|England||Henry I Beauclerc (1068-1135)||Aug. 2, 1100||Dec. 1, 1135|
|Scotland||Alexander I (1077-1124)||1107||1124|
|France||Louis VI the Fat (1081-1137)||July 29, 1108||Aug. 1, 1137|
|Germany||HRE Henry IV (1050-1106)||Oct. 5, 1056||Dec. 31, 1105|
|Papacy||Paschal II (-1118)||Aug. 13, 1099||Jan. 21, 1118|
1110 On Jan. 24 the Battle of Valtierra in Pamplona (Navarre) is a V for Alfonso I the Battler of Aragon over Al-Mustain of Zaragoza, who is KIA, after which on May 30 after his son Imad al-Din fails to establish his rule, the Murabitun under ibn al-Hajj take over. In Aug. Henry I of England abruptly sends agents to Helias of Saint Saens to demand that his son William Clito be handed over to him, but the household conceals him and smuggles him to his father, who flees Normandy to the safety of Henry I's enemy Robert de Belleme. On Oct. 26 king (since Sept. 28, 1104) Alfonso I the Battler (the Warrior) (1073-1134) of Aragon defeats the Castilian supporters of his estranged new wife (since Oct. 1109) Urraca I the Reckless (La Temeraria) of Castile-Leon (1079-1126) and her 5-y.-o. son (by a childhood marriage to Raymond of Burgundy) Alfonso VII "The Emperor" Raimundez (Raimúndez) (the Emperor) (1105-57), Castilian candidate for the throne at the Battle of Candespina, followed by the Battle of Viadangos (Fontedangos) (Fonte de Angos); Henry of Portugal unsuccessfully sieges Alfonso I the Battler in Penafiel (Peñafiel); Alfonso I the Battler utters the immortal soundbyte "A real soldier lives with men, not with women", and abuses Urraca, and their barren and virtually incestuous marriage is annulled in 1114. In Oct. German king (since 1099) Henry V (1081-1125), enters Italy to settle the Lay Investiture Controversy with the pope; Matilda of Canossa (1046-1115) pays homage to him, and he makes her imperial vice-regent. The Seljuks start another war with the Byzantines (ends 1117). The first Karmapa (leader of the Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism) is born in Tibet. About this year after becoming a student at the cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris and becoming rivals with his teacher William of Champeaux, French #1 scholastic philosopher Pete Abelard (1079-1142) establishes a school on the Montagne Saint-Genevieve (Sainte-Geneviève) on the left bank of the Seine River overlooking Notre-Dame de Paris and its cathedral school before moving to Laon in 1113 then becoming master of Notre-Dame in 1115; about 1120 after Notre-Dame proves too small, teachers and students take up residence there, becoming the start of the Latin Quarter and the U. of Paris; after falling in love with young hot Heloise and ending up getting castrated, Abelard returns in 1136. Architecture: The Basilica of Paray-le-Monial in France (begun 1090) is finished. Plays: The earliest known miracle play is performed in Dunstable, England by Normandy-born Geoffrey of Dunstable (-1146), who becomes abbot of St. Alban's in 1119 - my moment, my dove? Births: Hungarian Arpad king (1131-41) Bela II (the Blind) (d. 1141); son of Prince Almos (-1129) (son of Geza I). Countess of Tripoli (1137-52) Hodiema (Hodierna) of Jerusalem (d. 1164); daughter of Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Morphia of Armenia; sister of Melisende (wife of Fulk of Jerusalem), Alice (wife of Bohemund II of Antioch), and Ioveta (abbess of Bethany); wife (1135) of Raymond II of Tripoli (1116-52); mother of Raymond III (1140-87) and Melisende of Tripoli. English Cistercian abbot (1147-) and historian (gay?) (St.). Aelred (Ailred) (Aethelred) of Rievaulx) (d. 1167) in Hexham, Northumberland; feast day: Jan. 12. Irish (Leinster) king (1126-71) Dermot (Dermod) (Diarmaid) (Gael. "without envy") MacMurrough (MacMorrogh) (MacMorrow) (Mac Murchada) (d. 1171); son of Donnchad mac Murchada. Russian prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (1157-74) (St.) Andrei (Andrey) (Andrew) I Yuryevich Bogolyubsky (Bogoliubski) ("God-loving") (d. 1174); son of Yuri I Dolgoruki (1099-1157); grandson of Vladimir II Monomakh (-1125); feast day; June 30, July 4. Bohemian king #2 (1158-72) Vladislaus (Vladislav) I/II (d. 1174); son of Vladislav I (1065-1125) and Richeza of Berg. Spanish historian-philosopher (Jewish) Abraham ibn Daud (Ben David) (d. 1180) in Toledo; introduces Aristotle to Judaism, which is later taken up by Jewish brain man Maimonides. Norman abbot-chronicler Robert of Torigni (Roburtus de Monte) (d. 1186) in Torigni-Sur-Vire.
