|England||Charles II (1630-85)||May 29, 1660||Feb. 6, 1685|
|France||Louis XIV (1638-1715)||May 14, 1643||Sept. 1, 1715|
|Austria||HRE Leopold I (1640-1705)||July 18, 1658||May 5, 1705|
|Russia||Tsar Fyodor III (1661-82)||Feb. 8, 1676||May 7, 1682|
|India||Emperor Aurangzeb (1618-1707)||July 31, 1658||Mar. 3, 1707|
|Papacy||Pope Innocent XI (1611-89)||Sept. 21, 1676||Aug. 12, 1689|
1680 Pop. of the Am. colonies: 150K; between this year and 1720 about 400K new English settlers arrive. On Jan. 1 after Edward Randolph returns to the colonies to reestablish the royal colony (province) of New Hampshire (N.H.), separated from Mass. Bay Colony, a 9-member royal council is created, headed by gov. John Cutt (1613-81) as pres. #1 (until 1681); Randolph then becomes the king's customs collector in Boston, where he reports continual recalcitrance; they are reunited in 1681-91. In Jan. Scottish Covenanter preacher Richard Cameron (b. 1648) and 20 armed followers enter the marketplace of Sanquhar, Scotland and formally renounce allegiance to tyrant Charles II and declare war against him, then run to the hills between Nithsdale and Ayrshire, becoming rebels to fight for their free-ee-ee-dom (erin go bragh?); on July 22 he and his followers are ambushed at Airds Moss in E Ayrshire, Cameron is killed, and as a traitor his head and hands are nailed to the Netherbow Port in Edinburgh; next year his followers form the Cameronians, AKA Reformed Presbyterians, refusing to take the oath of allegiance; in 1689 they are granted amnesty, forming a military unit of the British army later known as the Scottish Rifles. In Feb. La Salle's expedition begins exploring the Mississippi River. In May Krakatoa Volcano experiences a small-scale eruption. On July 8 the first documented tornado in Am. kills a servant in Cambridge, Mass. The Indians finally yuck it up on the Conquistadors? On Aug. 10 after a decade of drought, white man's diseases, and suppression of their medicine men, the Pueblo (Po'pay's) (Pope's) (Popé's) Revolt (ends 1692) begins in the Pueblo of Isleta in New Mexico 13 mi. S of Albuquerque against the Spanish, led by pagan Tewa religious leader Po'pay Pope (Popé) (1630-88) ("pumpkin mountain"), who stages a blitzkrieg attack, killing 380 Spaniards, incl. 21 of 40 Franciscans, followed by a siege of Santa Fe, causing Spanish settlers to flee S on Aug. 21 to El Paso del Norte (until 1691), closing El Camino Real and becoming the most successful Indian revolt in history, after which Po'pay sets himself up in the governor's palace and orders all vestiges of Roman Catholicism destroyed, washing Catholic converts in yucca juice to get rid of the yucky white man's stink; El Paso (modern-day pop. 650K/1M) is founded near El Paso del Norte (modern-day Ciudad Juarez) as a temporary capital of the New Mexico territory until Santa Fe is reconquered in 1692, remaining the largest settlement in N.M. until 1848, when it becomes part of Tex., after whch it is incorporated in 1873; meanwhile in 1682 Spanish fugitives from the revolt, joined by Tigua (Tiwa) Indians found La Purisima del Socorro Mission (Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion del Soccoro) halfway between Santa Fe and El Paso, waiting for the various Pueblo tribes to begin infighting and play into their hands, and Spanish fugitives found the Ysleta Mission in El Paso. On Aug. 22 Johann Georg II (b. 1613) dies, and his only son Johann Georg (John George) III (1647-91) becomes elector of Saxony (until 1691), going on to break off relations with France and establish a standing army of 12K men based on the Brandenburg model, after which he is appointed marshal of the HRE and earns the nickname "the Saxonian Mars". On Oct. 21 the Theatre-Francais (Comedie Francaise) (House of Moliere), the French nat. theater is formed by royal decree from the merger of the Theatre Guenegaud in Paris and the Theatre de Hotel de Bourgogne, the first being a merger of the Theatre du Marais and the Troupe de Moliere after Moliere's 1673 death; in 1682 the king grants comedians an annual pension of 12K livres; in 1689 it moves to the Rue de l'Ancienne Comedie across the street from Cafe Procope and changes its name to La Comedie Francaise; in 1799 it moves to the Rue de Richelieu. On Nov. 17 the Whigs organize pope-burning processions in London. On Nov. 23 the Great Comet of 1680 (Kirch's Comet) is first sighted, becoming the first to be discovered by telescope; it is seen with the naked eye on Dec. 9 at 2:00 p.m., causing the superstitious to go bonkers. Shogun Iyetsuna (b. 1633) dies, and his brother Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646-1709) becomes shogun #5 of Japan (until 1709), going on to promulgate laws protecting dogs and ordering the establishment of kennels, earning him the nickname "dog shogun"; he also tries to raise the living standard of the people, banning expensive fabrics, banning prostitution and waitresses in tea houses, and other authoritarian laws, which soon cause a smuggling boom. England passes more laws prohibiting Irish imports; only woolens are left (see 1699). Louis XIV sets up Chambers of Reunion, courts to legally annex several towns in Alsace to France, incl. Metz, Breisach, Besancon, and Tournay (until 1683). Richard Cromwell (d. 1712) quietly returns to England, laying low for life. England begins trading with China; meanwhile the Portuguese appoint their first gov. of Macau. King Charles XI of Sweden establishes royal absolutism to keep up with Louis XIV. About this time the Comanche get horses from the Spanish, turning them from hunter-gathers to buffalo hunters. In this decade Madagascar becomes a pirate stronghold (until 1725). Franciscan friar Louis Hennepin discovers the Falls of St. Anthony on the site of modern-day Minneapolis, Minn. The Swedish royal navy founds the port of Karlskrona and relocates there. The Portguese found the port of Colonia del Sacramento in SW Uruguay opposite the Rio de la Plata from Buenos Aires, followed by several more settlements in this decade, becoming the 2nd European country to settle Uruguay (discovered by the Spanish in 1516 and colonized in 1624), causing a turf war which continues until 1777. The first Brandenburgian expedition to West Africa begins. Dutch traders establish a trading station in Padang on the W coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. London merchant William Dockwra begins the Penny Post, which delivers mail anywhere in London for a penny. Chinese Manchu emperor (since 1661) Qing Sheng Zu founds art factories. In this decade France suffers high food prices and famine, sparking revolts continuing into the 18th cent.; one bright spot, the potato becomes popular in France, and er, French fried potato stands are set up in Paris. The first ballets arrive in Germany from France. The oldest free lending library is founded in Innerpeffray in N England. Dutch-born Quaker master woodcarver Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721) becomes the king's royal carver, going on to work on St. Paul's Cathedral, Windsor Palace et al., becoming #1 of all time? Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) makes his earliest known cello. French letter-writing aristocrat Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne (1626-96) makes the first mention of adding milk to tea. Pere du Halde describes Chinese punishments, incl. water torture? Architecture: After Louis XIV decides that the veterans require a chapel, Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1646-1708) begins the Chapel des Invalides in Paris (finished 1708). St. Mary's Church in Chennai, India is opened, becoming the oldest Anglican Church E of Suez; the first marriage registered there is between Elihu Yale and Catherine Hynmers; Yale becomes pres. #1 of the British East India Co.'s Fort St. George in Madras, growing rich through illegal profiteering, which gets him fired; he takes advantage of a famine in Madras to ship hundreds of slaves to St. Helena. Inventions: Italian Baroque composer Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) invents the Concerto Grosso, using three solo instruments (one violoncello and two violins) acting as a group, with string orchestra accompaniment, which becomes the main Baroque orchestral form; later evolved into the modern concerto by the 1-800-BAR-NONE King Mozart. Science: English naturalist ("Father of English Natural History") John Ray (1627-1705) begins work on the taxonomy of plants, defining the concept of species (Lat. "seeing", "appearance"). John Flamsteed first observes the Cassiopeia A Supernova on Aug. 16, although it first appeared in 1667. Nonfiction: Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-79), De Motu Animalium (On the Motion of Animals); financed by Queen Christina of Sweden; links Galilean mechanics to Cartesian mechanistic biology, founding the science of Biomechanics; recognizes that forward motion requires forward movement of the body's center of gravity, followed by swinging of the limbs to maintain balance; likens the action of the heart to a piston, requiring the arteries to be elastic - the heart is like the Sun, and the weenie is like the Moon? Antoinette Bourignon (1616-80), Complete Works (19 vols.) (1680-6) (ed. Peter Poiret). Christiaan Huygens (1629-95), Traite de la Lumiere (Treatise on Light); his Wave Theory of Light. Art: Charles de la Fosse, The Finding of Moses. Atlas van Stolk, Comet over Amsterdam. Music: Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), Canon in D (Canon and Gigue in D major for three violins and basso continuo); makes no impact until it's rediscovered in 1919. Plays: Nathaniel Lee (1653-92), Theodosius, or the Force of Love; Caesar Borgia (tragedy). Thomas Otway (1652-85), The Orphan (tragedy) (London). Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Proserpine. Births: English writer Joseph Ames (d. 1759) on Jan. 23 in Yarmouth. French La. gov. (1701-43) (founder of New Orleans) Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville (d. 1767) on Feb. 23 in Dieppe; brother of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706). German Rococo architect Dominikus Zimmermann (d. 1766)on June 30 in Gaispoint (near Wessobrunn); brother of Johann Baptist Zimmermann (1680-1758). English pirate Blackbeard the Pirate (Edwar Teach of Thatch) (d. 1718) in Bristol. British Cornish Whig politician Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth (d. 1734); eldest son of Edward Boscawen and Jael (daughter of Sir Francis Godolphin). Irish banker-economist (in France) Richard Cantillon (d. 1734). British Lord High Adm. (1719-27) James Berkeley, 3rd Earl of Berkeley (d. 1736); husband of Lady Louisa Lennox; father of Augustus Berkeley, 4th earl of Berkeley (1715-55). French surgeon (in England) (Huguenot) Claudius Amyand (d. 1740) in Mornac, Saintonge; becomes an English citizen on Sept. 9, 1698. Am. Mohawk chief King Hendrick (Theyanoguin) ("the western door is open") (d. 1755) in Mass.; Mohegan father, Mohawk mother. Deaths: Japanese emperor #108 (1611-29) Go-Mizunoo (b. 1596) on Sept. 11. Italian artist Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (b. 1598) on Nov. 28 in Rome. English statesman Denzil Holles, 1st baron Holles (b. 1599) on Feb. 17; buried in Westminster Abbey. German Jesuit mathematician Athanasius Kircher (b. 1601) on Nov. 27. English regicide MP Sir Henry Marten (b. 1602) on Sept. 9 in Chepstow Castle; dies in priz for regicide. French Canal du Midi engineer Pierre Paul Riquet (b. 1609) on Oct. 4. English anti-Puritan "Hudibras" satirist Samuel Butler (b. 1612) on Sept. 25; buried in Westminster Abbey - who de brat? French writer Francois, duc de La Rochefoucauld (b. 1613) on Mar. 17 in Paris (syphilis?): "In aging, one becomes more foolish and more wise"; "All love is self-love". German elector of Saxony (1656-80) Johann Georg II (b. 1613) on Aug. 22 in Freiberg. Englisy Popish Plot royalist William Howard, 1st viscount Stafford (b. 1614) on Dec. 29 in Tower Hill, London (executed); dies a Roman Catholic martyr; beatified in 1929; "Here Noble Staffored fell, on Death's great Stage,/ A Victim to the Lawless Peoples Rage. /Calm as a Dove, receiv'd a Shameful Death,/ To undeceive the World, resign'd his Breath;/ And like a God, dy'd to redeem our Faith/... The World ran Mad, and each distemper'd Brain,/ Did strange and different Frenzies entertain; Here Politick Mischiefs, there Ambition sway'd;/ The Credulous Rest, were Fool and Coward-Mad." (Aphra Behn). Dutch scientist Thomas Bartholin (b. 1616) on Dec. 4 in Copenhagen. Dutch painter Ferdinand Bol (b. 1616). Flemish mystic Antoinette Bourignon (b. 1616) on Oct. 30. German elector Palatine Charles I Louis (b. 1617) on Aug. 28. Irish-born British col. Thomas Blood (b. 1618) on Aug. 23 in Bowling Alley, Westminster. Dutch painter Sir Peter Lely (b. 1618) on Nov. 30 in Covent Garden, London; dies at his easel while painting the duchess of Somerset; his art collection is sold for £26K. Japanese scholar Hayashi Shunsai (b. 1618). Dutch artist Hendrick Danckerts (b. 1625) in Amsterdam. Am. Plymouth Colony gov. (1673-80) Josiah Winslow (d. 1628) on Dec. 18 in Marshfield, Mass. British adm. Thomas Butler, 6th earl of Ossory (b. 1634) on July 30. English philosopher Joseph Glanvill (b. 1636). Dutch naturalist Jan Jacob Swammerdam (b. 1637) on Feb. 17 in Amsterdam (malaria); leaves The Bible of Nature (pub. 1737). Scottish Presbyterian minister Richard Cameron (b. 1648) on July 20 in Aird's Moss (KIA). Am. Native Am. saint Kateri Tekakwitha (b. 1656) on Apr. 17 in Kanahwake, Canada; dies a virgin?
