|England||Stephen I of Blois (1096-1154)||1135||1154|
|Scotland||David I the Saint (1080-1153)||1124||1153|
|France||Louis VII (1120-80)||1137||Sept. 18, 1180|
|Papacy||Innocent II (-1143)||1130||Sept. 24, 1143|
1140 The Battle of Weinsberg features the "welf" war cry of the pro-papal anti-imperialist Welf (Guelf) (Guelph) party in Italy (whence its name) in its war against the pro-German-emperor Ghibellines (from Ghibellino, the Italian name for Waiblingen, the Hohenstaufen estate in Franconia). On Feb. 14 Sobeslav I Ulrich dies, and his nephew Vladislaus (Vladislav) (Ladislaus) II (1110-74) becomes king of Bohemia (until 1172), continuing the policy of supporting the German emperors. Sicily becomes home of the original Jolly Roger? Roger II of Sicily (1095-1154) defeats Pope (since 1130) Innocent II, takes him prisoner, and forces recognition of his royal title, creating a commercial Mediterranean empire while seeking to avoid invasion by the Greek and Holy Roman emperors, becoming one of the richest monarchs in Europe, ruling a cosmopolitan kingdom with a mixed Latin, Greek, and Arab pop., and a learned court hosting scholars incl. Henry Aristippus (1105-62) (tr. of Plato's "Phaedo" and Aristotle's "Meteorologica"), Eugenius (Eugene) of Palermo (1130-1202) (tr. of Ptolemy's "Optics"), and Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi (1100-65); his palace has decorations with a strong Persian influence. Oh yah by the way she moves she's got me tied up and I got nothin' to lose? David I of Scotland and his son Earl Henry (whom he designates as his heir and gives an active role in govt. to) found a Cistercian monastery at Newberryto atone for their army's atrocities in 1138? Mother Kilwinning Freemason Lodge in Kilwinning, Scotland is allegedly founded by stonemasons from the continent who built Kilwinning Abbey, ecoming Scottish Grand Lodge Number 0 (Nothing). The neo-Manichaean anti-clerical Albigenses religious sect of Langedoc in S France, named after the town of Albi (ancient Albiga) NE of Toulouse is founded in this decade by traders from the Byzantine Empire and/or E Europe (Bulgaria, Thrace) in Cologne, spreading to France and Lombardy in N Italy, along with the (same group?) dualistic gnostic Cathari (Gr. "katharoi" = pure ones) (AKA Bons Hommes et Bonnes Femmes, Bons Chretiens) religious movement in Languedoc; after being declared heretics in 1209, they are severely persecuted in Languedoc in 1209-1229, and exterminated by the 1320s. The town of Braslovce in Styria (modern-day N Slovenia) is first mentioned. Architecture: Liechtenstein ("bright stone") Castle is built near Maria Enzerdorf, Lower Austria on the edge of the Wienerwald (Viennese Forest) near Austria, becoming the ruling house of Liechtenstein untili the 13th cent. and again from 1807; it is destroyed by the Ottomans in 1529 and 1683, and rebuilt in 1884, later becoming home to the Nestroy Summer Theatre Festival. Births: English (Welsh) Goliardic poet-satirist (archdeacon of Oxford) Walter Map (Mapes) (d. 1209) in Hereford; educated at the U. of Paris. French Occitan troubadour (in England) Bertrand de Born, Baron (Vicomte) de Hautefort (Haute-Fort) (d. 1215). French heretical preacher (founder of the Waldensians) Peter Waldo (Valdo) (Valdes) (Waldes) (Pierre Vaudes or de Vaux) (d. 1205) in Limousin. Deaths: English archbishop (of York) Thurstan (b. ?) on Feb. 6 in Pontefract; dies after entering the Cluniac Order. Bohemian duke (1125-40) Sobeslav I (b. ?) on Feb. 14 in Hostinev Hradek.
1141 On Feb. 2 Empress Matilda's supporters, led by her half-brother (eldest bastard son of Henry I, known for his education) Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester (1090-1147) defeat and capture Stephen I at the First Battle of Lincoln (1217, 1878), and imprison him in Bristol, and after clevely escaping a Norman castle in Devizes in S England disguised as a corpse, and being joined by her uncle David I of Scotland, on Apr. 7 Empress Matilda (Maud) (1102-67) is proclaimed queen in London (until 1148), preferring the title of Lady of the English, like Alfred the Great's daughter Ethelfleda (Lady of the Mercians); too bad, she goofs in refusing the Londonders' timely request to halve their taxes, causing them to shut the city gates to her on June 24, reigniting the civil war; she then goofs again by trying to capture Winchester, and is surrounded while sieging Wolvesey Castle (built in 1130-6 by Stephen's brother Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester) on the Itchen (Aire) River in Hampshire, resulting on Sept. 14 in the epic Rout (Battle) of Winchester, where the earl of Gloucester is captured in a rearguard action by the forces of Stephen I's wife Matilda of Boulogne, and held for 2 mo. in Rochester Castle until Empress Matilda exchanges him for Stephen on Nov. 1 (during which exchange the earl assures Stephen that the fight is nothing personal), which causes the gymnophobe clergy to jump and dethrone her and declare for Stephen; meanwhile