James I of England (1566-1625) Anne of Denmark (1574-1619) Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (1589-1617) Michael Romanov of Russia (1596-1645) Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) Pocahontas (1595-1617) Chief Powhatan (1547-1618) Henry Hudson (1566-1611)
Charles I of England (1600-49) Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) William Byrd (1540-1623) The Mayflower Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Blaise Pascal (1623-62) John Milton (1608-74) Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-69)

T.L. Winslow's Seventeenth (17th) Century Historyscope 1600-1699 C.E.

© by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Louis XIII of France (1601-43) Marie de' Medici (1575-1642) Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Louis XIV of France (1638-1715) William Penn (1644-1718) Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) Jan III Sobieski of Poland (1624-96) Peter I the Great of Russia (1672-1725)

TLW's 1600s (1600-1609) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1600s Historyscope 1600-1609 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609

The Seventeenth (17th) Century C.E. (1600-99)

The Quick and Dirty 666 Century, Part II? The If It Ain't Baroque Don't Fix It Century? The Dutch Century? The Protestants Are Here to Stay, and the Catholics Are Tickled Pink Century? All Christians moan and groan under the "1666" Millenium Fever (MF) terror waiting in their calendars, along with the plague on both their houses, while Shakespeare recreates the human psyche with Hamlet and Falstaff? Speaking of plagues, by now syphilis has sunk into the psyche of Europeans, creating profoundly messed-up sexual prudes who believe that Pure is the Cure (Puritans)? The Vatican starts out fast, stinking it up right away by burning a scientific thinker for claiming there are other worlds than this admittedly great one, and continues its ruthless suppression of new scientific and philosophic ideas by Galileo et al., but can't prevent a great intellectual revival, led by fighter-lover-thinker Rene Descartes? Big century for painters Velazquez, Rembrandt, and Rubens? Good century for fox hunting and pall mall? The MF-free Ottomans enjoy a century run by sultans named Ahmed?

The First Decade of the 17th Century (16-Zeds) (1600-1609 C.E.)

The Guy Fawkes Gunpowder Plot Decade? A strange decade, where the word "pest" keeps popping up, while the WASPs begin to stumble onto the North American Atlantic seaboard, which had been depopulated by a century of Roman Catholic white man's diseases? A good decade for theater goers in England? The Galileo Telescope Decade?

Country Leader From To
England Elizabeth I (1533-1603) 1558 Mar. 24, 1603 Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603)
Scotland James VI (James I of England) (1566-1625) 1578 Mar. 27, 1625 James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566-1625)
France Henri IV of Bourbon (1553-1610) 1589 May 14, 1610 Henri IV of France (1533-1610)
Germany HRE Rudolf II (1552-1612) 1576 Jan. 19, 1612 HRE Rudolf II (1552-1612)
Spain Philip III the Pious (1578-1621) Sept. 13, 1598 Mar. 31, 1621 Philip III the Pious of Spain (1578-1621)
Russia Tsar Boris Godunov (1551-1605) 1598 Apr. 13, 1605 Russian Tsar Boris Godunov (1551-1605)
Papacy Pope Clement VIII (1536-1605) 1592 Mar. 5, 1605 Pope Clement VIII (1536-1605)
Ottoman Empire Sultan Mehmed III (1566-1603) Jan. 15, 1595 Dec. 22, 1603 Sultan Mehmed III (1566-1603)

1600 - The Teach Says Study Hamlet Year? The Burn Bruno Burn, Michael the Brave, and Shogun Year?

Trial of Giordano Bruno, 1592-1600 Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Feb. 17, 1600 Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) French Queen Marie de' Medici (1575-1642) Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (1566-1601) Prince Michael the Brave of Wallachia (1558-1601) Prince Iremia Movila of Moldavia Austrian Gen. Giorgio Basta (1544-1607) Polish Gen. Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605) Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625) Austrian Archduke Albert VII (1559-1621) Barbary Ambassador Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud (1558-?) Tokugawa Ieyasu of Japan (1543-1616) Tokugawa Emblem Ishida Mitsunari of Japan (1559-1600) Battle of Sekigahara, Oct. 21, 1600 Date Masamune (1567-1636) Konishi Yukinaga (1555-1600) William Adams (Miura Anjin) (1564-1620) Richard Chamberlain (1934-) Ben Jonson (1572-1637) William Kempe (-1603) Samuel Sewall (1652-1730) Dirk Coornhert (1522-90) Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) Philip van Marnix (1538-98) Jacob 'Father' Cats (1577-1660) Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (1581-1647) Gerbrand Bredero (1585-1618) Baki (1526-1600) Moderata Fonte (1555-92) Francois de Malherbe (1555-1628) William Gilbert (1544-1603) 'De Magnete' by William Gilbert, 1600 'Ecce Homo' by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1600 Python Temple in Dahomey The Fortune Playhouse, 1600 Bridge of Sighs, Venice, 1600

1600 Jan. 1, 1600 falls on Saturday, so this is a Saturn Century. World pop: 500M (doubles in the next two cents.); Am. colonies: 50K; Delhi: 500K; Lahore: 500K; Agra: 500K; Rome: 100K; France: 16M; Germany: 14.5M; Poland: 11M; Spain: 8M; Hapsburg dominions: 5.5M; England-Ireland: 2.5M; Holland: 3M; Lisbon: 100K, Madrid: 60K, Goa: 60K. Scotland adopts the Gregorian Calendar, and changes the date of the start of the year from Mar. 25 to Jan. 1; England stays with the Julian Calendar until 1752, causing a difference of 10 days until 1700, and 11 days thereafter. The Age of Reason (Rationalism) in W Europe begins with Rene Descartes, transitioning into the Age of Enlightenment in the 1650s. There's nothing wrong with this? In the year 1600, Star Trek doesn't go over well in Rome? On Feb. 17 after Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) demands a full recantation of his philosophy, and he appeals to Pope Clement VIII hoping only for a partial recantation, and the pope responds by telling them to burn the bum, Italian philosopher Giordano Roddenberry, er, Giordano Bruno (b. 1548) tells them "Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it", then is led naked to the Campo de' Fiori in Rome, "his tongue imprisoned because of his wicked words", and burned at the stake for his heretical opinions, esp. the infinity of inhabited worlds; "He insisted till the end always in his damned refractoriness and twisted brain and his mind with a thousand errors. Yes, he didn't give up his stubbornness, not even when the court ushers took him away to the Campo de' Fiori. There his clothes were taken off, he was bound to a stake and burned alive. In all this time he was accompanied by our fraternity, who sang constant litanies, while the comforters tried till the last moment to break his stubborn resistance, till he gave up his miserable and pitiable life" (Fraternity of St. John the Beheaded, 1889); his works are placed on the Vatican's Prohibited Index in 1603, and he becomes a martyr to Trekkies, er, scientists, who claim he was burned just for his Copernican views, causing the Church to claim it was only because of his heretical religious beliefs, incl. that Jesus Christ was merely a magician, the Holy Ghost is the soul of the world, and the Devil can be saved, although the Church gives it away at the time by using the same rooms where he is questioned to persecute Galileo Galilei; his death seems to propel scientific effort in Protestant countries; in 1889 a monument to him backed by Victor Hugo, Herbert Spencer, Ernest Renan, Ernst Haeckel, Henrik Ibsen et al. is erected on the site of his execution, and another is erected in Berlin on Mar. 2, 2008; in 2000 Pope John Paul II expresses "profound sorrow" for what his church did - Burn Bruno Burn is how many years from Live Long and Prosper? On Feb. 24 the Swedish Riksdag in Linkoping formally declares that Sigismund III Wasa of Poland has abdicated the Swedish throne, and Duke Charles is named as successor (until 1604). On Apr. 14 after ex-prince of Transylvania Sigismund Bathory decides to recover his throne, and leads an army of Poles and Cossacks into Moldavia, Michael the Brave (1558-1601) enters Moldavia via multiple routes and wins a V on May 6-7 at the Battle of Iasi in Moldavia, chasing Roman Catholic Moldavian prince Iremia Movila to Hotin Castle, defended by a small Polish contingent; on May 21 Michael the Brave enters Suceava Fortress without a battle, and appoints Ioan Capturi as new cmdr.; too bad, on June 11 (night), Movila sneaks out and crosses the Dniester River to the safety of hetman Salislav Zolkiewski; Michael the Brave becomes the first combined prince of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia, which he calls Romania (Rumania); meanwhile the Hungarian nobles in Transylvania rise against him, and gain the help of mean Austrian Hapsburg (Albanian) gen. Giorgio Basta (1544-1607) (sent by HRE Rudolph II), who forms a 30K-man army of Hungarian nobles, Austrians, and Saxon mercenaries, going on to defeat Michael's 40K-man army of Szekley Hungarians, Cossacks, and Poles on Sept. 18 at the turning point Battle of Miraslau (near the Mures River) after staging a fake retreat to dislodge them from their defensive position, Michael uttering the soundbyte "Now the coward dog is running, so let's follow him"; Michael loses 5K men vs. 1K for Beth, er, Basta; a Polish army led by Gen. Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605) then drives him from Moldavia, enters E Wallachia and sets up Simion Movila as ruler-prince of Wallachia in Oct. (until Aug. 1602). On May 4 after Roman Catholic bishop Jacques Davy du Perron accuses French "Huguenot pope" Philippe de Mornay of 500 misquotes in his 1598 tome De l'Institution, Usage et Doctrine du Saint Sacrement de L'Eucharistie en l'Eglise Ancienne (out of 5K total), they hold the Conference of Fontainebleau, and a panel awards the V to du Perron on nine points, after which Mornay bugs out due to illness, after which du Perron becomes a Roman Catholic star and is created cardinal in 1604. On June 5 Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (1565-1601) is tried before a commission at York House, found guilty, and stripped of his royal offices, but the public continues to believe he is innocent, and on Aug. 26 he is freed and retires to the country, broken and bankrupt; Thomas West (later 3rd Baron de la Warr), who fought with Essex in Ireland and the Low Countries is imprisoned for complicity with him (until 1601). On July 2 the English and French under Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625) combine to defeat the Spanish Habsburgs under Netherlands gov. (since May 6, 1598) archduke Albert VII of Austria (1559-1621) at the Battle of Nieuwpoort (Nieuport), securing the independence of the Netherlands; peace is declared in Nov. On Aug. 5 the Gowrie Conspiracy sees John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie (b. 1577) and his brother Alexander trap James VI/I in their townhouse in Perth after asking him to dine with them; after the king cries for help, his courtiers break in and kill them, but the crowd thinks the king is a murderer (esp. since he owed John £80K) and gathers outside the house, causing a sticky wicket until he escapes; he then blames the entire Ruthven family and has them banished and forfeited, showing that he's meaner to Protestants than to Catholics? In Aug. after the English ship The Lion sails there and establishes the English Barbary Co. in 1585 to develop mutual trade, Abd al-Wahid (el-Ouahed) bin Mas'ud (ben Messaoud) bin Homammed (ben Mohammed) Anoun (b. 1558), ambassador of the king of Barbary (modern-day Morocco) arrives in London for a 6-mo. stay with Queen Elizabeth I, becoming the first Muslim and first Moor most people in London had ever seen, commonly described as black rather than swarthy; he meets with the queen on Aug. 19 and Sept. 10, seeking English help to invade Spain, and negotiations following through after she asks for an advance payment of 100K pounds; his portrait is painted while in England, ending up at the Shakespeare Inst. in Stratford-upon-Avon; three years later Shakespeare writes his famous play "Othello" about him? On Oct. 20 the Battle of Bucovo (Bukowo) followed on Nov. 25 by the Battle of Curtea de Arges see Michael the Brave of Moldavia defeated by Polish forces (incl. Winged Hussars) under Jan Zamoyski. On Oct. 21 Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) wins a big V against his rival Ishida Mitsunari (1559-1600) (backing Toyotomi Hideyoshi's son Hideyori) at the Battle of Sekigahara after Kobayakawa Hideaki (1577-1602) flip-flops during the battle; Mitsunari is captured by villagers and executed on Nov. 6 in Kyoto, and his head placed on a stand, after which it mysteriously disappears a few days later; Christian daimyo Konishi Yukinaga (b. 1555) flees to Mt. Ibuki, and after capture has to be executed on Nov. 6 because as a Christian he refuses to commit hari-kari; Ieyasu moves the capital from Kyoto to Edo (Yedo) (Tokyo), and names himself shogun of the emperor, founding the Tokugawa Shogunate (Bakufu) in 1603 (ends 1868), the last Japanese shogunate, where Japan closes in on itself and becomes the ultimate martial medieval fantasyland; English navigator William Adams (AKA Miura Anjin) (1564-1620) (same age as William Shakespeare?) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Richard Chamberlain (1934-)?) wrecks his ship Liefde (originally called Erasmus) off the coast of Japan, becoming the first Englishman to visit Japan, and a pampered pet of shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu for the rest of his life; in return he betrays English trade secrets on shipbuilding - incl. the formula for the integrated cow chip? In Oct. after his marriage to Marguerite of Valis is annulled, Henri IV of France marries gorgeous Florence-born pedigreed Roman Catholic Marie de' Medici (1575-1642), who brings a 600K crown dowry, going on to prove a big spender who patronizes the arts; their son Louis XIII is born next year. On Nov. 19 Princes Charles (d. 1649), 2nd son of James VI and Anne of Denmark is born, and is baptized at Holyrood House on Dec. 23, but is so sickly that there is only a minimal ceremony; he develops rickets, and grows up short, being initially raised in Dunfermline Abbey by guardian Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline (1555-1622); his older brother Prince Henry is groomed for the throne, causing his education to be neglected and giving him a complex? On Dec. 31 the Honourable English East India Co. is chartered by Eliabeth I in London as a joint stock co. with an initial capital of £70K to pursue trade with the East Indies, ending up trading mainly with India and China; it is dissolved on June 1, 1874. False Dmitri I (-1606) (real name Yuri Otrepiev), who claims to be Ivan IV the Terrible's murdered son Dmitri appears in Poland, winning support by next year for an invasion of Russia. Moroccan sultan (1578-1603) Ahmad I al-Mansur sends his secy. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud to the court of Elizabeth I of England seeking an alliance against Spain, with a view to reconquering it for Islam then conquering the New World for Allah; she declines. Kev Fa (Keo Hua) I (Chau Ponhea Nhom) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1603). Daimyo Date Masamune (1567-1636), "the One-Eyed Dragon", known for his crescent-moon-bearing helmet abandons his stronghold of Iwadeyama for better digs (easier access to Edo) and founds the city of Sendai on Honshu Island (modern-day pop. 1.806M), changing its kanji from "a thousand generations" to "immortal hermit on a mountain", and building Sendai (Aoba) Castle in Dec.; it goes on to become known as "the City of Trees" for its zelkova trees, becoming the 2nd largest Japanese city N of Tokyo. After a currency devaluation causes an imperial cavalry revolt Ottoman sultana Sofia Baffo's Jewish economic agent (kira) Esperanza Malchi (b. ?) is killed by a lynch mob along with her son after being suspected of being her lezzie lover? Charles IX of Sweden begins persecuting Roman Catholics - just staying connected, that's all? Sir Walter Raleigh becomes gov. of Guernsey in the Channel Islands, and persuades old Queen Elizabeth I to try tobacco smoking, demonstrating it to her and being doused by a member of the court who thought he was on fire - if it makes you happy? Religious intolerance in Graz, Austria finally causes astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor Viggo Mortensen?) to accept a standing invitation to become the asst. of aging Tycho Brahe (b. 1546) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to no actor, maybe Charlie Sheen in heavy makeup?) in Bohemia, becoming the classic scientific combo of a meticulous observer and a math geek? - I don't look like I'm 30 because I don't smoke and don't drink? In this cent. the W Sahara region is dominated by the Moorish military Hassani (Beni Hassan) clan (N of Senegal) and the clerical-commercial Zawaya clan (SW Sahara). About this time the Nguyen Lords (Chúa Nguyen) begin ruling S Vietnam (Cochin China) (until 1800); N Vietnam is controlled by the Trinh Lords; both go on to gobble up all the land to the point of starving the rest of the pop. In this cent. Surabaja in modern-day Java, Indonesia (modern pop. 2.7M) is founded as a Japanese trading post. In this cent. the Ngonde Kingdom is founded in Malawi. In this cent. Algerian pirates operate in the English Channel. In this cent. the narrow streets in Amsterdam's central district become a haven for hookers looking for sailors on shore leave, becoming known as the Red Light District. Scots College is founded in Rome in the hope that James VI of Scotland might do a Henri IV of France and convert to Roman Catholicism. Peter Paul Rubens goes to Venice to study the works of Titian and Veronese. London theater mgr. Philip Henslowe and actor Edward Alleyn build the Fortune Theatre outside the city walls N of the Thames River on Golding (Golden) Lane outside Cripplegate in the Liberty of Finsbury to compete with the Globe Theatre, hiring Globe builder Peter Street to build the most luxurious public playhouse to date, changing the octagonal shape to rectangular and hiring the Admiral's Men as its resident co., going on to become the Globe's main rival, presentng plays by Ben Jonson et al. until the closing of the theaters in 1642, after which it is demolished in 1661. About this time the Baroque (Port. "imperfect pearl") Period in art, architecture, theater, and music begins in the West in Rome, encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church as a way to propagandize against pesky Protestantism by using exaggerated motion and clear easy-to-interpret detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur, spreading throughout Europe (ends 1750); the High Baroque Period is from 1625-1660; the Council of Trent (1545-63), the Roman Catholic reaction to Protestantism actively pushes it as a way to communicate religious messages with direct and emotional involvement (but don't say icons?) in order to steer the flock away from reading the pesky Bible and going Protestant, and the aristocracy even in Protestant countries quickly picks up on it as a way to show off how rich and powerful they are - gag me with a silver spoon crusted with shells? In this cent. the Golden Age of Dutch Lit. (ends 1700), led by Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert (1522-90), Philip van Marnix (1538-98), Jacob "Father" Cats (1577-1660), Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (1581-1647), Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero (1585-1618), Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) et al. flourishes, cleansing Dutch of foreign (mainly French) corruption, and emphasizing humanist values. About this time (Do-Aklin) (Dogbari) Gagnihessou (Ganye Hessou) leaves the Moro River in Togo and founds the cool keyhold-shaped black-is-beautiful yes-we-have-no-slaves-today tell-it-to-the-witch-doctor Fon kingdom of Dahomey in W Africa is founded on the Abomey Plateau in modern-day Benin with Aja settlers from Allada; too bad, about 1640 his brother Dakodonou (-1645) becomes king #2 of Dahomey in W Africa (until 1645) after overthrowing him while he is out bar-hopping around his kingdom, going on to become a brutal mutha who murders indigo planter Donou and has fun rolling his corpse around in an indigo jar, appending his name to his own; Dahomey goes on to have Twelve Kings, fudge a little here and there, and become a tributary to the Oyo Empire before breaking free in 1823, building its economy on conquest and slave labor along with trade with Europeans, with an organized military that features female Amazon warriors; it becomes kaput in 1904; meanwhile early in this cent. Kpasse (Kpassè), ruler of the kingdom of Houeda (Houéda) in Dahomey (known for his Python Temple) begins selling his people as slaves to the French, English, and Dutch in exchange for trinkets from the port of Ouidah; too bad, these slaves bring the native superstition of voodoo with them to Haiti, the Netherlands Antilles, and North Am. In this decade European cultivation of tobacco begins in Brazil; Pope (1592-1605) Clement VIII gives coffee his blessing, saying that it's unfair to "permit Muslims to monopolize it". In this cent. gingham (Ital. "ging-gang" = striped) cloth begins to be imported by the Dutch from Malaysia. In this decade the potato is introduced to Ireland, which up till now had difficulty feeding itself, eventually causing a pop. explosion; too bad, Ireland becomes overdependent on a single crop? Watch the beauty queen paint her face on? In this cent. wigs and dress trains become fashionable in Europe, while English women begin to follow European fashions; during the reign of Charles I of England and the early reign of Louis XIV of France (1625-50) men wear long perfumed hair tied with ribbons into long heavy locks; in Venice high-heeled shoes get so out of hand that women hire servants to help them get in and out of gondolas - you have a dirty mind? In this cent. Bohemia becomes known for wonderfully engraved glass with pictures and cut into glittering facets. In this cent. the sport of fox hunting becomes popular in England after the decline of falconry, with hunts established in Quorn, Belvoir, Cottesmore, and Pytchley; the first known fox hunt was in 1534 in Norfolk. About this time chess players eliminate the win by annihilation (capturing all enemy pieces except the king); "manad" (Persian for helplessness) is the root of the word for mate; "There are only two kinds of losers: bad sports and good actors"; "Why must I lose to this idiot?" In this decade European music changes from polyphonic choral to the new homophonic vocal style called Nuove Musiche (pub. July 1602) of Italian composer Giulio Caccini (Romano) (1551-1618), co-founder of Baroque opera; the harp begins to be used in orchestras. In this cent. the recorder (flute-a-bec) becomes popular in England. In this cent. the Dutch introduce Sinter Klaas (Santa Claus) to North Am., a combo of 4th cent. Turkish bishop St. Nicholas and the Norse god Odin, whose 8-legged flying horse is turned into a sleigh with eight reindeer, and whose yearly mission is smeared with the three wise men at Jesus' birth; the tradition of leaving him cookies and milk comes from a medieval German story; it isn't much of a jump to later make him fat and jolly? William Shakespeare enters his Dark Vision Age (1600-8). Le-Locheur (near Caen, Normandie)-born French poet-critic Francois de Malherbe (1555-1628) presents his first poem to Maria de 'Medici, getting him an introduction to Henry IV by Cardinal Du Perron in 1605, who grants him a pension but leaves it to his successor to pay it, lucking out and inheriting his father's fortune in 1606, going on to develop the poetic rules of Classicism that dominate French poetry until the age of the Romantics. Architecture: About this year the Fortune Playhouse over the Rio di Palazzo in Venice, Italy is built, between Whitecross St. and Golden Lane on modern-day Fortune St. in St. Giles-without-Cripplegate just outside London is founded by Philip Henslowe and Edward Alleyn for the Admiral's Men, becoming the chief venue for dramas in London until it is closed by the Puritans in 1642. The white limestone arch Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri), designed by Antonio Contino, nephew of Rialto Bridge designer Antonio da Ponte is built, with stone-barred windows connecting the Doge's Palace with the New Prison, becoming the last view of Venice that convicts see before going to prison. The Palazzo Real (Royal Palace) of Naples, designed by Domenico Fontana (1543-1607) is begun. In this cent. the Durga Temple and Observatory of Raja Jai Singh II are built in Benares, India. Inventions: About this time HRE Rudolf II's jewel cutter Caspar Lehmann invents the cut-glass process. Flemish engineer Simon Stevin (Stevinus) (1548-1620) invents the first wind-driven land vehicle. Change ringing of bells is invented in England early in this cent., consisting of changing the order of ringing a set of 5-12 bells. Science: Early in this cent. Muslim Science is finally passed up by Christendom, which leaves it in the rearview mirror. Early in this cent. Jesuit missionaries from Peru introduce Cinchona ("Jesuits' bark") as a treatment for malaria. Nonfiction: Anon., The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon the King (Clavicula Salomnis Regis) (AKA Lemegeton); a grimoire (magician's handbook), written in this cent. Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619), Tabulae Pictae; announces his discovery of the cerebral fissure. Moderata Fonte (1555-92) The Worth of Women: Wherein Is Clearly Revealed Their Nobility and Their Superiority to Men (posth.); argues that women are superior to men in virtue and intelligence, but doesn't thrust, er, advocate total sexual equality. William Gilbert (1544-1603), De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete, Tellure, Physiologica Nova; the first great English scientific work; contains his discovery that the Earth itself (not just some island in the N) is a giant magnet, and coining the terms "electricity" (Lat. "electricus" = like amber in its attractive properties), "electric force", "electric attraction", and "magnetic pole". Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607), Perspectivae Libri VI (Pisa); influential book on perspective. Thomas Morley (1557-1603), First Book of Ayres. Samuel Sewall (1652-1730), The Selling of Joseph; against slavery but ambivalent about what to do with blacks, capturing the essence of Am. white racism?; "Liberty is in real value next unto life. None ought to part with it themselves, or deprive others of it, but upon the most mature consideration"; "Man-stealing is an atrocious crime which would introduce among the English settlers people who would remain forever restive and alien"; "There is such a disparity in their conditions, color, hair, that they can never embody with us, and grow up into orderly families to the peopling of the land"; "These Ethiopians, as black as they are, seeing they are the sons of daughters of the first Adam, the brethren and sisters of the last Adam, and the offspring of God, they ought to be treated with a respect agreeable." Giovan Vettorio Soderini (1526-96), Trattato della coltivazione delle viti, e del frutto che se ne puo cavare (Treatise on the Cultivation of the Vineyard, and the Fruit That Can Be Obtained); treatise on viticulture and oenology, claiming that the stars influence the harvest. Xie Zhaozhi, Wuzazu first mention of the game of rock-paper-scissors (shoushilling), which he claims dates back to the Han Dynasty (-206 to 220); doesn't arrive in Europe until the early 20th cent., becoming popular in the U.K. in the 1920s, and U.S. in the 1930s. Art: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), Ecce Homo. Music: Jacopo Peri (1561-1633) and Giulio Caccini (Romano) (1551-1618), Euridice (opera) (Palazzo Pitti, Florence) (Oct. 6); libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini, based on Ovid's "Metamorphoses", Books X-XI; earliest surviving opera. Emilio de' Cavalieri, La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo (opera) (pub.). Plays: Anon., The Maid's Metamorphosis; written by Samuel Daniel? Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Shoemaker's Holiday. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Cynthia's Revels; satirizes literary contemporaries. William Kempe (-1603), Nine Daies Wonder; actor in Shakespeare's plays (Falstaff?) does a Morris dance from London to Norwich in Feb.-Mar. in nine days spread over several weeks to cheering crowds. John Marston (1576-1634), Jack Drum's Entertainment. Anthony Munday, The Book of Sir Thomas More; written about this time and never produced; contains material written by William Shakespeare, in which More tries to quiet riotous Londoners about to massacre immigrants with reasoned argument: "Would you be pleased/To find a nation of such barbarous temper/That, breaking out in hideous violence,/Would not afford you an abode on earth,/Whet their detested knives against your throats?" Thomas Nashe (1567-1601), Summer's Last Will and Testament (satirical masque). Poetry: Nicholas Breton (1545-1626), Pasquil's Fooles Cappe; Pasquil's Mistresse; Pasquil's Passe and Passeth Not; Melancholike Humours. Cyril Tourneur (1575-1626), The Transformed Metamorphosis (allegory). Novels: Thomas Deloney (1543-1600), Thomas of Reading (posth.); about weavers. Births: Spanish playwright-priest Pedro Calderon de la Barca (d. 1681) on Jan. 17 in Madrid; Flemish mother. French librarian Gabriel Naude (Naudé) (d. 1653) on Feb. 2 in Paris. Swedish-German gen. Count Hans Christoff von Konigsmarck (Königsmarck) (d. 1663) Mar. 4 in Tjust; cmdr. of the Swedish Flying Column. French mathematician-priest (Jesuit) Antoine De Laloubere (Laloubère) (d. 1664) on Aug. 24 in Languedoc; first mathematician to study the properties of the helix. German Jesuit priest-theologian Hermann Busenbaum (Busembaum) (d. 1689) on Sept. 19 in Nottuln, Westphalia. English/Scottish/Irish 5'4" detachable head king (1625-49) Charles I (Stewart) (d. 1649) on Nov. 19 in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland; 2nd son of James I/VI (1566-1625) and Anne of Denmark (1574-1619); paternal grandson of Mary Stewart, queen of Scots (1542-87); can't walk or talk till age 3. Italian chess player Gioacchino Greco (d. 1634). English divine Brian Walton (d. 1661) in Seymour; educated at Magdalene College and Peterhouse College, Cambridge U. English polymath pansophist Samuel Hartlib (Hartlieb) (d. 1662) in Elblag, Germany (modern-day Elbing, Poland); educated at Cambridge U.; collaborator of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670); friend of John Milton and Robert Boyle; neighbor of Samuel Pepys in Axe Yard, London. English Puritan "Histriomastix" writer William Prynne (d. 1669) near Bath, Somerset; educated at Oriel College, Oxford U. Am. Va. colonist (black) Anthony Johnson (d. 1670) in Angola. Dutch Baroque landscape painter Salomon van Ruysdael (d. 1670) in Naarden. French Dutch East India Co. dir. (Huguenot) Francois Caron (d. 1673) in Brussels; first Frenchman to set foot in Japan? Am. Puritan surveyor-planter William Claiborne (Clayborne) (d. 1677) in Kent, England. French #1 landscape painter Claude Lorrain (Gelée) (d. 1682) in Chamagne, Lorraine; orphaned at age 12; goes to Rome at age 16, goes nuts over Flemish painter Godfrey Waels, journeys to Naples on foot to become his student for two years, then returns to Rome for life, becoming a papal favorite. Deaths: Scottish churchman John Craig (b. 1512). Ottoman poet Baki (b. 1526) on Nov. 7 in Constantionple; leaves Elegy on the Death of Sultan Suleiman I. Italian violin maker Andrea Amati (b. 1530). Swiss mathematician Conrad Dasyprodius (b. 1530) on Apr. 26 in Strasbourg. Italian painter Gian Paolo Lomazzo (b. 1538) on Feb. 13 in Milan. Muslim historian Mustafa Ali (b. 1541) in Jeddah, Arabia; leaves The Essence of History (Kunhul-ahbar), covering world history from Creation to the year 1000 of the Islamic calendar (1591/2 C.E.). English novelist Thomas Deloney (b. 1543) in Apr. Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno (b. 1548) on Feb. 17 in Rome (burned); "Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with grater fear than I receive it". English theologian Richard Hooker (b. 1554); leaves vols. 6-8 of his "Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity", the first definitive ed. of all eight being pub. in 1666 by Isaak Walton, and the modern std. ed. in 1836 by John Keble. Japanese Christian daimyo Konishi Yukinaga (b. 1555) on Nov. 6 (executed). Japanese samurai Ishida Mitsunari (b. 1559) on Nov. 6 in Kyoto (beheaded). Ottoman historian Mustafa Selaniki (b. ?); leaves Chronicle of Salonica (Tarih-i Selaniki), a history of the Ottoman Empire from 1563-99, showing its decline.

1601 - The Essex Spewed Out of the Realm Year in England, and the Year of English Playwrights Satirizing Each Other?

Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624) Capt. Thomas Lee (1551-1601) Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616) Charles Bount, 8th Baron Mountjoy of England (1563-1606) Maximilien de Bethune, 1st Duke of Sully (1560-1641) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) St. Lawrence of Brindisi (1559-1619) Sir James Lancaster (1554-1618) Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester (1590-1645) Sir Thomas Overbury (1581-1613) Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas (1559-1625) Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611) Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655) Golden Temple of Amritsar (1577-1601) 'Cupid' by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1601

1601 On Jan. 17 the Peace of Lyon between France and Savoy recognizes Savoyard control of Saluzzo in exchange for Bresse and other territories beyond the Alps, with Savoy permitted to please the Spanish by persecuting Protestants. It's just my imagination running away with me? On Feb. 7 (Sat.) William Shakespeare and the Lord Chamberlain's Men are paid by Essex's Welsh friend Sir Gelly (Gelli) Meyrick (1556-1601) to stage a production of Richard II with its banned abdication scene at the Globe Theatre in Southwark in order to rouse the London pop. On Feb. 8 (Sun.) the half-baked tragicomical (Earl of) Essex Rebellion against old fart Elizabeth I (whom he claims he just wants to protect, assuming the title of Lord Protector after putting her under house arrest for her own good?) fails after the pop. doesn't go for it, and Lord Adm. Charles Howard et al. suppress the rebels; on Feb. 8 Sir John Levenson (1555-1615) is riding to his house in Blackfriars, London when he finds an English force on Ludgate Hill, taking command and placing a barrier across the road, after which within a half hour Essex and his men unsuccessfully try to force their way way through, withdrawing to Essex House after Essex's stepfather Sir Christopher Blount (1555-1601) is badly wounded on the cheek, ending up arrested and beheaded on Tower Hill on Mar. 18; on Feb. 25 Essex is beheaded after "he acknowledged, with thankfulness to God, that he was justly spewed out of the realm"; Sir Walter Raleigh, who took part in suppressing the rebellion presides over the execution as capt. of the guard; four others are executed, 49 imprisoned or fined, and Lady Rich and 30 others set free; the popular songs Essex's Last Good Night and Sweet England's Pride is Gone, Well-a-day, Well-a-day are born; on Feb. 12 Capt. Thomas Lee (1551-1601) is arrested in the palace kitchen on the way to the chamber where the queen sups, planning to force her at knifepoint to release Essex, and he is tried in Newgate on Feb. 14 and hanged in Tyburn on Feb. 15 by Thomas Derrick, who invented a spar with a topping lift and pulleys for hanging, causing the word "derrick" to be coined; on Feb. 19 Shakespeare's handsome bi blue-eyed patron Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624) is tried along with Essex for treason and condemned to death, but eventually released by James I - after a little cockie leeky soup? In Feb. Henri IV's most trusted counselor Maximilien de Bethune, 1st Duke of Sully (1560-1641), who had been with his master since the 1572 St. Bartholomew Massacre becomes French master of artillery (created duke of Sully in Mar. 1606). In Feb. Sigismund Bathory is reinstated as prince of Transylvania by the Diet of Cluj (Klausenburg), but Michael the Brave and Gen. Giorgio Basta drive him out again, and he never returns, dying in exile in Prague in 1613. On Mar. 13 English lawyer John Manningham (-1622) makes an entry in his diary telling how actor Richard Burbage was playing Richard III in William's Shakespeare's play, and met a comely woman who invited him to her house, telling him to use the code name Richard III, but Shakespeare overhears her and goes in his place, later sending Burbage a bragging note "William the Conqueror was before Richard III" - should have said came before? In late Apr. Sir James Lancaster VI (1554-1618) leads the first British East India Co. voyage from Torbay to Sumatra on his ship Red Dragon, reaching the Cape of Good Hope on Nov. 1. On June 23 the Battle of Kokenhausen near Koknese, Livonia (modern-day Latvia) is a decisive V for the Polish under Gen. Kryzysztof "the Thunderbolt" Radziwill over the Swedes led by Carl Gyllenhielm, who lose 2K-3K KIA vs. 100-200 Polish KIA. On June 30-July 8, English traveler John Sanderson visits Jerusalem, writing the soundbyte: "In the church [of the Holy Sepulcher], whose distance is twenty or twenty-five paces, are divers altars or divers sorts of Christians. But first I noted in the church door two great holes at which is daily given in the victuals to all sorts of religious persons which keep continually in the said church; for the Turks never open the door except for some pilgrims who first pay the cadie [qadi], who is the chief justice, the Great Turk's due: upon every one under the pope's banner, which they call Franks, nine sequins in gold, and Greeks under the patriarch four and a half, with other Christians alike, [or] some less." On July 7 the Spanish under Archduke Albert of Austria siege the port of Ostend in W Flanders (until Sept. 20, 1604). In July after seeing his forces in Moldavia oust Simion Movila, and gaining the assistance of HRE Rudolf II to oust Sigmismund Bathory and the Hungarian nobility from Transylvania, Prince Michael the Brave allies with tricky Magyar-hating Austrian gen. Giorgio Basta and defeats the Hungarian nobles at the Battle of Guraslau (Goroszlo), only to be assassinated on Aug. 9 by Basta's orders, ending the big Roman, er, Romanian dream; with him out of the way, the Turks go on to tighten their hold, imposing severe political restrictions for the rest of the cent. On Aug. 26 Dutch navigator Olivier van Noort finishes circumnavigating the Earth (begun 1598), becoming the 4th to cut, er, pull it off, after which the ambitious Dutch East India Co. (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) is founded in Nov. Batavia (until 1795), floating the first-ever public securities to boost its capital to £540K. On Oct. 2 the fifth and last Spanish armada lands 4K men in Kinsale (S of Cork), Ireland to help the Irish under rebel (since 1593) Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616) fight the stankin' English under new lord deputy of Ireland (since 1600) Charles Blount (pr. like blunt), 8th Baron Mountjoy and 1st Earl of Devonshire (1563-1606), starting with the unsuccessful month-long Siege of Donegal by Tyroconnell king (since 1592) "Red" Hugh Roe O'Donnell (1572-1602); on Dec. 24 (Christmas Eve) they begin the Battle (Siege) of Kinsale (Kinsala), with a night attack on the stankin' English, but take too long and don't reach them until dawn, and the poorly-trained Irish foot soldiers and spear-chucking stirrup-less Irish cavalry are easily defeated by the English cavalry and their lances, causing them to flee, after which the English encircle Kinsale and starve it out (ends Jan. 3); Hugh Roe O'Donnell flees to Spain to seek support from Philip II, dying in Valladolid, Spain on Sept. 10, 1602 and being succeeded by his younger brother Rory O'Donnell (AKA Red Hugh II) (1575-1608), who becomes the last king of Tyrconnell, followed on Sept. 4, 1603 by 1st earl of Tyrconnell (until Sept. 14, 1607). On Oct. 24 Tycho Brahe (b. 1546) dies in Prague, and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) assumes his position as imperial mathematician and court astronomer/astrologer to HRE Rudolf II in Benatsky, Bohemia; he starts right out showing his stuff by attempting to categorize the "seven planets" according to whether they are wet-dry or warm-cold, and studies Witelo's works on optics. In Nov. England pub. a Poor Law, requiring parishes to take care of the poor; each city or town is to have its own poor (work) house. On Nov. 30 after secy. of state Robert Burghley pisses off the 141-member Commons, Elizabeth I calls them and appeases them by ending royal monopolies, giving the very gooey Golden Speech, her last speech to Parliament's 141 members in the Council Chamber at Whitehall, in which she surveys the achievements of her long reign. St. Lawrence of Brindisi (1559-1619) leads a 4-to-1 outnumbered Hungarian army to a V against the Turks at the Battle of Albe-Royal armed only with a crucifix? Keshava Rama Varma dies, and Veera Kerala Varma (d. 1615) becomes ruler of Cochin in India (until 1615). Akbar the Great annexes Khandest. Philip III makes Valladolid the capital of Spain again, replacing Madrid (since 1561); too bad, in 1606 a flood of the Pisuerga and Esgueva Rivers causes him to move it back. King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland sends Armenian merchant Muratovitz to Kashan in Persia to supervise the work on silk rugs ordered there. After his book "De Magnete" is pub., William Gilbert (1544-1603) becomes Queen Elizabeth I's physician, and later James I's. Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in Peking and sets up a Catholic mission free from nasty Protestants. Spanish gov. #1 of New Mexico (Nov. 1598-Apr. 18, 1608) Juan de Onate (Oñate) Salazar (1550-1626) leads an expedition 700 mi. N into Nebraska in search of the fabled land of Quivira - heere's Johnny? The Gobelin dyeing factory in Paris in the Faubourg St. Marcel is lent to Henri IV, who hires 200 workmen from Flanders to make tapestries. The English wool industry exports over £1M worth of products this year. About this time tobacco smoking is introduced into Turkey by the English; no hookahs for 20 years. Japan grants free trade rights to the Dutch. Germany and France sign a postal agreement. German authorities begin closing the Badestuben (brothels) to prevent the spread of VD - like spitting in the wind? After squandering his inheritance on wine, women, and song, fighting and traveling in Europe, and getting appointed chief secy. to Sir Thomas Edgerton, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal in 1598, London-born Roman Catholic-to-Anglican convert John Donne (1572-1631) becomes an MP, and in Dec. secretly marries his boss Edgerton's niece Anne More (-1617) against her father Sir George More's wishes, and is fired and imprisoned next Feb. in Fleet Prison along with Samuel Brooke, the minister who married them, but they are soon released, and by 1609 he receives his wife's dowry, retiring to a small house Pyrford, Surrey owned by Anne's cousin Sir Francis Wooley, then moving in spring 1605 to another small house in Mitcham, Camberwell, where he makes a meager living as an atty supporting a growing family that reaches 12 children, writing anti-Catholic pamphlets for Thoms Morton in 1604-7 along with poems that secure the patronage of Sir Robert Drury in 1610, allowing him to move to a good apt. in Drury Lane, London, until at James I's urging he finally takes holy orders in 1615 and is appointed dean of St. Paul's Cathedral in London in 1621, which gives him a cushy income for the rest of his life. Thomas Overbury (1581-1613) of Warwickshire, England befriends Robert Carr (1590-1645) in Edinburgh, who later becomes James I's minion the Viscount Rochester, returning the favor and getting him knighted in 1608 and allowing him to enjoy the precarious life of a courtier. The War of the Theatres starts in London between the Lord Chamberlain's Men and the Boy Players - no touching? William Shakespeare enters his Dark (Bitter) Comedy Age (1601-4), producing the three "dark comedies" "Twelfth Night", "All's Well That Ends Well", and "Measure for Measure" - today's music ain't got the same sound? Ben Johnson coins the term "plagiary" (Lat. "plagiarius" = kidnapper); the term "plagiarism" is coined about 1620. Architecture: The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar in the Punjab (begun in 1577) is completed. Nonfiction: Pierre Charron, De la Sagesse; Stoic philosophy. Charles De L'Ecuse (1526-1609), Rariorum Plantarum Historia; his collected botanical-horticultural works, incl. Spanish and Australian flora, and C European mushrooms. Wang Gendung, Principles and Practice of Medicine (120 vols.); refines acupuncture techniques. Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), Quaeris Quid Sit Amor? (Do You Ask What Love Is?); the first emblem book in Dutch; repub. in 1606 as "Emblemata Amatoria" (Love Emblems). Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas (1559-1625), Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Oceano (Gen. History of the Works of the Catilians in the Islands and Lands of the New World); Spanish Am. from 1492-1554; Descripcion de las Indias Occidentales (Description of the West Indies). John Wheeler, A Treatise of Commerce. Art: Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1571-1610), The Conversion of St. Paul; The Crucifixion of St. Peter; Cupid (Amor Vincit Omnia) (1601-2); Still Life with a Basket of Fruit; Supper at Emaus. Music: Thomas Campion (1568-1639), Ayres (4 vols.) (1601-17). Carlo Gesualdo (1560-1613) (Prince of Venosa), Madrigals (lyrics by Torquato Tasso). Thomas Morley (1557-1603), Triumphs of Oriana. Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Requiem; his greatest hit? Plays: Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Poetaster; satire of the bombastic exaggerated situation plays of John Marston (1576-1634), who figures as the char. Crispinus. John Marston (1576-1634), What You Will; "what you will" means "have at you". Antoine de Montchrestien (1575-1621), L'Ecossaise (tragedy); dedicated to James I, about his mother Mary Stuart, which gets him out of a jam in 1605 when he kills his opponent in a duel and has to flee to England temporarily; Les Lacenes (tragedy); David ou l'Adultere (tragedy); Aman (tragedy); La Bergerie (pastoral). William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Twelfth Night (What You Will) (comedy); named Twelfth Night after it debuts on Jan. 6, 1602 (Epiphany, manifestation of the Christ child to the Magi); Countess Olivia and her suitor Duke Orsino of Illyria on the E coast of the Adriatic, shipwrecked Viola/Cesario and her twin brother Sebastian, rescued by homoerotic Antonio (played by Shakespeare?), Olivia's drunken uncle Toby Belch, never-smiling steward Malvolio (satire of Ben Jonson and his comedy of the two humors, choler and blood, AKA Thanatos and Eros, the first of which causes fury, the second lust?), silly knight-suitor Sir Andrew Aguecheek, maid Maria, butler Fabian, and clown Feste; Shakespeare's funniest play?; Viola pretends to be a eunuch named Cesario so she can work for her dream man Orsino, and when she attempts to convince his love Olivia (whose family died earlier, causing her to become an ice queen), it backfires and Olivia goes for him/her, suggesting a lez relationship that cannot be in this Jacobean era where everyone has a natural place; meanwhile drunken Toby Belch pushes Aguecheek on Olivia, and after a bunch of antics, where Maria fools Malvolio into thinking Olivia's in love with him with a fake letter, which causes him to get locked up in a dark room for lunacy, and Sebastian is confused with Cesario by Olivia, it all comes out right when Olivia marries Sebastian, Viola marries Orsino, and Belch marries Maria, restoring the natural order (it works just as good when Olivia pairs with Viola, and Sebastian with Orsino, and Antonio, Aguecheek, Fabian and Malvolio meet again in a gay bar?); Antonio ends up pairless after crying, "Which is Sebastian"; poor Malvolio is so mistreated he walks off swearing that he'll "be revenged on the whole pack of you"; "If music be the food of love, play on" (Orsino) (1.1.1); "Love's night is noon" (Olivia) (3.1.162); "Then westward-ho!" (3.1.148); "Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them" (Malvolio); Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) (comedy or tragedy?); not performed at the Globe because of the resemblance between Achilles and the Earl of Essex, or because lying "dog-fox" politician Ulysses resembles court personages?; Trojan lovers Troilus and Cressida, who leaves him for Diomedes after being sent to the Greek camp in a POW exchange, after which Troilus' brother Hector is murdered by Achilles; Paris, Ulysses, Ajax, Margarelon (Priam's bastard son), Cressida's VD-infected pimp uncle Pandarus (source of the verb "to pander"), Greek slave Thersites ("a deformed and scurrilous Greek"); a speech by Ulysses to Achilles makes the word "fashionable" fashionable; "Men prize the thing ungain'd more than it is" (1.2.313); "This is the monstruosity in love, lady: That the will is infinite, and the execution confined: that the desire is boundless, and the act a slave to limit" (Troilus) (3.2.79-81); "The fractions of her faith, orts of her love... are given to Diomed" (Troilus) (5.2.157-9); "O, 'tis fair play" (Troilus) (5.3.40-43). Poetry: Nicholas Breton (1545-1626), A Divine Poem, incl. The Ravisht Soul and The Blessed Weeper; An Excellent Poem Upon the Longing of a Blessed Heart; The Soules Heavenly Exercise. Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), Panegyrick Congratulatorie (ottava rima); 1st folio vol. of collected works by a living English poet. Bento Teixeira Pinto, Prosopopeya; first Brazilian epic. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Phoenix and the Turtle; turtle as in turtledove; about the death of ideal love. Births: Spanish "Criticon" Jesuit Baroque writer Baltasar Gracian y Morales (Gracián y Morales) (d. 1658) on Jan. 8 in Belmonte, Aragon. Spanish painter-architect-sculptor ("the Michelangelo of Spain") Alonso (Alonzo) Cano (d. 1667) on Mar. 19 in Granada. French nobleman ("Cadet la Perle") Henri de Lorraine, Count of Harcourt (d. 1666) on Mar. 20; known for wearing a pearl in his ear. English "Weird William Shakespeare in the First Folio" engraver Martin Droeshout (d. 1651) in Apr. Brussels, Belgium; of Flemish descent. English soldier-politician Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton (d. 1643) in May; son of William Compton, 1st earl of Northampton (-1630) and Elizabeth Spencer (daughter of Sir John Spencer, lord mayor of London); father of James Compton, 3rd earl of Northampton (1622-81). French queen consort (1615-43) and regent (1643-51) Anne of Austria (d. 1666) on Sept. 22 in Valladolid, Spain; daughter of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria; wife (1615-) of Louis XIII. French Bourbon king #2 (1610-43) Louis XIII (d. 1643) on Sept. 27 in Chateau de Fontainebleau; eldest son of Henri IV and 2nd wife Marie de' Medici (1575-1642). English scholar (English translator of "Don Quixote") Thomas Shelton (d. 1650). Dutch marine painter Simon de Vlieger (d. 1653) in Rotterdam. French "Marianne" dramatist Francois Tristan l'Hermite (d. 1655) in Chateau de Soliers, Haute Marche; names himself after Tristan l'Hermite (-1478). English regicide Col. Adrian Scrope (d. 1660); educated at Hart Hall, Oxford U. English MP (1640-59) Arthur Haselrig, 2nd Baronet (d. 1661). English "Microcosmographie" Anglican bishop John Earle (d. 1665) in York; educated at Christ Church and Merton Colleges, Oxford U. French playwright-novelist-poet Georges de Scudery (Scudéry) (d. 1667); brother of novelist Madeleine de Scudery (1607-1701). German satirist Johann Michael Moscherosch (d. 1669). Scottish Parliamentary gen. Thomas, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (d. 1671) in Denton (near Otley), Yorkshire; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; eldest son of Ferdinando, 2nd Baron Fairfax (1584-1648). French composer-harpsichordist Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (Chambonnières) (d. 1672) (b. 1602?) in Paris. French physician Guy (Gui) Patin (d. 1672) in Hodenc-en-Bray, Oise. French scientist Emanuel Maignan (d. 1676). German mathematician Athanasius Kircher (d. 1680). Scottish soldier David Leslie, 1st Baron Newark (d. 1682); created baron in 1661. Hindu saint Sri Raghavendra Swami (d. ?) (Swamiji). Deaths: English famous prick (William Shakespeare's father) John Shakespeare (b. 1529) in Aug. English statesman Henry Herbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke (b. 1534) on Jan. 19. English detitled earl Charles Neville (b. 1542) on Nov. 16; dies in exile on the Continent, living on a small pension from the king of Spain. Danish metal-nosed astronomer Tycho Brahe (b. 1546) on Oct. 24 in Prague; dies 11 days after he attends the banquet of a nobleman and is too polite to leave the table, causing his bladder to burst; really dies of mercury poisoning trying to medicate his failing kidneys? German Calvinist chancellor (of Saxony) Nikolaus Krell (b. 1551) on Oct. 9 in Dresden (executed). English Capt. Thomas Lee (b. 1551) on Feb. 14 in Tyburn (executed). English soldier (stepfather of the 2nd earl of Essex) Sir Christopher Blount (b. 1555) on Mar. 18 in Tower Hill, London (beheaded). Wallachian prince Michael the Brave (b. 1558) on Aug. 9 (assassinated). English Queen Elizabeth's uppity favorite Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex (b. 1566) on Feb. 25 in Tower Hill, London; (beheaded with three strikes). English dramatist Thomas Nashe (b. 1567). English gay bacon Anthony Bacon (b. ?) in May; gay brother of gay Sir Francis Bacon - gay bacon joke here?

1602 - Something tells me I'm into something good NOT? Potatoes or not, Ireland becomes truly a land of ire under the English bootheel for three centuries?

Arbella Stewart (1575-1615) William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1588-1660) Thomas West, 3rd Baron de la Warr (1577-1618) Sir Richard Leveson Stephen Bocskai of Hungary (1557-1606) Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) Bartholomew Gosnold (1471-1607) Charles de Gontaut, Duc de Biron (1562-1602) Sir Thomas Bodley (1545-1613) William Bradford (1590-1657) Cesare Negri (1535-1605) John Davies of Hereford St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622) Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) Giovanni Baglione (1566-1643) 'Sacred Love and Profane Love' by Giovanni Baglione (1566-1643), 1602-3 Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1571-1610) 'Doubting Thomas' by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1602 'St. John the Baptist' by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1602 Isaac Oliver (1556-1617) 'The Rainbow Portrait of Queen Elizabth I' by Isaac Oliver (1556-1617), 1602 Diana of Versailles Fountain, 1603

1602 There is a smallpox epidemic in England. On Jan. 3 the Northern Irish chieftains are defeated at the Battle (Siege) of Kinsale (Kinsala) (begun Dec. 24), effectively ending Tyrone's Rebellion (Nine Years' War) (begun Aug. 1594) and completing England's conquest of Gaelic Ireland after great cruelty is practiced on both sides, but since the English are on Irish soil they don't hesitate to destroy crops, cattle, and whole villages, and practice genocide, laying Munster and Ulster waste, causing starvation that kills more people than the war; after he destroys his own capital at Dungannon and hides in the woods as English forces under Lord Mountjoy approach, Hugh O'Neill holds out until next Mar. 31, seeing his leaders surrender one by one due to starvation. On Jan. 6 (Twelfth Night) (Feb. 2 - Candlemas night?), Shakespeare's play "Twelfth Night" is first performed in London, receiving its name. On Jan. 18 Robert Stewart is born to James VI and Anne, dying on May 27, leaving them with Prince Henry (b. 1594), Princess Elizabeth (b. 1596), and Prince Charles (b. 1600). On Mar. 20 the United East India Co. is founded by the states-gen. in Amsterdam, with the goal of stealing the spice trade from the Portuguese; it goes defunct on Dec. 31, 1799. On Mar. 24 the 2nd baron de la Warr (b. 1556) dies, and his son Thomas West (1577-1618) succeeds as the 3rd baron de la Warr, becoming known as Lord Delaware. On Apr. 9 the British East India Co. expedition of Sir James Lancaster VI (1554-1618) reaches the Nicobar Islands SE of the Bay of Bengal, then on June 5 reaches Achin (modern-day Aceh) on N Sumatra, defeating the local ruler and establishing an alliance, capturing and looting a large Portuguese galleon, then reaches Bantam (Banten) in W Java, where they establish their first factory and send a commercial mission to the Moluccas before turning back to England. On May 5 Spanish explorer Sebastian Vizcaino (Sebastián Vizcaíno) (1548-1624) departs from Acapulco with three ships, the San Diego, San Tomas, and Tres Reyes, reaching and naming San Diego Bay on Nov. 10, and continuing N, reaching and naming the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Point Conception, the Santa Lucia Mountains, Point Lobos, the Carmel River, and Monterey Bay (Dec. 16) (named after New Spain viceroy Conde de Monterrey, overriding the name Bahia de los Pinos given it in 1542 by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, and the name Bahia de San Pedro given it in 1595 by Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno), becoming the first to record the Monterey cypress forest at point Lobos; his cmdr. Martin de Aguilar becomes separated and continues N to Ore. as far as Cape Blanco (Coos Bay?); when they return they whip-up enthusiasm for settlement of Monterey, but a colonizing expedition is cancelled in 1608. On May 15 English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold (1571-1607) explores and names Cape Cod, and visits the Elizabeth Islands at the SW corner, incl. Martha's Vineyard, and visits and builds a small fort on Cuttyhunk Island, all of which pretty much makes him the discoverer of New England's coast?; he is visited by a delegation of 50 Indians in 9 canoes (incl. the father of Massasoit?), who sit on their heels "like greyhounds", enjoy all English foods offered except mustard, mimic English speech accurately, and give Gosnold a tobacco pipe to smoke; he harvests sassafras roots for use in treating syphilis and rheumatism, and abandons his fort after four Indians attack his men while foraging; he later becomes a capt. in Jamestown - they filmed "Jaws" where? In June the English under Sir Richard Leveson (1598-1661) capture a Portuguese treasure ship, bringing back memories of the days of Sir Francis Drake, but another expedition to plunder the Spanish coast brings back nothing - toodloo pip pip and farewell? In June an East India Co. fleet led by Sir James Lancaster VI (1554-1618) arrives in Achin (Aceh), Sumatra, defeating the local ruler and seizing and looting a large Portuguese galleon. On Nov. 8 the Bodleian Library, the first public library in Europe, meant to replace the Oxford U. library, which was destroyed in the middle of the 16th cent. in the reign of Edward VI, presented by English scholar-diplomat Sir Thomas Bodley (1545-1613), who purchased the books on the Continent for £10K officially opens; it is officially named by James I in 1604; Archbishop William Laud later donates 1.3K mss. in 20 languages, and Earl William Herbert of Pembroke chips in 250 vols. of Greek mss.; it later gets the right, along with the British Museum to receive a copy of every book pub. in England; too bad only Oxford U. faculty can use it - pip pip and all that bloody rot? On Dec. 11/12 (early a.m.) the inhabitants of Geneva defeat a surprise attack by the the Savoyards of Charles Emmanuel I, duke of Savoy at the Battle of the Escalade, insuring their independence. On Dec. 25 (Christmas) Queen Elizabeth I's health suddenly takes a turn for the worse. Abbas I leads Persia in a holy war against the Ottoman Turks with his brand new Euro-style army (ends 1627) - shopping or just looking? HRE Rudolf II suppresses meetings of the Moravian Brethren. Kara Yaziji dies, and the Jelali rebel groups switch leaders and continue their violent protest for much of the decade. Charles de Gontaut, Duc de Biron (b. 1562), son of famous French marshal Armand de Gontaut, who became admiral in 1592, marshal in 1594, duke in 1598, and gov. of Burgundy gets too big for his breeches and is beheaded in the Bastille for conspiring to overthrow the king. Need a pickup, tighten up y'all? England gets a scare when 28-y.-o. old maid Arbella Stewart (Stuart) (1575-1615), cousin of James VI of Scotland tries to marry William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1588-1660), grandson of Edward Seymour, 1st earl of Hertford and his wife Katherine Grey, sister of Lady Jane Grey (whose marriage was declared invalid), creating a royal heir just as Elizabeth I is about to kick off and everything is up for grabs, but Seymour tips Elizabeth off, causing her to come down on Arbella's grandmother-guardian Bess of Hardwick, who puts a stop to it and stifles a runaway attempt. While traveling abroad to prepare for a diplomatic career, Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) discovers a plot to murder James VI of Scotland while living in Florence, and he sails back to Scotland via Norway under the alias Ottavio Baldi to warn him, receiving a warm welcome at court and receiving a knighthood when James VI becomes king James I of England; in 1604 he begins a career as a diplomat (ends 1621), spending most of his time in Venice; in Augsburg, Germany in 1604 he utters the soundbyte: "An ambassador is an honest gentleman sent to lie abroad for the good of his country" (Legatus est vir bonus peregre missus ad mentiendum rei publicae causa); too bad, in 1611 his enemy Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), a virulent anti-Protestant pub. "Ecclesiasticus Auctoritati Jacobi Regis Oppositus", which twists the meaning of "lie abroad" to cast aspersions on James I's morals, but he patches things up and his career goes on. Imperial Magyar-hating gens. Giorgio Basta (1544-1607) and Giacomo Belgiojoso begin ravaging Transylvania, pissing-off Transylvanian noble Stephen Bocskay (1557-1606), who flip-flops to the side of the Turks, who help him fight the bums. Spanish traders are admitted to E Japan. Sick of all the deaths from this popular pastime, Henri IV of France issues an edict making participation in a duel punishable by death, although not surprisingly that doesn't stop them. Say hello to G6, one of the fastest growing brands in America? 12-y.-o. William Bradford (1590-1657) of Austerfield, Nottinghamshire, England (50 mi. S of York), who had lost his family and was living with two uncles, and suffering with a "long sickness" which kept him from farm work and turned him into a Bible-thumper, causing him to become dissatisfied with the Anglican Church starts attending services in Scrooby a few mi. to the S in N Nottinghamshire (on the Ryton River) at the home of postmaster William Brewster (1566-1644), with sermons given by young minister John Robinson (1576-1625); they call themselves Separatists, based on the Bible text "Come out among them and be separate". The Portuguese are expelled from Bahrain (since 1521) by Abbas I of Persia, who forces the pop. to convert to the Shiite sect of Islam. Savoy-born Jesuit (St.) Francis de Sales (1567-1622), the champion of the Counter-Reformation, known for his numerous "Controversies" or leaflets claiming to prove the truth of the Roman Catholic faith becomes bishop of Geneva, becoming the leading Catholic supermodel for the next 20 years. The ever-popular 13th cent. Legend of the Wandering Jew first appears in Germany, about a Jew named Ahasuerus, who refused to allow Christ to rest at his door as he bore his cross toward Cavalry, and is condemned to forever wander the Earth until he returns. Architecture: The Ambrosian Library (Biblioteca Ambrosiana) in Milan is founded by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo (opens 1609). Spanish Jesuit missionary to China (since July 20, 1597) Father Diego de Pantoja (Didaco Pantoia) (1571-1618) writes a work on Chinese etiquette, with the soundbyte: "When they have ended their salutations, they straightway cause a drink to be brought, which they call ch'a, which is water boyled with a certaine herbe, which they much esteeme... and they must drink of it twice or thrice." Henry IV of France has Leochares' 325 B.C.E. Statue of Diana (Artemis) removed from Fontainebleau and mounted in a special gallery in the Palais du Louvre, then has Barthelemy Prieur cast a bronze replica and set it upon a high Mannerist marble pedestal, which is turned into a fountain by hydraulics engineer Tommaso Francini in 1603, featuring bronze hunting dogs pissing water and stag heads spitting water, sculpted by Pierre Biard, and located in the Jardin de la Reine in a parterre surrounded by an orangery. Science: Galileo investigates the laws of gravitation and oscillation (until 1604). Italian alchemist Vincenzio Cascariolo of Bologna discovers heavy spar (barium sulfate). Nonfiction: Thomas Blundeville (1522-1606), The Theoriques of the Seven Planets. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Astronomia Instauratae progymnasmata (posth.) (ed. by Johannes Kepler); gives plans of 777 fixed stars. Thomas Campion (1567-1620), Observations on the Arte of English Poesie; a physician says ditch rhyme for rhymeless quantitative classical verse, which is more suited to the genius of the English language? Richard Carew (1555-1620), Survey of Cornwall. Jan Gruter (1560-1627), Lampas, Sive Fax Artium Liberalium (7 vols.) (1602-34). Conrad Kircher, A Concordance to the Septuagint. Cesare Negri (1535-1605), La Grazie d'Amore; dance manual; first text on ballet to expound the principle of the five positions; revised ed. pub. in 1604 as "Nuove Inventioni di Balli" (New Inventions of the Dance). Archbishop Matthew Parker (1504-75) (ed.), The Bishops' Bible; rev. of 1568 and 1572 ed.s; used to create the King James Version (1611). Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), Diego de Pantoja (1571-1618) et al., Zhifang Waiji (Chronicle of Foreign Lands); China's first global atlas, incl. the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (Map of the Myriad Countries of the World), China's first world map. John Willis, The Art of Stenographie. Art: Giovanni Baglione (1566-1643), Sacred Love and Profane Love (The Divine Eros Defeats the Early Eros) (1602-3); prime example of chiaroscuro (light-dark) technique, showing Sacred Love (an angel) interrupting the Devil during sodomy with Profane Love (Cupid); the Devil has the face of his arch-enemy Caravaggio (1571-1610), whom he got expelled from Rome with his accusations. Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1571-1610), Doubting Thomas; St. John the Baptist. Isaac Oliver (1556-1617), The Rainbow Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I. Music: Giulio Caccini (1551-1618), Le Nuove Musiche (New Music) (July) Florence); collection of monodies and songs for solo voice and basso continuo, containing 12 madrigals and 10 aria; incl. Amarilli Mia Bella. Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1564-1627), Cento Concerti con il Basso Continuo (Venice); the hot new technique of Basso Continuo and its notational method (figured bass), which comes to England as the Thoroughbass system, using figures to denote chords, and becoming universal in the Baroque period. Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612), Lustgarten (German lieder). Plays: Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), The City of the Sun (Civitas Solis); a description of Utopia; written in, er, prison in Naples. Henry Chettle (1560-1607), Tragedy of Hoffman, or a Revenge for a Father. Sir David Lindsay, Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Three Estaitis (posth.). John Marston (1576-1634), The History of Antonio and Mellida; Antonio's Revenge (melodramas). John Marston and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), Satiromastix; satirical comedy attacking Ben Jonson for his 1601 "Poetaster", becoming known as the "Poets' War". Poetry: Nicholas Breton (1545-1626), The Soules Harmony; Olde Madcappe Newe Gaily Mawfrey; The Mother's Blessing; A True Description of Unthankfulnesse. Sir John Davies (1569-1626),Ten Sonnets to Philomel; Yet Other Twelve Wonders of the World; A Lottery; A Contention betwixt a Wife, a Widow and a Maid. John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), Mirum in Modum, a Glimpse of God's Glory and the Soul's Shape. Lope de Vega (1562-1635), La Hermosura de Angelica (epic). Births: French philosopher-poet-physician (ex-Jesuit) Franciscus van den Enden (d. 1674) (AKA Affinius) on Feb. 5 in Paris; teacher of Baruch de Spinoza (1632-77). Italian Baroque composer Francesco Cavalli (Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni) (d. 1676) on Feb. 14 in Crema, Lombardy. English royalist Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan (d. 1667) on Mar. 9 (1603?); son of Henry Somerset, 1st marquess of Worcester (-1646) and Anne Russell. Spanish discalced Franciscan Conceptionist nun Maria Fernandez Coronel, Abbess of Agreda (Sister Maria de Jesus) (the Blue Nun) (d. 1665) on Apr. 2 in the Navarre-Aragon border. English astrologer (astronomer) William Lilly (d. 1681) on May 1 (Taurus); Sidrophel in Samuel Butler's "Hudibras". French statesman-cardinal Jules (Giulio) Mazarin (Mazarini) (d. 1661) on July 14 in Pescina, Naples, Italy; Sicilian parents; becomes a French subject in 1639, and cardinal in 1641. English military leader Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy (d. 1668) on Sept. 29 in Petworth; eldest son of Henry Percy, 9th earl of Northumberland (1564-1632) and Dorothy Percy (nee Devereux), countess of Northumberland, daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st earl of Essex and sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex. German physicist-politician Otto von Guericke (d. 1686) on Nov. 30 (Nov. 20 Old Style) in Magdeburg. English Protestant "angels on the head of a pin" theologian William Chillingworth (d. 1644). English judge John Bradshaw (d. 1659) in Wybersley Hall, High Lane (near Stockport), Cheshire. English maj.-gen. (Oliver Cromwell's cmdr.) Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester (d. 1671); educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge U. Mass. colonist Samuel Maverick (Mavericke) (d. 1670) in England; son of Anglican priest John Maverick, who emigrates to Mass. in 1630; brother of Moses Maverick (1611-86). English royalist gen.-chemist-poet William Peckenridge, 1st Duke of Omnium (d. 1671); dir. of the League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. :) French (Flemish) portraitist (Jansenist) Philippe de Champaigne (Champagne) (d. 1674) in Brussels; official painter of Marie de' Medici; known for his portrait of Richelieu. French diplomat-marshal Caesar (César), Duc de Choiseul, Comte du Plessis-Praslin (d. 1675); his cook invents the sugar-almond confection praline. English regicide MP Sir Henry Marten (d. 1680) in Oxford; eldest son of Sir Henry Marten the Elder (1562-1641); educated at Univ. College, Oxford U; created duke in Nov. 1665. English Mayflower Pilgrim Priscilla Alden (nee Mullins) (d. 1685 in Dorking, Surrey. Deaths: French poet Jean Passerat (b. 1534) on Sept. 14. Spanish navigator Juan Fernandez (b. 1536); dies after trying unsuccessfully to establish a colony on the Juan Fernandez Islands. Italian architect Giacomo della Porta (b. 1537). Italian painter Agostino Carracci (b. 1557) on Mar. 22. French architect Baptiste Androuet du Cerceau (b. 1560). Portuguese explorer Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno (b. 1560). Irish king of Tyrconnell (1592-1602) "Red" Hugh Roe O'Donnell (b. 1572) on Sept. 10 in Simancas Castle, Valladolid, Spain.

1603 - What do I tell her? Don't tell her anything? No murder mystery dinner is complete without the dessert? Out goes the Elizabethan Age, in comes the permanent bad hair day of the Jack Jack Jacobean Age, which hijacks the status quo?

James I of England (1566-1625) Anne of Denmark (1574-1619) Stuart Arms Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham (1564-1618) Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (1564-1632) Hernando Arias de Saavedra (1561-1634) Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (1589-1617) Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) Father Henry Garnet (1555-1606) Johannes Althusius (1563-1638) Sir Thomas Craig (1538-1608) Jan Gruter (1560-1627) Martin Pring (1580-1646) Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke (1561-1621) Christopher Scheiner (1575-1650) Palazzo Rospigliosi, 1603 'The Entombment of Christ', by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1603 Bologna Stone, 1603 Carlo Maderno (1556-1629) Facade of the Church of Santa Susanna, 1603 Facade of St. Peter's Basilica, 1603-12 Castel Gandolfo, 1603 Sant'Andrea della Valle, 1650

1603 Pop. of London: 210K (vs. 200K in 1583); the London govt. begins its own tally of births and deaths independent of churches. A famine in Russia kills tens of thousands, causing Tsar Boris Gudonov to distribute grain from palace granaries. On Jan. 17 Elizabeth I dines with Lord Thomas Howard at the Charterhouse, and creates him Lord Howard de Walden, then on Jan. 21 moves her court from Whitehall to "her warm winter box" of Richmond Palace in Surrey on the Thames River (which later becomes known for Pen Ponds in Richmond Park, which hosts open-air ice-skating), wearing summer clothes in the cold weather, and telling Lord Nottingham, "My seat hath been the seat of kings, and I will have no rascal to succeed me; and who should succeed me but a king?"; on Feb. 6 she makes her last public appearance, receiving Venetian envoy (first during her reign) Giovanni Carlo Scaramelli, supposedly to discuss curtailing English piracy in the Mediterranean, speaking to him in Italian and gloating about scoring a coup against the pope by getting the Doge to recognize her after 45 years; on Feb. 16 she okays a pardon for Tyrone, and attends the funeral of her cousin and closest female friend the Countess of Notthingham, daughter of Lord Hunsdon at Richmond, going into a depression and having to have her coronation ring sawed off after it becomes impacted, then writes to Henri IV of France that "All the fabric of my reign, little by little, is beginning to fail"; on Feb. 26 she delays a meeting with French ambassador de Beaumont; in Mar. she develops a fever, rallies on Mar. 11, relapses on Mar. 12, refuses medical treatment and food, lies on the floor on cushions in her clothes, develops pneumonia, and refuses to be put in bed, explaining that "If she once lay down, she would never rise"; on Mar. 17 after being lifted into a low chair, and being helped to rise, she remains standing for 15 hours, then is helped back onto her cushions, remaining for four more days in 3-week-old clothes, then on Mar. 21 finally takes to bed; meanwhile since she has no heirs, the rumors cause tons of people to head for Scotland to be with her cousin James VI when the good, er, bad news arrives. On Feb. 20 Sir James Lancaster's East India Co. fleet heads for England, and arrives on Sept. 11 with 278 of his original 460 men, becoming a hero and getting knighted by the new king; his cargo of 500 tons of pepper makes a big profit. On Mar. 15 French explorer Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrives in North Am. on his first trip as an observer with a fur-trading expedition led by Francois Grave (Gravé) Du Pont (1560-1629), exploring the St. Lawrence River as a possible route to China and creating a map of it, then returning to France on Sept. 20 and writing a report for King Henri IV (his father?). On Mar. 24 (Thur.) (before 3 a.m.) English queen (since Nov. 17, 1558) "Gloriana", "the Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I (b. 1533), stricken with grief over the execution of Essex and/or her close friend the countess of Nottingham dies peacefully in bed at Richmond after a bunch of woo woo woo stuff and giving her soul to Jesus, lying on her back with her face to the wall "mildly like a lamb, easily, like a ripe apple from a tree, as the most resplendent sun setteth at last in a western cloud" (her chaplain Dr. Parry); she dies after viewing William Shakespeare's Hamlet, which debuted earlier in the year; at her death there is not a single known English colonist in the New World (except possibly the lost colonists of Roanoke, who went injun); she leaves after 45 years on the throne (118 total for the Tudors), causing Scottish king (since 1567) James VI, only son of Elizabeth I's murdered rival Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots to be proclaimed king; after Sir Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth (1560-1639) (the man who broke the Border Reivers) makes a record-breaking ride N, he reaches Holyrood on the evening of Mar. 26 to carry the news to him, and after hastily preparing a magnificent progress (sparing no expense), and attending a service in the Church of St. Giles where he tells the sad crowd that he isn't abandoning them but will return every three years (actually he only returns for a short time in 1617), on Apr. 5 James VI leaves Holyrood with cannons blazing accompanied by a merrymaking procession, heads to Lord Hume's house in Dunglass, crosses the border to Berwick, putting on a great show as he is greated by crowds in every village and hamlet along the way, then arriving in London on May 7 to a great warm reception a few days after a plague arrives, being presented with the Millenary Petition signed by 1K Puritan ministers asking for the reform of abuses and elimination of all Roman Catholic ceremony from the Anglican Church, incl. the signing of the cross during baptism, confirmation, administration of baptism by lay persons, bowing at the name of Jesus, use of the surplice and cap, use of the pagan ring (Saturn?) in marriage, and the practice of giving men multiple paid ecclesiastical positions; on July 25 he is crowned James I (1566-1625) of (at his insistence) "Greater Britain" (until Mar. 27, 1625) (the 44th British monarch), causing the Union of the Crowns, ending the Tudor Dynasty, and beginning the Stuart Dynasty (ends 1714); Scotland has now had 63 kings and one queen (Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots) in an unbroken line, all being titled king or queen of Scots, not Scotland; Liz leaves him a £400K debt, having sold off many of her lands to avoid increasing taxes; a lifelong believer in the Divine Right of Kings who wants to be known as "Rex Pacificus" (peacemaker king), he seeks to end the Roman Catholic-Protestant feud along with all wars with Spain and France, and effect a "stealth union" of England and Scotland, saying that the lack of a visible natural border proves that God intended it, then fills his inner circle with Scots while granting an amnesty in Ireland, going on to rule Scotland with "government by pen", sending written orders to his privy councillors in Edinburgh (setting up the first mail service between London and Edinburgh) while making his Scottish nobles visit him by traveling the Great North Road (after too many visits piss-off the English, he limits the visits by issuing passports); in 1606 the Union Jack (Lat. "Jack" = James) (originally just called the British flag) is designed, consisting of a red English cross on a blue-white Scottish background, bringing the British lion and the Scottish unicorn together (which is considered a bad omen as the two beasts are supposed to be mortal enemies, and the unicorn is untameable except by a virgin, and he's no Virgin Queen); Scots believe that he's just turning Scotland into a 2nd class appendage of England, something they fought for cents. to avoid, and begin grumbling about being run from distant London, while James I surrounds himself with Scots on the make, causing upper class English on the make to grumble; the Jacobean Age (Era) begins (ends 1625); James I orders Fotheringhay Castle (where his mommy was beheaded) demolished, and in 1612 moves her remains from Peterborough Castle to Westminster Abbey, where she is reinterred in a far more splendid tomb than her cousin Elizabeth I, with the two queens, who never laid eyes on each other, so situated that they cannot see each other even in death; James' Lutheran-raised wife Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), who converted to Roman Catholicism in the 1590s causes embarrassment at the coronation by refusing Anglican communion; after being temporarily parted for the Union of the Crowns he tells her, "I ever preferred you to all my bairns [rugrats]"; now that he's king of a real country, he begins elevating local Scottish lairds to the peerage to control the pesky nobles he doesn't trust, devaluing all Scottish titles; thinking the Gaelic segment of his pop. to be backward savages, in 1609 he gets the Statutes of Iona passed, forcing the Highland chiefs to send their heirs to Lowland Scotland to get an English Protestant education, and puts out a hit on the MacGregor clan, ordering them outlawed by "fire and sword", hunted and executed like animals (luckily, some survive after being harbored by Highland sympathizers); having decided to call the amalgamated kingdom Greater Britain, he renames the Scottish borders "Middle Shires" and pacifies them by exiling captured rebels to Ireland, pissing-off the Irish; he never pacifies the Highlands, which remain pesky for the next two cents.; he attempts to anglicize the Scottish elite, causing poet William Drummond to switch from writing in Scots to English, the ascendancy of English dramatists being a powerful convincer?; shortly before his coronation Lord Henry Howard and Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury warn the king about the Diabolical Triplicity of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (1564-1632) (an apparent Protestant, despite the Percy family's Roman Catholic roots, known as Wizard Percy for his great wealth and scientific learning), Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618), and Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham (1564-1618), suggesting that they dabble in the occult and that Percy plans to marry pesky Arbella Stuart, which doesn't stop Percy from being appointed to the Privy Council, until the 1605 Gunpowder Plot causes him to be accused of complicity with his Roman Catholic relative Thomas Percy and imprisoned in the Tower of London for 17 years. On Mar. 31 after offering to end his rebellion if Elizabeth I will spare his life and return his earldom, Hugh O'Neill signs the Treaty (Articles) of Mellifont with the stankin' English at the Cistercian Mellifont Abbeyin, surrendering his tribal authority; the Tyrone Revolt (Nine Years' War) in Ireland (begun Aug. 1594) ends, along with the old Gaelic Law and Order, insuring English occupation for the next 320 years; the Census of the Fews, the earliest Irish census is pub. after the Fews clan is pardoned; the Anglican Church attempts to extend its sway over all of Ireland, fighting the ancient Celtic church, which clings to the Roman Catholic Church, and which is backed by the Celtic pop. of the island and the majority of the pop. of the Pale, resulting in the Anglican Church being used by the English rulers in Dublin Castle as their political tool. In the spring English explorer (from Bristol) Martin Pring (1580-1646) sets out with backing from Bristol and Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the N parts of Va. in his 60-ton flagship Speedwell (not the same ship used by the Pilgrims in 1620) and 13-ton escort ship Explorer, making first landfall in June at Penobscot Bay in Maine, then heading W to the Saco, Kennebunk, and York Rivers, then up the Piscataqua River, where they encounter the Abenaki and set dogs on them to capture specimens to bring back to Europe; after failing to find the fabled ague (sassafras) tree (source of the elixir of life), they reach Cape Cod at the mouth of the Pamet River, and build a fort below Cornill near modern-day Truro on the N part of the fishook, finding and harvesting sassafras but finding no Indians, only a birch bark canoe (which they bring back to Europe), after which they leave in late July. In Apr. Kabuki (Jap. "sing dance skill"") (a play on the word "kabuku", meaning shocking, forward-leaning, or avant-garde) theater begins in Kyoto, Japan at the Kitani Shrine with a troupe of women led by shrine virgin Izumo no Okuni of Izumo Taisha; the first actors are women, usually hos, playing male and female roles in erotic dances to get johns to pay for them; after women are banned in 1629, young males take their place, but after they turn into male hos, they too are banned in 1652, leaving only mature men to do the boring crap and audiences to pretend they're there only for the artistic value?; actors use a white face paint made from nightingale droppings. On May 19 James I "licences and authorizes" Elizabeth I's Lord Chamberlain's Men, who are renamed the King's Men, and perform at the English royal court more than any other company, giving almost 200 performances in the next 10 years, modulo a little self-censorship to avoid boring or shocking kingey. On July 19 after the Main Plot (dethronement of James I and replacement by cousin Arbella Stuart) is uncovered, naughty Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham (1564-1618) and Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) are arrested on charges of treason against James I and canned in the Tower, tried under commissioner Henry Howard, 1st earl of Northampton, found guilty and sentenced to death, then reprieved 24 hours before the scheduled execution, spending the next 13 years there (until 1616) (1618 for Cobham), where Raleigh proceeds to research in alchemy and write The History of the World (1614) - that kind of drudgery is for those with no life such as prisoners or failed fiction writers? On Aug. 25 Ahmed I al-Mansur (b. 1549), emir of Morocco dies of the plague in Fez, and his kingdom splits into two parts, based in Marrakech and Fez. On Nov. 29 Roman Catholic priest William Clark (b. 1568) is executed in Winchester, followed on Dec. 9 by fellow priest William Watson (b. 1559) for treason in the crazy Bye Plot (Treason of the Priests) against James I by disaffected Roman Catholics pissed off at his not keeping his pledge of tolerance, and plotting to kidnap him in Greenwich until he agrees to make good; too bad, Jesuit Father Henry Garnet (Garnett) (1555-1606) (a Catholic convert, who became a Jesuit in 1575) tips off the govt. to stop retribution against all Catholics, so only the clergy get the axe next year (forced emigration); Garnet is executed in 1606 for involvement in the Gunpowder Plot. On Dec. 22 sultan (since 1595) Mehmed III (b. 1566) dies, and his 13-y.-o. eldest surviving son Ahmed (Ahmad) I (1590-1617) becomes Ottoman sultan #14 (until Nov. 22, 1617); Mahomet's mother Sophia Baffo (b. 1550), who had ruled the Ottoman Empire behind the scenes is strangled in bed in 1605?; Ahmed is deeply religious and cracks down on wine consumption. In Dec. bubonic plague kills 33K in London (25% of the pop.), causing the theatres to be closed - an omen? In the winter Galileo Galileo visits the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua and haggles about a position there, but after they can't agree on the terms he is presented with a gold chain and two silver dishes, and leaves. Shah Abbas I of Persia begins reconquering Azerbaijan and the Caucasus from the Ottomans (ends 1612); meanwhile Janissary officer Muhammad al-Tawil (d. 1607) leads an anti-Ottoman revolt in Baghdad (ends 1608). Revolts begin in Transylvania against HRE Rudolf II. A rabinnical conference in the #1 German Jewish town of Frankfurt to establish laws over Jewish civil affairs pisses-off HRE Rudolf II, who calls them treasonous, and withdraws imperial protection, allowing pogroms to be staged on Jewish communities throughout Germany until they pay a large fine in 1631 to the archbishop of Cologne. Barom Reachea IV (Srei Soriyopor) (-1618) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1618). Henri IV recalls the Jesuits to France - anything to do with the death of the English virgin queen? James I restores traitor Philip Howard's earldoms to his son Thomas Howard (1585-1646), along with the baronies of his grandfather Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, making him 21st earl of Arundel and earl of Surrey, and he wisely decides to fork politics for art collecting, since he's loaded with dough, collecting the Arundel Marbles, the first large collection in Britain - sharing a drink called bitterness is better than drinking alone? The Brits establish a base at Bantam in NW Java. English merchant John Mildenhall (Midnall) (1560-1614) reaches India via Isfahan, Kandahar, and Lore, and appoints himself English ambassador to Mughal emperor Akbar the Great in Agra. Hernando Arias (Hernandarias) de Saavedra (1561-1634), Spanish gov. of Rio de la Plata in 1597-9 and 1602-9 ships some cattle and horses downstream to Asuncion, Paraguay, and they end up running wild, growing into large herds and becoming game for gauchos from Buenos Aires; meanwhile drought-stricken NE Brazil receives relief food from Philip III. The Mermaid Tavern in London is founded by Sir Walter Raleigh, and is frequented by lit. wits incl. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Francis Beaumont (1584-1616), John Fletcher (1579-1625), John Donne (1572-1631) et al. A law is passed in Cologne, Germany requiring breweries to only brew top-fermented beers. Samuel Daniel is appointed master of the English queen's revels, causing him to begin cranking out masques and pastoral tragicomedies. The Accademia dei Lincei is founded in Rome, Italy. Architecture: Ticino, Italy-born architect Carlo Maderno (Maderna) (1556-1629) finishes the pioneering Baroque facade for the Church of Santa Susanna at the Baths of Diocletian, causing Pope Paul V to appoint him chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; he also designs Apostolic (Papal) Palace of Castel Gandolfo, built 27 mi. SE of Rome at Castelli Romani in Latium overlooking Lake Albano as the papal summer residence, and begins the Baroque facade of St. Peter's Basilica (finished in 1612), complete with a balcony over the door for papal blessings, extending the nave of the church to change it from a Greek to a Latin cross; in 1608 he designs the facade and dome of the Baroque Church of Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome, which is not completed until 1650, becoming the 3nd largest dome in Rome after St. Peter's and the Pantheon. Flaminio (Sp. "Roman priest") Ponzio (1560-1613) builds the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi in Rome. Inventions: Bolognese alchemist Vincenzo Cascariolo discovers Lapis Solaris, a heated mixture of powdered barite (heavy spar) (barium sulfate) and coal that gives off a bluish glow at night and is recharged by exposure to sunlight, pioneering the study of luminiscence; thinking it's the fabled Philosopher's Stone that turns inferior metals to gold, he starts the myth of the Bologna Stone. German Jesuit astronomer Christoph Scheiner (1575-1650) invents the Pantograph (Gr. "pant" + "graph" = all/every + write) for reproducing enlarged or reduced maps and drawings; he doesn't pub. the invention until 1631 - without fishing your socks from the bottom of the sheets? Nonfiction: Johannes Althusius (1563-1638), Politica Methodice Digesta, Atque Exemplis Sacris et Profanis Illustrata (Politics Methodically Digested, Illustrated with Sacred and Profane Examples); a grammar of politics, pioneering the concept of federalism, "a pluralized yet shared system of governance". Fabricio di Acquapendente of Padua (1533-1619), De Venarum Ostiolis; contains the first clear drawings of the valves in the veins, but mistakenly believes their function is to counteract the effects of gravity. Johann Bayer (1572-1625), Uranometria (Augsburg); first star atlas to cover entire celestial sphere; names the Southern Cross (Crux). Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Synagoga Judaica; exposes the customs and society of German Jewry to the goyim. Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), Concerning the Savages (Forest Dwellers): or the Travels of Samuel Champlain of Brouages in New France in the Year 1603. Thomas Craig (1538-1608), Jus Feudale; an attempt to reconcile the laws of England and Scotland, it fails and ends up solidifying Scottish law as a separate system; next year he refuses a knighthood from James I. Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), A Defence of Rhyme; reply to Thomas Campion's 1602 "Observations on the Art of English Poesie" - the original Robin Williams in Dead Poets Society? John Florio (1553-1625) (tr.), Essayes on Morall, Politike, and Militarie Discourses of Michaell de Montaigne (3 vols.); 2nd ed. in 1613, dedicated to the English queen. Jan Gruter (1560-1627), Inscriptiones Antiquae Totius Orbis Romanorum (2 vols.) (Heidelberg). Sir John Hayward (1560-1627), A Treatise of Union of England and Scotland; An Answer to the First Part of a Ceraine Conference Concerning Succession; back at it after he gets out of priz, he tries to court James I's favor with arguments in favor of the divine right of kings like him. Richard Knolles, General Historie of the Turkes. Philip Henslowe (1550-1616), Diary (1592-1603). Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), The Penniless Parliament of Threadbare Poets; written while the plague closes the London theaters; a continuation of Thomas Nashe's "Pierce Penniless". Henry Timberlake (1570-1625), A True and Strange Discourse of the Traveiles of Two English Pilgrimes; a Protestant ship captain from London journeys to Jerusalem with fellow Englishman John Burrell, who befriend a Muslim from Fez, Morocco in Mamre (near Hebron), who saves their lives; a big hit, but its positive account of a Muslim and of a Franciscan hospice gets him ridiculed in a caricature. Art: Annibale Carracci (1560-1609), The Flight into Egypt (1603-4). Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1571-1610), St. Matthew and the Angel; The Entombment of Christ. El Greco (1541-1614), St. Bernardino. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Battle of the Standard; the 1440 Battle of Anghiari, copied from a 1558 engraving by Lorenzo Zacchia, which he copied from "the Lost Leonardo". Music: Jean-Baptiste Besard (1567-1618), Thesaurus Harmonicus (lute music). Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Fourth Book of Madrigals. Thomas Robinson, School of Musicke. Plays: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), Darius. Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Magnificent Entertainment Given to King James (Mar. 15) (London). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Sejanus (tragedy); The Satyr (The Entertainment at Althorp) (June 25); performed for queen consort Anne of Denmark and her son Prince Henry at the Spencer family's Althorp estate in Northamptonshire; first royal masque for the court of King James I. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Measure for Measure (comedy) (Vincentio has 820 lines, 7th most); based on "Promos and Cassandra" by George Whetstone; the title is an allusion to Christ's Sermon on the Mount ("With what measure yet mete, it shall be measured to you again"); the first play Shakey writes after giving up acting?; Duke Vicentio of Vienna and dickteaser Isabella, Isabella's brother Claudio and Juliet, Angelo and Mariana, ducal advisor Escalus, rogue ("fantastic") Lucio and the whore Kate Keepdown, condemned murderer Barnardine; Vienna is a hotbed of lechery according to Duke Vicentio, so he entrusts supposedly pure Angelo to clean it up by enforcing a capital law against unmarried sex while pretending to leave town but actually disguising himself as a friar; Angelo condemns Claudio to death for doing it with his wife before marriage, causing his sister, wannabe nun Isabella to plead for him, but she's such a babe that he can't control his lusts and makes her decide between giving herself to him or having Claudio tortured, which she refuses even though Claudio says go for it; meanwhile he has rogue Lucio condemned for you know what with a whore; the disguised duke overhears it all and gets Angelo's past jilted lover Mariana to sub for Isabella in a bed trick, but Angelo orders Claudio executed anyway; happily, the duke gets the jailer to substitute condemned prisoner Barnardine for him, who refuses to be executed, then returns sansa disguise, straightens everything out, saves all the necks, and makes Angelo marry Mariana, Claudio marry Juliet, and Lucio marry his whore, then asks for Isabella's hand for himself, which she apparently consents to without saying anything?; "It is excellent to have a giant's strength, but it is tyrannous to use it like a giant" (Isabella) (2.2.107-9); "I swear I will not die today for any man's persuasion" (Bernardine) (4.3.59); "Haste still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure,/ Like doth quit like, and Measure still for Measure" (5.1.411); "What's mine is yours, and what is yours is mine" (5.1.539); The original "Look Who's Coming to Dinner"? William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice (1603-4) (tragedy) Othello has 860 lines, 6th most, and Iago 1,094, 4th most; set in the Ottoman-Venetian war over control of Cyprus, which became a Venetian possession in 1489 until the port city of Famagusta fell to the Ottomans in 1571 after a protracted siege; based on the short story "Un Capitano Moro" (A Moorish Captain) in Cinthio's (disciple of Boccaccio) "Hecatommithi"; Summary: black Venetian Gen. Othello the Moor and his way younger white Venetian wife Desdemona, daughter of Brabantio, who marries him because "she did pity them" (1.3.169); "demi-devil" villain Iago, 3rd in command to Othello, who resents his promotion over his head of Cassio ("motiveless malignity" - Samuel Taylor Coleridge) escorts them along with his wife Emilia on a little jaunt to Cyprus to kick Turk butt, poisoning his mind about her by framing her hooking up with Cassio, causing Othello to murder her, find out that he was tricked, and stab and kill himself, with the soundbyte "One that loved not wisely, but too well"; Desdemona's former beau Roderigo. "An old black ram is tupping your white ewe" (1.1.88); "Play the villain" (2.3.345); "O beware, my lord, of jealousy/ It is the green-eyed monster, which doth mock/ That meat it feeds on" (3.3.165-7); "I am declined into the vale of years" (3.3.265); "But this denoted a foregone conclusion" (Iago) (3.3.429-30); "Pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war" (3.3.355); "I hate the Moor" (Iago). Poetry: Henry Chettle (1564-1607), England's Mourning Garment; elegy on Queen Elizabeth I. John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), Microcosmos. Michael Drayton (1563-1631), The Baron's Wars; long form of "Mortimeriados" (1596). Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), Cynthia, the Lady of the Sea; part of an elegy on Queen Elizabeth I. Novels: Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Wonderfull Yeare. Francisco Gomez de Quevedo (1580-1645), La Vida de Buscon (picaresque). Births: French statesman (Roman Catholic) Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Barbezieux, Seigneur de Chaville et de Viroflay (d. 1685) on Apr. 19 in Paris; father of Francois-Michel le Tellier (1641-91) and Reims archbishop Charles-Maurice le Tellier (1641-1710). Dutch Calvinist pietist theologian Johannes Coccejus (d. 1669) on Aug. 9 in Bremen; educated at the U. of Hamburg, and U. of Franeker; student of Sixtinus Armama (1593-1629). Swedish artillery gen. ("father of modern artillery") Count Lennart Tortensson (Linnardt Torstenson) (d. 1651) on Aug. 17 in Forstenna, Vastergotland. Ethiopian emperor (1632-67) (black) Fasilides (Basilides) (d. 1667) on Nov. 20 in Magazaz; son of Susenyos I; father of Johannes I. English Mass. colonist Israel Stoughton (d. 1644); father of Salem witchcraft trial judge William Stoughton (1630-1701). Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman (d. 1659) in Lutjegast, Groningen; discoverer of Tasmania and New Zealand. French lutenist-composer Denis Gaultier (d. 1672) in Marseille. Dutch painter Aert van der Neer (d. 1677). Italian painter Pietro della Vecchia (Muttoni) (d. 1678)in Vicenza (Venice?). Am. Baptist leader ("the Father of Rhode Island") Roger Williams (d. 1683) in London; founder of the Baptist Church in Am. and Rhode Island. Deaths: Irish archbishop James Beaton of Dublin (b. 1473) on Apr. 24. Italian physiologist-botanist Andrea Cesalpino (b. 1519) on Feb. 23. English explorer Sir Ralph Lane (b. 1532) in Oct. in Dublin, Ireland (KIA). Flemish painter Martin de Vos (b. 1532). English Queen Elizabeth I (b. 1533) on Mar. 24 in Richmond Palace, Surrey; buried in Westminster Abbey: "Anger makes dull men witty, but it keeps them poor"; "To be a king and wear a crown is more glorious to them that see it than it is a pleasure to them that bear it"; "Princes transact business in a certain way, with a princely intelligence, such as private persons cannot imitate." Italian Jesuit writer Giovanni Pietro Maffei (b. 1533). English Puritan divine Thomas Cartwright (b. 1535) on Dec. 27 in Warwick, Warwickshire. French mathematician Francois Viete (b. 1540) on Feb. 23 in Paris. English court physician William Gilbert (b. 1544) on Nov. 30 (Dec. 10 Old Style) in London (plague). Moroccan sultan (1578-1603) Ahmad I al-Mansur (b. 1549) on aug. 25 in Fez (plague). English composer Thomas Morley (b. 1557). Ottoman sultan (1595-1603) Mehmed III (b. 1566) on Dec. 22.

