T.L. Winslow's 1860s Historyscope 1860-1869 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869

1860-1869 C.E.



The American May the Force Be With You Entropy War is Cruelty Red Cross and Dynamite Come Too Late Let's Save Them For Later the Switch is On Decade? Having stolen all the land they can in the name of the clean pure orderly Christian white race, lebensraum and/or abstract political freedom, white Americans proceed to self-destruct in a revulsion at their own overachievement, and decimate and disorder themselves in order to create a relaundered lower entropy left-right-left nation centered in all-powerful Illuminati Town Washington, D.C. that is theoretically if not de facto colorblind, but in reality is the center of a racial cold war, with either total whiteness or total amalgamation as the prize? Meanwhile, as the U.S. is coming apart over race and religion and changing its stripes, popeland Italy is coming together over anti-religion, squeezing the world-ruling ambitions of the pope into a wafer-sized vacuum-can pocket? Japan finally closes the Age of the Samurai in a pool of blood, and gets jets and goes Western, complete with Tom Cruise in The Last Samurai? The Suez Canal is completed, changing the global balance of power ever more in favor of seagoing slavery-hating giant Great Britain, giving the white supremacists a last hurrah with a global octopus sticking white tentacles in every corner of the colored pie with a benevolent Great White Father act? The M (Maxwell, Mendel and Mendeleyev) Decade in Science, and the M (Manet) Decade in shock art?

Country Leader From To
United States of America James Buchanan (1791-1868) Mar. 4, 1857 Mar. 4, 1861 James Buchanan of the U.S. (1791-1868)
Britain Queen Victoria (1819-1901) June 20, 1837 Jan. 22, 1901 Queen Victoria of the U.K. (1819-1901)
France Napoleon III (1808-73) 1851 Sept. 2, 1870 Napoleon III of France (1808-73)
Austria Emperor Franz Josef I (1830-1916) Dec. 2, 1848 Nov. 21, 1916 Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria (1830-1916)
Russia Tsar Alexander II (1818-81) Feb. 18, 1855 Mar. 13, 1881 Alexander II (1818-81)
Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) June 7, 1840 Jan. 2, 1861 Frederick William IV of Prussia (1795-1861)
Papacy Pius IX (1792-1878) June 16, 1846 Feb. 7, 1878 Pope Pius IX (1792-1878)
Turkey Sultan Abdul Mecid I (1823-61) July 1, 1839 June 25, 1861 Sultan Abdul Mecid I of Turkey (1823-61)



1860 - The decade starts out with the important rhetorical question, To Beard or Not to Beard? The Giuseppe Garibaldi Year in Italy?

Fort Sumter, S.C. Union Maj. Robert Anderson (1805-71) Wide Awakes, 1860 Pony Express, 1860-1 Beardless Abraham Lincoln of the U.S. (1809-65) Grace Bedell (1848-1936) Bearded Abraham Lincoln of the U.S. (1809-65) Stephen Arnold Douglas of the U.S. (1813-61) Herschel Vespasian Johnson of the U.S. (1812-80) John Cabell Breckinridge of the U.S. (1821-75) Kyle MacLachlan (1959-) Joseph Lane of the U.S. (1801-81) John Bell of the U.S. (1796-1869) William Lowndes Yancey of the U.S. (1814-63) John Jordan Crittenden of the U.S. (1786-1863) Thaddeus Stevens of the U.S. (1792-1868) Lydia Hamilton Smith (1813-84) French Gen. Charles Cousin-Mountauban (1796-1878) James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1811-63) Sir Harry Smith Parkes of Britain (1828-85) Russian Count Nikolai Pavlovich Ignatiev (1832-1908) Giuseppe Garibaldi of Italy (1807-82) Italian Gen. Manfredo Fanti (1806-65) Italian Gen. Enrico Cialdini (1811-92) French Gen. Christophe de Lamoricière (1806-65) Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833-1918) British Gen. Sir James Hope Grant (1808-75) Don Carlos Luis of Spain (1818-61) Gen. Bernardo Prudencio Berro of Uruguay (1803-68) Nicholas I of Montenegro (1841-1921) Prince Michael (Mihailo) Obrenovic III of Serbia (1823-68) Norodom I of Cambodia (1834-1904) Allan Pinkerton of the U.S. (1819-84) August Belmont Sr. of the U.S. (1813-90) Lord Dufferin of Britain (1826-1902) Abdelkader El-Djezairi (1808-83) Constance Kent (1844-1944) Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) Bishop Samuel Wilberforce (1805-73) Forbes Benignus Winslow (1810-74) Dean Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81) Burke-Wills Expedition, 1860-1 John King (1838-72) Henry Fawcett (1833-84) Jacques Offenbach (1819-80) Franz von Suppé (1819-95) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79) Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-87) and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-99) Henri Mouhot (1826-61) George Eliot (1819-80) Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909) Oscar Browning (1837-1923) Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-87) Felix Dahn (1834-1912) Vitezslav Halek (1835-74) Clément Juglar (1819-1905) John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1813-1901) Alexander Ostrovsky (1823-86) William Hepburn Russell (1812-72) George Sand (1804-76) Alexander Majors (1814-1900) William Bradford Waddell (1807-72) Josiah Dwight Whitney (1819-96) Marie Joseph Francis Garnier of France (1839-73) Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) Lenoir Engine, 1860 Sir Joseph Swan (1828-1914) Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917) Adolphe Crémieux (1796-1880) Charles de Montalembert (1810-70) Willie Park Sr. (1834-1903) Old Tom Morris (1821-1908) Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke) (1833-88) John Carmel Heenan (1833-73) Tom Sayers (1826-65) Lydia Thompson (1838-1908) John Ceiriog Hughes (1832-87) Édouard Lartet (1801-71) Karl May (1842-1912) Augustus De Morgan (1806-71) Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker) (1820-87) John McDouall Stuart (1815-66) Robert O'Hara Burke (1821-61) and William John Wills (1834-61) Jacob Burckhardt (1818-97) Benoit-Constant Coquelin (1841-1909) Franciscus Donders (1818-89) Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-84) Frederick Edward Walton (1834-1928) Joseph Emerson Worcester (1784-1865) Anna Elizabeth Dickinson (1841-1932) Nadar (1820-1910) Photo of a Hermaphrodite by Nadar, 1860 Samuel Archer King (1828-1914) Boston Aerial Photo, 1860 Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville (1817-79) Phonautogram, 1860 Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904) 'The Goatherd' by Franz von Lenbach, 1860) 'Indian Hunter' by John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910), 1860 David Hess' carpet sweeper, 1860 Benjamin Tyler Henry (1821-98) Henry Repeating Rifle, 1860 U.S. Gen. James Wolfe Ripley (1794-1870) Confed. Gen. Roswell Sabine Ripley (1823-87) Spencer Repeating Rifle, 1860 Loft Inc., 1860 George William Loft (1865-1943) Christian Schmidt (1833-94) Schmidt's Beer

1860 Pop.: Russia: 76M, Italy: 25M, Britain: 23M; Ireland: 5.7M; New York City: 805K; before-the-wind Atlanta, Ga.: 9,554. The Eighth (8th) (1860) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 31,443,321 in a land area of 2,969,640 sq. mi. (10.6 per sq. mi.); black: 4,441,790; free blacks: 488K; the 23 Northern states have a combined pop. of 21M vs. 9M for the Confederate states (5M white, 4M slaves); blacks are over 50% of the pop. of S.C. and Miss., and over 40% of the pop. of Ala., Fla., Ga., La. and Va. (excluding W. Va.); the slave pop. was 500K at the end of the Am. Rev. in 1781; the over-65 pop. is 2.7% of the total (849K); one of every eight people in the U.S. is foreign-born; there are 1.6M Irish, 1.3M Germans (one-third Catholic), 588K British (mostly English), 72.6K Scandinavians, and 35.5K Chinese immigrants in the U.S.; pop. of Washington, D.C.: 75,080, incl. 61K in the city and 8.7K in the village of Georgetown. Coal production: Britain 3.7M tons; France: 3M tons; U.S.: 2.8M tons; Germany: 200K tons. Farmers make up 58% of the U.S. work force; the North has 85% of the manufacturing plants, 90% of the capital investment, and 92.5% of the industrial output, and the Civil War causes more factories to sprout, so that by 1875 the U.S. is an industrial giant; immigrants make up over half the labor force in New England mills; the South produces 60% of homemade manufactures. Between this year and 1920 mechanization of agriculture causes 1B acres of land to come under cultivation worldwide, and 1B more by 1980; too bad the Am. South doesn't take advantage to divest itself of slavery gracefully?; Chicago ships 30M bushels of wheat to drought-stricken Europe this year, and 50M next year, despite the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War, with former U.S. atty. gen. Edwin McMasters Stanton (1814-69) issuing the soundbyte: "Without McCormick's invention, I feel the North could not win and that the Union would be dismembered"; the $150 McCormick reaper is sold for $30 down, with the balance to be paid in 6 mo. if the harvest is good and over a longer term if the harvest is bad. By this year the Roman Catholic Church is the largest single denomination in the U.S., thanks mainly to Irish immigration. There are 1,269 breweries in the U.S., with most in Penn. and N.Y.; lager is about 25% of total beer production; an avg. brewery in N.Y. has eight employees making an avg. of $347/year. The Scramble for Africa begins (ends 1905), with European nations partitioning it into spheres of influence, protectorates, and colonies without regard to ethnic divisions, the boundaries persisting into modern times; Africa has up to 10K different states and autonomous groups before whitey goes to work; in 1870 only 10% of Africa is under Euro control, growing to 90% by 1914 (excluding Ethiopia and Libya); "We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man's feet have ever trod; we have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers and lakes were." (British PM Lord Salisbury) On Feb. 26 (6:00 a.m.) white settlers massacre 80+ Wiyot Indians in Humboldt Bay in N Calif. near Union Town (Arcata), causing outraged reporter Bret Harte to pub. a protest, which causes him to be hounded out of town to San Francisco, where he begins his lit. career. On Feb. 27 beardless Abraham Lincoln gives a speech at the Cooper Union (Inst.) in New York City, followed by a speech on Mar. 6 in New Haven, Conn., establishing him as a viable candidate for the Repub. pres. nomination; in New York he leans on Pres. George Washington for support of his views on the spread of slavery into the Western territories. On Mar. 1 Blanco Gen. Bernardo Prudencio Berro y Larranaga (Larrañaga) (1803-68) becomes pres. of Uruguay (until Mar. 1, 1864), and ends illegal slavery on Brazilian-owned Uruguayan estates, stirring Brazilian wrath. Meanwhile, Italy furnishes Americans with a sideshow? On Mar. 15 the papal states in Italy (comprising 17K sq. mi.) go up for grabs as the Struggle for Italian Unification (Risorgimento) begins (ends 1870) as Tuscany, followed by May by Emilia, Modena, Parma, Perugia, and the Romagna vote by plebiscite to join Sardinia, against the will of Napoleon III, while a revolt against new Sicilian king (since 1859) Francis II begins in S Italy; in May the Expedition of the Thousand sees Piedmontese anti-papal parliamentarian Giuseppe Garibaldi (the Great Liberator) (1807-82) sail from Genoa in two small steamers with the volunteer Thousand Red Shirts (I Mille) to free the Italian S, landing in Genoa and capturing it, followed by Marsale on?, and Palermo on May 27; on Aug. 14 he lands in Melito, and marches into the Calabrian Mts. On Mar. 17 the Second Anglo-Maori (First Taranaki) War (ends 1872) begins when Maori chief Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake (1795-1882) refuses to vacate land the whites were trying to legally steal from him. 80 riders and 400 horses cover for the lack of a telegraph system as Americans have finally stolen the continent from east to west? On Apr. 3 the Pony Express begins service between St. Joseph, Mo. and Sacramento, Calif. (1,850 mi.) (ends Nov. 20, 1861 after 19-1/2 mo.); horses are ridden at full gallop, and are changed at 157 (192?) relay stations 10 mi. (12 mi.?) apart, and each rider rides 100 mi.; founders are William Hepburn Russell (1812-72), William Bradford Waddell (1807-72), and Alexander Majors (1814-1900); posters read "Wanted: young, skinny, wiry fellows not over eighteen. Must be expert riders, willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred. Wages $25 per week"; the first rider is either Johnny Frye or John William "Billy" Richardson (1850-), who departs St. Jo at exactly 7:15 p.m.; William "Sam" Hamilton becomes the last of 30 men to carry the mail on the westward trip, arriving in Sacramento after midnight on Apr. 14 (about 1 hour less than 10 days total); James Randall picks it up eastbound from San Francisco; when the rider reaches St. Jo, overeager spectators pluck hairs from the horse's tail as souvenirs; meanwhile a steamer carries the mail from Sacramento to San Francisco, and when the Pony Express rider disembarks he is greeted by rockets and a band playing "See, the Conquering Hero Comes"; riders carry their mail in a mochila (saddle mail bag), with 1K or so letters wrapped in water-resistant oiled silk, going from St. Jo to Sacramento via Marysville, Kan., Ft. Kearny, Neb., Julesburg, Colo., Ft. Larami, Wyo., Salt Lake City, Utah, and Friday's Station, Nev.; "Buffalo Bill" Cody is a rider at age 15; the mail costs 10 cents from the East Coast and $5 per half oz. from St. Jo to Sacramento; riders incl. Wild Bill Hickock, and William Frederick Cody, who later becomes Buffalo Bull Cody; the Kansas City Internat. Airport is later built 25 mi. S of St. Jo, "where the Pony Express started and Jesse James ended". On Apr. 22 Scottish-born explorer John McDouall Stuart (1815-66) reaches 1,916 ft. (584m) Mt. Stuart, the center of Australia (not really, but he thought so) from the S before encountering hostile natives and turning back, causing a £2K reward to be offered to go all the way to the N coast, and on Aug. 20 the 19-man 27-camel, 23-horse Burke-Wills Expedition (largest exploring party in white Australian history), led by inept Irish-born Robert O'Hara Burke (1821-61) and surveyor William John Wills (1834-61) sets out from Melbourne, Australia to find a S-N route through mainly desert Australia, reaching the Gulf of Carpentaria next Feb.; after returning for home, they arrive at Coopers Creek next Apr. 21, only to find that the party they left there had departed a few hours earlier for Menindee; the men then lose their last camel, become too weak to go on, and Burke and Wills die of starvation in June; Wills' father later edits his diary for pub.; meanwhile Stuart sets out again next Jan. 1 with 12 men and 49 horses, reaches the Gulf of Carpentaria on Feb. 11, and returns in Sept., becoming a big hero. On Apr. 23 the 1860 Dem. Nat. Convention opens in Charleston, S.C., then splits on May 23 into Northern and Southern sections after the Northern delegates refuse to agree to a pro-slavery platform, causing the delegates of eight Southern states, led by William Lowndes Yancey (1814-63) of Ala. to walk out; on June 18 the Northern (rump) section holds its convention in Baltimore, Md., and splits again, the Northerners on June 23 nominating Ill. Sen. Stephen Arnold Douglas (1813-61) for pres. and Ga. gov. (1853-7) Herschel Vespasian Johnson (1812-80) for vice-pres.; the 1860 Dem. Party Platform of June 18 defers to the U.S. Supreme Court for guidance on the slavery issue; New York City banking millionaire ("King of Fifth Avenue") August Belmont Sr. (1813-90) (a French-born Prussian Jew who immigrated to New York City in 1837 as the first U.S. rep. of the Rothschild banking house in Frankfurt) supports Douglas and becomes chmn. of the Dem. Nat. Committee, going on to help the Union finance the war with England and France; on June 23 the pro-slavery Southern section of the Dem. Nat. Convention nominates Ky.-born vice-pres. John Cabell Breckinridge (1821-75) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Kyle MacLachlan (1959-)?) for pres., and N.C.-born Joseph "Joe" Lane (1801-81) for vice-pres.; on May 9 the Constitutional Union Party, made up of former Whigs trying to ignore the slavery issue and concentrate on preserving the Union nominates Nashville-born Tenn. Sen. (former House Speaker) John Bell (1796-1869) for pres. and Boston-born Edward Everett (1794-1865) for vice-pres. Another Faustian bargain, or God's hand? On May 18 (19 mo. after John Brown's Harper Ferry raid) despite candidates like William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, and Edward Bates being better known, prepared, and financed, perceived moderate (lesser of evils?) Abraham Lincoln of Ill., after announcing that "no such good luck" was in store for him this time (with the power to carry Ill. and Ind.) outmaneuvers them to win the pres. nomination at the 1860 Repub. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. on the 3rd ballot after the favorite Sen. William H. Seward of N.Y. is perceived as too radical on slavery for Northern tastes and too friendly towards immigrants to please the Know-Nothings now in the party; the 1860 Repub. Platform incl. no extension of slavery, protective tariffs, internal improvements, and free land for Western settlers really pisses the Southerners off, but the Repubs. have written them off anyway; Lincoln's campaign slogan is "Vote yourself a farm"; Hannibal Hamlin is nominated for vice-pres. On June 30 the strange case of Constance Emilie Kent (1844-1944) begins in Somerset, England when 4-y.-o. Francis Savile Kent is found dead in Rode, Wiltshire, England in an outhouse, and in 1865 his half-sister Constance, who was sent to a convent in France confesses to an Anglican clergyman, then turns herself in, after which the clergyman cites the sanctity of sacramental confession to avoid giving evidence against her, which doesn't matter, as she pleads guilty, after which there is a public outcry against the Anglican Church leading to a Parliamentary inquiry; meanwhile Constance Kent is sentenced to death, commuted to life, and released in 1885 at age 41, then lives to 100, getting a congratulatory telegram from the British king; was she the real Jack the Ripper? On July 16 a Muslim uprising in Damascus massacres 6K Christians and destroys the Christian quarter before Algerian-born Sufi leader Abdelkader El-Djezairi (1808-83) intervenes to stop it, becoming an internat. hero despite devoting his life to stopping Westernization of the Muslim World - no more Pauls on Straight Street? In July Queen Victoria and Prince Albert sit for stylish new carte de visite photo portraits by John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1813-1901) of Regent St., London. Thanks for your cooperation? On Aug. 1 after China bans foreign embassies in Peking, British forces under Gen. Sir James Hope Grant (1808-75) land, then on Aug. 12 bombard Sinho with the world's first breech-loading rifled artillery pieces, taking the Taku Forts opposite Hong Kong on Aug. 21; meanwhile on Sept. 21 French forces under Gen. Charles Guillaume Marie Apollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban (1796-1878) (created Comte de Palikao by Napoleon III in 1862) defeat the Chinese at the Battle of Palikao (Pa-li-Chau) at Eight Mile Bridge outside Peking, and reach Peking on Sept. 26, occupying it with 17K Anglo-French soldiers on Oct. 6, then on Oct. 18-20 burning the already-looted Imperial Summer Palace (Yuan Ming Yuan) 9 mi. NW of Peking (built 1707) at the orders of British high commisioner to China (former gov.-gen. of Canada and son of the Elgin Marbles guy, therefore a pro at destroying historical monuments to get souvenirs?) James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1811-63) in retaliation for the 10-day imprisonment starting on Sept. 18 of British diplomat Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828-85), destroying priceless antiquities, along with some hairy parks, but saving a lot of porcelain which ends up in English and French country houses, after which the act is criticized by Victor Hugo et al. as barbaric, although the Brits never give the goodies back; the imperial court is forced to relocate to the Forbidden City (until 1924), and a new smaller Summer Palace is built by Empress Cixi, then burnt again by the Brits in the 1900 Boxer Rebellion; on Oct. 18 the Treaty (Convention) of Peking between junky Qin Dynasty China, Britain, France, and Russia, negotiated by Russian diplomat Count Nikolai Pavlovich Ignatiev (1832-1908) and signed by Prince Gong of China and Lord Elgin of Britain forces China to open 11 ports to Westerners, cede both banks of the Amur River and the land S of Vladivostok (Ussuri Krai, the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary) to Russia, and Stonecutters' Island and 3 sq. mi. of the Kowloon Peninsula to Hong Kong for a 99-year term; on Oct. 25 another treaty gives the British rights to opium trading in 90% of the country, and gives Christians the right to proselytize and own property - opium and Christ go hand in hand? On Aug. 11 the first successful silver mill in the U.S. begins operation near Virginia City, Nevada (alt. 6K ft.); in 1865 Virginia City is home to "seven cemeteries full of murdered men, seven empty prisons, 120 saloons, 800 prostitutes, and a place where 16,000 quarts of whiskey were consumed each week", with all of its food needed to be imported, incl. huge quantities of caviar, truffles, lobsters, and champagne imported weekly, causing Mark Twain to call it "the Athens of the West"; as the silver runs out, the town keeps its economy going with cattle, banking, and telegraph and transportation hub services. On Aug. 13 Danilo II (b. 1826) dies, and his nephew Nicholas I (1841-1921) becomes prince-bishop of Montenegro (until Aug. 28, 1910), going on to promulgate the country's first 1860 Montenegran Constitution, and become the country's first and only king in 1910-18. On Aug. 20 (4:00 p.m.) the 19-man Burke and Wills Expedition to explore Australia from S to N, led by Irish-born Robert O'Hara Burke (1821-61) and British-born surveyor William John Wills (1834-61) sets out from Royal Park, Melbourne, reaching the N coast in 1861; too bad, seven die on the return journey incl. both leaders; only Irish-born John King (1838-72) makes it all the way back to Melbourne; on Jan. 23, 1863 a state funeral is held for Burke and Wills, attended by 40K, becoming the biggest funeral in Australia until ?. On Sept. 18 the bloody Battle of Castelfidardo in the Marche is a V for the 39K-man Piedmontese (Sardinian) army under gen. Manfredo Fanti (1806-65) over the 10K-man papal army (formed after a papal call, backed by Jesuit propaganda, and containing volunteers from 22 countries incl. France, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, and Canada) under gen. Cristophe Leon Louis Juchault de Lamoriciere (Lamoricière) (1806-65) (who is captured and goes into retirement), reducing the papal states to Lazio after adding the Marches and Umbria to the Kingdom of Italy; the papal army loses 88 KIA, 400 wounded, and 600 captured vs. 61 KIA and 184 wounded for the Piedmontese; while inspecting the casualty list, Piedmontese gen. Enrico Cialdini (1811-92) utters the soundbyte "You would think this was a list of invites for a ball given by Louis XIV"; the Franco-Belgian battalion becomes the nucleus of the papal Zouaves. On Sept. 22 Texas gov. Sam Houston (1793-1863) gives a speech in Austin, appealing to Texas to not secede from the Union, with the soundbyte: "What is there that is free that we have not got? Are our rights invaded and no government ready to protect us? No! Are our institutions wrested from us and other foreign to our taste forced upon us? No! Is the right of free speech, a free press, or free suffrage taken from us? Has our property been taken from us and the government failed to interpose? No, none of these! The rights of the States and the rights of individuals are still maintained... Are we to sell reality for a phantom?" On Sept. 26 Milos Obrenovic I (b. 1780) dies, and his son, former prince of Serbia (1839-42) Michael (Mihailo) Obrenovic III (1823-68) regains his throne (until June 10, 1868), ruling as an enlightened despot, advocating the idea of a Balkan federation against the Ottoman Empire. On Sept. 30 Capt. Elias D. Pierce and a party of prospectors pan less than five cents worth of gold on Nez Perce land, setting off the first Idaho Gold Rush; the town of Pierce is founded in the winter - he thought that Nez Perce meant himself? On Oct. 1-2 Francis II and his 124K-man army are ovolturnoed at the Battle of Volturno by the combined forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Sardinian king Victor Emmanuel II, and flee to the fortress city of Gaeta on Nov. 4, causing the Italian army under gen. Enrico Cialdini to begin the Siege of Gaeta on Nov. 5 (ends Feb. 13); meanwhile in Oct. Garibaldi declares himself dictator of the Two Sicilies, then gives the whole of S Italy incl. Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II in Nov., finally uniting N and S Italy, after the latter kicks the butt of the Papal States and goes S to meet him in Naples, avoiding French-guarded Rome; Bologna votes overwhelmingly in favor of annexation to Italy; the new king of Naples goes on to greatly improve its port; Italian journalist Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833-1918) fights with Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand, then turns pacifist and wins the 1907 Nobel Peace Prize; Am. Southerners eagerly read about Garbialdi's exploits and adopt him as their hero - especially as his portrait bears a striking resemblance to Gen. Stonewall Jackson, which is where those Clint Eastwood Spaghetti Westerns later come from? On Oct. 3 10K Wide Awakes march for the Repub. Party in New York City in a 3-mi. column; by Sept. there are 400K Wide Awakes nationwide, all ready to lynch, er, burn, er, join the Union Army and kick rebel butt under their man Lincoln. A last ditch attempt to save the Union depends on a 47-y.-o. failing lush? In Oct. after Lincoln refuses to campaign in the South (which doesn't even have his name on the ballots), and receiving news in Cedar Rapids, Iowa of Repub. state victories in Penn. and Ind., Stephen Douglas declares "Mr. Lincoln is the next President. We must try to save the Union. I will go South", and begins to campaign extensively in Tenn., Ga. and Ala., commenting, "I do not believe that every Breckinridge man is a disunionist, but I do believe that every disunionist is a Breckinridge man"; even though he is repudiated by the South, he becomes the first pres. candidate to stump the entire country. The die is cast for war Between white and white in America? On Nov. 6 the fateful 1860 U.S. Pres. Election sees beardless Abraham "Honest Abe" Lincoln (1809-65) of the Repub. Party elected pres. of the high-tension U.S., with 1,864,735 votes (40%) (180 electoral votes, a majority), incl. a majority of the votes in the North (only 26,388 votes in the South), compared to 2,821,157 for the combined opposition; Northern Dem. Stephen Douglas gets 1,375,157 votes (29%) (a lousy 12 electoral votes, 9 from Mo. and 9 from N.J.), Southern Dem. John C. Breckinridge gets 847,953 votes (18%) (72 electoral votes, incl. every state in the Deep South plus N.C., Del., Md.); Constitutional Union Party (Whig) John Bell brings up the rear with 589,581 votes (13%), but comes in 3rd in electoral balloting with 39 electoral votes, from Tenn., Va., Ky.); the first (only) time that a third party elects a U.S. pres.; the American people actually end up voting overwhelmingly for pro-Union (all except Breckinridge) and anti-slavery-expansion (Lincoln) candidates, but the stampede for secession is already on (something about not letting the door hit your ass on the way out?); Lincoln gets just 179 votes (25%) in Los Angeles, Calif., and during the war there is talk of pro-Confederacy Southern Calif. splitting off to form its own state, causing Camp Drum (San Pedro) in San Pedro (closed Nov. 7, 1871) to be built next year by the U.S. govt., which stations troops in Catalina Island to prevent Confederate privateers from seizing it; rumors that he's a secret Roman Catholic circulate, based on his past defense of a priest in a slander lawsuit and denunciation of the Know-Nothing Party; Lincoln starts growing a beard after the election after 11-y.-o. Grace Greenwood Bedell (1848-1936) writes him a letter suggesting it, making him the first U.S. pres. to wear one (Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Harrison), and the first photo showing him bearded is taken on Nov. 25 in Chicago by Samuel G. Alschuler - the Emperor Hadrian of presidents? A lame attempt at a last minute compromise proves a critical failure? On Nov. 14 Alexander Stephens addresses the Georgia Legislature on secession; Congress meets, and on Dec. 18 the 11th-hour Crittenden Compromise is offered by Ky. Dem. Sen. (since 1855) (former U.S. atty. gen. in 1841 and 1850-3) John Jordan Crittenden (1786-1863), a member of the Senate Committee of Thirteen appointed to review compromise plans; it proposes a line at 36 deg. 30 min., S of which slavery will be permanently protected in all present and future territories, and offers compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves, causing pres.-elect Lincoln in Springfield, Ill. to advise Repub. senators: "Entertain no proposition for a compromise in regard to the extension of slavery"; Repub. opposition led by tall club-footed Radical House Ways and Means chmn. (1861-8) Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868) of Penn., known for wearing an ugly wig over his bald head while hooking up with his widowed light-skinned quadroon mistress Lydia Hamilton Smith (1813-84) (who apes Mary Todd Lincoln in dress and appearance) kills it in the House in Jan. and the Senate in Mar. This would be a good time for one hell of a speech? On Dec. 3 lame duck Pres. James Buchanan gives his Fourth Annual Message to Congress, arguing that secession is illegal, but that he lacks authority to coerce a state; however, the pres. can enforce the laws upon individual citizens, since the U.S. officially doesn't recognize secessions; by the end of Dec. two of his three Southern cabinet members depart, and he frantically waffles to the end hoping for a rabbit to come out of a hole, and finally coming to believe he'd be the last U.S. pres. - if he only weren't such a wuss, everybody's thinking? On Dec. 6 the S.C. legislature sets a special election to choose delegates to a convention for Dec. 20. Oh what I wouldn't give to have these two weeks back? On Dec. 20 S.C. unanimously votes an Ordinance of Secession, dissolving "the union between the State of South Carolina and the other States united with her under the compact entitled 'The Constitution of the United States of America'", and seceding from the Union (#1); before Lincoln's inauguration six more Southern slave states secede, with eight more of the 15 slave states on the fence. On Dec. 26 Maj. Robert Anderson (1805-71) (a pro-slavery Unionist from Ky.) moves his 80-man garrison from Ft. Moultrie to the more defensible but uncompleted Ft. Sumter in seceded Charleston, S.C. Harbor, saying to the South, in effect, "up yours"; this is one of only four U.S. military posts in seceded states, and the most important; S.C. politely requests the Union to transfer the fort, but Pres. Buchanan refuses. Spanish pretender Don Carlos Luis (1818-61) and his brother Ferdinand land in Spain in an attempt to start an uprising, but it fizzles and they are captured, and Don Carlos renounces his claims; when he dies next year his youngest brother Don John (Juan) inherits his claims. William "Coffee Cowboy" Walker of the U.S. attempts another invasion of Nicaragua, then Honduras, where he is executed; the British return the Bay Islands and part of Mosquitia to Honduras. Peru adopts a liberal (but more conservative than in 1856) 1860 Peruvian Constitution, which lasts for 60 years (until 1920) (except 1862-8 and 1879-81), reducing the pres. term to four years but giving him greater powers, while allowing congress to examine his admin. acts at the end of each legislative session; his cabinet members must also report to congress. The Food Adulteration Act is passed in Britain, becoming the first gen. pure food law in the English-speaking world; despite it, 87% of bread and 74% of milk in London is still adulterated by next year. Norodom I (1834-1904) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1904). There is a smallpox epidemic in Penn. (ends 1861). France annexes Savoy, the last piece of the medieval kingdom of Burgundy or Arles in SE France, formed in 933. Finland acquires its own currency, the Finnish markka. The arrival of a delegation from Japan creates a sensation in New York City. Prince Albert Edward of Wales visits Canada, starting a custom of goodwill visits by members of the British royal family to British dominions and other countries. After the efforts of Susan B. Anthony, married women in New York State are given guardianship of their children and control of their own earnings. The British, while claiming neutrality, and backed by the U.S., begin sending arms to the Manchus to reopen the opium trade, while the Taipings, attempting to become good Christians plead Europe and the U.S. for Christian missionaries, most of whom refuse to go because of propaganda by the British and U.S. missionaries already there, who want to impose only their brand of Christianity, and consider heretic Chinese Christians worse than the Manchus, setting the Taipings up to be crushed by the Manchus, and the Boxer Rebellion later to want to kill all foreign devil Christians; in 1864 there are 200 Protestant missionaries in China from 30 different sects, increasing to 1.3K missionaries by 1889. English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) (who coined the term "agnostic") debates with liberal Anglican divine (bishop of Oxford since 1845) Lord Samuel Wilberforce (1805-73) (a fellow of the Royal Society and son of abolitionist William Wilberforce who is known as Soapy Sam from his holy hand-washing gestures) on Darwinian evolution at Oxford U., helping to push it over on the public, although Wilberforce held his ground and got off a good one by asking Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or grandmother that he claims descent from a monkey; blind economist Henry Fawcett (1833-84) shouts out that Wilberforce must have never read a word of Darwin's "Origin of Species", and gets away with it because Bewildered Force knows he's blind? - he didn't respond that all Bible thumpers are apes, he just hoped to be understood that way? Bestselling travel writer Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, Lord Dufferin (1826-1902) begins his diplomatic career as British commissioner to Syria, working his way up to gov.-gen. of Canada in 1872 and viceroy of India in 1884. Blacks helping whites kill reds and browns, doo-dah, doo-dah? Beginning in this decade immigrant parties of whites who run into Indians in the Am. West are routinely killed, mutilated, raped, and butchered; in 1866 the Buffalo Soldiers (black troopers of the 9th and 10th cavalry regiments and the 24th and 25th infantry regiments) are formed to fight in the Final (Solution?) Indian Wars (1864-90); the name Buffalo is a mark of respect from the Indians; during the U.S. Civil War blacks offering themselves for military service in the E are turned into cooks, carpenters, and laborers at first, but by war's end almost 200K serve under the U.S. flag; in 1864-90 45K+ Indians are killed by the palefaces in "the final solution to the Indian problem" (Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman); Adolf Hitler later becomes a fan of Wild West Old Shatterhand novels by German writer Karl Friedrich May (1842-1912), using the genocide number done on the Indians as his model for Jews? The lost ruins of the Temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia are rediscovered (for the umpteenth time?) in the jungle by French explorer Henri Mouhot (1826-61), who dies next year in Laos, and his memoirs become a bestseller; the ruins are cleared in 1908 and a moated park created around them. In this decade the Mormons drop the "Great" from the name of Salt Lake City. In this decade the French under Marie Joseph Francis (Francois) Garnier (1839-73) try to find a navigable route up the Mekong (Mae Nam Khong) River into China, but give up after encountering rapids near Kratie, Cambodia, followed by the Khone Falls in S Laos, which has double the water flow of Niagara Falls (most in the world). In this decade the British Israel Movement is launched in Britain by the Freemasons and Jews to create a new state of Israel in Ottoman-controlled Muslim-filled Palestine; meanwhile the British Israelism (Anglo-Israelism) movement claims that the British royal family are direct descendants of King David. In this decade Harris, Scotland begins producing hand-woven hand-spun Harris Tweed, made with wool from Scottish Blackface sheep; nearby Lewis later begins making hand-woven machine-spun tweed, with shorter fibers. In this decade the Shakers of Mount (New) Lebanon, N.Y. begin producing minimalist ladder-back turned post chairs with woven seats. Count Leo Tolstoy makes a trip to Europe, confirming his revulsion at Western society, and next year manumits his serfs and establishes a school for former serf and peasant children. Scottish-born detective Allan Pinkerton (1819-84) makes his rep with the recovery of a large sum for the Adams Express Co. Garroting becomes popular in England in this decade as tool of highway robbers. The first modern Welsh Nat. Eisteddfod (Gael. "eistedd" = sit) (first held in 1176) is held in Denbigh. In this decade cartoonist Thomas Nast begins portraying Santa Claus as wearing a soft fur hat. Glass ornaments replace sweets on Christmas trees in Germany. The empress of Austria has a sensational 16-in. waist. By this year in the U.S. there are only about 300 public high schools and 10K public libraries (not all of them free) housing 8M vols. By now there are 817 steamboats operating on W U.S. rivers. In this decade steel rails are substituted for iron rails in railways. Robert Fizroy of the British Meteorological Office coins the word "forecast". The Russian Orthodox Church establishes a monastery in Jerusalem. Wheaton College is founded in Wheaton, Ill. by Wesleyan Methodist abolitionists, going coed and becoming a stop on the Underground Railroad. In this decade R.W. Little of England founds Societas Rosicrucia in Anglia the modern movement of Rosicrucianism, claiming ties to the 1413 Society of the Rose and Cross. The Free Methodist Church of North Am. is founded by lay members excluded from the Genesee Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church who want to restore the historic Wesleyan faith sans slavery, secret societies, and rented pew seats. The Catholic Times begins pub. in Britain (until ?). After a series of articles in the London Times (1855-65) on the scandal of naked bathing (on separate beaches), women begin wearing modest bathing suits of serge, replacing vast canvas smocks; men wear a striped sailor's costume - picture yourself here, and here? French photographer Nadar (Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) (1820-1910) copyrights a series of Photos of the Genitalia of a Hermaphrodite, which are later put on display at Musee D'Orsay in Paris. Lincoln Park (originally Lake Park and Cemetery Park, renamed on June 12, 1865) facing Lake Michigan in N Chicago, Ill. is established, becoming the home of the Chicago History Museum, Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, Lincoln Park Conservatory et al. The Census for Va. and N.C. lists 348 tobacco factories, virtually all producing chewing tobacco; only six produce smoking tobacco from leftover scraps; the first manufactured cigarettes appear, incl. the Bull Durham brand. Grand Marnier (made of cognac and cointreau) is introduced. The acting gov. of Colo. Territory duels with a judge over the slavery question in Denver at the Platte-Cherry Creek Rriver junction near a gallows on the N shore, and the judge is killed; meanwhile the town newspaper (Rocky Mt. News) moves to a bldg. on stilts in the middle of Cherry Creek to avoid showing favoritism to the rival town of Auraria on the other side; too bad, a flood in 1864 wipes it and most of the towns out, but they rebuild, and the paper moves in 1866 to one of the finest brick bldgs. in town, called the "News Block", then goes on to editorialize until Denver becomes the 4th city on Earth to install electric street lights. Gentlemen's club living in London's West End reaches "a scale of splendour and completeness hitherto unattainable". In this decade the theatrical district of New York City becomes concentrated along the Bowery, an avenue parallel to Broadway between Chatham Square and Cooper Square which was originally an Indian trail, then the road to the farm (bouwerij) of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant; by 1870 it becomes a center of vice, and by the end of the cent. is a center for Yiddish theater. P.T. Barnum gets Siamese twins Chang and Eng to come out of retirement for a 6-week engagement. In this decade the Donghak (Tonghak) (Eastern Learning) Movement gains momentum in Korea, led by Ch'oe Che-u (Je-u) (1824-64) AKA Su-un, a syncretic religion combining Confuscian, Buddhist, Daoist, and Roman Catholic elements to fight Western influence and help the poor and rural; Ch'oe is arrested in 1863 and executed in 1864. Ohio-born William Tecumseh Sherman becomes the first supt. of the new military college in La., and resigns next year after La. is on the verge of secession in order to join the Union side. Oxford student Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909) gets off to a fast start, writing two dramas and contributing verse and prose to Undergraduate Papers, ed. by John Nicol (1833-94), then leaving without a degree and hanging out with poets Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Morris. German-born Jewish "Can Can" composer Jacques Offenbach (1819-80) becomes a French citizen. French actor Benoit-Constant Coquelin (1841-1909) makes his debut at the Comedie-Francaise on Dec. 7 as the comic valet Gros-Rene, becoming a star of 40+ plays during the next 32 years (until 1892). Ralph Waldo Emerson writes "The stern old faiths have all pulverized. 'Tis a whole population of gentlemen and ladies in search of religions." Charles Darwin writes a Letter to Asa Gray, with the soundbyte: "I own that I cannot see as plainly as others do, and as I should wish to do, evidence of design and beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to be too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice"; too bad for gleeful atheists, he adds "On the other hand, I cannot anyhow be contented to view this wonderful universe, and especially the nature of man, and to conclude that everything is the result of brute force. I am inclined to look at everything as resulting from designed laws, with the details, whether good or bad, left to the working out of what we may call chance"; in the Apr. 21, 1862 London Illustrated News he adds "I feel most deeply that this whole question of Creation is too profound for human intellect. A dog might as well speculate on the mind of Newton! Let each man hope and believe what he can." Josiah Dwight Whitney (1819-96) is appointed chief of the Calif. Geological Survey (until 1874), getting Mount Whitney (highest point in the continental U.S.) and Whitney Glacier on Mount Shasta (first confirmed glacier in the U.S.) named after him despite screwing up with the Calaveras Skull Hoax in 1866, and wrongly dissing John Muir for claiming that the Yosemite Valley was carved by glaciers. Gump's Store is founded in San Francisco, Calif. for Silver Rush winners, specializing in fancy gilded mirrors; "Gump's is everything you want and nothing you need"; it is located across the street from Morton's Alley (later called Maiden Lane), heart of the brothel district, where hundreds of 6.5' x 4.75' rooms turn over 80-100 johns a night each - honey, look what I just bought you? Gay English scholar Oscar Browning (1837-1923) becomes a master at Eton College, going on to hook up with Jewish artist Simeon Solomon in 1868, then get dismissed in 1875 for having an "overly amorous" relationship with pupil George Curzon after taking him on a trip to Europe without parental permission. The Maj School of Czech poetry, led by Vitezslav Halek (1835-74) dumps Byronic moronic romanticism in favor of social realism and political reform as the Bohemians are given more freedom by the Austrian constitutional reforms. Standard & Poor's is founded to pub. research and analysis on U.S. stocks and bonds by Henry Varnum Poor (1812-1905). The New York World begins pub. (until 1931). The Cornhill Mag. is founded in London (until 1975), with William Makepeace Thackeray as ed., going on to inculcate innocuous Victorian morals through articles and serialized novels, and attracting Queen Victoria herself to pub. Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands in it. Paperback dime novels and guide books appear with the establishment of Irvin P. Beadle & Co. Gross sales of books in the U.S. is nearly $20M this year, up from $2M in 1820 and $12M in 1850; from 1820-60 U.S. authors increase their share of the U.S. market from about one-third to two-thirds. In this decade the phrase "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" first appears as an old saying from Pembrokshire, Wales; the modern form appears in 1922. Philly-born Anna Elizabeth Dickinson (1842-1932) begins giving abolitionist speeches, continuing throughout the Civil War and earning an unheard-of $20K a year in some years. Later in this decade the Burlesque Show is brought to the U.S. from Britain by amply proportioned Lydia Thompson (1838-1908) and her British Blondes, later evolving into strip tease. The U. of Aberdeen in Scotland is formed by the merger of King's College (founded 1495) and Marischal College (founded 1593), becoming the first medical school in Britain. James Athearn Folger (1835-89) founds J.A. Folger Coffee Co. in San Francisco, Calif. In this decade Pyotr Smirnov (1831-98) begins selling vodka in Moscow, pioneering newspaper ads and charitable contributions to clergymen to shut them up, and adopting charcoal filtration in the 1870s, going on to become the preferred brand of the tsar, capturing two-thirds of the Moscow market by 1886. In this decade W.H. Goss of Stoke-on-Trent in England becomes producing small porcelain ornaments bearing the arms of towns, which become popular. Loft Inc. candy co. is founded in Lower Manhattan, N.Y. by London-born English immigrant William Loft (1828-1919), who hands his business to his eldest son George William Loft (1865-1943) in the 1890s, who expands the business and builds a factory in Long Island City, N.Y., going on to become the world's largest candymaker in the 1920s; in June 1941 it merges with PepsiCo, which spins-off the Loft Candy Corp. The Christian Schmidt Brewing Co. is founded in Philly by Machstadt, Wurttemberg, Germany-born Christian Schmidt (1833-94); in 1896 it acquires Robert Smith's Brewery, growing to #13 in the U.S. in 1959 (1.75M barrels). Higbee's department store is founded on Sept. 10 in Cleveland, Ohio by Edwin Converse Higbee and John G. Hower; in 1929 it is acquired by the Van Sweringen brothers; in 1935 it goes bankrupt. Architecture: The Russian Compound in Jerusalem is begun for Orthodox Catholic Russian pilgrims (finished 1864); it later becomes the admin. center for the British Mandate of Palestine. Sports: Baseball becomes popular in New York City and Boston; new West Coast fun city San Francisco picks it up. John Carmel Heenan (1833-73) of the U.S., AKA "the Bernicia Boy" (not to be confused with the Roman Catholic Cardinal born in 1905) and Tom Sayers (1826-65), AKA "the Little Wonder", "Napoleon of the Prize Ring" of Britain fight for the bare-knuckle boxing title, but Sayer supporters break into the ring (as Heenan is winning?), stopping it. On Oct. 17 the first British Open golf tournament is held in Prestwick, Ayrshire, Scotland by the Prestwick Golf Club (founded 1851); William "Willie" Park Sr. (1834-1903) defeats Thomas Mitchell "Old Tom" Morris (1821-98) of St. Andrews by two strokes to become the 1st winner, receiving a red leather belt with silver buckle, but no money; next year amateurs are admitted. In 1866 "Old Tom" Morris wins his first pro golf championship. About this time the British discover the game of Polo in India; by now they use balls instead of goat or human (enemy) heads. The annual Queen's Prize for rifle shooting in Bisley, England is founded; winners get a gold medal and badge, 250 pounds, and a signed portrait of the queen. Architecture: The Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg, Russia opens, going on to become the #1 Russian opera-ballet theater, staging the works of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky et al. Inventions: On Aug. 28 Hamilton E. Smith of Philly patents (#29830) a hand-cranked Washing Machine with paddles that push the laundry through the water; it takes until 1910 to add an electric motor. On Oct. 16 the .44 cal lever-action Henry Repeating Rifle is patented in the U.S. by Benjamin Tyler Henry (1821-98), making the breech-loading rifles look lame, but is slow to be adopted because it is thought to waste expensive ammo, and the first ones are used by the U.S. Army in mid-1862; Oliver Winchester steals the design for the Model 1866 repeating rifle, with an added loading gate on the side and a wooden forearm; too bad, the Sioux and Cheyenne get their hands on some, and use it against Custer at the June 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn. Christopher Spencer invents the .56-56 magazine-fed lever-operated Spencer Repeating Rifle, which the U.S. military is slow to adopt despite Pres. Lincoln requesting a personal demo on the White House lawn soon after the Battle of Gettysurg, and ordering Gen. James Wolfe Ripley (1794-1870) to adopt it for production, who stalls, causing him to be replaced as head of the ordnance dept. on Sept. 15, 1863; meanwhile some units purchase the rifles independently, and it proves popular; the fact that his nephew Roswell Sabine Ripley (1823-87) is a brig. gen in the Confed. army has nothing to do with it? Gaspare Campari (1828-82) of Italy invents Campari alcoholic bitters, colored with carmine dye. On July 10 David Hess of West Union, Iowa receives U.S. Patent #29,077 for an improved carpet sweeper using a bellows that sucks dust into two water chambers. In this decade Belgian-born chef Lucien Olivier (1838-83) of the Hermitage restaurant in Moscow, Russia invents Olivier (Russian) Salad, consisting of caviar, lettuce, capers, crayfish tails, smoked duck, grouse, and veal tongue, with a Mayonnaise-like dressing; it becomes popular after less expensive ingredients are substitutes, incl. potatoes, eggs, ham, and chicken. In this decade Norwegian whaling Capt. Svend Foyn invents a bomb-tipped harpoon for faster whale killing, along with steam-powered whaling boats, allowing fast rorqual whales to be hunted in great numbers, reaching 66K in 1962, then decreasing to 15K by 1980. Daniel Hess invents the Carpet Sweeper. The first sound recording is made on Apr. 19 on a Phonautograph (which records sound visually not aurally), a 10-sec. recording of "Au Clair de la Lune" by 1857 inventor Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville (1817-79), a Parisian typesetter; in Mar. 2008 Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab scientists convert it to sound. L.O. Colvin invents the milking machine, allowing milk to be delivered in bottles for the first time. Samuel Archer King (1828-1914) and William Black take the first aerial photographs, two Photos of Boston, Mass. from a Balloon, which survive to modern times. "Autocrat of the Breakfast Table" Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-84) of the U.S. invents an improved hand-held Skeleton Stereoscope, and donates it to the public domain, with the soundbyte "It is no toy; it is a divine gift, placed in our hands by science"; by 1869 it becomes popular. Fat whitey won't have to ride a horse much longer? Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) of Luxembourg constructs the first practical internal-combustion engine, an 18 liter 1-cylinder 2-stroke mechanism burning coal gas and air and ignited by a "jumping spark" ignition system, producing 2 hp at 4% efficiency; he forms the Gauthier Co. to produce a 3-wheeled automobile, which, although noisy and unreliable causes Scientific American to pronounce the Steam Age at an end; by 1865 he builds 143 of them; meanwhile in 1863 he adds a carburetor; too bad, he fails to keep up with Nikolaus Otto et al. and his design becomes obsolete, and he dies broke. Victor Mustel (1815-90) of France invents the Dulcitone (Typophone), a tuning-fork harpsichord, which becomes the forerunner of the Celesta (1886). English inventor Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914) invents the Carbon-Filament Incandescent Lightbulb, but it is defective (partial vacuum only) and he doesn't perfect it until 1878, receiving patent #4933 on Nov. 27, 1880. English rubber manufacturer Frederick Edward Walton (1834-1928) invents Linoleum, (Lat. "linum" + "oleum" = flax + oil) made of linseed oil, which he calls Kampticon to compete against rival Kamptulicon (patented in 1843), patenting it in 1863; it becomes the first widely-used smooth surface floor covering. A process for making paper from wood pulp is invented, boosting the lumber industries in the U.S. and Finland. In this decade the first low-carb diet is devised, becoming the first best-selling diet plan. In this decade Mrs. LeGrand Benedict invents Eggs Benedict after she becomes bored with the lunch menu at Delmonico's in New York City; either that or in the 1890s hung-over banker Lemuel Benedict makes a special order at the Waldorf-Astoria? Science: The Karlsruhe Congress in Germany of Euro scientists on Sept. 3-5 utilizes the results of the work of Stanislao Cannizzaro of Italy to standardize the atomic weight of hydrogen as about 1, helping chemistry leap ahead. The Internat. Statistical Congress in London honors black Am. physician Martin Robinson Delany (1812-85), causing a white Am. delegate to walk out. French chemist Pierre Eugene Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907) turns sucrose into glucose and fructose (invertase) with a non-living ferment made from mashed yeast cells, theorizing that all ferments are non-living, but is overruled by Louis Pasteur (1822-95), who claims a distinction between soluble and cell ferments. Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) of Austria and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79) of Scotland begin the development of Statistical Mechanics, treating gas as a collection of huge numbers of billiard balls obeying Newton's Laws of Motion. German scientists Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen (1811-99) and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-87) discover the elements Cesium (Cs) (#55) (most electropositive element) and Rubidium (Rb) (#37), both of which ignite spontaneously in air, becoming the first time that spectroscopic identification is used to prove the existence of new elements. Dutch opthalmologist Franciscus Cornelis Donders (1818-89) introduces prismatic and cylindrical lenses for treatment of astigmatism; in this decade he first uses human reaction time to infer differences in cognitive processing. German psychologist Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-87) announces Fechner's Law, that the intensity of sensation varies arithmetically with an exponential variation of the arousing stimulus. French economist Clement (Clément) Juglar (1819-1905) proposes the existence of Economic Waves (Cycles), starting with the Juglar Fixed Investment Wave of 7-11 years. French geologist-paleontologist Edouard (Édouard) Lartet (1801-71). discovers remains of the Aurignacian Culture in Aurignac in Haute-Garonne, SC France, dated about -40K, later known as the first modern humans of Europe. After failing to fit it into his Theory of Evolution, Charles Darwin writes the immortal soundbyte: "The sight of a feather in a peacock's tail makes me sick." After grape growers near Tarascon in S France notice decay in vineyards where they may have experimented with cuttings of U.S. vines resistant to powdery mildew, Louis Pasteur proves that abiogenesis doesn't work, and invents Pasteurization for wine, raising it to 120F to kill the smaller type of yeast cells that survive alcohol and keep changing the sugar to lactic acid and turning it sour; in 1865 he is summoned to Alais in S France to investigate a disease that is killing silkworms, and discovers the bacilli causing silkworm disease, then stops the spread of the disease by having infected silkworms killed and removed from contact with the healthy ones, saving the French silk industry. Nonfiction: Friedrich Bleek (1793-1859), Einleitung in das Alte Testament (posth.). George Boole (1815-64), Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences. Georg Morris Brandes (1842-1927), Aesthetic Studies. Sir John Charles Bucknill (1817-97), The Medical Knowledge of Shakespeare. Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-99) and Gustav Robert Kirchoff (1824-87), Chemical Analysis by Observation of Spectra; causes spectral analysis to become an instant sensation. Jacob Burckhardt (1818-97), The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy; defines the Renaissance as the period between Italian painters Giotto and Michelangelo, founding cultural history; becomes a std. work, making him the #1 scholar of the Italian Renaissance, with his scholarly judgments standing up to modern research; makes a fan of Friedrich Nietzsche; "The great discoverer of the age of the Renaissance, he first showed how a period should be treated in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting, sculpture and architecture, but for the social institutions of its daily life as well." (Siegfried Giedion) Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), The Conduct of Life. ? (ed.), Essays and Reviews; a collection of seven articles by evolution-infected Oxford and Cambridge intellectuals stirs up a long controversy over religious faith in Victorian society. Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-87), Elements of Psychophysics; founds modern experimental psychology (psychophysics). Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-72), Gottheit, Freiheit und Unsterblichkeit. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Aus England, Studien und Briefe; Jenseits des Tweed, Bilder und Briefe aus Schottland. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-94), The Professor at the Breakfast Table; first pub. in "Atlantic Monthly". Benjamin Jowett (1817-93) et al., Essays and Reviews (Mar.); seven essays on Biblical higher criticism by seven liberal Anglican churchmen, who are condemned as "The Seven Against Christ"; the church brings charges of heresy against Jowett, and although he is acquitted he is forbidden to teach from the Oxford U. pulpit, although Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), who becomes dean of Westminster Abbey in 1863 (leading liberal theologian in England) lets him give an annual sermon there beginning in 1866. Elias Lonnrot (1802-84), Flora Fennica - Suomen Kasvisto; the first Finnish language flora of Finland. Bon Louis Henri Martin (1810-83), Daniel Manin. John Stuart Mill (1806-73), Considerations on Representative Government. Charles de Montalembert (1810-70), Pius IX in France in 1849 and 1859; Histoire des Moines d'Occident depuis Saint Benoit jusqu'a Saint Bernard (The Monks of the West from St. Benedict to St. Bernard) (1860-77). Augustus De Morgan (1806-71), Syllabus of a Proposed System of Logic; founds Relation Algebra, which is used by Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whithead in their "Principia Mathematica", and developed by Charles Sanders Peirce, Ernst Schroeder, and Alfred Tarski. John Lothrop Motley (1814-77), The History of the United Netherlands (4 vols.) (1860-8). William Page (1811-85), A New Geometrical Method of Measuring the Human Figure. Capt. R.M. Potter, The Fall of the Alamo. Sergey Solovyov (1820-79), History of Poland's Downfall. Louis Spohr (1784-1859), Autobiography (posth.). Henry Baker Tristram (1822-1906), The Great Sahara. Forbes Benignus Winslow (1810-74), On the Obscure Diseases of the Brain and Mind. Joseph Emerson Worcester (1784-1865), A Dictionary of the English Language; attempts to supplant Webster's "vulgar" American Dictionary, and does it until 1864, losing the Dictionary Wars; first Am. dictionary with illustrations throughout the text, and first to treat synonyms. Music: Johannes Brahms (1833-97), Two Serenades. Stephen Foster (1826-64), Old Black Joe. Charles Gounod (1818-93), Philemon et Baucis (opera); La Colombe (opera). Sebastian de Iradier (1809-65), La Paloma; popularizes the Cuban habanera. Jacques Offenbach (1819-80), Le Papillon (The Butterfly) ("fantastic ballet") (Nov. 26) (Salon Le Peletier, Paris); libretto by Jules-Henry Vernoy de Saint Georges; stars Emma Livry as Farfalla the Butterfly, Louise Merante as Prince Djalma, Louise Marquet as the Fairy Hamza, and Mme. Simon as the Diamond Fairy. Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Das Pensionat (operetta) (Nov. 24) (Vienna); first Viennese operetta ever? Art: Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising. Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Greek Interior; purchased by Prince Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte for his house in Paris, which Gerome decorates in the Pompeian style. William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), Finding of the Saviour in the Temple. Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904), The Goatherd. Edouard Manet (1832-83), Spanish Guitar Player. Clarke Mills (1815-83), Equestrian Statue of George Washington; erected in Washington, D.C. Valentine Cameron Prinsep (1838-1904), The Queen was in the Parlour. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Forgetfulness. John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910), Indian Hunter (sculpture); first statue erected in New York City's Central Park. Henryk Wieniawski (1835-80), Legende, Op. 17; good enough to convince his babe Isabella Hampton's daddy to let him marry her. Plays: Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Dido (Feb. 11) (St. James's Theatre, London); his first production, launching his career in rivalry with W.S. Gilbert; The Iles of St. Tropez. Dion Boucicault (1820-90), The Colleen Bawn (London); adaptation of Gerald Griffin's novel "The Collegians". Alexander Ostrovsky (1823-86), The Storm; his masterpiece. Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), The Queen Mother; Rosamond. Poetry: Dorothy Greenwell (1821-82), The Patience of Hope. John Ceiriog Hughes (1832-87), Oriau'r Hwyr (Evening Hours) (debut). George Pope Morris (1802-64), Poems; incl. Woodman, Spare that Tree; My Mother's Bible; A Long Time Ago. Coventry Patmore (1823-96), Faithful For Ever. Novels: Wilkie Collins (1824-89), The Woman in White; pioneers the mystery novel; Laura's fortune and identity are stolen by her new hubby, causing her half-sister Marian and poor art master Walter Hartright to come to her rescue, while Anne Catherick, the you know what pops in and out. Felix Dahn (1834-1912), Die Konige der Germanen (Kings of Germany) (20 vols.) (1860-1911) - a daunting work? Charles Dickens (1812-70), Great Expectations (1860-1); illustrations by Marcus Stone; first pub. in All the Year Round from Dec. 1, 1859-Aug. 3, 1860; Philip Pirrip (Pip) is told he has great you know whats; Miss Havisham, Abel Magwitch, Estella, blacksmith Joe Gargery, Mr. Jaggers, Wemmick, actor Mr. Wopsle, Biddy. George Eliot (1819-80), The Mill on the Floss (3 vols.); siblings Tom and Maggie Tulliver grow up on the Floss River near St. Ogg's, England in the 1820s; she hooks up with hunchbacked Phillip Wakem and wealthy Stephen Guest; the river floods and they drown; "In their death they were not divided" (epigraph). Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Manner und Helden. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64), The Marble Faun; the Beatrice Cenci (1577-99) case; Hilda and Mariam debate her guilt for murdering her sexually-abusive daddy, with Mariam calling it "no sin at all, but the best possible virtue in the circumstances". Eugene Labiche, Le Voyage de M. Perrichon. George Meredith (1828-1909), Evan Harrington. Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker) (1820-87), Max Havelaar; tasks the Dutch bourgeoisie for its treatment of Javanese natives; brings him instant fame. Petroleum V. Nasby (David Rosse Locke) (1833-88), Civil War Letters of the Rev. Petroleum Vesuvius Nasby (1860-5); Copperhead Dem. Confed. deserter tries to get a sinecure job with the "Post Orfis"; big hit with Abraham Lincoln, who says "If he will communicate his talent to me, I will swap places with him." Douglas O'Connor, Harrington: A Story of True Love; first written mtion of the Birkenhead Drill (women and children first). Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), Gryll Grange (last novel). Charles Reade (1814-84), White Lies; adapted from a work by Auguste Maquet. George Sand (1804-76), La Ville Noire; Marquis de Villemer. Friedrich Spielhagen, Problematische Naturen. Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter (June 9); first dime novel; an Indian maiden marries a white settler and has a mixed son; sells 65K copies in a few mo., and 300K copies total (duh, $30K?); first of a series of 321 by Beadle & Adams; each is about 6.5 in. x 4.25 in., salmon-colored, and about 100 pages, and most are lurid outlandish melodramatic frontier stories. Robert Smith Surtees (1803-64), Plain or Ringlets? Theodore Dwight Woolsey (1801-89), Introduction to the Study of International Law. Births: Am. "Brill-Zinsser Disease" physician Nathan Edwin Brill (d. 1925) on Jan. 3 in New York City. Canadian "Earth's Enigmas" poet Sir Charles George Douglas Roberts (d. 1943) on Jan. 10 in Douglas, N.B. Am. "The Bearcat" actor Charles K. French (Charles E. Krauss) (d. 1952) on Jan. 17 in Columbus, Ohio. Irish pres. #1 (1938-45) (founder of the Gaelic League) Douglas Hyde (d. 1949) (AKA An Craoibhin Aoibhinn) on Jan. 17 in Frenchpark, County Roscommon; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. U.S. Repub. vice-pres. #31 (1929-33) Charles Curtis (d. 1936) on Jan. 25 in Topeka, Kan.; white father, Indian mother (25% Kaw, 25% Osage, 25% Pottawatomie, 25% French). Russian "The Seagull", "The Cherry Orchard", "Uncle Vanya" dramatist and short story writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Chekov) (Tchekhov) (d. 1904) on Jan. 29 (Jan. 17 Old Style) in Taganrog; medical degree from the U. of Moscow in 1884. Swedish Impressionist painter Anders Leonard Zorn (d. 1920) on Feb. 18 in Mora, Dalarna. Austrian diplomat Gen. Wladimir Rudolf Karl Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen (d. 1936) on Feb. 18 in Funfkirchen (Pecs), Hungary; youngest son of Heinrich Karl Giesl von Gieslingen (1821-1906). Czech naturalistic novelist-journalist Karel Matej Capek-Chod (d. 1927) on Feb. 21 in Domazlice; not to be confused with Karel Capek (1890-1938) of Rossum's Universal Robots fame, who worked with him at Narodni Listi mag., causing to accept the nickname "Chod". English economic historian Sir William James Ashley (d. 1927) on Feb. 25 in Bermondsey, South London; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. French WWI Gen. Francois Paul Anthoine (d. 1944) on Feb. 28. Am. Socialist leader (Jewish) Victor Louis (Luitpold) Berger (d. 1929) on Feb. 28 in Nieder Rehbach, Austria-Hungary; educated at the U. of Budapest, and U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1878; first Socialist in the U.S. Congress (House seat for Wisc.) (1911-28). Am. Shakespearean scholar-educator George Lyman Kittredge (d. 1941) on Feb. 28 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; never gets a doctorate, with the TLW-like soundbyte "But who would examine me?" Am. punched card inventor Herman Hollerith (d. 1929) on Feb. 29 in Buffalo, N.Y.; of German heritage; educated at Columbia U. - he started with an extra punch in his card? Am. ML baseball pitcher-SS-mgr. John Montgomery "Monte" Ward (d. 1925) on Mar. 3 in Bellefonte, Penn.; educated at Columbia U. Am. 6'2" baseball hall-of-fame player Samuel Luther "Big Sam" Thompson (d. 1922) on Mar. 5 in Danville, Ind. German ambassador to Great Britain (1912-4) Karl Max, 6th Prince Lichnowsky (d. 1928) on Mar. 8 in Krzyzanowice, Upper Silesia. Am. architect Thomas Hastings (d. 1929) on Mar. 11 in New York City; goes into partnership in New York City in 1884 with John Merven Carrere (1858-1911). U.S. Sen. (D-Md.) (1923-9) and writer William Cabell Bruce (d. 1946) on Mar. 12 in Charlotte county, Va. Italian "Assunta Spina" playwright-songwriter Salvatore di Giacomo (d. 1934) on Mar. 12 in Naples. Austrian song composer Hugo Wolf (d. 1903) on Mar. 13 in Windischgraz, Styria; put in a mental insitution in 1897. Am. Dem. pacifist prohibitionist Neb. politician-orator and Presbyterian Scopes Trial Bible thumper ("the Great Commoner") William Jennings Bryan (d. 1925) on Mar. 18 in Salem, Ill.; breaks with his Methodist mother to get baptized into the Presbyterian Church in 1874. French glass designer Rene Jules Lalique (d. 1945) on Apr. 6 in Ay, Marne. Am. breakfast cereal king and philanthropist (Seventh-Day Adventist) (vegetarian) (inventor of Kellogg's Corn Flakes) Will Keith Kellogg (d. 1951) on Apr. 7 in Battle Creek, Mich.; brother of John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943). English welfare activist Emily Hobhouse (d. 1926) on Apr. 9 in St. Ive, Cornwall; brother of Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864-1929). English Stokes Mortar inventor Sir Frederick Wilfred Scott Stokes (d. 1927) on Apr. 9 in Liverpool; knighted in 1917. Belgian "Christ's Entry into Brussels" painter-etcher (surrealist precursor) James Sidney Edouard, Baron Ensor (d. 1949) on Apr. 13; English descent father, Flemish mother; founds the Dead Rat Ball in Ostend in 1898. British film pioneer Charles (Carl) Urban (d 1942) on Apr. 15 in Cincinnati, Ohio; Austrian-Prussian immigrant parents; loses sight in left eye at age 12 after a baseball accident. Am. sculptor Lorado Zadoc Taft (d. 1936) on Apr. 29 in Elmwood, Ill. English physiologist (discoverer of peristalsis of the intestines) Sir William Maddock Bayliss (d. 1924) on May 2 in Butcroft, Wednesbury, Staffordshire; co-discoverer of the hormone secretin with Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927); educated at Wadham College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1922. Austrian journalist-playwright-writer (Jewish) (Zionism founder) ("the Seer of the Jewish State") Theodor Herzl (d. 1904) on May 2 in Pest, Hungary. Scottish self-experimenting physician-physiologist (inventor of the gas mask) John Scott Haldane (d. 1936) on May 3 in Edinburgh; father of J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964) and Naomi Mitchison (1897-1999). Scottish "Peter Pan" dramatist Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet (d. 1937) on May 9 in Kirriemuir. Am. electric chair guinea pig William Francis Kemmler (d. 1890) on May 9 in Philadelphia, Penn.; German immigrant parents. U.S. First Lady (1913-4) Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (d. 1914) on May 15 in Savannah, Ga.; 1st wife of U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson. Italian liberal PM #35 (1917-9) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (d. 1952) on May 19 in Palermo, Sicily. German chemist (discoverer of enzymes) Eduard Buchner (d. 1917) on May 20 in Munich; brother of bacteriologist Hans Buchner (1850-1902). Dutch physician-physiologist ("Father of the Electrocardiograph") Willem Einthoven (d. 1927) on May 21 in Semarang, Java. Am. psychologist ("Dean of Am. Science" - NYT) James McKeen Cattell (d. 1944) on May 25 in Easton, Penn.; educated at the U. of Leipzig, the U. of Gottingen, and Johns Hopkins U. Spanish "Iberia", "Asturias" pianist-composer Isaac Manuel Francisco Albeniz i Pascual (d. 1909) on May 29 in Camprodon, Catalonia; child prodigy; great-grandfather of Cecilia Sarkozy (1957-), 2nd wife of Nicolas Sarkozy. English "Camden Town Nudes" Impressionist painter Walter Richard Sickert (d. 1942) May 31 in Munich; emigrates to England in 1851; the real Jack the Ripper? English Anglican theologian ("the Gloomy Dean") William Ralph Inge (AKA Dean Inge) (d. 1954) (pr. EENG) on June 6 in Crayke, Yorkshire; educated at Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge U.; dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1911-34). Russian Grand Duke Dimitry (Dimitri) Constantinovich (d. 1919) on June 13 in Streina; 1st cousin of Alexander III. British gen. Sir Charles Carmichael Monro, 1st Baronet of Bearcrofts (d. 1929) on June 15 at sea aboard Maid of Judah; educated at Sherborne School, and Sandhurst Academy. English sculptor Sir George Frampton (d. 1928) on June 18 in London; pupil of William Silver Frith. Am. auto designer Alexander Winton (d. 1932) on June 20 in Grangemouth, Stirling, Scotland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1880. English "Nicholas Crabbe", "Hadrian the Seventh" novelist (gay) Frederick William Serafino Austin Lewis Mary Rolfe (AKA Baron Corvo) (d. 1913) on July 22 in Cheapside, London; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1886 then goes off the deep end?; basis of James Joyce's Stephen Dedalus? French "Louise" composer Gustave Charpentier (d. 1956) on June 25. Canadian historian-clergyman George MacKinnon Wrong (d. 1948) on June 25 in Grovesend, Elgin County, Ont.; educated at Wycliffe College. Hungarian statesman Count Julius Andrassy Jr. (Gyula Andrassy de Csikszentkiraly et Krasznahorka the Younger) (d. 1929) on June 30 in Toketebenes; son of Count Julius Andrassy Sr. (1823-90). Am. "Women and Economics", "Herland", "The Yellow Wallpaper" women's activist writer Charlotte Anna Perkins Gilman (d. 1935) on July 3 in Hartford, Conn.; great-niece of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Isabella Beecher Hooker. U.S. state secy. (1909) and ambassador to France (1909-12) Robert Bacon (d. 1919) on July 5 in Jamaica Plain, Mass. Am. Socialist writer (Jewish) Abraham Cahan (1951) on July 7 in Podberezhye, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1882. Bohemian "Das Lied von der Erde" composer-conductor Gustav Mahler (d. 1911) on July 7; conductor of the Hamburg, Vienna and New York Metropolitan Operas. Am. "The Virginian" novelist Owen Wister (d. 1938) on July 14 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Harvard U. Am. alleged axe-murderer Lizzie Borden (d. 1927) on July 19. Czech Art Nouveau artist Alphonse (Alfons Maria) Mucha (d. 1939) on July 24 in Ivancice (near Brno), Moravia. Scottish motion picture pioneer William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (d. 1935) on Aug. 3 in Le Minihic-sur-Rance, Brittany, France; Am. mother; invents celluloid film and picks 35mm as the std. size. Norwegian Antarctic explorer Carl Anton Larsen (d. 1924) on Aug. 7 in Ostre Halsen; becomes British citizen in 1910. Austrian Fuhrermutter Klara Hitler (nee Polzl) (d. 1907) on Aug. 12 in Spital, Weitra, Waldvertiel; daughter of Johann Baptist Polzl and Johanna Polzl (nee Hiedler) (1830-1906); mother of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). Am. 6'2" atty.-gunfighter ("Lone Wolf of the Canadian") (Roman Catholic convert) (alcoholic) Temple Lea Houston (d. 1905) on Aug. 12 in Austin, Tex.; last son of Sam Houston (1793-1863); educated at Baylor U.; likes to wear a black frock coat and white Stetson along with shoulder-length auburn hair, and lace his courtroom arguments with lit. allusions incl. Shakespeeare and the Bible; outside the courtroom he likes to wear a buckskin shirt, caballero pants, wide-brimmed sombrero with a silver eagle in the crown, his daddy's miniature gold saber pin, and a pearl-handled revolver. Am. 5' sharpshooter ("Little Sure Shot") Annie (Phoebe Anne) Oakley (Moses) (Mozee) (d. 1926) on Aug. 13 in Patterson Township, Darke County, Ohio; Quaker innkeeper parents; 5th of eight children; widowed mother puts her in the county poor farm and a local family, who abuse her (until she learns how to shoot?). Canadian "Two Little Savages" children's writer-illustrator and scoutmaster Ernest Thompson Seton (Seton Thompson) (d. 1946) on Aug. 14 in South Shields, England; emigrates to Canada in 1866. U.S. Repub. First Lady (1921-3) Florence "Flossie" Mabel Kling DeWolfe Harding (d. 1924) on Aug. 15 in Marion, Ohio; wife (1891-) of Pres. Warren G. Harding; daughter of Amos Hall Kling, richest man in town, and Louisa Mabel Kling. Russian foreign minister (1910-16) Sergei (Sergius) Dmitrievich Sazonov (Sazonoff) (d. 1927) on Aug. 10 in Ryazan. French conservative PM (1912-3, 1922-4, 1926-9) and pres. (1913-20) Raymond (Raimond) Poincare (Poincaré) (d. 1934) on Aug. 20 in Barle-Duc, Meuse; cousin of mathematician Jules Henri Poincare (1854-1912). German inventor Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow (d. 1940) on Aug. 22 in Lauenberg, Prussia. German Nordic racist eugenicist (coiner of the term "racial hygiene") Alfred Ploetz (d. 1940) on Aug. 22 in Swinemunde; grows up in Breslau. Am. department store magnate (Jewish) Edward Albert Filene (d. 1937) on Sept. 3 in Salem, Mass.; son of William Filene (1830-1901); brother of Abraham Lincoln Filene (1865-1957). Am. writer and Progressive movement leader Jane Addams (d. 1935) on Sept. 6 in Cedarville, Ill.; daughter of John Huy Addams (1822-81); first cousin twice removed of Charles Addams (1912-88). Am. late-blooming farmer's wife and primitive painter Anna Mary Robertson "Grandma" Moses (d. 1961) on Sept. 7 in Washington County, N.Y.; begins painting at age 77 when she gets arthritis and can't hold needles that she was using to embroider pictures on canvas. Canadian "Black Rock" novelist Ralph Connor (Charles William Gordon) (d. 1937) on Sept. 13 in Glengarry County. Romanian surgeon Thoma Ionescu (d. 1926) on Sept. 13 in Plesti. U.S. army gen. John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (d. 1948) on Sept. 13 near Laclede, Mo.; CIC of Am. Expeditionary Forces in WWI, and first to rise to George Washington's rank of gen. of the armies while still alive (until ?); starts out a schoolteacher then sees an ad for West Point - does one war have the seeds of the next in it, or what? Am. "A Son of the Middle Border" writer and psychical researcher Hannibal Hamlin Garland (d. 1940) on Sept. 14 near West Salem, Wisc.; named after Hannibal Hamlin; disciple of Henry George (1839-97); works on farms in Wisc., Iowa, and S.D., then writes short stories that bitterly denounce farm life. English gov.-gen. #1 of Australia (1900-2) John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun (d. 1908) on Sept. 25 in Hopetoun House, South Queensferry, Scotland; educated at Eton School. Am. "The Greatest Trust in the World" journalist-writer (co-founder of the NAACP) Charles Edward Russell (d. 1941) on Sept. 25 in Davenport, Iowa. Am. "Little Nemo", "Gertie the Dinosaur" animator-cartoonist Zenas Winsor McCay (d. 1934) on Sept. 26. Swiss army knife manufacturer Karl Elsener (d. 1918) on Oct. 9; father of Carl Elsener Jr. (1886-1950); grandfather of Carl Elsener III (1922-2013); great-grandfather of Carl Elsener IV (1958-). Am. "The Americanization of Edward Bok" writer and "Ladies' Home Journal" ed. (1890-1920) Edward William (Eduard Willem Gerard Cesar Hidde) Bok (d. 1930) on Oct. 9 in Den Helder, Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. at age six; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; coiner of the term "living room". English jurist-diplomat (Jewish) Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading (d. 1935) on Oct. 10 in London; knighted in 1910; created baron in 1914, viscount in 1916, and marquess in 1926 (highest rank by a Jew in British history until ?, and it had to be for reading?). U.S. Maj. Gen. William Luther sibert (d. 1935) on Oct. 12 in Gadsden, Ala.;e ducated at the U. of Ala. Am. electrical engineer (gyrocompass co-inventor) ("Father of Modern Navigation Technology") Elmer Ambrose Sperry (d. 1930) on Oct. 12 in Cincinnatus, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. Canadian steamship line heir Lt. Col. Sir Hugh Andrew Montagu Allan (d. 1951) on Oct. 13 in Montreal, Quebec; son of Sir Hugh Allan (1810-82). Am. anti-suffrage novelist Molly Elliot Seawell (d. 1916) on Oct. 23 in Gloucester, Va.; daughter of John Tyler Seawell (nephew of U.S. Pres. John Tyler). Japanese Judo ("way of softness") founder Jigoro Kano (d. 1938) on Oct. 28 in Mikage; sake brewing parents. Am. historian Frederic Bancroft (d. 1945) on Oct. 30 in Galesburg, Ill.; brother of Edgar Addison Bancroft (1857-1925); educated at Amherst College, and Columbia U. Am. Girl Scouts founder (1912) Juliette Gordon "Daisy" Low (Juliette Magill Kinzie Gordon) (d. 1927) on Oct. 31 in Savannah, Ga.; lives in a Regency-style townhouse at 142 Bull St. until her Dec. 21, 1886 marriage to William Mackay "Willy" "Billow" Low (-1905), during which a grain of rice infects her ear drum, making her deaf on that side, after which she is presented at Queen Victoria's Court in 1887. Am. politician ("Father of Prohibition") Andrew John Volstead (d. 1947) on Oct. 31 in Kenyon, Minn.; Norwegian immigrant parents; educated at St. Olaf College. U.S. Sen. (R-Penn.) (1897-1921) "Boss" Boies Penrose (d. 1921) on Nov. 1 in Philadelphia, Penn.; brother of Spencer Penrose (1865-1939). English archeologist-historian (founder of Romano-British archeology) Francis John Haverfield (d. 1919) on Nov. 8 in Shiptson-on-Stour, Warwickshire; educated at Winchester College, and Oxford U.; teacher of Thomas Ashby (1874-1931), R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), and John Garstang (1876-1956). Am. film pioneer (inventor of the Magniscope) Edward Hill Amet (d. 1948) on Nov. 10 in Philadelphia, Penn. Polish pianist-composer-statesman Ignace (Ignacy) Jan Paderewski (d. 1941) on Nov. 18 in Kurylowka, Russian Podolia. English painter Arthur John Elsley (d. 1952) on Nov. 20. Am. gunman celeb Tom Horn (d. 1903) on Nov. 21 near Memphis, Mo. Swedish Socialist PM (1920, 1922, 1924-5) Karl Hjalmar Branting (d. 1925) on Nov. 23 in Stockholm; founder of the Swedish Socialist Party (1889). Am. surgeon (dir. #1 of the Nat. Institutes of Health, 1887-99) Joseph James Kinyoun (d. 1919) on Nov. 25 in East Bend, N.C.; educated at St. Louis Medical College, Bellevue Medical College, and Georgetown U. British Brig. Gen. Arthur Willoughby George Lowry Cole (d. 1915) on Nov. 29. Am. jurist John Bassett Moore (d. 1947) on Dec. 3 in Smyrna, Del.; educated at the U. of Va. Am. Hormel Foods Corp. founder George Albert Hormel (d. 1946) on Dec. 4 in Buffalo, N.Y.; German immigrant father. Am. singer-actress (soprano) and suffragette Lillian Russell (Helen Louise Leonard) (d. 1922) on Dec. 4 in Clinton, Iowa. German composer-pianist Richard Burmeister (d. 1946) on Dec. 7 in Hamburg; student of Franz Liszt. Irish "Dear Lord the day of eggs is here" so-bad-it's-good novelist-poet Amanda McKittrick Ros (d. 1939) on Dec. 8 in Drumaness, County Down. English writer-ed. Leonard Huxley (d. 1933) on Dec. 11; son of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95); father of Julian Huxley (1887-1975), Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), and Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-); educated at St. Andrews U., and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. poet (founder of "Poetry" mag. in 1912) Harriet Monroe (d. 1936) on Dec. 12 in Washington, D.C. Danish physician (firt Danish Nobel Prize winner) Niels Ryberg Finsen (d. 1904) on Dec. 15 in Torshavn, Faroe Islands; founder of phototherapy (for lupus). Am. "Woodland Sketches" Romantic composer-pianist Edward Alexander MacDowell (d. 1908) (AKA Edgar Thorn) on Dec. 18 in New York City. Am. Zionist leader (Jewish) (1912 founder of Hadassah) Henrietta Szold (d. 1945) on Dec. 21 in Baltimore, Md.; rabbi father; educated at Johns Hopkins U. Am. Palmer Method penmanship teacher Austin Norman Palmer (d. 1927) on Dec. 22 in Ft. Jackson, N.Y. Czech PM #1 (1918-9) Karel Kramar (d. 1937) on Dec. 27 in Vysoke nad Jizerou. German composer-pianist Alexander von Fielitz (d. 1930) on Dec. 28 in Dresden. Am. "The Wizard of the Nile" lyricist-composer Harry Bache (Bach) Smith (d. 1936) on Dec. 28 in Buffalo, N.Y.; brother of Robert Bache Smith (1875-1951); collaborator of Victor Herbert (1859-1924). English Impressionist artist Philip Wilson Steer (d. 1942) on Dec. 28 in Birkenhead; son of Philip Steer (1810-71) - what state is he from? Am. Tommy Gun inventor John Taliaferro Thompson (d. 1940) on Dec. 31 in Newport, Ky.; son of a Union Army Lt. Col. Am. "The Science of Getting Rich" New Thought writer Wallace Delois Wattles (Walters) (d. 1911) in Ill. Am. stage actress Rehan (Ada Crehan) (d. 1916) in Limerick, Ireland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1865. English "Kashmiri Song" composer Amelia "Amy" Woodford-Finden (nee Ward) (d. 1919) in Valparaiso, Chile; Am. father, English mother; hubby is an English army surgeon in India. French aviation pioneer Armand Deperdussin (d. 1924) in Liege. French archeologist-numismatist (Jewish) Theodore Reinach (d. 1928); brother of Joseph Reinach (1856-1921) and Salomon Reinach (1858-1932). Dutch poet-novelist-philosopher Frederik Willem van Eeden (d. 1932) in Haarlem. Am. jockey (black) William "Billy" Walker (d. 1933) near Versailles, Ky.; born a slave. Welsh anarchist miner James Colton (d. 1936) in Scotland. Am. army Col. B.W. Dunn (d. 1936); inventor of dunnite, used in armor-piercing shells. Am. Filene's dept. store magnate (Jewish) Edward Albert Filene (d. 1937) in Boston, Mass.; German Jewish immigrant parents; brother of Abraham Lincoln Filene (1865-1957). English Arctic explorer Frederick George Jackson (d. 1938); educated at Edinburgh U. German Bavarian gen.-diplomat Max, Count von Montgelas (d. 1938) in St. Petersburg, Russia; grandson of Maximilian von Montgelas (1759-1838). English painter Frederick Marriott (d. 1941). Deaths: German patriot Ernst Moritz Arndt (b. 1769) on Jan. 29 in Bonn. Scottish physician-explorer William Sommerville (b. 1771) on June 25 in Florence, Italy. British rear Adm. Thomas Cochrane (b. 1775) on Oct. 31 in Kensington, London. English antiquarian William Martin Leake (b. 1777) on Jan. 6 in Brighton. Am. novelist and U.S. Navy secy. (1838-41) James Kirke Paulding (b. 1778) on Apr. 6 in Hyde Park, N.Y. Am. painter Rembrandt Peale (b. 1778) on Oct. 3 in Philadelphia, Penn. Serbian prince (1817-39, 1858-60) Milos Obrenovic I (b. 1780) on Sept. 26 in Belgrade. U.S. Supreme Court justice #27 (1841-60) Peter Vivian Daniel (b. 1784) on May 31 in Richmond, Va. Irish-born British historian Gen. Sir William Napier (b. 1785) on Feb. 12 in Clapham, London, England: "He who wars, walks in a mist, through which the keenest eyes cannot always discern the right path." English Lt. Gen. Sir Harry Smith (b. 1787) on Oct. 12 in London. German pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (b. 1788) on Sept. 21 in Frankfurt am Main: "Compassion is the basis of all morality"; "The truth was recognized by the sages of India"; "All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident"; "[Science] is like the innumerable showering drops of the waterfall, which, constantly changing, never rest for an instant; [Art] is like the rainbow, quietly resting on this raging torrent." German composer Friedrich Silcher (b. 1789) on Aug. 26 in Tubingen. Hungarian statesman Count Istvan Szechenyi (b. 1791) on Apr. 8 in Vienna (suicide after his house is searched by the police and they accuse him of political conspiracy). Danish dramatist Johan Ludvig Heiberg (b. 1791). German theologian Ferdinand Christian Baur (b. 1792) on Dec. 2. English celeb Anne Isabella Byron, baroness Byron (b. 1792) on May 16 in London(breast cancer); leaves Memoirs, pub. by Harriet Beecher Stowe, which reveal her hubby Lord Byron's incest with his half-sister that forced him into permanent exile from England, ruining his rock star rep. English Addison's Disease physician Thomas Addison (b. 1795) on June 29 in Brighton, East Sussex. English architect Sir Charles Barry (b. 1795) on Jan. 27 in London. Scottish surgeon James Braid (b. 1795) on Mar. 25 in Manchester, England. Dutch poet Isaak da Costa (b. 1798) on Apr. 20. Am. vulcanizer Charles Goodyear (b. 1800) on July 1. Hungarian mathematician Janos Bolyai (b. 1802) on Jan. 27. French painter Alexandre Gabriel Decamps (b. 1803); leaves 100 lithographs and 20 etchings. Scottish politician-economist James Wilson (b. 1805) on Aug. 11 in Calcutta, India (dysentery); in 2007 his grave is discovered and the tombstone restored. Am. dentistry school founder Chapin Aaron Harris (b. 1806) on Sept. 29 in Baltimore, Md. Am. abolitionist clergyman Theodore Parker (b. 1810) on May 10 in Florence, Italy: "The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice." Bohemian-born Am. Roman Catholic bishop John Neumann (b. 1811) on Jan. 5 in Philadelpia, Penn.; canonized on June 19, 1977 by Pope Paul VI. British gov.-gen. of India (1847-59) Marquis of Dalhousie (b. 1812) on Dec. 19 in Dalhousie Castle, Midlothian, Scotland. Spanish pretender Infante Don Carlos, Count of Montemolin (b. 1818) on Jan. 13. Am. adventurer William Walker (b. 1824) on Sept. 12 in Honduras (executed). English "Gray's Anatomy" anatomist Henry Gray (b. 1827); dies of smallpox contracted from his dying nephew shortly after pub. of the 1860 2nd ed. of his work.