1681 On Jan. 3 the Second Russo-Turkish War (begun 1676) ends indecisively with the 20-year Treaty of Bakhchisarai, agreeing to the Dnieper River as the dividing line between the Turks and Russians, leaving the territory between the Southern Bug and Dnieper Rivers unsettled, with the Nogai hordes retaining the right to live as nomades on the S steppes of Ukraine, and the Cossacks retaining the right to fish in the Dnieper River and its tributaries as well as obtain salt there and in the Black Sea; Emeric Thokoly, backed by a 10K-man Transylvanian army plus a Turkish armyunder the pasha of Oradea forces HRE Leopold I to sign an armistice, and next year Thokoly is proclaimed king of Upper Hungary by Sultan Mehmed IV in return for a 40K taller per annum tribute, while he keeps one foot in the Christian camp by marrying Countess Jelena Zrinski (Ilona Zrinyi) (1643-1703), widow of Prince Francis I Rakoczi, going on to extend his dominion to the Vah River. On Mar. 1 the new colony of N.H. designates Mar. 17 as a day of fasting and prayer after Gov. John Cutt (b. 1613) falls ill and a comet is sighted; he dies on Apr. 1. On Mar. 4 the English colony of Pennsylvania (Penn.) ("Penn's Woods") (W from the Delaware River for 5 deg. of longitude, and from the 40th to the 43rd deg. of latitude) receives its charter from Charles II to pay off Cromwell supporter Adm. Sir William Penn Sr. (1621-70), who had an outstanding £16K debt owed by the crown at his death in 1670, and his son, English Quaker convert William Penn Jr. (1644-1718) as the proprietor; the colony is named after the father not the son; the N boundary is later changed to 42 deg. because it overlaps New York; in 1767 the S boundary is settled as 19 mi. S of the 40th parallel by the surveying of the Mason-Dixon line; by the end of the year there are about 1K new settlers lured by advertisements to come to a "holy experiment" based on Quaker ideals; Penn sends his Anglican cousin Capt. William Markham (1635-1704) ahead while he recruits fresh fish back in England, North Ireland, and Germany, incl. Quakers and Mennonites from the Rhine country. On Nov. 25 the Fundamental Agreements of the Province of West New Jersey are enacted. Brandenburg makes defensive alliances with Sweden and France. The European Congress meets in Frankfurt. Prince James summons the Scottish parliament to pass a Scottish Test Act (rescinded 1690) to enforce loyalty to his brother Charles II and outlaw Presbyterianism, causing Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll (1629-85) to flee to exile in Holland in Dec. rather than take an oath of loyalty and deny his beloved Covenants after his trial; all of which is strange since James openly practices Roman Catholicism in Scotland?; meanwhile his daughter Princess Anne briefly visits him in Scotland. Zheng Jing (b. 1642) dies, and his son Zheng Keshuang (1669-1707) becomes the last pirate ruler of Taiwan (until 1683). The Revolt of the Three Feudatories in China (begun 1673) is quashed by the Qin Manchu Dynasty with the help of other Han traitor gens. An English ship captained by John Daniel becomes the 2nd to reach the W coast of Australia (first 1622), sighting the Wallabi Group (Dangerous Rocks). After careful planning by French war secy. (1666-91) Francois-Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (1641-91), French troops surprise and capture the Huguenot and Jew-tolerant free imperial city of Strasbourg, which Louis XIV annexes - say adios to boring chicken and have a fiesta? La Salle explores the Mississippi River; Duchesneau completes a census of Canada. Cockburn Town on Grand Turk Island is founded by salt collectors on the spot where Ponce de Leon first landed in 1512. The last Dodo (family Raphidae) flightless bird on Mauritius dies, a victim of dogs; another line survives on Rodriguez Island until 1800 - who let the dogs out? The first female prof. dancers appear at the Paris Opera. The first bank checks are issued in England. The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh is granted a royal charter by Charles II; in 1684 Sir Robert Sibbald (1641-1722) (royal geographer since 1682) is elected pres., and in 1685 he becomes the first prof. of medicine at the U. of Edinburgh. Architecture: King's Square (later called Soho Square) in London is founded. The Machine de Marly to bring water from the Seine River to supply the fountains and waterfalls of Versailles Palace is begun (finished 1684). Sir Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) is elected pres. of the Royal Society, and builds Tom Tower in Christ Church, Oxford, and St. Clement Danes in London, whose bells are popularized in the nursery rhyme Oranges and Lemons. Chelsea Hospital in London is founded for wounded and discharged soldiers. The Canal du Midi (Languedoc Canal) (begun 1664), joining the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic) with the Mediterranean Sea is finished. Sports: On Jan. 6 Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Abemarle (1653-88) engineers a bout between his butler and butcher (winner), becoming the first recorded boxing match in Britain. Nonfiction: Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Discourse (Speech) on Universal History (Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle); written for his pupil the French dauphin; the first philosophical treatment of history; an attempt at a new version of St. Augustine's "City of God", claiming that universal history is a war between God and the Devil, with God on the side of the Church; the City of the Devil incl. the pagan Roman Empire, the barbarians, the Muslims, Renaissance humanists, Enyclopedists, Freemasons, etc.; as The Catholic Enyclopedia puts it: "This is why the idea of Providence is at the same time the law of history. If the crash of empires 'falling one upon another' does not in truth express some purpose of God regarding humanity, then history, or what is called by that name, is indeed no longer anything but a chaotic chronology, the meaning of which we should strive in vain to disentangle. In that case, fortune, or rather chance, would be the mistress of human affairs; the existence of humanity would be only a bad dream, or phantasmagoria, whose changing face would be inadequate to mask a void of nothingness. We should be fretting ourselves in that void without reason and almost without cause, our very actions would be but phantoms, and the only result of so many efforts accumulated through so many thousands of years would be the conviction, every day more clear, of their uselessness, which would be another void of nothingness."; "And why, after all, were there Greeks and Romans? Of what use was Salamis? Actium? Poitiers? Lepanto? Why was there a Caesar, and a Charlemagne? Let us frankly own, then, that unless something Divine circulates in history, there is no history"; contains the soundbyte "Ah, perfide, perfide Albion!", later quoted by Napoleon as "perfidious Albion", meaning stankin' England. James Dalrymple of Stair, Institutions of the Law of Scotland. Robert Knox (1641-1720), An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon; his adventures there incl. captivity. Jane Lead, The Heavenly Cloud Now Breaking. Jean Mabillon (1632-1707), De Re Diplomatica (6 vols.) (1681-1704); examines documents dating back to Frankish king Dagobert I, attempting to "distinguish genuine documents from forgeries", founding paleography and diplomatics; a hit with Jean-Baptiste Colbert and Louis XIV, who appoints him as a founding member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1701; the greatest historical scholar of the 17th cent.? "I do not deny that in fact some documents are false and others interpolated, but all of them should not be dismissed for that reason." Henry Neville, Plato Redivivus. Johann C. Wagenseil (pub.) Toledot Jeshu (Book of the Life of Jesus) (Tela Ignea Satanae); a Hebrew book calling Jesus Christ a bastard (result of rape of Mary by Roman soldier Joseph Pandera), and accusing him of magic, witchcraft, and a shameful death. Music: Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Marco Aurelio (Munich) (first opera). Plays: Nahum Tate (1652-1715), The Sicilian Usurper; his version of Shakespeare's "Richard II", altered to be "full of respect to Majesty and the dignity of courts", which doesn't stop it from getting sup/pressed; The History of King Lear; his version of Shakespeare's of "King Lear"' omits the Fool and has Cordelia and Edgar marry and live happily ever after, attending the elderly king until his death; it takes until 1838 to reintroduce the Fool, played by a woman. Poetry: John Dryden (1631-1700), Absalom and Achitophel, Pt. 1 (satire); poem in heroic couplets ridiculing the Whig attempt to make the duke of Monmouth the successor of Charles II rather than the duke of York; causes his friend Thomas Shadwell to turn against him and champion the Protestants. Lucidor (Lars Johansson) (1638-74), Helicons Blomster (posth.). Andrew Marvell (1621-78), Miscellaneous Poems (posth.). Births: French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Francois Lafitau (d. 1746) on Jan. 1 in Bordeaux. Danish-Russian explorer-cartographer Vitus Jonassen (Ivan Ivanovich) Bering (d. 1741) on Aug. 5 in Horsens. French Roman Catholic theologian Pierre Francois le Courayer (d. 1776) on Nov. 17 in Rouen. French Camisard Huguenot leader Jean Cavalier (d. 1740) on Nov. 28 in Max Roux (near Anduze); brought up as a secret Protestant. English actor Barton Booth (d. 1733). Am. "A Defense of the New England Charters" writer and Yale College founder Jeremiah Dummer Jr. (d. 1739); 6th of 9 children; father JD Sr. is a renowned silversmith; educated at Harvard College, and the U. of Utrecht; first colonial-born Am. to receive a Ph.D. from a Euro univ. (1703). English lexicographer Ephraim Chambers (d. 1740) in Kendal, Westmorland. Spanish New Spain viceroy (1746-55) Juan Francisco de Güemes, 1st Count of Revillagigedo (d. 1766) in Reinosa, Cantabria; father of Juan Vicente de Guemes, 2nd count of Revillagigedo (1738-99). German composer Georg Philipp Telemann (d. 1767). Deaths: Spanish dramatist Pedro Calderon de la Barca (b. 1600) on May 25; the last great playwright of the Spanish Golden Age; leaves 200+ full-length plays and 70 1-act sacramental dramas (autos): "Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor" (When love isn't madness, it's not love"). English astrologer William Lilly (b. 1602). Italian field marshal Count Raimondo of Montecucculi (b. 1609) on Oct. 16 in Linz; leaves Memorie della Guerra, which is pub. in Vienna in 1718, and becomes a big hit. Dutch painter Gerard Terborch (b. 1617). English soldier-politcian James Compton, 3rd earl of Northampton (b. 1622) on Dec. 15. Russian theologian Mikola Mandelstahm (b. 1635).
1682 On May 7 tsar (since 1676) Fyodor III (d. 1661) dies, and his younger brother Ivan V Alexeyevich (the Ignorant) Romanov (1666-96) (son of Alexis I) becomes Russian Romanov tsar #4, but since he's mentally ill and an invalid, his tall (6'8") but whimpy younger half-brother Peter I Alexeyevich (the Great) Romanov (1672-1725) becomes co-tsar, Russian Romanov tsar #5 (until Feb. 8, 1725), with Peter's sister Sophia Alexeyevna (1657-1704) as regent (until 1689). Amazing what oatmeal will do? On Apr. 5 the First Frame of Government by William Penn is adopted as the Great Charter (constitution) of Pennsylvania; it refuses to establish the Quaker church, fostering freedom of conscience; in Sept. Penn sails with several friends from England, and arrives in Philadelphia with 100 more settlers in Oct.; he builds the first brick house in Am., in a province that is almost pure forest, using bricks used as ship ballast on the trip to the New World (on the way to Europe they use export goods for ballast); on Dec. 7 the Great Law of Penn. limits the death penalty to premeditated murder; the Duke of York grants Penn the area of Delaware (on the W side of Delaware Bay), which he merges into Penn.; a group of twelve incl. Penn buys out Sir George Carteret's shares in East New Jersey, and then brings in twelve more partners. James Butler retires as lord lt. of Ireland, and next Nov. 9 is raised to the English peerage as the 1st duke of Ormonde - take beano before, and there'll be no gas? Mass. judge Joseph Dudley (1647-1720) is sent to England to secure the continuation of the Mass. charter, but ends up conspiring with Charles II to establish royal authority, beginning his rise. It's Christmas every day for the Frogs? Louis XIV convokes the Gallican Assembly of French Roman Catholic clerics, led by Reims archbishop Charles-Maurice Le Tellier (1642-1710) (brother of war secy. Francois-Michel le Tellier), which decides that the pope has no right to involve himself in French political affairs, enunciating the principles of Gallicanism, and issuing Declaration of the French Clergy, drafted by French bishop Jacques-Benigne (Jacques-Bénigne) Bossuet (1627-1704), with four propositions claiming limited autonomy (the regale) (ends 1870), opposed to Ultramontanism, i.e. total papal authority (the policy down there in Italy beyond those mountains). Japanese shogun Tsunayoshi pubicly reads the Great Learning by Confucius, becoming an annual tradition. New France gov.-gen. #6 (since 1672) Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-98) and his asst. are recalled to France after a cat fight (until 1689); meanwhile his boy Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle (1643-87) reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes, and claims all lands drained by the Mississippi River (incl. Okla. Territory) under the name Louisiana (La.) for King Louis XIV; the French colonial empire now reaches from Quebec to the mouth of the Mighty Mississippi until 1762, when it is ceded to Spain; in 1800 French emperor Napoleon I regains ownership. Buero da Silva explores the Central Mountains region of Brazil. Pires de Campos explores the rivers of South Am. West Florida, consisting of Florida and the coastal regions of La., Miss., and Ala. is split between the Spanish, based at Pensacola and the French, based at Mobile (until 1763). The first tornado is witnessed by Anglo settlers in New Haven, Conn., who claim it uproots a 3 ft. diam. oak tree. The Inuit discover Scotland. Versailles becomes the French royal residence (until 1789); the royal court consists of 20K people, incl. 9K soldiers; attendance at court by the aristocracy becomes necessary so that Louis XIV can rule over a court society as an absolute monarch; 1K courtiers and 4K servants live in the palace, which has no heating or sanitation - don't tell me how to be a father to my kids? A 100-loom weaving mill is built in Amsterdam. The English East India Co. establishes trade with Mashhad and Kirman in Persia to purchase imitations of Chinese blue and white porcelain, first fostered by Shah Abbas I. Cang Yingxuan becomes supt. of the Chinese imperial pottery kilns in Jingdezhen, developing techniques of enameling, composite monochrome glazing, blue underglazing, and transparent famille verte overglazing. John Skene, a member of the Old Aberdeen Lodge emigrates from Scotland to Burlington, N.J., becoming the first recorded Mason in North Am.; not to be confused with Sir John Skeene (1543-1617). The all-Latin Acta Eruditorum, the first scientific periodical in Germany is founded in Leipzig by Otto Mencke (1644-1707) (until 1776), going on to pub. articles by foreign scholars to create an internat. mental think tank, and in 1684 pub. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's article on his invention of differential calculus; a stud, he goes on to found a line that incl. over 40K scientists and mathematicians, incl. #1 math brain Carl Friedrich Gauss; in 1707 his son Johann Burkhard Mencke (1675-1732) takes over. Sir George MacKenzie founds the Advocates' Library (later the Scottish Nat. Library) in Edinburgh. Architecture: Potsdam Palace (begun in 1660) is finished. Science: English botanist Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) pub. Anatomy of Plants (4 vols.), containing the first microscopic description of pollen, founding plant anatomy. English astronomer Edmund Halley (1656-1742) discovers the 75.5-year period of Halley's Comet from observed data and his own calculated parabolic orbits, deducing that the comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682 are one and the same, and move in an elliptical orbit because they all have a Nodus Ascendus of about 20 deg. in Taurus. Isaac Newton proposes the partial decussation of the optic chiasm. Nonfiction: Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), Various Thoughts on the Occasion of the Comet of 1680; dispels popular superstitions. John Bunyan (1628-88), The Holy War. Georg Franck von Franckenau (19643-1704), De Ovis Paschalibus; first mention of the German Lutheran custom of the Easter Bunny. Francois Eudes de Mezeray, De l'Origine des Francais. Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), Anatomy of Plants; founds the science of plant anatomy. Sir William Petty (1623-87), Quantulumcunque Concerning Money; pub. 1695.; An Essay Concerning the Multiplication of Mankind. Mary Rowlandson (1637-1710), The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson; her 11-week abduction by the Mass. Indians during King Philip's War. Music: Plays: Nathaniel Lee (1653-92), Lucius Junius Brutus, Father of His Country (tragedy); gets him in trouble after Tarquin is taken as a satire of Charles II; The Princess of Cleve; adaptation of the noval by Madame de La Fayette. Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87), Persee (Persée) (Perseus) (Apr. 18) (Theatre du Palais-Royal, Paris; incl. Mortels, Vivez en Paix, Quel l'Enfer, la Terre et les Cieux. Thomas Otway (1652-85), Venice Preserv'd (London). Philippe Quinault (1635-88), The Triumph of Love. Thomas Shadwell (1642-92), The Medal of Bayes: a Satire Against Folly and Knavery; scurrilous attack on John Dryden (1631-1700), who replies with Mac Flecknoe, or a Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S., who calls Shadwell "the last great prophet of tautology, and compares him to Richard Flecknoe (1600-78), with the soundbyte: "The rest to some faint meaning make pretense,/ But Shadwell never deviates into sense". Nahum Tate (1652-1715), The Ingratitude of a Commonwealth; his version of Shakespeare's "Coriolanus". Poetry: John Dryden (1631-1700) and Nahum Tate (1652-1715), The Medal (Absalom and Achitophel, Pt. 2); Elkanah Settle as Doeg and Thomas Shadwell as Og, containing the soundbyte "Two fools that crutch their feeble sense on verse;/ Who, by my muse, to all succeeding times/ Shall live, in spite of their own doggrel rhymes"; Religio Laici; defends Protestantism. Births: British colonial gov. (Mass., N.H., N.J.) Jonathan Belcher (d. 1757) on Jan. 8 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Portuguese historian-statesman (Roman Catholic) Manuel Teles da Silva, 3rd Marquis of Alegrete (d. 1736) on Feb. 6. Italian scientist ("founder of anatomical pathology") Giovanni Battista Morgagni (d. 1771) on Feb. 25 in Forli, Emilio-Ramagna; educated at the U. of Bologna. German landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1751-60) William VIII (d. 1760) on Mar. 10 in Kassel; 7th son of Charles I (1654-1730); brother of Frederick I of Sweden (1676-1751). French "Fanfare-Rondeau" composer Jean-Joseph Mouret (d. 1738) on Apr. 11 in Avignon. British (Welsh) pirate Black Bart (Bartholomew Roberts) (John Roberts) (d. 1722) on May 17 in Pembrokeshire, Wales; most successful of the pirates, with 470 vessels captured. Swedish Wittelsbach king #4 (1697-1718) Charles (Karl) XII (the Habitue) (d. 1718) on June 17 in Stockholm; only surviving son of Charles XI (1655-97) and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder (1656-93); brother of Ulrika Eleonora the Younger (1688-1741). English Newton-Cotes Formulas mathematician Roger Cotes (d. 1716) on July 10 in Burbage, Leicestershire; educated at St. Paul's School, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. French Jesuit priest-traveller-historian ("First Historian of New France") Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (d. 1761) on Oct. 29 in Saint-Quentin, Picardy. Am. Salem Witch Trials accuser Elizabeth "Betty" Parris (d. 1760) on Nov. 28; daughter of Rev. Samuel Parris (1653-1720); cousin of Abigail Williams (1680-97). Italian mathematician Giulio Carlo, Count Fagnano (d. 1766) on Dec. 6. British #1 Baroque-Georgian-Palladian architect (Roman Catholic) (Tory) James Gibbs (d. 1754) on Dec. 23 in Aberdeen, Scotland; student of Carlo Fontana; namesake of the Gibbs Surround. German chemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (Bottiger) (Bottcher) (d. 1719) in Schleiz; inventor of Dresden (Meissen) china. Spanish soldier (founder of Montevideo) Bruno Mauricio de Zabala (d. 1736) in Zabala, Durango, Biscay. Ottoman valide sultan (1754-7) Sehsuvar Sultan (d. 1756); 2nd concubine of Mustafa II; Russian or Serbian noblewoman named Mary. Scottish pro-English nobleman Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll (d. 1761); brother of the 2nd duke. Italian philologist-lexicographer Jacopo Facciolati (d. 1769) in Torreglia (near Padua); collaborator of Egidio Forcellini (1688-1768). Deaths: Italian architect Baldassarre Longhena (b. 1598) on Feb. 18 in Venice. French landscape painter Claude Lorrain (b. 1600) on Nov. 25 in Rome. Scottish soldier David, 1st Baron Newark (b. 1601). French landscape painter Claude Gellee (b. 1604). English writer Sir Thomas Browne (b. 1605) on Oct. 19. Spanish painter Bartolome Esteban Murillo (b. 1617). Italian mathematician-cardinal Michelangelo Ricci (b. 1619) on May 12 in Rome. Bohemian Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine (b. 1619) on Nov. 29 in Westminster, England; buried in Westminster Abbey. French mathematician-astronomer Jean Picard (b. 1620) on Oct. 12 in Paris. Dutch painter Pieter Wouwerman (b. 1623). Dutch painter Jacob van Ruisdael (b. 1628) on Mar. 14 in Haarlem. Dutch sculptor Nicolaas van der Veken (b. 1637) on Oct. 30. Russian Romanov tsar #3 (1676-82) Feodor III (b. 1661) on May 7 in Moscow.
