|England||Henry V of England (1387-1422)||Mar. 20, 1413||Aug. 31, 1422|
|Scotland||James I of Scotland (1394-1437)||Apr. 4, 1406||Feb. 21, 1437|
|France||Charles VI the Well-Beloved/Mad (1368-1422)||Sept. 16, 1380||Oct. 21, 1422|
|Germany||HRE Sigismund I (1368-1437)||1411||Dec. 1437|
|Papacy||Pope Martin V (1368-1431)||Nov. 11, 1417||Feb. 20, 1431|
1420 About this decade the Middle English word "infidel" is coined from the Latin "infidelis" (unbelieving). On Feb. 1-14 the Second Coming of Christ is coming, according to Martinek Hauska of Prague, who gains a group of followers and goes on a rampage "purifying the Earth" of false clergymen, holing up in an abandoned fortress called Tabor for decades, until they are finally quashed by the Bohemians in 1452. In Mar. Pope Martin V at the urging of HRE Sigismund I preaches a crusade against the Hussites; in July Roman Catholics led by HRE Sigismund I's secy. (since 1417) Pier Paolo Vergerio the Elder (1370-1445) engage in a disputation with the Hussites in Prague; on Nov. 1 a force of 12K Hussite Bohemian peasants under blind gen. Jan Zizka (Johann Ziska) (1360-1424) of Trocnov defeats Sigismund I's 18K soldiers at the Battle of Vysehrad Castle in Prague, and expels him from Bohemia after he has himself crowned king of Bohemia in Prague. Kiss me, Kate? On May 21 after defeated Duke Philip III the Good of Burgundy aided by French queen Isabelle of Bavaria talk mad Charles VI into it, and French dauphin Charles (known for dressing in red, white, and blue and flying a flag showing a mailed fist clutching a naked sword) is forced to withdraw from battle with Henry V of England and disinherited as illegitimate (which he might be, since Isabelle had a ton of pretty boys), Charles VI, Philip III and Henry V sign the Treaty of Troyes, affirming the 1419 alliance, allowing the English to retain all of their conquests as far as the Loire River and recognizing Henry V as regent of France and Charles VI's heir to the throne of France while holding dauphin Charles responsible for the murder of Philip's father John the Fearless; on June 2 per the treaty Charles VI's daughter Catherine of Valois (1401-37) is married to Henry V; in June-July Henry V sieges and captures Montereau, causing dauphin Charles to flee to the protection of his mother-in-law Yolande of Aragon in the Loire Valley of S France; in Nov. Henry V captures Melun, then returns to England. On Sept. 3 Scottish regent Robert Stewart, duke of Albany (b. 1339) dies, and his son Murdac Stewart (1362-1425) becomes duke of Albany and regent, becoming known for his inability to control his sons. Venice finally subjugates Dalmatia and takes it from Hungary after 300 years (begun 1115). Juan (John) II "the Great" of Aragon (1397-1479), brother of Alfonso V of Aragon marries Navarre heir Blanche of Navarre (1387-1441) (youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile); Joanna II of Naples designates Alfonso V as her heir. Dani II becomes prince of Wallachia (until 1421), going on to trade with his rival Radu II the Bald 5x by 1431 (Radu 4x). Shah Rukh of the Timurids mounts the first of three campaigns (until 1434) against the Black Sheep (Qara-Qoyunlu) Turks in W Iran, successfully keeping them from taking over, and allying himself with their chief rivals the White Sheep (Aq-Qoyunlu) Turks. The Portuguese send Thome (Thomé) Pires to the new Chinese capital of Peking (Beijing). Sugar cane from Sicily is planted in the Madeira (Port. "timber") Islands 330 mi. W of Morocco (along with cows, pigs, and sheep) after Portuguese navigator Joao Concalves Zarco (1390-1471) et al. discovered it the year before, after which slaves are imported from Africa and the Canary Islands and forced to dig 2.1km of irrigation canals, turning Madeira into the #1 sugar producer for Europe within a few decades, with exports of 280 tons of sugar in 1472 peaking, at 2,500 tons in 1506; too bad, one pound of sugar requires 50 pounds of fuel wood, and by 1530 production falls 90% as forests are depleted, and by 1560 wine replaces sugar as Madeira's main export; the genesis of capitalism and the world ecology of capital? Innsbruck on the Inn River 80 mi. S of Munich (on the site of the ancient Roman station of Veldidena) becomes the capital of Tyrol (Tirol). The pesky Jews are expelled from Lyons; Jews remain in France only in Provence and in the possessions of the Holy See; they are also expelled from Vienna; meanwhile Pope Martin V forcibly reinstates the old privileges of the Jews in Rome, and forbids forced baptism of Jewish children under age 12. Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) becomes gov. of the Order of Christ (until 1460); the order traces back to the Knights Templar? By this year the town of Kishinev (Chisinau) (modern-day pop. 532K/685K) on the Byk River (tributary of the Dniester River) 90 mi. NW of Odessa is founded. The English rhyming phrase 30 days hath September, April, June, and November" is first mentioned; in 1562 it appears in Richard Grafton's "Abridgement of the Chronicles of England". Architecture: The Duomo (Cupola) of Florence Cathedral is designed by Filippo Brunelleschi based on the fact that half of an egg shell stands on its own; it takes until 1443 to finish; in 1421 he is issued a 3-year patent for a barge with hoisting gear for carrying marble on the Arno River. When I wear black I don't want flakes but I do want healthy hair? Chinese Ming emperor Yongle founds Dongchang, and moves his capital from Nanjing to Khanbalik, renaming it Peking ("northern capital") (modern-day Beijing), building a wall around the city, and establishing his court S of the old Mongol court; Tartar City in Peking (begun 1409) is completed; the 178-acre Forbidden City (Tzu Chin Ch'eng = "Forbidden City of the Pole Star") in Peking inside the Imperial City (Huang Cheng) is begun; it is surrounded by a 120-ft. moat and pink-washed walls, and contains the imperial palace and bldgs. roofed with yellow porcelain tile, becoming the home of 24 emperors until 1911; the Great Temple of the Dragon (Heaven) is built in a large tree-shaded park in Peking on the E side of the road leading to the main entrance of Tartar City in a 1-mi.