1861 - The Tough Shit, It's A Brick House, Yeah, Is Chivalry Dead, No, So Let's Kill It, Look at Them Whiteys Jumping Into Uniforms Just to Kill Each Other for Blackeys Fort Sumter Year? Hey, we're from the country and we like it that way? The biggest year in U.S. history since 1776? The 45-y.-o. Age of Reason marriage of the lily-white English-speaking U.S., based on the original white colonization of North America, which all started in Virginia, cotton-pickin' tobacco-growing black neegar slaves and all, and which has done pretty well for whites, exterminating the red Indians, booting out the French, Spanish, Russians, and British, and keeping the brown Mexicans out of sight and mind, while breeding and spreading like white rabbits finds itself with a population problem of more tractable but fertile black slave rabbits that it can't or won't exterminate, return to Africa, or wall off with apartheid, because it needs their superior musclepower, and after consulting the Bible and Constitution, only to become more confused, goes ape, going head to head and brother against brother in a white civil war over the indigestible darkies, which inevitably escalates into a love-hate affair to remember, an all-out total war, creating countless tales, with even the chivalrous South getting desperate enough to resort to unchivalrous guerrilla devices such as ironclads, land and naval mines, booby traps, chemical weapons, and raids on merchant shipping to damage the Northern economy?

The net result is once-boss Virginia and its planter aristocracy, home of George Washington and several of the early presidents, and once the most populous, rich, and powerful state getting humbled, with its flower mowed down in a cornfield in Gettysburg on the Almost Fourth of July, and New York City, home of ersatz salsa taking over the U.S. capital in, don't say it, Washington, D.C., forever darkening the country's complexion?

An interesting reverse-MF year, where the usual phobia for 1866 is turned into a thirst for righteousness, to get infinitely straight with God, only to feel that God has punished all whites in the U.S. for the sin of slavery? Does the real U.S. govt. of We the People, Da White People actually die this year, and an ersatz U.S. arise in its place, with Washington, D.C. turning into a centralized hydra holding all the other states in its many jaws and coils while it leaves a permanent door open to the rest of the races of the world to move on in, especially the Jews, whom Mel Gibson types probably blame this war on too? Is it any wonder that Jew-hating al-Qaida targeted it and New York City on 9/11?

Meanwhile Science stages a quantum leap as brain man James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), the original give-me-more-time-captain Scotty stunningly unites all electromagnetic phenomena, launching the Brain Age of electrons at man's service, which coulda caused all them slaves to be freed anyway when machines could do their jobs cheaper?


Abraham Lincoln of the U.S. (1809-65) Mary Todd Lincoln of the U.S. (1818-82) Hannibal Hamlin of the U.S. (1809-91) Jefferson Davis of the U.S. (1808-89) Varina Howell Davis of the U.S. (1826-1906) Alexander Hamilton Stephens of the U.S. (1812-83) Fernando Wood of the U.S. (1812-81) Lincoln's Cabinet, 1861 Salmon Portland Chase of the U.S. (1808-73) Simon Cameron of the U.S. (1779-1889) William Henry Seward Sr. of the U.S. (1801-72) Judah Philip Benjamin of the U.S. (1811-84) Edward Bates of the U.S. (1793-1869) Gideon Welles of the U.S. (1802-78) Caleb Blood Smith of the U.S. (1808-64) Montgomery Blair of the U.S. (1813-83) Thomas Francis Bayard of the U.S. (1828-98) Thomas Alexander Scott of the U.S. (1823-81) Elihu Benjamin Washburne of the U.S. (1816-87) Charles Francis Adams Sr. of the U.S. (1807-86) Moncure Daniel Conway (1832-1907) James Murray Mason of the U.S. (1798-1881) John Bigelow of the U.S. (1817-1911) Union Naval Cmdr. James Harmon Ward (1806-61) Union Gen. George Brinton McClellan (1826-85) Confed. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-62) Confed. Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (1807-91) Confed. Gen. Bernard Elliott Bee Jr. (1824-61) Confed. Gen. Thomas Howell Cobb (1815-68) Union Gen. Irvin McDowell (1818-85) Union Gen. John Charles Fremont (1813-90) Union Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren (1830-82) Union Gen. Charles Robert Woods (1827-85) Union Gen. John Sedgwick (1813-64) Union Gen. Horatio Gouverneur Wright (1820-99) Francis Wilkinson Pickens of the U.S. (1805-69) Confed. Gen. Pierre Beauregard (1818-93) Union Capt. Abner Doubleday (1819-93) Edmund Ruffin (1794-1865) Union Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818-93) Claiborne Fox Jackson of the U.S. (1806-62) Union Gen. William Selby Harney (1800-89) Union Gen. David Hunter (1802-86) Union Gen. Nathaniel Lyon (1818-61) Union Gen. Franz Sigel (1824-1902) Confed. Gen. Sterling 'Old Pap' Price (1809-67) Confed Gen. John Sappington Marmaduke (1833-87) Confed. Gen. John Tyler Morgan (1824-1907) Confed. Gen. Jeb Stuart (1831-64) Union Col. Elmer Ephraim Ellsworth (1837-61) Union Rear Adm. Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-65) Benjamin Franklin Isherwood of the U.S. (1822-1915) Confed. Gen. Richard 'Fighting Dick' Heron Anderson (1821-79) Confed. Navy Cmdr. Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-73) Union Gen. John Gross Barnard (1815-82) James Dunwoody Bullock (1823-19010 Union Gen. Hugh Boyle Ewing (1826-1905) James Mitchell Ashley of the U.S. (1824-96) Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (1820-78) Wilhelm I of Prussia (1798-1888) Max von Forckenbeck of Prussia (1821-92) Ottoman Sultan Abdul Aziz I (1830-76) Luis I of Portugal (1838-89) Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1837-59) Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda of Colombia (1798-1878) Prince Albert of Britain (1819-61) Queen Victoria (1819-1901) and John Brown (1826-83) John Brown (1826-83) Francis Preston Blair Sr. of the U.S. (1791-1876) Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) Clara Barton of the U.S. (1821-1912) Dorothea Dix of the U.S. (1802-87) Sally Louisa Tompkins (1833-1916) Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) Moses Taylor (1806-82) John Merryman (1824-81) Union Gen. August Willich (1810-78) John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837-1913) Union Brig Gen. Michael Corcoran (1827-63) Union Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher (1823-67) Union Col. Edward D. Baker (1811-61) Union Pvt. Theodore Winthrop (1828-61) Confed. Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk (1806-64) U.S. Commodore William David Porter (1808-64) Confed. Gen. Benjamin McCulloch (1811-62) James Murray Mason of the U.S. (1798-1881) John Slidell of the U.S. (1793-1871) Gen. Bartolome Mitre of Argentina (1821-1906) Gen. Jose Maria Achá Valiente of Bolivia (1810-68) Jose Joaquin Perez Mascayano of Chile (1801-89) Chinese Empress Cixi (1835-1908) Prince Gong of China (1833-98) Radama II of Madagascar (1829-63) El Hadj Umar Tall of Mali (1797-1864) Union Maj. Sullivan Ballou (1829-61) Cochise (1815-74) John Lothrop Motley of the U.S. (1814-77) Hamilton Rowan Gamble of the U.S. (1798-1864) Justin Smith Morrill of the U.S. (1810-98) Michel Chevalier of France (1806-79) Richard Cobden of Britain (1804-65) Laurence Oliphant of Britain (1829-88) Louis Philippe Albert D'Orleans, Comte de Paris (1838-94) Rose O'Neal Greenhow (1817-64) Mathew B. Brady (1822-96) Jessie Benton Fremont (1824-1902) James Buchanan Eads (1820-87) William Gilpin of the U.S. (1813-94) Charles Lawrence Robinson of the U.S. (1818-94) Charles Digby Harrod (1841-1905) Harrods, Knightsbridge, London Philo Remington (1816-89) Wilbur F. Storey Peter Arrell Brown Widener (1834-1915) John Wanamaker (1838-1922) Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer (1831-1914) Edward Cooper (1824-19050 Abram Stevens Hewitt (1822-1903) Mrs. Isabella Beeton (1836-65) U.S. Sgt. Francis E. Brownell (1840-94) James Thomas Fields (1817-81) Annie Adams Fields (1834-1916) Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909) Oliver Hazard Perry Morton of the U.S. (1823-77) Horatio Nelson Lay of Britain (1832-98) Cincinnati (1860-78) Jay Cooke (1821-1905) Charles Reade (1814-84) Lewis Albert Sayre (1820-1900) Henry Timrod (1828-67) Ellen Price Wood (1814-87) Matthew Vassar (1792-1868) Joseph R. Walker (1798-1876) King S. Woolsey (1832-79) Carleton E. Watkins (1829-1916) Thomas Lake Harris (1823-1906) Nikolai Kasatkin (1836-1912) Jem Mace (1831-1910) Leland Stanford (1824-93) Charles Crocker (1822-88) Rebecca Harding Davis (1831-1910) Collis Potter Huntington (1821-1900) Mark Hopkins (1813-78) Henry Meiggs (1811-77) Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (1801-69) Paul Broca (1824-80) Sir Richard Burton (1821-90) Daniel Day-Lewis (1957-) Sir William Crookes (1832-1910) Philip Deidesheimer (1832-1916) John Ericsson (1803-89) Count Agoston Haraszthy (1812-69) Mexican Gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (1807-90) Benjamin Franklin Jones (1824-1903) Johann Joseph Loschmidt (1821-95) Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1835-1915) Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910) Paul Du Chaillu (1831-1903) Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803-82) Oliver Loving (1812-67) Charles Goodnight (1836-1929) Pierre Michaux (1813-83) and Ernest Michaux (1842-82) Robert Parker Parrott of the U.S. (1804-77) Johann Philipp Reis (1834-74) Max Schultze (1825-74) William Morris (1834-96) Sir Charles William Siemens (1823-83) Pierre Emile Martin (1824-1915) James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79) Prosper Ménière (1799-1862) Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) Karl von Voit (1831-1908) Emil Erlenmeyer (1825-1909) Erlenmeyer Flask Elisha Graves Otis (1811-61) Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-82) Clara Louise Kellogg (1842-1916) Adelina Patti (1843-1919) John Tyndall (1820-93) Charles Wyndham (1837-1929) Imre Madach (1823-64) Giovanni Caselli (1815-91) William Henry Monk (1823-89) Thomas Sutcliffe Mort (1816-78) Anheuser-Busch Logo Eberhard Anheuser (1805-80) Adolphus Busch (1839-1913) August Anheuser Busch Sr. (1865-1934) Prilidiano Puerredon (1823-70) 'Un Alto en el Campo' by Prilidiano Pueyrredon Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Lowe's War Balloon Gilbert C. Van Camp (1814-1900) Van Camp's Pork and Beans with Tomato Sauce, 1894 Paris Opera, 1861 Colo. Territorial Correctional Facility, 1861 Jean Louis Charles Garnier (1825-98) Bloomingdale's, 1861 Iron City Logo