1683 The first planned American housing development? On Feb. 2 the Penn. Gen. Assembly rejects the First Frame of Government, and adopts the Second Frame of Government as their constitution, passing "at least seventy laws without one dissent" (William Penn); William Penn sets up a provincial postal system; on Oct. 6 13 families from Krefeld, Germany on the Rhine River (founded 1105) (one of the few towns spared the horrors of the Thirty Years' War of 1618-48, causing it to become overpopulated, unlike its sister town Uerdingen, which was almost wiped out) found Germantown (modern-day pop. 76K); meanwhile William Penn learns the Delaware language (how?), and in Oct. enters into a Treaty of Perpetual Friendship with the Lenni-Lenape tribe of the Delaware River Valley under Tamanend (Tammany) (Tammamend) (Tamanent) (Tamine) (1628-98) ("affable") while standing under Treaty Oak tree in Shakamaxon (Kensington, later part of Philadelphia), which lasts 50 years after Tammany utters the soundbyte that they would "live in peace as long as the waters run in the rivers and creeks and as long as the stars and moon endure" (a fairy tale?); Penn then allegedly sights the city of Dover, Del., and the planned city of Philadelphia, Penn. (Philly) (Gr. "brotherly love") (modern-day pop. 1.56M/6M), founded last Oct. 27 1 mi. from Shackamaxon at the junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill ("hidden channel") (pr. SKOOL-kuhl) Rivers in SE Penn., becoming the first city in North Am. with public parks?; it is incorporated on Oct. 25, 1701; land is purchased from the Lenape by William Penn that later becomes Abington Township, Penn. N of Philly - so what's your tire size? A touch of fame for a Pollock? On July 14 the Great Austrian-Turkish War (ends 1699) and the Polish-Turkish War (ends 1699) begin as 140K Turks with 300 cannon under Merzifonlu Kara ("Black") Mustafa Pasha (1634-83) begin the Second Siege of Vienna, held by only 20K troops under Count Ernst Rudiger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), culminating on Sept. 11 (the original 9/11) with the epic Battle of Vienna (Kahlenberg); the Christians hold out until Sept. 12 as sappers undermine the city walls, when Jan III Sobieski (1624-96) of Poland swallows his pride at the thought of the Ottoman border being so close to Cracow and allies with HRE Leopold I and duke Charles of Lorraine (1643-90) (who defeated Imre Thokoly of Hungary at Bisamberg 5km NE of Vienna in Aug.) to become CIC of the 84K-man combined armies and raise the siege with 3K Polish mounted Winged Hussars plus 34K Polish troops, 18.5K Austrians, 10.5K Bavarians, 9K Saxons, and 9.5K Swabian and Franconian troops, who stage the largest cavalry charge in history, making Sobieski a hero of Christendom, and marking the end of Islamic military conquests in Europe until ?; after the battle, Sobieski utters the soundbyte "Venimus, Vidimus, Deus Vincit" (We Came, We Saw, God Won); the Christian battle cry of "Maria Help" is amended at the suggestion of Johann Georg III of Saxony (who commands the left wing) to "Jesus and Maria Help", causing Sobieski to utter the soundbyte "The elector of Saxony is an honest man with a straight heart", after which Johann George III accompanies the HRE on his entry to Vienna, then abruptly leaves with his troops after they are treated like merde for being Protestants (kiss my ass, kiss your ass, happy Hanukkah?); after the liberation of Vienna, HRE Leopold I meets with Jan Sobieski in Schwechat near Vienna, which commemorted by an obelisk; Starhemberg also becomes a star, and is promoted to field marshal, but is severely wounded in 1686 at the siege of Buda and gets a desk job as pres. of the Hofkriegsrat; the V marks the hegemony of the Hapsburgs; on Dec. 25 Mustafa Pasha is strangled in Belgrade by the Janissaries and his head sent to sultan Mehmed IV in a velvet bag; too bad, Imre Thokoly, who fights with the Turks gets blamed by them for the whole D, and after rushing to Edirne to defend himself in front of the sultan, he flops and tries to make up with Sobieski, promising to lay down his arms if he is recognized as Protestant prince of Upper Hungary, but Sobieski demands unconditional surrender, and he has to fight on his own with neither side trusting him; the Turks leave massive stores of loot, with Sobieski uttering the soundbyte "Ours are treasures unheard of... tents, sheep, cattle and no small number of camels... It is a victory nobody ever knew of, the enemy now completely ruined, everything lost for them"; the first coffeehouse is opened in Vienna by Polish officer Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki (1640-94) (known for escaping from the besieged city to get help) after the withdrawing sackers leave coffee sacks behind, introducing the custom of adding sugar and milk (melange); the first Vienna coffeehouse is really opened by Armenian Johannes Theodat in 1685?; like a rose that blooms then starts to decay, the Turkish Empire in Europe reaches its maximum extent, stretching from beyond Budapest on the Danube River, the Carpathians, and the headwaters of the Bug River to the Black Sea, Aegean, and Ionian Seas, with only Dalmatia (ruled by Venice) and Montenegro (semi-independent) as exceptions; after this, the Islamic world fails to keep pace with the West, incl. constructing public clocks, implementing standardized linear measurements, and modernization in general, compounded by pervasive autocracy. On July 28 after negotiations to marry the Prince of Hanover fall through, princess Anne Stuart (Stewart) (1665-1714) (future Queen Anne of England) marries prince George of Denmark (1653-1708), 2nd son of Frederick III (and a distant relation, since Anne is the great-great-granddaughter of Frederick II, father of James VI's consort Anna, and George is Frederick II's great-grandson), causing her to become known as Princess Anne of Denmark; the newlyweds are given a free apt. in Whitehall by her uncle Charles II, where she becomes friends with Lady Churchill, lady of the bedchamber, while having 18 pregnancies, of which only five end in live births, and all of them dying, some incl. Lady Mary and Lady Anne of smallpox; the couple gets into a rivalry with Anne's elder sister Mary and her hubby William II of Orange about who gets precedence at royal ceremonials, and also gets into money problems with overspending to keep up with the Oranges; their favorite country house is at Richmond until 1688, when they switch to Windsor. On Sept. 12 cloistered king (since Nov. 6, 1656) Afonso VI (b. 1643) dies in Sintra, and his brother Pedro (Peter) II (1648-1706) (regent since Jan. 1668) becomes king of Portugal and the Algarves (until Dec. 9, 1706). On Oct. 30 the New York Charter of Liberties and Privileges is passed, becoming the first act of its kind in the Am. colonies; it is suspended in 1685, then reenacted via a new charter in 1691, which stays in effect until the 1776 Am. Rev. On Nov. 22 the first choral society in London gives its first annual concert in honor of St. Cecilia, patron saint of music, who invented the forerunner of the organ and brought an angel down from heaven to listen? In Dec. the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow - all them scientific brains and no mention of Global Cooling? Spain declares war on France after France invades the Spanish Netherlands and occupies Luxemburg; HRE Leopold I and Charles II of Spain join the League of The Hague, a Dutch-Swedish alliance against France. The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England and replace him with the monomaniacal-mouthed 1st duke of Monmouth by Whig leaders Algernon Sidney, Lord William Russell, and Arthur Capel is discovered, and they are arrested, railroaded through the kangaroo court of Lord Chief Justice George Jeffreys, condemned and executed on Dec. 7, during which occasion big ham Sidney gives a big speech - the Whigs flip their lids? Dutch adm. Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck (Sommelsdijk) (1637-88) founds the colony of Suriname in N South Am., and becomes gov. #1 (until 1688). Dutch traders are admitted to Canton. German naturalist Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716) visits Java, Thailand, and Japan. The Qin Dynasty Manchus seize the island of Taiwan (Formosa) from the pirates, and it becomes an appendage of the province of Fujian (until 1895). Norfolk, Va. on Chesapeake Bay becomes the most populous city of Va. Wild boars become extinct in the British Isles. Henry Purcell becomes court composer to Charles II. Charles Lebrun becomes dir. of the Academie Royale. The Mitsui Family Banking and Trading House in Japan is founded by Mitsui Takatoshi (1622-94). Sadler's Wells in Islington, London (named after a well with curative properties) begins musical performances to go along with the water, going on to operate mainly in the summer to fill in the gap for the Theatres Royal in London. John Dryden coins the word "biography" to describe Plutarch's "Parallel Lives". William Penn founds a brewery in his new Pennsbury Manor on the Delaware River near Bristol, Penn., and as proprietor Penn makes sure that beer sellers in Penn. don't have to purchase a license; a $10 license is instituted in 1847; meanwhile William Frampton builds the first brewery in Philadelphia on Front St. between Walnut St. and Spruce St. at the Dock St. Creek. Architecture: Sir Christopher Wren rebuilds the red-brick-front St. James's Palace in Piccadilly, London fronting on Pall Mall, which started out as a hospital and was rebuilt as a manor by Henry VIII. Sadler's Wells Theatre on Rosebery Ave. in Clerkenwell, C London (cap. 1,560) opens, named after owner Richard Sadler and the monastic springs on the site, becoming the 2nd theater opened in London after the Restoration after Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, opening on Easter Monday and closing after summer; it is rebuilt in 1765; in 1843 after passage of the 1843 Theatres Act, new mgr. Samuel Phelps (1804-78) saves it from bankruptcy by introducing productions of Shakespeare that return to the text of the First Folio, starting with "Macbeth" in 1844, becoming the debut of actress Isabella Glyn (1823-89); in 1875 it becomes a roller skating rink, followed by a boxing arena; in 1879 it reopens as a music hall, featuring Harry Champion, Marie Lloyd, Roy Redgrave et al.; in 1896 it becomes a cinema; it closes in 1915. Inventions: A patent is awarded in England on May 1 for the extraction of salt from seawater. Science: Dutch linen draper Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) (pr. lay-van-HOOK) invents a stronger (200x) microscope and discovers bacteria in the plaque of his own teeth, along with spermatozoa (not necessarily from the same place?) - I'm DJ Anton van Leeuwenhoek, and I'll allow you a look with my hooky hook hook? Isaac Newton discovers the effect of gravity on tides, and comes up with a mathematical theory - no matter how you shake and dance, the last few drops end up on your pants? Nonfiction: Edinburgh's True Almanac, or a New Prognostication; later called "Edinburgh Almanac". Antoine Arnauld (1612-94), Port-Royal Logic (La Logique ou l'Art de Penser Contenant Outre Les Regles Communes, Plusieurs Observations Nouvelles, Propres a Former le Jugement; std. logic text until the 20th cent. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657-1757), Dialogues des Morts. Sir Matthew Hale (1609-76), A Discourse Touching Provision for the Poor. Father Louis Hennepin (1640-1701), Description of Louisiana, Newly Discovered in the Southwest of New France. Joseph Moxon (1627-91), Mechanick Exercises; Or, the Doctrine of Hand-Works Applied to the Art of Printing; the first printing manual. William Penn (1644-1718), A General Description of Pennsylvania. Sir William Petty (1623-87), The Growth of the City of London. Art: Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723), Portrait of Sir Charles Cotterell. Plays: Edmonde Boursault, Le Mercure Galand (comedy). John Dryden (1631-1700) and Nathaniel Lee (1653-92), The Duke of Gise; pro-Tory adaptation of Sophocles' "Oedipus". Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Persee. Christian Weise (1642-1708), Von dem Neapolitanischen Rebellen Mansaniello (tragedy). Births: German organ-piano builder Gottfried Silbermann (d. 1753) on Jan. 14 in Kleinbobritzsch. French maggot scientist (entomologist) Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (d. 1757) on Feb. 26 in La Rochelle; educated at the U. of Poitiers, U. of Bourges, and U. of Paris. English queen consort (1727-37) Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (d. 1737) on Mar. 1 in Ansbach, Germany; daughter of Margrave Johann Friedrich and 2nd wife Eleanor Erdmuthe Louise of Saxe-Eisenach; brother of Wilhelm Friedrich of Brandenburg-Ansbach; wife (1705-) of George II. German Baroque composer Johann David Heinichen (d. 1729) on Apr. 17 in Crossuln (near Weissenfeld); educated at the U. of Leipzig. English "Night Thoughts" poet-dramatist Edward Young (d. 1765) on July 3 in Upham (near Winchester); educated at New College and Corpus Christi, Oxford U. English poet-dramatist Pieter Langendijk (d. 1756) on July 25 in Haarlem - long what? French Baroque organist-composer (Freemason?) ("the Isaac Newton of Music") Jean-Philippe Rameau (d. 1764) on Sept. 25 in Dijon; collaborator of Louis de Cahusac (1706-59); looks strikingly similar to Voltaire? English king (1727-60) George II (d. 1760) on Oct. 30 (Nov. 9 Old Style) in Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany; son of George I (1660-1727) and Sophia of Celle (divorced in 1694); grows up in N Germany; son of George I (1660-1727) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle (1666-1726); husband (1705-) of Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1683-1737); last British monarch born outside Great Britain (until ?). Spanish king (1700-46) (founder of the Spanish House of Bourbon) Philip (Felipe) V (d. 1746) on Dec. 19 in Versailles; son of Grand Daupin Louis (1661-1711); grandson of Louis XIV of France; great-grandson of Philip IV of Spain; starts out as duke of Anjou, becoming the first Bourbon on the Spanish throne (1700-46). English poet Elijah Fenton (d. 1730) in Shelton (Stoke-on-Trent), Staffordshire; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge U. English "Lady Modish in The Careless Husband" actress Anne Oldfield (d. 1730) in London. English feminist scholar ("the Saxon Nymph") (pioneer of Anglo-Saxon studies) Elizabeth Elstob (d. 1756) in Quayside, Newcastle upon Tyne; sister of William Elstob (1673-1715). Deaths: English "The Complete Angler" writer Izaak Walton (b. 1593) on Dec. 15 in Winchester. Am. Rhode Island founder Roger Williams (b. 1603); a few years after his death his body is dug up, and they find that a nearby apple tree "ate" it? Dutch painter Jan Davidsz de Heem (b. 1606) on Apr. 26 in Antwerp. English Puritan divine Benjamin Whichcote (b. 1609). English dramatist-mgr. Thomas Killigrew (b. 1612) on Mar. 19 in Whitehall, London. English theologian John Owen (b. 1616). French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert (b. 1619) on Sept. 6 in Paris; the bad financial condition of France at his death is blamed on him, causing his body to have to be secretly removed from his home to save it from a mob: "The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest amount of feathers with the least possible amount of hissing"; "It is simply and solely the abundance of money within a state which makes the difference in its grandeur and power." English Whig leader Algernon Sidney (b. 1623) on Dec. 7 in Tower Hill, London (executed for treason after not being allowed to see the indictment); exonerated in 1688; leaves Discourses Concerning Government, arguing agaiinst the Divine Right of Kings and advocating a limited repub. govt., becoming "the textbook of the American Revolution" along with John Locke's "Two Treatises on Government", making him a martyr and hero; "[The] only ends for which governments are constituted and obedience rendered to them, are the obtaining of justice and protection"; "God leaves to man the choice of forms in government... He who institutes, may also abrogate." Italian architect Guarino Guarini (b. 1624) on Mar. 6 in Milan. Dutch painter Willem van Aelst (b. 1627) in Amsterdam. Dutch painter Pieter de Hooch (b. 1629). Ottoman grand vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (b. 1634) on Dec. 25 in Belgrade (executed by the Janissaries by strangulation with a silk cord, his head sent to Sultan Mehmed IV in a velvet bag); last words: "Make sure you tie the knot right." German poet Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein (b. 1635). Portuguese king (1656-83) Afonso VI (b. 1643) on Sept. 12 in Cintra. English poet John Oldham (b. 1653) on Dec. 7 in Holm Pierrepont (near Nottingham) (smallpox); John Dryden writes an elegy on his death.
1684 On Aug. 15 after France seizes Trier and permanently occupies Lorraine, Louis XIV and the HRE conclude the temporary Truce of Regensburg (Ratisbon), making Saar a French province (until 1697). The Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War (Morean War) (War of the Holy League of Linz) (ends 1699) between the Roman Catholic Holy League of Linz (formed by the HRE, Poland, and Venice) and the Muslim Ottomans begins, giving Eugene of Savoy his big chance to make a name for himself as savior of Christianity. The Lords of Trade win a chancery court decision that annuls the charter of the Mass. Bay Colony as a Puritan state; England declares that the Am. colonies may not govern themselves, and Mass. is placed in the hands of a special royal commission. Bermuda becomes a crown colony. William Penn returns to England after only two years in his own brand name colony Pennsylvania - nobody had told him about the winters? The Siamese embassy arrives at the court of Louis XIV at Versailles. Bordeaux, France expels 93 man-fridays, er, Jewish families. The French capture Chandernagore (Chandannagar) in West Bengal 20 mi. N of Calcutta (until 1778). German naturalist Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716) travels to the Persian Gulf, Java, and Japan. Takemoto Gidayu (1651-1714), known for his Joruri puppet theater in Tokyo founds the Bunraku puppet theater in Osaka, consisting of puppeteers, chanters, and players (shamisen). French dramatist Pierre Corneille (b. 1606) dies, and his brother Thomas Corneille (1625-1709) takes his seat in the French Academy. Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) becomes musical dir. of the court of Naples. French Huguenot Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) begins pub. the lit. review Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres in Rotterdam. (St.) Jean Baptiste de la Salle (1651-1719) founds the Inst. of the Brothers of the Christian Schools in France, followed by a seminary for teachers next year, pioneering systematic education of teachers. Architecture: Jules Mansart builds the Orangerie at Versailles, complete with fully grown imported orange trees, and circled by the Stairs of a Hundred Steps. The awesome astounding Galerie des Glaces at Versailles (begun 1679) is completed. The Trinity College Library in Cambridge (begun 1676) is completed. The Machine de Marly (begun 1681), consisting of 14 36-ft.-wide water wheels working 221 pumps to pump water 177 yards up the hillsides from the Seine to two reservoirs near Versailles proves a costly failure, and a new effort is begun to divert the course of the Eure River to supply the ridiculous 1.4K fountains of Versailles Palace (ends 1686). Downing St. in Whitehall, London (adjoining St. James's Park) is built by soldier-diplomat Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet (1623-84) as a residence for Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield (1664-1718); No. 10 eventually becomes the official residence of the British PM, while No. 11 becomes the residence of the chancellor of the exchequer, and No. 12 the residence of the chief whip; his grandson Sir George Downing, 3rd baronet (1685-1749) leaves funds in his will that eventually (1800) are used to found Downing College at Cambridge U. Science: In May (Aug.?) celeb Edmund Halley visits Sir Isaac Newton in Cambridge to ask what orbit a body would describe under an inverse-square law of attraction, and Newton replies an ellipse, and that he had proved it years earlier but lost the papers and would rework it and send it to him, which he does in Nov., pub. De Motu Corporum in Gyrum (On the Motion of Revolving Bodies) in Dec., then expanding the work, until in 1687 he pub. his monumental "Principia" at Halley's expense; meanwhile Leibniz pub. his system of the integral and differential calculus independently of Newton, allegedly based on his own work from 1673-6, starting a doowahdiddydiddy credit-seeking race; Newton wins the decision for priority with the great tale of the apple in the plague year of 1666 and his killer theory of gravity, but Leibniz' cooler notation gets adopted by textbook writers. William Briggs describes night blindness. Anton van Leeuwenhoek makes the first microscopic observation of the retina, and discovers the rods and cones. The first triennial Croonian Lecture at the British Royal Society on the structure and function of the human brain is delivered. Nonfiction: Jacques Abaddie, (1654-1727), Treatise on the Truth of the Christian Religion; contains the immortal soundbyte: You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time", later attributed to Abraham Lincoln. Gian Cassini (1625-1712), Les Elements de l'Astronomie Verifies. Philipp von Hornigk (1640-1714), Austria Over All, If She Only Will (Osterreich Uber Alles, Wann es Nur Will); lays out the policy of mercantilism, stressing nationalism and self-sufficiency. Increase Mather (1639-1723), Remarkable Providences. John Partridge (1644-1714), Merlinus Redivivus, being an almanack for the year of our redemption (1st ed.). Music: Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87), Amadis de Gaule (opera) (Palais Royale, Paris) (Jan. 18); libretto by Philippe Quinault (1635-88). Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725), Pompeo (opera) (Naples). Art: Luca Giordano (1634-1705), The Creation of Man and Charon and Morpheus (Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence (1684-6). Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723), Portrait of the Duchess of Portsmouth. Pierre Puget (1620-94), Perseus and Andromeda (sculpture). Plays: Nathaniel Lee (1653-92), Constantine the Great. Thomas Otway (1652-85), The Atheist (London) - proves to be a jinx? Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Phaeton. Novels: John Bunyan (1628-88), The Pilgrim's Progress, Pt. 2; causes the female name "Christian" (Gk. "anointed") to become a popular boy's name, since he's the hero? Giovanni Paolo Marana (1672-92), L'Espion du Grand Seigneur. Births: Dutch writer (in French and Dutch) Justus van Effen (d. 1735) on Feb. 21 in Utrecht. Spanish PM (1725-6) (Roman Catholic) Johan Willem (John William) (Juan Guillermo), Baron of Ripperda (Ripperdá), 1st Duke of Ripperda (d. 1737) on Mar. 7 in Oldehove, Groningen, Netherlands. Russian Romanov tsar #6 (1725-7) Catherine (Yekaterina) I Alexeyevna (d. 1727) on Apr. 15 (Apr. 5 Old Style) in Ringen, Livonia; 2nd wife of Peter I the Great (1672-1725). Italian Baroque composer-violinist Francesco Onofrio Manfredini (d. 1762) on June 22 in Pistoia (near Florence); studies with Giuseppe Torelli; father of Vincenzo Manfredini (1737-99) and Giuseppe Manfredini. English (Flemish) sculptor John Michael Rysbrack (d. 1770) on June 27 in Antwerp; brother of Pieter Andreas Rysbrack. German composer-organist Johann Gottfried Walther (d. 1748) on Sept. 18 in Erfurt. French painter Jean-Antoine Watteau (d. 1721) on Oct. 10; inventor of the fete-galante (fête-galante) ("rich outdoor party") painting genre. British adm. Edward "Old Grog" Vernon (d. 1757) on Nov. 12 in Westminster, London; educated at Westminster School; namesake of George Washington's Mount Vernon. Danish dramatist-poet ("Father of Modern Danish Literature") Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (d. 1754) on Dec. 3 in Bergen, Norway; educated at the U. of Copenhagen and U. of Oxford; created baron in 1747. Venetian composer Alessandro Marcello (d. 1750). Deaths: Italian composer Nicolo Amati (b. 1596) on Apr. 12 in Cremona. French dramatist-poet Pierre Corneille (b. 1606) on Oct. 1; dies poor: "Guess, if you can, and choose, if you dare"; "To win without risk is to triumph without glory." English Parliamentarian gen. John Lambert (b. 1619) in Mar. in Drake's Island, Plymouth Sound; dies in prison after being convicted of treason in June 1662. English mathematician William, Viscount Brouncker (b. 1620) on Apr. 5. French physicist Edme Mariotte (b. 1620) on May 12 in Paris; independent discoverer of Boyle's Law. Irish-born British soldier-diplomat Sir George Downing (b. 1623) in July in Cambridgeshire. English Arundel Marble man Henry Howard, 6th duke of Norfolk (b. 1628) on Jan. 13. Dutch painter Pieter de Hooch (b. 1629). English horticulturist Robert Sharrock (b. 1630).