1604 - The Chooser-Loser Year?

Guy Fawkes (1570-1606) Guy Fawkes Mask Gunpowder Plot Conspirators 'Princess Elizabeth Stuart' by Robert Peake the Elder, 1606 Canterbury Archbishop Richard Bancroft (1544-1610) Charles IX of Sweden (1550-1611) Robert Fludd (1574-1637) John Dowland (1563-1626) Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts (1558-1628) Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628) 'Ouverture de Cuisine' by Lancelot de Casteau (-1613), 1604) Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619) 'The Maiden and the Unicorn' by Domenichino (1581-1641), 1604-5 'The Fall of Phaeton' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1604-5

1604 In Jan. 18 former New Spain viceroy (1595-1603) Gaspar de Zuniga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey becomes viceroy of Peru (until Mar. 16, 1606). In Jan. after deciding to order all Roman Catholic clergy to leave England for the Bye Bye Birdie Plot of 1603, James I declares Separatists (Independents) (Puritans) (some of whom want to leave England and create their own Bible-thumping state) to be troublemakers, with the soundbyte "I shall harry them out of the land"; too bad, he knows what they'll do if they leave, so he doesn't give them any help in leaving, refusing official permission for them to emigrate (Nunc Dimittis); changes are recommended in the English Book of Common Prayer, which James I approves in a proclamation on Feb. 9; meanwhile on Feb. 29 John Whitgift (b. 1530) dies, and in Nov. Richard Bancroft (1544-1610), arch-persecutor of Puritans and other dissenters (whom he treats as heretics and/or traitors) becomes archbishop of Canterbury (until Nov. 2, 1610). On Mar. 6 Sigismund III Vasa is officially deposed (de facto in 1599), and Gustav I's son Charles (Karl) IX (1550-1611) officially becomes king of Sweden (until Oct. 30, 1611), although he has been in control since 1599, officially making it Protestant; he is crowned on Mar. 15, 1607; his royal motto is "In Jehovah I Trust". On Mar. 19 (starts at 9:00 a.m., but kingy doesn't show up until 11:00 a.m.) the Hampton Court Conference (First Parliament) of James I convenes (ends Mar. 22), attended by 12 Anglican and four Puritan prelates takes up the Puritan complaints, only to see James I stick with the establishment of the Anglican Church; Puritan Corpus Christi College pres. ("the Most Educated Man in England") John Rainolds (1549-1607) personally asks the king to commission a new Bible trans., and despite opposing it for personal enmity's sake, new Canterbury archbishop Richard Bancroft becomes the chief boogie-woogie bugle boy overseer of the King James Bible trans. project, which is launched in a few mo.; esoteric philosopher-physician Robert Fludd (1574-1637), who had been called to Marseilles in 1602 as personal tutor to the sons of Henry of Lorraine incl. Duke Charles of Guise is one of the translators; James I restores Elizabeth I's Recussancy Acts, with more persecution of English Roman Catholics, incl. expulsion of Spanish Armada-loving Jesuits and seminary priests; the Witchcraft Act of 1604 gives 'em 'ell, making witchcraft a felony to remove defendants from the jurisdication of the ecclesiastical courts, with burning at the stake replaced in most cases by hanging; James I issues a writ for the ecclesiastical convocation, which adopts new canons that are so anti-Puritan that 300 clergymen leave their livings rather than conform; James I (known for his thick Scottish brogue) proposes a union between and England and Scotland, which is shrugged off, and on Aug. 28 (Aug. 18 Old Style) signs the Treaty of London (Somerset House Treaty) with Roman Catholic Spain, causing Henri IV of France to utter the soundbyte that he's "the wisest fool in Christendom"; meanwhile Henri IV sends the Duke of Sully to England to compliment James I on his new crown, but when he raises the flag of France in his boat in the Channel, British adm. Robert Mansell shoots it down, pissing-off the duke and causing him to raise a stink in James I's court, which gets nowhere as the English pop. think the act was cool since it shows who owns the four seas. In the spring Samuel de Champlain makes his 2nd voyage to the New World on an expedition led by Protestant fur trader Pierre du Guast (Gua), Sieur de Monts (1558-1628), who was given a royal monopoly to colonize Acadia by Henri IV last year, and charts the coast of Acadia (Nova Scotia). Too many cooks spoils the broth? In May after English Roman Catholics turn against James I and his Scottish retainers in London for false promises of tolerance, soldier of fortune (who participated in the 1596 capture of Calais by the Spanish) Guy Fawkes (1570-1606) meets with Robert Catesby (1573-1605) (the orginator) and Thomas Percy (1558-1605) (ancestor of Barbara Bush nee Percy?) at the Duck and Drake Inn in the fashionable S trand district of London to hatch a most explosive Roman Catholic plot to blow up Parliament during James I's state opening of it on Nov. 5, 1605 using 2.5 tons of gunpowder and a cool white mask, then assassinate James I and put his daughter Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662) (later Queen Elizbeth of Bohemia) on the English and Scottish thrones as a Roman Catholic monarch after kidnapping her from Coombe Abbey in Warwickshire; other conspirators incl. Catesby's cousin Robert Wintour (1565-1606) and his brother Thomas Wintour (1572-1606), Thomas Bates (1570-1606), John Wright (1568-1605) and his brother Christopher Wright (1570-1605), Robert Keyes (1565-1606), Francis Tresham (1567-1605), John Grant (1570-1606) (lord of the manor of Norbrook near Stratford-upon-Avon), Ambrose Rokewood (1578-1606); meanwhile (as a cover story?), Pope Clement VIII officially requests that English Catholics refrain from rebellion. In the summer "Baby Charles" (b. 1600), duke of Albany, left behind in Scotland because of his frailness becomes stronger and is sent to Windsor, where he is raised by Sir Robert and Lady Carey; next year he is created duke of York, followed by knight of the garter in 1611; meanwhile his old guardian Lord Fyvie becomes Scottish chancellor. On Sept. 20 the Spanish capture the Dutch city of Ostend after a 3-year siege (begun 1601). On Oct. 24 James I is proclaimed king of Great Britain, Scotland, and Ireland. On Nov. 1 William Shakespeare's Othello debuts at London's Whitehall Palace after the theatres are allowed to open - no hidden political messages in this safe one that teaches that interracial marriage doesn't fly and a white woman who chooses a black man is not a chooser but a loser? Is the whole Shakespeare corpus a conspiracy to create a secular Bible foisting white supremacy into the British consciousness forever? Polish and Cossack-backed False Dmitri I invades Russia along with thousands of supporters, but is defeated by Tsar Boris Godunov. Peace is declared between England and Spain. Shah Abbas of Persia takes Tabriz from the Turks. The Turks recapture Pest and Gran (1604-5), and restore the Danubian principalities to Ottoman control; Pest is on the E side of the Danube, Buda is on the W, so is Buda a pest to Pest, or is Pest a pest to Buda, or are both pests to each other? Ligdan Khan (1592-1634) becomes the last great ruler (khan) of the Mongols(Tumengs). Henry Howard (1540-1614) who has been in and out of prison many times ever since his older brother's plot to marry Mary Stuart gains favor with her son James I, and is created 1st earl of Northampton and lord privy seal. Irish Jesuit Christopher Holywood (1559-1626) begins spreading the Nag's Head Fable, a story that Matthew Parker was indecently consecrated as archbishop of Canterbury in 1559 indecently by deposed Chichester bishop John Scory (-1585) at the Nag's Head Tavern in Cheapside, placing a Bible on his head; he was actually consecrated in Lambeth Palace Chapel, but the story is too rich to die? The Duke of Sully introduces the Paulette, a 1/60 tax on hereditary offices in France, pissing-off the nobles. Russia begins settling Siberia, founding the town of Tomsk on the Tom River (modern pop. 150K) - who needs Virginia? The French East India Co. (Compagnie de l'Orient) is founded, and sends expeditions to Java, the Moluccas, and Agra, India. French Guiana is first settled. French explorer Pierre du Guast (Gua), Sieur de Monts (1558-1628), a Protestant who served in the household of Henri IV, and who was appointed dir. of the Canadian Co. last year, then lt. gen. of Acadia this year discovers the 145-mi.-long Bay of Fundy, known for 60 ft. tides; Port Royal in Nova Scotia at the head of Annapolis basin (an inlet of the Bay of Fundy) is founded by the French as the capital of their province of Acadia (until 1713), becoming the oldest Euro settlement N of the Gulf of Mexico. The islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon (near the Grand Banks) are first occupied by the French; they end up as the last remnant of the French North Am. colonial empire, the center of the French Atlantic cod fisheries. Tomsk on the Tom River is founded by Russian Cossacks. Oxford U and Cambridge U. are granted the privilege of parliamentary rep. (ends 1948), with two members each, elected by a House of Convocation consisting of all registered graduates of each univ. The U. of Oviedo in Spain is founded by a papal bull by Pope Gregory XIII. The Worshipful Co. of Musicians in London is chartered. Architecture: James I grants dilapidated to Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628), after which he spends £20K to restore it, turning it from a military stronghold to a country house. Science: Italian physician Hieronymus Fabricius (Girolamo Fabrici) (1537-1619) (Galileo's personal physician and William Harvey's teacher) discovers that leg veins have unidirectional valves permitting blood to flow only toward the heart, and that blood circulates in the fetus through the umbilical cord. Johannes Kepler observes a supernova; the last seen in the Milky Way galaxy until ? Nonfiction: Lancelot de Casteau (-1613), Ouverture de Cuisine; first cookbook pub. in French in the Low Countries; rises beyond medieval recipes to codify haute cuisine, incl. recipes for whipped cream and choux pastry. Robert Cawdrey, A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Words; first English dictionary giving definitions in English; "Thou must learn the alphabet, to wit, the order of the letters as they stand, perfectly without the book, and where every letter standeth; as (B) near the beginning, (N) about the middest, and (T) toward the end" - Monster.com only 395 years ahead? Jacques August de Thou, Historiae sui Temporis (11 vols.) (1604-14). Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619), De Formata Foetu; study of human embryology, earning him the title "Father of Embryology". King James I (1566-1625), A Counterblaste to Tobacco - the body is a temple to the Lord, ooh ooh ooh? Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Supplement to Witelo, Expounding the Optical Part of Astronomy; incl. Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena, the first explanation of the optics of the human eye. Cesare Negri (1535-1605), Nuove Inventioni di Balli. Art: Caravaggio (1571-1610), The Deposition (Vatican). Abel Grimmer (1570-1619), The Tower of Babel. Domenichino (1581-1641), Domenico Zampieri (1581-1641), The Maiden and the Unicorn (Palazzo Farnese, Rome). Karel van Mander (1548-1606), Het Schilderboek (art history). Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Fall of Phaeton (1604-5); the half-human son of Greek Sun god Helios who stole daddy's chariot and lost control of the horses, causing Zeus to destroy him with a thunderbolt to save the Earth from scorching. Music: John Dowland (1563-1626), Lachrymae, or Seaven Teares in Seaven Passionate Pavans (London); collection of dance pieces for the lute, dedicated to Anne of Denmark by Christian IV's royal lutenist; epigram: "Aut Furit, aut Lachrimat; quem non Fortuna beavit" (He whom Fortune has not blessed either rages or weeps). Orlando di Lasso (1532-94), Magnum Opus Musicum (516 motets) (posth.). Plays: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), Croesus. Samuel Daniel, The Vision of the Twelve Goddesses: A Royal Masque; The Tragedy of Philotas; suppressed until he writes an apology to the privy council for seeming to defend the Essex rebellion. Lope de Vega (1562-1635), Comedias (25 vols.) (1604-47). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Penates (masque). Christopher Marlowe (1564-93), The Tragicall History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus (posth.). John Marston (1576-1634), The Malcontent (tragicomedy); dedicated to Ben Jonson after they kiss and make up. Antoine de Montchrestien (1575-1621), Hector (tragedy). Births: German Latinist Jesuit priest Jakob Balde (d. 1668) on Jan. 4 in Ensisheim, Alsace. German-Dutch chemist-alchemist Johann Rudolf Glauber (d. 1668) on Mar. 10 in Karlstadt am Main. Portuguese Braganza king #1 (1640-56) Joao (John) IV (the Fortunate) (the Restorer) (d. 1656) on Mar. 19 in Villa Vicosa; son of Duke Theodosio II of Braganza (1568-1630); founder of the Portuguese Braganza Dynasty. German composer-poet Heinrich Albert (Alberti) (d. 1651) on June 28 in Lobenstein, Reuss, Thuringia; educated at the U. of Leipzig. German Protestant gen. Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (d. 1639) on Aug. 16 in Weimar; 11th son of John II (1570-1605); educated at the U. of Jena. English parliamentary soldier-politician Sir William Brereton, 1st Baronet (d. 1661) on Sept. 13 in Manchester; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford U. Ottoman sultan #16 (1618-22) Osman II (d. 1622) on Nov. 3 in Topkapi Palace, Constantinople; son of Ahmed I (1566-1617) and Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan (Greek). Italian feminist writer Ancangela Tarabotti (Galerana Baratotti) (d. 1652). Portuguese rabbi and writer-publisher Manasseh ben Israel (Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael) (Manoel Dias Soeiro) (d. 1657) (AKA MB''Y) in Madeira, Portugal; emigrates to the Netherlands in 1610; teacher of Baruch Spinoza; founds the first Hebrew press in Holland (Amsterdam, 1627). Portuguese rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel (Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael) (Manoel Dias Soeiro) (d. 1657) (AKA MB''Y) in Madeira Island; teacher of Baruch de Spinoza (1632-77); founder of the first Hebrew printing press (Amsterdam, 1626). English regicide MP Sir Hardress Waller (d. 1666) in Groombridge, Kent; cousin of Sir William Waller (1597-1668); knighted in 1629. French aristocrat and salonist Marie Madeleine de Vignerot du Pont de Courlay, Duchesse d'Aiguillon (d. 1675); daughter of Francoise du Plessis, daughter of Cardinal Richelieu; patron of Pierre Corneille. French Baroque landscape painter Claude Gellee (AKA Le Lorrain) (d. 1682) in Chamagne, Lorraine. Am. "Apostle of the Indians" Puritan missionary John Eliot (d. 1690) in Widford, Hertfordshire, England; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge U.; emigrates to Boston, Mass. in 1631. Deaths: English archbishop of Canterbury (1583-1604) John Whitgift (b. 1530) on Feb. 29 in Lambeth, London. English writer-translator Sir Thomas North (b. 1535). Italian Socinianism founder Faustus Socinus (b. 1539) in Poland. Italian composer Orfeo Vecchi (b. 1540). English crypto-Shakespeare Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford (b. 1550) in June (plague).

1605 - The Touch Soul (Don Quixote) and Touch Slow (Guy Fawkes) Year?

The Gunpowder Plot, 1605 Pope Leo XI (1535-1605) Pope Paul V (1550-1621) Fyodor II of Russia (1589-1605) Dmitri I of Russia (-1606) Jahangir of India (-1627) Tokugawa Hidetada of Japan (1579-1632) George Weymouth (1585-1612) Squanto (1585-1622) Pedro Fernandez de Quirós (1565-1614) Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) Don Quixote Statue William Camden (1551-1623) George Chapman (1559-1634) Ben Jonson (1572-1637) Inigo Jones (1573-1652) 'The Masque of Blackness', 1605 'Roaring' John Rogers (1572-1636) Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615) Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) Leonardus Lessius (1554-1623) 'Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien', 1605

1605 On Mar. 5 Pope (b. 1592) Clement VIII (d. 1536) dies, and on Apr. 1 Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici is elected Pope (#232) Leo XI (1535-1605) after Henri IV of France spends big bucks to support his candidacy, and #1 candidate Caesar Baronius is excluded by order of Philip III of Spain for his support of papal claims to Sicily; too bad, he immediately takes sick and dies on Apr. 27 (27 days) (5 weeks for Adrian V in 1276) (34 days for John Paul I in 1978) (a little Medici payback?), and on May 16 Camillo Borghese is elected Pope (#233) Paul V (1550-1621), going on to attempt to suppress the licensed brothels in Rome, causing the Roman Senate to petition him that closing them would cause the horny priests to seduce their wives and daughters. On Mar. 31 a group of English traders under Capt. George Weymouth (1585-1612) of the Archangel are sent by Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell and Henry Wriothesley, 3rd earl of Southampton to found a colony in Va. under the coverstory of discovering the northwest passage, and on May 17 land near Monhegan (Algonq. "out-to-sea island") Island off the coast of Maine, naming it Saint George Island, going on to explore the Maine coast incl. Penobscot Bay, arriving on May 11 in Patuxet (Plymouth) on Cape Cod, befriending and impressing the natives by magnetizing his sword, introducing them to English green peas, which they love so much that he uses them as bait to kidnap five to take back slaves in June, incl. Squanto (Tisquantum) (1585-1622), presenting Squanto and two others to Plymouth gov. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, piquing his interest in the region, after which he teaches them English and sends them back to tell their people how great the English are, with the soundbyte: "The capture of these Indians must be acknowledged the means, under God, of putting on foot and giving life to all our plantations." On Apr. 8 Mary Stuart (Stewart) is born to James I and Anne, and named after Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, becoming the first child not named to flatter Elizabeth I; too bad, she dies on Dec. 16, 1607. On Apr. 13 (Apr. 23 Old Style) tsar (since 1598) Boris Godunov (b. 1551) dies suddenly in the midst of the civil war, and is succeeded as tsar by his 16-y.-o. well-educated son Fyodor II Borisovich Godunov (1589-1605) (author of the first map of Russia drawn by a native); too bad, on July 1 envoys of False Dmitri I publicly read letters against him in Red Square, and on July 20 he is strangled along with his mother by four assassins; on July 21 after he enters Moscow, False Dmitri I (-1606) is crowned tsar of Russia (until 1606), the first of three False Dmitris. In the summer Johann Carolus (1575-1634) begins pub. Relation aller Furnemmen und Gedenckwurdigen Historien in Strasbourg, becoming the first regularly pub. newspaper in Germany; by Oct. he is asking the city council for copyright protection. On Sept. 27 (Sept. 10 Old Style) the Battle of Kircholm is a decisive V for Polish-Lithuanian forces under Lithuanian hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz over Swedish forces under Charles IX, lasting only 20 min. after a charge by the Polish Winged Hussars, with 7.6-8K Swedish KIA vs. only 100 Lithuanians KIA and 200 wounded. On Oct. 26 Gunpowder Plotter Francis Tresham blows the whistle on it after worrying about his brother-in-law (husband of his sister Elizabeth) William Parker, Lord Mounteagle (Monteagle) (1575-1622) being killed; on Nov. 4 (Tues. Old Style) (Fri. New Style) at 11 p.m. after James I is tipped-off about a plot to blow up Parliament and destroy the nobility and royal family in a 9/11 on 11/5/5, masked soldier of fortune Guy Fawkes is arrested as he leaves a rented cellar beneath the House of Lords filled with 36 barrels of gunpowder (which he is supposed to ignite the next day then flee to Flanders), and they find fuses on his person and a lighted lantern below, blowing the Gunpowder Plot sky high; after James I issues the soundbyte "The gentler tortures are to be first used... and so proceed by steps to the worst", he begins singing, and on Nov. 12 Tresham is arrested, and fully confesses, but dies in the Tower of London on Dec. 22, the official cause of death is blockage of the urinary tract (poisoned?); in Nov. Elizabeth Stuart is moved from Warwickshire to Coventry after it is discovered that the conspirators want to seize her person and proclaim her queen; after Fawkes is severely tortured, he gives up the names of his accomplices; on Nov. 8 Robert Catesby and his men are surrounded in Holbeche House in Staffordshire, and Catesby is killed, along with Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright; the rest of the conspirators are executed next year; guess-who (Henry Howard) is commissioner at the trials; Nov. 5 becomes Guy Fawkes Day in England, where he is burned in effigy amid bonfires and fireworks (starting in 1660); the whole incident forever sours the English public against Roman Catholics, whom they suspect of being a fifth column for the pope. In Dec. people in Strasbourg, France become the first to bring a Christmas Tree indoors and adorn it (with sweets). In Dec. Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (Quirós) (1565-1614), former capt. working for Alvaro de Mendana sails from Callao in search of Terra Australis Incognita, the fabled rich Southern Continent (ends 1606). The Hapsburg archdukes compel mentally unstable HRE Rudolf II to entrust the conduct of his Hungarian affairs to his brother Matthias, beginning a long struggle for supremacy. Akbar the Great (b. 1542), Mogul (Mughal) emperor of India dies, and is succeeded by his son Salim, who takes the title of Jahangir ("conqueror of the world") (d. 1627), presiding over the creation of architectural masterpieces; he becomes known for preferring a Sufi shaikh to kings; an avid fisherman, he likes to place a string of pearls in the gills of a caught fish and throw it back. Stephen Bocskai kicks hated imperial gen. Giorgio Basta out of Transylvania after he kills one-third of the pop. of Transylvania and virtually wipes out the nobility, and the Hungarian Diet in Medgyes (Medias) elects him prince of Transylvania; he then begins an anti-Hapsburg uprising (until 1606). Tokugawa Ieyasu (b. 1543) retires, and his hideously militant anti-Christian son Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632) becomes Tokugawa shogun #2 of Japan (until 1623). The English crown begins farming out its customs collections (until 1671). The Dutch seize Amboina in Malaysia from the Portuguese. Persian shah Abbas I scores a V against the Turks in Basra, and goes on to extend his domain beyond the Euphrates River. Puritan divine "Roaring" John Rogers (1572-1636) becomes a lecturer in Dedham, Essex, turning on the crowds with his roaring speeches, exhorting them to read their Bibles more; he would "do more good with his wild notes than we with our set music" (Cotton Mather). Port Royal at the head of Annapolis basin (an inlet of the Bay of Fundy) is founded by Samuel de Champlain and Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts as the capital of the province of Acadia (until 1710), becoming the oldest Euro settlement N of the Gulf of Mexico. The 150-mi. Kennebec River (Abnaki "long-water place") in modern-day W Maine, flowing from Moosehead Lake to the Atlantic is discovered by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain; Champlain makes his first trip to Cape Cod, visiting Fort Hill on Nauset Bay, and writing an account of "a bay with wigwams bordering it all around", complete with a detailed Map of Nauset Bay. The English claim 166 sq. mi. Barbados (modern-day pop. 280K), a 14 mi. by 21 mi. island in the Lesser Antilles 300 mi. N of Venezuela (easternmost island of the West Indies) after being visited by Leigh's Guiana expedition. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), who entered the service of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua as court painter is dispatched on a diplomatic mission to Philip III of Spain in Madrid (until 1608). The Butchers' and Shipwrights' Cos. are incorporated in London; the English govt. begins farming all customs revenues to a London consortium of merchants for an annual rent (ends 1671). The Worshipful Co. of Fruiterers in London (founded 1463) receives a royal charter for inspecting imported fruit. The first permanent German theater opens in Cassel (Kassel). Biblioteca Angelica, the first public library in Rome is founded by Angelo Rocca (1545-1620). Johann Carolus (1575-1634) begins pub. the German language Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien (Account of all Distinguished and Commemorable News) in Strasbourg, becoming the first newspaper; it is printed in quarto size with a single wide column of text. Sports: After discovering the village while out hawking, James I introduces horseracing to Newmarket in Suffolk, 65 mi. N of London, and ends up spending so much time there that the House of Commons petitions him to concentrate more on govt. affairs; Newmarket becomes the home of horseracing in England. Architecture: The Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome is built for the Discalced Carmelites by Carlo Maderno; after the 1620 Battle of White Mountain it is rededicated to Virgin Mary, displaying Turkish standards captured in the 1683 Siege of Vienna; it later houses Bernini's "Ecstasy of St. Theresa" (finished 1652). Nonfiction: Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), The Advancement of Learning; "The parts of human learning have reference to the three parts of man's understanding - history to his memory, poetry to his imagination, and philosophy to his reason." Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624), Theatrum Anatomicum. Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615), Opus Chronologicum (Leipzig); proposes a new chronology based on records of 300 eclipses. William Camden (1551-1623), Remaines of a Greater Worke, Concerning Britaine; 2nd ed. 1614; 3rd ed. 1623; the "rude rubble and out-cast rubbish" from his more serious work "Britannia", becoming more popular; a collection of themed historical essays incl. the first official account of the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters, a catalog of the epitaphs at Westminster Abbey (in which he is later buried), and the first pub. alphabetical list of English proverbs, becoming a main source of words for the "Oxford English Dictionary" (OED). Leonardus Lessius (1554-1623), On Justice and Law (De Iustitia et Iure); big hit, going through 20 eds. by the end of the cent.; first deep moral theological study of economics since St. Thomas Aquinas, claiming that his just price approach is no longer workable, and giving ethical solutions to moral dilemmas faced in business and finance; "By its nature, money is indeed fruitless. Nevertheless, through the industry of greedy individuals it surpasses all living things in productivity"; compares avarice to the fruitfulness of the hare, with the soundbyte: "At one and the same moment it [money] is lent out for usurious profit, bears fuit, and is impregnated once again"; first statement of how the price of an insurance contract depends on the risk of the event insured against? Justus Lipsius, Monita et Exempla Politica. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), Musae Sioniae (9 vols.); 1K+ chorale and song arrangements. Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), De Antichristo. Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616), La Florida del Inca: Historia de Adelantado Hernando de Soto. Art: Annibale Carracci (1560-1609), Frescoes in the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. Music: Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Fifth Book of Madrigals. Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Officium Defunctorum. Plays: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), The Alexandrean. George Chapman (1559-1634), All Fooles (comedy). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), John Marston (1576-1634), and George Chapman (1559-1634), Eastward Hoe (Ho!); satires Virginia colonists, who expect chamber pots of pure gold; causes Jonson to be jailed for dissing the Scots AKA Scotophobia. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Masque of Blackness (Whitehall Palace, London) (Jan. 6) (Twelfth Night); written at the request of James I's wife Anne of Denmark for a blackface masque; how black skin used to be beautiful, but is now replaced by white skin; sets, costumes, and stage effects designed by Smithfield, London-born Inigo Jones (1573-1652), who hooks up with Jonson for a string of masques, going on to stage 500+ performances by 1640, ending in them arguing over whether lit. or stage design is more important in theatre. John Marston (1576-1634), The Dutch Courtesan. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), King Lear (1605-6) (tragedy) (Lear has 697 lines, 13th most); his best play?; aging English King Lear asks his daughters Goneril (eldest) (bad) (wife of the Duke of Albany), Regan (Gael. "little king") (bad) (wife of the Duke of Cornwall), and Cordelia (Lat. "heart") (good) to tell him who loves him most, and the bad liars split faithful Cordelia's share of the kingdom, while she is exiled to France along with his former trusted adviser the Earl of Kent; the bad sisters then turn on daddy, take away his servants and force him to spend the night outdoors during a storm accompanied only by his jester the Fool, causing him to go mad, after which Cordelia returns and helps him restore his sanity, only to see the armies of the bad sisters capture them and kill Cordelia; Goneril then poisons Regan over a man they both love, then kills herself, leaving Lear mourning over the body of Cordelia; meanwhile the Earl of Gloucester banishes his good son Edgar in favor of bad son Edmund after he forges a document to ruin him, then Edmund has Regan's husband blind his father, causing him to see the er, light too late; "Nothing will come of nothing" (1.1.92); "Come not between the dragon and his wrath" (1.1.124); "The infirmity of his age" (1.1.296); "How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is/ To have a thankless child" (Lear) (1.4.312); "The prince of darkness is a gentleman" (3.4.147); "Do me no foul play, friends" (Gloucester) (3.7.30-31); "The wheel is come full circle" (5.3.176); in Nov. 1788 In Nov. 1788 George III suffers a bout of mental illness after reading the play, causing the 1789 Regency Crisis, after which the play is no longer performed during his reign. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), Timon of Athens (1605-6) (tragedy) (Timon has 795 lines, 9th most); Timon and his faithful steward Flavius and false friend Vertidius, philosopher Apemantius, "planetary plague" Athenian Capt. Alcibiades. Poetry: Nicholas Breton (1545-1626), The Passionate Shepherd. Samuel Daniel, Certain Small Poems. John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), Humours Heav's on Earth. Michael Drayton (1563-1631), Poems Lyric and Pastoral; first to introduce imitations of Horace's "Odes"; incl. Ballad of Agincourt. Novels: Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, Pt. 1 (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha, Pt. 1) (Madrid) (pt. 2 in 1615); the first modern novel, founding modern Spanish; written in prison?; "An invective against books of chivalry... to diminish the authority and acceptance that books on chivalry have in the world and among the vulgar"; an old fart on an old nag (Rocinante), accompanied by credulous peasant Sancho Panza (a joke for "sacred belly"), thinking himself a knight and his servant a squire, attempts to take on the world to prove his love for Dulcinea, and tilts with a windmill after mistaking it for a giant, and mistakes a flock of sheep for an army; English trans. by Thomas Shelton pub. in 1612; "In a village of La Mancha the name of which have no desire to recall, there lived not so long ago one of those gentlemen who always have a lance in the rack, an ancient buckler, a skinny nag, and a greyhound for the chase." (opening line) Births: German writer Friedrich Freiherra von Logau (d. 1655) in Jan. in Brockut (near Nimptsch), Silesia. German bishop of Wurzburg (1642-73), archbishop-elector of Mainz (1647-73), and bishop of Worms (1663-73) Johann Philipp von Schonborn (Schönborn) "the Wise" "the German Solomon" "the Cato of Germany" (d. 1673) on Aug. 6 in Laubuseschbach (modern-day Hesse). English antiquary Sir William Dugdale (d. 1686) on Sept. 12 in Shustoke (near Coleshill), Warwickshire. French priest-astronomer-mathematician (Calvinist-turned-Roman Catholic) Ismail Bouillaud (Boulliau) (Bullialdus) (d. 1694) on Sept. 28 in Loudin, Vienne; English "Religio Medici" polymath physician writer Sir Thomas Browne (d. 1682) on Oct. 19 in Cheapside, London; educated at Winchester College, Pembroke College, Oxford U., U. of Padua, U. of Montpellier, and U. of Leiden; knighted in 1671. Am. Puritan divine Thomas Shepard (d. 1649) on Nov. 5; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Chinese Ming emperor #15 (1620-7) Tianqi ("heavenly opening") (Zhu Youxiao) (d. 1627) on Dec. 23; son of Taichang (1582-1620); brother of Chongzhen (1611-44). English poet Thomas Randolph (d. 1635). Dutch (Flemish) painter Adriaen Brouwer (d. 1638) in Oudenaarde. Spanish king (1621-65), Naples king (1621-65), Netherlands king (1621-48), Portuguese king (1621-40), and Sicilian king (1621-65) Philip IV (d. 1665) on Apr. 8 in Valladolid; eldest son of Philip III (1578-1621) and Margaret of Austria (1584-1611); smiles only three times in his entire life, perhaps because he has the Hapsburg chin (hog jaw)? English Parliamentarian-turned-royalist gov. (Barbados, Suriname) Francis Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby of Parham (d. 1666) in Parham, Suffolk. Italian composer ("father of the oratorio") Giacomo Carissimi (d. 1674) in Marino (near Rome); chamber cantata inventor. English gov. of Va. (1642-75) Sir William Berkeley (d. 1677) in Hanworth Manor, Middlesex. English "Englishmen for My Money" playwright William Haughton (b. ?) on June 6 (July 20?). Deaths: French Protestant leader Theodore Beza (b. 1519) on Oct. 13 in Geneva; buried in the Monastery of St. Pierre to keep the Savoyards from stealing his body. French poet-priest Pontus de Tyard (b. 1521) on Sept. 23 in Chateau de Bragny; last surviving member of La Pleiade. Italian naturalist Ulysses Aldrovandi (b. 1522) on May 4. English chronicler John Stow (b. 1524) on Apr. 5 in London. Italian choreographer Cesare Negri (b. 1535) in Milan. Polish patriot Jan Zamoyski (b. 1541). Indian Mogul ruler Akbar the Great (b. 1542). Italian painter Giovanni Contarini (b. 1549). Venetian-born Ottoman harem sultana Sophia Baffo (b. 1550) in Constantinople (strangled in bed). Italian composer Orazio Vecchi (b. 1550) on Feb. 19. Russian tsar (1598-1605) Boris Godunov (b. 1551) on Apr. 13. English Gunpowder Plotter Francis Tresham (b. 1572) on Dec. 22 in London (urinary tract blockage) (poisoned?). English Gunpowder Plotter Roger Catesby (b. 1573) on Nov. 8 in Holbeche House, Staffordshire. English Gunpowder Plotter Thomas Percy (b. 1558) on Nov. 8 in Holbeche House, Staffordshire.

1606 - A zero (hole) in the middle of "666" makes this a neutralized year vis a vis Millennium Fever, therefore the perfect year for Shakespeare's Macbeth and Villanelles? Big year for Hungary?

Tsar Vasily IV of Russia (1552-1612) Carlo Maderno (1556-1629) Edmund Gunter (1581-1626) Juan de la Cueva (1550-1612) Jean Passerat (1534-1602) Rosenborg Castle, 1606 Prince-Bishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1559-1617) 'David' by Caravaggio (1571-1610), 1606-7 Johann von Hildebrandt (1668-1745) Mirabell Palace

1606 On Jan. 30 Robert Wintour (b. 1565), Thomas Bates (b. 1570), and John Grant (b. ?) are executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London for treason, followed on Jan. 31 by Guy Fawkes (b. 1570) (who jumps from the gallows and breaks his neck to avoid the usual hanging-drawing-quartering bit), Robert Keyes (b. 1565), Thomas Wintour (b. 1572), and Ambrose Rokewood (b. 1578) (hanged, drawn, and quartered) in Old Palace Yard, Westminster; the word "guy" is coined - V for Vengeance? On Apr. 10 having no resources for financing colonization like other countries do, James I charters the Plymouth Co. (made up of Plymouth merchants) for colonizing New England, and the Virginia Co. (of London merchants) for Va.; Virginia Co. begins the first mass advertising campaign in history to recruit "gentlemen" for emigration, making wild claims to recruit suckers, and sending 120 colonists to Jamestown, Va. in Dec. - did natural selection work to make Americans prone to believe in false advertising? In Apr. the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) (500 mi. W of Fiji) are discovered by Pedro Fernandes de Queiros (Quiros) (1565-1614) of Portugal, who sights Espiritu Santo (Australia del Espiruto Santo). On May 17 False Dmitri I is killed in Moscow by an insurrection led by boyar Vasily Ivanovich Shuisky, who on May 19 is elected tsar Vasily IV (1552-1612) (until July 19, 1610). On June 23 the Treaty (Peace) of Vienna between Matthias I and Stephen Bocskay guarantees the rights of Hungarians in Hungary and Transylvania, with Bocskay acknowledged as prince of Transylvania, and Transylvania given the right to elect its own princes in the future; Bocskay receives Tokaj Fortress plus the counties of Bereg, Szatmar, and Ugocsa; on Nov. 11 the Peace of Zitava with the Ottomans confirms the Peace of Vienna, and ends the Long (Thirteen Years' War) (begun 1593); too bad, Bocskay is poisoned on Dec. 29 by his chancellor Mihaly Kathy, who is hacked to pieces by his men in the marketplace. On Nov. 11 the Treaty of Zsitvatorok (Sitvatorok) (Zsitva-Torok) ends the Ottoman-Hapsburg War (begun 1593), confirming the prewar boundaries; for the first time the sultan accepts the Austrian Hapsburg emperor as his equal, and ends tribute payments for N Hungary; broken Ahmed I turns to indolence and extravagance? Shakespeare's Macbeth debuts at Hampton Court before James I of England and his brother-in-law Christian of Denmark, and James I bans it for five years because of the witches; James I and Lady Macbeth, er, Anne of Denmark have a child named Sophia, who only lives one day, after which they decide to live apart. Having no resources for financing colonization like other countries do, Ali Pasha Janbulat of Aleppo protests the execution by the Ottomans of his uncle Husayn Pasha Janbulat, leading a Kurdish revolt in N Syria (ends 1607). Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon (1570-1630) lands the Duyfken at Cape York Peninsula in Australia, becoming the first Euros to land there, bringing back the first drawing of a kangaroo. Spanish navigator Luis Vaez (Vaz) de Torres sails between New Guinea and Australia, and discovers the 90-mi.-wide treacherous Torres Strait. Samuel de Champlain makes his 2nd visit to Cape Cod, and attempts to navigate dangerous Pollack (Pollock) Rip between the cape and Nantucket Island (where later half of all wrecks along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts occur) in a small pinnacle, and gives up after almost being wrecked. France begins an extensive road building program. King Philip III of Spain decrees that Spanish tobacco may only be grown in Cuba, Santo Domingo, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico. Mannheim in SW Germany at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar Rivers (10 mi. W of Heidelberg) (modern-day pop. 305K) is turned from a village (first mentioned in 764) to a major town by Frederick IV, elector palatine of the Rhine, becoming a mecca for Protestant refugees from Holland. The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries and Grocers in London receives a charter; the grocers monopolize the society until James I lets the apothecaries form their own society in 1617. Samuel Champlain explores Wellfleet Harbor in Mass., naming it Port Aux Huitres for the tasty oysters he found the Indians feasting on; it becomes Wellfleet in 1763; too bad, a mysterious plague wipes out the oyster beds in 1770, and during the Am. Rev. the harbor is blockaded, killing its whaling industry, causing it to shift to commercial fishing, rivaling Provincetown for its catch. Over 1M black mulberry trees are imported to England in an unsuccessful attempt to start a silk industry; it takes until 1688 and some French help? Italians discover the secret of chocolate, breaking the Spanish monopoly. The common pigeon, AKA rock dove comes to America with French settlers to Nova Scotia. The first open air opera is held in Rome - needed to chase away wild animals? 16-y.-o. William Bradford (1590-1657) of Yorkshire joins the Brownists, and goes with them to Holland in 1609 in search of freedom of worship, geting apprenticed to a silk manufacturer. Italian painter Michelangelo Caravaggio (1571-1610), who had matured from paintings about everyday life to religious paintings (albeit with a lot of nudity) kills a man in a duel and has to flee Rome. The oldest stock share to survive to modern times is issued by the Dutch East India Co. this year. Architecture: Mirabell (It. "amazing, wonderful") Palace on the Salzach River N of the city walls of Salzburg, Austria is built by Prince-Archbishop (1587-1612) Wolf Dietrich Raitenau (1559-1617) as a residence for his mistress Salome Alt, complete with a Marble Hall; in 1721-7 it is rebuilt in a lavish Baroque style by Genoa, Italy-born Austrian Baroque architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (1668-1745); in 1818 after a fire it is rebuilt in Neoclassical style; several scenes in the 1965 film "The Sound of Music" are filmed here, incl. Maria and the children singing "Do-Re-Mi" while dancing around the horse fountain and using the steps as a musical scale; the Mirabellgarden is built in 1687, with geometrically-arranged gardens, followed in 1730 by mythology-themed statues. Italian-Swiss Baroque architect Carlo Maderno (1556-1629) designs the facade for St. Peter's Cathedral. Christian IV of Denmark builds the Dutch Renaissance Rosenborg Castle as his summer home. Inventions: Welsh clergyman-mathematician Edmund Gunter (1581-1626) invents Gunter's Chain for surveying, consisting of 100 links of 7.92 in. each (66 ft. total). Nonfiction: Johann Arndt (1555-1621), Wahres Christentum. Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Seven Deadly Sinnes of London: Drawn in Seven Several Coaches (pamphlet); "politick bankruptism", "lying", "candle light", "sloth", "apishnesse", "shaving", "cruelty". Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), Spiegal vande Doorluchtige Vrouwen (Mirror of Illustrious Women); emblem book. Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555-1617), Trigonometric Tables; extremely accurate? Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609), Thesaurus Temporum, Complectens Eusebi Pamphili Chronicon; best-ever chronology of ancient history? Art: Caravaggio (1571-1610), The Death of the Virgin. El Greco (1541-1614), Apostle St. James the Greater (Elde). Robert Peake the Elder, Princess Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662); eldest daughter of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. Plays: George Chapman (1559-1634), The Gentleman Usher; Monsieur D'Olive. Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1624), The Woman Hater (summer); performed by the Children of Paul's; first of their plays to be pub. (1607); Fletcher is William Shakespeare's successor as house playwright for the King's Men; first of 55 plays. Giovanni Battista Guarini (1538-1612), Pastor Fido. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Volpone, or The Sly Fox (1605-6) (comedy) (Globe Theatre, London) (spring); a Venetian gentleman pretends to be on his deathbed in order to dupe three men lusting after his fortune, Voltore (the Vulture), Corbaccio (The Raven), and Corvino (The Crow); Volpone's parasite servant Mosca (The Fly) pumps them with disinfo.; his most popular play. John Marston (1576-1634), The Parasitaster, or the Fawne (comedy). William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Macbeth (tragedy) (1603-7?) (Macbeth has 681 lines, 15th most); set in Dunsinane (Glamis) Castle 5 mi. S of Forfar in Angus; "a tempest set to music"; a ripoff of the Adam and Eve story, of course blaming Eve?; the Three Weird Sisters; King Duncan I "the Sick" (-1040) of Scotland and sons Malcolm (Malcom III Canmore) ("big head") (1031-93) and Donalbain (Donalbane) (Donald Bane) "the Fair" (-1099); "red king" (1040-57) Macbeth (-1057), thane (earl) of Glamis and Cawdor, and his goading ambitious wife Lady Macbeth (Gruoch), Macbeth's friend Banquo and his son Fleance, Macduff (loyal to Duncan), "untimely ripped from his mother's womb" (5.8.15-16) (Cesarian section?); "Macbeth shall never vanquish'd be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him" (4.1.92-3) (see 1054 C.E.); "So foul and fair a day I have not seen" (Macbeth) (1.3.38); "If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well/ It were done quickly" (Macbeth) (1.7.1-3); "I have no spur/ To prick the sides of my intent, but only/ Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself/ And falls on th' other" (Macbeth) (1.7.25-28); "I am one, my liege,/ Whom the vile blows and buffets of the world/ Hath so incensed that I am reckless what/ I do to spite the world" (3.1.108-11); "Double, double, toil and trouble;/ Fire burn and caldron bubble" (4.1.10-11); "Bleed, bleed, poor country:/ Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure" (Macduff) (4.3.32-33); "What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam,/ At one fell swoop?" (Macduff) (4.3.218-9); "Out, damned spot!" (Lady Macbeth) (5.1.36); "Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow/ Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,/ To the last syllable of recorded time;/ And all our yesterdays have lighted fools/ The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!/ Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player/ That struts and frets his hour upon the stage/ And then is heard no more. It is a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury/ Signifying nothing" (Macbeth) (5.5.19-28); Antony and Cleopatra (tragedy) (Antony has 766 lines, 10th most); Roman Gen. Mark Antony (ruler of the East) and his babe Queen Cleopatra of Egypt, Octavius Caesar (ruler of the West) and sister Octavia (Antony's wife), Lepidus (ruler of the South), Pompey; Cleopatra's attendant Charmian, who follows her to aspy death; "My salad days,/ When I was green in judgment" (Cleopatra) (1.5.73); "The triple pillar of the world transform'd/ Into a strumpet's fool" (1.1.12-13) (Philo, about Antony); "Ambition,/ The soldier's virtue" (3.1.22); All's Well That Ends Well (1606-7) (comedy); based on "The Palace of Pleasure", tr. by William Painter; last play in which Shakespeare acts?; Bertram, Count of Rossillion marries adoring wife Helena (an orphan who was raised by his mother the Countess of Rossillion), then dumps her as too low class, writing her a letter saying that she can never call him husband unless she gets a ring from his finger and becomes pregnant by him, which she proceeds to do by taking the place of a girl he falls for; Lord Lafew, Diana, Parolles ("words"); "My friends were poor, but honest" (1.3.203); "They say miracles are past" (2.3.1); "A young man married is a man that's marr'd" (2.3.314); "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and ill together" (4.3.68); "All's well that ends well; still the fine's the crown./ Whate'er the course, the end is the renown" (Helena) (4.4.35-6). Cyril Tourneur (1575-1626), The Revenger's Tragedy (1606-7); almost as good as Shakespeare's "Hamlet"?; pub. anon.; real author is Thomas Middleton and real title is "The Viper and Her Brood"? Poetry: Nicholas Breton (1545-1626), The Soules Immortal Crowne; The Honour of Valour. Samuel Daniel, The Queen's Arcadia; adaptation of Giovanni Battista Guarini's 1606 "Pastor Fido". John Ford (1586-1640), Fame's Memorial; an elegy on the Earl of Devonshire. Juan de la Cueva de Garoza (1550-1610), The Poetic Exemplar; rhyme exposition of his dramaturgic theories, incl. the adaptation of the cape-and-sword romance for the stage, which wows Spanish dramatists, esp. Lope de Vega. Jean Passerat (1534-1602), Villanelle (posth.); "J'ay perdu ma Tourterelle"; launches a new poetic form with 19 lines consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain; the most famous is Dylan Thomas' "Do not go gentle into that good night" (1951). Births: British royalist politician-atty. Orlando Bridgeman, 1st Baronet of Great Lever (d. 1674) on Jan. 30; educated at Queens' College, Cambridge U. French duchess of Savoy (1630-7) Christine Marie (d. 1663) on Feb. 10 in Palais du Louvre, Paris; daughter of Henri IV and Marie de' Medici; younger sister of Louis XIII and Elisabeth of Bourbon; sister-in-law of Philip IV of Spain (through Elisabeth) and Charles I of England (through Henrietta Maria); wife (1619-37) of Duke Victor Amadeus I of Savoy (15887-1637). Conn. gov. (1657, 1659-76) John "Jack" Winthrop Jr. (the Younger) (d. 1676) on Feb. 12 in Groton, Suffolk, England; son of Mass. Bay Colony gov. John Winthrop (1588-1649); educated at King Edward VI School, and Trinigy College, Dublin; emigrates to Mass. in 1631. French Baroque painter Laurent de La Hyre (d. 1656) on Feb. 27 in Paris; pupil of Georges Lallemand; father of Philippe de La Hire (1640-1718). English poet-dramatist Sir William Davenant (D'Avenant) (d. 1668) on Feb. 28 in Oxford; once reputed to be William Shakespeare's son, but is actually the son of an inkeeper, and Shakespeare was only his godfather. English Cavalier poet Edmund Waller (d. 1687) on Mar. 3 in Coleshill near Amersham, Buckinghamshire; revives the heroic couplet. Dutch painter Jan Davidsz de Heem (d. 1683) on Apr. 17 in Utrecht. Dutch gov.-gen. #5 of New Netherland (1633-8) Wouter van Twiller (d. 1654) on May 22 in Nijkerk. German Baroque art historian and painter Joachim Sandrart (d. 1688) on May 12 in Frankfurt. French dramatist-poet ("Father of French Tragedy") Pierre Corneille (d. 1684) on June 6 in Rouen; brother of Thomas Corneille (1625-1709); inventor of the French comedy of manners. Scottish royalist gen. James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (d. 1649) on June 19 in Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire; son of James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton (1589-1625) and Lady Anne Cunningham; heir presumptive to the Scottish throne (1625-30). Dutch "The Night Watch" Baroque painter (cross-eyed) Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (d. 1669) on July 15 in Leiden; lives with his parents into his 40s. French nurse Jeanne Mance (d. 1673) on Nov. 12 in Langres, Haute-Marne. Deaths: English mathematician Thomas Blundeville (b. 1522) in Norfolk. French-Scottish composer-organist Guillaume Costeley (b. 1531). English dramatist-poet John Lyly (b. 1553) in Nov.; dies broke: "All is fair in love and war." Dutch Union of Utrecht author Count John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg (b. 1536) on Oct. 8 in Dillenburg. English Gunpowder Plotter Father Henry Garnet (b. 1555) on May 3 (executed); the king believes his story that he knew about the plot but didn't aid it, so he is hanged but not drawn and quartered, with no torture. Transylvanian prince (1604-6) Stephen Bocskai (b. 1557) on Dec. 29 (murdered). Spanish nobleman Gaspar de Zuniga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey (b. 1560) on Mar. 16 in Peru. English lord-lt. of Ireland Charles Bount, 8th baron Mountjoy (b. 1563) on Apr. 3; dies after being banished by the royal court for marrying his mistress Penelope Devereux (-1607) in defiance of canon law last year. English Gunpowder Plotter Thomas Wintour (b. 1565) on Jan. 30 in London (executed). English Gunpowder Plotter Thomas Bates (b. 1570) on Jan. 30 in London (executed). English Gunpowder Plotter Guy Fawkes (b. 1570) on Jan. 31 in London (executed). English Gunpowder Plotter Ambrose Rokewood (b. 1578) on Jan. 31 in London (executed). English Gunpowder Plotter Thomas Wintour (b. 1572) on Jan. 31 in London (executed). English lord mayor of London (1596-) Sir Henry Billingsley (b. ?); educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U., and Oxford U.; knighted in 1597.

1607 - The You're Not Conceited Just Honest Look Out America Here Cum Da WASPs Invasion: English Whitey Year? The latecomer Protestant English, suffering from overpopulation and unemployment enter the New World even while Mexico City and Lima have Spanish universities, printing presses, and tens of thousands of Spanish Roman Catholic inhabitants, and the Roman Catholic French are trading for furs in Canada, dreaming big and reaching out? As if to hedge their bets, the English also lamely attempt to colonize Celtic Catholic Ireland?

Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) Pocahontas (1595-1617) Chief Powhatan (1547-1618) Capt. Edward Maria Wingfield (1550-1631) Honore Fabri (1607-88) Henry Hudson (1566-1611) Sir John Barnard (-1674) St. Joseph Calasanz (1557-1648) William Byrd (1540-1623) Xu Guangqi (1562-1633) Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) Thomas Brightman (1562-1607) Honoré d'Urfé (1568-1625)

1607 Early in the year after leaving England last Dec. 20 in three ships, Godspeed, Susan Constant, captained by 1-armed Christopher Newport (1561-1618), and Discovery, captained by Bartholomew Gosnold (1571-1607) with 144 passengers and crew, then being pinned to the coast of England by howling winds for 6 weeks, the Virginia Co. expedition crosses the Atlantic by a southernly route and reprovisions in the West Indies, then heads N for Virginia, expecting to arrive in Apr.; too bad, they hit a tempest and sound for four days, looking for offshore shallows, and on Apr. 26 at 4 a.m. they sight land, enter Chesapeake Bay, then sail 40 mi. up the James River to hide from Spaniards; on May 14 they finally land after 144 days at sea at a marshy spot of land on the N shore of the James River (Jamestown Island in the river?) (140 mi. N of Roanoke), in an area surrounded by howling Indian settlements, naming it Jamestown in honor of James I, becoming the first permanent English settlement on the North Am. mainland; Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), who had accused the leaders ("our ignorant transporters") of incompetence, calling them "ten times more fit to spoil a commonwealth than... to begin one", was clapped in irons on the voyage and sentenced to hang but pardoned to be used in possible future fighting by Capt. Newport after a gallows is built on Nevis Island in the Caribbean, becoming the first English Am. inmate; most of the 107 male cavalier colonists are devout, have Puritan leanings and are strongly anti-Catholic, and allegedly first stop at Cape Henry at the mouth of the James River and plant a cross on the shore, claiming it for Christ; to keep investors from bugging out, the names of seven governing council members are carried in a sealed box, and opened upon landing, and capt. Edward Maria Wingfield (1550-1631) becomes the first pres. of the council; after living behind a crescent brush fence for two weeks they are attacked by 200 Indians, who are repelled with the help of the ship's cannon after two English die and 11 are wounded, causing them to decide to build a log palisade, and in June heat under frequent arrow attack they cut and split 600+ trees in 19 days and lay them in a 300-yard 2.5-ft.-deep triangular trench, after which "scarce 10 among us could either go or well stand, such extreme weakness and sickness oppressed us" (Smith); being "gentlemen adventurers" they don't know how to farm, hunt in the woods or even fish, forcing them to depend for food supplies on trade for copper scraps with the 30-tribe 14K-21K pop. Powhatan (Powatan) (Powhaten) (1545-1618) (pr. pow-uh-TAN) confederation of Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater area of E Va. between the James and York Rivers, led by 60-y.-o. Pawmunkey chief Powhatan, real name Wahunsonacock (sounds like?) (father of 11-y.-o. Pocahontas), whom Capt. Smith says "sat covered with a great robe made of raccoon skins, and all the tails hanging by" flanked by "two rows of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red", and wearing long strings of pearls, presenting "such a grave and Majesticall countenance, as drave me into admiration to see such state in a naked Salvage", and to whom Smith later lies that they are merely visitors driven there to hide from the Spanish (ask Dr. D. James Kennedy how they only came to spread the gospel to the heathens?); too bad, the Powhatans want English swords and firearms, not just copper and them cool glass beads, and to make allies of them to fight other Indians, not to become tributaries to James I, and since the colony is owned by Walmart, er, the London Co., er, the Virginia Co., they have to show a profit for the stockholders back in the Big E, so in June Capt. Newport leaves for England with two ships carrying samples of clapboard and sassafras, leaving 104 settlers, all male (incl. some boys, cute cute cute?), who also attempt to hunt for precious minerals and plant cotton; too bad, a major drought lasting for seven years (1606-12) makes freshwater scarce, and being too lazy to dig a well, they have to drink from the Shi, er, James River (filled with you know what from the many Indian settlements upriver), giving them salt poisoning as well as dysentery to go with their typhoid, leading to the Starving Time of 1609-10; Smith goes around trading with the Indians and forcing them to give up their corn for his trinkets with terrorist tactics if necessary, until, in a magic moment for English-Indian relations, the arrogant prick is captured on one of his expeditions to explore and map the region, and held for 3-6 weeks in Dec. at the Injun capital of Werowocomoco ("place of chiefs") on the York River, where he attempts to outwit, outlast, and outthink them by claiming his compass is magic and that they can plant gunpowder next spring to grow their own; too bad, after springing his lie about being just visitors, Chief Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) orders the white devil's head pressed on a stone altar to beat out his brains with clubs, but in a second magic moment, his #1 most beautiful daughter out of 100+ wives, 13-y.-o. Pocahontas (1595-1617) ("frisky") ("undisciplined brat"?) (real name Matoaka or Amonute) (poke it up my hot what?), whom Smith says "much exceeded any of the rest of his people not only for feature, countenance and proportion... but for wit and spirit, the only Nonpareil of his country", intervenes and pleads for his life, causing the chief to adopt him and give him the honorary name of Nantaquoud, and offer him some nearby land; Smith doesn't recognize that the ceremony is only a ritual to impress him with the chief's authority after the big feast of oysters, turkey, and cornbread he just threw, and later writes that he and Poca had "a very mad affair"; instead of staying, he decides to stay s ingle and free, and returns to Jamestown, finding it on the verge of starvation, and in early Jan. she arrives with enough food to save their lives; later she saves his life again by sneaking through the forest alone at night to warm him of an ambush; they never actually hooked up or were an item, despite later romantic writers slobbering over forbidden interracial romance? On Apr. 4 Sunni Muslim Iskanadar Muda ("Young Alexander") (1583-1636) becomes sultan of Aceh Darussalem in Indonesia (until Dec. 27, 1736), going on to make conquests in Malaysia and bring back thousands of slaves to his capital of Aceh, which becomes an internat. center of Islamic learning and trade, bringing the sultanate to its greatest territorial extent. In Apr. the Midland Revolt (Corn Riots) in England against enclosure of common land, led by John "Capt. Pouch" Reynolds begin in Haselbch, Pytchley, and Rushton in Northamptonshire, spreading to Warwickshire and Leicestershire in May. On May 1 English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) makes his First Voyage in his 80-ton ship Hopewell to find a Northwest Passage, and makes it as far N as Willem Barents' Spitsbergen. On Sept. 14 Irish rebel leader Hugh O'Neill, 2nd earl of Tyrone, fearing arrest for attempted insurrection for a new intrigue flees Ulster to Spanish-controlled Flanders with a boatload of 90 Irish noblemen incl. Rory O'Donnell, 1st earl of Tyrconnell in the Flight of the Earls, ending the era of tribalism in Ireland; using the ancient feud between the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell as a pretext, James I confiscates O'Neill's lands, along with the land in six counties of N Ulster, then creates 40 fake boroughs from small hamlets to give the English crown a permanent majority in the Irish Parliament; James I then gives the land in Northern Ireland to English and Scottish Protestants, who found the Plantation of Ulster in 1609, which eventually leads to a Protestant majority there, incl. in the ancient city of Belfast (Gael. "Beal Feirsde" = mouth of the sandbar or tidal river ford) on the Lagan River (modern-day pop. 333K/672K), which is granted city status in 1888, becoming known as "Linenopolis" for its linen industry, as well as shipbuilding industry, which builds RMS Titanic, going on to be equally split in the 20th cent. between Roman Catholic and Protestant pops. in eternal religious war; the immigrants from the Scottish lowlands become known as the Scots-Irish (Ulster Scots); meanwhile James I proposes the Union of England and Scotland on equal terms, but is rejected by the English Parliament - pass the poteen, I think I need it? In Oct. Ali Pasha Janbulat and his Kurdish rebels are defeated by the Ottomans. In Dec. after the Lutheran majority barred the Roman Catholic pop. from holding their annual Markus procession last year, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria finally steps into the Thirty Years' War and occupies the Protestant stronghold of Donauworth (Donauwörth) in Swabia at the confluence of the Danube and Worniz Rivers, then reestablishes Roman Catholicism, causing the Protestant princes to rush to hold a Reichstag. Henri IV of France issues an edict establishing the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra, which continues after the French monarchy is abolished. Raleigh Gilbert of the Virginia Co. of Plymouth (Humphrey Gilbert's son) sails up the Kennebec River and lands at Koussinoc, the Indian name for present-day Augusta, Maine, founding a colony along the Sagadahoc River near the mouth of the Kennebec River called Popham (Sagadahoc) Colony (in modern-day Phippsburg, Maine), which only survives one winter, becoming the first colony in New England; it produces the first ocean-going ship built in America, the Virginia. After the bishop of York finds out about their illegal meetings in Scrooby and throws some in prison, Separatists Willam Bradford, John Robinson, and William Brewster make their first attempt to depart England, but the captain turns them into the authorities, who arrest them in Boston, Lincolnshire, England, and they spend several mo. in jail. The Second False Dmitri arises in Starodub, Poland. Havana is officially named the capital of Cuba. Baghdad rebel leader Muhammad al-Tawil is assassinated, and by next year the Ottomans regain control. Faridabad in Haryana, N India is founded by Jahangir's treasurer Shaikh Farid, becoming famous for its henna. The Bank of Genoa fails after Spain announces nat. bankruptcy - that last court festivity was a doozy? William and Anne Shakespeare's daughter Susanna Shakespeare (1583-1649) marries Dr. John Hall (1575-1635); they have daughter Elizabeth Shakespeare (1607-70), who marries Thomas Nash (1593-1647) of Welcombe and Lincolnshire, then Sir John Barnard of Abington (-1674). St. Joseph Casalanz (Casalanctius) (1557-1648) organizes the Brotherhood of Piarists (Order of Poor Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools) in Rome (canonized in 1767), becoming the first Roman Catholic educational order. The U. of Giessen in Hessen, W Germany is founded. The first shipment of beer arrives in the Virginia Colony from England; in 1609 the first ads appear in London seeking brewers to come to Va. Chinese Ming Dynasty scholar Xu Guangqi (1562-1633) translates Euclid's Elements into Chinese, launching China's enlightenment by Western science. Architecture: The Jacobean-style Hatfield House in Hertfordshire, England, built by John Thorpe for Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury is begun (finished 1611). Science: Western astronomers note the appearance of Halley's Comet this year. Nonfiction: Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum cum Brevi Lexico Rabbinico Philosophico. Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), Map of the New England and Canadian Coast - come and get it? John Cowell, The Interpreter; law dictionary; burnt in 1610 by the hangman for enhancing the authority of the crown. Giovanni Diodati, Italian Trans. of the Bible from the Original Languages; written by a Calvinist pastor whose parents fled to Switzerland to avoid religious persecution; becomes the Bible of choice for Italian Protestants for cents. Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555-1617), De Astrologica Ratione (Venice); defends the use of astrology in medicine. John Norden (1548-1625), The Surveyors' Dialogue. Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), Scaliger Hypololymaeus; virulent attack on ex-friend Joseph Scaliger. Music: William Byrd (1540-1623), Gradualia. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Orfeo (Orpheus) (Mantua, Italy); the first modern opera, using the first modern orchestra (36 instruments) to establish the moods for scenes, with 14 independent orchestral pieces; a big hit. Plays: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), Julius Caesar. George Chapman (1559-1634), Bussy D'Amboise (tragedy). Thomas Dekker (1572-1632) and John Webster (1580-1634), Sir Thomas Wyatt. Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), Auriacus, sive Libertas Saucia (Willam of Orange, or Freedom Wounded); Herodes Infanticida (The Massacre of the Innocents); pub. in 1632. Thomas Heywood (1586-1641), A Woman Killed with Kindness (tragedy). John Marston (1576-1634), What You Will (comedy). William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Tragedy of Coriolanus (1607-8) (1605-8?) (tragedy) ( Coriolanus has 809 lines, 8th most); set in 490 B.C.E.; Roman Gen. Caius Martius (Coriolanus), his mother Volumnia and friend Menenius Agrippa, Rome's sole consul Gen. Cominius (no tribunes), Volscian Gen. Tullus Aufidius (Coriolanus' enemy); Corioli is the Volscian city that you-know-how single-handedly conquers, then is banished from Rome, joins his enemies, and returns, being talked out of it at the last moment by mommy, causing the Volscians to kill him; "Action is eloquence" (3.2.76) (Volumnia). William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and George Wilkins (1576-1618), Pericles, Prince of Tyre (comedy) (Shakespeare only wrote the 827 lines after scene 9?) (Pericles has 592 lines, 20th most); only Shakespeare country title not in Europe; Pericles and his wife Princess Thalsa of Pentapolis, their daughter Marina, and their counselor Lord Helicanus; Tarsus Gov. Cleon, Lord Cerimon of Ephesus; Pericles is parted from his wife and daughter and presumes them dead, but reunites with them at the end; Pericles discovers the secret that King Antiochus had incest with his daughter Thalsa. Edward Sharpham (1576-1608), A Comedie called Cupids Whirlegigge (Cupid's Whirligig) (Whitefriars Theatre). Novels: Honore d'Urfe (1568-1625), L'Astree (L'Astrée) (60 vols.) (1607-27) (first novel); "the novel of novels", about 5th cent. shepherd Celadon (Céladon) and shepherdess Astree (Astrée) (named after Astraea) in Forez, becoming an internat. hit and the most influentlial work of 17th cent. French lit., causing the word "celadony" to be coined for pure spiritual love. Births: French missionary (St.) Isaac Jogues (d. 1646) on Jan. 10 in Orleans; one of the eight North Am. martyrs; canonized in 1930; feast day: Sept. 26. German #1 hymnodist ("the Wesley of the Fatherland") Paul Gerhardt (d. 1676) on Mar. 12 in Grafenhainichen (near Halle). Dutch adm. Michiel Andriaenszoon de Ruyter (d. 1676) on Mar. 24 in Flushing (Vlissingen). Italian priest-mathematician-scientist Honore Fabri (d. 1688) on Apr. 5. Am. Pilgrim Mary Chilton (d. 1679) on May 31 in Sandwich, Kent; daughter of James Chilton (1556-1620); wife (1624-) of John Winslow, brother of Edward Winslow (1595-1655); ancestor of Lucretia Garfield, Pete Seeger, Robert Lowell, Jane Wyatt, Vincent Price, Howard Dean, Elliot Richardson, Marjorie Child, Dan Quayle, Abraham Lincoln, and TLW? Anglo-Czech Baroque "Views of London" engraver Wenceslaus (Vaclav) (Wenzel) Hollar (d. 1677) on July 13 in Prague; moves to England in 1637. Dutch Baroque painter Jan Lievens (d. 1674) on Oct. 24 in Leiden. French mathematician-linguist-atty. ("Father of Number Theory") Pierre de Fermat (d. 1665) on Oct. 31 (Dec. 6?) in Beaumont-de-Lomagne; inventor of differential calculus; friend of Blaise Pascal; elected to the Toulouse parliament in 1631. French novelist Madeleine de Scudery (Scudéry) (d. 1701) on Nov. 15 in Le Havre, Normandy; younger sister of playwright Georges de Scudery (1601-67), whose name she writes under until she becomes a big woman in society with a popular salon? Am. clergyman John Harvard (d. 1638) on Nov. 26 in Southwark, London; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U.; emigrates to New England in 1637; principal endower (not founder) of Harvard College. French missionary (St.) Rene Goupil (d. 1642) in Anjou; one of the eight North Am. martyrs; canonized in 1940; feast day: Sept. 26. German Berlin Fortress architect-engineer Johann Gregor Memhardt (Memhard) (d. 1678) in Linz an der Donau; emigrates to the Netherlands in 1622. German Labadist feminist poet-writer Anna Maria van Schurman (d. 1678) on Nov. 5 in Cologne; moves to Utrecht in 1613, where she becomes the first female student at Utrecht U., sitting behind a curtain during lectures. German organist-violinist-composer Sigmund Gottlieb (Theophilus) Staden (d. 1655); son of Johann Staden. Scottish nobleman (leader of the Covenenanter movement) Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess and 8th Earl of Argyll (d. 1661); eldest son of Archibald Campbell, 7th earl of Argyll (1575-1638) and Agnes Douglas (daughter of William Douglas, 6th earl of Morton); educated at St. Andrews U. Deaths: Italian portraitist Alessandro Allori (b. 1535) on Sept. 22 in Florence. Italian church historian-cardinal Caesar Baronius (b. 1538) on June 30; venerated on Jan. 12, 1745: "The Bible teaches the way to go to heaven, not the way the heavens go" (in support of Galileo). Swiss architect Domenico Fontana (b. 1543) on June 28 in Naples; his plans for a new harbor and bridge on the Bay of Naples are carried out after his death. Korean PM Yu Seong-ryong (b. 1542). English poet Sir Edward Dyer (b. 1543) in May; leaves Poems: "My mind to me a kingdom is;/ Such perfect joy therein I find/ That it excels all other bliss/ Which God or nature hath assign'd./ Though much I want that most would have,/ Yet still my mind forbids to crave." Italian Roman Catholic missionary to China Michaele Ruggieri (b. 1543). Italian philosopher-astronomer Guidobaldo del Monte (b. 1545) on Jan. 6 in Montebaroccio. English academic John Rainolds (b. 1549) on May 21 (consumption). English dramatist Henry Chettle (b. 1560). English clergyman Thomas Brightman (b. 1562) on Aug. 24; dies while riding in a coach with Sir John Osborne and reading a book; leaves Shall They Return to Jerusalem Again? (pub. 1615), advocating the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, with the soundbyte "There is nothing more certain: the prophets do everywhere confirm it and beat upon it." English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold (b. 1572) on Aug. 22

1608 - The Quebec Year?

Henry Hudson (1566-1611) Hans Lippershey (1570-1619) Hans Lippershey's Telescope, 1608 Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641) Simon Episcopius (1583-1643) Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Thomas Coryat (1576-1617) 'Baptism of Christ' by El Greco (1541-1614), 1608-14

1608 In winter 1607/8 after the English High Court of Ecclesiastical Commission clamps down on religious dissenters, the Scrooby congregation meeting in Scrooby Manor, led by Congregational Church co-founder John Robinson (1576-1625), and the Gainsborough congregation in Lincolnshire meeting in Old Hall, incl. Baptist co-founders Thomas Helwys (1575-1616) and John Smyth (1570-1612) flee to Amsterdam to avoid being burned at the stake for heresy. In Jan. Capt. Christopher Newport returns to the Va. Colony with 100 new settlers (incl. 30 gentlemen), finding only a third of the original settlers still alive (38 of 108); Gov. Wingfield is removed on charges of plotting with the Spanish, and Capt. John Smith again faces hanging (2nd time of two) in hours after his enemies get him charged with negligence for getting two of his men killed by Indians, and saves himself for the 2nd time; after he is spared, Smith has to stop some gentlemen eager to return to England from commandeering a ship by opening up with cannon and musket fire; too bad, after being unloaded from Newport's ship a fire destroys most of the supplies, causing the Jamestown colonists to become totally dependent on the unfriendly Indians, and putting John Smith, who has established relations with them and has his own red babe to be elected pres. of the Jamestown colony council on Sept. 10 (until 1609); being fresh from wars against the Turks in Hungary and Turkey and knowing it all, he becomes a taskmasker, telling them "The greater part must be more industrious or starve", then quotes Apostle Paul, "He that will not work shall not eat", and writes his new Va. Co. bosses in England that there is no way the colony can pay for itself, there is no shortcut to China here, and the odds of survival are about 1 in 4; Pocahontas comes through for Smith by bringing bear meat, venison, and other delicacies; the fort is expanded, and the interior wall is later removed, while Smith explores Chesapeake Bay. In the spring 150 English Puritan Separatists from Scrooby, led by minister John Robinson make a second attempt to depart England for the wonderful land of Virginia, er, the Netherlands, having to leave the women and children quick after the local militia arrive to stop them, and make it to Amsterdam, where the rest catch up to them several mo. later; after encountering other Separatist groups with divergent opinions, causing them to choose to travel to the red-bricked head-with-crown-shaped univ. town of Leiden, where the Dutch tolerance of loose morals and religious diversity makes them welcome as long as they do menial labor from dawn to dusk six days a week in the cloth industry; Robinson buys a house near the Pieterskerk, then sets up De Groene Poort (the green lane) in his garden, a cozy village of a dozen houses; too bad, their "chosen" English children begin turning Dutch, pissing them off, even though they triple their numbers by 1620. On May 14 after getting pissed-off at the occupation and reestablishment of Roman Catholicism in Donauworth, the Protestant States of the Rhineland, incl. Anhalt, Ansbach, Baden, Bayreuth, Brandenburg, Hesse-Cassel, Neuberg, Nurnberg, Palatinate, Strasbourg, Ulm, and Wurttemberg form the Protestant (Evangelical) Union (League) of Anhausen) under Christian of Anhalt and Frederick IV of the Palatinate after deciding that before renewing the 1555 Peace of Augsburg all church lands appropriated since 1552 should be restored; too bad, Calvinist-friendly Christian II of Saxony refuses to join, and the Lutheran and Calvinist members don't get along too well, weakening it, later causing it to stab Frederick IV's son Frederick V in the back in 1620. On May 25 Pope Paul V approves Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua's Military Order of Our Redeemer and the Most Precious Blood of Jesus Christ (AKA Blood of Our Savior) of 20 knights on the occasion of the marriage of his son to a daughter of the duke of Savoy; allegedly some drops of Christ's blood are preserved in St. Andrew's Church in Mantua - it runs in gaggles? On July 3 Samuel de Champlain founds the French village of Quebec on the site of the abandoned village of Stadacona on the St. Lawrence and St. Charles Rivers, establishing the first permanent French settlement in North Am.; nearby 272-ft. Montmorency Falls is taller than Niagara falls. On Aug. 5 a UFO is sighted on the Bay of Angels in Nice, France. In Aug. the King's Men take over the roofed-in Blackfriars Theatre, which is smaller than the Globe but can stage performances at night and in winter and charge more; it is demolished on Aug. 6, 1655; in Sept. (momma's boy?) William Shakespeare's mother Mary dies, and he enters his Fancy Free Age (1608-13). In Oct. the first women arrive in Jamestown, Mistress Forrest and her maid Anne Burras; Forrest dies within the year - dark forrest and burrass jokes here? The Second False Dmitri battles Tsar Vasily IV, defeats him, and advances toward Moscow. HRE Rudolf II cedes Austria, Hungary and Moravia to his brother Matthias. Muslim Druze emir Fakhr al-Din II (1572-1635) of Mt. Lebanon signs a commercial treaty with the grand duchy of Tuscany, which incl. a secret military treaty, all of which causes the Ottomans to want to squash him, which they finally do on Apr. 13, 1635. The English burn rebel town Londonderry in NW Ireland. Henry Hudson makes his Second Voyage, looking for a Northeast Passage through 5.4M sq. mi. of ice - good luck, sucker? Jelali rebel leader Kalenderoglu Mehmed is killed by the Otomans, and the rest of the rebels are mopped up, ending the 1596 Jelali Revolt. Sonjo dies, and Kwanghaegun (Kwan Haegun) (1571-1641) becomes Yi king of Korea (until 1623), restoring peace to the peninsula. The city of Dacca (Dhaka) ("watchtower"?) on the E bank of the Buriganga River in the Bengal Delta in SE India (modern-day pop. 14.4M/18.8M) is founded by the Mughal Empire as the capital of its Bengal Province (until 1639, then 1660-1704), going under the name Jahangir Nagar in the 17th cent., going on to develop a Muslim-majority pop. that wars with the Hindu-majority pop. of Calcutta, becoming known as the City of Mosques, and Venice of the East; in 1947 it is granted city status; in 1947 it becomes the admin. capital of East Pakistan, followed by the legislative capital of Pakistan in 1962, and capital of Bangladesh in 1971; in 1983 the spelling is changed to Dhaka. Dutch anti-predestinarian free-will theologian Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Hermanszoon) (1560-1609) of the U. of Leiden debates with his colleague, Dutch Calvinist theologian Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641) before the assembly of the estates of Holland, holding that grace is universal and not confined to the elect, and that election is conditioned upon faith and good works, and that therefore Calvin's doctrines of particular election and limited atonement suck; after stirring up a hornet's nest, he dies before he can be put on trial before the Synod of Dort, which goes on to expel the Arminians (they refuse to be called that, calling themselves the Reformed Church) from the Dutch Calvinist Church; his pupil Simon Episcopius (Bisschop) (1583-1643) goes on to win complete religious toleration, and by the the end of the cent. their views are assimilated by the other Protestant churches, incl. the Anglicans and Methodists, and their members get assimilated except for a few holdouts in Amsterdam and Rotterdam - who had the greater will, er, was predestined to win? Santa Fe, N.M. (Sp. "holy faith") (La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asissi) at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mts. is founded by Juan de Onate, who makes it the capital of the province of New Spain in 1610, becoming the oldest capital city in the modern-day U.S. Cowbridge Grammar School in Wales is founded by Sir John Stradling, 1st Baronet (1563-1637; closed in 1974. The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola must now be revisited once a year by every Jesuit. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) is appointed organist at St. Peter's in Rome. The first "cash letters" (checks) are used in the Netherlands. English traveler Thomas Coryat (1576-1617), who just returned from a 5-mo. tour of Europe (half of which he walked) brings the custom of eating with a dinner fork ("furcifer") back to England from Italy, causing outrage at first as an insult to human dignity; even the rich eat with their hands until late in this cent., at which time the idea of privacy is invented?; he also describes the principle of the umbrella - get the lingo and watch the possiblities unfold? The first glass manufacturing plant in America is built. Bushmills Distillery in Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland is licensed by a landowner, after which a co. builds a commercial distillery in 1784, becoming the world's oldest licensed whiskey distillery. Sports: Royal Blackheath Golf Club is founded in London, England. Architecture: Sir Walter Cope begins building the stately Jacobean-style Holland House in Kensington, London (finished 1610). Badminton House in Gloucestershire, England 100 mi. W of London is acquired from Nicolas Boteler by Thomas, Viscount Somerset (d. 1650), whose daughter Elizbeth gives it to Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester and 1st Duke of Beaufort (1629-99), who builds a new mansion in 1682, which later hosts the first Badminton game in 1873. Inventions: Dutch eyeglass maker Hans (Johann) Lippershey (1570-1619) applies for a patent for the telescope (Gr. "far-seeing"), which is first used to look at the sky by Galileo, who constructs his own next July 1 mo. after hearing about it. Nonfiction: Thomas Coryat (1576-1617), Coryat's Crudities Hastily Gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Italy, &c. John Donne (1572-1631), Biathanatos; not pub. until 1644; defends suicide (self-homicide), "the scandalous disease of headling dying" by citing Jesus, Samson, Saul, and Judas, admitting that he himself had "often such a sickly inclination." Edward Grimestone, A General History of the Netherlands. William Perkins, A Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchecraft (posth.). St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622), Introduction a la Vie Devote (Introduced to the Devoted Life). Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), A True Relation of Virginia Since the First Planting of that Colony. Art: Domenichino (1581-1641), The Scourging of St. Andrew (San Gregorio Magno, Bologna); goes into a mean funk while painting, causing Annibale Carracci to utter the soundbyte "Today, my dear Domenichino, you are teaching me". El Greco (1541-1614), Golgotha; Cardinal Taverna; Baptism of Christ (1608-14). Music: Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), Dafne (opera); libretto by Rinuccini. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), L'Arianna (opera) (Mantua); about Ariadne and Thesus; another hit; only the aria Lamento di Arianna survives. Plays: George Chapman (1559-1634), The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron, Marshal of France. Joseph Hall (1574-1656), Characters of Virtues and Vices. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Masque of Beauty (Whitehall Palace, London) (Jan. 10); sequel to "The Masque of Blackness" (1605); the "daughters of Niger" are finally cleansed of the black pigment to be white and right. Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), A Mad World, My Masters (satirical comedy). William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Pied Bull (First) Quarto. Poetry: Richard West, A Century of Epigrams; that's 100 of them. Novels: George Wilkins (1576-1618), The Painful Adventures of Pericles, Prince of Tyre; "The true history of Pericles as it was lately presented by... John Gower." Births: Italian physiologist-physicist ("Father of Modern Biomechanics") Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (d. 1679) on Jan. 28 in Castel Nuovo (near Naples); enjoys the protection against the Inquisition of Queen Christina of Sweden, saving him from Galileo's fate. German Jesuit scientist Gaspar Schott (d. 1666) on Feb. 5 in Konigshofen; educated at the U. of Wurzburg, and U. of Palermo; first to describe a universal joint and classify gear teeth. Brazilian Jesuit scholar-writer FatherAntonio Vieira (d. 1697) on Feb. 6 in Lisbon. French duke (1626-60) Jean Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orleans (d. 1660) on Apr. 25 in Fontainbleau; 3rd son of Henri IV and Marie de' Medici; brother of Louis XIII. Dutch Golden Age architect-painter-printmaker Pieter Jansz Post (d. 1669) on May 1 in Haarlem; brother of Frans Post (1612-80); father of Maurits Post (1645-77), Johan Post, and Maria Post, wife of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) and mother of Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750); collaborator of Jacob van Campen (1596-1657); creator of the Dutch Baroque style of architecture. German HRE (1636-57), Hungarian king (1625-57), and Bohemian king (1627-57) Ferdinand III (d. 1657) on July 13 at Graz, Austria. English botanist-gardener John Tradescant the Younger (d. 1662) on Aug. 4 in Meopham, Kent; son of John Tradescant the Elder; educated at King's School, Canterbury. Italian physicist-mathematician (pupil of Galileo) (inventor of the barometer) Evangelista Torricelli (d. 1647) on Oct. 15 in Rome. English soldier-politician capt.-gen. George Monck (Monk), 1st Duke of Albemarle (d. 1670) on Dec. 6 in Merton, Devonshire; 2nd son of Sir Thomas Monck; father of Christopher Monck, 2nd duke of Albemarle (1653-88); becomes a soldier after assaulting the undersheriff for wronging his daddy and fleeing abroad. English "Paradise Lost" #1 poet ("the Blind Poet") John Milton (d. 1674) on Dec. 9 in Cheapside, London; educated at St. Paul's School, and Cambridge U.; ditches his plans to become an Anglican clergyman after rejecting William Laud's absolutist principles. English merchant and mercantilist economist Edward Misselden (d. 1654). English "The Worthies of England" churchman-historian Thomas Fuller (d. 1661) in Aldwincle St. Peter's, Northamptomshire; educated at Queen's College, Cambridge U. Deaths: French sculptor Giovanni da Bologna (b. 1524). Flemish sculptor Giambologna (b. 1529) on Aug. 13 in Florence, Italy; leaves the sculpture he leaves Architettura, a nude woman holding a compass and a square ruler. Italian sculptor Pompeo Leoni (b. 1531). Italian mathematician Fabrizio Mordente (b. 1532). French judge-poet Nicolas Rapin (b. 1535) on Feb. 16 in Poitiers; dies en route to Paris to visit friends. English statesman-poet Thomas Sackville, 1st earl of Dorset (b. 1536) on Apr. 19 in Westminster. Scottish poet-jurist Sir Thomas Craig (b. 1538) on Feb. 26. English secy. of state William Davison (b. 1541) on Dec. 21. French historian Lancelot Voisin de La Popeliniere (b. 1541). Italian jurist-philosopher Alberico Gentili (b. 1552) on June 19 in London. English celeb William Shakespeare's mother Mary (b. ?) in Sept.