-square enclosure, where the emperor worships periodically - I'm the kind of guy who goes to the zoo and wails on the animals? Inventions: About this time Laurens Janszoon Koster (1370-1440) of Haarlem, Netherlands makes the first known printed books after carving letters from bark for his grandchildren and noticing the impressions left in the sand. Science: In this decade future Persian shah (1447-9) Ulugh Beg (1393-1449) founds the Samarkand (Ulugh Beg) Observatory, which has instruments to measure precise star positions (the last great Muslim observatory?), compiling books of trigonometric tables of sine and tangent values accurate to 8 decimal places; Muslim Science remains far ahead of Christendom until about 1600. Births: German printing pioneer Albrecht Pfister (d. 1466). Polish Hussite leader George of Podebrad (Podiebrad) (d. 1471); leader of the Ultraquists (moderate Hussites). Welsh bard Dafydd Nanmor (d. 1485). Italian painter Piero della Francesca (d. 1492). Dutch (Flemish) composer Johannes (Jean de) Ockeghem (Hocquegam) (Okeghem) (Ogkegum) (Okchem) (Hocquegam) (d. 1496) (b. 1410-25). Italian painter Benozzo Gozzoli (d. 1497) in Florence. Spanish Grand Inquisitor (first inquisitor gen.) (1483-) (Dominican monk) (Iron Chef of Roman Catholicism?) Tomas (Tomás) de Torquemada (d. 1498) in Torquemada (Valladolid?); nephew of Cardinal Juan de Torquemada; his grandmother was a converted Jew? - torture de muddah? Scottish poet Robert Henryson (d. 1500). English archbishop of Canterbury (1486-1500) Cardinal John Morton (d. 1500) in Dorset; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Italian Venetian doge (1485-1501) Agostino Barbarigo (d. 1501); brother of Marco Barbarigo (1413-86). Deaths: Scottish regent Robert Stewart, duke of Albany (b. 1339) on Sept. 3 in Stirling.
1421 On Feb. 23 Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity is derived from Judaism, and warning friars not to incite against the Jews; too bad, next year he withdraws it - what a bunch of bull? In Feb. king (since 1384) Razadarit (b. 1368) dies in a hunting accident, and his son Binnya Dhammaraza (1392-1424) becomes Hanthawaddy king #10 of Burma (until 1424), facing rebellions by his brothers Binnya Ran I and binnya Kyan. On Mar. 8 Cheng Ho (Zheng He) begins his Fifth Voyage from China, scheduled for two years in a fleet of giant 9-masted ships, during which he discovers America? On May 26 sultan (since 1413) Mehmed I the Restorer (b. 1389) dies, and his son Murad II (1403-51) succeeds him as Ottoman sultan #6 (until 1444), returning the Ottoman Empire to the old imperial expansion mode while restoring the recruitment of slaves (devshirme) to counter the political power of Turkish nobles, and basing the Janissary infantry on them. On June 1 the Moravian-Czech Diet of Caslav declares Sigismund I deposed as king of Bohemia, and Lithuanian grand duke Witowt is elected anti-king of Bohemia, sending his nephew Duke Sigismund Korybut (1395-1435) to Bohemia as his vicar; Hussite incursions into Germany begin. On June 10 Henry V sails for France for his last military campaign, and in July-Aug. sieges and captures Dreux, relieves allied forces in Chartres, then sieges Meaux in Oct. (until May 1422). The U. of Paris and the Estates-Gen. approve the Treaty of Troyes; meanwhile, except for a few strongholds only the part of France S of Paris remains loyal to the finless dauphin and refuses to abide by the Treaty of Troyes, causing Henry to drive his forces S across the Loire and begin the conquest of Armagnac territory, which he continues until his death in 1422; the dauphin holes-up in Bourges, gaining the nickname Roi de Bourges; late in the year Henry V, sick from dysentery contracted in the Armagnac campaign returns from Normandy to England, leaving his brother Thomas, duke of Clarence as gov. of Normandy, but the French defeat him, and Henry V dies before he can help. John VIII Palaeologus (Palaiologos) (1392-1448) becomes co-emperor of the Byzantines with his father Manuel II (until 1425). Philip III the Good of Burgundy acquires Namur. The Holsteiners regain Haderslev, Schleswig, and Tonder from Denmark. Giovanni de' Medici is elected gonfaloniere of justice (supreme feudal lord) (godfather?) in Florence, and the de' Medici family controls Florence until 1737, except short interruptions in 1491-7 (Savonarola), 1501-12 (Repub. of Florence) et al. Milan subjugates Genoa. Florence, eager to have permanent sea access buys Livorno (Leghorn) in W Tuscany, and establishes the Consuls of the Sea. The Zuider Zee rises and engulfs 70+ Dutch villages, killing 100K - one of those little history tidbits that makes you believe there is no God? Architecture: The Green Mosque of Mehmed I (begun 1419) in Bursa, Turkey is completed in the last Ottoman capital until the 1453 capture of Constantinople. Inventions: Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), equipped with the Muslim secret weapon of the astrolabe, making his Portuguese fleet the only Euro fleet able to navigate open waters assembles Europe's leading maritime experts in Sagres on Cape St. Vincent, and develops the amazing small, light, 3-masted (square, lateen, or both) Caravel, which can outrun other vessels even when fitted with cannons, and/or carry more cargo, becoming a quantum leap in oceangoing technology, enabling the Portuguese to win the Tour de Lance in colonizing Africa, India, America et al. Births: Spanish king of Navarre-not Charles (Carlos) IV of Navarre, Prince of Viana (d. 1461) (AKA Don Carlos) on May 29; son of John II of Aragon (1397-1479) and Blanche of Navarre (1387-1441); husband (1439-48) of Agnes of Cleves (1373-1448) (daughter of Adolph I of Cleves and Mary of Burgundy, sister of Philip III the Good of Burgundy). English king (1422-71) Henry VI (d. 1471) on Dec. 6 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire; only son of Henry V (1387-1422) and Catherine of Valois (1401-37); father of Edward of Lancaster, prince of Wales (1453-71). French mistress (of Charles VII) Agnes Sorel (d. 1450); first official mistress of a French king. Irish statesman Thomas FitzJohn FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare (d. 1477); son of John "Shaun Cam" Fitzmaurice FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Kildare (-1427); father of "the Great Earl" Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare (1456-1513). Italian Renaissance humanist and gastronome (Vatican librarian) Bartolomeo Platina (d. 1481) in Piadena (Platina). French statesman and cardinal (1468) Jean Balue (d. 1491) in Angle, Poitou. Deaths: Burmese king (since 1384) Razadarit (b. 1368) in Feb. in Pegu. Ottoman sultan #5 (1413-21) Mehmed I the Restorer (b. 1389) on May 26.