Matilda flees Winchester to the protection of John FitzGilbert the Marshal at Ludgershall Castle, who is attacked while covering her flight, takes refuge in Wherwell Abbey, then loses an eye to dripping lead from the melting roof after they fire the bldg.); David I narrowly avoids capture at Winchester, and barely escapes back to Scotland, deciding to stick to tightening his grip on N England, Durham, NW Yorkshire, and N Lancashire; John the Marshal scores another coup by divorcing his old bag and marrying Sibyl, sister of constable Patrick of Salisbury (1120-68) in exchange for flopping his support from Stephen I to Matilda and being created the 1st earl of Salisbury in 1145; John later sends his new son William the Marshal (b. 1146) to live with him, where he learns the art of knighthood and begins his rise to #1 knight of all time - yi yi yi, I wished I lived back then? On Feb. 13 Bela II the Blind (b. 1110) dies of alcoholism, and his tennie son (by wife Helena of Serbia) Geza II (1130-62) becomes king of Hungary (until May 31, 1162), with his mother Queen Ilona as regent. On May 25 the Council of Sens (ual?) (convened in 1140), led by St. Bernard de Clairvaux condemns the theology of castrated nun-lover Peter Abelard (1079-1142) as heretical, causing Pope Innocent II to order him to remain silent, and he leaves for Rome to try to reverse the decision, then stays at the monastery of Cluny with abbot Peter the Venerable to lead a life of study and prayer until he croaks - I'm single, rich, and live at the beach, I'm OK with reality? On Sept. 9 after being invited by the Khwarazmians to conquer Seluk lands, 20K+ Kara-Khitai plus 30K-50K karluk horsemen from N China decisively defeat 70K-100K Seljuks under Sultan (1118-57) Ahmed Sanjar (1084-1157) of Khorasan and Garshasp II (-1141) of Yazd at the Battle of Qatwan Steppe N of Samarkand, killing 11K-110K and capturing several Seljuk cmdrs. and Sanjar's wife; Garhasp is KIA; Sanjar loses all but 15 of his elite horsemen, losing all Seljuk territory E of the Syr (Jaxartes) River; Khwarazm becomes a vassal of the Kara-Khitai; the basis for the Prester John legend? On Oct. 18 Leopold IV the Generous (b. 1108) dies, and his elder brother Henry (Heinrich) II Jasomirgott ("Yes, God Willing?") (1112-77), who had become the first count palatinate of the Rhine last year becomes margrave of Austria and duke of Bavaria (until 1156). Pope Innocent II and King Louis VII of France begin a dispute over who should be archbishop of Bourges, causing Louis VII's lands to be placed under papal interdict. Olaf II of Scania is defeated and KIA by Eric III of Denmark at the Battle of Helsingborg; an alleged illegitimate son of his tries a revolt in 1182 - go Beowulf? Japanese emperor (since 1123) Sutoku (b. 1119) retires to a monastery in favor of his younger brother (great-nephew?), retired emperor Toba's 8th son Konoe (1139-55), who becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #76 (until Aug. 22, 1155), with Toba still running things from the monastery; Konoe becomes the last Japanese emperor to build an imperial prayer temple; meanwhile retired emperor Sutoku is without powers, causing workaholics to rock the boat? The town of St. Andrews in Fife, E Scotland (modern-day pop. 16.8K) is founded by Bishop Robert, later becoming the official ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, and the home of golf in 1754. Architecture: The Monastery of St. Bernard de Clairvaux in Segovia, Spain (begun 1133) is finished; in 1925 William Randolph Hearst has it dismantled into 35K pieces and shipped to New York City, where it is impounded because of a hoof-and-mouth outbreak in Segovia, and all the hay packaging burned, scrambling the pieces; it then sits in a Brooklyn warehouse until 1952, when it is reassembled in North Miami Beach, Fla. Births: Scottish Canmore king (1153-65) Malcolm IV (d. 1165) in Apr./May; eldest son of Earl Henry of Huntingdon (-1152) and Ada de Warenne; grandson of David I; brother of William I (1143-1214). French Christian Crusader Balian of Ibelin (d. 1193) (b. 1143?); youngest son of Barisan of Ibelin (-1150); brother of Hugh of Ibelin (1130-71) and Baldwin of Ibelin (1131-88). Persian "Layla" Romantic poet Nezami (Nizami) Ganjavi (d. 1209) in Ganja, Aran, Azerbaijan. Indian ascetic mystical Sunni Muslim Chishti Order founder Moinuddin Chishti (Chishti Mu'in al-Din Hasan Sijzi) (Khwaja Ghareeb Nawaz) (d. 1236) in Herat, Afghanistan. Deaths: Jewish poet-philosopher (in Spain) Jehuda Halevi (b. 1081) in Jerusalem; leaves The Book of the Kuzari: The Book of Proof and Evidence in Support of the Abased Religion, a dialogue between a rabbi and the pagan king of the Khazars on Judaism, claiming that God must be accessed through tradition and devotion, not philosophical speculation. Austrian margrave (1136-41) and Bavarian duke (1139-41) Leopold IV the Generous (b. 1108) on Oct. 18 in Niederaltaich, Bavaria. Hungarian Arpad king Bela II of Hungary (b. 1110) on Feb. 13.