1685 On Feb. 2 "Merry Monarch" English king (since May 29, 1660) Charles II (b. 1630) (rumored to be a secret Roman Catholic despite running a debauched and immoral court and fathering 14 illegitimate children but no legitimate heir by his wife Catherine of Braganza) enters his last illness, asking for distilled human skull ("the King's Drops") as medicine; on Feb. 6 he dies a well-laid Roman Catholic after suffering a massive stroke while shaving, and his militant Roman Catholic brother James Stuart, duke of Albany and York succeeds (until 1688) to the throne of England and Wales as James II (1633-1701) (47th monarch and last Roman Catholic monarch of England), and the throne of Scotland as James VII (until Dec. 11, 1688); his followers are known as Tories; he soon passes laws to grant rights to Roman Catholics, and abolishes many anti-Irish laws, causing a simultaneous revolt in Scotland and England; Charles II's eldest illegitimate son (a true blue Protestant) (might have been legitimate via a secret marriage?) James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (1649-85) lands at Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire, W England to raise a rebellion, proclaiming himself king, and is defeated on July 6 at the Battle of Sedgemoor in Somerset, captured and beheaded; the exiled duke of Argyll (Argyle) returns to Scotland to lead another rebellion, assisted by James II's son-in-law Prince William II of Orange, but is defeated and executed on June 30; James II tries to get his subjects to convert to Catholicism in vain, throwing the sop of toleration to Protestants, incl. Presbyterians in Scotland, ending the Killing Times (begun 1679); too bad, treason is treason, so he sends "Hanging Judge" Lord Chief Justice George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem (1645-89) to conduct the Bloody Assizes against Monmouth's followers in S and W England starting on Aug. 25, 1685, which he does with ruthless disregard of the defendants' rights, sentencing 300+ to die and 800+ to penal transportation to the Am. colonies; one young man accused of uttering seditious words is sentenced to be "flogged through every market town in Dorsetshire every year" for seven years, and when the clerk of the arraigns objects, "My Lord, the prisoner is very young. There are many market towns in our county. The sentence amounts to whipping once a fortnight for seven years", Jeffreys replies, "If he is a young man, he is an old rogue" - the origin of the 20th cent. U.S. mandatory sentencing guidelines? There is no such thing as a French Protestant, and that's that? On Oct. 22, 1685 the Edict of Fontainebleu by French Sun King Louis XIV revokes the 1598 Edict of Nantes, with the soundbyte: "His Majesty wishes the worst harshness on those who do not partake of his religion", instituting the idea of war secy. (1666-91) Francois-Michel le Tellier of the Dragonnades, obnoxious soldiers (dragoons) who are billeted to Huguenot households with a 007 license to harass and intimidate them, spurring a mass exodus from France, while 58K are forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism, causing 500K Huguenots to ignore prohibitions against emigration and emigrate to England (Spitalfields), Prussia (Brandenburg), the Netherlands, Switzerland, South Africa, and the English colonies in North Am. (N.Y., Mass., S.C.) to get away from the Sun King and his mandatory Roman Catholic faith; next Jan. 17 Louis XIV brags that only 1K-1.5K of 800K-900K Huguenots still remain in Sunny France; meanwhile on July 26 the elector of Brandenburg sees his chance and issues the Potsdam Declaration, offering Protestants refuge, causing French Huguenots to flock there, as well as others from the Netherlands, Bohemia, and Russia, pumping up the economy; the new Huguenots also boost the Dutch economy, pumping up William II of Orange; thousands settle in the Cevennes Mts. of S France and become known as the Camisards; the Protestants of Alsace obtain an exemption permitting freedom of worship; French Roman Catholic priest (since 1675) Francois de Salignac de Mothe-Fenelon (Mothe-Fénelon) (1651-1715), head (since 1678) of the Nouvelles Catholiques in Paris for female prospective converts to Roman Catholicism (since 1679) is sent as the head of a mission to convert the hard-headed Protestants of Saintonge - and ends up getting infected with wild and crazy ideas? In the winter Louis XIV secretly marries his 2nd wife, Puritanical Roman Catholic mistress Madame Scarron, AKA Francoise d'Aubigne (d'Aubigné), Marquise de Maintenon (1635-1719) after she won't give him benefits till he puts the secret ring on her finger; s he goes on to become influential at court, screening the king's ministers. Imre Thokoly seeks help from the pasha of Oradea in Hungary, who seizes him instead and sends him in chains to Edirne, ending his revolt and causing his followers to submit to HRE Leopold I. Elector Charles of the Palatinate dies without male heirs, and the succession is claimed by Louis XIV for his sister-in-law Liselotte, wife of the duke of Orleans, who is also Charles' sister, starting the War of the Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg) (1688-1697) against France. English fop comedy writer Sir George Etherege (1635-91) (knighted in 1680) is sent as English ambassador to Ratisbon (Regensburg) in Bavaria. In order to control them, James II merges the New England colonies into the Dominion of New England in America (ends 1689), governed from Boston starting next year by Gov.-Gen. Sir Edmund Andros (1637-1714) along with a council appointed by the crown (no rep. assembly). The Venetians begin conquering the Peloponnese (ends 1687). Chinese forces begin attacking the Cossack fort of Albazin in the Amur River region, claiming it as their own territory (until 1689). Aho Houegbadja (ruled since 1645) dies, and his son Houessou Akaba (-1708) becomes king #4 of Dahomey in W Africa (until 1708), with his royal symbols being a warthog and saber - I don't mean to brag, but take a peek? The city of Dresden in Saxony is burned down, and elector Johann Georg III hires architect Wolf Caspar of Klengel (1630-91) and sculptor Balthasar Permoser (1651-1732) to reconstruct it in the new Baroque Style; by 1689 its pop. is 21.3K, and it begins to rock; meanwhile JG3 meets and beds Venetian opera singer Margarita Salicola and brings her to Dresden, where she shows up the castrati. After taking part in the failed 1683 Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II and James, Cromwellian soldier Richard Rumbold (1622-85) joins a failed plot to drive James from the throne, and is executed. All Chinese ports are opened to foreign trade. France founds the slave-trading Guinea Co. to stock French plantations; the Code Noir (Black Code), orders all Jews out of French colonies and forbids any religion other than Roman Catholic, while requiring plantation owners to treat their slaves humanely, although it is widely ignored - if my white wimmen ever got a taste of them black men? French Jesuit missionary Claude Jean Allouez explores W Lake Superior. The first French Huguenot settlers come to Texas. Scottish Dissenters found the town of Perth Amboy, N.J., named after James Drummond, 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Perth, and the Indian name Amboy; next year it becomes capital of East Jersey (until 1702). French Huguenots begin silk manufacture in England. The Dutch set up a factory in Bengkulu in SW Sumatra. The King of Lapakh freaks when he learns of a Christian church in the Shangri-La town of Tsaparang in the Tibetan Himalayas, and attacks it, executing the royal family, incl. the last king of Gage; he leaves the town standing, incl. its Red and White Temples; in the 1960s the Communist Chinese destroy the religious statues and images. Increase Mather becomes pres. of Harvard College (until 1701). Playfair invents the dance known as the Dark Horse. John Dryden sees the light and becomes a Roman Catholic. The 4th Queen's Own Hussars British cavalry regiment (originally Princess Anne of Denmark's Regiment of Dragoons) is founded (until 1958), which Sir Winston Churchill joins in 1899, becoming "the Greatest Hussar of them all". Sports: Down Royal (Downpatrick) Racecourse in Ireland is granted a royal charter by horse-loving Charles II. Architecture: The Pont Royal in Paris begins construction (finished 1689), known for its curved look. Science: Charles Allen of England pub. the first work on dentistry. Nonfiction: David Abercromby, De Pulsis Variatione. Charles Allen, The Operator for Teeth; first dental textbook in English. Philippe Sylvestre Dufour, Traitéz Nouveaux et Curieux du Café, du Thé et du Chocolat (New and Curious Treatises on Coffee, Tea and Chocolate); 2nd ed. 1688: one of the first books in French to address tea, extolling the leaf for its ability to cure headaches and aid digestion, offering prescriptions. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, Lettres Galantes du Chevalier d'Her. Jean Hardouin (1646-1729) (tr.), Pliny's Natural History. Cesar de Rochefort, Dictionnaire General et Curieux. Music: John Dryden (1631-1700), Albion and Albanius (libretto to opera by Lewis Grabu). Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87), Roland (opera). Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Solone (opera). Art: Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723), Portrait of Philip, Earl of Leicester. Juan Carreno de Miranda (1614-85), La Monstrua Desnuda. Simon Ushakov (1626-86), The Mystical Supper. Plays: The Fourth Folio of William Shakespeare's works is pub. Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Amadis de Gaule. Poetry: Charles Montagu (1661-1715), Verses on the Death of King Charles II. Births: English dramatist Aaron Hill (d. 1750) on Feb. 10 in London. English lawyer-meteorologist George Hadley (d. 1768) on Feb. 12 in London; first to explain the trade winds. English "The Messiah" Baroque composer (in England) George Frideric Handel (Georg Friedrich Händel) (d. 1759) on Feb. 23 [Pisces] in Halle, Brandenburg-Prussia; becomes British subject in 1727; never meets J.S. Bach. Irish Immaterialist philosopher-mathematician and Anglican bishop of Cloyne (County Cork) George Berkeley (d. 1753) on Mar. 12 in Dysart Castle ner Thomastown, County Kilkenny; spends 3 years in North Am.; namesake of Berkeley, Calif. French portraitist Jean-Marc Nattier (d. 1766) on Mar. 17 in Paris; educated at the Royal Academy; known for portraits of Louis XV's court ladies in mythological attire. German "The Well-Tempered Clavier", "The Goldberg Variations" Baroque composer (#1 composer of all time) (world's first rocker?) Johann Sebastian "J.S." Bach (d. 1750) on Mar. 21 (Mar. 31 Old Style) in Eisenach, Saxe-Eisenach (East Germany); son of Johann Ambrosius Bach (1645-95) and Maria Elisabeth Lammerhirt (1644-940; nephew of Johann Christoph Bach (1645-93); brother of Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721); father of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-84), Carl (Karl) Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-88), and Johann Christian Bach (1735-82). English "The Beggar's Opera" neoclassic poet-dramatist John Gay (d. 1732) on June 30 in Barnstaple (Barnstable), Devonshire. English mathematician Brook Taylor (d. 1731) on Aug. 18 in Edmonton, Middlesex; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; inventor of Taylor's Series in calculus and the calculus of finite differences. English silk machine inventor Sir Thomas Lombe (d. 1739) on Sept. 5 in Norwich; father HenryLombe is a worsted weaver. Austrian HRE (1711-40) Charles (Karl) VI (d. 1740) on Oct. 1 in Vienna; son of HRE Leopold I and 3rd wife Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg; husband of Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel; father of Maria Theresa (1717-80). English MP (1710-15, 1722-49) Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet (d. 1749) on Oct. 24; only son of Sir George Downing, 2nd baronet (-1711) and Lady Catherine Cecil (-1688), daughter of James Cecil, 3rd earl of Salibury; cousin of Sir Jacob Downing, 4th baronet (1717-64). Italian composer-harpsichordist Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (d. 1757) on Oct. 26 in Naples; son of Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725); studies with his father then with Francesco Gasparini; spends most of his life in Spain and Portugal; founder of modern keyboard technique, incl. arpeggios, crossing of hands, and rapid repetition of a single note. Italian composer Lodovico Giustini (d. 1743) on Dec. 12 in Pistoia; first composer to write music for the piano. English landscape architect ("the Father of Modern Gardening") William Kent (d. 1748) in Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire; first gen. practitioner of landscape gardening?; "Frees the English garden from formality." Deaths: French statesman Michel le Tellier (b. 1603) on Oct. 30; dies happy 12 days after the signing of the Revocation of Nantes, with his son Francois Michel le Tellier firmly in charge. Dutch painter Adriaen van Ostade (b. 1610) on May 2 in Haarlem; leaves 385-900 paintings. English mathematician John Pell (b. 1610) on Dec. 10. Spanish painter Juan Carreno de Miranda (b. 1614) in Madrid. Welsh jurist Sir Leoline Jenkins (b. 1625) on Sept. 1. English diplomat Charles Howard, 1st earl of Carlisle (b. 1629). English king (1660-85) Charles II (b. 1630) on Feb. 6 in Whitehall Palace, London (stroke); last words: "Let not poor Nelly starve": "I don't believe that God would condemn a man for a few irregular pleasures." English actress Margaret Hughes (b. 1630) on Feb. 6. Japanese emperor #111 (1655-63) Go-Sai (b. 1638) on Mar. 22. English pretender James Scott, 1st duke of Monmouth (b. 1649) on July 15 in London (executed in the Tower). English dramatist Thomas Otway (b. 1652) on Apr. 14. English poet Anne Killigrew (b. 1660) on June 16 in London (smallpox).
1686 In mid-June the Battle of Buda sees Buda Castle recaptured from the Turks (after 145 years) by the Holy League, led by Duke Charles of Lorraine, Karl of Lotharingia, and Eugene of Savoy; in mid-Aug. a Turkish relief army under Abdurrahman Abdi Pasha arrives, but Savoy's army engages in a rearguard action to keep them from aiding their comrades, breaches the Generalsturm (General's Tower) on Sept. 2; too bad, the bloodthirsty Christians are pumped up on tales of Turkish atrocities and begin raping and butchering the pop., until the elector of Bavaria and duke of Lorraine stop them, leaving 2K of 5K remaining; the remnant of pesky Jews, who are accused of aiding the Turks are expelled; the Muslim conquest of E Europe and invasion of W Europe is stopped at the gates of Budapest, and the Turks begin a 3-cent. retreat; the Byerley (Byerly) Turk (1684-1706) Arabian stallion is captured by Capt. Robert Byerley at the Battle of Buda, and he takes it to Ireland in 1689, after which it is crossbred with English mares, founding the Thoroughbred horse line in England; meanwhile Russia declares war on Turkey, starting the Third Russo-Turkish War (ends 1700). On May 6 despite opposition by Poland, the Treaty of Perpetual (Eternal) Peace is signed in Moscow by envoys of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, confirming the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo, securing Russian possession of the left-bank country of Ukraine and the right-bank city of Kiev in return for a payment of 146K rubles. On July 9 HRE Leopold I and William of Orange form the League of Augsburg with Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, and the Palatinate to counter French expansionism to the E; Savoy and Pope Innocent XI later join as Romman Catholics, and Protestants unite under William of Orange to stop the Catholic Frogs, agreeing to maintain an army of 60K to fight them if they step over the line. On Sept. 12 the the sultanate of Bijapur in SW India (founded 1518), which once stretched as far S as Bangalore but has been systematically contracted is conquered by the Mughals under Aurangzeb, ending the rule of the adil shahs. In Dec. 300 Jewish families (followers of Shabatai Zevi) in Salonica convert to Islam, but continue to practice Judaism secretly, becoming known as Doenmehs (renegades), growing to 20K members by the 19th cent. and moving to Constantinople in 1913; Kemal Ataturk's father was one of them? Imre Thokoly is released by the Ottoman sultan and sent with a small army to take Transylvania, but he fails, and after a 2nd expedition in 1688 does ditto they imprison him again as a suspected double agent. James II appoints Roman Catholic Sir Edward Hales, 2nd Baronet (1626-84) as lt. of the Tower of London, who then prosecutes a collusionary test suit challenging the anti-papal laws, and wins, causing the king's popularity to 'ead to 'ades. James II dissolves the colonial legislatures in North Am., and appoints Joseph Dudley as gov. of the Dominion (Federation) of New England (incl. Mass., Conn. and parts of R.I.), then replaces him with Sir Edmund Andros (1637-1714), who arrives this year in Boston. French Jesuit orator Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704) is sent by Louis XIV to Montpellier to convert the Huguenots - just a Midas touch? Roman Catholics are readmitted to the English army - all four of them, as long as they don't speak French? Elector Johann Georg III of Saxony appoints pietist Philipp Jakob Spener as his court chaplain in Dresden; too bad, the pop. doesn't accept him, and he moves to Brandenburg in 1691. A ship from Madagascar arrives in S.C. with the first rice plants (Carolina Gold) - this is a little warmer retreat? Arkansas (Ark.) is settled by Italian-born French soldier Henri de Tonti (1649-1704), who founds the Arkansas Post. The 11th cent. town of Erlangen in Bavaria on the Regnitz River 11 mi. NW of Nuremberg (modern-day pop. 110K) is refounded as Neustadt after the margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth assigns the land to French Huguenots fleeing persecution; in 1706 the old town burns down, and is rebuilt, and in 1812 the two towns merge. The city of Poughkeepsie (Wappinger "U-puku-ipi-sing" = reed-covered lodge by the little water-place) in the Hudson River Valley midway between Albany and New York City (modern-day pop. 30K/423K) is purchased from the Wappinger Indians by Englishman Robert Sanders and Dutchman Myndert Harmense Van Den Bogaerdt, and settled by the Dutch, who found the Reformed Church of Poughkeepsie in 1720, and incorporate it as a town on Mar. 27, 1799; it is chartered as a city on Mar. 28, 1854, becoming the 2nd capital of N.Y. during the Am. Rev., hosting the U.S. constitution ratification convention for N.Y. and becoming the county seat of Dutchess County, known as "the Queen City of the Hudson". The town of Mattatuck in Ct. on the Naugatuck River is incorporated as Waterbury, Conn. Quakers begin to meet in New Jersey. Speaking of French expansionism? After Louis XIV has trouble going number two last year, and the court doctors fail to dispel a small lump in his anus, surgeon Charles Francois Felix (1635-1703) is called in, and diagnoses an anal fistula; he agrees to remove it in 6 mo., after he has time to practice on several commoners' anuses, causing several fatalities but finally getting the technique down; on Nov. 18 he operates on the king at Versailles, and the operation is so successful that the year is dubbed "L'anee de la fistula", and Felix is showered with money and titles; as a side effect, the lowly stature of surgeons is greatly raised vis a vis doctors (who the Medieval Church prohibits from performing surgery) and "basin barbers". Louis XIV and Mme. de Maintenon found Maison St. Cyr, a convent school for daughters of poor gentlefolk. August Hermann Francke (1663-1727) founds the Collegium Philobiblicum for Bible studies at Leipzig. The first theater in Sweden opens in Stockholm. Cafe Procope, named after French historian Procopius is opened in Paris by Sicilian chef Procopio Cuto (Cutò) (Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli) (1651-1727), serving that newfangled coffee along with sorbets in porcelain cups by waiters in exotic Turkish garb; it soon becomes a men-only club, the meeting place for French intelligentsia until the mid-1800s, the first literary coffee shop, and later the oldest Parisian restaurant to survive to modern times; Voltaire (1694-1778) later sits there all day drinking 40-50 cups of coffee mixed with chocolate; other celeb patrons incl. Honore de Balzac, Pierre Beaumarchais, Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert (who conceived of the Encyclopedie there), Victor Hugo, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Paul Jones, Napoleon Bonaparte, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Oscar Wilde; a sign above the door later reads: "Cafe a la Voltaire", with the soundbyte: "Ice cream is exquisite. Pity it isn't illegal" being attributed to him. The effort to divert the Eure River is halted after a large cost in money and lives because the troops being used as labor are needed for war; eventually waters from the plateau between Versailles and Rambouillet are channeled to the palace. Architecture: Jules Hardouin-Mansart builds the L'Eglise Notre Dame royal parish church in Versailles. Charles II begins yet another Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar in Saragossa, Spain (finished 1686) to commemorate Apostle James the Greater's visitation in 40 C.E. Inventions: Abbe de la Roque, known for his Thur. afternoon philosophical sessions in Paris and his editing of a French scientific journal invents a perpetual motion machine consisting of a funnel with its stem curved back to return to the top - it works in the bedroom? Science: Edmund Halley offers a partial explanation of the trade winds - it's hot here, cold here, ta da? Isaac Newton invents the gravitational constant G. Nonfiction: Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, Entretiens sur la Pluralite des Mondes; the astronomical theories of Descartes. Edmund Halley (1656-1742), Meteorological Map; the first? Pierre Jurieu (1637-1713), The Fulfillment of the Prophets (L'Accomplissement des Propheties); French Huguenot pastor AKA "the Goliath of the Protestants" responds to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes by predicting the fall of t he Antichrist (Pope) in 1689, stirring things up when the 1688 Glorious Rev. in England seems to be proving him right?; Lettres Pastorales Adressées aux Fideles (Fidéles) de France (3 vols.) (1686-87) (Rotterdam); Eng. trans. in 1689. Jean Le Clerc, Bibliotheque Universelle et Historique (25 vols.) (1686-93). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), Discourse on Metaphysics; not pub. until the 19th cent.; proposes that good exists independently of God, and that this world is the best of all possible worlds; "The opinions of scholastic philosophers are not to be wholly despised." John Ray (1627-1705), Historia Generalis Plantarum (3 vols.) (1681-1704); founds modern plant taxonomy, listing 18K species. Richard Turberville, The Alcoran Alembicked; or, A Short Guide to the Religion of the Turks. Francis Willughby (1635-72), Historia Piscium (posth.). Music: Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87), Armide et Renaud (opera) (Paris) on Feb. 15. Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Audacia e Rispetto (opera); Prerogative d'Amore (opera); Servio Tullio (opera). Giuseppe Torelli (1658-1709), 10 Sonate a Tre, with Basso Continuo, Op. 1. Plays: Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Shusse Kagekiyo (puppet play) (Tokyo). Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Roland; his masterpiece? Poetry: John Dryden (1631-1700), To the Pious Memory of the Accomplish'd Young Lady Mrs. Anne Killigrew; compares her poetry to Sappho. Anne Killigrew (1630-60), Poems (posth.). Births: French "Clara le Rhinoceros" Baroque painter Jean-Baptiste Oudry (d. 1755) on Mar. 17 in Paris; son of Jacques Oudry; father of Jacques-Charles Oudry; student of French court painter Nicolas de Largilliere; known for his paintings of hunting and wild game. German physicist-engineer Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (d. 1736) on May 24 (May 14 Old Style) in Gdansk (Danzig), Prussia. Scottish merchant (co-founder of the Swedish East India Co.) Colin Campbell (d. 1757) in June in Edinburgh; first Swedish envoy to China. Italian Baroque opera composer and singing teacher Nicola (Niccolò) (Antonio) Porpora (d. 1768) on Aug. 17 in Naples; teacher of Farinelli and Matteo Capranica. German Late Baroque painter-architect Cosmas Damian Asam (d. 1739) on Sept. 29 in Benediktbeuern; brother of Egid Quirin Asam (1692-1750). Scottish "The Gentle Shepherd" "Give me a lass with a lump of land" poet (#1 before Robert Burns) Allan Ramsay (d. 1758) on Oct. 15 in Leadhills, Lanarkshire, England; father of painter Allan Ramsay (1713-84); moves to Edinburgh in 1701 to make wigs, and becomes a bookseller in 1718, turning to poetry on the side. Irish writer Rev. Samuel "Premium" Madden (d. 1765) on Dec. 23 in Dublin; establishes premiums for learning at Trinity College, Dublin in 1731, hence his nickname. Italian composer Benedetto Marcello (d. 1739). Am. publisher Andrew Sowles Bradford (d. 1742) in Philadelphia, Penn.; son of printer William Bradford (1663-1752); brother of New York City printer William Bradford Jr. (1722-91). Tripoli pasha (1711-1835) (Sunni Muslim) Ahmed Karamanli (d. 1745); of Turkish descent; starts out as a Janissary. Italian Palladian-Georgian architect Giacomo (James) Leoni (d. 1746) in Venice. English astronomer-mathematician John Machin (d. 1751). English mystic Jacobite divine William Law (d. 1761) in Kings Cliffe, Northamptonshire; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Deaths: German physicist Otto von Guericke (b. 1602) on May 21 (May 11 Old Style) in Hamburg. English antiquary Sir William Dugdale (b. 1605) on Feb. 10 in Blyth Hall, Shustoke, Warwickshire. French architect Francois Blondel (b. 1618) on Jan. 21 in Paris. English Puritan divine Thomas Watson (b. 1620) - and the shark, or and the computer? French military leader Louis II, prince of Conde (the Great Conde) (b. 1621) on Nov. 11 in Chantilly; reconverts to Roman Catholicism a year before death; Jacques Bossuet delivers a famous Funeral Oration on the Great Conde. Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (b. 1622) on Apr. 26 in Venngarn Castle, Sigtuna. English music writer John Playford (b. 1623) in London. Russian artist Simon Ushakov (b. 1626) on June 25 in Moscow. Danish scientist Nicolaus Steno (b. 1638) on Nov. 25 in Schwerin; buried in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence. English public executioner (hangman) Jack Ketch (b. ?).
1687 There is a measles epidemic in Boston, Mass., becoming the first in 30 years. On Feb. 12 (Scotland) and Apr. 4 (England) James II of England issues his Declaration of Indulgence (Declaration for Liberty of Conscience), granting liberty to all denominations in England and Scotland, esp. his own Roman Catholicism, suspending penal laws enforcing conformity to the Church of England, and permitting persons to worship in homes or chapels as they see fit, ending the requiring for religious oaths for govt. office, permitting non-Anglicans a little breathing room in merry Britain. On Mar. 19 French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle (b. 1643) is murdered by mutineers in Texas. In Mar. Jesuit Father Eusebio Kino (1645-1711) founds the first Roman Catholic mission in Sonora, Mexico among the Pima Indians, then explores and becomes the first person to map S Ariz. On May 2 Japanese emperor (since 1663) Reigen (b. 1654) abdicates in favor of his 5th son Higashiyama (1675-1710) (personal name Asahito), who becomes Japanese emperor #113 (until July 27, 1709), going on to revive the ceremonial rice offering (Daijosai) by a new emperor. On July 5 English #1 superbrain Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) pub. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (pr. prin-KIP-ee-ya), founding celestial and terrestrial mechanics with his Three Universal Laws of Motion, proving the inverse square law of gravitation and many other basic results after a bitter feud with Robert Hooke (1635-1703) over priority; the rough ms. is finished on June 20, 1686, but he adds a section on comets with the help of John Flamsteed; the preface acknowledges Edmund Halley, saying "it was through his solicitations that it came to be published"; "But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypothesis; for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called an hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have not place in experimental philosophy. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena, and afterwards rendered general by induction. Thus it was that the impenetrability, the mobility, and the impulsive force of bodies, and the laws of motion and of gravitation, were discovered. And to us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea." On July 13 the French under New France gov. (1685-9) Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) defeat Seneca warriors at the Battle of Victor in W N.Y. On Aug. 12 60K Turks (incl. Mamluk slaves and 40K Balkan mercenaries) under Suleiman Pasha are defeated by 60K Austrians under Duke Charles of Lorraine at the Second Battle of Mohacs (Battle of Harsany Mountain) (first in 1526), with 10K Ottoman vs. only 600 Austrian casualties, opening Austria's way to Belgrade, after which the Turkish army revolts, and sultan (since 1648) Mehmed IV (1642-93) is deposed and replaced by his caged brother Suleiman II (1642-91), who becomes Ottoman sultan #20 (until 1691), at first refusing to leave the cage when they come for him, thinking it's a trick to assassinate him; Eger Castle (taken in 1552) is starved into surrender by Charles of Lorraine's army. On Sept. 26 the Parthenon and Propylaea on the Acropolis in Athens are destroyed by a Venetian bombardment of the Turks; a small mosque is built in the Parthenon's cella. In Oct. after Conn. fails to cooperate with the new Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros tries to take possession of the charter, appearing in the Hartford council chamber with an armed guard, which they hide in the 12th cent. Charter Oak (cut down in 1856); John Wise (1652-1725), Congregational minister (since 1680) of Ipswich, Mass. leads a protest against royal govt. Edmund Andros' taxes. In Nov. the Hungarian Diet of Pressburg recognizes the crown as the hereditary possession of the male line of Hapsburgs; on Dec. 9 9-y.-o. Joseph I, son of HRE Leopold I is crowned king of Hungary. Savoy joins the League of Augsburg. James II receives the papal nuncio, pissing-off the Protestant pop.; he creates his French-born illegitimate son (by Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough) James FitzJames (1670-1734) as duke of Berwick, and he goes on to become one of the top military strategists of his day; he appoints his brother-in-law Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell (1630-91) as viceroy of Ireland, reversing Charles II's pro-Protestant policy and advancing Roman Catholics to state positions and giving them control of the militia, causing the Roman Catholic pop. to fall in love with him; when Tyrconnell tries to garrison some Catholic troops in Protestant-dominated Derry, the Young Apprentice Boys shut the gates to them. Louis XIV sends his ambassador Henry Charles, Marquis de Lavardin (1643-1701) (descendant of Jean de Beaumandoir, marquis de Lavardin, who turned from Protestant to Catholic after the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre) to Rome with an armed force of 1K men to maintain his claim on his franchises, or royal whorehouses, inherited from Roman nobles. Veera Kerala Varma V dies, and Rama Varma III (-1693) becomes king of Cochin in India (until 1693). Francis Nicholson (1655-1728), who sailed to New England last year with Sir Edmund Andros becomes lt.-gov. of N.Y. until 1689, then gov. until 1690. Brandenburg establishes a colony in Arguin, Guinea. French Protestants settle in Cape Colony and subsequently intermarry with the Dutch settlers, making true Boers? Divan member Sidi Mehmet Ibrahim of Algiers writes a diatribe against granting the petition of the Erika Purists to abolish Islamic piracy and slavery of Christians, saying that the Quran condones slavery, and that they need their supply of 50K slaves, and if they were released they would become a nuisance, which is quoted by Benjamin Franklin in a letter to the Federal Gazette printed on Mar. 23, 1790. After the English pirate ship Cygnet under Capt. Charles Swan (-1690) captures a ship off Manila, William Dampier (1651-1715) sails in it from Timor to explore W Austrlia, anchoring next Jan. 5 near King Sound on the NW coast and returning to England in 1691 via the Cape of Good Hope, becoming his 3rd circumnavigation, going on to pub. A New Voyage Round the World in 1697, which becomes a bestseller. English physician, milk chocolate inventor and curiosity collector Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) begins his botanical collection on a visit to Jamaica. German philosopher Christian Thomasius (1655-1728), who pub. "The Crime of Bigamy" in 1685 arguing that natural law permits it shocks the German univ. system by lecturing in German rather than Latin, with the topic "How One Should Emulate the French Way of Life", noting that they use their native language in scholarship, beginning the German Enlightenment; after the Protestant ministers chase him out of Leipzig to Halle in 1690, where he helps found the U. of Halle. Francis Perot's Sons Malting Co. is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. by Anthony Morris as the Brew House, becoming the oldest business house in the U.S.; it closes in 1894. Architecture: Leonardo de Figuero builds the Hospital de Venerables Sacerdotes for elderly priests in Seville, Spain. Nonfiction: Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Histoires des Variations des Eglises Protestantes. William Bradford (1663-1752), America's Messenger; America's first almanac, printed on the first printing press in the Middle Colonies; real title "Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense" by Samuel Atkins, pub. by newly arrived (1685) printer Bradford; too bad, a reference to him pisses off gov. William Penn (1644-1718), and in 1687 he is prohibited from printing anything about the Quakers without approval, after which Bradford finally gives up and returns to England in 1690, and ends up in New York City by invitation in 1693, where he pub. what he wants, incl. tracts getting even with forked-up Philly. Francois Fenelon (1651-1715), Traite de l'Education des Filles (Treatise on the Education of Girls); a middle course between higher education for women and keeping them barefoot and preggers. Bernard le Bovie de Fontenelle, Histoire des Oracles; attacks superstition. Gabriel Francois Le Jay, Le Triomphe de la Religion sous Louis le Grand. Gerard Langbaine, A New Catalogue of English Plays. Increase Mather (1639-1723), A Testimony Against Several Profane and Superstitious Customs Now Practiced by Some in New England; argues against celebration of Christmas. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727), Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Natural Philosophy and Principles of Mathematics) (1687-1727). Dr. Nicolas Venette, L'Amour Conjugale; a love manual so popular that it goes through a dozen eds. in five languages. Samuel von Pufendorf (1632-94), The Relation of Religious Liberty to Civilian Life. John Wallis (1616-1703), Institutio Logicae. William Winstanley, Lives of the English Poets. Music: Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Alarico (opera). Art: Melchior d'Hondecoeter (1636-95), Park with Poultry. Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723), The Chinese Convent. Plays: Sir Charles Sedley (1639-1701), Bellamira; or, The Mistress; based on Terence's "Eunuchus", with Bellamira representing Charles II's mistress the duchess of Cleveland. Poetry: John Cotton II (1640-99), Verses Occasioned by the Death of John Alden. John Dryden (1631-1700), The Hind and the Panther; defends Catholicism; Song for St. Cecilia's Day; written for the London St. Cecilia Society and set to music. Births: German Baroque architect Johann Neumann Balthasar (d. 1753) on Jan. 22 in Eger (Cheb), Bohemia. English "Sally in Our Alley" poet-dramatist-songwriter Henry Carey (d. 1743) on Aug. 26 in London; illegitimate son of George Saville, 1st marquess of Halifax (1633-95); known for his anti-Robert Walpole satires. Scottish mathematician Robert Simpson (d. 1768) on Oct. 14. Swiss mathematician Nicolaus Bernoulli (d. 1759) on Oct. 21. British antiquarian (Freemason) William Stukeley (d. 1765) on Nov. 7 in Holbeach, Lincolnshire; educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge U. Italian Jesuit writer Giovanni Battista Scaramelli (d. 1752) on Nov. 24 in Rome; coiner of the term "asceticism" in place of "mystical". German queen Sophie Dorothea (d. 1757); mother of Frederick II the Great. Italian violinist and composer Francesco Geminiani (d. 1762). Deaths: Dutch poet-composer Constantijn Huygens (b. 1596) on Mar. 28 (Good Fri.) in The Hague; buried with his son Christiaan Huygens in the Grote Kerk; namesake of the Constantijn Huygens Award (1947). English-born Pilgrim John Alden (b. 1599); last surviving signer of the Mayflower Compact; becomes a char. in Longfellow's 1858 poem The Courtship of Myles Standish, proposing to Priscilla Mullens on behalf of his shy friend Standish, whereupon she asks, "Why don't you speak for yourself, John?" - I'm wearing Versaci, how beautiful is this? English Cavalier poet Edmund Waller (b. 1606). German astronomer Johannes Hevelius (b. 1611) on Jan. 28 in Danzig. English philosopher Henry More (b. 1614) on Sept. 1. German-English mathematician Nicholas Mercator (b. 1620) in Paris. Swiss painter Matthaus Merian the Younger (b. 1621) in Frankfurt. English economist-philosopher Sir William Petty (b. 1623) on Dec. 16. Italian architect Agostino Barelli (b. 1627) in Bologna. English statesman George Villiers, 2nd duke of Buckingham (b. 1628) on Apr. 16. English poet Charles Cotton (b. 1630). French composer Jean Baptiste Lully (b. 1632); dies from blood poisoning after he strikes his foot with his cane accidentally while conducting a Te Deum for the king. German duke of Brunswick-Luneburg Ferdinand Albert I (b. 1636) on Apr. 25 in Bevern. Danish scientist Steeno (b. 1638). French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle (b. 1643) on Mar. 19 in Texas (murdered). English actress (mistress of Charles II) Nell Gwyn (b. 1650) on Nov. 14 in Pall Mall, London (stroke).
