|England||Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)||Dec. 16, 1653||Sept. 3, 1658|
|France||Louis XIV (1638-1715)||May 14, 1643||Sept. 1, 1715|
|Germany||HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57)||Nov. 18, 1637||Apr. 2, 1657|
|Russia||Tsar Alexis I (1629-76)||July 12, 1645||Jan. 29, 1676|
|Sweden||Queen Christina (1626-89)||Nov. 6, 1632||June 6, 1654|
|Papacy||Pope Innocent X (1574-1655)||Sept. 15, 1644||Jan. 7, 1655|
1650 World pop: 500M (doubles in the next 2 cents.); Am. colonies: 50K; European pop. of Ashkenazi Jews: 100K (vs. 2M in 1800, 8M in 1900); Ashkenazi (Heb. "Germans") are mainly the descendants of Jewish men and Euro women. The Great German Migration to Penn. begins (ends 1730); between 1700-75 60K Germans migrate. In this decade due mainly to the super intellectual achievements of Galileo and Newton, the Age of Enlightenment (Reason) begins in W Europe (until 1789), with coffeehouse and salon thinkers (philosophes) backed by the Masonic movement challenging the authority of the Church and promoting reason and individualism, causing more and more brain men to vote with their feet by leaving the ranks of churchmen and joining the ranks of scientists. The Golden Age of Piracy begins for Britain after they decide to copy the Muslims of N Africa and the French (ends 1726). On Jan. 18 after Cardinal Mazarin allies himself with the leaders of the First Fronde, his enemies the Great Conde, Prince de Conti, and Duke of Longueville are arrested, then on Jan. 19 the regency begins warring with the princes; on Jan. 21 the First Fronde members arrested last year are acquitted, separating the interests of the nobility and parliament; by Mar. 5 Normandy is subdued. In Mar. the pesky royalist earl of Montrose (b. 1612) lands in the Orkneys with 500 Danish troops, recruits 1K more, then crosses to the Scottish mainland, is defeated on Apr. 27 at Carbisdale near Culrain in Invercarron, and escapes to Ardveck Keep (Castle), home of Neil MacLeod of Assynt, who betrays him to Parliament for reward money, and he is captured, then hanged on May 21 in Edinburgh, protesting that he is a Covenanter; his last words are "God have mercy on this afflicted land". In May most of the English and Protestant royalist troops under the command of royalist gen. James Butler mutiny and go over to Oliver Cromwell, leaving him only with Irish Catholic forces, who don't trust him since he's a Protestant, causing him to be ousted and return to France in Dec. On June 9 Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. is incorporated, becoming the oldest corp. in the modern-day Western Hemisphere. On June 23 after dallying 18 mo. negotiating with the rival Covenanters and non-Presbyterian royalists, Charles II arrives in Scotland, takes the Covenant, and is proclaimed "Covenanted" king on June 24, going on a triumphant journey through the lowlands, while hardcore Covenanters grumble that he's faking loyalty. On June 26 the Nuremberg Agreement on Demobilization between the HRE and Sweden augments the Peace of Westphalia by providing for the phased withdrawal of all troops in areas of Germany not ceded to France. By summer after the capture of Carlow, Waterford and Duncannon, the Irish rebellion is reduced to tiny pockets of resistance by bloodthirsty Oliver Cromwell, who then turns to the Scots, leading 11K men against 23K Covenanters. On July 1 Die Einkommende Zeitungen (Incoming News) begins pub. in Leipzig, Germany (four pocket-sized pages), becoming the world's first daily newspaper. On Aug. 9 the Puritan-inspired Blasphemy Act denounces Diggers (communists), Levellers (egalitarians), and Ranters (atheists and hedonists). On Sept. 3 although outnumbered 2-to-1, the Puritan army of Oliver Cromwell surprise-attacks at dawn, and defeats the Scots led by David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar, killing 14K Scots and destroying or capturing all their artillery, then taking Edinburgh on Dec. 24, and subjecting Scotland to martial law (until 1660); on Sept. 27 the Scottish Commission of the Kirks and the Committee of Estates in Perth orders the expulsion of 23 of Charles II's companions except the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Wilmot, and removes two others from court; on Oct. 3 (target date for the expulsions) Charles II and his companions make a run for it out (called the Start) of Perth under the coverstory of a hawking trip, going NE to the protection of Viscount Dudhope in Dundee, then N to Auchterhouse under the protection of the Earl of Buchan, then N to the Highlands to recruit 7K royalist Highlanders, going through Cortach to Clova, with no recruits in sight; too bad, the Duke of Buckingham spills the beans to Sir James Balfour, who sends a 700-man cavalry under Col. Robert Montgomery to fetch him back, carrying one of Charles II's hawks "that the game might be played out with spirit", finding him in Clova "laying in a nasty room, on an old bolster above a mat of sedge and rushes"; after he is returned to Perth the Committee of Estates grants him concessions to avoid a repeat, inviting him to their sessions; too bad, Charles II flubs his chance to invade England, flying into rages instead while Cromwell works to garrison S Scotland. On Sept. 13 Ferdinand of Bavaria (b. 1577) dies, and his nephew Maximilian Heinrich (Henry) von Wittelsbach (1621-88), first cousin of Bavarian elector Ferdinand Maria becomes elector-archbishop of Cologne (until June 3, 1688). In Oct. defiant English preacher (Leicestershire cobbler) George Fox (1624-91) from Fenny Drayton in the Midlands, who got fed up with all the religious hypocrisy and began wandering and preaching, only to be arrested for it, thunders from the dock in court on a charge of illegal preaching that it was not he but the judge Gervase Bennett (1612-) who should "tremble at the word of the Lord"; the latter replies that the only "quaker" in court is Fox himself, and the name Quakers sticks; by 1680 membership in England and Wales reaches 60K (1.5% of the pop.). On Dec. 15 the French court party led by Caesar, duc de Choiseul defeats Turenne and his Spanish allies at the Battle of Retbel (Blanc-Champ) near Somme-Py, causing Turenne's army to disintegrade, and Turenne to ask the king's pardon, after which the rebellion collapses by next Apr. The Parliamentary fleet under Bridgewater-born Adm. Robert Blake (1598-1657) defeats and sinks most of the Royalist fleet in the Mediterranean. Oliver Cromwell forms a permanent economic council. The Iroquois defeat and destroy the Neutral Nation. At the instigation of Protestants (who arrived as servants in 1634 and are now freedmen and property holders), the Md. assembly divides into two houses, with governor and council sitting separately. The Dutch and English agree on the mutual frontiers of their colonies in North Am. 8K-ft. Mt. Asamayama in C Honshu, 85 mi. N of Tokyo erupts. In this decade the systematic extermination of the North Am. aborigines begins to make room for all those electronic four-wheel drives with their hearts in the right place even if you're not? The kingdom of Angola is finally conquered by the Portuguese. The first French settlement on the Senegal River in W Africa is made at Saint-Louis. The English establish the first European settlement on the Suriname River in NE South Am. France buys the island of Grenada from Britain, and settles it, establishing plantations and working to exterminate the garbage, er, Carib aborigines. About this time Sultan Quadarat makes Maguindanao the #1 force in the S Philippine region. The town of New Utrecht near Brooklyn in New Amsterdam is settled, followed by Midwout (Flatbush) in W Long Island next year. Veera Kerala Varma dies, and Rama Varma (d. 1656) becomes ruler of Cochin on the Malabar Coast of S India. The Cromwell Parliament makes adultery a capital offense, and enacts moral legislation to regulate drinking, dancing et al. Pope Innocent X issues a bull against smoking in St. Peter's in Rome - can't afford the fire insurance? By now the Great Vowel Shift begun in the 15th cent. England is complete, and Middle English has given way to Modern English. About this time merchants from Marseilles, France begin importing coffee beans from the Levant, going on in a few years to import coffee from Egypt, causing merchants in Lyon to follow suit. In 1650 Spanish explorer Don Diego del Castillo explores the Wichita Mts. in Comanche County, Okla. for 6 mo. looking for gold and silver before dying next June on the banks of the Mississippi River - you-u-u-u made me leave my happy home? In this decade opium smoking becomes a huge problem in China. In this decade the first tea arrives in England. The term "highwayman" is coined about this time. In this half-cent. helmet use among soldiers begins to decline in Europe. In this half-cent. the Mantis (Kung Fu) fighting style (wushu) is developed in China by Wang Lang. In this decade the Dutch block Gujarati spice ships from Aceh, causing them to collapse by the end of the cent. In this decade leather begins being used for upholstering furniture. English agriculturalist Sir Richard Weston (1591-1652) advocates the cultivation of turnips as winter fodder for cattle - and they go great with duck? The word "chrony" (crony) (from Gr. "chronios" = longtime) is coined by Cambridge students for a longtime friend; the connotation of political favoritism is added during the Truman admin. in the mid 20th cent. In this half-cent. Muslim scholars in Malaysia, incl. Hamzah Fansuri (Pansuri) (-1590), Nuru'd-din ar-Raniri, Syamsu'd-din as-Samatrani, and Abdur-rauf as-Singkili trans. Muslim texts into vernacular. In this decade European music begins to develop modulation (modern harmony). In this decade the overture (musical introduction) begins emerging as a musical form in Italy and France, incl. the ballet overtures of Jean-Baptiste Lully. In this decade short, plotless, tragic Japanese No (Noh) (Nogaku) (Jap. "skill" Drama begins its development - Dr. No jokes here? The Cambridge Platonists, a school of English church writers based at the U. of Cambridge is formed by Ralph Cudworth (1617-88), Henry More (1614-87) et al., attempting to reconcile Christianity and its morals with philosophy, and opposing Thomas Hobbes; usually considered do-the-locomotion-with-me liberals, they are often called Latitudinarians; Puritan divine Benjamin Whichcote (1609-83 gets in a controversy with his Platonist teacher-friend Anthony Tuckney (1599-1670), arguing against the doctrine of total depravity. The Cariri Tribe in South Am. near the San Francisco River in E Brazil is converted to Christianity; in 1699 the Jesuit Luis V. Mamiani pub. a grammar of their language. About this time Giulia Toffana from Palermo, Italy begins marketing Aqua Tofana (Toffana) (Tufania), a colorless tasteless concoction of arsenic, lead, and belladonna to wannabe widows under the name Manna di San Nicola (St. Nicholas of Bari) to fool the authorities; over 600 hubbies are known to croak from it before she is caught and executed in July, 1659. The Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph (C.S.J.) is founded in Le Puy-en-Velay, France; growing to 14K members worldwide by modern times, incl. Sister Prejean of "Dead Man Walking" fame. Architecture: After suffering from the Swedish occupation in the Thirty Years' War of 1618-48, the Berlin Fortress (Festung Berlin) in Prussia is begun by Brandenburg elector Frederick William I, designed by Johann Gregor Memhardt (Memhard) (1607-78), based on fortresses in N Italy; finished in 1683; demolished in 1734. Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh burns down; it is rebuilt in 1671-9. The Taj Mahal (begun 1639) is completed. Palazzo di Montecitorio, designed by Giovanni (Gianlorenzo) Bernini (1598-1680) is completed by Carlo Fontana; in 1870 it becomes the seat of the Italian chamber of deputies. Inventions: About this time lead shot is molded with a split mold. About this time the double-reed conical-bored Oboe (Hautboy, Hoboy) (Fr. "haut" + "bois" = high + woodwind) is developed from the Shawm; it is used to tune orchestras to the A note. Science: Francis Glisson pub. a clear description of infantile rickets. German physicist Otto von Guericke (1602-86) of Magdeburg invents the vacuum air pump (now he's got both friction and suction?); in 1655 he uses it to remove the air from two metal Magdenburg hemispheres and challenges horsemen to pull them apart; it ends up being used on farms. Mizar becomes the first double star to be observed (really a quadruple star). Thomas Sydenham of England begins advocating a rudimentary germ theory of disease. Nonfiction: Elias Ashmole (1617-92), Fasciculus Chemicus; textbook on alchemy, pub. under the alias James Hasholle - for his bunch of gay friends? Richard Baxter (1615-91), The Saints' Everlasting Rest. Thomas Fuller (1608-61), A Pisgah-Sight of Palestine; just the thing after the cessation of hostilities? Matthew Hale (1609-76), Analysis of the Civil Law. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Human Nature; Or, The Fundamental Elements of Policie; De Corpore Politico; Or, The Elements of Law, Moral and Politick; written in 1637-40 after he gets interested in the struggle between king and Parliament, then privately circulated in 1640, causing him to fear that Parliament might get him for it for defending the royal prerogative, causing him to flee to Paris for 11 years. Menassah ben Israel (1604-57), The Hope of Israel; argues for readmission of Jews to England, from which they had been expelled since the days of Edward I Longshanks (1290), with the killer argument that until Jews live in all lands Christ won't return, claiming that the Native Ams. were survivors of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and that the discovery of America is a sign of the coming Messianic era; tr. into English in 1652, arousing interest and helping convince Oliver Cromwell to readmit them in 1656. Athanasius Kircher (1601-80), Musurgia Universalis. Gilles Menage, Dictionnaire Etymologique. Thomas Thorowgood (1600-69), Jewes in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that Race (London) (bestseller); revives the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel theory for Native Ams., citing the case of Aaron Levi AKA Antonie Monterinos, who returned to Amsterdam from Brazil in 1644 and told Manasseh ben Israel that he had met reps of the descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes in South Am. who claimed descent from Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, Israel and the tribes of Reuben and Joseph; "The Indians do themselves relate things of their Ancestors suteable to what we read in the Bible... They constantly and strictly separate their women in a little wigwam by themselves in their feminine seasons... They hold that Nanawitnawit (a God overhead) made the Heavens and the Earth"; "The rites, fashions, ceremonies, and opinions of the Americans are in many things agreeable to the custom of the Jewes, not only prophane and common usages, but such as he called solemn and sacred"; in 1652 Sir Roger L'Estrange (1616-1704) pub. Americans No Jewes in London, disputing Thorowgood, who responds with a rev. 1660 ed., with the soundbyte: "that those Indians are Judaical, made more probable by some Additional... learned conjectures of Reverend Mr. John Eliot (1604-90), known as the Apostle to the Indians", who in 1663 pub. The Holy Bible Containing the Old Testament and the New Translated into the Indian Language and Ordered to be Printed by the Commissioners of the United Colonies in New England in Cambridge, a tr. of the Bible into Algonquian (Natick), becoming the first Bible printed in North Am. Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656), Annals of the Old Testament, Deduced from the First Origins of the World: The Chronicle of Asiatic and Egyptian Matters Together Produced from the Beginning of Historical Time up to the Beginnings of Maccabees (Annales Veteris Testamenti, a Prima Mundi Origine Deductim, una cum rerum Asiaticarum et Aegyptiacarum chronico, a temporis historici principio usque ad Maccabaicorum initia producto); 1.6K-page Latin tome uses the Bible to date the creation of the world to nightfall (6:00 p.m.), Sunday, October 22, 4004 B.C., which jives with the Bible verse "One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" (2 Peter 3:8), meaning that Jehovah gave the Earth 6K years and it's running out fast; he dates the birth of Christ to 4 B.C.E.; it is later used in annotated eds. of the King James Bible, making it super-popular; by the late 19th cent. scientists and theologians begin to ditch it, with Am. Hebrew scholar Wiliam Henry Green (1825-1900 pub. the soundbyte in the influential article Primeval Chronology in Bibliotheca Sacra (1890): "We conclude that the Scriptures furnish no data for a chronological computation prior to the life of Abraham, and that the Mosaic records do not fix and were not intended to fix the precise date either of the Flood or of the creation of the world" - a Christian would say Sunday not Saturday or Friday? Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Manual of Dutch Poetry. Art: Gerard ter Borch (1617-81), Sitting Young Woman; his sister Gesina. Sebastien Bourdon (1616-71), The Finding of Moses. Aelbert Cuyp (1620-91), The Maas at Dordrecht; the Maas River in front of his hometown of Dordrecht. Jan Josephs van Goyen (1596-1656), View of Dordrecht. Frans Hals (1580-1666), Hille Bobbe; Hals works so fast and precisely that every brush stroke is visible? Gerard Houckgeest, Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft with the Tomb of William the Silent; starts a fad for paintings of church interiors? Sir Peter Lely (1618-80), Two Ladies from the Lake Family. Bartolome Esteban Murillo (1617-82), The Holy Family with the Little Bird. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Self-Portrait; The Blind Men of Jericho. Mattia Preti (1613-99), The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew (Naples); donated by Francis I of the Two Sicilies to the Proto-Cahedral in Bardstown, Ky. David Teniers the Younger (1610-90), Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria in His Brussels Library. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Portrait of Pope Innocent X; Portrait of Juan de Pareja (1610-70); his mulatto asst.; auctioned in 1970 by Christie's of London for $5.54M. Plays: Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Andromede (tragedy). Andreas Gryphius (1616-64), Horribilicribrifax (satirical political comedy) (pub. 1663). Poetry: Anon., Wit's Recreations (anthology); incl. 60+ poems from Robert Herrick. Anne Bradstreet (1612-72), The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America; first published female author in the British Am. colonies. Births: English actress (mistress of Charles II) Eleanor "Nell" Gwyn (Gwynn) (Gwynne) (d. 1687) on Feb. 2 in St. Martin in the Fields, London. English soldier-statesman John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (d. 1722) on May 26 in Ashe House, Devon; son of Sir Winston Churchill (1620-88) and Elizabeth Drake; ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill. English anti-theater Anglican cleric-writer Jeremy Collier (d. 1726) on Sept. 23 in Stow cum Quy, Cambridgeshire; educated at Caius College, Cambridge U. Am. celeb Jane Rolfe Bolling (d. 1676) on Oct. 10 in Varina, Henrico County, Va.; granddaughter of Pocahontas and John Rolfe; wife (1675-) of Col. Robert Bolling (1646-1709); mother of John Fairfax Bolling (1676-1729). English/Scottish king (1689-1702) William III/II of Orange (d. 1702) on Nov. 4 (Nov. 14 Old Style) in Binnenhof, The Hague (1 week after his father's death from smallpox); son of Prince William II of Orange (1626-50) (who dies one week before his birth) and Mary Stuart, daughter of Charles I; stadholder of the Netherlands 1672-1702; husband of Mary II; well educated in languages, fine arts, military tactics and Calvinism. Am. Va. colonist William Randolph (d. 1711) on Nov. 7 in Morton Morell, Warwickshire, England; emigrates to Va. in 1669-73 and becomes a big tobacco planter, founding the Randolph dynasty in Va. Am. Puritan minister George Burroughs (d. 1692) (b. 1652?) in Great Yarmouth; educated at Harvard College. Vietnamese gen. (founder of Saigon) Nguyen Huu Canh (Kinh) (d. 1700) in Le Thuy District, Quang Bingh Province, Bac Trung Bo. French fairy tale writer Madame Marie-Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, Baroness d'Aulnoy (d. 1705) (b. 1651?) in Barneville-la-Bertran. English Methuen Treaty judge-diplomat John Methuen (d. 1706) in Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire; son of Paul Methuen (-667), richest cloth merchant in England; educated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford U.; father of Sir Paul Methuen (1672-1757). British adm. Sir George Rooke (d. 1709) in St. Lawrence (near Canterbury), Kent. English poet Sir Richard Blackmore (d. 1729). Spanish architect Leonardo de Figueroa (d. 1730) in Utiel, Valencia. Deaths: English herbalist-botanist John Parkinson (b. 1567) in July-Aug. in London. German Jesuit anti-Galileo astronomer Christoph Scheiner (b. 1575) on July 18 in Neisse, Silesia. German prince-elector archbishop of Cologne (1612-50) Ferdinand of Bavaria (b. 1577) on Sept. 13 in Arnsberg. English bishop of Worcester John Prideaux (b. 1578) on July 29 in Bredon (fever). French painter Trophime Bigot (b. 1579). English courtier Philip Herbert, 4th earl of Pembroke (b. 1584) on Jan. 23 in Westminster. French architect Jean Androuet III du Cerceau (b. 1585). English poet Phineas Fletcher (b. 1582). Italian Jesuit philosopher Niccolo Cabeo (b. 1586) on June 30 in Genoa. Swiss engraver Matthaus Merian (b. 1593) on June 19 in Bad Schwalbach (near Wiesbaden). French philosopher ("Father of Modern Philosophy") Rene Descartes (b. 1596) on Feb. 11 in Stockholm; dies of pneumonia contracted after tutoring (since 1694) hearty Queen Christina at 5 a.m. in her unheated palace rooms; he had heretofore always stayed in bed until midday; he wouldn't eat an egg unless it was under the hen from 8-10 days; he always passed his easier problems in analytic geometry to his valet Gillot; he was obsessed with cross-eyed women, and afraid of publishing for fear of persecution, leaving an encrypted secret notebook, which is lost after Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz copies a few pages of it, and finds a mathematical discovery of Descartes that he keeps secret also, until its rediscovery in 1987; he was really poisoned with arsenic by Roman Catholic priest missionary Jacques Viogue to stop him from infecting the queen with liberal religious ideas? English scholar Thomas Shelton (b. 1601). Danish marshal of France Josias Rantzau (b. 1609) on Sept. 14 in Paris; dies after being released from the Bastille on charges of supporting the Fronde. Italian printmaker Pietro Testa (b. 1611) in Rome. Scottish royalist gen. James Graham Montrose, 1st marquis and 5th earl of Montrose (b. 1612) on May 21 in Edinburgh (executed). Dutch stadtholder (1647-50) William II, prince of Orange (b. 1626) on Nov. 6. English princess Elizabeth Stuart (b. 1635) on Sept. 8 in Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight. Dutch stadtholder William II, prince of Orange on Nov 6 (smallpox).
1651 On Jan. 1 Charles II (1630-85) is crowned king of Scotland at Scone (until Sept. 3, 1651), claiming the English throne, becoming the last coronation at Scone and the last Scottish monarch to be crowned in Scotland; hastily arranged by the Covenanters, it is devoid of most of the usual pageantry and anointing, and they make him take the Covenant one more time. On Feb. 6 after a new outbreak by the Frondeurs causes the French parliament to vote to release Fronde leader the Great Conde and his assocs., Cardinal Mazarin is forced to leave Paris again, and the queen is forced to ally herself with the Fronde; Mazarin retains war ministry employee (since 1638) Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619-83) as his confidential agent at court, while parliament orders Mazarin's library closed; the princes are released on Feb. 11; the govt. promises an estates-gen. to be convened on Oct. 1; on Mar. 16 the royal court is moved to Dijon while royal troops attempt to quell the rebels in Burgundy; Bellegarde surrenders on Apr. 11; on Apr. 20 the Duchess of Longueville (sister of the Great Conde and the Prince de Conti) and Gen. Vicomte de Turenne seek an alliance with Spain; on Oct. 1 the French parliament meets, but on Oct. 2 it is forbidden to consider gen. affairs, gutting it. In May after arriving in Scotland last July 22, Oliver Cromwell's troops force their way through Scotland into Glasgow, establish a bridgehead in Fife in July, and take Perth on Aug. 2, completing the occupation of Scotland; Cromwell leaves Scotland in charge of lt. gen. George Monck to pursue Charles II to England. A touch late? On June 28-30 the Battle of Beresteczko (Brest) is a V for the Polish army of Jan II Casimir over Ukrainian peasant and Cossack forces and their Crimean Tartar allies, becoming the biggest battle of the cent.; future king Jan III Sobieski fights for Jan II. On Sept. 3 Cromwell finally defeats a royalist army of 12K led by David Leslie (who is captured and put in the Tower of London) at the Battle of Worcester in England, ending the English Civil War and forcing pissed-off 6'2" dark and easily identifiable Charles II to part with his lords and flee incognito to France, guided by Jane Lane, Lady Fisher (1626-89), hiding along the way and disguising himself as a laborer and tenant farmer, once passing in disguise through a troop of blockheads, er, Roundheads, then reaching the unguarded port of Shoreham in Sussex on Oct. 14; James Butler joins Charles II in exile, along with his chaplain John Earle (1601-65); Charles Howard (1629-85) (another *!?! Howard?) distinguishes himself fighting for the Commonwealth, and becomes a member of the council of state in 1653 and a member of Cromwell's House of Lords in 1657 as the 1st earl of Carlisle; Cromwell rules a kingless Bible-thumping Britain with an iron hand (even Christmas is cancelled), with John Thurloe (1616-68) as his chief of intelligence; on Oct. 28 Parliament makes Scotland a part of the Commonwealth, giving them free trade with England, allowing the Presbyterian church to continue, and giving them a more efficient govt. by English officials; the idea that sects other than Presbyterian should be tolerated, however, is exceedingly irksome to the badass Covenanter Scots?; George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1628-87), whose estates were confiscated for serving in the royal army fights with Charles II at Worcester, then after he sees whose side his bread is buttered on he returns secretly to England and marries the daughter of Parliamentary gen. Fairfax, but that doesn't work and he is arrested and imprisoned until the return of Charles II. On Sept. 27 Maximilian I the Great (b. 1573) dies, and his son Ferdinand Maria (1636-79) becomes Wittelsbach ruler and elector of Roman Catholic Bavaria (until 1679), going on to set the German standard of absolute rule; he is not crowned until Oct. 31, 1654. In Oct. 9 after a failed diplomatic mission to The Hague to convince the Dutch to join the Commonwealth and overthrow William II of Orange, Oliver Cromwell's Rump Parliament passes the Navigation Act, attempting to end the Dutch carrying trade by excluding nearly all foreign shipping from the English and colonial trade, prohibiting the importation into England or its dependencies of goods from Asia, Africa, or America carried in non-English or non-colonial ships, except European goods coming directly from their port of origin; Holland's position as numero uno is threatened and they see red, causing a naval war. On Nov. 19 the Venetian ambassador in Paris writes to his dodge about Charles II, who has been telling tall tales since his arrival, with the soundbyte: "In the army, when it was seen that all was lost, he took counsel with the duke of Buckingham, who was in the same plight as himself. The duke decided to disguise himself as a falconer, with the goshawks on his arm." After overrunning the Huron Confederacy in 1648-9, causing large numbers of refugees to flee to their protection, the Iroquois war with the Erie (Huron "abode of the panther") ("Erielhonan" = long tail) AKA the Raccoon or Cat people who inhabit the shores of Lake Erie (modern-day N.Y., Ohio, Penn.) (until 1653). The Cromwell govt. begins recording all court proceedings in English rather than French or Latin in a symbolic throwing off of the Norman yoke (until 1660). Scottish gen. Alexander Leslie is captured by the Parliamentarians and imprisoned, then set free in 1654, after which he retires. Prince Rupert's English fleet is destroyed by Adm. Robert Blake, and he escapes with the remnant to the West Indies, where he takes up buccaneering until 1653, then returns to France, retiring to a life of scientific researches. Roger Williams returns to England to save R.I. from a rival claim. New Castle, Del. is founded by the Dutch as a shipping town; Peter Stuyvesant lays out the town's boundaries and green in 1655. August Herman, a Dutchman from Staten Island buys a tract of land from the Indians which in 1685 becomes the site of the town of Perth Amboy, N.J. John Eliot founds Natick, Mass. (25 mi. W of Worcester in Middlesex County) for converted Indians; it goes on to become known for manufacturing shoes and clothing. King Louis XIV of France attains the age of majority, and appears as a dancer in a court ballet. The British set up a factory in Phnom Penh. Tokugawa Iyetsuna (Yetsuna) (1633-80) becomes Tokugawa shogun #4 of Japan (until 1680), going on to quash two rebellions in Edo. The Tontine System of life insurance is invented by Neapolitan banker Lorenzo de Tonti (1602-84) in Paris, paying money to the last surviving contributor - pass the arsenic? Spanish dramatist Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81) becomes a priest - no mister nice guy, no mister clea-e-e-an? The first public "comedy house" opens in Vienna. The division between publisher and printer in the book trade begins. The 1st cent. B.C.E. Roman topless Venus of Arles statue is unearthed by workers in Arles, France. Architecture: The White Pagoda in the Imperial City (Huang Cheng) of Peking is built on the occasion of the visit of the Tibetan dalai lama. Tiananmen Square (Gate of Heavenly Peace) in China is built. Science: French scientist Jean Pecquet (1622-74) pub. the first description of the lymphatic system in animals, incl. the lacteal vessels, the thoracic duct and its entry into the subclavian vein, the reservoir of Pecquet (receptaculum chyli). Nonfiction: William Bradford (1590-1657), History of Plymouth (Plimouth) Plantation, 1620-1647; his journal, written in 1630-51, based on material by George Morton, Edward Winslow et al. pub. in 1622 in London as "Mourt's Relation"; the #1 work of 17th cent. America?; covers the Pilgrims from their settlement in the Dutch Repub. in 1608 through the 1620 Mayflower voyage to 1647, followed by a list of Mayflower passengers and what happened to them, written in 1651; after Bradford never attempts to get it pub., the ms. is stored in the tower of Old South Church in Boston, disappears during the Am. Rev. War, and is found in 1855 in the Fulham Library in England, being pub. for the first time in 1856, then returned to the U.S. in 1898. John Donne (1572-1631), Essays in Divinity (posth.). John French, The Art of Distillation. William Harvey (1578-1657), Exercitationes de Generatione Animalium; describes the development of organs in the embryo, and declares that all living things come from eggs mating with invisible sperm (omne vivum ex ovo); "The egg is the common beginning for all animals." Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Leviathian; or The Matter, Form and Power of a Commwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil, his magnum opus; justifies the sovereignty of the Commonwealth, noting that life is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short" (ch. 13), and all men fear each other, hence must submit to the supremacy of the state in secular and religious matters, yet attacks the papacy, pissing-off the French and causing him to flee Paris back to England, where the royalists are also pissed-off, causing him to seek protection from the rev. English govt.; "Imagination and memory are but one thing, which for divers considerations hath divers names" (vol. 2); founds Social Contract Theory; his portrait bears a striking resemblance to William Shakespeare grown cynical? Johann Heinrich Hottinger (1620-67), Historia Orientalis (Zurich); covers Muhammad et al.; Historia Ecclesiastica (9 vols.) (1651-67). Gerard Langbaine the Elder (1609-58), The Foundation of the University of Oxford, with a Catalogue of the principal Founders and special Benefactors of all the Colleges, and total number of Students; he also pub. a vol. for Cambridge U. Jean Pecquet (1622-74), Experimenta Nova Anatomica; dissects the eye, and concludes that the retina is the principal organ of vision, and notes the existence of the lymphatic system in animals. John Playford (1623-86), The English Dancing Master; first book giving music and dance instructions for English country dancing (groups of 4+) the 1695 ed. contains the Sir Roger de Coverley Dance, the basis of the Virginia Reel. Giovanni Riccioli (1598-1671), New Almagest; incl. maps of the lunar surface with many of the modern names of lunar features. Jeremy Taylor (1613-67), Rule and Exercises of Holy Living and Holy Dying (1650-1) - just give me some kind of sign, girl? Francois Pierre de la Varenne (1615-78), Le Cuisiner Francois; founds modern French haute cuisine, ditching expensive spices for local herbs, introducing veggies incl. peas, artichoke, cucumber, asparagus, and cauliflower, and stressing freshness, serving salty before sweet dishes. Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72), A Discourse Concerning the Gift of Prayer: Shewing What It Is, Wherein It Consists and How Far It Is Attainable by Industry. Art: Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Holy Family; painted for the Duc de Crequy. Paulus Potter (1625-54), Landscape with Cows. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Girl with a Broom. David Teniers the Younger (1610-90), Village Feast. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), The Rokeby Venus (The Toilet of Venus) (Venus and Cupid) (Venus at Her Mirror) (La Venus del Espejo); his only female nude to survive; painted in Italy, it is latched onto by Spanish courtiers, ending up in Rokeby Park, Yorkshire, England in 1813, followed by the Nat. Gallery in London in 1906; on Mar. 10, 1914 Canadian suffragette "Slasher" Mary Raleigh Richardson (1882-1961) attacks it with a knife in protest at the arrest of Emmeline Pankurst, slashing the body because she can't stand "the way men visitors gaped at it all day long"; Richardson goes on to become head of the women's div. of the Brititish Union of Fascists led by Sir Oswald Mosley. Plays: William Cartwright (1611-43), Comedies, Tragicomedies, with Other Poems. Poetry: John Cleveland, Poems. Sir William Davenant (1606-68), Gondibert. Novels: Baltasar Gracian (1601-58), Criticon (3 vols.) (1651, 1653, 1657); his masterpiece; pub. under alias Gracia de Marlones; Byzantine picaresque novel about Critilo ("critical man") and Andrenio ("natural man"), who go on a voyage to the Isle of Immortality; gets him punished by his Jesuit superiors; Daniel Defoe gets the idea of Robinson Crusoe from it; its pessimism later makes a fan of Arthur Schopenhauer. Paul Scarron (1610-60), Roman Comique (1651-7); about a co. of strolling players led by narrator Destin, in a picaresque style a la Cervantes' "Don Quixote". Births: English explorer Sir William Phips (d. 1695) on Feb. 2 near Kennebec, Maine; youngest of 26 children - I'd like to see that mother? Italian chef (in France) Procopio Cuto (Cutò) (Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli) (It. "knives") (d. 1727) on Feb. 9 in Palermo (Aci Trezza?), Sicily. French missionary and educator ("Father of Modern Education") (St.) Jean-Baptist de La Salle (d. 1791) on Apr. 30 in Reims; first teacher to divide students into grades; canonized on May 24, 1900 by Pope Leo XIII; proclaimed patron saint of teachers on May 15, 1950 by Pope Pius XII. French Roman Catholic archbishop and theologian-poet Francois de Salignac de la Mothe-Fenelon (Mothe-Fénelon) (d. 1715) on Aug. 6 in Sainte-Mondane, Perigord, Aquitaine. German Baroque "Apotheosis of Prince Eugene" sculptor Balthasar Permoser (d. 1732) on Aug. 13 in Kammer bei Waging, Salzburg. English explorer and pirate William Dampier (d. 1715) on Sept. 5 in East Coker, Somerset. German naturalist-explorer Engelbert Kaempfer (d. 1716) on Sept. 16 in Lemgo, Lippe, Westphalia. Spanish architect Jose Churriguera (d. 1723). Deaths: Dutch artist Abraham Bloemaert (b. 1566) in Utrecht. Bavarian elector duke Maximilian I the Great (b. 1573) on Sept. 27 in Ingolstadt. Flemish painter Cornelis de Vos (b. 1584) on May 9 in Antwerp. Belgian-born English engraver Martin Droeshout (b. 1601). Swedish artillery gen. Lennart Torstensson (b. 1603) on Apr. 7 in Stockholm. German composer Heinrich Albert (b. 1604). English soldier-regicide Henry Ireton (b. 1611) on Nov. 26 in Limerick, Ireland; dies of a fever after the capture of Limerick - Henry gave a ton of hurt to the Irish? Scottish nobleman William Hamilton, 2nd duke of Hamilton (b. 1616) on Sept. 12; dies of wounds from the Battle of Worcester. Belgian-born English engraver Martin Droeshout (b. 1620) in London.
1652 On Feb. 24 the Act of Pardon and Oblivion is passed to reconcile English Royalists; on Aug. 12 Cromwell's Act of Settlement for Ireland exempts 80K rebels from pardon, esp. pesky James Butler, earl of Ormonde, forcing them to forfeit two-thirds of their lands and receive the third from a different part of the island than that in which they lived (Ormonde loses all of his?); their forfeited estates in Connacht are given to English settlers - Cromwell's crummy name burns in infamy in Ire Ire Ireland ever after? On Apr. 6 three ships of strict Calvinist Dutch settlers led by Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (1619-77) of the Dutch East India Co. arrive in Table Bay (beneath Table Mountain) at the N end of the Cape of Good Hope in SW South Africa, and found Cape Colony and Cape Town (Kapstaad) as a Dutch East India Co. supply station; their descendants become known as Boers ("farmers"); the Dutch dialect in this isolated area begins to absorb words from French, German, Scandinavian, and Malay-Portuguese, evolving into the Afrikaans language. On May 29 the first of three Anglo-Dutch Wars begins (1652-4, 1664-7, 1672-4) when a Dutch fleet under Adm. Maarten Tromp refuses to lower its flag to an English fleet, and the English under Adm. Robert Blake defeat them at the Battle of Goodwin Sands (Dover) off Folkestone before declaring war; nine pitched battles take place in the next two years, with the Dutch having the upper hand this year, sweeping the English Channel clear of the English, putting English trade in the Mediterranean at their mercy, and getting Denmark to close the entrance of the Baltic to English ships; Adm. Trump rubs it in by sailing up the Channel with a broom at his masthead - get in step with the hottest shorts, only at Old Navy? On May 27 after Maine is joined to the Mass. Bay Colony, it passes a Mint Act, and begins striking the Pine Tree three-pence, followed by the six-pence, 12-pence, and Pine Tree shilling (1667-82), becoming the only coinage struck by a British North Am. colonial govt., almost all bearing the date 1652. On June 13 after serving 12 mo. in Derby for illegal preaching, then wandering to Pendle Hill in Lancashire and looking out towards the Irish Sea, where he has a vision of a "great multitude waiting to be gathered", glib cobbler George Fox wanders to Firbank Fell, where in three hours he converts 1K members of the Westmoreland Seekers, led by Francis Howgill (1618-68) and married future preachers John Audland (-1664) and Anne Camm (Newby) (1627-1705); on June 28 he wanders to Swarthmoor Hall in Ulverston, Cumbria, home of Anne Askew Fell, who gets turned on ("perturbed") by his preaching, and he goes on to convert the entire household except Anne's hubby judge Thomas Fell, who is known for his hospitality and allows his home to be used as the HQ of the new Society of Friends Quakers) (until 1691), whose members become known for receiving divine revelations and trembling under the sense of God's awful infinite purity and majesty; their meetings consist of group silence until somebody receives a divine message so they can speak up and boogie - the original daddy daycare and Elvis? On July 2 after provisional Fronde govt. is set up in Paris, Louis XIV quashes it in the Battle of the Faubourg Saint Antoine (in E Paris near the Bastille), and recalls Cardinal Mazarin, confirming the Edict of Nantes; Francois de La Rouchefoucauld is shot in the head and goes blind for a year, retiring from political life. On Aug. 16 the Battle of Plymouth sees British adm. Sir George Ayscue (1616-71) attack an outward bound convoy of the Dutch Repub. commanded by vice-commodore Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (1607-76), who force him to break off and return to Plymouth for repairs while they sail safely to the Atlantic; Dutch (Frisian) adm. Joris Pieters van den Broeck (b. 1610) is KIA. Cromwell dispatches an expedition to the Am. colonies which forces the West Indies, Va., and Md. to recognize Puritan parliamentary authority but leaves them otherwise unmolested; Md. Gov. William Stone is deprived of office by Cromwell's commissioners. Louis XIV makes his trusted military man Caesar (César), duc de Choiseul, comte du Plessis-Praslin (1602-75) his state minister, and in Nov. 1665 creates him duc de Choiseul. Sir William Davenant is freed from the Tower after John Milton intercedes, releasing his epic poem "Gondibert", written in prison. Wenzel Eusebius, Furst (Fürst) von Lobkowitz (1609-77) becomes pres. of the Hofkriegsrat (war council) of HRE Leopold I (until 1672). Omani imam Sultan bin Seif conquers Zanzibar from the Portuguese, and Omani sultans begin ruling it (until ?). English royalist Barbados gov. Francis Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby (1613-66) is forced to yield to the Commonwealth (until 1663). New Netherlands dir.-gen. (1647-64) Peter (Pieter) Stuyvesant (1592-1672) founds the town of Beverwyck near Ft. Orange (founded 1624) on Westerlo Isle in the Hudson River near the confluence with the Mohawk River 136 mi. N of New York City, which changes its name in 1664 to Albany, N.Y. Sebastien Bourdon (1616-71), a founding member of the French Academy of Painting and Sculpture becomes court painter to Queen Christina of Sweden (until 1654) - the view is hot but the climate is not? John Milton becomes blind at the age of forty-four, pining about it in a sonnet, "When I consider how my light is spent", while issuing dictation to a secy. - from masturbating too much while reading Playboy in candlelight? The first opera house opens in Vienna. The minuet comes into fashion at the French court. The first coffeehouse is opened in England in Oxford by Jewish man Jacob in St. Peter Parish; another is opened in St. Michael's Alley in Cornhill, London by Armenian-Greek Pasqua Rosee (Rosée), servant of Turkish goods trader Daniel Edward; a coffeehouse is called a penny univ. since admission is a penny and incl. a cup of coffee or a pot of tea; within a decade there are 80+ coffeehouses in London, growing to 2K-3K by 1700. The Academia Leopoldina (originally Academia Naturae Curiosorum) is founded in the free imperial city of Schweinfurt, Germany, with physician Johann Lorenz Bausch (1605-65) as pres. #1, becoming the oldest scientific academy to survive to modern times; it moves to Halle in 1878. Heidelberg U. (closed since 1626) is reopened as a secular institution by Elector Palatine Charles I Louis, who tries to rebuild the library. French writer Paul Scarron marries Madame de Maintenon (Francoise d'Aubigne), who later becomes the secret 2nd wife of Louis XIV. Claes Maartnszen van Rosenvelt purchases a 48-acre farm in modern-day Midtown Manhattan, N.Y. comprising modern-day Lexington Ave. to Fifth Ave. and 29th St. to 35th St., incl. the future site of the Empire State Bldg., after which the Roosevelt family becomes big in New York City. Science: Danish anatomist Thomas Bartholin (1616-80) pub. the first full description of the human lympathic system; meanwhile Olof (Olaus) Rudbeck the Elder (1630-1702) of Uppsala U. in Sweden (teacher of Niels Stensen) discovers it independently and presents it to Queen Christina of Sweden in Apr.-May, but doesn't pub. it until next year, causing a bitter priority dispute. Nonfiction: Elias Ashmole (1617-92), Theatricum Chemicum Britannicum; alchemical work of metaphysical poems, which becomes a big hit with Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, Socrate Chretien. John Donne (1572-1631), Paradoxes, Problems (posth.). Henry Knighton (-1396), Knighton's Chronicle (4 vols.); covers English history from 959-1366; vol. 5 covers 1377-95. Hayashi Shunsai (1618-80), O-Dai-Ichi-Ran (History of Japan). Gerrard Winstanley (1609-76), The Law of Freedom in a Platform; argues for a classless society, and begs Cromwell to use his grate powah to create it. Poetry: Johann Luremberg, Veer Schertz-Gedichte (comic poems). Art: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Truth Unveiled by Time (sculpture) (1645-52); The Ecstasy (Transverberation) of Saint Teresa of Avila (1647-52); white marble statue in the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome. Carel Fabritius (1622-54), View of Delft with a Musical Instrument Seller's Stall. Adrien van Ostade (1610-85), Cottage Dancers. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Self-Portrait; Portrait of Hendrickje. Music: John Hilton, Catch as Catch Can (catches, rounds, canons). Plays: Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Nicomede (tragedy). Poetry: Sir William Davenant (1606-68), Gondibert (epic); written in the Tower. John Milton (1608-74), On His Blindness (sonnet); "When I consider how my light is spent/ Ere half my days in this dark world and wide/ And that one talent which is death to hide." Births: English "The Orphan, or The Unhappy Marriage" dramatist Thomas Otway (d. 1685) on Mar. 3 in Trotton, Sussex; John Locke inserts a silver pipe into him to drain an abscess, causing him to be called Count Tapski. Am. Puritan merchant-judge-diarist Samuel Sewall (d. 1730) on Mar. 28 in Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England; receives M.A. from Harvard in 1674; marries Hannah Hull (daughter of Boston merchant) in 1676. French Rolle's Theorem mathematician Michel Rolle (d. 1719) on Apr. 21 in Ambert, Basse-Auvergne; inventor of the notation for nth root. Italian Baroque sculptor Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Foggini (d. 1725) on Apr. 25 in Florence; student of Ercole Ferrata and Ciro Ferri; court sculptor of Cosimo III de' Medici (1676-); teacher of Ferdinando Fuga (1699-1782). Am. Va. planter William Byrd I (d. 1704) in Shadwell, London; son of John Bird (1620-77); family is originally from Cheshire. English royal physician John Radcliffe (d. 1714) in Wakefield, Yorkshire; educated at Oxford U. Irish poet-dramatist and poet laureate (1692-1715) Nahum Tate (d. 1715) in Dublin; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Am. Congregational minister John Wise (d. 1725) in Roxbury, Mass. Deaths: English architect Inigo Jones (b. 1573) on June 21. Italian tenor and composer Gregorio Allegri (b. 1582). French Jesuit theologian Dionysius Petavius (b. 1583) on Dec. 11 in Paris. Am. Puritan divine John Cotton (b. 1585) on Dec. 23 in Boston, Mass.; wrote 50+ books about boring Puritanism with colorful names? Italian traveler Pietro della Valle (b. 1586) on Apr. 21 in Rome. English dramatist Richard Brome (b. 1590) on Sept. 24 in Charterhouse Hospital, London. Spanish painter ("Lo Spagnoletto") Jusepe (Jose) de Ribera (b. 1591) in Naples. French painter Georges La Tour (b. 1593) on Jan. 30 in Luneville. Italian feminist writer Ancangela Tarabotti (b. 1604). Dutch adm. Joris Pieters van den Broeck (b. 1610) on Aug. 27 near Plymouth, England (KIA).