1609 - The New Amsterdam Year? For New Yorkers, Year Zero: everything before this is ancient history, and everything after this is all that matters? For Virginians, a year they wish they could forget?

Philip III of Spain (1578-1621) Cosimo II de' Medici of Italy (1590-1621) Sir George Somers (1554-1610) Henry Hudson (1566-1611) Juan de la Cueva de Garoza (1550-1620) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Robin Williams (1951-) Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625) Blue Mosque, 1609-16

1609 On Feb. 17 Ferdinando I de' Medici (b. 1549) dies, and his eldest son Cosimo II de' Medici (1590-1621) becomes grand duke of Tuscany (until Feb. 28, 1621). On Mar. 19 the Dutch ship Mauritius sinks off Gabon. In Mar. James I makes speeches to Parliament promoting the divine right of kings theory - a wee bit self-serving? On Apr. 9 Spain signs the Twelve Years' Truce (ends 1620) with the Protestant United Provinces of the Netherlands in Amsterdam, which have been fighting to throw off their Roman Catholic yoke), and Philip III grudgingly acknowledges their independence, allowing him and his minister the duke of Lerma to concentrate on internal problems, while Hapsburg archdukes Albert and Isabella use the truce to consolidate their rule and push the Counter-Reformation - want some loose Jews? On Apr. 9 having to save face over the pesky Protestants, Spanish king (1598-1621) Philip III (1578-1621) takes care of some unfinished business and orders the expulsion of the Moriscos (Jews and Muslims of Moorish ancestry who faked Christian conversion since the days of Cardinal Francisco Jimenez in 1492-1501); by 1614 over 275K are expelled; the Roman Catholic Spanish go on to erase all traces of Muslim occupation of Spain, and burn 1M Arabic books - what was that ruckus in 711? On Apr. 15 Veera Kerala Varma of Cochin dies, and Ravi Varma I (d. 1624) becomes ruler of Cochin in India (until 1624). The original Bermuda syndrome? On May 23 James I grants a 2nd charter to Virginia, replacing the ineffective council with royal gov. Lord Delaware and an advisory council; they finally dig a well in Jamestown early in the year; in May Lord Delaware sends Sir Thomas Gates as interim gov., with nine ships and 500 passengers (promised free land after seven years of indentured servitude) and crew to reinvigorate and resupply Jamestown; the fleet is led by Capt. Sir George Somers (1554-1610) of the Sea Venture; Gates and Somers are shipwrecked on coral-ringed Bermuda (on the same lat. as Cape Hatteras), where they spend the winter enjoying the local fish, fowl and wild pigs, and build ships and reach Va. next May, leaving some English behind to settle Bermuda (Somers Isles) and build forts; meanwhile the rest of the fleet reaches Jamestown with 400 settlers, most of them "unruly gallants packed hether by their friends to escape il destinies", and they overwhelm the fragile balance of the 80 colonists they find there, just in time for the Starving Time; next year Somers returns to Bermuda and dies "of a surfeit in eating pig", which is later immortalized by Shakespeare in The Tempest. In the summer English explorer Henry Hudson (1566-1611) begins his Third Voyage to search for a Northwest Passage in the Dutch ship Half Moon (Halve Mein); on Aug. 28 after a budding mutiny of his crew causes him to reverse course and head toward the New World, he discovers Delaware Bay and the Delaware River; on Sept. 11 he discovers New York Bay, sailing into the Hudson River on Sept. 12 and founding New Amsterdam (renamed New York in 1664) on the Hudson River, while setting eyes upon the wooded island of Manhattan, from the Lenape word Mannahatta, meaning island of many hills; on Sept. 14 he enters the Tappan Zee (Sea) 10 mi. N of Manhattan, thinking that the widening of the Hudson River indicates a Northwest Passage, then giving up after reaching modern-day Troy; meanwhile he makes the first Euro encounter with the Mohicans (Mahicans); upon returning to Europe he is arrested for sailing under another nation's flag - does that make him an illegal alien? On July 10 the German Catholic League, modeled on the 1576 French Catholic League is founded in Munich by Maximilian I of Bavaria "for the defense of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire", i.e., to oppose the new German Protestant Union; members incl. Augsburg, Constance, Passau, Ratisbon, and Wurzburg; Salzburg and Ecichstadt pass; on Aug. 30 Mainz, Cologne, and Trier join, providing that the elector of Mainz becomes co-pres. On Aug. 19 seven Franciscan missionaries led by Fray Blas Palomino found the settlement of Baler (modern-day pop. 40K) on the S end of Baler Bay on the W shore of the Philippine Sea in modern-day Aurora 144 mi. NE of Manila; in 1658 the Augustinians Recollects turn it into a town; in 1703 the Franciscans take over the admin.; on Dec. 27, 1735 a tsunami destroys the town, which is rebuilt on Ermita Hill; in modern town it becomes a top vacation spot, known for the best surfing in Southeast Asia. On Sept. 6 John Colman, a sailor in Henry Hudson's mostly-Dutch Half Moon crew of 16 becomes the first recorded murder in future New York City while anchored between Coney Island and Sandy Hook after their 16-ft. shallop containing him and four others is ambushed by two dugouts containing a total of 30 Indians; it is unsolved until ?. In Oct. an accident causes Capt. John Smith to receive a bad gunpowder burn, and and returns to England for treatment, just in time to avoid the Starving Time (his departure making it more certain?), and never sees Virginia again; Pocahontas is told he is dead, causing her to go nonlinear and avoid Jamestown for the next four years; just before leaving Smith pisses-off Powhatan chief Wahunsonacock for sacking a village and stealing half of its provisions on the eve of a harsh winter, and after he summons him to his lodge and offers to trade in peace, Smith tells him off, saying, "For your riches we have no use", and that "In... wars consist our chiefest pleasure" - I am proud to be part of the wolf nation? In the winter Powhatan chief Wahunsonacock, fed up with the English (Smith) taking their food by force and subjecting them to famine, and knowing that Smith has taken a hike, cuts off trade with Jamestown then sieges their fort, trapping 500 inside over the winter, causing the Starving Time, where the pop. is reduced to 60 after all the livestock and horses (incl. dogs, cats, vermin) are eaten, and one man dines on (don't say eats?) his wife; forensic proof of cannibalism is not obtained until 2013; eight German and Polish craftsmen sent to manufacture glass turn wild and run off with the Indians? Julich-Cleves-Berge dies without heir, launching the War of the Julich Succession (ends 1614). Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher replace William Shakespeare as chief dramatists of the King's Men. Egyptian soldiers revolt against the Ottomans again, and are crushed. Catholic missionary Nicolas Trigault (1577-1628) comes to China. Tea from China is shipped for the first time to Europe by the Dutch East India Co. - time for a spot of tea? A regular supply caravan is organized on El Camino Real in New Mexico, consisting of 32 wagons and a dozen soldiers, who take 18 mo. for a round trip. A congregation of female Jesuits is founded, but is later dissolved by Pope Urban VIII. HRE Rudolf II permits freedom of religion in Bohemia. Bawdy satirist John Marston becomes an Anglican clergyman, and is later appointed rector of Christchurch from 1616-31 - what good's life if you aren't having any fun? Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), who returned to Antwerp last Oct. is appointed court painter to Archduke Albert and his wife Isabella. Tin-enameled ware begins to be made in Delft. After the siege of Antwerp causes trade to move to Amsterdam, the Amsterdam Exchange Bank (Amsterdamsche Wisselbank) is founded by the Rothschild family and the Dutch House of Orange, becoming the first private central bank, causing Amsterdam to become the financial center of the Western world until the Industrial Rev. The Charterhouse public school in England is founded. Avisa Relation oder Zeitung begins pub. in Wolfenbuttel, Germany. Architecture: The 38-mi. New River Canal, to bring fresh water from Hertfordshire to London, by Welsh engineer Hugh Myddleton (1560-1631) is begun (finished 1613), losing him a lot of money but eventually getting him a baronetcy, a first for an engineer (next John Rennie the Younger in 1831). The Blue Mosque of Ahmed I in Constantinople is begun (finished 1616). Science: Two ways to shoot the Moon? The salary of Pisa-born Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) is doubled by the senate of Venice for his invention of the Astronomical Telescope after he views the Moon at 6X magnification in Aug. (later increased to 20X), noting that it has mountains, and discovers Jupiter's moons (not all 63 of them); a believer in astrology, he prepares the horoscope of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and predicts that he will have a long life, only to see him die a few weeks later - a little bit of bacon, a little bit of beans? The first Rinderpest Panzootic (cattle plague) begins (ends 1713), causing a simultaneous anthrax pandemic that kills 60K in S Europe by 1713; others follow in the 1740s and 1770s, killing 200M cattle by 1769, 20% of the total pop.; meanwhile Venetian physician Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) begins scientific study of the causes of rinderpest, causing him to suggest immunization. Nonfiction: Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), De Sapienta Veterum. Charles Butler, De Feminine Monarchie, or a Treatise Concerning Bees; the hive is an "Amazonian or feminine kingdom", with sex only if really necessary? English College of Reims (Rheims) (Rhemes), The Douay Old Testament (1609-10); with the Douay New Testament (1582) it becomes the std. for English-speaking Roman Catholics; English Protestants criticize it then turn around and use it when preparing their King James vers.? Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Mare Librum (The Free Sea); formulates the principle of freedom of the seas, giving the Dutch the rationale for breaking up trade monopolies through its sea power in order to establish its own, pissing of the British, who claim dominion of the "British Sea", which is settled in 1702 by Cornelius van Bynkershoek, who sets a 3-mi. territorial limit based on the range of cannon fire. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), New Astronomy; the first book on modern astronomy, containing first two Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (3rd law pub. in 1619) (1: every planet follows an elliptical orbit around the Sun, which is one focus of the ellipse; 2: a radius from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times); De Motibus Stellae Martis; to prepare it he performed 7.2K complex complications on the observation tables of Mars. B. Langenes, Map of the Amazon. Thomas Robinson, New Citharen (Cittern) Lessons. Garcilaso de la Vega, Comentarios Reales Que Tratan del Origen de los Incas (History of the Conquest of Peru) (1609-17). Lope de Vega (1562-1635), The New Art of Writing Plays. Music: Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), Fantasies of Three Parts (3 vols.); first example of engraved music in England. Thomas Ravenscroft (1582-1635), Pammelia: Musicks Miscellanie (rounds and catches); Deuteromelia; or The Second Part of Musicks Melodie; contains Three Blind Mice. Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Venus Krantzlein. Art: El Greco (1541-1614), Brother Paravicino. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Self-Portrait with Wife Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower; Helene Fourment. Plays: Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), Philaster; The Knight of the Burning Pestle - didn't I see that Danny Kaye movie? Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Masque of Queens; Epicoene, or The Silent Woman (comedy). Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), A Game at Chess (comedy). William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Winter's Tale (1609-10) (comedy) (Leontes has 648 lines, 17th most); King Leontes of Sicilia and his wife Queen Hermione and son Prince Mamillius and daughter Perdita ("marooned"), who is marooned on "the sea-coast of Bohemia"; King Polixenes of Bohemia and his son Prince Florizel; thief Autolycus, Sicilian lord Antigonus and his wife Paulina; Leontes' advisor Camillo, who refuses to poison Polixenes and helps him escape after Leontes gets jealous of Polixenes, thinking he's hooking up with his wife Hermione, with Leontes uttering the soundbyte: "And many a man there is, even at this present,/ Now while I speak this, holds his wife by th'arm,/ That little thinks she has been sluiced in's absence/ And his pond fished by his next neighbor, by/ Sir Smile, his neigbor" (1.2.192-6); after Polixenes escapes, Leontes imprisons Hermione and has her newborn child Perdita abandoned, after which Mamillius dies pining for his mother Hermione, who dies of a broken heart, after which Leontes wakes up, and tries to find Perdita in vain, after which she grows up and hooks up 16 years later with Florizel, is revealed as Leontes' daughter, and Perdita is found to be playing a statue to keep away from him, but now hooks back up with him, for a happy ending, except for Mammilius; "You pay a great deal too dear for what's given freely" (1.1); We were, fair queen,/ Two lads that thought there was no more behind/ But such a day to-morrow as to-day,/ And to be boy eternal/... We were as twinned lambs that did frisk i' the sun,/ And bleat the one at the other: what we changed/ Was innocence for innocence; we knew not/ The doctrine of ill-doing, nor dream/d/ That any did/... 1.2.78-87) (Polixenes to Hermione about him and Leontes in their youth); "But to be paddling palms and pinching fingers,/ As now they are, and making practised smiles,/ As in a looking-glass" (Leontes) (1.2.115-7); "How like, methought, I then was to this kernel, This squash, this Gentleman" (1.2); "A sad tale's best for winter: I have one/ Of sprites and goblins" (Mamilius) (2.1.25-26); "It is a heretic that makes the fire,/ Not she who burns in 't" (2.3); "I am a feather for each wind that blows" (2.3); "What's gone and what's past help/ Should be past grief" (3.2.223-4) (Paulina to Hermione); "Exit, pursued by a bear" (meaning Antigonus) (3.3.58); "For the red blood reigns in the winter's pale" (Autolycus) (4.3.4); "A snapper-up of unconsidered trifles" (Autolycus) (4.3.1); "Though I am not naturally honest, I am so sometimes by chance" (Autolycus) (4.4.712-3); "I love a ballad in print o'life, for then we are sure they are true" (4.4); "To unpathed waters, undreamed shores" (4.4); "'Tis time; descend; be stone no more; approach" (Paulina to the statue of Hermione) (5.3.99); the quarto ed. of William Shakespeare's Sonnets is pub.; ""When forty winters shall seige thy brow,/ And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field" (Sonnet 2, line 1); "Everything that grows/ Holds in perfection but a little moment" (Sonnet 15, line 1); "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?/ Thou art more lovely and more temperate./ Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,/ And summer's lease hath all too short a date." (Sonnet 18, lines 1-4); "Clean starved for a look" (Sonnet 75, line 10); "Lillies that fester smell far worse than weeds" (Sonnet 94, line 14); "To me, fair friend, you never can be old,/ For as you were when first your eye I ey'd,/ Such seems your beauty still" (Sonnet 104, line 1); "For I have sworn thee fair, and thought thee bright,/ Who art as black as hell, as dark as night" (Sonnet 147, line 13). Poetry: Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628), The Tragedie of Mustapha. Cyril Tourneur (1575-1626), A Funeral Poem Upon the Death of the Most Worthie and True Soldier, Sir Francis Vere, Knight. Novels: Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Gull's Hornbooke; satire of London life. Births: English "Ballad Upon a Wedding" Cavalier poet-soldier-gallant-parliamentarian Sir John Suckling (d. 1642) on Feb. 10; inventor of Cribbage - if you have baggage, I want to know about it, have you met me? English statesman-historian (member of the Great Tew Circle) Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (1609-74) on Feb. 18; 3rd son of Henry Hyde (-1634) and Mary Langford; educated at Magdalen Hall (Hertford College), Oxford U.; father of Anne Hyde (1637-71); maternal grandfather of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne; educated at Magdalen Hall (Hertford College), Oxford U.; father of Henry Hyde, 2nd earl of Clarendon (1638-1707) and Laurence Hyde, earl of Rochester (1641-1711). Italian Austrian field marshal Raimondo, Count of Montecucculi (Montecuccoli) (d. 1680) on Feb. 21 in Modena; Neapolitan duke of Melfi; of Burgundian descent. Danish-Norwegian king (1648-70) Frederick III (d. 1670) on Mar. 18 in Haderslev, Slesvig; son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Polish-Lithuanian king (1648-68) (Jesuit) Jan (John) II Casimir (d. 1672) on Mar. 22 in Cracow; son of Sigismund III Vasa (1566-1632) and Constance of Austria (Hapsburg) (1588-1631); half-brother of Wladyslaw IV Vasa. French Canal du Midi engineer Pierre Paul Riquet (d. 1680) on June 29 in Baziers, Herault. German poet-physician Paul Fleming (d. 1640) on Oct. 5 in Hartenstein, Vogtland, Saxony; educated at the U. of Leipzig. Danish marshal (of France) Josias Rantzau (d. 1650) on Oct. 18 near Kiel; great-grandson of Johann Rantzau (1492-1565). English/Scottish queen consort (1625-49) Henrietta Maria (d. 1669) on Nov. 25 in Palais du Lovre, Paris, France; youngest daughter of Henri IV (1553-1610) and Marie de' Medici (1575-1642); sister of Louis XIII (1601-43); wife of Charles I of England/Scotland (1600-49); mother of Charles II (1630-85) and James II (1633-1701). English academic-clergyman Gerard Langbaine the Elder (d. 1658) in Barton, Westmoreland; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. Dutch seascape painter Joachum Aelbrechtsz de Vries (d. 1670). English miniature painter Samuel Cooper (d. 1672). English jurist-statesman (lord chief justice) Sir Matthew Hale (d. 1676) on Nov. 1 in Alderney, Gloucestershire; knighted in 1660. English anarchist-communist Diggers founder Gerrard Winstanley (d. 1676) in Wigan, Lancashire. Engish Puritan divine Benjamin Whichcote (d. 1683) in Stoke upon Tern, Shropshire; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Deaths: Flemish #1 horticulturist Charles de l'Ecluse (b. 1526) on Apr. 4 in Leiden. English alchemist-astrologer John Dee (b. 1527) in Mar. in Mortlake, Surrey; leaves his theory of Enochian Angels, who dictate books to him in their special angelic Enochian language after attempting to contact spirits through scryers or crystal-gazers and numerological Qabalistic angel magic. Scottish soldier James Hamilton, 3rd earl of Arran (b. 1532) in Mar. in Craignethan Castle; insane since 1562. Spanish composer Fernando Las Infantas (b. 1534). French "Julian Day" scholar Joseph Scaliger (b. 1540) on Jan. 21 in Leiden. Italian painter Federico Zuccari (b. 1542) on July 20 in Ancona. Italian grand duke of Tuscany (1587-1609) Ferdinando I de' Medici (b. 1549) on Feb. 17. Dutch anti-predestination theologian Jacobus Arminius (b. 1560) on Oct. 19 in Leiden. Italian painter Annibale Carracci (b. 1560) on July 15.

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TLW's 1610s (1610-1619) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1610s Historyscope 1610-1619 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619

1610-1619 C.E.

The Check Into Cash Price It Right King James I Bible Cardinal Richelieu Decade? King James I of Great Britain solidifies his Bible-thumping Protestant anti-Puritan reign, while his white subjects gleefully invade red North America in competition with the white French, becoming the first white illegal aliens in North America, with no effective border patrol? Meanwhile the Thirty Years of Cruel Roman Catholic-Protestant War breaks out just as Johannes Kepler formulates his Third Law, decimating Europe with religious murder and plunder, and causing Germany to lose a third of its Master Race? The Galileo Galilei Decade in Science, the Peter Paul Rubens Decade in Art, the Rosicrucian Decade in Religion, and the Shakespeare Who Decade in Literature, as Ben Johnson, Francis Beaumont, and John Fletcher don't just get it clean, they get it OxyClean?

Country Leader From To
England James I (James VI of Scotland) (1566-1625) Mar. 24, 1603 Mar. 27, 1625 James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566-1625)
France Henri IV of Bourbon (1553-1610) Aug. 2, 1589 May 14, 1610 Henri IV of France (1533-1610)
Germany HRE Rudolf II (1552-1612) Oct. 12, 1576 Jan. 20, 1612 HRE Rudolf II (1552-1612)
Spain Philip III the Pious (1578-1621) Sept. 13, 1598 Mar. 31, 1621 Philip III the Pious of Spain (1578-1621)
Russia Tsar Vasily IV (1552-1612) May 19, 1606 July 19, 1610 Russian Tsar Vasily IV (1552-1612)
Papacy Pope Paul V (1550-1621) May 16, 1605 Jan. 28, 1621 Pope Paul V (1550-1621)
Ottoman Empire Sultan Ahmed I (1590-1617) Dec. 22, 1603 Nov. 22, 1617 Sultan Ahmed I (1590-1617)

1610 - The Lord Delaware Year?

Louis XIII of France (1601-43) Marie de' Medici (1575-1642) Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Francois Ravaillac (1578-1610) Concino Concini, Marquis d'Ancre (1575-1617) Thomas West, 3rd Baron de la Warr (1577-1618) Wladyslaw IV Vasa of Poland (1595-1648) Stanislaw Zolkiewski of Poland (1547-1620) St. John Roberts (1575-1610) Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) Ben Jonson (1572-1637) Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) John Fletcher (1579-1625) Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) Nicholas Wadham (1532-1609) Dorothy Wadham (1535-1618) Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Pieresc (1580-1637) 'Angel Freeing Souls from Purgatory' by Lodovico Carracci, 1610 'The Raising of the Cross' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1610-1 'The Opening of the Fifth Seal' by El Greco (1541-1614), 1610-4 'Les Demoiselles d'Avignon' by Pablo Picasso, 1907 'Cobbe Portrait', 1610

1610 Total pop. of the Am. colonies of Britain is only 350 this year. On Jan. 3-6 the Nossa Senhora da Graca Incident at the mouth of Nagasaki Bay in Japan sees samurai Arima clan junks attack the richly-laden Portuguese carrack Nossa Senhora da Graca (Madre de Deus) (known as the "black ship"), meeting fanatical resistance ending when Capt. Andre Pessoa sets the gunpowder store on fire, demolishing the ship and destroying the crew but denying them the cargo. On Feb. 10 the new German Catholic League meets in Wurzburg to decide on its org., funding, and arming, with HRE Ferdinand II and Pope Paul V approving it; too bad, Maximilian I considers it a strictly defensive union, and refuses to become a Hapsburg puppet and tool, causing him to eventually resign in 1616. On Mar. 12 after receiving a letter from American Roman Catholic priest Father Sandoval as to the legality of slavery of African blacks, Brother Luis Brandaon writes a letter in reply, with the soundbyte: "We have been here ourselves for forty years and there have been among us very learned Fathers... Never did they consider the trade as illicit. Therefore we and the Fathers of Brazil buy these slaves for our service without any scruple." By spring the Starving Time (begun 1609) ends, with only 60 Jamestown colonists surviving, reduced to cannibalism, "their bodies shrunk down almost to the skeleton, resembling corpses held upright by unseen marionette strings", and after English supply ships arrive, the First Thanksgiving is celebrated - can you say Cenozoic? On Apr. 10 the Treaty of Bruzolo (Brussol) allies Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy with Henri IV of France to remove the Spanish from Italy; too bad, the assassination of Henri IV causes it to be dropped. On May 14 in the midst of war preparations against Holland, French king (since 1589) Henri (Henry) IV (b. 1553) is assassinated (stabbed) in his carriage in crowded traffic in the Rue de la Ferronnerie in Paris by raving maniac Jesuit-reject teacher Francois Ravaillac (b. 1578) (who claims that an invasion of Holland is a war against the pope) (Jesuit intrigue is suspected, and Juan de Mariana's 1599 "De Rege et Regis Institutione", which advocates the assassination of heretic kings is blamed and publicly burned), and his 9-y.-o. son Louis XIII (1601-43) succeeds him as Bourbon king #2 of France (until May 14, 1643) under the regency (until 1614) of his Huguenot-hating mother Marie (Maria) de' Medici (1575-1642); Italian adventurer Concino Concini, Count della Penna, Marquis and Marechal d'Ancre (1575-1617) replaces the duke of Sully as chief minister, who is allowed to remain master of the artillery with care of the woods and given a 300K livre reward, which causes him to soon retire to his estate (to smell the flowers?); Louis' three Bourbon daughters Elizabeth, Christina, and Henrietta Maria end up married into the royal families of Spain, Savoy, and England; on May 27 raving Ravaillac, who had been tortured in vain to make him give up any accomplices is taken to the Place de Greve, scalded with burning sulfur, molten lead, and boiling oil and resin, his flesh torn by pincers, then finally drawn and quartered - what is the tablecloth for? In May interim Gov. Thomas Gates arrives in Jamestown from Bermuda, finds the starved remnant begging to give up and get out of Dodge, and in June they start down the James River, and are surprised to meet new gov. and capt.-gen. of Va. (appointed in Feb.) Thomas West, 3rd Baron de la Warr (1577-1618) (Lord Delaware) as he arrives with three ships and 150 men; after he persuades them to turn around and return, they go on to found the settlement of Henrico (Richmond) upstream of Jamestown at the falls, plus two more settlements downstream at the mouth of the James River; life is tough but they hang on with military discipline and strict martial law, with penalties for running away incl. shooting, burning, hanging, and breaking on the wheel. Henry Hudson (b. 1566) makes his Fourth Voyage in search of a Northwest Passage, sailing through the Hudson Strait and discovering Hudson (Hudson's) Bay and the Hudson River; too bad, the crew mutinies and returns to England after setting Henry, his son and several others adrift in Hudson Bay on June 22, and they are never seen again. On July 4 the Battle of Klushino (Kluszyn) near Klushino village (near Smolensk) in Poland is a V for 6.5K outnumbered Polish Hussars and their brilliant cavalry under Stanislaw Zolkiewski (b. 1547), over 30K Russians and 5K mercentaries under Dmitry Shuisky. False Dmitri II is killed; the Poles invade Russia, capture Moscow, and depose Tsar (since 1606) Vasily IV Shuisky, and on July 19 Zygmunt III Vasa's son Wladyslaw IV Vasa (1595-1648) is declared Russian tsar by the Seven Boyars (until Feb. 21, 1613), but his daddy Sigismund III Vasa nixes it after a popular uprising, although he keeps the title of grand duke of Muscovy until 1634; the town of Smolensk holds out. In Oct. French super scholar Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614) comes to England, where he is warmly received by James I, and ends up spending the rest of his life conversing with him or working at royal orders on a refutation of the "Annals of Baronius" (1558-1607), working himself to death. On Dec. 2 after six arrests and four exiles, persistent Welsh Catholic Benedictine monk-priest (St.) John Roberts (b. 1575) is arrested by the stankin' English govt. while celebrating Mass, taken to Newgate prison in his vestments, then hanged, drawn and quartered in Tyburn on Dec. 10 for the crime of priestly ministering, becoming a Roman Catholic martyr. In Prussia Sept. 2 follows Aug. 22 as the Gregorian calendar is adopted. James I prorogues Parliament, but it reassembles; James I's eldest son Prince Henry is created Prince of Wales. Arbella Stewart (Arbella Stuart) (1575-1615), pretender to the English throne (cousin of James I) is imprisoned in the Tower for marrying William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1587-1660), like Elizabeth I warned her not to do in 1602 - another anti-female conspiracy? English and Dutch settlers skirmish in India. Frederick IV dies, and is succeeded by his son Frederick (Friedrich) V (1596-1632) (future Winter King) as elector palatine of the Rhine. John Guy becomes the first gov. of Cuper's Cove in Newfoundland, the 2nd oldest English colony in the New World after Jamestown (first proprietary governor). Dr. Bonham's Case, decided by English chief justice Sir Edward Coke establishes the principle of judicial review of legislative acts, with the soundbyte "In many cases the common law will control acts of Parliament and sometimes adjudge them to be utterly void; for when an Act of Parliament is against common right or reason, or repugnant, or impossible to be performed, the common law will control it and adjudge such Act to be void." Russian Cossacks begin conquering Siberia while exploring the coasts and rivers (until 1648), reaching the mouth of the Yenisey River this year, which in 1619 is set as Russia's E border; C Siberia is a tougher nut and takes 30+ years. The town of Derry (Gael. "Daire"/"Doire" = oak grove) on the W bank of the Foyle River in County Donegal at the S end of Inishowen Peninsula (modern-day pop. 83K/90K) is separated from County Donegal and combined with County Coleraine and parts of County Antrim and County Tyrone to form County Londonderry, with the city resettled by planters sent by London livery cos., who rebuild the town with high walls in 1613-19 and rename it Londonderry, becoming the first planned city in Ireland, its grid pattern later copied by the colonies of British North Am.; after it is sieged 3x in the 17th cent. and its walls never breached, it becomes known "the Maiden City"; in the late 20th cent. the unionists want to keep the name Londonderry, but the nationalists want to call it Derry, causing it to be called "the Stroke City" (Derry/Londonderry) by local broadcaster Gerry Anderson. A Portuguese settlement is founded at Cape Coast (Cabo Corso) 100 mi. W of Accra on the Gulf of Guinea, home of the Fante (Fanti) people. Santa Fe (founded 1605) is declared the capital of New Mexico by the Spanish. The Dutch East India Co. introduces the term "share"; a ship brings lacquer furniture to Holland, creating a demand for it; making use of the route info. from the 1596 book by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, a Dutch ship brings the first bale of green tea leaves to Amsterdam from Macao, after which the Dutch scramble to get into the tea trade. English playwright Ben Jonson (1572-1637) gives up Roman Catholicism, which he had converted to (feigned?) in 1598 during his imprisonment for killing actor Gabriel Spencer. St. Francis de Sales and Mme. de Chantal found the Order of the Nuns of the Visitation of Mary. Wadham College at Oxford U. is founded by Nicholas Wadham (1532-1609) and his widow Dorothy Wadham (nee Petre) (1535-1618) of Somerset; she becomes the first female non-royal non-aristocrat to found a college at Oxbridge; the college bldg., designed by William Arnold becomes the last English public bldg. built according to the medieval tradition of the master mason; alumni incl. Sir Christopher Wren. Madeleine de Sainte-Beuve (1655-1733) endows an Ursuline house in Paris. The town of Rajkot is founded in Saurashtra, India. The first printing press is established in Lebanon in Dayr Qazhaya under Fakhr al-Din II; its first pub. is the Book of Psalms in Syriac. The English Book of Common Prayer is trans. into Manx, becoming the first written Manx lit. Lord Percy pays 10 shillings to visit Bethlehem Royal Hospital for the insane in London, becoming the first known public visit. Architecture: The Grand Galerie in the Louvre (begun 1595) is finished, becoming the longest indoor corridor in the world; Henri IV likes to fill it with trees, grass, and rocks, and stage fox hunts in it? Wollaton Hall (begun 1580) in England is finished. The Ottoman imperial-style Mosque of Malika (Queen) Safiya in Cairo near the Citadel is begun (finished 1611). Science: On Jan. 7 Galileo sights four of Jupiter's moons (Ganymede, Io, Europa, Callisto), calling them the Medician Stars after the Medicis; by the end of the year he observes the Phases of Venus, becoming the first direct evidence for the Copernican Theory, which he waits until 1613 to pub. After beating Galileo by 4 mo. and making the first drawing of the Moon through a telescope on July 26, 1609, English astronomer Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) discovers sunspots - you're the cream in my coffee? French astronomer Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Pieresc (1580-1637) discovers the Orion Nebula. Music: Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), Musae Sioniae (1,244 church hymns). Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1560-1627), Symphonies. Art: Anon., Cobbe Portrait of William Shakespeare; owned by Anglican archbishop of Dublin Charles Cobbe (1686-1765); once attributed to artist Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen (1593-1661); several copies are made with different hairlines, all the way from bald to prime of life; really Sir Thomas Overbury?; ends up in the Folger Shakespeare Library. Lodovico Carracci (1555-1619), Angel Freeing Souls from Purgatory. El Greco (1541-1614), The Opening of the Fifth Seal (1610-14); the vision of St. John; phantasmagorical pigmentation and tortuously elongated figures mix Byzantine and Western and channel Cubism and Expressionism?; used by Picasso as a basis for his 1907 "Les Demoisselles d'Avignon"? Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Raising (Elevation) of the Cross (1610-11). Carlo Saraceni 1579-1620), The Holy Spirit Descending on Pope Gregory I; later used to bolster and/or illustrate papal infallibility. Nonfiction: Anon., Exemplar of Korean Medicine (Tongui Pogam); a compendium of 2 cents. of writings on herbal medicines. Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609), The Five Articles of the Remonstrants; a statement of Arminianist free will beliefs against Calvinist predestination is presented to the states of Holland Friesland; major Remonstrants incl. Simon Episcopius and Jan Uytenbogaert; too bad, in 1618-9 the Synod of Dordrecht gets them expelled, desposed, and/or banished, and they set up an exile community in Antwerp in 1619, followed in 1621 in Schleswig, where they build the town of Friedrichstadt. Johann Arndt (1555-1621), True Christianity; Lutheran pietism; "But since the world, which thou art to strive against, is not without thee, but within thee, it follows, that it is also to be conquered not without, but within thee"; "Consider then, O man! whether there can be anything more wretched and poor, more naked and miserable, than man when he dies, if he be not clothed with Christ's righteousness, and enriched in his God"; "In short, all things that please the natural man in this world, are, to a true Christian, only so many crosses and temptations, allurements of sin and snares of death, that continually exercise his virtue". Jean Beguin (1550-1620), Tyrocinium Chymicum (Beginner's Chemistry) (Paris)/ the first chemistry textbook. St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430), City of God; first pub. in English. Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), On the Power of the Supreme Pontiff in Temporal Affairs. John Donne (1572-1631), Pseudo-Martyr; argues that English Roman Catholics should takes an oath of allegiance to James I. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Siderial (Starry) Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius); the first pub. look at the sky through a telescope, bolstering the Copernican theory with its description of the mountains on the Moon and the four satellites of Jupiter ("sideria Medicea"), a mini-model of Copernicus' Solar System; he also discovers sunspots, and uses them to estimate the rate of the Sun's rotation, which really freaks out the Aristotelians, who believe in the immutability of the "perfect" heavenly bodies; next year Johannes Kepler coins the word "satellite", from the Latin word for assistant. John Speed, Theatrum Imperii Magnae Britanniae (maps). Novels: Gines Perez de Hita (1545-1619), The Civil Wars of Granada. Plays: Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Maid's Tragedy. John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Faithful Shepherdess (pastoral drama). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Alchemist (comedy); a satire on the follies, vanities, and vices of mankind; his best comedy?; after Lovewit flees his home in London to avoid the plague, his butler turns it into a con game HQ, becoming Captain Farce and hiring conman Subtle and ho Doll Common; marks incl. Dapper, Drugger, Sir Epicure Mammon, Mammon, and Ananias the Anabaptist. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Tragedy of Cymbeline, King of Britain (1610-1) (comedy); Cymbeline, Celtic king of Britain and his queen, Posthumous and Imogen, Pisanio, Cloten, Belarius, Guiderius (Polydore), Arviragus (Cadwal), Iachimo; "Hath his bellyful of fighting" (2.1.24); "Hark! hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings" (2.3.22); "The game is up" (3.3.107); "Slander,/ Whose edge is sharper than the sword" (3.4.35); "I have not slept one wink" (3.4.103). Poetry: Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), Tethys' Festival or the Queenes Wake; written on the occasion of Prince Henry becoming a knight of the Bath. Giles Fletcher the Younger (1586-1612), Victory and Triumph (allegory). Births: English mathematician John Pell (d. 1685) on Mar. 1 in Southwick, Sussex; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Italian pope (1689-91) Alexander VIII (Pietro Vito Ottoboni) (d. 1691) on Apr. 22 in Venice; educated at the U. of Padua; last to use the name Alexander until ?. French burlesque poet-dramatist-novelist Paul Scarron (d. 1660) (AKA Monsieur Scarron) on July 1 in Paris; husband (1652-) of Madame de Maintenon; becomes severely crippled in 1638. English shipbuilder Peter Pett (d. 1672) on Aug. 6 in Deptford; son of Phineas Pett (1570-1647). French Jesuit missionary (St.) Gabriel Lalemant (d. 1649) on Oct. 3 in Paris; feast day: Sept. 26/Oct. 19. Irish Protestant soldier-statesman lt.-gen. James FitzThomas Butler, 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Ormonde (d. 1688) on Oct. 19 in Clerkwell, London; of the Old English Butler family that has dominated SE Ireland since the 12th cent.; raised a Roman Catholic until his daddy dies in 1619, then is made a ward of Archbishop George Abbott of Canterbury, who turns him into a Protestant; husband (1629-) of Lady Elizabeth Preston; father of Thomas Butler, 6th earl of Ossory (1634-80); created duke of Ormonde in 1683. Flemish painter David Teniers the Younger (d. 1690) on Dec. 15 in Antwerp; son of David Teniers the Elder (1582-1649); father of David Teniers III (1638-85). French historian Charles du Fresne, Sieur du Cange (Ducange) (d. 1688) on Dec. 18 in Amiens. British MP (1640-2) and secy. of state (1642-3) Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (d. 1643); son of Sir Henry Cary, 1st viscount Falkland (1575-1633); educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U., and Trinity College, Dublin; founder of the Great Tew Circle. Dutch Frisian adm. Joris Pieters van den Broeck (d. 1652). French natural philosopher Jacques Alexandre Le Tenneur (d. 1660) in Paris. English witchhunter John Stearne (d. 1670) in Lawshall (near Bury St. Edmonds); collaborator of French mathematician-scientist Gilles Personne de Roberval (d. 1675). Dutch painter-engraver Adriaen van Ostade (d. 1685) in Haarlem; elder brother of Isaac van Ostade (1621-49); father is from Ostade near Eindhoven; pupil of Frans Hals and Rembrandt. French Calvinist naval officer Abraham Duquesne, Marquis du Bouchet (d. 1688) in Dieppe. Deaths: English master of the revels Edmund Tylney (b. 1536). English archibishop of Canterbury (1604-10) Richard Bancroft (b. 1544) on Nov. 2 in Lambeth, London. English Jesuit leader Robert Persons (b. 1545) on Apr. 15 in Rome. Italian Catholic missionary (to China) Matteo Ricci (b. 1552). French king (1589-1610) Henri IV (b. 1553) on May 14 in Paris (murdered). French fortifications engineer Jean Errard (b. 1554). Italian painter Michelangelo Caravaggio (b. 1571) on July 18 in Porto Ercole, Tuscany. Welsh Benedictine monk St. John Roberts (b. 1575) on Dec. 10 in Tyburn, England (martyred). German landscape painter Adam Elsheimer (b. 1578) on Dec. 11 in Rome, Italy.

1611 - The Tempest Year? The King James Bible Year, the English-speaking Bible-Thumpers' Year of Years?

James I of England (1566-1625) Gustav II Adolphus Wasa of Sweden (1594-1632) Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden (1583-1654) Elector Johann Georg I of Saxony (1585-1656) HRE Rudolf II (1552-1612) Canterbury Archbishop George Abbott (1562-1633) Nur Jahan of India (1577-1645) Sir Thomas Dale (-1620) Countess Elizabeth Báthory (1560-1614) Alexander Whitaker (1585-1616) Thomas Sutton (1532-1611) Juan Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza (1581-1639) Emilia Lanyer (1569-1645) Miles Smith (1554-1624) Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626) Thomas Bilson (1547-1616) Peter Sturges Ruckman (1921-2016) Moll Cutpurse (1584-1659) 'Judith Decapitating Holofernes' by Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1653), 1611-12 'The Four Philosophers' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1611-2 'The Massacre of the Innocents' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1611-2 'Descent from the Cross' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1611-4 'The Massacre of the Innocents' by Guido Reni (1575-1642), 1611 Masjid-i-Shah Mosque, 1611

1611 On Mar. 4 London bishop (since 1609) George Abbott (1562-1633) becomes archbishop of Canterbury (until Aug. 5, 1633), and soon gets into a struggle with William Laud, who is elected pres. of St. John's College, Oxford. On Apr. 28 Spanish Dominicans found the U. of Santo Tomas in the Philippines, becoming the oldest univ. in Asia to survive to modern times. On May 9 Japanese emperor (since 1586) Go-Yozei (b. 1572) abdicates in favor of his son Go-Mizunoo (1596-1680), who becomes Japanese emperor #108 (until 1629). In May Sir Thomas Dale (-1619) becomes acting gov. of the struggling Va. colony, and establishes the strict Lawes Divine, Moral and Martiall (Dale's Code); in Aug. Thomas Gates succeeds him as gov. On June 23 Christian II (b. 1583) dies, and his younger brother Johann Georg (John George) I (1585-1656) succeeds as elector of Protestant Saxony (until Oct. 8, 1656), going on to at first flirt with the Hapsburgs and the Catholic League in order to counter the growing strength of Brandenburg and the Palatinate, and end up seeing Saxony's role as a great power in Europe become kaput by the end of his long reign. On Oct. 30 Charles IX (b. 1550) dies, and his son Gustavus II Adolphus II (Gusav II Adolf) Wasa (1594-1632) is elected king of Sweden (until Nov. 6, 1632), inheriting the Swedish-Russian War; he makes Axel Oxenstierna (1583-1654) his chancellor, and issues a royal charter giving the council and estates a voice in all questions of legislation, plus a veto power in all matters of war and peace, and modernizes the govt. and courts while sponsoring education, commerce and industry, and foreign immigration. On Nov. 11 after the family of reclusive oddball HRE (since 1576) Rudolf II (1552-1612) fears that his insanity and incapacity to rule are making the empire vulnerable to Protestant takeover, and names his brother and heir Archduke Matthias as head of the House of Hapsburg, regent, and king of Bohemia, and Matthias takes an army to Prague to force him, Rudolf resigns the Bohemian crown on Nov. 11. Real life vamp gets off like O.J.? On Dec. 29 Hungarian countess ("the Blood Lady of Cachtice") Elizabeth (Erzsebet) (Erzsébet) Bathory (Báthory) de Ecsed (1560-1615), wife of Gen. Ferencz Nadasdy, who lives in Cachtice (Csejthe) Castle in the Carpathian Mts. of Slovakia is arrested on orders of Hungarian king Matthias II; her castle is found to contain scores of bodies of young girls hanging from chains in the dungeons; she is convicted of murdering 50, and her accomplices executed, but since she is of noble birth they wall her in a tiny room in her castle and feed her tiny food scraps until she dies on Aug. 21, 1614; she thought that bathorying in fresh blood would preserve her Liz-like youth and beauty, and killed hundreds (650?) in 1585-1609 after torturing them? - so that's what gives me bad vibes about the Gabor sisters? James I dissolves Parliament, and institutes the baronetage as a means of raising money to bail himself out financially - plop plop fizz fizz, oh what a relief it is? Denmark-Norway begins the Calmar (Kalmar) War with Sweden (ends 1613), breaking 40 years of peace for Sweden, capturing the Swedish frontier fortresses of Kalmar and Alvsborg. Arbella Stewart escapes from the Tower of London, and is recaptured. Lord de la Warr returns from Va. to England, where he writes an account of the colony in order to promote it. Dutch merchants are permitted to trade in Japan. The English found a settlement at Bandar (Machilipatnam) (Masulipatnam) in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh on the Bay of Bengal on one of the mouths of the Krishna River (215 mi. NNE of Madras), becoming their first settlement on the Coromandel Coast; next year the Dutch establish themselves near Pulicat (Pazhaverkadu) in Tamil Nadu N of Madras. Jahangir marries his 20th wife (her 2nd husband) Nur Jahan (1577-1645), and she pussy-whips him, becoming the real ruler of the Mogul (Mughal) Empire, despite his having 5K women and 1K young boys in his harem, and owning 12K elephants? - and her pretty little finger? Cambridge, England-born theologiian Alexander Whitaker (1585-1616), son of an ardent Calvinist founds the first Reformed Church in Am. in Va., tracing its origin to the 16th cent. Swiss Reformation, and sticking to the Trinity as well as belief in the justification of grace through faith; in 1613 he baptizes Pocahontas in Henricus under the name Rebecca, going on to become known as "the Apostle of Virginia". Glasgow, Scotland gains a charter with the right of electing its magistrates. Capt. Edward Harlow of England, under the patronage of the earl of Southampton visits Cape Cod, kills many Indians, and abducts several, incl. one tall buck named Epenow (Epanow) (a friend of Squanto, who escapes), whom he parades around in London as a "wonder"; too bad, Epenow discovers what makes white men tick, and tells them that he knows of a gold mine on Martha's Vineyard, and when they take the bait and take him there in 1614, he jumps ship and escapes, and becomes a sachem (chief). English moneylender Thomas Sutton (1532-1611) dies worth over £50K, one of the richest men in England, and leaves money to build the Hospital of King James in Charterhouse Square, Smithfield, London, which becomes the Charterhouse School for boys. Architecture: The Masjid-i-Shah, the royal mosque of Isfahan, Persia is built by Shah Abbas I. Piccadilly Rd. in Westminster, London starts out as land acquired by Robert Baker, a seller of piccadills (broad cut-work lace collars), becoming the home to Clarendon House, Burlington House (1664), Berkeley House, and a favorite of the Rothschild family; in 1819 Piccadilly Circus is built to connect it with Regent St. Science: Dalmatian ecclesiastic Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1624) pub. the first scientific explanation of the rainbow. Galileo discovers sunspots, which is confirmed simultaneously by several observers, incl. Johann Faber and Jesuit Father Christopher Scheiner; Galileo goes to Rome to discuss his discoveries with the Jesuits - be sure to wear a fireproof suit? Inventions: Simon Sturtevant of England first uses coke to make iron. Nonfiction: Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629), Anatomicae Institutiones Corporis Humani; becomes std. anatomy textbook. John Brinsley, Lutus Literarius, or The Grammar School; the birch rod as a teaching tool? Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615), Exercitationes Musicae Duae; the first history of music? Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1624), Tractatus de Radiis Visus et Lucis in Vitris, Perspectivis et Iride (Venice); scientific explanation of the rainbow (in each raindrop light undergoes two refractions and an intermediate reflection); Isaac Newton claims his was the first, but others claim that Descartes beat him to it. Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), De Tragica Constitutione (How to Make a Tragedy); or, Aristotle's Poetics for Dummies? King James I (1566-1625) (ed.), King James (Authorized) Version of the Holy Bible (66 books); commissioned in 1604 (lucky that the 1605 Guy Fawkes Plot to replace the govt. with Roman Catholics didn't succeed), with the work divided between 47 translators (47 Anglicans, 0 Puritans, 0 Roman Catholics, 0 Separatists) in six committees with 15 rules to follow, using ancient mss. for reliability, and deliberately preserving ambiguities, e.g. Romans 5:12: "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned" (can mean that all men die because of sin, and/or that all men sin because they are under God's judgment of death); most of the language is William Tyndale's, but without the pesky marginal notes challenging the divine right of kings; James I's planned royal authorization of the final work never happens?; the intent is to make "of many good translations one principal good one", according to translator Miles Smith (1554-1624) in Preface to the Translation; it takes its place beside the Bishops' Bible (official vers. for use in Anglican churches, original ed. 1568, revised ed. 1602) (basic source for the King James Bible?), the Geneva Bible (1575) (known for Calvinist-slanted footnotes dissing the divine right of kings, always translating the word king as tyrant), and the 1582 Rheims trans. of the 5th cent. Roman Catholic Vulgate; too bad, the King James Bible is initially universally panned, and the Puritans continue to use the Geneva Bible, causing Charles I to ban it in 1644, leading to the Puritans taking over the govt. and beheading him in 1649, later realizing the superiority of the KJV; translator Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626), master of Pembroke College, Cambridge U. is appointed bishop of Winchester in 1619, becoming the mentor of Reformed Roman Catholicism in the post-Reformation Anglican Church, and the translator of the 23rd Psalm; Thomas Bilson (1547-1616), bishop of Winchester oversees the final edit and printing; the notes on the trans. process are stored in Whitehall, and are destroyed in the 1598 Whitehall Fire; in modern times the Ruckmanists (Ruckmanites), founded by Am. Baptist pastor Peter Sturges Ruckman (1921-2016) claim special divine inspiration for the translators, even though they were govt. employees told what to do by the hardly saintly king, and explicitly deny special inspiration; a case of disguised Am. WASP racism?; Psalm 46 features word 46 from the beginning "shake" and word 46 from the end "spear", and of course William Shakespeare (b. 1564) is 46 the first part of this year; a tribute, or did he translate it? - it's a pajama people special? Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Dioptrice; first explanation of the optics of myopia, and the first theory of the rainbow; also describes the double convex microscope; Phyllotaxis; mentions the Fibonacci sequence. Etienne Pasquier, Les Recherches de la France. Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), Ecclesiasticus Auctoritati Jacobi Regis Oppositus; an attack on James I of England by a German Protestant-turned Catholic. John Speed, A History of Great Britain. Thomas West, 3rd Baron de la Warr (1577-1618), The Relation of the Right Honorable the Lord De-La-Warre, of the Colonie, Planted in Virginia. Music: William Byrd (1540-1623), Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), and John Bull (1562-1628), Partenia; music for virginals. Thomas Ravenscroft (1582-1635), Melismata; 21 madrigals plus other pieces. Art: Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1653), Judith Decapitating Holofernes (1611-12). Guido Reni (1572-1642), The Massacre of the Innocents. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Four Philosophers (1611-2); Justus Lipsius of Antwerp and two students, incl. Rubens' late brother Philip, with Rubens watching from the side; The Massacre of the Innocents I (1611-12); auctioned by Sotheby's of London for £49.5M in 2002 (most expensive painting in history to date); Descent from the Cross (1611-14); his masterpiece. Plays: Juan Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza (1681-1639), El Semejante de si Mismo (debut); a flop, he gets ridiculed for being a hunchback ("dwarfed camel", "monkey", "trunk poet"), but perseveres and rises to #1 in Spain in this decade with From Evil Good Always Springs (No Hay Mal que Por Bien no Venga), His Eye on the Main Chance (Mudarse por Mejorarse), The Antichrist, The Segovian Weaver (El Tejedor de Segovia), and his masterpiece La Verdad Sospechosa (The Suspected Truth), about a univ. graduate who is an impulsive liar. Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), A King and No King; Cupid's Revenge. Lope de Vega (1562-1635), The Peasant in His Nook (1611-15). George Chapman (1559-1634), May Day. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Catiline. Thomas Middleton (1580-1627) and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Roaring Girl; comedy about Moll Cutpurse (Mary Frith) (1584-1659), a London pickpocket known for cross-dressing. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), The Tempest (comedy) (1610-11); written for the marriage of German "Winter king" Friedrich V and Elizabeth of Bohemia; last play written without the collaboration of John Fletcher; first play in the First Folio; Prospero has 603 lines, 19th most; Prospero (duke of Milan) ("the favored one") (It. trans. of Faustus), Miranda, Alonso, Ferdinand, Antonio, Sebastian, Ariel (Heb. "lion of God") (a sprite), "savage and deformed slave", "howling monster", "drunken monster", "most scurvy monster" Caliban (father is a sea devil, mother is the Algerian witch Sycorax), Trinculo; "Full fathom five thy father lies./ Of his bones are coral made./ Those are pearls that were his eyes./ Nothing of him that doth fade,/ But doth suffer a sea-change/ Into something rich and strange/ Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell"; "Our revels now are ended. These our actors,/ As I foretold you, were all spirits, and/ Are melted into air, into thin air" (Prospero) (4.1.148-50); "How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, /That has such people in 't!" (Miranda) (5.1.183-4); "strange bedfellows" (Trinculo and Caliban) (2.2). Cyril Tourneur (1575-1626), The Atheist's Tragedy; or, The Honest Man's Revenge. Poetry: John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), The Scourge of Folly. John Donne (1572-1631), An Anatomy of the World (elegy on his dead daughter); followed next year by Of the Progress of the Soul. Emilia Lanyer (1569-1645), Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum; becomes first prof. woman poet in England. Novels: Thomas Coryat (1576-1617), Coryat's Crudities; vol. 1 of his travel stories; incl. the first pub. use of the term "ghetto" (It. "iron foundry") for the Jewish one in Venice located near an iron foundry (founded 1516); Coryat's Crambe, or His Coleworte Twice Sodden; vol. 2 of his travel stories. John Donne (1572-1631), Ignatius His Conclave; a satire of Jesuits founder St. Ignatius of Loyola, who ends up in Hell, is ejected and ordered to colonize the Moon where he will do less harm. Births: German astronomer (Lutheran) ("Founder of Lunar Topography") Johannes Hevelius (Helvius) (Hewelcke) (d. 1687) on Jan. 28 in Danzig. Chinese Ming emperor #16 (last) (1627-44) Chongzhen ("honorable and auspicious") (Zhu Youjian) (d 1644) on Feb. 6 in Forbidden City, Beijing; 5th son of Taichang (1582-1620) and Lady Liu. Italian pope (1676-89) Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) (d. 1689) on May 16 in Como, Lombardy. French Protestant field marshal (1642-75) Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne (d. 1675) on Sept. 11 in Sedan; nephew of Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625). English Cromwellian gen. Henry Ireton (d. 1651) on Nov. 3 in Attenborough, Nottinghamshire; son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell; educated at Trinity College, Oxford. Italian High Baroque printmaker-draftsman Pietro Testa (Il Lucchesino) (d. 1650) in Lucca; student of Pietro Paolini or Domenichino; friend of Nicolas Poussin and Francesco Mola. Scottish writer-translator Sir Thomas Urquhart (Urchard) of Cromarty (d. 1660) in Cromarty. Scottish statesman-judge Archibald Johnston, Lord Warrison (d. 1663) English architect John Webb (d. 1672) in Smithfield, London. Dutch marine painter Willem van de Velde de Oude the Elder (d. 1693) in Leiden; father of Willem van de Velde the Younger (1633-1707). English political philosopher James Harrington (d. 1677). Deaths: English educator Richard Mulcaster (b. 1531) on Apr. 15 in Essex. English moneylender Thomas Sutton (b. 1532) on Dec. 12 in Homerton. Spanish statesman Antonio Perez (b. 1539) on Apr. 7 in Paris. Spanish composer Tomas Luis de Victoria (b. 1548). English poet-diplomat Giles Fletcher the Elder (b. 1549). Swedish king (1604-11) Charles IX (b. 1550) on Oct. 30 in Nykoping Castle. German composer Johannes Eccard (b. 1553). English lord Charles of Lorraine, duke of Mayenne (b. 1554) on Oct. 3 in Soissons. French explorer Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts (b. 1560) in Paris. Japanese daimyo Kato Kiyomasa (b. 1562) on Aug. 2 in Kumamoto. Dutch merchant Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (b. 1563) on Feb. 8 in Enkhuizen. German elector of Saxony (1591-1611) Christian II (b. 1583) on June 23 in Dresden. English navigator Henry Hudson (b. ?) in ?.

1612 - The Touchdown Decimal Point Year?

HRE Matthias (1557-1619) Archbishop Ferdinand of Bavaria (1577-1650) Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester Pietro della Valle (1586-1652) John Harington, 2nd Baron Harington of Exton (1592-1614) Simon Marius (1573-1625) Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625) John Rolfe (1585-1622) Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques de Guadalcazar (1578-1630) 'The Adoration of the Shepherds' by El Greco (1541-1614), 1612 'Roman Charity' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1625 'Roman Charity' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1625 Fontana dell'Acqua Paola, 1612

1612 Pop. of London: 325K. On Jan. 19 deposed HRE (1576-1611) Rudolf II (b. 1552) dies of "despondency", and on June 13 after a failed lobbying effort on behalf of elector Maximilian I of Bavaria by his brother Ferdinand of Bavaria (1577-1650), only to have him reject the crown, Bohemian king Matthias (1557-1619) becomes HRE (until Mar. 20, 1619); meanwhile on Feb. 17 Ernest of Bavaria (b. 1554) dies, and Ferdinand of Bavaria is appointed elector-archbishop of Cologne (until Sept. 13, 1650), going on to persecute Protestants and sponsor several fun witch hunts, ramping up the Cologne Witch Persecution, with 37 executed in 1435-1655, most during his reign - it takes a different kind of person to become a firefighter? On Mar. 12 the Virginia Colony gets its Third Royal Charter - every time you turn the wolf on you know it takes you back to that place? On May 24 Sir Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury (b. 1563) dies, and is succeeded as English sec. of state by James I's favorite Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, who next Nov. 3 is created earl of Somerset, followed on Dec. 23 by treasurer of Scotland, and in 1614 by lord chamberlain. On June 8 well-educated Roman Pietro della Valle (1586-1652) leaves Naples on a tour of the East as a cure to a failed love affair, and arrives in Constantinople, spending a year learning Turkish and Arabic; in Mar. 1616 he ends up in the Holy Land in 1616 in time for Easter. In July Peter Floris becomes the first Englishman to visit Phnom Penh - that's phnompenhenal? In July-Aug. the Trial of the Lancashire (Pendle) Witches of 12 witches in Pendle Hill, Lancashire, England charged with the murders of 10 people by witchcraft stinks England up some more; one dies in priz, 11 (9 women, 2 men) go to trial, 10 are found guilty and hung, and one is found not guilty; the last recorded witch burning in England until ? On Aug. 26 the Norwegians ambush Scottish troops in Swedish service under Col. Alexander Ramsay and Lord George Sinclair (1580-1612) (nephew of George Sinclair, 5th earl of Caithness) at the "Scottish" Battle of Kringen (Kringellen). On Nov. 6 James I's eldest son and heir apparent Henry Frederick Stuart, prince of Wales (b. 1594) dies of typhoid, and James has the remains of his dear beheaded mommy Mary, Queen of Scots (d. 1587) moved from Peterborough Castle in Scotland to be with him in Westminster Abbey; James' younger son (momma's boy) Prince Charles, who was not schooled for it becomes heir apparent - you don't have to grow up all at once, so here's more bubbles for your bath? On Nov. 4 Moscow is liberated from Polish invaders by a popular uprising led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, causing the Russians to begin commemorating that day as Russian Independence (Unity) Day; on Dec. 3 the Russian fortress of Ivangorod surrenders to the Swedes after 6 mo. of resistance; False Dmitri III is strangled. On Nov. 20 the Ottomans and Persians sign a peace treaty in which the Ottomans surrender their 1590 conquests and accept the 1555 boundaries. On Nov. 29-30 the 4-galleon British East India Co. fleet under Capt. Best decisively defeats the 4-nau Portuguese fleet in the Gulf of Cambay in the naval Battle of Swally (Suvali) near Surat, Gujarat in W India, then founds a trading post (later factory) in Surat in Dec., maintaining a permanent fleet at Swally, near Surat, which becomes the start of the Indian Navy, going on to kick the Portuguese out of the region in the next decade. The Dutch sign a treaty with the King of Kandy in Ceylon, and another treaty with the Ottomans. After private traders infringe royal patents, English mint commissioner Gerard de Malynes proposes a new patent for supplying lead farthings, which is obtained next Apr. 10 by John Harington, 2nd Baron Harington of Exton (1592-1614); too bad, the Haringtons prove unpopular, after Harington dies the private traders begin minting their own again. The Swedish city of Jonkoping (230 mi. SW of Stockholm) is destroyed by its inhabitants by order of Gustavus Adolphus II to keep it out of Danish hands, then rebuilt shortly afterward. After returning to England from Amsterdam and founding the first General_Baptist congregation in England in Spitalfields, East London, Thomas Helwys (1575-1616) pub. "A Short Declaration of the Mistery of Iniquity", criticizing the Mennonites and Puritans, arguing for Arminianism, and appealing to James I to separate church and state to insure freedom of religious conscience, pissing him off and causing him to have Helwys thrown into Newgate Prison, where he dies in 1616; "If the Kings people be obedient and true subjects, obeying all humane lawes made by the King, our Lord the King can require no more: for men's religion to God is betwixt God and themselves; the King shall not answer for it, neither may the King be judge between God and man"; "If our lord the King by his discerning judgment see that as Queen Mary by her sword of justice had no power over her subjects consciences (for then had she power to make them all Papists, and all that resisted her therein suffered justly as evil doers) neither hath our lord the King by that sword of justice power over his subjects consciences: for all earthly powers are one and the same in their several dominions"; meanwhile Baptist co-founder John Smyth (1570-1612) is excommunicated by Helwys from the Baptist Church and joins the Mennonites before dying on Aug. 28. The Dutch use Manhattan as a fur-trading center. The original Marlboro Man wears Jacobean clothes? Commercial tobacco ("green gold") is first raised in Va. as a cash crop by John Rolfe (1585-1622), giving the colony a raison d'etre as a drug dealing supply base, causing it to reorganize with better supply lines and begin establishing satellite squatter settlements on Powhatan farmland, pissing them off; the first crop is the harsh and biting native variety, but he later switches to the more mild Spanish varieties and scores a commercial success, creating the first Am. cash cow; meanwhile the Indians begin going on the defensive as snaphance guns are introduced in this decade, elminating the need for separate matches, and the cleared land gives the English an advantage against Indians, who can shoot arrows 5x as fast but need to hide behind trees; a lame attempt to capture English guns is the only loser's game they got left, and by the 18th cent. they are nearly landless and reluctantly adopt English ways, and by modern times the original 30 tribes are down to five, two on reservations; at least they get to stay? Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques de Guadalcazar and Conde de Posadas (1578-1630) (born in Cordoba, Spain) becomes viceroy of Mexico (until 1621), going on to found the cities of Lerma in Campche (1613), Cordoba in Veracruz (1618), and Guadalcazar in San Luis Potosi (1620), and building an aqueduct from Chapultepec ("hill of the grasshopper") to Mexico City. China prohibits the planting and use of tobacco - making them suckers for opium later? Portuguese Jews are granted a right of residence in Hamburg. The Fettmilch Rising against the Jews in Frankfurt by the guildsmen, led by grocer and gingerbread baker Vincenz Fettmilch begins (ends 1614). Johannes Kepler becomes mathematician to the states of upper Austria in Linz. Architecture: On July 21 Facade of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is finished; the central balcony is used to announce each new pope with "Habermus Papum". The Fontana dell'Acqua Paola (AKA Il Fantanone = the big fountain) on the Janiculum Hill near the Church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome is built to mark the end of the Acqua Paola aqueduct restored by Pope Paul V, becoming the first major fountain on the right bank of the Tiber River. Science: German astronomer Simon Marius (1573-1625) rediscovers the Andromeda Nebula, which was first noted by the Muslims in 963. Nonfiction: Accademia della Crusca, Vocabolario della Crusca; a dictionary of the Italian language, which spurs the French, Germans, English, and Spanish to play catch-up. Johann Arndt (1555-1621), Garden of Paradise. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), Aurora, oder Die Morgenrote im Aufgang (unfinished); teaches that the Fall is a necessary stage in the evolution of the Universe, and that God was incomplete without the Creation; the ms. pisses off Gregorius Richter, chief pastor of his hometown of Goerlitz, who threatens him with exile, causing him to give up writing for years, and not pub. again until 1623. The Three Principles of the Divine Essence. Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615), Elenchus Calendarii Gregoriani (Frankfurt); proposal for reform of the calendar. Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), History of England; thru the reign of Edward III; an earlier vol. about William I the Conqueror was pub. in 1692 under Sir Walter Raleigh's name. Sir John Davies (1569-1626), Discoverie of the True Causes Why Ireland Was Not Entirely Subdued. Roger Fenton (1565-1616), Treatie of Usurie. Antonio Neri, L'Arte Vetraria; glassmaking manual. Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus (travels). Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), A Map of Virginia. Alessandro Tassoni (1565-1635), Le Filippiche; pub. anon.; attacks the Spanish domination of Itly. Music: Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), First Set of Madrigals and Motets. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), Terpsichore; 300+ instrumental dances. Art: El Greco (1541-1614), The Adoration of the Shepherds. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Roman Charity (Pero and Simon); ancient Roman story about Pero, who saves her imprisoned daddy Simon (sentenced to death by starvation) by secretly breastfeeding him, until she is found out, after which her selflessnesses wins his release; starts a fad among painters, who can now produce soft core porno and call it art, since it looks so close to the picture of the dead Christ in his mother's arms? Plays: Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Coxcomb. George Chapman (1559-1634), The Widow's Tears. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), Henry VIII, or All Is True (alternate title, "All Is True") (1612-13) (history); "No man's pie is freed/ From his ambitious finger" (1.1.52); "The mirror of all courtesy" 2.1.53); "I would not be a queen/ For all the world" (2.3.45); "Press not a falling man too far" (3.2.334); The History of Cardenio (1612-3) (comedy) (lost); based on Miguel Cervants' "Don Quixote"; in 2010 English prof. Brean Hammond claims that Lewis Theobald's 1727 play "Double Falsehood" is based on it, like he claimed all along. John Webster (1580-1635), The White Devil (tragedy) (Red Bull Theatre, London); big flop with Queen Anne's Men, but successfully revived in 1630 by Queen Henrietta's Men at the Cockpit Theatre; The Duchess of Malfi (tragedy) (1612-13); Giovanna d'Aragona marries beneath her class, causing her two brothers to exact bloody revenge. Poetry: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), An Elegie on the Death of Prince Henry; Paraenesis to the Prince. John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), The Picture of a Happy Man. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), A Funeral Elegy for Prince Henry; contains one of only six authentic signatures of William Shakespeare that survive into the 21st cent., all of them from the years 1612-1616. Births: English Civil War Parliamentary CIC Thomas "Black Tom" Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (d. 1671) on Jan. 17 in Denton, West Riding of Yorkshire. French Roman Catholic theologian-philosopher-mathematician Antoine "the Great" Arnauld (d. 1694) on Feb. 6 in Paris; son of jurist Antoine Arnauld; educated at the Sorbonne; co-founder with Jean du Vergier de Hauranne (1581-1643) of Jansenism. English dramatist-mgr. Thomas Killigrew (d. 1683) on Feb. 7; starts as a page to Charles I at age 13, and works his way up. English anti-Puritan "Hudibras" satirical poet Samuel Butler (d. 1680) on Feb. 8 in Strensham, Worcestershire; not to be confused with "Erewon" novelist Samuel Butler (1835-1902). French officer (founder of Montreal) Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve (d. 1676) on Feb. 15 in Neuville-sur-Vannes, Champagne. Italian duke of Parma and Piacenza #5 (1622-46) Odoardo I Farnese (b. 1646) on Apr. 28; sole legitimate son of Ranuccio I Farnese (1569-1622) and Margherita Aldobrandini. Ottoman sultan #17 (1623-40) Murad (Murat) IV (the Cruel) (d. 1640) on June 16; son of Ahmed I (1590-1617) and Kadinefendi Kosem Sultan (Greek); brother of Osman II (1604-22) and Ibrahim I (1615-48); nephew of Mustafa I (1591-1639). Scottish covenanter-royalist military leader James Graham, 5th Earl and 1st Marquess of Montrose (d. 1650) on Oct. 25 in Old Montrose, Edinburgh; only son of John Graham, 4th earl of Montrose and Lady Margaret Ruthven; educated at St. Andrews U.; husband of Magdalene Carnegie; father of James Graham, 2nd marquess of Montrose (1631-69). French Baroque painter Pierre Mignard "Le Romain" (d. 1695) on Nov. 7 in Troyes; uncle of Pierre II "Le Chevalier" Mignard (1640-1725). English astronomer-mathematician (inventor of the micrometer) William Gascoigne (d. 1644) in Middleton, Leeds; educated at Oxford U.? French classical architect (for Louis XIV) Louis Le Vau (d. 1670) in Paris. Am. poet ("the Tenth Muse") (first English language female poet in the Am. colonies?) Anne Dudley Bradstreet (d. 1672) in Northampton, England; daughter of Thomas Dudley; wife of Simon Bradstreet; emigrates with her husband to Mass. in 1630. German Bohemian Baroque composer-organist Andreas Hammerschmidt (d. 1675) (b. 1611?) in Brux, Bohemia; Saxon father, Bohemian mother. Deaths: Italian painter Federico Barocci (d. 1528). Polish poet Peter Skarga (b. 1536). German astronomer Christopher Clavius (b. 1538) on Feb. 6 in Rome. Italian poet Giovanni Battista Guarini (b. 1538) on Oct. 7 in Venice. English botanist John Gerard (b. 1545) in Feb. in London. French economist Barthelemy de Laffemas (b. 1545) in Paris; dies after falling off his horse on Sept. 23. Spanish dramatist-poet Juan de la Cueva de Garoza (b. 1550). Austrian HRE (1576-1612) Rudolf II (b. 1552) on Jan. 19. Russian tsar (1606-12) Vasily IV (b. 1552). Italian composer Giovanni Gabrielli (b. 1557) in Aug. English flush toilet inventor Sir John Harington (b. 1560) on Nov. 20 Kelston, Somerset. English lord Edward, Lord Beauchamp (b. 1561) on July 21. Italian duke of Mantua and Montferrat (1587-1612) Vincenzo I Gonzaga (b. 1562) on Feb. 9 in Mantua. British MP (1598-1612) Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury (b. 1563) on May 24. English Baptist church denomination founder John Smyth (b. 1570) on Aug. 28. English explorer George Weymouth (b. 1585). Scottish-born Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart (b. 1594) on Nov. 6 (typhoid).

1613 - 13 proves bad luck for drama, as both Shakespeare and Beaumont retire in the same year, and the Globe burns down? Meanwhile the English throne is set up for a takeover by Germans without firing a shot?

Russian Tsar Michael Romanov (1596-1645) 'Winter King' Frederick V of Bohemia (1596-1632) 'Winter Queen' Elizabeth Stuart of Bohemia (1596-1662) Sophia of Hanover (1630-1714) Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania (1580-1629) Robert Ker, Earl of Somerset (1587-1645) Hasekura Tsunenaga of Japan (1571-1622) Sir Hugh Myddleton (1560-1631) Alvaro de Semedo (1585-1649) Jan Pieterszoon Coen of the Netherlands (1587-1629) Pietro Cerone (1566-1625) John Donne (1572-1631) Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629) 'Judith with the Head of Holofernes' by Cristofano Allori, 1613 'Minerva Dressing' by Lavinia Fontana, 1613 Guido Reni (1575-1642) 'St. Dominics Glory' by Guido Reni (1575-1642), 1613-5

1613 On Jan. 20 the Peace (Treaty) of Knaerod ends the Danish-Swedish War of Calmar (begun 1611). On Feb. 14 Frederick (Friedrich) V (1596-1632), elector palatine of the Rhine marries royal It Girl Elizabeth Stuart (Stewart) (1596-1662), eldest daughter of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark (whose enthronement in England-Scotland was the goal of the 1605 Gunpowder Plot), and becomes known as Elizabeth of Bohemia, residing in the court in Heidelberg and becoming known as the Queen of Hearts for her popularity; Frederick is then recognized as the head of the Protestant (Evangelical) Union of Germany, which signs a treaty of alliance with Holland; in May 14 plays in honor of the marriage are given in London by the King's Men, incl. 6-7 of Shakespeare's troupe; Elizabeth later bears 13 children, incl. Sophia (Sophie) of Hanover (1630-1714), who founds the Hanoverian Dynasty of England via her son George I. On Feb. 21 after False Dmitri IV is beheaded, 17-y.-o. Michael I (Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) (1596-1645), son of patriarch Filaret of Moscow and Great Nun Martha (Xenia) is elected as Russian tsar #1 (until July 12, 1645) of the Romanov Dynasty (ends Mar. 15, 1917), which rules for the next 300 years, ending the Time of Troubles; the Romanovs bring about a total enserfment of the people, while the church becomes dependent on the state for its authority - it's worth having a good simple black suit in your wardrobe? You are my sunshine? In the spring former Va. gov. Sir Thomas Dale and his men capture 17-y.-o. Pocahontas and hold her for a ransom of English prisoners, guns, and a boatload of corn, and when her daddy pays it they keep her anyway; William Strachey calls her "well featured but wanton" after seeing her do cartwheels naked; to fend off war (or his libidinous feelings?), prosperous widower John Rolfe then writes to Dale apologizing for being in love with a you know what and begging for permission to marry her, and her aging and increasingly docile pop Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) acquiesces; she is baptized in the Anglican church and given the name Lady Rebecca, and becomes the first Amerindian woman to marry an Englishman - another high maintenance woman not wanting no maintenance man? On June 29 the Globe Theatre in Southwark, London burns down in two hours after a loose dick, er, tom, er cannon is set off during a performance of Shakespeare's "Henry VIII"; no one is hurt and the Globe is rebuilt in June 1614, and closed in 1642; too bad, in 1610 at the pinnacle of his career William Shakespeare retires to New Place in Stratford-upon-Avon, also buying a house in Blackfriars; John Fletcher takes over as house playwright for the King's Men - from spears to arrows? In Oct. Calvinist Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel Bethlen) (1580-1629) becomes prince of Transylvania (until Nov. 15, 1629), going on to lead a revolt against the House of Hapsburg. On Dec. 21 Galileo writes a letter to Benedetto Castelli. Sir Thomas Dale hires mercenaries to drive the French out of Acadia, and they destroy Mount Desert Island, a French colony on the Kennebec River established last year by French Jesuit missionary Pierre Biard (1565-1622), becoming the first hostilities between French and English settlers in North Am.; Biard is taken POW and transported to England, is later freed, and returns to Lyon, France; the British capture and burn Port Royal. The Turks invade Hungary. After the Ottomans put him up to it, a 50K-man army under Damascus ruler Ahmad el-Hafez and Youssif Sifa attacks Lebanon, causing Lebanese ruler Fakhr al-Din II to flee to exile to Cosimo II's Tuscany (until 1618), giving control to his brother Younes and son Ali, who finally secure a truce after losing Tripoli, Sidon and Bekaa; al-Din is introduced to Italian Renaissance culture. Francis Bacon becomes English atty.-gen. (until 1621), going on to use torture to obtain the conviction of Edmund Peacham for treason; next year Parliament passes a law forbidding the atty.-gen to sit there. Robert Ker (Car) (1587-1645), youngest son of a Scottish border laird who becomes James I's lover, er, favorite is created earl of Somerset; too bad, the Earl of Essex's divorced wife Lady Frances Howard marries him, causing him to slip, er, fall from grace next year and be replaced by new pretty boy court favorite George Villiers (1592-1628), who is also a good friend of James' son Prince Charles. Georgian-born Imam Mahmud Qilich (Quli) Khan (-1632) is appointed gov. of the Persian province of Fars in S Persia, and goes on to work with the English to oust the Portuguese from Hormuz; too bad, he gets too wealthy and powerful, causing Shah Safi I to plot to get safely rid of him. Dutch East India Co. officer Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587-1629) is appointed accountant-gen. and pres. of the head office in Bantam, going on to become gov.-gen. in 1617-23, going on to establish a Dutch monopoly over nutmeg and mace from the Banda Islands and become known for his violence and cruelty, incl. beheading a soldier for having sex with Saarje Specx (1617-36), a girl in his care, but showing his soft side by having her whipped instead of drowned in a barrel; he utters the soundbyte "Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us". French explorer Samuel de Champlain explores the Ottawa River to Alumette Island. The Jacob Barnet Affair sees Jewish teacher Jacob Barnet arrested and imprisoned by the U. of Oxford for changing his mind about being baptized. Portuguese Catholic missionary Alvaro de Semedo (1585-1649) travels to China. Japanese samurai Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (1571-1622) begins the Keicho Embassy to Europe, starting with the Vatican in Rome, then New Spain (Acapulco, Veracruz), and France in 1615, becoming the first Japanese diplomatic embassy to Europe; after the Japanese suppression of Christianity pisses-off the Euro monarchs, he ends up returning in 1620 without negotiating any trade agreements - the original honk if you're horny? The U. of Cordoba in Argentina is founded. Belfast in N Ireland by the Lagan River is incorporated when James I grants it a charter; it is settled by Presbyterians and Huguenots. Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) marries Ursula Isley of Sundridge and leaves the stage - it's about finding solutions to everyday needs? Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629) becomes prof. of medicine at Copenhagen U., after which two generations of descendants keep the chair for the next 125 years, making key discoveries in anatomy and medicine; still having a foot in both camps, in 1624 Caspar falls ill, makes a vow that if he recovers he will switch to divinity, then switches to prof. of divinity - back when Science was still small enough to become a family thang? Claudio Monteverdi becomes maestro di cappella at St. Mark's in Venice, one of the top musical jobs in Italy (until 1632). Adrian Block and Hans Christiansen establish the first brewery in the New World on the S tip (Manhattan) of New Amsterdam; in 1614 Jan Vigne (1624-89) becomes the first non-native American (first white Euro male) born in New Netherland at the Block and Christiansen Brewhouse; he grows up to become the first brewer born in the New World. Architecture: Salomon de Brosse builds the Chateau Coulommiers. The Church of St. Anthony of Padua is built in Isleta Pueblo (S of modern-day Albuquerque) in New Mexico by forced Indian labor, becoming the oldest (Romanu Catholic) church in the U.S.?; damaged during the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, it is refurbished and rededicated to St. Augustine between 1700-10. Welsh entrepreneur and self-taught engineer Sir Hugh Myddleton (1560-1631) builds the New River Cut to bring water to London via the Lea River Valley. The Amsterdam Exchange in Netherlands is built. Inventions: Copper coins first come into use in Europe - got the idea from Pocahontas? German miners become the first to use explosives in mining with drilling. Science: In July Galileo Galilei and his archenemy Lodovico delle Colombe (1565-1616) (known for challenging his idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun) debate in Florence on the question of why ice floats on water, with Galileo arguing that ice floats because it's less dense than water, and delle Colombe winning after floating a thin wafer of ebony using surface tension. Nonfiction: Pedro de San Buenaventura, Dictionary of Tagalog; pub. by Tomas Pinpin of Pila, Laguna, Philippines; first Tagalog dictionary. Pietro Cerone (1566-1625), El Melopeo y Maestro: Tractado de Musica Theorica y Pratica; en que se pone por extenso; lo que uno para hazerse perfecto musico ha menester saber (22 vols.); monstrously large and absurd compilation of nonsense on musical theory, making him a star for cents.? Michael Drayton (1563-1631), Map of Hampshire, England. John Dennys, The Secrets of Angling. Sir Henry Fitch (-1625), Nomotexnia (4 vols.); a treatise on law which becomes the std. until William Blackstone. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Letters on Sunspots. Sir John Hayward, Lives of the Three Norman Kings of England; written at the request of James I's son Prince Henry. Oliver de Serra (1539-1619), The Causes of Wealth. Sir Anthony Shirley (1565-1635), Sir Anthony Sherley, His Relation of His Travels into Persia - even an astronaut has to go potty? Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Defensio Catholicae Fidei Contra Anglicanae Sectae Errores (Defense of the Catholic Faith Against Errors of the Anglican Sect). Art: Cristofano Allori (1577-1621), Judith with the Head of Holofernes; modelled by Mazzafirra, with the head being modeled after himself. Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614), Minerva Dressing. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1653), Judith and Her Maidservant (1613-14). Guido Reni (1575-1642), Aurora (frescoes) (Rome); St. Dominic's Glory (Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna) (1613-5). Music: Thomas Campion (1568-1639), The Lord's (Lords') Masque. Plays: Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Scornful Lady; The Captain. Gerbrand Bredero (1585-1618), Klucht van de Koe (comedy); Klucht van Symen ender Soelighyd (1612-13) (comedy). Lope de Vega (1562-1635), Fuenteovejuna; The Foolish Lady. George Chapman (1559-1634), The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois (tragedy). Pieter Hooft (1581-1647), Geeraerd van Velsen (tragedy). William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Two Noble Kinsmen (comedy); Theseus, Duke of Athens and Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, Emilia, Palamon, and Arcite; "O grief and time,/ Fearful consumers, you will all devour!" (1.1.69-70). Poetry: John Donne (1572-1631), Good Friday, 1613, Riding Westward. Michael Drayton (1563-1631), Polyolbion, Pt. 1; patriotic description of England; Pt. 2 in 1622. Cyril Tourneur (1575-1626), A Grief on the Death of Prince Henrie, Expressed in a Broken Elegie. Novels: William Browne, Britannia's Pastorals. Miguel Cervantes (1547-1616), Novelas Ejemplares (Everyday Tales); 12 novelettes; first short stories in Castilian Spanish? Births: Italian Baroque painter Mattia Preti (Il Cavalier Calabrese) (the Calabrian Knight) (d. 1699) on Feb. 24 in Taverna, Calabria; brother of Gregorio Preti; student of Giovanni Battista Caraccio; accepted into the Order of St. John (Knights of Malta) in 1660, spending the rest of his life in Malta. French Versailles landscape architect Andre Le Notre (Nostre) (d. 1700) on Mar. 12 in Paris; born to a family of gardeners responsible for the Tuileries Garden; Louis XIV's gardener in 1645-1700. English Puritan statesman and Mass. Bay Colony gov. #6 (1636-7) Sir Henry (Harry) Vane Jr. (the Younger) (d. 1662) on Mar. 26 in Hadlow, Kent. Dutch portrait-genre painter Gerrit (Gerard) Dou (Dow) (Douw) (d. 1675) on Apr. 7 in Leiden; pupil of Rembrandt (1606-69); teacher of Gabriel Metsu (1629-67). German Wettin elector of Saxony (1656-80) Johann Georg (John George) II (d. 1680) on May 31 in Dresden; 3rd son of Johann Georg I (1585-1656) and 2nd wife Magdalene Sybille of Prussia; father of Johann George III (1647-91). English Anglican bishop-writer Jeremy Taylor (d. 1667) on Aug. 15 in Cambridge. German merchant Johann Siegmund Wurffbain (d. 1661) on Aug. 20 in Nuremberg. French "Maxims" writer Francois VI, Duc de La Rouchefoucauld, Prince de Marcillac (d. 1680) on Sept. 15 in Paris. French architect Claude Perrault (d. 1688) on Sept. 25 in Paris. French churchman Jean Francois Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de Retz (d. 1679) on Sept. 29 in Montmirail. Portuguese queen consort (1640-56) and regent (1656-62) Luisa Maria Francisco de Guzman (Guzmán) y Sandoval (d. 1666) on Oct. 13 in Sanlucar, Spain; wife of Joao VI; mother of Afonso VI (1643-83), Peter II (1648-1706), and Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705). Swedish gen. Carl (Karl) Gustaf Wrangel (d. 1676) on Dec. 23 near Uppsala; of Baltic German descent. English poet Richard Crashaw (d. 1649). Dutch genre painter Bartholomeus van der Helst (d. 1670 in Haarlem. Deaths: Greek Catholic Church (Unia) founder Ipaci Pocei on June 25. English diplomat Sir Thomas Bodley (b. 1545); leaves the bulk of his fortune to the Bodleian Library in Oxford. German composer Bartolomaus Gese (b. 1555). Venetian composer Giovanni Gabrieli (b. 1557). Italian architect Flaminio Ponzio (b. 1560) in rome. Italian mathematician Bartholomeo Pitiscus (b. 1561). Italian composer Carlo Gesualdo (b. 1566) on Sept. 8 in Avellino (murdered by his wife?). Transylvanian prince Sigismund Bathory (b. 1572) on Mar. 27 in Prague (in exile). French satirist Mathurin Regnier (b. 1573) on Oct. 22 in Rouen. English poet-dramatist Sir Thomas Overbury (b. 1581) on Sept. 15 in the Tower of London; slowly poisoned with copper vitriol (sulfuric acid) at the instigation of the countess of Essex for opposing her marriage to his buddy Robert Carr, viscount Rochester. French chef Lancelot (Anseau) de Casteau (Chasteau) (Chestea) (b. ?); Mons-born master chef for three prince-bishops of Liege.

1614 - The English begin sticking their beeswax in North America, bringing their white supremacy, religious hangups, and Anglo-Saxon sex guilt with them?

Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg (1572-1619) Powhatan (1547-1618) Squanto (1585-1622) John Napier (1550-1617) William Oughtred (1574-1660) Simon Marius (1573-1624) Felix Platter (1536-1614) 'Last Communion of St. Jerome' by Domenichino (1581-1641), 1614

1614 In Feb. after he converts from Lutheranism to Calvinism, and has his officials draw up plans for mass conversion of his people, which are stopped by his Lutheran wife, the Confession of Brandenburg, prepared by order of Brandenburg elector John Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) attempts to reconcile the tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism and ends the disputes caused by the Augsburg Confession; the people are permitted to remain either Lutheran or Calvinist as they wish, turning Brandenburg-Prussia into a bi-confessional state. The power of Powhatan outpowers English racism? On Apr. 15 Pocahontas, daughter of the Powhatan chief marries English tobacco tycoon John Rolfe in Jamestown's church; they have one son, Thomas; for centuries distinguished Virginians boast of their descent from the "Indian princess". In Apr. Capt. John Smith leads several ships on a voyage from London to the Maine and Mass. Bay areas, naming them New England with the approval of Prince Charles, and creating the first detailed Map of New England; Thomas Hunt, one of the ship capts. decides to fill his ships with Nauset Indians to sell as slaves in Malaga, Spain, turning the Nausets against the English and damaging English-Indian relations for years; one of them is Squanto (Tisquantum) (1585-1622), who spends five years in Spain, England, and Newfoundland (until 1619), learning Paleface Talk (English). On May 15 after Marie de' Medici arranges the betrothal of her son Louis XIII to Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III of Spain, the Huguenots get pissed-off and take up arms, but finally give up and accept the Peace (Treaty) of St. Menehould; Louis confirms the Edict of Nantes, and summons the Etats Generaux (Estates Gen.) for the last time until Louis XVI in 1789. On Aug. 22 gingerbread baker Vincenz Fettmilch (-1616) leads the citizens of Frankfurt against their 1,380 Jews, who are plundered and forced to leave the city. On Nov. 12 the Treaty of Xanten ends the War of the Julich Succession (begun 1609), dividing Julich-Cleves (home of Henry VIII's ugly frau Anne of Cleves) between John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg and Wolfgang William, duke of Palatinate-Neuburg, giving Prussia its first toehold in the Rhineland. A group of Dutch colonists led by Capt. Hendrick Christiaensen (-16169) founds Ft. Nassau (van Nassouwen) in New Netherland on the ruins of an old French fur trader fort on Castle Island on the Hudson River 10 mi. S of its confluence with the Mohawk River opposite the site of modern-day Albany, N.Y. (modern-day pop. 98K/1.2M), becoming the first Dutch settlement in North Am., followed in 1624 by Ft. Orange on the W bank of the Hudson River, engaging in fur trade with the Mahicans and Mohawks, causing more settlers to found the village of Beverwijck (Beverwyck) nearby to the N on the future site of Albany; in 1664 the English take over, renaming the city in honor of the Duke of Albany, future James II of England, officially chartering it in 1686; in 1797 it becomes the capital of N.Y. state; it goes on to become the longest continuously-chartered U.S. city. The Dutch build a fort 90 mi. N of New Amsterdam on the site of future Kingston, N.Y., initially named Esopus after a local tribe, then Wiltwijck, which is settled in 1651, becoming one of the three main Hudson River settlements of New Netherland along with Beverwyck (Albany) and New Amsterdam. James I's 2nd Parliament, AKA the Addled Parliament meets, but refuses to discuss finances, so he dissolves it. Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden captures Novgorod from the Russians. The Turks raid Hospitaler-held Malta. Louis XIII (b. 1601) is declared of age to rule, but his domineering mother Marie de' Medici retains control, and summons the estates-gen. to counteract the power of the nobility; Louis never gains control throughout his life, even after mommy dies - well done, well done? Virginia colonists prevent French settlements in Maine and Nova Scotia. The long-awaited Promised Land for International Jewry? After setting out late in 1613 to New York harbor in the Tijger (Tiger), Dutch navigator Adriaen (Aerjan) Block (1567-1627) anchors in the harbor, his ship burns, and he and his crew camp on Manhattan Island, where they build the Onrust (Restless), then explore Long Island Sound N beyond Cape Cod, discovering the Connecticut River and Block Island (9 mi. SW of Point Judith, Rhode Island); he claims Connecticut (Conn.) (Algonquin "Quinnehtukqut" = "beside the long tidal river") for the Netherlands, and names it Rhode Island (R.I.) for its red clay; he later pub. Figurative Map of 1614, the first to show Manhattan Island as separate from Long Island; in 1623 fur traders from New Amsterdam set up Ft. Goede Hoop (Ft. Good Hope) at the confluence of the Connecticut and Park Rivers, which is abandoned in 1654, after which English settlers begin arriving in 1637, founding Newtown, which soon becomes Hartford, Conn. (modern-day pop. 124K/1.4M), named after Hertford, England; it is incorporated as a city in 1784, and consolidated in 1896; the city seal depicts a male hart (deer) crossing a you know what. The city of Tirana, Albania in C Albania 19 mi. E of Durres, 95 mi. SW of Skopje, 82 mi. SE of Podgorica, and 310 mi. N of Athens (modern-day pop. 860K) is founded by Sulejman Pasha Bargini as the site of a market, Turkish bath, and mosque, going on to become the cultural hub and seat of govt. in Albania; in 1912 after Albania declares independence, it becomes the capital. Dutch explorer Cornelis Hendricksz then takes the Onrust and begins exploring the Delaware Bay and the Lower Delaware River, after which on Oct. 11 the New Netherland Co. receives an exclusive patent for four voyages to be undertaken over three years to discover territories between the 40th and 4th parallels (until June 1618), causing Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (May) (Meij) to begin exploring the Lower Delaware River on his ship Blijde Boodschap (Joyful Message). Sir Thomas Dale becomes gov. of Va. again (until 1616), and gives each of the Virginia Co. colonists three acres of land for his own use, starting a policy that every colonist can claim a plot of land; King James I makes the import of tobacco a royal monopoly; Virginia enters the world tobacco market. Jesuit superior general Claudio Acquaviva orders the lower part of dead Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier's right arm cut off and shipped to Rome; Dutch pirates try to capture it but fail. Japanese shogun Iyeyasu orders all Christian priests to leave Japan, and orders the Japanese to give up Christianity. King Philip III establishes Seville as the shipping point for New World tobacco. Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Lord Brooke becomes chancellor of the exchequer (until 1621). Roman Catholic-raised John Donne (1572-1631) converts and takes holy orders in the Anglican Church, becoming the most eloquent preacher in England; "Death be not proud... Death, thou shalt die!" The Augsburg banking house of Welser declares bankruptcy. Founders' typefounder's co. in London is incorporated. The U. of Groningen in Groningen, Holland is founded. The glass industry begins in England. Science: Swiss physician Felix Platter (Plater) (1536-1614) first describes Dupuytren's Disease; the first proponent of the Germ Theory of Disease? Architecture: Santino Salari begins Salzburg Cathedral (finished 1680). Music: Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), Toccate di Cembalo. Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), Masses and Motets. Sir William Leighton, The Teares and Lamentacions of a Sorrowful Soule (54 psalms). Art: Domenichino (1581-1641), Last Communion of St. Jerome (San Girolama della Carita, Rome). Nonfiction: Anon., Fama Fraternitatis (The Fame of the Brotherhood); Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood); (Kassel, Germany); the founding document of Rosicrucianism, claiming to be founded by mythical Christian Rosenkreuz (1378-1484); incl. Allgemeine and General Reformation der Ganzen Weiten Welt. Thomas Lodge (tr.) (1558-1625), The Workes of Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Both Morall and Naturall; first English trans. of the works of Seneca. Simon Marius (1573-1624), Mundus Iovialis (Jovalis); claims to have discovered Jupiter's four major moons before Galileo; true or not, he names them Io, Europa, Ganymede (largest moon in the Solar System), and Callisto (3rd largest moon in the Solar System, but only 99% the diam. of Mercury) (always shows same face toward Jupiter); Io, Europa and Ganymede have an orbital resonance that gives them tidal heating. John Napier (1550-1617), Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms (Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio); gives mathematicians and astronomers a new improved method of computation, and uses the decimal point to express decimal fractions. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), Syntagma Musicum (3 vols.) (1614-20); musical encyclopedia. Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618), The Historie of the World; covers from Creation to ancient Greece and Rome, ending with the Second Macedonian War after he quits before writing vols. 2-3 because of the 1612 death of his hero Prince Henry; written while imprisoned in the Tower of London from July 19, 1603-1616; James I stops pub. "for divers exceptions, but especially for being too saucy in censuring Princes." Thomas Ravenscroft (1582-1635), A Briefe Discourse on the True (but Neglected) Use of Charact'ring the Degrees; treatise on music theory. Au contraire, I'm au fond au courant and au fait, never saying auf Wiedersehen to the Aufklarung? Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), The History of the World, Vol. 1; Creation to 130 B.C.E.; no other vols. are produced; outsells Shakespeare - insert TLW jokes here? Santorio Santorii (Santorio) (1561-1636), De Medicina Statica: Being the Aphorisms of Sanctorius; Italian prof. of medicine describes how he spent days on a balance weighing his food and excreta in order to establish that the body loses weight through "invisible perspiration"? - get a load of you? Plays: Lope de Vegas (1562-1635), The Sheep Well (Fuente Ovejuna); his most popular work. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Bartholomew Fayre (Fair): A Comedy (Hope Theatre, Bankside) (Oct. 31) (Whitehall, London) (Nov. 1); performed by Lady Elizabeth's Men, starring Nathan Field, who is paid 10 pounds by James I; last of four comedies; the 4-day fair in Smithfield each year on Aug. 24-27; amateur playwright Littlewit and his friends Quarious and Winwife plot to win widow Dame Purecraft from hypocritical Puritan Zeal-of-the-Land Busy; meanwhile Cokes comes to town with his servant Wasp to marry Grace Wellborn, ward of justice of the peace Adam Overdo, whose wife is Cokes' sister. Poetry: Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), Domesday, or The Great Day of the Lord's Judgment (epic). Sir Thomas Overbury (1581-1613), Characters; The Wife (posth.); his scandalous death makes it one of the hits of the cent. Births: English clergyman and natural philosopher Bishop John Wilkins (d. 1672) on Jan. 1 in Canons Ashby, Northamtonshire; educated at Hertford College, Oxford U. Austrian gen. archduke (gov. of the Spanish Netherlands from 1647-56) Leopold Wilhelm von Hapsburg (d. 1662) on Jan. 5 in Weiner Neustadt; youngest son of HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) and Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616) (daughter of Duke William V of Bavaria); brother of HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57). Dutch Flemish physician Franciscus Sylvius (Franz de le Boe) (Boë) (d. 1672) on Mar. 15 in Hanau, Germany. English Platonist philosopher-theologian Henry More (d. 1687) on Oct. 12 in Grantham; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U.; coiner of the term "Spissitude" for the 4th spatial dim. of the spiritual realm, with cardinal directions ana/kata, coined by Charles Howard Hinton. English Popish Plot royalist William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford (d. 1680) on Nov. 30; eldest son of Thomas Howard, 21st earl of Arundel and Alethea Talbot. English Leveler Puritan-turned-Quaker John "Free-Born" Lilburne (d. 1657); coiner of the term "freeborn rights". Irish Protestant leader Murrough MacDermod O'Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin (d. 1574); created earl in 1653. Spanish painter Juan Carreno (Carreño) de Miranda (d. 1685) in Aviles, Asturia. English Quaker "nursing mother" (feminist) Margaret Askew (Fell) (Fox) (d. 1702) in Lancashire. Deaths: Irish lord treasurer Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormonde (b. 1531) on Nov. 22. Swiss physician Felix Platter (b. 1536) on July 28 in Basel. English architect Robert Smythson (b. 1536). French biographer Pierre de Bourdeilles, seigneur de Brantome (b. 1540) on July 15; leaves Vies des Grands Capitaines Etrangers et Francais, Vies des Dames Galantes, and Vies des Dames Illustres. English statesman Henry Howard, 1st earl of Northampton (b. 1540) on June 15; dies without an heir; dies a Roman Catholic. Cretan-born Greek painter El Greco (b. 1541) on Apr. 7 in Toledo, Spain. French marshal Jean de Beaumanoir, marquis de Lavardin (b. 1551). Italian painter Lavinia Fontana (b. 1552) on Aug. 11. French architect Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau (b. 1556). Swiss-born French scholar-theologian Isaac Casaubon (b. 1559) on July 1 in England. Hungarian vampire lady Elizabeth Bathory (b. 1560) on Aug. 21 in Cachtice Castle, Slovakia. English inventor William Lee (b. 1563) in Paris. English politician John Harington, 2nd Baron Harington of Exton (b. 1592) on Feb. 27 in Kew.

1615 - The Roman Catholic Church steps on its own tallywhacker while the first whites round the Horn and English architecture goes Italian Renaissance?

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (1592-1628) Anne of Austria (1601-66) Willem Cornelis Schouten (1567-1625) Jacob Le Maire (1585-1616) Manchu Emperor Nurhachi of China (1559-1626) Inigo Jones (1573-1652) Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625) Johann von den Birghden (1582-1645) William Camden (1551-1623) Salomon de Caux (1576-1626) Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548-1616) Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Palais du Luxembourg, 1615-24 'Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers and Sisters' by Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), 1615 Grolsch Logo Grolsch Premium Lager

1615 I am wearing a polka-dot parachute, or Captain Cookoff and his son Gourmet Gal? Living, loving, he's just a woman? The original English Brokeback Mountain? In Jan. James I of England knights his pretty boy court favorite and lover (the duke of bucking hams?) George Villiers (1592-1628), whom he calls "sweet child and wife", and to whom Georgie replies "I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had" and "I desire only to live in the world for your sake"; well-bucked James I goes on to raise him to the peerage as the 1st earl of the extinct (since 1521) line of Buckingham in 1517, and after each sexual thrill gets better he raises him higher and higher, to marquess of Buckingham in 1618, then earl of coventry and duke of Buckingham in 1623, making him the highest-ranking subject outside the royal family. On May 6 the Peace of Tyrnau is signed by HRE Matthias and Gabor Bethlen, recognizing the latter as prince of Transylvania, and confirming his treaty with the Turks. On June 14 Dutch mariner Jacob Le Maire (1585-1616) and Willem Schouten embark on a round-the-world voyage from Texel, Netherlands; on Jan. 29, 1616 they become the first to round Cape Horn, named after their ship Hoorn (named after the town in N Holland), which was lost in a fire, and discover the Le Maire Strait; too bad, they are arrested in Java by the jealous Dutch East India Co. for violating its trade monopoly, and their remaining ship Eendracht is confiscated, and Le Maire dies on the remaining ship Amsterdam on return journey to Amsterdam, which ends on July 1, 1617 after 2 years 17 days - fills the need for speed, or there's only one way to rock? On June 27 the first English language reference is made to tea by R. Wickham, agent of the English East India Co. on Hirado Island, Japan in a letter to his colleage Mr. Eaton in Macao, asking for "the best sort of chaw". Beleaguered Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) writes an Open Letter to Madame Cristina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany on his Copernican views, trying to clear himself of the appearance of being an unbeliever, claiming that the Book of Nature is to be read in the language of mathematical science, while the Scriptures when referring to physical fact are not to be taken literally, "nor does God reveal himself less admirably in the effects of Nature than in the sacred words of Scripture"; the purpose of the Scriptures is to teach us "how to go to heaven, not how the heavens go"; the priestly authorities are not amused, and in Dec. Galileo is summoned before the Inquisition in Rome and put on trial for his scientific views in a super-rigged trial; "To assert that the Earth revolves around the Sun is as erroneous as to claim that Jesus was not born of a virgin" (Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), head of the Congregation of the Holy Office, who personally framed the decision to burn Giordano Bruno in 1600, and is not a student of astronomy); Galileo's observations with the telescope actually backed the Tychonic view that the Earth doesn't move, but he stuck with the Copernican system anyway, and was just lucky? You are now free to move about the country? On Nov. 24 French King Louis XIII marries 14-y.-o. Anne of Austria (1601-66) (daughter of Philip II of Spain) in Burgos by proxy; meanwhile the same day Infante Philip of the Asturias (later Philip IV) marries Louis XIII's sister Elisabeth of Bourbon (1602-44) by proxy in Bordeaux; the two princesses are later exchanged like hostages on the Isle of Pheasants in the Bidassoa River between France in Spain near Henday, cementing the alliance between the French and Spanish Catholic royal houses; Cardinal Richelieu suspects Anne of disloyalty to France because of her Hapsburg descent, accusing her of several treasonable conspiracies, and for that or other reasons Louis and Anne eventually can't stand each other and begin living separately in 1620; meanwhile the Three Musketeers Athos, Porthos, and Aramis defend Anne's honor against scheming Cardinal Richelieu :). Spain begins a war with Italy (ends 1617). The French Estates General are dismissed with promises of reforms. Samuel Champlain and Etienne Brule (Brulé) 1592-1633) (who was sent in 1610 to live with the Algonquins and learn their language) explore Lake Huron and Lake Ontario ("fine lake"), and visit the Huron (Fr. "unkempt head") tribe; Brule continues along the Susquehanna River (to Chesapeake Bay?). The limping Virginia Co. raises funds through lotteries. The first British ambassador to India is dispatched to the court of the Mogul Emperor in India; the British presence in India begins. Tokugawa Ieyasu attacks the stronghold of the rival Toyotomi clan, fails to take it, and agrees to a truce requiring clan head Hideyori (b. 1593) to dismantle many of his castle's defense, but he reneges, and Ieyasu returns and this time takes the stronghold, causing Hideyori and his mother to commit hari-kari, ending the house of Toyotomi. The Qing Dynasty forms in the murky corners of Manchuria and feeds on the decay of the Ming Dynasty? In 1615 the Tungusic tribes in E Manchuria expand to eight banners (military regions) under Nurhachi (Nurhaci) (1559-1626), who next year takes the title of Emperor Taizu of the Hou Jin (Later Jin) Dynasty, claiming ethnic descent from the Jurchens of the 12th cent., and takes the clan name Aisin Gioro, founding the Manchu Dynasty in China, later ordering the creation of a written script Manchu Language, using a script borrowed from the Mongolian Ulighur alphabet, which becomes the language of China's official circles; by the mid-19th cent. it begins to be superseded by Mandarin Chinese. A revolt in Tbilisi, Georgia against the Persians under Shah Abbas I is quashed, with 60K killed and 100K deported. Bad year for the Portuguese? The Dutch seize the Spice Islands (Moluccas) from the Portuguese. The English fleet defeats the Portuguese in the naval Battle of Bombay. The Persians seize the port city of Bandar Abbas on the Straits of Hormuz from the Portuguese, and Shah Abbas I names it after himself. The Merchant Adventurers are granted a monopoly for the export of English cloth. Dutch navigator Willem Cornelis (Cornelisz) Schouten (1567-1625) and his financier-journalist Jacob Le Maire (Lemaire) (1585-1616) begin a round-the-world voyage in the Hoom (named after Schouten's birthplace) and Eendracht looking for a new route from the Netherlands W to the East Indies without rounding the Cape of Good Hope in order to get around the Dutch East India Co. (ends 1616). A French ship visits Cape Cod and wrecks, and the Indians, mad at what the English did to them the year before attack and kill all of them except a few, which they turn into slaves to get even; one of the whites learns Indian talk and tells the chief that God was angry with them and will give their country to the white people. Capt. John Mason (1586-1635) becomes proprietary gov. of the English Cuper's Cove Colony at Conception Bay, Newfoundland (until 1621), going on to compile and pub. the first known map of the island in 1620. Coffee first enters Europe through the port of Venice; the consumption of coffee begins to skyrocket in Europe, taking over by the end of the cent. except in snooty England. Louis XIII orders that Christians are forbidden to speak with Jews upon penalty of death. The Jesuits count 13,112 members in 32 provinces. After a successful career in stage design with playwright Ben Jonson, followed by a grand tour of Italy in 1613-15, where he inspected Roman, Renaissance, and Palladian architecture, Smithfield, London-born architect Inigo Jones (1573-1652) becomes surveyor-gen. of the royal bldgs., England's chief architect, designing the first major classical Renaissance structures in England, heavily influenced by the style of Andrea Palladio, causing a revolution in English architecture - in I go? Italian composer Adriano Banchieri (1567-1634) founds the Accademia dei Floridi in Bologna. English #1 organist-composer Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625) is appointed organist at the Chapel Royal. Bulwell Forge in England begins making iron, stripping Sherwood Forest to do so - like in Tolkien's "The Return of the King"? The Frankfurter Oberpostamst-Zeitung (Postzeitung) newspaper is founded by Egenolff Emmel (1602-27) and imperial postmaster (1615-27) Johann von den Birghden (1582-1645) (a Lutheran), gaining subscribers throughout Europe; it folds in 1866. Grolsch Brewery (Royal Grolsch) is founded in Groenlo (Grolle), Netherlands by Willem Neerfeldt, and continued in 1676 by his son Peter Cuyper (-1684), cooling the beer in summer with stored winter ice from the Grolse Canal; in 1876 it moves to Enschede and builds a brewery called "The Clock"; in 1895 it is purchased by Theo de Groen, whointroduces green swing-top bottles for Grolsch Premium Beer, becoming their most popular beer, becoming the 2nd largest brewery in the Netherlands after Heineken; in Nov. 2007 it is acquired by SABMiller for 816M Euros. Grolsch Brewery is founded by Willem Neerfeldt in Groenlo (Grolle) in E Netherlands, becoming known for green bottles with swing tops. Architecture: French architect Salomon de Brosse (1576-1626), a relative of architect Jacques Androuet de Cerceau begins work for the-rich-get-richer Marie de' Medici on the Palais du Luxembourg (finished 1624). Inventions: Salomon de Caux (Caus) (1576-1626) of France invents a solar-powered motor using glass lenses and a airtight vessel containing water and air, and describes the basic principles of the steam engine. Art: Anon., Portrait of Elizabeth, Lady Tanfield. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, Amalthea (sculpture) (Palazzo Borghese, Rome). omenichino, Scenes from the Life of St. Cecilia. Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers and Sisters. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Daniel in the Lions' Den; The Nature and the Graces. Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Cymbalum Sionium. Nonfiction: Anon., Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood) (Kassel, Germany); 2nd founding document of Rosicrucianism. William Camden (1551-1623), Annales Rerum Anglicarum (Reign of Elizabeth I) (2 vols.) (1615, 1625); written in Latin; first English trans. pub. in 1625; favorable treatment of Elizabeth I and James I, helping create the image of the Elizabethan era as a golden age; "It is thanks to Camden that we ascribe to Queen Elizabeth a consistent policy of via media rather than an inconsequent series of unresolved conflicts and paralysed indecisions." (Hugh Trevor-Roper). Salomon de Caux (1576-1626), Les Raisons des Forces Mouvantes avec Diverses Machines; basic principles of the steam engine. Gervase Markham (1568-1636), A School for Young Soldiers. Antoine de Montchretien (1575-1621), Traite de l'Economie Politique; first use of the term "political economy" in a title, dissing Aristotle for claiming that politics is independent of economics and other social activities, and arguing that wealth acquisition promotes political stability; the official beginning of Mercantilism, the doctrine that govt. control of foreign trade to maintain a positive balance of trade is important to ensure military security. Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548-1616), The Idea of Universal Architecture (L'Idea dell'Architettura Universale) (2 vols.) (Venice). Lucilio Vanini (1585-1619), Amphiteatrum Aetemae Providentiae Divino-Magicum; a tongue-in-cheek refutation of atheism by a pantheist posing as a theist? Plays: Gerbrand Bredero (1585-1618), Klucht van den Molenaer. Miguel Cervantes (1547-1616), The Cave of Salamanca. Samuel Coster, Spel van de Rijcke Man (farce). George Ruggle (1575-1622), Ignoramus (Cambridge U. farce). Poetry: George Chapman (1559-1634) (tr.), Homer's Odyssey (1614-15). Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), Hymen's Triumph (drama); his masterpiece?; in honor of Lord Roxburghe's marriage. Novels: Miguel Cervantes (1547-1616), Don Quixote, Pt. 2; (Pt. 1 in 1605); his quest ends with reality setting in, and he returns to his village and abandons his knighthood, then croaks; "In the nests of yesteryear there are no birds today"; English trans. by Thomas Shelton pub. in 1620. Births: French supt. of finance (1653-61) Nicolas Fouquet, Marquis de Belle-Isle, Vicomte de Melun et Vaux (d. 1680) on Jan. 27 in Paris. Italian pope #242 (1691-1700) (last to wear beard until ?) Innocent XII (d. 1700) on Mar. 13 in Spinazzola (Puglia); born into an aristocratic family of Naples. Italian Baroque painter-poet-printmaker Salvator Rosa (d. 1673) on June 20 (July 21?) in Arenella (near Naples). Ottoman sultan #18 (1640-8) Ibrahim I (the Mad) (d. 1648) on Nov. 5; son of Ahmed I (1590-1617) and Kosem Sultan (Greek); brother of Osman II (1604-22) and Murad IV (1612-40); father of Mehmed IV (1642-93). English Puritan divine Richard Baxter (d. 1691) on Nov. 12 in Rowton, Shropshire. English Unitarian pioneer John Bidle (Biddle) (d. 1662). English poet Sir John Denham (d. 1669). French chef ("Founder of Haute Cuisine") Francois Pierre de la Varenne (d. 1678) in Burgundy, Dijon; creator of Bechamel Sauce; apprentices with Queen Marie de' Medici, followed by 10 years as chief chef for the marquis of Uxelles. Scottish royalist gen. Sir Thomas "Bloody Tam" Dalyell of the Binns, 1st Baronet (d. 1685) (AKA the Muscovite Devil) in Linlithgowshire. Indonesian Muslim reformer Abd al-Ra'uf al-Sinkili (Abdurrauf Singkil) (d. 1693) in Aceh, Sumatra. Deaths: Italian philosopher Giambattista della Porta (b. 1535) on Feb. 4 in Naples; dies after being tried for sorcery for demonstrating a camera obscura to shocked guests, causing upside-down images of actors performing outside to appear on a wall in his house. Spanish novelist Mateo Aleman (b. 1547). German painter Hans von Aachen (b. 1552) on Mar. 4 in Prague. French queen Margaret of Valois (b. 1553) on May 27. English politician Sir John Leveson (b. 1555) on Nov. 14 in Cuxton, Kent. German musical historian Sethus Calvisius (b. 1556) on Nov. 24 in Leibzig. English politician-diplomat Sir Henry Neville (b. 1564) on July 10. English madrigal composer John Bennet (b. 1575). English pretender Arbella Stewart (b. 1575). Japanese overlord Toyotomi Hideyori (b. 1593) (suicide).

1616 - A 6x6 year, a good year to be an infallible Roman Catholic priest dispensing Vatin justice to scientist heretics? Meanwhile, reverend foulmouths gloat as American aborigines are creamed by white mens' diseases, calling it a judgment of God? The Dutch get coffee? The theater loses Beaumont, Cervantes, Henslowe, and Shakespeare, and cross-ocean prom queen supermodel bridezilla Pocahontas too?

William Baffin (1584-1622) William Harvey (1578-1657) Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1624) Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654) Pocahontas, 1616 Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigné (1552-1630) Isaac Oliver (1565-1617) Pieter van den Broecke (1585-1640) 'St. George's Militia Company' by Frans Hals (1580-1666), 1616 Inigo Jones (1573-1652) Queens House, 1616-35

1616 A "virgin soil" smallpox or bubonic plague epidemic introduced by Maine fishermen from Europe devastates the aborigines of New England, killing up to 90% and leaving great heaps of unburied bones (until 1619); after that ends, the remaining Indians begin warring. On Feb. 16 Galileo writes a letter to Monsignor Dini, trying to clear himself of charges of heresy and blasphemy, but failing to convince the Church of the truth of Copernicanism; on Feb. 24 the Qualifiers of the Holy Office pub. a Report on the Bad Boy Galileo condemning the proposition that "the Sun is the center of the world and entirely devoid of local motion" as "foolish and absurd philosophically, and formally heretical", while the proposition that "the Earth is not the center of the world nor immovable, but moves as a whole, and also with a daily motion" is "to receive the same censure in philosophy and, as regards theological truth, to be at least erroneous in faith"; on Feb. 26 Galileo is ordered by Holy Office Commissioner Gen. Vincenzo Maculano da Firenzuola "to relinquish altogether the said opinion that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable and that the Earth moves, nor further to hold, teach or defend it in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing"; on Mar. 3 the Congregation of the Index, headed by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), without mentioning Galileo by name bans all writings which treat Copernicanism as anything but an unproven hypothesis, and prohibits Copernicus' 1543 De Revolutionibus from pub. until it is "corrected" to state that it is only presenting a hypothesis (done in 1620); the anti-Copernican decree, which is never officially ratified by the pope is not annulled until 1757; as chastened Galileo mumbles, "epur si muove" (nevertheless, it moves). On Feb. 28 after the HRE personally intervenes, Vincenz Fettmilch and six of his henchmen are arrested, beheaded, and quartered in the Frankfurt Rossmarkt (horse market), and their heads placed on iron spikes near the bridge tower, after which the expelled Jews are returned under imperial guard, and a stone imperial eagle placed over the gate to the ghetto reading "Protected by the Roman Imperial Majesty and the Holy Empire", causing pogroms to virtually cease in Germany until the rise of the Nazis in the 20th cent.; a new law sets a max of 500 Jewish families in Frankfurt, and a max of 12 marriages a year; Frankfurt Jews begin celebrating the feast of Purim Vinz on Adar 20. In Feb. William Shakespeare's and Anne Hathaway's daughter Judith Shakespeare (1585-1662) marries Thomas Quiney (1589-1663), a vintner in Stratford-upon-Avon; they have sons Shakespeare Quiney (1616-17), Richard Quiney (1617-39), and Thomas Quiney (1619-39); on Apr. 23 William Shakespeare (b. 1564) dies. On Mar. 26 after being hired by the Muscovy Co. to find the Northwest Passage, English explorers William Baffin (1584-1622) (pilot) and Robert Bylot leave Gravesend, Kent, England, pass up the Davis Strait W of Greenland, and discover ice-clogged Baffin Bay(between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland, also discovering Ellsmere Island (home of the Arctic Cordillera Mts. and the Arctic willow), Smith Sound, which later becomes a route to the North Pole, and Lancaster Sound NW of Baffin Bay (named after British East India Co. dir. Sir James Lancaster), through which the Northwest Pasage is discovered three cents. later, also sighting Devon Island in Baffin Bay, which becomes the largest uninhabited island on Earth, and reaching 77 deg. 45 min N latitude, which becomes the record until 1852 (236 years); too bad, they aren't believed until Sir John Ross rediscovers Baffin Bay in 1818, and Bylot is not given credit because he participated in the mutiny on Henry Hudson's ship in Hudson Bay in spring 1611. On Oct. 14 English playwright Samuel Daniel (b. 1562) dies, and Ben Jonson (1572-1637) becomes the first official Poet Laureate of England, attached to the royal household of James I, with an annual pension of 100 marks; the U. of Oxford makes him a Master of Arts. Bishop (since 1608), later (1622) cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (1585-1642) becomes minister of state for foreign affairs and war in France, and the Richelieu Age in France begins. Prince Charles is created prince of Wales by his daddy James I. Convicted traitor Sir Walter Raleigh is released from prison on the condition that he try to discover the fabled gold mines of El Dorado along the Orinoco River and not cause any trouble with the Spanish, whom James I is partial to; he returns to Guiana with his son - and proceeds to cut his own throat? Bless my oringa? The original cigar store Indian has bodacious tatas and nice hands? John Rolfe, backed by the Virginia Co. makes a promotional trip to England to show off his English-speaking Christian wife Pocahontas (Lady Rebecca) and their infant son Thomas, and to sell the English on his tobacco and attract more capital to their venture, despite King James I's aversion to it; she and the dozen other Indians he brings are invited to visit the royal court, but Rolfe is snubbed; Pocahontas charms Queen Anne, who accedes to a letter from Capt. John Smith to receive her as Algonquian royalty, but she doesn't change the king's prejudices against ahem, Indians; she becomes the toast of the town, and sits for a mighty-white portrait by an anon. Englishman (dated Aug. 21) wearing her stiff lace collar and high hat, and holding an ostrich plume fan; Smith waits months then calls on her, and she turns her back on him for two hours before telling him that he had betrayed her people and how he had hurt her by leaving unannounced and never sending word, making her think he was dead; weeks later, she and half of the Indians come down with various fatal European diseases while aboard a ship on the Thames River bound for Jamestown, and she dies in Gravesend in Mar. 1617; Smith, who never marries finally tells his Story of Pocahantas and how she single-handedly saved him from the terrible fate of being brained in 1607, and pub. it in 1624. The Tartars of Manchu invade China (ends 1620). Venice and Austria go to war. Bavarian elector Maximilian I resigns from the 1609 Catholic League; too bad, I will follow my love wherever he will go, and he ends up rejoining in 1618. Archduke Maximilian of Tirol and Archduke Albert, gov. of the Netherlands renounce their claims to the imperial throne in favor of Ferdinand of Styria. Roman Catholic oppression in Bohemia is cranked up. The Earl of Worcester (a Catholic) is made Lord Privy Seal of England, and Sir Thomas Lake becomes secy. of state. Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1640), learned fatass former archbishop of Split (Spalato) in Dalmatia, whose researches have led him to break with the corrupt Roman Catholic Church flees to England, where James I gives him a big reception and puts him in the 3rd spot after the archbishops of Canterbury and York, then dean of Windsor in 1617, and he goes on to crank out anti-papal sermons and books for the British govt. Manchu leader Nurhachi (Nurhaci) is crowned as Chinese emperor Qing Tai Zu (1559-1626) - not Fu Manchu? The Swiss Guard (Gardes), a regiment of Swiss mercenaries in the French army are constituted by royal decree as part of Louis XIII's household guard; now he can keep up with the pope and his Swiss Guard (founded 1506). Dutch East India Co. merchant Pieter van den Broecke (1581-1640) smuggles arabica coffee plants out of the Yemeni port of Mocha back to Amsterdam, where they are cultivated in Amsterdam Botanical Garden; in 1658 the Dutch transport them to Ceylon, S India, Java, and Suriname, becoming the first Europeans to cultivate coffee commercially, becoming Europe's main suppliers, creating an oversupply that causes them to focus on their plantations in Java; in 1617 van den Broecke makes a drawing of a dodo on Mauritius. King James I pub. his Religious Credo. The Nanjing Missionary Case leads to the deportation of Christian missionaries in China over the practice of ancestor worship. The Collegium Musicum in Prague is founded. Architecture: Inigo Jones begins the Queen's House in Greenwich, London (finished 1635) for Queen Anne of Denmark, becoming his first major commission, and the first classical bldg. in England. Notre Dame Cathedral in Antwerp (begun 1352) is finished. The Blue Mosque (begun 1609) in Constantinople is finished; Euro visitors begin calling blue the color of Turkey, AKA turquoise. The Champs-Elysees (Champs-Élysées) (Elysian Fields) in Paris starts out as some trees planted by Marie de' Medici to create the Queen's Court from the Tuileries Palace Garden to the Place de l'Alma. Inventions: Italian physician Santorio Santorii (Sanctorius) (1561-1636) invents the first Medical Thermometer - guess where they sanctimoniously stick it? Science: English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) first reveals the function of the heart and complete circulation of the blood at the Royal College of Physicians in London, causing detractors to begin calling him "the Circulator". Italian philosopher Lucilio Vanini (1585-1619), who likes to call himself Giulio Cesare (his real name and he's just lucky?) suggests that humans evolved from apes; he is burned for it three years later - did they do the ape imitations too? Nonfiction: Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654), Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosenkreutz Anno 1459 (The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz in 1459 C.E.) (Strasbourg); pub. anon.; by a Wittenberg-born theologian living near Stuttgart since 1614; one of the three founding works of the Rosicrucians (1614, 1615); Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Luneburg (1579-1666), Chess, or The King's Game; pub. under alias Gustavus Selenus, introducing Selenus-type chess pieces. Sir Francis Bacon (who is suspected of being the real Shakespeare) is a Rosicrucian, as are many of Shakespeare's plays?; Andreae later claims authorship in his autobio., and calls it a "ludibrium" (lampoon). Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne (1552-1630), Histoire Universelle (1616-18); Huguenot survey from 1553-1602, which is officially burned in Paris. Paulus Bolduanus, Bibliotheca Philosophica. George Chapman (1559-1634) (ed.), The Whole Works of Homer, Prince of Poets. Thomas Coryat (1576-1617), Greetings from the Court of the Great Mogul; his 2nd trip (1612), this time to Greece, Persia and India. Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1624), Consilium Profectionis (London); virulent attack on my-best-friend's-girl-she-used-to-be-mine Rome. St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622), Traite de l'Amour de Dieu. Gustavus Selenus (August von Braunschweig), Chess, or the Game of Kings. Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), A Description of New England. Lucilio Vanini (1585-1619), De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis (Paris); pre-certified by two doctors of the Sorbonne, then later condemned anyway. Art: Luis Tristan de Escamilla (1586-1624), Altar Image in the Church of Yepes (Toledo). Frans Hals (1580-1666), The Banquet of the Officers of St. George's Militia (Shooting) Company in Haarlem (Civic Guard of the Archers); the world's greatest portrait painter bursts onto the scene 50 before 1666? Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Adoration of the Shepherds. Isaac Oliver (1565-1617), Portrait of John Donne. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Lion Hunt. Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644), Adoration of the Shepherds (1616-8). Claus Visscher, The Globe. Plays: Gerbrand Bredero (1585-1618), Het Moortje. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Works (Folio Ed.); the first folio ed. of its kind, setting a precedent used for Shakespeare's plays in 1623, and Beaumont and Fletcher's plays in 1647; The Devil Is An Ass (comedy). Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), The Witch (tragedy). Poetry: Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne (1552-1630), Les Tragiques; attack on the Roman Catholic poets of the Pleiade; incl. "Les Miseres", "Les Princes", "La Chambre Doree", "Les Feux", "Les Fers, "Vengeances", "Judgment". Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), Dutch Poems; ed. by Petrus Scriverius. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Forest; incl. To Celia; "Drink to me only with thine eyes/ And I will pledge with mine./ Or leave a kiss but in the cup/ and I'll not look for wine."; set to music in the 1770s as the song "Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes". Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), The Lie; "Go soul, the body's guest"; The Pilgrimage; composed in the Tower; "Give me my scallop-shell of quiet,/ My staff of faith to walk upon,/ My scrip of joy, immortal diet,/ My bottle of salvation,/ My gown of glory, hope's true gage; And thus I'll take my pilgrimage." Novels: Miguel Cervantes (1547-1616), Persiles y Segismunda. Births: Flemish mystic Antoinette Bourignon (d. 1680) on Jan. 13 in Lille; founder of Bourignianism, a school believing in direct cut-the-crap supernatural revelations, which appeals to Catholics and Protestants as a way out of their problems with fallible human orgs.? French Baroque painter Sebastien (Sébastien) Bourdon (d. 1671) on Feb. 2 in Montpellier; pupil of Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin. German Baroque composer-organist-harpsichordist Johann Jakob Froberger (d. 1667) on May 19 in Stuttgart. Dutch Baroque painter Ferdinand Bol (d. 1680) on June 24 in Dordrecht; pupil of Rembrandt van Rijn. German lyric poet-dramatist Andreas Gryphius (Greif) (d. 1664) on Oct. 2 in Grossglogau, Silesia. Danish scientist Thomas Bartholin (d. 1680) on Oct. 20 in Malmo, Sweden; son of Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629); brother of Erasmus Bartholin (1625-98); father of Caspar Bartholin the Younger (1655-1738). English mathematician John Wallis (d. 1703) on Dec. 3 in Ashford, Kent; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. inventor of the infinity symbol. Scottish royalist Presbyterian nobleman William Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton (d. 1651) on Dec. 14 in Hamilton, South Lanarkshire; created earl of Lanark in 1639. English Nonformist Puritan theologian John Owen (d. 1683) in Stadhampton in Oxfordshire; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. English "The Christian in Complete Armour" Puritan divine William Gurnall (d. 1679) in King's Lynn, Norfolk; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Chinese Roman Catholic missionary Lu Wenzao (d. 1691); the first Chinese Catholic father and bishop. Deaths: Flemish botanist-physician Matthias de Lobel (b. 1538) on Mar. 3 in Highgate, London, England. Spanish soldier-historian Garcilaso de la Vega (b. 1539) in Cordoba. Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (b. 1543) on June 1 (cancer) (syphilis?). English bishop Thomas Bilson (b. 1547) on June 18; buried in Westminster Abbey. Spanish "Don Quixote" writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (b. 1547) on Apr. 23 in Madrid: "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush" - same day as Shakespeare? Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi (b. 1548) on Aug. 7; dies after completing several projects bequeathed to him by Andrea Palladio after his 1580 death, incl. Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza. Irish leader Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (b. 1550) on July 20 in Rome. English geographer Richard Hakluyt (b. 1552). German chemist Andreas Libavius (b. 1555) on July 25 in Coburg. French statesman-chef Guillaume Fouquet de la Varenne (b. 1560) on Dec. 7. German alchemist Andreas Libavius (b. 1560) on July 25. Italian anatomist Giulio Casserio (b. 1561). English #1 superstar poet-playwright-nomenclator ("The Bard of Avon") William Shakespeare (b. 1564) on Apr. 23 (his birthday?) (St. George's Day) in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire (fever); leaves 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems et al.; coined 6.7K (3K?) English words; his vocabulary was 17K-29K words, and he used 7K+ different words only once; Anglican Archdeacon Richard Davies of Lichfield, who had known him later wrote that he had been a secret (illegal) Roman Catholic; his last will and testament leaves the bulk of his estate to his daughter Susanna and her husband; leaves his "second best bed with the furniture [bedclothes]" to his wife; his lit. work isn't mentioned in his will; he is buried in the same place where he had been christened, Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon; a monument to him is erected above his tomb in 1623; his epitaph is "Curst be he that moves my bones", keeping him from being buried in Westminster Abbey?; his grave marker shows him holding a bag of grain, which is changed to a quill in 1747; in 2001 the Journal of Science pub. an analysis of clay pipe fragments dug up from his garden, revealing residues of marijuana, cocaine, and myristic acid; he died from mercury poisoning from treatment for syphilis? Italian scientist Lodovico delle Colombe (b. 1565). English impresario Philip Henslowe (b. 1550) on Jan. 6. English Baptist co-founder Thomas Helwys (b. 1575) in Newgate Prison. English playwright Francis Beaumont (b. 1584). Dutch mariner Jacob Le Maire (b. 1585) on Dec. 22; dies at sea en route from Batavia to Amsterdam. English-born Am. divine Alexander Whitaker (b. 1585) in Va. (drowns while crossing the James River). Japanese shogun Iyeyasu on Apr. 17.

1617 - The Mad Mustafa I Osman II Year in Turkey?

Ottoman Sultan Mad Mustafa I (1591-1639) Ottoman Sultan Osman II (1604-22) HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) Samuel Coster (1579-1665) Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) Martin Opitz (1597-1639) Robert Fludd (1574-1637) Willebrord Snell (1580-1626) Theophile de Viau (1590-1626) Faust Vrancic (1551-1617) 'Machinae Novae' by Faust Vrancis (1551-1617), 1595 Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) 'Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus' by Peter Paul Rubens 'Four Negro Heads' by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), 1617

1617 The Indian Plague of 1617-18 in New England wipes out 90% of the pop., causing James I of England to give thanks to "God Almighty in his great goodness and bounty toward us" for sending "this wonderful plague among the salvages"; the Pilgrims see their chance? On Jan. 27 English academic-clergyman George Langbaine the Elder (1609-58), provost of Queen's College, Oxford U. records in his collected notes that John Shurle has a patent from Abraham Lake, bishop of Bath and Wells and vice-chancellor of Oxford U. for the position of univ. ale-tester, with the duty to visit every ale brewery in town and sample their wares, receiving a fee of 1 gal. of strong ale and 2 gal. of strong wort. In Jan. Duke Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy obtains the help of French troops to free the the town of Alba in the Piedmont from the Spanish; Louis XIII's sister Christine Marie marries the duke's son Victor Amadeus I in 1619. On Mar. 14 English recorder (since Nov. 16, 1616) Thomas Coventry is knighted and appointed solicitor gen., beginning his rise in the English judicial system. On Mar. 14 James I makes his only return to Scotland, reaching Edinburgh on May 16, being warmly welcomed by the Scots only to be told how shabby they dress and being snubbed by his English companions; he tactlessly lectures the Scottish parliament on the superiority of English civilization, then after less than 3 mo. of mainly hunting and feasting heads back by the west coast route, arriving in Windsor on Sept. 12; Queen Anne stays in England due to poor health with her momma's boy Prince Charles, which keeps him without a clue about Scotland after he becomes king - Sean Connery will get even later? On Mar. 18 after arriving in Macao on July 20, 1597 and moving to Nanjing in Mar. 1600, working with Matteo Ricco before traveling with him to Peiping on Jan. 24, 1601 and working as an astronomer to correct the Chinese calendar, Spanish Jesuit missionary Father Diego de Pantoja (Didaco Pantoia) (1571-1618) is tried in Peiping as an enemy of the Chinese astronomers and expelled, settling in Macao for the rest of his life. In Mar. 22-y.-o. Pocahontas (b. 1595) dies at Gravesend after a lingering illness before she can return to Va.; meanwhile a pestilence decimates the 30-some Wampanoag villages back on the E shore of Narragansett Bay, just in time for the Mayflower Pilgrims to move in? On Apr. 24 Concino Concini, Marquis d'Ancre (b. 1575), the Queen Regent's favorite is killed resisting arrest (assasinated?) on orders of young Louis XIII after bishop Achille de Harlay de Sancy (1581-1646), pres. of the Paris parliament plots against him. On May 27 Bavaria breaks from the Catholic League and forms its own league with Bamberg, Eichstadt, Wurzburg, and Ellwangen (until 1626). On June 5 Ferdinand of Styria (1578-1637) (later HRE Ferdinand II) becomes king of Bohemia (until Feb. 15, 1637). On Nov. 22 sultan (since 1603) Ahmed I (b. 1590) dies of typhus, and his insane brother "Mad" Mustafa I (1591-1639) becomes Ottoman sultan #15 (until 1618) after being fetched from his cage; he rules 3 mo., then in Mar. is deposed and replaced by his nephew, Ahmed I's eldest son, 14-y.-o. Osman II (1604-22) (until May 20, 1622), who becomes Ottoman sultan #16 (until 1622); too bad, he enjoys archery practice on live page boys, but he turns into an able ruler and multilingual poet, becoming the first sultan to try to get rid of the Janissaries, closing their coffee shops to stifle conspiracies, and planning on recruiting a new ethnic Turkic army; too bad, closing the coffeeshops isn't a strong enough measure, and they get wind of his plans and conspire against him bigtime. Louis XIII forces his mother Marie de' Medici into retirement and begins to rule France. The Swedish-Russian War ends with the Treaty of Stolbova, and Sweden becomes supreme ruler of the Baltic Sea; Gustavus Adolphus II recognizes Tsar Michael I, returns Novgorod, and obtains E Karelia (Carelia) and Ingria, cutting Russia off from the Baltic. Sir Francis Bacon is made Lord Keeper. Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition reaches the mouth of the Orinoco River, and burns the settlement of San Tomas, then gets pissed-off at not discovering any gold and attacks Spanish vessels carrying gold and silver from Mexico, which ends when his men mutiny - that's some bad hat Walter? The Dutch buy Goree Island (off Cape Verde) from the natives. The first English convicts are sent into servitude in the English colonies; the first church is built in Jamestown. "Stuart collars" come into fashion for men and women in Britain. Chinese Emperor Taizu places a death penalty on tobacco use in Mongolia. Francois Citois (1576-1652) records an epidemic of lead colic (colica pictonum) in Poitou. On Sept. 23 the humanist Duytsche (First Nederduytsche) Academie is founded in Amsterdam by Dutch playwright Samuel Coster (1579-1665) (until 1637). The Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (Fruitbearing Society) lit. society is founded in Weimar by German poet Martin Optiz von Boberfeld (1597-1639) to copy the language standardization program of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (founded 1582); in 1635 France founds their own clone. Spanish priest St. Joseph Calasanctius (1556-1648) founds the Piarists (Fathers of Pious Schools) in Rome for the education of the poor. German organist-composer Heinrich Schutz (Schütz) (1585-1672) becomes kapellmeister of the electoral chapel in Dresden (until 1672). Science: Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snell(ius) (Willebrord Snel van Royen) (1580-1626) first describes a method for surveying by triangulation, taken from ancient Greek mathematician Eratosthenes (-276 to -194); he also uses 96-sided polygons to improve the value of pi from 2 to 7 decimal places. Galileo's collaborator Benedetto Castelli uses a telescope to determine that Mizar, one of the two stars in the Big Dipper is a binary; in 1890 Mizar A is discovered to be a binary, followed in 1908 by Mizar B, followed in 2009 by Alcor, making it a sextuplet group. Nonfiction: John Calvin (1509-64), Collected Works (posth.) (Geneva). Fynes Morison (1566-1630), An Itinerary: Containing His Ten Years Travel Through the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Bohemia, Switzerland, Netherland, Denmark, Poland, Italy, Turkey, France, England, Scotland and Ireland (3 vols.); vol. 4 pub. in 1903; first mention of the term "merry Christmas". John Swetnam, The Arraignment of Women; a misogynistic pamphlet, inviting women to respond for their gender; Rachel Speght (1597-1630) responds with A Mouzell for Melastomus, the first English feminist polemic pub. under a real name? Marco Antonio de Dominis (1560-1624), De Republica Ecclesiastica; how the papacy has corrupted the Roman Catholic Church. Robert Fludd (1574-1637), Tractatus Theologo-Philosophicus; Utriusque Cosmi Maioris Salicet et Minoris Metaphysica (1617-9). John Napier (1550-1617), Rabdologia (Gr. "rabdos" = rod, staff); mechanical systems for performing arithmetic. Willebrord Snell (1580-1626), Eratosthenes Batavus; measuring the Earth using triangulation the Eratosthenes way. Art: Jacques Callot (1592-1635), The Giant Tifeo Beneath Mount Ischia (print). Domenichino (1581-1641), Diana's Hunt (1616-7). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), A Study of Four Negro Heads in Brussels and Malibu; not bad for an apprentice of Rubens? Guido Reni, The Deeds of Hercules (1617-21). Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1617-8). Music: Jean-Baptiste Besard (1567-1618), Novus Partus. Biagio Marini (1594-1663), Musical Events (sonata for solo violin). Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Banchetto Musicale (Musical Banquet); the first dance suite, containing 20 variations; listen. Plays: Gerbrand Bredero (1585-1618), De Spaansche Brabander. Pieter Hooft (1581-1647), Warenar; comedy adapted from Plautus' "Aulularia". Theophile de Viau (1590-1626), Pyramus et Thisbe (tragedy in verse); lovers in Babylon; basis of "Romeo and Juliet"? Thomas Middleton (1580-1627) and William Rowley (1585-1626), A Fair Quarrel (comedy). Novels: Anon., Chin P'ing Mei (Gold Plum Vase); first realistic social novel pub. in China. Births: English royalist antiquary-alchemist-politician (Freemason) Elias Ashmole (d. 1692) on May 23 in Lichfield, Staffordshire. French Baroque painter Eustache Lesueur (Le Sueur) (d. 1655) on Nov. 19 in Paris; great-uncle of Jean-Francois Lesueur (1760-1837). German elector Palatine Charles I Louis (d. 1680) on Dec. 22; 2nd son of "Winter King" Frederick V and Princess Elizabeth (daughter of James I of England). German poet Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau (d. 1679) on Dec. 25 in Breslau, Silesia. Dutch genre painter Gerard ter Borch (Terburg) (Torborch) (d. 1681) in Dec. in Zwolle, Overjissel; son of Gerard ter Borch the Elder (1583-1662). Spanish Baroque painter Bartolome (Bartolomé) Esteban Murillo (d. 1682) in Dec. in Seville (Pilas?). English Cambridge Platonist philosopher Ralph Cudworth (d. 1688) in Aller, Somersetshire; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Dutch painter Emanuel de Witte (d. 1692) in Alkmaar; known for his mastery of perspective and light. Italian Jesuit mathematician Paolo Casati (Paulus Casatus) (d. 1707) in Piacenza; family is from Milan. Deaths: Italian mathematician Bernardino Baldi (b. 1533) on Oct. 12 in Urbino. Scottish judge Sir John Skene (b. 1543). Italian philosopher Giovanni Botero (b. 1544). Spanish philosopher Francisco Suarez (b. 1548). Scottish mathematician John Napier (b. 1550) - the original captain's log? Croatian humanist scholar Faust Vrancic (b. 1551) on Jan. 17 in Venice. Italianu physician-botanist Prospero Alpini (b. 1553) on Feb. 6 in Padua. Italian astronomer-cartographer Giovanni Antonio Magini (b. 1555) on Feb. 11 in Bologna. French-born English miniature painter Isaac Oliver (b. 1556) on Oct. 2 in London. Austrian prince-bishop of Salzburg (1587-1612) Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (b. 1559) on Jan. 16 in Burg Hohenwerfen (imprisoned for life). French-born English portraitist Isaac Oliver (b. 1565) in Oct. French composer Jean-Baptiste Besard (b. 1567). Japanese emperor #107 (1586-1611) Go-Yozei (b. 1572) on Sept. 25. Italian politician Concino Concini, marquis d'Ancre (b. 1575) on Apr. 24 in Paris (killed for resisting arrest) (executed by orders of Louis XIII?). English travel writer Thomas Coryat (b. 1576) in Surat, India (dysentery). Ottoman sultan (1603-17) Ahmed I (b. 1590) on Nov. 22 (typhus). Am. Indian princess "Frisky" Pocahontas (b. 1595) in Mar. in Gravesend, England at age 22.

1618 - The Ditched-Off Defenestrated Off Comes Sir Walter Know-it-all's Head Into a Can, In Comes the Murderous Thirty Years' War Year?

Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice (1582-1649) William Slawata of Chlum (1572-1652) Count Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy (1571-1621) Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) Canned Raleigh Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625) Count Ernst von Mansfeld (1580-1626) Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629) Marquise de Rambouillet (1588-1665) Incomparable Julie (1607-71) Teophilus Schweighardt, 1618 Queen's House, Greenwich, 1618 Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1653) 'Old Woman Frying Eggs' by Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), 1618

1618 On Feb. 19 the Peace of Madrid is ratified, ending the war between Venice and Austria. On May 23 Galileo Galilei sends a Letter to Archduke Leopold of Austria, along with telescopes and his treatise on sunspots. On May 23 after they can't stand the thought of fiercely Roman Catholic Ferdinand of Styria (future HRE Ferdinand II) ruling Bohemia, the Ultraquist Bohemian Revolt against the Hapsburgs, led by Count Matthias von Thurn begins with the Second Defenestration of Prague, when some Protestant rebels throw Roman Catholic regents Jaroslav Borzita (Borita) (Borsita) of Martinice (Martinic) (Martinitz) (1582-1649) and William Slawata (Schlabata) (Vilem Slavata) of Chlum (1572-1652) (members of the Bohemian royal council) from a window in Hradcany Castle in Prague into a manure pile, precipitating the cannon and gunpowder filled cool-to-be-cruel Thirty (30) Years' War (ends May 15, 1648); the Imperial Army under CIC field marshal Baron Charles Bonaventure (Karl Bonaventura) de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy (1571-1621) enters Bohemia to suppress the rebels. Oh come let us adore him, Christ the White Man's Lord? On Sept. 6-25 the Great Comet of 1618 (one of three this year) appears in the skies over Europe, causing Millennium Fever to whip up, esp. with the Puritans of Leiden, Holland, who use it as their excuse to throw caution to the wind and travel to survival-of-the-fittest North Am. to plant a godly English civilization, while the rest of the Euro Christians begin the apocalyptic super-cruel Thirty Years' War (ends 1648); in England the comet is used to diss the king's proposed marriage alliance with Spain; you had to be there, but the intoxicating power of the new King James Bible over all English Bible-thumpers actually makes them think they are the Chosen People, with a language not tracing back to Rome and Roman popery, with the butchery of the greedy Roman Catholics in South Am. proving that their brand of white is right; in 1662 Phineas Pratt writes "In the year 1618 there appeared a blazing star over Germany that made the wise men of Europe astonished there." On Nov. 13 the Synod of Dort (Dordrecht) convenes in Dordrecht to settle the differences between the Calvinists and Arminians (free-will believers), followers of Jacobus Arminius (Jako Hermanszoon) (1560-1609), and next May 9 after 154 meetings ends up expelling the Arminians from the Dutch Reformed Church. How WASP North America became a Christian nation? Prominent British MP Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629) becomes head of the cash-poor, land-rich Virginia Co.a nd institutes the "headright" policy, offering anybody who buys a share in the co. and comes to sandy Virginia 50 free acres, plus another 50 for any indentured servants (7-year term) he brings; this becomes a custom with proprietors in Maryland and other southern and middle colonies; the original Va. settlers got 100 acres. On Sept. 26 after the united armies of the Ottomans and Tartars are defeated by the Persians under Shah Abbas I near Sultaniyeh (140 mi. NW of Tehran), causing the Ottomans to end all squabbles over their boundaries and confirm their 1612 treaty; too bad, the Turks don't wait long to renew their war. On Oct. 29 (Thur. Old Style) after returning to England Sir Walter Raleigh (b. 1552) finds that the Spanish govt. is demanding his death, causing his 1603 death sentence to be restored; after he "tooke a pipe of tobacco a little before he went to the scaffolde", he is beheaded in the Tower for treason; henceforth he can only be found in a can - the mean old king never did like that tobacco stuff? In Oct. the Duke of Lerma is removed from power after obtaining a cardinal's hat in Mar. Richelieu is ordered into exile at Avignon for intriguing with Queen Mother Maria de' Medici. Insane Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia dies, and his possessions pass to his son-in-law John Sigmund (regent during Albert's insanity in the latter part of his reign) through marriage, and he is proclaimed duke; Brandenburg and Prussia begin fusing. Count Ernst von Mansfeld (1580-1626) occupies Pilsen for the Protestant Union. Poland signs a two-year truce with Sweden, and a 14-year truce with Turkey. After failing to get Tuscany to invade Lebanon for five years, the situation finally cools down enough for Fakhr al-Din II to return to Lebanon, and he goes on to get even with Youssif Sifa and recover his lands, and permits Jesuits and Roman Catholic nuns to open schools. James I imposes bishops on the Presbyterian church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England; the move is deeply unpopular. Russia makes peace with Poland. Nurhachi makes his move, declaring war against Chinese emperor (since 1573) Ming Shen Zong and proclaiming seven grudges to Heaven, occuping Fushun and Qinghe in Liaodong, then pulling out after killing Ming gen. Zhang Chengyin and setting up a govt. with local Han Chinese assistance. Prince Philip William of Orange (b. ?) dies, and is succeeded as prince of Orange by his Roman Catholic younger brother Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625). Ferdinand of Styria becomes king of Hungary. Baron Reachea IV dies, and Chettha II becomes king of Cambodia (until 1622). The Scottish Kirk Gen. Assembly in Perth issues the Five Articles of Perth, attempting to change from the Presbyterian to Episcopalian form of org. so that James I/VI can rule the churches in England and Scotland the same way as head of the church; a civil war in the Scottish church results, which lasts until 1690; meanwhile clan war rocks the Scottish Highlands. The Moroccan army returns from the middle Niger region and Timbuktu, leaving only some garrisons in important towns; a few decades later the descendants, known as the Arma become overlords of Timbuku (until the early 19th cent.), putting down constant revolts. Lord Delaware (b. 1577) receives complains of the tyrannical actions of his Va. deputy Samuel Argall, sets sail for Va., dies on the voyage, and is buried at sea. John Tradescant the Elder (1577-1638) journeys to Russia with Sir Dudley Digges, and leaves a journal for posterity. French explorer Paul Imbert discovers Timbuktu. The Dutch West African Co. (Dutch West India Co. on the Gold Coast of West Africa) is founded. The town of Cordoba, Mexico is founded by Mexico viceroy guess who? Dutch privateer Jan Janszoon (1570-1641) from Haarlem is captured by Barbary pirates, taken to Algiers, and converts to Islam, sailing with famous Dutch-born corsair Sulayman Rais (Slemen Reis) and changing his name to Murad (Murat) Reis, operating from the port of Sale (Salé), Morocco until 1627. Playwright Ben Jonson begins a walking tour of Scotland. Anthony Van Dyck becomes a member of the Antwerp guild of painters. Puritan Separatists Edward Winslow (1595-1655) and William Brewster (1567-1644) pub. a religious tract in Leyden, Holland critical of King James I and his bishops, causing the king to order Brewster's arrest and send agents to Holland; Brewster goes into hiding, causing deacon John Carver and Robert Cushman (1577-) to become the leaders of the Separatists in negotiating with London officials to found a colony in North Am. Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet (1588-1665) founds her literary salon in Paris in the rebuilt Hotel Pisani, designed with suites of small rooms for private er, talk, becoming known as the Hotel de Rambouillet, which is a main social center until 1650; meanwhile her daughter Julie Luciana d'Angennes (1607-71), AKA the Incomparable Julie is groomed to fill her slippers. Architecture: The Teatro Farnese in Parma, Italy opens. The Queen's House in Greenwich (begun 1616) is finished. Aston Hall in Birmingham, England is begun (finished 1635). Science: Garcia de Sylva Figuera, ambassador of Philip II of Spain visits Persepolis in Iran, and becomes the first to suggest that the funny wedge markings might be a lost form of writing (cuneiform) - here's some positive feedback? Nonfiction: Robert Balfour, Commentarii in Organum Logicum Aristotelis. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), Sixty-Two Theosophic Epistles (1618-24). Martin Boehme, Ein Neu Buch von Bewehrten Rosz-Arzteneyen; veterinary manual. Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Biblica Hebraica cum Paraphrase Chaldee et Commentariis Rabbinorum (2 vols.); his magnum opus; a Rabinnical Bible. King James I (1566-1625), Declaration of Sports; orders it read in all English churches to encourage healthy enjoyment of fun and games on Sunday, outraging Puritans - so that's why they call Sunday football heroes jocks? Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Epitome Astronomia Copernicanae (The Epitome of Copernican Astronomy); a textbook on astronomy which describes it in modern terms, replacing scholastic mumbo-jumbo with observation, translation into numbers, and use of mathematical models to form hypotheses which "save the appearances" and describe the true motions of the planets and their causes, which had been hidden in "God's pandects"; those who can penetrate his shrouded Latin prose get a shock; Kepler's salary, which is paid only irregularly before the Thirty Years' War, is hardly paid at all; his mommy is charged with w itchcraft during one of the many German witch hunts, and narrowly escapes execution; meanwhile, the Catholics keep persecuting him for not worshiping images and saints, and even his fellow Lutherans in Linz exclude him from their Evening Meal because he doesn't believe in God's omnipresence; "Suffering along with many brothers for the sake of religion and for the glory of Christ by enduring harm and disgrace, by leaving one's house, fields, friends, and home, I would never have believed all of this could be so agreeable." (Kepler) Royal College of Physicians (London), Pharmacopoeia Londinensis. Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Natural History of the Swiss Landscape. Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens (Daniel Mogling), The Mirror of the Wisdom of the Rosicrucians (Frankfort-am-Main). John Stow and E. Howes, A Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles. Art: Giovanni Bernini (1598-1680), Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (sculpture) (1618-9). Jerome Duquesnoy the Elder, Manneken Pis (Dutch "Little Pissing Man") Fountain (1619?) (bronze sculpture); becomes the symbol of Brussels; in 1965 it is switched with a replica so it can be kept safe in the city museum. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Battle of the Amazons. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), An Old Woman Cooking Eggs (Vieja Friendo Huevos). Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Opella Nova, Geistlicher Concerten. Plays: Guillen de Castro y Bellvis, Comedies (1618-21). John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Humorous Lieutenant (comedy). Births: Italian Jesuit priest-mathematician-physicist Francesco Maria Grimaldi (d. 1663) on Apr. 2. in Bologne. Swiss field marshal Henrik Horn (d. 1693) on May 22. French architect Nicolas-Francois (Le Grand) (the Great) Blondel (d. 1686) on June 15 in Ribemont?; grandfather of Jacques-Francois "Le Petit" Blondel (1705-74). Dutch Baroque portrait painter (in England) Sir Peter Lely (Pieter van der Faes) (d. 1680) on Sept. 14 in Soest, Westphalia, Prussia; moves to London in 1641; knighted in 1680; paints Charles I, Charles II, and Oliver Cromwell; introduces the mezzotint to Britain; first English painter to leave an immense body of work. Indian Mughal emperor #6 (1658-1707) (Muslim) Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb (Aurungzeb) (d. 1707) AKA Alamgir ("Universe-seizer") in Dahod; 3rd son and 6th child of Shah Jahan (1592-1666) and Mumtaz Mahal. English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks (d. 1641). Dutch atty. (first in North Am.) (namesake of Yonkers, N.Y.) Adriaen Cornelissen "Jonkheer" ("gentleman") van der Donck (d. 1655) in Breda. English "stone walls do not a prison make" Cavalier Poet Richard Lovelace (pr. like loveless) (d. 1657) in Woolwich; educated at Gloucester Hall, Oxford; brother of Francis Lovelace (1621-75). English Quaker leader James Naylor (Nayler) (d. 1660) in Ardsley, Yorkshire. Dutch still-life painter Abraham Vosmaer (d. 1661). English "The Mistress", "The Four Ages of England" poet-essayist Abraham Cowley (d. 1667) in London; educated at Westminster School, and Trinity College, Cambridge. Dutch landscape painter Louis Elsevier (d. 1675). English "Glossographia" lexicographer (Roman Catholic) Thomas Blount (d. 1679) in Bordesley, Tardebigge, Worcestershire. French explorer Medart (Médart) Chouart de Groseilliers (d. 1696). British col. Thomas Blood (d. 1680) in County Meath, Ireland; known for his ruffianism, incl. trying to steal the crown jewels from the Tower in 1671. Japanese Confucian scholar-historian Hayashi Shunsai (d. 1680). Deaths: English benefactress Dorothy Wadham (b. 1535) on May 16 in Edge, Branscombe, Devon. Am. Indian chief Powhatan (b. 1547); father of Pocahontas. Italian "bel canto" composer-singer Giulio Caccini (b. 1551) on Dec. 10 in Florence; leaves Ave Maria, which doesn't become a hit until the 1990s. English know-it-all explorer-writer-courtier Sir Walter Raleigh (b. 1552) on Oct. 29 in London (beheaded); last words: "This is a sharp medicine, but it is a physician for all diseases and miseries", followed by "Strike, man, strike!"; his wife Bess has his head embalmed, and carries it with her the rest of her life, after which their son Carew has it buried with them in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. Prussian duke #2 (1568-1618) Albert Frederick (b. 1553) on Aug. 28. English explorer Sir James Lancaster (b. 1554) in May. French cardinal-theologian Jacques Davy Duperron (b. 1556) on Sept. 5 in Batignolles (Paris). English poet John Davies of Hereford (b. 1565) in July. Carmelite nun Barbe Jeanne Acarie (b. 1566) on Apr. 18 in Pontoise, Ile-de-France; beatified by Pope Pius VI in 1791. Spanish Jesuit missionary Father Diego de Pantoja (b. 1571) in Jan. in Portuguese Macao, China. English dramatist George Wilkins (b. 1576). English fussbucket Thomas West, 3rd baron de la Warr (b. 1577); dies at sea en route to Va. Dutch poet-playwright Gerbrand Bredero (b. 1585).

1619 - The Touch the Tip of Democracy House of Burgesses Year? A century after Luther's Theses and Leonardo da Vinci's death, the Thirty Years' War, the first modern war, a collection of little wars that eventually involve every nation in little old hate-filled Europe starts over the Catholic-Protestant Who-Loves-Christ-More Feud? Meanwhile the lucky first black slaves enter the future U.S., and they only have 246 years to wait to be set free and 390 years to put one of their own in the White House as the White American Dream is born on the banks of the James River?

Yummy Marshmallow Toasting 'Winter King' Frederick V of Bohemia (1596-1632) Duke Johann Tserclais Tilly of Bohemia (1559-1632) Sir George Yeardley (1587-1627) Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1633) Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Chirbury (1583-1648) Honorat de Bueil (1589-1670) 'The Doctor Schnabel von Nour' by Charles de Lorme (1584-1678), 1619 Inigo Jones (1573-1652) Banqueting House, Whitehall, 1619-22

1619 Between this year and 1622 the Virginia Co. sends 3.6K settlers to Va., and only 600 survive - this time Darwin may have something? On Mar. 4 James I's Roman Catholic wife Anne of Denmark (b. 1574), queen consort of England dies, missing seeing her daughter Elizabeth Stuart become the Winter Queen. On Mar. 20 HRE Matthias (b. 1557) dies in Vienna, and on Aug. 28 after Maximilian I of Bavaria turns it down, and Johann Georg I of Saxony is talked into voting for him to nullify opposition from the other Protestant electors in return for letting him occupy Silesia and Lusatia, Roman Catholic, Jesuit-educated (strongly anti-Protestant) Austrian Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Styria (king of Bohemia since 1617) is elected HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) (until Feb. 15, 1637); freaking at the thought of a Jesuit marshmallow-toaster running Bohemia, the Bohemian Diet (nobles) declares him deposed on Aug. 26, and elects Protestant League head Frederick (Friedrich) V (1596-1632) (elector of the Rhenish Palatinate of Bavaria since Sept. 19, 1610 and son-in-law of James I of England) as king of Bohemia in his place, and he is crowned in Prague on Nov. 4, going to war with HRE Ferdinand II and Maximilian I of Bavaria (who strikes a deal with Ferdinand in Oct. in exchange for large concessions) and the Catholic League, beginning the Bohemian Revolt of the Czech Estates (ends 1620), the first phase of the Thirty Years' War (ends May 15, 1648), the first "modern" war, and the first heavily influenced by merchants and trade; too bad, Frederick doesn't last long, becoming known as the Winter King, and his Scottish wife Elizabeth Stuart "the Queen of Hearts" as the Winter Queen; meanwhile cagey Maximilian I of Bavaria signs a neutrality treaty with the Protestant Union and occupies Upper Austria as security for his expenses; in Dec. Bavaria agrees to supply its own 7K men to the Catholic army of 21K infantry and 4K cavalry, commanded by frilly collar lover Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (1559-1632), a descendant of the Roman Catholic Brabantine family; meanwhile the Protestant Union army only totals 10K men. In Mar. after Nurhachi unifies all of the Jurchen tribes except the Yehe, and attacks them, causing the Ming emperor to send reinforcments to their aid, the Battle of Sarhu sees 100K Ming troops with Korean reinforcements defeated by 10K Manchus under Nurhachi, who uses superior force concentration tactics to win with cavalry despite the Chinese having matchlocks and cannon, messing up their plans to siege Nurhachi's home base of Hetu Ala. In the spring English explorer Thomas Dermer sails S from Maine in a small boat with Squanto to return to his home at Patuxet, site of modern-day Plymouth, and finds all 2K wiped out by the plague (smallpox?) (viral hepatitis?), then takes Dermer to Nemasket, 15 mi. inland, finding several family members alive and well, then takes him to visit chief Massasoit and his brother Quadequina of the Pokanokets, and talks them into returning the French captives of 1615, then leaves Squanto to spend the winter in Va. - congratulations victor nightingale? On June 10 the Battle of Sablat (Zablati) near Prachatice sees the Roman Catholic army of Charles Bonaventure (Karel Bonaventura) de Longueval, Count of Buquoy (1571-1621) defeat the Protestant army of Count Ernst von Mansfeld, who loses 1.5K infantry plus his baggage train, causing the Bohemians under Count Georg Friedrich of Hohenloe-Neuenstein-Weikersheim (1569-1645) to lift their siege of Budejovice (Budweis), becoming a turning point for the Catholics - Budweiser joke here? In June the Puritan Separatists of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire, England secure a patent from the Virginia Co., and William Bradford sells his house to help pay for the voyage; meanwhile news arrives from Robert Cushman of London that another group of 180 English Separatists from Emden, Holland led by Mr. Blackwell had tried to reach North Am. during the winter, and all but 50 died of the "the flux, and also want of fresh water"; the Dutch get wind of their plans and offer to help them set up a Dutch settlement, and when they refuse secretly work to block them from leapfrogging into an area they want for themselves? The first blacks arrive in the future U.S. one year ahead of the Mayflower? On July 30 after economic success causes Dale's Code to be relaxed, and the Va. Co. promises settlers the "rights of Englishmen", including a rep. assembly, and new gov. Sir George Yeardley (Eardley) (Yardley) (1587-1627) arrives, the House of Burgesses, the first representative assembly in Am. (gov., six councilors, 22 burgesses elected by property owners, all male) meets in the church in Jamestown and deliberates for five days, "sweating & stewing, and battling flies and mosquitoes"; member Walter Shelley dies from the heat; they discuss Indian relations, church attendance, gambling and drunkness, and tobacco prices; the die is cast for the WASP pattern of democratic capitalism for themselves and chattel slavery for blacks?; they hold a Thanksgiving on the banks of the James River on what later becomes Berkeley Plantation, birthplace of Benjamin Harrison; having exported 10 tons of tobacco by this year, the Jamestown colonists can afford to import their first African (Negro) slaves (which are still called indentured servants?) and women, which arrive on the Treasurer and Dutch man-of-war White Lion (captained by English privateers) from Angola in late Aug.; they were originally captured in North Africa by African Muslims, who enslave 1M Euro whites from 1500-1800, and hold slave auctions in Egypt until 1885; they pay for the "20 and odd Negars" "victuale" (food), and for the 90 women brought by another English ship with 120 lbs. of tobacco for each (5 tons); the blacks are slaves captured from the Portuguese slave ship Juan Bautista en route from Angola to Veracruz (there are already 200K African slaves in the Americas); by the 1640s several of the blacks are listed as landowners, indicating they had attained freedom, but after 1640 they begin to be treated as chattel, and outnumber white indentured servants by the 1670s - by which time their ass is grass and their white owners have the lawnmowers? On Aug. 10 after Marie de' Medici runs a power play on her son Louis XIII, causing the latter to recall Richelieu from Avignon to prevent a revolt, and Louis marches his army into Angers and defeats his mother's supporters, the Treaty of Angouleme is signed, ending the conflict. On Sept. 7 Transylvanian Jesuit (St.) Melchior Grodziechi (b. 1582) and Silesian Jesuit (St.) Istvan Pongracz (b. 1584) are tortured, murdered, and mutilated and left unburied for 6 mo. by Calvinist troops of Prince George I Rakoczi in Kosice in modern-day Slovakie after they fail to renounce their faith and are framed on treason by being accused of inviting the Polish army into Kassa - they were proud of their career and excited about their future? On Nov. 10-11 (St. Martin's Day) (night) after joining the Dutch States Army in 1618, La Haye en Touraine, France-born philosopher-mathematician (Roman Catholic) (Rosicrucian) ("Father of Modern Philosophy") Rene (René) Descartes (1596-1650) has divine visions in Neuburg an der Donau, Germany in which he "discovered the foundations of a marvelous science", which later becomes Analytic Geometry, along with his famous dictum "Cogito ergo sum" (Je pense donc je suis), causing him to dedicate his life to the mathematical basis of Nature; in 1620 he leaves the army, returning to the Dutch Repub. in 1628, spending 20 years formulating his philosophical works, laying down a new direction for philosophers with an explanation of mind and matter, besting Roger Bacon and later gaining the title "Father of Modern Thought". On Dec. 23 elector (since 1608) John Sigismund (b. 1572) dies, and George William of Hohenzollern (1595-1640) becomes duke of Prussia and elector of Brandenburg (until Dec. 1, 1640). Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania invades Hungary, allies himself with Count Thurn, captures Pressburg, crosses the Danube, then retreats from Vienna. Philip III of Spain leaves his court at Madrid to visit Portugal, where he contracts a fatal illness. Edward Herbert, Lord Herbert of Chirbury (Cherbury) (1583-1648) is appointed English ambassador to France (until 1624), where he picks up Deism? The Dutch set up a whaling industry on Amsterdam Island. After deciding to turn the Dutch warehouses into a fort, and allowing the English to take the town while he's away on an expedition, Dutch East India Co. gov.-gen. Jan Pieterszoon Coen reconquers Jakarta but burns it down in the process, rebuilding it and founding Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) in Java (modern-day pop. 33.4M/10.7M), which becomes HQ of the spice-is-nice Dutch East India Co. (VOC); he tries unsuccessfully to get the town named Nieuw Hoorn after his hometown, and also tries unsuccessfully to dig canals there like in Amsterdam. The Dutch East India Co. ship Schiedam arrives in Japan, carrying French Huguenot refugee cook's mate Francois Caron (1600-73) (first Frenchman to set foot in Japan?), who goes on to learn Japanese and become their interpreter. The rest of St. Xavier's arm is cut into three pieces by the Jesuits and shipped to Macao, Cochin and Malacca; medical miracles are sure to follow. Virginia tobacco production reaches 20K lbs. this year. The Giro-Bank is founded in Hamburg to improve the "desolate state" of the currency, becoming Germany's first commercial bank. The Jamestown Colony enacts the first law in North Am. ordering farmers to grow Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa); mandatory laws are enacted in Mass. in 1631, Conn. in 1632, and the Chesapeake colonies in the 1700s; in 1631 hemp becomes legal tender in most of the British colonies until the early 1800s. Edmund Gunter becomes prof. of astronomy at Gresham College, London. Dulwich College boarding school for boys in London 4 mi. SE of St. Paul's Cathedral is founded by actor Edward Alleyn (1566-1626) as the College of God's Gift; in 1811 Sir P.F. Bourgeois bequeaths an art gallery; it goes on to become the alma mater of P.G. Wodehouse, Raymond Chandler, and (almost) Dennis Wheatley. Architecture: Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) goes to Rome to work as an asst. to Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the construction of the great canopy (baldacchino) over the main altar in St. Peter's Basilica. Inigo Jones begins the Banqueting House (Hall) in Whitehall, London (finished 1622), which goes on to become the place where Charles I is beheaded in 1649 - I do my little strut on the catwalk? Inventions: Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1633) of Holland, who had become famous throughout Europe as James I's patron in 1604 and HRE Rudolf II's patron in Prague in 1610 invents the first microscope with two convex lenses (or two lenses for that matter). Croatian-born inventor Faust Vrancic (1551-1617) tests Leonaro da Vinci's parachute design by modifying it then jumping from St. Mark's Campanile in Venice; it's just a coincidence that he soon dies? Science: William Harvey announces his discovery of the circulation of the blood at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. Art: Domenichino (1581-1641), Martyrdom of St. Peter the Martyr (1619-21). Charles de Lorme (1584-1678), The Doctor Schnabel von Nour; creates "the look" for a plague doctor, with beaked mask and pie-pan hat. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), The Water-Seller of Seville; Adoration of the Kings. Music: Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), Medoro (opera). Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Psalms. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Cantiones Sacrae. Nonfiction: Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654), Christianopoulis. John Bainbridge, An Astronomical Description of the Late Comet. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), On the Principles of Christianity. Andre Duchesne (ed.), The Gesta Buillelmi of William of Poitiers; first-hand account of the reign of William I the Conqueror; ms. is missing the first and last folios, lost in 1731 in a fire at the Cottonian Library. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Discourse on Comets. Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), De Veritate Religionis Christianae. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Harmonices Mundi (The Harmony of the World); contains his Third Law of Planetary Motion (the squares of the periods of revolution are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances). John Pitts (Pitseus) (1560-1616), Relationum Historicarum de Rebus Anglicis Tomus Primus (De Illustribus Angliae Scriptoribus). Pietro Sarpi, Historia del Concilio Tridentino (History of the Council of Trent) (London); title page dedicated to James I; Marco de Dominis, who brought it to England pockets the royal gift? Christoph Scheiner (1575-1650), Oculus; contains the first accurate diagrams of the human eye, incl. the pupillary near-reflex, and the active nature of accommodation. Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), Classicum Belli Sacri; calls on the Roman Catholic princes of Europe to wage war on Protestants. Francis Tregian (-1619), The FitzWilliam Virginal Book; largest ms. collection of English keyboard music from the 16th-17th cents. to survive to modern times; ends up in the possession of Robert FitzWilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam (1745-1816), who donates it to Cambridge U. Plays: Honorat de Bueil (1589-1670), Les Bergeries (pastoral verse play); original title "Arthenice"; inspired by Virgil et al. Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) and John Fletcher (1579-1625), A King and No King; The Maid's Tragedy. Poetry: John Davies of Hereford (1565-1618), Wit's Bedlam. Georg Rudolf Weckherlin (1584-1653), Oden und Geseinge (2 vols.) (1618-9); dedicated to electress Elizabeth of the Palatinate; based on French Pleiade poetry. Births: Italian mathematician-cardinal Michelangelo Ricci (d. 1682) on Jan. 30 in Rome; friend of Galileo Torricelli. French Hall of Mirrors in Versailles painter ("the greatest French artist of all time" - Louis XIV) Charles Le Brun (d. 1690) on Feb. 24 in Paris; dominant artist of Louis XIV's reign; student of Simon Vouet. Dutch Cape Town cmdr. #1 (1652-62) Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (d. 1677) on Apr. 21 in Culemborg. Dutch painter Philips Wouwerman (d. 1668) on May 24 in Haarlem; student of Frans Hals; his signature white horse appears in almost all of his 1.2K paintings, which are hard to tell apart from those of his younger brothers Pieter Wouwerman (1623-82) and Jan Wouwerman (1629-66) - big wow? Italian Baroque singer-composer Barbara Strozzi (Valle) d. 1664) on Aug. 6. French princess Anne Geneveve of Bourbon-Conde (Bourbon-Condé), Duchess of Longueville (d. 1679) on Aug. 28 in Chateau de Vincennes Prison, where her parents were put for opposing Marie de' Medici's favorite Marshal D'Ancre; only daughter of Henri II de Bourbon, prince of Conde (1588-1646) and 1st wife Charlotte-Marguerite de Montmorency (1594-1650); sister of Louis II of Bourbon, the Great Conde (1621-86) and Armand de Bourbon, prince de conti (1629-66); wife (1642-) of Henri II d'Orleans, duc de Longueville (1595-1663); lover of the duke of La Rochefoucauld (1613-80); educated in the Carmelite convent in Rue St. Jacques, Paris. French economist and statesman (minister of finance, 1661-83) Jean-Baptiste Colbert (d. 1683) on Aug. 29 in Reims; nicknamed "Le Nord" by Madame de Seveigne for his cold unemotional personality; claims to have Scottish ancestry. German poet Philipp von Zesen (d. 1689) on Oct. 8 in Priorau (near Dessau). English Civil War Parliamentarian gen. John Lambert (d. 1684) in the fall in Kirkby Malham (near Skipton), West Riding, Yorkshire. Bohemian gen.-adm.-inventor Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Cumberland (d. 1682) on Dec. 17 in Prague; 3rd son of elector palatine Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart (daughter of Charles I of England). French big-nosed soldier-poet Savinien Cyrano ("from Cyrene") de Bergerac (d. 1655) in Paris; subject of Edmond Rostand's 1897 drama. Chinese Confucian philosopher Wang Fuzhi (Fuchih) (d. 1692) in Hengyang, Hunan; rejects li (rational law) as existing independently of qi (chi) (matter-energy), and becomes popular for his belief that govt. should be for the people not the elite, and that landlords should be taxed. Dutch Baroque painter Willem Kalf (d. 1693) in Rotterdam. Deaths: Italian surgeon-anatomist Hieronymus Fabricius (b. 1537) on May 21 in Padua. Spanish poet Gines Perez de Hita (b. 1545). English miniature painter Nicholas Hilliard (b. 1547) on Jan. 7. English Jesuit missionary Thomas Stephens (b. 1549) in Salcete, Goa, India. English poet Samuel Daniel (b. 1552). Italian painter Lodovico Carracci (b. 1555) on Nov. 13. Bohemian king (1611-9) and HRE (1612-9) Matthias I (b. 1557) on Mar. 20 in Vienna. English poet-historian Samuel Daniel (b. 1562) on Oct. 14 in The Ridge, Beckington (near Devizes), Wiltshire. English Main Plot loser Henry Brooke, 11th baron Cobham (b. 1564) on Feb. 3 (Jan. 24 Old Style) in the Minories, London; dies in a "dingy apartment" 1 year after being released from the nearby Tower of London. English tragedian Richard Burbage (b. 1568) on Mar. 13. English-Scottish queen consort Anne of Denmark (b. 1574) on Mar. 2; her hubby James nearly dies of gastric problems after her death, caused by grief, and her son Prince Charles, who loved to go to masques with her is also freaked bigtime? Italian Roman Catholic philosopher Lucilio Vanini (b. 1585) on Feb. 9 in Toulouse (tongue cut out and burned as a heretic) - some grasses and flowers are happy with only a little water? English colonial gov. of Virginia (1611, 1614-16) Sir Thomas Dale (b. ?) on Aug. 19 in Machilipatnam (near Bantam), India.

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TLW's 1620s (1620-1629) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1620s Historyscope 1620-1629 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629

1620-1629 C.E.

The Why Must We Grow Up So Fast Mayflower Decade? North America becomes a family thang for Protestant Northern Euros, who set up companies right and left to colonize and exploit every square inch of it, and a new snobbish holier-than-thou native aristocracy is born out of English Protestant religious outcasts in New England? The Richelieu Era rocks Europe, which is embroiled in the nasty Roman Catholic v. Protestant Thirty Years' War (ends 1648)? The Duke of Buckingham rides high on James I's royal buns until a sudden exeunt? The Winslow family is on the first boat to Plymouth, why ya walking around like you don't know me? Meanwhile, for the wealthy set in Europe botanical gardens are the new fad? Big Decade for Laughing Cavalier Frans Hals and DJ Jazzy Rubens, er, Sir Rubens, and anything Dutch?

Country Leader From To
England James I (James VI of Scotland) (1566-1625) Mar. 24, 1603 Mar. 27, 1625 James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566-1625)
France Louis XIII of France (1601-43) May 14, 1610 May 14, 1643 Louis XIII of France (1601-43)
Germany HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) Aug. 28, 1619 Feb. 15, 1637 HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637)
Spain Philip III the Pious (1578-1621) Sept. 13, 1598 Mar. 31, 1621 Philip III the Pious (1578-1621)
Sweden Gustavus II Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf) (1594-1632) Oct. 30, 1611 Nov. 6, 1632 Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden (1594-1632)
Russia Tsar Michael I Romanov (1596-1645) Feb. 21, 1613 July 12, 1645 Russian Tsar Michael Romanov (1596-1645)
Papacy Pope Paul V (1550-1621) May 16, 1605 Jan. 28, 1621 Pope Paul V (1550-1621)

1620 - The Touch Your Knees on Plymouth Rock Year? The Mayflower and White Mountain Year?