1142 In June Robert de Caen, 1st earl of Gloucester crosses to Normandy to get help for his half-sister Matilda, and returns without reinforcements, finding that she had been trapped and almost captured in Oxford, but escaped to Wallingford by fleeing over the snow camouflaged in a white cape; the civil war grinds to a stalemate. Alfonso I Henriques, with the help of the Knights Templars attacks Muslim-held Lisbon. Albert the Bear makes peace with Henry the Lion, son of Henry the Proud, and becomes duke of Saxony. Louis VII of France begins a 2-year war against Count Theobald II the Great of Champagne (ends 1143), seizing Vitry-le-Francois and killing 1K residents after setting the church on fire. Eystein II (1125-57), who was born and raised in Scotland or Ireland arrives in Norway and claims to be a brother of Norwegian co-kings Sigurd II, Magnus V, and Inge I, and since daddy Harald Gille had acknowledged him before dying, he becomes a 4th co-king, each sharing the whole country; luckily Magnus soon dies (so he loses his number?) - the orginal Eystein's theory of relativity? The Nestorian patriarch and Jacobite primate formally reconcile. Architecture: A small Kurdish castle on the road between the Muslim city of Homs and the Christian city of Tripoli on the E end of the Mediterranean, captured in the First Crusade, is given by the Christian Count of Tripoli to the Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jersualem, who over the next 150 years build it up into Krak des Chevaliers (Crag of the Knights), the most impregnable fortress in the world (never taken by direct attack) (see 1271). Kerak Castle (Crac des Moabites) (Krak of the Desert) is built in Moab E of the Dead Sea (modern-day Jordan) by Pagan the Butler (-1148), butler of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, becoming one of the largest Crusader castles; in 1189 it is captured by Saladin. Births: Arab Abbasid caliph (1170-80) Al-Mustadi (Hassan al-Mustadi ibn Yusuf al-Mustanjid) (d. 1180); son of Al-Mustanjid (1124-70); father of Al-Nasir (1158-1225). French duke of Burgundy (1162-92) Hugh III (d. 1192); eldest son of Eudes II (1118-62) and Marie de Champagne (daughter of Theobald and Mathilda of Carinthia). Deaths: English-born Norman chronicler Orderic Vitalis (b. 1075) in Saint-Evroult Abbey, Normandy; leaves Historia Ecclesiastica (Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy) (13 vols.); the greatest English social history of the Middle Ages, covering from the birth of Christ through the defeat and capture of King Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, plus a history of his abbey; heavy on the history of William the Conqueror and his three sons Robert Curthose (1051-1134), William II Rufus (1056-1100), and Henry I Beauclerc (1068-1135); the years before 1067 are taken from William of Jumieges and William of Poitiers. French philosopher-lover Peter Abelard (b. 1079) in Chalon-sur-Saone at the Priory of St. Marcel; his body is returned to the Paraclete, where Heloise dies in 1164, their remains laid side-by-side; in 1808 their ashes are taken to Paris, and in 1817 they are buried in a single tomb in the cemetery of Pere Lachaise in Paris; Abelard leaves Sic et Non ("Yes and No", "Thus and Otherwise"), presenting conflicting theological arguments on 158 problems without solutions to show that truth must be attained by weighing opposing positions of authorities; also leaves Know Thyself, or Ethics; 25+ of his pupils become in-the-fashion-zone cardinals.
1143 On Apr. 8 John II Comnenus (b. 1118) cuts his hand on a poisoned arrow while boar hunting on Mount Taurus in Cilicia, dying of septicemia several days later, and on Apr. 5 his son Manuel I Comnenus (Komnenos) (1118-80) becomes Roman Byzantine emperor #155 (until Sept. 24, 1180) after being chosen over his older brother because of valor in battle, going on to keep up the family name, becoming the #1 Comnenus, putting pressure on Hungary to keep it in turmoil; under his reign Constantinople is acknowledged as the capital of the Western world and the center of culture; his chasing of the elusive mirage of a new universal Roman Empire causes him to marry a Latin babe (Princess Maria of Antioch) (his first wife is Irene, sister-in-law of Conrad II), employ Latin nobles and intermarry them with the Greek aristocracy, get tough with the Hohenstaufen emperors and Normans, and engage in costly campaigns in the Mediterranean for little gain, all of which plays into the hands of the Seljuks of Rum, who use it as breathing space to recover while he bankrupts his empire?; Manuel I believes in the AIMA Prophecy, which predicts that the names of the Comnenus emperors will spell aima, the Greek word for blood, causing him to name his son (by his 2nd wife Maria of Antioch) Alexius II. On Oct. 5 self-proclaimed Spanish emperor Alfonso VII of Leon finally recognizes the independence of Portugal in the Treaty of Zamora, with king (since July 26, 1139) Afonso I Henriques (1109-85) as king #1 (until Dec. 6, 1185), and marries Petronila of Aragon (daughter of Ramiro II the Monk of Aragon) to Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona, uniting Aragon and Catalonia. On Nov. 13 king (since 1131) Fulk of Anjou falls (b. 1089) of his horse and dies in Acre, and on Dec. 25 his 13-y.-o. son Baldwin III (1130-63) becomes Latin king #4 of Jersualem (until Feb. 10, 1163) under his regent mother Queen Melisende, presiding over the decay of Latin power in the East after inheriting his daddy's lack of attention to the Crusader states. Louis VII of France occupies Champagne - a toast? The Rome-Tivoli War ends in a Roman V, and Pope Innocent II refuses to let the Romans destroy the town, pissing-off the Roman pop.; in late fall the Communal Revolt in Rome against Church and aristocratic rule, led by Giordano Pierleoni (son of consul Pier Leoni and brother of Antipope Anacletus II) begins (ends 1155), causing Rome to become a free city for the first time in 300 years, with communal status and a new 56-member Roman Senate consisting of four elected reps from each of the 14 districts of ancient Rome), with Pierleoni as the first patrician (the title of consul is nixed because it sounds too aristocratic?), calling for the pope to wise up, renounce all secular authority, and live as a common priest before being allowed to enter the city; on Sept. 24 Pope (since 1130) Innocent II dies, and on Sept. 26 Guido of Citta di Castello is elected Pope (#164) Celestine II (-1144), immediately lifting Innocent II's interdict on France. Hugh II (b. 1084) dies, and his eldest son Eudes (Odo) II (1118-62) succeeds as duke of Burgundy (until 1162). Anarawd ap Gruffydd is murdered, and his brother (son of Gruffydd ap Rhyd) Cadell ap Gruffydd (-1175) becomes ruler of the Welsh kingdom of Deheubarth. Peter the Venerable of Cluny delivers a speech to Louis VII, condemning the Jews of Narbonne because they still claim to have a king residing among them despite a coverup of the Jewish Kingdom of Septimania; next year Theobald, a monk in Cambridge, Gngland utters the soundbyte: "The chief princes and rabbis of the Jews who dwell in Spain assemble together at Narbonne where the royal seed resides." Lubeck (Lübeck) in NW Germany (modern pop. 250K) is founded; original name is Liubice ("beautiful"). Nonfiction: Robertus Ketensis (1110-60), Lex Mahumet Pseudoprophete (The Law of Mahomet the Pseudo-Prophet); first Latin trans. of the Quran, made at the request of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny. Births: Japanese emperor #79 (1158-65) Nijo (Morihito) (d. 1165) on July 31; eldest son of Go-Shirakawa (1127-92); father of Rokujo (1164-76). Scottish Canmore king (1165-1214) William I the Lion (Garbh = the Rough) (d. 1214) (b. 1142?); 2nd son of Earl Henry and Ada de Warenne; brother of Malcolm IV (1141-65); 2nd longest reign in Scottish history (49 years) after James IV (58 years). Deaths: French duke of Burgundy (1103-43) Hugh II (b. 1084). Byzantine emperor (1118-43) John II Comnenus (b. 1088) in Apr. in Cilicia (hunting accident). French count and Latin king Fulk of Anjou (b. 1089) on Nov. 13 in Acre; falls from his horse while hunting and gets crushed by the saddle, causing his brains to gush out of his nose and ears, then takes three days to die in Jerusalem; buried in the Holy Sepulchre. English historian William of Malmesbury (b. 1095).