1653 On Feb. 2 the city of New Amsterdam is incorporated; in May Wall Street, a defensive street in New Amsterdam (lower Manhattan) (named for a protective fence) is built by the Dutch. On Feb. 3 Cardinal Mazarin returns to power in France, and the War of the Fronde ends with a complete V for the French crown, and Cardinal Marzarin returns as PM, backed by a powerful royalist party which kisses Louis XIV's royal butt and seeks to increase his authority at the expense of landed noblemen. On Feb. 18 the English fleet under Adm. Robert Blake, Adm. George Monck, and Adm. Deane defeats the Dutch fleet under Adm. Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (1598-1653) in the 3-day naval Battle of Portland, in which the English take out nine Dutch warships and 30 merchantmen, but Tromp trumps them by saving the bulk of his 200 merchantman convoy; on June 2-3 they tangle again at the naval Battle of North Foreland, and six more Dutch ships are captured, 11 sunk, and the rest driven into Calais Roads; on July 31 Tromp tangles with Monck in the naval Battle of Terrell off the coast of Holland, causing the tide to turn in the Anglo-Dutch War as the Dutch lose 30 men-of-war and Tromp dies from a bullet through the heart; the Dutch are forced to retire to their home ports, and the English blockade the Dutch coast, strangling their sea trade; when the Dutch finally break the blockade, their fleet is too damaged to take to sea. On Apr. 20 after hearing that they are seeking to remove him from power, Oliver Cromwell arrives in the Rump Parliament to observe it, wearing a plain black coat and gray worsted stockings; even though it fixes the date of its dissolution as next year, the impatient army, freshly returned from Ireland and Scotland forces his hand, and he dissolves it by force, telling it, "You are no Parliament... In the name of God, go!"; Cromwell then calls the Nominated Assembly (Little or Barebones Parliament), named after Puritan member Praise-God Barebones (Barbon), whose 140 members are elected by army officers, which meets on July 4 and lasts less than 6 mo. as everybody turns out to be a reforming fanatic; in despair, on Dec. 12 the Cromwellians in Parliament resign their powers to Cromwell, and on Dec. 16 tthe Instrument of Government, written by gen. John Lambert (1619-84) is adopted by Cromwell and his Council of Officers, becoming the first written constitution on Earth codifying sovereign powers until replaced in May 1657 by the Humble Petition and Advice); he takes the title of Lord Protector of the Repub. of England, Scotland and Ireland (until Sept. 3, 1658), and becomes a constitutional king with a triennially elected parliament of 460 members (60 to be divided equally between Ireland and Scotland) that cannot be dissolved for 5 mo. and can pass a measure over the protector's veto by a simple majority, and which controls revenues; he has a cooperative council of 21, and a standing army of 30K; between sessions the protector and council can issue ordinances, but Parliament alone can grant supplies and levy taxes - so you might as well behave? On May 31 Ferdinand IV (1633-54), eldest son of HRE Ferdinand III and Maria Ana of Spain (grandson of Philip III of Spain), who was made king of Bohemia in 1646 and king of Hungary in 1647 is elected king of the Romans, and crowned on June 18 at Ratisbon (Regensburg); too bad, he dies next July 9, leaving his younger brother Leopold I as heir. The Great Elector abolishes the estates and establishes a standing army. A peasant revolt led by Nikolaus (Nicolaus) Leuenberg de Schonholtz (Schönholtz) begins in Bern. The pirates of Taiwan seize Siamen on the SE China coast. The Iroquois defeat the Iroquoian Erie (Eriz) on the S shore of Lake Erie, and extend dominance to the Ohio region, virtually annihilating them by 1656 and causing the survivors to join the Seneca tribe. The city of Kingston, N.Y. 91 mi. N of New Amsterdam (modern-day pop. 23K/177K) is settled by Dutchman Thomas Chambers from Rensselaerswyck under the name Esopus, and in 1661 Peter Stuyvesant grants it a charter under the name Wiltwyck, becoming one of three large Hudson River settlements in New Netherland after Beverwyck (Albany) and New Amsterdam (New York City); in 1664 the British seize New Netherland; in 1669 is is renamed Kingston in honor of the family seat of the mother of New York gov. #2 (1668-73) Francis Lovelace (1621-75); 1777 it becomes New York's first capital before being burned by the British on Oct. 13, 1777; in the 19th cent. natural cement is discovered, turning it into a major transport hub. Cloth merchant Bastian de Bouillon becomes the first Englishman to visit Cambodia. The first Indian Reservation (Rez) is created in Va., 46 years after Jamestown (1607). Sensitive French genius Blaise Pascal (1623-62) joins the Jansenists in Port-Royal; meanwhile the pope declares them heretical (until 1669). Jean-Baptiste Lully is made dir. of "les petits-violins du roi" (the little violins of the king), going on to found French opera's Tragedie Lyrique (Tragedie en Musique), based usually on classical mythology with a noble atmosphere, combining song, dance, and spectacle, which was hot for a cent. The word "patriotic" is coined. The first letter boxes appear in Paris. Architecture: Chetham's Library, named after manufacturer Humphrey Chetham (1580-1653) in Manchester, England is founded, becoming the oldest free public reference library in the U.K. After Girolami Rainaldi and his son Carlo Rainaldi begin it and begin quarreling, Gianlorenzo Bernini's rival Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) designs Sant'Agnese in Agone (Piazza Navona) Church in Piazza Navona (Agone), Rome, dedicated to St. Agnes, who died there in 304 C.E.; Bernini's Aswan granite Fountain of the Rivers (Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi) in front of Pope Innocent X's Palazzo Pamphili and Sant'Agnese in Agone, designed by Gianlorenzo (Gian Lorenzo) Bernini (1598-1680) features statues of river gods Nile and Ganges, allegedly shielding their eyes from the ugliness of the church, after which Borromini adds a statue of St. Agnes to the facade of his church, pretending to gaze past the fountain?; as the fountain is started during a famine in 1646, the public is vocally against it and on the verge of riot, but when it is unveiled on June 12, 1651 its size and beauty overwhelm them with pride and wonder. The tomb of Frankish Merovingian king (458-81) Childeric I (437-81) (father of Clovis I) is discovered, containing 300 miniature gold bees, a severed horse's head, a golden bull's head, and a crystal ball; in 1804 Napoleon has the bees affixed to his coronation robes. Nonfiction: Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1623-73), Philosophical Fancies. James Howell (1594-1666), The German Diet, or The Balance of Europe. Henry More (1614-87), An Antidote Against Atheism. Jean Pecquet (1622-74), De Circulatione Sanguinis et Chyli Motu; De Thoracicis Lacteis. Johann Schultes (Johannes Scultetes) (1595-1645), Armamentarium Chirurgicum (posth.); catalog of all known surgical instruments, methods of bandaging and splinting, and graphic descriptions of operative procedures. Brian Walton (1600-61) (ed.), The London Polyglot Bible (6 vols.) (1653-7); the most scholarly polyglot yet; nine languages incl. Latin, Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, Syriac, Samaritan, Ethiopic, Arabian, and Persian. Izaak Walton (1593-1683), The Compleat Angler, or the Contemplative Man's Recreation (1st ed.); by 1676 a 4th ed. is printed; the 5th ed. has a supplement on fly fishing by his friend Charles Cotton - I thought the real reason men went fishing was to avoid taking baths and grooming, and to get away from their wives? Art: Alessandro Algardi (1598-1654), Pope Leo I and Atilla the Hun (Fuga d'Attila) (marble panel) (St. Peter's Basilica) (1646-53); his last work. Jan Josephszoon van Goyen (1596-1656), View of the Rhine. Peter Lely (1618-80), Oliver Cromwell. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Adulteress. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of the Artist's Son Titus (1653-4). Jacob van Ruisdael (1628-82), Schloss Bentheim. Gerard ter Borch (1617-81), The Dispatch. Jan Vermeer (1632-75), Diana and Her Companions; changes the pagan myth of the virgin Moon goddess bathing with her nymphs, catching Peeping Tom Actaeon, and changing him into a stag into a fully clothed Christian prude having her foot washed in a basin while sitting beside a spiky thistle, and no men in sight? Music: Matthew Locke (1621-77), Music for James Shirley's Masque "Cupid and Death". Plays: Moliere (1622-73), L'Etourdi (comedy). Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Les Rivales (comedy) (debut). Poetry: Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1623-73), Poems and Fancies. Births: Italian Baroque composer-violinist Arcangelo Corelli (d. 1713) on Feb. 17 in Fusignano, Ravenna. Danish-Norwegian prince George (Jorgen), Duke of Cumberland (d. 1708) on Apr. 2 in Copenhagen; 2nd son of Frederick III; husband (1683-) of Queen Anne of England, who has 18 pregnancies by him, of which only Duke William of Gloucester lasts to age 11, proving that princey had syphilis? French marshal-gen. Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun, Prince de Martigues (d. 1734) on May 8 in Moulins. French cardinal and PM (under Louis XV) (1726-43) Andre Hercule de Fleury (d. 1743) on June 22 (26) in Lodeve (Herault); educated by Jesuits. Italian composer-priest-ambassador Agostino Steffani (d. 1728) on July 25 in Castelfranco Veneto. English poet (imitator of Juvenal) John Oldham (d. 1683) on Aug. 9 in Shipton Moyne, Gloucestershire; educated at Oxford U. English statesman-soldier Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle (d. 1688) on Aug. 14; son of George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle (1608-70); last to use the title. German "Canon in D" Baroque composer-organist Johann Pachelbel (d. 1706) on Sept. 1 in Nuremberg. French actor Michel Baron (d. 1729) on Oct. 8 in Paris. Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec #2 (1685-) Jean-Baptiste de La Croix de Chevrieres (Chevrières) de Saint-Vallier (d. 1727) on Nov. 14 in Grenoble, France. English "The Rival Queens, or the Death of Alexander the Great" dramatist Nathaniel Lee (d. 1692); educated at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Cambridge U. French choreographer Raoul Anger (Auger) Feuillet (d. 1709). French musical theorist Joseph Sauveur (d. 1716). Am. Puritan minister Samuel Parris (d. 1720) in London; father of Elizabeth Parris (1682-1760). Italian composer Carlo Francesco Pollarolo (d. 1722). English "Pills to Purge Melancholy" playwright-songwriter-poet Thomas "Tom" D'Urfey (d. 1723) in Devonshire; elitist friend of Charles II and James II. Am. colonist William Trent (d. 1724) in Inverness, Scotland; moves to Philadelphia, Penn. by 1693 and becomes wealthy; Trenton, N.J. is named after him. Japanese dramatist ("the Shakespeare of Japanese Theater") Chikamatsu Monzaemon (d. 1725). Am. newspaper publisher John Campbell (d. 1728) in Scotland; emigrates to Mass. in 1695; pub. the first regular newspaper in British Am. (1704). Deaths: French physician-philanthropist Theophraste Renaudot (b. 1568). German poet Georg Rudolf Weckherlin (b. 1584) on Feb. 13 in London. French physician Theophraste Renaudot (b. 1586) on Oct. 25 in Paris. English poet-novelist Lady Mary Wroth (b. 1587). Italian archbishop Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (b. 1592) on Dec. 28 in Fermo. Italian painter Artemisia Gentileschi (b. 1593) in Naples. Dutch adm. Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (b. 1598) on Aug. 10 off the Holland coast near Sheveningen (KIA); won 33 sea battles and made the word Dutch hip and cool? French librarien Gabriel Naude (b. 1600) on July 10; dies en route to Abbeville. Dutch marine painter Simon de Vlieger (b. 1601) on Mar. 13 in Weesp.