The Mayflower Plymouth Rock, 1620 'Pilgrims Going to Church' by George Henry Boughton (1833-1905), 1867 William Bradford (1590-1657) Myles Standish (1584-1656) Edward Winslow (1595-1655) John Carver (1576-1621) William Brewster (1568-1644) Massasoit of the Pokanokets (1581-1661) Canonicus of the Narragansetts (1565-1647) Passaconaway of the Pennacooks (1565-1670) Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania (1580-1629) Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg (1599-1655) Father Joseph (Francois Leclerc du Tremblay) (1577-1638) The 1st Duke of Buckingham (1592-1628) and Lady Katherine Manners (-1649) Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666) Juan Pablo Bonet (1573-1633) Niccolo Cabeo (1586-1650) Georg Jenatsch (1596-1639) Battle of Cecora, Sept. 17-Oct. 7, 1620 Stanislaw Zolkiewski of Poland (1547-1620) Archbishop Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638) Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1633) Drebbel Submarine, 1620 'St. Sebastian Cared for by St. Irene' by Trophime Bigot (1579-1650), 1620-30

1620 Pop. of the Am. colonies: 2.3K. The pop. density in Germany is 35 per sq. mi., compared to 6 at the time of Julius Caesar, 160 in 1900, 280 in 1950. The Thirteen Drifty Days, a gigantic snowstorm destroys 90% of the sheep in S Scotland, incl. all 20K in Eksdale Moor. By this year the James River basin from the mouth of the Chesapeake River to within 20 mi. of modern-day Richmond has been settled under the sponsorship of the Virginia Co., which organizes itself into the Council for New England, intending to colonize it, but too bad the Pilgrims beat them to it before the king approves it?; tobacco-hating James I orders the culture of silk (sericulture) in Va., but it is given up by 1670 in favor of more profitable tobacco. As the Pilgrims arrive in Cape Cod in North Am. with a land grant from Charles I to the Plymouth Co. for "Northern Virginia", incl. Long Island, the Euro-induced plague of 1616-9 has greatly reduced the Indian pop. in the region; the closest Indians are the Massachusetts-speaking Pokanokets, head tribe of the Wampanoag Nation, led by sachem (chief) Massasoit ("supreme leader") (Owsamequen) (Woosamequen) (1581-1661), 60 mi. to the SW near modern-day Warren, R.I. (who had been reduced from 12K to 1K pop. and only a few hundred warriors), and the Algonguian Narragansetts to their W (who didn't get the plague, still having 25K pop., incl. 5K warriors), who had recently forced Massasoit to do obeisance to their sachem Canonicus (1565-1647); other tribes incl. the Massachusetts (Mahican) to the N and the Nausets (Cape Cod Indians) on Cape Cod, all of whom are Narrangansett enemies, and sachem-powwow Passaconaway (1565-1670) of the Algonquian Pennacooks (Pennacocks) (Merrimacks) to the N at the mouth of the Merrimack River; the 12K Indians of Cape Cod and surrounding islands in 40 villages (8K on the mainland, 4K on the islands) are later wamped together as the Wampanoags (Wopanaaka); the Pilgrims bring waffles with them after discovering them in Holland. On Feb. 4 a peace treaty is signed by Protestant anti-Hapsburg former prince of Transylvania (1613-29) Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel Bethlen) (1580-1629) and HRE Ferdinand II; on Aug. 25 Gabor becomes uncrowned king of Hungary (until Dec. 31, 1621). On May 16 the up-and-coming Earl of Buckingham marrries Lady Katherine Manners, 19th Baroness de Ros of Helmsley (-1649) over the objections of her daddy the 6th earl of Rutland, whom he pays off by granting him royal monopolies, which gets him into trouble with Parliament, causing him to flip-flop and play dumb; she becomes the duchess of Buckingham. On May 17 the first merry-go-round is observed at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey. In the summer Thomas Dermer returns from Va. to Cape Cod, and finds the Pokanokets full of "inveterate malice to the English" after an English ship had arrived in Narragansett Bay in the spring and massacred a large number after first inviting them into their ship; after Squanto saves him at Nemasket (Plymouth), they go to Martha's Vineyard, where Epenow's men mortally wound him and take Squanto prisoner (his name comes from their god of death Tisquantum, pissing them off, because they are good Indians, worshiping the creator Kietan and familiar spirit Hobbamock, invoked by the shamans called powwows), then giving him to Massasoit at Pokanoket, just in time for the arrival of the you know what; Dermer dies a few weeks later in Va. - shall we say 7:30 at the old oak? On July 3 the German Catholic League (founded 1609) and the German Protestant Union (founded 1608) kiss and make up and sign the Treaty of Ulm, under the terms of which the Protestant Union declares neutrality and drops its support of Frederick V of Bohemia, stabbing him in the back and allowing the Catholic League to throw all its forces at him, starting by relocating to Upper Austria; meanwhile the truce between the Netherlands and Roman Catholic Spain ends (making the English Separatists in Holland who had not gone with the Pilgrims itchy?), and Spain sends troops to the Rhenish Palatinate, which is devastated by Count Tilly despite Maximilian I's treaty with the Protestant Union; England fails to help the Protestant League, although English volunteers join Frederick's army; Lower Austria submits to HRE Ferdinand II, and Bohemia is next on the list. White English America starts as a church relocation project to a hostile land where they aren't invited or wanted? On July 15 the 60-ton 50-ft. Speedwell, captained by double-agent "Mr. Reynolds" sails from Delfshaven, Holland (S of Leiden) with the Pilgrims (whose name comes from 1 Peter 2:11: "Beloved, I beseech you as pilgrims and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh that wage war against your soul") (they originally called themselves the Saints) after a teary display and prayer by pastor John Robinson (1576-1625) (who stays) that is talked about by the residents for years, stops in Dartmouth on Aug. 17 for repairs, gets stuck for days with low winds, then attempts an Atlantic voyage, but thanks to the jealous Dutch the capt. had installed large new masts which, when loaded with sail, make it leak, fooling the landlubbers and causing them to return and dock in Plymouth, where some give up and return to Leiden, while the rest transfer to the 90-ft. 180-ton Mayflower, a small merchant vessel (appraised value £1K) used in the English-French wine trade (cap. 180 casks or tuns); they leave at the wrong time of year, facing constant westerly gales; the 102 passengers incl. only 41 Puritan Separatists from Leiden, plus 61 "strangers" recruited and foisted on them unexpectedly by their financiers, the Co. of Merchant Adventurers, 70 Puritan-leaning investors from London, led by ironmonger Thomas Weston (1584-1647), who obtain a new patent for them for the "northern parts of Virginia" (at the mouth of the Hudson River), then sandbag them and change the terms at the last minute, making them work for them six days a week for the next seven years instead of only four, and appoint haughty "purchasing agent" Christopher Martin (1582-1621) to go with them as Mayflower gov. and run things; other strangers incl. troublemaker (murderer) John Billington (1580-1630), and Stephen Hopkins (1578-1644), who had been in the 1609 Bermuda shipwreck and narrowly escaped hanging for attempted mutiny by pleading for his life. On Aug. 7 the Battle of Le-Ponts-de-Ce (Ponts-de-Cé) sees Marie de' Medici's troops eeasily defeated by those of her son Louis XIII, ending the civil war in France, becoming known as the Le Ponts-de-Ce Joke; the French conflict with Savoy over Saluzzo remains unresolved until 1601. On Sept. 16 (Sept. 6 Old Style) the Mayflower sails from Plymouth, England, captained by dwarfish (less than 5 ft.?) red-haired soldier Myles (Miles) "Capt. Shrimp" Standish (1584-1656) (who takes his wife Rose along) (selected after the Pilgrims reject John Smith as too bossy and expensive) and mastered since 1609 by 50-y.-o. Christopher Jones (1570-1622) of Rotherhithe on the Thames River in C SE London, with 102 passengers and a crew of 27 incl. Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) (who had been captured by the Pacha of Nalbrits when fighting the Turks - first American encounter with a Muslim tyrant?), pilot and first mate John Clark (1575-1623), Robert Coppin (1590-?) (pilot and first mate?), barber-surgeon Giles Heale (-1653), and 21-y.-o. cooper (prime candidate for conversion and marriage?) John Alden (1599-1687); the True Blue Puritans from Leiden are led by elder and spiritual leader William Brewster (1568-1644) (returned from hiding), fustian (corduroy worker) William Bradford (1590-1657) (who coins the term Pilgrims, because they had been toughened up by their tribulations in England and weaned from England by their stay in Holland, hence can't be discouraged into going home again?), wealthy Pilgrim deacon (voyage organizer) John Carver (1576-1621) (along with his wife Katherine and five servants), Stephen Hopkins (1581-1644) (the only Mayflower passenger with prior New World experience, incl. bein shipwrecked in Bermuda in 1609 and serving several years in Jamestown Colony under Capt. John Smith) and his indentured servants Edward Leister (Liester) and Edward Doty (Doten) (1598-1655) (who get in Plymouth's first duel on June 18, 1621), the Winslow Family (direct ancestors of TLW?), brothers Gilbert Winslow (1600-1631) and Edward Winslow (1595-1655) (one of the 15 Pilgrims who brought servants or children, and one of eight who had the honorable distinction of Mister), and Edward's wife (since 1618) Elizabeth Barker Winslow (1595-1621), plus two dogs (a male spaniel and a mastiff bitch) seeking religious liberty yada yada yada; the ship carries three copies of the Geneva Bible, which they prefer to the state-backed King James Bible; during the voyage a sailor (who had been mocking them for seasickness and God gave him what's coming to him?) and young servant die, while everybody suffers from scurvy; three women are preggers, Elizabeth Hopkins (1585-1644) (who bears son Oceanus on the voyage), Susanna White (-1675) (who on Nov. 25 bears son Peregrine White (1620-1704) aboard the Mayflower in Provincetown Harbor, becoming the first English child born in New England, and after William White dies on Feb. 21, 1621 and Elizabeth Winslow dies on Mar. 24, 1621 she marries Edward Winslow on May 12, 1621, becoming the first bride in Plymouth), and Mary Allerton (1616-99), who has a stillborn son aboard the anchored Mayflower on Dec. 22, and dies in Plymouth on Nov. 28, 1699, becoming the last surviving Mayflower passenger; Edward Winslow's brother John Winslow (1597-1674) (TLW's ancestor?) arrives on Nov. 9, 1621 on the Fortune, and on Oct. 12, 1624 marries Mayflower passenger Mary Chilton; after ignorantly bucking the Gulf Stream the whole way, averaging 2 mph, and straying off course in a storm, they head S then encounter rough waters, and after "We could not now take time to further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer" (William Bradford) (they run out of beer after daily rations of 1 gal. each?) they head back N, and finally on Thur. Nov. 19 (Nov. 9 Old Style) after 65 days at sea arrive at the "back side" of fishhook-shaped Cape Cod (James), 220 mi. N of their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River, and set out S to reach it, but after attempting the treacherous Pollack Rip between the S end of the fishook and Nantucket Island they give up and return to Cape Cod in "the northern parts of Virginia". On Aug. 7 the mother of Johannes Kepler is arrested for witchcraft - putting the fear into him? On Aug. 8 there is a mysterious rain of frogs in Weil der Stadt. On Aug. 18 emperor (since July 19, 1572) Wanli (b. 1563) dies after the longest reign of a Ming emperor, and on Aug. 28 his eldest son Taichang ("grand prosperity") (Zhu Changluo) (1582-1620) becomes Ming emperor #14 of China; too bad, on Sept. 26 he dies of diarrhea, and on Oct. 1 his illiterate eldest son Tianqi ("heavenly opening") (Zhu Youxiao) (1605-27) becomes Ming emperor #15 of China (until Sept. 30, 1627), becoming a puppet and devoting his time to carpentry while eunuch Wei Zhongxian (1568-1627) (most powerful Chinese court eunuch in history?) and his nanny/wet nurse Madame Kei (-1627) take power, locking up the teen emperor's concubines and starving them to death; the Donglin Movement arises to protest the govt., along with several popular uprisings, causing Wei Zhongxian to order the torture and execution of Yang Lian, head of the Donglin Academy in Wuxi. On Sept. 17-Oct. 7 the Battle of Cecora (Tutora or Tsetsora Fields) near Tutora (Iasi) (Jasy) and the Prut Tiver in Moldavia sees a 20K to 60K-man Ottoman-Wallachian army under Iskender Pasha invade Poland and defeat and annihilate a game but smaller 9.6K-man army of Poles and Lithuanians under Stanislaw Zolkiewski (b. 1547), who is KIA. On Oct. 6 a group of anti-Roman Catholic rebels in Ethiopia are crushed by Emperor Susenyos' half-brother Sela Kristos at Mount Amendamit in Gojjan. On Nov. 3 Plymouth Colony is granted a Great Patent. The reason that Bohemians are Catholic? On Nov. 8 the Battle of White Mountain (Weissenberg) near Prague sees the Holy Roman Imperial army under Duke Tilly of Bavaria crush the Bohemian Revolt of the Czech Estates (begun 1619); Frederick V is deposed and flees to The Hague with his wife Elizabeth the Winter Queen, the leading rebels are executed, the Protestant clergy expelled, and Protestantism mercilessly extirpated; the lands of the native nobility are confiscated, and Bohemian independence ended, although Bohemia is saved from being absorbed by Germany; the twelve largest Roman Catholic cannons in Tully's army are named the Twelve Apostles; as Prague is liberated by the Roman Catholics, citizens who want to reveal their true colors kiss the soutanes of Jesuit chaplains; defeated Frederick V of Bohemia earns the epithet "Winter King" since he only lasted one year and four days and was gone with the melting snow, as the Hapsburgs had predicted, and is placed under the imperial ban; in the Thirty Years' War that follows, Catholics attain supremacy at the expense of the devastation of Bohemia; eventually all Bohemians are eventually forced to accept the Catholic faith or emigrate - no wonder they develop that who's minding the store attitude? The original one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind? On Nov. 21 (Sat.) (Nov. 11 Old Style) the Pilgrims drop anchor on Long Point in sheltered Provincetown Harbor on the underside of the tip of the fishook (across Cape Cod Bay from Plymouth), where they stop because of the presence of freshwater streams even though Bradford calls it a "hideous and desolate wilderness" filled with sandhills; on Nov. 21 before disembarking (which they won't do on a Sun.), after the strangers begin grumbling that the religious kooks are getting them in trouble for settling outside the area of their patent, and the Puritans are worried that they need a civil covenant for governing the motley bunch that is not bound by their spiritual covenant, 41 Pilgrim Fathers (all male) (the rest are too sick?) sign the Bible-drenched Mayflower Compact, agreeing that "for the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith and honor of our King and country... do these present solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politick, for our better ordering and preservation... and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal laws... as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience"; thus is layed the foundation for constitutional democracy in America with the first covenant-compact form of govt. since ancient Israel? (a mini-Declaration of Independence?); it is only meant to be temporary; John Carver is chosen as the first (1-year term) gov. of the colony; the first boat with 16 well-armed men lands and collects cedar wood, then returns to the ship to make their first fire in weeks; on Nov. 23 they disembark, and the men fix up their shallop (small boat), which had been disassembled for the voyage, while the women wash clothes in a pond, founding the tradition of Monday as Wash Day in New England; on Nov. 25-27 they make a land expedition of the tip of the fishhook, discovering Pilgrim Spring and Corn Hill (where they steal 36 ears of buried Indian Nauset seed corn, "Some yellow, and some red, and others mixed with blue"), and see their first Indians, 5-6 with a dog, who run), followed on Dec. 6-9 by a shallop expedition in Cold Harbor, discovering Pilgrim Lake, getting frozen feet (hence the name Cold Harbor), stumbling on the Indian grave of a blonde-haired Frenchman and child, then some Indian wigwams, which they loot, and on Dec. 7 finally getting attacked in Eastham by 30 Wampanoag in the First Encounter, who shoot yard-long arrows at them but retreat after being fired on without injuring anybody; on Dec. 16-22 they make a 3rd expedition W (clockwise) across the 65-mi. length of Cape Cod peninsula to the NW end, discovering Clark Island, named for pilot John Clark, and the site of Plymouth, where they don't mention any rock? On Nov. 25 Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg (1599-1655), most beautiful queen in Europe marries Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, bearing Queen Christina in 1626. On Dec. 25 (Dec. 15 Old Style), after 1 mo. of searching for a livable location, 99 mainly sick and scurvy-ridden Old (First) Comers leave Provincetown Harbor, and on Dec. 26 enter Plymouth Harbor, anchoring at Goose Point at the end of Long Beach 1.5 mi. from the 200-ton granite Plymouth Rock at the end of Town Brook, then on Dec. 30 after more exploring found Plimoth (Plymouth) Plantation, the first permanent colony settled by WASP families, protected by 165-ft. Fort Hill, and all conveniently cleared of the 1K-2K Indian pop. by the plague, whose bleached skulls and bones are scattered around, along with who-knows-how-old "memory holes" on roads commemorating historical events; Chief Epenow of Martha's Vineyard assumes that the whites were sent from Virginia to avenge the attack on Thomas Dermer; William Bradford's wife Dorothy May Bradford and 3-y.-o. son John Bradford fall overboard on the moored Mayflower and drown (Puritan suicide?); Mary Chilton (1607-79) allegedly becomes the first female passenger to step ashore at Plymouth, jumping out of the boat and wading ashore onto Plymouth Rock in Thievish Harbor, and on Oct. 12, 1624 she marries Edward Winslow's 3rd brother John Winslow (1597-1674), who was on the ill-fated Speedwell and arrives on Nov. 3, 1621 on the Fortune; on Mon. Dec. 25 (Old Style) (Jan. 4, 1621) they erect the first house frame on Cole's Hill, the hill where they buried their dead the first winter; the Mayflower remains anchored in Plymouth Harbor until next Apr.; the more juicy Massachusetts Bay to the N (future home of Boston) waits for future Puritan squatters; only 72 years to the Salem Witch Trials; the Pilgrims learn the recipe for Boston baked beans from the natives, and add barley to cornbread to make New England brown bread; later after Boston begins exporting rum from the Triangular Trade, molasses are added to baked beans. On Dec. 25 (Old Style) (Jan. 4 New Style) the Pilgrims of the new Plymouth Colony show their contempt for Christmas by working all day. After French nobles stage the 1620 Nobles Revolt against Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu makes peace, reconciling Queen Mother Catherine de' Medici to him. The Roman Catholics of the Valtellina (Valtelline Pass) in N Italy (most important link between Hapsburg Austria and Spanish Hapsburg possessions in Italy), led by Rudolf von Planta rebel and massacre the Protestants of the Grisons League, allowing the Spanish to seize the pass, causing Bern and Zurich to send pastor Georg (Jurg) Jenatsch (1596-1639) with a Protestant force, and they score initial Vs in the Valtelline War (ends 1639), killing Rudolf's father Pompejus, which creates a grudge situation and later backfires. Sweden and Poland go to war, and Gustavus Adolphus occupies Livonia (modern Latvia-Estonia) on the Gulf of Riga. In this decade there is an indigenous indo revolt against the Spanish in the Kagayan Valley of the Philippines. Roman Catholic missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666) comes to China. Patriarch Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638) of Alexandria becomes ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople. Currency inflation begins in Germany (ends 1623). About this year Manchester, England begins manufacturing cotton textiles, going on to become #1 in the world. The first regular shipment of indentured servants arrives in North Am. to work the tobacco plantations in Va.; commercial tobacco growing in England is banned in return for a 1 shilling per lb. duty on Va. tobacco; 40K lbs. are exported this year, and in 1670 Va. and Md. together ship 15M lbs.; in this decade Va. passes Blue Laws, with a penalty of 1 lb. of you guessed it. After the English are slow to adopt it, despite being used since Roman times, Charles I issues a proclamation requiring the bit to be used by cavalry horses instead of the snaffle, and permitting snaffles only for racing and hunting. Oliver Cromwell is denounced for participating in the "disreputable" game of cricket. Peter Paul Rubens is invited to France by Queen Mother Marie de' Medici to help her decorate the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris, and he is commissioned to paint 21 large works commemorating her marriage to snookems, er, Henry IV for 20K ducats. Italian traveler Pietro della Valle, who arrived in Persia in 1618 and was welcomed by Shah Abbas I sends the first known round face short muzzle Persian cats to Europe. Guadalcazar, Mexico is founded. The pro-Habsburg Flemish newspaper Nieuwe Tijdenghen begins pub. in Antwerp, becoming the first Flemish newspaper. The Freiburg Botanical Garden in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany is founded by the U. of Freiburg. The Uppsala U. Library is founded by Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf), becoming the largest univ. library in Sweden. Starting in this decade Southeast Asian spices and pepper meant for the old Muslim route to the Red Sea are blocked by the Dutch, which also stifles Muslim pilgrims attempting to reach the Middle East. The first English newspaper is pub. in Amsterdam - Pilgrims, Pilgrims, read all about it? Tobacco use is outlawed in Japan, but becomes a rage in Korea. The title of Baron Digby is created in Ireland for King's County gov. Robert Digby (-1642); their motto is "Deo, non-fortuna" ("By God, not fate"). Architecture: Notre-Dame-des-Anges Church is begun in Quebec City, Canada by the Recollect Friars Minor, becoming the oldest stone church in North Am.; in 1629 the Recollects are expelled by the British, and it is acquired by the Jesuits until 1670, when they return; in 1692 it is purchased by Jean-Baptiste de La Croix de Chevrieres (Chevrières) Saint-Vallier (1653-1727), bishop #2 of Quebec (1685-1727), who founds a hospital there. George Seton finishes the restoration of the Winton House in East Lothian, Scotland. Inventions: Cornelius (Cornelis) Drebbel (1572-1633) of Holland invents the first navigable (steerable) Submarine, based on a leather-covered wood frame for the British Navy, and later demonstrates it to Charles I - it's corny and it dribbles, but it's all mine? Science: Niccolo Cabeo (1586-1650) of Italy discovers that electrified bodies can attract non-electrified ones and that two electrified bodies repel each other. Cornelius Drebbel of Holland discovers scarlet Bow Dye; his daughter marries Johannes Sibertus Kuffler of Leyden, who sets up a dye house in Bow. Nonfiction: Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588-1638), Encyclopaedia Septem Tomis Distincta (7 vols.). Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Instauratio Magna: Novum Organum Scientarum or a True Guide to the Interpretation of Nature; an attempted sequel to Aristotle's Organon, stressing the importance of experimentation in organizing knowledge. Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624) Prodomus Theatri Botanici; describes approx. 6K plants. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), The Threefold Life of Man; Answers to Forty Questions Concerning the Soul; The Treatise of the Incarnations; The Great Six Points; Of the Earthly and the Heavenly Ministry; Of the Last Times, the Resurrection, and the Fall of the House of Babel. Juan Pablo Bonet (1573-1633), The Art to Teach Dumb People to Speak; Spanish manual on sign language, which he teaches to deaf children in the Spanish court; first book on deaf education. Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Tiberias, sive Commentarius Masoreticus; disputes the late origin of Hebrew vowel points; too bad, he dies before he can finish the argument with Louis Cappel, causing his son JB Jr. to take over. Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), De Sensu Rerum et Magia. Thomas Campion (1567-1620), A New Way of Making Fowre Parts in Counterpoint. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626), Canon Triangulorum, or Table of Artificial Sines and Tangents; treatise on logarithms. Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555-1617), Atlante Geografico d'Italia (Geographic Atlas of Italy) (posth.); dedicated to his patron Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua (1562-1612). John Mason (1586-1635), A Briefe Discourse of the New-Found-Land. John Webster (1580-1635), The Devil's Law Case; contains the legend that Elizabeth I gave the Earl of Essex a gold ring with a sardonyx cameo of her, telling him to send it to her when he is in trouble and she will help him; while in the tower Essex gives it to a boy through the window, telling him to take it to Lady Scrope, who would give it to the queen, but by mistake he gives it to her sister the Countess of Nottingham, who is the wife of Essex's rival, and she keeps the ring; on the queen's deathbed in 1603, she tells her about it, to which the queen replies "May God forgive you, Madam, but I never can." Art: Trophime Bigot (1579-1650), St. Sebastian Cared for by St. Irene (1620-30). Jacques Callot (1592-1635), The Fair at Impruneta (print). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), St. Sebastian. Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Passage to Antwerp. Guido Reni (1575-1642), Abduction of Deianira (1620-1). Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Chapeau de Paille. Adam Willaerts (1577-1644), Departure of the Pilgrims from Delfshaven. Music: Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Seventh Book of Madrigals. Plays: Lope de Vega (1562-1635), The King's the Best Magistrate (1620-3); The Knight from Olmedo (1620-5). Births: Croatian-Hungarian poet-soldier-statesman and nat. hero Miklos (Nikola) (Nicholas) Zrinyi (Zrinski) (d. 1664) on Jan. 5 in Csaktornya. German-Dutch field marshal prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck (d. 1692) on Jan. 31 in Arolsen. Dutch physician Paul Barbette (d. 1666) in Strasbourg; educated at Leiden U. Prussian duke (1640-88) and Brandenburg elector (1640-88) (Calvinist) Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (the Great Elector) (d. 1688) on Feb. 16 in Berlin; son of elector George William and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. Swiss philologist-theologian Johann Heinrich Hottinger (d. 1667) on Mar. 10 in Geneva; father of Johann Jakob Hottinger (1652-1735); grandfather of Johann Heinrich Hottinger (1681-1750). English soldier-historian-politician ("the Cavalier Colonel") Sir Winston Churchill (d. 1688) on Apr. 18; father of John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough (1650-1722); ancestor of PM Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965); educated at St. John's College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1664. French mathematician-astronomer Jean Picard (d. 1682) on July 21 - the original Star Trek Capt. Jean-Luc Picard? French "A New Division of the Earth" physician-traveller Francois Bernier (d. 1688) on Sept. 25 in Joue-Etiau, Anjou; educated at the College de Clermont; secy. of Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655). French painter-sculptor-architect-engineer Pierre Paul Puget (d. 1694) on Oct. 16 in Marseille. Dutch landscape painter Aelbert Jacobsz Cuyp (d. 1691) on Oct. 20 in Dordrecht; son of Jacob Gerritz Cuyp (1594-1652). English gardening writer John Evelyn (d. 1706) on Oct. 31 in Wotton, Surrey; grows up in Lewes, Sussex. French courtesan-writer Anne "Ninon" de l'Enclos (d. 1705) on Nov. 10 in Paris; patron of Moliere and Voltaire; lover of the Great Conde and duc de La Rochefoucauld; Cardinal Richelieu offers her 50K crowns for one night. French royal favorite (of Louis XIII) Henri Coiffier de Ruze (Ruzé), Marquis de Cinq-Mars (d. 1642); father Marshal Antoine Coiffier-Ruze, Marquis d'Effiat, suptd. of finances dies in 1632, causing his friend the Cardinal ffRichelieu to take him under his protection. English witchhunter Matthew Hopkins (d. 1647) in Great Wenham, Suffolk; Puritan clergyman father; collaborator of John Stearne (1610-70). English Brouncker's Formula mathematician William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker (d. 1684) in Castlelyons, County Cork, Ireland; educated at Oxford U.; pres. #1 of the Royal Society. French physicist-priest Edme Mariotte (d. 1684) in Til-Chatel. English Puritan divine Thomas Watson (d. 1686); educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. German-English Mercator Series mathematician Nicholas (Nikolaus) Mercator (Kauffmann) (d. 1687); coiner of the term "natural logarithm". Dutch still life artist Abraham Hendriksz van Beyeren (d. 1690) in The Hague. French scientist-diplomat-traveler Melchisedec Thevenot (Melchisédic Thévenot) (d. 1692); inventor of the spirit level, and popularizer of the breaststroke; uncle of Jean de Thevenot (1633-67). Hungarian "Muranyi Venus" poet Istvan Gyongyosi (István Gyöngyösi) (d. 1704) in Rozsnyobanya. Deaths: Jewish mystic Hayim Vital (b. 1542) on Apr. 23 in Damascus. Polish gen. Stanislaw Zolkiewski (b. 1547) near Iasi (KIA in the Battle of Cecora). Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin (b. 1548) in Leiden (The Hague)?. Chinese Ming emperor #13 (1572-1620) Wanli (b. 1563) on Aug. 18. English navigator William Adams (b. 1564) on May 16 in Hirado, Kyushu, Japan. English adventurer Sir Thomas Shirley (b. 1564). English poet-musician-critic Thomas Campion (b. 1567). English poet Richard Barnfield (b. 1574) in Mar in Dorlestone Hall; really his father, and he died in late 1590s London? Italian painter Carlo Saraceni (b. 1579) on June 16 in Venice. Chinese Ming emperor #14 (1620) Taichang (b. 1582) on Sept. 26 in Beijing (diarrhea).

1621 - The Year of Cran, where white men learn about the uses of non-existent weapons of mass destruction?

Philip IV of Spain (1605-65) Gaspar de Guzman, Duke of Olivares (1587-1645) Pope Gregory XV (1554-1623) The First Thanksgiving, 1621 Squanto (1585-1622) Isaac Allerton (1585-1659) Count Ernst von Mansfeld (1580-1626) William Claiborne (1600-77) Elizabeth Sawyer, Witch of Edmonton (-1621) British Adm. Sir Robert Mansell (1573-1656) Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling (1567-1640) Pietro della Valle (1586-1682) Lady Mary Wroth (1587-1653) William Oughtred (1574-1660) Willebrord Snell (1580-1626) 'Susanna and the Elders' by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), 1621-2 'The Rest on the Flight to Egypt' by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), 1621 Robert Burton (1577-1640) 'The Anatomy of Melancholy' by Robert Burton, 1621 'Self-Portrait with Wife and Daughter' by Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), 1621-2 Wampum

1621 On Jan. 28 Pope (since 1605) Paul V (b. 1550) dies, and on Feb. 9 Alessandro (Alexander) Ludivisi is elected Pope (#234) Gregory XV (1554-1623) (until July 8, 1623); Jesuit Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (b. 1542) (who coulda been pope?) dies on Sept. 17. In Feb. after spending several mo. in London studying the colllections of Italian Renaissance masters of the earl of Arundel and duke of Buckingham, Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck leaves for Amsterdam, then 8 mo. later heads for Italy, where studies the Venetian masters Titan et al., returning to Antwerp in 1627. On Mar. 26 (Mar. 16 Old Style) (Fri.) tall naked Wampanoag spokesman Samoset (1590-1653) (his English-given name of Somerset?), a sachem from Pemaquid Point in Maine near Monhegan Island (who learned English from English fishermen) unexpectedly visits the winter-decimated Pilgrims (52 of 102 dead, incl. Mayflower gov. Christopher Martin in Jan., causing the survivors to conceal the corpses in secret graves to fool the Indians), and walks right up to their homes, and when stopped issues the famous soundbyte "Welcome, Englishmen!"; he tells them how their harbor's name is Patuxet and had been inhabited then wiped out by plague, and that another Indian, the once-kidnapped and well-traveled local Patuxet Squanto (Tisquantum) (1585-1622), who had been in Spain, Newfoundland, and London, and can speak better English is with chief Massasoit in Pokanoket 40 mi. SW, and stays overnight with a half freaked-out English family; on Apr. 1 (Mar. 22 Old Style) after his powwows try in vain to make the English devils disappear with a 3-day swamp meeting, and cagey Squanto tells him the English have a secret WMD of plague and shouldn't be messed with but rather cultivated to help him fight the Narragansetts, bear-greased dark red-faced Massasoit and his son Quadequina visit Plymouth Colony with 60 intimidating warriors, and after being greeted outside the town on a hill by sole rep. Edward Winslow (1595-1655), who tells him that King James of England greets him "with words of love and peace", and trying in vain to make a trade for his sword and armor, he agrees to meet Gov. John Carter, with Winslow held as hostage and Squanto acting as interpreter, and after being served vodka which, combined with Squanto telling him that barrels of gunpowder in a storehouse actually contain plague, makes him sweat and tremble, the duped "Indian King" signs a 6-point peace treaty, which lasts 50 years, with Winslow acting as the colony's initial rep. as well as being 2nd in command; the Indians use wampum ("white shell beads") (tubular shell beads made from the purple spot in quahog clamshells and white channeled whelk shells) for sacred ceremonies as well as for recording stories, but the English soon turn it into money. On Apr. 15 (Apr. 5 Old Style) with their numbers down to 52 but stabilized, the Mayflower sails for England (18 sailors dead), with cooper John Alden staying in Plymouth; on Apr. 18 Gov. John Carver (b. 1576) dies after lapsing into a coma on a hot day in the fields, and after the colony's first state funeral they elect William Bradford as gov. #2 (reelected 30 times until 1656), but since he's sick they appoint Puritan widower Isaac Allerton (1583-1659) (ancestor of U.S. presidents Zachary Taylor and FDR) as his asst.; on May 16 the Mayflower arrives in Rotherhithe after making use of westerlies, then sails for France with a cargo of salt, after which master Christopher Jones dies on Mar. 15, 1622 in England, causing the ship to lay idle for 2 years and then be broken up for scrap in 1624 after being appraised at £128. On Mar. 31 Spanish king (since Sept. 13, 1598) Philip III the Pious (b. 1578) dies in Madrid, and his son Philip (Felipe) IV (1605-65) succeeds him as king of Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Netherlands (until Sept. 17, 1665), becoming as weak a king as his daddy, soon appointing Gaspar de Guzman y Pimentel, Count of Olivares and Duke of Sanlucar (1587-1645) as Spain's first PM, relinquishing rule to him; Olivar goes on to reform the court and reverse the no-war policy of Spain, which is too late to stop Spain's decline; meanwhile carefree Philip becomes a patron of the arts, backing painter Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), dramatist Lope de Vega (1562-1635), poet Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81) et al. in a desperate attempt to keep up with the heretic English? On Apr. 21 Elizabeth Sawyer, "the Witch of Edmonton" is executed in England, her guilt proved by having a "thing like a teat the bigness of the little finger, which was branched at the top like a teat, and seemed as though one had sucked it." On May 22 (May 12 Old Style) Edward Winslow (whose wife Elizabeth died on Apr. 3, two days after the big meeting with Massasoit) and Susanna White whose husband William died on Mar. 3) become the first couple in Plymouth Colony to marry, and claiming that the Gospels nowhere say a minister should conduct a wedding, they copy Dutch custom and have a civil wedding, starting a tradition - so Winslow is the whitest name you can get in America? On June 3 (worried about them pesky English?) the Dutch West India Co. is chartered for the New Netherlands (Netherland) to share world trade with the Dutch East India Co. by Peter Minuit's Antwerp friend Willem Usselincx (1567-1647), who prefers colonization of the New World to profit, and gives up after the Dutch estates-gen. don't support him; the co. later acquires a monopoly in Africa the North Am. coast from Newfoundland to Chesapeake Bay; in 1645 not-so-useless Usselincx utters the Immortal New York, New York Soundbyte: "It is because of foreigners that the country will be peopled, because its might is derived mostly from those who come from abroad and settle, marry and multiply here. If one were to remove the foreigners, their children and grandchildren from the large cities of Holland, the remaining residents would be fewer in number than those removed" - never mind those English squatters? On July 2 Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins make the Pilgrims' first diplomatic visit to Massasoit's home at Pokanoket (near modern-day Warren, R.I.). In mid-Oct. after with the help of good weather and the know-how of indispensible native Patuxet Squanto (Tisquantum) (1585-1622) (the first American Iron Chef in survival techniques?) (who first wows them by showing them how to dig up his trademark eels in shore mud, then how to use herring as fertilizer, and plant beans and squash with the corn to act as shade and prevent weeds) the Plymouth Colony brings in a bumper crop of veggies, lumber, and furs, it celebrates its first 3-day Thanksgiving along with Chief Massasoit and 90 warriors, who aren't invited but hear gunfire in connection with the feast, show up to see what's up, and end up becoming their niggers, supplying them with five deer, wild turkey, fish, beans, squash, corn soup, cornbread, and berries to go with their venison, duck, goose, lobster, mussels, grapes and plums?; they don't sit at tables but squat in front of fires?; the Pilgrims say the prayer from Psalm 107 (AKA Birkat Ha-Gomel) after a book by English scholar Henry Ainsworth uses Jewish scholar Moses Maimonides to show its applicability; on Nov. 9 (3 weeks later) the ship Fortune, under master Thomas Barton arrives with 35 new colonists, incl. Thomas Prence (1599-1673), throwing them back into danger of starvation; on the way home it loses its cargo of furs and timber to a French privateer; meanwhile the colony gets a land patent from the Council for New England; after John Carver's wife dies five weeks after him, their servant John Howland (1592-1672) (who fell overboard on the way, and held on until rescued) inherits some of the estate and goes on to become one of Plymouth's leading citizens; at the first big Nothanksgiving the Pequots of Cape Cod offer the white settlers a local fruit that grows in acidic bogs which they call "i-bimi" (bitter fruit) and use to make pemmican; the Pilgrims groove on it and name it for the cranes which like to eat it, calling it the craneberry (cranberry) (bounceberry because it bounces when ripe), making sauces and tarts from it - good love? On Dec. 6 Johannes Kepler observes his first predicted transit of Venus; Pierre Gassendi observes another on Nov. 7. The Huguenots rebel against Louis XIII (ends 1622). The Austrians expel the Swiss Protestants from the Valtellina; meanwhile the Swiss Confederation is paralyzed by the division between the Catholic and Protestant cantons, and sits it out all the way until 1639. The 12-year truce between Holland and Spain ends, and war resumes. Elector Palatine Frederick V is placed under the ban of the Holy Roman Empire, and the war moves from Bohemia to the Palatinate; German soldier Count Ernst von Mansfeld (b. 1580), who helped the revolting Bohemians in 1618 then had his butt kicked in Zablat in summer of 1619, causing him to offer his services to HRE Ferdinand II is appointed cmdr. of his army in Bohemia, and takes on Count Tilly in the Upper and Rhenish Palatinate, relieving Frankenthal and capturing Hagenau. Sir Francis Bacon is charged by Parliament with corruption, is fined £40K, imprisoned, and declared incapable of holding office; luckily, he is pardoned by the king after spending only a few days in the Tower, and allowed to keep his titles, devoting himself to study and writing; Bishop John Williams of Lincoln becomes Lord Keeper, and Lionel Cranfield becomes Lord Treasurer. Sir Francis Wyatt arrives as the new gov. of the Va. Colony with new regs, including a council of state and elected assembly. Bishop William Laud uses George Abbott's accidental shooting of a gamewarden to call for his removal as archbishop of Canterbury; James I exercises the deciding vote in his favor to save him. The Tamblot Uprising (Revolt) in the Philippines against the Spanish over religion begins, led by native priest Tamblot from Bohol. Dutch East Indies gov.-gen. Jan Pieterszoon Coen invades Banda to force them to sell their nutmeg and mace to them exclusively at low prices, capturing Lonthor Island after they use some cannons against him given to them by the english, pissing him off, after which he massacres or exiles most of the pop. English surveyor William Claiborne (1600-77) (b. 1587?) arrives in Jamestown, Va., and goes on to become a leader, "the foremost genius of early Virginia". The first duel fought in America takes place in Plymouth, Mass., and is fought with swords. Welsh-born British vice-adm. Sir Robert Mansell (Maunsell) (Mansfield) (1573-1656) (an investor in the Plymouth Co.) leads an expedition against the pesky Moorish Corsairs of the Barbary coast (Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli). The English attempt to colonize Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, with poet-courtier Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling (1567-1640) receiving a huge land grant from James I, which is later confirmed by Charles I; too bad, after a war with France in 1627-9, the 1629 Treaty of Susa (Suza) between France and the duchy of Savoy cedes the territory to France in 1632, leaving Alexander deeply in debt, although he is created viscount of Stirling and Lord Alexander of Tullibody in 1630 as a sop. The U. of Strasbourg in Alsace, France is founded from a Lutheran humanist gymnasium founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm, becoming a royal univ. in 1631, going on to become France's largest univ.; alumni incl. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; in 1872 it is refounded as the German Kaiser Wilhelm Universitat. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), known as "the prince of painters and the painter of princes" is hired as a confidential agent by Spain to seek peace with Flanders and the Dutch Repub. Pietro della Valle's Syrian princess Maani dies, so he has her stuffed and takes her with him. Samuel Champlain's companion Etienne Brule (Brulé) (1592-1633) searches for copper mines described by the Indians, and reaches the W shores of Lake Superior and Lake Erie? Goteborg, Sweden (modern pop. 500K) is founded Gustavus II Adolphus S of 2,150 sq. mi. Lake Vaner (Väner) (Vanern) (Vänern). Potatoes are planted for the first time in Germany. The Fortune Theatre in London burns down. English historian William Camden (1551-1623) endows the Camden Chair of Ancient History at Oxford U. (first chair of history in the world) before being struck with paralysis and dying on Nov. 9, 1623 in his home at Chiselehurst, Kent (SE London); in 1877 the chair is attached to Brasenose College; in 1910 it is limited to Roman history. The Corante, or Newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine, and France begins pub. in London, becoming England's first newspaper. Inventions: In 1621-2 William Oughtred (1574-1660) of England invents the logarithmic scale along with the slide rule, which does multiplication and division by adding and subtracting logarithms - did it hurt? Science: Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snell (Snellius) (Willebrord Snel van Royen or Roigen or Roijen) (1580-1626) discovers Snell's Law of Refraction, a sine ratio called the refractive index between the angles of incidence and refraction of light entering a block of glass; too bad, he doesn't pub. it, and it takes until 1703 for Huygen to pub. his results in his "Dioptrica". Italian traveler Pietro della Valle (1586-1682) visits Iran and views the 6th cent. B.C.E. Behistun Rock, copying some of the cuneiform signs for study. Nonfiction: Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), De Signatura Rerum; A Treatise of the Four Complexions. Robert Burton (1577-1640), The Anatomy of Melancholy; pub. under alias Democritus Junior; quotes works by Jewish physician Isaac Israeli (855-955); "I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melancholy than idleness, no better cure than business"; "The only book that ever took me out of bed two hours sooner than I wished to rise" (Samuel Johnson). Sir Henry Fitch (-1625), The World's Great Restauration, or Calling of the Jews, and with them of all Nations and Kingdoms of the Earth to the Faith of Christ; claims that the Jews will be restored to the Holy Land, then establish a worldwide empire after accepting Christ, getting him in trouble with James I (for threatening his divine right to rule England?), who has him arrested in Apr. 1621 until he disavows his work. Johannes Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644), De Magnetica Vulnerum Curatione; gets him in trouble with the Church for questioning miracles. Thomas Munn (1571-1641), A Discourse of Trade from England unto the East Indies. Art: Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), The Rest on the Flight to Egypt; Susanna and the Elders (1621-2). Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Self-Portrait with Wife and Daughter Elizabeth (1621-2). Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Musica Boscareccia. Plays: John Fletcher (1579-1625), The Wild Goose Chase (comedy); pub. in 1652. John Ford (1586-1640), Thomas Dekker (1573-1632), and William Rowley (1585-1642), The Witch of Edmonton. Poetry: Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), De Contemptu Mortis (On the Contempt of Death). Theophile de Viau (1590-1626), Poemes (1621-4); on the theme of Nature. Novels: John Barclay (1582-1621), Argenis (novel) (Paris). Lady Mary Wroth (1587-1653), The Countess of Montgomery's Urania; first prose romance by an English woman; the idea of a woman pub. a novel pisses-off men because they must remain silent to prove they're chaste? Births: English "Flecnoe" poet-satirist Andrew Marvell (d. 1678) on Mar. 31 in Winestead, Hopderness, Yorkshire; educated at Cambridge U. Welsh "Silex Scintillans" mystic poet ("the Silurist") Henry Vaughan (d. 1695) on Apr. 17 in Newton St. Bridget (near Scethrog by Usk), Brecknockshire. Irish soldier-politician-dramatist Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (d. 1679) (AKA Lord Broghill) on Apr. 25; 3rd son of Robert Boyle, 1st earl of Cork and 2nd wife Catherine Fenton; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and Gray's Inn. Dutch painter Isaac Jansz van Ostade (d. 1649) on June 2 in Haarlem; brother of Adriaen van Ostade (1610-85); father is from Ostade near Eindhoven. French poet-fabulist Jean de La Fontaine (d. 1695) on June 8 in Chateau-Thierry, Champagne. Dutch adm. Willem van der Zaan (Zaen) (d. 1669) on June 29 in Amsterdam; brother of Huybrecht van der Zaan; father of Willem van der Zaan the Younger. French military leader Louis II of Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien, Prince de Conde (Condé) (The Great Conde) (d. 1686) on Sept. 8 in Paris; son of Henry II, Prince de Conde (2nd cousin of Louis XIII) and Charlotte de Montmorency. English physician ("Father of Clinical Neuroscience") Thomas Willis (d. 1675) on Jan. 27 in Great Bedwin, Wiltshire; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. Dutch painter Jan Baptist Weenix (d. 1660) in Amsterdam; father of Jan Weenix (1640-1719); introduces the Italian harbor scene into Dutch art. English N.Y. colonial gov. #2 (1668-73) Francis Lovelace (pr. like loveless) (d. 1675) in Kent; brother of Richard Lovelace (1617-57). Swiss engraver Matthaus Merian the Younger (d. 1687) in Basel; son of Matthaus Merian the Elder (1593-1650). Swedish field marshal Count Rutger von Ascheberg (d. 1693). English poet Henry Vaughan (d. 1695). French chemist Claude Bourdelin (d. 1699). Deaths: English lord Edward Seymour, 1st earl of Hertford (b. 1539). Italian "Galileo's Heah cum de judge" Cardinal Robert(o) Bellarmine (b. 1564) on Sept. 17 in Rome - move your ideas forward with RICO dependability? German Lutheran pietism founder Johann Arndt (b. 1555) in Celle, Hanover. Netherlands Hapsburg gov. (1598-1621) archduke Albert VII (b. 1559) on July 13 in Brussels. English explorer Thomas Harriot (b. 1560) on July 2 in London. English poet Mary Sidney Herbert (b. 1561) in London (smallpox). Italian poet Ottavio Rinuccini (b. 1562) on Mar. 28 in Florence. Dutch organist-composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (b. 1562) on Oct. 16 in Amsterdam. Austrian field marshal Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, count of Bucquoy (b. 1571) on July 21 near Nove Zamky (Neuhausel), Slovakia (KIA). German composer-musicologist Michael Praetorius (b. 1571) on Feb. 15. French soldier-dramatist-economist Antoine de Montchrestien (b. 1575) on Oct. 7/8 in Les Tourailles (near Falaise) (KIA); posth. convicted of lese-majeste for joining the Huguenot rebellion. English Pilgim Father John Carver (b. 1576) on Apr. 18; gov. #1 of Plymouth Colony. Italian painter Cristofano Allori (b. 1577) on Apr. 21 in Florence. Spanish king (1598-1621) Philip III (b. 1578).

1622 - The Plymouth Plus Two O Be Chancy Enough Year for Indians in North America?

Battle of Fleurus, Aug. 29, 1622 Georg Friedrich von Baden-Durlach (1573-1638) Spanish Gen. Ambrogio Spinola Doria, Marques de los Balbases (1569-1630) Odoardo I Farnese of Parma-Piacenza (1612-46) Opechancanough (-1644) William Camden (1551-1623) Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Banqueting Hall, Whitehall, 1622 Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) 'The Rape of Proserpina' by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), 1621-2

1622 The papal chancellery adopts Jan. 1 as the beginning of the year, replacing Mar. 25. Let my love open the door? On Jan. 22 Marco Antonio de Dominis, the learned fatass who had made it big in London writing vehement attacks against papistry flops when he sees Prince Charles of Wales courting the Spanish infanta, along with the election of new hopefully forgiving (bribable?) Pope Gregory XV, suddenly announces that he has flopped and wishes to return to Rome, pissing off the English Church, which almost gets him prosecuted in the Star Chamber and his chests of money confiscated, but he slithers out of it all and then starts writing virulent attacks on the Anglican Church from Rome. On Jan. 23 the British and Persians attack Kishm in the Persian Gulf, and English explorer William Baffin (b. 1584) is KIA. In Feb. the first person is hanged in the Plymouth Colony - hairy or smoothy? On Mar. 22 the Powhatan tribal confederation of Virginia, led by Wahunsonacock's brother and successor Opechancanough (Opchanacanough) (1554-1646), pissed-off at seeing the stinking palefaces progress from trading posts to permanent settlement turn on the whites in the Virginia Colony and launch dawn raids on 28 plantations and settlements along the James River, massacring 347 out of 1,240 settlers, incl. John Rolfe; Jamestown escapes after being warned by a converted Christian Indian boy; after one survivor laments that "besides them they killed, they burst the heart of all the rest", the English use this as an excuse to institute a genocide policy of what the governor's council calls "perpetual enmity". On Mar. 5 Ranuccio I Farnese (b. 1569) dies, and his only legitimate son Odoardo I Farnese (1612-46) becomes duke #5 of Parma and Piacenza (until 1646), and on Oct. 11, 1628 marries Margherita de' Medici (1612-79), daughter of grand duke Cosimo II. On Apr. 22 a patent for the Province of New Hampshire (N.H.) (named in 1629 by Capt. John Mason for his home county in England) is granted to former Newfoundland gov. (1615-21) Capt. John Mason (1586-1635) by the Council of New England, incl. all territory between the Merrimack and Kennebeck Rivers; Roxbury magistrate William Pynchon sends scouts John Cable and John Woodcock to scout the Connecticut River Valley, and they discover the richest farmland in New England, after which it becomes known as Pioneer Valley; next year it is settled at Pannaway Plantation at the mouth of the Piscataqua River (Little Harbor) (near present-day Rye and Dover) by fisherman David Thompson (Thomas) et al., who are sent by Capt. John Smith to establish a fishing colony. You're bringing on the heartache? On Apr. 27 Count Tilly suffers a minor D by HRE Ferdinand II and Count Ernst von Mansfeld at the Battle of Wiesloch (Mingolsheim) (5 mi. S of Wiesloch and 14 mi. S of Heidelberg); Mansfeld then plunders Alsace and Hesse, and goofs by plundering the lands of Frederick, later causing him to be dismissed; meanwhile in early May Mansfeld crosses the Neckar River near Heidelberg to hook up with the forces of Bishop Christian of Brunswick (1599-1626), who arrived to the N of the river; too bad, before they can link up with the 14K troops of Protestant Gen. Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1573-1638), 25K Catholic imperial forces under Count Tilly and Spanish gen. Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba, Prince of Maratra (1585-1635) cut Baden off near Wimpfen, and on May 6 the Battle of Wimpfen becomes a disaster when the Protestants' defensive position on a low hill is blown up after a random lucky Spanish artillery shot hits their powder magazine, causing them to fall apart and get virtually wiped out, after which Baden flees to Stuttgart with a few remaining men; the Catholics then go after Mansfeld and Brunswick, the latter at the Main River, the two still not hooked up, and on June 22 they catch Brunswick at Hochst before he can cross the river, causing the Battle of Hochst, where Brunswick does a risky thing of forcing his 12K-15K men across the river to unite with Mansfield, with the loss of 2K men, bringing a badly needed treasure collected from the lands he has raped to pay Mansfeld's men - I can hear them say bad company and I won't deny it? On May 20 after a palace revolt by the Janissaries caused by his attempts to create an ethnic Turkic army, Ottoman sultan (since 1618) Osman II (b. 1604) is strangled by the Janissaries (first act of regicide in the Ottoman Empire), and retarded slash insane Mustafa I regains the throne of Turkey as puppet-on-a-throne (until 1623). On May 23 the Weekeley Newes begins pub. in London. On May 25 the English ship Tryal wrecks in W Australia on Tryal Rocks (Ritchie's Reef) (Greyhound's Shoal), becoming the first English contact with the continent; it takes three cents. to relocate the rocks, during which time they become the "theme and dread of every voyager to the eastern islands" - oh I'm the wanderer, I'm the wanderer, I wander round and round and round and round? In July Count Tilly sieges Heidelberg on the Neckar River (capital of the head of the Protestant Union), capturing it on Sept. 19 after a 11-week siege, and sending its Bibliotheca Palatina (3.5K mss. and 13K prints) to the Vatican as a present to Pope Gregory XV; the depleted Heidelberg U. Library is reestablished in 1652 by Karl Ludwig, son of the Winter King. On July 13 after failing to relieve Heidelberg, Palatine Elector Frederick V decides to disband his army, and Mansfield and Brunswick are hired by the United Provinces to relieve Bergen-op-Zoom at the confluence of the Zoom and Scheldte Rivers, which since July 18 has been sieged by the Spanish Army of Flanders under gen. Ambrogio Spinola Doria, Marques de los Balbases (1569-1630); after the Protestant army marches from Alsace across N France, entering the Spanish Low Countries via Hainaut and kicking some butt in East Friesland, then devastating Lorraine, an 8K-man Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernando de Cordoba is recalled from the Palatinate to stop them, and after marching through the Ardennes Forest it meets up with the Protestant advance guard at the Brabant-Belgium border on Aug. 27; on Aug. 29 the Battle of Fleurus is a Spanish V, with 5K of the 14K Protestants captured, KIA, or wounded, vs. only 300 KIA and 900 wounded for the Spanish; Brunswick is wounded, and he, Mansfield and 3K remaining cavalry rejoin the Dutch army at Breda before they are fired; meanwhile Count Tilly's army overruns the Palatinate. On Aug. 4 James I issues Directions Concerning Preachers, warning them not to vary from established doctrines. On Aug. 10 James I grants the Province of Maine between the Kennebec and Piscataqua Rivers to English naval cmdr. Sir Ferdinando Gorges (1565-1647) and Conception Bay (Newfoundland) gov. Capt. John Mason (1586-1637). On Sept. 4 a Spanish Treasure Fleet of 28 ships leaves Havana en route to Spain, and runs into a hurricane off the Fla. Keys; the survivors try to salvage some of the treasure, only to be hit by another hurricane on Oct. 5; Spanish galleon Nuestra Senora de Atocha is located in 1985 by treasure hunter, er, commercial archeologist Mel Fisher (1922-98), who retrieves $450M in coins and loot - the ultimate chalupa? On Oct. 2 the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom is lifted by Dutch stadtholder Maurice of Nassau. On Oct. 18 the Treaty (Peace) of Montpellier, signed by Louis XIII and Duke Henry II of Rohan ends the Huguenot rebellion in France (begun 1620), confirming the Edict of Nantes, pardoning Henry II and allowing the Huguenots to maintain their forts and garrisons; meanwhile Louis XIII becomes reconciled to his mother, and he recalls her protege Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) (who on Sept. 15 was created cardinal) to the council - it just feels better, an Aqua Velva man? On Nov. 30 after using his friendship with the Pilgrims to control other Indians, causing his tribe to demand his return so they can kill him, the English stall, and Squanto (b. 1585) dies. In winter the town of Plymouth is fortified. Too bad, despite new settlers regularly arriving, after reading some passages in the New Testament about the First Christians sharing all things in common, they tried to establish a Communist utopia where it was required that "All profits & benefits that are got by trade, working, fishing, or any other means" be placed in the colony's common stores, and that "All such persons as are of this colony, are to have their meat, drink, apparel, and all provisions out of the common stock" (from each according to his ability, to each according to his need), resulting in many turning into loafers, so that no surprise, in winter another cruddy fall harvest causes the colony to suffer its Second Starving Time, in which hundreds die, causing Gov. William Bradford (1590-1657) to write the soundbyte: "All this while no supply was heard of, neither knew they when they might expect any. So they began to think how they might raise as much corn as they could, and obtain a better crop than they had done, that they might not still thus languish in misery. At length, after much debate of things, the Governor (with the advice of the chiefest amongst them) gave way that they should set corn every man for his own particular, and in that regard trust to themselves; in all other things to go on in the general way as before. And so assigned to every family a parcel of land, according to the proportion of their number, for that end, only for present use (but made no division for inheritance) and ranged all boys and youth under some family. This had very good success, for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corn was planted than otherwise would have been by any means the Governor or any other could use, and saved him a great deal of trouble, and gave far better content. The women now went willingly into the field, and took their little ones with them to set corn; which before would allege weakness and inability; whom to have compelled would have been thought great tyranny and oppression. The experience that was had in this common course and condition, tried sundry years and that amongst godly and sober men, may well evince the vanity of that conceit of Plato's and other ancients applauded by some of later times; that the taking away of property and bringing in community into a commonwealth would make them happy and flourishing; as if they were wiser than God. For this community (so far as it was) was found to breed much confusion and discontent and retard much employment that would have been to their benefit and comfort. For the young men, that were most able and fit for labour and service, did repine that they should spend their time and strength to work for other men's wives and children without any recompense. The strong, or man of parts, had no more in division of victuals and clothes than he that was weak and not able to do a quarter the other could; this was thought injustice. The aged and graver men to be ranked and equalized in labours and victuals, clothes, etc., with the meaner and younger sort, thought it some indignity and disrespect unto them. And for men's wives to be commanded to do service for other men, as dressing their meat, washing their clothes, etc., they deemed it a kind of slavery, neither could many husbands well brook it. Upon the point all being to have alike, and all to do alike, they thought themselves in the like condition, and one as good as another; and so, if it did not cut off those relations that God hath set amongst men, yet it did at least much diminish and take off the mutual respects that should be preserved amongst them. And would have been worse if they had been men of another condition. Let none object this is men's corruption, and nothing to the course itself. I answer, seeing all men have this corruption in them, God in His wisdom saw another course fitter for them." James I dissolves Parliament. The English capture Ormuz from the Portuguese. Persian shah Abbas I captures Kandahar from the Moguls (Mughals); meanwhile the Turks renew their war with Persia, and Abbas I begins a siege of Baghdad (ends 1623), and takes the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese, diverting the trade to his town of Bandar Abbas and opening the Persian Gulf to Persian trade, using Christian Armenian agents to deal with Westerners. Chettha II dies, and a period of civil strife begins in Cambodia (ends 1628). Sir William Alexander sets out to colonize the New World, but ends up wintering in Newfoundland. Spanish (papal) troops occupy the Valtellina in N Italy, bringing war with France. The Dutch occupy the Pescadores (Penghu) in the Taiwan Strait until 1624, when China regains them; by the end of the cent. they become a dependency of Taiwan. Former Mexico viceroy Fernandez de Cordoba becomes viceroy of Peru, and repels coastal attacks by a Dutch squadron - eastern boys and western girls? The royal Musketeers (Mousquetaires) of the Guard are created by Louis XIII of France, who furnishes a co. of light carabiners (cavalry) created by his daddy Henry IV with muskets; they guard the king outside his royal residences, while the Swiss Guards do it inside; a 2nd co. is created for Cardinal Richelieu. Pope Gregory XV canonizes Philip Romolo Neri (1515-95), "the Third Apostle of Rome" and grants the Piarists a constitution. John Donne becomes dean of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier become the first Jesuits canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. A botanical garden is established at Oxford. The Bruges-Dunkirk Canal is finished. The Benedictine U. of Salzburg is founded by prince-archbishop Lodron. The Banqueting Hall (House) at Whitehall (begun 1619) is finished. Science: Welsh mathematician Edmund Gunter (1581-1626) discovers the magnetic variation of the compass, i.e., that the magnetic needle does not retain the same declination in the same place over time. Nonfiction: Anon., Prognostications; 8-page almanac pub. in Aberdeen, Scotland by an English-born printer (d. 1649), reaching 50K circ. by 1677 after rivals pirate them, causing Aberdeen to become a center of almanacs. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), History of the Reign of Henry VII. Camillo Baldi (1550-1637), Treatise of How to Perceive from a Letter the Nature and Character of the Person Who Wrote It (Trattato Come De Una Lettera Missiva Si Conoscano La Natura E Qualita Dello Scrittore); prof. of medicine at Bologna for 60 years founds the pseudo-science of graphology. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), Of True Repentance; Of True Resignation, or Dying to Self; Of Regeneration, or the New Birth. Marie de Gournay (1565-1645), The Equality of Men and Women. Jacob Le Maire (1585-1616), Mirror of the Australian Navigation (posth.). Edward Misselden (1608-54), Free Trade, or the Means to Make Trade Flourish; argues against regulated companies and joint-stock associations, bringing the reply The Maintenance of Free Trade, According to the Three Essential Parts of Traffic, Namely Commodities, Moneys, and Exchange of Moneys, by Bills of Exchanges for Other Countries, by rival Gerard Malynes, which argues against free exchange as under the control of bankers, causing him next year to pub. The Circle of Commerce, or the Balance of Trade, in Defense of Free Trade, Opposed to Malynes' "Little Fish and his Great Whale", and Poised Against them in the Scale, arguing that internat. money exchange and fluctuations in the exchange rate depend upon internat. trade and not bankers, and that the state should regulate trade to insure export surpluses; claims that it's not necessarily bad to export gold because the commodities purchased can be reexported at a profit; Malynes replies with The Center of the Circle of Commerce (1623). Music: Thomas Tomkins (1572-1656), Madrigals. Art: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), The Rape of Proserpina (1621-2). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Cardinal Bentivolo (1622-3); Lucas van Uffeln. Guido Reni (1575-1642), Job. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Medici Cycle (1622-25); 21 paintings on the life of Maria de' Medici in the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris; he usually just draws the outlines then leaves it to his atelier (factory painters, incl. Van Dyck) to finish them? Plays: Lope de Vega (1562-1635), The Knight from Olmedo; Punishment Without Revenge. Philip Massinger (1583-1640) and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Virgin Martyr (tragicomedy). Poetry: Michael Drayton (1563-1631), Poly-Olbion, Pt. 2; Pt. 1 in 1613. Alessandro Tassoni (1565-1635), La Secchia Rapita (The Rape of the Bucket) (mock-heroic poem) (Paris); the 13th cent. war between Modena and Bologna, which starts when people from Modena steal the wooden water bucket of the Bolognese; features Conte di Culagna (Count of Assland). Novels: Charles Sorel, Sieur de Souvigny (1602-74), Francion (burlesque novel). Births: French #1 playwright-dramatist-satirist Moliere (Molière) (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) (d. 1673) on Jan. 15 in Paris; godson of Louis XIV. French astronomer Adrien Auzout (d. 1691) on Jan. 28 in Rouen. Dutch painter Carel Fabritius (d. 1654) on Feb. 27 in Middenbeemster; Rembrandt's #1 pupil. Italian mathematician-scientist Vincenzo Viviani (d. 1703) on Apr. 5 in Florence; asst. of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), and ed. of his collected works. French New France gov.-gen. #6 (1672-82, 1689-98) Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de Frontenac (d. 1698) on May 22 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. French Jesuit missionary (in North Am.) Claude Jean Allouez (d. 1689) on June 6 in Saint-Didier-en-Velay, Haute-Loire; educated at the College of Le Puy. French gov. of New France (1661-7) Pierre Boucher de Boucherville (d. 1717) on Aug. 1 in Mortagne-au-Perche. English solider and PM (1640-2) James Compton, 3rd Earl of Northampton (d. 1681) on Aug. 19; eldest son of Spencer Compton, 2nd earl of Northampton (1601-43) and Mary Beaumont; husband of Isabella, daughter of Richard Sackville, 3rd earl of Dorset, and Mary, daughter of Baptist Noel, 3rd viscount Campden; father of George Compton, 4th earl of Northampton (1664-1727), and Spencer Compton, 1st earl of Wilmington (1673-1743). Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (d. 1686) on Oct. 15 in Reval, Swedish Estonia. Swedish Wittelsbach king #1 (1654-60) Karl (Charles) X Gustav (d. 1660) on Nov. 8 in Nykoping Castle; son of John Casimir, count Palatine of Zweibrucken-Kleeburg (1589-1652) and Catharine of Sweden (1584-1638); father of Charles XI (1655-97). Italian (Neapolitan) patriot Masaniello (Tommaso Aniello) (d. 1647) in Vico Rotti al Mercato, Naples (Amalfi?); starts out as a fisherman. German duke Christian Ludwig, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Hanover (d. 1665). French scientist Jean Pecquet (d. 1674) in Dieppe. British Holmes's Bonfire adm. Sir Robert Holmes (d. 1692) in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland. French leech, er, physician Francois Bayle (d. 1709). Deaths: Scottish theologian Andrew Melville (b. 1545). English vice-adm. Sir Richard Hawkins (b. 1562) on Apr. 17 in London. French missionary Pierre Biard (b. 1565) on Nov. 17 in Avignon. Italian-born Roman Catholic Geneva bishop (1602-67) St. Francis de Sales (b. 1567) on Dec. 28 in Lyons; last words: "God's will be done! Jesus, my God and my all!"; his heart is left in Lyons, and the rest buried in the Visitation Convent of Annecy; during the French Rev. his heart is moved to Venice; beatified in 1661, canonized in 1165, doctor of the Church in 1877. Italian duke of Parma and Piacenza (1592-1622) Ranuccio I Farnese (b. 1569) on Mar. 5. Japanese samurai Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (b. 1571) on Aug. 7 in Osato. Italian painter Giovanni Battista Viola (b. 1576) on Aug. 10; dies mortified after offending Cardinal Ludovisi. English explorer William Baffin (b. 1584) on Jan. 23 in Kishm, Iran (KIA). Virginia planter John Rolfe (b. 1585) in Varina Plantation, Va. Am. Pilgrim-friendly Patuxet Indian Squanto (b. 1585) on Nov. 30 in Chatham, Mass. (poisoned?) Ottoman sultan #16 (1618-22) Osman II (b. 1604) on May 20 in Constantinople (murdered). English lawyer-diarist John Manningham (b. ?); his diary chronicling Elizabethan life incl. encounters with William Shakespare is pub. in 1868.

1623 - The First Folio Year?

Shakespeare's First Folio, 1623 Return of Prince Charles from Spain, Oct. 5, 1623 Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644) Ottoman Sultan Murad IV (1612-40) Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639) Pieter de Carpentier of the Netherlands (1586-1659) John Alden (1599-1687) and Priscilla Mullins Alden (1602-85) Francisco Gomez Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645) Sir John Eliot (1592-1632) Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660) William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630) Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1584-1650) Martin Droeshout (1601-51) Sir Edward Dering (1598-1644) Jakob Boehme (1575-1624) Philip Massinger (1583-1640) Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669) 'Roman Charity' by Dirck van Baburen, 1623 'Neptune and Triton' by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), 1622-3 'A Winter Landscape' by Esaias van de Velde, 1623

1623 On Feb. 1 Pieter de Carpentier (1586-1659) succeeds Jan Coen as gov.-gen. of the Dutch East Indies; too bad, in Mar. the Amboina (Amboyna) Massacre sees pockmarked Herman van Speult (-1626), Dutch gov. (since 1618) of Amboina (Amboyna) (Ambon) Island in the Molucca Islands in modern-day Indonesia return from an expedition to New Guinea where he discovers Speult Land and Speult Point, go paranoid about an English-Japanese plot to kill him, and order the execution of the leader of an English factory, along with 11 of the 18 English East India Co. trading post workers, souring Anglo-Dutch relations for the rest of the cent., and causing the English East India Co. to move to mainland India after being forced to abandon trade in the East Indies, Japan and Siam; Jan Pieterszoon Coen is reappointed gov.-gen. of the East Indies next Oct. 3, but he doesn't arrive until Sept. 30, 1627, after which the English give up on Batavia and move their HQ to Bantam. On Feb. 2 Sir Edward Conway, 1st Viscount Conway (1564-1631) (a lover of amber musk pudding) becomes English chief secy. of state (until 1628). In Feb. the Upper Palatinate along with the electoral dignity and office of imperial steward are taken from exiled Protestant Winter King Frederick V and given to PC Roman Catholic Bavarian Duke Maximilian I of the other branch of the House of Wittelsbach (originally split in 1329) by HRE Ferdinand II as a reward for fighting on the Hapsburg-Catholic side in the Thirty Years' War; Upper Austria is restored to Ferdinand; Maximilian I becomes leader of the party trying to dump Wallenstein in favor his boy Duke Tilly. On Mar. 1 after a patent for a revolutionary new stocking frame by deceased inventor William Lee (1563-1614) of Calverton (invented 1589) is denied yet again on the grounds that it supersedes manual labor, and the Privy Council orders the model destroyed, the English Parliament passes the 1623 Statute of Monopolies, allowing patents to be granted for "projects of new invention"; written descriptions aren't required until the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14). On Mar. 20 Pope Gregory XV issues Omnipotentis Dei, the last papal ordinance against witchcraft, which prohibits the death penalty except when a compact with the Devil is proved and homicide is committed with his assistance - get a lawyer or forget it? Rock me gently, rock me slowly, take it easy, baby, baby? In May the Spanish Match sees James I create his favorite George Villiers as the 1st duke of Buckingham, making the highest ranking subject outside the royal family, and he accompanies his pal Prince Charles to Spain to try and arrange a marriage to the Spanish infanta Donna Maria Anna (1606-46), daughter of Philip III and Margaret of Austriia, whom Charles finds to be a foxy babe and falls in love with; after traveling incognito through France and reaching Madrid, Philip IV presents him with 18 Spanish genets, six barberies, six breeding mares, 20 foals and more, then betrothes them, and they depart for the Escorial, where they go on a hunt, enter Segovia, enjoy a trout banquet, a 32-knight masque, a Latin oration by Almansa y Mendoza, then go to Valladolid, view paintings by Raphael and Michelango, then go to St. Andera; too bad, despite every trick in the book, prince dress-to-impress is finally rebuffed after the runt refuses to convert to Roman Catholicism and Buckingham schmucks it up, and departs on Sept. 9 after viewing a bullfight, then returns to England aboard the 55-gun Prince Royal and two other ships on Oct. 5, having spent a fortune; when he reaches London his daddy comforts the lovestruck prick while the people dance in the streets; daddy thought it would only be fair to have his son marry a Roman Catholic after his daughter Elizabeth married a Protestant, but both the English and Scottish pop. hate the idea? Habitat for Humanity builds homes for the holidays all year long? On July 8 Pope (since 1621) Gregory XV (b. 1554) dies, and on Aug. 6 Maffeo (Mafeo) Barberini (born in Florence) is elected Pope (#235) Urban VIII (1568-1644), the last to expand Church territory by military action, becoming known for nepotism and lavish constructions, all bearing his escutcheon with three bees; he begins building a 3-mi.-long wall around Vatican City starting at the Tiber and looping W and S back to the Tiber (finished 1644); with Aurelian's Wall (275 C.E.), Rome is completely walled now; flip-flopper Marco Antonio de Dominis sees his pension from Gregory XV cut off, causing him to start grumbling against the papacy again, and this time he doesn't make a getaway and ends up confined in the Castle of Sant' Angelo until he croaks in 1624 (natural death not?), after which the Inquisition gets his corpse dragged through the streets of Rome and burned in the Campo di Fiore, along with his works. On Aug. 6 after Christian of Brunswick raises a new 15K-man army, Count Tilly defeats him at the Battle of Stadtlohn, with Brunswick losing 13K of his men; Tilly then advances to Westphalia, and Protestant resistance in Germany is kaput. In the fall after a poor harvest in 1622 causes Plymouth Colony Pilgrims to give up the communist approach to agriculture and discover the power of capitalism and free enterprise, giving each household their own parcel of land and telling them that they can keep or trade all they produced, causing women and children to eagerly join the men in the fields, finally ending their food shortage permanently; William Bradford utters the soundbytes: "Instead of famine now God gave them plenty"; "The face of things was changed, to the rejoicing of the hearts of many, for which they blessed God"; "Any general want of famine hath not been amongst them since to this day"; Edward Winslow brings the first cows from England to go with their pigs, chickens, and goats, and says the colony is now a place where "religion and profit jump together" - blessed be the name of the what? On Sept. 10 Ottoman sultan (1617-18, 1622-23) Mad Mustafa I (b. 1591) abdicates in favor of his nephew (son of Ahmed I and Greek Sultana Kosem Sultan) Murad (Murat) IV (the Cruel) (1612-40), and is put back in his happy cage; Murad IV becomes Ottoman sultan #17 (until Feb. 8, 1640), becoming known for his height and strength, wielding a 132-lb. mace and 110-lb. 2-hand broadsword, and restoring the authority of the state with brutal methods, banning alcohol, tea, and coffee in Constantinople, then dressing up in civilian clothes at night and policing the taverns personally, killing offenders on sight with his terrible swift sword; meanwhile he is a lush himself - smells like the real thing? On Dec. 5 Sir Edward Dering, 1st Baronet (1598-1644) becomes the first person to buy a copy of the First Folio (two copies at 2 pounds each, along with a vol. of Ben Jonson for 9 shillings), producing an amateur production of "Henry IV" parts 1 and 2 in a household in Pluckley, Kent this year, becoming the first amateur performance of a Shakespeare play. Holland and Persia sign a commercial treaty. Gustavus Adolphus reforms the central admin. of Sweden. The Persians under Shah Abbas I conquer Baghdad after a 1-year siege. Injo (1595-1649) becomes Yi king #16 of Korea, backed by the "Westerners", a faction of Neo-Confucians, moving Korea toward an openly pro-Ming and anti-Manchu stance, pissing the latter off. Tokugawa Hidetada (b. 1579) retires, and his eldest son Tokugawa Iyemitsu (Iemitsu) (1604-51) becomes Tokugawa shogun #3 of Japan (until 1651). The Syrians under Mustafa Pasha attack Lebanon again, but Fakhr el-Din II's outnumbered army defeats and captures him in the Battle of Majdel Anjar. The Latin province of the Holy Land is split into the custodies of Cyprus, Syria, and the Holy Land, which incl. the monasteries of St. Jean d'Acre, Antioch, Sidon, Tyre, Jaffa, and Jerusalem. The Dutch found a settlement on Long Island, N.Y. Gloucester, Mass. on Cape Ann is founded by the Dorchester (England) Co., chartered by James I, becoming the first settlement in the future Mass. Bay Colony, beating Salem (1626) and Boston (1630); too bad, it is abandoned in 1626, then reincorporated in 1642. An English statute is passed permitting women convicted of simple larcenies under 10 shillings to be branded in the hand, whipped, stocked or imprisoned for a first offense instead of being executed; later the branding is changed to the cheek, then repealed after 7 years. Mayflower passengers John Alden and Priscilla Mullins (1602-85) (daughter of one of the Mayflower Pilgrims) become the 2nd couple to marry in Plymouth Colony; meanwhile Edward Winslow's brother John Winslow (1597-1674) tends to sick Massasoit, who recovers, uttering the soundbyte: "Now I see the English are my friends and love me, and while I live I will never forget this kindness they have showed me"; Winslow goes on to die in 1674 as one of the wealthiest merchants in Boston. Italian (Calabrian) monk Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), whose philosophy is similar to that of Kant and Descartes but pisses-off the Roman Catholic establishment is released after 27 years in prison in Naples for heresy and anti-govt. conspiracy after intervention by Pope Urban VIII. New Netherlands is formally organized as a province by the Seven United Netherlands to help the Dutch West India Co., headquartered in West India House in Amsterdam. A group of Dorchester merchants with a patent from the Council for New England set up a permanent fishing village at Cape Ann at present-day Glouchester; they leave after three years when it proves unprofitable. Dutch adventurer Piet Hein of the Dutch West India Co. captures Bahia from Spain. St. Christopher (St. Kitts) and Nevis in the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles of the E Caribbean are settled by the English, but France claims ownership (until 1713); both go on to use them as their #1 base for expansion into the neighboring islands of Antigua, Montserrat, Anguill and Tortola (British), along with with Martinique, Guadeloupe archipelago, St. Barths (French); meanwhile next year a Spanish expedition occupies both islands and deports their English and French pop. to their home countries. Spanish poet Francisco Gomez Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645) returns to Madrid after getting out of prison in Naples, where he had been viceroy under the duke of Ossuna until his 1619 fall; he then makes the mistake of pub. polemics against govt. corruption (govt. by favorites), ending with his enemy Olivares getting him imprisoned in a dungeon in Leon in 1630-43, leaving broken in health and poor. Sir John Eliot (1592-1632), MP since 1614, and friend and patron of the marquis of Buckingham, who got him an appointment as vice-adm. in 1619 captures notorious pirate John Nutt; too bad, Nutt enjoys the protection of secy. of state Sir George Calvert and is pardoned, while Eliot is imprisoned on trumped-up charges for 4 mo. The 8th cent. Nestorian Christian Siganfu Inscription in China is discovered by Jesuit missionary Alvarez Semedo. About this time Baroque (It. "imperfect pearl") Architecture is created out of Roman Renaissance architecture by the Counter-Reformation to fight the pesky Protestants to express the ultimate triumph of the Roman Catholic Church by playing on the emotions and touting the Church's wealth and power; it covers the reigns of popes Urban VIII (1623-44), Innocent X (1644-55), and Alexander VII (1655-67), with the main architects incl. Gianlorenzo (Gian Lorenzo) Bernini (1598-1680) (creator of the Baroque style of sculpture), Francesco Borromini (Castelli) (1599-1667), and Pietro (Berrettini) da Cortona (1596-1669). The hookah or nargile becomes popular in Turkey 20 after tobacco is introduced. Baby you just ain't seen nuthin yet? Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660) of Seville, who visited last year comes to Madrid with his famous "Water-Seller" painting, which wows Philip IV, who commissions him to paint his portrait and makes him court painter with a 20 ducat/mo. salary plus expenses. Leiden-born Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69) becomes the pupil of J.I. Swanenburg in Leiden; is there where he started using plumbonacrite in his paints to create his signature impasto technique? Philip Massinger (1583-1640) begins writing plays for the Lady Elizabeth's Men at the Cockpit Theatre in London (until 1526), giving him more work along with writing plays for the King's Men (since 1616) and Queen Henrietta's Men (formed 1625). Maciej Sarbiewski (1595-1640), "the Polish Horace" is crowned poet laureate in Rome by the pope. Architecture: Inigo Jones begins Queen's Chapel in St. James' Palace, Westminster (finished 162t). Louis XII builds a modest brick-stone hunting chateau at Versailles, France 12 mi. SW of Paris, which is later taken over by his son Louis XIII and built up (1661-1715) into the Palace of Versailles, which Louis IV moves his court to from Paris in 1682. Inventions: Sir Francis Bacon invents Steganography. William Schickard invents the first mechanical adding device with carry; math prodigy Blaise Pascal later lays claim to its invention even though he is still shitting yellow at the time; Pascal also invents the Roulette Wheel? Nonfiction: Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), On the Dignity and Growth of Sciences. Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), The Way to Christ (Weg zu Christo); gets him into trouble, causing him to flee to exile in Dresden and churn out lit. even faster; Of Predestination; A Short Compendium of Repentance; The Mysterium Magnum; A Table of the Divine Manifestation, or an Exposition of the Threefold World. Henry Cockeram, The English Dictionary; coins the word "dictionary". Marco Antonio de Dominis, Sui Reditus ex Anglii Consilium; recants his 1611 "Consilium Profectionis" and kisses up to Rome. William Drummond (1585-1649), A Cypresse Grove; philosophical thoughts on death. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), The Assayer; explains sunspots and comets. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626), New Projection of the Sphere. Gerard Malynes, Consuedo, vel, Lex Mercatoria; or, The Law Merchant, Divided into Three Parts, According to the Essential Parts of Traffick Necessary for All Statesmen, Judges, Magistrates, Temporal and Civil Lawyers, Mint Men, Merchants, Mariners, and Others Negotiating in All Places of the World. Art: Dirck van Baburen (1595-1624), Roman Charity (Pero and Simon). Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Neptune and Triton (sculpture) (1622-3); David (sculpture). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), George Gage; Elena Grimaldi, Marchesa Cattaneo. Francois Mansart, St. Marie de la Visitation in Paris. Guido Reni (1575-1642), Baptism of Christ. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), The Water-Seller, Portrait of Philip IV. Esaias van de Velde (1587-1630), A Winter Landscape. Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Fontana d'Israel (Israel's Brunnlein); Italian madrigal style. George Wither (1588-1667), Hymns and Songs of the Church; first book of original English hymns; some are later set to music by Orlando Gibbons. Plays: Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Duke of Milan (tragedy); The Unnatural Combat (tragedy); The Bondman (tragicomedy). Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza (1586-1644), Querer por Solo Querer (To Love Only for Love's Sake) (comedy). The most important work in the English language? Bardolatry is born? William Shakespeare (1564-1616), First Folio (Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, pub. According to the True Originall Copies) (posth.) (Nov.) (London); ed. by fellow actors John Heminges (1556-1630), and Henry Condell (-1627); contains 36 plays; Preface by Ben Jonson; "an office to the dead, to procure his orphans' guardians", "to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare"; dedicated to Jonson's patron William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630) (chancellor of Oxford U.) and his brother Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1584-1650); the title page engraving of WS by Martin Droeshout (1601-51) was drawn from instructions only, since he never saw his subject, and was 15 when Shakespeare died; the "monstrous" drawing of Big S is oddly assymetrical, with a funny line behind his ear down to his chin, as if he has a mask on, giving conspiracy theorists plenty to munch on; the Chandos Portrait of William Shakespeare by John Taylor (1585-1651), painted in 1600-10 is the only contemporary portrait; in 1856 it becomes the first acquisition of the Nat. Portrait Gallery in London; "The play's the thing... look not on his picture but his book"; "He was not of an age, but for all time!"; "Soul of the Age! The applause, delight, the wonder of our stage!"; "Take him and cut him out in little stars/ And he will make the face of heaven so fine,/ That all the world will be in love with night"; "Our Star of Poets" (Ben Jonson); by the 21st cent. only 40 copies survive; on Oct. 8, 2001 one sells at a New York City Christie's Auction for $6,166,000; on July 13, 2006 Sotheby's auctions one for $5.2M. Births: English republican leader-martyr Algernon Sidney (Sydney) (d. 1683) in Jan. in Penshurst Place, Kent; son of Robert Sidney, 2nd earl of Leicster (1595-1677); brother of Philip Sidney, Lord Lisle; great-nephew of poet Sir Philip Sidney (1554-86). Dutch statesman Cornelius (Cornelis) de Witt (d. 1672) on June 15 in Dordrecht; brother of Johan de Witt (1625-72). French precious prodigy and philosopher-mathematician-physicist Blaise (Lat. "stutterer") Pascal (d. 1662) on June 19 in Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne. Italian Baroque Franciscan composer-organist Marc' Antonio Cesti (d. 1669) on Aug. 5 in Arezzo. Polish Socinian theologian-historian Stanislaw Lubieniecki (d. 1675) on Aug. 23 in Rakow, Kielce. Dutch painter Pieter Wouwerman (d. 1682) on Sept. 13 in Haarlem; brother of Philips Wouwerman (1619-68) and Jan Wouwerman (1629-66). Flemish Jesuit missionary (in China) and mathematician-astronomer Father Ferdinand Verbiest (d. 1688) on Oct. 9 in Pittern (near Tielt), Flanders. English economist-philosopher-scientist Sir William Petty (d. 1687) on Dec. 16 in Romsey; educated at Oxford U. English writer-scientist Mary Cavendish (nee Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (d. 1673); 2nd wife (1645-) of William Cavendish, 1st duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1592-1676). British soldier-diplomat Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet (d. 1684) in Dublin, Ireland; emigrates to British Am. in 1638; educated at Harvard U.; knighted in 1660; created baronet in 1663. English "The English Dancing Master" music writer John Playford (d. 1686) in Norwich. French Roman Catholic bishop Francois Xavier de Laval-Montmorency (d. 1708); first bishop of Quebec, Canada (1674-88). Deaths: Hindu poet Tulsi Das (b. 1532) (d. 1680?) in Assi Ghat, Varanasi (modern-day Uttar Pradesh, India). English organist-composer William Byrd (b. 1540); the title "Father of Musick" appears in the entry of his death in the "Chapel Royal Checque Book" in recognition of his Three Great Masses. French Huguenot leader Philippe de Mornay (b. 1549) on Nov. 11 in La Fort-sur-Sevre. English historian William Camden (b. 1551) on Nov. 9 in Chislehurst; buried in Westminster Abbey; leaves his library to Sir Robert Bruce cotton. Belgian theologian Leonardus Lessius (b. 1554) on Jan. 15 in Leuven. English Shakespeare's wife Anne Hathaway (b. 1556) on Aug. 8; dies exactly 3 mo. after her hubby's plays are pub. in the First Folio. Italian physician Santorio Santorio (b. 1561). English composer Thomas Weelkes (b. 1576) in Nov. in London. English poet Giles Fletcher the Younger (b. 1586) in Alderton, Suffolk. English printer William Jaggard (b. 1568) in Nov. in London; dies 1 mo. before pub. of Shakespeare's First Folio.

1624 - The Richelieu, Maypole, and Bell Tolls for Thee Year?