1111 The Aztecs (Mexica) leave their homelands in Aztlan (modern SW U.S.) and begin wandering S through modern-day Mexico. On Feb. 22 Roger Borsa (b. 1060) dies, and his son William II (1095-1127) (1st cousin once removed of Robert II of Sicily, and half-brother of Charles the Good) becomes duke of Apulia and Calabria (until 1127), with his mother Adela of Flanders as regent, going on to get into a war with Roger II until Pope Calixtus II intervenes in 1121. On Nov. 29 King Baldwin I of Jersualem begins tirelessly sieging Tyre (until Apr. 1112). The Roman clergy go nonlinear when they hear that Pope (since 1099) Paschal II is giving away their temporal power and estates to Henry V, who enters Rome, takes the pope and his cardinals prisoner, and leaves the city with them; after rich Jewish convert Pier Leoni pays, er, arranges it, Henry V is crowned HRE by his prisoner Pope Paschal II, who issues the Privilegium, yielding the right to select a pope to the emperor - what a sheep? The Murabitun under Sir Ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarem. Toros I of Lesser Armenia avenges the murder of Gagik II by the "three sons of Mandale", the eldest of whom was his father-in-law. The Byzantines grant trade privileges to the Pisans to woo them away from the Normans and counterbalance (lean them away from?) the Venetians. After she proves unable to conceive, Urraca of Castile (d. 1126) and Alfonso I of Aragon-Navarre are separated, and in 1114 the marriage is annulled, after which she never remarries, preferring pretty boy hunks like Count Gomez Gonzalez of Lara, who knocks her up, causing her to die in childbirth; she has her 6-y.-o. son Alfonso VII crowned as king of Galicia in Santo de Compostela to groom him for the succession; meanwhile Alfonso seizes her lands and allies with her brother-in-law Count Henrique I of Portugal (husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon), but she fights back and wins back most of her domain. The Synod of Rath Breasail in Ireland, attended by King Murtagh O'Brien along with 50 bishops, 300 priests, and 3K laymen changes the church of Ireland from a monastic to a diocesan and parish-based church, establishing the provinces of Armagh and Cashel, each with 12 dioceses, with the see of Waterford made a suffragan of the archbishop of Cashel instead of Canterbury; the diocese of Kildare is established, covering the N part of County Kildare and the E part of County Offaly. Sung Dynasty Emperor Huizong, a fervent Taoist, in an attempt to establish Taoism as the state religion orders 1K Buddhist monasteries in the Shandong capital of Kaifeng to be destroyed. The Synod of Rathbresail (Rath Breasail) in Ireland, attended by 50 bishops, 300 priests, and 3K laymen and presided over by papal legate Bishop (1106-1138) Gille of Limerick (1070-1145) transforms the Irish church from monastic to diocesan and parish-based org., with the provinces of Armagh and Cashel each given 12 dioceses; Waterford is taken away from Canterbury and made a suffragan of the archbishop of Cashel; proof that St. Patrick could not be the patron saint of Ireland, and that he was not even a Roman Catholic priest? Architecture: The new Bamberg Cathedral, built by St. Otto of Bamberg is consecrated. Births: English Arab-speaking theologian (archdeacon of Pamplona) Robert of Ketton (Robertus Ketenensis) (d. 1160) in Rutland (near Stamford). Deaths: French abbot St. Robert of Molesme (b. 1028) on Apr. 17 in Molesme; canonized in 1222 by Pope Honorius III. Persian Sunni Sufi theologian Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (b. 1058) on Dec. 19 in Tus, Khorasan; initiates the Golden Age of Arabic Philosophy after successfully integrating logic into the Madrassa curriculum, and integrating Sufism with Shariah, refuting Islamailism and strengthening Sunni Islam; leaves 70+ books incl. Revivification (Revival) of Science of Religion (Religious Sciences) (Religious Knowledge) (Ihya Ulum al-Din) (40 vols.), integrating Sufism and Islam, and backing birth control, esp. coitus interruptus (onanism), with the woman's permission; on the other hand women don't need men's permission to use contraceptives such as suppositories and tampons; also Deliverance from Error (autobio.), containing the soundbyte: "A clumsy and stupid person must be kept away from the seashore, not the proficient swimmer; and a child must be prevented from handling a snake, not the skilled snake-charmer"; The Incoherence (Destruction) of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifa), dissing Islamic philosophers such as Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Alpharabius (al-Farabi) for following Greek philosophy even when it contradicts Islam, with the soundbyte: "The gates of ijtihad [rational debate] in Islam are now closed", shifting Islamic philosophy away from classic Greek and Roman learning to the doctrine of Occasionalism, which ditches scientific laws of cause and effect in favor of Allah and his angels, causing an Islamic theocracy to be built up that shuts down all scientific research as an affront to Allah and his freedom to act, after which the Muslim World takes a vacation from science until modern times; Sufism becomes accepted by the Muslim world, with Sufis living in fraternities under a sheik, and calling themselves dervishes (faqirs), practicing asceticism and feverish dancing; makes a fan of St. Thomas Aquinas. Norman duke Roger Borsa (b. 1060) on Feb. 22. Norman duke Bohemund I (b. 1057) in Italy - good year to die in? Flemish count (1093-1111) Robert II the Crusader (b. 1065) on Oct. 5.