1654 The beginning of large-scale Huguenot immigration to North Am. In Jan. the Treaty of Pereiaslav between Russia and the rebel (since 1648) Ukrainian Cossacks creates an anti-Polish coalition, starting the Thirteen Years' War (Russo-Polish War of 1654-67) (First Northern War) (War for Ukraine) (ends 1667); after the Russkies send 100K men to aid the 20K-man Cossack army, the Poles under Janusz Radziwill only manage to round-up 6K-7K men, and win a small V on Aug. 12 against 40K-70K of them at the Battle of Shklov (Shklow) before being defeated on Aug. 24 at the Battle of Shepeleviche (Szepielewicze) (Ciecierzyn) and retreating to Minsk; Smolensk surrenders to the Russians on Oct. 3, while another Russian army occupies Kiev; meanwhile Prussia sides with Sweden (until next year), and Frederick William the Great Elector invades his heart's desire Prussia. On Apr. 5 (Apr. 15?) the First Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War (begun 1652) with a V for the English; the Dutch recognize the English Navigation Act, expel the Stuarts, pay damages, agree to salute the English flag in the Narrow Seas, and generally whimper like a kicked dog; on July 10 the Second Treaty of Westminster is signed with Portugal, protecting English traders on Portuguese soil along with the right to use their own Protestant Bible and to bury their dead according to Protestant rites; Cromwell's sea power has such a bright future that the admirals take to wearing shades, as long as Cromwell can keep it from being mothballed, so, while he is waiting for his first Parliament to be elected, he starts a naval war against Spain, using the pretext of a Spanish seizure of English ships in the West Indies (where Spain claims a monopoly), secretly sailing from Portsmouth with 38 ships and 3K men on Christmas Day (Dec. 25), with turncoat Dominican friar Thomas Gage as guide, arriving in Barbados next Jan.; meanwhile an English fleet attacks San Domingo, but fails miserably; the first Jew, Jacob Barsimson emigrates from Holland to New Amsterdam, after which many more Jews follow him to New Amsterdam and Newport, R.I., going on to establish trade with the Indians in firewater and cheap trinkets and pump up the African slave trade. Descartes got to her that much? On June 6 Swedish queen (since 1632) Christina Wasa (1626-89), the Balls, er, "Pallas of the North" abdicates the Swedish throne after converting to Roman Catholicism (which is illegal in Sweden), and gives it to her cousin Charles (Karl) Gustav X (1622-60), who becomes Wittelsbach king #2 of Sweden (until 1660); she then takes off on horseback wearing men's clothing as usual, with a male retinue, riding through Europe, then taking up residence in Rome, where she becomes an instant celeb, staying two years until she runs out of money and heads for France to get serious. On Sept. a new British Parliament meets, passing a constitution with a mini-bill of rights guaranteeing religious liberty to all except Roman Catholics and Episcopalians. On Sept. 3 Parliament quarrels with Cromwell, causing him to order members to be excluded on Sept. 12. On Oct. 30 emperor (since 1643) Go-Komyo (b. 1633) dies 2 mo. after Buddhist priest Ingen Ryuki (Yinyuan Longqi) (1592-1673) arrives from China to reform Japanese Buddhism, and on Jan. 5 his younger brother (8th son of Go-Mizunoo) Go-Sai (Go-Saiin) (1638-85) (personal name Nagahito) becomes Japanese emperor #111 (until Mar. 5, 1663), marking time until his younger brother Prince Satohito can attain the age of majority. On Nov. 27 English-born Charles Chauncy (1592-1672) becomes pres. of Harvard College (until 1672), going on to utter the soundbyte that long hair is "a heathenish practice" and "one of the crying sins of the land". England and Sweden sign a Treaty of Commerce, with Article IV containing the first reciprocal most-favored nation clause. Louis XIV is crowned at Rheims. The Portuguese drive the Dutch out of the great plantation colonies of NE Brazil, reestablishing territorial integrity. Roger Williams becomes pres. of the Rhode Island Colony (until 1657). A Puritan revolt begins in Md., home of the Toleration Act (ends 1658). The Portuguese under Joao IV the Fortunate win a 2nd naval V over the Dutch off the coast of Brazil (first 1649), and take Brazil back from them, bringing the Inquisition with them, causing the Jews to flee; the first group of Jews in North Am. arrive in New Amsterdam from Brazil (23 Sephardic Jews from Recife who had been expelled from Spain in 1492, sought refuge in Holland, then migrated to Dutch-occupied Brazil), and found Congregation Shearith Israel, the city's only Jewish synagogue until 1825; the Jews have a beachhead in the New World, and unlike Europe, the govt. imposes virtually no restrictions on them, and lets them accumulate unlimited wealth without confiscating it, causing the unique American Jew to develop? - 335 years to Seinfeld? Oliver Cromwell appoints Edward Winslow as commissioner of a British naval expedition against the Spanish in the West Indies. The French attempt to colonize Reunion (Bourbon) Island. The city of Kharkhiv (Kharkov) ("kharka" = swan) in NE Ukraine (modern-day pop. 1.4M/1.7M) is founded as an outpost of Moscow, becoming the 2nd largest city in Ukraine. The Common Road between Boston, Mass. and Providence, R.I. opens, becoming the first long colonial highway; it is later extended to New York City as the Shore Road. Entailor (fee tail) is introduced from Spain to Germany, giving an inalienable interest in land to a grantee and his direct descendants. John Casor (Cazara) (Corsala) becomes the first black to be declared a slave for life by one of the original 13 Colonies (Northampton County, Va.); he is the property of colonist Anthony Johnson, a black man. Robert Boyle (1627-91) succeeds Johann Valentin Andrea as grandmaster of the Priory of Sion (until 1691) :). Oliver Cromwell bans horse racing, but keeps a stud horse for himself. Queen's Lane Coffee House in Oxford, England is opened, surviving to modern times. Architecture: The Church of Sant' Agnese in Agone, Italy, designed by Francesco Borromini is begun (finished in 1657). John Webb (1611-72) designs Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire, England. Science: Blaise Pascal (1623-62) and Pierre de Fermat (1601-65) of France pub. the basic laws of Probability Theory; Pascal invents the roulette wheel as a by-product of experiments with perpetual motion. Nonfiction: John Biddle, Twofold Scripture Catechism. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Nuremburg); Latin textbook; the first picture book encyclopedia for children; big hit - a steak, please, for me and the boys? John Eliot (1604-90), Primer on Catechism, in the Massachusetts Indian Language; first printed book in an Indian language in North Am. John Milton (1608-74), Defensio Secunda. Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72) and Seth Ward, Vindiciae Academiarum. Art: Carel Fabritius (1622-54), The Linnet; The Watchman. Francisco Herrera the Elder (1576-1656), The Triumph of St. Hermenegildo. Pieter de Hooch (1629-84), Delft After the Explosion; the one that blows Carel Fabritius to pieces? Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of Jan Six. Music: Francesco Cavalli (1602-76), Xerse (opera) (Venice) (Jan. 12); libretto by Nicolo Minato; about Xerxes I ca. 480 B.C.E., based on Herodotus Book 7; incl. Ombra Mai Fu (Never Has There Been A Shade). Jeremy Taylor (1613-67), Golden Grove, or, A Manuall of Daily Prayers and Letanies, Fitted to the Dayes of the Week, Containing a Short Summary of What is to Be Believed; 21 congregational hymns. Plays: Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-55), Le Pedant Joue (comedy). Augustin Moreto y Cabana (1618-69), El Desden con el Desden ("Donna Diana") (comedy). George Chapman, Revenge for Honour (tragedy). Tristan l'Hermite (1601-55), Parasite (last play). Moliere (1622-73), Le Depit Amoureux (comedy). Philippe Quinault (1635-88), L'Amant Indiscret (comedy). Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Lucifer (drama). John Webster (1580-1635), Apius and Virginia (tragedy). Novels: Madeleine de Scudery, Clelie (Clélie) (10 vols.) (1654-61); features the Carte du Tendre, a map of Arcadia where the geography is based around the theme of love; Histoire Romaine. Births: French marshal Louis Joseph de Bourbon, 3rd duc de Vendome (d. 1712) on July 1 in Paris; son of Louis, 2nd duc de Vendome (1612-69) (great-grandson of Henry IV), and Laura Mancini (sister of Olympia Mancini, mother of Prince Eugene of Savoy); they may be cousins, but the duc and the prince are big opponents. Japanese emperor #112 (1663-87) Reigen (Satohito) (d. 1732) on July 9; 16th son of Go-Mizunoo (1596-1680). Italian physician-anatomist (chief physician of the pope) Giovanni Maria Lancisi (d. 1720) on Oct. 26 in Rome. German Bible translator (in Livonia or Latvia) Johann Ernst Gluck (Glück) (d. 1705) on Nov. 10 in Wettin (near Halle). Am. colonial official Robert Livingston the Elder (d. 1728) on Dec. 13 in Ancrum, Roxburghshire, Scotland; settles in Albany, N.Y., becoming lord of the 160K-acre Livingston Manor, then goes into govt. service; grandfather of brothers Philip Livingston (1716-78) and William Livingston (1723-90); great-grandfather of Henry Brockholst Livingston (1757-1823), son of William Livingston; great-grandfather of brothers Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813) and Edward Livingston (1764-1836), cousins of Henry Brockholst Livingston. Swiss mathematician (calculus contributor) Jacob (Jakob) (Jacques) (James) Bernoulli (d. 1705) on Dec. 27 in Basel; brother of Jean Bernoulli (1667-1748); total of eight prominent mathematicians in one family. German "Entdecktes Judenthum" Orientalist Johann Andreas Eisenmenger (d. 1704) in Mannheim. Dutch "Willem III" dramatist Lucas Rotgans (d. 1710). Chinese Qing emperor #2 (#4) (1661-1722) Qing Sheng Zu (Kang Xi) (K'ang Hsi) (Xuanye) (d. 1723) on May 4 in Beijing; son of Shun Zhi (-1661). French Protestant minister (in Ireland) Jacques (James) (Jakob) Abbadie (d. 1727) (1657?) (1658?) in Nay, Bearn; educated at the U. of Sedan. Dutch mapmaker Herman Moll (d. 1732) in Bremen?; moves to London in 1678. Deaths: Swedish statesman Count Axel Oxenstierna (b. 1583) on Aug. 28 in Stockholm. French architect Jacques Lemercier (b. 1585) on Jan. 13 in Paris. German theologian Johann Valentin Andreae (b. 1586) on June 27 in Stuttgart. German organist-composer Samuel Scheidt (b. 1587). Scottish writer Alexander Ross (b. 1590). Italian sculptor Alessandro Algardi (b. 1598) on June 10 in Rome. Dutch gov.-gen. #5 of New Netherland (1633-8) Wouter van Twiller (b. 1606) on Aug. 29 in Amsterdam. English merchant-economist Edward Misselden (b. 1608). Dutch painter Carel Fabritius (b. 1622) on Oct. 12 in Delft; killed in an accidental explosion of the town's gunpowder magazine - the good die young? Dutch painter Paulus Potter (b. 1625) on Jan. 17 in Amsterdam (TB) - the good kick the pot young? Japanese emperor #110 (1643-54) Go-Komyo (b. 1633) on Oct. 30.
1655 On Jan. 1 Pope (since 1644) Innocent X (b. 1574) dies, and on Apr. 7 Fabio Chigi is elected Pope (#237) Alexander VII (1599-1667), the pope who steers the ship through the year 1666. So go ahead, feed your spicy side? On Jan. 22 Parliament tries to make the office of Lord Protector elective, causing Cromwell to elect to dissolve it, censor the press, prohibit Anglican services, expel Catholic priests from England, and divide the merryless olde kingless kingdom into 12 districts ruled by major-generals, each supported by a 10% tax on royalist estates; Cromwell now has more power than a king; too bad he can't live forever? In Jan. the Polish-Lithuanian army scores a V over the Russian-Cossack army at the Battle of Okhmatov; too bad, in the summer Sweden under Charles X, aided by Jan III Sobieski enters the war, invading Poland from the N and starting the First Northern War (ends 1658), occupying Grodek (Grudziaz) on the Vistula River, followed by Warsaw on Oct. 8 and Krakow on Oct. 19, causing Jan II Casimir to flee to exile in Silesia; the Swedish Deluge of Poland (ends 1660) begins, in which Protestant Sweden occupies the entire country and lord sit over the Roman Catholic Poles and the Orthodox Lithuanians, turning the pop. against them; Prussia sides with Sweden (until next year). In Mar. the royalist Penruddocke (Penruddock) (Sealed Knot) Uprising begins at Salisbury, which Cromwell suppresses by May, executing leader Sir John Penruddock(e) (b. 1619). On Apr. 4 the Battle of Porto Farina (Ghar El Melh) in Tunis sees a British fleet under Adm. Robert Blake defeat the Barbary pirates; on Apr. 28 they damage the arsenal of the Bey of Tunis. On Apr. 13 Thomas Gage's military expedition arrives at Santo Domingo, finding that the Spanish had been tipped off and are waiting for them, then on May 10 arrives at Jamaica, and seizes it from Spain, establishing a colony which becomes the nucleus of their empire in the West Indies, prospering from wealth brought by buccaneers to their base, the capital city of Port Royal, "the Wickedest City on Earth"; meanwhile slaves and their Spanish masters flee to the bush, forming runaway Jamaican Maroon communities which pester the English, reaching full-scale war by the 18th cent.; on May 8 Edward Winslow (b. 1595) dies of yellow fever at sea between Hispaniola and Jamaica on the return trip; Henry Morgan (1635-88) of Wales arrives just in time for the seizure, becoming BMOC in Port Royal ("wickedest city in the world"), and claiming that taking advantage of Jamaica's strategic position on the Spanish sea routes to plunder Spanish galleons is God's work (citing Oliver Cromwell), and getting a commission from the British govt.; meanwhile the Spanish nat. debt is 12x its annual income, most derived from the treasure fleets Morgan is looting. On Apr. 24 the Easter Massacre of the Waldensians in Piedmont, Italy sees 1.7K men, women, and children brutally slaughtered by the troops of Duke Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy; in 2015 Pope Francis apologizes. On Apr. 26 the Dutch West India Co. denies a request by Peter Stuyvesant to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam. On June 13 Adriana Nooseman van de Bergh becomes the first actress in Amsterdam. On July 20 the Amsterdam Town Hall is inaugurated, later becoming the royal palace. On July 27 Netherlands and Brandenburg sign a military treaty. On July 27 the Jews in Amsterdam petition for a separate cemetery. On July 30 Dutch troops capture Ft. Assahudi Seram. On July 31 Russian troops capture Vilnius, capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1661). On Aug. 9 Oliver Cromwell divides England into 11 districts, each under a maj.-gen. In Aug. New Netherland gov. Peter Stuyvesant attacks the Delaware (New Sweden) Colony, recapturing Ft. Casimir on Sept. 26 and defeating the colony, establishing Dutch authority over the entire Delaware River region, incl. Christina (Wilmington). On Sept. 8 Swedish king Carl X Gustav occupies Warsaw, followed by Cracow on Oct. 19. On Oct. 15 the Jews of Lublin are massacred. In Oct. Oliver Cromwell pacifies Pinerolo, stops the persecution of Vaudois, and gets France to agree to expel Charles II. On Nov. 3 England and France sign military-economic treaties. On Nov. 24 Oliver Cromwell bans Anglicans. On Dec. 4 Middleburg, Netherlands forbids the building of Jewish synagogues. On Dec. 27 the monks of Jasna Gora Monastery in Czestochowa fend off a month-long siege. In Dec. after Portuguese-born Dutch Jewish leader Menasseh ben Israel (Manoel Dias Soeiro) (1604-57) (teacher of Baruch de Spinoza) arrives in London and Oliver Cromwell summons the Whitehall Conference, the Jews are officially readmitted to England for the first time since 1290, with Portuguese Jewish merchant Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (1590-1659) becoming #1; Spanish Marrano Jews posing as Roman Catholics had already been living in England, and next year when England declares war against Spain they are forced to admit their Judaism to avoid arrest; they bought their way back in by financing Cromwell's civil wars? - I'm a menudo guy, alright? Leopold I becomes king of Hungary. Henry Cromwell (1628-74), Oliver Cromwell's 4th son becomes acting lord deputy of Ireland, then lord deputy in Nov. 1657 (until June 1657), slowing down the deportation of the Irish and acting impartially toward the different Protestant sects, becoming popular (for a Cromwell). After many years of plotting to take back Kent Island from Catholic Maryland, Jamestown Puritan leader William Claiborne defeats a force led by Md. gov. Stone in Providence (Annapolis), kills him, then takes control of Md., and travels to England to get official control, but they don't go for it and Sir George Calvert regains control; after the Puritan govt. in England is ousted in 1660, he finally gives up and contents himself with his little ole 5K-acre Romancoke estate on the York River in Va. The English navy wins a brilliant naval V off Dunkirk in Spanish Flanders, followed by the capture of the port in 1658 by the English army in alliance with France, with the Great Conde fighting on the Spanish side; despite the Vs, the commercial class becomes alienated from Cromwell because of the expense, taxation and disruption of trade? captures it. The Cambodians reach an agreement to pay restitution for damage to the East India Co. trading post, but the Dutch have to relinquish their trade monopoly in Cambodia. The first regular newspaper begins pub. in Berlin. The English word "genie" (genyes) is coined from the French to mean guardian spirit. Architecture: The Bibliotheca Thysiana in Netherlands is erected, becoming the only Dutch 17th cent. library to survive to modern times. Science: Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1629-95) discovers the rings of Saturn, also on Mar. 25 Saturn's biggest moon Titan (2nd largest moon in the Solar System, and only moon with an atmosphere); at last the age-old belief that the heavens are of a different stuff than the Earth is shattered when the former "god" Saturn turns out to have a physical structure, and therefore is not heavenly, pushing the abode of God and the angels back, back, back; he also discovers the mv^2/r formula for planetary orbits, which really makes their physical ordinariness apparent, since the m in the formula applies to heavenly angel hair as well as crap? - what a revelation just as the big 666 year is coming up? Nonfiction: Pierre Borel, Tresor des Recherches et Antiquites Gauloises (Treasury of French Researches and Antiquities). John Cotgrave, The English Treasury of Literature and Language. William Drummond (1585-1649), A History of the Five Jameses (posth.). Thomas Fuller (1608-61), Church History of Britain. William Gurnall (1617-79), The Christian in Complete Armour (3 vols.) (1655-62); based on Ephesians 6:10-20; big hit with John Newton, Augustus Toplady et al., going into a 6th ed. by 1679. Bollandiste Henschenius, Diatriba de Tribus Dagobertus; restores Dagobert II's suppressed name to the list of Merovingian kings after he is rediscovered in 1646 by Adrien de Valois. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Elementorum Philosophiae. Edward Somerset (1602-67), The Century of Inventions; incl. a description of a steam engine. Thomas Stanley, A History of Philosophy (4 vols.) (1655-62). Brian Walton (ed.), The London Polyglot Bible (1655-7). Ch'en Yuan-lung, Ko-chih-ching-yuan (New Inventions). Art: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Christ Mocked (1644-55); Daniel and the Lion (sculpture) (1655-7). Melchior d'Hondecoeter (1636-95), Tub with Fish; gives fish up for birds, "displaying the maternity of the hen with as much tenderness and feeling as Raphael the maternity of Madonnas" (Burger), going on to paint The Menagerie. Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Presentation in the Temple. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Woman Bathing in a Stream; Head of Christ. Plays: James Shirley (1596-1666), The Gentleman of Venice (tragicomedy). William Strode, The Floating Island (drama). Births: German jurist-philosopher Christian Thomasius (d. 1728) on Jan. 1 in Leipzig; son of Jakob Thomasius (1622-84). German imperial army CIC Gen. Louis William, Margrave of Baden (AKA Turkenlouis) (d. 1707) on Apr. 8 in Paris; son of Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden-Baden (1625-99) and Princess Louise Christine of Savoy-Carignan (1627-89) (brother of the count of Soissons, father of Prince Eugene of Savoy); after his parents break up, he is kidnapped as a child from his mother's home in Paris and raised in Germany by his paternal step-grandmother; husband of Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg; father of Margave Louis George of Baden-Baden (1702-61), Margravine Auguste of Baden-Baden (1704-26), and Margrave Augustus George of Baden-Baden (1706-71). Italian piano inventor Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco (d. 1731) on May 4 in Padua. German Bavarian architect Christoph (Krystof) Dientzenhofer (d. 1722) on July 7 in St. Margarethen (near Brannenburg), Rosenheim; father of Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (1689-1751). German clarinet inventor Johann Christoph Denner (d. 1707) on Aug. 13 in Leipzig. Danish anatomist (discoverer of the Bartholin glands) Caspar (Kaspar) Thomeson Bartholin the Younger (d. 1738) on Sept. 10 in Copenhagen; son of Thomas Bartholin (1616-80); grandson of Caspar Bartholin the Younger (1585-1629). British royal gov. of Md. (1694-8), lts. gov. of Va. (1698-1701), and gov. of Nova Scotia (1712-15) lt.-gen. Sir Francis Nicholson (d. 1728) on Nov. 12 in Downholme, Yorkshire; knighted in 1720. English bookseller-publisher Jacob Tonson the Elder (d. 1736) on Nov. 12. Swedish Wittelsbach king #3 (1660-97) Karl (Charles) XI (d. 1697) on Nov. 24 in Tre Kronor; only son of Charles X (1622-60) and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp (1636-1715); father of Charles XII (1682-1718). Deaths: Dutch scholar-poet Daniel Heinsius (b. 1580) on Feb. 25 in Leiden. English-born Am. settler Thomas Cornell Sr. (b. 1591) on Feb. 8 in Portsmouth, R.I. (d. 1654?). French philosopher Pierre Gassendi (b. 1592). Dutch navigator David Pieterszoon de Vries (b. 1593) on Sept. 13 in Hoorn. English politician-soldier Edward Conway, 2nd viscount Conway (b. 1594) on June 26 in Lyon, France. English Mayflower Pilgrim leader (TLW ancestor?) Edward Winslow (b. 1595) on May 8 (yellow fever) between Hispaniola and Jamaica; buried at sea with full honors; the ship's clerk wrote: "The eighth of May, west from 'Spaniola shore,/ God took from us our Grand Commissioner,/ Winslow by name, a man in chiefest trust,/ Whose life was sweet, and conversation just;/ Whose parts and wisdom most men did excel,/ An honor to his place, as all can tell." French dramatist Tristan l'Hermite (b. 1601) on Sept. 7 (TB). German author Friedrich von Logau (b. 1604) on July 24 in Liegnitz. German composer Sigmund Gottlieb Staden (b. 1607). French dramatist-poet-novelist Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac (b. 1619) on July 28 in Paris; inspiration for Edmond Rostand's play. French painter Eustache Lesueur (b. 1617) on Apr. 30 in Paris.
1656 On Jan. 17 Sweden and Brandenburg sign the Treaty of Konigsberg and the Alliance of Marienberg; Sweden cedes Prussia to Frederick William the Great Elector. In Jan. English capt. Sir Christopher Myngs (1625-66) of the frigate Marston Moor arrives in Jamaica, going on to set up shop as a commerce raider during the Anglo-Spanish War, gaining a rep as a butcher who sacks and massacres whole towns, causing the Spanish govt. to lodge protests with Oliver Cromwell, who ignores them since he's getting mucho booty. On Feb. 28 a grandiose celebration is held for ex-queen Christina of Sweden at Palazzo Aldobrandini in Rome, with 6K spectators and a procession of camels and elephants in Oriental garb; later in the year she travels to France, where she shocks ladies with her manly speech and behavior (crossing her legs, etc.), and moves into Fontainebleau, where she grooves on the Horseshoe Staircase and Cour du Cheval Blanc (Court of the White Horse) while plotting with Cardinal Mazarin to have France help her forcefully seize the throne of Naples. In July the Swallow from Barbados arrives at Boston, Mass. carrying the first Quaker missionaries in North Am.; Mass. royal gov. John Endicott freaks, and orders passengers Mary Fisher and Ann Austin held on board while they search the ship, find 100 "corrupt, heretical, and blasphemous" books, and burn them in the marketplace; meanwhile the women are stripped and felt up, er, searched for signs of witchcraft, and kept for five weeks in darkness before being shipped back to Barbados; "What was it that the coming of two women so shook ye, as if a formidable army had invaded your borders?" (a contemporary). On Oct. 8 Johann Georg I (b. 1585) dies, and his eldest son Johann Georg II (1613-80) succeeds as elector of much-weakened Saxony (until Aug. 22, 1680), going on to reconstruct the war-torn economy by promoting the textile, glass and coal industries, mining silver, and sponsoring the Leipzig Trade Fair, urning Dresden into the musical center of Germany. On Oct. 24 English Quaker leader (more quakier rival of George Fox) James Naylor (Nayler) (1618-60) is proclaimed the Messiah by his followers, and dramatically enters Bristol a la Christ on a donkey while they sing hosannas and cast garments before him, after which he is arrested under the 1650 Blasphemy Act, convicted by the House of Commons, flogged twice, a letter B branded on his forehead, his tongue pierced, then imprisoned two years (until 1659), reconciling with Fox before getting robbed and mugged in Oct. 1660 near Huntington, and croaking after uttering the immortal soundbyte "There is a spirit" - you get to decide what his top secret mission is? On Nov. 6 king (since Dec. 1, 1640) Joao IV the Restorer (b. 1604) dies, and his son Afonso VI (the Victorious) (1643-83) becomes Braganza king #2 of Inquisition-loving Portugal (until Sept. 12, 1683), with his mother Luisa Maria Francisca de Guzman (Guzmán) y Sandoval of Medina-Sodonia (1613-66) as regent until 1662. In Nov. Russian tsar Alexis gets worried about the pesky Swedes and makes peace with Poland-Lithuania, signing the Treaty of Wilno (Nimieza), and allying with them. On Dec. 23 Swedish ex-Queen Christina is received by Pope Alexander VII in Rome. Oliver Cromwell's new Puritan military occupation govt. makes life hell for the little guy with its arbitrary acts as well as the zealous enforcement of Cromwell's Blue Laws (from the color of the paper), prohibiting everything that is fun every day of the week and twice on Sunday; needing money, Cromwell summons another parliament, excluding a hundred members, then allows the rest to frame a new constitution, which they call the Humble Petition and Advice. Leopold I becomes king of Bohemia. 70-y.-o. Albanian-born Mohammed Kiuprili (1786-1661) becomes grand vizier to Ottoman sultan Mohammed IV (until 1661). Rama Varma dies, and Rani Gangadhara Lakshmi (-1658) becomes ruler of Cochin (until 1658). The Iroquois wipe out the Erie Nation. The Dutch take Colombo from the Portuguese, and Cambodia from Britain. Pirates from Taiwan take Chongming Island. Persian shah Abbas II begins cracking down on Jews, forcing them to convert to Islam. Chinsura on the Hooghly River 24 mi. N of Calcutta is settled by the Dutch. The tiny island of Isola Tiberina in the Tiber River S of the Vatican is used to quarantine plague victims, and develops a reputation for mystic healing properties. Huntingdon, N.Y. on the N shore of Long Island is founded by Richard Holbrook, Robert Williams, and Daniel Whitehead from Oyster Bay on land purchased from the Matinecock tribe; in 1660 it votes to become part of the Conn. Colony; in 1664 after the British gain control of Amsterdam it is returned to N.Y.; in 1872 the S end of town is separated to create the town of Babylon. The Academy of Painting in Rome is founded. The Regiment of Grenadier Guards is formed by Lord Wenworth in Bruges. Louis XIV of France founds Pitie-Salpetriere (Pitié-Salpêtrière) Hospital, AKA Hospital (or Hopital) Gen. in Paris as a combo hospital, factory, and poorhouse, growing to the world's largest hospital by 1789, with 10K patients, mainly hos and mental cases. Baruch Spinoza is excommunicated by the rabbis and banished from Amsterdam; for the next five years he lives on the outskirts of the city grinding optical lenses, the dust from which eventually kills him. Rembrandt van Rijn is declared bankrupt - he's Baroque? Sir William Davenant gets around the Puritan ban on dramatic performances by doing it in private houses in London. Architecture: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) begins St. Peter's Square (Piazza San Pietro) in Rome (finished 1667); a great square in monumental Baroque style with a semicircular colonnade ringing the 83-ft. Egyptian obelisk erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1586; it incl. Statues Over the Colonnades of St. Peter's Square, a series of Travertine statues (finished in 1671). Baldassarre Longhena, Chiesa dell'Ospedaletto and Santa Maria degli Scalzi (Venice). Andre Le Notre (1613-1700), Gardens at Vaux-le-Viscomte (finished 1661). Inventions: English mathematician John Wallis (1616-1703) invents the sideways-eight symbol for infinity. Christiaan Huygens builds the first Pendulum Clock in London based on a design by Galileo; after adding the first-ever anchor escapement to reduce the pendulum swing, it only loses 1 sec. every 3 hours, vastly improving on the old verge-and-folio escapement. The first crude Fountain Pens are manufactured in Paris. Science: English anatomist Thomas Wharton (1614-73) describes the anatomy of glands. Nonfiction: Thomas Blount (1618-79), Glossographia; lists over 11K "hard words together with Divinity Terms, Law, Physick, Mathematics and other Arts and Science explicated". Jacob "Father" Cats (1577-1660), Ouderdom, Buytenleven en Hofgedachten op Zorgh-vliet (autobio.). Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1623-73), A True Relation of My Birth, Breeding, and Life (autobio.). Menasseh ben Israel (1604-57), Vindiciae Judaeorum; justifying Cromwell's readmission of the Jews to England after attacks by William Prynne et al. John Bunyan (1628-88), Some Gospel Truths Opened. Pierre de Lune, Le Cuisinier. Marchamont Needham (1620-78), The Excellency of a Free State. Blaise Pascal (1623-62), Lettres Provinciales (Provincial Letters); against the Jesuits, based on material furnished by French Jansenist writer Antoine Arnauld. Music: Johann Cruger (1598-1662), Praxis Pietatis Melica; incl. 18 hymns by Paul Gerhardt (1607-76), who goes on to become #1 in German hymns ("the Wesley of the Fatherland"). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Siege of Rhodes (opera) (Rutland House, London); music by Matthew Locke; the first English opera. Art: Valerio Castello (1624-59), The Massacre of the Innocents (1656-8) - wasting away again in Margaritaville? Nicolaes Maes (1634-93), Old Woman Dozing - come in the hot tub with me? Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Las Meninas (Maids of Honor) (family of Philip IV incl. a self-portrait); his masterpiece? Jan Vermeer (1632-75), The Procuress. Plays: Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Siege of Rhodes, Pt. 1 (tragicomedy) (Sept.). Poems: Jean Chapelain (1595-1674), La Pucelle d'Orleans; worked on it for 20 years, and sells out 6 printings in 18 mo., then gets skewered by Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux (1636-1711), ruining his rep. as a poet, causing him to stick to being a critic. Abraham Cowley (1618-67), Pindarique Odes; Davideis; unfinished epic about Biblical King David. John Ford (1586-1637) and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Sun's Darling (masque). Births: English "Chronicon Preciosum" bishop of St. Asaph and Ely (Whig) William Fleetwood (d. 1723) on Jan. 1 in the Tower of London; educated at Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge U.; most popular preacher of his day, a favorite of Queen Anne. Am. native Am. saint #1 ("Flower of the Algonquins") ("Lily of the Mohawks") Kateri Tekakwitha (d. 1680) in Apr. in Ossernenon, N.Y.; Mohawk father, Roman Catholic Algonquin mother; beatified in 1943, 1980. Scottish nobleman James Hamilton, 2nd Baron Belhaven and Stenton (d. 1708) on July 5. English "The Ladies' Defence" feminist writer-poet Mary Chudleigh (nee Lee), Lady Chudleigh (d. 1710) in Aug. in Winslade, Devon; daughter of Richard Lee and Mary Sydenham of Westminster; wife (1674-) of Sir George Chudleigh, 3rd Baronet (-1718); mother of Sir George Chudleigh, 4th baronet (-1738). English "Halley's Comet" astronomer-meteorologist ("the Southern Tycho") Edmund (Edmond) Halley (d. 1742) on Nov. 8 in London; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (d. 1708) in Aix-en-Province; educated by the Jesuits; first to define the concept of genus for plants; coins the term "herbarium"; teacher of Charles Plumier (1646-1704). English mercantilist economist and Tory MP Charles Davenant (d. 1714); educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Austrian Karlskirche architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (d. 1723). English Anglican philanthropist clergyman Thomas Bray (d. 1730) in Marton, Shropshire; educated at All Souls College, Oxford U. French noble Antoine Gaston Jean Baptiste, Duc de Roquelaure (d. 1738); natty dresser gets a knee-length cloak named after him - not just a cloak but a roque? Deaths: Welsh composer Thomas Tomkins (b. 1572) on June 9 in Martin Hussingtree (near Worcester), England. Welsh-born British vice-adm. Sir Robert Mansell (b. 1573). Spanish painter El Viejo (Francisco de Herrera) (b. 1576). Italian anatomist Marco Aurelio Severino (b. 1580) on July 12 (plague). Irish world-dating archbishop James Ussher (b. 1581) on Mar. 21 in Reigate, Surrey, England; last words: "O Lord forgive me, especially my sins of omission"; buried in Westminster Abbey. English Puritan soldier Myles Standish (b. 1584) on Oct. 3 in Duxbury, Mass. German elector of Saxony (1611-56) Johann Georg I (b. 1585) on Oct. 8 in Dresden. Italian gen. Thomas Francis, prince of Carignano (b. 1596) on Jan. 22 in Turin. Dutch painter Jan Joseph van Goyen (b. 1596) on Apr. 27 in The Hague. English Anglican clergyman Thomas Gage (b. 1597) in Jamaica (dysentery). Italian field marshal Octavio Piccolomini (b. 1599) on Aug. 11. Portuguese king Joao IV the Fortunate (b. 1605). French painter Laurent de La Hyre (b. 1606) on Dec. 28 in Paris.