1861 The slave biz in the Am. South is worth $3.5B, the biggest financial asset in the U.S., greater than factories, railroads, etc.; the Civil War causes women to enter the nursing prof.; so many POWs are taken in the Civil War that they resort to a parole system. The U.S. Civil War causes the pop. of Washington, D.C. to zoom from 60K to 120K, incl. thousands of freed slaves, causing Congress to launch a major building program after the war. On Jan. 1 after defeating conservatives in military engagements last year, Benito Juarez enters Mexico City, then on June 15 is elected by Congress as pres. of the Mexican Repub. for a 6-year term, becoming the first (only?) full-blooded Indio pres.; in July after seeing how the conservatives have emptied the nat. treasury, he announces a 2-year moratorium on all debt payments, adding to the ethnic Spanish-dominated Congress' distrust of him; on Oct. 13 the Convention of London is signed by Britain, France and Spain to force the new Mexican govt. to fulfill the previous regime's obligations, and in Dec. all three land troops in Vera Cruz, ignoring the U.S. Monroe Doctrine because they know it can't be enforced during the U.S. Civil War, and Juarez caves in, reaching a settlement with the British and Spanish, causing them to withdraw, while the French remain, continuing after Juarez with designs of a new Am. empire? Let's start some quick fire? On Jan. 2 Peace Dem. Thomas Francis Bayard (1828-98) gives a speech with the soundbyte: "With this secession, or revolution, or rebellion or whatever name it may be called, the State of Delaware has naught to do. To our constitutional duties toward each and every member of the Union we have been faithful in all times"; on Dec. 3 Delaware votes not to secede from the U.S. On Jan. 2 reactionary king (since 1840) Frederick William IV (b. 1795) dies after a 20-year reign and 2.5 years of paralysis and insanity, and his 63-y.-o. brother Prince William becomes king Wilhelm (William) I (1797-1888) of Prussia; rising costs for the military cause him to ask for and receive a 7.3M taler grant from the Landtag, which pisses off the Liberals, causing Maximilian "Max" Franz August von Forckenbeck (1821-92) et al. to form the minority Progressive Party (Fortschrittspartei), which calls for military reductions as well as German unification. On Jan. 3 as Pres. Buchanan plays ostrich in a vain attempt to avert war, Ga. seizes Ft. Pulaski. On Jan. 4 slave state Ala. seizes the Mount Vernon Federal Arsenal, followed by Ft. Morgan and Ft. Gaines on Jan. 5. On Jan. 5 200 U.S. Army refinforcements led by Lt. (later gen.) Charles Robert Woods (1827-85) leave Governors Island in New York City aboard steamer SS Star of the West, escorted by USS Brooklyn, and arrive in Charleston Harbor on Jan. 8. On Jan. 6 Fla. seizes Apalachicola Arsenal, followed by Ft. Marion in St. Augustine on Jan. 7; an attempt to seize Ft. Barrancas is thwarted on Jan. 8. On Jan. 9 (Wed.) (dawn) the Star of the West, is fired on as it approaches within 1.75 mi. of Ft. Sumter by S.C. Citadel cadet George E. Haynsworth, becoming the first shot of the U.S. Civil War, after which the artillery bombardment causes them to turn around and head back to New York City, arriving on Jan. 12; the news is purposely delayed in an attempt to avert war fever, and Pres. Buchanan takes no further action to save the fort - I'm pretending mine's a meatball cheeseburger? On Jan. 9 news of the firing on Ft. Sumter cause prices on the New York Stock Board and Exchange to begin dropping, sparking a business downturn which bankrupts scores of New York City firms, throwing thousands out of work and giving employers an excuse to cut wages from an avg. of $1.25 to 85 cents a day. On Jan. 9 slave state Miss. secedes (#2), causing U.S. Sen. Jefferson Davis to resign and return to Miss., receiving a commission as Confed. maj. gen. on Jan. 13, with the soundbytes "I worked night and day for 12 years to prevent the war, but I could not. The North was mad and blind, would not let us govern ourselves, and so the war came", "[Our situation] illustrates the American idea that governments rest on the consent of the governed, and that it is the right of the people to alter or abolish them whenever they become destructive of the ends for which they were established", "All we ask is to be let alone", and "If the Confederacy fails, there should be written on its tombstone: Died of a Theory". On Jan. 10 slave state Fla. secedes (#3). On Jan. 10 slave state La. seizes the federal arsenal at Baton Rouge, along with Ft. Jackson and Ft. St. Philip - oh, I don't have a gun? On Jan. 11 slave state Ala. secedes (#4); Ala. state sen. William Lowndes Yancey writes the Ala. ordinance of secession, and before the war starts Jefferson Davis sends him to Paris and London in an unsuccessful attempt to obtain diplomatic recognition for the Confederacy; Ala. state convention delegate John Tyler Morgan (1824-1907) goes on to become a Confed. Brig. Gen. in 1863; Ala. troops begin to be called Yellowhammers after some of them wear bits of yellow cloth on their upper bodies; Tenn. troops are called Butternuts for their tan uniforms. On Jan. 11 La. seizes the U.S. Marine Hospital in New Orleans, followed by Ft. Pike on Jan. 14. On Jan. 18 slave state Ga. secedes (#5) by a close vote - Georgia belle Scarlett O'Hara loses her beloved Ashley Wilkes to the war, with older but wiser Rhett Butler waiting in the wing chair? On Jan. 18 Pony Express co-founder William Hepburn Russell testifies before a House select committee investigating last year's misappropriation of Indian Trust Fund money and protests his innocence, but is indicted on Jan. 30 along with former U.S. war secy. John B. Floyd and Godard Bailey; the indictment is dismissed in Mar.; Floyd, who opposed secession goes on to raise a brigade of Va. volunteers after the war begins. On Jan. 21 Jefferson Davis of Miss. (married to the daughter of ex-pres. Zachary Taylor) chivalrously resigns from the U.S. Senate along with four other Southerners, but N.C.-born sen. Andrew Johnson (D-Tenn.) remains, opposing secession and winning kudos from Lincoln, causing his political star to rise. On Jan. 23 Robert E. Lee writes a Letter to His Son Custis, with the soundbyte "If the Union is dissolved, and the Government disrupted, I shall return to my native State and share the miseries of my people; and save in defense will draw my sword on none." On Jan. 26 slave state La. secedes (#6) (another close vote). On Jan. 28 the Tennessee Resolutions in favor of the Crittenden Compromise are offered in Congress. On Jan. 29 "Sunflower State", "Jayhawk State" Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. (free) state; the geographic center of the continental U.S. is 5 mi. W of Lebanon, Kan.; the first capitol is Topeka; on Feb. 9 Charles Lawrence Robinson (1818-94) becomes gov. #1 of Kansas (until Jan. 12, 1863), who becomes the first gov. of a U.S. state to be impeached - just as the big fight's about to start? Now that the Yankees are chewing each other up, Britain and France can get together to horn in on Mexico? In Jan. the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty between Britain and France, drafted by Michel Chevalier (1806-79) of France and Richard Cobden (1804-65) of Britain establishes free trade and lowers or eliminates duties. In Jan. 2nd term Tammany Hall Dem. New York City mayor (1860-2) Fernando Wood (1812-81) leads the pro-Confed. Copperheads, asking the city council to declare New York City a free city to allow it to continue its cotton trade with the Confeds., and when they deride him he splits with Tammany Hall to form his own Mozart Hall political machine. South Miss Flala Gala? Southern beauty in a bottle? The last white pipe dream in America? On Feb. 4 the Congress of Montgomery of the six seceded states (S.C., Miss., Fla., Ala., Ga., La.) meets in Montgomery, Ala., and on Feb. 7 the provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted, with Montgomery as the first capital; on Feb. 9 Transylvania U. and West Point grad., U.S.-Mexican War hero, secy. of war (under Pierce) and planter (D-Miss.) Jefferson Finis Davis (1808-89) is elected provisional pres. of the CSA, with Alexander Hamilton "Little Elick" Stephens (1812-83) of Ga. as vice-pres.; Davis receives the good news while working in his rose garden (ouch?); (Thomas) Howell Cobb (1815-68) is Confed. Congress speaker, serving as de facto pres. for two weeks until Davis can take office; former U.S. pres. Franklin Pierce writes Davis a letter of support, causing Northerners to label him a traitor; on Mar. 4 the first Confederate flag, the Stars and Bars is adopted; on Mar. 11 the Confederate States of Am. Constitution is adopted (all y'all need to add is nothin'?); on Feb. 25 West Indies-born Jewish atty. (U.S. Sen. from La. since 1852) Judah Philip Benjamin (1811-84) resigns to become atty. gen., followed by secy. of war in Sept. (until Mar. 1862) (a Jewish mole to insure that the Confederacy self-destructs, or no big deal since the ancient Jews had slaves?); the first issue of $1M in treasury notes is followed by another $20M in May, and another $100M in Aug; by the end of the war they run the printing presses to churn out over $1B in funny money, causing flour to sell for $425 a barrel. On Feb. 8 Arkansas seizes the federal arsenal at Little Rock, followed on Feb. 12 by the federal ordnance stores at Napoleon. On Feb. 11 the U.S. House of Reps. unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state. On Feb. 11 during a heavy rainstorm amid an umbrella-toting crowd of well-wishers, beard-growing pres.-elect Abraham Lincoln and his wife Mary Todd Lincoln ("Her Satanic Majesty") (whose family is on the Confed. side in the war, and who doesn't want Abe to know how much she splurged in New York City on clothes, or that she accepted lavish gifts of clothes and jewelry, and later freaks at the 1864 election because her hubby's defeat would cause the bills to become due?) departs from Springfield, Ill. on a 12-day Train Trip to Washington, D.C., with the soundbyte that he has "a task greater than Washington", leaving family dog Fido (Tad's pet) behind, keeping silent to reporters on the train, then stopping in Philly on Feb. 22 to give a Speech in Independence Hall, with the soundbyte: "It was that which gave promise, that in due time the weight should be lifted from the shoulders of all men, and all men have an equal chance. If this country cannot be saved without giving up this principle, I would rather be assassinated on this spot than to surrender"; his son Robert Todd Lincoln (future pres. of the Pullman Railroad) spends him time with the train engineers and misplaces the speech, causing fuming Lincoln to have to find it; on Feb. 23 (6 a.m.) after an assassination plot in Baltimore is claimed by detective Allan Pinkerton, he switches trains and arrives in Washington, D.C. secretly on a sleeper car disguised as a capped-cloaked invalid, and is greeted only by Maine-born U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1853-69) Elihu Benjamin Washburne (1816-87), one of the seven Washburne brothers who founded the Repub. Party, after which he slips into his hotel through the ladies' entrance; after the newspapers find about his manner of entry they lampoon him as a coward, making him ashamed of it, and reinforcing his cabinet's low view of his abilities; this set him up to be careless about security and bring on his own assassination? The first Spaghetti Western in Italy, or, Garibaldi has a way with b-a-l-o-g-n-a? On Feb. 13 King Francis II of the Two Sicilies (Naples) surrenders to King Victor Emmanuel II at Gaeta on the WC coast, then abdicates and goes into exile in Rome; Piedmont begins forming a kingdom of Italy. On Feb. 18 Jefferson Finis Davis (1808-89) is sworn in as the first and only pres. of the brand-spanking new chivalrous white woman-worshiping Confederate States of America (CSA) in Montgomery, Ala. (until May 5, 1865); boyish sickly 96-lb. Ga.-born Dem. orator ("the Strongest Man in the South") Alexander Hamilton "Little Elick" Stephens (1812-83) becomes its first and last vice-pres.; they are both elected for 6-year terms; "Dixie" is played at the inauguration, pissing-off black New Yorker composer Daniel Decatur Emmett (1815-1904). On Feb. 25 a 5K-man French army relieves a blockade of Saigon and gains control of the area after defeating 20K Annamese regulars led by Gen. Nguyen Tri Phuong (1800-73), who had kept 900 French and Spanish troops pinned down; on Nov. 29 former gov. of French Guiana Adm. Louis Adolphe Bonard (1805-67) is given command of French forces in Vietnam, and in Dec. he captures the province of Bien Hoa, decisively defeating Gen. Phuong. On Feb. 27 the Warsaw Massacre sees Russian troops fire at demonstrators protesting Russian rule. On Feb. 27 the U.S. Congress authorizes the first stamped newspaper wrappers for mailing. On Feb. 28 the South-free U.S. Congress, itchy to get its hands on gold and other mineral resources creates the Colorado Territory (until Aug. 1, 1876), followed on Mar. 2 by the Dakota Territory (until 1889) and the Nevada Territory (until Oct. 31, 1864); Colorado was originally to be called Idaho, a word suggested in 1860 by lobbyist George M. Willing, who claims it was an Indian word meaning "gem of the mountains", but is discovered to be a hoax just in time (the original Hugo Weaving as Agent Smith?); Carson City, named by founder Abraham Curry after aging Kit Carson beats out the more populous Virginia City to remain the capital of silver-rich Nevada; meanwhile engineer Philip Deidesheimer (1832-1916) comes up with a better idea to stop silver mine cave-ins in Nev., the Square-Set Method of timbering, based on the honeycomb, beginning in the Ophir mine - the Cartwright boys are wowed? In Feb. a peace conference called by the Va. legislature meets in the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C., presided over by former U.S. pres. John Tyler, and attended by 21 states. On Mar. 2 the Crittendon Compromise is narrowly rejected by the U.S. Senate on Mar. 2 after the radicals rattle their sabers; early on Mar. 4 (inauguration day) Corwin's Amendment (actively supported by Lincoln, who instructs N.Y. Sen. William Seward to push it through the Senate), guaranteeing slavery where it already exists passes the Senate 24-12, having already passed the House on Mar. 2; Lincoln endorses it in his first inaugural address, and sends letters to each state gov. transmitting the amendment for ratification, noting that Pres. Buchanan also endorses it; it is never ratified by the states because of the disruption caused by the war, but if it had been it would have been the Thirteenth Amendment instead of the anti-slavery one of 1865 - you mean the CSA coulda won without firing a shot? On Mar. 2 taking advantage of the exodus of Southerners, the U.S. Congress passes the first of three Morrill Acts as a replacement of the Tariff of 1857 to boost tariff rates to an avg. of 47%; duties on tea, coffee, and sugar are subsequently increased as a war measure; the U.S. keeps trade protection until the 1913 Underwood Tariff. The Russian tsar beats Abe Lincoln in emancipating his slaves by one day plus plus? On Mar. 3 after years of haggling with his nobles, Tsar Alexander II's Act of Emancipation completes the emancipation of 20M Russian serfs begun in 1858, effective Mar. 5, with the soundbyte "I should rather liberate them from the top than wait until they liberate themselves from the bottom"; too bad, he institutes lame reforms, allotting land to village communes (mirs), and making them make 49 years of "redemption" payments, resulting in each former serf only getting half of the land he used to cultivate, and forever unable to raise enough food to afford the payments; one-third have no horses, and another third have only one horse; most still use wooden plows, harvest crops with sickles or scythes, and thresh with hand flails. On Mar. 4 Chapman U. (originally Hesperian College) in Orange, Calif., founded by the Disciples of Christ opens for classes. Good morning, it's time to taste a brand-new day, or, Stick with the home team? On Mar. 4 (Mon.) 6'4" (tallest pres.) Ky.-born (from Ill.), AKA "Honest Abe", "the Rail-Splitter", "the Flatboatman", "the Sage of Springfield", "the Uncommon Friend of the Common Man", "the Great Emancipator", "the Abolition Emperor", "the Liberator", "King Linkum the First" (for his habit of locking political opponents up), "the Illinois Ape", "the Original Gorilla", "the Orangutan in the White House" (from his uncouth looks and behavior), "the Slave Hound from Illinois" (given him by William Lloyd Garrison, who calls him soft on slavery), "Father Abraham", "Uncle Abe", "the Ancient One" (for his ancient wisdom), "the Sectional President", "the Tycoon" (for his fast buildup of the Civil War admin.) Abraham Lincoln (1809-65) becomes the 16th U.S. pres (until 1865) in the 21st U.S. Pres. Inauguration (featuring uniformed sharpshooters on every rooftop, incl. the unfinished U.S. Capitol Dome), becoming the first pres. born outside the original 13 colonies, and the first to own a cat (Hayes, McKinley, Wilson, JFK) (favorite song "Jimmy Crack Corn"?); Hannibal Hamlin (1809-91) becomes the 15th U.S. vice-pres.; this year and next the U.S. has six living presidents (Van Buren, Tyler, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan, Lincoln, plus rebel pres. Davis) (only Lincoln is of the new Repub. Party); at the inauguration a guest steals silver and furnishings; Very Odd First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-82) likes to be called "Mrs. President Lincoln", and buys 300 pairs of gloves in a 4-mo. period; Lincoln's First Inaugural Speech contains many suggestions by William H. Seward, promising to hold onto Union possessions in the South, and characterized by a belief that the Confederacy will dissolve somehow on its own when the Southerners come to their senses, because the U.S. can become the greatest nation on Earth if it stays together; "This country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit it. Whenever they shall grow weary of the existing government they can exercise their constitutional right of amending it, or their revolutionary right to dismember it or overthrow it... I hold that... the Union of these states is perpetual... In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of Civil War... We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave... will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature"; as Lincoln speaks, a Confederate flag is hoisted in Charleston, S.C. by a cheering crowd; at first Washington, D.C. is almost defenseless, with an armed guard of civilians guarding the White House, while Lincoln mumbles "Why don't they come?"; Buchanan retires to his Penn. home despondent over seven states already gone from the Union; Lincoln's cabinet: William Henry Seward Sr. (1801-72) (beardless) (state) (until Mar. 4, 1869), Ohio Sen. Salmon Portland Chase (1808-73) (beardless) (treasury) (until June 30, 1864), Simon Cameron (1799-1889) (beardless) (war) (until Jan. 14, 1862), Gideon Welles (1802-78) (bearded) (Navy) (until Mar. 4, 1869), Caleb Blood Smith (1808-64) (beardless) (interior) (until Dec. 31, 1862), St. Louis, Mo. judge Edward Bates (1793-1869) (bearded) (atty. gen.) (until Nov. 24, 1864), Montgomery Blair (1813-83) (beardless) (postmaster gen.) (until Sept. 24, 1864); big men Seward and Chase find it hard to accept Lincoln as pres., Seward saying "I, who by every right ought to have been chosen President, what am I now? Nothing but Abe Lincoln's little clerk!"; as soon as 11 Southern Senators are expelled from Congress, the Repubs. fulfill their campaign promises by passing a new higher tariff for the protection of Northern industry, followed next year by a homesteading act to please Westerners; secy. of war Simon Cameron immediately begins advocating the arming of fugitive slaves, but Lincoln nixes it; in Mar. Frederick Douglass pub. a Critique of Lincoln's Inaugural Address, complaining about Lincoln's decision to not interfere with the institution of slavery in the South, comparing the way he snuck into Washington D.C. with fugitive slaves, and calling Lincoln's acknowledgment of the South's "right of property" in slaves "weakness... and conciliation towards the tyrants and traitors"; Mary Todd Lincoln lavishly redecorates the White House, overspending her $20K Congressional appropriation by $10K, then engaging in budget fraud to keep her hubby from knowing about it, after which the Congress buries the difference in next year's appropriations bill. On Mar. 4 slave state Tex. secedes (#7) after 104 of 122 counties vote for it,; on Mar. 16 Gov. Sam Houston refuses to swear allegiance to the CSA and is deposed as he allegedly sits in the basement of the state capitol silently whittling on a stick while the convention above loudly calls him to renounce the Union. On Mar. 4 the U.S. Army has 13,024 officers and men. On Mar. 4 Pres. John Quincy Adams' son Charles Francis Adams Sr. (1807-86) (U.S. Mass. Rep. since Mar. 4, 1859) becomes U.S. ambassador to the U.K. (until May 13, 1868), writing the soundbyte in a letter to secy. of state William H. Seward: "That Great Britain did, in the most terrible moment of our domestic trial in struggling with a monstrous social evil she had earnestly professed to abhor, coldly and at once assume our inability to master it, and then become the only foreign nation steadily contributing in every indirect way possible to verify its judgment, will probably be the verdict made against her by posterity, on calm comparison of the evidence"; N.Y.-born John Bigelow (1817-1911) becomes U.S. consul in Paris, rising to U.S. ambassador to France in 1865, working with Adams to block France and Britain from intervening in the U.S. Civil War on the Confed. side. On Mar. 5 (first day in office) Pres. Lincoln receives a letter from Ft. Sumter telling how the troops are starving. On Mar. 6 the Confed. Congress requires all volunteers for the mounted service to furnish their own horses, and promises them 40 cents a day for upkeep - come to the good feet store? On Mar. 10 slave trade-hating Islamic scholar El Hadj Umar Tall (1797-1864) seizes the city of Segou, destroying the animist Bambara Empire of Mali, then takes Muslim-run Hamdullahi on Mar. 16 after three battles killing 70K, and sets up an empire in Mali, Guinea, and Senegal (ends 1890). On Mar. 16 Arizona Territory secedes; meanwhile gold is discovered in the N sector near modern-day Prescott, where mountain men Capt. Joseph R. Walker (1798-1876) and Paulino (Pauline) Weaver (1797-1867) blaze the trail and have mining districts named for them; former Calif. miner King Samuel Woolsey (1832-79) founds the Agua Caliente Ranch in S Ariz. 80 mi. from Yuma, gains fame when he stops an Apache attack with a shotgun and kills the leader, then hangs him on a mesquite tree, as reported by Irish-born John Ross Browne (1817-75) in Harper's Monthly, decides to join the Confed. Army, gets sick, and turns to selling supplies to the Union Army, getting rich; in 1863 he founds Agua Fria Ranch (14 mi. E of Prescott), and builds the first ranch house in N Ariz. On Mar. 17 the Dominican Repub. under pres. (since 1958) Pedro Santana is annexed as a province by Spain to protect it against Haitian attacks (ends 1865). The U.S. splits apart, while Italy comes together? On Mar. 17 the parliament of greater Sardinia in Turin proclaims the unified Kingdom of Italy, incl. Lombardy, Parma, Piedmont, Modena, Lucca, Romagna, Tuscany, and the Two Sicilies, and the Statuto of 1848 is extended to all of Italy, with Victor Emmanuel II (1820-78), head of the Piedmont House of Savoy declared "by the grace of God and the will of the nation, King of Italy"; too bad, he refuses to take the title of Victor Emmanuel I of Italy, pissing some off; on Mar. 20 Civitella del Tronto surrenders, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies is kaput; Austria still holds Venetia (until 1866), and France holds Rome (until 1870); the Treaty of Turin cedes Nice and Savoy to France; on June 7 PM (since 1852) Count Camillo di Cavour (b. 1810) dies in Turin 3 mo. after the declaration of a united kingdom of Italy; meanwhile Pope Pius IX sees red, goes into mother bear instinct mode, refuses to recognize the new secular state, excommunicates its officials, and orders all Roman Catholics to shun participation; meanwhile, after 18 cents. of close-captioned Catholic leadership, 74.7% of the Italian pop. is illiterate, so the new govt. limits the franchise to 600K middle and upper class males out of a total pop. of 20M, and lack of experience with democracy makes it ripe for bribery and graft? - I have a strict dental plan, it's called avoidance? On Mar. 19 the Second Maori (First Taranaki) War (begun 1860) ends after the British Colonial Office sends former New Zealand gov. (Cape Colony gov. since 1854) Sir George Grey (1812-98) back to Auckland for a 2nd term because of his success at resolving native-settler disputes; after becoming convinced that the Maoris are going to attack Auckland, he gathers a force of British and colonial troops, then corners Wiremu Kingi in Waikato, where rival Maoris help defeat him, after which in 1863 Grey renounces the original dubious land purchase that started it all. On Mar. 20 an earthquake completely destroys Mendoza in W Argentina. On Mar. 21 CSA vice-pres. Alexander Stephens delivers his Cornerstone Speech in Savannah, Ga., saying that the U.S. was created on the false idea that all men are created equal, whereas the CSA "is founded upon exactly the opposite idea: its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and moral condition. This, our new government, is the first in the history of the world based on this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth" - they lost the minds and hearts of smart people right there? This noise is unacceptable, or, Ay, Oy, let's go? The War Across Five Aprils starts when something small gets blown out of proportion in a high-strung environment? The first 100 days of the U.S. Civil War are a mixture of cocksureness and uncertainty? On Apr. 6 after rejecting Gen. Winfield Scott's recommendation to give up pesky undermanned (less than 100 men) Ft. Sumter because it would take 20K troops and a whole fleet to reinforce it, and would start a bloody war that would destroy the U.S. after driving four more states out of the Union, and rejecting secy. of state Seward's plan to evacuate it while he leaks news of it to the press along with assertions to the Confeds. that he will soon be in charge of foreign policy, and all but two cabinet members recommending surrender on Mar. 16, Pres. Lincoln informs S.C. Gov. Francis Wilkinson Pickens (1805-69) that a naval expedition is being to sent to reprovision the hungry garrison, with Lincoln uttering the soundbye that if the rebels fire on ships carrying food to hungry men, they will take all the blame for the war, forcing the Confeds. to fire the first shot and become the aggressors to have their bloody war, leaving the Union the moral high ground; on Apr. 11 after being sanctioned by Gov. Pickens, the Confederates under La. Creole Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (1818-93) (former supt. of West Point, who had been Robert Anderson's student there) demand surrender, and then fire at 4:30 a.m. on Apr. 12 (Fri.) (not Friday the 13th?) from Ft. Johnson on James Island, followed by crossfire from Sullivan's Island (long-time final destination for African slaves surviving the Middle Passage) and Morris Island; white-haired Va. planter and pro-slavery fire-eating agitator Edmund Ruffin (1794-1865) dresses in a Palmetto Guard uniform and is given the honor of firing the first shell; artillery Capt. (West Point grad.) Abner Doubleday (1819-93) (alleged inventor of baseball) fires the first Union shot, and is later promoted to gen. (batter up?); on Apr. 13 after 30 hours, with his ammo exhausted, Maj. Robert Anderson agrees to surrender, lowering its flag on Apr. 14 (Sun.); 3K+ shells hit Ft. Sumter, and there are no fatalities until two Union soldiers are killed in an explosion during a final 100-gun salute to the colors; the first Union soldier killed is Pvt. Theodore Winthrop (b. 1828), whose ms. for a novel is pub. and becomes a bestseller; the 2nd is Union pvt. Daniel Hough; on May 15 big hero Anderson is promoted to brig. gen., participating in the largest public gathering in North Am. to date, a patriotic rally in New York City, after which he goes on a recruiting tour then becomes cmdr. of border state Ky. until retirement on Oct. 6, being replaced by William Tecumseh Sherman; after the Confeds take Ft. Sumter they pad it with bales of cotton; the U.S. (Am.) Civil War begins (ends May 9, 1865), which the Confeds. prefer to call the War Between the States, the War of Northern Aggression, or something even more unbiased; it ends up causing 10.5K battles in 33 U.S. states, of which 384 are considered major; at the start, Southerners owe Northerners $300M; Southerners who sympathize with the Union cause become known as "Scalawags" (useless farm animals); in Apr. the 10-y.-o. New York Times begins pub. Sunday eds. to capitalize on interest in the Civil War; Lincoln can see rebel flags flying over Alexandria, Va. across the Potomac from Washington, D.C.; British public opinion on the war is divided, with the aristocracy pro-South, and the working class pro-North despite the loss of Southern cotton throwing thousands of cotton factory workers out of work - regular or quilted brand? On Apr. 8 civil and political rights are granted to Protestants in Austria; on Apr. 29 a rump Reichstrat convenes, boycotted by the Magyars, Croatians and Italians (until 1865); the Hungarian Parliament calls for it to recognize the Hungary constitution of 1848. On Apr. 14-15 Lincoln, having only a 13K-man regular army strung across the continent vs. at least that many Confed. volunteers calls for 75K Union volunteers for 90-day service under a 1795 act of Congress stating that militia can be called by the pres. "to repossess the forts, places and property which have been seized from the Union", but that the term of service cannot extend beyond 30 days after the next meeting of Congress; Lincoln declares that the insurrection is "too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings"; this call looks like coercion to four Southern border states (Va., Ark., N.C., Tenn.), who quickly secede, bringing the total to 11, with four slave states (Del., Ky., Md., Miss.) (all but Del. having strong Southern sympathies) remaining in the ungluing Union; ex-pres. John Tyler is a delegate at the Va. secession convention; N.C. ends up supplying the most troops of any Confed. state; the Union promotes a number of fossilized captains and colonels to Peter Principle gens., and in the first weeks several Union soldiers desert for the other side. On Apr. 17 slave state Va. secedes (#8); on Apr. 19 the Confederates occupy Harper's Ferry, Va., while John Brown's body turns over in its grave? On Apr. 17 Pres. Lincoln asks Repub. Party co-founder Francis Preston Blair Sr. (1791-1876) (who initially backed Edward Bates at the 1860 Repub. Pres. Convention then backed him) to offer Col. Robert E. Lee command of the Union Army, causing Lee to visit Blair on Apr. 18 in Lafayette Square across from the White House, declining with the soundbyte: "Mr. Blair, I look upon secession as anarchy. If I owned the four millions of slaves at the South, I would sacrifice them all to the Union, but how can I draw my sword upon Virginia, my native State?"; in 1862 Blair frees his slaves, but all but one refuse to go. All Hail Caesar? The original Executive Orders, by Roger Taney? On Apr. 19 the Baltimore Riot in Md. kills both federal troops and civilians, becoming the scene of the first casualties of the war, causing Pres. Lincoln on Apr. 27 to order Gen. Winfield Scott to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in Md. in violation of the U.S. Constitution, Art. 1 Sec. 9. On Apr. 25 the 7th N.Y. "Silk Stocking" Regiment AKA the Blue-Bloods (known for signing-up New York City social elite) becomes the first Union unit to reach Washington, D.C. to defend it. On Apr. 27 West Virginia (W. Va.) (AKA Kanawha) secedes from Va. after delegates of 40 western counties meeting in Wheeling, provisional capital of the pro-Union Restored Govt. of Va. (founded 1861) decide to bug out of the Confederacy, becoming the only U.S. state formed as a political consequence of the U.S. Civil War; Wheeling becomes the capital until 1865, followed by Charleston. On Apr. 29 the Md. House of Delegates votes against secession, even though it is a slave-holding state - the South lost the war right there? First Blood, Eye of the Tiger, or, Welcome to Low's, May I Help You? The Devil needs a spark to set off the tinderbox, and he finds a Hell's worth of them? On Apr. 29 the Fire Zouaves (11th Regiment, N.Y. Volunteers), composed of 1K firefighters with no military training leaves New York City for Annapolis aboard the steamship Baltic; Elmer Ephraim Ellsworth (1837-61) (family friend of the Lincolns) resigned as a 2nd Lt. in the U.S. Army after the Apr. 12 firing on Ft. Sumer to return and organize them, and is elected col., then raises $60K to arm them with Sharp's rifles and 16-in. bayonets, and outfit them in chic Zouave gray unforms with red shirts and fezzes; too bad, on May 24 Ellsworth spots a Confederate flag flying from a 3-story hotel in Alexandria, Va., dashes in with seven others to pull it down, and is shot dead by secessionist hotel proprietor James W. Jackson, becoming the first Union official KIA in the U.S. Civil War; Union Sgt. Francis E. Brownell (1840-94) then shoots and kills Jackson with his Model 1855 Percussion Rifle, earning the nickname "Ellsworth's Avenger", and Pres. Lincoln later his promotion papers; Big Hero Ellsworth's body lies in state in the East Room of the White House on May 25, is taken to New York City by special train on May 26 and viewed by 10K at City Hall, then taken to the state capitol in Albany and displayed before being taken to Mechanicsville for burial; the name Ellsworth becomes popular for naming Union streets and towns, and in 1877 he is awarded a Medal of Honor for first blood of the war; pressure is put on Lincoln to avenge Ellsworth's death by taking Richmond, leading to First Bull Run in July. In Apr. at the time of Ft. Sumter the U.S. Navy has only 28 steam-powered ships, and steam ship expert Benjamin Franklin Isherwood (1822-1915) is appointed engineer in chief, going on to oversee construction of a fleet of 600 you know whats by 1864; meanwhile all but three of the officers at the Washington Navy Yard (cannon expert John Dahlgren and two others) resign at the outbreak of hostilities due to Confederate sympathies, along with the first supt. of the U.S. Naval Observatory (since 1842) Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-73), who goes on to supervise costal defenses for the Confeds. and perfect an electric torpedo (contact mine) that messes up Union shipping throughout the war; on May 9 New York City shipbuilder John Englis & Sons launch the Unadilla, becoming the first gunboat built for the U.S. Navy after the firing on Ft. Sumter. In Apr. a newspaper in Petersburg, Va. contains an article calling for "three cheers for the patriotic free Negroes of Lynchburg, saying that 70 had volunteered to defend Va. from the Yankees; 1.6K free blacks organize into 16 cos. to fight in Va. On May 6 slave state Ark. secedes (#9). On May 6 slave state Tenn. secedes (#10). On May 8 Richmond, Va. is named capital of the Confederate States of Am. On May 10 after new (since Jan. 3) Ky.-born Dem. Mo. gov. #15 Claiborne Fox Jackson (1806-62) (a Southern sympathizer pro-slavery Dem. who rejected Lincoln's Apr. 15 request for soldiers to fight the rebels, calling it "illegal, unconstitutional, revolutionary in its object, inhuman and diabolical") calls out the Mo. State Guard to engage in "training exercises" in St. Louis, planning on seizing the well-stocked federal armory (60K muskets plus balls and powder), Union Capt. Nathaniel Lyon (1818-61), in command of Co. D, 2nd U.S. Infantry, a busy beaver who dressed up as a woman to spy on them and learned their plans, organized his own fifth column of Wide Awakes (anti-slavery German immigrants) to beat him to it, then seized the arsenal on Apr. 26 and armed them, shipping the rest of the weapons to Ill., surprises and arrests the State Guard and marches them through St. Louis, causing the St. Louis Massacre (Camp Jackson Affair) on May 10 as Lyons' troops fire on an angry crowd, killing 28 and injuring 90; on May 11 pissed-off Mo. gov. Jackson organizes a new Mo. State Guard to resist a Union invasion of Mo., causing Union Army Dept. of the West cmdr. Gen. William Selby Harney (1800-89) on May 21 to fold and sign the Price-Harney Truce, acknowledging Mo.'s policy of armed neutrality; too bad, after Radical Repub. Capt. Nathaniel Lyon tips off Lincoln, on May 30 he replaces whimp Harney with man's man Lyon, promoting him to brig. gen. - a good Western man loves his steak and potatoes? On May 13 British Queen Victoria issues a "proclamation of neutrality" which recognizes rebel states as having belligerent rights. On May 13 Comet C/1861 J1, AKA the Great Comet of 1861 is discovered in Australia. On May 14 the 859g Canellas Meteorite falls near Barcelona, Spain. On May 20 Ky. proclaims its neutrality. On May 20 slave state N.C. secedes (#11). On May 24 after Robert E. Lee is offered command of the Army of Va. following a meeting in the yard of Christ Church, his town of Alexandria, Va. is occupied by Union forces and used as a supply depot; slaves use it to escape to the North; it becomes the longest-occupied city of the Civil War; on Apr.' 28 John Gross Barnard (1815-82) becomes chief engineer of the Dept. of Washington, overseeing fortifications on the Arlington hills, becoming chief engineer of the Army of the Potomoc on Aug. 20 (until Aug. 16, 1862) and receiving a promotion to brig. gen. from Pres. Lincoln on Sept. 23. On May 25 U.S. Army troops arrest secessionists John Merryman (1824-81) (later Md. state treasurer) et al. for suspected disloyalty for obeying orders from the gov. of Md. to prevent Penn. troops from reaching Baltimore to prevent the riots by burning railroad bridges and tearing down telegraph poles; after they are imprisoned in Ft. McHenry without charges, Merryman's attys. petition the federal circuit court at Baltimore for a writ of habeas corpus, and Southern-leaning Chief Justice Roger B. Taney travels to Baltimore and issues the writ on May 26, then, after the military refuses, issues a ruling on May 28 that only Congress has the right to suspend the writ of habeas corpus; pissed-off Lincoln then tells him to piss off, and pro-Repub. newspapers denounce Taney, while legal scholars are divided, not being eloquent enough to come up with the later soundbyte "the Constitution is not a suicide pact"?; on July 4 Lincoln addresses a special session of Congress defending his decision, asking: "Are all laws, but one, to go unexecuted, and the government itself go to pieces lest that one be violated?"; Taney fears his own arrest, but stands his guns, and Merryman is released after seven weeks confinement and indicted for treason, and his case never comes to trial because the feds know that no Md. jury will convict him; meanwhile Powermad Lincoln takes over Md., getting the mayor of Baltimore, chief of police, police commissioner, 31 members of the legislature, several congressmen, judges, and newspaper reporters held at Ft. McHenry without charges. On May 29 after being appointed by Pres. Lincoln, Wilmington, Del.-born Quaker William Gilpin (1813-94) arrives in Denver, Colo. to cheering crowds, dealing with Confed. sympathizers, a possible Confed. invasion, and difficulties with the Arapaho and Cheyenne after U.S. Army troops withdraw to fight the war, forming the 1st Colo. Volunteers regiment; too bad, he pays for it by issuing $375K in drafts on the U.S. Treasury without authorization, causing a recall movement to form in the summer, but the regiment later gains fame and the treasury eventually honors the drafts, but too late to prevent Gilpin being removed next Apr. in favor of John Evans. On May 29-June 1 the Battle of Aquia Creek sees Union gunboats exchange fire with Confed. shore batteries at the confluence of the Potomac River and Aquia Creek in Stafford County, Va., resulting in a push; on July 7 (Sun.) the Confeds. lay their first naval mines to protect their shore batteries, which are abandoned on Mar. 9, 1862 during the Union's Peninsula Campaign. In May after three slaves escape from the plantation of Charles Mallory to Ft. Monroe in E Va., and Mallory demands that they be returned as his property, Union Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818-93) (former Mass. state legislator) declares fugitive slaves turning up in his Army camp to be "contraband of war", and puts them to work on fortifications. In May the British foreign minister receives the first Confed. emissaries informally in London, who then go to France, getting French king Napoleon III to promise to recognize the Confederacy if the British do it first; they return to London, only to be snubbed by the foreign minister. In May William Tecumseh Sherman is appointed a Col. of infantry volunteers, followed in June by brigade cmdr. In May the CSS Sumter, the first Confed. warship for breaking the blockade is commissioned, followed next year by the CSS Florida and the CSS Alabama; altogether 18 ships are built by the British for Confed. use despite British law, and the Florida takes 38 Union prizes, while the Alabama takes 64; meanwhile the British Royal Navy obtains permission to search U.S.-flag vessels suspected of carrying slaves after the U.S. Congress flip-flops on the infringement of U.S. sovereignty. In May the Confed. govt. closes the U.S. mints in New Orleans, La., Charlotte, N.C., and Dahlonega, Ga.; the New Orleans Mint reopens in 1879 and closes in 1909. On June 3 Stephen A. Douglas (b. 1813), "the Little Giant" dies of typhoid fever in Chicago, leaving leaderless those Northern Dems. supporting a war for the "Union as it was"; meanwhile War Dems. Sen. Andrew Johnson and secy. of war Edwin M. Stanton fully support Lincoln, while a Peace Wing of the Repub. Party seeks an end to the fighting, even at the risk of Union; the Copperheads in Ohio, Ind. and Ill. flirt with outright disloyalty, causing Lincoln to begin arresting "disloyal" more persons, claiming the power to suspend the writ of habeus corpus. On June 3 an engagement at Philippi, Va. becomes the first land action of the war, followed by Big Bethel, Va. on June 10, and Rich Mountain, Va. on June 11, which give the Union control of NW Va. On June 9 after Druse tribesmen massacre Christian Mennonites, Napoleon III sends French troops to Lebanon, and the country is separated from Syrian admin. and reunited under an Ottoman gov. with the approval of European powers; Christians begin to dominate Lebanon. Women get the dirty jobs in the war? On June 9 the U.S. Sanitary Commission is created by secy. of war Simon Cameron as an outgrowth of the Ladies Central Relief, founded Apr. 25 by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) (first female M.D. in the U.S., 1849); the first dir. is New York Central Park designer Frederick Law Olmsted; meanwhile former schoolteacher Clarissa "Clara" Harlowe Barton (1821-1912), quits her job at the U.S. Patent Office to distribute food and supplies sent by families in Mass. to troops stationed in Washington, D.C., and after seeing that wounded soldiers from the First Battle of Bull Run brought to the Potomac docks are dying for want of prompt medical attention, she gains permission to pass through the battle lines and nurse them, battling the traditional ho image and going on to become known as "the Angel of the Battlefield", raising thousands of dollars to buy food and medicine for Union troops, and creating facilities for recovering their lost baggage; meanwhile Dorothea Dix (1802-87) (don't be a dix teaser?) is appointed Union Army supt. of 3K women war nurses, incl. novelist Louisa May Alcott; black women, incl. Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross) (1822-1913) and Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) serve as war nurses in the Sea Islands; on the Confed. side "Capt." Sally Louisa Tompkins (1833-1916) of Richmond, Va. (only commissioned woman in the Confed. Army) gains fame for saving 1,260 out of 1,333 wounded men in a private hospital with only six other nurses; not that all woman want to smell rank body fluids; over 400 women disguise themselves as men to fight in the war, and dozens work as spies, while thousands travel with the army cooking, writing letters, and hooking; by the end of the war many Southern women get over their lifetime coddling and become self-reliant after being forced to manage their plantations without men, and go on to face life as widows, spinsters, and orphans (and lesbians?), who prefer to work outside the home - like Scarlett O'Hara? On June 11 new Army of the West cmdr. Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon does Lincoln right by threatening Mo. gov. Claiborne Fox Jackson with war, uttering the soundbyte: "I would see you, and you, and you, and you, and every man, woman and child in the state dead and buried", walking out of a meeting with him and having him forcibly escorted out of St. Louis, beginning a campaign to capture the Mo. state govt., capturing Jefferson City on June 13 after the state govt. flees to Booneville; on June 17 Lyon leads a Union force of 2K to defeat a larger force of Mo. Confed. volunteers under Maj. Gen. Sterling "Old Pap" Price (1809-67) and Col. John Sappington Marmaduke (1833-87) at the Battle of Booneville on the Missouri River 25 mi. W of Columbia (at which the green ill-equipped Confeds. begin running after 20 mi., causing the Yankees to call the battle the "Booneville Races"), denying the many Southern sympathizers in the Missouri River Valley any hope of linking up with the Confederacy, and taking the state out; after Jackson and Price retreat to SW Mo., disgusted Marmaduke resigns from the Mo. militia and heads for Richmond, Va., where he joins the real Confed. army, working his way up to Maj. Gen. On June 24 goldilocks George Armstrong Custer (1840-76) graduates at the bottom of his West Point class, and is commissioned a 2nd Lt. in the 2nd (later the 5th) Cavalry; in 1863 at 23 he becomes the youngest U.S. gen. to date - forget that book work, just give me a horse and I'll lead them to victory with my cahones? On June 25 sultan (since 1839) Abdul Mecid I (b. 1823) dies of phthisis, and is succeeded by his brother (another Europhile who is a good composer) Abdul Aziz (Abdulazia) Oglu Mahmud I (1830-76) as Ottoman sultan #32 (until May 30, 1876), continuing the Tanzimat Westernization program, giving official recognition to the union of Moldavia and Wallachia on Dec. 2; too bad, he squanders money like water until the bottom drops out? On June 27 after installing artillery on May 1 on Mathias Point in King George County, Va. to blockade the Potomac River, causing a flotilla led by Union steamer Thomas Freeborn to bombard it, Confed. troops mortally wound its cmdr. James Harmon Ward (b. 1806), who becomes the first Union naval officer KIA in the U.S. Civil War. On June 28 the Central Pacific Railroad is chartered in Sacramento, Calif. to build the W section of a transcontinental railway along the partially surveyed 41st parallel; Amasa Leland Stanford (1824-93) is pres., and wins election as Calif. gov. (1861-3); Collis Potter Huntington (1821-1900) and Mark Hopkins (1813-78) are vice-pres., and Charles Crocker (1822-88) is head of construction; the Stanford name goes on to become big big big in Calif. In the summer William David Porter (1808-64), son of commodore David Porter (who was court-martialed in 1826 then became CIC of the Mexican Navy) is put in charge of establishing the Western Flotilla to seize and control the Mississippi River for the Union, and he names his ship Essex in honor of his daddy's War of 1812 ship. By July 1 there are 30K green recruits in and about Washington, D.C. under the command of 75-y.-o. Mexican War veteran Gen. "Fuss and Feathers" Winfield Scott. On July 2 Nikolai (Ivan Dimitrovich) Kasatkin (1836-1912) lands on Hakodate and introduces the Russian Eastern Orthodox Church into Japan, going on to become archbishop of Japan and St. Nicholas. On July 4 a new U.S. flag with 34 stars (design #16), which now incl. Kansas is adopted by Congress - talk about optimism? On July 4 Mary Todd Lincoln shows off the new redecorated White House by throwing a lavish party, which is a hit, gaining her praise from some newspapers and damnation from others. On July 5 the Battle of Carthage (Dry Fork) in Carthage, Mo. is a Confed. V. On July 5 (night) British legation first secy. Laurence Oliphant (1829-88) (Lord Elgin's private secy. on his expedition to China and Japan) is attacked by Japanese ronin in Edo, and is severely wounded after one swings a heavy 2-handed sword at him and a beam interferes with it. On July 14 Smithfield, R.I.-born Union Army Col. Sullivan A. Ballou (b. 1829) writes a Lettter to Sarah Ballou about his reasons for laying down his life for the Union, becoming famous; "I know how strongly American Civilization now leans upon the triumph of the Government, and how great a debt we owe to those who went before us through the blood and suffering of the Revolution. And I am willing—perfectly willing—to lay down all my joys in this life, to help maintain this Government, and to pay that debt"; he dies on July 29 from wounds sustained in the First Battle of Bull Run. On July 18 an army led by former (1845-9) New Granada pres. (conservative turned liberal) Gen. Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda (1798-1878) (nicknamed "Moscachochas" for a metal face prosthesis he wears from 1824 war wounds) captures Bogota, and Mosquera proclaims himself as pres. of New Granada (Grenadine Confed.) (until Feb. 4, 1863), going on to expropriate church lands. Let's take care of our summer air? The Big First 100 over, the last chance to bail out of a holocaust is missed when the gray toreadors wave a red flag in front of the blue bulls, who are all green? On July 20 (Sat.) the Congress of the Confederate States of Am. (CSA) begins holding sessions in Richmond, Va.; meanwhile Pres. Lincoln orders green Gen. Irvin McDowell (1818-85) (never commanded before) to lead his 39K troops (30K new recruits) from Washington, D.C. into Va. to seize the Manassas railroad junction 30 mi. to the SW; when McDowell tells Lincoln that his troops are too green, Honest Abe replies, "You are green, it is true, but they are green, also; you are all green alike"; the Union troops march on foot, arriving hot and exhausted, many suffering heat stroke, while the rebel troops become the first to be transported by trains to a battle site, arriving well rested; meanwhile many wives of the green Union troops ride out in their carriages with picnic lunches to watch the fun; on July 21 (Sun.) the First Battle of Bull Run (First Bull Run) (Battle of First Manassas) on the Manassas Plains near Bull Run Strea, in Prince William County, Va. is a rousing V for 32K Confeds. under Col. Pierre Beauregard (promoted to gen. after the battle), with the able assistance of Brig. Gen. Joseph Eggleston "Joe" Johnston (1807-91), who is superior in rank to Beauregard but defers due to lack of familiarity with the terrain; it begins with 30 lb. Union cannon fire near Manassas railway junction across the Potomac River, after which the rebels fall back under an initial assault by superior Union forces, until former VMI math. prof. Brig. Gen. Thomas Jonathan "Old Jack" Jackson (1824-63) holds them, gaining the nickname Stonewall from S.C.-born Gen. Bernard Elliott Bee Jr. (1824-61), who utters the soundbyte "There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall" before being mortally wounded and dying the next day; meanwhile Confederate reinforcements arrive by rail, and Va.-born Confederate cavalry Capt. James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (1831-64), who resigned his commission in the U.S. Army at war's outbreak distinguishes himself, getting a promotion to gen. in Sept. with command of the Army of Northern Virginia's cavalry; the battle ends in a rout of Union forces, with panicked spectators fleeing the scene and blocking the roads and bridges leading back to Washington; the rebels lose 387 dead, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing vs. 460 KIA, 1,124 wounded, and 1,312 MIA for the Union; panicked secy. of state Seward sends a message to Lincoln: "General McDowell's army in full retreat through Centerville. The day is lost. Save Washington and the remnants of this army... The routed troops will not reform"; unbeknownst to the rebels, they could have have easily taken Washington upon the heels of the fleeing Yankees, but decided against a march to Washington due to supply problems; the similarity in colors of the Confed. Stars and Bars to the Union Stars and Stripes causes such confusion that Beauregard suggests a new battle flag consisting of a red field with a blue cross of St. Andrew separated from the field by a white fillet and 13 white stars; after the battle Lincoln realizes that the war will take more than 90 days, and makes Washington, D.C. the most heavily-fortified city on Earth; William Tecumseh Sherman is promoted to brig. gen., while the Confeds. promote five gens. to 3-star gen., incl. Robert E. Lee (top), Albert Sidney Johnston, Sidney Cooper, Joseph Egleston Johnston, and Pierre Beauregard (bottom), pissing-off Joseph Johnston, who actually has the most experience and pre-war rank, causing bad blood with Jefferson Davis, who puts him in command of the Dept. of Northern Va. with orders to run a phony war, while Washington, D.C.-based Gen. George B. McClellan positions his troops in Manassas Junction then withdraws whenever they advance; retired (since 1854) wholesale grocer Wilmer McLean (1814-82), who lives in his Yorkshire estate along Bull Run sees Confed. Gen. Pierre Beauregard set up his HQ there, and during the battle a Union shell comes in through the chimney into the kitchen fireplace, exploding in a kettle of stew, and after the rebels take three days to leave, he gets fed up and moves 120 mi. to the peaceful village of Appomattox Court House to get away from the war; Edmund Ruffin, the Forrest Gump of the Johnny Rebs leaves his Beechwood Plantation on the James River and rejoins the Palmetto Guards for the battle, firing the shell that destroys the bridge on Cub Run that is being used by the panicked Yankees to flee; the "Fighting Irish" 69th Regiment of Irish-Am. troops, originally formed in 1851, then augmented in May when the war began by Dem. Col. (later brig. gen.) Thomas Francis Meagher (1823-67) ("Meagher of the Sword") and Col. Michael "Mick" Corcoran (1827-63) from the New York 69th Militia (which refused to march on parade for the Prince of Wales last year to protest the Irish Famine, getting itself put under court martial till then) fights for the Union under a green-and-gold harp flag, is later annhilated at Gettysburg, reforms and fights at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Antietam, then goes on to fight in WWI. On July 22 (Mon.) news of the First Bull Run disaster causes New York stock prices to plummet, causing U.S. treasury secy. (1861-4) Salmon Portland Chase (1808-73) to rush to Wall Street to pump up support and get them over their unwillingness to antagonize Southern customers, as banks continue to pay drafts against funds deposited by them; Chase proposes issuing $50M in U.S. treasury notes paying 7.3% interest with the option of converting them into 20-year bonds, but James Gallatin (1796-1876) of the Nat. Bank of New York (son of U.S. treasury secy. Albert Gallatin) and John Austin Stevens (1827-1910) of the Bank of Commerce oppose him, and only after much nut twisting does Chase obtain the money from a consortium of New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia banks organized by super-rich merchant-banker Moses Taylor (1806-82) of the City Bank of New York, who is known as a hard money Dem. but supports the Lincoln admin. and becomes chmn. of the committee that makes the first federal loan. As July simmers to its end, the war is past the point of no return and there is no way out of the bottle except for the two scorpions to fight it out? On July 25 after the bulls run crying back to Washington, worried Congress with few dissenting votes passes the Crittenden (Crittenden-Johnson) Resolution, sponsored by John J. Crittenden of Ky. and Andrew Johnson of Tenn., stating that the purpose of the warry war war war is not to subjugate the Southern states or "interfere with the rights" of Southerners by making slavery an issue, but to restore the Union while accepting slavery where it exists - if only them Southerners had believed it and sued for peace, we'd finally know if Yankees are liars or honest? On July 26 after the disaster of First Bull Run causes a search for an able military leader, wide-shouldered, broad-chested (but way shorter than Lincoln) former army Capt. and Illinois Central Railroad pres. Maj. Gen. George Brinton "Little Mac" McClellan (1826-85) (a well-educated multilingual aristocratic veteran of the U.S.-Mexican War, who graduated 2nd in his 1846 West Point Class and studied military tactics in Europe, is widely regarded as a military genius, and who thinks of Lincoln as an uncouth backwoods politician) arrives in Washington, D.C. to replace Gen. McDowell as cmdr. of the Union Army of the Potomac, going on to send MPs to round up stragglers in the all-new volunteer army, work to instill discipline, and hire detective Allan Pinkerton to head his counterespionage dept.; French Bourbon blueblood Louis Philippe Albert D'Orleans, Comte De Paris (1838-94) (grandson of Louis-Philippe I, and pretender to the French throne) is one of McClellan's aides; on Nov. 1 after Gen. Winfield Scott retires he is promoted to gen.-in-chief of the entire U.S. army (not CIC, that's the pres.); McClellan becomes popular with his troops and a great guy on the parade field, but is too afraid of spilling their blood for meanies Lincoln and Stanton, the latter saying that if McClellan "had a million men he would swear the enemy has two millions, and then he would sit down in the mud and yell for three"; meanwhile McClellan's intel service, headed by fellow genius Pinkerton overestimates enemy forces, causing him to stall for 9 mo. after First Bull Run until Lincoln (who knew nothing about military strategy but has been cramming with books from the Library of Congress) puts a candle under his ass by issuing Gen. Order No. 1, ordering him to begin forward movement by Washington's birthday (Feb. 22); calling Lincoln a "well-meaning baboon, the original gorilla" (to which Lincoln responds that he would gladly hold his horse if he scores military Vs), McClellan ignores Lincoln's suggestion to move the army overland directly toward Richmond, instead planning to go to Ft. Monroe on Chesapeake Bay (75 mi. from Richmond), advance up the peninsula between the York and James Rivers, enter Richmond by way of the side door through Yorktown and Williamsburg, and win the war and become the next U.S. pres. In July New York City photographer Mathew B. Brady (1822-96) begins to photograph Civil War battles with a traveling wagon studio and a number of assts., traveling with the Union armies and eventually taking over 7K pictures, his results shocking the Northern public - but not enough? In July after Mo. Gov. Clairborne Jackson refuses to send troops to aid the Union cause, Union Gen. Nathaniel Lyon captures Jefferson County and forces Jackson and the Mo. state govt. to flee, then convenes a puppet constitutional convention, electing former Mo. Supreme Court justice (1846-55) Hamilton Rowan Gamble (1798-1864) ("Lincoln's Resolute Unionist") (who dissented to the Dred Scott decision on the basis that the court shouldn't legislate, although he is a slave owner) as gov. of a provisional govt. on Aug. 1, causing him to be regarded as a Union puppet. In July the federals impose a naval blockade on the South, which had already imposed a voluntary embargo on shipments of cotton in a vain attempt to make the Euros recognize them, creating the Lancashire Cotton Famine in Lancashire County, England starting in Oct., which until this year got 85% of its raw material from them, and by Dec. 1862 puts 485,434 workers on relief at a cost of $50M; despite some cotton reaching them in 1863, normal shipment levels do not resume until after the end of the U.S. Civil War; the embargo backfires on the South two ways, causing cotton workers to prefer hardship to living on the proceeds of slavery and hardening them against the Confederacy, and by driving the price of raw cotton up from 7 to 31 pence a pound by 1864, stimulating new growers in Egypt, India (Bombay), Brazil, and Australia; their support of the Union despite all keeps the British govt. from ending the blockade. In July after First Bull Run, N.H.-born aeronaut Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) (after whom Lowe Observatory is later named) (who just returned from a balloon tour of the South that began with a 9-hour 900-mi. flight from Cincinnati, Ohio to Unionville, S.C. one week after the fall of Ft. Sumter, which got him arrested until he talked his way out of it) is appointed head of the U.S. Army Balloon Corps (until 1863) and his corps goes on to make 3K balloon recon flights; too bad, when Gen. Joe Hooker takes over the Army of the Potomac, he scraps them; meanwhile the Confeds. set up their own balloon corps, which suffers from the same problem of inability to cope with winds, and they also scrap theirs in 1863. In early Aug. meanwhile Chiricahua Apache chief Cochise (1815-74) ("firewood") appears at a U.S. Army post in Ariz. Territory to deny charges that he kidnapped a white child, is taken prisoner, escapes, then takes hostages to be exchanged for other Chiricahua held by the palefaces, but after the exchange doesn't take place, the hostages are killed on both sides, and Cochise joins his father-in-law Mangas Coloradas of the Mimbreno Apache and tries to drive all gringo butts out of their Arizona. On Aug. 5 the U.S. Revenue Act of 1861 implements the first U.S. federal income tax of 3% on incomes over $800; it is rescinded in 1872 after millionaire William Backhouse Astor Sr. goes to court and gets it ruled unconstitutional - pay our price or pay the devil's price? On Aug. 5 the U.S. Army abolishes flogging - threat of an IRS audit works better? On Aug. 10 10K-12K Confederate troops and Mo. militia under Gen. Sterling Price and Gen. Benjamin "Ben" McCulloch (1811-62) defeat 5.5K-6K Union troops under Gen. Nathaniel Lyon (b. 1818) and German-immigrant Gen. Franz Sigel (1824-1902) at the Battle of Wilson (Wilson's) Creek (Oak Hills) 10 mi. SW of Springfield, Mo.; after heavy losses on both sides Lyon is killed and Sigel retreats toward Springfield, giving the rebels control of SW Mo.; Lyon becomes the first Union gen. killed in the U.S. Civil War; in their hurry, the retreating Yankees forget to collect his body, so the Confeds. bury it on a Union soldier's farm outside Springfield until his relatives come to claim it and take it to Ashford, Conn., where 15K attend his funeral. On Aug. 12 P.T. Barnum exhibits a hippopotamus in his Am. Museum in New York City. On Aug. 15 bloody queen (since 1782) Ranavalona (b. 1782) dies peacefully in her sleep after killing off a third of the island's pop. but keeping it from French control, and her son Radama II (1829-63) becomes king of Madagascar (until May 12, 1863), signing a treaty of perpetual friendship with France and working to restore Radama II's reforms, inviting the British Protestant missionaries back in and modernizing the country; too bad, the reforms piss-off the anti-Christian aristocracy, so his days are numbered. On Aug. 16 Pres. Lincoln prohibits Union states from trading with Confed. states. On Aug. 22 Horace Greeley (1811-72), who helped get Lincoln nominated at the Repub. convention and is opposed to both slavery and abolition, writes him a letter expressing his fears of a rebel V: "I have no faith in wholesale bloodshed to no definite end"; "It is our duty to fight so long as we may with a rational hope of success - no longer"; "If the rebels cannot be beaten - if our recent disaster is fatal - do not fear to sacrifice yourself to your country... If it is best for the country and for mankind that we make peace with the rebels at once and on their own terms, do not shrink even from that"; a year later he flip-flops, advocating vigorous prosecution of the Civil War and criticizing Lincoln for not freeing the slaves - his brain went west? On Aug. 22 Chinese emperor (since 1850) Xian Feng (Hien-feng) (b. 1831) dies in Cheng-te in Hopeh Province after the Euros evacuate Peking and he refuses to return, after which his anti-foreigner entourage enters Pekin and usurps the throne, causing his supermom (widow) Cixi (1835-1908) to gain help from pro-Western Yixin, 1st Prince Gong (Kung) (Lord Sixth King) (1833-98) and overthrow them, after which her 5-y.-o. son Zai-Chun (Tsai-chun) is enthroned as Qing (Manchu) emperor #8 Tong Zhi (Tung-chih) (Qing Mu Zong) (1856-75), with both serving as co-regents; Prince Gong and Dong Yuan Chun then establish Cixi as dowager empress and real ruler until her death in 1908, and on Nov. 11 China establishes its first Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is created as a temporary fix but ends up becoming permanent even after the Commie takeover. On Aug. 23 detective Allan Pinkerton arrests Washington, D.C., widow Rose O'Neal Greenhow (1817-64) on her doorstep as she tries to swallow a coded message, already suspecting her of having passed three messages to the rebels with info. on Union troop strength and deployment at First Bull Run; she and one of her daughters are placed under house arrest, but they are caught slipping more notes to rebel agents, and are confined in the Old Capitol Prison, where Greenhow waves a Confederate flag from her window. On Aug. 26 the Battle of (Kessler's) Cross Lanes in Nicholas County, Va. is a Confed. V. On Aug. 27 Martin Doyle becomes the last person executed in in Britain for attempted murder as he is hanged in Chester. On Aug. 30 Union Gen. John Charles Fremont (1813-90) ("Pathfinder of the West"), cmdr. of the Dept. of the West establishes martial law in Mo., and issues Fremont's Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all the slaves of anybody found helping the rebel cause, causing border states (Mo., Del., Md., Ky., Va.) to get jumpy, and Mo. gov. Hamilton Rowan Gamble to petition Pres. Lincoln, who orders him to conform to the U.S. Confiscation Act of 1861, which frees only slaves used by rebel military services; after refusing to comply, Lincoln relieves him on Nov. 2, replaces him with Gen. David Hunter (1802-86), and cancels Fremont's emancipation order, fearing it could "alarm our Southern Union friends, and turn them against us"; Fremont's wife Jessie Benton Fremont (1824-1902) writes Lincoln asking for his reinstatement and is refused, and after he loses his Calif. mining fortune in railroad speculation she ends up supporting him with her writings - Free Mont, what don't you understand? In Aug. the North ceases attacks, causing the U.S. Civil War to be called a "phony war" until the end of the year, and the South mistakenly hopes that the North will give up, failing to press the attack and go for a quick V when they have the chance? The original B.A. Barrackus and the A-Team? In late Aug. Union forces under Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler capture Confederate forts on the N.C. coast; Butler is then put in charge of the teacher's pet Army of the Potomac (AOTP), with the missions of defending Washington, D.C. and seizing the Confed. capital of Richmond; tales of his bad attitude (cruelty and looting) cause him to be bitterly hated by the South, Mrs. Chestnut calling him a "hideous cross-eyed beast"; the proximity of the AOTP to the U.S. capital causes it to become a political football, making it the most politicized military force in U.S. history?; by the end of the war it loses more battles than it wins and suffers more casualties than it inflicts, but is still Lincoln's Main Man, and wins more battles and seizes more land than the other Union armies, and ends up crushing the rebel's Main Man Lee and capturing Richmond, ending the war; 36 different officers hold corps commands, and just three command for more than a year, Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren (1830-82) ("Hero of Little Round Top"), Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick (1813-64), and Gen. Horatio Gouverneur Wright (1820-99). In Aug. Ulysses S. (U.S.) Grant, who received a speeding ticket on his horse and volunteered his services at the beginning of the war and was appointed Col. of an Ill. regiment is appointed Brig. Gen. and ordered to lead an expedition on the Missisippi River; the people of Cairo, Ill. give him a horse named Egypt; later he is given a horse named Cincinnati (1860-78); during the Vicksburg Campaign he acquires one named Jeff Davis. In Aug. Rhode Island militia regiment cmdr. (veteran of First Bull Run) Ambrose Burnside is promoted to brig. gen., with command of the Coast (N.C. Expeditionary Div.) of the Army of the Potomac. In Aug. Penn. Railroad vice-pres. Col. Thomas Alexander Scott (1823-81), who supplied railroad cars and locomotives to open communications between Washington, D.C. and Annapolis, Md. at the outbreak of the war is appointed U.S. asst. war secy. for railways, and in the fall he visits Union-held St. Louis, Mo., discovering that control of the Tennessee River is more important to a Union V than control of the Mississippi River, then returns in Nov. with a plan for Gen. Winfield Scott to implement a "Tennessee Strategy", which proves decisive in the war. In the fall the U.S. recession of 1857 ends as the war pumps up railroads, foundries, textile factories et al., while U.S. govt. expenditures zoom from $172K to $1M a day; meanwhile prices rise faster than wages; guilt-written-all-over-his-face William B. Astor raises rents in New York City by 30%. In early Sept. the Confeds. under Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk (1806-64) (AKA "the Fighting Bishop" because he is an Episcopal bishop from La. who pulled the La. Convention out of the Episcopal Church of the U.S.) invade neutral Ky., causing the state legislature to call on the Union for aid, and on Sept. 6 forces under Gen. Ulysses S. Grant bloodlessly capture Paducah, Ky., giving the Union control of the mouth of the Tennessee River. On Sept. 2 the Battle of Dry Creek in Vernon County, Mo. is a V for the Mo. State Troopers led by Gen. Sterling "Old Pap" Price (1809-67) over the Union, booting them out of SW Mo. On Sept. 12-15 the Battle of Cheat Mountain Summit is Gen. "Evacuation" Lee's first offensive of the war, resulting in a Union V and the permanent loss of West Va. after Lee overestimates the enemy's strength and is forced to retreat. On Sept. 17 Buenos Aires, led by too-sexy-for-my-shirt novelist-poet-historian provincial gov. gen. Bartolome Mitre Martinez (1821-1906) defeats the gaucho cavalry of the Argentine Confederation, led by Gen. Justo Jose Urquiza at the watershed Battle of Pavon (Pavón) in Santa Fe province, and breaks free from it, winning the 1853 revolt and moving the nat. capital back to Buenos Aires, where he establishes an efficient admin. and serves as pres. of new independent Argentina from Apr. 12, 1862 to Oct. 11, 1868 - a lot less rascal and a lot more flat? In Sept. the Empire Well in Penn., brought in by two Cleveland oil prospectors yields 3K barrels of crude oil a day, glutting the market and dropping the price to 10 cents a barrel, while teamsters charge $3 and up per barrel to move it to railheads for shipment to refineries - delivery for Mister Craig Montgomery, sign right here? On Oct. 1 Swedish-born ship designer John Ericsson (1803-89) lays the keel of the USS Monitor, the first Union ironclad lizard, er, ship; meanwhile Union Mississippi River ships are fitted with 2.5-in. iron plate. On Oct. 6 Brigham Young holds a Mormon church conference in Salt Lake City, calling 300 families to the Dixie Mission to found a cotton industry in SW Utah; they go on to found the town of St. George on the Utah-Ariz. border at the convergence of the Colo. Plateau, Mojave Desert, and Great Basis, named after church apostle George A. Smith. On Oct. 7 the Cherokee tribe of Okla. under chief John Ross aligns with the Confederacy and repudiates all treaties made with the U.S. govt. On Oct. 9 the Battle of Santa Rosa Island near Pensacola, Fla. results after 1.2K Confed. forces under Brig. Gen. Richard "Fighting Dick" Heron Anderson (1821-79) attempt to capture Ft. Pickens with a surprise attack, capturing a 6th Regiment of N.Y. Volunteers at their camp outside, then daring the Damn Yankees to come out and fight, which they do, winning and causing them to retreat to the mainland. On Oct. 17 hungry aborigines of the Kairi tribe kill 19 of 22 settlers in Cullinlaringo (Cullin-La-Ringo) ("sought and found", Queensland (250 mi. W of Rockhampton), incl. pastoralist Horatio Spencer Howe Wills (1811-61), father of champion cricketer Thomas Wentworth Spencer Wills (1835-80); after stealing their supplies then attempting a getaway, they are trapped by angry white police and settlers and massacred, becoming the highest kill of sacred cow white Euros by black aborigines so far in Australian history (until ?) - how many millions of apelike aborigines did God's chosen angels kill and cover up as harvesting of cattle? The war goes from green to dirty in three months? On Oct. 21 the dirty-sounding Battle of Ball's Bluff results in a rout of the Union Forces under Col. Edward D. Baker (b. 1811) (close friend of Lincoln) as they try to capture Leesburg, Va., becoming the second major battle of the U.S. Civil War; Baker is killed, and the D leads to the formation of the Radical-dominated Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War on Dec. 20, with Benjamin Franklin Wade (1800-78) of Ohio as chmn., who use it to push for the confiscation of plantations and emancipation of slaves as well as more vigorous prosecution of the war. On Oct. 24 the first transcontinental (New York to Telegraph Hill in San Francisco) Western Union Telegraph Line is completed, beating the pesky Injuns and Confederate sympathizers who tried to stop it; Shoshone chief Sho-kup calls it "wire rope express", adding "Before the white men came to my country, my people were happy and had plenty of game and roots. Now they are no longer happy, and the game has almost disappeared"; on Nov. 20 the Pony Express (begun 1860) ends service after carrying 3K pieces of mail using 183 (121?) riders and 500 ponies, and only losing one pouch - the 2-ton rhino is safely back in captivity? On Oct. 24 the £357K British HMS Warrior, the world's first ocean-going 4.5-in. iron-hulled armored warship is launched outside London to counter the French ironclad launched last year. On Oct. 28 slave state Missouri secedes (#12); the group that adopts an ordinance of succession in Neosho is unofficial, and the official state govt. in Jefferson City remains in the Union; by the end of the year Union troops occupy most of the state, causing the rebel Mo. state govt. under Claiborne Fox Jackson to flee to Little Rock, Ark., where Jackson dies next Dec. 6 of stomach cancer. On Oct. 31 Gen. Winfield Scott resigns as gen.