serbian Orthodox Christian grand prince (1166-99) (St.) Stefan (Stephen) I Nemanja (Nemanya) (d. 1199) (Nehemiah) in Ribnica; son of Prince Zavida of Zachlumia of the house of Vojislavljevic; founder of the Nemanjic Dynasty; father of St. Sava (1175-1235) and Stefan II (-1228); feast day: Feb. 26 (Feb. 13 Old Style). Deaths: French abbot St. Hugh the Great (b. 1024) on Apr. 28 in Cluny. Italian-born English Catholic realism champion St. Anselm of Canterbury (b. 1033) on Aug. 21 in Canterbury; his see is vacant for five years; canonized in 1494, and declared doctor of the Church in 1720 by Pope Clement XI; leaves Monologium, Proslogion (Ontological Argument for the existence of God) et al. Spanish king of Castile-Leon (1065-1109) Alfonso VI the Brave (b. 1037) on June 29/July 1 in Toledo.