1688 Pop. of the British colonies in Am.: 250K (12 of the 13 colonies have now been founded); French colonists in Am.: 12K; British pop. of the West Indies: 90K; the trade of the Am. and West Indies British colonies now accounts for 12% of England's total external trade. On Apr. 27 James II issues his Second Declaration of Liberty of Conscience (Indulgence), and orders it read in all churches on May 4, causing the archbishop of Canterbury and six other bishops to petition him, claiming the order to be illegal, which gets them put in the beep-beep-bad-girls Tower. On Apr. 29 the "Great Elector" Friedrich Wilhelm (b. 1620) dies, leaving an army of 40K soldiers, and his 3rd son Frederick III of Hohenzollern (1657-1713) becomes elector of Brandenburg, going on to become the first king of Prussia on Jan. 18, 1701 (until Feb. 25, 1713). On June 3 Maximilian Henry von Wittelsbach (b. 1621) dies after being named bishop of Munster in 1683 and Pope Innocent XI refusing to confirm him, and Joseph Clemens von Wittelsbach of Bavaria (1671-1723), brother of Bavarian elector Maximilian II is appointed archbishop-elector of Cologne by Pope Innocent XI (until 1723). Help us choose a family pet, a python, a beagle, or a goat, where's the goat? On June 10 James II and his 2nd Mary of Modena surprise everybody by bearing son and heir James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766), pissing-off the Protestants since they know he's going to be brought up Roman Catholic, causing them to plot the king's abdication in favor of his Protestant daughter Princess Mary and her Protestant hubby Prince William of Orange; meanwhile on June 29-30 the Trial of the Seven Bishops ends in their acquittal on the morning of June 30, beginning England's bloodless Glorious Rev., when in the afternoon of June 30 (Wed.) after viewing scenes of public celebration, the "Immortal Seven" (eminent English leaders both Tory and Whig, representing a broad cross-section to convince them it's for real) send the Letter of Invitation (their names signed in two-digit codes as 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35) to the king's son-in-law, the very PC (Protestant Continually) William III of Orange (1650-1702) (stadholder of the Netherlands since 1672) (son of Duke William II and Princess Mary Stewart, daughter of Charles I) and his equally PC wife Mary Stuart (1662-94) (James II's daughter by first wife Anne Hyde, and sister of Princess Anne) (4 in. taller than him and 12 years younger, who has gone from a young, slim, sweet-16 bitchin' babe on their honeymoon to a big-boned manly woman with a double chin by now?) to save England from Roman Catholic tyranny, which they accept on Sept. 30; on Nov. 5 William lands in the health resort of Brixham in Torbay (Tor Bay) in South Devon, 23 mi. S of Exeter and 220 mi. SW of London, then travel to London, reaching it in Dec., causing James II to send the queen and infant prince James to France on Dec. 10 then flee on Dec. 11 before William arrives, taking a rowboat down the Thames River and throwing the Great Seal of England into the river to ensure that his enemies can't use it to forge an abdication document; meanwhile on Dec. 11 anti-Catholic mobs romp in London, burning chapels and attacking the homes of ambassadors from Catholic states; on Dec. 12 a provisional govt. is set up in London, and James is caught and brought back to London, but he escapes and makes it to France on Dec. 22; on Dec. 19 William triumphantly enters London, ending the Glorious (Bloodless) Revolution; Princess Anne of Denmark (future Queen Anne), a devout Anglican deserts her father James' cause, fleeing to Nottingham, causing James to blame her and her Protestant sister Mary for losing his throne, and leaving her with guilt feelings for life; meanwhile the Nonjuring Schism sees the Anglican churches split over accepting William as regent or king, with the latitudinarian clergy going for king, and the nonjuring clergy going with regent, ending up as nominal Jacobites after the latitudinarian Anglicans gain control of the Church of England, and the Presbyterians gain control of the Church (Kirk) of Scotland. In June the Commission for the Mechanism of the Kingdom of Hungary is created to make Hungary into an absolutist state; Transylvania becomes a province under the king of Hungary. In Oct. after an imperial league of Christians begins to retake Belgrade (finished 1690) from the Turks, occupying it, Louis XIV takes advantage of HRE Leopold I's absence to invade the Palatinate and take and sack Heidelberg (next time 1693), and puts his candidate Von Furstenberg, bishop of Strasbourg up for the archbishopric of Cologne over Prince Clement of Bavaria. Sir Edmond Andros merges New York and New Jersey into the Dominion of New England (1686-89) to strengthen its defenses against France, with his jurisdiction extended over all territory between the St. Croix and Delaware Rivers, allegedly to better defend against the pesky French; Puritan fears that he is out to break them are helped by suppression of town govts., imprisonment of protesters, and his takeover of a Puritan church in Boston for Anglican services. Queen Inayat Zakia of Indonesia dies, and is succeeded by Queen Kamalah (-1699) (until 1699). Galdan Boshugtu Khan (1644-97), chief of the Olot (Eleuth) Dzungars invades Mongolia from C Asia. An earthquake destroys Smyrna. French Huguenot refugees establish themselves at Spitalfields in East End, London, and help the English develop their first silk industry - fileds of silkworms spitting silk? This year and next 300 French Huguenot refugees arrive in South Africa, causing a culture war which the Dutch win with a 1701 law that only Dutch should be taught in schools, causing them to be assimilated by the mid-18th cent., when the total number of white colonists numbers 8K-10K. Before being deposed, James II creates the Radclyffe Family of Northumbria as the earls of Derwentwater; they go on to support the Jacobite cause. Va. tobacco production reaches 9K tons this year. Jesuit settlers of the Ladrones Islands (discovered 1521) name them the Marianas in honor of Mariana of Austria, mother of Charles II of Spain. The End of the Age of Dryden? The big Whig V causes John Dryden to be dismissed from his post of poet laureate of England and his pension to stopped for his now non-PC Roman Catholicism, and he is replaced by Whig-friendly Thomas Shadwell (1642-92); Dryden returns to writing plays, but without much success. Italian priest-composer Agostino Steffani (1653-1728) becomes kappelmeister at the court of Hanover, where he helps open a new opera house next year, and has a long career, becoming a BMOC and making friends with Leibniz and other literati, and helping Handel at the start of his career in 1710. Charles Sanson de Longval (1657-1707) receives the office of high executioner of Paris, and it becomes hereditary in his family. Now that England is assuredly Protestant, we can take bets? Edward Lloyd's Coffee House, owned by Edward Lloyd (1648-1713) opens on Tower St. in London, and underwriters begin meeting regularly there, moving in Dec. 1691 to Lombard St. and becoming Lloyd's of London; in 1774 the members form a committee and move to the Royal Exchange on Cornhill, becoming the Sciety of Lloyd's; the word "tips" comes from a sign placed there that reads "To Insure Prompt Service"? Architecture: Notre Dame des Victoires Church in Quebec, Canada is built, becoming the oldest stone church in North Am. Inventions: Polished Plate glass is developed by Louis Lucas de Nehou and A. Thevart of France, rolling molten glass poured on an iron table, making large plates possible; about 1800 a steam engine is used for grinding and polishing. Science: French scientist Joachim Dalence (Dalencé) (1640-1707) introduces a new calibration of the alcohol-glass thermoscope by choosing the melting point of snow as -10 deg. and the melting point of butter as +10 deg. - makes sense for French cooks? Italian physician Francesco Redi (1626-97) attempts to prove that ain't fresco ready to eat rotting meat cannot spontaneously turn into maggots, starting a Debate on Spontaneous Generation that goes on for two cents. Nonfiction: Jean de La Bruyere (1645-96), Les Caracteres (Caractères); slams Thomas Corneille (1625-1709), Bernard le Bovier de Fontanelle, Isaac de Benserade et al.; "Makes him many readers and many enemies" Nicolas de Malezieu). Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657-1757), Digression sur les Anciens et les Modernes; takes the side of the progressive lit. faction in Paris against the Ancients (Jean Baptiste Racine, Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux (1636-1711), et al.), who imitate ancient Greek authors, expressing the opinion that common sense had not existed before Rene Descartes (1596-1650), and slowing down his admission to the Academie Francaise until 1691. Charles du Fresne, Sieur du Cange (1610-88), Glossarium ad Scriptores Midiae et Infimae Graecitatis. Henry More (1614-87), Divine Dialogues (posth.). Alexander Ross (tr.), The Quran; paid for by Anglicans; calls Muhammad a sensualist and imposter, and claims he "endeavoureth to overthrow Christ's divinity with Arius and Nestorius". Joseph de la Vega, Confusion de Confusiones; about the Amsterdam Exchange. Music: Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Niobe (opera). Giuseppe Torelli (1658-1709), 12 Concertino per Camera for Violin and Cello, Op. 4. Art: Romeyn de Hooghe, Flight of James II/VII Down the Thames (engraving). Novels: Aphra Behn (1640-89), Oroonoko; Or, The Royal Slave. A True History (London); adventures of an African prince she met while a slave in Suriname; made into a play in 1695 by Thomas Southerne, causing sales of the novel to skyrocket - once you go black you never go back? Plays: Philippe Quinault (1635-88), Armide; his masterpiece? Thomas Shadwell (1642-92), The Squire of Alsatia (comedy); about the Whitefriars area of London, known as a haven for fugitives. Births: English politician Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset (d. 1765) on Jan. 18 in Dorset; father of George Germaine, 1st viscount Sackville (1716-85); lord lt. of Ireland (1731-7, 1751-5). Swedish Protestant Christian mystic philosopher-theologian-scientist Emanuel (Emmanuel) Swedenborg (Swedberg) (d. 1772) on Jan. 29 in Stockholm; son of a Lutheran pastor. French "Le Jeu de l'Amour et du Hasard" dramatist-novelist Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux (d. 1763) on Feb. 4 in Paris. Am. minister-physician-scientist and N.Y. gov. (1760-71) Cadwallader Colden (d. 1776) on Feb. 17 in Dunse, Scotland; educated at the U. of Edinburgh; emigrates to the U.S. in 1708. English "Double Falsehood", "Shakespeare Restored" playwright-ed. Lewis Theobald (d. 1744) on Apr. 2 in Sittingbourne, Kent; model for Dulness in Alexander Pope's Dunciad. French astronomer Joseph Nicolas Delisle (d. 1768) on Apr. 4 in Paris. English 4'6" "Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind" poet-satirist (Freemason) Alexander Pope (d. 1744) on May 21 in London; Roman Catholic parents; known for his "mountain back" (crooked spine), "distorted legs", and pontiff-like attitude in notorious lit. feuds; a childhood case of Pott's disease (tuberculous spondylitis) leaves him stunted; in 1700 his family moves to Binfield, Berkshire to comply with a law prohibiting Catholics from living within 10 mi. of London or Westminster. English Jacobite pretender (1701-66) and prince of Wales (Roman Catholic) ("the Old Pretender") ("the Old Chevalier") James Francis Edward Stuart (Stewart) (James III) (d. 1766) on June 10 in St. James's Palace, London; son of James II/VII (1633-1701) and 2nd wife Mary of Modena (1658-1718). Prussian king #2 (1713-40) Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) I (d. 1740) on Aug. 14; son of Frederick I (Frederick III until 1701) (1657-1713) and Sophia Charlotte of Hanover; father of Frederick II the Great (1712-86). Italian philologist-lexicographer Egidio Forcellini (d. 1768) on Aug. 26 in Fener, Treviso; educated at the U. of Padua; student and collaborator of Jacopo Facciolati (1682-1769). Dutch physicist-mathematician Willem Jacob 's Gravesande (d. 1742) on Sept. 26 in 's-Hertogenbosch, Brabant; biggest promoter of Isaac Newton's natural philosophy outside England. Italian Baroque Jesuit composer-organist Domenico Zipoli (d. 1726) on Oct. 17 in Prato, Florence. Persian shah (1736-47) ("the Persian Napoleon") ("the Persian Alexander the Great") Nadir (Nader) Shah Afshar (d. 1747) on Nov. 22 (Aug. 6, 1698?) in Dargaz; a Turkish tribesman of the Afshar tribe of N Persia who becomes a Persian gen. and king, and the last great Asian conqueror until ?. English horticulturist-botanist Richard Bradley (d. 1732); no univ. education. Scottish-Am. Baroque artist John Smybert (Smibert) (d. 1751) in Edinburgh; student of Sir James Thornhill; father of Nathaniel Smybert (1734-56). Deaths: German art historian-painter Joachim Sandrart (b. 1606) on Oct. 14. French priest-scientist Honore Fabri (b. 1607) on Mar. 8. Irish soldier-statesman James Butler, 1st duke of Ormonde (b. 1610) on July 21 in Kingston Lacy, Dorset; buried in Westminster Abbey on Aug. 1. French Calvinist naval officer Abraham Duquesne, marquis du Bouchet (b. 1610) on Feb. 2 in Paris. French scholar Charles du Fresne, Sieur du Cange (b. 1610) on Oct. 23 in Paris. French architect Claude Perrault (b. 1613) in Paris. English philosopher Ralph Cudworth (b. 1617). English "Cavalier Colonel" royalist soldier Sir Winston Churchill (b. 1620) on Mar. 26. Prussian duke (1640-88) Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1620) on Apr. 29. Flemish Jesuit missionary Father Ferdinand Verbiest (b. 1623) on Jan. 28 in Peking, China (fall from horse); becomes first Westerner to receive a posth. name from the emperor (until ?). English "The Pilgrim's Progress" writer John Bunyan (b. 1628) on Aug. 31; born the same year as the passage of the English Bill of Rights; dies the year that england is delivered from popish tyranny - dear Prudence, let me see you smile? English buccaneer and rum-luvin' Jamaican lt.-gov. Sir Henry Morgan (b. 1635); dies worth $1.2M, with Jamaica mourning his death; in 1692 an earthquake causes his beloved Port Royal along with his fort at the entrance to slide into the sea and vanish - like those boots? French dramatist Philippe Quinault (b. 1635) on Nov. 26; leaves his religious conversion poem Destruction of Heresy. English statesman Christopher Monck, 2nd duke of Albemarle (b. 1653) on Oct. 6 in Whitehall, London.