-in-chief of the U.S. Army, citing failing health, and on Nov. 1 Lincoln appoints Gen. George B. McClellan to succeed him; he spends the winter training his 200K-man Army of the Potomac while relying on the U.S. Navy to enforce the embargo of Southern ports ordered in Apr. On Nov. 6 Jefferson Davis wins confirmation as pres. of the CSA in an election held after seizure of federal funds and property in the South; Davis's wife Varina Howell Davis (1826-1906) writes a Letter to Mother in Miss., with the soundbyte that "the North has a great advantage in manufacturing power", and telling how "depressed" her ex-secy. of war hubby is about their prospects. On Nov. 7 the Battle of Belmont, Mo. starts as a V for Grant's troops on the Mississippi River when they overrun a Confederate camp, but turns into a push when reinforcements arrive and they are forced to retreat. On Nov. 7 Union forces under Capt. Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-65) capture the two forts of Port Royal, S.C. with minimal loss of life, giving Dupont's South Atlantic Blockading Squadron a main base of operations, becoming the first major Union V of the war and resulting in Dupont's promotion to rear Adm. On Nov. 8 the Trent Affair begins after Confed. envoys to England (former U.S. senators) James Murray Mason (1798-81) and John Slidell (1793-1871) are taken from British royal mail packet steamer SS Trent in the Bahama Channel by Antarctic explorer Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) of the war screw frigate (or vice-versa?) USS San Jacinto, then imprisoned in Ft. Warren in Boston, Mass.; the incident, which violates the freedom of the seas causes a reaction of opinion in both countries, leading to British preparations for war, and on Nov. 9 8K British troops are sent to Canada for possible support of the South while Britain issues an ultimatum, which Prince Albert on his deathbed causes them to soften in tone, allowing the U.S. to back down, disavow Wilkes' actions, release the envoys next Jan. and let it drop, although relations remain, er, colored throughout the war; the envoys continue on to the Continent, but fail to gain support for the Confederacy, so it was all a waste?; meanwhile Maj. Caleb Huse (1831-1905) and James Dunwoody Bulloch (1823-1901) (chief Confed. agent in Britain) (uncle of Theodore Roosevelt) are dispatched to England to buy arms for the Confederacy, and Huse runs the Union blockade twice. On Nov. 9 the newspaper Stars and Stripes is founded by the 11th, 18th, and 29th Ill. Regiments in Bloomfield, Mo. On Nov. 11 Portuguese king (since 1853) Pedro V (b. 1837) dies of cholera, and although in 1858 he married comely babe Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1837-59), she died a year later of diphtheria, so he dies childless, and is succeeded by his oceanographer brother Luis (Luiz) I "O Popular" (1838-89), who becomes Portuguese king #33 (until 1889), and rules for almost 30 years, collecting ocean specimens throughout the world and building the Aquario Vasco da Gama in Lisbon (opens 1898), becoming one of the first major aquariums. On Nov. 20 slave state Kentucky secedes (#13); the group that adopts the ordinance of secession is unofficial, and the official state govt. remains in the Union. On Nov. 21 Confederate pres. Jefferson Davis appoints Judah P. Benjamin as war secy. - a Jew heads the slavery society war machine against the Stars and Stripes? On Nov. 25 a tenement collapses in the Old Town of Edinburgh, burying 50, of which only 15 survive. In Nov. after defeats in Ky., gen. William Tecumseh Sherman is relieved of his command in disgrace amid media claims that he is insane, after which his scrappy devout Roman Catholic wife Ellen Ewing Sherman (1824-88) and his brother-in-law Col. (later Maj. gen.) Hugh Boyle Ewing (1826-1905) (children of U.S. treasury and interior secy. Thomas Ewing Sr.) personally pinch hit for him in Washington, D.C., claiming a conspiracy by adjutant gen. Lorenzo Thomas (1804-75), which ends in Thomas being banished to a meaningless post in the Trans-Mississippi Theater and Sherman being praised by Pres. Lincoln for his "talent and conduct" and getting reinstated. On Dec. 2 the U.S. Morrill Land-Grant College Act, introduced in 1857 by Vt. Repub. rep. Justin Smith Morrill (1810-98) is passed (effective next July 2), authorizing public land grants for state colleges to teach agriculture and mechanical arts. We're so sorry, Uncle Albert, or, John Brown's Body, or You see a high maintenance woman don't want no maintenance man? On Dec. 14 British Prince Albert (b. 1819) dies of typhoid fever in Windsor Castle, and takes his place alongside Sir Walter Raleigh in a can; in the following week 70K copies of his carte de visite photographic portraits are sold; Queen Victoria totally freaks, and takes to wearing black mourning for the rest of her life, balooning up to a 66-in. bust and 50-in. waist while leaving public appearances to her son Albert Edward, prince of Wales, although she refuses to abdicate and allegedly stays on top of state affairs, retreating to Balmoral Palace in Scotland, Windsor Castle, and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight; speaking of staying on top, she begins to be accompanied by kilt-wearing haggis-chomping whiskey-swilling Scotsman John Brown (1826-83) (gillie or royal attendant at Balmoral) so much that she begins to be called Mrs. Brown, causing radical MPs to call for the abolition of the monarchy - and he Mr. Brown Nose? On Dec. 17 the Battle of Rowlett's Station (Woodsonville) (Green River) in Hart County, Ky. sees the 500-man 32nd Ind. Volunteer Infantry led by Prussian-born former Marxist Johann August Ernst von Willich (1810-78) (expelled from Marx's Communist League in London in 1849 for wanting an immediate Communist rev.) hold off 1.3K Confeds. from Tex. and Ark. with the "hollow square", losing 10 killed and 22 wounded vs. 33 Confeds. killed incl. Col. Terry of Terry's Tex. Rangers, and 50 wounded. On Dec. 30 New York banks suspend payments in gold as reserves fall to $29M from $60M in Jan.; all U.S. banks immediately follow suit, and do not redeem paper money for specie until 1879; meanwhile Conn.-born John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837-1913) founds J.P. Morgan and Co. in New York City, going on to become the #1 financier in the U.S. Siamese troops help uncrowned Bangkok-educated Cambodian king Norodom abort an attempted coup by his half-brother Si Votha. Manuel Montt's handpicked successor Jose Joaquin Perez Mascayano (1801-89) becomes pres. of conservatively-run Chile (until 1871), and Montt ends up as pres. of the supreme court; meanwhile encroachment by settlers cause Mapuche Indians to rebel as the govt. looks the other way and their lands are stolen. War minister Gen. Jose Maria Acha (Achá) Valiente (1810-68) overthrows dictator (since 1857) Jose Maria Linares to become pres. of Bolivia (until 1864), starting out popular for getting rid of a dictator, then winning the election in 1862 and becoming one himself. Jose Antonio Paez returns to Venezuela and reestablishes himself as dictator (until 1863). Britain begins forcing Bahrain's ruling al-Khalifa family to accept treaties giving them control over external affairs. Napoleon III extends the financial powers of the French parliament and mounts a grandiose public works program, which combined with his extravagant foreign policy causes political opposition to mount. The Treaty of Ft. Wise (later Ft. Lyons) resettles the Indian tribes in SE Colo. near Sand Creek, 100 mi. SE of Denver near the Colo.-Kan. border. Britain takes possession of Lagos Island (Nigeria) to stop the slave trade. The Spanish make use of rivalry between Buayan and Magindanao elements to acquire more territory in Muslim Mindanao, incl. Cotabato. The Philippine govt. puts all parishes in Manila under Spanish friars, displacing Filipino clerics; by 1898 they run 817 of 967 parishes, adding fuel to Filipino nationalism. Dutch history expert John Lothrop Motley (1814-77) becomes U.S. minister to Austria (until 1867). Union Col. Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-62), cmdr. of the Dept. of the Pacific resigns from the Union Army at the outbreak of the war to join the Confed. Army; he and other secessionists are denied passage from San Francisco, so they walk to Texas, and he gets promoted to gen., becoming the top Confed. Gen. until Robert E. Lee. Va.-born U.S. Navy cmdr. Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-73), founder of oceanography resigns to become a Confederate diplomatic rep. to England. The U.S. introduces its first passport system. In Britain the death penalty is limited to murder, embezzlement, piracy, and acts of arson perpetrated upon docks or ammunition depots. Queen Victoria visits Ireland. British viceroy to India #1 (since 1858) Charles Canning reorganizes his executive council under terms of the Indian Councils Act, enlarging it to provide room for nonofficial Indian members and instituting departmental distribution of responsibilities; meanwhile on Nov. 18 his 44-y.-o. wife Charlotte Elizabeth, Countess Canning dies of malaria in Calcutta (Kolkata). James Buchanan Eads (1820-87) of Ind., who was traveling with his family in a steamboat near St. Louis as a teen when it exploded, nearly drowning him, then went into business salvaging sunken hulls, receives a Union govt. contract to build a fleet of seven light steam-driven ironclad gunboats to guard western rivers, and finishes the first in 45 and all seven in a record 100 days. The city of Denver, Colo., at the junction of the Cherry Creek and Platte Rivers (on the Great Plains just E of the Front Range of the Rockies) (first settled in 1857) is incorporated, and beats out Colorado Springs and Pueblo to the S to become the state capital; meanwhile the Colo. territorial legislature charters the U. of Colo. even before the state constitution is adopted (1876), later backfiring as the school's regents consider themselves independent of the state legislature? At the war's start the Union only has enough saltpeter to supply the military with gunpowder for 6 mo., causing E.I. du Pont de Nemours to be appointed its agent to purchase supplies from Britain, and he sends Lammot du Pont (1831-84) to corner the market there, but PM Lord Palmerston finds out and tries to stop it from being shipped until he threatens to dump it on the market; Dupont goes on to produce 2K tons of gunpowder during the war, selling it for $1M, supplying 40% of the Union's needs, establishing independent mills in Calif. for the needs of miners; meanwhile 300 tons of Dupont gunpowder in Southern warehouses is seized by the Confeds., and despite Dupont refusing to sell them any, their trade with Mexico and the West Indies is banned to prevent cargoes from falling into rebel hands; the du Ponts support the Union in grand style, with U.S. Navy Adm. Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-65), grandson of du Pont dynasty founder Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours given command of the Union fleet blockading the South Atlantic, Henry du Pont (1812-89), older brother of E.I. du Pont appointed Maj. Gen. in the Union Army, working to keep Del. from being taken over by Confed. sympathizers, and Henry Algernon du Pont (1839-), son of Henry du Pont graduating at the top of his West Point class. Repub. Party organizer Oliver Hazard Perry Morton (1823-77) succeeds Henry S. Lane as gov. of Ind. for the duration of the war (until 1867), becoming a strong Union supporter, rounding up 10K soldiers within three days of the Apr. 12, 1861 start of the U.S. Civil War. Chinese-speaking British maritime customs bureau chief Horatio Nelson Lay (1832-98) is appointed inspector gen. for all 14 ports through which Western goods enter China, and in 1863 he procures a fleet of eight British gunboats, but the Chinese govt. refuses to allow a foreign devil to control it, so it is sold, and Lay resigns in 1864. Sandusky, Ohio-born Jay Cooke (1821-1905) founds a financing co. which floats a $3M war loan for the state of Penn., and markets the huge war loans of the federal govt. The New York Herald beefs up its staff by 63 correspondents for the Civil War, at an expense of $525K for 4 years. 2.6 acre Union Square in San Francisco, Calif. becomes the site of pro-Union demonstrations, giving it its name. Black leader Frederick Douglass issues a soundbyte: "The American people and the Government of Washington may refuse to recognize it for a time, but the inexorable logic of events will force it upon them in the end; that the war now being waged in this land is a war for and against slavery" - beats salary and celery? Ireland makes abortion a criminal offense - a case of their British masters using their Catholic religion against them? The British Parliament abolishes taxes and duties on paper, spurring growth of newspapers. Roller mills come into use in Britain; by the 1870s refined wheat flour without wheat germ will become the dietary staple for rich and poor alike. A gold strike on Alaska's Stikine (Stickeen) River (Tlingit "cloudy river") near Telegraph Creek brings a rush of prospectors to the Russian-owned territory. Calif.'s first producing oil wells are drilled in Petrolia (Petrolea), on the N coast 50 mi. S of Eureka. Ivanovo 200 mi. NE of Moscow is founded by merging the 16th cent. village of Ivanova with the new digs of Voznesensk. 70-mi.-long 60-ft.-wide Ladoga Canal between Lake Ladoga and Leningrad is begun (finished 1866). English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-90) becomes the first Euro to climb 13,255 ft. (4,040m) Mount Cameroon (Mongo ma Ndemi = mountain of greatness). San Francisco photographer Carleton E. Watkins (1829-1916) explores the Yosemite Valley after taking photos for explorer John C. Fremont, who obtained a land grant incl. the huge Mariposa estate and mine in the Sierra Nevadas; after taking 18 in. x 22 in. 3-D photos with a special stereo camera, he sends them back east, creating a stir and making his career; too bad, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake wipes him out, driving him insane. Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin returns to Europe via Japan and the U.S. after escaping imprisonment in Siberia, becoming Europe's #1 anarchist until his 1876 death. The first horse-drawn trams appear in London. A 312-ft.-long model subway consisting of 22-seat cars driven by air blasts like sailboats opens beneath lower Broadway in New York City; by 1880 pneumatic trains are abandoned in favor of electric trains. Daily weather forecasts begin in Britain. Bellevue Hospital Medical College (founded 1859) in New York opens, with N.J.-born Lewis Albert Sayre (1820-1900) as the first U.S. prof. of orthopedic surgery. Who cares about human cannon fodder when war is so good for biz? Gail Borden sells consensed milk to the Union Army for field rations; meanwhile one son John fights for the Union, while the other son Lee fights for the Confeds. The New York State Military Board puts out a request for proposal on 12K blue Army uniforms on Apr. 23, which is won by the Brooks Brothers (Daniel, Edward, Elisha and John) at $19.50 per, but after they are caught supplying shoddy material, causing a scandal in the newspapers, they agree to replace the uniforms with new ones made out of quality cloth without charge, making them an exception to the rule that the U.S. govt. accepts shoddy goods without question. Indianapolis, Ind. grocer (former tinsmith) Gilbert C. Van Camp (1814-1900) founds the first successful commercial cold storage warehouse in the U.S., going on to sell canned fruits and vegetables to the U.S. Army from his store on Missouri St., founding Van Camp Packing Co. in 1882 and selling catsup in 1888 before his son Frank invents Van Camp's Pork and Beans with Tomato Sauce in 1894, which becomes the world #1 best-selling brand of canned pork and beans by 1909 (until 1996); in 1995 it is acquired by ConAgra. Cooper, Hewitt & Co., founded in New York City in 1845 by Edward Cooper (1824-1905) (son of industrialist Peter Cooper) and his brother-in-law Abram Stevens Hewitt (1822-1903) begin producing gun-barrel iron, gun carriages, and mortar beds for the U.S. Army. The first U.S. pencil factory opens on New York's East River near 42nd St., owned by Bavarian-born John Eberhard Faber (1822-79), who obtains graphite and clay from abroad, and cedar from his own land in Fla. Scottish-born London silk merchant George Grant (1822-78) of Banffshire takes advantage of Prince Albert's death by cornering the market on black crepe, and makes a fortune selling it to mourners. The Calif. state legislature commissions Count Agoson Haraszthy (1812-69) to bring select varieties of European wine grapes to the state, and he spends $12K of his own money to bring in 100K cuttings representing 300 varieties from Europe's great vineyards, inaugurating modern Calif. wine production; in 1863 two of his sons marry daughters of Spanish-born Mexican gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (1807-90), assuring a supply of good land. Charles Digby Harrod (1841-1905) takes over the London grocery store (founded 1849) of his father Charles Henry Harrod (1799-1885) on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, and goes on to add furniture, china, medicines and perfumes, creating Harrods dept. store, installing a plate glass window and reaching sales of $1K a week by 1868, wrapping groceries in the color of the Union Jack; it is gutted by fire in 1883, then floated as a limited corp., growing to 18K sq. m of retail space, with the motto "Omnia Omnibus Ubique" ("All things, for all people, everywhere"). Austrian emperor Franz Josef I grants the city of Vienna self-govt., causing it to begin prospering. The Prussian army adopts artillery and breech-loading rifles made by the Krupp family of Essen, which prove their superiority in the siege of Paris, and Krupp is begun of workmen's villages. Texas rancher Oliver Loving (1812-67) is detained by Union authorities in Denver, Colo. until Kit Carson and Luxien Maxwell intervene, and he returns to the South, where the Confed. govt. commissions him to drive cattle to Miss. for Confed. troops, hooking up with Charles Goodnight (1836-1929) to pioneer the Goodnight-Loving Trail from W Tex. and N.M. to Colo., becoming one of the first Am. Wild West cattle drives; after the war the defunct rebel govt. stiffs him for $100K-$200K. After emigrating to Switzerland in 1834-9, and starting out as a pharmacist, switching to production of rapeseed and nut oils for lamps, alcoholic spirits, vinegar, carbonated mineral water, lemonade, gas lighting, Frankfurt am Main, Germany-born Henri (Heinrich) Nestle (Nestlé) (Ger. "small bird's nest") (1814-90) begins his rise by investing in a chemical firm operated by Christopher Guillaume Keppel in Vesey, Switzerland which owns a cheap method for bulk production of ice, making it possible to freeze meat, although it takes until the 1880s to figure out how to ship frozen meat by rail. Riflemaker Eliphalet Remington Jr. (b. 1793), 1816 creator of the Remington rifle dies on Aug. 12 just as his factory in Herkimer County, N.Y. in the Mohawk Valley gears up to increase production of firearms, and his son Philo Remington (1816-89) takes over, helping to update the Union's Am. Rev. War era inventory of inaccurate smooth-bore rifles with rifled Springfield muskets, which have an increased range of 500 vs. 100 yards; the South likewise modernizes, and the new rifles change the nature of war, with the gens. on both sides changing their tactics to defensive, setting both sides up for silly-sad "stone wall" massacres when desperate gens. want a V?; the rifles are still single-shot muzzle-loaders, and repeating rifles don't take over until 1870; actually, soldiers prefer to wait until the enemy is close before firing, and they fire high in a parabolic arch, hence both sides could have risked cavalry charges and got away with it as the bullets sailed over their heads? I.M. Singer makes a $200K profit on assets of $1M selling sewing machines, more abroad than in the U.S. Julius Sturgis brings the first commercial pretzels to market in Lititz, Penn., using a recipe allegedly given him a decade earlier by a vagrant looking for a meal. The beginning of 50 years of the Golden Rule in American retail? John Wanamaker (1838-1922) opens a menswear shop in Philly with his brother-in-law Nathan Brown, offering items at fixed no-haggle prices (the first price tags), growing to the #1 U.S. menswear retailer in the U.S. by 1875, when he turns an abandoned railroad depot into the Grand Depot, a "new kind of store", named after himself, becoming the first department store, going on to pioneer pneumatic tubes, escalators, employee training, and paid summer vacations, regular sales, full-page illustrated newspaper ads, in-store restaurants, reading and restrooms, and home delivery, proclaiming the "golden rule" that "the customer is always right"; in 1896 he expands to New York City, keeping ahead of Macy's in New York City, Marshall Field's in Chicago, and Filene's in Boston - in a hurry and don't wanamaker deal, shop here? Philadelphia butcher Peter Arrell Brown Widener (1834-1915) obtains a govt. contract to supply mutton to Union troops, and ends up with a $50K profit that he builds into a chain of meat stores and street railways. Saxony-born musical instrument importer Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer (1831-1914), who emigrated to the U.S. in 1853 opens a factory in Cincinnati, Ohio to produce military band instruments; he opens a Chicago branch in 1865, then founds the Wurlitzer Co. in 1872 with his brother. Southern agents of the Hartford Fire Insurance Co. (founded 1810) are cut off from their home office by the war, with one agent hiding his policies in a keg for the duration. The Southern Overland Mail Co. (founded 1858) loses its U.S. govt. contract to the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express (operating through Salt Lake City to Denver and St. Joseph), and abandons its Southern U.S. stagecoach route. Spanish-speaking entrepreneur Henry (Don Enrique) Meiggs (1811-77) obtains a contract to complete a railroad between Valparai­so and Santiago in Chile, and goes on to beat the 4-year schedule by two years and make a profit of $1.3M. Benjamin Franklin Jones (1824-1903) and Irish-born James Laughlin (1806-82) open a 2-stack steel furnace in Pittsburgh, Penn., and go on to become a major steel producer. The Volcanic Arms Co. of Springfield, Mass., makers of Smith & Wesson firearms bosts its workforce from 25 to 600; meanwhile the U.S. War Dept. lobbies for the new Henry repeating rifles, but are vetoed because they waste ammo, and they are only used by the Union Army in the closing months of the war. English-born Am. mystic Thomas Lake Harris (1823-1906) (who teaches that God is bisexual, and that although wine is bad he can breathe divine breath into it to neutralize it, but advocates tobacco) founds the utopian community called Brotherhood of the New Life in Wassaic, N.Y. with 60 converts, incl. 20 Japanese from Satsuma Province, and English writer-diplomat Laurence Oliphant (1829-88) and his wife; it later moves to Brocton, N.Y. on the shores of Lake Erie, reaching a pop. of 2K, then moves to Santa Rose, Calif. in 1875; in 1881 the Oliphants quit and sue successfully for thousands of pounds that they claim were robbed from them. Vassar Female College is chartered in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. (75 mi. N of New York City) by local English-born brewer Matthew Vassar (1792-1868) after making his fortune in land speculation, quickly dropping the word Female; it opens in 1865; it goes coed in 1969; "It is my hope to inaugurate a new era in the history and life of woman. I wish to give one sex all the advantages too long monopolized by the other. Ours is, and is to be, an institution for women not men." The U. of Washington (originally Territorial U. of Washington) in Seattle opens. Yale awards the first doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the U.S. The London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (LAMDA) is founded in W London, England, becoming the oldest drama school in the U.K.; alumni incl. Jim Broadbent, Benedict Cumberbatch, Richard Harris, Jeffrey Jones, Stacy Keach, John Lithgow, Malcolm McDowell, Natascha McElhone, Alexander Siddig, and Donald Sutherland. James Thomas Fields (1817-81) of the pub. firm of Ticknor and Fields replaces James Russell Lowell as ed. of Atlantic Monthly (until 1870), assisted by his 2nd wife Annie Adams Fields (1834-1916), who swings both ways and moves in with writer Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909) when he dies, living in a "Boston marriage". The daily Vatican semi-official newspaper L'Osservatore Romano (The Rome Observer) begins pub. on July 1 as an organ for Pope Pius IX to respond to those who want the Church to give up the Papal States that he claims were given to the papacy in the Donation of Pepin way back in 756 C.E. Detroit Free Press pub. Wilbur F. Storey sends correspondents to Washington, D.C. and the battlefields at the outbreak of hostilities in Apr., buys the 7-y.o. Daily Chicago Times from reaper man Cyrus H. McCormick on June 8, renames it the Chicago Times on June 20, and declares in an editorial "It is a newspaper's duty to print the news and raise hell", sticking to the paper's pro-war Dem. Party bias. The Royal Academy of Music is founded in London. Richard Wagner's "Tannhauser" (Tannhaüser) causes a scandal in Paris. English artist-poet William Morris (1834-96) et al. found the Arts and Crafts Movement, calling for a return to Gothic architecture and medieval design, incl. tapestry. Liverpool-born physician-turned surgeon Charles Wyndham (1837-1919) makes his acting debut in Jan. at Mrs. John Woods's Olympic Theater in New York City, then goes off to serve as a surgeon in the Union Army. S.C.-born soprano Clara Louise Kellogg (1842-1916) makes her operatic debut on Feb. 27 at the New York Academy of Music singing the role of Gilda in the 1852 Verdi opera "Rigoletto", going on to a big career in London and the U.S. Italian soprano Adelina Patti (1843-1919) makes her European debut at London's Covent Garden on May 14 singing the role of Amina in the 1831 Bellini opera "La Sonnambula", then sings in Berlin in Dec. The British Navy adopts the rank of sub-lt. to replace the rank of mate, causing the U.S. Navy next July 16 to adopt the rank of ensign to denote the rank of passed midshipman, along with the rank of lt. cmdr. to replace "lieutenant commanding". After the Civil War starts, riverboat pilot Mark Twain returns home to Hannibal, Mo., enlists as a Confed. soldier, deserts, and heads West to the Nevada gold rush. Bloomingdale's luxury department store at 938 3rd Ave. in Lower East Side Manhattan, N.Y. is founded by brothers and Lyman Gustave Bloomingdale (1841-1905) and Joseph Bernard Bloomingdale (1842-1904) (sons of a Bavarian German Jewish immigrant), starting out by selling hoop skirts and European fashions before urban improvements incl. Central Park, the New York Subway, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MoMA), and St. Patrick's Cathedral bring in wealthy clientele; in 1886 they move to 59th St. and Lexington Ave., displaying a couple of products in a big plate glass window in a theatrical fashion instead of a clutter of cr, er, merchandise. German-born Union vet and brewer supplier Adolphus Busch (1839-1913) marries Lily Anheuser and goes into biz with her German-born father Eberhard Anheuser (1805-80), founding the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Co. in St. Louis, Mo. after the latter can't pay his bill and gives him a piece of the action; in 1872 Anheuser adopts the A and Eagle trademark. Iron City (Pittsburgh) Brewing Co. is founded in Pittsburgh, Penn. ("the Smoky City) by German immigrant Edward Frauenheim to produce lager beer; in 2007 it is rescued from bankruptcy by Unified Growth Partners; in 2009 it moves to Latrobe, Penn. Sports: 160-lb. middleweight champion and scientific boxer James "Gypsy Jem" Mace (1831-1910) wins the British heavyweight boxing title (until 1862). The Melbourne Cup Thoroughbred horse race is founded in Australia, becoming known as "the race that stops a nation"; it is held on the first Tues. in Nov. Architecture: The Colo. Territorial Correctional Facility in Canon City, Colo. opens, becoming the first prison in Colo., housing Colo.'s death row from the 1890s to the 1990s, when it is moved to the Colo. State Penitentiary; in 2012 after a lawsuit by Aurora Chuck-E-Cheese death row prisoner Nathan Dunlap over lack of outdoor exercise facilities, death row prisoners are housed in the Sterling Correctional Facility; in 2013 Colo. Gov. John Hickenlooper grants Dunlap a temporary reprieve. The ornate Paris Opera (Opéra Paris), designed by Jean Louis Charles Garnier (1825-98), known for its grand staircase is begun (finished 1875). Sandringham House in Norfolk is begun as a country residence for Queen Victoria on a little ole plot of 8K acres (finished 1870). Inventions: Joseph Rogers Brown (1810-76) of Brown and Sharpe invents the universal milling machine to make the grooves in twist drills used for making musket parts as well as cut gears. Italian inventor Giovanni Caselli (1815-91) invents the Pantelegraph telegraph fax machine. German chemist Richard August Carl Emil Erlenmeyer (1825-1909) invents the conical Erlenmeyer Flask. Am. photographer Thomas Sutton (1819-75) patents the first true mirror single-lens reflex camera; meanwhile he and Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell invent the Color Separation Method of Color Photography, projecting three separate images of the Scottish flag taken through red, green, and violet filters then combining them into a single photo. Ernest Michaux (1842-82) and his brother Pierre Michaux (1813-83) of Bar-le-duc, France invent the front wheel-driven Velocipede, the first true bicycle with pedals and cranks; it is called the boneshaker since it has steel tires and no springs; they sell 142 cycles next year, making it the first mass-produced bike. English-born Australian industrialist Thomas Sutcliffe Mort (1816-78) of Sydney builds the first machine-chilled cold storage unit for meat. Elisha Graves Otis (1811-61) of Yonkers, N.Y. patents the steam-powered Safety Elevator, then dies on Apr. 8, leaving Otis Elevator Co. to his sons. N.H.-born Robert Parker Parrott (1804-77), supt. (1836-77) of the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, N.Y. patents the cast-iron rifled Parrott Rifle (Cannon), which is first used by the Union Army at the First Battle of Bull Run in July after Parrott sells it to them at cost; he worked for 12 years to perfect it after hearing that the Krupp factory in Germany was making one, and invents a brass-ringed explosive shell to go with it, which expands and fills the grooves inside the rifled barrel to increase accuracy. British inventor T.W. Rammell designs a train that is propelled inside a pneumatic air tube. German schoolteacher Johann Philipp Reis (1834-74) invents the first telephone, transmitting musical tones up to 300 ft. using a microphone consisting of a metal point, strip, and membrane, and a receiver consisting of a metal needle inside a solenoid and attached to a resonator; too bad, it doesn't transmit the human voice, giving Alexander Graham Bell his opening. Baltimore, Md. canner Isaac Solomon reduces the avg. processing time for canned foods from 6 hours to 30 min. by employing a discovery of English scientist Humphry Davy (1778-1829) that calcium chloride raises the temp of boiling water to 240 F. The Siemens-Martin Regenerative Open Hearth Process for making steel, which recycles coal gas to preheat the fuel and uses less coal than the Bessemer Process is invented simultaneously by German-born Charles William Siemens (1823-83) of Britain and Pierre Emile Martin (1824-1915) of France, allowing steel and iron to be produced on a whole new level of quantity and quality, replacing the Bessemer Process by 2010. William Schrafft of Boston, Mass. first mentions Jelly Beans, urging people to send them to U.S. Civil War soldiers; on July 5, 1905 the Chicago Daily News pub. the first advertisement for bulk jelly beans (9 cents/lb.); in the 1930s they become linked to Easter celebrations in the U.S.; in Jan. 1980 new U.S. pres. Ronald Reagan places a standing order for 720 1-lb. bags of Jelly Belly brand jelly beans (306,070 beans) each month, costing $2,880, later uttering the soundbyte: "You can tell a lot about a fellow's character by his way of eating jelly beans." Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) of Belgium discovers the economical Solvay Process for making sodium bicarbonate (Na2Co3) (washing soda, also used to make glass) from salt water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide, and it goes into regular production in 1863 - whoa-oa-oa it's magic, whoa-oa? Johann Karl Friedrich Zollner (Zöllner) (1834-82) of Germany invents the astronomical photometer for measuring stellar magnitudes; too bad, he goes on to do a bad thing and get into psychical research, claiming a new "Transcendental Physics" based on the 4th dim., stinking up his name in the scientific world. Science: A complete Archaeopteryx skeleton is discovered in a quarry in Solnhofen, Germany, and in Sept. German paleontologist Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (1801-69) announces it as the missing link between bird and reptile, causing a big Reptile-Bird Controversy, which ends in ?; five more specimens are later found, the next in 1877. After discovering a brain lesion during the autopsy of a speech-impaired man, called Tan (named after the only word he could say), French neurologist Pierre Paul Broca (1824-80) discovers Broca's Area in the brain, the first to be connected with a specific function, the faculty of speech; he also writes the soundbyte, which becomes a favorite with white male supremacists: "In general, the brain is larger in mature adults than in the elderly, in men than in women, in eminent men than in men of mediocre talent, in superior races than in inferior races." Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff use a spectroscope to discover the soft silver-white metallic element rubidium (#37) (Rb) (from its bright red spectral line) in lepidolite mica and potash salts of the Stassfurt deposits in Germany. Sir William Crookes (1832-1910) of England (who inherited a fortune in 1856 and set up his own lab in London) uses a spectroscope to discover soft bluish-white metallic element Thallium (Tl) (#81) (Gr. "thallos" = green shoot or twig, from its bright green spectral line) (Thalia = Greek muse of comedy and pastoral poetry) in selenium ore on Mar. 30; it is also present in flue dust from the burning of pyrites; it goes on to become a favorite poison of crookes and spies (KGB, etc.), and a good rat poison. Swiss scientist Rudolf Albert von Kolliker (1817-1905) interprets the development of the embryo in terms of cell theory. Austrian chemist Johann Joseph Loschmidt (1821-95) extends Archibald Scott Couper's idea of using single lines to represent single bonds in organic chemical formulas to using double lines for double bonds, etc. - clarity with no loss of schmidt? Irish telegrapher Joseph May observes that sunlight affects the electrical resistance of instruments made from selenium, causing a rush to produce the first television; too bad, they're all too crude for practical use - let me run this past research and development? Scottish (Edinburgh) physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79) pub. the paper On Physical Lines of Force in Philosophical Mag., first describing Maxwell's Equations, four partial differential equations which contain a combined theory unifying all partial theories of electricity and magnetism, showing that a magnetic field generates an electric field and vice-versa, forming a pulse which propagates at the speed of light, and that therefore light is an electromagnetic wave, and furthermore that light can only travel at the speed c, and furthermore that the speed of the source of the light doesn't affect it, becoming one of the greatest leaps of thought in history; they are first pub. as a distinct group in 1884 by Oliver Heaviside and Willard Gibbs - the potato salad of physics? French physician Prosper Meniere (Ménière) (1799-1862) first describes Meniere's Disease, characterized by tinnitus, vertigo, and pain, usually in one ear. Louis Pasteur comes up (or out) with his Germ Theory of Disease, backing Girolamo Fracastoro's 1530 idea and dissing the spontaneous generation theory, making him the world's most famous scientist. Max (Johann Sigismund) Schultze (1825-74) of the U. of Bonn defines the cell as a mass of protoplasm with a nucleus, recognizing protoplasm (cytoplasm) as a basic substance found in both animal and plant life. German physiologist Carl (Karl) von Voit (1831-1908) demonstrates that different foods do not provide energy for different body functions, and that proteins break down at the same speed whether or not work is being done. Scientists prove that Phytophthora infestans causes Irish potato blight. Nonfiction: Mrs. Isabella Beeton (1836-65), Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management (bestseller - 60K copies the first year, 2M by 1868) (1,112 pages, with color plates which originally appeared in hubby Samuel Orcher Beeton's "Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine"); contains 900+ recipes, becoming the first to print recipes in the modern format, showing much plagiarism and ludicrous ignorance about food, incl. boiling pasta for 1 hour 45 min., calling lobsters indigestible, garlic offensive, and potatoes suspicous (narcotic) - just in time for poor Miss Scarlett? Alexander Campbell (1788-1866), Memoirs of Elder Thomas Campbell; his father and assocs. in the Disciples of Christ. Anna Ella Carroll (1816-93), The War Powers of the General Government; pamphlet setting forth Lincoln's legal justification for sending the U.S. Army against the Confederacy, which he has distributed to every member of Congress, despite her being a Southern spokesman for the Know-Nothing Party; Penn. Railroad exec Thomas A. Scott pays for 10K copies to be printed; Lincoln later writes her "Could I dare let it be known that the armies of the U.S. are moving under the directing hand of a woman?"; she is never given official credit? Paul Du Chaillu (1831-1903), Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa; report on his 1855-9 expedition to West Africa for the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philly, in which he confirms the ancient reports of Hanno the Navigator of Carthage of the existence of gorillas; sells 300K copies (#1 bestseller of 1861). John William Colenso, Commentary on the Romans; a bishop gets in trouble with the Anglican church. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), The Rejected Stone: or, Insurrection vs. Resurrection in America, by a Native of Virginia; abolitionist. Vladimir Dahl, Dictionary of the Living Russian Tongue (1861-6). William Cooper Dendy (1794-1871), A Gleam of the Spirit Mystery. Reinhart Dozy (1820-83), Histoire des Musselmans d'Espagne (History of the Muslims in Spain) (4 vols.); debunks the "Golden Age of Cordoba" theory in Muslim Spain. Samuel David Gross (1805-), A Manual of Military Surgery. Sarah Josepha Hale (1788-1879) (ed.) Godey's Lady's Book; calls the tomato a "delicious and wholesome vegetable", and tells readers to cook them for at least 3 hours to prevent "sour porridge". Harriet A. Jacobs (1813-97), Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself (with help from Lydia Maria Child); first full-length slave narrative written by a woman and pub. in the U.S.; descriptions of sexual exploitation by her lusty white massah insures good sales. Friedrich August Kekule (1829-96), Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie (1861-87). Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-64), The System of Acquired Rights. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), The Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland; pub. anon. while a student at Trinity College in Dublin; essays on Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Henry Flood, Henry Grattan, and Daniel O'Connell. Eliphas Levi (1810-75), The Key to the Great Mysteries. Mrs. Horace Mann, Christianity In the Kitchen: A Physiological Cook-Book; condemns the hearty fat-laced meals of Americans (butter, lard, pork) in favor of a simple diet. Robert Norton, The Restoration of Apostles and Prophets: In the Catholic Apostolic Church; claims that Scottish teenie Margaret Macdonald invented the evangelical Christian doctrine of the Pre-Tribulation Rapture, later promoted by J.N. Darby. Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), The Cotton Kingdom (2 vols.); combines his travel books "A Journey to the Seaboard Slave States" (1856), "A Journey Through Texas" (1857), and "A Journey in the Back Country" (1860); describes a South sans Simon Legrees; praised by the North Am. Review. Louis Pasteur (1822-95), Memoire sur les Corpuscles Organises qui Existent dans l'Atmosphere; discredits spontaneous generation and promotes the Germ Theory of Disease; Animalcules Infusoires Vivant sans Gaz Oxygene Libre et Determinant des Fermantations; introduces the terms aerobic and anaerobic in describing the "Pasteur effect", the growth of yeast at the expense of sugar in the presence or absence of oxygen, disproving that lack of oxygen keeps canned food from spoiling; notes that since milk is alkaline rather than acid, it requires more heat for sterilization, but heating milk to 110 C will stop the growth of "vibrios" and preserve it indefinitely. Beale Poste, Gaulish and British Coins; the ancient Celts did have a few would could read and write? Bernhard Riemann (1826-66), On a Question in the Conduction of Heat (Uber eine Frage der Warmeleitung); develops the mathematics of quadratic differential forms, a part of tensor theory, later used by Einstein in his Gen. Relativity theory. Lucius Manlius Sargent (1786-1867), The Ballad of the Abolition Blunderbuss; Boston temperance writer defends slavery and ridicules Emerson and other New England abolitionists. Winthrop Sargent (1825-1870), The Life and Career of Major John Andre, Adjutant General of the British Army in America; authoritative bio. - hello mudda, hello fadda, here I am at Camp Grenada? Dr. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), Childbed Fever; wash your filthy hands, stupidos? August Schleicher (1821-68), Compendium; summarizes all work on philology, and proposes the Root Theory (Stammbaum Theorie), that the hypothetical root language of Indo-Germanic languages split off into branches and twigs to give later languages. John Gilmary Shea (1824-92), The Fallen Brave: A Biographical Memorial of The American Officers Who Have Given Their Lives for the Preservation of the Union; Early Voyages Up and Down the Mississippi. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), Education: Moral, Intellectual, Physical. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Philip Stanhope, 5th earl Stanhope (1805-75), Life of the Right Honourable William Pitt (4 vols.) (1861-2); based on unique access to ms. records. David Thoreau (1817-62), Journal (14 vols.); 25 years in the making; his Lost Journal is discovered in 1958. John Tyndall (1820-93), On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connexcion of Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction; later used by climate change scientists. Music: Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910), The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Nov. 18); written in the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C.; based on the 1855 tune "Canaan's Happy Shore (Brothers, Will You Meet Me?)" by William Steffe (1830-90), which had the lyrics "John Brown's Body" written in 1860 by Thomas Bishop of Vt. for 12th Mass. Regiment member John Brown and/or the famed abolitionist; first pub. in the Atlantic Monthly in Feb. 1862. Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803-82), Kalevipoeg; becomes the Estonian nat. epic. Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861), Der Sangeskonig Hiarne, oder Das Tyrfingschwert (posth.); produced in 1863. William Henry Monk (1823-89) (ed.), Hymns Ancient and Modern; 2nd ed. 1875; bestseller; contains Anglican 273 hymns, incl. "Eventide", which is used with the 1847 lyrics by Henry Francis Lyte (1793-1847) for the song "Abide with Me". George R. Pulton and William Whiteman Fosdeick (1825-), Aura Lea. James Ryder Randall (1839-1908), Maryland, My Maryland; Confederate battle song set to the tune of the German Christmas carol "O Tannenbaum", written by a La. English prof. and pub. in the "New Orleans Delta"; urges Marylanders to join the Confederacy after the Baltimore incident; pro-Unionists change the words; becomes the theme of the Preakness Stakes. George Frederick Root (1820-) and H.S. Washburn, The Vacant Chair, or We Shall Meet But We Shall Miss Him. Bedrich Smetana (1824-84), The Brandenburgers in Bohemia (opera); Hakon Jarl (symphonic poems). ?, The Hymns Ancient and Modern. Art: Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), War (mural); Peace (mural); his first popular murals, and he couldn't have picked a better time to unveil them (in Paris), earning him a big rep., plus a govt. commission to paint more after they are bought for the Amiens Museum. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875), Orphee, Le Repos. Gustave Dore (1832-83), Engravings for "Dante's Inferno". John La Farge, St. John. Anselm Feuerbach (1829-80), Nanna Risi. Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Socrates Finding Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia. Alphonse Legros (1837-1911), Ex Voto. Prilidiano Pueyrredon (1823-70), Un Alto en el Campo. Plays: Fredrich Hebbel (1813-63), Siegfried's Death (Siegfrieds Tod) (Jan. 31) (Hoftheater, Weimar); Kriemhild's Revenge (Kriemhildes Rache) (May 18) (Hoftheater, Weimar). Imre Madach (1823-64), Moses; The Tragedy of Man; 15-act 4K-line verse drama about Adam and Eve, starring Lucifer; becomes Hungary's #1 play. Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier (1815-91), The Emperor at Solferino; M. Louis Fould. Alexander Ostrovsky (1823-86), It's a Family Affair, We'll Settle It Among Ourselves (Svoi Lyudi Sochtemsya) (Jan. 10) (Alexandrinski Theater, St. Petersburg); written in 1849 under the title "The Bankrupt"; exposes bogus bankruptcy among Moscow merchants, causing an outcry, and it is banned for the next 13 years. Poetry: Matthew Arnold (1822-88), Thyrsis; lament over dead poet Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-61). Alfred Austin (1835-1913), The Season: A Satire. Alfred Austin (1835-1913), The Season (satire). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82), Paul Revere's Ride (The Landlord's Tale); pub. in the Jan. issue of The Atlantic Monthly; set on Apr. 18, 1775; Revere didn't wait for a lantern signal, and didn't announce the British approach in Concord? James Russell Lowell (1819-91), The Washers of the Shroud; gives up pacifism to espouse the Union cause. George Meredith (1828-1909), Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside. Francis Turner Palgrave (1824-97) (ed.), The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language; 2nd ed. 1897. Lajos Tolnai (1837-1902), Ballads. Henry Timrod (1828-67), Ethnogenesis; written during the first Confederate Congress, extolling the new super-culture of the white-is-right South; The Cotton Boll; how white cotton represents the white people, and will somehow stop the horrible Yankees like the white snow stopped Napoleon; makes him the Confederacy's poet laureate. Novels: Jane Andrews (1833-1887), The Seven Little Sisters Who Live on a Round Ball That Floats in the Air; bestselling children's book; followed by "The Boys Who Lived on the Road from Long Ago to Now" (1885) and "The Stories Mother Nature Told Her Children" (1888). Pierre Boitard, Paris Avant les Hommes (Paris Before Men) (posth.); a lame demon transports a man back in time to see Pleisiosaurs and French ape men. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1835-1915), The Octoroon; The Black Band. George William Curtis (1824-92), Trumps; first pub. in Harper's Weekly (1859-60); a romance set in realistically-depicted New York City. Rebecca Harding Davis (1831-1910), Life in the Iron Mills; first pub. in Atlantic Monthly; one of the first works of Am. lit. realism; depicts mill workers in Wheeling, W. Va. as virtuous victims of mean mill owners; "Come right down with me - here in the thickest fog and mud and effluvia." Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-81), Notes from the House of Death (the Dead) (1860-2); based on his experiences in a labor camp in Siberia. George Eliot (1819-80), Silas Marner, or the Weaver of Raveloe; an English weaver falls into frequent standing trances, allowing him to be framed for theft by a rival for his love, and he is exiled from his Bible-thumping community to the village of Raveloe, where he lives like a hermit and amasses bags of gold sovereigns from his weaving, which is all stolen by dissolute squire's son Dunstan Cass, after which baby girl Eppie is found on his hearth, with the drug addict mother dead in the snow, and he falls in love with her and looks to live happily ever after; too bad, 16 years later the money is found in a ravine along with the skeleton of Dunstan, causing real father Godfrey Cass (Dunstan's brother) to try to reclaim her. Theophile Gautier (1811-72), Le Capitaine Fracasse (2 vols.) (1861, 1863) (last novel); a brave chivalrous soldier during the reign of Louis XIII. Edmond de Goncourt (1822-96) and Jules de Goncourt (1830-70), Soeur Philomene. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Desperate Remedies; (first novel); pub. anon. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-94), Elsie Venner: A Romance of Destiny (first novel); first pub. in "Atlantic Monthly" (1859); a pregnant woman is bitten by a snake, causing her daughter to have serpentlike qualities; lame but controversial attack on the stern Calvinist dogmas of his youth. Thomas Hughes (1822-96), Tom Brown at Oxford; sequel to "Tom Brown's Schooldays" (1857); "The least of the muscular Christians has hold of the old chivalrous and Christian belief, that a man's body is given him to be trained and brought into subjection, and then used for the protection of the weak, the advancement of all righteous causes, and the subduing of the earth which God has given to the children of men." Charles Reade (1814-84), The Cloister and the Hearth; romance of the Reformation; his masterpiece? George Sand (1804-76), Le Marquis de Villemer. Anthony Trollope (1815-82), Framley Parsonage; #4 in the Barsetshire Chronicles. Theodore Winthrop (1828-61), Cecil Dreeme (first novel); by the first Union soldier killed in the U.S. Civil War; Gothic story about a girl who disguises herself as a man to avoid marriage; becomes a bestseller, going through three printings in a week, and 19 by 1866. Ellen Price (Mrs. Henry) Wood (1814-87), East Lynne; melodrama about the fall of virtue; widely translated. Births: Am. "Madame Butterfly" novelist-playwright John Luther Long (d. 1927) on Jan. 1 in Hanover, Penn. Am. WWI gen. Robert Lee Bullard (d. 1947) on Jan. 5 in Youngsboro, Ala.; educated at West Point. Belgian Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta (d. 1947) on Jan. 6 in Ghent. Am. "A Roadside Harp" poet-writer Louise Imogen Guiney (d. 1920) on Jan. 7 in Roxbury, Mass.; discoverer of Khalil Gibran. Am. psychologist-philosopher James Mark Baldwin (d. 1934) on Jan. 12 in Columbia, S.C.; educated at Princeton U.; student of James McCosh (1811-94). German chemist (Jewish) (inventor of thermite) Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Goldschmidt (d. 1923) on Jan. 18 in Berlin; son of Theodor Goldschmidt (1817-75); brother of Karl Goldschmidt; student of Robert Bunsen. Irish poet-novelist Katharine Tynan (Tynan-Hinkson) (d. 1931) on Jan. 23 Clondalkin, County Dublin. Am. composer-violinist Charles Martin Tornov Loeffler (d. 1935) on Jan. 30 in Schoneberg, Berlin (he falsely claims Muhlhausen, Alsace?); emigrates to the U.S. in 1881. Ottoman sultan #36 (next-to-last) (1918-22) Mehmed VI (d. 1926) on Feb. 2 in Dolmabahce Palace, Constantinople; son of Abdulmeced I and Gulustu (1831-61); brother of Mehmed V. British WWI gen. (artillery) Sir Henry Sinclair Horne, 1st Baron (d. 1929) on Feb. 1; knighted in 1916; created baron in 1919. Am. industrialist-philanthropist (co-founder of the Guggenheim Foundation) (Jewish) Solomon Robert Guggenheim (d. 1949) on Feb. 2 in Philadelphia, Penn.; son of Swiss-German Jew Meyer Guggenheim (1828-1905); brother of Benjamin Guggenheim (1865-1912) and eight other siblings. German Marxist philosopher (Jewish) Carl Gruenberg (Grünberg) (d. 1940) on Feb. 10 in Focsani, Romania; educated at the U. of Strasbourg. Am. writer Lou Andreas-Salome (d. 1937) on Feb. 12 in Russia. Am. "A Constitutional History of the United States" historian Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (d. 1947) on Feb. 14 in Beardstown, Ill.; Scottish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Mich.; brother of James Campbell McLaughlin (1858-1932); father of James Angell MacLachlan (1891-1967) and Constance McLaughlin Green (1897-1975); teacher of Henry Steele Commager (1902-98). French physicist Charles Edouard Guillaume (d. 1938) on Feb. 15 in Fleurier, Switzerland; inventor of the nickel-steel alloys Invar and Elinvar. English "The Geographical Pivot of History" geographer Sir Halford John Mackinder (d. 1947) on Feb. 15 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire; educated at Epsom College, and Christ Church, Oxford U.; student of Henry Nottidge Moseley; knighted in 1920. English "Principia Mathematica" mathematician, logician, and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead (d. 1947) on Feb. 15 in Ramsgate, Kent; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. British Maj. Gen. Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend (d. 1924) on Feb. 21; descendant of marshal George Townshend (1724-1807). Hungarian "Midgets and Giants" novelist Zoltan Ambrus (d. 1932) on Feb. 22 in Debrecen. Austrian Anthroposophical Society founder (Freemason) Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (d. 1925) on Feb. 25 in Murakiraly, Austria-Hungary (Donji Kraljevec, Croatia). Bulgarian tsar (1908-18) Ferdinand I (d. 1948) on Feb. 26 in Vienna; a prince of the Kohary branch of the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha family; son of August of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary (1818-81) and Clementine of Orleans (1817-1907) (daughter of Louise Philippe I of France); grand-nephew of Leopold I of Belgium. U.S. Rep. (R-Calif.) (1899-1903, 1905-24) (Jewish) Julius Kahn (d. 1924) on Feb. 28 in Kuppenheim, Baden, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1866. Am. "The Cardinal's Snuff-Box" novelist Henry Harland (d. 1905) (AKA Sidney Luska) on Mar. 1 in New York City; pretends to be born in St. Petersburg, Russia; moves to London in 1890. Canadian "The Song My Paddle Sings" poet Emily Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake) (d. 1913) on Mar. 10 in Six Nations Indian Reserve (near Brantford), Ontario; Mohawk father, English mother. Am. Brig. Gen. Wilds Preston Richardson (d. 1929) on Mar. 20 in Hunt County, Tex. Am. New Thought leader Nona Lovell Brooks (d. 1945) on Mar. 22 in Louisville, Ky.; educated at Wellesley College. Am. "Futility" novelist Morgan Robertson (d. 1915) on Mar. 24. Korean nationalist leader Son Byong-Hi (d. 1922) on Apr. 8 in Cheongju, Chungcheong. English magician Chung Ling Soo (William Ellsworth Robinson) (d. 1918) on Apr. 2 in New York City. French sculptor Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol (d. 1944) on Apr. 8 in Banyuls-sur-Mer, Rousillion; known for his female nudes - Midol? Bulgarian Lt. Gen. Kliment Boyadzhiev (d. 1933) on Apr. 15 in Ohrid. Canadian "Songs from Vagabondia" poet-journalist (in the U.S.) ("unoffocial poet laureate of Canada") (William) Bliss Carman (d. 1929) on Apr. 15 in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Hungarian Conservative PM (1903-5, 1913-17) Count Istvan Tisza de Borosjeno et Szeged (d. 1918) on Apr. 22 in Budapest; son of Count Kalman Tisza de Borosjeno (1830-1902); educated at Oxford U.; fluent in English; fan of Otto von Bismarck. British field marshal ("the Bloody Bull") Edmund Henry Hynman, 1st Viscount Allenby (d. 1936) on Apr. 23 in Brackenhurst, Nottinghamshire. Am. engineer (inventor of the mercury-vapor lamp) Peter Cooper Hewitt (d. 1921) on May 5 in New York City; son of Abram Stevens Hewitt (1822-1903); grandson of Peter Cooper (1791-1883); educated at Stevens Inst. of Tech., and Columbia U. Indian (Bengali) "Gitanjali" poet-novelist-composer-philosopher (polymath) Sir Rabindranath Tagore (AKA Gurudev) (d. 1941) on May 7 in Calcutta; first Asian Nobel Prize winner (1913). Am. scoutmaster ("Father of the Internat. Scouting Movement") ("King of Scouts") Frederick Russell Burnham (d. 1947) on May 11 in Tivoli, Minn.; born on a Lakota Sioux Rez; teacher of Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941). German sculptor Harro Magnussen (d. 1908) on May 14 in Hamburg. Am. "Devil in the White City" serial murderer Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (Herman Webster Mudgett) (d. 1896) on May 16 in Gilmanton, N.H.; educated at the U. of Mich. Australian operatic soprano Dame Nellie Melba (Helen Porter Mitchell) (d. 1931) on May 19 in Doonside, Richmond (near Melbourne); namesake of Peach Melba. U.S. Repub. First Lady (1909-13) Helen Louise Herron "Nellie" Taft (d. 1948) on June 2 in Cincinnati, Ohio; wife (1886-) of William Howard Taft. English cricketer William "Dick" Attewell (d. 1927) on June 12 in Keyworth, Nottinghamshire. Am. "Clytemnestra in Elektra" contralto Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Tini Rossler) (d. 1936) on June 15 in Lieben (near Prague); becomes U.S. citizen in 1908. English composer James Sidney Jones (d. 1946) on June 17 in Islington, London. British field marshal (WWI British Expeditionary Force cmdr.) ("Butcher of the Somme") Sir Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig (d. 1928) on June 19 in Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, Scotland; educated at Clifton College, and Brasenose College, Oxford U. Philippine patriot "Noli me Tangere" novelist-poet Dr. Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (d. 1896) on June 19 in Calamba, Laguna; fluent in 10+ languages? English biochemist (discoverer of vitamins and tryptophan) Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (d. 1947) on June 20 in Eastbourne, Sussex; educated at the U. of London; father of Jacquetta Hawkes (1910-96); cousin of Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-89). German Vice Adm. Maximilian Reichsgraf (Graf) von Spee (d. 1914) on June 22 in Copenhagen, Denmark; Rhenish noble parents. British Sudan gov.-gen Sir Francis Reginald Wingate, 1st Baronet (d. 1953) on June 25 in Port Glasgow, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Am. Mayo Clinic surgeon William James Mayo (d. 1939) on June 29 in Le Sueur, Minn.; son of William Worrall Mayo (1819-1911); brother of Charles Horace Mayo (1865-1939). Scottish naturalist-writer Sir John Arthur Thomson (d. 1933) on July 8 in Saltoun, East Lothian. U.S. "Fighting Liberal" Sen. (R-Neb.) (1913-43) George William Norris (d. 1944) on July 11 in Sandusky County, Ohio; educated at Baldwin U. in Berea. Norwegian gas turbine inventor Jens William Aegidius (Aegidus) Elling (d. 1949) on July 26 in Oslo. Am. "Great White Chief" govt. official James Kimble Vardaman (d. 1930) on July 26 near Edna, Jackson County, Tex. Lithuanian "The Talmud Unmasked" Roman Catholic priest (defrocked) Justinas bonaventura Pranaitis (Pronaitis) (d. 1917) on July 27. Am. celeb Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (d. 1884) on July 29 in Chestnut Hill, Mass.; 1st wife (1880-4) of U.S. pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). U.S. Repub. First Lady (1901-9) (Episcopalian) Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (d. 1948) on Aug. 6 in Norwich, Conn.; 2nd wife (1886-) of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919); mother of Theodore Roosevelt III (1887-1944), Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943), Ethel Carow Roosevelt (1891-1977), Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt (1894-1979), and Quentin Roosevelt (1897-1918). English biologist ("Founder of Genetics") William Bateson (d. 1926) on Aug. 8 in Robin Hood's Bay; son of William Henry Bateson (1812-81); brother of Margaret Heitland (1860-1938) and Mary Bateson (1865-1906); father of Gregory Bateson (1904-80); educated at Rugby School, and St. John's College, Cambridge U.; coiner of the term "genetics". Austrian diplomat Count Albert (Viktor Julius Joseph Michael von Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein (d. 1945) on Sept. 5 in Lemberg (Lviv); descendant of immigrants from Lorraine, France in 1790. Australian radical journalist (teetotaler) William Lane (d. 1917) on Sept. 6 in Bristol, England; emigrates to Australia in 1885. Danish "Troll Who Smells Christian Blood" sculptor-ceramist Niels Hansen Jacobsen (d. 1941) on Sept. 10. German WWI gen. (CIC of German Gen. Staff in 1914-6) ("the Blood-Miller of Verdun") Erich von Falkenhayn (d. 1922) on Sept. 11 in Burg Belchau (near Graudenz), Thorn, Prussia. British Maj. Gen. Gerald James "Bluebell" "Spit and Polish" Cuthbert (d. 1931) on Sept. 12. Australian philanthropist Dame Eadith Campbell Walker (d. 1937) on Sept. 18 in The Rocks, Sydney, N.S.W.; of Scottish parents; inherits a £1M estate in 1886 and gives a lot of it away but never marries one of them male golddiggers? English "The Knight with Two Faces" poet-novelist Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (d. 1907) on Sept. 23; greatniece of Sara Coleridge (1802-52); great-grandniece of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834). German I.G. Farben chemist-industrialist Friedrich Carl Duisberg (d. 1935) on Sept. 29 in Barmen, Wuppertal. Am. chewing gum manufacturer ("Magnate of Mastication") William Wrigley Jr. (d. 1932) on Sept. 30 in Philadelphia, Penn.; father of Philip Knight Wrigley (1894-1977); patron of Catalina Island, Calif. Am. Baptist Social Gospel minister Walter Rauschenbusch (d. 1918) on Oct. 4 in N.Y. Am. Western "Bronco Buster" artist-writer Frederic Remington (d. 1909) on Oct. 4 in Canton, N.Y.; Alsace-Lorraine descent immigrant parents. French archeologist Col. GMarie Augustin aston Cros (d. 1915) on Oct. 6 in Alsace. Norwegian Arctic explorer Fridtjof Nansen (d. 1930) on Oct. 10 in Oslo. Irish "The Idea of Progress" Protestant historian J.B. (John Bagnell) Bury (d. 1927) on Oct. 16 in Clontibret, County Monaghan; Anglican rector father; educated at Trinity College, Dubin. Am. tennis player Richard Dudley "Dick" Sears (d. 1943) on Oct. 26 in Boston, Mass. French sculptor-painter Emile-Antoine Bourdelle (d. 1929) on Oct. 30 in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne; student of Rodin. German Impressionist painter (Jewish) Leo Lesser Ury (d. 1931) on Nov. 7 in Birnbaum. Canadian basketball inventor James Naismith (d. 1939) on Nov. 6 in Almonte, Ont.; Scottish immigrant parents. Am. Frontier Thesis historian Frederick Jackson Turner (d. 1932) on Nov. 14 in Portage, Wisc.; educated at Johns Hopkins U. Am. advice columnist Dorothy Dix (Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer) (d. 1951) on Nov. 18 in Montgomery County, Tenn.; names herself after Mr. Dick, the family slave who saved their silver during the Civil War; not to be confused with Dorothea Dix (1802-87). Am. "Appeal to the Great Spirit", "Paul Revere" sculptor Cyrus Edwin Dallin (d. 1944) on Nov. 22 in Springfield, Utah; studies with Truman Bartlett and Henri Chapu; Olympic archer; known for the statue of the Angel Moroni on the Salt Lake City Mormon Temple. Madagasar last queen (1883-97) Ranavalona III (d. 1917) on Nov. 22 in Amparibe. U.S. Teapot Dome Scandal Repub. interior secy. #28 (1921-3) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.0 (1912-21) Albert Bacon Fall (d. 1944) on Nov. 26 in Frankfort, Ky. Am. tennis hall-of-fame player Joseph Sill Clark Sr. (d. 1956) on Nov. 30 in Germantown, Penn.; educated at Harvard U.; brother of Clarence Munroe Clark (1859-1937). Am. "When You Were Sweet Sixteen", "The Streets of Cairo" composer-lyricist James Thornton (d. 1938) on Dec. 5 in Liverpool, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1869; starts out as a singing waiter in Boston, Mass., and forms an act with his wife Lizzie Cox (Bonnie Thornton). French Gen. Henri Mathias Berthelot (d. 1931) on Dec. 7 in Feurs. Am. GM and Chevrolet founder William Crapo "Billy" Durant (d. 1947) on Dec. 8 in Boston, Mass.; grandson of Mich. gov. Henry H. Crapo (1804-69). French pioneer film dir. Marie Georges Jean Melies (Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès) (d. 1938). on Dec. 8 in Paris. British mistress of Edward VII Frances Evelynu "Daisy" Greville, Countess of Warwick (d. 1938) on Dec. 10 in Easton Lodge (near Great Dunmow); descendant of Charles II through his mistresses Nell Gwyn and Barbara Villiers. Am. automobile pioneer Charles Edgar Duryea (d. 1938) on Dec. 15 in Canton, Ill.; brother of James Frank Duryea (1869-1967). Finnish conservative PM (1930-1) and pres. (1931-7) Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (d. 1944) on Dec. 15 in Saaksmaki. French Belle Epoque painter Antonio de La Gandara (d. 1917) on Dec. 16 in Paris. Am. electrical engineer Arthur Edwin Kennelly (d. 1939) on Dec. 17 in Colaba (near Bombay), India; educated at University College, London; co-discoverer (1902) of the Kennelly-Heaviside Layer (E-Layer) of the Earth's atmosphere with Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925). Italian "Zeno's Conscience" novelist (Jewish) Italo Svevo (Aron Ettore Schmitz) (d. 1928) on Dec. 19 in Trieste, Austria-Hungary. Slovenian "The Coffee Madam" realist painter Ivana Kobilca (d. 1926) on Dec. 20. German mathematician Friedrich Engel (d. 1941) on Dec. 26. Canadian "Among the Millet" poet Archibald Lampaman (d. 1899) in Morpeth (near Chatham), Ont. Am. mini-celeb Jesse Lafayette Bunker (d. 1909); son of Chang Bunker, one of the original Siamese twins. Malayan writer-journalist Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar (AKA Kesari) (d. 1914) in Chirackal Thaluk, North Malabar. English novelist-poet-writer Maurice Henry Hewlett (d. 1923) in Weybridge. British Maj. Gen. Arthur Edward Aitken (d. 1924) in Rochford, Essex. German "Die Zukunft" journalist Maximilian Harden (Felix Ernst Witkowski) (d. 1927). Am. religious leader Benjamin Purnell (d. 1927) in Ky.; founder of the House of David in Benton Harbor, Mich. Am. FBI dir. (1921-4) ("America's Sherlock Holmes") William John Burns (d. 1932) in Baltimore, Md. Bolivian pres. (1904-9, 1913-7) Ismael Montes (d. 1933). Am. economist Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman (d. 1939) in New York City; prof. at Columbia U. 1891-1931. Am. movie theater magnate Thomas Lincoln Tally (d. 1945) in Tex. Am. anti-Prohibition anti-New Deal activist Capt. William H. Stayton (d. ?). Deaths: Polish statesman Prince Adam Czartoryski (b. 1770) on July 15 in Montfermeil, France (exile). Polish archbishop Antonio Melchiorre Fiiatkowski (b. 1778) on Oct. 5 in Warsaw. German historian Friedrich carl von Savigny (b. 1779) on Oct. 25 in Berlin. Am. judge Lemuel Shaw (b. 1781) on Mar. 30 in Boston, Mass.; chief justice of the Mass. Supreme Court (1830-); wrote 2K+ majority opinions incl. the 1849 "separate but equal" doctrine upholding racial school segregation. French geologist Pierre Berthier (b. 1782) on Aug. 24. English composer-conductor Vincent Novello (b. 1782) on Aug. 9 in Nice. Am. War of 1812 naval officer Samuel Chester Reid (b. 1783) on Jan. 28 in New York City. English civil engineer Sir William Cubitt (b. 1785). U.S. Supreme Court justice #20 (1829-61) John McLean (b. 1785) on Apr. 4 in Cincinnati, Ohio. German-born Pabst Brewing Co. founder Jacob Best Sr. (b. 1786) on Feb. 26 in Milwaukee, Wisc. English actor-mgr. William Farren (b. 1786) on Sept. 24 in London. Polish historian Joachim Lelewel (b. 1786) on May 29 in Paris. English historian Sir Francis Palgrave (b. 1788) on July 6. English sanitary reformer Thomas Southwood Smith (b. 1788) on Dec. 10. English industrial reformer Richard Oastler (b. 1789) on Aug. 22 in Harrogate. French dramatist-librettist Eugene Scribe (b. 1791) on Feb. 20 in Paris. Am. riflemaker Eliphalet Remington Jr. (b. 1793) on Aug. 12 in Ilion, N.Y. Am. Black Hawk War Maj. Isaiah Stillman (b. 1793) on Apr. 15. English Radical politician Thomas Duncombe (b. 1796) on Nov. 13 in London. English botanist-geologist John Stevens Henslow (b. 1796) on May 16 in Hitcham, Norfolk. Scottish-born Canadian political leader William Lyon Mackenzie (b. 1795) on Aug. 28. German composer Heinrich Marschner (b. 1795) on Dec. 16 in Hanover; composed 23 operas and singspiels. Czech historian-philologist Josef Safarik (b. 1795) on June 26 in Prague. Prussian king (1840-61) Frederick William IV (b. 1795) on Jan. 2 in Potsdam. Am. Unitarian-Universalist writer-ed. Thomas Whittemore (b. 1800) on Mar. 21. Swiss politician Jonas Furrer (b. 1805) on July 25 in Bad Ragaz. French zoologist Isidore Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire (b. 1805) on Nov. 10. English "Aurora Leigh" poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning (b. 1806) on June 29 in Florence, Italy; her hubby Robert Browning later returns to London: "Whoso loves believes the impossible." U.S. naval cmdr. James Harmon Ward (b. 1806) on June 27 in Matthias Point, King George County, Va. (KIA); first Union naval officer KIA in the U.S. Civil War. German novelist Theodor Mundt (b. 1808) on Nov. 30 in Berlin. French marshal Pierre Bosquet (b. 1810). Italian leader Count Camille di Cavour (b. 1810) on June 7 in Turin. English statesman Sidney Herbert, 1st baron Herbert of Lea (b. 1810) on Aug. 2 (Bright's Disease). Am. grain elevator inventor Elisha Graves Otis (b. 1811) on Apr. 8 in Yonkers, N.Y.; his exhibit in the Am. Museum of Inventors ends up on the 4th floor? Am. politician-orator Stephen A. Douglas (b. 1813) on June 3 in Chicago, Ill. (typhoid fever). Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (b. 1814) on Mar. 10. Irish opera singer Catherine Hayes (b. 1818) in Aug. in London. Spanish pretender Don Carlos Luis (b. 1818). Polish mathematician Ferdinand Joachimsthal (b. 1818) on Apr. 5 in Breslau (Wroclaw). Am. Union Civil War gen. Nathaniel Lyon (b. 1818) on Aug. 10 at Wilson's Creek near Springfield, Mo. (KIA). British prince consort (1840-61) Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (b. 1819) on Dec. 14 (10:50 p.m.) in the Blue Room, Windsor Castle, Berkshire (typhoid fever) (Crohn's disease?) (renal failure?) (abdominal cancer?). English poet Arthur Hugh Clough (b. 1819) on Nov. 13 in Florence, Italy; dies while travelling for his health. Irish explorer Robert O'Hara Burke (b. 1820) on June 28 in Burke's Waterhole, South Australia (starvation). Czech drmatist Mme. Bozena Nemcova (b. 1820). Irish-born Australian explorer Robert O'Hara Burke (b. 1821) on June 28 in Cooper Creek, Queensland (starvation). Irish-born British dancer Lola Montez (b. 1821) on Jan. 17 in Astoria, N.Y. French novelist-poet Henri Murger (b. 1822) on Jan. 28 in Paris (suicide). Ottoman sultan (1839-61) Abdul Mecid I (b. 1823) on June 25 in Constantinople (TB). French explorer Henri Mouhot (b. 1826) on Nov. 10 near Luang Prabang, Laos; the French erect a tomb to him in 1867. Am. Civil War Union soldier Theodore Winthrop (b. 1828) on Apr. 14 in Ft. Sumter; first Union soldier KIA in the war. U.S. Army Col. Sullivan Ballou (b. 1829) on July 29 in Sudley Church, Va.; KIA in the First Battle of Bull Run. Dutch poet Petrus Augustus de Genestet (b. 1829). Ottoman sultan (1839-61) Abdul Mejid I (b. 1823) on June 25 (phthisis). Chinese Manchu Qin emperor (1850-61) Xian Feng (b. 1831) on Aug. 22 in Cheng-te, Hopeh Province. British-born Australian explorer William John Wills (b. 1834) on June 28 in Cooper Creek, Queensland (starvation). Portuguese king (1853-61) Pedro V (b. 1837) on Nov. 11 in Lisbon (cholera).