1112 The 220-year drought in Calif. (begun 892) ends; followed by a 140-year one in 1209 to 1350, causing water levels to drop 50+ ft. On Feb. 3 Count Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona marries Douce of Rouergue/Gevaudan (1090-1127) in Arles, obtaining the county of Provence, putting the counts of Barcelona in conflict with the counts of Toulouse. On Apr. 25 after the commune's charter is revoked, the Easter Insurrection in Laon, France sees unpopular bishop (since 1106) Waldric (Gaudry) killed by a mob after being found hiding in a barrel in the crypt of Laon Cathedral, which is burned but not completely destroyed; he is replaced as bishop of Laon by Barthelemy (Barthélemy) de Jur (Joux) (Grandson) (1080-1158), who rebuilds the cathedral and rededicates it in 1114, after which an expansion program in 1160-1215, complete with a rose window and extensive use of white stone in the interior, becoming the 2nd most beautiful Gothic cathedral in France after Notre-Dame de Paris. In Apr. Baldwin I lifts the siege of Tyre. On Nov. 1 Count Henrique of Portugal dies, and his son Afonso (Alfonso) I Henriques (1100-85) succeeds him as count of Portugal, with his mother Countess Teresa of Leon (1080-1130) as regent. HRE Henry V is excommunicated by the Synod of Vienne for his extraction by force of the Privilegium from the pope, who repudiates it - that's the style? After he began sheltering Robert Curthose's young son William Clito in Aug. 1110, powerful, cruel but kind Robert de Belleme (1056-1131) is captured by Henry I while en route to his court in Bonneville as envoy of French king Louis VI to negotiate the release of Robert Curthose, imprisoning him for life on trumped-up charges, causing William and his protector Helias of Saint Saens, Count of Arques (-1128) to flee to the court of Count Baldwin VII of Flanders, who by 1118 puts together a coalition of Norman nobles to rebel from Henry I in the cause of Clito. Count Bertrand of Toulouse dies, and is succeeded as count of Toulouse, margrave of Provence, and duke of Narbonne by his son Alfonso I Jordan (1103-48) as Alfons I. The French-Norman War (begun 1109) ends. After banning Lothar of Supplinburg, HRE Henry V makes Count Otto the Rich of Ballenstedt (1070-1123) (father of Albert the Bear) duke of Saxony, but later changes his mind, strips him of his title, causing him to ally with Lothar and defeat Count Hoyer I of Mansfeld after Henry V names him duke of Saxony in 1115. Unpopular Breton duke (since 1084) Alan IV Fergant is forced to abdicate, and retires to a monastery in Redon, where he dies in 1119; his son Conan III the Fat of Cornwall (1093-1148) becomes duke of Brittany (until Sept. 17, 1148). The Margraviate of Baden on the E side of the Upper Rhine River in SW Germany is founded by Herman II (1060-1130) (until 1803). By this time the Aragonese have taken Huesca; meanwhile the Murabitun under ibn al-Hajj raid into Aragonese territory and reach the foothills of the Pyrenees. Louis VI grants special privileges to the Basilica of St. Denis, raising the status of Paris over Orleans as the Capetian capital. Architecture: The Gothic Exeter Cathedral in SW England is begun, and finished by 1400, with two massive 130-ft. towers, misericords (mercy seats), the longest uninterrupted vaulted ceiling in England, and an astronomical clock. Salzwedel Castle on the Jeetze River in the Altmark between Hamburg and Magdeburg is first mentioned; in 1233 it is first mentioned as a town in the Margraviate of Brandenburg; in 1263-1518 it joins the Hanseatic League; in 1701 it becomes part of the Kingdom of Prussia, followed in 1815 by the Prussian province of Saxony. Inventions: The Sauna is first used for health purposes in ? Births: Spanish king of Navarre (1134-50) (Roman Catholic) Garcia Ramirez VI of Navarre (d. 1150); son of Lord Ramiro Sanchez of Monzon and Cristina Rodriguez. Deaths: Georgian king (1072-89) George II (b. 1054). Portuguese count #1 (1093-112) Henrique (b. 1066). Norman First Crusade leader Tancred (b. 1075) on Dec. 5 (Dec. 12?) in Antioch (typhoid).
1113 On Feb. 15 the Order of the Knights Hospitalers of St. John in Jerusalem is confirmed by Pope Paschal II in his bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis (The Most Pious Request). On Apr. 6 grand prince (since 1093) Sviatopolk II (b. 1050) dies, and his cousin Vladimir II Monomakh (1053-1125), son of Vsvelod I becomes grand duke of Kiev (until May 19, 1125). On June 28 after Damascus atabeg (1104-28) Toghtekin (-1128) gets tired of Christian incursions and invites him to invade the Kingdom of Jersualem, pillaging Galilee and sieging Tiberias without capturing it, the Damascenes under Mosul atabeg (1109-13) Mawdud ibn Altuntash (-1113) defeat the forces of Baldwin I of Jerusalem at the Battle of Al-Sannabra, after which Altuntash is assassinated while a guest of Toghtekin in Damascus. The Balearic Islands are conquered by Pisa. Suryavarman II (-1150) becomes king of Angkor; under him the Khmer Empire in modern-day Cambodia/Vietnam reaches its peak, and he conducts diplomatic relations with China. Henry I of England arranges the marriage of his future Scottish vassal king David I (b. 1080) to Matilda de Senlis (-1130), widow of the earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, and daughter of Earl Walther of Northumbria and William the Conqueror's niece Judith, making him earl of Huntingdon as well as prince of the Cumbrian region, and putting him in the top ranks of English nobility; he founds an abbey at Selkirk in his Scottish lands, and stocks it with monks from the austere order at Tiron near Chartres, France, becoming the first reformed order of monks in the British Isles, proving that David not only finally got religion but is a supporter of the reform movement? The Leges Henrici Primi (Laws of Henry I) are codified. The Assassin Sect is expelled from Damascus to Aleppo, where it receives official protection (until 1128). St. Bernard joins the Cistercian Order. Architecture: St. Nicholas Church in Novgorod, one of the first onion-domed churches is built by Prince Mstislav (Mstislav I the Great). Nonfiction: The Primary Chronicle (Tale of Past Years) is compiled in Kiev, covering the years 850-1110. Births: French count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine (1128-), and duke of Normandy (1144-) (redhead) Geoffrey V (Le Bel) (Martel) Plantagenet (d. 1151) on Aug. 24 in Anjou; founder of the Anjou Dynasty in England, and originator of the surname Plantagenet (Fr. "sprig of broom"); husband of Empress Maud (1102-67); father of Henry II (1133-89), Count Geoffrey VI of Anjou (1134-58), and Count William of Poitou (1136-64). Spanish count of Barcelona (1131-62) Ramon Berenguer (Raymond Berengar) IV (the Holy) (the Saint) (d. 1162); son of Ramon Berenguer III (1082-1131); brother of Berengar Raymond I (1115-44); husband of Petronilla of Aragon (1135-74); father of Alfonso II of Aragon (1152-96), Ramon Berenguer III (1158-81) of Provence, and Sancho of Provence (1161-1223). Deaths: Russian grand prince of Kiev (1093-1113) Sviatopolk II (b. 1050) on Apr. 16 in Vyshhorod.