1657 There is a measles epidemic in Boston, Mass. On Apr. 2 HRE (since 1636) Ferdinand III (b. 1608) dies, and after Bavarian elector Ferdinand Maria offers no challenge despite the shenanigans of Cardinal Jules Mazarin (who hopes to break the Hapsburg succession), he is succeeded next July by his short, sickly, Hapsburg-lipped, Jesuit-dominated son Leopold I (the Hogmouth) (1640-1705) (until 1705), who ends up reigning 47 years and successfully struggling with the Turks and the French (three wars with Louis XIV), causing Austria to emerge as a great Euro power with an absolutist centralized regime; being a music lover, Vienna becomes a cultural center, and in 1683 gets coffee to boot. On Apr. 20 the British under Adm. Robert Blake win a big V over the Spanish West Indian fleet off Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. On May 8 Cromwell rejects the title of king - on Biblical grounds? On Sept. 21 Pokanoket chief Massasoit signs his last Plymouth land deed to the palefaces to Hog Island in Narragansett Bay to Richard Smith of Rhode Island, then moves 55 mi. NW to become chief of the Nipmuck Quabaugs near modern-day Brookfield, Mass., and his eldest son Wamsutta (1634-62) (AKA Alexander) (brother of King Philip) becomes sachem (chief) of the Pokanokets (until 1662); his wife Weetamoo ("sweetheart") (1640-76) is a daughter of Corbitant, sachem of the Pocasset tribe in R.I. - let the voice of freedom ring throughout this land, this is our country? In the fall ex-queen Christina of Sweden kills her master of horse Monaldeschi for betraying her plans to take over Naples, and the news causes her rep to sink into the toilet, causing her to first try to visit England then give up and return to Rome. On Nov. 6 the Treaty of Bromberg (Bydgoszcz) allies Brandenburg with Poland against Sweden. On Dec. 27 after the Quakers arrive in New Amsterdam, the citizens of Vlissingen (Flushing, Queens) pub. the Flushing Remonstrance in response to dir.-gen. Peter Stuyvesant's orders to persecute religious minorities, declaring that the law guaranteeing "love, peace and liberty" should be extended to all residents, incl. "Jews, Turks and Egyptians". The Mogul Civil War begins (ends 1659). Denmark declares war on Sweden, which is already at war with Austria, Poland and Russia. Parliament tries to end military rule by setting Cromwell up as king with power to nominate his successor, and creates a second chamber ("the other house") (House of Lords), consisting of members nominated by Cromwell for life; he declines the crown ("only a feather in a hat") but accepts the remainder; the new govt. proves more popular than its predecessors. Dutch adm. Willem van der Zaan (Zaen) (1621-69) captures French warship Chasseur while it is illegally privateering, embarrassing the French govt. and causing Cardinal Mazarin to summon the Dutch ambassador to lecture him, but he loses his temper and calls him a common pirate, after which the States-Gen. award van der Zaan a golden chain. The Navajos kill a Spaniard, and are ruthlessly retaliated against. R.I. decides to give refuge to Quakers who have been banished by other colonies. The first Jewish synagogue opens in London. Under pressure of the French govt., the Alsatian town of Hagenau grants Polish Jewish refugee Gershon temporary shelter, starting a trend; they are welcome as long as they pay exorbitant taxes. John "Jack" Winthrop Jr. (1606-76), son of Mass. Bay Colony gov. John Winthrop (1588-1649) becomes gov. of Connecticut Colony (until 1658). The Ming Prince of Lu is ousted. The pirates of Taiwan attack Nanjing, China. The French Musketeers (disbanded 1646) are reformed with 150 men for the use of Cardinal Mazarin. 26-y.-o. Trinity College grad. John Dryden goes to London to clerk for his relative Sir Gilbert Pickering, who is Oliver Cromwell's chamberlain. English poet-satirist Andrew Marvell (1621-78), former tutor to the daughter of Lord Thomas Fairfax of Yorkshire is appointed asst. to foreign secy. John Milton (until 1659), going on to compose several poems praising Cromwell. The General Post Office (GPO) is founded in Britain. The Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiment) is founded in Florence by Galileo's faithful pupil Vincenzo Viviani (1622-1703). The first sidewalk in America is laid on Stone St. in New Amsterdam. Chocolate drinking begins in London - one thing that Cromwell grudgingly permits? Richard Mather gives a famous Farewell Sermon. Inventions: The first stockings are manufactured in Paris. Nonfiction: Richard Baxter (1615-91), A Call to the Unconverted to Turn and Live. Charles du Fresne, Sieur du Cange (1610-88), Histoire de l'Empire de Constantinople sous les Empereurs Francais. Johann Amos Comenius, Opera Didactice Omnia. James Howell (1594-1666), Londonopolis: An Historical Discourse or Perlustration of the City of London. Father Francois Richard, Relation de l'Isle de Sant-Enni; vyrkolakas stories. Le Sieur Saunier, L'Encyclopedie des Beaux Esprits; first reference book with the word "encyclopedie" in its title? Gaspar Schott (1608-66), Mechanicahydraulica-Pneumatica (Wurtzburg); first description of Otto von Guericke's air pump; Magia Universalis Naturae et Artis (4 vols.) (1657-9) (Wurtzburg). Art: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Daniel and the Lion (sculpture) (1655-7); placed in the Chigi Chapel in the Basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome, showing him praying while the tamed lion licks his right foot. Gerrit Dou (1613-75), The Dutch Housewife. Gabriel Metsu (1629-67), The Sleeping Sportsman (1657-9); painted after leaving Leiden for Amsterdam and going to work cranking out paintings of the burgeoisie. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Las Hilanderas (The Spinners). Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of Artist's Son Titus. Music: Adam Krieger, Deutsche Lieder. Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), El Laurel de Apolo (comedy); music by Juan de Hidalgo; debuts at the Palacio de la Zarzuela (brambles) royal hunting lodge near Madrid, alternating speaking and singing scenes, with popular and operatic singing and dancing incorporated, becoming known as the Zarzuela. Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Siege of Rhodes, Pt. 2 (tragicomedy). Andreas Gryphius (1616-64), Herr Peter Squentz (comedy); based on Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream. Francois Hedelin, Practique du Theatre. Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), No Wit Like a Woman (comedy). Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, Les Etats et Empires de la Lune (posth.). Poetry: Angelus Silesius (1624-77), Geistreiche Sinn und Schlussreime (Cherubinischer Wandersmann) (The Cherubic Pilgrim) (1657-74); his mystical crypto-pantheism (officially orthodox); "God cannot love himself without becoming man, therefore God and man are one"; "The rose is without an explanation; she blooms because she blooms"; "I am like God and God like me. I am as large as God. He is as small as I. He cannot be above me nor I be beneath him." Births: French Jesuit missionary Sebastian Rale (Rasle) (Rasles) (d. 1724) on Jan. 20 in Pontarlier. French mathematician-playwright-writer Bernard le Bovier (Bouyer) de Fontenelle (d. 1757) on Feb. 11 in Rouen, Normandy; nephew of dramatist Pierre Corneille (1606-84). Japanese Confucianist poet-politician Arai Hakuseki (d. 1725) on Mar. 24 in Edo. Hungarian anti-Hapsburg leader Count Imre (Emeric) Thokoly (Thököly) (Tokolyi) (Tekely) (d. 1705) on Apr. 25 in Kezmarok (Kezmark), Slovakia. Prussian king #1 (1701-13) and Brandenburg elector (1688-1713) Frederick (Friedrich) I (d. 1713) on July 11 in Konigsberg; 3rd son of Elector Frederick William and 1st wife Louise Henriette of Orange-Nassau; maternal cousin of William III of England. French ecclesiastical historian Louis Elias Dupin (d. 1719). French Baroque composer-organist Michel Richard de Lalande (Delalande) (d. 1726) in Paris; known for his grand motets. English dramatist-critic John Dennis (d. 1734) in London; son of a saddler; educated at Harrow School, and Caius College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge U. Austrian Gen. Guido Wald Rudiger (Rüdiger_, Count of Starhemberg (d. 1737); cousin of Ernst Rudiger von Starhemberg (1638-1701). Deaths: English physiologist William Harvey (b. 1578) on June 3 in Roehampton. Dutch Flemish painter Frans Snyders (b. 1579) on Aug. 19 in Amsterdam. English-born Am. Puritan leader Gov. William Bradford (b. 1590) on May 9 in Plymouth Colony, Mass. Swedish field marshal Count Gustav Horn (b. 1592) on May 10. English Parliamentary adm. Robert Blake (b. 1599) on Aug. 17 off Portsmouth; dies at sea; buried in Westminster Abbey; when Charles II is restored he has his remains dumped in a common grave, and attempts are made to expunge him and all Parliamentarians from history. Portuguese-born rabbi Manasseh ben Israel (b. 1604) on Nov. 20 in Middleburg, Netherlands; dies while conveying his son Samuel from England for a burial after getting Oliver Cromwell to readmit the Jews to England and grant him a pension, which he never enjoys. English religious agitator Freeborn John Lilburne (b. 1614) on Aug. 29; dies after going Quaker, getting released from prison on account of bad health, then dying before Oliver Cromwell can get him thrown back in; his works are later cited by the U.S. Supreme Court. English Cavalier poet Richard Lovelace (b. 1618) in London.