1862 - The Les Miserables Year in the U.S. as the fighting whites get to it, systematically upping the ante into relentless all-out mutual annihilation? The Monitor and Merrimack Shiloh Lost Cause Year? Big year for Satan?

Confed. Gen. Robert Edward Lee (1807-70) Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85) Edwin McMasters Stanton of the U.S. (1814-69) James Gillespie Blaine of the U.S. (1830-93) Union Gen. Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-81) Union Gen. Henry Wager Halleck (1815-72) Confed Gen. Braxton Bragg (1817-76) Confed. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77) Confed. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (1821-1904) Confed. Gen. Daniel Harvey Hill (1821-89) Union Commodore David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70) Monitor v. Merrimack, 1862 Confed. Adm. Franklin Buchanan (1800-74) Dennis Hopper (1936-) John F. Winslow (1810-92) Union Gen. James Scott Negley (1826-1901) Union Gen. Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) Confed. Gen. Benjamin Huger (1805-77) Confed. Gen. George Wythe Randolph (1818-67) Union Gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge (1831-1916) James Alexander Seddon (1815-80) Confed. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith (1821-96) Confed. Gen. Earl van Dorn (1820-63) Kevin Costner (1955-) U.S. Adm. Andrew Hull Foote (1806-63) Union Adm. David Dixon Porter (1813-91) Mexican Gen. Ignacio Zaragoza (1829-62) Confed. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder (1807-71) Confed. Maj. Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-86) Union Gen. John Pope (1822-92) Union Gen. Fitz-John Porter (1822-1901) Confed. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823-1914) Union Gen. Rufus Saxton (1824-1908) Union Gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (1817-73) Union Col Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911) Union Gen. John Potts Slough (1829-67) Union Gen. Patrick Edward Connor (1820-91) Confed. Gen. Joseph Wheeler (1836-1906) Union Gen. James G. Blunt (1826-81) Union Gen. Odon Guitar (1825-1908) Robert Dale Owen (1801-77) Mother Bickerdyke (1817-1901) George William Curtis (1824-92) Noah Haynes Swayne of the U.S. (1804-84) Samuel Freeman Miller of the U.S. (1816-90) David Davis of the U.S. (1815-86) James J. Andrews (1829-62) of the U.S. James Brooks Henderson of the U.S. (1826-1913) Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97) Francisco Solano Lopez of Paraguay (1826-70) Tom King (1835-88) Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) Thomas Clark Durant (1820-85) Willie Lincoln (1850-62) Otto von Bismarck of Prussia (1815-98) Kanagawa Incident, Sept. 14, 1862 Charles Lennox Richardson of Britain (1834-62) after messing with Samurai honor Shimazu Hisamitsu (1817-87) Barbara Fritchie (1766-1862) Anna Leonowens (1831-1915) Caleb Chase (1831-1908) James Solomon Sanborn (1835-1903) George Sewall Boutwell of the U.S. (1818-1905) John Elliott Cairnes (1823-75) Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) William Stanley Jevons (1835-82) Ivan Turgenev (1818-83) Julius von Sachs (1832-97) Adolf Schreyer (1828-99) Artemus Ward (1834-67) Jerry Thomas (1830-85) Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) Sofia Andreyevna Behrs Tolstoy (1844-1919) Anton Rubinstein (1829-94) Nikolai Rubinstein (1835-81) Charles Ranhofer (1836-99) George Frederick Root (1820-95) 'The Battle of Cry of Freedom' by George Frederick Root, 1862 Moses Hess (1812-75) Anders Jonas Angstrom (1814-74) Horace Elisha Scudder (1838-1902) Lewis A. Swift (1820-1913) Constantin von Tischendorf (1815-74) Horace Parnell Tuttle (1839-1923) Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois (1820-86) Chancourtois' Table of the Elements, 1862 Alvan Graham Clark (1832-97) Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) Gatling Gun, 1862 Nikolaus August Otto (1832-91) Eugen Langen (1833-95) Hermann Snellen (1834-1908) Snellen Chart Rowntree's, 1862 Henry Isaac Rowntree (1837-83) Joseph Rowntree (1836-1925) 'The Railway Station' by William Powell Frith (1819-1909), 1862 'The Turkish Bath' by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), 1862 'Jeanne Duval' by Edouard Manet (1832-83), 1862 'Madame de Loynes' by Eugene-Emmanuel Amaury-Duval, 1862 'A Ride for Liberty' by Eastman Johnson, 1862 Propylaea, Munich, 1846-62 Victoria Skating Rink Cloetta, 1862