1144 An epidemic rocks Connacht and Munster, Ireland this year and next. On Mar. 20 (Mon. after Palm Sunday) or Mar. 22 (Wed.) (day before Passover) Christian tanner's apprentice St. William of Norwich (b. 1132) is allegedly murdered by Jews Christ-style in Norwich, England to provide them with ritual blood, and his body is found on Mar. 25 (Sat.) in Thorpe Wood, causing the Jews to be blamed, and the Jewish quarter to be sacked and burned; William is canonized after Benedictine monk Thomas of Mounmouth pub. a Latin work about him in 1173 titled "The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich", claiming to be there; the first time the Jews are accused of ritual murder, but not the last, as the horrible bloody images of what Jews might be doing to Christians to make their yummy matzoh prove addictive to anti-Semites - the Medieval version of porno? On May 8 after allowing monk Arnold of Brescia (1090-1155) to return to Italy (where he soon begins agitating for a dem.-repub. form of govt. with no pope, causing a popular uprising), Pope (since 1143) Celestine II dies after a reign of 5 mo. holed-up in a fortified monastery, and on Mar. 9 Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso is elected Pope (#165) Lucius II (-1145) (until Feb. 15, 1145). On Nov. 28-Dec. 24 after Atabeg (ruler) Imad al-Din Zengi (1085-1146) of Mosul leads a Muslim jihad against the Christian Franks in the Holy Land, he sieges and captures Edessa (Urfa), and destroys the oldest Crusader principality of Outremer (founded 1098), becoming the first Crusader state to be eliminated; Mosul is on its way to becoming cock of the Muslim walk and mastering Egypt?; early next year the bad news is brought back to Europe by returning pilgrims. Berengar Raymond I (b. 1115) dies in an offensive against Genoa, and his son Raymond Berengar (Ramon Berenguer) II (1135-66) succeeds him as count of Provence (until 1166); after the Baux family challenges him, his uncle Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona secures his position by 1147 via military action, although they continue to fight until 1162. The Sufi Muridun ("Disciples") under founder Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Qasi (-1151) rebel in the Algarve; Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves in his name, and Sidray ibn Wazir, gov. of Beja also supports him; Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn Wazir kill the garrison of Monchique castle, and 70 men take Mertola by surprise on Aug. 12; soon afterward the Andalusian gov. of Niebla, Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Bitruji declares for the Muridun; the Murabitun Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya drives the Muridun back from Seville, and subsequently Sidray ibn Wazir splits off from the other Muridun. Geoffrey V of Anjou conquers Normandy and becomes its duke, surrending half of the Vexin to Louis VII of France. The city of Montauban on the right bank of the Tarn River at its confluence with the Tescou River 31 mi. N of Toulouse in S France (modern-day pop. 61K) is founded with lands taken from the abbey by Count Alphonse Jourdan (Alfonso Jordan) of Toulouse (1103-48). Architecture: On June 11 the light airy Gothic Abbey Church of St. Denis (begun 1137), designed by Abbot Suger (1081-1151) is consecrated by Louis VII as the burial church of the French monarchs, becoming the first Gothic edifice, using an anon. architect who invents ribbed vaults to give decorative lightness, as well as shafts to envliven the masonry; Suger issues the soundbyte: "The most radiant windows... iluminate men's minds so that they travel through apprehension of God's light"; since France is in the midst of a great communal cathedral-bldg. movement, the style spreads to the cathedrals of Paris (Notre Dame), Chartres, Reims, Amiens, and Beauvais - the original light relief system for arthritis? Inventions: The first paper mill in Europe is founded in Xatirah (modern-day San Felipe, Spain) in Valencia by the Muslims, who stole the process from China. Nonfiction: Robert of Chester (tr.), Liber de Compositione Alchemiae (Book of the Composition of Alchemy) (Feb. 11); first book on alchemy in Europe. Births: French romantic poet (first known trouvere (trouvère) (trouveur)) Chretien (Chrétien) Troyes (d. 1190) in Troyes. Christian prince of Antioch (1163-1201) Bohemond (Bohemund) III (the Child) (the Stammerer) (the Stutterer) (1144-1201) (d. 1201); son of Raymond of Poitiers (1115-49) and Constance of Antioch (1128-63). Iraqi Sufi scholar Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 1234) in Baghdad; founder of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi Order. Deaths: French count of Provence (1115-44) Berengar Raymond I (b. 1115). English martyr St. William of Norwich (b. 1132) on Mar. 20 (Mar. 22) in Norwich (martyred).