1114 On Jan. 7 Henry I's legitimate daughter Empress Matilda (Maude) (1102-67) marries HRE Henry V in Germany, and is crowned in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome in 1116, becoming the imperial regent in Italy, while her hubby faces revolts in Saxony until 1121. In Apr. Ralph d'Escures (de Turbine) (-1122) becomes archbishop of Canterbury (until 1122); in Aug. Thurstan (Turstin) (-1140) becomes archbishop of York (until 1140); too bad, Ralph refuses to consecrate Thurstan because he won't acknowledge obedience to him, and travels to Rome to see Pope Paschal II about it, but the latter had left the city, and he returns to England, going on to refuse orders from Popes Gelasius II and Calixtus II to consecrate him, the matter being resolved by his poisoning, er, death in 1122; meanwhile Henry I takes Ralph's side, and refuses permission to Thurstan to go to Rome himself. In Nov. a severe earthquake in the principality of Antioch damages many castles, after which next spring while supervising their repair Prince Roger of Antioch hears rumors of a Turkish invasion led by Bursuq bin Bursuq, and sends spies to observe his movements while assembling a 2K-man army at the Jisr al-Hadid Bridge (in modern-day Demirkopru, Antakya) over the Orontes River 12 mi. NE of Antioch, advancing to Atharib 37 mi. E of Antioch and 22 mi. W of Aleppo, where he makes an alliance with Syrian Muslim princes Toghtekin of Damascus, Ilghazi of Mardin, and Lulu of Aleppo to keep the Turks out, then advance 50 mi. S to the walled town of Apamea (Afamiya) on the right bank of the Orontes River and send a messenger to King Baldwin I of Jerusalem requesting military assistance, after which Bursuq's army arrives and storms the Muslim town of Hama 19 mi. SE of Afamiya, then makes camp in Shaizar (Saijar) 7 mi. to the NW, ruled by the Bani Munqidh tribe. Matilda of Canosa (Tuscany) (b. 1046) dies, and bequeaths all of her lands to the papacy, while the German emperors continue to claim them as an imperial ducal fief, causing the "property of Matilda" to become a political football for the next cent.; many of the principal cities achieve independence, incl. Pisa, and Florence begins to be governed by boni homines (a group of feudal lords, judges and guildmen). English king Henry I campaigns in Wales, assisted by Alexander I of Scotland. English king Henry I's legitimate daughter by Queen Matilda (Maud) marries HRE Henry V in Germany, who faces revolts in Saxony until 1121. A major Murabitun expedition under ibn al-Hajj from Zaragoza and Ibn Aisha of Valencia raids Catalonia, ravaging Christian territory, but is ambushed on its return, and both Murabitun generals are KIA; meanwhile the Catalans under Count Ramon Berengar III take over the Balearic Islands upon the death of emir Mubashir ibn Sulayman of Mallorca. Architecture: Pontigny Abbey in the Yonne dept. of France in N Burgundy halfway between Paris and the Cote d'Or is founded by 12 Cistercian monks sent by Abbot Stephen Harding of Citeaux led by Hugh of Macon, friend and kinsman of Bernard of Clairvaux, becoming the 2nd of four great daughter houses of Citeaux Abbey, which goes on to establish 22 more Cistercian monasteries that later give refuge to St. Thomas Becket, Centerbury Archbishop Stephen Langton, and St. Edmund of Abingdon; it is closed in 1456, and burned down in 1569 by Huguenots; the monks go on to plant vines along the Serein River, producing dry white wine known as Chablis wine, known for its gunflinty aftertaste ("goût de pierre à fusil"). Births: Scottish-English prince Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (d. 1152); son of David I of Scotland (1083-1153) and Maud of Northumbria (1074-1130); named in honor of Henry I of England. German Cistercian bishop of Freising (1138-58) and historian Otto of Freising (d. 1158) (b. 1111?0 in Kosterneuberg; 5th son of St. Leopold III of Austria (1073-1136) and Agnes, daughter of HRE Henry IV; half-brother of Conrad III; uncle of HRE Frederick I Barbarossa; of the House of Hohenstaufen; educated at the U. of Paris, after which he enters the Cistercian Order of Morimond. Indian mathematician-astronomer Bhaskara II (d. 1185) near Bijiada Bida, Karnata; Deshastha Brahmin parents. Flemish scholastic theologian-philosopher Alain of Lille (Alanus ab Insulis) (d. 1203) in Lille (Flanders); given the title "universal doctor" by his hometown, then moves to Montpellier and eventually enters a Cistercian monastery.