1689 On Jan. 22 the Whig-dominated Convention Parliament meets in London (until Jan. 27, 1690), declares that Roman Catholic bum James II has abdicated, and officially offers the crown to Mary, with William as regent; after they refuse it offers it to them jointly, and on Feb. 13 passes the Declaration of Right, asserting the "true, ancient, and indubitable rights of the people of this realm", declaring William and Mary king and queen of the U.K. for life, with William as chief admin., and the succession going to their children first, then to Anne of Denmark and her children, and then to William's children by any other marriage; on Feb. 22 the Convention Parliament declares itself a regular parliament, with oaths of allegiance and supremacy required of MPs and clergy; William of Orange and his wife-cousin Mary are crowned as William III (1650-1702) and Mary II (1662-94) (England's 48th monarch, and first constitutional monarchs), reigning rather than ruling, as from now on being a Protestant is more important than lineage when it comes to succession, and the Parliament creates them, not the other way around; the Stuart Dynasty (begun 1371) is still in power, but only through the queen; the Declaration of Right (enacted as the Bill of Rights on Dec. 16) also guarantees free elections for Parliament and free debate for its members, requires their consent to make or suspend laws, grants trial by jury and prohibits excessive bail, outlaws ecclesiastical courts, and generally makes Parliament higher than the king; John Churchill is created earl of Marlborough for his support; on Mar. 12 the Williamite (Jacobite) War in Ireland (War of the Two Kings) begins (ends Oct. 3, 1691), with the Catholics and a few Protestants in Ireland on James II's side, and the Protestant Williamites on William III's side - what did old Isaac Newton think of all this? On Mar. 14 a Scottish committee reestablishes Presbyterianism and abolishes the episcopacy again, but the Covenants are not revived, reducing the Covenanters to a small group of kilted die-hards; James II still has some fight in him, and calls on the Irish Catholics for support from his refuge in France, and they rally to his side, with the earl of Tyrconnell waiting with an Irish army as he arrives in Dublin with French gold and offices (incl. his son the duke of Berwick) and a declaration of war on Britain by Louis XIV, then establishes his HQ in Dublin, driving Protestant settlers from their homes into refuge in Londonderry and Enniskillen; on Apr. 13 after landing at Kinsale in S Ireland in Mar. with 2.5K men, James II begins the unsuccessful 105-day Siege of Derry (Londonderry) (ends July 28) after 13 apprentices close the city gates while the townsfolk shout "No surrender" and man the walls, becoming a symbol to Irish Protestants ever after, the city sporting dual Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals; after James is hampered by lack of artillery, the city is relieved from the sea, with the British navy killing 10K, after which the V is commemorated each Aug. in the Relief of Derry Celebration; meanwhile on May 7-July 20 the Irish Patriot Parliament of 1689, called by James II restores all lands confiscated since 1641, restores the Roman Catholic Church, and passes an act of attainder against pro-William partisans, all of which causes spooked Londoners to arm themselves and place candles in their windows for fear of an Irish invasion. On Apr. 18 after news of the Glorious Rev. reaches Boston, Sir Edmund Andros (an evil albino by any chance?) and his councilors Joseph Dudley et al. are arrested, and Mass. reverts to its former govt.; the other colonies of the Dominion follow suit; in July Andros and Dudley are sent to England for trial, but charges are never formally pressed; on May 31 after news of Andros' arrest is received, Leisler's Rebellion begins in New York City (ends Mar. 21, 1691) as a mob led by German-born (Frankfurt-am-Main) Jacob Leisler (1640-91) (immigrated to New York in 1660) s eizes Ft. James (at the S end of Manhattan Island), desposes Andros' lt.-gov. and declares a new govt., with Leisler assuming the office of lt-.gov. in Dec. with the support of the militia while waiting word from England, meanwhile summoning the first intercolonial congress in North Am. history, which meets next May; meanwhile William III and Mary II recognize the old charters of the English colonies Conn. and R.I., Mass. is given a new charter, and N.H. is organized as a distinct royal province. On May 7 England declares war on France, and on May 12 the Grand (Great) Alliance against the French is formed by the League of Augsburg, England, Holland, and Savoy; England and France begin a cent. and a quarter of war as the shopkeepers begin dictating England's foreign policy?; as a result, last year King William's (Second Indian) (First Intercolonial) War (ends 1697) in North Am. between French and British colonists begins; the French burn Mannheim and Baden-Baden, and destroy Heidelberg Castle, causing the German Diet to declare war on France, mobilizing Saxon troops to protect Franconia. On May 24 the 1689 Act of Toleration in England partially restores civil rights to Roman Catholics and Dissenters. In May the Scottish Parliament (Convention of the Estates) meets, and reads a letter from James II asserting his powers over them, a little too arrogantly they think, causing them to become deadlocked until the Jacobites (pro-James party) walk out, allowing the remainder to officially decide that James II has forfeited the crown although he never formally abdicated because he never took a coronation oath in Scotland, and is an unconstitutional Roman Catholic monarch; they then recognize William of Orange and Mary Stuart as William II and Mary II of Scotland. On July 27 the Scottish Highlander Covenanter Jacobites, led by John "Bonnie" Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee (1648-89) defeat a small English army under Gen. Mackay at the Battle of Killiecrankie, but Dundee dies of his wounds (his body being found wearing a grand cross of the Knights Templar dating to before 1307), and his followers get their butts kicked on Aug. 21 at the Battle of Dunkeld around Dunkfield Cathedral in Dunkeld, Scotland and flee back to the Highlands, with ex-Cameronians fighting against the Jacobites in hopes that William will restore the Covenant; William orders all Scottish chieftains to take an oath of allegiance to him before Jan. 1, 1692 - or they'll be packing less weight beneath their kilts? On Aug. 5 the Lachine Massacre in New France (modern-day Montreal, Canada) sees 1.5K Mohawk warriors attack French settlers, killing 375 while losing only three of their own. On Aug. 12 Pope (since 1676) Innocent XI (b. 1611) dies, and on Oct. 6 Pietro Vitto Ottoboni is elected Pope (#241) Alexander VIII (1610-91) (until Feb. 1, 1691), becoming the last named Alexander until ? On Aug. 27 the Treaty of Nerchinsk (Nierchul) with Russia is China's first treaty with a European nation, stipulating Russian abandonment of Albazin, and an end to military pressure for commercial contacts; their mutual boundary is delineated; the followers of 17-y.-o. Peter I the Not-Great-Yet force regent Sophia off the Russian throne, depose Ivan V, and make Peter's mother regent instead. In Sept. French Waldensian pastor-soldier Henri Arnaud (1641-1721), aided by English Protestants leads 1K Waldensian exiles expatriated by Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy back into the valley of San Martino in Vaud. Comte de Frontenac is recalled to New France (Canada) to deal with hostile Iroquois, and governs until his death in 1698. Natal in Africa becomes a Dutch colony. French explorer Louis Armand, Baron de La Hontan (1666-1715) explores the Upper Mississippi River Valley and allegedly discovers the "Riviere Longue" (Missouri River), along with the Great Salt Lake in modern-day Utah. Spanish explorers discover the remains of Fort Saint Louis, and meet reps of the Caddo people who live between the Trinity and Red Rivers, claiming they are eager to learn about Christianity, causing Alonso De Leon (1639-91) AKA El Mozo to establish a Roman Catholic mission in May 1690 in East Tex. near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches, holding its first Mass on June 1; too bad, after floods and an epidemic kill half the pop., the people turn on the missionaries, causing them on Oct. 25, 1693 to burn the mission, bury the bell, and flee to Mexico, returning on July 3, 1716 to establish Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas, which in 1721 is renamed Mission San Francisco de los Neches, and moved in 1731 to San Antonio, Tex. under the name Mission San Francisco de la Espada; meanwhile in Sept. 1690 Mission Santisimo Nombre de Maria is established in East Tex. 6 mi. NE of Mission San Francisco; it is destroyed by a flood in 1692. St. James's Palace becomes the London residence of the English sovereigns (until 1837), causing the British court to be called the Court of Saint James's. William III establishes Devonport Naval Dockyards, which becomes the largest naval base in W Europe. The first modern trade fair is held in Leiden, Holland. The town of Carrollton, Md. in Prince George's County (modern-day pop. 12K) is founded by the Carrolls, settlers from Bleeding Ireland. After becoming a disciple of Jacques Benigne Bossuet, Francois Fenelon is appointed tutor to Louis XIV's son the duke of Burgundy, writing a series of moral lessons for him, incl. Fables, Dialogues of the Dead, and The Existence of God. Isaac Newton befriends John Locke, who shares his interest in the esoteric, along with Genevan aristocrat Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, a friend of every important scientist of the day, who becomes his closest friend for the next decade. Architecture: English scholar Henry Aldrich (1647-1710) becomes dean of Corpus Christi College, Oxford U. (until 1710), designing the Turner Bldg., named after pres. (1687-1714) Thomas Turner. Nonfiction: Paul Amman (1634-91), Irenicum Numae Pompilii cum Hippocrate. Jean Domat (1625-96), Les Lois Civiles Dans leur Ordre Naturel. John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven (1656-1708), The Country's Rudiments; a dir. of the loser Scottish (Darien) Trading Co. pub. a handbook on improving agriculture. John Locke (1632-1704), Two Treatises on Government; pub. anon.; a justification of the Glorious Rev.; treatise #1 nixes the divine right of kings; treatise #2 claims that authority derives solely from the consent of the governed, and advocates govt. by contract; both are later used by the Am. rebels to justify their own glorious rebellion against the stankin' English; defines property as a person's life, liberty, and wealth; "God hath given the world to men in common... Yet every man has a property in his own person. The labour of his body and the work of his hands we may say are properly his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property"; "The great and chief end, therefore, of men's uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property"; "That all men by nature are equal, I cannot be supposed to understand all sorts of equality: age or virtue may give men a just precedency: excellency of parts and merit may place others above the common level: birth may subject some, and alliance or benefits others, to pay an observance to those to whom nature, gratitude, or other respects, may have made it due: and yet all this consists with the equality, which all men are in, in respect of jurisdiction or dominion one over another; which was the equality I there spoke of, as proper to the business in hand, being that equal right, that every man hath, to his natural freedom, without being subjected to the will or authority of any other man"; "Wherever law ends, tyranny begins, if the law be transgressed to another's harm; and whosoever in authority exceeds the power given him by the law, and makes use of the force he has under his command, to compass that upon the subject, which the law allows not, ceases in that to be a magistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another." Cotton Mather (1663-1728), Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions; details the case of Irish washerwoman and alleged witch Goody Glover. William Sherlock (1641-1707), A Practical Discourse Concerning Death. John, Lord Somers, A Brief History of the Succession to the Crown of England. Michael Wigglesworth (1631-1705), Riddles Unriddled, or Christian Paradoxes. Music: Anon., When I First Came to Court; early version of "Foggy, Foggy Dew". Henry Purcell (1659-95), Dido and Aeneas (London) (first opera); first important English opera; incl. When I Am Laid in Earth (Dido's Lament) - figures it would be something about dildoes and anuses? Agostino Steffani (1653-1728), Enrico il Leone (Henry the Lion) (opera) (Hanover); a big hit; La Lolta d'Ercole con Achilleo (opera) (Hanover). Art: Meindert Hobbema (1638-1709), Avenue at Middleharnis. Plays: Jean Baptiste Racine (1639-99), Esther (tragedy). Novels: Matsuo Basho (1644-94), The Narrow Road to the Deep North. Anselm von Ziegler (1663-96), Die Asiatische Banise. Births: French Enlightenment jurist and Lockian political philosopher (inventor of the theory of separation of powers) Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brede (Brède) et de Montesquieu (d. 1755) on Jan. 18 in La Brede (near Bordeaux); popularizer of the terms "despotism", "feudalism", and "Byzantine Empire". English academic William Holmes (d. 1748) on Apr. 5 in St. Swithin, London; educated at St. John's College, Oxford U. English writer and smallpox inoculation pioneer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (nee Pierrepont) (d. 1762) on May 26 in Thoresby Hall. English "Pamela" novelist Samuel Richardson (d. 1761) on Aug. 19 in Mackworth, Derbyshire. Bohemian Baroque architect Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (d. 1751) on Sept. 1 in Prague; 5th son of Christoph Dientzenhofer (1655-1722). Portuguese king (1706-50) Joao V (John) V (the Magnanimous) (d. 1750) on Oct. 22 in Lisbon; son of Pedro II (1648-1706). English royal heir William, Duke of Gloucester (d. 1700); son of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark. French pub. family founder Francois Didot (d. 1757) in Paris; father of Francois Ambroise Didot (1730-1804) and Pierre Francois Didot (1732-93); grandfather of Pierre Didot (1761-1853) and Firmin Didot (1764-1836); great-frandfather of Henri Didot (1765-1852). Deaths: German Jesuit priest Hermann Busembaum (b. 1600); leaves the Jesuit handbook Medulla Theologiae Moralis, famous for its line "The end justifies the means." Italian pope (1676-89) Innocent XI (b. 1611) on Aug. 12 in Rome. German poet Philipp von Zesen (b. 1619) on Nov. 13 in Hamburg. French Jesuit missionary-explorer Claude Jean Allouez (b. 1622) on Aug. 28 near Niles, Mich. English physician Thomas Sydenham (b. 1624) on Dec. 29 in London. Swedish queen (1632-54) Christina Wasa (b. 1626) on Apr. 19 in Rome; one of three women buried in St. Peter's Basilica: "Fools are more to be feared than the wicked." English writer Aphra Behn (b. 1640) on Apr. 16 in London; "All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the tomb of Aphra Behn which is, most scandalously but rather appropriately, in Westminster Abbey, for it was she who earned them the right to speak their minds." (Virginia Wolf, A Room of One's Own)