1145 In Jan. the Cordovans evict the Murabitun gov., and elect Hamdin ibn Huhammad ibn Hamdin as emir; in Mar. Sayf al-Dawla (Zafadola) (Ahmad III Abu Jafar ibn Abd al-Malik al-Mustansir) (-1146), a Zaragozan adventurer in Castilian employ briefly seizes power from Ibn Hamdin, but flees to the Levant due to popular hostility, and Ibn Hamdin returns to power but is soon overthrown by the Murabitun under Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya. On Feb. 15 after Arnold of Brescia (who likes to crusade against the immorality of the clergy) goes to Rome and whips up the good ole pope-free Roman Senate to declare Rome independent of the papacy, with its temporal power abolished, Pope Lucius II is killed leading a small army against the Roman Senate, and on the same day Bernardo Pignatelli (Cisterian monk Bernard of Pisa) is elected Pope (#166) Eugene (Eugenius) III (-1153) (first Cistercian pope); the Roman pop. then rises and deposes Giordano Pierleoni, and invites Eugene III back; on Dec. 1 in response news of the fall of Edessa, from Bishop Hugh of Jabala (Gebal) (modern-day Lebanon), Eugene III issues the bull Quantum Praedecessores in Viterbo, proclaiming the Second Crusade, becoming the first bull on the subject of a Crusade, calling for the strongest kings of Europe to lead it, and for a route to be planned in advance; too bad, there is a ho-hum response; meanwhile Bishop Hugh of Jabala also tells bishop-historian Otto of Freising (1114-58) stories about King Prester John (John the Priest), the leader of the Nestorian sect (who aided Mongol conqueror Yeh-lu Ta-shih in his conquests), descended from one of the three Magi who visited infant Jesus, claiming he is willing to help the Crusaders, whipping the pope up; fabulously wealthy, he sleeps on a bed of sapphires, rides dragons through the air, has a fountain of youth and is 562 years old (b. 583?); meanwhile the anarchy in Rome causes Pope Eugene III to leave, and Giacomo da Vico is elected next year as the new patrician (until 1152); after arriving in Paris, Eugene III goes in pomp to the cathedral, which was in the Jewish quarter, where the Jews send a delegation to present him with a Torah, and he blesses them before eating paschal lamb with the king. In Mar. the Andalusian Jund in Valencia raise up the qadi Marwan ibn Abd al-Aziz as emir; when he can't pay them, in Nov. they replace him with their own leader Ibn Iyad. At the end of the year Philip of Gloucester, son of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester defects to Stephen I's side, bringing the strategic castles of Cricklade and Circenester with him. Here's the evil he's become? On Dec. 25 to atone for his guilt in the massacre at Vitry-le-Francois, French king (since Aug. 1, 1137) Louis VII the Younger (1120-80) in Bourges declares his intention going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but Abbot Suger and the nobles try to talk him out of it, causing him to consult St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who tells him about the papal bull and refers him to Pope Eugene III, who talks him into it. The French commune of Rouen is chartered. Architecture: The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem found their first settlement in Germany in Duisburg, and build the Hohenstaufen Salvator Church. The stone bridge over the Danube River in Regensburg, Germany (begun 1135) is completed. Nonfiction: Robert of Chester (tr.), Liber algebrae et almucabola (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing); tr. of "Al-kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-gabr wa'l-muqabala" (820) by Al-Khwarizmi (780-850), coining the terms "algebra" (Arab. "reuniting", "restoration"), "algorithm, and "x" for the uknown quantity, along with "sine" after mistranslating the Arabic word "jb" as bay or inlet, which becomes sinus in Latin. A row of sculptures in the Western (Royal) Portal of Chartres Cathedral in France revolutionizes Romanesque Art by telling a narrative story, launching Gothic Art; the Virgin is turned into a refined aristocratic lady, who finally cuddles Baby Jesus. Births: Byzantine empress (1180-2) Maria of Antioch (d. 1182); daughter of Raymond of Poitiers (1115-49) and Constance of Antioch; wife of Manuel I Comnenus (1118-80); mother of Alexius II Comnenus (1169-83). French Crusader king of Jerusalem (1197-1205) and lord of Cyprus (1194-6) Aimery (Amalric) (Amaury) II of Lusignan (d. 1205) in Lusignan, Poitou; son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan (1106-71); brother of Geoffrey of Lusignan and Guy of Lusignan (1150-94); husband (1179-96) of Eschiva of Ibelin (1160-96) (daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin) and (1197-1205) of Isabella I of Jerusalem; father of Hugh I of Lusignan (1194-1218). Persian Sufi poet Farid al-Din Attar (Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakr Ibrahim) (d. 1221) in Nishapur. Uzbekistani Sufi leader Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra (d. 1221).
1146 On Feb. 5 after Alfonso VII sends him three of his best knights to help him in a dispute with the Christian Spanish, Sayf al-Dawla is KIA in the Battle of Chinchilla near Chincilla de Montearago, ending the Hudid line. On Mar. 1 Pope Eugenius III reissues his bull calling for a new Crusade, granting the same indulgences that Pope Urban II granted for the First Crusade, and authorizes his mentor St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) to preach it throughout France, starting at the French parliament in Vezelay, Burgundy on Mar. 31, where Louis VII, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and all the princes and lords prostrate themselves at his feet to receive the pilgrims' cross, causing attacks on Jews; he induces German king (since 1138)Conrad III (1093-1152) to join it by Christmas, leaving with an army of 20K men heading for Hungary - I only have 12 bullets so you're gonna have to share? On Sept. 14 Turkish atabed (since 1127) Imad al-Din Zengi (b. 1085) of Syria dies in Damascus, and his youngest son (of two) Nureddin (Nur ad-Din) (Arab. "Light of the Faith"") (Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim MaHmud ibn Imad ad-Din Zengi) (1118-74) inherits