1658 On Feb. 26 the Treaty of Roskilde between Sweden and Denmark ends the First Northern War (begun 1655); as soon as the ink dries, Charles X begins the Second Northern War (ends 1661), laying siege to Copenhagen. Early in the year Parliament meets again, but the infighting between the two houses causes Cromwell to dissolve it and summon another, but before it can assemble Oliver Cromwell dies on Sept. 3 in Whitehall, London, his vision of a Godly Britain having no successor to carry it on; anarchy ensues; a great dark storm at his death is said to be the Devil coming for his soul; he is succeeded by his well-trained 3rd son Richard Cromwell (1626-1712) as Lord Protector (until 1659), but proves "a peasant in his nature" (Col. Hutchingson) and lacks the strength to carry on for his godlike daddy, and "Tumbledown Dick" AKA "Queen Dick" only lasts 9 mo. - the time it takes to make a baby? On June 14 (June 4 Old Style) French field marshal Vicomte de Turenne defeats former colleague Great Conde, now leading a Spanish army, and Don John of Austria at the decisive the Battle of the Dunes (Dunkirk) in the Spanish Netherlands, and kicks his great can. On July 31 Mughal) emperor (since Jan. 19, 1628) Shah Jahan (1592-1666) is deposed and imprisoned by his 3rd son Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb (great-grandson of Akbar the Great), who murders his two older brothers and becomes Aurangzeb (Aurungzeb) (1618-1707) (AKA Alamgir = "Universe-seizer"), Mughal emperor #6 of India (until Mar. 3, 1707), going on to extend the empire S again through the Maratha States almost to the S tip of India, becoming known for incorporating Hindus in his admin. in high places although he is a devout Muslim, reaching a yearly tribute of 38.6M British pounds in 1690; trying to top his daddy's Taj Mahal, he builds the Pearl Mosque in Delhi in 1659-60, and the Aurangzeb Mosque in Benares in 1674. In July Leopold I (1640-1705) is elected HRE (until May 5, 1705). On Aug. 4-14 the Rhenish League puts itself under a French protectorate to keep the Hapsburgs away. In Oct. after the 2-year truce with Russia breaks down under excessive demands by the tsar, and the war is renewed, the Battle of Werki sees a Polish-Lithuanian army under Hetman Wubcenty Gosiewski defeated by the Russians, and Gosiewski captured; Russia goes on to occupy more of Lithuania; meanwhile the Russian alliance with the Cossacks in the Ukraine collapses after the Bodan (Bogdan) Chmielnicki (Khmelnitski) Uprising against the Poles results in 100K Jews being killed, and a Russian army is sent to fight the Cossacks. The Puritans take over Maryland, and the Act of Toleration is no more - I married your ex-wife, that is not a crime? The Dutch drive the Portuguese out of Sri Lanka. English pirate Christopher Myngs gets pissed off at missing a Spanish treasure fleet, and myngs Tolu and Santa Maria in Colombia. French fur traders Medart Chouart de Groseilliers (1618-96) and Pierre Esprit Radisson (1636-1710) become the first Europeans to make contact with the tribes of the North Am. Great Plains W of Lake Superior. New Harlem is founded by Peter Stuyvesant. Rani Gangadharatakshmi dies, and Rama Varma (d. 1662) becomes ruler of Cochin. Manuel de Biedma (Viedma) begins exploring the area of W South Am. E of the Andes and S of the Amazon River (until 1686). The seaport of Helsingborg (Hälsingborg) in S Sweden on the Oresund (Öresund) (Sound) opposite Helsingor, Denmark passes from Danish to Swedish control. The Societe des Missions Etrangeres (Society of Foreign Missions) is founded in Paris. Swedish financier Johann Palmstruck devises the first bank note, which is issued by the Swedish nat. bank. About this time Thomas Garway (Garraway) of London purchases a large quantity of tea from China, and pub. Of the Tea Leaf, claiming it as a cure from A-Z, hooking the English on it, then opens Garraway's Coffeehouse in 1669, becoming one of the top auction houses in London - they get garwayed? Architecture: Gianlorenzo Bernini begins the Church of Castel Gandolfo (finished 1661). Inventions: Robert Hooke (1635-1703) invents the clock (watch) balance spring - a spring is a type of hook, right? Science: Flemish physician Franciscus Sylvius (Franz de le Boe) (1614-72) becomes prof. of medicine at the U. of Leiden (Leyden), going on to found the Iatrochemical School of Medicine (all life and therefore disease is based on chemical actions), introduce the concept of chemical affinity to explain bodily use of salts and digestion, defend Harvey's circulation of the blood theory, and discover Sylvius' fissure in the brain. English physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82) advocates cremation. Jean Baptiste Racine (1639-99) junks his parent's intended career of Jansenist priest and heads for the court of Louis XIV at Paris, becoming the new kid on the block and friend of poets Jean Chapelain and Jean de la Fontaine, but his parents freak at the thought of him going worldly and take him away (until 1663). Jan Swammerdam (1637-80) first describes red blood corpuscles (cells) - as they swam over the dam? Nonfiction: Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82), Hydriotaphia, or Urne Burial, or, A Brief Discourse of the Sepulchral Urnes Lately Found in Norfolk; Bronze Age earthenware burial vessels and their supposed funerary customs; advocates cremation; The Garden of Cyrus, or, The Quincunciall Lozenge, or Network Plantations of the Ancients, Artificially, Naturally, and Mystically Considered; the quincunx (5-spot die arrangement) and how Platonic forms exist throughout Nature. John Bunyan (1628-88), The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded. William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1592-1676), Methode et Invention Nouvelle de Dresser les Chevaux; book on horsemanship, written in Amsterdam where he established a riding school and invented draw reins; too bad, it trashes a famous Arabian horse purchased by James I from a merchant named Markham for 500 pounds, causing the English to turn their noses up at Arabians for decades. Sir William Dugdale (1605-86), History of St. Paul's Cathedral. J.R. Glauber, De Natura Salium. James Harrington, The Prerogative of Popular Government. Edward Phillips, A New World of Words. Pietro della Valle (1586-1652), Travels in Persia (2 vols.) (posth.) Izaak Walton (1593-1683), Biography of John Donne. Music: Johann Caspar von Kerll (1627-93), Applausi Festivi (opera) (Munich). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru (opera). Art: Melchior d'Hondecoeter (1636-95), Dog Defending Dead Game Against a Bird of Prey. Pieter de Hooch (1629-84), Courtyard of a House in Delft; Woman Drinking with Two Soldiers - is she drinking hooch? Peter Lely (1618-80), The Family of the Earl of Carnarvon. Simon Ushakov (1626-86), Savior Not Made by Human Hands; called a "lascivious work of the Devil" by conservative Russian priests for being too Western? Adriaen van de Velde (1636-72), Farm with a Dead Tree. Jan Vermeer (1632-75), The Milkmaid (1658-9). Plays: Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The History of Sir Francis Drake. Poetry: Constantijn Huygens (1596-1687), Korenbloemen (1587-72). John Milton (1608-74), On His Deceased Wife (sonnet); "Methought I saw my late espoused Saint." Gilbert Swinhoe, The Tragedy of the Unhappy Fair Irene; based on Voltaire's 1778 play "Irene". Births: French sculptor Nicolas Coustou (d. 1733) on Jan. 9 in Lyons; son of wood carver Francois Coustou; nephew of sculptor Charles-Antoine Coysevox (1640-1720); brother of artist Guillaume Cousteau the Elder (1677-1746). French explorer (in New France) Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, Sieur de Cadillac (d. 1730) on Mar. 5 in Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Grave. Scottish MP and lt.-gen. Sir James Hamilton (Douglas-Hamilton), 4th Duke of Hamilton, 1st Duke of Brandon and 1st Baron of Dutton (d. 1712) on Apr. 11 in Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire; son of William Douglas-Hamilton, 1st earl of Selkirk (1634-94). German Palatine elector (1690-1716) duke (syphilitic) Johann Wilhalm II (d. 1716) on Apr. 19 in Dusseldorf; son of Philip William of Palatinate-Neuberg and Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt; husband (1678-99) of Archduchess Maria Anna Joseph of Austria (daughter of HRE Ferdinand III) and (1689-) Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667-1743). Italian Baroque violinist-composer Giuseppe Torelli (d. 1708) on Apr. 22 in Verona; known for his concerti grossi and solo concertos, and compositions for trumpets. English/Scottish queen consort (1685-8) (Roman Catholic) Mary of Modena (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este (d. 1718) on Oct. 5 (Sept. 25 Old Style) in Modena; daughter of Duke Alfonso IV d'Este of Modena and Laura Martinozzi (niece of Cardinal Mazarin); wife of James II. French historian Comte Henri de Boulainvilliers (d. 1722) on Oct. 21 in Saint-Saire, Normandy. French chemist Pierre Pomet (d. 1599) in Paris. Am. "Father of American Presbyterianism" Francis Makemie (d. 1708) near Rathmelton, County Donegal, Ireland; emigrates to Md. in 1683. English actress (1675-1709) Elizabeth Barry (d. 1713); never marries, but has a daughter by the earl of Rochester and another by George Etherege. Italian cinchona scientist Francesco Torti (1658-1741); colleague of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714). Deaths: Portuguese priest-missionary Alvaro Semedo (b. 1585) on July 18 in Guangzhou, China. English adm. Robert Rich, 2nd earl of Warwick (b. 1587) on Apr. 19. English judge-MP Thomas Fell (b. 1598). English religious dictator (1649-58) Oliver Cromwell (b. 1599) on Sept. 3 in Whitehall, London - warts and all? Spanish writer Baltasar Gracian (b. 1601) on Dec. 6; leaves the immortal line: "You should avoid making yourself too clear even in your explanations." English academic-clergyman Gerard Langbaine the Elder (b. 1609) in Oxford; leaves 21 vols. of ms. notes. English mistress (of Charles II) Lucy Walter (b. 1630) in Sept.-Oct. in Paris. English army officer Col. Thomas Pride (b. ?); of 1648 Pride's Purge fame.
1659 On Jan. 12 a frisky camel causes a sensation in Edinburgh? On Apr. 22 the first British cheque (check) is written by Nicholas Vanacker for 10 English pounds; it is now in the archives of the Nat. Westminster Bank. On Apr. 22 after Richard Cromwell summons the Third Protectorate Parliament (Dec. 1658-Jan. 1659), he is deposed in a coup, forcing him to restore the Rump Parliament, which reassembles on May 27 and forces his resignation, but is itself expelled on Oct. 13 by the army, led by maj.-gen. John Lambert (1619-84), then reinstated on Dec. 27 after George Monck leads Scottish troops to London; on a slight pretext Monck then orders it to dissolve itself, and when it refuses he brings back the Presbyterian ministers excluded by Pride's Purge in 1648, forming a new parliament of royalist sympathisizers; Charles II is waiting in the wings, and Scottish Parliamentary gen. Thomas Fairfax, who resigned in 1650 because he didn't want to invade Scotland comes out of retirement to lead a commission to visit him at The Hague to ask him to come back and ascend the English throne - you belong to the city, you belong to the night? On May 5 a British fleet under Capt. John Dutton sent by the British East India Co. takes the volcanic island of St. Helena (1.1K mi. from the W coast of Africa), with Dutton as gov. #1 (until 1661), becoming Britain's 2nd oldest colony after Bermuda. On June 29 (July 8 Old Style) the Cossacks under hetman Ivan Vyhovsky (-1664) defeat the Russians under Alexei Trubetskoy (1600-80) at the Battle of Xeniaonatop, er, Battle of Konotop (Sosnivka) in Ukraine; meanwhile the Frederick William the Great Elector drives the Swedes out of Prussia. On July 11 Cardinal Mazarin purchases the duchy of Nevers in the Nivernais, and has the Chateau Barberie near Nevers razed, ruining his hated enemies the Plantard Family, who trace back to Merovingian king Dagobert II and intermarried with the Saint-Clair Family? On Sept. 30 Robinson Crusoe first comes ashore on a desert island, soon hooking up with native Friday :) On Nov. 7 the badass Peace (Treaty) of the Pyrenees, signed on Pheasant Island in the Bidassoa River by Cardinal Mazarin for Louis XIV of France and Don Luis de Haro for Philip IV of Spain ends the Catalan Revolt (begun 1640) and the Franco-Spanish War between France and Spain begun in 1635 by Louis XII and Ferdinand the Catholic over Italy, with humilitating terms for Spain; Spain cedes most of Artois and parts of Flanders, Hainault, and Luxembourg, plus Roussillon and part of Cerdanya, making receding the Spanish border with France to the Pyrenees; the terms incl. a marriage between Louis XIV and Philip IV's daughter Infanta (Louis XIV's cousin) Maria Theresa (Marie Theresa) (Maria Teresa) (Marie-Therese) (1638-83) along with a renunciation of her claims to the Spanish throne, which happens next year; she goes on to lose five of her six children in childhood and die at age 44 from an abscess on her arm; her grandson Philip V inherits the Spanish throne in 1700, founding the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon, which rules until 1808, then 1813-68, 1875-1931, and 1975-. Barom Rechea V (Ango So) (-1672) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1672). Hyonjong dies, and Hyonjong II (d. 1674) becomes Yi king of Korea (until 1674), ordering all Buddhist monks and nuns to stay out of the capital and major cities. John Winthrop Jr. becomes gov. of Conn. Colony again (until 1676). The Dutch trading post in Phnom Penh is sacked. Christopher Myngs myngs Cumana, Puerto Caballo, and Coro in Venezuela, then tries to keep half of the £500K booty, causing him to be arrested and sent back to England next year, with a letter from Jamaican gov. Edward D'Oyly that he is "unhinged and out of tune". Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medart Chouart de Groselliers explore Minnesota SW of Lake Superior. Peter Stuyvesant organizes the first municipal fire dept. in Am. in New Amsterdam, complete with 250 leather buckets, and supported by a tax of one guilder per chimney; the fire alarm is a twirling rattle, giving the dept. the nickname "Rattle Watch". The first reducciones (Spanish Jesuit settlements) are founded in the Mojos Indian region E of the Andes S of the Madeira River and N of Potosi, Peru. A law is passed in the Plymouth Colony calling for a five shilling fine for celebrating Christmas; it stays on the books for more than 20 years. Some caterpillars are ordered to appear in court in Italy to answer charges of trespassing and willful property damage, with summons nailed to trees in five districts where the damage occurred. In the next two years Boston authorities hang four Quaker missionaries, Mary Dyer, William Leddra, William Robinson, and Marmaduke Stephenson; the lucky are only branded, whipped, or ear-cropped; of course the persecution makes them more popular. Johann Georg Cotta (1631-92), a descendant of Italian immigrants to Germany marries into the family of bookseller Philipp Braun of Tubingen, later founding the pub. house of J.G. Cotta, which goes on to pub. the newspaper "Allgemeine Zeitung" in 1798. The expression "don't cry over spilled milk" is first used? Science: English physician Thomas Willis (1621-75) first describes typhoid fever. English scientist Robert Boyle (1627-91) discovers that sound does not travel in a vacuum - after which he couldn't sit down for a week? 300 years later, the crowds of Trekkers still don't get it? Nonfiction: Meric Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation of what passed for many years between Dr. John Dee and some spirits; disses English mathematician-astrologer and magus John Dee (1527-1609) as a Qabalist who tried to summon angels, ruing his rep. as a scientist until the 20th cent. John Eliot (1604-90), Christian Commonwealth, or the Civil Polity of the Rising Kingdom of Jesus Christ. John Milton (1608-74), A Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes; argues for the complete separation of church and state and religious toleration. Henry More (1614-87), The Immortality of the Soul. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-78), Whether the Study of Letters is Fitting for a Christian Woman (English tr.). William Somner, Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum. Art: Sebastien Bourdon (1616-71), The Return of the Ark. Pieter de Hooch (1629-84), Mother and Child with Its Head in Her Lap (Maternal Duty) (1658-60); little girl looks like she's praying but actually mommy is picking lice from her hair - a 666-chicken approach? Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Infante Philip Prosper; Infanta Maria Teresa; Mercury and Argus. Jan Vermeer (1632-75), Young Girl with Flute. Plays: Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Oedipe (tragedy). John Day, The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (drama). Constantijn Huygens, Tryntje Cornelis. Moliere (1622-73), Les Precieuses (Précieuses) Ridicules (comedy); two snobbish sisters jilt two men, who get even by pushing their valets on them dressed as noblemen; takes Paris by storm, launching his 14-year stint as #1 French playwright, with one or more of his plays produced each year. Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Le Fantome Amoureux. Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Jephta (tragedy); Lucifer; his masterpiece; used by John Milton as the basis for "Paradise Lost". Poetry: John Dryden (1631-1700), Heroic Stanzas; in memory of Oliver Cromwell, whom he flops on after Charles II returns. James Howell (1594-1666), Paramoigraphy (Proverbs). Richard Lovelace (1618-58), Lucasta (posth.); collected by his brother Dudley. Novels: Ninon de l'Enclos (1620-1705), La Coquette Vengee (The Flirt Avenged); how a good life doesn't need religion; written after being imprisoned in a convent at the orders of Queen Anne of France then released after Queen Christina of Sweden visits and writes to Cardinal Mazarin. Births: Dutch explorer (discoverer of Easter Island in 1722) adm. Jakob (Jacob) Roggeveen (d. 1729) on Feb. 1 in Middelburg; brother of Jan Roggeveen. English "Dido and Aeneas" Baroque organist-composer Henry Purcell (d. 1695) on Sept. 10 in Westminster. Scottish mathematician David Gregory (d. 1708) on June 3. English "Robinson Crusoe" novelist (Unitarian) Daniel Defoe (De Foe) (d. 1731) St. Giles Cripplegate, London in the summer. French Catalan Baroque painter Hyacinthe Rigaud (d. 1743) on July 18 in Perpignan, Pyrenees-Orientales. Italian Venetian Baroque painter Sebastiano Ricci (d. 1734) on Aug. 1 in Belluno. German Phlogiston Theory chemist-physician Georg Ernst Stahl (d. 1734) on Oct. 22 in Ansbach; educated at the U. of Jena. French mathematician Joseph Saurin (d. 1737). Deaths: English bishop Thomas Morton (b. 1564). English pickpocket Mary Frith (Moll Cutpurse) (b. 1584) on July 26 in Fleet St., London (dropsy). English-born Am. colonist Isaac Allerton (b. 1585) in Feb. in New Haven, Conn.; dies insolvent. Dutch East Indies gov.-gen. #5 (1623-7) Pieter de Carpentier (b. 1586) on Sept. 5 in Amsterdam. Portuguese Jewish merchant Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (b. 1590) in London, England. French diplomat Abel Servien (b. 1593) on Feb. 17 in Chateau de Meudon, Paris. English judge John Bradshaw (b. 1602) on Oct. 31: "It is contrary to the laws of God, nature and the kingdom, for any man to be his own accuser." Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman (b. 1603) on Oct. 10 in Batavia (Jakarta), Dutch East Indies.