1862 On Jan. 11 too-liberal-for-bananaland Honduran pres. (since 1856) Jose Santos Guardiola (b. 1816) is assassinated by his personal guard, ending the civil war in Honduras (begun 1861); a series of five short-term acting presidents follows (until 1864). In Jan. Edward McMasters Stanton (1814-69) replaces Simon Cameron as U.S. secy. of war (until 1867) after Congress discovers evidence of corruption in Cameron's awarding of govt. contracts; Cameron, who has controlled the Repub. machine in Penn. since 1857 (the first state boss in U.S. politics) gets himself appointed as U.S. minister to Russia (until Nov.), getting it to support the Union. On Jan. 18 big-eared (and something else?) U.S. pres. #10 John Tyler (b. 1790), dies in Richmond, Va. at age 71, leaving eight children by his 1st wife Letitia and seven by his 30-year-younger 2nd wife Julia, the most by a U.S. pres. (until ?). On Jan. 31 the Helsingfors (Helsinki)-Tawastehus Railway in Finland is inaugurated, with composer Frans Hoyer debuting The Railway Gallop, dedicated to Baroness Rokassowsky. In Jan. the Union army begins to push the Confederates southward in Tenn., helping to strip La. of Confed. troops; on Feb. 6 Ft. Henry on the Tennessee River is captured by Union forces; on Feb. 8 Gen. Grant claims that he will take and destroy Ft. Donelson on the Cumberland River 11 mi. away, which he does on Feb. 13-16 after a desperate battle, demanding and getting "unconditional surrender" from Ky.-born commanding gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr. (1823-1914) taking 14K Confederate POWs, and earning the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant" (the first big Union V of the war); the Confederates under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston withdraw to Nashville; in Feb. Grant is promoted to major-gen.; in 1866 Buckner becomes ed. of the Louisville Courier, followed by Ky. gov. in 1867-91. In Jan. Tex. Confeds. led by Maj. Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-86) (inventor of the tepee-like Sibley Tent and Sibley Stove) march N up the Rio Grande from El Paso in an attempt to capture the gold fields of Colo. Territory followed by Calif. to get around the Union blockade, and capture Valverde, Albuquerque, and Santa Fe, N.M.; the Union makes a stand at Ft. Union, near Las Vegas, N.M., issuing a call for Colo. volunteers; Sibley is court-martialed for cowardice next year but gets off with a censure. On Feb. 3 Pres. Lincoln rejects an offer from King Mongkut of Siam for some royal elephants (two tusks?), noting that Yankees use steam power now. On Feb. 5 the permanent union of Wallachia and Moldavia is declared under the name Romania (Roumania), with capital at Bucharest; Prince Alexander John Cuza becomes domnitor (ruling prince) of Romania (until Feb. 22, 1866). On Feb. 6 a U.S. Navy flotilla under Capt. Andrew Hull Foote (1806-63), cmdr. of naval forces in the Upper Mississippi wins a V at Ft. Henry, followed on Feb. 14 by a land-sea V at Ft. Donelson; Foote is injured and ends up on, er, crutches, and steps down in favor of Capt. Charles Henry Davis (1807-77), then is promoted to rear adm. and given a desk job in Washington, D.C., dying next June 26 in New York City after leaving his last claim to 15 min. of fame by getting the liquor ration abolished in the U.S. Navy. On Feb. 8 the Battle of Roanoke Island becomes one of the first eastern Union Vs after 2.5K Confeds. under Brig. Gen. Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) are overwhelmed by 13K Union troops under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger (1805-77), and surrender after losing 100 men, made famous by an illustration in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper; too bad, Southern newspapers claim that Roanoake "surrendered without a shot being fired", placing the blame on war secy. Judah P. Benjamin, who resigns in favor of Brig. Gen. George Wythe Randolph (1818-67) (grandson of Thomas Jefferson) (pictured on the Confed. $100 bill), after which Jefferson Davis appoints him secy. of state in Mar., his object being to try to get Britain to come into the war on the side of the Confederacy, in vain; meanwhile on Nov. 15 Randolph resigns in favor of fellow Virginian James Alexander Seddon (1815-80) (until Feb. 5, 1865). On Feb. 20 after Pres. Lincoln cancels his appointments for two weeks to sit at his bedside, his son William Wallace "Willie" Lincoln (b. 1850) dies at age 11 after catching cold while riding his pony in a chill rain (typhoid?) - wait for Margaret Mitchell to give this a twist? On Feb. 22 (Washington's birthday) Jefferson Davis (1808-89) is approved by popular vote as the first and only pres. of the Confederate States of America. On Feb. 27 Pres. Jefferson Davis is granted congressional authority to suspend habeas corpus. In Feb. after Pres. Lincoln goes to the Rothschild internat. banking family for a loan to finance the war, and they respond with sky-high interest rates, causing Lincoln to vow to bypass them, Congress passes the U.S. Legal Tender Act, issuing the Greenback (green ink being cheaper at the time), and rolling the printing presses to finance the war with fiat money (printed on one side only); by the end of the war it authorizes $450M of the funny (er, fiat) money, showing enough restraint to prevent runaway inflation like in the Confederacy, although the inflation is severe; in modern times the U.S. One Dollar Bill is printed with black ink on the front and green on the back, and lasts only 18-22 mo. in circulation; the money supply doubles from $745M in 1860 to $1.44B next year, yet greenbacks finance only about one-sixth of the war debt; "shinplasters" (fractional currency) (3, 5, 10, 25, 50 cents) are printed until 1876. In Feb. Gen. Burnside's Coast Div. of the Army of the Potomac captures several rebel strongholds in N.C., incl. Roanoke Island and Ft. Macon, causing him to be promoted to Maj. Gen. in command of the Ninth Army Corps. In Feb. Union commodore David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70) takes command of a task force in the Gulf of Mexico carrying 15K troops under Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler; in Apr. they enter the Mississippi River, and on Apr. 18-23 bombard the pair of forts on either side of the river 75 mi. below New Orleans (called the Crescent City from the bend the Mississippi makes there) with a mortar flotilla under the command of David Dixon Porter (1813-91), cut a chain holding a boom of hulks across the river on Apr. 24, then pass the forts in single file; Farragut's 17 warships then steam upriver, exchanging heavy fire with the Confederates, and losing four ships and 137 men in a 90-min. battle; Farragut's fleet arrives at New Orleans on Apr. 25, and Marines enter on Apr. 29 after the Confed. forts surrender on Apr. 28; Butler's troops begin a strict occupation of the city on May 1, Butler ordering the confiscation of the property of anyone fighting in the rebel army or whose acts are treasonable to the Union (with himself as judge, jury and executioner); the Miss. is now bottled up by the Union, but Mobile, Ala. soon becomes a center of blockade-running; Butler is removed as military gov. of New Orleans in mid-Dec. after protests against his arbitrary rule - flush your lunch with buckshot? On Mar. 7-8 the Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern) in NW Ark. near Bentonville sees 10.5K Union troops (over half German immigrants) under Gen. Samuel R. Curtis defeat 16K barefoot bloody-footprint-in-the-snow rebels (incl. 800 Cherokees) under Maj. Gen. Earl van Dorn (1820-63) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Kevin Costner (1955-)?), cementing Union control of Mo., showing that the rebels can't win even when they outnumber the Yankees?; Confed. Gen. Benjamin McCulloch (b. 1811) is KIA by a sharpshooter despite wearing black velvet civies with Wellington boots; Grenville Mellen Dodge (1831-1916), col. of the 4th Iowa Volunteer Regiment is wounded, becomes a hero, and is promoted to brig. gen. in command of the District of the Mississippi, where he uses his civil engineering degree to build and protect railroads. On Mar. 8 in a Confed. attempt to raise the blockade of the James and Elizabeth Rivers, the Battle of Hampton Roads, Va. sees the rebels' secret veapon, the ironclad ship Merrimack (Merrimac) (renamed Virginia) (first U.S. Navy ship with rotating gun turrets), commanded by Franklin Buchanan (1800-74) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Dennis Hopper (1936-)?) destroy the Congress and three smaller vessels, then ram and sink the Cumberland, proving the superiority of ironclads over wooden warships; but never fear, during the night the Yankee secret counterweapon, ironclad ship Monitor arrives, and on Mar. 9 the two battlestars, er, ironclads fight the Battle of the Ironclads for 5-6 hours to a draw (or a Union V, depending on who tells it) (blame it on the tides?); the Union Monitor, built by the Rensselaer and Corning Iron Works in Troy, N.Y., owned by John F. Winslow (1810-92) (ancestor of TLW?), and which is used as the pattern for 60 more Union Civil War ironclads founders off the coast of Cape Hatteras on Dec. 31 while being towed; it is located in 1973 at 230 ft., and the 120-ton turret raised in June, 2002. On Mar. 10 a small Confederate force invades Santa Fe, N.M., and raises the Stars and Bars over the Palace of the Governors, but skip out when Union forces return on Apr. 12, leaving copies of the commander's proclamations and empty champagne bottles. In mid-Mar. after leaving a force behind to guard Washington at Lincoln's orders, Gen. McClellan begins moving S down the Potomac. On Mar. 23 after Confed. high command considers and rejects a plan to strengthen his army enough to go all the way to Washington and abandon Richmond if necessary, Confed. Gen. Stonewall Jackson and his 18K men begin the brilliant diversionary Shenandoah Valley Campaign, winning Vs at the Battle of Front Royal on May 23 et al. against Union Gens. John C. Fremont and Nathaniel P. Banks in an attempt to prevent the Army of the Potomac (then besieging Richmond) from being reinforced; his successes cause Washington itself to be feel threatened, diverting Gen. McDowell; Jackson's foot soldiers move so fast and far that they are called "foot cavalry", and they double back to defend Richmond; on Mar. 23 the First Battle of Kernstown sees Confed. Gen. Stonewall Jackson underestimate the strength of the enemy and retreat, but it does cause Pres. Lincoln to divert more troops than necessary to the Shenandoah Valley. On Mar. 26-28 after the Confederates capture Albuquerque, N.M. (westernmost battle of the U.S. Civil War), the Battle of Glorieta Pass ("the Gettysburg of the West") on the Santa Fe Trial in New Mexico E of Santa Fe sees Union forces under Gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (1817-73), aided by the 1st Colo. Infantry Regiment (1,342 men) stop Confederate forces under Maj. Henry Hopkins Sibley; "They were regular Demons, in the form of Pike's Peakers from the Denver City gold mines... shooting us down like sheep"; although the battle is a draw, Colo. Col. "Fighting Parson" John Milton Chivington messes up their supply train, bayoneting 600 horses and mules, causing them to give up their attempt to take Colo. gold fields and return to Tex.; Colo. volunteers cmdr. Col. (later gen.) John Potts Slough (1829-67) (pr. like slow) is so hated by his troops that they try to kill him by firing a howitzer at him?; on Mar. 31 Pres. Lincoln appoints his personal friend, wealthy Waynesville, Ohio-born Methodist physician (founder of the Ill. Repub. Party) (cofounder of Northwestern U.) John Evans (1814-97) as gov. #2 of Colo. Territory (until July 18, 1865); in 1879 the 1st Colo. Infantry Battalion is born - getting some practice for Indian squaws and children? In Mar. Pres. Lincoln proposes that federal compensation be offered any state which begins gradual emancipation, claiming that the cost in the border states would be no more than the cost of 87 days of the war; border state opposition kills it. In Mar. the Port Royal Experiment of inducting blacks into the U.S. army to fight the Confederates begins, but the combat unit is disbanded when the govt. refuses to pay them. In Mar. the govts. of Great Britain and France begin switching from neutrality to a rooting from the sidelines stance vis a vis the South, since they want to get their hands on its cotton, but not enough to openly recognize the Confederacy, esp. British PM Lord Palmerston, who is known for fighting the internat. slave trade - are you still feeling lucky? Goose-stepping Prussia begins the Bismarck Project to reach the Moon by the end of the decade? In Mar. after Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (1815-98) is sent to Paris to serve as Prussian ambassador, the Prussian Landtag insists on an itemization of the budget so they can see that extra funds aren't going to the military, causing the king to dissolve it, resulting in another election in May in which the Progressive Party wins 133 seats; on Sept. 23 the new Landtag deletes from the budget money which has already gone towards military reorg.; after the king tries to resign but can't get his son to take the throne, Bismarck is called in for advice, and on Sept. 30 is made PM and minister of foreign affairs for Prussia, and begins relying on Article 99 of the constitution to let his idol, er, king fund the govt. using existing tax systems with or without the approval of the Loose Cannon Landtag, while devoting his career to the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership and making Germany #1 in Europe (and himself the greatest European diplomat of the cent.). Can we talk not? The resting place of the Jewish Ark of the Covenant becomes a white man's cemetery? On Apr. 5-May 4 after Union Gen. George McClellan with 121K troops overestimates enemy strength and decides against a direct attack, the Siege of Yorktown by the Yankees gives Confed. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston time to position his army in front of Richmond; noticing that Gen. Grant's 42K troops camping along the Tennessee River are exposed, Johnston brags "Tonight we will water our horses in the Tennessee", then moves his 33K forces defending Corinth, Miss. for a successful surprise dawn attack on Apr. 6 (Sun.) in the bloody but beautiful dawn-to-sunset (first large-scale battle of the Western Theater?) Battle of Shiloh Church (Pittsburg Landing) (a log church in the center of the Union camp) (Heb. "Shiloh" = place of peace) 2 mi. from Pittsburg Landing in SW Tenn. (8 mi. N of Savannah, Ga.), killing many in their bedrolls next to Bloody Pond; Confed. Gen. Joseph Wheeler (1836-1906) of Ala. leads the cavalry; Johnston dies on the battlefield while leading a brigade charge, later called by Jefferson Davis "the turning point of our fate", leading to the stubborn Southern belief in the Lost Cause, i.e., that it was only a tragic accident that destroyed their dream; Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman has two horses shot from under him and is badly wounded, getting credit for a Union V by Gen. Grant and being promoted to Maj. Gen. of volunteers; on Apr. 7 the Yankees, reinforced by Gen. Don Carlos Buell and Gen. Lew Wallace take the offensive and win back all the lost ground, and the rebels retreat to Corinth, with the Union army unable to pursue; combined casualties are 25K, the costliest battle so far in U.S. history, exceeding the total of the Am. Rev. War, the 1812 War, and the Mexican War combined; Confeds: 1,728 KIA, 8,012 wounded, 957 MIA; Yankees: 1,754 KIA, 8,408 wounded, 2,885 MIA; upon reading the newspaper reports of all the casualties, "after Shiloh the South never smiled", while initial Union celebrations are sobered, and all hopes for a quick Union V are kaput; Gen. Pierre G.T. Beauregard succeeds Gen. Johnston; noted military strategist Gen. Henry Wager "Old Brains" Halleck (1815-72) accuses Gen. Grant of being drunk and napping during the initial attack, and gets Lincoln to give him Grant's job as field cmdr., only to become overcautious and let the rebels easily escape from Corinth on May 30 and fall back to Tupelo; Lincoln utters the soundbyte about Halleck that he's "little more than a first-rate clerk". On Apr. 12 the Great Locomotive Chase sees Union spies led by James J. Andrews (1829-62) steal the Confed. locomotive The General near Marietta, Ga.; they are later caught. On Apr. 13 2K Calif. volunteers under Col. (later Brig. Gen.) James Henry Carleton leave Camp Drum near Los Angeles, Calif., becoming the longest and most difficult march of the U.S. Civil War, ending up in the Rio Grande Valley to counter Confederate troops. On Apr. 16 the Confed. Congress passes an act of conscription declaring all white male citizens ages 18-35 members of the army for three years, and those already in service required to serve out three years; in Sept. the upper age is raised to 45, and further extended next Feb. to 17-50, with those under 18 and over 45 reserved for state defense; the act is weakened by a $500 commutation loophole as well as many other exemptions, incl. one white man for each plantation with 20 or more slaves (rich man's exemption). On Apr. 16 Pres. Lincoln signs the D.C. Emancipation Act, ending slavery in the District of Columbia, compensating the owners, and setting aside $100K to pay passage for those wanting to emigrate to Haiti or Liberia - no doubt hoping they all will, and there's more money available for that too? On Apr. 22 San Salvador signs a concordat with Pope Pius IX, making the Roman Catholic Church its state church; on July 26 Venezuela signs a similar concordat with the Church, as does Ecuador on Sept. 26; Haiti affirms its 1860 concordat; the Vatican just about has South Am. sewn up with concordats? On Apr. 29 New Orleans falls to Union forces. On May 1-Nov. 1 the 1862 Great London Internat. Exhibition in South Kensington, London features 28K exhibitors from 36 countries, attracting 6.1M visitors; too bad, it only makes a profit of £790; the cork-rubber floor covering Kamptulicon (patented 1843) makes a big splash. Mexico gets its big Cinco de Mayo? On May 5 an army of 2K-4K Mexican nationalists loyal to Benito Juarez (many of them peasants with farm implements), led by Gen. Ignacio Zaragoza (1829-62) defeats an army of 3.5K Mexican and 4.5K French soldiers loyal to Napoleon III led by French Gen. Lorenz at the Battle of Puebla (Cinco de Mayo) 100 mi. E of Mexico City; Zaragoza dies of typhoid fever on Sept. 8; the V keeps the French from aiding the Confederates in Tex., and helps the Union win the U.S. Civil War, but white supremacist Americans never consider it a holiday worth celebrating like the Mexicans, and later, Mexican-Ams. do. On May 20 Pres. Lincoln signs the Homestead Act (effective next Jan. 1), giving citizen heads of households who are at least 21-y.-o. a 160-acre tract of farmland (stolen from the Indians, who are forced onto reservations) provided they improve it (build a house and plow at least 10 acres) and live there at least five years); Confederates are excluded, but blacks aren't, and comprise 5% of the homesteaders; 2 wks. of service in the U.S. Army qualifies, regardless of age, incl. 8-y.-o. drummer boys; only 40% of the homesteaders last the required five years; by the time the act is revoked in 1986, 270M acres in 30 states (incl. Alaska) are settled in 1.6M homesteads, and one-third of modern Americans are descended from the homesteaders; the first person to file a claim is Daniel Freedman (1826-1908) in Beatrice, Neb., who marries Agnes Suiter Freeman (1843-1931) in 1865 and together have eight children; their land becomes the site of the freely suitable Homestead Nat. Monument. In May Union Gen. David "Black Dave" Hunter (1802-86), new head of the Dept. of the South declares free all slaves in S.C., Ga., and Fla., but Pres. Lincoln quickly revokes his order despite pressure from congressional Radicals; he then orders his First South Carolina Regiment (first Arican-Am. regiment in the U.S. Army) to active duty in N Va., freaking the Confeds. and causing them to threaten him with death if captured; after he fails to receive authorization from Washington and pisses off former slaves with involuntary induction, the regiment is ordered disbanded. Just as the Dark Side of the Force is closing in on the Confederacy, their Luke Skywalker assumes command of the rebel forces, in the Return of the Jedi, Southern edition? On May 31 Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston and 45K rebels attack Union forces isolated on the S bank of the Chickahominy River at the unfair battle of Fair Oaks (Seven Pines), but the latter are saved by reinforcements who cross the swollen river, balancing the forces and making it fair?; Johnston is wounded for several mo., but two of McClellan's corps are wiped out; maj. gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith (1821-96) replaces Johnston, then suffers a nervous breakdown, and on June 1 Gen. Robert E. "Granny" Lee assumes command of the Army of Northern Va., and the Union positions are recaptured; when McClellan hears the news, he is glad, saying "Lee is too cautious and weak under grave responsibility"; meanwhile in Nov. after five gens. are promoted over his head to Lt. Gen., Smith resigns from the military and is appointed Confed. secy. of war - must have been looking in a mirror? By the end of May Gen. McClellan's troops sight the church spires of Richmond, Va., but encounter Confed. defenders on the N bank of the Chickahominy River N of the city (which is on the James River). On June 7-8 the First Battle of Chattanooga sees the Union under Brig. Gen. James Scott Negley (1826-1901) bombard it then withdraw. On June 19 Congress excludes slavery from the territories, but doesn't offer the owners compensation. On June 25-July 1 the 6-battle Seven Days Battles shows what Gen. Lee can do for the rebel cause as he hits the Yankees N of the Chickahominy River with everything he has, initally catching them trying to mass at a point on the James River below Richmond, and ordering his Gens. Ambrose P. Hill and James "Dutch" "Old Pete" Longstreet (1821-1904) to cross the Chickahominy and attack their right wing at the Battle of Oak Grove on June 25, but losing on June 26 at the Battle of Mechanicsville (Ellerson's Mill), where A.P. Hill is wounded and his command taken by colorful young cavalryman James Ewell Brown (J.E.B.) Stuart (1833-64); the Confederates rally and win on June 27 at the Battle of Gaines's Mill; on June 29 McClellan attacks at the Battle of Savage's Station, and again on June 30 at the Battle of White Oak Swamp in Henrico County, Va., and again at the Battle of Frazier's Farm (Nelson's Farm) (Glendale) on June 30, finally gathering for a final stand at the Battle of Malvern Hill 12 mi. S of Richmond; on July 1 Lee's forces under former Davidson engineering prof. Gen. Daniel Harvey Hill (1821-89) attack, and are driven back with severe losses, suffering heavy casualties from Union artillery and gunboats in the James River; the Union forces win a V but are unaware of it, and retreat to Harrison's Landing on the mouth of the James River to lick their wounds and nurse their "sore-tongued and fatigued horses" (McClellan); "I have just read your dispatch... Will you pardon me for asking what the horses of your army have done... that fatigues anything?" (Lincoln). In June Gen. Braxton Bragg (1817-76) of N.C. replaces Gen. Beauregard as cmdr. of the Army of the Tennessee, and attempts to hold NE Tenn., then marches into Ky. in Aug. with the hope that their people will repudiate the Union and rise up (they don't); he nearly captures Nashville but is stopped by Gen. Buell's Army of the Ohio at the Battle of Perryville (Chaplin Hills) on Oct. 8 (largest Civil War battle in Ky.), causing him to pull back into Tenn. The U.S. switches to Capital One with the no-hassle rewards? Or, pay our price or pay the Devil's price? On July 1 the U.S. Revenue Act of 1862 is signed by Pres. Lincoln to pay for the war, establishing the first federal excise tax on tobacco, which garners $3M the first year; the federal income tax is changed to a graduated (progressive) rate (first in U.S. history), rising from 5% of incomes above $600 to 10% of incomes above $10K; a luxury tax is placed on liquor, carriages, yachts, billiard tables, playing cards et al.; beer is taxed at $1/barrel; brewers producing more than 500 barrels/year must purchase a $100 federal license, reduced to $50 for less than 500 barrels/year; the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue is George Sewall Boutwell (1818-1905) of Mass., who bolted the Dem. Party in 1854 to help organize the sewer, er, sea wall Repub. Party; in 1863 New England produces 161,607 barrels of beer; too bad, the tax only finances 21% of wartime expenditures; in 1866 new regs require application tax stamps to beer barrels in the factory; the act is rescinded in 1872 after millionaire William Backhouse Astor Sr. goes to court and gets it ruled unconstitutional; on Aug. 21, 1862 in response to federal taxation, the United States Brewers' Assoc. (Lager-Beer Brewers Assoc. until Oct. 1864) is founded by 37 breweries in a meeting at Pythagoras Hall in New York City, becoming the first trade and lobbyist group in the U.S., lobbying the govt. to refund the tax on lager then sending a commission to Europe to study excise laws on malt liquors, convincing the govt. to temporarily reduce the beer tax to 60 cents/barrel then keep the tax constant until 1898 while taxes on distilled liquors increase 3x; after Congress raises the tax on beer by $1/barrel in 1898 to fund the Spanish-Am. War, it successfully lobbies to get the increase abolished in 1902; in 1896 it pub. Documentary History of the United States Brewers' Association with a Sketch of Ancient Brewers' Guilds: Modern Brewers' Associations, Scientific Stations and Schools, Publications, Laws and Statistics Relating to Brewing Throughout the World; in 1986 it becomes the Beer Inst., with HQ in Washington, D.C. On July 9 Pres. Lincoln visits McClellan's HQ, only to have the conceited gen. take it out on him, complaining of lack of support from his admin. and presenting him with the Harrison's Landing Letter, which tells the pres. how to run the war; when Lincoln returns to Washington on July 11 he replaces McClellan as gen.-in-chief, but allows him to keep command of the Army of the Potomac; Lincoln offers Italian hero Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82) command of the Union Army, but withdraws the offer after protests by the Vatican (causing later rumors that the Vatican engineered Lincoln's assassination to get even); he then calls in Gen. Henry Wager "Old Brains" Halleck (1815-72) (textbook expert) from the West to Washington. On July 12 the U.S. Congress authorizes the (Congressional) Medal of Honor; it is first awarded to six Union soldiers who hijacked the Confed. locomotive The General (raid leader James J. Andrews doesn't get one because he's a civilian?). On July 13 the First Battle of Murfreesboro sees the Confed. cavalry under Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77) capture the Union garrison at the important Union supply center of Murfreesboro in Rutherford County, Tenn. on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and tear up the track, halting the Union advance on Chattanooga, becoming the first significant Confed. operation behind Union lines in the Western theater. On July 16 the U.S. Congress passes a Naval Ranks Act creating the ranks of vice-adm., rear-adm., and commodore, with nine grades of commissioned officers; David G. Farragut becomes the first rear Adm. in the U.S. Navy, followed by the first vice-adm. in 1864 and first Adm. in 1866, providing for an active list of one adm., one vice-adm., and nine rear-adms; he also becomes the first Hispanic U.S. Adm. On July 17 Congress passes the U.S. Second Confiscation Act, liberating the slaves of all persons aiding the rebellion, and authorizing the enlistment of blacks; the army is forbidden to help the return of runaways to border-state owners; since the confiscation of rebel land is only valid for the lifetime of the offender (under the U.S. Constitution), and communism doesn't turn abolitionists on, it isn't used to give freed slaves their own farms; Congress permits S.C. Gen. Rufus Saxton (1824-1908) to raise recruits from Sea Islands to reform the First S.C. Volunteer Regiment in Nov. under Capt. (later Lt. col.) Charles Tyler Trowbridge (-1907), followed on Nov. 10 by Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911) (white Mass. Unitarian abolitionist minister and writer, who later discovers Emily Dickinson), going on to raid the coasts of Ga. and Fla. late in the year. On Aug. 11 the Battle of Compton's (Little Compton) Ferry on the Grand River in Livingston County, Mo. is a V for Union forces under Col. Odon Guitar (1825-1908) over 1.2K-1.5K Confed. recruits under Col. John A. Poindexter (1825-69), who are caught trying to cross the river and end up in headlong retreat, with the Yankees in close pursuit, cornering them at the Battle of Yellow Creek, obliterating the Confed. force and ending their recruiting efforts in N Mo.; Poindexter is captured on Sept. 1 at a private's house wearing civilian clothes, after which he is accused of being a guerrilla and almost executed. On Aug. 18 Horace Greeley issues the Prayer of Twenty Millions in the New York Tribune, the most dramatic public scolding that Pres. Lincoln has yet received, calling for emancipation; on Aug. 22 Lincoln responds with a Letter to Horace Greeley, containing the soundbytes "My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union and is not either to save or destroy slavery" and "If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it. If I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it - and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that"; on Sept. 7 Scottish-born Am. radical Dem. abolitionist Robert Dale Owen (1801-77) (son of British utopian socialist Robert Owen) writes Lincoln a letter urging him to end slavery on moral grounds, which seems to get to him. On Aug. 20 the First Battle of Brandy Station in Culpeper County, Va., 55 mi. SW of Washington, D.C. is a push. On Aug. 28 after Giuseppe Garibaldi gets pissed-off at the presence of French troops in Rome and marches to liberate it with 3K volunteers, the Battle of Aspromonte near Reggio Calabria in S Italy is a D for Garibaldi at the hands of Italian troops led by gen. Enrico Cialdini after his forces refuse to fire on fellow subjects of the Kingdom of Italy; Garibaldi is wounded in the foot, captured, and held in honorary confinement in Varignano, then released and allowed to return to Caprera. On Aug. 29-30, before McClellan's Army of the Potomac can return to Washington for a new overland assault on Richmond, the Confederates under Gens. Lee and Jackson again kick Union butt at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas); in a dashing night attack on Aug. 29, J.E.B. Stuart's "foot cavalry" sweep around the right flank of Union Gen. John Pope (1822-92), cmdr. of the Washington defense forces, attacking his supply lines at Cedar Mountain and even capturing his papers; on Aug. 30 Jackson's forces engage Pope's at Manassas Junction, until Lee's main army arrives and crushes Pope's flank, driving him from the field and forcing him to wear more ruts in the road back to Washington with his ragtag Yankee losers; the Yankee folks back home begin to wonder if this war is worth it; Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers another defeat, and is never given another battlefield command; McClellan arrives and takes command, telling his wife in a letter "Again I have been called upon to save the country"; Union Maj. Gen. Fitz-John Porter (1822-1901) of N.H. is court-martialed for refusing to obey Gen. Pope's order to attack, and found guilty next Jan. despite claiming innocence; the decision is reversed 1879, and his rank restored in 1896. Lincoln wants to free the slaves - as long as they leave America? In Aug. Pres. Lincoln delivers his Suffers from Your Presence Speech to a group of prominent free blacks: "Your race suffers greatly, many of them, by living among us, while ours suffers from your presence. If this is admitted, it affords a reason why we should be separated"; the Lincoln admin. sends inquiries to South Am. and African govts., but only Panama and the Caribbean island of Ile a Vache (Fr. "cow island") off SW Haiti are found acceptable as places for freed slave colonies - who must of course be put far enough away to be kept from "our white wimmin"? On Sept. 1 the Battle of Chantilly (Ox Hill) in Fairfax County, Va. is a push; Union Gen. Philip Kearny Jr. (b. 1815) ("the One-Armed Devil") mistakenly rides into the Confed. lines and is KIA. On Sept. 3-4 the Confed. Invasion of Md. sees Gen. Lee's 50K-man army cross the Potomac River at White's Ford in the hopes of forcing a negotiated peace, capturing Frederick, Md. and Hagerstown, Md. N of the Potomac River 30-50 mi. NW of Washington D.C., then on Sept. 14 suffer a D at the Battle of South Mountain; 96-y.-o. matron Barbara Fritchie (Frietchie) (1766-1862) defiantly waves the Stars and Stripes from an upper window as Stonewall Jackson's Confed. troops march through Frederick; on Sept. 9 Lee's Lost Order, his battle plan for the invasion of Md., revealing that he has split his troops and sent Gen. Jackson off to take their old stomping grounds of Harpers Ferry 16 mi. S. of Sharpsburg is found by a Union soldier of the 27th Indiana in Frederick rolled up in some cigars; it should have allowed the Union to be ready for him, but Cloudy McClellan delays for 16 hours as Lee reassembles his tired 2-1 outnumbered 50K-man army behind Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Md., resulting on Sept. 17 in the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), the bloodiest day of the U.S. Civil War and the largest 1-day bloodbath on U.S. soil (until ?) (23K total casualties, incl. 6K dead and 17K wounded); the rebels are saved from disaster by A.P. Hill's div. arriving from Harpers Ferry, attacking the Union left flank, which is itself saved by Union gen. Hugh Boyle Ewing making a brilliant change of front; the Union is on the verge of breaking the rebels twice, only to be held back by Gen. McClellan, who falsely believes that Gen. Lee has hidden reserves; "No tongue can tell, no mind conceive, no pen portray the horrible sights I witnessed this morning" (a Penn. soldier); Gen. James Longstreet is severely wounded; the battle is a push, but the rebel losses of 10K killed and wounded vs. an equal number for the Union represents 25% of Lee's army, forcing him to withdraw from the field on Sept. 18, ending his invasion of Md. to seek refuge in Fredericksburg, Va. by the Rappahannock River; "God has been very kind to us this day" (Lee); Lincoln uses Lee's withdrawal to declare a Union V and dust off his Emancipation Proclamation; Mathew Brady photographs the grisly aftermath, becoming the first time the dead are photographed before being buried, helping solidify Northern support for a total V. On Sept. 10 Carlos Antonio Lopez (b. 1790) dies, and his son and vice-pres. Francisco Solano Lopez (1826-70) becomes pres. of well-armed tobacco-yerba mate producer Paraguay (until 1870). On Sept. 14 the Kanagawa (Namamugi) Incident sees top-knotted sword-wielding Japanese samurai murder English Shanghai merchant Charles Lennox Richardson (b. 1834) (a racist who whipped Chinese in China) for not dismounting for Satsuma bigwig Shimazu Hisamitsu (1817-87) as his retinue of 1K passes him on the Tokaido Road in Namamugi village, causing the Anglo-Satsuma War on Aug. 15-17, 1863. Bam and the dirt is gone? One of the greatest political acts in history, changing the U.S. Civil War into one for a new birth of freedom, taking the spine out of the rebels in their quiet thoughtful moments? On Sept. 22 after informing his cabinet in July of his purpose, then submitting it in draft form (handwritten on four sheets of paper) on Aug. 22, and haunting the War Dept. waiting for news of a Union V to make it not look like a desperation move, Pres. Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, permanently freeing all slaves living in rebel territory as of Jan. 1, 1863 (where he had no power to free them?), while leaving those in border states in slavery, albeit with an understanding that one day, one day; the Russians, who freed their serfs in 1861 are favorably impressed at being copied by the backward Amerikanskies; now the Union stands for the principle that all men shall be free, giving it a religious dimension (the original playing of the race card, get me a hanky I'm about to faint); Frederick Douglass predicts that it "will be worthless, miserable mockery unless the nation shall so far conquer its prejudice as to welcome into the army full-grown black men to help fight the battles of the Republic"; it takes until 2008 for the U.S. to elect its first pres. with a noticeable amount of African blood. On Sept. 30 the First Battle of Newtonia in Newtonia, Mo. is a V for the Confeds. incl. an Indian brigade under Col. Douglas H. Cooper against Union troops incl. three Indian regiments from Ft. Scott under Brig. Gen. James Gilpatrick (Gillpatrick) Blunt (1826-81). In Sept. the Union ship Essex under William David Porter bombards Natchez, Miss., after which he is promoted to commodore and shuttled off to New York City. In Sept. 34-y.-o. Count Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) marries 18-y.-o. Sofia Andreyevna Behrs (1844-1919), and begins work on The Decembrists, a long novel of which only the first three chapters are pub., but the research for it leads him to the 1812 Napoleonic invasion and hence to his really big novel "War and Peace". In early Oct. Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, "the chunky man from the West" (Stephen Binet) ("I need this man - he fights" - Pres. Lincoln) begins a long-range attack on "the Gibraltar of the Confederacy" Vicksburg, Miss. "the nail head that holds the South's two halves together" (Jefferson Davis) ("Vicksburg is the key. The war can never be brought to a close until the key is in our pocket" - Abraham Lincoln); on Oct. 3-4 the Second Battle of Corinth, Miss. is a V for the Union after the Confeds. take the city and then retreat in the face of Union reinforcements, nearly getting trapped on Oct. 5 in the Battle of Hatchie Bridge; Knox County, Ohio-born "Old Mother" Mary Ann Ball Bickerdyke (1817-1901) gains fame as a nurse with Grant's army, going on to fight for pensions for veterans and nurses after the war. On Oct. 4 the Union captures Galveston, Tex., but the Confeds. under Maj. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder (1807-71), "the handsomest soldier in the Confederacy" begin planning a counterattack. On Oct. 7 William E. Gladstone (chancellor of the exchequer) gives his Newcastle Speech, with the soundbyte: "We have our own opinions about slavery, we may be for or against the South, but there is no doubt that Jefferson Davis and other leaders of the South have made an army, they are making, it appears, a navy, and they have made what is more than either, they have made a nation. We may anticipate with certainty the success of the Southern states as far as their separation from the North is concerned"; too bad, the failed invasion of the North in Sept. keeps Britain from recognizing the Confederacy. On Oct. 23 after a Greek army mutiny, Bavarian king (since May 27, 1832) Otto I of Greece (b. 1815) is deposed by the nat. assembly with the approval of the Euro powers, and flees the country. In Oct. Philly banker Jay Cooke (1821-1905), "the financier of the Civil War" begins a nationwide campaign to sell war bonds, which don't depreciate in value against gold like greenbacks, and eventually floats over $2B worth, being helped by the fact that new banks formed under the Nat. Banking Act are required to invest part of their capital in them. In Nov. the 1862 U.S. nat. election sees the Dems. exploit the war to gain many seats, but not enough to control Congress. On Nov. 9 Pres. Lincoln relieves Gen. McClellan of command, sending him a 1-sentence letter which says, "If you don't want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while", transferring him to recruiting duty in N.J.; Lincoln replaces him as CIC of the Army of the Potomac with Gen. Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-81), whose distinctive facial hair creates a sideburn craze, first called burnsides then sideburns; he considers himself unfit to command such large numbers, and just needs one chance to prove it, causing Lincoln to go from bad to worse with the Army of the Potomac, and it's all his fault? On Dec. 1 Pres. Lincoln delivers his 1862 Annual Message to Congress, preparing them for his coming Emancipation Proclamation, issuing the soundbyte "We cannot escape history", and raising the question of border-state compensation, and warning them to be "anxious and careful" that the war does not "degenerate into a violent and remorseless revolutionary struggle"; "Without slavery the rebellion could never have existed; without slavery it could not continue... We cannot escape history... In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free... We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last best hope of Earth"; he adds "Property is the fruit of labor. Property is desirable, it is a positive good in the world. Labor is prior to, and independent of capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration" - sounds like an ad for Marx? On Dec. 13 Gen. Sideburns, er, Burnside sends the Army of the Potomac across the icy Rappahannock River to assault Lee's forces who are well entrenched W of Fredericksburg on Marye's Heights, and the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. on Dec. 13 is a big V for the Confeds. under Gens. Lee, his "right hand man" Jackson, and Longstreet, teaching the value of a stone wall in a Civil War battle (one which Granny Lee doesn't remember at Gettysburg?); the Union takes 12K casualties to 6K for the Confederates; Lee issues a soundbyte: "It is well that war is so terrible, else we should grow too fond of it"; the forces in the east are now deadlocked, and back home Northern Dems. are calling for a negotiated peace, while Repub. Radicals are looking for scapegoats and calling for blood, esp. Burnside, Seward, and even el jefe Lincoln. On Dec. 14 the Civil War Aurora is seen by soldiers in Fredericksburg, Va. On Dec. 24 the first life insurance policy is issued by the John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co. of Mass. to its first agent Albert Murdock. On Dec. 26-29 the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou at Johnson's Plantation on the Yazoo River in Miss. sees Grant's and Sherman's forces repulsed with heavy casualties. On Dec. 26-Jan. 3 (Dec. 31-Jan. 2?) the Confederates under Gen. Braxton Bragg (1817-76) fight the Union forces under Gen. William Starke Rosencrans (1819-98) (Buell's replacement, after Lincoln accuses him of having "the slows") at the Battle of Stone's River (Second Battle of Murfreesboro), ending in a stalemate after 23K are killed by both sides, becoming the highest percentage of casualties on both sides of the war; Union Maj. Gen. (since Nov.) James Scott Negley saves the day on the 2nd day by leading a successful counterattack against the Confeds. under gen. John C. Breckinridge; hearing of Union reinforcements, Bragg falls back to Chattanooga, and both armies regroup for 6 mo. On Dec. 31 Pres. Lincoln signs an act admitting W. Va. to the Union. The Turkish sultan recognizes the autonomous principality of Romania, with capital at Bucharest (modern pop. 1.9M/2.6M). Monaco sells Menton and Roquebrune to France. A pro-clerical uprising in the Bay Islands of Honduras protests religious freedom for non-Catholics, turning into civil war against liberal pres. Jose Santos Guardiola (ends 1862). The Chinju Uprising in Korea, led by a fallen yangban (court official) kills a number of corrupt and greedy officials. It's court-packing time at the Washington Zoo? Them pesky Southerners out of the way in Congress, and three Supreme Court justices having recently kicked the bucket (Peter Vivian Daniel in 1860, John McClean and John A. Cambell in 1861), Pres. Lincoln appoints three new justices who have their minds right, Noah Haynes Swayne (1804-84) (#35) (Jan. 24) (until Jan. 24, 1881), Ky.-born Samuel Freeman Miller (1816-90) (#36) (July 16) (until Oct. 13, 1890), and David Davis (1815-86) (#37) (Oct. 17) (until Mar. 4, 1877) (no relation to Jefferson Davis?), giving the court a full nine members; too bad, pesky Roger B. Taney (1836-64) still has a couple of years left? As good whites kill bad whites in the South, PC whites are allocated land in the West to breed like rabbits? The U.S. grants Haiti diplomatic recognition, sending color-right Frederick Douglass as its Consular Minister. The French acquire the seaport of Obock (Obok) (Ubuk) in E Africa on the N side of the Gulf of Tadjoura opposite Djibouti, but don't occupy it until 1884. Gee, don't blame Blaine from Maine? James Gillespie Blaine (1830-93) of Maine becomes Speaker of the U.S. House of Reps. (until 1875), vigorously supporting the Lincoln admin., then working to tone down the radical measures of Thaddaeus Stevens during the Reconstruction era. Pres. Lincoln appoints Dem. Tenn. Sen. Andrew Johnson (b. 1808), the only Southern senator to remain loyal to the Union as military gov. of occupied Tenn., with rank of Brig. Gen. After Union gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge helps Thomas Clark Durant (1820-85) get rich by smuggling contraband cotton from the Confed. states, and he decides to invest it in railroads, the Union Pacific Railroad is chartered by the U.S. Congress to build a railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean with $60M in govt. subsidies and 20M acres of land; the Central Pacific Railroad Co. of Calif. (mainly Chinese laborers under supervision of dry goods store owner Charlie Crocker) works E from Sacramento, while the Union Pacific (mainly Irish laborers under supervision of Gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge, who discovers a pass through the Black Hills in the 1865 campaign, and resigns from the military in 1866, then gets appointed chief engineer with the endorsement of Gens. Grant and Sherman) works W from Omaha, Neb., all beginning next year; "They built the Great Wall of China, and that's the biggest run of masonry in the world" (Crocker) (biggest crock?); too bad, in 1867 U.S. rep. (R-Mass.) (a major stockholder) Oakes Ames (1804-73) sandbags the govt. by getting a bill passed authorizing the railroad to issue its own bonds based on the sum lent to it by the govt., while placing the entire risk on the govt., then helps the stockholders buy the Penn. Fiscal Agency, rename it the Credit Mobilier of Am., and use it as a front to rob the Union Pacific blind of $44M by 1868; when the public complains, Ames bribes a number of congressmen and federal judges with stock to shut them up, until the New York Sun prints letters from Ames' associate Henry Simpson McComb proving that the co. got $72M in contracts to build the railroad, which is itself only worth $53M, causing it to go bankrupt, stiffing investors - that's so ravin', could you please remove your dog? Ft. Douglas (closed in 1991) overlooking Salt Lake City, Utah is built by Irish-born Union Col. (later Maj. gen.) Patrick Edward Connor (1820-91) to keep a watch on the pesky Mormons and protect overland routes from pesky Indians. War is good for what? War profiteers take advantage of the U.S. Civil War to sell the Union army shoddy goods; "This is the age of shoddy" (New York Herald); many rich U.S. families lay their groundwork now, such as the Morgan, Rockefeller (Cleveland, Ohio), Mellon (Pittsburgh, Penn.), Carnegie, Stanford, Huntington, Armour, and Swift (Chicago, Ill.) families. The Chinese defeat the Taipings in Shanghai. Vietnamese emperor Tu Duc (pr. doo-yoke) surrenders to the French, who set up the colony of Cochin China (not to be confused with Cochin in SW India). The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) is created by Pres. Lincoln, who calls it the "people's department"; it is given cabinet status in 1889. The U.S. Army Medical Museum is founded, later renamed to Nat. Museum of Health and Medicine. Repub. Party co-founder George William Curtis (1824-92) delivers the address "Doctrine of Liberty" to the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard U. on behalf of Pres. Lincoln, laying out the intellectual foundations of Am. education that are adopted by U.S. public schools for the next cent.; next year he becomes political ed. of Harper's Weekly, launching the column "The Easy Chair". New England novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne visits the South to see the Civil War firsthand, and comes upon a group of ex-slaves trudging northward, writing the soundbyte: "They seemed a kind of creature by themselves, not altogether human, but perhaps quite as good, and akin to the fauns and rustic deities of olden times. Whoever may be benefited by the results of this war, it will not be the present generation of negroes." 6'4" Pres. Lincoln meets 4'11" Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-96), issuing the immortal soundbyte "So you're the little lady who wrote the book that started this great war". Denver, Colo. founder William H. Larimer Jr. fails in his bid for mayor, probably because the miners don't want a stern, elderly Presbyterian who doesn't cotton to their wild frontier entertainments; having also failed to get Pres. Lincoln to appoint him the first gov. of Colo. Territory instead of Quaker William Gilpin, he sours and moves back to Leavenworth, Kan., decrying Colorado's "lack of comforts". The Metropolitan Railway of London, designed by John Fowler opens. Russian musician Anton Rubinstein founds the St. Petersburg Conservatory; in 1866 his brother Nikolai Rubinstein founds the Moscow Conservatory. After leaving her daughter Avis in England, strong-willed English widow Anna Leonowens (1831-1915) and her son Louis travel to the exotic kingdom of Siam to educate the harem and children of the even stronger-willed king Yul, er, Rama IV Mongkut, witnessing the torture and execution of adulteress Tupim, and educating heir apparent Chulalongkorn. British explorer John Hanning Speke (1827-64) identifies the source of the White Nile as a large waterfall at the N end of Lake Victoria (later submerged by the Owens Falls Dam). Adolf Schreyer (1828-99) is appointed court painter to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, going on to paint some great battle scenes of the Franco-Prussian wars. French-born Charles Ranhofer (1836-99) becomes head chef of Delmonico's Restaurant in New York City (until 1876, then 1879-96), going on to become #1 in the U.S. as well as the first internationally-renowned U.S. chef. The Russkies one-up the English with a better Bible? After Tsar Alexander II patronizes a mission to Sinai, in the late 1850s, German scholar Lobegott Friedrich Constantin von Tischendorf (1815-74) returns with the Codex Sinaiticus, one of the oldest Bible mss. ever discovered (4th cent. C.E.), found in St. Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai in 1844; it is pub. by order of the tsar to critical acclaim; "Providence has given to our age... the Sinaitic Bible, to be to us a full and clear light as to what is the real text of God's Word written, and to assist us in defending the truth by establishing its authentic form." Pfaff Co. in Kaiserslautern, Germany is founded by guitar player Matthew Pfaff (1823-93) to produce sewing macines. Coal-filtered fruit-flavored white Bacardi Rum is introduced. Chase & Sanborn brand coffee is introduced in Boston, Mass, becoming the first roasted coffee shipped in sealed tins; in 1929 it is acquired by Standard Brands, which in 1981 merges with Nabisco, which sells it to Kraft-General Foods in 1987, which sells it in 1984 to Hill Bros., followed in 1984 by Nestle, Sara Lee in 1999, and Massimo Zanetti Beverage Group in 2006. Cloetta confectionary and nut co. is founded in Copenhagen, Denmark by Swiss brothers Bernhard, Christopher, and Nutin Cloetta, opening a factory in 1873 in Malmo, Sweden, which in 1901 moves to Ljungsbro; in 1917 it is acquired by the Swedish Chocolate Factory; in 2012 it merges with much larger Leaf Brands under the Cloetta name. H.I. Rowntree's confectionary business in Castlegate, York, England is founded by English Quaker Henry Isaac Rowntree (1837-83), who buys out the Tuke family, then in 1869 adds his brother Joseph Rowntree (1836-1925), growing to 4K employees by 1900; in 1881 it introduces Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles, followed by Rowntree's Fruit Gums (1893), Aero Bars (1935), Kit Kat (1935), Smarties (1937), Polo (1948) (from the polar taste of the mint), and After Eight Mint Chocolate Thins (1962); in 1969 it merges with John Mackintosh & Co., makers of Rolo, Munchies, Carmac, and Quality Street to become Rowntree Mackintosh; in 1971 it acquires Menier Chocolate of france; in 1976 it introduces the Yorkie Bar, followed by the Lion Bar (Big Cat) (1977); in 1978 Hershey acquires the U.S. rights to Kit Kat and Rolo; in 1988 after it becomes the 4th largest chocolate manufacturer on Earth after Mars, Hershey, and Cadbury it is acquired by Nestle for £2.55B. Sports: Jem Mace loses his British heavyweight boxing title to "the Fighting Sailor" Thomas "Tom" King (1835-88), then regains it when King refuses a rematch. The English cricket team tours Australia for the 1st time. Architecture: The Propylaea in Munich (begun 1846) finishes construction. The Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Quebec, Canada opens, becoming the site of the first-ever ice hockey game on Mar. 3, 1875, and the first Stanley Cup playoff games in 1894; in 1889 Lord Frederick Stanley witnesses his first ice hockey game there; after it becomes the first bldg. in Canada to be electrified, in 1896 telegraph wires are connected to broadcast live to fans in Winnipeg; it also helps the development of figure skating in Canada. Inventions: N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but never sees extensive use. J.R. Johnson and J.S. Atkinson of London patent an improved type-casting machine that automatically performs all operations subsequent to punch-cutting and matrix-justifying. German engineer Nikolaus August Otto (1832-91) patents a crude 2-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine with a carburetor based on the 1860 illuminating gas engine of Etienne Lenoir of Belgum; German entrepreneur Eugen Langen (1833-95) partners with him to found NA Otto & Cie, the world's first engine factory; the 1867 Paris World Exhibition awards the engine their grand prize; too bad, the factory goes bankrupt, and Eugen goes on to found the Deutz factory, which later becomes Kloeckner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD), later renamed Deutz AG. Science: The Apollo Asteroid is discovered by German astronomer Karl Wilhelm Reinmuth (1892-1979); in 1866 the Sisyphus Asteroid is discovered, and they are traced to the same group, called Apollo Asteroids. Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Angstrom (1814-74) proves that the Sun's atmosphere contains hydrogen. French geologist Alexandre-Emile Beguyer (Béguyer) de Chancourtois (1820-86) arranges the chemical elements based on the new (1858) values of atomic weights of Stanislao Cannizzaro in the form of a spiral graph centered on tellurium, showing that elements on related portions of the spiral have analogous properties, scooping Dmitri Mendeleyev; too bad, since he's a geologist, the chemists don't read it - coulda had a V-8? Am. astronomer Alvan Graham Clark (1832-97) of Cambridgeport, Mass. discovers blue-skewed Sirius B, the first white dwarf star, a companion of Sirius (Alpha Canis Majorus). Scottish-born German astronomer Johann von Lamont (1805-79) discovers electrical currents in the Earth. German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832-97) discovers that starch is produced by photosynthesis. Am. antiquities dealer Edwin Smith (1822-1906) purchases the Edwin Smith Papyrus from Egyptian dealer Mustapha Aga in Luxor, Egypt, becoming the oldest medical text to survive to modern times; he comes into temporary possession of another medical papyrus which is purchased in 1873 by Georg Moritz Ebers. Dutch opthalmologist Hermann Snellen (1834-1908) introduces the Snellen Chart to test visual acuity, consisting of 11 lines of "optotypes" (specially-designed letters, using only CDEFLOPTZ; line #8 is for 20/20 vision). Comet Swift-Tuttle (period 133.28 years) is first observed on July 16 by Lewis A. Swift (1820-1913) and Horace Parnell Tuttle (1839-1923) of the U.S.; it is rediscovered in 1992 by Japanese astronomer Tsuruhiko Kiuchi. German chemist Friedrich Wohler (1800-82) discovers calcium carbide. The velvety silvery-blue deer-resistant Colo. Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) is discovered on Pikes Peak in Colo. Nonfiction: Thomas Arnold the Younger (1823-1900), A Manual of English Literature; becomes a std. textbook in Britain. Friedrich Bleek (1793-1859), Einleitung in das Neue Testament. George Borrow (1803-81), Wild Wales, Its People, Language, and Scenery. Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-90), The City of the Saints: And Across the Rocky Mountains to California; his 100-day journey from St. Joseph, Mo. to Salt Lake City and San Francisco, incl. his meeting with Brigham Young, and his observations on the "peculiar institution" of polygamy, "at once the bane and blessing of Mormonism". John Elliott Cairnes (1823-75), The Slave Power; exposes the disadvantages of the employment of slave labor, influencing Brits against the Confederate States of Am. Charles Stuart Calverley (1831-84), Verses and Translations. John McLeod Campbell, Thoughts on Revelation. Ramon de Campoamor y Compoosorio, Polemicas con la Democracia. Elizabeth Charles (1828-96), The Chronicles of the Schonberg-Cotta Family; about Martin Luther. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), The Golden Hour; abolitionist. Charles Darwin (1809-82), Fertilization of Orchids. Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), A Memory of Solferino (Un Souvenir de Solferino); based on his experiences in the 1859 Battle of Solferino in the Franco-Austrian War; recommends that neutral orgs. be established to aid wounded soldiers in war, inspiring the creation of the Internat. Committee of the Red Cross next year. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), The Plurality of Inhabited Worlds. Moses Hess (1812-75), Rome and Jerusalem: The Last National Question; calls for a Jewish Socialist commonwealth in Palestine; ignored by Jews until Theodor Herzl comes along. Mark Hopkins (1802-87), Lectures on Moral Science. William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy; popularizes the Final (Utility) Theory of Value, along with the Law of Diminishing Returns, giving economics a mathematical basis. Ludwig Kochel (1800-77), Catalogue of Mozart's Works; introduces the K-numbering system for Mozart's works. Edouard Rene Lefevre de Laboulaye (1811-83), The United States and France. Eliphas Levi (1810-75), Fables et Symboles. Henri Mouhot (1826-61), Travels in Siam, Cambodia and Laos; builds up Angkor Wat as "grander than anything left to us by Greece or Rome", promiting the theory that all civilization began in the Middle East. George Rawlinson, The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (1862-7). Johannes Schmidt (1843-1901), Interrelationships between the Indo-Germanic Languages; ditches the Root Theory of August Schleicher for the Wave Theory (Wellentheorie), in which the hypothetical root language acted as a wave center for the descendants. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), First Principles. David Friedrich Strauss (1808-74), H.S. Reimarus. Jeremiah P. "Jerry" Thomas (1830-85), How to Mix Drinks; or, The Bon-Vivant's Companion; first drink book pub. in the U.S., by the "Jupiter Olympus of the Bar", making him an instant star, causing him to earn $100 a week at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco, more than the U.S. vice-pres.; the 1876 ed. contains the first pub. recipe for the Tom Collins; naturally, he claims to have invented the Tom & Jerry. Henry David Thoreau (1817-62), Wild Fruits; calls for preservation of the wilderness; Where I Lived, and What I Lived For (autobio.). Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), L'Ours et le Pacha (comic opera) (first opera) (Marseille). Hector Berlioz (1803-69), Beatrice et Benedict (opera) (Baden-Baden); features Duet of the Young Women. Julius Eichberg (1824-93), The Doctor of Alcantara (operetta) (Boston Museum) (Apr. 7); big hit, winning over the Boston Puritan prudes. Stephen Foster (1826-64), Beautiful Dreamer. Charles Gounod (1818-93), La Reine de Saba (opera). Modest Mussorgsky (1839-81), St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (June 23) (St. John's Eve); first tone poem by a Russian composer? George Frederick Root (1825-95), The Battle Cry of Freedom; pro-Union song gets so popular that the Confeds. steal it? Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Sadko, Op. 5; first tone poem by a Russian composer? Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Die Kartenschlagerin (operetta) (Kai-Theatre, Vienna) (Apr. 26); Zehn Madchen und Kein Mann (Ten Women and No Men) (Kai-Theatre, Vienna) (Oct. 25). Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), La Forza del Destino (The Force of Destiny) (opera) (Nov. 10) (Bolshoi Kameny Theatre, St. Petersburg); libretto by Francesco Maria Piave; based on Angel de Saavedra's "Don Alvaro o La Fuerza de Sino" and Friedrich Schiller's "Wallenstein's Lager"; Peruvian nobleman Don Alvaro courts Donna Leonora, but his part-Indian blood holds him back, and it all ends in a double death like Romeo and Juliet?; the overture becomes a big hit. Robert Volkman (1815-83), Symphony No. 1 in D minor, Op. 49; "Sounds almost like a forgotten work by Brahms" (Shelagh Rogers, 1998). Henryk Wieniawski (1835-80), Violin Concerto No. 2 in D minor; his masterpiece? Art: William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), The Remorse of Orestes. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-75), Ugolino and his Sons (sculpture). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), Standard Bearer (mural); Reaper (mural); Woman Spinning (mural); Work (mural); Rest (mural). George Cruikshank, The Worship of Bacchus; pro-Temperance painting. Eugene-Emmanuel Amaury-Duval (1808-85), Madame de Loynes. William Powell Frith (1819-1909), The Railway Station. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), The Turkish Bath (Bain Turque). Eastman Johnson, A Ride for Liberty - The Fugitive Slaves; the Battle of Manassas. Edouard Manet (1832-83), Lola de Valence; La Musique aux Tuileries (The Music in the Tuileries Gardens); Jeanne Duval, Charles Pierre Baudelaire's Mistress, Reclining. Moritz von Schwind (1804-71), The Honeymoon. James MacNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl. Plays: Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910), Sigurd Slembe; pumps up Norwegian nationalism. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Fair Rosamond. Friedrich Hebbel (1813-63), Die Nibelungen (trilogy). Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Love's Comedy. Poetry: Alfred Austin (1835-1913), The Human Tragedy. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), Undertones. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-94), Songs in Many Keys. Charles Marie Rene Leconte de Lisle (1818-94), Poemes Barbares. Coventry Patmore (1823-96), The Victories of Love. Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), Goblin Market, and Other Poems. Joseph Roumanille (1818-91), Lis Oubreta en Vers. John Godfrey Saxe (1816-87), The Flying Dutchman, or the Wrath of Herr Von Stoppelnose. Annie Louisa Walker (1836-1907), Leaves from the Backwoods. William Ross Wallace (1819-81), The Liberty Bell; popular pro-Union poem. Novels: Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), Lady Audley's Secret; big hit about bigamy, featuring Robert Audley, who searches for the truth about his friend George Talboy and his uncle's wife Lucy Adley; John Marchont's Legacy. Fernan Caballero (1796-1877), Cuadros de Costumbres (short stories). Wilkie Collins (1824-89), No Name. Octave Feuillet (1821-90), Sibylle; his greatest hit. Gustave Flaubert (1821-80), Salammbó (Salammbo); the life and times of Hannibal. Eugene Fromentin (1820-76), Dominique. Victor Marie Hugo (1802-85), Les Miserables (Misérables) (10 vols., 513K words); pub. simultaneously in six languages; a giant internat. hit, the 1st Paris ed. selling out in 24 hours, becoming the gospel for the poor and oppressed of the world, becoming a hit for both armies in the U.S. Civil War; set in 1815-32, culiminating in the 1832 June Paris Uprising; in five parts: "Fantine", "Cosette", "Marius", "Saint Denis", "Jean Valjean"; Inspector Javert persecutes of petty thief Jean Valjean (Vlajean) (Voila Jean) even after he spends 19 years in the galleys for breaking the window of baker Maubert Isabeau and stealing a loaf of bread to feed his starving sister and her seven children in 1795 (5 years for burglary, plus 14 for four escape attempts, prisoner #24,601), and is given a new chance by Monseigneur Bienvenu, Bishop of D (based on Monsignore Miolles of Digne), who helps him become a millionaire jet glass manufacturer, benefactor of the poor, and mayor of M sur M under the alias Monsieur Madeleine, until he is exposed by Javert and flees to Paris, where he fulfills a promise to dying mother Fantine and brings up little Cosette (based on Adele Foucher AKA Madame Hugo), who grows up and is courted by revolutionary Marius Pontmercy (based on himself), whom he rescues from a rev. barricade, dying reconciled at last, boo hoo; contains a 3-page 823-word sentence with 93 commas, 51 semicolons, and 4 dashes; "So long as there shall exist, by reason of law and custom, a social condemnation, which, in the face of civilization, artificially creates Hells on Earth, and complicates a destiny that is divine, with human fatality; so long as the three problems of the age - the degradation of man by poverty, the ruin of woman by starvation, and the dwarfing of childhood by physical and spiritual night - are not solved; so long as, in certain regions, social asphyxia shall be possible; in other words, and from a yet more extended point of view, so long as ignorance and misery remain on Earth, books like this cannot be useless" (preface); "What evil good can be"; "The masterwork of fiction of this century" (George Meredith); "Lord of human tears" (Alfred, Lord Tennyson). Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), The Musk-Ox. Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Chronicles of Carlingford (1862-5); pub. in Blackwood's Mag. Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Unseres Herrgotts Kanzlei. Fritz Reuter (1810-74), Ut Mine Festungstid. Horace Elisha Scudder (1838-1902), Seven Little People and Their Friends. Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber (1814-90), The Doublet-Runner Club. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-96), The Pearl of Orr's Island. Ivan Turgenev (1818-83), Fathers and Sons; his masterpiece?; Arkady Kirsanov returns from the U. of Petersburg a nihilist, taking his friend Bazarov with him to his father Nikolai's country estate called Marino, pissing-off Nikolai's brother Pavel. Artemus Ward (C.F. Browne) (1834-67), His Book. Births: Am. publisher Frank Nelson "Effendi" Doubleday (d. 1934) on Jan. 8 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; partner of Samuel S. McClure and Walter Hines Page (1855-1918); father of Nelson Doubleday (1889-1949); grandfather of Nelson Doubleday Jr. (1933-2015). Am. golfer Walter J. Travis (d. 1927) on Jan. 10 in Maldon, Australia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1884. Am. surgeon (immunotherapy pioneer) William Bradley Coley (d. 1936) on Jan. 12 in Westfield, Conn. German Hilbert Space mathematician David Hilbert (d. 1943) on Jan. 23 in Welhau (Welawa), Prussia. Am. "The Age of Innocence" novelist Edith Newbold Wharton (nee Jones) (d. 1937) on Jan. 24 in New York City; sister of Alice Hamilton (1869-1970). Austrian MP Karl Hermann Wolf (d. 1941) on Jan. 27 in Eger. English "Over the Hills and Far Away" composer Frederick (Fritz) Theodore Albert Delius (d. 1934) on Jan. 29 in Bradford, West Riding, Yorkshire; German immigrant parents. Am. conductor-composer Walter Johannes Damrosch (d. 1950) on Jan. 30 in Breslau, Prussia; son of Leopold Damrosch (1832-85). U.S. Supreme Court justice #66 (1914-41) James Clark McReynolds (d. 1946) on Feb. 3 in Elkton, Ky.; educated at Vanderbilt U., and U. of Va. English composer Sir Edward German (German Edward Jones) (d. 1936) on Feb. 17 in Whitchurch, Shropshire; of Welsh descent; knighted in 1928. Am. "Becky Sharp" playwright Langdon Mitchell (d. 1935) on Feb. 17 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. industrialist (Bethlehem Steel) Charles Michael Schwab (d. 1939) on Feb. 18 in Williamsburg, Penn.; German Roman Catholic immigrant parents. Scottish "Little Black Sambo" children's writer Helen Bannerman (Helen Brodie Cowan Watson) (d. 1946) on Feb. 25 in Edinburgh; lives in Madeira from ages 2-12; educated at the U. of St. Andrews; moves to Madras, India in 1889; grandmother of Tom Kibble (1932-). Am. writer John Jay Chapman (d. 1933) on Mar. 2 in new York City; father of Victor S. Chapman (1890-1916); educated at Harvard U. Am. "The Squaw Man" playwright Edwin Milton Royle (d. 1942) on Mar. 2 in Lexington, Mo.; husband of Selena Fetter (1860-1955); father of Selena Royle (1904-83) and Josephine Fetter Royle (1901-92). Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (d. 1951) on Mar. 14 in Oslo; co-discoverer with his son Jacob of Bjerkness mass air fronts in the atmosphere. German Freiwirtschaft economist (anarchist) Silvio Gesell (d. 1930) on Mar. 17 in Sankt Vith, Prussia; Belgian mother. German mathematician Christian Hugo Eduard Study (d. 1930) on Mar. 23 in Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Am. Impressionist painter Frank Weston Benson (d. 1951) on Mar. 24 in Salem, Mass.; known for his outdoor scenes. U.S. Supreme Court justice #70 (1922-38) Alexander George Sutherland (d. 1942) on Mar. 25 in Stony Stratford, England; Scottish father, English mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1863; educated at Brigham Young U., and U. of Mich. French Socialist PM #73 (1909-11), #77 (1913), #82 (1915-17), #93 (1925-6), #96 (1929) Aristide Briand (d. 1932) on Mar. 28 in Nantes; friend of Jules Verne. Am. "The Faith of a Liberal" pacficist educator and political leader (anti-Prohibition peacenik) Nicholas Murray Butler (d. 1947) on Apr. 2 in Elizabeth, N.J.; educated at Columbia U.; pres. of Columbia U. (1901-45); friend of Elihu Root - the real Wizard of Oz? British Gen. Sir Bryan Thomas Mahon (d. 1930) on Apr. 2 in Belleville, County Galway. British Lt. Gen. Sir Fenton John Aylmer, 13th Baronet of Donadea (d. 1935) on Apr. 5 in Hastings, Sussex; educated at Woolwich Academy. Finnish "Elsa" realist novelist-playwright Teuvo Pakkala (Teodor Oskar Frosterus) (d. 1925) on Apr. 9 in Oulu; known for his portrayal of children. Am. astronomer William Wallace Campbell (d. 1938) on Apr. 11 in Hancock County, Ohio; dir. of Lick Observatory (1901-30); pres. of the U. of Calif. (1923-30); father of WWI ace #1 Douglas Campbell (1896-1990). U.S. conservative chief justice #11 (1930-41), supreme court justice #62 (1910-16), secy. of state #44 (1921-5), and N.Y. gov. #36 (1907-10) Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (d. 1948) on Apr. 11 in Glens Falls, N.Y.; educated at Madison U. (Colgate U.), Brown U., and Columbia U. Russian PM (1906-11) Peter (Pyotr) Arkadyevich Stolypin (d. 1911) on Apr. 14 in Dresden, Saxony; relative of poet Mikhail Lermontov (1814-41). English "From a College Window" writer-poet-educator Arthur Christopher Benson (d. 1925) on Apr. 24; son of Edward White Benson (1829-96); master of Magdalen College, Cambridge U. (1915-). English Liberal statesman-ornithologist (foreign secy. in 1905-16) Sir Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (d. 1933) on Apr. 25 in London; great-grandson of Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet of Fallodon, 2nd son of Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey, and younger brother of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey; educated at Temple Grove School, Winchester College, and Balliol College, Oxford U. - no black and white? U.S. anti-KKK Rep. (D-Ala.) (1895-1915) and Sen. (1915-27) Oscar Wilder Underwood (d. 1929) on May 6; first House minority whip (1900-1). English shipping magnate Sir John Reeves Ellerman, 1st Baronet (d. 1933) on May 15 in Kingston upon Hull; German immigrant father; created baronet in 1905; father of Bryher (1894-1983). Austrian "Reigen" novelist-playwright-physician (Jewish) Arthur Schnitzler (d. 1931) on May 15 in Vienna; a favorite target of Hitler as an example of "Jewish filth". Portuguese pres. #5 (1918-19) João do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes (d. 1934) on May 19 in Lisbon. English archeologist David George Hogarth (d. 1927) on May 23 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; collaborator of T.E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. English social welfare worker, writer, and first woman justice of the peace in Scotland (1920) Elizabeth Sanderson Haldane (d. 1937) on May 27; sister of Richard Haldane, 1st viscount Haldane (1856-1928). Austrian minister-pres. (1917-18) Ernst Ritter Seidler von Feuchtenegg (d. 1931) on June 5 in Schwechat. Swedish ophthalmologist Allvar Gullstrand (d. 1930) on June 5 in Landskrona. German cathode ray physicist Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (d. 1947) on June 7 in Pressburg, Hungary (Bratislava, Slovakia); educated at the U. of Heidelberg. English physicist Sir William Henry Bragg (d. 1942) on July 2 in Wigton, Cumberland; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1920; father of Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971). British Rear Adm. Sir Christopher George Francis Maurice "Kit" Cradock (d. 1914) on July 2 in Richmond, North Yorkshire. Austrian Vienna Secession painter Gustav Klimt (d. 1918) on July 14 in Baumgarten. Am. anti-lynching crusader (black) Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (d. 1931) on July 16 in Holly Springs, Miss.; born a slave; educated at Fisk U. White Russian gen. Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich (d. 1933) on July 18 (July 30 Old Style) in Moscow. Am. Tammany Hall politician Timothy Daniel "Dry Dollar" "Big Feller" "Big Tim" Sullivan (d. 1913) on July 23 in Five Points, Manhattan, N.Y.; Irish immigrant parents. Am. "Fleur-de-Lis" Impressionist painter Robert Lewis Reid (d. 1929) on July 29 in Stockbridge, Mass. English "Ghost Stories of an Antiquary" Gothic writer and medieval scholar Montague Rhodes James (d. 1936) on Aug. 1 in Goodnestone Parsonage, Kent; provost of King's College (1905-18) and Eton College (1918-36); uncle of Robert Rhodes James (1933-99). English "Elephant Man" Joseph Carey "John" Merrick (d. 1890) on Aug. 5 in Leicester; neurofibromatosis, elephantiasis, or Proteus syndrome? Am. "A Perfect Day", "I Love You Truly", "Just A-Wearyin' for You" singer-songwriter Carrie Minetta Jacobs-Bond (d. 1946) on Aug. 11 in Janesville, Wisc.; first woman to sell 1M copies of a song ("I Love You Truly", 1901). Am. Sears, Roebuck & Co. magnate (Jewish) Julius Rosenwald (d. 1932) on Aug. 12 in Springfield, Ill.; born and raised near Abe Lincoln's house; father of Lessing Julius Rosenwald (1891-1979) and William Rosenwald (1903-96). Am. football-basketball hall-of-fame coach (U. of Chicago) (1892-1932) ("Grand Old Man of Football") Amos Alonzo Stagg (d. 1965) on Aug. 16 in West Orange, N.J.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones). French ant-Semitic politician-writer Maurice Barres (Barrès) (d. 1923) on Aug 19 in Charmes, Vosges. French "Pelleas et Melisande", "Afternoon of a Faun" Impressionist Symbolist composer Claude-Achille Debussy (d. 1918) on Aug. 22 in St. Germain-en-Laye; educated at the Paris Conservatoire; first composer to exploit the whole-tone scale. French PM #78 (1913) Jean Louis Barthou (d. 1934) on Aug. 25 in Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Pyrenees-Atlantiques. Australian PM #6 (1908-9, 1910-13, 1914-15) Andrew Fisher (d. 1928) on Aug. 29 in Crosshouse. Belgian "Pelleas et Melisande", "La Princesse Maleine" Symbolist poet-dramatist (in French) Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard, Count Maeterlinck (d. 1949) on Aug. 29 in Ghent; created count in 1932. British financier-philanthropist (Jewish) Sir Edgar Speyer, 1st Baronet (d. 1932) on Sept. 7 in New York City; German Jewish immigrant parents; becomes British subject from 1892-1921; created baronet in 1906; husband (1902-32) of Leonora Speyer (1872-1956). British statesman. (gov.-gen. of Canada, #12 1921-6) field marshal Julian Hedworth "Bungo" George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy (d. 1935) on Sept. 11 in Hersmere; educated at Eton College; husband (1902-35) of Lady Evelyn Byng (1870-1949); created viscount in 1928. Am. "The Gift of the Magi" short story writer O. Henry (William Sydney Porter) (d. 1910) on Sept. 11 in Greensboro, N.C.; imprisoned in 1898-1902 for embezzlement as a bank teller in Austin, Tex. in 1891-4, then settles in New York City to write you know whats; coins the phrase "curiosity killed the cat" in "Schools and Schools"; O. Henry comes from "Ohio" and "Penitentiary"? Austrian field marshal Klaudius (Claudius) Freiherr Czibulka von Buchland (d. 1931) on Sept. 22. Australian PM #7 (1915-23) William Morris "Billy" Hughes (d. 1952) on Sept. 25 in Pimlico, London; of Welsh extraction; longest-serving Australian MP, changing parties 5x in 51 years. Am. Symbolist painter Arthur Bowen Davies (d. 1928) on Sept. 26 in Utica, N.Y.; member of The Eight and organizer of the 1913 Armory Show. South African PM (1907-19) Gen. Louis Botha (d. 1919) on Sept. 27 in Greytown, Natal. U.S. Sen. (R-Ind.) (1899-1911) and historian Albert Jeremiah Beveridge (d 1927) on Oct. 6 in Highland County, Ohio; English descent parents; educated at DePauw U. (Ind. Asbury U.); husband (1907-27) of Catherine Eddy Beveridge (1881-1970). German biologist Theodor Heinrich Boveri (d. 1915) on Oct. 12. Am. economist-historian John Rogers Commons (d. 1945) on Oct. 13 in Hollansburg, Ohio; educated at Oberlin College, and Johns Hopkins U. English explorer-writer Mary Henrietta Kingsley (d. 1900) on Oct. 13 in Islington; first Euro woman to explore deep into Africa; father prohibits her from attending school, causing her to learn to read on her own - once you go black you'll never go back? Russian war minister (1917) Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov (d. 1936) on Oct. 14 in Moscow. French inventor and pioneer filmmaker Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumiere (Lumière) (d. 1954) on Oct. 19 in Besancon; brother of Louis Jean Lumiere (1864-1948); son of photographer Antoine Lumiere (1839-1911); how lucky that "lumiere" is French for "light"? German "The German Catastrophe" historian Friedrich Meineke (d. 1954) on Oct. 30 in Salzwedel, Prussia; educated at the U. of Bonn, and U. of Berlin; prof. at the U. of Strasbourg; teacher of Heinrich Bruening (1885-1970). Austrian crystal manufacturer Daniel Swarovski (Swartz) (d. 1956) on Oct. 24 in Georgenthal bein Gablonz. British Vice Adm. Sir Hugh "Old Voice" Evan-Thomas (d. 1928) on Oct. 27 in Gnoll, Neath, Glamorgan, Wales. English "The Thief of Virtue" novelist-poet-playwright Eden Phillpotts (d. 1960) on Nov. 4 in India; likes to write about Dartmoor. German (Prussian) diplomat Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff (d. 1939) on Nov. 14 in London, England; son of Count Albert von Bernstorff (1809-73). German #1 "Die Weber" dramatist-novelist Gerhart Hauptmann (d. 1946) on Nov. 15 in Obersalzbrunn, Silesia (Szczawno Zdroj, Poland); founder of naturalist drama. Am. Presbyterian evangelist William Ashley "Billy" Sunday (d. 1935) on Nov. 19 near Ames, Iowa; plays pro baseball in 1883-90. Finnish "The History of Human Marriage" anthropologist ("the First Darwinian Sociologist") ("the First Sociobiologist") Edvard Alexander Westermarck (d. 1939) on Nov. 20 in Helsinki. Canadian "The Lane That Had No Turning" novelist-politican Sir Horatio Gilbert George Parker, 1st Baronet (d. 1932) on Nov. 23 in Camden East, Addington, Ont.; knighted in 1902; created baronet in 1915. Am. "Mighty Lak' a Rose" composer-pianist Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin (d. 1901) on Nov. 25 in Edgeworth, Penn. Hungarian-British archeologist Sir (Jewish-turned-Lutheran) Marc Aurel Stein (d. 1943) on Nov. 26 in Budapest; becomes British citizen after parents have him baptized as a Lutheran to become PC. British diplomat lt. col. Sir Arthur Henry McMahon (d. 1949) on Nov. 28 in Simla, India. German Bavarian right-wing politician Gustav Ritter von Kahr (d. 1934) on Nov. 29 in Weissenburg. Am. New Thought writer William Walker Atkinson (d. 1932) on Dec. 5 in Baltimore, Md. Am. baseball 6'1" player-mgr. (Phila. Athletics) ("the Tall Tactician") Connie Mack (Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy) (d. 1956) on Dec. 22 in East Brookfield, Mass. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne (d. 1935) on Dec. 23 in Verviers, Liege; of Walloon descent; educated at the U. of Liege; student of Godefroid Kurth (1847-1916); friend of Karl Lamprecht (1856-1915). Russian "Napoleonder" historian-writer Alexander Valentinovich Amfiteatrov (d. 1938) on Dec. 26 in Kaluga. Am. Yiddish poet (Jewish) Morris Rosenfeld (Moshe Jacob Alter) (d. 1923) on Dec. 28 in Boksze (Bokscha), Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1886; not to be confused with photographer Morris Rosenfeld (1885-1968). English poet-dramatist Edith Emma Cooper (d. 1913); collaborator of Katharine Harris Bradley (1846-1914) under the alias "Michael Field". English singer-songwriter Liza Lehmann (d. 1918); daguther of Rudolf Lehmann (1819-1905). Am. Orientalist Wilhelm Max Mueller (Müller) (d. 1919) in Gleisenberg, Germany; son of Max Mueller (1823-1900); grandson of Wilhelm Mueller (1797-1827); emigrates to the U.S. in 1888. British WWI army quartermaster-gen. Sir John Stevens Cowans (d. 1921). German chemist (flash camera inventor) Adolf Miethe (d. 1927) in Potsdam. Am. "Hardy Boys" juvenile pulp fiction writer-publisher Capt. Edward L. Stratemeyer (d. 1930) (AKA Arthur M. Winfield) on Oct. 4 in Elizabeth, N.J.; creator of the pseudonymous series Tom Swift (Victor Appleton), Bobbsey Twins (Laura Lee Hope), Hardy Boys (Franklin W. Dixon), Rover Boys (Arthur W. Winfield), Dana Girls, Jack Ranger, Don Sturdy, The Colonial Series, Happy Hollisters, Honey Bunch, Curly Tops, Bunny Brown, Motor Boys, Bomba the Jungle Boy et al.; his daughter Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (1892-1982) carries on after his death with Nancy Drew, under the alias Carolyn Keene. Am. silent film actor Hal De Forrest (Aloysius J. De Sylva) (d. 1938) in Portugal; father of Buddy De Sylva (1895-1950). English "Craven", "Admirals All" poet-novelist Sir Henry John Newbolt (d. 1938) in Bilston, Staffordshire; educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford U. Am. Cathedral of St. John the Divine architect Christopher Grant La Farge (d. 1938). French art critic (anarchist) Felix Feneon (Félix Fénéon) (d. 1944) in Turin, Italy; grows up in Burgundy; coiner of the term "Neo-Impressionism" for Georges Seurat. French Vincent's Angina (trench mouth) physician J.H. Vincent (d. 1950). Deaths: Am. badass matron Barbara Fritchie (b. 1766) on Dec. 18 in Frederick, Md. French physician Pierre Fidele Bretonneau (b. 1778) on Feb. 18 in Passy. U.S. pres. #8 (1837-41) Martin Van Buren (b. 1782) on July 24 in Kinderhook, N.Y.; dies having fathered sons named Abraham, Martin, and John by his wife Hannah Hoes (d. 1819): "As to the Presidency, the two happiest days of my life were those of my entrance upon the office and my surrender of it." French liberal economist Charles Dunoyer (b. 1786) on Dec. 4 in Paris. Austrian field marshal Alfred I, prince of Windisch-Graetz (b. 1787) on Mar. 21 in Vienna. German (Swabian) Romantic poet Johann Ludwig Uhland (b. 1787) on Nov. 13 in Tubingen. Dutch scholar-critic Jacob Geel (b. 1789) on Nov. 11. Uruguayan poet Francisco Acuna de Figueroa (b. 1790). Paraguayan pres. (1862-70) Carlos Antonio Lopez (b. 1790) on Sept. 10. U.S. pres. #10 (1841-5) (champion rooster) John Tyler (b. 1790) on Jan. 18 in Richmond, Va. English surgeon Thomas Wakley (b. 1795) on May 16 in Madeira (pulmonary hemorrhage from TB). French mathematician Joseph Adhemar (b. 1797) in Paris. French composer Jacques Fromental Halevy (b. 1799) on Mar. 17 in Nice; wrote 40 operas, with his last, Noe (Noé) (Noah) remaining unfinished, and later completed by his son-in-law Georges Bizet. Scottish inventor James Bowman Lindsay (b. 1799) on June 29 in Dundee. French physician Prosper Meniere (b. 1799) on Feb. 7 in Paris. British polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross (b. 1800) on Apr. 3. Austrian dramatist-comedian Johann Nestroy (b. 1801). Am. educator-politician Josiah Quincy III (b. 1802) on July 1 in Quincy, Mass.; namesake of Quincy Market in downtown Boston. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston (b. 1803) on Apr. 6 in Shiloh, Tenn. (KIA in the Battle of Shiloh). Am. Confed. Mo. gov. Claiborne Fox Jackson (b. 1806) on Dec. 6 in Little Rock, Ark. (stomach cancer). Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Benjamin McCulloch (b. 1811) on Mar. 7 in Pea Ridge, Benton County, Ark. (KIA). British statesman Charles Canning, 1st earl Canning (b. 1812) on June 17 in Grosvenor Square, London; dies after being created earl in May 1859, leaving no heirs. Am. inventor (weathiest) Samuel Colt (b. 1814) on Jan. 10 in Hartford, Conn. Am. Christy's Minstrels founder Edwin Pearce Christy (b. 1815) on May 21 in New York City (suicide). Am. Civil War Union gen. Philip Kearny Jr. (b. 1815) on Sept. 1 in Fairfax County, Va. (KIA in the Battle of Chantilly). Am. transcendentalist writer Henry David Thoreau (b. 1817) on May 6 in Concord, Mass.: last words: "Moose... Indian"; "If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away"; "Time is but the stream I go fishing in"; "Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth"; "Men are nearer the central truth in their superstitions than in their science"; "That government is best which governs not at all, and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have" - the world going mad around him must have freaked him out? French actress Jeanne Duval (b. 1820) (syphilis). English historian Henry Thomas Buckle (b. 1821) on May 29 in Damascus, Syria (typhoid fever). Russian mathematician Mikhail Ostrogradski (b. 1823) on Jan. 1. English painter Abraham Solomon (b. 1824) on Dec. 19 in Biarritz (heart disease). Irish-Am. actor John Drew (b. 1827). Am. Baptist minister Anthony Burns (b. 1830). English merchant Charles Lennox Richardson (b. 1834) on Sept. 14 in Namamugi, Japan (murdered). Am. clerical student St. Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows (b. 1838) on Feb. 27 in Gran Sasso (TB); canonized in 1920. Am. pres. son Willie Lincoln (b. 1850) on Feb. 20 in Washington, D.C. (typhoid fever?).