Thomas Morton (1576-1646) and the Maypole Lionel Cranfield (1575-1645) Edward Herbert (1582-1648) Alexandre de Rhodes (1591-1660) Johannes Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644) Uriel Acosta (1585-1640) John Donne (1572-1631) Georgian Queen Ketevan the Martyr (1565-1624) Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82) Frans Hals (1580-1666) 'The Laughing Cavalier' by Frans Hals (1580-1666), 1624

1624 In early Feb. after England declares war on Spain and James I summons the Parliament of 1624 (hist last) in Dec. it begins meeting, declaring monopolies illegal in attempt to get them to cough up more dough, and ending the English sanctuary laws; meanwhile in Nov. the English and French sign a treaty for James I's son, Prince Charles of Wales to marry Henrietta Maria, Catholic daughter of Henry IV and Maria de' Medici, and sister of Louis XIII, with guarantees that she can practice her faith; too bad, the choice of a Catholic pisses off the public, compounded for Charles' support of crypto-Catholic cleric Richard Montagu (Montague) (1577-1641), who pub. New Gag for an Old Goose, ridiculing Calvinism, and claiming it's only for extremist Puritans, pissing-off all Protestants and causing him to be attacked in Parliament as an Arminian, which he responds to with Appello Caesarem: A Just Appeale from Two Unjust Informers, which only pisses them off more; he's lucky they never knew about that secret 1623 journey to Madrid? In Mar. a ship arrives in Plymouth Colony bringing the New World's first cattle. In May after the pissed-off Spanish ambassador calls on Parliament to execute the 1st duke of Buckingham for his behavior in Madrid last year, and the duke counters by proposing a war with Spain for jilting Prince Charles of Wales in his marriage with the infanta, Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex (1575-1645), lord treasurer of England since 1621, who gained the favor of James I by trying to reform the system of patronage to line his pockets (while Buckingham is also using it to line his pockets and therefore has to be gotten out of the way) is impeached at Buckingham's instigation for bribery and neglect of duty, fined £50K and suspended from office to get him out of the way so that the duke can do everything he was convicted of and get away with it?; meanwhile Sir John Eliot leads the fight in Parliament against the encroachment on its powers by James I. On June 10 the Treaty of Compiegne (Compiègne) is signed by France and Netherlands, with France offering a 480K thaler loan to help the Dutch fight Hapsburg Spain. On June 16 the London (Virginia) Co., the company colonizing North Am. is dissolved due to the unpardonable imprudence of the colonists in letting themselves get their asses kicked by Indians, plus the fact that a few tobacco tycoons monopolize the indentured servants; Virginia becomes a royal (crown) colony, and in Aug. Sir Francis Wyatt becomes royal gov. again with a term of five years; the headright system continues; England establishes a royal tobacco monopoly, fostering lung cancer on its own pop.?; Virginia's white pop. is only 1,132 despite 14K immigrating there since 1607. In June English lawyer Thomas Morton (1576-1646), born and raised in England's "Wild West" arrives in New England on the Unity with 30 men, and founds the colony of Merry Mount (Ma-Re Mount), backed by Sir Fernando Gorges, scorning the nearby Puritans, and bringing Renaissance England to the New World, incl. drinking and dancing around a Maypole, while trading in furs and "inviting the Indean women for their consorts, dancing and frisking together... and worse practices" (William Bradford) - the idea of racemixing so soon, it happened, yi yi yi? In July 800 Indian warriors battle 60 well-armed and well-pissed Jamestown colonists for two days and lose - the fate of all Indians in America is sealed? On Aug. 5 Mayflower Pilgrim Thomas Prence marries Patience Brewster, daughter of William Brewster. On Aug. 13 after De Luynes dies, Cardinal Richelieu (Armand Jean du Plessis) (1585-1642) is named by Louis XIII as his first (chief) minister of France, and entrusted with the govt. (until 1642); under him France replaces Spain as the #1 power in Europe; Father Joseph (Francois Duclerc du Tremblay) (1577-1638) becomes Richelieu's confidant and adviser, going on secret diplomatic missions for him and helping him in his efforts to convert the French Protestants, becoming known as the éminence grise (gray eminence) from the color of his robes, which contrast with Richelieu's red ones (éminence rouge). Count Ernst von Mansfeld visits England looking for financial support, making three visits to London, where he is hailed as a hero by the public, causing James I and Buckingham to supply him with men and money to recapture the Palatinate. Edward Winslow becomes a member of the governor's council of Plymouth (until 1647). The Ottoman sultan rewards Fakhr al-Din II of Lebanon with large regions of the W Levant from Jerusalem N to Alep, causing him to receive the nickname Sultan al-Bar ("sultan of the land"); meanwhile he skates on thin ice by maintaining relations with the Medicis. Ravi Varma dies, and Veera Kerala Varma (d. 1637) becomes ruler of Cochin. Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes (1591-1660) arrives in Vietnam, and founds a mission in the N in 1627, making 7K converts by the time it closes in 1630; by 1640 there are 82K converts in N (Trinh) Vietnam and 39K converts in S (Nguyen) Vietnam; de Rhodes eventually compiles a Latin-Vietnamese-Portuguese dictionary, using his "quoc ngu" romanization system, which enables missionaries to learn the lingo, and by 1700 there are 45 Roman Catholic priests in Vietnam. The English found their first settlement in E India. The Norwegian town of Oslo burns down, and Christian IV orders it rebuilt on the other side of the bay and renamed Christiania in his honor; by 1769 it has a pop. of 7.5K, growing to 135K by 1886. Portuguese Jesuit Antonio de Andrade (1580-1634) leaves the Jesuit mission at Agra to explore the Himalayas and Tibet, and becomes the first European to cross the Himalayas (over the Mansa Pass), going over the 20K ft. Mana Pass; he views the sacred white pyramid-shaped mountain of Kailash, then discovers the city of Tsaparang, built by the King of Gage in the hidden Limi Valley as a refuge, and is welcomed, building a Christian church; when he returns he writes Travels in Tibet - the real Shangri-La or Shambhala? Galileo meets with Pope Urban VIII and is assured that he can discuss the Copernican theory after all, as long as he treats it as an hypothesis - or somewhat less than an attack on the Bible's truths? Pope Urban VIII likens sneezing to orgasm and bans snuff - depends on whether you swallow? Louis XIII's male pattern baldness domes him at age 23, causing him to don a periwig, leading to full-bottomed wigs becoming fashionable in Europe. Maine is settled by the English. The Dutch set up forts in S Taiwan, while the Spanish set up forts in the N. The first Spanish settlement in Uruguay is made on the Rio Negro 100 mi. from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata. Sir William Courteen (Curteen) (Courten) (1572-1636), son of a Dutch Protestant refugee founds the first English settlement in Barbados. The town of Duxbury, Mass. (originally Duxborough) (modern-day pop. 15.5K) on the South Shore near Plymouth is founded by Capt. Myles Standish, William and Love Brewster, John Alden and Priscilla Alden et al., named after his family's Duxbury Manor in Lancashire; it starts out as a farming community then in the 19th cent. becomes a shipbuilding center, and by the 1870s a tourist mecca; in 1638 Myles Standish Burial Ground is founded there. The first major shipment of coffee beans arrives in Venice. Pembroke College at Oxford U. is founded by James I, named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630), rumored patron of William Shakespeare; alumni incl. polymath physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82). After fleeing Spanish control in Belgium for Leiden, Holland, Philippe du Trieux (1588-) a French-speaking Protestant Walloon born in Roubaix emigrates with his family to New Amsterdam, being among the first settlers, going on to change their name to Truax, Truex, Trueax et al. Architecture: Saruwaka Kanzaburo opens the first Japanese theater in the capital of Yedo (Eddo). Palais du Luxembourg (begun 1615) is finished. Jacques Lemercier extends the Louvre in Paris. Chioggia Cathedral, designed by Baldassarre Longhena in Venice at the far end of the Corso is begun (finished 1647). Science: Belgian scientist Johannes Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644) coins the term "gas" (Gr. "chaos" = unformed) for a compressible fluid - that would make it classical gas? Nonfiction: Uriel Acosta (1585-1640), An Examination of the Traditions of the Pharisees; pub. in Amsterdam; questions the immortality of the soul, claiming the rabbis made it up and it isn't in Biblical Judaism, and that most of Judaism was perverted by rabbis; gets him fined and excommunicated by the pissed-off rabbis. Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Luneburg (1579-1666), <Cryptomenytices et Cryptographiae (9 vols.); pub. under alias Gustavus Selenus; based on the work of Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516). Jakob Boehme (1575-1624), The Supersensual Life; Of Christ's Testaments; Of Illumination; An Epitome of the Mysterium Magnum; A Table of the Three Principles; The Clavis; The Holy Week, or a Prayer Book (unfinished); 177 Theosophic Questions, with Answers to Thirteen of Them (unfinished); Of Divine Contemplation of Vision (unfinished); Of the Last Judgment. Henry Briggs, Arithmetica Logarithmica. John Donne (1572-1631), Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions (Jan.); written last Dec. after recovering from a serious illness; Meditation XVII incl. the famous phrases "No man is an island", and "Any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind; therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee." Edward Herbert (1582-1648), Autobiography; De Veritate; founding theory of English Deism; first metaphysical treatise written by an Englishman; claims that all principles of religion are apprehended by instinct and vitiated by superstition and dogma. Richard Montagu (1577-1641), New Gag for an Old Goose; disses Calvinist doctrines held by English Protestants, claiming that only extremist Puritans hold them. Philippe de Mornay (1549-1623), Memoires (2 vols.) (1624-25) (posth.). Jean Robin and Vespasien Robin, Manuel Abrege des Plants; introduces the Am. strawberry to France. Willebrord Snell (1580-1626), Tiphys Batavus; navigational theories. Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), A General Historie of Virginia, New England and the Summer Isles. Adriaan van den Spiegel (1578-1625), De Semitertiana Libri Quatuor; first comprehensive description of malaria. Edward Winslow (1595-1655), Good Newes from New England (London); Pilgrim journal. Music: Marco da Gagliano (1575-1642), La Regina Sant' Orsola (opera-oratorio). Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Il Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda. Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Diletti Pastorali, Hirten Lust. Art: Jacques Callot (1592-1635), The Fair at Gonfreville (print). Frans Hals (1580-1666), The Laughing Cavalier. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Conversion of St. Bavon; Portrait of the Artist's Sons Albert and Nicholas (1624-5). Plays: Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Renegado, or The Gentleman of Venice (tragicomedy); The Parliament of Love (comedy). Poetry: Martin Opitz (1597-1639), Das Buch von der Deutschen Poeterey; attempt at purifying the German language. Births: Japanese emperor #109 (1629-43) Meisho (Okiko) (d. 1696) on Jan. 9; 2nd daughter of Go-Mizunoo (1596-1680) and Tokugawa Kazuko (1607-78) (daughter of shogun #2 Hidetata); the name Meisho is a combo of previous female emperors Gemmei (707-15) and Gensho (715-24). Italian Baroque architect-writer Camillo-Guarino Guarini (d. 1683) on Jan. 17 in Modena. Dutch (Flemish) Cartesian "Ita est, ergo ita sit" (It exists, therefore it is so) philosopher Arnold Geulincx (d. 1669) on Jan. 31 in Antwerp; educated at the U. of Leuven. English religious leader and Quakers (Society of Friends) founder George Fox (d. 1691) in July in Leicestershire. Polish king (1674-96) Jan (John) III Sobieski (d. 1696) on Aug. 17 in Olesko (near Lemberg), Galicia. English physician Thomas Sydenham (Syndenham) (d. 1689) on Sept. 10 in Wynford Eagle, Dorset. German Roman Catholic mystic-poet Angelus Silesius (d. 1677) on Dec. 25 in Breslau (Wroclaw), Silesia; fan of Jakob Bohme (1575-1624); converts from Lutheranism in 1652. British colonial New York gov. #1 (1664-72) Richard Nicolls (d. 1672) in Ampthill, Bedfordshire. English Nonconformist theologian Matthew Poole (d. 1679) in York; son of Francis Pole; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. English Christian mystic Jane Ward Leade (d. 1704) in Norfolk. German duke Georg Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Calenburg (d. 1705) in Hanover. Deaths: English lord high adm. Charles Howard, 1st earl of Nottingham (b. 1536) on Dec. 14. Spanish Jesuit historian Juan de Mariana (b. 1536) on Feb. 17 in Madrid. Spanish explorer Sebastian Vizcaino (b. 1540) in Mexico City. English clergyman writer Stephen Gosson (b. 1554). English bishop Miles Smith (b. 1554) in Gloucester. Swiss botanist Gaspard Bauhin (b. 1560). Georgian queen St. Ketevan the Martyr (b. 1565) on Sept. 13 in Shiraz (tortured to death on orders of Shah Abbas I with red-hot pincers for refusing to convert to Islam). Dalmatian apostate archbishop-scientist Marco Antonio de Dominis (b. 1566) in Sept. in Sant' Angelo Castle, Rome; his corpse is dragged through the streets of Rome on Dec. 21 and burned in Campo di Fiore along with his works. German astronomer Simon Marius (b. 1573) on Jan. 5 (Dec. 26 Old Style) in Anspach. William Shakespeare's patron Henry Wriothesley (b. 1573) on Nov. 10. German mystic Jakob Boehme (b. 1575) in Goerlitz; his complete works are pub. in 1730: "When thou art gone forth wholly from the human, and art become nothing to Nature and creature, then thou art in that eternal one, God himself, and then thou shalt perceive and feel the highest virtue of love." Spanish painter Luis Tristan de Escamilla (b. 1586) in Toledo. Indian Sufi scholar Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (b. 1564): "Whenever a Jew is killed, it is for the benefit of Islam."

1625 - The Jack On Jack Off Year in Greater Britain, Ha Ha Ha Ha?

Charles I of England (1600-49) Henrietta Maria of England (1609-69) Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry (1578-1640) HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) Albrecht Wenzel von Wallenstein (1583-1634) Martin Opitz (1597-1639) Juan de Mariana (1536-1624) Sir George Calvert (1580-1632) Duke Henri II of Rohan (1579-1638) Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628) Vittoria della Rovere (1622-94) St. Vincent de Paul (1580-1660) Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-68) Fort Western, 1625 'Apollo and Daphne' by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), 1622-5 'Roman Charity' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1625 Frans Snyders (1579-1657) 'Wild Boar Hunt' by Frans Snyders, 1625-30

1625 The combined pop. of English colonists in Va. and Mass. together numbers only 2K. In Jan. the Mansfield expedition finally leaves England with an army of "raw and poor rascals", sailing from Dover to the Netherlands. On Mar. 27 English king (since Mar. 24, 1603) James I (James VI of Scotland) (b. 1566) dies of a, er, stroke after 58 years on the Scottish throne and 22 years on the English throne, failing to unite the two kingdoms, and his 2nd (Scottish-born but not understanding the Scots?) son Charles I (1600-49) succeeds him as king of the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland (the 45th British monarch) (2nd of the House of Stuart) (until Jan. 30, 1649); he is crowned next Feb. 2; on Apr. 3 John Donne gives the first royal sermon of his reign; before dying James I founds the Irish Slave Trade by selling 30K Irish prisoners to English settlers in the West Indies, making it a permanent proclamation; on May 1 Charles I marries 16-y.-o. French Roman Catholic (short like him) Henrietta Maria (Henriette-Marie) (1609-69) by proxy (the Duke of Buckingham), and the same day directs his First Parliament (convenes June 18) to cease the persecution of Roman Catholics, which they refuse, instead demanding subsidies for the war against Spain; on May 7 James' state funeral is held at Westminster Abbey, and his remains are interred in the same vault as Henry VII (his great-great-grandfather), founder of the Tudor Dynasty, with no stone-carved memorial; the First Parliament is adjourned to Oxford because of plague in London; no Rex Pacificus like his daddy, Charles forever schemes to make war, but jams up against his insufficient income and the need to get Parliament to vote money, ending up hiring smart lawyers to find ways to milk his existing incomes; his colorful court soon becomes filled with anti-Reformation Catholics, and his disinterest in Scottish affairs turns off Scotland; meanwhile he gets pussy-whipped by his wife, who is forever plotting with papists and turning the English people against them, even though the marriage doesn't cause France to become an ally?; lucky Buckingham becomes the only man to retain his position from the court of James I; new queen Henrietta Maria goes on to talk her hubby into granting the French title of princess royal to their eldest daughter Mary in 1642 to imitate their title of "madame royale", after which George II does ditto with his eldest daughter Anne in 1727, followed by George III's daughter Charlotte in 1789, Victoria's daughter Victoria in 1841, Edward VII's daughter Louise in 1905, George V's daughter Mary in 1932, and Elizabeth II's daughter Anne in 1987 - walking, dancing, playing volleyball, you're the same woman? On Nov. 1 Sir Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry (1578-1640) is made lord keeper of the seal of England by Charles I (until 1640), the juicy job going on to make him rich. Count Tilly invades Lower Saxony; meanwhile Christian IV of Denmark enters the Thirty Years' War to protect Protestantism and establish himself as its leader in N Europe; meanwhile HRE Ferdinand II makes gen. Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (1583-1634) CIC of his imperial forces, and creates him the duke of Friedland; Ferdinand is victorious in wars against the Protestants in Germany, and his son Ferdinand III (1608-57) is crowned king of Hungary in Dec. Spanish gen. Ambrogio Spinola takes Breda from the Dutch after an 11-mo. siege. The Valtellina is seized from the Spanish by a Swiss force in French pay, and Huguenot leader Duke Henri II of Rohan (1579-1638), chancellor of Burgundy is made gov. (until 1637). Tartu, Estonia becomes a Swedish possession (until 1656). James Sir John Eliot splits with the 1st duke of Buckingham over the latter's attempts to extend the power of new monarch Charles I. After his only son Federico (b. 1605) dies in 1623 from an epileptic seizure, aging Francesco Maria II della Rovere (b. 1549) returns his Duchy of Urbino to the pope, and after his death in 1631 it is annexed to the papal states, his daughter Vittoria della Rovere (1622-94) (wife of Ferdinando II de' Medici) inheriting his vast art collection and bequeathing to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Tommaso Campanella is in the hot seat again and flees to France, where Richelieu gives him asylum and Louis XIII grants him a pension of 3K livres. The French occupy the Antilles and Cayenne. The Colonial Office is established in London. A British Am. ship is captured by Morocco. About this year the Kuba (KuBa) (Bakuba) (Bushongo) Kingdom is founded by Shyaam a-Mbul a Ngoong in SE modern-day Dem. Repub. of Congo (DRC) by uniting all local chiefdoms under his rule, worshiping the Sky Father Bumba and the original human Woot, becoming known for tukula (twool) cosmetic powder made of ground cam wood, raffia embroidered textiles, wooden ndop figures representing royalty, and carved palm wine drinking cups; after white Euros reach the area in 1884, and the Nsapo people invade it, it fractures back into chiefdoms; in 1969 Kot-a-Mbweeky III becomes king of Kuba (until ?). The town of New Amsterdam (modern-day New York City) in New Netherlands is founded on lower Manhattan Island by the Dutch after they purchase it from the Indians. Nurhachi moves his capital from Liaodong to Shenyang (Mukden) (Shengjing) (Fengtian) (Chen. "city N of the Shen River") on the Hun (Shen) River in NE China, and sets up a civil admin. based on the Chinese model. Hackney coaches begin appearing in London streets. The first fire engines are used in England. The first trade with Indians between the Kennebec and Plymouth Colony is started by (who else?) Edward Winslow - Fast Eddie? Western Fort on the E bank of the Kennebec (on the later site of Augusta, Maine) is founded by the Plymouth Pilgrims as a trading post to help pay their debts to London; it is turned into a fort in 1754. The French colonize Tortuga. After proclaiming his family's motto as "Fatti maschi, parole femine" (manly deeds, feminine words) in 1622, Sir George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore (1580-1632) announces his conversion to Roman Catholicism, and begins a campaign to establish a North Am. colony for English Catholics; the male supremacist motto is later adopted by the U.S. state of Md. (until ?) - South America and Canada aren't enough for them? (St.) Vincent de Paul (1580-1660) founds the Order of the Sisters of Mercy in Paris. Daniel Mytens the Elder (1590-1648) becomes court painter to Charles I, introducing naturalism into court portraits until the arrival of Anthony Van Dyck in 1632, causing him to return to the Netherlands in 1634. Silesian poet Martin Opitz von Boberfeld (1597-1639) is crowned poet laureate in Vienna. The Dutch carry sugar cane from South Am. to the Caribbean islands, incl. Barbados and Virgin Islands. The cockroach comes to America from Africa - and will be in both continents long after humans are extinct? The first illustrated textbook is pub. in Hungary. The famous Peal of Bells is installed in the Gate of Salvation in the Kremlin. Science: German-Dutch chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-68) discovers Glauber's Salt (sodium sulfate). Christoph Scheiner makes the first direct observation of the retinal image. Nonfiction: Anon., The Widdowe's Treasure; English cookbook. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Essays; Of Masques and Triumphs. Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), Euripus seu de Fluxus at Refluxus Maris Sententiae; relates the tides to the Moon and Sun. Sir Fulke Greville (1554-1628), The Life of the Renowned Sir Philip Sidney [1554-86]. Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), On the Law of War and Peace (De Jure Belli ac Pacis); seminal internat. law. treatise that eclipses the writings of Alberico Gentili; claims that interventing to help a people resist tyranny constitutes a just war. Juan de Mariana (1536-1624), Discursus de Erroribus qui in Forma Gubernationis Societatis Jesu Occurrunt (Bordeaux) (posth.); criticizes his Jesuit Order; reprinted by Charles III when he banishes the Jesuits from Spain in 1767. Richard Montagu (1577-1641), Appello Caesarem: A Just Appeale from Two Unjust Informers; more anti-Calvinism. Samuel Purchas (1577-1626), Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes; contains a Map of China. Sir William Vaughan (1575-1641), Cambrensium Caroleia; incl. the first map of Newfoundland by Capt. John Mason. Music: Francesca Caccini (1587-1642), La Liberazione di Ruggiero (opera) (Feb. 3) (Villa di Poggio Imperiale, Florence); libretto by Ferdinando Saracinelli; the first opera by a woman composer, and first performance of an Italian opera outside Italy (Poland, 1625) (Warsaw, 1628); written for the future Wladyslaw IV. Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Cantiones Sacrae. Art: Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Apollo and Daphne; shows Peneus' maiden daughter turning into a tree to escape the Cupid-struck Phoebus Apollo; commissioned by Cardinal Scipione Borghese. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Parnassus (1625-9). Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Roman Charity (Simon and Pero); the old sucker gets older and she gets more Rubinesque; Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia, Daughter of Philip II, Spanish Regent of the Low Countries As A St. Clare Nun. Frans Snyders (1579-1657), Wild Boar Hunt (1625-30). Plays: Honorat de Bueil (1589-1670), Les Bergeries (pastoral dialogues). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Staple of News (comedy) (first play in nine years); slams Thomas Middleton for his big hit "A Game at Chess" (1609). Philip Massinger (1583-1640), A New Way to Pay Old Debts (comedy); Sir Giles Overreach, based on Richard III, later made famous by Edmund Kean. Tirso de Molina (1584-1648), The Trickster of Seville; creates the myth of Don Juan. Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Palamedes (political drama). Poetry: Jacob "Father" Cats (1577-1660), Houwelijck. Births: Italian-born French astronomer Gian (Giovanni) Domenico Cassini (d. 1712) on June 8 in Perinaldo, Genoa; father of Jacques Cassini (1677-1756). English diplomat-MP (1645-60) Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich (d. 1672) on July 27; only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu (-1644) and Paulina Pepys (great-aunt of Samuel Pepys). Danish mathematician-astronomer (discoverer of double refraction in crystals) Rasmus (Erasmus) Bartholin (d. 1698) on Aug. 13 in Roskilde; son of Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629); brother of Thomas Bartholin (1616-80); namesake of the sublingual duct of Bartholin. French writer-dramatist Thomas Corneille (d. 1709) on Aug. 20 in Rouen; younger brother of Pierre Corneille (1606-84). Dutch statesman-mathematician Johan de Witt (d. 1672) on Sept. 24 in Dordrecht; brother of Cornelius de Witt (1623-72). Dutch animal-landscape painter-etcher Paulus (Paul) John Bubnarius Jaques Potter (d. 1654) on Nov. 20 in Enkhuizen; trained in Amsterdam. French legal philosopher ("greatest legal mind of the 17th cent.") Jean Domat (d. 1696) on Nov. 30; known for his attempts to justify French royal absolutism. English pirate and vice-adm. Sir Christopher Myngs (Mings) (d. 1666) in Norfolk. German "Simplicissimus" picaresque novelist Hans (Johann) Jakob (Jacob) Christoph von Grimmelshausen (d. 1676) in Gelnhausen, Sesse. German noble Johann Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Calenberg (Hanover) (d. 1679). Dutch painter-engraver (Roman Catholic) Hendrick Danckerts (d. 1680) in The Hague. Welsh jurist Sir Leoline Jenkins (d. 1985) in Cowbridge; educated at Jesus College, Oxford U. Polish "Wojna Chocimska" #1 poet Waclaw Potocki (d. 1696). Deaths: Italian painter Sophonisba Anguissola (b. 1532) on Nov. 16 in Palermo, Sicily. English lexicographer John Florio (b. 1553) in autumn in Fulham, London; dies in poverty after his royal pension is not paid. Spanish valido Francisco Gomez, duke of Lerma (b. 1553). English poet-dramatist Thomas Lodge (b. 1558). Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas (b. 1559). Italian musical theorist Pietro Cerone (b. 1566) in Naples. English king (1603-25) and Scottish king (1567-1625) James I/VI (b. 1566) on Mar. 27 in Theobalds House, Cheshunt, Hertfordshire (stroke); buried in Westminster Abbey; wrote more books than any other monarch in history? Dutch Cape Horn explorer Willem Cornelis Schouten (b. 1567). Dutch prince (or Orange) Maurice of Nassau (b. 1567). Dutch painter Jan Brueghel ("Velvet Brueghel") the Elder (b. 1568). French novelist Honore d'Urfe (b. 1568) on June 1 in Villefranche-sur-Mer ; dies from a fall from his horse during a military campaign against the Genoese. in Villafranca, Spain. Italian poet Giambattista Marini (Marino) (b. 1569). German astronomer Johann Bayer (b. 1572) on Mar. 7. Dutch anatomist Adriaan van der Spiegel (b. 1578) on Apr. 7. English playwright-poet John Fletcher (b. 1579) (plague). English dramatist John Webster (b. 1580). English composer Orlando Gibbons (b. 1583) on June 5 in Canterbury (apoplexy); leaves The Silver Swan.

1626 - Ditch niche, get rich, or die trying, rated R? Good year to be a real estate broker?

Peter Minuit (1580-1638) St. Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) Nicholas Ferrar (1592-1637) Jean Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orleans (1608-60) Abahai of China (1592-1643) Roger Conant (1592-1679) Guy de La Brosse (1586-1641) Nicholas Lanier (1588-1666) 'Drunken Silenus' by Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), 1626 Chateau de Balleroy, 1626-36 Jan Joseph van Goyen (1596-1656) 'Ice Skating' by Jan Joseph van Goyen, 1626

1626 On Feb. 2 Charles I is crowned at Westminster Abbey by Bishop William Laud in a ceremony filled with mystical symbolism about the majesty of the Divine Right of Kings - does he pray to the Lord day and night for his people? On Feb. 5 after a royal army is sent, the Huguenots sign the Peace of La Rochelle (Treaty of Paris) with France, preserving religious freedom but prohibiting La Rochelle from keeping a war fleet, requiring Huguenot Ft. Tasdon and French Ft. Louis to be destroyed - and by the time the ink is dry? On Mar. 5 the Treaty of Monzon (Monzón) (Moncon) between Spain and France gives equal rights in controlling the Valtelline Pass, and confirms the independence of the Grisons. On Mar. 9 Charles I's Second Parliament meets, and lord keeper Sir Thomas Coventry delivers the king's reprimand to the House of Commons, declaring that they are entitled to "liberty of counsel", not "liberty of control"; after they stop chuckling, Charles I abruptly dissolves Parliament, then tries to finance his war plans by all kinds of desperate actions, incl. pawning the crown jewels and forced loans on wealthy subjects, at first sending letters in July asking them to "lovingly, freely and voluntarily" pony up, then, when the vast majority ignore the bum, making it an order with threat of jail, causing £250K to come in; he also quarters troops in houses along England's S coast, incl. at the Puritan stronghold of Banbury, which later proves a boo-boo. On Mar. 28 Eastern traveler (since 1614) Pietro della Valle arrives back in Rome, where he becomes a celeb and is made gentleman of the bedchamber by Pope Urban VIII, burying his stuffed Syrian wife in 1627 and marrying a Georgian orphan she had adopted, going on to have 14 children. On Apr. 25 after marching to the Elbe River, Gen. Wallenstein defeats Count Ernst von Mansfeld at the Battle of Dessau Bridge, after which Mansfield regroups in Silesia and recruits another army (not filled with raw and poor English rascals?), then marches to Hungary, pursued by Wallenstein; too bad, Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania flip-flops and makes peace with the HRE, and Mansfeld is forced to disband his army, setting out for Venice, where he takes ill at Rakowitza and dies on Nov. 26; the failure of the Mansfield expedition causes the 1st duke of Buckingham's capital to drop in England. On May 4 after being appointed the first dir.-gen. of New Netherlands, Peter Minuit (1580-1638) arrives at the mouth of the Hudson River in the Sea Mew, then on May 6 buys Manhattan Island (discovered in 1609 by Henry Hudson) from the natives for 60 Dutch guilders ($24) in trade goods (beads and geegaws), followed on Aug. 10 by Staten Island for another 60 guilders worth of trinkets; meanwhile the Dutch West India Co. rips off the Spanish treasure ships for 120M guilders? In June the 1st duke of Buckingham, hoping to become a hero like Sir Francis Drake and burn all the ships in the harbor, leads an expedition to Cadiz, Spain; too bad, after the troops land up the coast, they happen on a warehouse of wine, get drunk, and return to the ship on the Highway to Hell; after they return empty-handed, Sir John Eliot demands a Parliamentary inquiry, and brings the case for Buckyball's impeachment before the House of Lords, which backfires and gets him jailed the next day following the statement of charges; the House of Commons obtains his release, although he loses his office of vice-adm., after which Bucky gets the House dissolved in Aug. to avoid being tried; just because that didn't work, Buckingham then leads an expedition to intercept a Spanish silver fleet from Mexico at sea, but they get tipped off and avoid the bum, causing him to finally return home after running out of supplies; three's the charm, Buckingham then negotiates with Cardinal Richelieu to send English ships to fight the Huguenots in return for French aid in kicking the Spanish out of the Palatinate (which went bad for him in 1524), pissing off Parliament again, the very idea of English Protestants fighting French Protestants, causing Bucky to flip-flop and plot to aid the Huguenots against Richelieu, declaring war on France, which pits England against the French Bourbons and the Hapsburgs of Spain and Germany. On July 6 the Jardin des Plantes is established in Paris on the left bank of the Seine River; in 1635 Louis XIII's physician Guy de La Brosse (1586-1641) replants it with medicinal herbs, becoming the #1 botanical garden in France; originally called the Jardin du Roi (King's Garden), it takes until 1640 to get the Sorbonne faculty to drop their opposition to a non-degreed teacher of botany there. On Aug. 26-27 the Battle of Lutter is an utter D for the Danish by the Catholic, who destroy over half their feeling army, forcing Christian IV to sue for peace. Cardinal Richelieu suppresses the Chalais Conspiracy in Nantes, led by Henri de Talleyrand-Perigord, Count of Chalais (b. 1599), having him beheaded, then consolidating his power over the nobles. Nurhachi (b. 1559) dies without realizing his dream of conquering all of China, and his 2nd son Abahai (1592-1643) becomes emperor #2 of the Manchurian Hou (Later) Jin (Chin) (Qin) Dynasty in Mukden, going on to finish daddy's program and absorb Mongol and Han Chinese in NE China into each of their own eight banners, instituting combined Manchu-Mongol-Chinese rule (ends 1911). Louis XIII revives the extinct (since 1498) dukedom of Orleans, and makes his brother Jean-Baptiste Gaston (1608-60) the new duke. Bamberg in Germany under Prince-bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim begins a flurry of witch trials (until 1631), building the Drudenhaus witch prison next year. Gustavus II Adolphus grants privileges to Dutchman Willem Usselincx to start a Swedish trading co. for the Far East, but it never launches any ships, and he ends up dying broke. The English crown grants knighthoods to all male Englishmen with property over £40 a year in order to raise revenue. A royal edict in France makes it a capital crime to kill anyone in a duel. The Merchant Adventurers of London disband after visiting the fledgling Pilgrim colony at Provincetown, and seven Pilgrim Fathers (Bradford, Brewster, Winslow, Standish, Alden, Howland, Allerton and Prence) assume the colony's debt in return for a fur trade monopoly. The English Parliament prevents Charles I from placing excise taxes on beer and ale; in 1643 after the start of the English Civil War (1642-51) the revolutionary Puritan Parliament imposes them, along with taxes on bread, meat, salt, sugar et al., claiming necessity as a war measure; after the war the taxes continue until riots and demonstration make the Parliament remove them, while keeping them on beer, malt, and hops, increasing them yearly ($1,632,280 for England and Scotland in 1659) until gin becomes cheaper, causing a rise in gin consumption along with the growth of beer moonshiners, causing James II in 1685 to extend the jurisdiction of the Worshipful Co. of Brewers (London Brewers' Co.) to 8 mi. around London and its suburbs, after which in 1739 the co. adopts new by-laws, incl. the requirement that all members "enter into a bond in £2,00 with the company against any expenses of their being elected to the office of sheriff or lord mayor", starting to go into decline about 1750. Mexican-born Spanish dramatist Juan Ruiz de Alarcon (Alarcón) y Mendoza (1581-1639) becomes a member of the Royal Council of the Indies (New Spain colonies), causing him to give up writing plays. French missionary Father Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) explores the Lake Huron region and establishes a Roman Catholic mission among the Huron, which is abandoned after two years - they sure did like that? Nicholas Ferrar (1592-1637) founds the Anglican lay religious community of Little Gidding near Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England (ends 1646); members incl. poets George Herbert and Richard Crashaw. The French establish settlements in Madagascar and on the Senegal River. The Co. for the Islands of America (Company of One Hundred Associates) is incorporated in France to work the North Am. fur trade and expand French colonies (ends 1663). Salem (Heb. "peace") (modern-suburb of Boston) (modern pop. 40K) on Mass. Bay is founded at the mouth of the Naumkeag River by fisherman Roger Conant (1592-1679) and other immigrants from Cape Ann. The Kalinago Genocide in St. Kitts sees Caribs attempt to wipe out English settlers, who are tipped off by a woman named Barbe, causing the English and French to stage a surprise night attack and kill 100-120 in their beds, saving the most beautiful babes as slaves; they then divide the island and fortify it against an invasion of 3K-4K Caribs from other islands, killing many while suffering 100 casualties, after which the Carib blood ran down Bloody River for three days, causing it to be named Bloody Point. Charles I creates the position of Master of the King's Musick, the equivalent of poet laureate, with the job of directing the king's private band (until it is dissolved in 1901), with Nicholas Lanier (1588-1666) getting the first lifetime appointment; in 2004 the appointment is changed to a 10-year term. Jean Trimbach begins producing wines in Alsace, founding Maison Trimbach. Heidelberg U., once a major Protestant center suspends operation (until 1652). English musician William Heather (1563-1627), a gentleman of the chapel royal founds a professorship of music at Oxford U. The first production of Shakespeare's Hamlet in Germany is staged in Dresden. Peter Paul Rubens' first wife Isabella Rubens dies. Architecture: On Nov. 18 St. Peter's Basilica in Rome (begun Apr. 18, 1506) is finally consecrated, becoming the largest Christian church on Earth. The Chateau de Balleroy in Normandy, designed by Francois Mansart is begun (finished 1636). Jacques Lemercier decorates the Sorbonne in Paris. Science: Santorio Santorii becomes the first to measure human temperature with a thermometer - don't ask which orifice? Nonfiction: Marie de Gournay (1565-1645), The Ladies Grievance (Les Femmes et Grief des Dames). John Donne (1572-1631), Five Sermons. Albert Girard (1595-1632), Treatise on Trigonometry; contains the first use of the abbreviations sin, cos and tan. Joseph Hall (1574-1656), Contemplations. Pieter Hooft (1581-1647), Henrik de Grote (Henry the Great). Francisco Gomez de Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645), Politica de Dios; an attack on govt. by favorites. William Roper (1496-1578), The Life of Sir Thomas More (posth.). Sir Henry Spelman (1595-1623), Glossarium Archeologicum. Art: Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), The Four Ages of Man; Paola Adorno, Marchesa Brinole-Sale with Son; Giovanni Vincenzo Imperiale. Jan Joseph van Goyen (1596-1656), Ice Skating. Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), Drunken Silenus. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Assumption of the Virgin (altarpiece at Antwerp). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Marchesa Paola Adorno and Her Son; The Tribute Money. Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Opera Nova, ander Theil, Geistlicher Concerten; Studenten-Schmauss. Plays: Sir William Davenant (1606-80), Albovine, King of the Lombards (tragedy) (first play). Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Roman Actor (tragedy) (Blackfriars Theatre, London); performed by the King's Men; John Lowin plays Roman emperor Domitian, and Joseph Taylor plays Paris, who gives a defense of the acting profession. Poetry: Honorat de Bueil (1589-1670), Les Plus Beaux Vers. John Milton (1608-74), On the Death of a Fair Infant Dying of a Cough; written while at Cambridge. George Sandys (1578-1644), Ovid's Metamorphoses; first trans. of an ancient classic in North Am. Novels: Francisco Gomez Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645), Historia y Vida del Buscon (Buscón) (picaresque); big hit in Spain. Births: French condom-hating aristocratic court gossip, tea drinker and big letter writer Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne (Sévigné) (d. 1696) on Feb. 5 in Paris; born to an old Bourbon family. Italian physician-scientist Francesco Redi (d. 1697) on Feb. 18 in Arezzo, Tuscany. French Franciscan missionary Louis Hennepin (d. 1705) on May 12 in Ath, Spanish Netherlands (modern-da Belgium). Italian Baroque composer Giovanni Legrenzi (d. 1690) on Aug. 12. English statesman and Lord Protector of England Richard Cromwell (d. 1712) on Oct. 4 in Huntingdon; 3rd son of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658); trained to be his successor. Swedish queen (1632-54) Christina Wasa (Maria Christina Alexandra) (d. 1689) (AKA Countess Dohna) on Dec. 8 in Stockholm to Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg; her birth during a rare astrological conjunction fuels speculation about her destiny, compounded with the universal desire that she be a boy, causing her to be educated as one; her official title is king? Dutch stadtholder (1647-50) William II, Prince of Orange (d. 1650) on May 26; son of Frederik Hendrik of Orange (1584-1647) and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (1602-75); husband (1641-) of Mary Henrietta Stuart (1631-60) (eldest daughter of Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria); father of William of Orange (William III of England) (1650-1702). Turkish Jewish Qabbalist Sabbatean sect founder Sabbatai (Shabatai) Zevi (Tzvi) (d. 1676) on Aug. 1 (Tisha B'Av) in Smyrna. Dutch painter Jan Steen (d. 1679). Russian artist Simon (Pimen) Fyodorovich Ushakov (d. 1686); one of the first secular painters in ultra-religious Russia; gets in trouble for painting religious icons which look too fleshy and Western. English antiquarian John Aubrey (OF "elf ruler") (d. 1697). Deaths: English poet-novelist Nicholas Breton (b. 1545). Venetian artist Girolamo Campagna (b. 1549) in Venice. Spanish colonial gov. Juan de Onate (b. 1552) in Spain. Flemish painter Paul Bril (b. 1554). English prelate-scholar Lancelot Andrewes (b. 1555) on Sept. 25. Dutch sculptor Adriaen de Vries (b. 1556) in Prague. Chinese Qin emperor #1 (1616-26) Nurhaci (b. 1559). English philosopher-statesman Sir Francis Bacon, 1st viscount St. Alban (b. 1561) on Apr. 9 in Highgate; dies from pneumonia from stuffing a chicken with snow for an experiment on refrigeration: "Knowledge is power"; "It is a sad fate for a man to die too well known to everybody else and still unknown to himself"; "He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men, which both in affection and means have married and endowed the public"; "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested"; "They that deny God destroy man's nobility; for certainly, man is akin to the beasts by his body; and if he be not of kin to God by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature." English lutenist-composer John Dowland (b. 1563). English poet Sir John Davies of Hereford (b. 1569). English actor Edward Alleyn (b. 1566) on Nov. 25. English dramatist Cyril Tourneur (b. 1575) on Feb. 28 in Kinsale, Ireland; dies on return voyage from Cadiz with Sir Edward Cecil. French engineer-physicist Salomon de Caux (b. 1576). German gen. Count Ernst von Mansfeld (b. 1580) on Nov. 29 in Rakowitza; buried in Spalato. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snell (b. 1580) on Oct. 30. Italian anatomist Gasparo Aselli (b. 1581). English "Gunter's chain" mathematician Edmund Gunter (b. 1581) on Dec. 10. English dramatist-actor William Rowley (b. 1585) in Feb. Italian duke of Mantua and Montferrat (1612-26) Ferdinando I Gonzaga (b. 1587) on Oct. 29 in Mantua. French poet-dramatist Theophile de Viau (b. 1590) on Sept. 25 in Paris.

1627 - The Last Touchy Naggy Aurochs Year?

Chinese Ming Emperor Chongzhen (1611-44) Duke Charles I of Gonzaga-Nevers (1580-1637) Gabriel Naudé (1600-53) Pieter de Carpentier (1586-1659) Dionysius Petavius (1583-1652) Katharina Henot (1570-1627) 'Self-Portrait' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1650 'Nymph and Satyrs' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1627 'Charity Enlightening the World' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1627

1627 By this year HRE Ferdinand II has outlawed all religions but Roman Catholicism in his empire, and banished the Protestants from Bohemia. On Jan. 3 Francis Cooke (1583-1663) and five other men are appointed to lay out 20-acre land shares for every Mayflower family that came as a planter under the employ of the joint stock co.; the Cattle Division becomes the first census of Plymouth Colony. On Jan. 12 the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam is founded by Portuguese-born Manasseh ben Israel (1604-57), producing a Hebrew prayer book. On May 19 German postmaster (first woman) Katharina Henot (Henoth) (b. 1570) is burned at the stake for sorcery in Cologne, Germany; on June 28, 2012 the city council exonerates her along with other victims of witch persecution. In June after capturing Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel to use as his base, Dutch-born Muslim Barbary pirate Murad Reis terrorizes Iceland until some are cornered and killed on Turkish Peninsula, and the rest sail out with booty and slaves; on July 4 two corsairs from Algiers plunder the S coast for three days. On July 12 the Anglo-French War of 1627-9 begins with the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Re (Saint-Martin-de-Ré) in France, with the duke of Buckingham leading a force 100 ships and 6K-7K soldiers land on the beach at Sablanceau with the objective of capturing Ft. La Pree and the fortified city of Saint-Martin-de-Re; after a French relief fleet arrives on Oct. 7 (night), the English end the siege after losing 5K; meanwhile the Third Huguenot Revolt (ends 1628) against the French crown begins, causing Cardinal Richelieu in Sept. to begin sieging the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle (ends Oct. 1628); the 1st duke of Buckingham leads a fleet from Portsmouth to aid the Huguenots, but fails to relieve them and returns after losing 4K of his 7K men. HRE Ferdinand II outlaws all religions but Roman Catholicism in Bohemia; his son Ferdinand III is crowned king of Bohemia. On Sept. 30 emperor (since Oct. 1, 1620) Ming Tianqi (b. 1605) dies, and on Oct. 2 his younger brother Ming Chongzhen ("honorable and auspicious") (Zhu Youjian) (1611-44) becomes Ming emperor #16 (last) of China (until Apr. 25, 1644); the Manchus invade Korea and place it under vassalage. On Oct. 28 Mughal emperor #4 (since Oct. 15, 1605) ("Conqueror of the World") ("Possessor of the Planets") ("Mirror of the Glories of God") ("King of Increasing Fortune") Jahangir (b. 1569) dies, leaving 2,235,600 carats of pearls, 931,500 carats of emeralds, 376,600 carats of rubies, 279,450 carats of diamonds, and 186,300 carats of jade, and next Jan. 19 his son Prince Khurram becomes Great Mogul (Mughal) #5 Shah Jahan (Jehan) (1592-1662) (Pers. "King of the World) (until July 31, 1658), going on to extend the empire S through the Deccan to the Maratha States. In Oct. Dutch trading agent Isaack de Rasieres visits Plymouth Colony from New Netherland and introduces them to wampum, which allows them to expand trade with the Indians, and writes how Plymouth is an armed fortress run by Capt. Myles Standish where each male worships with his gun at his side, causing the town of Plymouth to begin its annual Pilgrim Progress in Aug. 1921. On Dec. 25 Vincent (Vincenzo) II (b. 1594), last of the Gonzagas dies, and Charles (Carlo) I Gonzaga-Nevers (1580-1637), son of Ludovico Gonzaga, duke of Nevers becomes duke of Mantua and marquess of Montferrat (until 1637), beginning the War of the Mantuan Succession in N Italy (ends 1631), with the Hapsburgs allied with Savoy testing their power against Louis XIII of France - nevers say nevers? Gen. Wallenstein conquers Silesia while Gen. Tilly conquers Brunswick, and their imperial forces go on to seize the Jutland peninsula and the Mecklenburg duchies from the Danes and the Protestant princes; Christian IV withdraws to Denmark. The Trinh-Nguyen Civil War in Vietnam begins between the Nguyens in the S and the Trinhs in the N, lasting until 1673, with major campaigns in 1648, 1661, and 1672. This is the last year that the original Plymouth settlers all live within the confines of the palisade wall. Scituate, Mass. (Wampanoag "satuit" = cold brook) halfway between Plymouth and Boston is founded by people from Plymouth and immigrants from Kent, England; in 1710 several residents found Scituate, R.I. The Case of the Five Knights sees five of the 76 gentlemen imprisoned by Charles I for refusing to loan him money for his wars apply for a writ of habeus corpus to the King's Bench, only to see the judges find in favor of the king, causing a popular outcry against abritrary abuse of royal power; meanwhile Charles I attempts to find holy spin doctors, ordering the pub. of sermons by bishop Roger Maynwaring (1590-1653) and Robert Sibthorpe (-1662) under the title "Religion and Allegiance", justifying his actions with the divine right of twerps, er, kings, bypassing Canterbury archbishop George Abbot when he refuses to license them with a commission of bishops led by William Laud, who begins his rise; next year John Pym gets the House of Commons to impeach Maynwaring and Sibthorpe for subverting the Commonwealth, pissing-off Charles I, who pardons them. Charles I grants a charter to the Guiana Co.. Richelieu incorporates the Co. of One Hundred Associates to replace the Co. de Montmorency (founded 1621), with the Roman Catholic Church being given a piece of the pie of a commercial monopoly in New France (Canada, Newfoundland, Acadia, La.); in 1629 Samuel de Champlain becomes its cmdr. (until 1635); it folds in 1663. The Swedish South Sea Co. is founded. Barbados is granted to the earl of Carlisle, whose settlers overcome those of Sir William Courteen by 1629. The Spanish grant the uncolonized island of Grenada in the Grenadines in the SE Caribbean Sea (discovered 1498) to the British. Dutch explorer Pieter de Carpentier (1586-1659) discovers the Gulf of Carpentaria on the N coast of Australia. France introduces registered mail - to receive it you first have to prove you're not a Hugue? Pope Urban VIII founds the Collegium (Congregatio) de Propaganda Fide (Urban College) in Rome to train missionaries; in 1982 Pope John Paul II changes the name to "Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples"; the word "propaganda" ends up being given a bad name by it? Pope Urban VIII makes Spanish playwright Lope de Vega (1562-1635) a doctor of Roman Catholic theology - anything to beat pesky Protestant Shakespeare? The Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement is founded in St. Sulpice by a front for Gaston d'Orleans, with members incl. St. Vincent de Paul, Bishop Nicolas Pavillon of Alet, Saint Sulpice seminary founder Jean Jacques Olier, Charles Foquet, La Fontaine, La Rochefoucauld, and the uncle of Fenelon, claiming to do charitable work in areas devastated by the wars of Religion and going on to back the Fronde and try to topple Cardinal Mazarin until Louis IV orders its dissolution in 1660, after which it disappears in 1665, but continues underground until ?; it's really a front for the Priory of Sion? Science: Despite the death penalty for poaching, the 2.2K lb. 6'6" Aurochs (Urus) (Ger. "proto-ox") (European wild ox) (Bos primigenius) from Asia and N Africa, known for lyre-shaped horns and an aggressive attitude, described by Julius Caesar as a little less large than an elephant, and falsely thought to be the primeval ox becomes extinct as the last female dies in Jaktorow Forest in Poland; the Swedish army steals its skull during its 1655-60 invasion and it ends up in Stockholm; in 2010 efforts begin to clone it back into life. Nonfiction: Gaspare Aselli (1581-1626), De Lactibus sive Lacteis Venis (Milan) (posth.); his discovery of the lacteal vessels of the lymphatic system. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), The New Atlantis (posth.); inspires the Royal Society in 1660; "Ye shall understand (my dear friends) that amongst the excellent acts of that king, one above all hath the pre-eminence. It was the erection and institution of an Order or Society, which we call Salomon's House; the noblest foundation (as we think) that ever was upon the earth; and the lanthorn of this kingdom. It is dedicated to the study of the works and creatures of God. Some think it beareth the founder's name a little corrupted, as if it should be Solamona's House. But the records write it as it is spoken. So as I take it to be denominate of the king of the Hebrews, which is famous with you, and no stranger to us"; Bacon leaves plans for a nat. museum of science and art. Sir Robert Cotton (1571-1631), The Reign of Henry III. Herman Hugo (1588-1629), Pieux Desirs. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), The Rudolphine Tables; his opus maximus, giving positions for 1,005 fixed stars, calculated using John Napier's logarithms and William Oughtred's slide rule. Roger Maynwaring (1590-1653), Religion and Allegiance: In Two Sermons Preached before the Kings Majestie on July 4 and July 19; why duty to obey the divinely-appointed king trumps little old stumbleblocks like pounds and shillings? Gabriel Naude (1600-53), Advis pour Dresser une Bibliotheque (Advice on Establishing a Library); uses it to build the library of Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Dionysius Petavius (1583-1652), De Doctrina Temporum (2 vols.) (2nd vol. 1632); completes the chronology of Joseph Scaliger. Adriaaan van den Spiegel (1578-1625), De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri X Tabulis Aere Icisis Exomati (posth.); his magnum opus on anatomy. Alessandro Tassoni (1565-1635), Manifesto; against the House of Savoy. Art: Nicolas Poussin (1594-1664), Nymph and Satyrs; Triumphs of Flora. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), The Money-Changer. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine; Charity Enlightening the World. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Expulsion of the Moriscos; gets him an appointment as usher of the chamber as a reward for this crowd-pleaser. Music: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Cantional oder Gesangbuch Augspurgischer Confession. Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Dafne; first German opera; libretta by Martin Optiz; first performed at Torgau. Plays: Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Cruel Brother Honore d'Urfe (1568-1625), La Sylvanire ou la Moret-Vive (posth.) (last play); 5-act play dedicated to Marie de Medici, about shepherds Aglante and Tirinte, who are in love with the virtuous Sylvanire, whom her father has promised to rich Theante. (tragedy). Poetry: Michael Drayton (1563-1631), Nymphidia, the Court of Faery. Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650), Locustae, vel Pietas Jesuitica (The Locusts or Apollyonists); parallel poems in Latin and Greek slamming the Jesuits, from which Milton later draws his conception of Satan? Ivan Gundulic (1589-1638), Osman (Croatian epic). Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Great Duke of Florence (tragicomedy). Francisco Gomez de Quevedo (1580-1645), Los Suenos (Suenos y Discursos). Novels: Charles Sorel (1602-74), Le Berger Extravagant (L'Anti-Roman) (satirical novel). Births: English politician Sir Stephen Fox (d. 1716) on Mar. 27 in Wiltshire. German duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (1666-1704) Rudolph Augustus (d. 1704) on May 16 in Hitzacker; eldest son of Augustus the Younger (1579-1666); brother of Anthony Ulrich (1633-1714) and Ferdinand Albert (1636-87). Dutch Golden Age still-life painter Willen van Aelst (d. 1683) on May 16 in Delft; court painter to Ferdinando II de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany under the name Guillielmo d'Olanda; teacher of Rachel Ruysch (1665-1750), Maria van Oosterwijck (1630-93), Ernest Stuven (1657-1712), and Isaac Denis. English printer Joseph Moxon (d. 1691) on Aug. 8. French "Discourse on Universal History" Roman Catholic orator-theologian bishop Jacques-Benigne (Jacques-Bénigne) Bossuet (d. 1704) on Sept. 27 in Dijon; educated at the College of Navarre in Paris; rival of Fenelon; tutor of the dauphin (1670-81); court preacher to Louis XIV; advocate of communism and the divine right of kings; rival of Fenelon (1651-1715). English naturalist ("Father of English Natural History") John Ray (d. 1705) on Nov. 29 in Black Notley (near Braintree); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Italian Baroque architect Agostino Barelli (d. 1687) in Bologna; introduces Italian Baroque to Bavaria. Irish #1 physicist-chemist-alchemist Robert Boyle (d. 1691) in Lismore Castle, Munster; son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork; educated at Eton School, and U. of Geneva; co-founder of the Royal Society; friend of Sir Isaac Newton (his student of alchemy) and John Locke; turns down a peerage; his Eton provost Sir Henry Wotton is a Rosicrucian connected with Frederick of the Palatinate. Presbyeterian divine John Flavel (d. 1691). English travel writer Dorothy Osborne (d. 1695). Deaths: Italian-Austrian music theorist Lodovico Zacconi (b. 1555) on Mar. 23. Dutch explorer Olivier van Noort (b. 1558) on Feb. 22. Dutch scholar Jan Gruter (b. 1560) on Sept. 20. English historian Sir John Hayward (b. 1560) on June 27 in London. Dutch architect Lieven de Key (b. 1560). Dutch sculptor Adriaen de Vries (b. 1560). Spanish Baroque poet-dramatist Luis de Gongora (b. 1561) on May 24 in Cordoba; leaves the play Las Firmezas de Isabel and the poems Soledades, Pyramo y Thisbe, and Polifemo. Italian composer Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (b. 1564) on May 2. Indian Mughal emperor (1605-27) Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (b. 1569) on Nov. 8. English dramatist Thomas Middleton (b. 1580). Italian duke of Mantua and Montferrat (1626-7) Vincenzo II Gonzaga (b. 1594) on Dec. 25. Chinese Ming emperor #15 (1620-7) Tianqi (b. 1605) on Sept. 30.

1628 - The Bishop William Laud Year?

Bishop William Laud (1573-1645) Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland (1577-1635) Sir Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester (1573-1632) Sir Robert Cotton (1571-1631) William Harvey (1578-1648) Francesca Caccini (1587-1640) Braemar Castle, 1628 Taj Mahal, 1628-48 'The Gypsy Woman' by Frans Hals (1580-1666), 1628-30 'The Merry Drinker' by Frans Hals (1580-1666), 1628-30 'Inspiration of the Poet' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1628 'The Three Graces I' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1628

1628 On Mar. 17 Charles I summons his Third Parliament. On Apr. 29 the Swedes and Danes sign a treaty for the defense of Stralsund, and Gustavus Adolphus enters the Thirty Years' War; in May after Wallenstein obtains the duchy of Mecklenburg and assumes the title of Adm. of the Baltic, he begins the Siege of Stralsund, which ends in failure on Aug. 4, turning Ferdinand's old princes of the empire against him. On June 7 after a big catfight, where the money is withheld anyway, Charles I signs Sir Edward Coke's Petition of Right, promising to stop arresting people without a legal reason, to stop making citizens quarter soldiers in their homes, and to not collect forced loans or levy taxes without Parliament's consent; too bad, (whadya gonna do, spank me?) he ignores most of its contents (with the same result as King John and the Magna Charta in 1215?); Sir Edward Conway becomes lord pres. of the English council (until 1631). In June after the men of Merry Mount (Merrymount) near modern-day Quincy, Mass. begin trading in furs and selling firewater and firearms to the redskins, this is too much for the Pilgrims, and they send "Captain Shrimpe" (Miles Standish) and his men, who chop down the Maypole and ship Thomas Morton back to England for punishment. In July Krasnoyarsk on the left bank of the upper Yenisei River at its confluence with the Kacha River in Russia (420 mi. E of Novosibirsk) is founded as a border fort by Andrey Dubenskoy. On Aug. 10 the top-heavy Swedish 64-gun 2-deck battleship Regalskeppet Vasa (Wasa) sinks on its maiden voyage in Stockholm harbor after a gust of wind topples it, killing 50; it is rediscovered in 1956 and salvaged on Apr. 24, 1961 after 333 years on the bottom. On Aug. 23 while embarking at Portmouth on another La Rochelle expedition (with a bun in the oven, son and heir George Jr.), George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham (b. 1592) is stabbed to death by English Puritan army lt. John Felton (1595-1628), who had grudges against him for the La Rochelle disaster of 1627 et al; too bad, he almost gets away with it, but announces his deed to a crowd, hoping to become a hero, causing his arrest and trial, and after the privy council requests torture on the rack, which is refused by the judges, he is hanged at Tyburn on Oct. 28, and his body sent to Portsmouth for exhibition, where he finally becomes a martyr and hero after all; Alexandre Dumas pere's novel The Three Musketeers portrays him as being seduced by Cardinal Richelieu's plant Milady de Winter, wife of Count de Winter (who entrusts him to guard her), and after she puts him up to the murder, she sails away and leaves him to be hanged; meanwhile La Rochelle is captured, and capitulates to the French crown, breaking the political power of the Huguenots; with the pretty boy favorite Buckingham out of the way, Puritan-hating new bishop of London William Laud (1573-1645) becomes virtual PM of Britain, forming a triumvirate with the king and Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of Stafford, fighting for total absolutism of the crown politically and ecclesiastically, the later part compounded when Charles I appoints hated cleric Richard Montagu (Mountague) (1577-1641) as bishop of Chichester, which, along with his lack of enthusiasm for penal laws for Catholics causes the Third Parliament to become convinced that he's going Roman Catholic; as it opens, lord keeper Sir Thomas Coventry (created baron on Apr. 10) warns that the king will use his prerogative to close it if they keep thwarting his claims for money; Oliver Cromwell attends his first parliament as a member for Huntingdon, fighting opponents of Puritanism; Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland (1577-1635) becomes lord treasurer of England (until 1635), and Sir Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester (1573-1632) becomes secy. of state (until 1632). After moderate Puritan Rev. John White arrives back in Dorchester, England from the Gloucester settlement and appeals to them to send a Christian mission back to convert the English fishermen and Indians there, a group of Non-Separating Congregationalist Dissenters (not as radical as the Plymouth Colony Dissenters) get a land patent from the Council of New England. The first slaves are introduced to Canada. The Jia Ding Christian Conference in China debates on whether to use Latin or Chinese terminology in missionary work, and agrees to use only Chinese terminology. Ponhea To becomes king of Cambodia (until 1630). A Dutch armada captures a big treasure convoy from New Spain. English adventurers settle Nevis Island (Leeward Islands). Augusta, Maine is founded as a trading post by Capt. Miles Standish and John Alden. Heinrich Schutz becomes Claudio Monteverdi's pupil in Venice. Peter Paul Rubens is dispatched by the Infanta Isabella on a diplomatic mission to Philip IV of Spain, for which he is knighted. Louis XIII renews Henry III's prohibition of inserting political prophecies into almanacs. Widowed Peter Paul Rubens travels to Venice to study the works of Titian. Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), who returned from Italy to Antwerp last year begins his Iconography Project (ends 1641), with the goal of creating engravings of all the famous people of his day, incl. royalty, generals, philosophers, artists and art collectors. The 5th cent. C.E. Alexandrian Codex is presented by the patriarch of Constantinople to Charles I. Architecture: John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar builds Braemar Castle in Aberdeenshire, becoming the ancestral home of Clan Farquharson, whom it was built to counter. Calvinist Protestant Dutch Reformed Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, N.Y. is founded; in 1851-4 a new Romanesque Revival bldg. with Gothic trim and covered with Tuckahoe marble was built at 272 Fifth Ave. at the corner of W 29th St., designed by Samuel A. Warner and called the Fifth Avenue Church until 1906; in 1932-84 Norman Vincent Peale is the pastor; on Nov. 19, 1961 Hollywood actress Lucille Ball marries 2nd hubby Gary Morton there; in 1967 it becomes a New York City landmark; later members incl. the parents of real estate mogul Donald Trump. Andrea Spezza designs Waldstein Palace in Prague. The first harbor with sluices begins construction in Le Havre. Science: Italian traveler Antonio Carletti discovers Spain's chocolate secret and begins spreading it throughout Europe - that's me, Mr. Klutz? French-born Dutch mathematician Albert Gerard (Girard) (1595-1632) first uses brackets and other abbreviations in mathematics - the original going Dutch? Nonfiction: Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Didactica Magna (The Great Didactic) (1628-32); advocates universal teaching, stressing reference to concrete objects rather than just verbal descriptions; "Teaching thoroughly all things to all men." Sir Robert Cotton (1571-1631), The Danger in Which the Kingdom Now Standeth, and the Remedye; argues for the "sacred obligation of the king to put his trust in parliaments", causing the court to turn on him, and his famous Cotton Library to be confiscated in 1630 and return to his heirs after his death. Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Regales pour la Direction de l'Espirit. John Earle (1601-65), Microcosmographie, or a Piece of the World Discovered, in Essayes and Characters; "witty sketches of English life"; pub. anon., becoming a bestseller, with 10 eds. by 1665; "A university dinner is a gentleman follower cheaply purchased, for his own money has hired him." William Harvey (1578-1657), On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis); contains the first accurate theory of the heart and circulatory system. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), (tr.), Thucydides' Peloponnesian War; big admirer Thomas Hobbes becomes the first to translate Thucydides into English directly from the Greek, going on to become one of the Big Three Founders of Political Realism along with Thucydides and Machiavelli. Pieter Hooft (1581-1647), Nederlandische Historien (1628-47). Francisco Gomez Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645), Hell Reformed; attack on govt. by favorites. Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), Grammatica Philosophica (Milan). Henry Spelman (1564-1641), Glossary of Law Terms. Pietro della Valle (1586-1652), Account of Shah Abbas. Music: Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), Flora (opera). Art: Frans Hals (1580-1666), Gypsy Woman (1628-30); The Merry Drinker (1628-30). Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Martyrdom of St. Erasmus; The Inspiration of the Poet. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Three Graces I (1628-30). Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Christ on the Cross; The Drunkards. Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), St. Serapion. Plays: Juan Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza (1581-1639), Comedias, vol. 1 (Madrid); incl. El Tejedor de Segovia, and La Verdad Sospechosa, which is imitated by Pierre Corneille in "Menteur". Poetry: Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650), Brittain's Ida; erotic poem using Edmund Spenser's name as a cover? Births: French "Mother Goose" fairy tale writer Charles Perrault (d. 1703) on Jan. 12 in Paris. English statesman-poet George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 20th Baron de Ros (d. 1687) on Jan. 30; son of George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham (1592-1628); raised with the royal princes; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Italian physician microscope pioneer) Marcello Malpighi (d. 1694) on Mar. 10 in Crevalcore; educated at the U. of Bologna. English diplomat-writer Sir William Temple, 1st Baronet (d. 1699) on Apr. 25 in London; son of Sir John Temple (1600-77) of Dublin; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. English nobleman-politician and art uncollector Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (d. 1684) on July 12; son of Henry Howard, 22nd earl of Arundel (1608-52) and Lady Elizabeth Stuart brother of Thomas Howard, 5th duke of Norfolk (1627-77); donates the Arundel Marbles to Oxford U. in 1667. English deputy in Ireland (1655-9) Henry Cromwell (d. 1674); 4th son of Oliver Cromwel. French "Pomone" opera composer (1st) Robert Cambert (d. 1677) in Paris; student of Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (1601-72). Am. Plymouth Colony gov. (1673-80) Josiah Winslow (d. 1680) in Plymouth, Mass.; son of Mayflower passengers Edward Winslow (1595-1655) and Susanna White Winslow (-1680), mother of Peregrine White (1620-1703); first native-born gov. of a New England colony; husband (1651-) of Penelope Pelham Winslow (1630-1705), whose son Judge Isaac Winslow builds the Winslow House in 1699, which she later haunts?; father of Edward Winslow Jr. (1669-1753). Dutch landscape painter Jacob Isaackszoon van Ruisdael (Ruysdael) (d. 1682) in Haarlem. English "Pilgrim's Progress" Congregationalist minister-writer John Bunyan (d. 1688) on Aug. 31 in Elstow. French painter Noel (Noël) Coypel (Coypel le Poussin) the Elder (d. 1707) on Dec. 25; father of Antoine Coypel (1661-1722) and Noel-Nicolas Coypel (1692-1734). French marshal Francois Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, Duke of Luxemburg (d. 1695). Indian Varkari saint Bahinabai (Bahina) (Bahini) (d. 1700) in Devghar (Devgaon) near Ellora, Maharashtra. Deaths: Italian painter Jacopo Negretti (Palma the Younger) (b. 1544). German philosopher Rudolph Goclenius (b. 1547) on June 8 in Marburg. English poet Sir Fulke Greville (b. 1554) on Sept. 30 in Warwick Castle; murdered (knifed) by disgruntled servant Ralph Heywood after being left out of his master's will, committing suicide; too bad, his physicians stuff his prolapsed intestines with pig fat, which turns rancid and gets infected, giving him an agonizing death. French poet Francois de Malherbe (b. 1555) on Oct. 16. English organist-composer John Bull (b. 1562). Dutch painter Jan Brueghel (b. 1568). Swiss physician Thomas Platter the Younger (b. 1574) on Dec. 4 in Basel. English adventurer Sir Robert Shirley (b. 1581) on July 13 in Qazvin, Iran. English courtier George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham (b. 1592) on Aug. 23 in Portsmouth (assassinated); buried in Westminster Abbey; his tomb bears the Latin inscription "The Enigma of the World"; his wife Lady Katherine Manners becomes the richest non-royal in England.

1629 - The City on a Hill Year for the English, the Patroon and Lord of the Flies Year for the Dutch?

John Winthrop (1588-1649) Barbarossa Haydreddin Pasha (1478-1576) Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1585-1643) Heribert Rosweyde (1569-1629) Francisco Pelsaert (1595-1630) Jeronimus Cornelisz (1598-1629) Frans Snyders (1579-1657) 'Concert of Birds' by Frans Snyders (1579-1657), 1629-30 'The Feast of Bacchus' by Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), 1629

1629 The first of four mass migrations from distinct regions of Britain begins as 20K Puritans from the East Anglian counties E of London settle Massachusetts ("near the great hill") over the next dozen years (ends 1641) after Charles I issues a charter to the Mass. Bay Co.; well-to-do 40-y.-o. East Anglian lawyer John Winthrop (1588-1649) saying that "the eyes of all people are on us", decides to make the colony a "wilderness Zion", a "city upon a hill", where persecuted Puritans can find refuge and build the New Jerusalem (a little commercial activity, short of moneychanging in the Temple will be overlooked as well?), and soon discovers a loophole in the charter, a failure to require that the home office be kept in England; on Aug. 29 he gets 12 shareholders to sign the Cambridge Agreement, pledging to take the charter and hence the home office with them to Am., and the co.'s governing body agrees to it; Winthrop is chosen as first gov. of the planned Massachusetts Bay Colony, and ends up serving 12x. On Jan. 19 Shah Abbas I (b. 1571) dies after a 42-year reign which leaves the Safavid empire at its zenith, and is succeeded by his 13-y.-o. grandson Safi I (-1642), who becomes Safavid shah #6 (until 1642), who has the old shah's counselors beheaded along with most of the best generals, all the blood princes, and some of the princesses, causing the Persian gov. of Kandahar to defect the city and province to the Uzbeks. On Feb. 14 Mass. Bay Colony gov. John Winthrop writes to his wife: "Thou must be valentine, for none hath challenged me". On Feb. 24 the House of Commons passes some Resolutions on Religion, decrying popery in Scotland and Ireland; on Mar. 1 Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules the country himself; it doesn't meet again until Apr. 1640; the term "Tory" is coined for the pro-Charles party. On Mar. 6 HRE Ferdinand II issues the Edict of Restitution empowering the Roman Catholic Church to recover all property seized by Protestants since the 1552 Peace of Passau, pissing off some of Ferdinand's allies, esp. elector Johann Georg I of Saxony, who tries in vain to get his land grabs exempted. On May 22 the Peace of Lubeck (Lübeck) is signed, and Christian IV agrees not to intervene in imperial affairs anymore, leaving almost all German territories under control of the Catholic League; too bad, this pisses off Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, who starts to prepare to enter the lovely Thirty count 'em Thirty Years' War. On June 4 the Dutch merchant ship Batavia, commanded by Commodore Francisco Pelsaert (1591-1630) wrecks on Morning Reef in the Abrolhos Islands (Houtman Abrolhos) in W Australia (1 mi. S of Beacon Island), and 40 of 341 drown trying to reach shore; the capt. then sets off in the ship's boats his 30-man crew for help, leaving 208 passengers behind; co. undermerchant Jeronimus Cornelisz (1598-1629) takes over Lord of the Flies style, murdering 125 of them within 2 mo. while forcing the women into prostitution; luckily Wiebbe Hayes (b. 1608) manages to establish a safe base for some of them on a neighboring island, and they begin a war; on Sept. 17 Pelsaert returns in an Indonesian rescue ship and overcomes the mutineers and executes many of them; Dutch mutineers Wouter Loos and Jan Pelgrom de By are set adrift off the W coast of Australia at Shark Bay (AKA Hopeless Reach, Useless Inlet, Disappointment Loop) (known for the Wooramel Seagrass Bank and 12 species of sharks), becoming the continent's first white Euro settlers, mating with the Aborigines; in 1963 fisherman Dave Johnson discovers the wreck of the Batavia 45 mi. N of the Abrolhos, and it is salvaged in the 1970s. On June 28 the Huguenot revolt in France ends with the Peace of Alais (Ales) (Alès) (Edict of Grace), issued by Louis XIII, confirming the basic principles of the Edict of Nantes but revoking the Huguenots' basic political rights and demanding that they give up all their cities and fortresses in exchange for amnesty and tolerance; this no-ask-no-tell policy lasts until 1685. On Aug. 6 the First Church of Salem, Mass. is founded in a mud-and-thatch hut by a strict Puritan community of 150 English settlers who pooh-pooh popery (decorations, vestments, musical accompaniment); Sunday is defined as from sunset on Saturday to sunset on Sunday, and all travel is prohibited other than going to-from church; Sunday services last 2-3 hours, filled with Psalm chanting and firey sermons; later members incl. writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, Roger Williams (a minister there) and the Parker game family; in modern times it is taken over by Unitarians who worship alongside descendants of the "Salem witches"; meanwhile Mayflower man Isaac Allerton, husband (since 1626) of William Brewster's daughter Fear Brewster brings back pesky Thomas Morton, and the Puritans hear that he was "not so much rebuked", surprising them; they both become personae non grata, and Allerton eventually is ordered to leave Mass., ending up in New Amsterdam in 1643, then New Haven, Conn.; meanwhile there is a winter famine in Salem, causing them to seize the Merry Mount corn. On Sept. 14 Hertzogenbusch (Bois-le-Duc) Fortress in Brabant falls to the Protestants under Prince Friedrich Heinrich and Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. On Sept. 25/26 Sweden and Poland sign the 6-year Truce of Altmark (Stary Targ) near Danzig (Gdansk), ending the Polish-Swedish War (begun 1626), with Poland acknowledging the loss of Livonia. In Oct. Japanese shogun Tokugawa Iyemitsu declares that it is immoral for women to dance in public, and orders Kabuki Theater to become all-male, with women's roles performed by men in drag; the Japanese go to great lengths to make them appear feminine; meanwhile on Dec. 22 the Purple Clothes Incident sees Japanese emperor (since 1611) Go-Mizunoo (b. 1596) screw up and bestow honorific you know whats to 10+ priests despite the shogun's edict banning them for two years in order to break their longstanding bond, causing the shogun to intervene, cancel the deal, and force him to abdicate in favor of his 5-y.-o. 2nd daughter Meisho (1624-96) (personal name Okiko) (daughter of Kazuko, daughter of shogun Tokugawa Hidetada) (the name Meisho is a combo of previous female emperors Gemmei (707-15) and Gensho (715-24)), who becomes the 7th woman to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne (last Empress Shotoku, d. 770), becoming Japanese emperor #109 (until Nov. 14, 1643). In Dec. James Butler (b. 1610), heir of the Old English Butler family in Ireland marries Lady Elizabeth Preston, heiress of the Old English Desmond family in Ireland, ending their long feud. An English fleet seizes Quebec, causing Etienne Brule to flee to Huron country, where he is murdered in 1633. Wallenstein becomes duke of Mecklenburg. Under the urging of Amsterdam diamond and pearl merchant Kiliaen (Killian) Van Rensselaer (1585-1643), Dutch colonizers called patroons are authorized to establish large estates in New Netherland which they can rule with full feudal jurisdiction limited only by an oath of fealty to the Dutch West India Co.; they are required to purchase Indian rights to their land and settle at least 50 colonists on it within four (five?) years. After failing at his Avalon colony in Newfoundland, Sir George Calvert arrives in Va., and after finding that Roman Catholics are not welcome goes to England to try to get a charter for land to the S, causing the Puritans to send William Claiborne after him to argue their case that there's no room for anymore My Name is George troublemakers on their continent? The royal gov. of Va. allows annual assemblies of the people. William Bradford and others receive a land grant on the Kennebec River; the Plymouth Colony establishes a trading post on the site of future Ft. Western. Saugus, Mass. (Algonquin "great/extended") in NE Mass. is founded as a territory, which later incl. the towns of Lynn, Nahant, Reading, Swampscott, and Wakefield. John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges are granted a tract of land around Lake Champlain extending N to the St. Lawrence River which they call Laconia. Red-bearded Muslim corsair Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (1478-1576) (known for a flag with symbols of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism) captures Algiers and makes it his pirate stronghold. Mexico City is flooded, and remains underwater until 1633. A mission and church are built by two Spanish padres in San Antonio, Tex.; the mission is destroyed by Apaches in 1675. The inland seaport of Barranquilla in Colombia is founded (modern pop. 1M). The Hanseatic League entrusts the guardianship of the common welfare to Lubeck, Hamburg, and Bremen as it slides into the toilet by 1669. A royal charter is granted to the Worshipful Co. of Spectacle Makers in London. The first coffeehouses open in Venice, Italy (1645?). After find that aristocratic women can't work as nurses because their hubbies don't want them coming home dirty and vermin-infested, the Assoc. of the Ladies of Charity is founded in Paris by St. Vincent de Paul and Louise le Gras, recruiting poor girls as nurses, who are given instruction and work in special uniforms without having to become nuns. Sir John Eliot (1604-90), who was in again and out again from prison in 1627-8 presents a series of resolutions in the House of Commons against arbitrary taxation and religious innovations, getting him imprisoned again; this time the king demands his submission as a condition of release, and he steadfastly refuses until he dies in priz in 1632. Gianlorenzo Bernini takes over direction of the uncompleted work at St. Peter's in Rome; he builds the canopy over the papal altar and the bell towers, and decorates the naves. Peter Paul Rubens is appointed as Dutch envoy to Charles I of England to work for peace, and is knighted by him - cause every fat girl's crazy about a sharp-dressed man? Diego Velazquez travels to Venice, Rome, and Naples for two years to round himself out. Extra, extra, read all about it? Flemish Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde (b. 1569) dies, and his collection of materials on the lives of the Catholic saints is taken over by Jesuit Jean de Bolland (1596-1665) in Antwerp, who edits vols. 1-5; after his death the Bollandists are founded to continue the job, moving to Coudenberg Monastery in Brussels in 1773, then the Tongerloo Abbey in 1789, until the French Rev. closes the abbey in May, 1794; in 1837 a new assoc. is formed by the Belgian govt., producing vol. 54 in 1845, then a new 61-vol. ed. in 1863-7, followed by supplements in the periodical Analecta Bollandia starting in 1882 - the lines are long in Disneyland? Architecture: Shah Jahan orders the construction of the Peacock Throne. Nonfiction: Anon., The Paris Polyglot Bible (1629-45); sponsored by French atty. Guy Michel le Jay; inspired by the Antwerp Polyglot Bible of 1568 with Arabic added. Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626), XCVI Sermons - the 17th cent. 96 Tears? Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638), Confession; his Calvinist-inspired reformist beliefs from Geneva cause the Greek Orthodox Church to close ranks against him. John Parkinson (1567-1650), Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris; on flowers. Music: The operetta La Zarzuela is first performed in its namesake, the royal palace near Madrid. John Milton (1608-74), Four Literary Hymns (Nativity, Passion, Circumcision of Christ, At a Solemn Music). Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Sinfoniae Sacrae. Art: Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Rinaldo and Armida. Daniel Mytens the Elder (1590-1648), Portrait of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (1606-49). Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Self-Portrait as a Young Man; Self-Portrait in a Gorget. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Peace and War; Charles I and His Queen. Frans Snyders (1579-1657), Concert of Birds (1629-30). Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), The Feast of Bacchus (Los Borrachos). Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), St. Bonaventura. Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), The Phantom Lady (La Dama Duende) (comedy). Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Melite (comedy) (Paris) (debut). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Just Italian (comedy). John Ford (1586-1640), The Lover's Melancholy. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The New Inn. Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Picture (tragicomedy). Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), Inner Temple Masque; refers to rival Ben Jonson as a "silenced bricklayer". Poetry: John Milton (1608-74), On the Morning of Christ's Nativity (Dec.); becomes a tradition to read it at Christmastide. Births: Dutch Baroque painter Gabriel Metsu (d. 1667) in Jan. in Leiden; son of Jacques Metsu (1588-1629). Russian Romanov tsar #2 (1645-76) Alexis (Aleksey) I Mikhailovich Romanov (d. 1676) on Mar. 9 in Moscow; son of Michael I Romanov (1596-1645); father of Feodor III (1661-82). Spanish gen. and PM (1677-9) Don John Joseph (Juan Jose) of Austria the Younger (d. 1679) on Apr. 7; illegitimate son of Philip IV and actress Maria Calderon; given a princely education by his daddy. Dutch physicist-mathematician-astronomer Christiaan (Christian) Huygens (Huyghens) (d. 1695) on Apr. 14 in The Hague; son of poet Constantijn Huygens (1596-1687) (friend of Rene Descartes); educated at the U. of Leiden. Polish king (1674-96) Jan III Sobieski (d. 1696) on Aug. 17 in Olesko; son of Jacob Sobieski of Cracow. English mathematician-astronomer Richard Towneley (d. 1707) on Oct. 10 in Nocton (near Lincoln), Lincolnshire; collaborator of Francois Walther de Sluze (1622-85). German duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and elector #1 of Hanover (1692-8) Ernest Augustus (d. 1698) on Nov. 20 in Herzberg am Harz; son of duke George of Brunswick-Luneburg (1582-1641) and Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (1601-59); George I of England (1660-1727). Dutch painter Pieter de Hooch (Hoogh) (Hooghe) (d. 1684) on Dec. 20 in Rotterdam; works for five years in Vermeer's Delft in the 1650s. French noble (gov. of Languedoc) Louis Armand I de Bourbon, Prince de Conti (d. 1666); 2nd son of Prince Henry II of Conde (1588-1646); brother of Louis II de Bourbon, prince of Conde and Anne Genevieve, duchess of Longueville (1619-79); husband (1657-) of Anne-Marie Martiniozzi (1638-72), niece of Cardinal Mazarin; becomes a Jansenist along with his sister. Dutch painter Jan Wouwerman (d. 1666); brother of Philips Wouwerman (1619-68) and Pieter Wouwerman (1623-82). English buccaneer Daniel Johnson (d. 1675) in Bristol; captured in 1654 by the Spaniards and sold as a slave in the West Indies, escaping in 1657 and becoming a you know what. English composer Matthew Locke (d. 1677) in Exeter. English soldier-statesman-ambassador Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle (d. 1685); great-grandson of Lord William Howard (1563-1640), 3rd son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk (1536-72); created earl of Carlisle in 1661. Deaths: Italian-Swiss Baroque architect Carlo Maderna (b. 1556) on Jan. 30. Am. Virginia Colony Gov. Edwin Sandys (b. 1561). German Hebrew scholar Johannes Buxtorf (b. 1564) on Sept. 13 in Basel, Switzerland. Flemish Jesuit hagiographer Heribert Rosweyde (b. 1569) in Antwerp. Persian Safawid (Safavid) ruler (1587-1629) Shah Abbas I (b. 1571) on Jan. 19. French statesman-cardinal Pierre de Berulle (b. 1575) on Oct. 2. Transylvanian prince Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel Bethlen) (b. 1580) on Nov. 15 in Gyulafehervar (modern-day Alba Iulia, Romania); dies after marrying a sister-in-law of Gustav II Adolf of Sweden to get his backing in obtaining the Polish crown. Danish physician-scientist Caspar Bartholin the Elder (b. 1585) on July 13 in Soro, Zealand. Dutch hero Jan Coen (b. 1587) on Sept. 21 in Batavia, Java; dies during a siege by Sultan Agung of Mataram. Italian composer Paolo Agostini (b. 1593). Dutch Reformed theologian Sixtinus Amama (b. 1593) on Nov. 9 in Franeker.

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TLW's 1630s (1630-1639) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1630s Historyscope 1630-1639 C.E.

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1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639

1630-1639 C.E.

The give me your heart or forget about it this is life, this is life in drive decade? The Rembrandt and Van Dyck Decade? The Thirty Years' War rocks Europe's house, leading up to the conclusion that each country in Europe will dictate its own religion to its subjects ("I was born a Catholic"), and beginning the worship of the Three Gods (Ultimate Authorities) of the West: the Church (papacy), the Bible (Protestantism), and Science (formerly paganism) (the God of Money is the Universal Devil)? Johannes Kepler passes away after giving the whole world a push, and in retaliation Galileo (and all Keplerian scientists) gets humiliated for messing with Mother Church? Meanwhile, thanks to the evil work of the devil's insidious printing press, a group of excommunicated but Bible-inspired Englishmen attempt to set up a City on the Hill in the promised land of America, after pushing the pesky forget-about-them popcorn-popping heathen aborigines out of the way?

Country Leader From To
England Charles I (1600-49) Mar. 27, 1625 Jan. 30, 1649 Charles I of England (1600-49)
France Louis XIII of France (1601-43) May 14, 1610 May 14, 1643 Louis XIII of France (1601-43)
Germany HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) Aug. 28, 1619 Feb. 15, 1637 HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637)
Russia Tsar Michael I Romanov (1596-1645) Feb. 21, 1613 July 12, 1645 Russian Tsar Michael Romanov (1596-1645)
Papacy Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644) Aug. 6, 1623 July 29, 1644 Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644)

1630 - The Touchdown: Massachusetts Year? The English invasion of North America breaks the flood gates, but the beavers are doomed by the big-headed Swedes? Cardinal Richelieu dupes the king to cement his power in France?