1422 On May 2 after a siege Henry V captures Meaux in France. In June Constantinople is sieged by co-emperor Murad II, and John VIII Palaeologus supervises the defense. On Aug. 31 after designating his able younger brother John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (1389-1435) as "protector and defender of the kingdom", 34-y.-o. king (since Mar. 21, 1413) Henry V (b. 1387) dies near Paris of dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux, his dream of rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem unfulfilled, and 1 mo. too early to become king of France as sickly Charles VI outlives him; on Aug. 31 his 9-mo.-old. only son Henry VI (1421-71) becomes king of England (the 35th British monarch) (until Aug. 31, 1422), and by the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes is now in line for the French throne; John of Lancaster transfers his duties in England to his younger brother Duke Humphrey of Gloucester (1390-1447) (4th son of Henry IV and 1st wife Mary de Bohun), and takes over English affairs in France as regent in the name of Henry VI; meanwhile French breed mare Marie of Anjou (1404-63) (daughter of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon) marries French dauphin Charles (later Charles VII) in Bourges, and they go on to have 12 children, incl. Louis XI (b. 1423); meanwhile Jacqueline of Hainaut (1401-36), daughter of Duke William IV of Bavaria (who married her cousin Duke John IV in order to persuade Philip III the Good of Burgundy to help her recover her inheritance of Hainaut, and got an annulment when he refused, then fled to England and got lucky) marries Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, and this time he's game to get a piece of her hiney, er, Hainault; meanwhile English bishop of Winchester (1403-47) Henry Beaufort (1374-1447) (who was offered a cardinal's hat by Pope Martin V, but Henry V wouldn't let him take it, and finally gets one in 1426) begins a war for control of a nearly lawless kingdom dominated by petty nobles via the king's council; eventually the Beauforts, Henry VI's half-uncles, sons of John of Gaunt (born out of wedlock but legitimated by act of Parliament) win, but it takes two decades. On Sept. 27 the Treaty of Lake Melno between the Teutonic Knights, the kingdom of Poland, and the grand duchy of Lithuania resolves the territorial dispute over Samogitia (Zemaitija) ("lowlands") in NW Lithuania, settling the Prussian-Lithuanian border for the next five cents., becoming one of the most stable nat. borders in Europe, surving to modern times as the border between the Repub. of Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. On Oct. 21 king (since Sept. 16, 1380) Charles VI the Mad (b. 1368) of France dies in Paris, and on Oct. 21 his girlie man son (by wife Isabelle of Bavaria) dauphin Charles claims the throne as French Valois king #5 Charles VII (1403-61) (Le Roi de Bourges) (until July 22, 1461), ruling S France with Armagnac help while waiting for a sign from God as the duke of Bedford's forces, supported by the Burgundians steadily crush him; meanwhile Henry VI is recognized as king of France in English-held N France incl. Paris. The Hussites under Jan Zizka rout HRE Sigismund I again at the Battle of Kutna (Kutná) Hora near Prague. False Mustafa launches another revolt, and Ottoman Sultan Murad II thrusts into Europe, crosses the Hexamillion Wall of Corinth and conquers the Peloponnesus, killing False Mustafa and forcing Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus to pay tribute for the rest of his life (until 1425). Circassian Al-Ashraf Barsbay 1369(-1438) becomes sultan (emir) #9 of the Mamluk Empire (until 1438), becoming known for not drinking or swearing, and keeping prices low. Lisbon becomes Portugal's seat of govt. HRE envoy Duke Heinrich (Henry) X Rumpold of Silesia (1390-1423) is accepted as arbitrator in the pesky Schleswig Dispute, but dies next Jan. 18 without reaching a settlement, causing HRE Sigismund I to intervene, and rule in 1424 that since the people of Schleswig speak Danish and consider themselves Danes, the territory belongs to Denmark; too bad, the German nobles, led by Count Henry of Holstein refuse to accept the verdict, and start the war up again in 1425 (ends 1432). The town council of Frankfurt in Germany rejects the imperial heretics tax, claiming the sole right to tax their pesky Jews, causing them to be placed under imperial edict and flee until 1424, when the HRE decides the council is right. Ahmad Shah of Gujarat hires 3K foreign mounted archers as ministers, causing the natives to become jealous. The U. of Dole in France is founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, becoming a student-run univ. on the Bologna model, teaching canon and civil law; in 1678 after conquering the region, Louis XIV moves it to Besancon, where it becomes the U. of France-Comte. Inventions: The first apothecary in Europe is founded in Talinn, Estonia. Art: Masaccio (1401-28), The Virgin Enthroned. Nonfiction: Alain Chartier (1390-1430), Quadrilogue-Invectif; the three orders of the state and France herself discuss the sufferings of the peasants and the abuses of the feudal army, and conclude that France's cause is not yet lost if all parties come together. The Paston Letters (1422-1509), vernacular English correspondence of a middle-class English family begin to be written by anon. Births: Italian humanist duke of Urbino (1474-82) ("the Light of Italy") Federico III da Montefeltro (d. 1482) on June 7 in Castello di Petroia (near Gubbio); father of Guidobaldo I da Montefeltro (1472-1508); friend of Lorenzo de' Medici. Deaths: Scottish chronicler Andrew Wyntoun (b. 1355). French Valois king (1380-1422) Charles VI the Mad (b. 1368) on Oct. 1 in Bois de Vincennes (near Paris) (dysentery). English king (1413-22) Henry V (b. 1387) on Aug. 31 in Bois de Vincennes (near Paris), France; buried in Westminster Abbey. English chronicler Thomas Walsingham of St. Albans (b. ?); leaves Historia Anglicana( Chronica Maiora), covering the years 1272-1422, and pub. in 1574.