1863 - The Impressionable Lunch on the Grass Gettysburg and Pickett's Charge Year? The Glorious Cause of the South comes up a little short in a cornfield on July 4 Minus 1, and it's all downhill from here?

Union Gen. George Gordon Meade (1815-72) Union Gen. Joseph Hooker (1814-79) Confed. Gen. Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson (1824-63) Confed. Gen. Jubal Anderson Early (1816-94) Confed. Gen. Richard 'Dick' Stoddert Ewell (1817-72) Confed. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder (1807-71) Confed. Gen. William Joseph Hardee (1815-73) Confed. Gen. Lafayette McLaws (1821-97) Confed. Gen. William Barksdale (1821-63)) Union Lt. Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (1828-1914) Confed. Col. William Calvin Oates (1833-1910) Union Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (1824-86) Confed. Gen. George Edward Pickett (1825-75) Confed. Gen. Lewis Addison Armistead (1817-63) Union Col. Alonzo H. Cushing (1841-63) Union Gen. Robert Ogden Tyler (1831-74) Union Maj. Gen. Frederick Steele (1819-68) Union Col. Patrick Henry O'Rorke (1836-63) Confed. Gen. John Hunt Morgan (1825-64) Union Col. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie (1840-89) Confed. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (1835-1905) Union Gen. John McClernand (1812-1900) Union Gen. Samuel Powhatan Carter (1819-91) Confed. Gen. John Stuart Williams (1818-98) Confed. Gen. Bushrod Rush Johnson (1817-80) Union Gen. John Watson Foster (1836-1917) Charles Francis Adams (1807-86) New York Draft Riots, 1863 Confed. Lt. Gen. John Clifford Pemberton (1814-81) Union Gen. John Alexander Logan (1826-86) Union Brig. Gen. Walter Quintin Gresham (1832-95) Union Gen. John Adams Dix (1798-1879) Robert Smalls (1839-1915) Union Col. Robert Gould Shaw (1837-63) Union Sgt. William Harvey Carney (1840-1908) Union Rear Adm. Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-65) Union Gen. Daniel Edgar Sickles (1819-1914) Confed. Gen. Joseph Orville 'Jo' Shelby (1830-97) Union Gen. Charles Ewing (1835-93) Union Gen. William Woods Averell (1832-1900) Confed. Gen. John Echols (1823-96) Union Gen. Stephen Hinsdale Weed (1831-63) Gettysburg Address, Nov. 19, 1963 Edward Everett (1794-1865 Clement Laird Vallandingham of the U.S. (1820-71) James Mitchell Ashley of the U.S. (1824-96) James Falconer Wilson of the U.S. (1828-95) Sir Robert Hart of Britain (1835-1911) William Clarke Quantrill (1837-65) George I of Greece (1845-1919) Christian IX of Denmark (1818-1906) Venancio Flores of Uruguay (1808-68) Khedive Ismael of Egypt (1830-95) Kamehameha V of Hawaii (1830-72) Maximilian I of Mexico (1832-67) Empress Carlota of Mexico (1840-1927) Shir Ali Khan of Afghanistan (-1879) Juan Antonio Pezet Rodriguez of Peru (1809-79 French Warship Semiramis, July 2, 1863 Kondo Isami of Japan (1834-68) Kiyokawa Hachiro of Japan (1830-63) Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-64) Prince Albert Edward (1841-1910) and Princess Alexandra (1844-1925) of Britain, Mar. 10, 1863 Queen Rasoaherina of Madagascar (1814-68) Rainilaiarivony of Madagascar (1828-96) Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-1925) Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier (1815-91) Stephen Johnson Field (1816-99) Ebenezer Butterick (1826-1903) Nikolai Chernyshevsky (1828-89) William Newton Byers (1831-1903) Thomas Graham (1805-69) Edward Everett Hale (1822-1909) Ouida (1839-1908) Karl Julius Ploetz (1819-81) Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931) William Leonard Langer (1896-1977) Ernest Renan (1823-92) Peter N. Stearns (1936-) Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904) Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) Jules Verne (1828-1905) Walt Whitman (1819-92) Jules Oppert (1825-1905) Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) Adah Isaacs Menken (1835-68) Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (1829-92) Cato Maximilian Guldberg (1836-1902) and Peter Waage (1833-1900) John Alexander Reina Newlands (1837-98) Ferdinand Reich (1799-1882) Henry Clifton Sorby (1826-1908) Vin Mariani, 1863 Coca-Cola, 1865 John Styth Pemberton (1831-81) Gilbert Brewery, Virginia City, Mont. Alexandre Cabanel (1823-89) 'The Birth of Venus' by Alexandre Cabanel (1823-89), 1863 'Riverdale' by Fitz Hugh Lane, 1863 Claude Monet (1840-1926) Paul Newman (1925-2008) Edouard Manet (1832-83) 'Luncheon on the Grass' by Edouard Manet (1832-83), 1863 'Helen of Troy' by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82), 1863 La Mole Antonelliana, 1863-78 Simeon Solomon (1840-1905) 'Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego' by Simeon Solomon, 1863