1115 On July 24 Countess Matilda of Canossa (b. 1046) dies, leaving her alloidal (free farm) territory to the pope, and after Henry V promises some of the cities in her territory that he wouldn't appoint a successor after he desposed her, N Italy enters a new era of city-states; Florence becomes a free repub. On Sept. 14 after King Baldwin of Jerusalem leads an army of 500 knights and 1K infantry along with 5K Muslim troops and hooks up with Count Pons of Tripoli and his 200 knights and 2K infantry, forbidding Roger of Salerno from engaging the enemy before he arrives, burning the town of Shaizar as punishment for allying with the Seljuks, causing the Seljuk army led by Bursuq bin Burquq of Hamadan to retreat and the Crusader army to disperse, after which Bursuq turns around and captures the Christian-held town of Kafr Tab (Kafartab) (Capharda) S of Shaizar near Afamiya and heads toward Zerdana (Zardana) (Zirdand) 37 mi. SE of Antioch, Roger reassembles his army (with reinforcements from Count Baldwin of Edessa) and camps at Rugia Castle by a bridge over the Orontes River near Jisr al-Shugour (ash-Shugur) 25 mi. S of Antioch, surprising the Seljuks while watering at the First Battle of Sarmin (Tell Danith), and winning a decisive V. Venice and Hungary go to war over Dalmatia, beginning a long struggle (end 1420). After persuading Louis VI to break his peace with Henry I and support William Clito, Count William II of Nevers is imprisoned by Count Theobald of Blois. Seljuk sultan Masud III dies, and his son Shirzad (-1116) becomes sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire (until 1116), causing his younger brother Arslan to begin vying for the throne. New Murabitun gov. of Zaragoza Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim ibn Tifilwit sieges Barcelona for 20 days, then withdraws when Count Ramon Berengar III returns from Mallorca. The Murabitun fleet takes the Balearic Islands. Murabitun gen. and gov. of Granada Mazdali ibn Tilankan is KIA along with his son Muhammad, gov. of Cordoba in battle this year against the Castilians. The Wanyan clan of the Jurchen (ancestors of the Manchus) found the Jin (Jinn) (Jurchen) Dynasty in Manchuria in NE China (ends 1234). Count Otto II of Scheyern (Scheuern) (Scheirn) (Skyrun), whose family ruled a part of Bavaria since Charlemagne dies, and his wife Haziga moves into the new Wittelsbach Castle in Wittelsbach, changing the family name and founding the Wittelsbach Dynasty (ends 1918), which enters the radar screen in 1180 when HRE Frederick I Barbarossa deposes Henry the Lion and makes Otto II's descendant Otto III into duke Otto I of Bavaria. Architecture: Clairvaux Abbey in France is founded, with St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) as abbot #1 (until 1153); 350 Cistercian houses are eventually founded. St. Albans Abbey in England (begun 1078) is completed. Scone Abbey (pr. SKOON) on the Tay River 2 mi. E of Perth is founded by Alexander I for the coronation of Scottish kings (until 1651). Augustinian Norton Priority is established in Runcorn, England on the S bank of the Mersey River by William fitz Nigel (-1134). Births: Norwegian king (1130-9) Magnus IV Sigurdsson (the Blind) (d. 1139); son of Sigurd Jorsalfar (1090-1130); half-brother of Harald IV (1003-36). Spanish count of Provence (1131-44) Berengar Raymond (Berenguer Ramon) I (d. 1144); son of Raymond Berengar III (1082-1131); brother of Raymond Berengar IV (1113-62). French prince of Antioch (1136-49) Raymond of Poitiers (d. 1149); youngest son of Duke William IX of Aquitaine and Countess Philippa of Toulouse; husband (1136-) of Constance of Antioch (1128-63). English soldier Earl Roger (the Good) of Clare (d. 1173) in Tunbridge Castle, Kent; son of Earl Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare (1084-1136) and Alice de Mechines; father of Richard de Clare (1162-1218). English (Norman) humanistic philosopher-historian (bishop of Chartres from 1176) John of Salisbury (d. 1180) in Salisbury; pupil of Peter Abelard (1079-1142) and Robert of Melun. Deaths: Italian countess Matilda of Canossa (b. 1046) on July 24 in Bondeno di Rocore (gout). Seljuk sultan Masud III.
1116 On Feb. 3 Kalman I (b. 1070) dies, and his son (by 2nd wife Preslava of Russia) Stephen II (1101-31) becomes Arpad king of Hungary (until 1131), and the dynastic struggle hungrily resumes. In the spring a famine rocks Leinster and Munster, Ireland. HRE Henry V goes to Italy and takes the lands of deceased Matilda of Canossa (Tuscany). Rukn al-Din Masud (Ma'sud) (Mesud) I (-1156) defeats Malik Shah and captures Konya, becoming sultan of the Seljuks of Rum (until 1156); after advancing to the Bosphorus, the Byzantines under Alexius I defeat them next year at the Battle of Philomelion (Philomelion), causing them to sue for peace. Louis VI the Fat of France begins the Second French-Norman War to consolidate his Norman frontier (ends 1120), and Henry I of England brings in his son-in-law HRE Henry V. Shirzad is assassinated by his younger brother Arslan-Shah (-1118), who becomes sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire (until 1117), blinding or imprisoning all his brothers except for Bahram, who is defeated in the Battle of Tiginabad, and appeals to Seljuk sultan Ahmad Sanjar, whose sister Gawhar Khatun is their mother, but is pissed-off at his conduct toward his brothers, causing Sanjar to order Arslan to release his brothers, and when he refuses, marches against him with an army of 30K cavalry and 50K infantry. About this year Bittideva Vishnuvardhana (-1152), a viceroy who was converted from Jainism to Vishnu by Ramanuja as a refugee from Saiva persecution by the Cholas, conquers the Chola territories of Gangavada, becoming king of his own Hoysala Kingdom in modern-day Karnataka, S India (ends 1343) based in Belur and Halebid, comprising Mysore, Salem, Coimbatore, Bellary, and Dharwar, going on to build ornate Hindu temples. Henry I of England calls the Council of Salisbury (the first English Parliament?), and orders Archbishop Thuristan to submit to Archbishop of Ralph of York, causing Thuristan to resign, although it never becomes effective. Architecture: Prince David of Cumbria (later David I of Scotland) rebuilds the Glasgow Church for the episcopal see, and goes to Tiron, France to visit abbot St. Bernard in person, but arrives after he dies. Births: French count of Tripoli (1137-52) Raymond II (d. 1152); son of Count Pons of Tripoli (1098-1137); husband (1137-) of Hodierna of Jerusalem (1110-64); father of Raymond III (1140-87) and Melisende of Tripoli. Irish last high king (1166-98) Rory (Roderick) (Gael. "high longing") O'Connor (Ruaidri Ua Conchobair) (d. 1198); one of 20+ sons of Turlough Mor O'Connor (1088-1156). Deaths: Spanish ruler of Valencia (1099-1102) Jimena Diaz (b. 1046). Hungarian king (1095-1116) Kalman (b. 1070) on Feb. 3.