John Winthrop (1588-1649) John Endicott (1588-1665) Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden (1594-1632) Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden (1594-1632) Count Johann Tserklaes of Tilly (1559-1632) Victor Amadeus I of Savoy (-1637) Christine Marie of France (1606-63) Sir John Suckling (1609-42) Robert Fludd (1574-1637) Robert Fludd (1574-1637) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (1610-43) Israel Stoughton (1602-45) John Tradescant the Elder (1577-1638) Gregorio Allegri (1582-1652) Théophraste Renaudot (1586-1653) Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660) 'Nautilus Snail' by Jeremias Ritter 'The Plague at Ashdod' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1630 'Les Bergers d'Arcadie' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1630-9 'Cimon and Pero' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1630 'King Minos Judging the Dead' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1630 'The Viola da Gamba Player' by Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644), 1630-40) 'The Massacre of the Innocents' by Pietro Testa, 1630-40 Santa Maria della Salute, 1631-87

1630 There is a famine in India this year and next so bad that human flesh goes on the open market - farm-fed or roadkill? Between this year and 1795, the Dutch carry 477,782 slaves across the Atlantic to the New World; the total no. carried by all nations is around 10M? On Mar. 22 (Apr. 7?) 700-odd (400-odd?) Massachusetts Bay Colonists seeking to escape the Thirty Years' War and its economic slump sail in seven ships from Southampton, England for North Am.; Arabella carries John Winthrop (1588-1649) and the charter; en route John Winthrop delivers the sermon Model of Christian Charity, exhorting good Puritans to be like a "City Upon a Hill" and work to construct a Bible-thumping theocratic society in America that will "shame the faces of many of God's worthy servants", else face God's wrath, shaping American politics seemingly forever (until ?); after landing at Salem, Mass. on June 25, on Sept. 17 (Sat. Old Style) (Tues. New Style) they found the town of Boston (formerly Shawmut) (modern-day pop. 4.2M/4.6M) on the 800-acre Shawmut Peninsula surrounded by tidal marshes, deeply indented by coves, creeks and inlets, and dominated by three hills, with a narrow 1-mi.-long frequently-submerged neck joining it with the mainland; a few mo. earlier the town of Dorchester, Mass. near Boston (modern-day pop. 92K) is founded by English Puritan settler Israel Stoughton (1602-45) (remote ancestor of U.S. pres. FDR) et al. from Dorchester, Dorset, England; John Endicott (Endecott) (1588-1665) becomes gov. #1 of the Mass. Bay Colony, with capital at Charlestown, Mass. (originally Mishawum) on the Mystic River; the first law against gambling in Britsh North Am. is enacted; over the next few cents. the area is gradually filled in, increasing it to 1.8K acres; Medford, Mass. (originally Mistik) is founded as part of Charlestown; John Winthrop (gov. #1 of Mass. Bay Colony) begins keeping a Journal; on Nov. 9 the Boston-Charleston Ferry opens, starting at Noddle's Island, where English Anglican settler Samuel Maverick (1602-70) buys black slaves in 1638, becoming one of the earliest slave owners in Mass.; by the end of the year 17 more ships with another 1K colonists arrive, and by 1642 16K more follow; over 80K colonists leave England for greener pastures (New World, Ireland, Netherlands, Rhineland) in the Great Puritan Migration in this decade (1620-40), mostly Puritans fleeing Charles I for the Mass. Bay Colony, many of them as indentured servants; by 1640 20K settle in Mass. Bay Colony, and 55K total go to the New World, half settling in New England; the total pop. of the Am. colonies this year is only 4.6K; 35 mi. x 1 mi. Newtown (Newe Towne) (New City) is founded in Mass. on the N side of the Charles River opposite Boston 10 years after the Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock; in 1638 it changes its name to Cambridge, Mass. (modern-day pop. 110K), becoming a univ. town.; it is later subdivided to form the additional towns of Newton (1691), Lexington (1713), Brighton (1837), and Arlington (1846). In June Swedish king Gustavus II Adolphus (1594-1632), the new protector of Protestantism invades N Germany and lands in Peenemunde in Pomerania with 4K men, then captures Stettin and the Neumark area in Brandenburg; on Aug. 13 at the Diet of Regensburg HRE Ferdinand II accedes to the demands and dismisses Wallenstein, and makes Johann Tserklaes (Tserclais) of Tilly, Duke of Bavaria (1559-1632) the new imperial cmdr., while Wallflower-stein retires to Gitschin; the speed of the Swedish blitzkrieg is later studied by Napoleon and Patton, and launches Sweden as a world power; too bad, the love of Swedish army officers for flashy fur hats causes the demand for North Am. fur to boom, dooming the Am. beaver? On July 8 the first Thanksgiving (Nov. 25, 1629?) is held in the Mass. Bay Colony. On July 26 Charles Emmanuel I the Great (b. 1562) dies of fever, and his son Victor Amadeus I (1587-1637) becomes duke of Savoy (until Oct. 7, 1637), ending the War of the Mantuan Succession and renewing his alliance with France, which is easy since his wife Marie Christine of France (1606-63) (sister of Louis XIII) is Henry IV's daughter. In Sept. Thomas Morton of Merry Mount (1579-1647), who with his men watched John Winthrop's ships land becomes the first criminal defendant in Mass. Bay for pub. a book lampooning the Puritans and painting a dream of a non-racist non-militarist land, and is expelled. On Nov. 10 the Day of Dupes sees Queen Mother Maria de' Medici publicly request her son Louis XIII to discharge Cardinal Richelieu in a stormy scene in Luxembourg Palace, after which the king retires to his hunting lodge in Versailles to think about it, allowing Richelieu to pull every string he's got to win the king to his side, causing him to send his mother into exile in Compiegne instead, and Richelieu to become virtual ruler of France. In Nov. 16K die in Venice of the plague, causing the 8-sided Church of Santa Maria della Salute to be built in 1631-87 to commemorate it, designed by Venice-born Baldassarre Longhena (1598-1682). The Treaty of Madrid, negotiated by painter Peter Paul Rubens ends the English-Spanish War. John Browne Sr. (1585-1662) arrives from Leyden, Holland in Plymouth, Mass. on the Mayflower (not the 1620 ship), and is appointed asst. gov. John Tradescant the Elder (1577-1638), builder of the Lambeth Ark in Lambeth, London on the S bank of the Thames River (the original cabinet of curiosity, filled with unusual objects gathered in his world travels), and known for his botanical garden in Lambeth becomes keeper of the king's gardens at Oatlands Palace in Surrey. The city of (The) Bronx, N.Y. (originally "The Bronck's Land") NE of the Harlem River on the Bronx River (modern-day pop. 1.4M) is settled by Swedish immigrant Jonas (Jonasson) (Jonassne) Bronck (Bronk) (Brunk) (1600-43), who builds the Emmanus farm. Capt. John Mason, who gives New Hampshire its name helps found the town of Portsmouth, N.H. By this year there are five patroonships in New Netherlands: two on the Hudson River, two on the Delaware River, and one on the Connecticut River; only Rennselaerwyck, founded by Killiaen van Rensselaer on the W bank of the Hudson around Ft. Orange (Albany) succeeds. Gov. William Bradford of Plymouth Colony secures the Bradford Patent from the Council for New England, confirming possession of the land and defining the boundaries more clearly; they never hold a charter. French royal physician Theophraste (Théophraste) Renaudot (1586-1653) (friend of Cardinal Richelieu, who converted him to Roman Catholicism) founds the Bureau d'Adresse et de Rencontre in Paris, a labor-exchange charity mating employers and employees. The Congregation of the English Ladies (Virgins) is founded in Munich. Mary Ward's uncloistered Society of English Sisters, known as the Jesuitesses is suppressed. Germany finally has a better idea? HRE Ferdinand II finally forbids the appropriation of the property of condemned heretics (witches), causing witchcraft prosecutions in Germany to plummet. Ponhea To dies, and Ponhea Chan becomes king of Cambodia (until 1642). Pangeran Ratu (-1651) becomes ruler of Banten in NW Java, center of the pepper trade, and becomes the first ruler on Java to take the title of sultan, under the name Abulmafakhir Mahmud Abdulkadir, causing Sultan Agung of Mataram to soon follow suit. The first buccaneers (internat. pirates) begin settling in Tortuga off the NW coast of Hispaniola in this decade - they screw their buccaneers off at every port? White Va. settler Hugh Davis is ordered by a court "to be soundly whipt... for abusing himself... by defiling his body in lying with a Negro". Anthony van Dyck becomes court painter to Archduchess Isabella in Antwerp (until 1632), pumping out gobs of cool portraits with that Italian Renaissance savvy. The first public advertising is done in Paris - I got the notion to rock the boat? In this decade soldier-students become common in Germany - row, row, row your boat, gently down the street? In this decade the Great Tew Circle of English lit. figures and clerics meets at the manor house of Great Tew, Oxfordshire and in London, led by Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (1610-43), incl. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. In this decade the Fijnschilder (Dutch "fine painter") School in Leiden, known for meticulous genre and trompe l'oeil paintings is founded by Gerrit Dou (Gerard Douw or Dow) (1613-75) (ends 1710). Peter Paul Rubens marries 16-y.-o. Helena Fourment; they go on to have five children. The High Baroque Period of art begins in Italy (ends 1680). Kikkoman's soy sauce co. is founded by the widow of a samurai named Mogi in Japan. Architecture: Inigo Jones is commissioned by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford to design Covent Garden Square in Westminster, London, becoming the first large public square in London, attracting new bldgs., becoming a model for future growth in the West End. Inventions: The Ducking (Cucking) Stool is introduced for punishing quarrelsome women in New England in this decade?; the laws stay on the books until 1967? Richard Delamain (1600-44) of England invents the Circular Slide Rule. English poet Sir John Suckling (1609-42) invents the card game of "Brief Lives", AKA Cribbage, is knighted at age 21, and becomes a leader in the court of Charles I as a cavalier to the king. Mate (Maté) Szepsy Laczko of Hungary invents the method for producing sweet Tokaj (Tokay) wine from botrytised furment grapes (infected with botrytis cinera). The modern violin ("new violin") is first used in Italy about this time. English physician-astrologer Robert Fludd (1574-1637) pub. the first Color Wheel, taking Aristotle's color line and turning it on itself to create seven areas. Science: Jesuit astronomer Niccolo Zucchi (-1670) discovers the spots on Jupiter's surface on May 17 - I have this uncle with a great big face and a big red mustache? Music: Gregorio Allegri (1582-1652), Miserere Mei, Deus (Have Mercy on Me, God); set to Psalm 51/50; composed for Pope Urban VIII to use in the Sistine Chapel during Wed.-Fri. Holy Week matins; writing it down or performing it elsewhere is made punishable by excommunication; incl. Pt. 1: Tallis Scholars, Pt. 2. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), Arie Musicale. Art: Jacques Callot (1592-1635), The Temptation of St. Anthony (print). Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Maria Louisa de Tassis; Philippe Le Roy; Frans Hals (1580-1666), Daniel van Aken Playing the Violin; La Bohemienne. Laurent de La Hyre (1606-56), Pope Nicholas V Opening the Crypt of St. Francis of Assisi; painted for the Capuchin friars of the Marais. Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), The Infant Jupiter Fed by the Goat Amalthea. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Martyrdom of St. Erasmus; Rinaldo and Armida; The Plague at Ashdod; Tancred and Erminia (1630-5); Les Bergers d'Arcadie (1630-9). Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), Archimedes; The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew. Jeremias Ritter (1582-1646), Nautilus Snail (sculpture). Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Apotheosis of James I (Whitehall banquet hall); Cimon and Pero; King Minos Judging the Dead (drawing). Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644), The Violin da Gamba Player (1630-40). Pietro Testa (1611-50), The Massacre of the Innocents (1630-40). Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Vulcan's Blacksmith Shop. Nonfiction: The first trans. of the Christian Greek Scriptures into vernacular Greek is prepared by Maximus Callipolites, Greek monk of Callipolis, under the auspices of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638), ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) and Samuel Hartlib (1600-62), Pansophiae Prodromus (London); universal education, to be taught at his Pansophic College; followed by "Pansophiae diatyposis". Sir John Hayward (1560-1627), The Life and Raigne of King Edward VI (posth.). Rev. Francis Higginson (1588-1630), New England's Plantation, or A Short and True Description; living conditions in Am. Jean Rey (1583-1645), Essays on the Cause of the Increase in Weight of Tin and Lead when they Calcinate; French physician attributes the increase in weight of tin and led when they are heated to the weight of air, leading to the invention of the barometer. John Smith (1580-1631), The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith. Plays: Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Clitandre au L'Innocence D'livree (tragicomedy). Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), A Chaste Mayde in Cheapside (comedy). Tirso de Molina (1584-1648), El Burlador de Sevilla y Convidado de Piedra (The Seducer of Seville); Don Juan is first given a literary personality, although he was already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past? - the original Mister Johnson? Poetry: Andres Christensen Arrabo, Hexaemeron (religious poem); initiates modern Danish lit. Births: English "The Compleat Gamester" writer-poet Charles Cotton (d. 1687) on Apr. 28 in Beresford Hall, Alstonefield, Staffordshire. English-Scottish 6'2" dark-complected king (1660-85) Charles II (d. 1685) on May 29 in St. James's Palace, London; 2nd (eldest surviving) son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; prince of Wales from birth, styled "prince of Great Britain", with Scottish title included; born the first day that the Cassiopeia A supernova became visible? English actress Margaret "Peg" Hughes (Hewes) (d. 1685) on May 29; first English prof. stage actress (1660); mistress of Prince Rupert of the Rhine. German-Austrian banker-diplomat (Ashkenazi Jew) ("the Judenkaiser") Samuel Oppenheimer (d. 1703) on June 21 in Heidelberg; stepfather of Joseph Suss Oppenheimer (1698-1738); father of Simon Wolf Oppenheimer (-1726) and Jakob Wolf Oppenheimer; ancestor of Felix Mendelssohn. German Mannerist painter ("the Silesian Rembrandt") Michael Leopold Lukas Willmann (d. 1706) on Sept. 27 in Konigsberg, Prussia. German electress Sophia of Hanover, Countess Palatine of Simmern (d. 1714) on Oct. 14 in The Hague; youngest of five daughters of "Winter King" Frederick V (1596-1632) and "Winter Queen" Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662) (daughter of James I of England); mother of George I of England (1660-1727), who founds the Hanoverian Dynasty in England; 1st cousin of Charles II of England. English mathematician Isaac Barrow (d. 1677) in Oct. in London; educated at Gresham College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. English mistress (of Charles II) Lucy Walter (d. 1658) in Roch Castle near Haverfordwest, Wales; mother of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (1649-85). Russian Cossack leader Stepan Timofeyevich "Stenka" Razin (d. 1671). English horticulturist Robert Sharrock (d. 1684). German architect Wolf Caspar von Klengel (d. 1691). English theologian and Hebrew scholar John Spencer (d. 1693). French scientist Jean Richer (d. 1696). English mercantilist politician (gov. of the East India Co., 1677-) Sir Josiah Child, 1st Baronet (d. 1699). Danish sculptor Caius Gabriel Cibber (d. 1700) in Schleswig, Denmark; emigrates to England; father of Colley Cibber (1671-1757). Swedish scientist Olof (Olaus) Rudbeck the Elder (d. 1702); father of Olof Rudbeck the Younger (1660-1740). French financier Louis de Bechamel (Béchameil), Marquis de Nointel (d. 1703); chief steward of Louis XIV's household; namesake of Bechamel Sauce. Deaths: English soldier Sir William Stanley (b. 1548) on Mar. 3 in Ghent. French Huguenot poet-gen. Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne (b. 1552) on Apr. 29 in Geneva. English astrologer-theologian Richard Havey (b. 1560). Italian duke of Savoy (1580-1630) Charles Emmanuel I the Great (b. 1562) on July 26 in Savigliano (fever). English traveler Fynes Moryson (b. 1566) on Feb. 12. German astronomer Johannes Kepler (b. 1571) on Nov. 15 in Regensburg: "Nature uses as little as possible of anything"; "Discover the force of the heavens O men: Once recognized it can be put to use"; "I used to measure the Heavens, now I measure the shadows of Earth. Although my mind was heaven-bound, the shadow of my body lies here"; "Truth is the daughter of time, and I feel no shame in being her midwife"; "I much prefer the sharpest criticism of a single intelligent man to the thoughtless approval of the masses"; "There is a force in the earth which causes the moon to move." English courtier William Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (b. 1580) on Apr. 10 (cirrhosis of the liver?) (syphilis?). German composer Johann Hermann Schein (b. 1586) on Nov. 19 in Leipzig. Dutch explorer Jan Pieters Coen (b. 1587). Dutch artist Esaias van de Velde (b. 1587) on Nov. 18 in The Hague.

1631 - We're on a lava-filled magdeburg road to nowhere in lovely Christian Europe, filled with Protestant and Roman Catholic armies taking turns raping for Christ and making the bell toll for thee? Meanwhile Science makes incremental vernier advances?

John Donne (1572-1631) William Noy of Britain (1577-1634) Lord Audley (1593-1631) William Oughtred (1575-1660) Lope de Vega (1562-1635) Friedrich von Spee (1591-1635) Vernier Scale, 1631 Bagshot Park, 1631- Taj Mahal, 1632-53

1631 In Jan. desiring an alliance with Sweden to counter the Hapsburgs, shatter the Spanish hegemony over the Netherlands, and establish French supremacy in Europe, despite crossing the Roman Catholic-Protestant battle lines, Cardinal Richelieu signs the 5-year Treaty of Barwalde with Sweden, furnishing the latter with money to fight the Thirty Years' War while committing no troops. On Feb. 5 Roger Williams and his wife arrive in Boston from England, and hold a brief pastorate in Salem before moving to Plymouth. In Feb. antsy elector Johann Georg I of Saxony calls a meeting of Protestant princes in Leipzig, where preacher Matthias Hoe von Hohenegg (1580-1645) tries to talk him into breaking his alliance with HRE Ferdinand II, but only gets him to lodge a formal protest - which is like laying an egg? While the crowd oohs and aahs? On Mar. 20 after the Catholic League under CIC Flemish field marshal Count Johann Tserklaes Tilly, along with Pappenheim destroys the Swedish garrison in Neu Brandenburg, they siege the Protestant town of Magdeburg on the Elbe River (which promised to support Sweden) for 2 mo. with 40K men, then after fence-sitter Johann Georg I of Saxony refuses to allow Gustavus II Adolphus to cross the Elbe River at Wittenberg to relieve it, Tilly captures it on May 20, and massacres 25K of its 30K inhabitants, gruesomely torturing them to boot and burning the city, then burns Halls and invades Saxony, ravaging the countryside and finally causing Johann Georg I to see the light; never fear, Protestant champion Adolphus II Gustavus of Sweden and his 16K-man army sacks Frankfurt-on-Oder, repulses a 23K-man imperial army under Count Tilly on Aug. 1 (July 22 Old Style) at the Battle of Werben in Germany, then on Sept. 15-17 (Sept. 5-7 Old Style) after concluding an alliance with Johann Georg I defeats Silly Tilly at the "world-changing" First Battle of Breitenfeld in Saxony N of Leipzig (23.5K Swedish and 18K Saxon Protestant troops vs. 31.3K Catholic troops) (the Saxon troops turn tail and flee at the start of the battle, making the Protestant V all the more cool), becoming the first major Protestant V of the Thirty Years' War and making Gustavus the master of Germany, gaining him the title of Gustavus the Great, all causing freaked-out HRE Ferdinand II to reappoint Wallenstein as CIC in place of Tilly; Magedeburg becomes a permanent symbol of the horrors of war, unmatchable until WWI? On Mar. 31 English poet-divine John Donne (b. 1572) dies; in seeming tribute about bells tolling for thee, there is an earthquake in Naples, and on Dec. 16 Mt. Vesuvius has its biggest eruption in a thousand years, killing 3.5K, causing the word "lava" (Lat. "labi" = to slide) to come into use. On May 14 Mervyn Audley (Tuchet), 2nd Earl of Castlehaven (1593-1631) (AKA Lord Audley) is beheaded on Tower Hill in London for sodomy (oddly touchit?) with his page Laurence (Florence?) FitzPatrick, who confessed and was also executed, and also for assisting Giles Browning (Broadway) in raping Anne Stanley, countess of Castlehaven, during which Lord Castlehaven allegedly held held down; the whole thing is a frame-up by his son James Tuchet (1614-84), who feared being disinherited, with the countess in on it with him? On May 30 Cardinal Richelieu of France and Maximilian I of Bavaria sign the secret Treaty of Fontainebleu, whereby Maximilian promises not to attack the enemies of France; Maria de' Medici is exiled to Brussels, and joins forces with her son Duke Gaston of Orleans against Richelieu. On May 30 La Gazette, France's first weekly newspaper is founded in Paris by French physician-journalist Theophraste (Théophraste) Renaudot (1586-1653); in 1762 it becomes Gazette de France; discontinued in 1915. On June 17 Arjumand Shah Begum (b. 1593) (AKA Mumtaz Mahal, or Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Indian Mughal emperor #5 (1628-58) Shah Jahan dies in childbirth after bearing him 14 children; he dedicates the drop-dead-gorgeous Mughal-style ivory-white marble domed 32M rupee Taj Mahal (Pers. "best of buildings", "crown of the palace") mausoleum on the S bank of the of the Yamuna River in Agra, Uttar Pradesh (built in 1632-53) to her memory; the project employs 20K artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by royal architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. On June 19 the Treaty of Cherasco, negotiated by Cardinal Mazarin gives Victor Amadeus I of Savoy part of the duchy of Montferrat (between Piedmont, Milan and Genoa), but he is forced to surrender the important fortress of Pinerolo et al. to France. On June 20 Dutch-born Muslim Barbary pirate (Sale Rover) Murad (Murat) Reis (Jan Janszoon van Haarelem) (1570-1641) sacks Baltimore, County Cork, Ireland in Roaring Water Bay in West Cork, taking 108 slaves back to North Africa after spitting out the Gaels and keeping only the English, becoming the largest attack by Barbary pirates on Ireland or Great Britain. In Oct. learned (but annoying?) MP William Noy (1577-1634) is appointed British atty. gen., going on to impose "ship monies" from the areas around ports to get his boss Charles I some money without going through Parliament; his enemies end up rejoicing at his agonizing death in 1634 from kidney stones? On Oct. 10 after regrouping and marching into Bohemia, the Saxons under Johann Georg I capture Prague, despoiling the Infant Jesus of Prague statue (1555), after which they decide to negotiate peace terms and allow Wallenstein to drive them back to Saxony. The Gen. Court of Mass., which elects the gov. and his assistants (incl. deputy gov.), and is composed of shareholding "freemen", expands its membership from John Withrop and his assistants to 118 more settlers, but stipulates that only church members can be accepted. The Housewives of Lowenburg stand up to the Roman Catholic priests trying to convert them out of Protestantism. Baron Nuesch saves Rothenberg from sacking by Count Tilly by meeting his challenge to quaff a 3.5 liter vessel of wine. Father Ruiz de Montoya helps 12K Indians escape from Paulistas (slave raiders from Sao Paulo) by descending the Parana River. English Roman Catholic George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (1579-1632) petitions for a charter for Maryland (Md.) from Charles I, while London merchants and William Claiborne from Jamestown Colony try to stop it; meanwhile Claiborne has own little project, Kent Island in Md., which just happens to fall within the land later granted to Calvert - bring on the baksheesh? Pope Clement VIII recognizes the independence of the tiny Italian repub. of San Marino (founded 301), protected by the Montefeltro Family of Urbino. After being caught conspiring against the French throne, Duke Charles of Guise (-1640) goes into voluntary exile in Italy; when he dies his wife Henriette-Catherine de Joyeuse isn't allowed to return to France until she sells Couiza (home of Rennes-le-Chateau) and Arques to the crown. The Franco-Moroccan Treaty of 1631 is negotiated by French Adm. Isaac de Razilly and Barbary pirate Murad Reis in Sale, Morocco, granting a consulate and freedom of religion for French subjects in Morocco. The first printing house is established in Tartu, Estonia. The Dutch West India Co. founds a whaling station at Cape Henlopen, on the point of land separating the Atlantic from Delaware Bay on the Delaware River. English Capt. Thomas James explores James Bay in Canada. The English settle St. Kitts (Leeward Islands). Duxbury, Mass. is founded by John Alden, Priscilla Alden, and Miles Standish; it is incorporated in 1637. Urbino, Italy (a dukedom from 1443) becomes a papal state by reversion, completing the dominions of the Papal States (until 1860). A Thanksgiving is held in Mass. Bay after a ship arrives from Bristol in time to stave-off starvation among the colonists. A big shipwreck of the galleon San Jose off the coast of Panama leaves much buried treasure. Pope Urban VIII authorizes revision of the Breviary. The Worshipful Co. of Clockmakers in London is incorporated under royal charter of Charles I. Philip IV knights painter Peter Paul Rubens. Architecture: In 1631-7 Inigo Jones adds a W front to St. Paul's Cathedral; too bad, during the English Civil War the Parliamentarian forces treat it like crap and destroy old documents, after which St. Paul's Cross continues to be used for open-air preaching. Bagshot Park in Surrey, England (11 mi. S of Windsor) is designed for Charles I by Inigo Jones as a small lodge, and goes on to be lived in by English bigshot princes and princess and go through several improvements, ending up with 120 rooms, redone in the Indian style in the 1880s, incl. an Indian-style billiards room in the 1880s for the Duke of Connaught. Inigo Jones begins St. Paul's Covent Garden (Actors') Church in Westminster for the 4th Earl of Bedford (finished 1633); the first known victim of the 1665-6 plague is buried in its churchyard on Apr. 12, 1665; destroyed by fire in 1795. Jacques Lemercier begins the Chateau Richelieu. Science: French physician-chemist Jean Rey (1583-1645) uses a water-filled glass bulb thermometer to follow the progress of fevers in patients; he goes on to discover that lead and tin become heavier after calcination, attributing it to the weight of air, making possible the invention of the barometer. French-born Spanish capt. Pierre Vernier (1580-1637) invents the Vernier Scale for artillery, greatly increasing accuracy. Nonfiction: Robert Barker (-1645) and Martin Lucas, the king's printers at Blackfriars are fined £300 for their King James Bible misprint that omits "not" from the 7th Commandment ("Thou shalt not commit adultery") (Exodus 20:14), which helps ruin them, ending their lives in debtors' prison; the edition is later called The Wicked (Adulterous) (Sinners') Bible, and all 1K copies are ordered destroyed, but 11 survive, becoming collectors' items. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Janua Linguarum Reserata; more educational theories. Gervase Markham (1568-1636), A New Orchard (London). Friedrich von Spee (1591-1635), Cautio Criminalis (Precautions for Prosecutors); sarcastic attack against witch trials, with the first legal argument on why torture doesn't make people tell the truth, without denying the reality of witches, causing the trials to be abolished in Mainz and other German towns. Duke Henry II of Rohan (1579-1638), Le Parfait Capitaine (The Perfect Captain); the military lessons of Caesar applied to his day. Plays: Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), Match Me in London (tragicomedy). Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), Life Is a Dream (1631-2). Lope de Vega (1562-1635), Punishment Without Revenge. Thomas Heywood (1586-1641), The Fair Maid of the West (comedy). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Devil is an Asse (comedy). Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Emperor of the East (tragicomedy); Believe As You List (tragedy). Poetry: Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650), Sicelides. John Milton (1608-74), On Being Arrived to the Age of Twenty-Three; "How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth,/ Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year!" James Mebbe (1572-1642), The Spanish Bawd; English trans. of Fernando de Roja's Celestina. Art: Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Marie de Raet (wife of Philippe Le Roy); Prince Rupert von der Pfalz (1631-2). Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of His Mother. Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), The Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Infanta Maria, Queen of Hungary. Births: English poet laureate, dramatist-critic ("Glorious John" - Sir Walter Scott) John Dryden (d. 1700) on Aug. 9 in Aldwincle, Thrapston, Northamptonshire; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. Mass. Bay gov. (1694-9, 1700-1) and Salem witchcraft trials judge William Stoughton (d. 1701) on Sept. 30 in Woolwich, Maine, England or Mass.; son of Israel Stoughton (-1645) (Jewish?) and Elizabeth Knight, who help found Dorchester, Mass.; educated at Harvard College and New College, Oxford U.; remote ancestor of U.S. pres. FDR through his father James Roosevelt Sr. (1828-1900). English princess royal of Orange Mary Henrietta Stewart (Stuart) (d. 1660) on Nov. 4 in St. James' Palace, London; daughter of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; marries Prince William of Orange in 1641. French chef (maitre d'hotel to Nicolas Fouquet and the Grand Conde) Francois "Le Grand" Vatel (Fritz Karl Watel) (d. 1671) in Switzerland (Paris?) (b. 1625?) (b. 1635?); inventor of Chantilly cream? British (Cornish) physician Robert Lower (d. 1691) in St. Tudy, Cornwall; educated at Westminster School, and Oxford U.; performs first Western blood transfusion in 1667 - robbing a lower to help a higher form of life, or vice-versa? German publisher Johann Georg Cotta (d. 1692). French organist-composer Nicolas Antoine Le Begue (Lebegue) (d. 1702) in Laon. Am. "The Day of Doom" Puritan minister-physician-poet Michael Wigglesworth (d. 1705) in England; emigrates to Am. at age 7; settles in Malden, Mass. in 1656. English Utilitarian philosopher (bishop of Peterborough in 1691-) Richard Cumberland (d. 1718) in London; educated at Cambridge U.; founder of the Utilitarian school of philosophy; not to be confused with writer Richard Cumberland (1731-1811). Deaths: English Cambridge livery stable owner Thomas Hobson (b. 1544?); gives you the choice of the next horse in line or nothing (Hobson's Choice). Italian duke of Urbino (last) (1574-1625) Francesco Maria II della Rovere (b. 1549) on Apr. 23 in Urbania. German astronomer Michael Mastlin (b. 1550) on Oct. 20. British engineer Sir Hugh Myddleton (b. 1560) in Dec. in London. German composer Philipp Dulichius (b. 1562). English poet Michael Drayton (b. 1563). Spanish dramatist Guillen de Castro y Bellvis (b. 1569). English scholar Sir Robert Cotton (b. 1571) on May 6 in London. English "for whom the bell tolls" poet and Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral John Donne (b. 1572) on Mar. 31 in London; dies having never pub. most his poetry. English Jamestown founder Capt. John Smith (b. 1580) in Va.; buried apart from his Algonquian babe Pocahontas (d. 1617).

1632 - The Teach Mine Not Yours Galileo Queen Christina Maryland Your Family Your Music Your Pictures It's Your Life in There Year?

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Dodo von Knyphausen (1583-1636) Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (1604-39) Queen Christina Wasa of Sweden (1626-89) Steffi Graf (1969-) Wladyslaw IV Vasa of Poland (1595-1648) Cecelius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605-75) Sir Francis Windebank (1582-1646) Francois Mansart (1598-1666) Mathias Klotz (1653-1743) Sir Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641) Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69) 'The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp', by Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), 1632 Gondar Castle, Ethiopia, 1636

1632 In Feb. Pisa-born Italian super-brain scientist ("Father of Science") Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) pub. his "fictional" masterpiece Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogho Sopra i Due Massimi Sistemi del Mondo), which becomes an immediate bestseller in Italy; in Sept. Pope Urban VIII finally gets a copy, shits bricks and orders its distribution stopped, and in Oct. Galileo receives a summons to appear before the friendly Roman Inquisition for reneging on his 1616 promise and only playing games with them, pretending to treat Copernicanism as a theory but anything but; the Medici family waffles but finally drops protection for him, and he has to go to Rome, where the outcome is unstoppable. On Mar. 29 the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (near Paris) between England and France returns New France (Quebec) to French control and provides compensation to France for goods seized during its capture. On Apr. 15 40K Swedish troops under Gustavus II Adolphus defeat 25K Catholic League troops uner Count Johan Tilly (b. 1559) at the Battle of the Lech River (Rain) near Rain, Bavaria, with 2K Swedish vs. 3K Catholic casualties; Tilly is wounded trying to prevent the Swedes from crossing the Lech River into Bavaria, and dies on Apr. 30; Gustavus II Adolphus conquers Augsburg and Munich in May, then storms Wallenstein's entrenched camp near Nuremberg on Sept. 3 and is repulsed. On Apr. 21 the Dordrecht Confession of Faith is adopted by the Mennonites in Dodrecht, South Holland, with 18 articles incl. belief in salvation through Jesus Christ, baptism, non-resistance, excommunication and shunning, feet washing, and avoidance of oaths. On Apr. 30 king (since June 20, 1566) Sigismund III Vasa (b. 1566) dies, and his son Wladyslaw (Vladislav) (Ladislas) IV Vasa (1595-1648) becomes king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (until May 20, 1648) after being elected with opposition, going on to pursue a policy diametrically opposed to his daddy's, unsuccessfully attempting to restrict the power of the Jesuits and starting a war with Russia (ends 1634). On June 20 Charles I issues a royal proclamation ordering the country gentlemen to leave London, and grants loyal Catholic George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore a Royal Charter to Maryland (named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria), N of the Potomac River (Algonquin "where goods are brought in"), with unprecedented powers, although all exports are required to be sent to or through England; too bad, he dies on Apr. 15, and his son Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605-75) takes over. In 1655 after many years of plotting to take back Kent Island from Catholic Maryland, Jamestown Puritan leader William Claiborne defeats a force led by Md. gov. Stone in Providence (Annapolis), kills him, then takes control of Md., and travels to England to get official control, but they don't go for it and Sir George Calvert regains control; after the Puritan govt. in England is ousted in 1660, he finally gives up and contents himself with his little ole 5K-acre Romancoke estate on the York River in Va. In June Roman Catholic sympathizer Sir Francis Windebank (1582-1646) is knighted and appointed by Charles I as his chief secy. of state in England (until 1640), succeeding Lord Dorchester; he goes on in Dec. 1634 to discuss a possible reunion of the Anglican with the Roman Catholic Church with papal agent Gregorio Panzani (-1662), bishop of Mileto, with a plan to send pesky Puritans to war in the Netherlands to get them out of the way - he won the bank? On Nov. 6 king (since Oct. 30, 1611) Gustavus II Adolphus (b. 1594) of Sweden dies after being shot in the back while leading a cavalry charge at the Battle of Lutzen (Lützen) near Leipzig, in which Wallenstein is defeated, becoming the last battle between Protestants and Roman Catholics in Germany, and a Protestant Pyrrhic V, causing the Protestant campaign to lose direction; after Gustav kicks-off and the Swedish center breaks, German soldier Dodo zu Innhausen und Knyphausen (1583-1636) holds the panicky Swedish army together for two hours until Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (1604-39), col. of the horse guard takes over, kills another col. who refuses to lead a charge, and turns the battle into a V by sundown, eventually gaining his own command; Gustavus Adolphus' daughter Christina Wasa (1626-89) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to German tennis player Steffi Graf (1969-)?) ascends the throne of Sweden (until June 6, 1654), with five regents headed by chancellor Axel Oxenstierna governing the country (until 1644); too bad, Saxony now refuses to join the Protestant League under her, er, Swedish leadership, although its troops continue to fight (until 1635). On Dec. 5 after settlers in Zwaanendael (Swaanendael) (Dutch "swan valley or dale") (modern-day Lewes, Del.) (founded 1631), Delaware's first Dutch settlement in the S are massacred by the Indians, Capt. David Peterson de Vries arrives too late to help, then negotiates a treaty with the Indians and sails up the Delaware River trading for beans and corn before sailing to Virginia Colony to recruit new colonists, but the Dutch later removes them to New Amsterdam. On Dec. 20 Nicolas Antoine, a French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism is executed. Cardinal Richelieu quashes the Montmorency Conspiracy, and has the 4th Duke Montmorency executed and his title forefeited; in 1689 the title is rename the duke of Enghien. The town of Dinkelsbuehl in C Franconia (modern-day Bavaria) surrenders to the Swedish army, and is saved from a massacre by singing children, one of whom reminds the Swedish gen. of his dead son, becoming known as the Kinderzeche (Ger. child's bill for food and drink at an inn). Imam Quli Khan is executed by Persian shah Safi I in order to absorb his lands and strengthen his central authority. Fasilides (Basilides) (1603-67) becomes Solomonid emperor of Ethiopia (until Oct. 18, 1667), going on to isolate Ethiopia from foreign influences, expel the Jesuits in 1633, restore the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and found a new capital at Gondar (Gonder) N of Lake Tana in 1636, complete with cool Gondar Castle (Fasil Ghebbi) to counter invasions by Galla peoples to the S. Ahmad Koujak is appointed lord of Damascus by sultan Murad IV, who orders him to attack Lebanon and depose pesky Muslim Druze independence leader Emir Fakhr al-Din II (b. 1572), and after his son Ali is killed in Wadi el-Taym, he hides in Jezzine's Grotto (14 mi. E of Sidon), is captured and taken to Constantinople, where he sweet-talks the sultan into releasing him; too bad, the sultan takes his time, and finally has him and his family executed on Apr. 13, 1635; Lebanon becomes an Ottoman puppet until 1920. After the people of Watertown stage a protest against Mass. Bay Colony Gov. John Winthrop for levying taxes on them, he rebukes them, but restores the power of the General Court to elect the gov. and his deputy, rather than just assistants who pick him all the time. The Bishop of London is given jurisdiction over the Anglican churches in the Am. colonies, but regulation ends up being entrusted to the governors. The city of Portland, Maine (modern-day pop. 66K/519K) is settled as the fishing village of Casco on Casco Bay, which is taken over by the Mass. Bay Colony in 1658 and changes its name to Falmouth, which is destroyed by the Abenaki in 1676 during King Philip's War, then destroyed again by French and Indian allies in the 1690 Battle of Fort Loyal, then burned down by the British Royal Navy on Oct. 18, 1775; in 1786 it is refounded as Portland, named after the Isle of Portland off the coast of Dorset, England; in 1820 Maine becomes a U.S. state, with Portland as its capital until 1832, when it is moved N to Augusta; in 1851 Maine becomes the first state to pass a prohibition law, leading to the Portland Rum Riot on June 2, 1855; Portland, Ore. is later named after it. Flemish painter Sir Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641) moves to England and becomes court painter to Charles I, going on to spend a decade painting many portraits of his royal patron and other nobles after being knighted, rewarded with a generous annuity and lavished with gifts; cheapskate Charles I pays him only half the asking price for a distinguished 1635 portrait. Claudio Monteverdi takes holy orders and retires from public life (until 1637). The English settle Antigua and Montserrat in the Leeward Islands group of the West Indies. Yakutsk, Siberia on the Lena River becomes a fur trading center. Swedish king Gustavus II founds the Univ. Academia Gustaviana in Tartu, Estonia. The West India Co. builds a brewery on Brewers (Brouwer) St. in Manhattan, New Amsterdam, led by gov.-gen. #5 (1633-8) Wouter van Twiller (1606-54), successor of Peter Minuit, becoming the first commercial brewery in North Am.; the street is later named Stone St. for its cobblestone paving. Architecture: Francois Mansart (1598-1666) designs the Church of the Visitation de Sainte-Marie in Paris. Cardinal Richelieu orders the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris. The Post Hotel is built in picture-book Mittenwald, Bavaria, a stop on the way to Munich, which later in this cent. becomes a center for violin manufacture after Stradivari's student Mathias Klotz (1653-1743) moves there. Nonfiction: Antonio Bosio, Roma Sotterranea; Or, An Account of the Roman Catacombs. Michael O Cleirigh et al., Annals of the Four Masters (1632-6); compiled at a Franciscan friary near the Drowes River in County Leitrim, Ireland, covering from the Deluge (2,242 years after Creation) to 1616 C.E. from an Irish standpoint; the first English tr. is pub. in 1846; they record a summer heat wave and drought in 1252. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Ratio Disciplinae Ordinisque Ecclesiae in Unitate Fratrum Bohemorum; history of the Moravians. John Davies (1569-1626), Welsh Dictionary. Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650), The Way to Blessedness; Joy in Tribulation. The Jesuits, Jesuit Relations (40 vols.) (1632-72); vol. 1 is Relation de la Nouvelle France, et du Voyage des Peres Jesuits dans cette Contree by Pierre Biard (1565-1622); also incl. Relatio Expeditionis Anglorum in Canadam suaeque ab illis Comprehensionis. William Prynne (1600-69), Histrio-Mastix (Histriomastix): The Players Sourge, or Actors Tragedie; how the Bible proves "that popular stage-playes are sinfull, heathenish, lewde, ungodly spectacles, and most pernicious corruptions". Caspar Schoppe (1576-1649), Flagellum Jesuiticum; against the Jesuits; followed by Mysteria Patrum Jesuitorum (1633), and Arcana Societatis Jesu (1635). John Selden (1584-1654), Mare Clausum; argues for England's sovereignty on the sea. Johann Angelus Werdenhagen (1581-1652), Introductio Universalis in Omnes Republicas Sive Politica Generalis (comparative politics). Art: Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Philip, Lord Wharton. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp; The Abduction of Europa; Portrait of a Lady Aged 62. Plays: Richard Brome (1590-1653), The Northern Lasse. Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Magnetic Lady. Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The City Madam (comedy). The Second Shakespeare Folio is pub. Poetry: Jacob "Father" Cats (1577-1660), Spieghel van den Ouden ende Nieuwen Tijdt. John Milton (1608-74), On Shakespeare (sonnet) (debut); pub. anon. in the Second Folio of Shakespeare's plays. Births: Anglo-Welsh poet (lesbian?) Katherine Philips (d. 1664) on Jan. 1 in London. German "De jure naturae et gentium" political philosopher-economist-historian Samuel von Pufendorf (d. 1694) on Jan. 8 in Dorfchemnitz, Saxony; educated at the U. of Leipzig. British colonial official in North Am. #1 (1676-) Edward Randolph (d. 1703) on July 9 in Canterbury, Kent. French Jesuit church orator Louis Bourdaloue (d. 1704) on Aug. 20 in Bourges. English "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding", "tabula rasa" empiricist Social Contract philosopher ("Father of Classical Liberalism") John Locke (d. 1704) on Aug. 29 in Wrington, Somerset; educated at Westminster School, and Christ Church, Oxford U.; founder of the school of Philosophical Empiricism. English architect-mathematician-astronomer Sir Christopher Wren (d. 1723) on Oct. 20 in East Knoyle. Dutch linen draper and late-blooming long-living zoologist Anton (Antony) (Antonie) (Thonius) Philips van Leeuwenhoek (d. 1723) [pr. lay-van-HOOK] on Oct. 24 in Delft. Dutch Baroque painter Jan (Johannes) Vermeer (van der Meer van Delft) (d. 1675) on Oct. 31 in Delft; specializes in ordinary domestic interior scenes. French Benedictine "De Re Diplomatica" scholar (founder of paleography and diplomatics) ("greatest historical scholar of his century") Dom Jean Mabillon (d. 1707) on Nov. 23 in Saint-Pierremont, Champagne. Dutch rationalist humanist philosopher (Jewish) Baruch (Benedict de) Spinoza (d. 1677) on Nov. 24 in Amsterdam; born to a Jewish Marrano converso family; student of Franciscus van den Enden (1602-74) and Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-57); educated at the Ets Hayyim Yeshivah in Amsterdam, then breaks with Judaism after his father dies. French composer and founder of French opera (tragedie lyrique) (gay) Jean-Baptiste Lully (Giambattista Lulli) (Giovanni Battista Lulli) (d. 1687) on Nov. 28 in Florence, Italy. English physician-scholar Henry Stubbes (d. 1676) in Lincolnshire; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. Chinese Roman Catholic priest and painter Wu Yushan (d. 1718). Deaths: Flemish gen. Count Tilly (b. 1559) on Apr. 30 in Ingolstadt. English aristocrat Henry Percy, 9th earl of Northumberland (b. 1564) on Nov. 5 in Petworth, West Sussex. Polish king (1587-1632) and Swedish king (1592-9) Sigismund III Vasa (b. 1566) on Apr. 30 in Warsaw. English playwright Thomas Dekker (b. 1570) on Aug. 25. Italian poet Giovanni Battista Basile (b. 1575) on Feb. 23. English statesman (founder of Md.) George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore (b. 1579) on Apr. 15 in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. English political leader Sir John Eliot (b. 1592) on Nov. 27; dies in the Tower of Lonson; his prison works are not pub. for 250 years, incl. De Jure Majestatis. Swedish king (1611-32) Gustavus II Adolphus (b. 1594) on Nov. 6 (killed in battle). French-Dutch mathematician Albert Girard (b. 1595) on Dec. 8 in Leiden; first to discuss imaginary numbers (square root of -1), provide an inductive definition for Fibonacci numbers, and use the abbrevs. sin, cos, and tan for trig functions; states this year that each prime of the form 1 mod 4 is the sum of two squares. Bavarian exiled Winter King Frederick V (b. 1596) on Nov. 29 in Mainz.

1633 - The Ditch Mama Science for Da Church Year? The Galileo Affair reaches a head, and the Infallible Holy Roman Catholic Church spreads a Big Chill among scientists in this red-coated 1666 runnerup year 1633?

Edward Winslow (1595-1655) Rev. Thomas Hooker (1586-1647) Archbishop William Laud (1573-1645) Archbishop William Juxon (1582-1663) Jean du Vergier de Hauranne (1581-1643) John Cotton (1585-1652) Thomas Carew (1594-1640) George Herbert (1593-1633) St. Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) St. Louise de Marillac (1591-1660) Jacques Callot (1592-1635) 'Les Grandes Miseres de la Guerre' by Jacques Callot (1592-1635), 1633 'Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat' by Rembrandt (1606-69), 1633

1633 A plague outbreak in Munich, Bavaria kills 15K. In Jan. Axel Oxenstierna is designated legate plenipotentiary in Germany by the king, with absolute power over all territories conquered by the Swedish armies, making him the most powerful statesman in Swedish history (until ?); he organizes the Protestant leaders of Sweden and Germany into the Evangelical League for mutual assistance against mean Roman Catholics; in Jan. German soldier Dodo von Knyphausen is rewarded for his bravery at Lutzen last year with a promotion to field marshal in the Swedish army in charge of Lower Saxony. On Feb. 1 the Tobacco Laws are passed, limiting Va. tobacco production supposedly to prevent their dependence on a 1-crop economy. Speaking of mean Roman Catholics? On Feb. 13 Galileo arrives in Rome, is interrogated (tortured) by the Big I in Apr., pleads guilty to a lesser charge in exchange for a more lenient sentence (please, I don't want to squat to pee?), is found guilty (3 of 10 Cardinal judges withholding their signatures), and on June 22 in the Dominican Convent of Santa Maria Sopra Minerve he is forced to abjure his belief in the *!?! Copernican hypotheses; after prostrating himself in the white nightshirt of a penitent and kissing their holy feet for saving his soul he is sentenced to an indefinite prison term; in Dec. he is allowed to return to Florence under permanent house arrest at his villa in Arcetri, becoming the end of any remaining claim the Church could make to having any direct pipeline to God; the chilling effect is instant, with French brain man Rene Descartes withholding pub. of Le Monde (The World) (Treatise on the Light) next Apr. because it agrees with the Copernican theory, "and I confess that if it is false, then so are the whole foundations of my philosophy, because it is demonstrated from them beyond doubt" (he turns into the "philosophe au masque"); as late as 1739-42 an ed. of Newton's Principia is pub. with a cover letter by Minim Fathers Le Seur and Jacquier pointing out to good Roman Catholics that the Newtonian system of the world is also "hypothetical". On Apr. 10 the first bananas are displayed in London by Thomas Johnson of Snow Hill - yes, we have no jokes here? On Apr. 23 the lull in the Thirty Years' War caused by the death of Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden is broken by the Heilbronn League, in which France and the Protestant countries of W Germany agree to stand together against the Catholic League behind Sweden under the leadership of chancellor Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden, Gustavus' right-hand man; unfortunately the peasantry can't support the large armies in their lands, so there is not much fighting this year. On June 18 Charles I is crowned king of Scotland in Hollyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, visiting the Scottish lowlands, attending parliament and feasting with the nobility, who are nowhere near as happy as when his daddy James I visited in 1617 since he goes from basically ignoring the country and letting his councillors handle affairs to meddling with the govt. and increasing taxes, upsetting everybody; the Royal Scots Regiment (originally the Royal Regiment of Food) (oldest regular regiment in the British Army) is established (ends 2006). On July 10 the Blessing, a ferry carrying gold and silver for Charles I sinks in the Firth of Forth. On July 14-Oct. 22 the Battle of Liaoluo Bay sees a large Ming Dynasty fleet under Zheng Zhilong defeat a Dutch India Co. fleet under Adm. Hans Putmans at Quemoy Island, becoming the largest naval battle between Chinese and Euro forces until the Opium Wars of 1839-42. On Sept. 3 Rev. Thomas Hooker (1586-1647), a Cambridge-educated Puritan pastor from Essex, England arrives in the Mass. Bay Colony in the ship Griffin from Holland, where he had been chased in 1630 by Archbishop Laud under threat of arrest, and on Oct. 11 becomes pastor of the church at Newtown (Cambridge), soon getting in a mutually-respectful spat with Gov. Winthrop over restriction of voting rights, with Winthrop uttering the soundbyte: "The best part is always the least, and of that best part the wiser part is always the lesser", to which Hooker upstages him with the immortal soundbyte: "In matters which concern the common good, a general council, chosen by all, to transact businesses which concern all, I conceive most suitable to rule and most safe for relief of the whole" - did you have any bad dreams, did you break any glass? On Sept. 26 after Puritan Separatist Edward Winslow (1595-1655) (hated by James I) becomes gov. #3 of Plymouth Colony and inspects the site, Windsor, Conn. 50 mi. upriver from Long Island Sound is founded as a trading post by Englishmen from Plymouth led by William Holmes; meanwhile Ft. Good Hope (Goede Hoop) (near present-day Hartford, Conn.) is built by the Dutch 10 mi. down the Connecticut River in New Netherland, going on to rais their first tobacco crop. On Sept. 27 after invading Silesia, Wallenstein defeats the Swedish army under Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar at the Battle of Steinau, then goes into winter HQ in Bohemia, making the mistake of trying to negotiate a deal between the Protestants, Roman Catholics and the HRE, which causes certain Catholic princes (Maximilian of Bavaria et al.) to want him done away with, and HRE Ferdinand II to suspect him of treachery. In Oct. William Laud (1573-1645), bishop of London (since July 1628) and chancellor of Oxford U. (since 1630), a friend of the Duke of Buckingham becomes archbishop of Canterbury (until Jan. 10, 1645), introducing Laudianism, which rejects Calvinist predestination and emphasizes Roman Catholic-style clerical hierarchy and liturgical ceremony, bringing in new censors Samuel Baker (chaplain to William Juxon), William Bray, William Haywood, and Matthew Weeks, targeting not only the Calvinists but the Puritans, causing an exodus of religious dissidents incl. Anne Hutchinson, John Lothropp, and Zechariah Symmes; William Juxon (1582-1663) takes his old job of bishop of London (until 1649), becoming next in line for the top job; meanwhile in May the 30-40 member Privy Council being too large, Charles I entrusts colonial affairs to an 11-man Lords Commissioners for Plantations in General, which becomes known as the Laud Commission, headed by Archbishop William Laud, who schemes to impose political and religious conformity on New England. The French occupy Lorraine (until 1659). The Jews of Posnan (Poznan) are given the privilege of forbidding Christians to enter their quarter. Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu begins issuing the Sakoku (Jap. "locked country" Edicts (until 1639), closing Japan's borders to foreigners, and forcing the pesky Portuguese out; by 1641 only a small group of Dutch merchants remain on the artificial Dejima (Deshima) Island (Jap. "Protruding Island") in Nagasaki Bay; they remain in effect until 1853. Fire destroys the N third of London Bridge after a maidservant leaves a pail of ashes under some wooden stairs. Charles I revives the forest eyre to raise fine money. Middle Plantation in Va. is settled, changing its name to Williamsburg in 1699. An English trading post is established in Bengal. The great English church question of the position of the Communion Table at St. Gregory's comes to a head. Jean du Vergier du Hauranne (1581-1643), a student of Cornelius Jansen (d. 1638) becomes dir.-confessor of the Convent of Port-Royal, France, turning it into a center of Jansenism; too bad, Cardinal Richelieu has him imprisoned in 1638, and in 1661 the convent is closed, then destroyed on orders of Louis XIV in 1710. John Cotton (1585-1652), pastor of St. Botolph's Church in Boston, Lincolnshire, England (from 1612) is summoned before Archbishop Laud and the Court of High Commissions to answer for his Puritan leanings, causing him to flee and arrive in Sept. in Boston, Mass. Bay Colony, where he becomes a religious leader ("the Patriarch of New England") and teaches in the First Church until death. Cambridge U. establishes a professorship of Arabic studies. Father Jean de Brebeuf returns to his Catholic mission in the Huron village. Sultan Murad IV orders tobacco smokers executed as infidels. The title of Earl of Lindsay is created for John Lindsay, 10th Lord Lindsay, who later inherits the ancient Earldom of Crawford, uniting the two earldoms until the death of the 22nd earl of Crawford (6th earl of Lindsay) in 1808, when the earldom of Lindsay passes to David Lindsay while the earldom of Crawford goes dormant (until 1848); the family seat is Lahill House near Upper Largo, Fife. The Company of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul are founded by St. Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) and St. Louise de Marillac (1591-1660), nursing the poor in their homes; "Having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish chuch, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital." Mission San Luis de Apalachee (de Talimali) in the Fla. panhandle 2 mi. of modern-day Tallahassee, Fla. is built by two Spanish friars. Portuguese Jesuit missionary (since 1609) Cristovao Ferreira (1580-1650) is captured and tortured for five hours until he commits apostasy, and converts to Zen Buddhism, changing his name to Sawano Chuan, then pub. a book titled "The Deception Revealed". Leiden U. Observatory is founded to house the quadrant of Snellius (of Snell's Law fame), and goes on to become the oldest univ. observatory to survive to modern times. A wind sawmill is erected near the Strand in London. The village of Reuil is sold by the Abbey of St. Denis to Cardinal Richelieu, who turns it a magnificent estate. Architecture: Francois Mansart designs the elegant Hotel de la Vrilliere (Hôtel de La Vrillière) in the 1st arrondissement of Paris (finished 1640), which in 1712 becomes the Hotel de Toulouse, the Imprrimerie de la Republiquei n 1795, and the Hotel de la Banque de France in 1811. Nonfiction: Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Les Monde ou Traite (Traite) de la Lumiere (Lumière); on cosmology. Sir Fulke Greville, A Treatie (Treaty) of Humane Learning. Edmund Spenser (1552-99), A View of the Present State of Ireland (posth.). Art: Jacques Callot (1592-1635), Les Grandes Miseres de la Guerre (The Great Miseries of the War); 18 prints showing the horrors of war, incl. pillaging by soldiers and reprisals by the authorities and peasants. Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Equestrian Portrait of Charles I; Queen Henrietta Maria with Sir Jeffrey Hudson. Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post, Mauritshuis, The Hague. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat; sells for £6.27M at Sotheby's in 1998. Le Sueur, Equestrian Statue of Charles I; erected in 1674 on the site of Charing Cross in Westminster. Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), Still Life: Lemons, Oranges, and a Rose; Norton Simon's favorite painting of all time. Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), Devotion to the Cross. Thomas Carew (1594-1640), Coelum Britannicum (masque). Pierre Corneille (1606-84), La Galerie du Palais. John Ford (1586-1640), The Broken Heart; 'Tis Pity She's a Whore (tragedy). Ben Jonson (1572-1637), The Tale of a Tub. Christopher Marlowe (1564-93), The Jew of Malta (tragedy) (posth.). Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Guardian (comedy); pub. in 1655; dirty old man Durazzo of Naples, his nephew Caldoro, and his babe Calista, who goes for Adorio. John Milton (1608-74), Arcades (masque). Poetry: Abraham Cowley (1618-67), Poetical Blossoms; pub. at age 15; contains a poem written at age 10. John Donne (1572-1631), Poems, incl. The Flea (which compares a flea mingling the blood of lovers to sex), The Sun Rising, Song ("Go and catch a falling star,/ Get with child a mandrake root,/ Tell me where all past years are,/ Or who cleft the devil's foot"), A Valediction Forbidding Mourning ("Such wilt thou be to me, who must,/ Like th' other foot, obliquely run;/ Thy firmness makes my circle just,/ And makes me end where I begun"); also Holy Sonnets, incl. Death Be Not Proud (#10). Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650), The Purple Island, or the Isle of Man; his magnum opus, comparing the human veins to rivers, bones to mountains, etc.; incl. "Piscatorie Eclogues and Other Poetical Miscellanies", about boys fishing on the banks of the Cam River. George Herbert (1593-1633), The Temple, or Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations; 160 religious poems by the rector of Bemerton, Wiltshire (1630-3), many of which are turned into popular hymns incl. "King of Glory, King of Peace", "Let All the World in Every Corner Sing", and "Teach Me, My God and King (The Elixir)"; "But since our Saviour's death did put some blood/ Into thy face;/ Thou art grown fair and full of grace,/ Much in request, much sought for as a good"; "But can he want the grape, who hath the wine?/ I have their fruit and more./ Blessed be God, who prosper'd Noah's vine,/ And made it bring forth grapes' good store./ But much more than him I must adore,/ Who of the Laws' sour juice sweet wine did make,/ Ev'n God himself being pressed for my sake." Births: English London diarist and English secy. of the navy Samuel Pepys (d. 1703) (pr. PEEPS) on Feb. 23 in Bampton, London; educated at St. Paul's School, and Magdalene College, Cambridge U. Am. Mass. minister Samuel Whiting Jr. (d. 1713) on Mar. 25; educated at Harvard U. Japanese emperor #110 (1643-54) Go-Komyo (Tsuguhito) (d. 1654) on Apr. 20; 4th son of Go-Mizunoo (1596-1680); brother of Meisho (1624-96). French fortifications expert Marshal Sebastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban (d. 1707) on May 15 in Saint-Leger Vauban (Yonne). French inventor-traveler-scientist Jean de Thevenot (Thévenot) (d. 1667) on June 16 in Paris; educated at the College de Navarre; nephew of Melchisedech Thevenot (1620-92). German duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (1685-1714) Anthony Ulrich (d. 1714) on Oct. 4 in Hitzacker; 2nd son of Augustus the Younger (1579-1666); brother of Rudolph Augustus (1627-1704) and Ferdinand Albert (1636-87). English-Scottish king (1685-8) James II/VII (d. 1701) on Oct. 14 in St. James's Palace, London; 3rd son (2nd surviving son) of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; named after his grandfather James I/VI; at his baptism he is created duke of York and Albany, causing New York state and Albany, N.Y. to later be named after him (plus Jamestown, Va.); he is given a practical scientific education and becomes a cunning, er, skilled linguist; husband of Anne Hyde (1660-71) and Mary of Modena (1673-). Italian librarian-bibliophile-scholar Antonio de Marco Magliabechi (Magliabecchi) (d. 1714) on Oct. 29 in Florence; starts out as a goldsmith until age 40. Italian physician ("the Father of Occupational Medicine") Bernardino Ramazzini (d. 1713) on Nov. 3 in Carpi, Modena; educated at the U. of Parma. Dutch marine painter Willem van de Velde the Younger (d. 1707) on Dec. 18 in Leiden; son and pupil of Willem van de Velde the Elder (1611-93); at his best when portraying Dutch Vs over the English? Deaths: Anglican clergyman (founder of the English Separatists) Robert Browne (b. 1550) on Oct. 7 in Northampton; dies in gaol. Spanish Carmelite nun Marina de Escobar (b. 1554) on June 9 in Valladolid. Italian composer Jacopo Peri (b. 1561) on Aug. 12 in Florence. English archbishop of Canterbury (1611-33) George Abbott (b. 1562) on Aug. 5 in Croydon, London. English sci-fi writer Frances Godwin (b. 1562) in Apr. in Whitbourne, Herefordshire. Chinese writer Xu Guangqi (b. 1562) on Nov. 8 in Beijing. German duke (1572-96) John Casimir of Saxe-Coburg (b. 1564) on July 16 in Coburg. Dutch dribbling submarine inventor Cornelius Drebbel (b. 1572) on Nov. 7 in London. English MP (1601-22) Henry Cary, 1st viscount Falkland (b. 1575) in Sept; dies after breaking a leg in Theobalds Park, requiring it to be amputated; leaves The History of the Most Unfortunate Prince, King Edward II, with Choice Political Observations on Him and His Unhappy Favourites, Gaveston and Spencer (pub. in 1680). French explorer Etienne Brule (b. 1592) (murdered by the Hurons). English poet George Herbert (b. 1593) on Mar. 1 in Bemerton, Wiltshire; "[Herbert composed] such hymns and anthems as he and the angels now sing in heaven." (Izaak Walton)

1634 - The Touche Maryland Oberammergau Year? English Roman Catholics in North America get some?

HRE Ferdinand II (1578-1637) Matthias Gallas, Count of Campo, Duke of Lucera Gallas (1584-1647) Count Gustav Horn of Sweden (1592-1657) Leonard Calvert (1606-47) Thomas Dudley (1576-1653) Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643) Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry (1578-1640) Urbain Grandier (1590-1634) Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) St. Francis of Paola (1416-1507) Franz Xaver Zacherl (1772-1849) Paulaner Brewery Logo 'The Goldfinch' by Carel Fabritius, 1634 'Susanna and the Elders' by Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), 1634

1634 A plague oubreak in Munich this year and next kills 15K of 40K; after it bypasses them, causing villagers to attribute their luck to a vow made to Mary and Jesus, the first passion play is performed in Oberammergau in Bavaria (42 mi. SSW of Munich), and every 10 years thereafter; after it becomes a tourist cash cow, it is held in 1900, 1910, 1922, 1930, 1934 (300th anniv.), 1950, 1960, etc. Early in the year each town in Mass. sends two delegates to Boston, and they demand that Gov. Winthrop produce the colony's charter, which he had never let them see since he claimed that he and not the General Court has the power to pass laws and levy taxes; he relents, and when they find out about his shenanigans they turn the General Court into a representative body, and elect Northampton-born deputy gov. Thomas Dudley (1576-1653) (a stern Puritan, who often differs with tolerant Winthrop) to a 1-year term as Mass. gov. #2 (until 1635) (first of 4x). Bay Colony, beginning when John Winthrop's term elapses in May. Don't do me like that, what if I love ya baby, don't do me like that? On Feb. 24 Albrecht von Wallenstein (b. 1583) is assassinated by some Irish and Scottish officers after HRE Ferdinand II decides he's getting too powerful. On Mar. 4 the first tavern in America is opened in Boston, Mass. by Samuel Cole. On Mar. 25 the Roman Catholic Colony of Maryland (Md.) (named after Queen Henrietta Maria, although they must have snickered about sneaking the Virgin Mary in the back door) is founded on the N shores of Chesapeake Bay by English Catholic settlers led by Lord Baltimore's son Leonard Calvert (1606-47), arriving in the ships Ark and Dove; they buy a native settlement (renamed St. Mary's) from friendly Indians near the mouth of the Potomac River at St. Clement's (now Blakistone) Island; the charter granted by Charles I makes this the first English proprietary colony (owned by an individual, not a joint stock co.); the proprietor is granted powers similar to those of an independent monarch, although the laws must be in accordance with those of England. On June 14 the Treaty of Polianovska (Polianov) is signed, and Wladyslaw IV of Poland renounces his claims to Russia in return for the Smolensk region. On July 29 Sweden promulgates the Instrument of Govt., its first constutition. On Aug. 18 French priest Urbain Grandier (b. 1590) is burned at the stake in Loudun for allegedly seducing an entire convent of Ursuline nuns with the help of the Devil; he had been tried once and acquitted, then publicly insulted Cardinal Richelieu, who got him a more urbane grander trial, where he is tortured into confessing. On Aug. 27 after the Swedes capture Brandenburg, HRE (since Aug. 28, 1619) Ferdinand II (1578-1637), champion of Roman Catholicism and hater of Protestantism names Austrian gen. Matthias Gallas (Matteo Gallasso), Count of Campo, Duke of Lucera Gallas (1584-1647) as his new CIC; on Sept. 5 HRE Ferdinand II (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to a cross-dressing woman with fake facial hair?), with the help of his son Ferdinand of Hungary (later Ferdinand III) wins the Battle of Nordlingen against the Protestant mercenary army of marshal Gustav Horn, Count of Pori (1592-1657), and reconquers Wurttemberg and Franconia, reaching the height of his imperial power, but still unable to quash Protestantism throughout his emptying empire; the Heilbronn Union collapses, and the Protestants of SW Germany turn to Richelieu's France for help; in Oct. the HRE, king of Spain, and the Roman Catholic princes of Germany agree to a joint attack on France. On Sept. 18 Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643) arrives in the Mass. Bay Colony with her merchant hubby and 13 children, and soon begins hosting home meetings where she preaches Antinomianism, the doctrine that salvation is by faith and grace alone, not by observance of moral laws incl. the Law of Moses, and that some Puritan ministers are wrong to preach salvation by works, causing the latter to begin working, er, conspiring against her. In Dec. the HRE, king of Spain, and Roman Catholic princes of Germany agree to jointly attack France, which Louis XIII learns about, causing him to plan a preemptive strike. A Spanish decree declares Havana the "key to the New World and bulwark of the West Indies". Ligdan Khutugtu Khan (b. 1588), the last great Mongol Tumeng ruler of the Northern Yuan Dynasty dies, and Abahai absorbs them, changing the name of his people to Manchus (from Manjusri, bodhisattva of learning), and claiming the S and E portions of their territory as Inner Mongolia. Mirza (Saru) Taqi (-1645) is appointed grand vizier (PM) of Persia, dominating the Safavid govt. Charles I of England attempts to levy ship money, a tax that applies only to ports to all American colonies, stirring tremendous animosity; meanwhile his puppet Sir Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry (1578-1640) (lord keeper since Nov. 1, 125) tries to get it extended to inland counties, "so that they might not be enforced to fight", adding that "wooden walls" of ships are "the best walls of this kingdom". French explorer Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) crosses Lake Michigan and lands at Green Bay (originally La Baie des Puants, "Bay of Stinking Waters") (modern-day pop. 104K/312K), home of the Menominee and Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) people to explore the region; expecting Chinese, he dresses in bright-colored flowery Chinese robes; the city grows up at the mouth of the Fox River 112 mi. N of Milwaukee, Wisc. The Dutch capture the 40 mi. x 10 mi. island of Curacao (Curaçao), 60 mi. NW of Venezuela from the Spanish. The English settle Cochin in Malabar. Covent Garden Market, a wholesale fruit, vegetable market in Nine Elms, London (between Vauxhall and Battersea, South West London) opens, becoming known as "London's Larder". Smoking is outlawed in Russia by Tsar Michael I. Samuel Cole becomes the first person to be licensed in Boston, Mass. to operate a tavern. The Paulaner Brewery is founded in Munich, Bavaria, Germany by the Minim friars of the Neudec on der Au cloister, and named after Paola, Italy-born founder (St.) Francis of Paola "the Fire Handler") (1416-1507); every spring it brews a special strong beer called Holy Father, which is later called Salvator, and on Apr. 2 the elector of Bavaria attends the annual tapping of the first keg and is served the first mug, which is followed by the 8-day Ausschank festive sale of beer; on Feb. 26, 1780 elector Karl Theodor permits the monks to serve beer to the public year-round; the Holy Father Feast of 1799 is attended by the whole court of elector Maximilian IV Joseph, becoming Munich's largest Volkfest to date; later in the year the cloister on Neudeck Strasse is closed and converted into a penitentiary, and the brewery opposite it is appropriated and sold to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 1803; in 1806 Franz Xaver Zacheri (1772-1849) leases it, purchasing it in 1813; in 1820 it becomes one of the six brewers furnishing beer to the annual Oktoberfest; in 1835 it introduces Salvator Doppelbock, followed in 1838 by Schumacher Alt; in spring 1861 the Salvator-Ausschank is moved to the Salvatorkeller in Nockherberg, a small terrace on the E bank of the Isar River in the district of Au in Munich, starting on the Sun. before St. Joseph's Day (Mar. 19), featuring the first Salvator Speech; in 1928 the brewery merges with Gebruder Thomas Brewery; in 1939-50 there is no annual festival, after which the speeches turn into derbleckt or friendly insults of German politicians; in 1994 Paulaner Brewery is acquired by the Kulmbacher brewery group, owned by Heineken and Schorghuber Ventures. Architecture: Boston Common in Boston, Mass. is begun, finding use as a cow pasture, leading to overgrazing, with usage limited to 70 cows at a time until they are officially banned in 1830 by mayor Harrison Gray Otis- so what do we call this area? Sports: The first Gold Cup event in horseracing in Newmarket, London, England is held. A 4-mi. horserace is held at the Curragh in County Kildare, Ireland; the Earl of Ormond's horse defeats Lord Digby's horse; some claim that chariot races were held there as far back as the 3rd cent. C.E. Inventions: Philip White of England patents iron anchor chains for ships, but until the 19th cent. they are considered either too expensive or experimental. Nonfiction: Meric Casaubon (1599-1671), The Meditations of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Geoffrey Keating (1569-1644), The History of Ireland (Foundation of Knowledge on Ireland) (Foras Feasa ar Eirinn); from Creation to the 11th cent. Norman invasion; The Three Shafts of Death; The Key-Shield of the Mass; written in Irish Gaelic, which the English authorities won't permit to be printed, causing them to circulate it in ms. form. Thomas Mouffet, Theatrum Insectorum. William Wood, New England Prospect. Art: Trophime Bigot (1579-1650), St. Laurence Condemned to Torture (Arles); Assumption of the Virgin. Sir Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641), The Lamentation. Carel Fabritius (1622-54), The Goldfinch. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Hymenaios Disguised as a Woman During an Offering to Priapus (1634-8); Priapus' erect penis is covered up by the Spanish royal family, and rediscovered in 2009. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Artemisia; Susanna and the Elders; Portrait of Maerten Soolmans. Georges de La Tour, The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs. Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), The Siege of Cadiz. Music: John Milton (1608-74), On Sept. 29, 1634 (Michaelmas) Cheapside, London-born Cambridge U. grad (1629) John Milton (1608-74) presents Comus: A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634, on Michaelmas Night, before the Right Honorable John, Earl of Bridgewater, Viscount Brackly, Lord President of Wales, and One of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council (masque); presented on Sept. 29 (Michaelmas); about the Lady, who gets lost in the woods and encounters Comus, the god of revelry, who offers to help her find her lost brothers and kidnaps her instead and takes her to his pleasure palace and ties her to an enchanted chair with "gums of glutinous heat", attempting to talk her into doing the wild thing with him, while she fends him off with philosophy; meanwhile her brothers come upon the Attendant Spirit in the form of a shepherd, who rescues her, after which Severn River water nymph Sabrina frees her from the chair; Comus is then saved by Sabrina, nymph of the Severn River. Plays: Juan Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza (1581-1639), Comedias, Vol. 2; incl. Las Paredes Oyen, Todo es Ventura. Pierre Corneille (1606-84), La Veuve (comedy); La Suivante (comedy). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Wits (comedy); Love and Honour (tragicomedy). John Ford (1586-1640), The Chronicle History of Perkin Warbeck (historical drama). John Ford (1586-1640) and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), The Fairy Knight; The Bristowe Merchant. Jean Mairet (1604-86), Sophonisbe; first classical French tragedy, based on the three unities. John Milton (1608-74), Comus (masque praising chastity); Comus is a young Greek-Roman god of festivity and revelry. Novels: Giovanni Battista Basile (1575-1632), The Pentamerone (Tale of Tales) (Cunta de la Cunti) (1634-6); 10 women tell a prince 50 tales over five days; first description of Cinderella, Rapunzel, and Snow White. Births: German composer Adam Krieger (d. 1666) on Jan. 7 in Drisen, Neumark. Dutch Baroque painter Nicolaes Maes (Maas) (d. 1693) in Jan. in Dordrecht. French "The Princess of Cleves" novelist Madame de La Fayette (Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, Comtesse de La Fayette) (d. 1693) on Mar. 18 in Paris. Italian duke of Savoy (1638-75) Charles Emmanuel II (d. 1675) on June 20 in Turin; son of Victor Amadeus I (1587-1637) and Christine Marie (1606-63). British vice-adm. Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory (d. 1680) on July 8 in Kilkenny, Ireland; eldest son of James Butler, 1st duke of Ormonde (1610-88). Turkish grand vizier (1676-83) Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa (Mustapha) Pasha (d. 1683) near Merzifon; son of Uruc Hasan Bey; adopted by the Koprulu family as a child, rising to cmdr. of the Ottoman Grand Fleet in the Aegean by 1663. English writer (vegetarian) Thomas Tryon (d. 1703) on Sept. 6 in Bibury (near Circencester), Gloucestershire. Italian late Baroque painter Luca Giordano (d. 1705) on Oct. 18 in Naples; pupil of Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652); known as "Fa Presto" (It. "hurry up") from either his speed or his greedy daddy whining to hurry up and make some more. Russian theologian Mikola Mandelstahm (d. 1681). German botanist-physician Paul Amman (d. 1691) in Breslau; educated at the U. of Leipzig. French architect Francois d'Orbay (d. 1697) in Paris. Deaths: Englist jurist Sir Edward Coke (b. 1552) on Sept. 3: "The house of every one is to him his castle and his fortress" - things go better with Coke? English writer-poet George Chapman (b. 1559). German surgeon Wilhelm Fabry (b. 1560) on Feb. 15 in Bern, Switzerland. Paraguayan-born Spanish gov. of Rio de la Plata (1597-9) and Paraguay (1615-17) Hernando Arias de Saavedra (b. 1561) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Italian composer-organist-poet Adriano Banchieri (b. 1568) in Bologna. German publisher Johann Carolus (b. 1575). English satirist-dramatist John Marston (b. 1576). English jurist William Noy (b. 1577) on Aug. 9 in London (kidney stones). Ukrainian divine Meleci Smatrycki (b. 1578). Austrian gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein (b. 1583) on Feb. 24 (assassinated). Mongol khan (1603-34) Ligdan Khan (b. 1588) in Sira Tala, Gansu. Italian chess player Gioacchino Greco (b. 1600); leaves The Royal Game of Chess-play.

1635 - The Peace of Prague Year?

Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-82) Anne Genevieve of Bourbon-Condé, Duchess of Longueville (1619-79) Henri II d'Orleans, Duc de Longueville (1595-1663) Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1579-1666) Francois de La Rochefoucauld (1613-80) Roger Williams (1603-83) 'The Bitter Draught' by Adriaen Brouwer, 1635 'Music-Playing Peasants' by Adriaen Brouwer, 1635 'Peasants in a Tavern' by Adrien van Ostade (1610-85), 1635 'Judgment of Paris' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1635

1635 In Jan. the Divine Tragedy sees eight young men skating on a prohibited holy day (Sun.) drowned in Gainsborough; the harsh winter brings 20-ft. snowdrifts. On Feb. 13 the Boston Public Latin School (English High and Latin School), the first public secondary school in the U.S. (Ben Franklin's alma mater) is founded. On Feb. 22 the super-elite Academie Francaise is founded in Paris by Cardinal Richelieu to preserve the purity of the French language - and I looked around me and there were all these shapes being sucked into the flames? In Feb. French minister Cardinal Richelieu supplies the Dutch with 20K men, cuts off the Valtellina in Mar., then declares war on the Spanish Hapsburgs on May 19 after the latter march into French-protected (since 1631) Trier and capture the elector archbishop, freaking him out abut French territory being surrounded by Hapsburg territories, reviving the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628-31) and launching the Franco-Spanish War (ends Nov. 7, 1659). On Apr. 18 fearful of Germany, Cardinal Richelieu of France and Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden sign the Treaty of Compiegne in Paris. On May 30 the Peace of Prague, negotiated by HRE Ferdinand II and elector Johann George I of Saxony is signed by most of the German Protestant states, who are satisfied with the terms of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg being reestablished as on Nov. 12, 1627 in return for agreeing that states of the HRE can no longer make formal alliances, that their armies are to be unified under the HRE, and all princes are to be granted amnesty except pesky Frederick V; the Thirty Years' War is now reduced to France and Sweden vs. the Hapsburgs; Johann George I is given Lusatia, and his son Augustus is allowed to keep the archbishopric of Magdeburg, after which he flops and declares war on Sweden. On May 10 William Claiborne and his Kent Island settlers get in a naval battle with Sir George Calvert's Maryland settlers in Pocomoke Sound, and after three Virginians are killed, Claiborne is defeated, and Va. gov. John Harvey reins him in under orders from England, but Claiborne's supporters get him ousted, and the battle continues until 1638, when Claiborne loses his appeal in England, and gets another charter for Ruatan Island off the coast of Honduras, which is taken over by the Spanish in 1642, causing him to go back to plotting to get Kent Island. On June 28 the French colony of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean (300 mi. SE of Puerto Rico) is established. On July 31 after recommendations by new postmaster (since 1632) Thomas Witherings (-1651), Charles I issues a proclamation making the royal postal service available to the public, and establishing the first inland postal service in Britain between London and Edinburgh, leading to the creation of the British Post Office in 1660. In July France signs an agreement with Savoy, Parma, and Mantua for a joint campaign in N Italy; the high taxes the French raise for the war make Richelieu unpopular. On Aug. 24-25 the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 brushes Jamestown, Va. before hitting SE New England incl. Mass Bay Colony and R.I., creating 14-20-ft. storm surges, destroying thousands of trees and many houses, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since colonization; the small barque Watch and Wait of Isaac Allerton founders off Cape Ann killing 21 of 23 aboard, later becoming the subject of John Greenleaf Whittier's poem "The Swan Song of Parson Avery"; Boston is spared the high tides, which sweep over Dorchester. On Sept. 12 the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf (Sztumska Wies) strikes 26.5-year truce between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania; Sweden give up its share in the Danzig customs to help Danzig recoup its 10M guilder loss in the war. In Oct. after questioning the right of the king to grant land to the colony without first buying it from the natives, pissing them off, London-born Puritan immigrant (since Feb. 5, 1631) Roger Williams (1603-83) is banished from the Mass. Colony by the gen. court in Boston for his "new and dangerous ideas" incl. separation from the Church of England, complete separation of church and state, and freedom from coercion in matters of faith; "When they have opened a gap in the hedge or wall of separation between the garden of the church and the wilderness of the world, God hath ever broke down the wall itself, removed the candlestick, and made His garden a wilderness, as at this day." The Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye (near Paris) provides for regular French subsidies to the army of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. The Franco-Spanish War of 1635 (ends 1659) sees Cardinal Richelieu of France declare war on Spain because its territory is surrounded by Hapsburg territories and it needs to break out, plus the 1634 Battle of Nordlingen led to many of Protestant Sweden's allies defecting to the Hapsburg side, and he wants France to help it stay in the fight. Peter Stuyvesant becomes Dutch gov. of Curacao in the West Indies. Edward Winslow visits England as an agent for Plymouth Colony, and is imprisoned for several mo. by Archbishop William Laud on charges of offenses against the Anglican Church. Augustus the Younger (1579-1666) becomes duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (Brunswick-Lüneburg), who last ruler died last year; because of the Thirty Years' War he can't move into his residence in Wolfenbuttel until 1644, going on to found the Bibliotheca Augusta. The Great Conde's beautiful sister Anne Genevieve (Geneviève) of Bourbon (1619-79) enters Parisian society, becoming a star at the Hotel de Rambouillet, known as "the goddess of Peace and Concord", going on to back the Fronde; too bad, in 1642 she marries old fart Henri II d'Orleans, Duc de Longueville (1595-1663), gov. of Normandy, and in 1645 when he proves too old to cut the mustard, she begins hooking up with handsome witty "Maxims" author Francois de La Rochefoucauld (1613-80) (frankly won't you what hard?), making him into a Frondeur, after which he ends up gravely wounded in 1652, while she ends up going Jansenist and retiring to a Carmelite convent. William Alexander (1567-1640), earl of Stirling receives a land grant for Long Island. John Winthrop the Younger (Jr.) (1606-76), son of Mass. gov. John Winthrop founds Saybrook Colony at the mouth of the Connecticut River, naming it after Lord Saye and Sele and Lord Brooke, who hold the land grant from the Council of New England; it merges with Conn. Colony in 1644; Windsor, Conn. (originally Dorchester) is settled by religious refugees from Dorchester, Mass.; the Council of New England is dissolved. The first legislative assembly meets in Md. Anthony Johnson (1600-70), who was captured by an enemy tribe in Angola and sold to Arab slave traders, ending up in Va. in 1621 as an indentured servant gains his freedom, going on to become the first black slaveholder in North Am. After Canterbury archbishop William Laud forbids him from preaching, English Puitan minister Thomas Shepard (1605-49) emigrates to Mass., becoming pastor of the First Church in Cambridge, and later Harvard College, which is sited in Newtone (Cambridge), Mass. because of him. Abd al-Karim leads an army of Maba and other small groups E from Lake Chad to conquer the Tunjurs, becoming the first kolak (sultan) of the Muslim Wadai (Ouaddai) Empire, with capital at Abeche (Abéché), an offshoot of the Sultanate of Darfur NE of the Kingdom of Baguirmi, going on to resist the French until 1912, when it is incorporated into the Repub. of Chad. Jesuit Father Jean de Brebeuf enlightens Euros about the Hurons with his Huron Relation. 6'4" multilingual art-and-math-savvy Prague-born Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-82), nephew of Charles I of England, fresh from fighting alongside Prince Frederick Henry of Orange in the 1633 Siege of Rheinberg and having outgrowing his bad boy "Robert the Devil" childhood moves to the English court - call me Mister Bojangles? Ft. Orange, the first permanent Dutch settlement in New York is established in Albany. The Spanish fort of Zamboanga is established on Mindanao in the S Philippines, causing Magindanao and Sulu to fight with Spain for dominance in the region; it is abandoned in 1663. Spanish slave ships from Nigeria sink off the coast of St. Vincent; the survivors intermarry with the native Caribs, creating the Black Caribs. The island of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles (Windward Islands) 400 mi. NE of Venezuela is claimed by France, and owned by a private French co. established to colonize America (until 1674). Concord, Mass. is founded, later becoming the birthplace of the Minutemen. Barbary pirate Murad Reis is captured by the Knights of Malta off the Tunisian coast, then imprisoned and tortured (until 1640). Roman Catholic missionaries arrive in Senegal. Jesuit Budapest U. is founded in Nagyszombat (modern-day Trnava, Slovaka). A 3 mph speed limit on hackney coaches is established in London. Sales of tobacco in France are limited to apothecaries, and only on doctors' prescriptions. The flintlock gun is developed, replacing the dangerous wheel-lock with pyrites or a burning match (until c. 1850). Pedro Calderon de la Barca becomes head of the Royal Theater in Madrid. Architecture: Francois Mansart designs the W wing of the Chateau Blois; too bad, refurbishing efforts are abandoned on the death of its owner Gaston d'Orleans in 1660. Music: Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), Fiori Musicali di Toccate; later influences J.S. Bach. Art: Adriaen Brouwer (1605-38), The Bitter Draught; Music-Playing Peasants. Philippe de Champaigne, Portrait of Richelieu. Sir Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641), Portrait of Charles I Hunting; the one he pays only half the asking price for; The Children of Charles I; George Villiers, 2nd Earl of Arundel with His Brother Lord Francis Villiers. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and His Grandson Lord Maltravers. Laurent de La Hyre (1606-56), St. Peter Healing the Sick. Adriaen van Ostade (1610-85), Peasants in a Tavern. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Kingdom of Flora; Seven Sacraments (1st series) (1635-9); painted for Cassiano del Pozzo, then sold to the dukes of Rutland in 1784. Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Judgment of Paris. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Minerva in Her Study; Self-Portrait with Saskia (etching) (his well-off life with her now, although he dies broke). Gerard Terborch (1617-81), Consultation; his first dated picture, showing the influence of Frans Hals; The Knife-Grinder's Family; Boy with a Dog; Portrait of William III of England. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), The Surrender of Breda (The Lances); Portrait of Pablo de Valladolid (Philip IV's court fool). Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), St. Veronica's Kerchief. Nonfiction: Giulio Alenio (1582-1649), Life of Christ; the first life of Christ in Chinese, by an Italian Jesuit - of course no beard? Lord Baltimore, A Relation of Maryland. Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82), Religio-Medici. Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), Mars Gallus (anti-Richelieu). Matthieu Laensbergh, Almanach Liegeois; a hit in France; too bad, it returns to making prophecies, pissing-off Louis XIII, which only makes it more popular? Francis Quarles (1592-1644), Emblems. Scottish Psalter of 1635. Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), Secret Vengeance for Secret Insult; La Vida es Sueno (Sueño). Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Medee (first tragedy). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Temple of Love (masque); News from Plymouth (comedy); The Platonick Lovers (comedy). Thomas Heywood (1586-1641), Hierarchie of Blessed Angels. Cretan poet Vitzentsos Kornaros, The Sacrifice of Abraham; the first mystery drama in modern Greek. Births: German theologian ("the Father of Pietism") Philipp Jakob (Jacob) Spener (d. 1705) on Jan. 13 in Rappoltsweiler, Upper Alsace; educated at Strasbourg U. Italian Mannerist portraitist Alessandro di Cristofano di Lorenzo del Bronzino Allori (d. 1607) on May 3 in Florence; father of Cristofano Allori (1577-1621). English dramatist-librettist Philippe Quinault (d. 1688) on June 3 in Paris. English physician-physicist-astronomer-biologist-architect-inventor ("England's Leonardo da Vinci") (greatest inventor of all time?) Robert Hooke (d. 1703) on July 18 in Freshwater, Isle of Wight; educated at Westminster School, and Oxford U.; inventor of the compound microscope, the universal joint, the iris diaphragm, the spring control in the balance wheel of watches, and an air pump; discoverer of Hooke's Law of Elasticity; coiner of the term "cell". Hungarian Magyar composer and palatine prince (1681-1713) field marshal Paul (Pal) I Esterhazy of Galantha (Paul Fürst Esterházy von Galantha) (d. 1713) on Sept. 7 in Kismarton, Hungary (modern-day Eisenstadt, Austria). English princess Elizabeth Stewart (Stuart) (d. 1650) on Dec. 29 in St. James Place, London; 2nd daughter of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. Turkish Ottoman grand vizier (1661-76) Fazil Ahmed Pasha (d. 1676) in Veles (Koprulu), Macedonia; member of the Koprulu family from Albania. French Hotel des Invalides architect Liberal (Libéral) Bruant (d. 1697). French royal mistress (secret 2nd wife of Louis XIV) Francoise d'Aubigne (d'Aubigné), Marquise de Maintenon (d. 1703) (AKA Madame Scarron) on Nov. 27/28 in Niort; daughter of Huguenot suspected English agent Constant d'Aubigne (1584-1647) and a Roman Catholic mother; granddaughter of gen. Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne (1552-1630); brought up Roman Catholic, is converted to Protestantism by her sister-in-law Madame de Villette, then reconverted by her godmother Comtesse de Neuillant, and becomes quite devout. English biologist Francis Willughby (d. 1672). Welsh rum-swigging buccaneer and Jamaican lt.-gov. adm. Sir Henry Morgan (d. 1688) in Glamorgan, Wales. English Restoration comedic dramatist Sir George Etherege (d. 1691) in Maidenhead, Berkshire; knighted in 1680; inventor of the English fop-filled comedy of social life. English Anglican colonial gov. of Penn. (1681-99) William Markham (d. 1704); 1st cousin of William Penn. English actor-dramatist Thomas Betterton (d. 1710) in London; son of an undercook to Charles I. Deaths: English longevity champ Old Tom Parr (b. 1483) on Nov. 14; dies a nat. hero; buried in Westminster Abbey; lived through 10 English monarchs. Spanish playwright Lope de Vega (b. 1562) on Aug. 27 in Madrid; leaves son Fernando by Pellicer in 1599, daughter Marcela and son Lope Felix by actress Micaela de Lujan, plus several other children; leaves 3K sonnets, 3 novels, 4 novellas, 9 epic poems, and 1.8K plays, incl. 80 masterpieces. English adventurer Sir Anthony Shirley (b. 1565) in Madrid. Italian poet Alessandro Tassoni (b. 1565) on Apr. 25 in Modena. French explorer (founder of Quebec) Samuel de Champlain (b. 1567) on Dec. 25 in Quebec. Lebanese prince Fakhr al-Din II (b. 1572) on Apr. 13 in Constantinople (executed). Neapolitan painter Giovanni Battista Caracciolo (b. 1578). German mathematician and "cossist" (algebraist) Johann Faulhaber (b. 1580). English playwright John Webster (b. 1580) in London. English "Three Blind Mice" composer Thomas Ravenscroft (b. 1582); leaves A Treatise of Music. German composer Melchior Teschner (b. 1584) on Dec. 1. English New Hampshire founder John Mason (b. 1586). German Jesuit poet Friedrich von Spee (b. 1591) on Aug. 7 in Trier; leaves Golden Book of Virtues (Goldenes Tugendbuch), and Truznachtigall: "Often I have thought that the only reason we are all not wizards is due to the fact we have not all been tortured." French etcher Jacques Callot (b. 1592) in Nancy. English poet Thomas Randolph (b. 1605) in Mar.; leaves the titillating On Sixe Cambridge Lasses Bathinge Themselfes By Queenes Colledge. German poet Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein (d. 1683). French dramatist Philippe Quinault (b. 1688).

1636 - Go out there and enjoy your Thirty Years' War? Harvard equals Plymouth Rock Plus 16?

HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57) Swedish Field Marshal Johan Banér (1596-1641) Roger Williams (1603-83) Canonicus (1565-1647 Sir Henry Vane the Younger (1613-62) St. Isaac Jogues (1607-46) Henrique Dias (1605-62) Tristan l'Hermite (1601-55) Marguerite de la Sablière (1640-93) Duchesse d'Aiguillon (1604-75) Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-69) 'Danae' by Rembrandt, 1636 'The Fall of Icarus' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1636 'The Massacre of the Innocents II' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1636-8

1636 On Jan. 11 the minor hassle Battle of Haselunne (Haselünne) between the Swedish and Hapsburg armies sees field marshal Baron Dodo zu Innhausen und Knyphausen (b. 1583) get KIA. On Mar. 20 Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden scores a brilliant coup when he negotiates the Treaty of Wismar with France (signed in Wismar and Mecklenburg), gaining French aid against the Hapsburgs without major concessions on his part, with the France to attack on the left bank of the Rhine River and the Swedes in Silesia and Bohemia. On Mar. 26 Utrecht U. in the Netherlands is founded; the motto is "Sol lustitiae Illustra Nos" (Sun of Justice, shine upon us) (Malachi 4:2). In Mar. London bishop (1633-49) William Juxon becomes lord high treasurer (until May 1641) and first lord of the admiralty - no problemo with church-state separation in Merry Olde England? On May 30 Upper and Lower Lausitz are ceded, and Saxony becomes Ferdinand II's ally; the Spanish under Prince Octavio Piccolomini attack N France from the Netherlands in July, and are stopped at Liege by the French army, which dissolves; a 60K-man imperial (Austrian-Spanish-Bavarian) army under Matthias Gallas enters France through Burgundy and is stopped 50 mi. from Paris at St. Jean de Losne (Saint-Jean-de-Losne) on Aug. 8, and recalled; England is officially at war with Spain, but hasn't committed any troops in almost 10 years; Bernhard, duke of Saxe Weimar is forced to retreat across the Rhine, leaving S and C Germany exposed to Hapsburg attack, leading to the fall of Augsburg and other towns along the Rhine River near the Swiss border to HRE Ferdinand II's armies. On May 31 King Iskandar Muda of Indonesia dies, and is succeeded next year by his son Iskandar (Iskander) II (until 1641). Three whole towns walk out of Mass. over the right of self-government? In June after elitist Gov. Winthrop fails to mellow out and broaden the voter base, and English-born Puritan minister Thomas Hooker (1586-1647) tells him, "I must confess, I ever looked at it as a way which leads to tyranny and so to confusion, and must plainly profess, if it was in my liberty, I should choose neither to live, nor leave my posterity, under such a government", he leads his 100-person Newtown (Cambridge) congregation along with congregations from Watertown and Dorchester (800 total) on a trek W along the Great Road, moving into the Connecticut River towns of Wethersfield, Conn., Windsor, Conn., and Hartford, Conn. by next May; a 4th group from Roxbury led by William Pynchon founds Springfield, Conn. on the N side of Enfield Falls at a point which forces all N river trade through the new town, which becomes the first settlement in Mass. for non-religious reasons; the original name is Agawam Plantation; they found it on land purchased on both sides of the Connecticut River from 18 aborigines living in a palisade fort on modern-day Longhill St., paying 18 fathoms of wampum, 18 hoes, 18 coats, 18 hatches, and 18 knives. On July 4 after being granted Rhode Island by Narragansett chief Canonicus (1565-1647), London-born Puritan Roger Williams (1603-83) and his Narragansett Indian followers found the town of Providence, R.I. at the head of Narragansett Bay as a refuge for religious dissidents, and proclaim complete religious freedom - as long as you aren't an atheist? On Sept. 24 (Oct. 4 Old Style) the Swedes under field marshal Johan Baner (Banér) (1596-1641) stunningly outwit and defeat the combined imperial-Saxon army at the Battle of Wittstock, and turn the tide of the war, after which poor Saxony is ravaged by Protestants instead of Roman Catholics, leaving little worth looting; on Dec. 22 ailing HRE Ferdinand II has his son Archduke Ferdinand elected HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57) (until 1657). On Oct. 4 after Edward Winslow returns and is elected gov. for the 2nd time, the Plymouth Colony drafts its first law - how laudable? Take me to the river, drop me in the water? By this year the following offenses are capital crimes in the Mass. Bay Colony, the Puritan paradise: adultery, assault, blasphemy, idolatry, man-stealing, murder, perjury in a capital trial, rape (incl. statutory), rebellion, sodomy, witchcraft; other colonies later add arson, counterfeiting, horse theft, piracy, robbery, and slave rebellion. On Oct. 28 Cambridge (later Harvard) College is established by vote of the Great and General Court of the Mass. Bay Colony on the banks of the Charles River, with Nathaniel Eaton as pres. #1, becoming the first Protestant (Christian) higher ed. institution in the U.S.; a tall stockade keeps out wolves and Indians; motto "Christo et Ecclesiae" (For Christ and Church), later changed to "Veritas" (Truth). On Nov. 17 ex-African slave Henrique Dias (1605-62) wins a V against the Dutch in Brazil. Sir Henry Vane the Younger (1613-62) is elected to a single term as gov. of Mass. Bay Colony (until 1637). French Jesuit (since 1624) (St.) Isaac Jogues (1607-46) goes to Canada as missionary to the Huron people, moving on to the Tobacco Nation in 1639 and the Algonquins in 1641. The mucky clear new Ching Dynasty in China is their last? The Manchu clan Aisin Gioro ("Gold Clan") under Abahai of the Later Jin (Chin. "Gold") Dynasty (founded 1616) proclaim the Qing (Ch'ing) (Xing) (Chin. "clear, pellucid") Dynasty in NE China (Manchuria) at Mukden (ends 1911), going on to capture Peking in 1644 and take over the rest of China by 1683; after Emperor Tai Zong demands that Korea accept vassal status and Injo says stuff it, the Manchus invade and make Korea a vassal state; the Ming Dynasty is now in full cookie crumble mode, and the Qins consolidate their position and attack S of the Great Wall when in the mood and the weather permits? The Dutch settle in Ceylon. The Dutch claim the island of Aruba off the coast of Venezuela. The site of Brooklyn in New Amsterdam is first settled by the Dutch and Walloons along Gowanus, Jamaica, and Wallabout Bays this year and next. Brainy Henry Adams settles in Braintree, Mass. and plants his tree. A wall is built around Veracruz, Mexico. Glasgow, Scotland becomes a free royal burgh. Archbishop William Laud prepares the Laudian Code of Statutes for Oxford U., which are adopted until 1854. According to police commissioner Delamarre, tea is introduced in Paris. Nonfiction: Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), Atheismus Triumphatus. Sir John Hayward (1560-1627), Certain Yeres of Queen Elizabeth's Raigne (posth.); flatters the bitch even though she had him imprisoned? Peter Heylyn, The History of the Sabbath. Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), Harmonie Universelle; describes contemporary musical instruments. George Sandys (1578-1644), A Paraphrase Upon the Psalmes. Music: Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Kleine Geistliche Concerten (motets). Art: Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Charles I From Three Angles; Portrait of Charles I. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Rape of the Sabine Women (1636-7). Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of an 83-y.-o. Woman; The Blinding of Samson; Danae. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Massacre of the Innocents II (1636-8); The Fall of Icarus. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Prince Baltasar Carlos as a Hunter. Plays: Pierre Corneille (1606-84), L'Illusion Comique; Le Cid (Arabic "The Lord") (Jan.) (Theatre du Marais, Paris); based on a 1599 play by Guillem de Castro y Bellvis of Spain; Corneille starts out under the patronage of Cardinal Richelieu, then offends him by criticizing his writing, causing a flip-flop, and the cardinal's Academie Francise criticize it to please Richelieu, although it is a popular success; Marie Madeleine de Vignerot du Pont de Courlay, Duchesse d'Aiguillon (1604-75), daughter of the cardinal's sister Francoise du Plessis becomes his patron instead, and he dedicates "Le Cid" to her. Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Triumphs of the Prince D'Amour. Tristan l'Hermite (1601-55), Marianne (first play); his masterpiece? Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Bashful Lover (tragicomedy). Poetry: Abraham Cowley (1618-67), Poetical Blossoms. Births: Dutch naturalist and Dutch East India Co. gov. of Dutch Malabar (1669-76) Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Drakenstein (d. 1691) on Apr. 13 in Amsterdam. German duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (1635-87) Ferdinand Albert (Albrecht) (d. 1687) on May 22 in Brunswick; 3rd son of Duke Augustus the Younger (1579-1666); brother of Anthony Ulrich (1633-1714) and Rudolph Augustus (1627-1704). French painter Charles de La Fosse (d. 1716) on June 15 in Paris; pupil of Charles Le Brun. English Orientalist writer Thomas Hyde (d. 1703) on June 29 in Billingsley (near Bridgnorth), Shropshire; educated at Eton College, King's College, Cambridge U., and Queen's College, Oxford U.; coins the word "dualism" in 1700. Italian composer Pietro Sammartini (d. 1701) on Sept. 18. English merchant-slave trader Edward Colston (d. 1721) on Nov. 2 in Bristol. Bavarian Wittelsbach elector (1651-79) Ferdinand Maria (d. 1679) on Oct. 31 in Munich; eldest son of Maximilian I and 2nd wife Maria Anna of Austria (daughter of HRE Ferdinand II); husband of Henriette Adelaide of Savoy (1636-76); father of Maximilian II Emanuel (1662-1726). French poet-critic-historian ("the Lawgiver of Parnassus") Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux (Boileau-Despréaux) (d. 1711) on Nov. 1 in Paris; educated at the College de Beauvais, and the Sorbonne; establishes the principles of French classic lit. English "Centuries of Meditations" Anglican metaphysical poet-divine Thomas Traherne (d. 1674) (b. 1637?) in Hereford. English "The Vanity of Dogmatizing" clergyman-philosopher Joseph Glanvill (d. 1680). Dutch Baroque painter Melchior d'Hondecoeter (d. 1695) in Utrecht; nephew of Jan Baptist Weenix; likes to paint exotic birds. British N.Y. Province gov. #12 (1698-1701) Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont (Bellamont) (d. 1701) in Ireland. French musician-dancer-choreographer Pierre Beauchamp (d. 1705). French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur Duluth (Du Lhut) (d. 1710). French explorer Pierre-Esprit Radisson (d. 1710) in Avignon (Paris?). Deaths: Flemish painter Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (b. 1561). Italian medical professor (at Padua) Santorio Santorii (Santorio) (b. 1561). Japanese warlord Date Masamune (b. 1567) on June 27 in Sendai. German horticulturist Gervase Markham (b. 1568). English Puritan divine Rev. "Roaring John" Rogers (b. 1572) on Oct. 18. German soldier Dodo von Knyphausen (b. 1583) on Jan. 11 in Haselunne (KIA). Indonesian Aceh Darussalam sultan (1607-36) Iskanadar Muda (b. 1583) on Dec. 27.

1637 - The I Think Therefore I Am Descartes Dutch Tulipmania Prayer Book in the Face Flying Greek Year? In North America the invading English tell the uppity Injuns to Pequot or we'll shock and awe you?

The 1637 Stonington Massacre Christine Marie of France (1601-66) Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (1632-8) Sir Fernando Gorges (1565-1647) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) William Prynne (1600-69) Henry Burton (1578-1648) John Bastwick (1593-1654) Sir William Davenant (1606-68) Pierre de Fermat (1607-65) John Hampden (1594-1643) Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654) Hezarfen Ahmed Celebi, Nov. 8, 1637

1637 On Feb. 15 HRE (since 1619) Ferdinand II (b. 1578) dies in Vienna; by June the Swedes are pressed back to the German Baltic coast. In Apr. settlers from Saugus, Mass. with permission of the Plymouth Colony found the nearby town of Sandwich, Mass. on the NW part of the hook, named after the seaport of Sandwich in Kent, England; its motto is "Post tot Naufracia Portus" (After so many shipwrecks, a haven); in 1639 it is incorporated, becoming the oldest town on Cape Cod; in 1884 the W part separates and becomes the town of Bourne. In May the English settlers of Connecticut meet to organize a self-governing colony and deal with the pesky local tribe (which has shrunk from 8K in 1621 to 1.5K from whitey's diseases) of the Pequots after they attack Wethersfield; on May 26 with help from Mass. troops commanded by Israel Stoughton they burn the chief Pequot town-fort on the Mystic River near Stonington, Conn., and massacre 400, selling the rest into slavery and ending the tribe's existence (the first major New World English-Indian clash?); they then declare a Day of Thanksgiving - the first English act of genocide? In May religious Dissenter Sir Henry Vane the Younger loses reelection as gov. of Mass. Bay Colony, and returns to England in Aug., where he becomes "America's first revolutionary". On June 30 English king Charles I's Star Chamber cruelly punishes (pillories and mutilates) pesky Puritan parliamentarian William Prynne (1600-69), along with Puritans Henry Burton (1578-1648) and physician John Bastwick (1593-1654) for pub. seditious lit. against Archbishop Laud, and decrees that there shall be just four typefaces used by pure Anglican printers. On July 23 Charles I hands over the Mass. Colony to wealthy English businessman Sir Fernando Gorges (1565-1647), one of the founders of the (Plymouth) Council of (for) New England. The first stool pigeon? On July 23 (Sun.) the new Scottish Book of Common Prayer is imposed by English king Charles I; considered crypto-Roman Catholic by Protestants, it creates social unrest and disorder in Scotland, incl. an orchestrated riot at St. Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh (John Knox's church from 1559-72), where Jenny Geddes throws a fold-up stool at Edinburgh dean James Hannay in protest, and others throw Bibles and pound on the windows; the book is never used in Scotland, but it forms the basis for the future Am. Prayer Book, and ends up costing unyielding Charles I his head. On Aug. 6 >Ben Jonson (b. 1572) dies, and Sir William Davenant (1606-68), godfather of William Shakespeare becomes poet laureate of increasingly unmerry England, becoming a supporter of Charles I and getting knighted in 1643. On Oct. 7 Victor Amadeus I (b. 1587) dies, and his wife Christine Marie (1606-63) (daughter of Henry IV of France) becomes regent for her infant son Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (1632-38) (until 1638). On Oct. 12 1,637-ton 100-gun HMS Sovereign of the Seas, built by Peter Pett is launched from Woolwick Dockyard, England, becoming the largest ship in the world. On Nov. 6-7 pregnant Anne Hutchinson is hauled before the Gen. Court chaired by Gov. John Winthrop, and quizzed on her beliefs; when she finally claims direct divine inspiration, the "woman of haughty and fierce carriage" convicts herself in their eyes of blasphemy? - I've read that before in the Gospels? On Nov. 8 after being inspired by sketches by Leonardo da Vinci, Greek man Arsenios Tselepis from Constantinople becomes the first man to fly using wings, taking off from the Galata Tower and landing in Dogancilar Square 2 mi. away; the Turks try a coverup, claiming he's a Muslim with the name Hezarfen ("expert in a thousand sciences") Ahmed Celebi. On Nov. 20 Peter Minuit sails to Delaware with Dutch and Swiss immigrants. Shiver me timbers? On Dec. 11 an uprising breaks out in Hara Castle in Shimbara, Nagasaki Prefecture, and on Dec. 17 the Japanese govt. sends 125K troops to quell the the Roman Catholic Shimbara Rebellion, Christianity is exterminated from Japan, and all foreign books and contact with Europeans are prohibited; the Kakure Kirishitan (hidden Christian) period begins, during which Japanese Christians have to go underground until 1853. The Dutch under Frederick Henry of Orange recapture Breda. Prince Rupert begins serving in the Thirty Years' War against the imperialists (until 1638). English Puritan anti-royalist MP John Hampden (1594-1643) (Oliver Cromwell's cousin) refuses to pay Charles I's "ship money", and is tried and convicted despite an eloquent defense, making Charles I's top-10 enemies list; the case establishes the principle that there can be no secret communications between lawyers and the court in legal proceedings. Grison leader George Jenatsch turns Roman Catholic in the interest of patriotism to get Austrian aid, then drives the French out of the Valtellina. Franciscan lay brother Father Domingo de Brieva and Father Andres de Toledo begin exploring the Guina Highlands N of the Amazon River and E of Rio Negro (until 1638). The town of Carlisle ("merrie Carlisle") on the W end of the border between England and Scotland S of Hadrian's Wall is granted a charter by Charles I. Veera Kerala Varma dies, and Goda Varma I (d. 1645) becomes ruler of Cochin (until 1645). Am I comparing apples to oranges, or roses to kumquats? After Tulipomania in Holland, fed by the creation of a wide variety of new bulbs causes tulip trading on the Amsterdam and Rotterdam stock markets to become subject to speculation (the Semper Augustus tulip goes for up to 6K guilders), the tulip market collapses, and the States of Holland pass a statute enforcing economic controls. The Swiss Anabaptist Persecution rages in Zurich and elsewhere. Sweden passes a law ordering all gypsies to be executed without trial. King Louis XIII becomes a snuff lover and repeals restrictions on its use; meanwhile his physician Theophraste Renaudot opens the Mont-de-Piete, the first pawnshop in Paris, and is appointed "gen. overseer of the poor" by Cardinal Richelieu, initiating free medical consultations by 1640. The first public opera house, Teatre San Cassiano (sponsored by the Tron family) opens in Vienna, causing Claudio Monteverdi to come out of retirement. Rev. Timothy Dalton (1577-1661) comes to Hampton, N.H. Russian explorers reach the Pacific coast of Siberia. The Dutch expel the Portuguese from the Gold Cast. English traders establish themselves in Canton. French traders settle at St. Louis at the mouth of the Senegal River in NW Senegal. English emigration to British North Am. is restricted by royal proclamation. Johann Valentin Andreae (Johannes Valentinus Andrea) (1586-1654) succeeds Robert Fludd as grandmaster of the Priory of Sion (until 1654) :). The first authoritatively recorded brewery in the Mass. Bay Colony is run by Capt. ? Sedgwick. Nonfiction: Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Discourse on Method (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences (Discours de la Methode pour bien Conduire sa Raison, et Chercher le Verite dans les Sciences); an epoch-making work expounding the technique of divide and conquer, containing the three appendices (Qui Sont des Essais de Cete Methode): La Dioptrique, advancing the corpuscular theory of light; Les Meteores: Traite de la Lumiere, on cosmology; La Geometrie, founding the field of analytic geometry and introducing the concepts of a coordinate plane and a mathematical function. Brian Duppa (ed.), Jonsonus Viribus, or The Memory of Ben Johnson Revived by the Friends of the Muses. Baltasar Gracian (1601-58), The Hero; draws a portrait of an ideal Christian leader to confute Machiavelli's Prince. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), A Briefe of the Art of Rhetorique. Thomas Morton of Merrymount (1576-1646), New English Canaan; lampoons the Puritans, with whom he has been in a war for years. Francis Quarles (1592-1644), Hieroglyphics of the Life of Man. Gao Ying, The True Method of Military Archery. Art: Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), James Stuart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond; Lord John Stuart and His Brother Lord Bernard Stuart; George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol, and William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford. Laurent de La Hyre (1606-56), The Conversion of St. Paul. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Destruction of Jerusalem. Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), Pieta. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Nurture (Childhood) of Jupiter; Rape of the Sabine Women (1637-8). Sir Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641), Children of Charles I. Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), River Scene With Castle. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Raphael Leaving Tobias. Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), El Magico Prodigioso (religious drama). Tristan l'Hermite (1601-55), Penthee (Penthée). Martin Le Roy, Polyxandre (romance). Jean Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin (1595-1676), Les Visionnaires (comedy). Georges de Scudery (1601-67), Observations sur Le Cid; causes a controversy with Pierre Corneille over his 1636 play Le Cid. James Shirley (1596-1666), A Lady of Pleasure (comedy). Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Gysbreght van Aemstel. Poetry: Jacob "Father" Cats (1577-1660), Trou-Ringh. John Milton (1608-74), Lycidas; pastoral elegy composed in memory of his Cambridge U. classmate Edward King, who drowned in Aug. 1637 when his ship sank in the Irish Sea off the coast of Wales; pub. in 1638 in the collection "Justa Edouardo King Naufrago". Births: Dutch naturalist Jan Jacob Swammerdam (d. 1680) on Feb. 12 in Amsterdam. Dutch Baroque painter-inventor (Mennonite) Jan van der Heyden (d. 1712) on Mar. 5 in Gorinchem. English breed mare princess Anne Hyde, Duchess of York (OE "hide" = 120 acres) (d. 1671) on Mar. 12 in Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor; daughter of Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon (1609-74); wife of James II/VII; mother of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. English philanthropist ("the Man of Ross") John Kyrle (d. 1724) on May 22 in Dymock, Gloucestershire; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. French explorer-missionary (Jesuit) Father (Pere) Jacques (James) (Jim) Marquette (d. 1675) on June 1 in Laon. English bishop Thomas Ken (d. 1711) in July. French marshal Nicolas Catinat (d. 1712) on Sept. 1 in Paris. Dutch sculptor Nicolaas van der Veken (d. 1782) on Oct. 20 in Mechelen. English colonial gov. Sir Edmund Andros (d. 1714) on Dec. 6 in London; founder of William and Mary College in Va. Italian composer Bernardo Pasquini (d. 1710) on Dec. 7. French Huguenot pastor Pierre Jurieu (d. 1713) on Dec. 24 in Mer, Orleanais. Italian musician Giovanni Paolo Colonna (d. 1695) in Bologne. German-Danish organist-composer Dietrich Buxtehude (d. 1707). French vice-adm. and marshal Francois Louis de Rousselet, Marquis de Chateaurenault (Chateaurenaut) (Chateauregnaud) (d. 1716). Am. writer Mary (Rowlandson (nee White) (d. 1710) in Somersetshire, England; emigrates to Mass. in 1653. Deaths: Japanese artist Hon'ami Koetsu (b. 1558). English "Volpone" poet-playwright Ben Jonson (b. 1572) on Aug. 6 in London; "He that was only taught by himself had a fool for his master"; "Language most shows a man: Speak, that I may see thee. It springs out of the most retired and inmost parts of us, and is the image of the parent of it, the mind. No glass renders a man’s form or likeness so true as his speech. Nay, it is likened to a man; and as we consider feature and composition in a man, so words in language; in the greatness, aptness, sound structure, and harmony of it." German scientist Daniel Sennert (b. 1572); formulated the concept of the atom. English mystic-scientist Robert Fludd (b. 1574). Austrian HRE (1619-36) Ferdinand II (b. 1578) on Feb. 15 in Vienna. French astronomer Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (b. 1580) on June 24 in Aix-en-Provence. French mathematician Pierre Vernier (b. 1580) on Sept. 14 in Ornans, Franche-Comte. Catholic hero Humilis de Bisignano (b. 1582) on Nov. 26. Italian duke of Savoy (1630-7) Victor Amadeus I (b. 1587) on Oct. 7 in Turin. English theologian, poet and religious community founder Nicholas Ferrar (b. 1592) on Dec. 1.

1638 - The Teach My View Year? Big year for Scientists, Baptists, and Ottomans? Bad year for theologians arguing about how many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy (1634-75) James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (1606-49) Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl Argyll (1607-61) Alexander Henderson (1583-1646) Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston (1611-63) Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy (1602-68) John Harvard (1607-38) William Chillingworth (1602-44) Frances Godwin (1562-1633) John Tradescant the Younger (1608-62) 'As the Old Sang, So the Young Pipe' by Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), 1638-40 'The Three Graces II' by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1638

1638 There is a big earthquake in Calabria. On Jan. 3 Schouwburg Theater in Amsterdam opens. In Jan. Galileo, now totally blind from retina damage caused by peering at the Sun petitions the Holy Inquisition to be freed, but is denied; he smuggles his Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences (Statics and Dynamics) to a publisher in Holland (the first popular science bestseller in history); John Milton makes a pilgrimage to Rome to "commune with enlightened men", and visits Galileo - enlightened, get it? In Jan. Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (1604-39) begins a victorious campaign in the Upper Rhine, winning the Battle of Rheinfelden on Feb. 28, the Battle of Thann (Teugn-Hausen) on Apr. 19, and the Battle of Wittenweier (Aug. 8), capturing Rheinfelden, Freiburg, and Breisach (one of the strongest fortresses in Europe), respectively, and dies next year before being able to make the latter his new capital as France latches onto it; the Duke of Rohan is mortally wounded at Rheinfelden. This is our country, this is our truck, the all-new Covenantorado? On Feb. 28 the Nat. Covenant (a revival of the Nat. Covenant of 1581), written by Alexander Henderson (1583-1646) and Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston (Wariston) (1611-63) is signed in Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, with a vow added to establish Presbyterianism (church rule by elders instead of bishops) as the state religion, and denouncing all measures of the crown since 1581 to restore the episcopacy; in Nov. Charles I (their first absentee king) convenes a Gen. Assembly of the Church of Scotland in Glasgow (first in 20 years) in an effort to forestall a rev., but his attempted reforms of the Scottish Kirk, particularly the Scottish Prayer Book are rejected after he makes them decide between religion and the divine-right king (him); the assembly, packed with Supplicants ticked off by his high taxes and restraints on trade is in no mood to obey him, defies royal authority, abolishes the episcopacy, and foments a revolt, causing both sides to arm. On Mar. 7 after Rhode Island, the first Baptist colony is settled at Portsmouth, a compact for the govt. of the colony is signed; on Mar. 22 Anne Hutchinson is expelled from the Mass. Bay Colony, with gov. John Winthrop calling her an "American Jezebel", and her family and a few followers move to Aquidneck (later Rhode) Island near Portsmouth, but the arduous foot journey causes her to miscarry, letting her Mass. critics gloat about the "monstrous birth" as a punishment from God; meanwhile Sergeant Bauleton becomes mgr. of a brewhouse in Providence, R.I. On Mar. 29 Delaware is settled by Swedes and Finns led by Johan Printz, who found New Sweden (until 1655) on the Delaware River, where they build the first log cabins in America. Ft. Christina (named after Queen Christina Wasa), site of modern-day Wilmington, Del. is founded at the confluence of the Christina, Brandywine, and Delaware Rivers, becoming the first Swedish settlement in North Am. In Mar. Gov. John Winthrop signs a charter for the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co. of Massachusetts. American democracy is born from the Bible and signed off on by God with an earthquake? On May 31 after being governed by a board of commissioners from Mass. for one year, the Conn. colonists hold a gen. court in Hartford and elect their own reps. after Rev. Thomas Hooker gives a big sermon, quoting Deut. 1:13, "Take you wise men and understanding... and I will make them rulers over you", concluding that "The foundation of authority is laid... in the free consent of the people", and that "the choice of public magistrates belongs unto the people by God's own allowance", and that they have the right "to set the bounds and limitations of the power and place unto which they call them" - thus is American-style democracy born of a Bible-thumping Puritan with a ho's name? In May long-tressed Scottish nobleman James Hamilton, 3rd Marquess of Hamilton (1606-49), who is related to James II's daughter Princess Mary and became the heir presumptive to the Scottish throne between the death of James I and the birth of Charles II, and who had proved an inept general in an expedition to Germany in 1631, where his 6K-man was wiped out, after which in 1634 Charles I appointed him I'm-a-fool-to-do-your-dirty-work-oh-yeah adviser on Scottish affairs, is appointed commissioner for Scotland to appease the Prayer Book discontents, soon coming back and claiming that they're "possessed by the devil"; on Sept. 17 he is sent back again with concessions, and fails again after a Nov. 21-28 assembly in Glasgow Cathedral won't budge, causing Charles I to decide on using force. On June 1 the first earthquake in North Am. is recorded at Plymouth, Mass. In July English secy. of state (since June 1632) Sir Francis Windebank urges Charles I to make war with the Scots. On Sept. 4 English colonist Arthur Peach is tried in Plymouth Colony for robbing and killing an Indian returning from a trading expedition to Boston, and despite a strong white lobby against killing a white over an Indian, and others noting that "he was a Mr. Winslow's man" for having worked for Edward Winslow (1595-1655), he is found guilty and hanged along with his three indentured servants Thomas Jackson, Richard Stinnings, and Daniel Cross. On Sept. 14 clergyman John Harvard (b. 1607) of Charlestown, Mass. dies, leaving his 400-book library to the new local college at Cambridge, which is later renamed in his honor; the college burns to the ground in 1674, along with all but one of his books; in 1884 a Statue of John Harvard, 1636 Founder of Harvard College is cast by Daniel Chester French, later becoming known as the "Statue of the Three Lies" because it uses a 19th cent. model, JH didn't actually found Harvard, and it was founded in 1636 not 1638; students rub the statue's left toe for luck. On Oct. 4 infant duke of Savoy (since 1637) Francis Hyacinth (b. 1632) dies, and his younger brother Charles Emmanuel II (1634-75) becomes duke of Savoy (until 1675), with his mother Marie Christine of France (1606-63) (sister of Louis XIII) continuing as regent; too bad, brothers Cardinal Maurice and Tommaso of Savoy get Spanish support and claim the throne, and Marie Christine gets French support, starting the Piedmontese (Franco-Spanish) Civil War (ends 1642) between the principisti and the madamisti. On Oct. 17 after invading Westphalia the French Protestant alliance meets the imperial forces of Gen. Hatzfeld at the Battle of Vlotho; Prince Rupert is captured and imprisoned in Linz, Austria, using the time to study military textbooks, then getting paroled in 1641 on condition of never fighting the HRE again. On Dec. 24 the Ottomans under Murad IV recapture Baghdad from the Safavid Persians after laying siege and slaughtering 60K; Iraq goes Ottoman, under nominal Turkish suzerainty (until WWI); the Ottomans then recapture Constantinople. Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar takes Freiburg, defeats the duke of Lorraine at Sennheim, and conquers Breisach. After support by Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, new admiral (since 1636) Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy (1602-68) becomes lord high admiral of England, which has been vacant since the 1628 assassination of the 1st duke of Buckingham, with the understanding that it will go to Charles I's son James when he reaches the age of majority; too bad, the English Civil Wars cause him to be removed by Parliament in 1642. The alliance between France and Sweden is renewed for three years. The Elector of Brandenburg moves his capital to Konigsberg. The Mughals capture the Afghan city of Kandahar (Qandahar) from Persia (until 1648). Willem Kieft (1597-1640) becomes dir.-gen. of New Netherland (until 1647), forming the Council of Twelve Men on Aug. 29, 1641, the first representative body in New Netheland, going on to ignore their advice inflame relations with the Lenape Indians, A group of English Puritans from Mass. settle New Haven, Conn. at New Haven Bay on Long Island Sound, intending to establish themselves in commerce, but end up being reduced to hardscrabble farming, becoming the most rigorously Puritan self-governing (charterless) settlement of all. The Laud Commission orders Mass. to return its charter and answer charges that its officials have violated its provisions; plans by New England Gov.-Gen. Ferdinando Gorges to use force to subdue the Puritans are stopped by the English Civil War. The pop. of Strawberry Banke, N.H. forms a covenant pledging allegiance to Charles I. Belize Town in the Bay of Honduras is founded by shipwrecked English pirate Peter Wallace et al., going on to become a site for Jewish immigration and export of red dyewood and mahogany wood. Ft. Coromantin, the first English fort in Africa opens for biz; the word Coromantin comes to mean slaves. Reunion Island (discovered 1513) is taken by the French. Newtown, Mass. is renamed Cambridge in honor of the univ. town in England. Mail delivery begins in Ireland. John Amos Comenius is invited by the Swedish govt. to assist in educational reforms. Torture is abolished in England. John Tradescant the Younger (1608-62) takes over his deceased father's job as head gardner for Charles I. Reformer patriarch of Constantinople Cyril Lucaris is strangled by orders of Murad IV while in Ottoman custody on trumped-up sedition charges; 1.5K copies of the Maximus trans. of the Bible into vernacular Greek are printed anyway. The Dutch gain control of the cinnamon trade in Sri Lanka from King Rajasinghe II. Use and distribution of tobacco is made a capital offense in China. The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co. of Mass. (formed last year) is chartered as an honor guard for the gov. of Mass., and is housed in Faneuil Hall in Boston, Mass. Architecture: The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome is begun by Francesco Borromini (finished in 1646). The Myles Standish (Old) Burying Ground (Cemetery) in Duxbury, Mass., becoming the oldest maintained cemetery in the U.S.; residents incl. Mayflower Capt. Myles Standish, John Alden, and Priscilla Alden. The Sanno Shinto Shrine in Nagasaki, Japan is founded. Inventions: English astronomer-mathematician William Gascoigne (1612-44) invents the Micrometer. Science: French atty. and math dabbler ("Father of Number Theory") Pierre de Fermat (1607-65) conjectures Fermat's Last Theorem (that the Pythagorean Theorem for n greater than 2 is not solvable in integers) in the margin of his copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica, with the famous soundbyte that he "discovered a truly remarkable proof which this margin is too small to contain", launching a massive search for the proof after the Royal Academy of Sciences at Gottingen offers a 100K mark prize to prove it true or false, without takers; Fermat proves it for n=4, Leonhard Euler proves it for n=3, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet proves it for n=5 and n=14; in 1954 an electronic calculating machine proves it true for n less than 2000; it is finally solved in 1994 by English mathematician Sir Andrew John Wiles (1953-) after seven years locked up by himself, who also proves that all rational semistable elliptic curves are modular. English geometry prof. John Greaves (1602-52) measures the pyramids, and complains about finding soot in the Great Pyramid. Nonfiction: William Chillingworth (1602-44), The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation; argues for the Bible as the sole authority in religion, and originates the quip about theologians debating how many angels can sit on a "needle's point". Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Discorse e Dimonstrazioni Matematiche. Niccolo Sabbatini (1574-1654), Practica di Fabbricare Scene e Machine ne'Teatri. Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72), The Discovery of a World in the Moone; 2nd ed. pub. in 1640 contains the soundbyte: "I do seriously, and upon good grounds, affirm it possible to make a flying chariot." Music: Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Eighth Book of Madrigals. Art: Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Lords John and Bernard Stuart. Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), As the Old Sang, So the Young Pipe (1638-40); The King Drinks (1638-40). Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Les Bergers d'Arcadie (The Shepherds of Arcadia); shepherds gather around a large tomb with the inscription "Et in Arcadia Ego" (Lat. "And in Arcadia I") (anagram of I Tego Arcana Dei, "Begone I conceal the secrets of God"); in 1656 Poussin is visited in Rome by Abbe Louis Fouquet, who writes to his brother Nicolas Fouquet, suptd. of Louis IV's finances that he told him about "certain things... so difficult to discover that nothing now on this earth can prove of better fortune nor be their equal", after which Nicolas Fouquet is arrested and imprisoned for life (becoming the Man in the Iron Mask?), and Louis XIV confiscates all his letters and inspects them personally, then purchases the painting and keeps it in his private apts. at Versailles, after which it ends up in the Louvre; in the 1970s the tomb is located outside the village of Arques 6 mi. from Rennes-le-Chateau and 3 mi. from the Chateau of Blanchefort. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), The Stone Bridge; Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter. Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Three Graces II; the ultimate example of Rubinesque women? Plays: Sir William Davenant (1606-68) and Inigo Jones (1573-1652), Luminalia, or The Festival of Light (masque); The Unfortunate Lovers (tragedy); The Fair Favourite (tragicomedy). John Ford (1586-1640), Thomas Dekker and William Rowley, The Witch of Edmonton; about Elizabeth Sawyer, executed on Apr. 21, 1621. John Ford (1586-1640), The Ladies Trial. Sir John Suckling (1609-42), Aglaura; The Goblins. Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Gijsbrecht van Amstel (historical drama). Novels: Frances Godwin (1562-1633), The Man in the Moone: or A Discourse of a Voyage Thither by Domingo Gonsales, the Speedy Messenger (posth.); first known science fiction (sci-fi) work - the origin of Speedy Gonzales? Births: Japanese emperor #111 (1655-63) Go-Sai (Nagahito) (d. 1685) on Jan. 1; 8th son of Go-Mizunoo (1596-1680). Danish scientist ("the Father of Geology and Stratigraphy") Nicolaus Steno (d. 1686) on Jan. 10 in Copenhagen; decides in 1659 to not accept anything pub. in a book but to do the experiments himself; brought up Lutheran, his own motto backfires when he studies himself into becoming a Roman Catholic? Austrian Battle of Vienna Gen. Count Ernest Rudiger (Rüdiger) von Starhemberg (d. 1701) on Jan. 12 in Graz, Styria; cousin of Guido Starhemberg (1657-1737). Dutch botanist-anatomist Fredrik Ruysch (d. 1731) on Mar. 28 in The Hague; educated at the U. of Leiden; student of Franciscus Sylvius; father of Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750); first to embalm by injecting a chemical solution into the blood vessels. French Roman Catholic Oratorian priest and Bible critic Richard Simon (d. 1712) on May 13 in Dieppe Norwegian gen. Ulrik Frederik Gyldenlove, Count of Laurvig (d. 1704) on July 20 in Bremen, Germany; illegitimate son of Frederick III of Denmark and Margrethe Pape. French Bourbon Sun king (1643-1715) ("Le Grand Monarque") Louis XIV (the Great) (Dieudonne) (d. 1715) on Sept. 5; son of Louis XIII (1601-43) and Anne of Austria, who finally has her first child after 22 years of marriage at age 37 and a prolonged public labor; his absolutism defines the rest of the cent. for Europe; has Jewish blood in him through the bloodline of the Aragons of Spain; his parents had no children for the previous 22 years of their marriage, detested each other and lived apart for 14 years, only to be reconciled by Cardinal Richelieu and then suddenly produce him, causing some to believe that the true father is one of the many illegitimate sons of Louis XIII's promiscuous father Henry of Navarre, used to produce an heir that could be controlled by Richelieu (see 1669). Swedish "Helicons Blomster" Baroque poet Lars (Lasse) Johansson (AKA Lucidor) (d. 1674) on Oct. 18 in Stockholm. English queen consort (1662-85) (Roman Catholic) Catherine of Braganza (d. 1705) on Nov. 25 in Via Vicosa, Alentejo. Scottish mathematician and scientist (inventor of the Gregorian Telescope) James Gregory (d. 1675) in Nov. in Drumoak (near Aberdeen), Aberdeenshire. Danish scientist ("Vicar Apostolic of the North") Niels (Nils) Stensen (Steensen) (AKA Steeno) (d. 1687) in Copenhagen. French ambassador and womanizer Ralph, Duke of Montagu (d. 1709). Dutch landscape painter Meindert Hobbema (d. 1709) on Oct. 31 in Amsterdam. French journalist-playwright-publicist and royal historian Jean Donneau de Vise (Visé) (d. 1710) in Paris. French philosopher Nicolas de Malebranche (d. 1715) in Paris. Deaths: Italian painter Bartolommeo Carducci (Bartolome Carducho) (b. 1560). German political philosopher Johannes Althusius (b. 1563) on Aug. 12 in Emden, East Frisia. Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel the Younger (b. 1564) in Mar.-May. English composer John Wilbye (b. 1574) in Sept. French monk Father Joseph (Francois Leclerc du Tremblay) (b. 1577) on Dec. 17; dies before being appointed cardinal; "Courage, Father Joseph, we have won Breisach" (allegedly the last words said to him by Richelieu); leaves the Latin poem Le Turciad. English naturalist-gardener John Tradescant the Elder (b. 1577) on Apr. 15-16 in Lambeth. French Protestant leader Duke Henri II of Rohan (b. 1579) on Apr. 13 in Berne; buried in Geneva. Dutch New Netherlands gov.-gen. Peter Minuit (b. 1580). Dutch Roman Catholic bishop-theologian Cornelius Jansen (b. 1585) on May 6. Dutch Flemish painter Adriaen Brouwer (b. 1605) in Jan. in Antwerp. English-born Am. clergyman John Harvard (b. 1607) on Sept. 14 in Charlestown, Mass. (TB).

1639 - The Ditch My Priest or Pastor Year? Just when America looks like it will be a clone of Europe, run by interolerant church lizards, American colonies begin to get the Constitution Solution, easing into a bit of secularism?

Charles I of England (1600-49) Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (1580-1661) Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl and 1st Marquess of Argyll (1607-61) Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria (1614-62) Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignano (1596-1656) Henri de Lorraine, Count of Harcourt (1601-66) Sir Francis Wyatt (1588-1644) Jules Mazarin (1602-61) Jeremiah Horrocks (1619-41) Gerard Desargues (1593-1662) Hotel Lambert, Paris, 1639

1639 If you think it's flu see a physician fast? In early Jan. the Gen. Assembly of Scotland vows to resist Charles I's attempted changes in the Scottish Kirk to the death, and votes to abolish the episcopacy and excommunicate and depose every Anglican (king-appointed) bishop in Scotland, and enforce their Puritan doctrines on their own people by force, starting the First Anglo-Scottish Bishops' War; Earl Marischal and the Marquess of Montrose lead a 9K-man Covenanter army through The Mounth in NE Scotland in the first battle of the and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (Nations) (British Civil War) (ends 1651); after Scottish soldier Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (1582-1661) returns from service in Sweden, where he was promoted to field marshal in 1636, the Covenanters (former Supplicants) take Edinburgh, Dumbarton, and Stirling; on May 1 an English force led by James Hamilton lands on the Firth of Forth, but after they get nowhere he is recalled in June, and is sent back to Edinburgh on July 8 by Charles I, only to be given a hostile reception and resign as Scottish commissioner; Charles I joins the army at York, but backs down before attacking, and on June 18 signs the Pacification (Treaty) of Berwick-upon-Tweed to end the war, agreeing to let a new gen. assembly and new Scottish Parliament meet in Edinburgh, agreeing to be bound by their decision; too bad, they affirm the prior assembly's decision, and go on to decree limitations on Charles' royal authority, causing him to renege, leading to a second war next year; Scottish privy councilor (since 1628) Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl and 1st Marquess of Argyll (1607-61), the head of Clan Campbell and most powerful man in Scotland (20K retainers), whose father turned Catholic and fought for Philip II but stayed Protestant himself becomes the leader of the Covenanters, getting a motion passed withdrawing the management of public affairs from the control of the crown in favor of the estates. On Jan. 15 the Fundamental Orders of Conn., the first written constitution in history and precursor of the U.S. Constitution (based on a sermon by Thomas Hooker) are adopted by reps. of three Connecticut towns; it provides for voting by English adult males whether church members or not, except the gov., who has to be a member "of some approved congregation"; Puritan theocracy is abandoned. On Jan. 24 George Jenatsch (b. 1596) is assassinated by Rudolf Planta in revenge for killing his daddy Pompejus in 1621; on Sept. 3 the Peace of Milan ends the 20-year Valtelline War (begun 1620), giving it back to the Grisons (until 1797), with save passage guaranteed to Spanish troops. In Jan. Charles I allows Va. gov. Sir Francis Wyatt (1588-1644) to call the Gen. Assembly once a year, which sets a precedent for royal colonies in North Am.; by this year Virginia has exported 750 tons of tobacco, and is chafing under Charles I's export restrictions; on Jan. 6 Va. destroys its surplus tobacco; a law is passed decreeing that "all persons except Negroes" are to get arms and ammo to fight Indians. On Jan. 23 80 New Christians are burned in an Auto da Fe in Lima, Peru along with their leader Francisco Maldonna de Silva for practicing Judaism. On Mar. 27 a Jewish riot results in Rome when a Jewish baby is forcibly baptised - he coulda been a Norman Mailer? On Apr. 14 the Swedes under Johan Baner defeat the Hapsburg imperial army under Archduke Leopold Wilhelm (1614-62) of Austria at the Battle of Chemnitz, opening the road to Bohemia; they then attack Prague on May 20 but are thrown back; the French and Swedes decide to campaign together in C Germany. On May 13 Cambridge College is officially renamed Harvard College. On May 17 Persia signs the Treaty of Zohab (Qasr-e-Shirin) (Kasri Sirin) with the Ottomans, establishing a mutual frontier and ending over a cent. of sporadic conflict; the shah accepts the final loss of Baghdad. On July 25 after abandoning his siege of French-held Turin, Italy, Victor Amadeus I's brother Thomas Frances of Savoy, Prince of Carignano (1596-1656 works with a fifth column to stage a surprise night attack on July 25 (Aug. 27?), seizing the city but not the citadel, which is held by a French force, after which regent Christine Marie of France signs a truce, which ends on Oct. 24, after which Thomas is defeated by the French under Gen. Henri de Lorraine, Count of Harcourt (1601-66) AKA Cadet la Perle, who performs the complicated Route de Quiers. On Aug. 22 Francis Day (1605-73) of the British East India Co. (which is still smarting from their boinging at Amboina in 1623) acquires a trading station in Madras (Chennai) on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal in SE India (modern-day pop. 7M/8.9M), with permission from the local nayak Damerla Venkatapathy to build a factory and warehouse. On Sept. 25 the first printing press in North Am. is established in Cambridge, Mass. in connection with Harvard College, producing mainly religious tracts and sermons; meanwhile Mass. becomes the first state to require marriage licenses. On Sept. 25 Wampanoag Sachem Woosamequen (Massasoit) (1581-1661) and his son Mooanam come to the General Court at Plymouth and acknowledge their confederacy with the govt. of England. On Nov. 5 the first post office in the colonies opens in Mass. at the home of Richard Fairbanks. Having contracted Hooker Fever, the General Court of Mass. becomes a body of reps. from the various towns around Plymouth; the 1-page Oath of a Free-Man, printed in Cambridge, Macc. replaces the purchase of stock by membership in the Puritan church as the requirement for becoming a freeman and having voting powers, becoming the first document printed in the Am. British colonies; too bad, none of 50 copies survives. Charles I grants a renewed patent for the province of Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, naming him proprietor; the name Maine is considered a compliment to Charles I's queen Henrietta Maria, who owns the French province of Mayne; after he dies in 1647 and his son neglects it, Mass. begins governing it (until 1820); early settlers are met by the Penobscot ("Penawapskewi" = rocky part or descending ledges) Indian tribe, who teach them about bean-hole bean cooking, putting a pot of beans, onions, and salt pork covered with molasses in a hole filled with ash and embers for 6 hours for yummy yum yum - followed by pee-yuuu six hours later? Boston, England-born Darby Field (1610-49) becomes the first white man to ascend the White Mountains of New Hampshire. A Dutch squadron of 11 ships, under lt. adm. Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (1597-1653) defeats a vastly superior Spanish feet off Gravelines. The Cossacks advance over the Urals, reaching the Pacific at Okhotsk. Jules Mazarin (1602-61) enters Richelieu's service. John Milton cuts his Grand Tour of Europe short to enlist on the side of the Puritan Parliament. The Greek Orthodox Church convenes the Council of Constantinople, which condemns Calvinism. The Tokugawa shogunate of Japan begins a policy of total isolation, expelling the Portuguese with their Jesuits, and permitting only a yearly Dutch ship landing at Edo. The first immigration restriction legislation in North Am. prohibiting paupers and criminals from immigrating is passed in Mass. - each boatload tries to stop the next? The Roman Catholic monasteries in Ireland are dissolved, causing the Book of Kells to be surrendered to the English crown, after which the English govt. of Dublin gains possession of it by 1653. The Jesuit Order reaches its 100th birthday, going from under 1K members at Loyola's death in 1556 to over 15K, while busily spreading the Roman Catholic faith in America from the Great Lakes to Paraguay, and from Africa to Asia? Shah Jahan erects the walled city of Old Delhi (the Red Fort) (Shahjahanabad), becoming the 6th Delhi city. Newport, R.I. (modern-day pop. 25K) is founded on Aquidneck Island, becoming a main base for Baptists in 1640 and Jews in 1658, followed by more Portuguese Jews in 1745, who make the manufacture of sperm oil and candles its main industry, making the town rich; in 1663 the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations receives a royal charter, with capital at Newport, and Benedict Arnold as gov. #1; in the 19th cent. it attracts millionaires who set up summer mansions, with elaborate ballrooms and chandeliers spraying perfume; during the admins. of U.S. presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy it hosts Summer White Houses. The city of Ulan Bator (Ulaan Baatar) (Mongolian "red hero") (original name Urga) (modern-day pop. 1.37M) in NC Mongolia on the confluence of the Tuul and Selbe Rivers is founded as a nomadic Buddhist monastic center. H.A. Hugelin founds the first bottled wine factory in France (Alsace), Hugel. English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks (1619-41) observes the transit of Venus across the Sun's disk, confirming his own predictions. Quinine begins to be used for medicinal purposes. Drury Lane Theatre in London receives its first patent. Architecture: Louis Le Nau builds Hotel Lambert in Paris on St. Louis Island. Nonfiction: Academie Francaise, Dictionary of the French Language (1639-94). Giovanni Baglione (1566-1643), The Nine Churches of Rome. Father Jacinto Barrasa (-1704), History of the Foundation of Lima (Peru). Gerard Desargues (1593-1662), Modern Geometry. Thomas Fuller (1608-61), The Historie of the Holy Warre; the Crusades; written by a witty rector of Broadwindsor, Dorsetshire who is on the make. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Diagramma della Verita (Diagrams of Truth). :) William Pierce, American Almanac (Cambridge, Mass.); first Am. almanac. Music: Marco Marazzoli and Vergilio Mazzochi, Chi Soffre, Speri (Who Suffers, Waits); the first comic opera. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Adone (opera); opens at Teatro San Cassiano in Venice. Art: Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Hebrews Gathering Manna. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of His Mother. Diego de Velazquez, The Buffoon of Coria (El Bobo de Coria). Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), St. Francis in Meditation. Fiction: John Fletcher (1579-1625), Bloody Brother; contains The Drinking Song. Philip Massinger (1583-1640), The Unnatural Combat. Plays: William Cartwright (1611-43), The Royal Slave (drama). Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Cinna (tragedy). Sir William Davenant (1606-68), The Spanish Lovers, or The Distresses (comedy). Joost van den Vandel, Maeghden. Births: English "Phyllis is My Only Joy" dramatist-politician Sir Charles Sedley, 5th Baronet (d. 1701) in Mar. Am. Salem Witch Trials Puritan minister Increase Mather (d. 1723) on June 21 in Dorchester, Mass; son of Richard Mather (1596-1669); father of Cotton Mather (1663-1728); educated at Harvard College. English prince Henry Stewart (Stuart), Duke of Gloucester (Henry of Oatland) (d. 1660) on July 8 in Oatlands Palace, Surrey; 3rd surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. English clockmaker ("the Father of English Clockmaking") Thomas Tompion (d. 1713) on July 25 in Northill, Bedfordshire; teacher of George Graham ((1673-1751). German astronomer Gottfried Kirch (d. 1710) on Dec. 18. French "Big Three" dramatist (with Moliere and Corneille) Jean-Baptiste Racine (d. 1699) on Dec. 22 in La Ferte-Milon (Aisne); educated at the College d'Harcourt by Jansenists of the Abbey of Port Royal; reads classical Latin and Greek. Am. Wampanoag chief Metacomet (Metacom) (King Philip) (d. 1676) in R.I.; 2nd son of Massasoit (1581-1661). French winemaker Benedictine monk (blind) Dom Pierre Perignon (d. 1715) - in Champagne? Deaths: English soldier Robert Carey, 1st earl of Monmouth (b. 1560) on Apr. 12; the Memoirs of Robert Carey are pub. in 1759 (2nd ed. 1808), becoming popular for their description of the last moments of Elizabeth I and James I's reaction to the news. Italian philosopher-monk Tommaso Campanella (b. 1568) on May 21 in Paris; leaves 82 works. English diplomat Sir Henry Wotton (b. 1568) in Dec.: "An ambassador is an honest gentleman sent to lie abroad for the good of his country." Peruvian Dominican monk St. Martin de Porres (b. 1579) on Nov. 3 in Lima; canonized in 1962 by Pope John XXIII. Mexican-born Spanish dramatist Juan Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza (b. 1581) on Aug. 4 in Madrid. Ottoman sultan #15 (1617-8, 1622-3) Mad Mustafa I (b. 1591) on Jan. 20 in Istanbul in his cage. Swiss Grisons leader George Jenatsch (b. 1596). German poet Martin Opitz (b. 1597). German Protestant gen. Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (b. 1604) on Aug. 16 in Neuenburg am Rhein; buried in Weimar. French royal mistress (of Louis XIV) Marquise de Maintenon (b. 1635) on Apr. 15 in Saint-Cyr-l'Ecole Home, Noisy; dies after refusing an audience to Peter the Great.

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TLW's 1640s (1640-1649), by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1640s Historyscope 1640-1649 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649

1640-1649 C.E.

The Original Timothy Leary's Dead, or, The 'Off With 'Is 'Ead There's Room at the Roundhead Cavalier Top Long Parliament Decade in the West? The Look Ma No More Ming Vases Manchu Dynasty Decade in the East? The whole decade sees the West struggling to find What the World Needs Now Is the Only Thing That There's Just Too Little Of as the Dread 1666 Number rolls ever closer and nobody blames the disease on genetics? At least the Thirty Years' War ends in 1648 with a whimper in Westphalia after hardheaded Cardinal Richelieu exeunts safely to Roman Catholic heaven well before the 666 Drop Dead Date? A good decade for Essex?

Country Leader From To
England Charles I (1600-49) Mar. 27, 1625 Jan. 30, 1649 Charles I of England (1600-49)
France Louis XIII of France (1601-43) May 14, 1610 May 14, 1643 Louis XIII of France (1601-43)
Germany HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57) Nov. 18, 1637 Apr. 2, 1657 HRE Ferdinand III (1608-57)
Russia Tsar Michael I Romanov (1596-1645) Feb. 21, 1613 July 12, 1645 Russian Tsar Michael Romanov (1596-1645)
Sweden Queen Christina (1626-89) Nov. 6, 1632 June 6, 1654 Swedish Queen Christina (1626-89)
Papacy Pope Urban VIII (156-1644) Aug. 6, 1623 July 29, 1644 Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644)

1640 - The Great Elector Short and Long Parliament Year?

Charles I of England (1600-49) Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) Scottish Gen. Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (1582-1661) John Pym (1584-1643) John Milton (1608-74) Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1593-1641) Joao IV the Fortunate of Portugal (1604-56) Frederick William the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia (1620-88) Archbishop William Laud (1573-1645) Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I the Mad (1615-48) Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72) Richard Mather (1596-1669) John Parkinson (1567-1650) John Eliot (1604-90) Athanasius Kirchner (1601-80) Magic Lantern, 1640 Fiacre, 1640 'The King Drinks' by Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), 1640 'Prometheus' by Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), 1640 'La Vierge aux Raisins' by Pierre Mignard, 1640 'Dance to the Music of Time' by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), 1640 Salvator Rosa (1615-73) 'Landscape with Travellers' by Salvator Rosa, 1640 'Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple' by Eustache Lesueur, 1640-5

1640 Pop. of the Am. colonies: 25K; the English Civil War causes migration to the Am. colonies to dwindle to a trickle for 20+ years. In this decade all surviving harvest records in North Am. show big dips; in 1641-53 the Canadian Rockies suffer a severe prolonged drought; in 1643-71 Indonesia experiences its longest drought in four cents., with peak episodes in 1659-64. On Feb. 9 Turkish sultan (since 1623) Murad IV (b. 1612), who made drinking and smoking a capital offense dies of cirrhosis of the liver, and after his orders to murder him are not carried out, he is succeeded by his insane caged brother Ibrahim I (the Mad) (1615-48), who had been locked-up in a cage prior to being let out to become head of his nation as Ottoman sultan #18 (until 1648), going on to bring the Ottoman Empire to the point of collapse at jet speed while having a thing for fat women, sending agents to find the fattest and bring them to his harem, giving one from Georgia or Armenia a governorship; he also likes to feed coins to fish in his palace pool. Are you in control of your curls? Got hit by unpredictable frizz? On Apr. 13 Charles I calls Parliament, but when it goes against funding his Bishops' War with the Scots he dissolves it on May 4, and it becomes known as the Short (One Month) Parliament; Charles I's Irish viceroy Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1593-1641) obtains liberal funds for the king by balancing the number of Roman Catholics and Protestants in the Irish Parliament and holding out the promise of Catholic toleration, but fails to get either the Irish Parliament or the Short Parliament to pay for Irish troops to fight the Scots; Charles I's secy. of state (since June 1632) Sir Francis Windebank (1582-1646) (elected MP for Oxford U. in Mar.) sends an appeal for Queen Henrietta Maria to the pope asking for military and financial aid, and in Dec. when the House learns that he had signed letters of grace to recusant priests and Jesuits, they summon him to answer, but Charles I allows him to escape to Calais then Paris, where he converts to Roman Catholicism; lord high adm. Algernon Percy is one of two members of the privy council who oppose the Short Parliament's dissolution, confirming his break with Thomas Wentworth and earning him the displeasure of the king, causing him to side with the Parliamentarians - they saw "Braveheart"? On July 6 Spanish ship ? from Macao arrives in Nagasaki, Japan with a delegation of 61 people; on Aug. 9 after Empress Meisho orders it, they are all decapitated and their heads stuck on poles - welcome to the Japans, filthy barbarian suckahs? In Aug. the Second Bishops' War begins when the Scots pass Berwick and cross the Tweed River into England; the king leaves London for York, relieves Newcastle, and on Aug. 28 his heavily outnumbered army led by Edward Conway, 2nd Viscount Conway (1594-1655) is defeated at the Battle of Newburn-on-Tyne (Newburn Ford) by a Scottish Covenanter army led by Gen. Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (1582-1661), allowing them to seize Newcastle, choking off London's coal supply, after which on Oct. 26 Charles I signs the Treaty of Ripoff, er, Treaty of Ripon, allowing the Scottish army to rip him off and stay in Northumberland and Durham with an £860 daily subsidy pending a solution of the problem with the Scottish Kirk; Charles I, running out of rope with his "personal rule" sansa Parliament, calls it again in Nov., beginning the Long Parliament, which meets until 1653, led by Puritan John Pym (1584-1643) of Tavistock, who are now so pissed-off at being dispensed with for 11 years that they use the chance to rein-in the king even more, and his request for funds to continue to wage war on Scotland backfires when they instead decide to wage war on him and ally with Scotland; lucky for Charles I, his party in Parliament keeps growing (to 159-148), but too bad, the arrogant prick soon overplays his hand and causes his own head to roll? In Sept. John Milton (d. 1674) visits Galileo (d. 1642) in Florence. On Oct. 3 a Petition from the Muslim Barbary Pirates seeking ransom of 5K kidnapped English is sent to Charles I, incl. a list of 957 more taken since May 18, 1639. In Oct. the Dutch under adm. Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp defeat a Spanish fleet off the Downs and capture 13 galleons. On Dec. 1 after 60 years of living under Spanish rule, only to end up overtaxed and its colonies left unprotected, the Catalan Revolt (Reapers' War) begins in Catalonia (ends Nov. 7, 1659), supported by France, helping the Portuguese expel whimpy Philip IV and the Spanish, beginning the Portuguese Restoration War (ends Feb. 13, 1668); on Dec. 15 the duke of Braganza, leader of the patriotic party becomes Joao (John) IV (the Fortunate) (the Restorer) (1604-56), king of an independent Portugal (and Brazil) (until Nov. 6, 1656), founding the bragging Braganza Dynasty (ends Oct. 5, 1910), which goes on to kick Spanish and Dutch butt and win back their possessions in South Am.; hereafter all heirs to the Portuguese throne are given the bragging rights to the title of duke of Braganza; too bad, Portugal has to put its military priorities on defending its frontiers with Spain, allowing the pesky Dutch to seize many of its colonial possessions, until the Thirty Years' War begins in 1648. On Dec. 1 Prussian duke (since 1619) George William (b. 1595) dies in retirement (since 1637) in Konigsberg after letting the combatants of the Thirty Years' War destroy most of Prussia, and his staunchly Calvinist Hohenzollern son Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (the Great Elector) (1620-88) becomes elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia (until 1688), giving himself the title "Great Elector", and going on to reverse the devastation of the first two decades of the Thirty Years' War, increasing its size to 43K sq. mi. and causing it to emerge as one of the top powers of Europe, dominating all-powerful Sweden in the Baltic, and holding Romanov Russia back. On Dec. 11 the Root and Branch Petition, abolishing the Anglican episcopacy "roots and branches", signed by 15K Londoners is presented to the Long Parliament by 1.5K petitioners; after stalling, it is defeated in Aug. 1641, but they please the crowd with the Bishops Exclusion Act of Dec. 1641 (effective Feb. 1642), and the Ordinance for the Abolishing of Archbishops and Bishops in England and Wales and for Settling Their Lands and Possessions Upon Trustees for the Use of the Commonwealth in Oct. 1646. On Dec. 18 Charles I's main man, Archbishop William Laud (d. 1645) is impeached by the House of Commons for high treason, then held in the Tower for four years while the House of Lords tries to nullify it in vain. The Swedes withdraw from Bohemia. Ang Non I (Batom Reachea) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1642). The Scottish Parliament officially abolishes the observance of Christmas as part of a gen. abolition of "all superstitious observation of days"; Christmas is not restored as a public holiday in Scotland until 1958. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (four towns) forms a confederation. The Dutch found a settlement on Long Island on the East River which later becomes Long Island City, becoming the westernmost neighborhood of the borough of Queens. The Haverhill area of Lawrence, Mass. (modern-day pop. 80K) (home of the Pennacook or Pentucket tribe) is first settled by English colonists from Newbury coming in on the Merrimack River from the coast, starting out as a part of Methuen and Andover; in 1655 a blockhouse is built in Shawsheen Fields in South Lawrence; in 1845-7 the town is incorporated by cotton textile mill owners, led by Unitarian former Mass. rep. (1835-7) Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855). There are now eight postal lines running in England. After obtaining 84K lbs. in Mocha, Yemen, German merchant Johann Siegmund Wurffbain (1613-61) becomes the first to sell Mocha coffee beans commercially in Holland, growing wealthy and pub. one of the first travelers' guides to the East Indies; meanwhile tea begins to be used in The Hague, spreading to Paris in 1648, and Germany by about 1650. In Jamestown, Va. three servants try to run away, and are caught; the two whites receive a lengthening of their service, but "the third being a negro named John Punch shall serve his master or his assigns for the time of his natural life"; meanwhile a Negro woman servant has a mulatto child by white man Robert Sweat, and the court rules "that the said negro woman shall be whipt at the whipping post and the said Sweat shall tomorrow in the forenoon do public penance for his offense at James citychurch." Barbary pirate Murad Reis escapes imprisonment with the help of the dey of Tunis, becoming a big hero in Morocco and the Barbary states, becoming gov. of Safi, Morocco until his death next year. In this decade the gov. of Asuncion, Paraguay gets in a feud with the Jesuits. The Mass. Bay Colony sends 300K codfish to market this year. Pope Urban VIII orders Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars. King Joao IV of Portugal prohibits the sale of Cubeb (Java pepper) to promote the black pepper (Piper nigrum). Abo U. (Academy of Abo) in Finland is founded by Queen Christina of Sweden at the suggestion of Swedish gov.-gen. of Finland (since 1637) Count Per Brahe (1602-80), becoming the 3rd univ. in the Swedish realm after Uppsala U. and U. of Tartu. Architecture: The Baroque Morelia Cathedral in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico is begun (completed 1744). Inventions: German Jesuit scholar ("the Roman Catholic Leonardo da Vinci") Athanasius Kirchner (Kircher) (1601-80) invents the Magic Lantern (laterna magica) projection lantern. Coke is made from coal for the first time. The first fiacres (small carriages for hire) are used at the Hotel de St. Fiacre in Paris. Nonfiction: Stephen Daye, The Bay Psalm Book (The Whole Book of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre) (Cambridge, Mass.); the first book pub. in British North Am.; the preface by Richard Mather contains five Hebrew words, the first in a printed work in the New World; in Nov. 2013 one of 11 surviving copies is auctioned for $14.2M. Uriel Acosta (1585-1640), Exemplar Humanae Vitae (Example of a Human Life) (autobio.); Portuguese Roman Catholic skeptic with Jewish roots. Colley Cibber (1671-1757), An Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber (2 vols.) (autobio.); starts a new English fashion for personal anecdotal rambling autobios. Stephen Day (1594-1668) (ed.), Bay Psalm Book (Whole Book of Psalms) (Cambridge, Mass.); first English trans. of the Psalms; tr. by "thirty pious and learned Ministers" incl. Richard Mather (1596-1669), and John Eliot (1604-90); 3rd ed. 1651 (first book printed in British North Am.). John Donne (1572-1631), Eighty Sermons (posth.). Thomas Fuller (1608-61), Joseph's Party-Coloured Coat; first book of sermons, full of wit and conceits. Baltasar Gracian (1601-58), The Politician King Ferdinand the Catholic; his ideal politician. James Howell (1594-1666), Dendrologia, Dodona's Grove, or the Vocall Forrest; history of England and Europe presented allegorically as a typology of trees; later adds England's Teares for the Present Warres. Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), Augustinus (posth.); exposition of St. Augustine's doctrine of grace and predestination, causing a firestorm of controversy in France. The James Bonds of their day? Bond, James Bond, Pt. 2? The Society of Jesus, Imago Primi Saeculi (Anterp); compendium of Jesuit ideals and exploits; draws fire for its boastful tone, esp. the caption "Unus Non Sufficit Orbis" (One World is Not Enough). John Milton (1608-74), Of Reformation Touching Church Discipline in England; against strict episcopal control. John Parkinson (1567-1650), Theatrum Botanicum; herbal, last by an Englishman in the herbalistic as opposed to botanical tradition; recommends goat's rue (French lilac) (Italian fitch) (professor weed) (Galega officinalis or bicolor) for several medical conditions, but not diabetes, although it had long been used as a remedy for frequent urination; it later becomes the source of the wonder drug Metformin (Glucophage). Francisco Gomez de Quevedo (1580-1645), Providencia de Dios. Izaak Walton (1593-1683), The Life of Donne. Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72), A Discourse Concerning a New Planet. Art: Sebastien Bourdon (1616-71), The Massacre of the Innocents (1640-5). Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), Prometheus. Kano School (Japan), Equestrian Archery Drill. (anti-Jesuit). Pierre Mignard (1612-95), La Vierge aux Raisins (The Virgin with Raisins) - I can make wine out of water but, er, Dan Brown where are you? Adriaen van Ostade (1610-85), The Barrel Organ Player. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Dance to the Music of Time; The Continence of Scipio. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair; Self-Portrait. Salvatore Rosa (1615-73), Self-Portrait; Landscape with Travellers; Landscape with Mercury and Argus. Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Self-Portrait with Second Wife Helena. Eustache Le Sueur (1617-55), Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple (1640-5). Music: Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Underwoods (posth.). Plays: Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), The Mayor of Zalamea (El Alcade de Zalamea) (1640-4). Richard Brome (1590-1653), The Antipodes (comedy). Pierre Corneille (1606-84), Polyeucte (tragedy); a Christian convert is executed by his father-in-law Felix, Roman gov. of Armenia, but his brave martyrdom converts him and his own widow; Horace (tragedy); Cinna (tragedy); Roman soldier Cinna leads a conspiracy against Augustus, is betrayed by the rejected suitor of his babe Amelie, but is pardoned by Augustus. Sir William Davenant (1606-68), Salmacida Spolia (masque) (Jan. 21). Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), Joseph in Dothan (Egypt) (drama). Poetry: Thomas Carew (1594-1640), Poems. Novels: James Howell (1594-1666), Familiar Letters, or Epistolae Ho-Elianae; first epistolary novel in English? Births: French mathematician-astronomer Philippe de La Hire (Lahire) (d. 1718) on Mar. 18 in Paris; son of Laurent de La Hire (1606-56). English physician-chemist-physiologist John Mayow (d. 1679) on May 24 in London; educated at Wadham College, Oxford. Austrian short, sickly, Hapsburg-lipped, Jesuit-dominated, music-loving HRE (1657-1705), Hungarian king (1655-1705), and Bohemian king (1656-1705) Leopold I (the Hogmouth) (d. 1705) on June 9; son of HRE Ferdinand III (1637-57) and Maria Anna of Austria/Spain (1606-46); husband of Margarethe Maria of Austria, Claudia Felicitas, and Eleonore Magdalena. French duke (founder of the House of Orleans) Philippe I, Duke of Orleans (d. 1701) on Sept. 21 in Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris; 2nd surviving son of Louis XIII (1601-43); younger brother of Louis XIV (1638-1715); grandfather of Philippe Egalite (1747-93); great-grandfather of Louis-Philippe (1773-1850). French sculptor Charles-Antoine Coysevox (d. 1720) on Sept. 29 in Lyon; makes busts of French celebs incl. Richelieu, Mazarin, Bossuet, the Great Conde, Racine, Louis XIV, and Louis XV. Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh (d. 1698) on Nov. 28 in Oost-Vlieland. English novelist-dramatist (first female prof. writer in England) Aphra (Ayfara) Behn (nee Johnson) (d. 1689) in Wye, Kent; lives as a slave in Suriname until 1658, then moves to England and marries an English merchant. French polymath salonist Marguerite de la Sabliere (Sablière) (Hessein) (d. 1693); wife of Antoine Rambouillet, sieur de la Sabliere (1624-79); patron of La Fontaine. Polish coffee-loving noble-diplomat Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki (d. 1694) in Kulczyce; of Ruthenian descent. French blood transfusion pioneer physician Jean-Baptiste Denis (Denys) (d. 1704). Austrian HRE (1658-1705) Leopold I (d. 1705); son of a German Jesuit of Dutch extraction who dies in 1666. Ukrainian Cossack hetman (leader) Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa (d. 1709). English "boy player" actor Edward "Ned" Kynaston (d. 1712). English campanologist Fabian Stedman (d. 1713) in Yarkhill, Herefordshire. Austrian mercantilist economist Philipp von Hornigk (Hörnigk) (Hornick) (Horneck) (d. 1714) on Jan. 23 in Frankfurt am Main. Chinese "The Strange Tales of Liaozhai" novelist (Anglican-to-Roman Catholic-to-Anglican convert) Pu Songling (d. 1715). English "The Country Wife", "The Plain Dealer" Restoration dramatist William Wycherley (d. 1716) on Apr. 8 in Clive (near Shrewsbury), Shropshire; grows up in Malappuram, India, and France. French mathematician Jacques Ozanam (d. 1717). Dutch painter Jan Weenix (d. 1719) in Amsterdam; son of Jan Baptist Weenix (1621-60); known for his hunting scenes, and the new style of portraying dead game outside of a kitchen or market. Deaths: English soldier Lord William Howard of Naworth Castle (b. 1563) on Oct. 7 in Naworth Castle, Cumberland. English poet-courtier Sir William Alexander (1567-1640), earl of Stirling (b. 1567). Persian #1 Shiite philosopher Mulla Sadra (b. 1571) in Basra; dies while on pilgrimage on foot to Mecca; buried in Najaf; leaves The Four Journeys; #1: detachment from physical world, #2: sainthood, #3: union with the divine, #4: return of the enlightened to Earth to guide others - which # is the killing of infidels? English writer-clergyman Robert Burton (Democritus Junior) (b. 1577) on Jan. 25. Dutch Flemish Rubenesque painter Sir Peter Paul Rubens (b. 1577) in Antwerp - she ain't a lady she's my wife? Swiss surgeon Marie Colinet (b. 1560) in Bern. English dramatist Philip Massinger (b. 1583) on Mar. 17 in London. Portuguese-born Dutch Jewish skeptic Uriel Acosta (b. 1585) in Apr.; shoots himself after being given 39 lashes at the Portuguese synagogue in Amsterdam for his heretical beliefs that the Bible is a human invention and that rabbis are full of it, then being forced to allow the congregation to trample him. Dutch merchant Pieter van den Broecke (b. 1585) on Dec. 1 in the Strait of Malacca. English dramatist-poet John Ford (b. 1586). English poet Thomas Carew (b. 1594) on Mar. 23. German poet Paul Fleming (b. 1609) on Apr. 2. Ottoman sultan #17 (1623-40) Murad IV (b. 1612) on Feb. 9 (cirrhosis of the liver).

1641 - The Making Love Out of Nothing At All Irish Revolt Year?

Roundheads and Cavaliers, 1641 Roundheads, 1641 Cavaliers, 1641 James Graham Montrose, 5th Earl of Montrose (1612-50) James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1610-88) Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester (1602-67) Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1593-1641) Algernon Sidney (1623-83) Carl Gustaf Wrangel of Sweden (1613-76) Count Hans Christoff von Königsmarck (1600-63) Sir William Berkeley (1606-77) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Sir Peter Lely (1618-80) Madeleine de Scudéry (1607-1701) Theophraste Renaudot (1586-1653)

1641 And the Dutch become the Spice Girls of Europe? On Jan. 14 with help from the sultan of Johore, the Dutch take possession of the Portuguese fort of Melaka (Malacca) (held since 1511), allowing them to control the tea trade; meanwhile after years of bloodshed the Dutch oust the Chinese from Formosa (Taiwan) to control the Sika deer trade, and rule it until 1661. On May 12 lord deputy of Ireland (1632-40) Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (b. 1593) is executed for treason over the Irish affair in London in front of a crowd of 200K. On Mar. 11 the Battle of Mborore (Mbororé) near modern-day Panambi sees a combined force of Guarani Indians and Jesuits defeat slave-raiding Paulistas (mamelucos) (bandeirantes) from Sao Paulo in a battle on the Uruguay River. On June 6 Spain officially loses Portugal. In June the Austrian imperial army under Archduke Leopold of Hapsburg is defeated by the Swedes under Carl (Karl) Gustaf Wrangel (1613-76) and Count Hans Christoff von Konigsmarck (Königsmarck) (1609-63) (cmdr. of the Swedish flying column) at the Battle of Wolfenbuttel on the Oker River in Lower Saxony. In June Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of Argyll is given a commission by the Covenanters to deal with the royalists in Atholl and Angus, after which he traps John Murray, 1st earl of Atholl and burns the Bonnie House of Airlie in Angus, home of Scottish royalist James Ogilvy, 1st Earl of Airlie (1593-1666); on Aug. 10 Charles I visits Scotland, accompanied by Scottish riding-against-the-wind royalist James Hamilton, who tries to convince Argyll to join the royalist cause against Parliament in return for kingy accepting Presbyterianism, but ends up getting convinced by Argyll to side with him, causing Hamilton's arch-enemy James Graham Montrose, 1st Marquess and 5th Earl of Montrose (1612-50) to accuse Argyll to the king of being a traitor, to which the king replies that he's "very active in his own preservation", but stays in his good graces, having Montrose imprisoned instead. On Aug. 10 Charles I and Hamilton leave England for Edinburgh to parley with the Scottish Parliament, and Charles I creates Argyll as Archibald Campbell, Marquis (Marquess) of Argyle (Argyll) (1607-61) to butter him up; too bad, after Hamilton tries to make friends with Argyll, the Scottish royalists get jealous, and on Sept. 29 Lord Henry Ker, Lord Ker (-1643) (son of the earl of Roxburgh) rides into Edinburgh at the head of an armed band and calls Hamilton a traitor, challenging him to a duel, but backs down and apologizes, after which The Incident sees a royalist plot by Montrose to kidnap Argyll, Hamilton, and Hamilton's brother the earl of Lanark foiled by Scottish soldier Sir John Hurry (Urry) (-1650), who rats them out to gen. Alexander Leslie, 1st earl of Leven on Oct. 11, giving them time to flee Edinburgh, after which on Oct. 12 Charles I disavows the plot and gives in to the Covenanter's demands, assenting to the abolition of the Episcopacy in Scotland, appointing Covenanter nobles to the Scottish privy council and transferring control over judicial and political appointments to the Scottish Parliament to secure their help against the English Parliament before returning to England in Nov. (making "a perfect deed of gift of that kingdom", according to Edward Hyde, 1st earl of Clarendon); Argyll returns with kingy to London next Jan. 4. On Aug. 27 Magdalene College, Cambridge U. man Henry Dunster (1612-59), who just arrived from England is appointed pres. #1 of Harvard College; too bad, he goes Baptist, and is forced to resign in 1654. On Oct. 13 after years of simmering hatreds between the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII, the Pamphili family of Pope Innocent X, and the Farnese family of Parma, Pope Urban VIII starts the First War of Castro (ends 1644) against Duke Odoardo I Farnese of Parma in the ancient city of Castro (modern-day Lazio), beginning a military campaign to depose him allegedly for not paying his creditors, starting by occupying Castro with the forces of his papal army, headed by his nephew Taddeo Barberini, along with Luigi Mattei; actually, in 1639 the pope's nephews had quarrelled with Odoardo, causing them to get popey to ban grain shipments from Castro to Rome, causing them to go in debt in the first place. On Oct. 23 taking advantage of the Scottish occupation army on English soil, starving Irish Roman Catholics, led by Col. Rory (Roger) O'Moore (1600-55) begin the Irish Revolt (Rebellion) of 1641 (ends May 1642) against domination by Protestant England, seizing Dublin and expelling the English, causing the Roman Catholic lords of the Pale to join and elect a supreme council called the Catholic Confederation (Union of the Irish) (ends 1652) in summer in Kilkenny, becoming a de facto govt. of Ireland loosely aligned with the English royalists and Charles I, controlling two-thirds of the island; in Oct. the Irish revolt spreads to Ulster, and up to 30K Protestants are massacred in Belfast (the Scottish Protestants are spared?), and the remaining English settlers are driven out of Ulster; Charles I sends Edward Somerset, Earl of Glamorgan (1602-67) to deal with them, and he goes so far as to promise them the predominancy of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland if they'll give up and back the king against the pesky Puritans; Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester (1619-98) and his brother Algernon Sidney (1623-83) serve on the English side in the Irish Revolt, along with James Butler, 12th Earl (later 1st Duke) of Ormonde (1610-88), who ended the pesky Butler-Fitzgerald Feud (begun in the 13th cent.) in 1629, and who has relatives on the rebel side, forcing him to try harder?; the beginning of the Irish Confederate (Eleven Years' War) (ends 1653); the first use of the Green Harp Flag by Irish Confed. troops. The original Soshs and Greasers? On Dec. 30 after the Long Parliament on Nov. 22 draws up the Grand Remonstrance, dissing the govt. of Charles I, presenting it to him on Dec. 1 the first clash between the short-haired Puritan Roundheads (Parliamentarians) and the long ringlet-haired royalist Cavaliers (Royalists) takes place; meanwhile Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel wisely leaves England and settles in Padua, contributing large sums to Charles I's cause, which causes him to be created earl of Norfolk in 1644. In Dec. the Mass. Body of Liberties is passed, a forerunner of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, proclaiming the exclusive right of the Mass. Gen. Court to legislate and dictate the "Countenance of Authority", protecting the right to due process, freedom of speech, unlawful seizure, bail, jury trial, and fishing-hunting rights on public lands, and prohibiting double jeopardy, cruel and unusual punishment, compulsory draft except for territorial defense, estate taxes, and monopolies, codifying 100 laws, incl. enjoining husbands from beating their wives; revoked by Charles II in 1684 - unless you're Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie expressing themselves for the cameras? Comte de Soisson's conspiracy against Louis XIII of France fails. The Turks capture Azov. King Iskander II of Indonesia dies, and is succeeded by Queen Tajul Alam (-1675) (until 1675). The English Star Chamber (founded 1453) is abolished. Sir William Berkeley (1606-77) (pr. BARK-lee) is appointed gov. of Va. (until 1675), going on to become a popular admin. who helps open up the inland territory on the other side of the Blue Ridge Mts., go on the hunt in the English Civil War against Oliver Cromwell, and have it made until he gets involved in fur trading with the Indians and gets too harsh in putting down a revolt caused by his coddling of them in 1675? Jules Mazarin is made a cardinal. Civil war brings the collapse of the govt. in the African Congo. Mary Stewart (Stuart) (b. 1631), daughter of Charles I marries Prince William of Orange. The town of Lexington, Mass. (modern-day pop. 31K) is first settled as part of Cambridge, Mass., and incorporated in 1691 under the name Cambridge Farms, then reincorporated as an independent town in 1713 under the name Lexington, becoming the breadbasket of Boston, gaining fame for the first shots of the Am. Rev. War in the Battle of Lexington on Apr. 19, 1775; in 1846 the Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad reaches it, boosting pop. French missionaries hold services for 2K Ojibwas at the NE end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula on the U.S.-Canada border 346 mi. from Detroit on the future site of the city of Sault Sainte Marie, Mich. (Fr. "St. Mary's Falls") (modern-day pop. 14K), giving the French dibs to the area; twin city Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario on the other side of the St. Marys River (modern-day pop. 73K) is separated after the War of 1812 establishes the border at the river. Burlington, Mass. (modern-day pop. 25K) (named after the town of Bridlington, England?) 13 mi. NW of Boston on the watersheds of the Ipswich, Mystic, and Shawsheen Rivers is first settled, and incorporated on Feb. 28, 1799. The gov. of New Netherlands offers bounties to settlers for Indian scalps. French physician Theophraste Renaudot (1586-1653) pub. a plan for free medical treatment of the needy in Paris, pissing-off the faculty of medicine, which forbids him to practice in 1644. The word "advantage" is first applied to the game of tennis. Hungry-like-the-wolf Dutch portrait painter Sir Peter Lely (1618-80) settles in London, and is commissioned to paint Charles I and his court, going on to keep his head and serve Oliver Cromwell and Charles II, become state painter under the latter, getting knighted before he croaks. The Swedish iron industry begins its rise. Manchester, England begins manufacturing cotton goods. John Evelyn begins writing his diary (until 1706). Diurnal Occurrences (weekly) begins pub. in London, detailing acts of legislation. Inventions: Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany (founder of the Accademia del Cimento in Florence) invents an alcohol glass thermoscope, calibrated to "coldest winter cold" and "hottest summer heat". Galileo Galilei proposes the pendulum clock. Science: Arsenic is first prescribed for medicinal purposes. Nonfiction: Sir Richard Baker (1568-1645), Apologie for Laymen's Wrighting in Divinity; with a Short Meditation upon the Fall of Lucifer. Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Meditations on First Philosophy, In Which the Existence of God and the Immortality of the Soul are Demonstrated (Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qua Dei Existentia et Animae Immortalitas Demonstratur); his most important work?; presents it in the form of six days of merry meditating. William Habington, Observations Upon Historie. Bishop John Wilkins (1614-72), Mercury, or The Secret and Swift Messenger; first English language book on cryptography. Art: Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Prince William of Orange and Princess Mary Stuart. Frans Hals (1580-1666), The Governors of St. Elizabeth Hospital. Claude Lorrain (1600-82), Embarkation of St. Ursula. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), The Seven Sacraments. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), Manoah. David Teniers the Elder (1582-1649), Country Fair. Music: John Barnard, First Booke of Selected Church Musick. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), The Return of Ulysses (Il Ritorno d'Ulisse in Patria) (opera). George Wither (1588-1667), Hallelujah, or Britain's Second Remembrances (hymns). Plays: Ben Jonson (1572-1637), Timber; Or, Discoveries (posth.). James Shirley (1596-1666), The Cardinal. Poetry: Georg Rudolf Weckherlin (1584-1653), Geistliche und Weltliche Gedichte. Novels: Luis Velez de Guevara, El Diablo Cojuelo (picaresque novel). Madeleine de Scudery (1607-1701), Ibrahim, ou l'Illustre Bassa (4 vols.). Births: French war secy. (1666-91) Francois-Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (d. 1691) (AKA Louvois) on Jan. 18; son of Michel le Tellier (1603-85); brother of archbishop Charles-Maurice le Tellier (1642-1710); father of Louis Francois Marie le Tellier (1668-1701). English sea capt. Robert Knox (d. 1720) on Feb. 8 in Tower Hill, London; cousin of John Strype (1643-1737). Scottish physician Sir Robert Sibbald (d. 1722) on Apr. 15 in Edinburgh. English merchant-economist Sir Dudley North (d. 1691) on May 16 in Westminster. Dutch physician-anatomist Regnier (Reynier) de Graaf (d. 1673) on July 30 in Schoonhoven; discoverer of the Graafian follicles in the ovary. French Waldensian pastor-soldier Henri Arnaud (d. 1721) on Sept. 20 in Embrun. English botanist (plant anatomist) and physiologist Nehemiah Grew (d. 1712) on Sept. 26 in Warwickshire; educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge U. German field marshal Hans Adam von Schoening (Schöning) (d. 1696) on Oct. 1 in Tamsel (near Kustrin), Brandenburg; ancestor of Friedrich von Wrangel (1784-1877) and Wernher von Braun (1912-77). French mistress (of Louis XIV) Francoise Athenais (Athénais) de Rochecouart de Mortemart, Marquise de Montespan (d. 1707) on Oct. 5 in Lussac-les-Chateaux. English dean of St. Paul's Church (1691-1707) William Sherlock (d. 1707) in Southwark; educated at Eton School, and Peterhouse, Cambridge U. Deaths: French minister Maximilien de Bethune, Duke of Sully (b. 1560) on Dec. 22 in Villebon; leaves Memoirs, revealing French king Henry IV's (imagined?) Grand Design for Europe to ensure perpetual peace via a Christian Repub. of 15 states (6 hereditary monarchies, 6 elective monarchies, 3 repubs.). with the HRE as first magistrate heading a Gen. European Council. English atty. Sir Lawrence Hyde II (b. 1562) on Jan. 26. Dutch Calvinist theologian Franciscus Gomarus (b. 1563) on Jan. 11 in Groningen. English scholar Henry Spelman (b. 1564) in Oct. in London. Dutch-born Muslim pirate Murad Reis (b. 1570) in Morocco. Korean king Kwanghaegun (b. 1571). English economist Thomas Mun (b. 1571) on July 21 in London. Italian painter Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri) (b. 1581) on Apr. 16 in Naples. German duke Georg of Calenberg (b. 1583). English statesman Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of Stafford (b. 1593) on May 12 in London (executed). Dutch engraver-etcher Jan van de Velde (b. 1593). Swedish field marshal Johan Baner (b. 1596) on May 10. Flemish Baroque artist Sir Anthony Van Dyck (b. 1599) on Dec. 9 in London; dies eight days after the birth of his only daughter; buried in St. Paul Cathedral - after twisting the night away dancing with the chick in slacks? English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks (b. 1618).

1642 - The Teacher Number 1 and 2 Rembrandt Night Watch Pierre Corneille Year? If you think all batteries are the same, consider this: Galileo Exeunts Stage Left, and Isaac Newton Enters Stage Right?

Prince Rupert and his Dog Boye Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex (1591-1646) Richard Lovelace (1618-57) John Pym (1584-1643) John Hampden (1594-1643) Sir Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles (1599-1680) Sir Arthur Haselrig (1601-61) William Strode (1598-1645) Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (1610-43) Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-61) Abbas II of Persia (1633-66) Swedish Gen. Lennart Torstensson (1603-51) Octavio Piccolomini d'Aragona, Duke of Amalfi (1599-1656) Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis de Cinq-Mars (1620-42) Johann Philipp von Schönborn (1605-73) Thomas Gage (1597-1656) Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve (1612-76) Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603-59) Blaise Pascal (1623-62) Pascaline, 1642 St. Rene Goupil (1607-42) Matthaus Merian the Elder (1593-1650) 'St. Joseph' by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652), 1642 'The Night Watch' by Rembrandt (1606-69), 1642 'Moses and the Burning Bush' by Sebastien Bourdon (1616-71), 1642 Tomb of Galileo Galilei [1564-1642] by Giambattista Foggini (1652-1725)

1642 Floods in China kill 300K after rebels destroy river dikes in Kaifeng (Hunan Province). Spain suffers from inflation. The boner that causes a king to lose his crown to the cool device called the Buddy Box? On Jan. 4 pissed-off newly arriving (from Scotland) Charles I marches to Westminster Hall with soldiers to attempt to arrest the Five Members of the Long Parliament for treason (aiding the Scottish army camped in England), incl.