the W portion of his father's kingdom based in Aleppo, devoting his career to kicking Frankish Crusader butt; his older brother Saif ad-Din Ghazi I (-1149) inherits Mosul. In the fall Robert, 1st earl of Gloucester begins negotiations with Stephen after Gloucester and Bristol are threatened. The repub. revolt in Rome causes Pope Eugene III to flee to France. After his younger half-brothers drive Vladislaus the Exile into, er, exile, Duke of Masovia (since 1138) Boleslav (Boleslaw) (Boleslaus) IV the Curly (1120-73) becomes Piast king (high duke) of Poland based in Krakow (until 1173) - nyuk nyuk nyuk? Al-Mustansir accepts the crowns of Valencia and Murcia from the hands of Ibn Iyad; the Christians defeat the Valencians under Al-Mustansir near Albacete on Feb. 5, killing Al-Mustansir in the process; Ibn Iyad reassumes the title of emir; Ibn Iyad dies in some pitiful conflict in Aug., and Muhammad ibn Sad ibn Mardanish becomes ruler. Danish king (since 1137) Eric III (b. 1100) gets sick, abdicates and enters a convent in Odense on Flyn (Funen) Island, then dies on Aug. 27; Sweyn III (1125-57) is elected king in Zealand, while his rival Canute V rules in Jutland (until 1152). The Repub. of Avignon (founded 1135) becomes part of Venaissin (until 1348). Grand prince (since 1139) Vsevolod II dies, and his brother Igor II (-1147) becomes grand prince of Kiev, only to be dethroned after a few mo. by his cousin Izyaslav II Mstislavich (1096-1154), who becomes grand prince of Kiev (until 1149), going on to invent a new warship with hidden oarsmen and two helmsmen so it can reverse course without turning around; meanwhile Vyacheslav (-1154) waits in the wings. The first written mention of the town of Bryansk (Debryansk) ("dense woodland") on the right bank of the Desna River 235 mi. SW of Moscow (modern-day pop. 426K) in the Hypatian Codex; in 1503 it is conquered by the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which turns it into a fortress; in 161034 it is occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; in the 17th-18th cents. its economy is based on the annual Svenskaya Fair, largest in European Russia; in 1783 it becomes a manufacturing center for cannons and ammo for the Imperial Russian Navy. The Atlantic Ocean port city of Rabat, Morocco (Ribatu i-Fath = "stronghold of victory") at the mouth of the Bou Regreg River (modern-day pop. 577K/2.1M) opposite the ancient city of Sale (Salé) (Sallee) (Salli) in NW Morocco (founded ca. 1030) (modern-day pop. 890K) starts as a fortress built by Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min, becoming a favorite port for Barbary pirates in the 16th-18th cents. Nonfiction: Anon., Antidotarium Niclai; a treatise on drugs. Bishop Otto of Freising (1114-58), Historia de Duabus Civitatibus (History of the Two Cities) (8 vols.); a world history ending in 1146, taking the line of St. Augustine and Orosius that the Earthly City (Babel) sucks compared to the Heavenly City (Jerusalem); the first mention of Nestorian Christian king Prester John, who is viewed as a potential savior of the Crusader states; continued to 1209 by Abbot Otto of St. Blasius (-1223). Births: Norman soldier-statesman ("Greatest Knight Who Ever Lived" - Stephen Langton) William the Marshal (Marshall) (Gillaume le Marechal), 1st Earl of Pembroke (d. 1219); son of Sybil de Evereaux and John the Marshall (1105-65); husband (1189-) of Isabel Fitzgilbert de Clare (1172-1220). Deaths: Turkish atabeg of Mosul (1127-46) Imad ad-Din Zengi (b. 1085) on Sept. 14 in Damascus. Danish king (1137-46) Eric III (b. 1100) on Aug. 27 in Odense, Fyn (Funen) Island. Moroccan Sufi scholar Ali ibn Hirzihim; pushed the works of al-Ghazili.
1147 In Jan. Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile captures Calatrava. On Apr. 6 Duke Frederick II the One-Eyed of Swabia (b. 1090) dies, and his son Frederick I Barbarossa (b. 1122) becomes Hohenstaufen duke of Swabia #3 (until 1122), combining the Hohenstaufen line through him and the Welf line through his mother Judith, daughter of Duke Henry the Black of Bavaria. In June Louis VII of France sets out for the Second Crusade from the Basilica of St. Denis with his manly wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, leaving his kingdom in the hands of Abbot Suger; after hearing about it, the Church forbids women to join future Crusades; unlike the First Crusade, attacks on Jews are openly encouraged, with Abbe Pierre of Cluny uttering the soundbyte: "What is the good of going to the end of the world at great loss of men and money to fight the Saracens when we permit among us other infidels who are a thousand times more guilty toward Christ than the Mohammedans?" In June Conrad III arrives in Hungary, where in Aug. Louis VII hooks up with him; king (since 1141) Geza II (1130-62) asks Louis VII to be his son Stephen's godfather, launching decades of good relations between France and Hungary; Louis VII and Conrad III of Germany take separate routes to avoid conflicts. In late summer Robert Fitzroy, 1st Earl of Gloucester arrives in England to fight for Matilda, and is defeated at the Battle of Farnam, then takes sick and dies in Bristol Castle on Oct. 31, causing his half-sister Matilda (d. 1167) to leave England for France, leaving a shopping list seven pages long. Alfonso I Henriques captures Santarem near Lisbon in a surprise attack, then convinces some English Crusaders heading for the Holy Land to help him complete the conquest of Lisbon, and in Oct. the internat. Christian coalition attacks Almeria by land and sea; Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile and Sancho Ramirez IV of Navarre march overland, taking Andujar and Baeza en route; meanwhile Ramon Berengar IV of Aragon-Catalonia and a Genoese naval contingent join them in Almeria, and after there is no opposition from the Murabitun fleet, Almeria falls on Oct. 17 and is given to the Genoese; on Oct. 24 the Portuguese under Afonso I Henriques along with Crusaders from Cologne, Flanders, and England take Lisbon from the Moors (who held it since 716), becoming the only thing the Second Crusade accomplishes? A civil war for the Danish throne begins between Valdemar I (1131-82) (son of Canute Lavard), Sweyn III (-1157), and Canute V (1119-57) (son of Magnus the Strong and grandson of King Niels) (ends 1157). Henry the Lion (1129-95) of Saxony and Albert the Bear of Brandenburg (1100-70) begin the Wendish Crusade against the pesky Slavic pagan Wends (Sorbs) between the Elbe, Oder, and Saale Rivers; too bad, it's a failure, but they do drive Curly's Poles back from the entire territory along the Baltic Sea and W of the Vistula River. The Almoravid capital of Marrakesh is conquered by Abd al-Mumin, leader of the Berber Muslim anti-Maliki Almohad Dynasty (founded 1130); the Almoravid Dynasty in Morocco, Algeria and Spain (founded 1040-56) is now systematically absorbed by the Almohads (by 1172) - the almost-hads are absorbed by the almost-rabids? Amadiya, Iraq-born false Messiah David Alroy appears in Babylon and Persia, gaining many Jewish converts until his father-in-law beheads him. The rulers of Portugal move their residence from Braga (since 1093) to ? The village of Moscow (modern-day pop. 12.2M/17.1M) (precursor of the grand duchy of Moscow) on the Moskva River in Russia is founded by Prince Yuri (George) I Vladimirovich Dolgoruki (Long Arms) (1099-1157) of Suzdal-Vladimir (son of Vladimir II Monomakh) in C Russia on the Moscow (Moskva) River; in 1295 it becomes the capital of the principality of Moscow, going on to become the "Holy Mother of the Russians"; in 1482-95 the Moscow Kremlin (Russ. "fortress inside a city") in Moscow is built. French troubador Jaufre Rudel, Prince of Blaye dies about this time during the Second Crusade after pioneering the theme of "love from afar" (amor de lonh/loin), causing a legend to arise that he was in you know what kind of love with Countess Hodiema (Hodierna) of Tripoli (Jerusalem) (1110-64) (daughter of Baldwin II of Jerusalem), and died in her arms. Architecture: The Cluniac Saint-Lazare d'Autun Cathedral in Autun, Burgundy, France (begun 1120) is finished, containing realistic sculptures by Giselbertus (Ghiselbertus) (Gislebertus) of Autun, incl. "The Last Judgment" and "The Temptation of Eve", which becomes the first large scale nude in Euro art since antiquity, paving the way for the Gothic style. Lisbon Cathedral in Portugal is built. St. Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom) in Vienna (begun 1137) is consecrated and dedicated to St. Stephen in the presence of Conrad III of Germany, Bishop Otto of Freising, and German nobles about to embark on the Second Crusade; the first structure is completed in 1160, and expanded until 1511, becoming the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the archbishop, known for its multi-colored tile roof. Haversham Abbey in England is built by Stephen I and Queen Matilda. Births: Japanese shogun #1 (1192-9) Minamoto no Yoritomo (d. 1199) on May 9 in Atsuta, Owari Province (modern-day Atsuta-ku, Nagoya). Norwegian king (1157-62) Haakon II Herdebrei (the Broad-Shouldered) (d. 1162); bastard son of Sigurd II (1133-55). Hungarian king (1162-72) Stephen (Istvan) III (d. 1172); eldest son of Geza II (1130-62) and Euphrosyne of Kiev (daughter of Mstislav I of Kiev). Welsh world traveler Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis) (d. 1223) (b. 1146?); accompanies English Prince John to Ireland and lives there two years; tours Wales to preach the Third Crusade; masters many languages but not Welsh Gaelic. Deaths: German Hohenstaufen Swabian duke #2 (1105-47) Frederick II the One-Eyed (b. 1090) on Apr. 6. English soldier Robert Fitzroy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (b. 1090) on Oct. 31 in Bristol Castle.
1148 On June 15 after returning from exile, Pope Eugene III excommunicates Arnold of Brescia, who still controls Rome. I think we're alone now, the beating of our hearts is the only sound? In summer Conrad III's army reaches Byzantine territory, and Emperor Manuel I Comnenus permits them to move through his territory for the sake of his wife Irene (Conrad's sister-in-law Bertha of Sulzbach) (-1159); seeing his chance, the Normans under Roger II of Sicily begin a grab on the Greek-held islands, starting a war with the Byzantines (ends 1158), ravaging Euboea and Attica, plundering Thebes and Corinth, and carrying away silk workers, establishing them at Palermo, arriving outside Constantinople in Aug. On Oct. 25 after the Greeks clash with the Crusaders outside the walls of Constantinople, nearly defeating them, and Emperor Manuel I stops it with diplomacy, securing an alliance with Conrad III against Roger II of Sicily, after which the army is speedily ferried across the Bosphorus to Damalis, while the emperor stabs him in the back by giving info. on his strength and movements to the Turks, the Seljuks of Rum under Masud I defeat the 20K-man Second Crusader German army (unaided by the Byzantines) at the Second Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskishehir), and on Nov. 16 ambush and defeat the starving French army (unaided by the Byzantines) at the Battle of Laodicea (Denizli), killing or capturing most of Bishop Otto of Freising's force and selling the POWs into slavery; Conrad III and his remaining 2K men (mostlyh knights) reach Nicaea, where many desert, join Louis VII's army, unsuccessfully sieging Damascus. In Dec. after a 5-mo. siege, Ramon Berenguer IV, backed by French and Genoese Crusaders captures Tortosa in Catalonia. Having failed to win the English crown, Matilda arrives in France, where she pushes for the English crown for her son Henry of Anjou; meanwhile Isabel de Warenne, 4th Countess of Surrey (1137-1203) inherits the earldom of Surrey after he daddy William de Warenne is killed by Turks in Anatolia on his way to the Holy Land, and marries Stephen I's 2nd son William I of Blois (1137-59), who becomes the new earl. Emperor Manuel I, having been caught with his pants down and an inadequate fleet buys Venice's help against the Normans with (you guessed it) more extensive trade rights. An Almohad invasion of Andalusia under 'Abd al-Mu'min captures Cordoba (Cordova) Seville, Montilla, Aguilar, and Baena, and destroys the Jewish city of Lucena (Eliossana), closing the Jewish Academy of Lucena; after the Muslims demand conversion, death, or exile, most Jews choose exile, causing massive Jewish emigration