1117 In Jan. the Seljuks under Khorasan ruler Ahmad Sanjar defeat the Ghaznavids under Sultan Arslan-Shah at the Battle of Ghazni in Shahrabad near Ghazni, after which Arslan flees to India while Ghazna is pillaged for 40 days, and on Feb. 25 Bahram of Ghazna (1084-1157) becomes sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire as a vassal of the Seljuks; as soon as Sanjar leaves the area, Arslan returns with an army supported by the Bu Halim Shaybani family of Khorasan, causing Sanjar to return and defeat him again next year, and chase him down and kill him. In Mar. Baldwin I of Jerusalem is "obliged" to negotiate a constitution for the Knights Templar (Order of the Temple) at Saint Leonard in Acre, admitting that he "owed his throne to Sion"; it is not made public until he dies next year. The Seljuks make peace with the Byzantines in Akroinon, abandoning the entire coastal area of Anatolia, plus all of Anatolia W of a line from Sinope through Ankara (Ancyra) and Philomelion. Archbishop Maurice (Maritius) Burdinus (-1137) of Braga (future Antipope Gregory VIII) crowns Henry V at Rome with the imperial crown, and is excommunicated for it, after which the pope's ally Pier Leoni retakes Rome for him, and ends up getting sieged in his tower by Ptolemy I of Tusculum. The Murabitun under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days. Ghazi ibn-Artuk founds the Oghuz Turkic Artuqid (Artukid) (Ortoqid) Dynasty in Aleppo, Syria (ends 1128). Continental scholars lecture at Oxford near the palace of scholarly Henry I Beauclerc. The entire problem with Christian morality and practical morality in a nutshell? French #1 philosopher Peter Abelard (1079-1142) (Peter Everhard?) falls in love with his hot 16-y.-o. female student Heloise (1101-64), niece of Canon Fulbert of Notre Dame in Paris, writing the soundbyte: "[We] were united, first under one roof, then in heart; and so with our lessons as a pretext we abandoned ourselves entirely to love... My hands strayed oftener to her bosom than to the pages; love drew our eyes to look on each other more than reading kept them on our texts"; after her uncle Fulbert finds out and tries to separate them, Abelard packs her off to his sister's house in Brittany, where she gives birth to their love child; they are then secretly married in Paris in front of Uncle Fulbert (axe in hand?); Abelard then publicly denies the marriage to keep his academic and clerical career going and bring home the bacon, but goes too far and gets Heloise admitted to the convent of Argenteuil as a cover story, where she rises to prioress; too bad, this makes Uncle Fulbert think that Abelard's trying to dump her as used goods, causing him to get his relatives together and castrate him, and he retires in shame to a monastic retreat at the Abbey of St. Denis in Paris to lick his wounds. Deaths: English Norman baron Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare (b. 1065). French bimbo Bertrada of Monfort (b. 1070) on Feb. 14 in Fontrevaud Abbey in Anjou.
1118 An earthquake is recorded in the Alps. The original Band on the Run? On Jan. 21 Pope (since 1099) Paschal II dies, and on Jan. 24 Bishop-Cardinal John of Gaeta is elected Pope (#160) Gelasius II (-1119), but since HRE Henry V didn't give his consent, Cencio (Cencius) II Frangipane barges into the College of Cardinals in Santa Maria in Pallara sul Palatino at night and grabs him and imprisons him in his nearby castle, until rich did-I-say-Jewish-convert's-son Pier Leoni (-1128), along with papal gonfalonier Stephen the Norman bribe, er, get him out (with the help of popular resentment), after which he flees to Gaeta, where he is crowned, then to the Normans; meanwhile on Mar. 10 Henry V places Aquitaine-born Mauritius Burdinus (Maurice Bourdin) on the papal throne as Antipope Gregory VIII (-1137) (until Apr. 22, 1121), and Gelasius II excommunicates both Gregory VIII and Henry V, then moves to Cluny, France. On Apr. 2 king (since Dec. 25, 1100) Baldwin I (b. 1058) dies in Egypt after eating some bad fish, and on Apr. 14 his nephew (cousin?) Baldwin II of Jerusalem (1060-1131) (Baldwin of Bourcq) (count of Edessa since 1100) becomes Latin king #2 of Jerusalem (until Aug. 21, 1131); after 300+ pilgrims are ambushed by marauding Saracens between the port city of Jaffa and Jerusalem, and other bands appear outside the walls of Jerusalem, presto-digito heah cum de judge, nine pious Christian knights from N France led by Hugues (Hugh) de Payens (Pajens) (Payns) (1070-1136) and Godfrey (Godefroi) (Gaufred) (Geoffrey) de St. Omer (huge pay-ins and gobs of free saintly lucre?) suddenly arrive at Baldwin II's palace and offer their services, claiming to have taken the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, plus another to protect the pilgrims on their journeys between the holy city and the coast; Baldwin bites, and the religious-military order of the Knights Templar (Order of the Poor Knights/Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon) is founded to protect pilgrim routes in the Holy Land by Baldwin II, who grants them a HQ in Jerusalem in the E part of his palace, in the Al-Aqsa Mosque, which stands on the Temple Mount (site of the Jewish Temple of Solomon), under which the Qumran Copper Scroll (discovered in the 20th cent.) claims huge quantities of gold and valuables are buried to keep it from the Romans, who razed it in 70 C.E.; they are also given attached stables big enough to accommodate 2K horses; their seal is two men seated on the same horse, to signify their vow of sodomy, er, poverty; they are a front for the mysterious Order (Priory) of Sion, AKA Order de la Rose-Croix Veritas (Order of the True Red Cross) (Rosicrucians)?; the secular overlord is Count Hugues of Champagne (1074-1125), with spiritual leadership given by French abbot-monk (St.) Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) (#1 spiritual figure in the West, a pope-maker and preventer of Jewish pogroms), who draws up their rule (sanctioned by the Council of Troyes in 1128), based on the Cistercian Rule, with the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and the rule of the canons regular; the order consists of knights (allowed to wear the white mantle with large red Latin cross on the back), chaplains, and men-at-arms (servants); admission is limited to those of noble blood; org. is by commanderies, under a grandmaster; too bad, these monkish Magnificent Nine spend their first nine years, not protecting pilgrims, but locked up inside their HQ, excavating through solid rock in search of the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Second Temple, giving later conspiracy theorists plenty of dream pillow material about how they dug up some magnificent treasure or great secret they used to blackmail the papacy with, maybe some secret documents, or the Shroud of Christ - or the formula for Viagra? So fluffy, so soft, so used to being used? On May 22-Dec. 18 the Aragonese under Alfonso I the Battler siege Zaragoza (Saragossa) on the Ebro River in NE Spain while taking most of the C lands of the Ebro Valley; as a result of a plea for help on Dec. 3, the Murabitun gov. of Valencia sends a relief force, but it is too small to help; only Lerida remains in Muslim hands because it is tributary to Barcelona; Alfonso I makes Zaragoza his capital, turning the Moorish citadel of Aljaferia Palace (Castillo de la Aljaferia) into his royal residence. On Aug. 6 caliph (since Feb. 1094) Al-Mustazhir (b. 1078) dies, and and his son Al-Mustarshid Billah (1092-1135) succeeds him as Abbassid caliph (until Aug. 29, 1135) - where's Pike and Mike? On Aug. 15 Byzantine emperor (since Apr. 1, 1081) Alexius I Comnenus (b. 1048) dies after executing Bogomils sect leader Basil the Physician (-1118) for heresy, and his short ugly swarthy (Moorish-looking) but extremely pious son John II Comnenus (Kalojoannes) (the Good) (the Beautiful) (1087-1143) becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #154 (until Apr. 9, 1143), with his wife (since 1104) Irene (Piroska) of Hungary (1088-1134) as empress, proving of high moral integrity and ability, getting compared to Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, concentrating on taking back the old frontier on the Euphrates and the Latin states of Syria; too bad he's less than top drawer as a military leader?; his ambitious bred-to-the-purple brain woman sister Anna Comnena (Komnene) (1083-1153), who expected to have her statesman-historian hubby (since 1097) Gen. Nikephoros Bryennios (Nicephorus Bryennius) (1062-1137) take the throne plots to have her brother John II assassinated at Alexius I's funeral, but it falls through, and after her hubby chickens-out ("Nature had mistaken the two sexes and had endowed Bryennios with the soul of a woman" - Choniates), she is stifled; after hubby's death she is retired to the Convent of Kecharitomene in Constantinople, turning into a historian herself (first female historian?), writing the 15-vol. Alexiad, a panegyric on her family and father's reign which becomes a major historical source for the period, explaining why she hates the Crusaders' guts. Sultan (since 1105) Muhammad I Tapar dies, and his son Muhammad (Mahmud) II (1105-1131) becomes Seljuk sultan (until 1131), imprisoning emir of Yazd (since 1095) Garshasp II (-1141), in Jibal, but he escapes and gets his sister to talk her hubby Khorasan sultan (since 1097) Ahmad Sanjar (1085-1157) to send a 6-king army thatdefeats Mahud in Saveh, and Ahmad Sanjar becomes the last sultan of the Seljuk Empire (until 1157). After Muirchertach Ua Briain becomes seriously ill in 1114 and retires, causing his kingdom to descend into strife, and Munster king (since 1114) Diarmaid (Diarmait) Ua Briain (1060-1118) dies in Cork, causing Connacht king (since 1106) Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair (Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair) (Turlough Mór O'Connor) (O'Conor) (1088-1156) to invade Munster and enforce the peace, the Treaty of Glanmire creates the Kingdom of Desmond in S Munster, with Tadhg Mac Carthaig as king #1, splitting it from Thomond (N Munster), which is given to the sons of Diarmaid Ua Briain incl. Conchobar Ua Briain (-1142), who becomes king of Demond in 1138 and king of Dublin in 1141. Architecture: Pisa Cathedral (begun 1063) is completed. Births: Births: Syrian Zengid atabeg of Aleppo (1146-74) and Damascus (1156-77) (Sunni Muslim) Nureddin (Nur ad-Din) (Arab. "Light of the Faith"") (Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Ma?mud ibn ?Imad ad-Din Zengi) (d. 1174); 2nd son of Imad ad-Din Zengi (1085-1146); brother of Saif ad-Din Ghazi I (-1149); father of As-Salih Ismail al-Malik (1163-1181). Byzantine emperor (1143-80) Manuel I Komnenos (Comnenus) (the Great) (d. 1180) on Nov. 