1423 On June 10 Gil Sanchez is elected antipope #5 of the Great Schism Antipope Clement VIII (-1429) (until Nov. 12, 1425) by the diehards of the magic melancholy tear in your eye in Avignon. In Sept. Scottish leaders sign the Treaty of York, settling the S border of Scotland and agreeing to pay 60K marks for the "maintenance" of 29-y.-o. caged king James I of Scotland, and agree to his marriage to Joan Beaufort (daughter of John Beaufort, 1st earl of Somerset, and paternal granddaughter of John of Gaunt), a bodacious babe who wows him so much he that writes the poem The King's Quhair to her, and he is finally released by the English - now that he's irrevocably pussy-whipped? On Sept. 23 the English nobles swear loyalty to infant king Henry VI, and summon Parliament in his name, establishing a regency council incl. Henry Beaufort and Duke John of Beaufort; Duke Humphrey of Gloucester is appointed as protector and defender of the realm and the Church until he comes of age (in 1437), with Beaufort replacing him when personally in England; Henry VI's half-brothers Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (1430-56) (future father of Henry VII) and Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke (1431-95) are given earldoms; meanwhile John of Lancaster reaffirms the 1420 English alliance with Philip III the Good of Burgundy. Joanna II of Naples changes her mind about Alfonso V the Magnanimous being her heir. Byzantine Emperor Manuel II suffers a stroke, and in 1425 retires to a monastery as the monk Matthew, leaving his son John VIII as sole king (until 1448); meanwhile John's brother Andronicus sells Thessalonica (Salonika) to Venice after the Byzantines can't hold it against the Turks, causing Ottoman Sultan Murad II to try harder (1430). English cat-lover Richard "Dick" Whitington (Wittington) (b. 1350) dies after setting out to London with his cat, failing to make a go of it, starting to return, then hearing the Bow Bells of London ringing while climbing Highgate Hill from Archway and becoming lord mayor 4x. The line of Bernhard of Ascania, duke of Saxony becomes extinct, and HRE Sigismund confers the Duchy Saxe-Wittenberg to the margrave of Meissen, of the House of Wettin, who adds it to his vast non-Saxon holdings and begins calling all of it Saxony for prestige. The town of Lodz (pr. WUCH) in Poland is founded (modern-d pop. 687K/1.1M), going on to become Poland's 2nd largest city; it belongs to Russia until 1919. The U. of Besancon (Besançon) is founded in France's watch-clock city. After being invited by the marquis of Mantua to educate his children, Padua-educated Italian humanist scholar Vittorino da Feltre (Ramboldini) (1378-1446) of Venice establishes the House of Joy (La Giancosa or Gioiosa) in Mantua, housed in a palace with beautiful gardens. Architecture: Work begins on the SW tower of Canterbury Cathedral in England. The Dodge's Palace in Venice begins a major enlargement (ends 1438). Inventions: Europeans begin using the Chinese method of block printing. Art: Masolino (1383-1447), St. Julian Deceived by the Devil into Killing His Parents; St. Peter Healing a Cripple and the Raising of Tabitha; first use of a central vanishing point, although credit for discovering it is usually given to Filippo Brunelleschi. Gentile da Fabriano (1378-1427), Adoration of the Magi. Births: Austrian mathematician-astronomer (father of Western observational and mathematical astronomy) Georg von Puerbach (Purbach) (d. 1461) on May 30 in Peuerbach (near Linz); teacher of Johann Muller (Regiomontanus) (1436-76). Italian king of Naples (1458-94) Ferdinand I Ferrante (d. 1494) on June 2 in Aragon, Spain; illegitimate son of Alfonso I of Naples (Alfonso V of Aragon) (1396-1458). Italian painter Andrea del Castagno (d. 1457). French Valois king (1461-83) Louis XI (the Prudent) (the Universal Spider) (the Spider King) (d. 1483) on July 3 in Bourges, Cher; son of Charles VII (1403-61) and Mary of Anjou (1403-63); grandson of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria; brother of Charles de Valois, duc de Berry (1446-72); husband (1436-45) of Margaret Stewart of Scotland (1424-45), and (1451-83) Charlotte of Savoy (1443-82). Deaths: Austrian Minnesinger Hugo von Montfort (b. 1357) on Apr. 4 in Bruck an der Mur. English lord mayor Sir Richard "Dick" Whittington (b. 1358) in Mar. in London; buried in St. Michael Paternoster Royal Church in London; bequeaths his £7K fortune to the Charity of Sir Richard Whittington, which is used to rebuild Newgate Prison (forerunner of Old Bailey), repair St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and build London's first public drinking fountains - the cat's in the bag?