to the Christian zone of the Iberian Peninsula, later resulting in Sephardic Jewish settlement in E Europe; in 1159 future top Jewish brain man Maimonides (1135-1204) flees with his family to Fez, Morocco, pretending to be Muslims for nine years since they don't want Jews either, then to Palestine (1165), Alexandria (1165), and Cairo, Egypt, where he settles and rises to personal physician of Saladan's vizier al-Qadi al-Fadil al-Baisani, and eldest son Nur-ud-Din Ali. The Zayrids (Zirids) lose control of Tunisia, which they ruled since 972. Alfonso I Jordan, Count of Toulouse (b. 1103) dies in Caesarea, and is succeeded by his son Raymond V (1134-1194). Conan III of Cornwall dies, and his son (by Henry I of England's illegitimate daughter Maud) Hoel III of Cornwall (-1156) and son-in-law Eudes (Odo), Count of Porhoet (-1170) (husband of his daughter Bertha) become co-dukes of Brittany (until 1156); meanwhile Henry I disinherits Hoel, and St. Bernard of Clairvaux accuses him of having an incestuous affair with his sister Bertha, causing him to settle for being count of Nantes. Having escaped captivity in Constantinople in 1143 and retaking Vahka from the Byzantines, along with Pardzepert, Sis, Anazarbus, Adana, Mamistra, and Tarsus, Toros (Thoros) II (the great) (-1169) becomes king #6 of Lesser Armenia (Armenian Cilicia); meanwhile his half-brother Stephen of Armenia (-1165) remains in hiding from the Byzantines in Edessa. Births: Hungarian king (1172-96) Bela III (d. 1196); son of Geza II and Euphrosyne (daughter of Mstislav I of Kiev) (an ancestor of Harold II of England); father of Andras II (1175-1235). Chinese Daoist monk Changchun (d. 1227); a favorite of Genghis Khan. Deaths: French Crusader Count William II of Neves (b. 1088) on Aug. 21; buried in Chartreusem where Bernard of Clairvaux attempts to resurrect him. Irish archbishop St. Malachy (b. 1094) on Nov. 2 in Clairvaux, France; dies in the arms of St. Bernard of Clairvaux during his 2nd journey to Rome (first 1139). French count of Toulouse (112-48) Alfonso Jordan (b. 1103) in Caesarea (poisoned by Eleanor of Aquitaine or Melisane, mother of Baldwin III?). English bishop of Lincoln (1123-48) Alexander of Lincoln (b. ?) in Feb.; nephew of Bishop Roger of Salisbury; relative of Bishop Nigel of Ely; educated at Laon; known for his ostentatious luxurious lifestyle; patron of Geoffrey of Monmouth, Henry of Huntingdon, Christina of Markyate, and Gilbert of Sempringham.
1149 On June 29 Edessa (Urfa) is lost again by the Crusaders, led by prince of Antioch (since 1136) Raymond of Poitiers (1115-49), prince of Antioch to the Muslims led by Turkish Zengid atabeg of Aleppo (since 1146) Nureddin (Nur ad-Din) (Arab. "light of the faith") (1118-74) (son of Imad ad-Din Zengi) at the Battle of Inab (Fons Muratus) (Murez) (Ard al-Hatim); Raymond is KIA, and seeing his way open to the Mediterranean, Nureddin rides to the coast and bathes in the sea to celebrate his V, which becomes his trademark, going on to capture the Crusader fortress of Artah, Harim, and Imm, opening the way to Antioch, which is defended by Raymond's widow Constance of Antioch (1128-63) and Patriarch Aimery of Limoges, who bought Nureddin off, going to the sea to do you know what before helping finish capturing Afamiya; the Second Crusade ends disastrously with the loss of many men in Asia Minor; on ? Conrad III of Germany leaves for Germany, and in Nov. Louis VII of France leaves for his neglected kingdom with his wife Eleanor becoming estranged from her by the ordeal - the original Paul McCartney and Heather Mills? Pope Eugene III forces his way into Rome, but is forced out again, causing him to wander in exile in Campagnia. The Venetians help the Byzantines reconquer Corfu. Ramon Berenguer IV, assisted by Ermengol VI of Urgell takes Fraga, Lerida (Lleida), and Mequinenza at the confluence of the Segre and Ebro Rivers, completing the reconquest of Catalonia; Lerida goes to Urgell - whadya say? Grand prince (since 1146) Izyaslav II is deposed by his uncle (younger brother of Vyacheslav) Yuri (George) I Dolgoruky (Long Arms) (1099-1157), who sacks Kiev and rules as grand prince from Suzdal 130 mi. NE of Kiev in the E forest area of Russia (until 1151). David I of Scotland knights his great-nephew Henry Plantagenet (future Henry II of England), extracting a promise that when he is crowned he will respect the territorial status quo, and celebrates by sending an army led by William fitz Duncan (1090-1147) to seize York, which fails by a cat's whisker. Architecture: On July 15 (50th anniv. of the capture of Jerusalem) Queen Melisende and Bishop Fulcherius consecrate the rebuilt Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which stands to modern times; an inscription is placed on the bronze main door: "This holy place has been sanctified by the blood of Christ, therefore our consecration adds nothing to its sanctity. However, the edifice which covers this holy place has been consecrated on the 15th of July by the Patriarch Fulcherius and by other dignitaries, the IVth year of his patriarchate and the 50th anniversary of the capture of the city, which at the time shone as pure gold. It was the year 1149 of the Birth of Christ." Poetry: Geoffrey of Monmouth (1100-55), Life of Merlin (Vita Merlini) (1149-51) (1,529-line hexameter poem); his mad life as a wild man of the woods, and his conversations with sister-poet Taliesin, based on Celtic bard Myrddin Wyllt and wild man Laioken, along with an account of King Arthur's journey to Avalon; "I set myself to sing the madness of the bard of prophecy." Births: Islamic philosophic theologian Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 1209). Deaths: Arab Muslim scholar Qadi Ayyad ibn Musa (b. 1083); leaves Ash-Shifa (Kitab Ash-shifa bi-Ahwal al-Mustafa) (Healing by News of or Recognition of the Rights of the Chosen One), a bio. of Muhammad and his alleged miracles combined with a healing manual, becoming a Muslim bestseller; "If Ash-Shifa is found in a house, this house will not suffer any harm... When a sick person reads it or it is recited to him, Allah will restore his health." French prince of Antioch (1136-49) Raymond of Poitiers (b. 1115) on June 29 in Inab, Syria (KIA).