28 in ?; 4th son of John II Komnenos and Irene of Hungary; maternal grandson of St. Ladislaus. French duke of Burgundy (1143-62) Eudes (Odo) II (d. 1162); eldest son of Hugh II (1084-1143) and Matilda de Turenne. English "murdered in the cathedral" 6'2" martyred Canterbury archbishop (1162-70) (St.) Thomas Becket of Canterbury (London) (Thomas à Becket) (d. 1170) in Cheapside, London; son of mercer Gilbert Becket and Matilda "Roheise" of Mondeville (near Caen); later writers spuriously call him "Thomas à Becket"; first of a chain of Roman Catholic theologian-saints incl. Becket (12th cent. England), Thomas Aquinas (13th cent. Italy), Thomas a Kempis (14th cent. Germany), and Thomas More (16th cent. England). Iraqi Sufi leader Ahmad al-Rifa'i (d. 1182) in Wasit; descendant of Muhammad on his father's side, and Husayn ibn Ali on his mother's side; founder of the Rifa'iyya Sufi Order, which practices self-mortification. Byzantine emperor (1153-85) Andronicus I Comnenus (Komnenos) (d. 1185); son of Prince Isaac Comnenus; grandson of Alexius I Comnenus. Deaths: Byzantine emperor (1081-1118) Alexius I Comnenus (b. 1048). Georgian-born Byzantine empress (1071-81) Maria of Alana (b. 1053). French king of Jerusalem (1000-18) Baldwin I (b. 1058) on Apr. 2 in Al-Arish, Egypt (dies after eating bad fish?). Arab Abassid #28 caliph (1094-1118) Al-Mustazhir (b. 1078) on Aug. 6. Scottish-born English queen consort (1100-18) Matilda (Edith) (b. 1081) on May 1 in Westminster Palace; her adoring subjects petition for sainthood for her, but it never happens. English monk Florence of Worcester (b. ?); leaves Chronicon ex Chronicis, the first English attempt at a universal chronicle from Creation to the year 1140, based on the work of Irish monk Marianus Scotus (1028-82); other writers go on to carry it down to the year 1295; the real author is John of Worcester (-1140)?
1119 On Jan. 29 Pope (since 1118) Gelasius II dies in the Abbey of Cluny, and on Feb. 1 cardinal Guido of Burgundy (Guy de Vienne), archbishop of Vienne (since 1088), 4th son of Count William I of Burgundy (1057-87) (one of the wealthiest men in Europe) is elected Pope (#161) Calixtus (Callistus) II (1065-1124), issuing the bull Sicut Judaesis, condemning violence against Jews (reaffirmed by 20+ of his successors?); after the new pope sends an embassy from Vienne to Strasbourg, HRE Henry V withdraws his support for Antipope Gregory VIII, but agrees to meets with the pope in Mousson near Rheims, where the Council of Rheims, attended by Louis VI of France meets in Oct; too bad, Henry V arrives with a 30K-man army, pissing-off popey and causing him to excommunicate both Henry V and Gregory VIII on Oct. 30; after trying unsuccessfully to reconcile brothers Henry I of England and Duke Robert II of Normandy, popey heads for Italy to oust da evil antipope - so I should have realized a lot of things before, if this is love give me more? On June 28 after allying with Joscelin I of Edessa to put military pressure on Aleppo, causing it to ally with Turkmen Artukid (Ortoqid) emir of Mardun (1107-22) Ilghazi (Najm ad-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuq (-1122) last year, who invades, and refusing to wait for reinforcements from Jerusalem and Tripoli, leaving him with a force fo 700 knights incl. 500 Armenian cavalry, plus 3K infanty, Roger of Salerno, Prince of Antioch meets Il-Ghazi at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis (Field of Blood) (Sarmada) (Balat) near Sarmada, and Roger's army is trapped and destroyed in a place Latins later call the Field of Blood; Roger is KIA, after which the Muslims scatter to plunder the surrounding area and fail to attack Antioch, after which the Latins Crusaders led by Baldwin II defeat Il-Ghazi at the Second Battle of Tell Danith (Sarmin) (Hab) on Aug. 14; tactically the battle is indecisive, but strategically the battle ends Il-Ghazi's offensive in N Syria; Baldwin becomes regent of the principality of Edessa. In June Henry I's son and heir William Adelin (Aetheling) (1103-1120 marries Matilda (Mahaut) of Anjou (1106-54), eldest daughter of Count Fulk V of Anjou in an effort to bring Anjou, Normandy's big rival into allegiance; too bad, a big rock messes things up 18 mo. later on the trip back to England - from broken dreams to beautiful results, you're how long from beautiful hair? On Aug. 20 Henry I of England and his son William Aethling defeat French king Louis VI the Fat at the Battle of Bremule, and burn Evreux. In Oct. Pope Calixtus II consecrates York archbishop Thurstan, pissing-off Henry I, who refuses to allow him to return to England until 1121 after he serves him in Normandy. Boleslav III of Poland begins the incorporation of Pomerania (ends 1123). Charles the Good (1084-1127) becomes count of Flanders, beating out illegimate William of Ypres. Architecture: The Masjid Jami (Friday Mosque), in Yezd (Yazd), becoing known for the tallest minarets in Iran. The La Seo Cathedral of the Savior in Saragossa, Spain is begun (finished 1520), and consecrrated in 1318. The aedicula of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is rebuilt by Bolognese sculptor Renghiera Renghieri. Inventions: The Chinese first use the compass for navigation. Nonfiction: Zhu Yu, Pingzhou Table Talks. Births: Japanese emperor #75 (1123-42) Sutoku (Ahihito) (d. 1164) on July 7; eldest son of Toba (1103-56) or Shirikawa (1053-1129).