1424 On Jan. 4 Count Giacomuzzo Sforza (b. 1369) drowns in the Pescara River near Aquila, and his bastard son Francesco I Sforza (1401-66) carries on the family name. On Jan. 6 Jan Zizka (b. 1360) defeats the Ultraquist nobles and "Praguers" (Prague militia) at the Battle of Skalice, followed on June 7 at the Battle of Malesov, after which on June 14 a peace is concluded by future Ultraquist archbishop of Prague John of Rokycany (Jan Rokycana) (1396-1471), (who was blamed for the D at Malesov), with the reunited Hussites agreeing to attack Moravia; too bad, on Oct. 11 Zizka dies of plague on the Moravian frontier at Pribyslav after requesting that his skin be used to make drums to lead his troops, who begin calling themselves the Orphans (sirotci) because they lost their father; "The one whom no mortal hand soul could destroy was extinguished by the finger of God." Where the big band used to play? The Scottish king finally gets Beatlemania and becomes an English king clone? On Feb. 2 (Feb. 12 Old Style) 30-y.-o. James I of Scotland (b. 1394) marries his well-connected love bunny Joan Beaufort (1404-45), niece of Duke Thomas of Exeter and Bishop Henry Beaufort at Southwark Cathedral; they have eight children, incl. James II; after a feast given by Henry Beaufort in Winchester Palace, James I returns to Scotland after 18 years as an English hostage, and is crowned at Scone on May 21, ending anarchy and attempting to rule as a European autocrat like Henry V and the French kings from his showcase Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian 15 mi. W of Edinburgh while living a lavish lifestyle, which pisses-off the hillbilly pop. used to laissez faire and heroes who raise up their kilts and moon the enemy?; meanwhile a Scottish force sieges and burns Alnwick Castle. On Aug. 12 Ming emperor (since July 17, 1402) Yongle (b. 1360) dies during a campaign against the Mongols, and on Sept. 7 his eldest son Zhu Gaochi becomes Ming emperor #4 of China Ming Ren Zong (Hongxi) (Chin. "vastly bright") (1378-1425) (until May 29, 1425), trying to relax his father's tight centralized admin. control, causing a period of lethargy during his 1-year reign. On Aug. 17 after launching a campaign against Holland and Zeeland (ends 1413), Duke Philip III the Good of Burgundy, allied with John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford and the earl of Salisbury lead an 8K-10K-man army that soundly defeats a combined Armagnac-Scottish force of 14K-16K at the Battle of Verneuil, with 6K-10K casualties incl. Archibald Douglas, 4th earl of Douglas (b. 1372), and John Stewart, 2nd earl of Buchan (b. 1381), helping new king James I consolidate his power by wiping out the rival Douglases and Albany Stewarts; in Oct. Duke Humphrey of Gloucester invades Hainaut to help his wife Jacqueline get it back (ends 1425). King (since 1421) Bnnya Kyan (b. 1392) is poisoned by his brother Binnya Ran I (1395-1446), who becomes Burmese Hanthawaddy king #11 (until 1446). 13-y.-o. illiterate pubescent seamstress Joan of Arc (1412-31), daughter of a prosperous peasant family in Domremy (Domrémy) in E France begins to hear voices from God telling her to kick English butt for her dear dauphin ding ding Charles? The Royal Mines Act is passed, surviving to modern times as the oldest piece of Scottish legislation still in force (until ?). The Jews are expelled from Cologne. The town council of Frankfurt collects all the restrictive regulations on the pesky Jews, and has them read each year in the synagogue. Architecture: Sedan Fortress (Chateau) (Castle) on the Meuse River in the Ardennes between France and the Spanish Netherlands, the most formidable fortress in Europe is begun by Eberhard II von der Mark. Art: Lorenzo Ghibert's Bronze Doors for the San Giovanni Baptistry in Florence are finished after 21 years - name something you make reservations for? Births: Spanish queen of Navarre (1461-4) Blanche II of Navarre (d. 1464) on June 9 in Olite, Navarre; daughter of John II of Aragon (1398-1479) and Blanche I of Navarre (1387-1441); wife (1440-53) of Henry IV of Castile (1425-74). Polish king (1434-44) and Hungarian king (1440-4) (gay?) Wladyslaw (Vladislaus) III of Varna (d. 1444) on Oct. 31; eldest son of Wladyslaw II Jagiello (1351-1434) and Sophia of Halshany (1405-61); brother of Casimir IV Jagiellon (1427-92). Scottish princess and French dauphine (1436-45) Margaret Stewart (d. 1445) on Dec. 25 in Perth; daughter of James I (1394-1437) and Joan Beaufort (1404-45); wife (1436-45) of Louis XI. Deaths: Bohemian Hussite leader Jan Zizka (b. 1360) on Oct. 11 in Pribyslav (plague). Italian condottiero Muzio Attendolo Sforza (b. 1369) on Jan. 4 near Aquila (drowns). Scottish warlord Archibald Douglas, 4th earl of Douglas (b. 1372) in Verneuil-sur-Avre (KIA). Austrian duke (1406-24) Ernest the Iron (b. 1377) on June 10 in Bruck an der Mur. Scottish leader John Stewart, 2nd earl of Buchan (b. 1381) in Verneul-sur-Avre (KIA) Burmese king (1421-4) Binnya Dhammaraza (b. 1392) in Pegu.
1425 On Jan. 18 Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March (b. 1391), the heir of Lionel, duke of Clarence (3rd son of Edward III) dies of the plague childless, ending the male line of the Mortimers, and Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (1411-60), great-grandson of Edward III, husband of Anne, daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 4th earl of March inherits his vast estates in Wales incl. Ludlow plus the earldom of Ulster in Ireland, making him the richest landholder in England; he also inherits his title to the English throne, making him a player in English politics, taking Gloucester's side in the war for domination of infant Henry VI's council - starting over, life has never been this real? On Feb. 27 Grand duke (since May 19, 1389) Vasilii I (b. 1371) dies, and his son Vasilii (Vasily) II (the Dark) (the Blinded) (1415-62) becomes grand duke of Moscow in Russia (until Mar. 27 1462); by now the decay of the Mongols leaves Moscow as the head of all Russian principalities. On May 29 Chinese emperor (since Sept. 7, 1424) Ming Ren Zong (Xuan-de) dies, and is succeeded on June 27 by his eldest son Zhu Zhanji as Ming Xuan Zong (Xuande) (Chin. "proclamation of virtue") (1399-1435), Ming emperor #5 of China (until Jan. 31, 1435). In May James I gets the Scottish parliament to condemn the house of Albany, getting Duke Murdac, two of his sons and his father-in-law Earl Walter of Lennox publicly executed, and sending news that he's now the boss in the land of the kilts; too bad, every time he levies a tax to make a payment on his ransom, he squanders it on his lavish lifestyle instead, pissing-off the tight-fisted Scots?; triangular Caerlaverock Castle in Dumfries and Galloway, S Scotland, owned by the Maxwell clan is used as a prison for Murdac before his trial and execution, becoming known for its "Murdoch's Tower". On July 21 Byzantine emperor (since 1391) Manuel II Palaeologus (b. 1350) dies, and his eldest son (by Helen Dragas) John VIII Palaeologus (Palaiologos) (1392-1448) becomes sole emperor (until Oct. 31, 1448), last one before the fall. On Nov. 12 Bernard Garnier is elected antipope #6 of the Great Schism Antipope Benedict XIV (-1429) in Avignon (until July 26, 1429). Duke Humphrey of Gloucester gives up on his invasion of Hainaut and abandons his wife's cause, makes peace with Philip III the Good of Burgundy and allows him to imprison her in Ghent, after which she escapes but is recaptured. Blanche of Navarre comes into the throne of Navarre, making her husband Juan II the king; the Cortes family refuses to recognize his claim, preferring his infant son Charles (Carlos) IV of Navarre (1421-61), AKA Don Carlos, prince of Viana, starting a power struggle that lasts until the son's death. St. Michael allegedly comes to Joan of Arc and says that she will hear voices sent from God - everybody from Boccaccio on knows that trick? After Jan Zizka (b. 1360) dies, his followers called the Ultraquists (who demand Holy Communion when and where they wish, since John 6:54 says it's the only way to "have life in you") split with the more radical Christian Communist Taborites, based in Tabor in S Bohemia - okay, you've waited long enough? Venice under condottiero Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola (1382-1432) joins Florence against Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan and conquers Brescia and Bergamo. Prince Henry the Navigator wrests the Canary Islands (W limit of the known world) from Castile in order to cut off their trade with W Africa. The Ottomans annex the Turkoman principalities of Aydin, Menteshe, and Teke, regaining control of W Anatolia and the Aegean coast (1425-6). Currency inflation gets so bad (70-to-1) in China that copper coins are introduced. Roman Catholic Louvain (Leuven) U. is founded in Brabant Province, Belgium, becoming Belgium's largest univ.; it is originally housed in the Cloth Workers' Hall (built 1317). Architecture: The cross-shaped Brabantine Gothic-style Church of St. Peter in Louvain (Leuven), Belgium is built, with seven decorated chapels. Music: The Faux Bourdon (Fr. "false bass") music harmonization style is introduced by Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), founder of the Burgundian School of Music as a way to allegorically express Christ's words "You that have followed me" in the Communion in his Missa Sancti Jacobi, becoming the cool Medieval church music we all hate to love, full of all those "oose" words. Art: Donatello (1386-1466), The Feast of Herod (bronze relief); The Pumpkinhead (Lo Zuccone) (Statue of the Prophet Habakkuk) (marble statue); his favorite, shouting "Speak, damn you, speak!" at it as he is carving it, later swearing by it: "By the faith I place in my Zuccone"; most important marble sculpture of the 15th cent. Poetry: Antonio Beccadelli (-1471), Hermaphroditus; 81 bawdy Latin epigrams. Alain Chartier (1390-1430), La Belle Dame sans Merci ("The beautiful lady without pity"). Births: Spanish king of Castile-Leon (1454-74) Henry (Enrique) IV (the Impotent) (the Spendthrift) (d. 1474) on Jan. 5 in Valladolid; son of John II of Castile (1405-54) and Mary of Aragon (1396-1445) (daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon). Italian duchess of Milan (1450-68) Bianca Maria Visconti (d. 1468) on Mar. 31 near Settimo Pavese; illegitimate daughter of Filippo Maria Visconti and Agnese del Maino. Scottish leader William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas (d. 1452); son of James "the Gross", 7th earl of Douglas (-1442). French humanist publisher Johann Heynlin (d. 1496) in Stein (near Pforzheim), Germany; runs the first printing press in France. German printer Peter Schoeffer (Schöffer) (d. 1503) in Gernsheim; student of Johannes Gutenberg. Deaths: Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama (b. 1350). Byzantine emperor (1391-1425) Manuel II Palaeologus (b. 1350) on July 21. English heir Edmund de Mortimer, 5th Earl of March (b. 1391) on Jan. 18 in Trim Castle (plague); last of the Mortimer line.
1426 On July 7 after 3K Mamluks, Turks, and Arabs under Tangriver Mohamed and Inal el Kakimi in 180 ships stage a punitive expedition to Cyprus to stop piracy on Muslim shipping, occupying Limassol, the Battle of Chirokitia sees Genoa-born Christian Frankish Cyprus king (since 1398) Janus of Cyprus (1375-1432) captured, after which they occupy and sack Nicosia before the royal family escapes to Kyrenia and are rescued; after being humiliated in Cairo by being forced to ride a donkey and kneel in front of the Mamluk sultan 9x, Janus is released 10 mo. later on condition that he change his ways, recognize the as his overlord, and pay an annual tribute (jizya). In Oct. the insurgents win a big V against the Ming Dynasty at the Battle of Tot Dong and Chuc Dong. The Dano-Hanseatic War begins (ends 1435), with Danish troops recapturing Flensburg (Sleswig) from Holstein, followed next year by the Hanseatic plunder of Bornholm, a failed Holstein-Hanseatic attack on Flensburg, and Danish-Swedish naval forces defeating a Hanseatic fleet in the Oresund. The Hussites overrun the Czech town of Duchcov, home of the Castle of Dux, which Giacomo Casanova later makes famous by spending his last years there. The 3-year Milan-Venice War begins (ends 1429). Architecture: London Guildhall (begun 1411) in England is completed. Art: Jan van Eyck (1390-1441) and Hubert van Eyck (1366-1426), The Ghent Altarpiece (1426-32). Births: Spanish queen of Navarre (1479) Eleanor of Aragon (d. 1479) on Feb. 2 in Olite, Navarre; 3rd and youngest daughter of John II of Aragon (1397-1479) and Blanche I of Navarre (1387-1441). Danish (1448-81), Norwegian (1450-81) and Swedish (1457-64) king Christian I (of Oldenburg) (d. 1481) in Feb. in Oldenburg; son of Count Dietrich of Oldenburg (-1440) and 2nd wife Hedwig (Helvig) of Schleswig-Holstein (Schauenburg); father of King Hans (1455-1513). Scottish leader William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas (d. 1440) (b. 1424?); son of Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Douglas (-1439). French duke of Bourbon (1456-88) John II (the Good) (the Scourge of the English) (d. 1488); son of Charles I of Bourbon (1401-56) and Agnes of Burgundy (1407-76) (daughter of John the Fearless); brother of Charles II (1434-88) and Peter II (1438-1503). Deaths: Flemish painter Hubert van Eyck (b. 1366).
1427 On Oct. 13 Lincoln College (College of the Blessed Mary and All Saints, Lincoln) at Oxford U. is founded 3 by Bishop (1419-) Richard Fleming (1385-1431) of Lincoln to combat the Lollard teachings of John Wycliffe, as "a little college of true students of theology who would defend the mysteries of Scripture against those ignorant laymen who profaned with swinish snouts its most holy pearls"; in 1946 the Mensa high-IQ society is founded there. Philip III the Good conquers Hainaut in Belgium. Bishop-cardinal Henry Beaufort of England becomes papal legate for Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, remaining active in backstabbing English politics. James I's 4-y.-o. daughter Margaret is betrothed to the French dauphin (future Louis XI); poet Alan Chartier is in the French mission to Scotland. The uninhabited Azores (eyesores?) are discovered by Portuguese mariner Diogo de Silves (de Sevilla); actually, the map was smudged by ink in 1869, and it could be 1432 or 1437. Architecture: Duke Humphrey of Gloucester inherits the royal manor of Greenwich on the Thames River, and next year builds Bella Court, which later becomes Placentia Palace. Syon Abbey in Isleworth, NW London is founded by the Bridgettine Order by Henry V, then completed by his son Henry VI; it is seized by the crown in 1539 and dissolved, then used to imprison Henry VIII's 5th wife Catherine Howard in 1541-2 before her Feb. 1542 execution, then turned into Syon House, home of the Somerset family. Art: Masaccio (1401-28), The Tribute Money. Giovanni di Paolo (1403-82), The Branchini Madonna. Births: Austrian Hapsburg archduke of Austria and Tirol (1446-90) Sigismund (Sigmund) (Siegmund) of Austria (d. 1496) on Oct. 26 in Innsbruck; son of Frederick IV (1382-1439) and Anna of Brunswick; 1st cousin of HRE Frederick III, who creates him archduke in 1477. Polish king (1447-92) and Lithuanian grand duke (1440-92) Casimir (Kazimierz) IV Jagiellon (d. 1492) on Nov. 30 in Cracow; 2nd son of Wladyslaw II Jagiello (1362-1434) and Sophia of Halshany (1405-61); brother of Vladislaus III (1424-44); father of Alexander Jagiellon (1461-1506). Scottisn noblewoman Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan (d. 1465); 5th daughter of James I and Lady Joan Beaufort; wife of Wolfert VI of Borselen. Italian (Venetian) pageant painter Gentile Bellini (d. 1507) in Venice; son of Jacopo (Iacopo) Bellini (1400-70); brother of Giovanni Bellini (1428-1516); introduces oil painting to Venice. Deaths: Italian artist Gentile da Fabriano (b. 1378).
1428 There is a famine followed by riots in Japan over high prices. On July 3 the Treaty (Reconciliation) of Delft between Philip III the Good of Burgundy and house-arrested countess Jacqueline (Jacoba) of Bayern ends hostilities during the Hook and Cod Wars (begun 1350) between the Hooks, supported by England, and the Cods, supported by the county of Flanders, recognizing her as nominal countess of Hainaut, with Philip of Burgundy as admin. and heir; too bad, she isn't done yet? On Aug. 30 emperor (since 1412) Shoko (b. 1401) dies without an heir, causing him to adopt the son of Prince Fushimi-no-miya Sadafusa, who becomes Japanese emperor #102 Go-Hanazono (1419-71) (until 1464). On Oct. 12 the English under the duke of Bedford begin the Siege of Orleans (ends 1429), and the French cause seems lost; just in the dick, er, nick of time, cross-dressing peasant babe Joan of Arc (1412-31) appears on the pubic, er, public scene in the continuing war between England and France (Arc Wars); claiming to be on a mission from God (the Good Side of the Force?), and to see visions (of Obi-Wan or Yoda?) that she will save France, she comes to dauphin Charles' court in the Loire Valley at the castle of Yolande of Aragon, and wows her with her charm and enthusiasm, then outsmarts her inquisitors with cagey answers, after which Yolande talks Charles into allowing her to lead French relief troops to seiged Orleans, wearing white armor; French military cmdr. La Hire (Etienne de Vignolles) (1390-1443) (Fr. "herisson" = hedgehog) becomes her friend and supporter; is this all a cover story for another conspiracy involving Mary Magdalene and the Priory of Sion, with Joan as the new female Messiah, a dummy corporation to fight the male-supremacist Roman Catholic Church? - look at my eyes, I'm a cat? James I of Scotland signs an alliance with France, gives the country lairds representation in parliament to support the crown, and arrests Alexander Macdonald, Lord of the Isles in Inverness for ignoring his instructions, causing the Macdonald clan to begin a revolt. The Uzbek (Uzbeg) Kingdom is founded in Siberia by Abul (Abu'l) Khayir (Khair) (-1468), with a unique language based on a mixture of Persian and Turkish. The Ottomans absorb the principality of Germiyan in SW Anatolia. Vietnam regains its independence from China's Ming Empire, with Le Loi (Le Thai-To) (1385-1433) founding the Le Dynasty (ends 1527), calling the country Dai Viet (Great Viet). The Aztec Empire begins under King Itzcoatl as the Aztecs (Mexica) and their allies seize control of the Valley of Mexico; start of the construction of the Aztec Sun Stone (finished 1479). Welsh soldier Owen Tudor (1385-1461), son of a fugitive Welsh brewer, who got a job as keeper of the queen's household, giving him the big chance to pour on the charm marries Henry V's widow Catherine of Valois, founding the English Tudor Dynasty, later fathering Earl Edmund of Richmond, who marries Beaufort heiress Margaret and has son Henry VII of England; too bad, the English Parliament passes a resolution this year forbidding dowager queens from remarrying without the king's permission, so their marriage isn't legal, but nothing is done, perhaps because they keep it secret? - kiss me Kate, part two? Alfonso V the Magnanimous of Aragon receives a Letter from Yeshaq I of Ethiopia proposing an alliance against the Muslims to be sealed by Infante Don Pedro marrying Yeshaq's daughter; Alfonso sends a party of 13 craftsmen but no Infante, but they perish on the journey, and he sends a letter to Yeshaq's successor Zara Yacob in 1450 which never arrives. The U. of Florence begins to teach Greek and Latin lit. with a special emphasis on history and its bearing on human behavior and morals. Speaking of history and its bearing on human behavior and morals, the bones of John Wycliffe (d. 1384) in Lutterworth, England are disinterred and burned by order of the Council of Constance - too late to file a lawsuit against him? Magdalene College (pr. MOD-lin) is founded at Cambridge U. as a Benedictine whorehouse, er, hostel, eventually (1472-83) called Buckingham College then the College of St. Mary Magdalene in 1542, with the motto "garde ta foy" (guard the faith); Samuel Pepys later becomes an alumnus. Hops are first planted in England, ending the Dutch monopoly on hopped beer. Architecture: The Ca d'Oro (Ital. "golden house") (Palazzo Santa Sofia) is begun on the Grand Canal in Venice for the Contarini family (finished 1430). Births: English Wars of the Roses Yorkist side-switcher ("the Kingmaker") ("Last of the Barons") Richard Neville, 6th Earl of Salisbury and 16th Earl of Warwick (d. 1471) on Nov. 22; son of Richard Neville, 5th earl of Salisbury (1400-60); husband (1449-) of Anne Beauchamp, daughter of the 14th earl of Warwick; brother of George Neville (1432-76) and John Neville, earl of Northumberland (-1471); cousin of Edward IV; father of Anne Neville (1456-85). French Dominican Roman Catholic theologian (Blessed) Alanus (Alan) de Rupe (Alain de la Roche) (d. 1475) in Brittany; teacher of Cornelius Sneek (1455-1534). French noblewoman Iolande de Bar (d. 1483); daughter of Rene I of Anjou (1409-80); wife of Lord Ferri of Sion-Vaudemont; mother of Rene de Bar, duke of Lorraine. Portuguese mad queen Isabella (Isabel) of Portugal (d. 1496); mother of Isabella II the Catholic. Italian (Venetian) artist Giovanni Bellini (d. 1516) in Venice; son of Jacopo (Iacopo) Bellino (1400-70); brother of Gentile Bellini (1427-1507); known for noble form and soft glowing color; teacher of Titian, Il Giorgione et al. Deaths: English soldier Thomas Montacute, 4th earl of Salisbury (b. 1388) on Nov. 3; dies from a cannonball wound received on Oct. 27 at the Siege of Orleans. Italian artist Masaccio (b. 1401). Japanese emperor #101 (1412-28) Shoko (b. 1401) on Aug. 30.
1429 At the start of this year the British control the 100-mi.-wide band of N France centered at Paris incl. Brittany, Normandy, Maine, Alencon, Perche, Valois, and Champagne, and the area around Bordeaux in the SW; Charles VII controls the rest of the S section except Burgundy E of the Loire; by 1477 Burgundy controls the N section incl. Picardy, Artois, Flanders, Brabant and Luxemburg; on Feb. 12 the French are defeated by the English under John of Lancaster in the Battle of the Herrings near Rouvray-Saint-Denis 20 mi. N of Orleans, pushing the Armagnacs back of the Loire (10 mi. S of Orleans) and threatening Orleans, the key to French dauphin Charles' remaining territory; but never fear, La Pucelle is here, and after presenting herself to dauphin Charles in Chinon, cross-dressing wet dream on a mission from God Joan of Arc (1412-31) is allowed to lead an army with the empty title of chef de guerre to relieve Orleans, using Blois (35 mi. SW of Orleans) as HQ; on May 7 the French under the original underwear-on-the-outside Joan of Arc raise the Siege of Orleans, win the Battle of Patay on June 18, and rescue dauphin Charles, escorting him safely across territory held by the stankin' English and Burgundians; on July 17 he is crowned French king Charles VII the Victorious (1403-61) at Rheims (until July 22, 1461), turning the tide; meanwhile on Dec. 6 8-y.-o. Henry VI is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey; Joan of Arc's success causes Charles VII's favorite Georges de la Tremoille (Trémoille) (1382-1446) and other royal ministers to begin plotting against her. On Feb. 20 (28?) Florentine banking house founder Giovanni de' Medici (b. 1360) dies, and his son Cosimo de' Medici (il Vecchio) (1389-1464) takes control, trying to build on his family's legacy while keeping out of the public eye and out of the way of the Albizzi family that has ruled Florence since 1393. On July 26 Antipope (since 1423) Clement VIII dies, followed on ? by Antipope (since 1425) Benedict XIV, and no new antipope is elected in Avignon. The forces of James I of Scotland kick the butts of the Macdonald clan at the Battle of Lochlaber, but that only makes them madder? Venice seizes Padua, Verona, Vicenza, and other domains left up for grabs by the 1402 death of strongman Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, and ends the Milan-Venice War (begun 1426); Venice reaches the height of its great powah, and by the middle of the cent. begins a long decline caused by Turkish invasions, fights with other Italian states, and the discovery of the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope in 1497-8. The Mamluk sultan issues a decree giving the govt. a monopoly on the pepper trade, followed by sugar, perfumes, and spices, as a last resort to save the sagging economy before currency debasement, which is soon done. Bidarbecomes capital of the Bahmani Dynasty in India, and is rebuilt in the Persian style. The provincial Council of Tortosa does much to remove the evil effects of the Western (Great) Schism of the 14th-15th cents. Vodka is brought to Moscow by foreign visitors, who tout it as a panacea; in 1430 a monk named Isidor of the Chudov Monastery makes the first Russian vodka recipe, which becomes a monopoly of the grand duchy of Moscow. Nonfiction: Alain Chartier (1390-1430), Livre Desperance; attacks the corrupt French nobles and clergy. Poetry: Christine de Pizan (1363-1434), The Tale of Joan of Arc; her last work, celebrating women as military leaders who still defend their sex and don't turn into foul-mouthed sluts. Births: Italian "Battle of the Nudes" artist Antonio del Pollaiuolo (Antonio di Jacopo Pollauolo) (It. "hen coop") (d. 1498) on Jan. 17 in Florence; brother of Piero de Pollaiolo (1443-96); student of Andrea del Castagno. English queen (1445-61, 1470-1) Margaret of Anjou (d. 1482) on Mar. 23 in Lorraine, France; daughter of Duke Rene I the Good of Naples, duke of Anjou (1409-80); queen consort of Henry VI. Italian Renaissance sculptor Mino da Fiesole (di Giovanni) (d. 1484) in Poppi, Tuscany; student of Desiderio da Settignano. Deaths: Italian Medici dynasty founder Giovanni de' Medici (b. 1360) on Feb. 20 (28) in Florence; buried in the Church of San Lorenzo, designed by Brunelleschi.