1863 The Fourth Cholera Pandemic of the 19th Cent. (ends 1879) begins in the Ganges Delta in India, spreading via Muslim pilgrims to Mecca, killing 30K-90K, then throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North Am. from port cities inland via waterways. On Jan. 1 (Thur.) Pres. Lincoln cites his war powers and signs the (second) Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves, but only those in states in "rebellion", i.e., the Confederacy, and (after being persuaded by Andrew Johnson) exempting Tenn. and the occupied parts of Va. and La., thus freeing no slaves behind the Union lines of the time (of course the Confed. states ignore it); meanwhile, 800K in Union states (Del., Md., Ky., Mo.) remain slaves, kissing massah's big black boots; the act urges slaves to abstain from violence except in self-defense, and proclaims that free blacks can now serve in the U.S. armed forces; still, it is a political success, and Henry Adams writes from the London embassy that it has caused "an almost convulsive reaction in our favour". On Jan. 1 the Confs. under theatrical Gen. "Prince" John Bankhead Magruder (1807-71) recapture Galveston, Tex. On Jan. 1 the 112 km. Beirut-Damascus Road opens, becoming the first major road in the Middle East for wheeled traffic, shortening the journey from 3 days to 13 hours, and causing Beirut to become the main harbor for the E Mediterranean seaboard; the Jerusalem-Jaffa Road isn't opened until 1869, and there is not much wheeled traffic until 1914? On Jan. 9-11 the Battle of Arkansas Post eliminates Fort Hindman as an impediment to Union shipping on the Mississippi River. On Jan. 10 (Sat.) (6 a.m.) the London Underground opens, beginning with the Metropolitan Railway. On Jan. 10 Harper's Weekly pub. the article Negro Emancipation, containing an illustration showing two fully armed uniformed black Confederate soldiers acting as sentries. On Jan. 15 the Boston Morning Herald becomes the first U.S. newspaper to be printed on paper made from wood pulp instead of hemp. On Jan. 18 Mohammad Said dies, and Ibrahim Pasha's son Ismael (Ismail) (Isma'il) (1830-95) becomes pasha of Egypt (until 1879), pursuing a rapid development policy which is scuttled by his personal profligacy. On Jan. 20 Union Gen. Ambrose Burnside, needing to do something fast to restore his sagging rep. after the Dec. Battle of Fredericksburg begins his Mud March, crossing the Rappahannock River S of Fredericksburg in hopes of being in Richmond dancing on Lee's grave, only to encounter heavy rains which stop him by Jan. 22, pissing-off Pres. Lincoln, who on Jan. 26 replaces him as CIC of the Army of the Potomac with immodest-immoral Gen. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker (1814-79) (known for supplying "hookers" to his men), who is quoted as saying that the country needs a dictator, causing Lincoln to respond "Only those generals who gain successes can set up dictators"; Hooker is assigned the command of the Dept. of the Ohio, where he begins moving against the Copperheads (Peace Dems.), shutting down the New York World, court-martialing and jailing Clement Laird Vallandingham of Ohio, and scoring other Vs for Big Abe which get him back in good - just call my name and I'll be around? On Jan. 22 after Poles resist conscription into the Russian army, the failed Jan. Uprising in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth begins in Poland (ends Jan. 1864), spreading to Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, N Ukraine and W Russia by Feb. 1, with 40K-50K insurgents, many armed only with scythes taking on 180K-190K Russian troops, while hoping in vain for a rev. in Russia and/or support by Napoleon III in France, only to see Prussia make its railways available to Russian troops; on Feb. 3 the Battle of Wegrow (Wegrów) in E Masovia ("the Polish Thermopylae") sees 3.5K Poles, many wielding only scythes defend the recently liberated town of Wegrow from 1K Russians equipped with artillery, who surround them, causing 500 scythemen to bravely attack the Russian left to cover the retreat of the rest, most getting killed by infantry fire. On Jan. 29 the Bear River (Boa Ogoi) Massacre (Battle) in SE Washington Territory (Franklin County, Idaho) sees 200 Union soldiers under Col. Patrick Edward Connor stop a revolt by Shoshoni Indians by picking them off while swimming across a freezing river, followed by a massacre of women and children (200-400 total), for which Connor is appointed Brig. Gen. in command of the District of Utah, with HQ at Ft. Douglas. On Feb. 4 the Ottoman Imperial Bank is founded in conjunction with France and Britain as the Ottoman state bank (until 1924). On Feb. 4 New Granada changes its name to the United States of Colombia (in honor of Christopher you-know-who), and on May 8 adopts the liberal 1863 Colombian Constitution, deposing wannabe dictator pres. Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera, but he wiggles back in on May 14 (until Apr. 8, 1864). On Feb. 9 the Internat. Committee of the Red Cross (originally the Committee of the Five) is founded in Geneva by Swiss businessman-activist Jean Henri (Henry) Dunant (1828-1910), holding its first internat. conference on Oct. 26-29 attended by delegates from 13 nations, who adopt a set of resolutions leading to the 1864 Geneva Convention; in 1865 the Swedish Red Cross (Roda Korset) is founded in Stockholm, and the Norwegian Red Cross (Rode Kors) is founded in Kristiania (Oslo). On Feb. 10 after refusing $15K from P.T. Barnum to delay it so he can arrange more publicity, 2'1" "General" Tom Thumb (Charles Sherwood Stratton) (1838-83) weds Lavinia Warren (1841-1918) in New York's Grace Episcopal Church - don't ask? Don't miss this - Andy Jackson would roll over in his grave? On Feb. 25 after urging by treasury secy. Salmon P. Chase, and taking advantage of the absence of Southern members, Congress passes the U.S. Nat. Currency Act, giving the U.S. a nat. bank again with the power to float federal war loans and establish a nat. currency; the act authorizes the granting of federal charters to banks that invest a third of their capital in U.S. securities, these banks then being allowed to issue notes up to 90% of the value of the bonds; the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is established as a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Dept. to charter, regulate, and supervise all nat. banks, with the power to issue standardized nat. bank notes based on U.S. bonds held by the banks; Sen. Finance Committee chmn. John Sherman declares that "The policy of the country ought to be to make everything national as far as possible"; Lincoln worries that "The wealth is aggregated in a few hands, and the republic is destroyed." On Feb. 24 he Arizona Organic Act, introduced by abolitionist U.S. Rep. (R-Ohio) (1859-69) James Mitchell Ashley (1824-96) sees the greedy U.S. Congress create the gold-rich Arizona Territory, consisting of all of New Mexico S of the 34th parallel (NE New Mexico has been incl. in the Colorado Territory), with slavery abolished, while leaving it intact in the portion remaining in New Mexico Territory. On Feb. 25 Pope Pius IX opens the Termini Railway Station in Rome across the street from the Baths of Diocletian (Lat. "thermae"), becoming Rome's main train station. On Mar. 3 U.S. Pres. Lincoln founds the Nat. Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. On Mar. 3 Congress passes the U.S. Habeus Corpus Act, finally authorizing the pres. to do what he had been doing anyway, but providing a safety valve that lets a grand jury let people out upon the taking of an oath of allegiance; a total of 14K arrests are made during the war, incl. prominent Copperhead Clement Laird Vallandigham (1820-71) of Dayton, Ohio for criticizing the arrests; he proves so embarrassing that Lincoln lets him out but banishes him behind Confed. lines, where later in the year he runs for gov. of Ohio in absentia, then slips back to Ohio in 1864, and is left alone at Lincoln's order because he embarrasses the Dems. more than the Repubs.? - if I only had a dollar for every song I sung? On Mar. 3 the U.S. Enrollment Act of Conscription is issued by Pres. Lincoln, calling for 300K men aged 20-45 to fight the war, but providing for a rich man's commutation upon a $300 payment (a year's wages for working men); "They offer to buy up white men for three hundred dollars each, about one-third of what a good negro is worth" (Peace Dems.); the Union draft produces only 46K conscripts along with 118K substitutes, about 6% of the Union force. Tell me again, I just want to be your friend? On Mar. 4 Congress creates the Territory of Idaho (having forgotten about the George M. Willing controversy?). On Mar. 29 a Constitution for the Armenian Community is issued by the Ottoman govt., providing them a 140-member assembly in Constantinople, which elects a religious and civil council, along with corresponding provincial councils; the effect is to encourage nationalism, which eventually backfires as the Muslims sharpen their scimitars for Christian neck? Who runs Greece, Bavaria, Britain, or Denmark? On Mar. 10 English prince of Wales Albert Edward (1841-1910) (later Edward VII) marries Princess Alexandra "Alix" of Denmark (1844-1925) (eldest daughter of Christian IX and aunt of Wilhelm II of Germany), going on to take over the burden of court and public functions from mourning Queen Vicky, and become known for extensive travels in France, Russia et al. along with his interest in yachting and horse racing; she goes on to become a trendsetter in fashion and unsuccessfully attempt to sway public opinion in favor of Greece and Denmark, going on to become the longest holder of the title of princess of Wales (38 years); they have two sons, slow-witted Prince Albert Victor Christian Edward "Eddy", Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1864-92) (who becomes infected with syphilis, driving him insane, and is later suspected of being Jack the Ripper) and Duke George Frederick Ernest Albert of York (1865-1936) (George V), and three daughters, Louise (b. 1867), Victoria (b. 1868), and Princess Maude Charlotte Mary Victoria (1869-1938) (who later marries Haakon VII of Norway); on June 6 after the British govt. rejects an offer for Victoria's 2nd son Prince Alfred and nominates Prince William George, 2nd son of Christian IX of Denmark, he is crowned King George I (1845-1919) of Greece (until 1913), and Britain shows its approval by ceding the Ionian Islands (a British protectorate since 1815). It's court-packing time once again at the Washington Zoo? On Mar. 10 after Congress changes the number of justices to 10 to make double sure it's packed against any rebel sympathizers, Haddam, Conn.-born Unionist Dem. (chief justice #5 of Calif since Sept. 20, 1859) Stephen Johnson Field (1816-99), brother of cable man Cyrus W. Field and law reformer David Dudley Field Jr. becomes justice #38 (until Dec. 1, 1897). On Mar. 29 Gen. Grant begins his Second Vicksburg Campaign; the Union fleet passes Vicksburg's river defenses on Apr. 16, looking for an invasion point downstream, and finding it at Buinsburg and Grand Gulf near the mouth of the Big Black, er, River; Grant then decides to forget supply lines and live off the country, heading E to Jackson, Miss. In the spring the Union gunboat USS Albatross fires on St. Francisville, La. from the Mississippi River off Bayou Sara, and on June 11 gravely ill (fever) Capt. Lt. Cmdr. John Elliot Hart (b. 1820) shoots himself to death; being a Freemason, three of his officers are permitted to come ashore under a flag of truce to bury him by Confed. Capt. William W. Leake, who comments, "As a Mason, I know it to be my duty to accord Masonic burial to the remains of a Brother Mason, without taking into account the nature of his relationship to the outer world", becoming "the Yankee grave that Dixie decorates". In Mar. after the entrance of barbarians into Japan and their humiliating Unequal Treaties piss off the pop., causing them to commit acts of violence, backed by the Sonno Joi ("Revere the emperor and expel the barbarians") movement, emperor Komei issues an order to expel the barbarians; too bad, shogun Iyemochi, who is in bed with the Westerners to modernize his military won't enforce it, and when the pro-imperialists begin attacking the shogunate, he forms the Shinsengumi ("New Recruits"), an army of 234 ronin samurai led by Kondo Isami (1834-68), Kiyokawa Hachiro (1830-63) et al. for his protection as a police force; they get to wear cool outfits, becoming renowned for preventing Kyoto from burning down next year, although they have a dark side and are also known as the Wolves. On Apr. 3 there is a bread riot in Richmond, Va., which ends only after Pres. Davis personally persuades the mob of mainly women to disperse. On Apr. 9 Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho (1815-93) becomes pres. of Peru, but loses elections on Aug. 5 to vice-pres. Juan Antonio Pezet Rodriguez (1809-79), who becomes pres. of Peru (until Apr. 25, 1865); meanwhile Spain seizes the guano-rich Chincha Islands, beginning the Chincha Islands War (ends 1866). On Apr. 23 Mirza Husayn ali Nuri proclaims himself Baha'ullah (Baha Allah) (1817-92) (Arab. "splendor of God"), the Manifestation of God, founding the universal egalitarian brotherhood Baha'i Faith in Persia (Iran); he spends the rest of his life in prison or exile in Acre, while Haifa, Palestine becomes the world center. On Apr. 30 the Battle of Camaron (Camarón) sees 65 French Foreign Legionnaires hold off 1K+ Mexican troops in Camaron de Tejeda, 50 mi. SW of Veracruz, Mexico, making the Legion's rep. In Apr. the Confed. Congress passes a 10% tax in kind on all agricultural products, which outrages farmers and planters, and is widely evaded, forcing the war to be financed by treasury notes (66%) and bonds (33%). In Apr. Gen. Hooker crosses the Rappahannock River with 130K troops, the largest Union army ever; on May 1-5 the Confederates win a great V at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Va., sending 39-y.-o. Gen. Thomas Jonathan "Old Jack" "Stonewall" Jackson (1824-63) with half of Lee's men on a long march around the enemy's exposed right flank after the cavalry of his nephew Fitzhugh Lee (1835-1905) scout the Union flank and find it "in the air", surprising them in the Wilderness on the evening of May 2; too bad, Jackson is mistakenly fired on by his own N.C. regiment troops at 9 p.m. on May 2 while returning from a reconnaissance in the dense Wilderness looking for a way to attack the rear of the Union forces; his left arm is amputated by surgeons and he is moved 24 mi. to a plantation at Guiney's Station, where he contracts pneumonia and dies at 3:30 p.m. on May 10 ("I have always desired to die on Sunday"), his last words being, "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees"; "He has lost his left arm, I have lost my right arm", says Lee; on May 3 Gen. Stuart holds Hooker's troops at bay while Lee forces them back across the Rappahannock River; meanwhile on May 6 attacks by Confederates under Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Gen. Jubal Anderson "Old Jube" Early (1816-94), and Gen. Robert E. Lee cause Gen. Hooker to withdraw and try to explain it to a fuming Lincoln; all this is a paper V for Lee, but it costs the rebels 12K casualties and 1.6K dead that they can't afford in their gangsters' paradise; former Pres. Buchanan admin. treasury secy. John Adams Dix (1798-1879), now a U.S. Maj. Gen. is given command of the military Dept. of the East. In Apr. Falmouth, Va.-born ex-Unitarian minister Moncure Daniel Conway (Gael. "holy river") (1832-1907) is sent by fellow abolitionists to London, England to convince them not to support the Confederacy because the war is primarily being fought for abolition, and after befriending Thomas Carlyle, Robert Browning et al. he approaches Confed. rep. to Britain (1861-5) James Murray Mason (1798-1871) with an offer "on behalf of the leading antislavery men of America" of full withdrawal of support for further prosecution of the war in exchange for immediate emancipation of all slaves in the Confederacy, which Mason publicly rejects, pissing-off his sponsors, who angrily and speedily withdraw support, causing him to apologize to U.S. minister to England (1861-8) Charles Francis Adams Sr. (1807-86) (John Quincy Adams' son) that he's not a traitor, and after becoming persona non grata in the U.S. he travels to Venice, Italy to reunite with his family, after which he becomes minister to the Freethinking South Place Chapel (later South Place Ethical Society) in London, becoming friends with Annie Besant, Algernon Charles Swinburne, the Rossettis et al., staying for 17 years; he continues to stay away from U.S. until 1897 when his dying wife Ellen (daughter of Charles Dana) requests the right to die on Am. soil (New York City), after which he lives the rest of his life in France; meanwhile Adams convinces the British govt. to seize two steam ironclad ram warships from the shipping firm of Lairds that were meant to be used by the Confederates to break the Union blockade, although he fails to prevent the sailing of the Alabama; after this, the Brits are more diligent in stopping the building of ships for the Confederacy. On May 1 Grant's forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Port Gibson, and again on May 14 at the Battle of Jackson, cutting the Confed. defenders of Vicksburg in two; on May 16 the Battle of Champion's Hill (Baker's Creek) is the most important of the war so far, and the Union wins, opening their path to Vicksburg, Miss., (did I say the Gibraltar of the Confederacy?), one of the last two rebel strongholds on the Mississippi (along with Port Hudson, La.), while pinning the 30K men of Lt. Gen. John Clifford Pemberton (1841-81) inside Vicksburg, where they proceed to hole-up in caves and slowly starve, jerking, er, eating mule jerky; Jackson is razed, causing it to become known as Chimneyville. On May 13 black S.C.-born pilot Robert Smalls (1839-1915) hijacks the fully-armed Confed. gunboat Planter and sails his family through Charleston Harbor to join the Union fleet, giving them stolen Union maps and plans, winning a $1.5K reward from Congress and proving that blacks don't want to stay slaves and will fight for it, convincing Congress to allow blacks to serve in the Union Army and assisting the 5K-man 1st South Carolina Volunteers; after becoming a naval hero and becoming the first capt. of a U.S. navy vessel, Smalls becomes a Repub. congressman and author of the S.C. constitution, and big black hero, causing the whites to later attempt to cover him up in the history books; in 1863 Ft. Robert Smalls is built by free blacks at the mouth of Becks Run in Arlington Heights near Pittsburgh, Penn.; in 2004 USS Robert Smalls is launched, becoming the first U.S. Army ship named after an African-Am.; the Mass. 54th Regiment under Harvard grad. Col. Robert Gould Shaw (1837-63), son of a prominent abolitionist becomes the first Union all-Negro army unit, followed by regiments in R.I. and other states; the stress must have gotten to him, because Lincoln comes down with varioloid, a mild form of smallpox. On May 13 Radama II (b. 1829) is assassinated (strangled) (suicide?) (survives?), and his widow, queen Rasoaherina (Rabuda) (1814-68) becomes puppet ruler of Madagascar (until Apr. 1, 1868) behind PM and coup leaders Rainilaiarivony (1828-96) and his brother Rainivoninahitriniony (-1868), who rule behind puppet queens for the next 32 years (until 1895), marrying them as a, er, cover story; Rasoaherina establishes diplomatic relations with France, Britain and the U.S. and prohibits Sunday markets. On May 23 the Gen. German Workers' Assoc. (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein) (ADAV) is founded by German Jewish Socialist Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-64), who broke ranks with Marx and Engels in his desire for what-the-world-needs-now-is State Socialism, where the "iron law of wages" of brutal Capitalism is broken, and the "full products of their labor" secured by the govt. in a state with worker cooperatives and universal suffrage; by 1869 after it is torn apart by fights between dems. and Socialists, and evolves into the German Social Dem. Party - the magical cleaning power draws dirt out, and the smell of freshness draws them in? On May 26 Afghan emir (since 1826) Dost Mohammed (b. 1793) of Afgahistan takes Herat from Iran, then dies on June 9, and his son Shir (Sher) Ali Khan (1825-79) succeeds as emir of Afghanistan (until 1866), with his several half-brothers opposing him. In May a new official Confed. States of Am. Flag is adopted by the Confed. Congress at Richmond, Va.; white with the Beauregard battle flag. Say hey, we gotta do our part? In May the U.S. War Dept. authorizes general recruitment of blacks from the entire country, signaling a transformation of the war from merely one of preserving the Union to a deliberate overthrow of the Southern slave society, their worst nightmare?; "Hello, Massa, bottom rail on top now." In May Lee's 75K man Confed. army invades the North to take pressure off Vicksburg, moving into the Shenandoah Valley and then turning N into Md. and crossing the Potomac River on June 24; Gen. Hooker follows, keeping himself between them and Washington, D.C., but is demoralized, misled by exaggerated reports of enemy strength, and resigns on June 28, being replaced as cmdr. of the Army of the Potomac by Maj. Gen. George Gordon "Old Pills" Meade (1815-72). In May a group of prospectors discover gold near Alder Creek in Mont., founding the town of Virginia City, Mont. on June 16 (originally Verina, named after Jefferson Davis' wife Varina Howell Davis until pro-Union Conn. judge G.G. Bissell renames to Virginia City); too bad, the newfound wealth leads to road agents (highway robbers), who kill 100+ in the fall, causing the Mont. Vigilantes to be formed in Dec., hanging 15 road agents by Jan. 1864; on May 26, 1864 Mont. Territory is organized out of Idaho Territory, with capital moved from Bannack to Virginia City on Feb. 7, 1865 (until Apr. 19, 1875); meanwhile in 1863 Virginia Brewery is founded in Virginia City, Mont. by Thomas Smith, becoming the first brewery in Mont.; in 1866 he sells-out to Berks County, Penn.-born miner Henry S. Gilbert (1833-1902) and German-born brewer Christopher Richter (1834-99), who rename it Gilbert and Richter Brewing Co.; in 1872 Richter sells-out, and it is renamed H.W. Gilbert Brewing Co.; in 1904 it becomes Gilbert Brewing Co., closing for Prohibition then reopening on Dec. 11, 1934, and closing in 1974. On June 1 Gen. Ambrose Burnside orders the suppression of the anti-Lincoln Chicago Tribune. On June 7 French troops capture Mexico City, causing Benito Juarez to move his capital to the N and continue resistance; on July 10 a new Roman Catholic empire is proclaimed, and the crown is offered to erzherzog (archduke) Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph (1832-67), son of HRE Franz Josef, and an accomplished scientist, who becomes Maximilian I, the last emperor of Mexico, sitting on the Cactus Throne as the Cactus Emperor, with his wife Carlotta (Charlotte of Belgium) (1840-1927) as empress (until 1867). On June 9 10K Confed. cavalry under Gen. J.E.B. Stuart defeat the Union cavalry under Gens. Pleasanton and Buford at the Second Battle of Brandy Station (Beverly's Ford). On June 20 "Mountain State" West Virginia (W. Va.) is admitted as the 35th U.S. (free) state (the only state completely set in the Appalachian Mts.), with capital at Wheeling (until 1870, then 1875-85); on July 4 Congress adopts a new U.S. flag (design #17) with 35 stars to incl. it. In June white-is-right Pres. Lincoln issues an order authorizing British colonial agent John Hodge to recruit freed slaves to emigrate to modern-day Guyana and Belize; he also considers sending freed slaves to construct the Panama Canal; next year Congress votes to end funding for the colonization plan. The country where they say fah-jah and mean dad did what? On July 1 Netherlands becomes the last Euro nation to abolish slavery, freeing the African slaves on the plantations in Suriname; starting in 1870 laborers are imported from British India and the Dutch East Indies. Vicks Vapo-Rub doesn't cure the cold? Four score and ten years minus three since the DOI, and wouldn't you know it, not a piano in sight, and Lincoln's wife has a closet with 300 pairs of shoes she purchased in 4 mo., while 10K white men die in three days looking for shoes? On July 1-3 (Wed.-Fri.) the Battle of Gettysburg in S Penn. just over the Md. border (75K Confed. soldiers vs. 90K Union soldiers) begins by accident when on June 30 barefoot Confed. soldiers go into the farming town of Gettysburg, Penn. to capture shoes and encounter Union cavalry units, causing the main force of 75K Confeds. to converge on that point W of town, ending Gen. Robert E. Lee's original plan of reaching Harrisburg before circling to Washington, D.C., but not dampening his hopes of ending the war fast by a decisive V over the Union army; too bad, Lee's cavalry under Gen. James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (1831-64) is 12 mi. to the S capturing enemy supplies, hampering Lee badly; Lee implements Morse Code using wig-wag flags to signal troops; Gen. Meade having already selected Pipe Creek (between Baltimore and Taneytown Roads, 12 mi. to the S) for his stand, his troops end up coming in from the SE, while Lee's come in from the NW; at 5 a.m. on July 1 Confed. troops advance on the Chambersburg Pike and take position at Herr's Ridge, while Union troops post themselves on a ridge marked by Stone Ave., gaining the higher ground even though pushed out of the town into Meade's Fishhook S of Gettysburg, which incl. the famous white-on-white killing grounds Seminary Ridge (home of a Lutheran seminary), Cemetery Ridge, Cemetery Hill, Culp's Hill (barb of Meade's Fishhook on the extreme R of the Union line guarding Baltimore Pike, the main Union supply line), the Wheat Field, the Peach Orchard, Devil's Den (becoming infamous for staged photos of dead Union soldiers taken 5 mo. later), Big Round Top, and Little Round Top; Union Brig. Gen. Robert Ogden Tyler (1831-74), cmdr. of the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac helps the Union win by attrition; troops from slavery-state Md. are split between both sides; Md. Maj. James Wallace is the only Union officer who owns slaves; on July 1 (10:00 a.m.) the tough 420-man Wisc. Westerners (Iron Brigade) of Lt. Col. Rufus Dawes (1839-) (great-grandson of William Dawes, who rode with Paul Revere, and father of future U.S. vice-pres. Charles Gates Dawes) skirmish with 800 Confed. recon troops 1 mi. W of Gettysburg, who flee until they encounter a 600-ft. railroad cut and make a stand, pouring withering fire on the Westerners, which doesn't stop them, losing 1 man per yd. (plus 10 men trying to defend the Stars and Stripes) until they capture the rebel flag after 20 min., with 600 Confed. casualties vs. 200 Union casualties (50%), then deploying on Culp's Hill to the N and erecting earthen breastworks reinforced by rocks and fallen logs; at 5:00 p.m. Confed. troops under Lt. Gen. ("Old Bald Head") Richard Stoddert "Dick" Ewell (1817-72) (Stonewall Jackson's replacement, who lost his left leg at 2nd Bull Run to the Iron Brigade) take Gettysburg from the Union 11th Corps, who suffer 9K casualties, causing residents (esp. blacks) to flee or hide in the bank vault; at the end of the 1st day's fighting between 28K Confeds. and 20K Yankees, Gen. James Longstreet tells Gen. Lee that his troops should be placed at Meade's left, forcing him to take the offensive, since his army would then be the only thing blocking a direct route to Washington, D.C. (where they could hang Lincoln and win the war), but Lee replies "No, the enemy is there and I am going to attack him", and formulates the fatal plan to go through the center. On July 2 (Thur.) First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln overturns in her carriage while returning from the soldiers' home, and hits her head on a rock, being bedridden for three weeks and suffering from headaches permanently; the seat had been loosened in an attempt to kill her hubby? On July 2 21K Confed. troops assault Meade's Fishhook, intending to score a knockout punch, but because of lack of cavalry take too long to get into position, giving the Union time to gather reinforcements; too bad, wealthy politically-connected Union gen. Daniel Edgar "Dan" Sickles (1819-1914) (who got acquitted for killing his wife with the first plea of temporary insanity in U.S. history, and used his wealth and power to gather his own regiment) disobeys orders to dig his III Corps into defensive positions at the S end of Cemetery Ridge (N of Little Round Top) and marches them out almost 1 mi., leaving them exposed to an assault which could cut the Union lines in half; Gen. Lee makes the boo-boo of assembling his men under Confed. Gen. James Longstreet and Gen. Lafayette McLaws (1821-97) too slow, losing the element of surprise, attacking at 4:30 p.m.; at 6:00 p.m. after being held back for 90 min., Miss. Confed. Gen. William Barksdale (1821-63) attacks with 1.6K men, racing towards Sickle's position in an all-out power drive; Sickles loses his leg to a cannonball ("bad news for Sickles but good news for the Union" - a Union soldier), after which he grins and puffs a big cigar as he is carried away on a stretcher, heading straight back to Washington, D.C. (bringing news of a Union V and running his own spin control), after which Bartsdale's troops break through Sickle's line at 7:00 p.m., and approach Cemetery Ridge, where they are blasted by 20+ Union cannon, and Bartsdale is wounded in the left leg, refusing to leave the field and leading the attack, which doesn't keep the Union from stopping them by 7:30 p.m. after Meade sends 8K fresh reinforcements from Culp's Hill, who surprise them by shooting through the bushes; 50% of Bartsdale's brigade become casualties, and Bartsdale is KIA; only 1.4K Union soldiers under Maj. Rufus Dawes remain on Culp's Hill; "The best three hours fighting ever done by any troops on any battlefield" (Gen. Longstreet), with 16K casualties on both sides; at 8:00 p.m. 4.5K Confeds. make a surprise charge on Culp's Hill, which is filled with large rocks, getting bloodied by fierce fire and hitting their own men because of the darkness until they give up, missing their big chance to capture Baltimore Pike 500 yds. away and cut the main Union communications and supply line, forcing a Union retreat. On July 2 Gen. Lee, seeing the Union left ending in a gap well short of the commanding ground of Little Round Top orders assaults to flank the Union army, but Maine prof. Lt. Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (1828-1914) of the 20th Maine steps up and becomes a Union hero, weathering a fierce uphill attack led by Ala. Confed. Gen. William Calvin Oates (1833-1910) (future U.S. rep. and Ala. gov.), until they all run out of ammo, then charging down on them with bayonets and forcing the dumb rebels to surrender "without enough ammo left to kill a rabbit" (Shelby Foote); Col. Patrick Henry O'Rorke (b. 1836), top West Point graduate of 1861 leads two regiments to support the 20th Maine, and is KIA; Union Brig. Gen. Stephen Hinsdale Weed of N.Y. is KIA defending Little Round Top; Lt. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie (1840-89), top West Point graduate of 1862 (son of disgraced naval cmdr. Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, and nephew of Confed. diplomat John Slidell of Trent Affair infamy, all of which slows down his career, called by Gen. Grant the most promising in the Union army, and makes him grow bitter when dumbos like George Custer, bottom of the 1861 class becomes a brig.-gen.) leads a div. which saves the Union left, getting a promotion to brevet Col. with command of the 2nd Conn. Heavy Artillery, going on to earn the name "Perpetual Punisher" from his harsh discipline. On July 2 by nightfall (9:00 p.m.) the troops of Gen. Dick Ewell are arrayed to the N of the town, the troops of Gens. Lee, Hill, Pickett, and Longstreet to the NW along Seminary Ridge and to the extreme W, where there is 1 mi. of open ground to Gen. Meade's position at Cemetery Ridge; Gen. Meade is shaken by the near Confed. V. On July 2 Confed. Gen. John Hunt "Thunderbolt" Morgan (1825-64) begins Morgan's Great Raid of 2.4K howlin' rebel cavalry from Tenn. over the Ohio River into Ky., Ind., and Ohio in an attempt to distract Union gen. William Rosencrans, who is heading for Chattanooga, Tenn., becoming the farthest N penetration for the Confeds.; too bad, he is captured on July 26 in Salineville, Ohio, and only 400 of his men make it back to the South; on Nov. 26 Morgan and his men tunnel out of the new Ohio State Penn., becoming a propaganda V for the South, although he is never trusted again by the Confed. high command, and ends up getting a new force of loser cavalry who fall to pillaging, getting him investigated for criminal banditry before being KIA next Sept. 4. On July 2 Japanese shogun Iyemochi negotiates aboard the French warship Semiramis over the Kanagawa Incident of last Sept., apologizing and paying the British authorities £10K; too bad, the offending Satusuma Province refuses to pay their £25K fine or cough up the two samurai who did the killing, causing the pissed-off Brits to seize three foreign-built Satsuma warships worth 10x as much, then burn them after being fired upon by artillery, going on to fire on the Kagashima coast, burning 500 houses (5%) and killing five Japanese, while losing 11 of their own, incl. Capt. Josling of the 35-gun flagship Euryalus and his 2nd-in-command Cmdr. Wilmot (beheaded by the same cannonball), until the Brits retreat under Japanese cannonfire, causing the Japanese to claim a V, although the £25K fine is later paid; future Father of the Japanese Imperial Navy Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) mans one of the port cannons, later claiming that the humiliation of it all launched his career; ironically the incident increases British ties with Satsuma, who goes on to modernize militarily with their help, then back the emperor against the shogunate, which the Brits like because the shogun is too much in bed with the French. The White Wheat Field of Shock and Awe? The supreme moment in white history, the bloodiest battle in U.S. history, when the inexorable tide of racial amalgamation could have been reversed and America and then the whole world made whiter than Cheer, Clorox, Tide, and Reddi-Wip, the moment every white supremacist wishes they could have back, or, Couldn't they have dispersed and crawled, walked their artillery along with them, gone at night, anything but the way they did it, which made them into cannon target practice and gave the war away? On July 3 (Fri.) the Confeds. attack Culp's Hill again, causing the Union to send reinforcements to save it, changing the odds from 1-3 to 3-1 and holding it, leaving Gen. Lee only one option; at 1 p.m. in order to give them a "foot on fire" (Napoleon), 160 Confed. cannon on Seminary Ridge along a 2-mi. line begin a 2-hour bombardment (largest artillery barrage in the Western Hemisphere until ?, which can be heard in Harrisburg, Penn. 40 mi. away) of the position of Union Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (1824-86) behind a low stone wall on Cemetery Ridge in the Union center (manned by the Union 2nd Corps, composed of troops from 11 states incl. fresh reserve troops) (he should have destroyed the stone wall or called it off?); at 3 p.m. after the Union purposely silences their 100+ cannon to fool Lee into thinking that it's safe to send in his 12K troops, Maj. Gen. George Edward Pickett (1825-75), a "tall arrow of a man, with his auburn hair flying as he galloped his horse" (bottom of his West Point class, who studied law in his youth in Quincy, Ill., and knew Lincoln in Springfield) leads Longstreet's 14K fresh Virginians with three brig. gens. (incl. Lewis Armistead of N.C.) into the disastrous Pickett's Charge (the turning-point defeat for the South), shouting "Up and to your posts, and don't forget that you come from Old Virginia", marching the flower of the Confederacy in broad daylight across a 1.7K-yd. cornfield in close ranks while the Union guns easily kill one or more with every shot of their cannons, which are well supplied with exploding shells and shrapnel shells; within 20 min. 7K+ are KIA, while the Confeds. are still out of musket range; some cannon balls are aimed to bounce in front of the Confed. lines and mow them down like bowling balls; "You could mark the path that they took by the dead that they left behind,/ Spilled from that deadly march as a cart spills meal on a road" (Stephen Vincent Benet); the blue Va. flag keeps moving, and by the time Pickett's men reach the ridge, torn apart with canister fire (tin cans packed with 28 iron balls, which dismember them as well as kill them, demoralizing the living), they are down to 5K, finally overrunning three Union cannons and almost cutting the Union lines in two; Union Col. Alonzo Hersford Cushing (b. 1841) fires his last cannon while holding his guts in his hand, then falls, and Confed. Gen. Lewis Addison "Lo" Armistead (b. 1817) (cmdr. of Unit K) waves his hat on his sword and yells "Give 'em the steel", leaps the stone wall at the main objective called The Angle, turns the cannon around, then leads a charge of the remaining several hundred men, getting shot 3x while trying to plant the Stars and Bars, while his men are overwhelmed by a Union counterattack, becoming the farthest penetration of the rebels, the "High Water Mark of the Confederacy" before they break and begin retreating; on Sept. 15, 2014 Cushing is finally awarded a Medal of Honor; after he makes the secret Mason sign, fellow Mason, Union Capt. Henry Harrison Bingham (1841-1912) renders aid to Armistead and receives his personal effects incl. a personal Bible he requests to be sent to his pre-war buddy Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, who is wounded; as the few straggling survivors return from the gray-strewn battlefield, the Yanks quit firing and begin cheering and taunting them with cries of "Fredericksburg!", Lee mutters "All this has been my fault", then orders Pickett to regroup his 4.5K-man div. (of which 75% were lost) to repulse a possible counterattack, to which Pickett utters the immortal soundbyte "General Lee, I have no division now" (later, "That old man had my division slaughtered", becoming bitter about it for life); Gen. Meade refrains from counterattacking to avoid turning a V into a D; the 3-day battle between 90K Union and 75K Confed. troops results in 10K killed and 41K wounded, and 5K Confed. POWs taken, becoming the bloodiest battle of the U.S. Civil War, insuring an ultimate Union V; dead Union soldier Amos Humaston is found in Gettysburg by a girl clutching a photo of his three children, becoming the celebrated Unknown Soldier until he is identified 4 mo. later. On July 4 (Sat.) it rains, and Lee's army, down to two-thirds of its original size is allowed to pick up the pieces and retreat S to Va. by Gen. Meade, crossing into Va. in a 6-mi.-long train on July 13; Pres. Lincoln fumes at this lost chance to finish the war, but retains Meade. On July 4 the Confed. Army of the Trans-Mississippi in Ark. under Lt. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes (1804-80) attacks Helena, Ark. to relieve pressure on Vicksburg, Miss., and withdraws after 173 Confeds. are killed and 687 are wounded; meanwhile on July 4 Vicksburg surrenders just as beaten Gen. Lee is dragging his tail out of Gettysburg, splitting the Confederacy in two and placing the crucial waterways of the Mississippi under Union control; on Aug. 26 Lincoln writes a Public Letter to James C. Conkling, containing the soundbyte about the Mississippi River: "The Father of Waters goes unvexed to the sea"; Vicksburg vet William Tecumseh Sherman is made brig. gen. of the regular U.S. Army; Sherman's brother-in-law Charles Ewing (1835-93) (one of the three Ewing brothers, who all make gen. during the war) plants the Confed. flag on the parapet of the Confed. fort, and is severely wounded, receiving a promotion from Capt. to maj., and later brig. gen.; Vicksburg vet Walter Quintin Gresham (1832-95), Col. of the 53rd Ind. Infantry is made brig. gen. in command of the Union forces at Natchez, Miss., which later brags that its only Confed. casualty is an elderly man who has a heart attack after a Union gunboat fires a blank to salute Union troops at Ft. Rosalie; Union Maj. Gen. John Alexander Logan (1826-86) becomes military cmdr. of occupied Vicksburg; Confed. Lt. Gen. John Clifford Pemberton is exchanged and returns to duty, voluntary accepting a demotion to Lt. col.; Union Brig. Gen. John McClernand (1812-1900) from S Ill. (home of a lot of pro-South Dems.) publicly blames high Union casualties on Grant's failure to send reinforcements, causing him to be reappointed to the Red River Campaign, after which he contracts malaria and resigns - Lee had hoped by his raid of the North to take the pressure off what? On July 8 Port Hudson, the last remaining Confed. stronghold on the Mississippi River (sieged since May 21) surrenders; too bad, Union Brig. Gen. Neal S. Dow (1804-97) (prohibition mayor of Portland, Maine in the 1850s) is captured, and spends 8 mo. as a POW. On July 11 a draft lottery is announced in New York City, followed on July 12 by the first roll of draftees published alongside the roll of the dead at Gettysburg, sparking the poor and working class (half of the 1M pop.) (mostly Irish immigrants), incensed at wealthy Repub. Protestants trying to send them to die for black slaves who will end up stealing their jobs, to take it out on them all fiercely in the Draft Riots on July 13, becoming the worst riots in U.S. history, four days of looting, arson, lynching and murder killing 105 (official) (more like 500), and forcing thousands of blacks to flee the collapsing city; on July 16 tired Union troops from Gettysburg end the and restore order; $2M in property is destroyed; a cent. of repression of blacks and harsh treatment of labor protests follows - the pig cannot come in but the animal we'll take? On July 18 the all-black 54th Mass. Volunteers (Colored Infantry) under Col. Robert Gould Shaw (b. 1837) charge the massive earthworks of Ft. Wagner outside Charleston, S.C., losing almost half the regiment, incl. Shaw, whose body is stripped by the Confederates and thrown into a ditch filled with his slain men; Sgt. William Harvey Carney (1840-1908) becomes the first African-Am. to receive the Medal of Honor 36 years later for retrieving the colors from the regiment's slain flag-bearer and carrying them safely to the rear despite being shot in the head, chest, arm and leg (the first of 23 blacks to win the MOH); "Through the cannon smoke of the dark night the manhood of the colored race shines before many eyes that would not see" (Atlantic Monthly); Union Adm. Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-65) leads a Union naval attack on the city, which is repulsed with great losses, and when he is ordered to attack again he balks on grounds of insufficient forces, causing him to be relieved of command and retired from active duty; since white is right, in 1882 the U.S. Congress commemorates his name, and Du Pont Circle in Washington, D.C. is named after him, with a statue of him erected there. In July after N.M. district military gov. Gen. James H. Carlton tells 18 Navajo chiefs that they must surrender by July 20 and move to Ft. Sumner in SE N.M., the U.S. Army, led by Kit Carson begins a campaign against the Navajos using the first written U.S. Army scorched earth policy, starving them into submission by next Jan. in order to relocate them to a Rez on junk land on the Pecos River. In July after the fall of Vicksburg, Union gen. Hugh Boyle Ewing destroys the Fleetwood Plantation of Confed. pres. Jefferson Davis, and discovers his personal correspondence, which exposes ex-U.S. pres. Franklin Pierce as a double-talker, exposing him as writing in 1860 about "the madness of northern abolitionism", and stating that he would "never justify, sustain, or in any way or to any extend uphold this cruel, heartless, aimless unnecessary war", adding "the true purpose of the war was to wipe out the states and destroy property"; the letters are released to coincide with the release of Nathaniel Hawthorne's book Our Old Home, which is dedicated to his idol Pierce. We're baaack? On Aug. 17 Union batteries and ships bombard Ft. Sumter in Charleston, S.C. harbor. On Aug. 21 the Second Battle of Chattanooga sees a Union artillery bombardment do enough damage to force the rebels under gen. Braxton Bragg to quit bragging and evacuate the city. On Aug. 21 former Ohio school teacher turned gambler and horse thief William Clarke Quantrill (1837-65) and his 300-400 pro-Confed. Quantrill's Raiders (which incl. brothers Jesse and Frank James) stage the Lawrence Massacre, terrorizing and burning Lawrence, Douglas County, Kan. and killing over 150 Union sympathizer men, women and children, incl. three members of the Lawrence City Band, which held its first public performance the day before; on Oct. 6 Quantrill's Raiders defeat a small Union cavalry unit at Baxter Springs, Kan. and put 17 captured noncombatants to death. Meanwhile, in gay San Francisco, horny men still want poontang? On Aug. 24 Adah Isaacs Menken (1835-68) becomes the sensation of San Francisco as Mazeppa, hetman of the Cossacks, scandalously dressed in flesh-colored tights and strapped to a horse riding across stage like Lady Godiva in "Mazeppa, or the Wild Horse of Tartary", based on the 1819 Lord Byron (1788-1824), poem, which becomes the #1 drama in the Am. West until the end of the cent. In Aug. 12K Union troops under Maj. Gen. Frederick Steele (1819-68) invade Ark., and are stopped E of Little Rock by 8K Confeds. under Maj. Gen. Sterling Price (1809-67); on Sept. 10 the Battle of Bayou Forche (Little Rock) sees the Union army outflank the Confeds. and take Little Rock, causing the Confed. army to retreat to the SW corner of the conquered state. On Sept. 2-3 after flanking the well-defended Cumberland Gap, Union troops under Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside take Knoxville, Tenn., and are welcomed by the pop., causing Burnside to ignore requests to reinforce gen. Rosencrans for the Battle of Chickamauga while attempting to clear the gaps and roads from E Tenn. to Va.. and secure the Abingdon saltworks; on Nov. 17-Dec. 4 the Confeds under Gen. James Longstreet unsuccessfully siege Union-held Knoxville under Burnside, ending with a bloody failed attempt to storm Ft. Sanders. In early Sept. Confed. Gen. Braxton Bragg is maneuvered out of Tullahoma by Union Gen. Rosencrans, and criticized for constantly retreating, temporarily losing Chattanooga, Tenn. on Sept. 6, then stunning the Union with a decisive V on Sept. 18-22 at the Battle of Chickamauga in NW Ga. On Sept. 8 the Four Leviathans, a Russian fleet under Adm. S. Lesowsky arrives in San Francisco, Calif.; on Sept. 11 the Russian battleship Oslabia under Adm. A.A. Popoff arrives in New York City, all with orders from Tsar Alexander II to "be ready to fight any power and to take their orders from Lincoln"; the tsar secretly told France that if their troops in Mexico aided the Confederacy, he would declare war on France, causing them to back off?; the pesky Rothschild family was behind the French plot in Mexico in order to keep the U.S. split and weak and dependent on banks, while Lincoln was busy trying to win the war and end the dependency, causing them to order his assassination? On Sept. 13 the Third Battle of Brandy Station is another push, as is the Fourth Battle of Brandy Station on Oct. 11. On Sept. 14 Pres. Lincoln mistakenly signs a letter "A. Linclon", then crosses it out and re-signs it below, becoming a collector's item. On Sept. 22 the Battle of Blountsville, Tenn. is a V for Union troops under Col. (later gen.) John Watson Foster (1836-1917) over rebel troops under Col. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter? On Sept. 22-Nov. 3 Confed. cavalry Col. Joseph Orville "Jo" Shelby (1830-97) leads his Iron Brigade of Mo. volunteers on the 1.5K-mi. Shelby's Great Raid through Mo., capturing or destroying $2M worth of federal property and supplies and causing 1K Union casualties, becoming known as "the Raider of the Rebellion", getting him a promotion to brig. gen. on Dec. 15; William Quantrill's cavalry is attached to his command before they go completely renegade. In Sept. Russian ships sent in support of the Union begin arriving in New York City - the origin of the black Russian? On Oct. 3 Pres. Lincoln declares the last Thur. of each Nov. to be a nat. day of fasting, humiliation, prayer, and Thanksgiving after being persuaded by "Godey's Lady's Book" editor Sarah Josepha Hall, author of "Mary Had a Little Lamb" - the turkey becomes a kind of 2nd national bird, slaughtered by the zillions each year on cue for its white meat, with a little dark meat always included, and the big drumsticks for the really brave? On Oct. 10 the Battle of Blue Springs is a V for Union cavalry led by Brig. Gen. Samuel Powhatan Carter (1819-91) over rebel cavalry led by Brig. Gen. John Stuart "Cerro Gordo" Williams (1818-98), who had attempted to disrupt Union communications and logistics, allowing Union gen. Ambrose Burnside to launch an offensive into E Tenn., causing Confed. Gen. Braxton Bragg to send the corps of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet to Knoxville to siege them and prevent reinforcement of Chattanooga, becoming known as the Knoxville Campaign; too bad, Longstreet only has 10K infantry and 5K cavalry vs. 12K infantry and 8.5K cavalry for Burnside, and also knows that Union reinforcements under gens. Grant and Sherman outnumber the 40K Confeds. around Chattanooga, causing him to utter the soundbyte "We just expose both to failure and really take no chance to ourselves of great results" - why doesn't he just say you're full of it? On Oct. 16 John (Johannes) Weisgerber (1844-90) founds a brewery in Lewiston, Idaho, becoming the first in Idaho. On Oct. 23 relieved Union Gen. Rosencrans is replaced by Gen. Grant, who is given the entire command of all Union armies east and west. In Oct. the first Fenian Convention is held in Chicago, Ill. along with their first Irish nat. fair, making its constitution more democratic; the days when Ill. was a frontier state are long gone? On Nov. 6 the Battle of Droop Mountain in Pocahontas County, W. Va. is a V for 5K Union forces under gen. William Woods Averell (1832-1900) (who later invents asphalt pavement and gets rich) over 1.2K Confed. forces led by 6'4" gen. John Echols (1823-96), causing Confed. resistance in W. Va. to collapse. On Nov. 6 as Confed. Gen. James Longstreet's men are waiting for rail transport from Chattanooga to Knoxville, some Union troops skirmish with them, and many are taken POW, incl. soldiers from the 7th Ohio Cavalry and 2nd East Tenn.; too bad, the engines taking them to Sweetwater, Tenn. (halfway to Knoxville) are underpowered and underfueled, causing the men to have to walk up hills and scrounge fences for fuel, taking eight days to travel 60 mi., then finding no supplies waiting when they arrive on Nov. 12; after gen. Grant suggests sending him relief troops, Burnside instead decides to lead 5K men SW to meet Longstreet in the field to make it harder for him to return to Chattanooga, and on Nov. 14 Longstreet hears about it and builds a bridge across the Tennessee River W of Loudon to meet him; meanwhile a few Confed. cavalry reach Knoxville on Nov. 15 but are repulsed and rejoin Longshot, er, Longstreet. On Nov. 15 Frederick VII (b. 1808) dies, and his son Christian IX (1818-1906) becomes king of Denmark (until Jan. 29, 1906). On Nov. 16 after Union troops under gen. Ambrose Burnside beat the rebel troops of Gen. James Longstreet by 15 min. by a forced march in the rain, the Battle of Campbell's Station near Farragut, Knox County, Tenn. (at the point where the N-S Concord Rd. meets the E-W Kingston Rd. from Knoxville) is a Union V, preventing the rebels from blocking Burnside's approach to Knoxville, after which Longstreet follows Burnside back to Knoxville and sieges it on Nov. 19 after a successful Union delaying action starting on Nov. 17 gives them time to complete the defenses; too bad, Longstreet delays an attack planned for Nov. 20 to wait for 3.5K reinforcements under Yankee-born brig. gen. Bushrod Rust Johnson (1817-80), and although the Yankees are low on supplies, local Yankee sympathizers float them food and supplies along the Holston River. On Nov. 18 Pres. Lincoln arrives by train at Gettysburg, where the graves are still soggy, and on Nov. 19 after waiting for the featured 2-hour speech of famed Mass. orator Edward Everett (1794-1865), he delivers the immortal no-pain-no-gain 3-min. 271-word 10-sentence Gettysburg Address ("few prepared remarks") (not written on the back of an envelope, but on writing paper) to a crowd of 5K; "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion, that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth"; he tries to use the U.S. Constitution and the blood shed here to implement the values of the Declaration of Independence, which is why he dates the founding of the U.S. to 1776; the Civil War now becomes a ritual of purification to achieve "a more perfect Union"? On Nov. 20 Kamehameha IV (b. 1834) dies, and Prince Lot Kapuaiwa (another grandson of Kamehameha I the Great) succeeds to the Hawaiian throne as Kamehameha V (1830-72), going on to host Mark Twain in 1866 and Queen Victoria's 2nd son Alfred Ernest Albert in 1869, get the Hawaiian Hotel built in 1871, and get Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany to send Henri Berger to organize the Royal Hawaiian Band; meanwhile he gets a new constitution passed in 1864 and refuses to sign a bill in 1865 permitting liquor sales, saying "I will never sign the death warrant of my people"; too bad, he never marries and never names a successor. On Nov. 22 Confed. soldier Sam Davis (b. 1842) is caught with Union battle plans near Minor Hill, Tenn., and when he refuses to divulge their source he is hanged on Nov. 27 after uttering the immortal soundbyte "I would rather die a thousand deaths than betray a friend", causing him to become the Nathan Hale wannabe "Boy Hero of the Confederacy". On Nov. 23-25 after Union troops under gen. Hugh Boyle Ewing stage a diversionary raid and destroy the Empire State Iron Works in Dade County, Ga., ending the last Southern attempt to increase their industrial capacity, the Yankees break the rebels' back at the Third Battle of Chattanooga and force their retreat into Ga., knowing that the Glorious White Cause of the South is all-but lost? On Nov. 25 the Battle of Missionary Ridge is a D for the rebels under gen. Braxton Bragg, who are pushed decisively away from Chattanooga with heavy losses, allowing gen. Grant to send gen. Sherman to relieve Knoxville right before Longstreet finally risks an all-out assault on Nov. 29 in the Battle of Knoxville, Tenn., which becomes a big Union V after the barefoot howlin' rebels get bogged down in a ditch in front of the walls, sustaining 800 casualties (129 KIA, 458 wounded and 226 taken POW) out of 4K, vs. only 20 Union casualties, after which gen. Longstreet receives news of Braxton Bragg's D on Missionary Ridge and withdraws to support him on the night of Dec. 4, the original idea of sending him to siege worthless Knoxville and leave all-important Chattanooga to Grant coming home to roost, causing Tenn. to be lost to the rebels, after which the rebels lick their wounds over the winter in NE Tenn. On Dec. 2 checkmated Confed. Gen. what-me-Bragg is replaced by Lt. Gen. William Joseph Hardee (1815-73), whose 1855 textbook on rifle tactics is required reading for both sides, and who scored what they thought was a V at Second Murfreesboro in Dec. 1862, allowing him to successfully challenge his leadership now that everybody knows he's a loser - just wait and I'll show what a hardluck loser I am too? On Dec. 8 Pres. Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, under which any rebel state can form a Union govt. when a number equal to 10% of those who had voted in 1860 take an oath of allegiance to the U.S. Constitution and the Union, and receive a pres. pardon. On Dec. 14 abolitionist U.S. rep. (R-Ohio) (1859-69) James Mitchell Ashley (1824-96) introduces a U.S. Constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, becoming the first since J.Q. Adams in 1839; a similar proposal is soon made by U.S. Rep. (R-Iowa) (1861-8) James Falconer "Jefferson Jim" Wilson (1928-95). In Dec. Union troops occupy abandoned Ft. Myers in SW Fla., using it as a base for raids on local cattle ranches. The Golden Age of Legislation in Finland (ends 1879) begins when the first legislature convenes; Tsar Alexander II agrees to make Finnish the admin. language alongside Swedish within 20 years. Schleswig is incorporated into Denmark, breaking the terms of an internat. treaty, while Saxon and Hanoverian troops enter Holstein; Bismarck sees his big chance to get Prussia into a war with his fellow German state of Austria and make his king an emperor? A constitutionalist movement in Venezuela causes pres. Jose Antonio Paez to resign and flee to the U.S., this time permanently. A revolt of the Colorados (urban merchants based in Montevideo), led by Venancio Flores (1808-68) against the Uruguayan govt., run by the rival Blanco Party (rural ranchers) under Gen. Bernardo Prudencio Berro breaks out, causing Berro to ally with Paraguay, while Argentina and Brazil unite and plan to invade Uruguay in support of the Colorados. Korean king (since 1849) Ch'olchong dies, and the "in-law" period begins, marking a low point in venality and corruption, causing the yangban-dominated society to begin coming unglued. A U.S. tax on whiskey is set at 20 cents a gal.; it rises to $2 in 1865; the U.S. Congress requires cigar boxes to be designed so that excise tax stamps can be pasted on them, which leads to the practice of "cigar box art". The New York Stock and Exchange Board (founded 1817) changes its name to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), AKA the Big Board. Maj. Gen. (youngest ever) James A. Garfield (b. 1831) resigns to serve in the U.S. House of Reps. from Ohio, where he becomes the leading House Repub. (until 1880). Dirty Denver, Colo. suffers a great fire this year, and a flood next year. After pub. the poem Beat! Beat! Drums! at the start of the U.S. Civil War, then rushing from New York City to the front to find his wounded Union soldier brother George in late 1862, then returning to Washington, D.C., Long Island, New York-born poet Walter "Walt" Whitman (1819-92) volunteers as a nurse (wound dresser) in U.S. Army hospitals, and pub. "The Great Army of the Sick" in a New York City newspaper this year, followed in 1875 by Memoranda During the War. John Speke and James Grant descend the Nile to Gondokoro, where they meet Sir Samuel White Baker on his way upriver. French photographer A.F. Nader makes a balloon ascent in Le Geant (The Giant) - the original unsafe at any speed? The British begin systematic recruiting of indentured laborers in Fiji and Queensland, expanding to the major Pacific islands; by 1918 280K islanders and 186K Asians are pressed into service. The Second British-Ashanti (Anglo-Ashanti) War begins when an Ashanti force pursues fugitive Kwesi Gyana over the Pra River boundary, after which the British gov.'s request for troops is denied, causing it to fizzle. The Spanish Overseas Ministry takes over rule of the Philippines from the Council of the Indies. Sir Robert Hart (1835-1911) becomes head of the British Imperial Maritime Customs Service in China (until 1908), building it up to milk China of revenue by improving rivers and harbors and organizing a postal service in 1896. Former U.S. treasury secy. (1845-9) Robert J. Walker becomes a financial agent for the U.S. (until 1864), going on to secure a $250K loan from Germany and assure the Euros of U.S. financial stability. The Jerusalem City Council is set up by the Jewish pop. under Ottoman rule. The first telegraph opens in New Zealand in July between Christchurch and Lyttleton, followed by the first railway, the Main South Line (broad gauge) between Christchurch and Ferrymead on Dec. 1. A pneumatic air tube railway for mail begins operation in London in Feb., sending mail from the NW District Office at Eversholt St. in London to Euston Station. The Union Pacific Railroad is begun in Omaha, Neb. The U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery. Rocky Mountain News founder-ed. William Newton Byers (1831-1903) buys Hot Sulphur Springs in Colo. via a crooked deal with a Minn. Sioux woman with the intention of making it "America's Switzerland", causing the Ute tribe to unsuccessfully sue; meanwhile he and Colo. territorial gov. William Gilipin launch a "The Utes Must Go" campaign; too bad, the railroad doesn't arrive until 1928 after the Moffatt Tunnel is built. Riga, Latvia-born German explorer Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-1925) goes to Africa, exploring Ethiopia and Egypt incl. the Red Sea, the Nile River, and Khartoum (until 1866); in Jan. 1869 the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation sends him on a scientific mission from Khartoum up the White Nile to Bahr-el-Ghazal through the Congo-Nile watershed to Mangbetu (Monbuttu) cannibal country, where he discovers the Uele River on Mar. 19, 1870, which he surmises is independent of the Nile and part of the Chad system, discovering the Aka (Bayaka) (Babenzele) pygmy people before returning to Khartoum in July 1871, becoming the first white Euro to prove the existence of African pygmies. The Stockholm Stock Exchange in Sweden is founded. The Indonesian tobacco industry is founded in Sumatra by Dutch businessman Jacobus Nienhuys. The Travelers Insurance Co. is founded in Hartford, Conn. Harriet Beecher Stowe meets ex-slave anti-slavery crusader Sojourner Truth, and calls her the "Libyan Sibyl". The first newspaper is pub. in Afghanistan. Adelphi U. is founded as Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn, N.Y., receiving a charter from the city in 1869 and the state on June 24, 1896; in 1921 it becomes a women's college; in 1946 it goes coed to admit male students on the GI Bill; in 1963 it becomes a univ. Blood is thicker than water? Romeo "The Wonderful" Seligmann, the first prof. of medical history at the U. of Vienna secretly receives the bones of Ludwig van Beethoven after the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna exhumes them in order to understand his genius; he is allowed to keep them, and leaves them to his art critic son Albert Seligmann (-1945), who hides them from the Nazis during WWII, then leaves them to his cousin Ada Rosenthal Kaufmann (-1990) and her children Alma Kaufmann and Thomas Desmines (1993-) in France; Alma's son Paul Kaufmann (1936-) and his wife Joan find them in a French bank vault and put them in a bank in Danville, Calif.; in 1999 Denver, Colo. journalist Russell Martin tracks them down and gets them donated to the Beethoven Center. Roman Catholic Boston College, founded by the Jesuits in South End, Boston, Mass. is chartered on Mar. 31 by the Mass. legislature, becomng the 2nd Jesuit higher ed. inst. in Mass. and the first in the Boston area;; in 1913 it moves to Chestnut Hill 6 mi. W of Boston. U.S. Protestants found Robert College in Bebek, Istanbul (Constantinople) between the two bridges over the Bosphorus Strait; it becomes Bogazici U. in 1971; alumni incl. Nobel Prize winner Orhan Pamuk. The U. of Mass. in Amherst, Mass. is founded as Mass. Agricultural College. Private Roman Catholic La Salle U. (Fr. "the room") in Philadelphia, Penn. is founded by the Christian Brothers teaching order. Johannes Brahms begins conducting the Singakademie in Vienna (founded 1858) (until 1864). Le Petit Journal (The Little Newspaper) is founded in Paris by Moise (Moses) Polydore Millaud (1813-1) (until 1944), reaching 1M circ. in the 1890s and becoming France's #1 newspaper. May I or Might I (Manet or Meissonier)? The scandalous Salon des Refuses (Réfusés) (Exhibition of Rejects), created by Napoleon III after artist protests opens in Paris, featuring the work of 31-y.-o. bohemian dandy Edouard Manet (1832-83), whose rude brush strokes and vulgar subject matter are ridiculed as caricature rather than fine art by Jean Louis Ernest Meisonier (1815-91), king of the French painting establishment, along with academic painters Alexandre Cabanel (1823-89) and William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), launching a pissing contest with the emerging Impressionists, incl. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Claude Monet (1840-1926) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Paul Newman (1925-2008)?), Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), and Alfred Sisley (1839-99). Anton Huepfel founds the Hupfel Brewery in Bronx, N.Y. on St. Anne's Ave. between E. 158th and E. 160th St., with vaults extending into the Eagle Ave. hillside; In 1908 it merges with Krueger Brewery and Peter Hauck Brewery to form the United States Brewing Co.; too bad, it survives Prohibition by becoming a mushroom farm, and goes out of biz as a brewery. Sports: On May 5 Joe Coburn wins the U.S. boxing title from Mike McCoole in a 63-round match in Charleston, Md. On May 31 the 1.5-mi. Grand Prix de Paris horse race is first run in Longchamp, France. On Aug. 3 Saratoga Race Course in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. opens for horseracing, becoming the oldest organized sporting venue in the U.S. by modern times. The Football Assoc. for soccer is founded in London, England. Architecture: The 113m brick Mole Antonelliana ("Italy's Eiffel Tower") Jewish synagogue in Turin, Italy, designed by Alessandro Antonelli (1798-1888) is begun (finished 1878); it ends up as the tallest brick bldg. and tallest museum in the world. 400-acre Woodlawn Cemetery in Bronx, N.Y. opens, becoming the cemetery of choice of Am. artists, eventually housing 300K. Inventions: Ebenezer Butterick (1826-1903) of Sterling, Mass. and his wife Ellen (the one who should have received the credit?) develop the first Tissue Paper Dress Patterns, revolutionizing the home sewing industry. Commercial Dry Farming begins in Utah around Bear River City. The Martin Brothers of France develop an open-hearth steel furnace based on the Siemens Process. Corsican-born Italian chemist Angelo (Ange-Francois) Mariani (1838-1914) develops Vin Mariani, containing Bordeaux wine and cocaine, which becomes a hit with Queen Victoria, Pope Pius X, Thomas Edison, and Pope Leo XIII, who awards it a Vatican gold medal; in 1865 after being wounded in the Battle of Columbus, Ga. in Apr. 1865, Atlanta, Ga. pharmacist John Styth (Stith) Pemberton (1831-81) creates his own version also containing damiana (alleged impotence cure) and kola nut (source of caffeine) called Pemberton's French Wine Coca, which is reformulated in 1885 to take out the alcohol but not the cocaine or caffeine, becoming "the pause that refreshes" Coca-Cola. Roller Skating is introduced in the U.S. after Mass. businessman James L. Plimpton invents the "rocking" skate, which can turn. German chemist Julius Bernhard Friedrich Adolph Wilbrand (1839-1906) invents TNT (Trinitrotoluene) as a yellow dye; it takes until ? to use it as an explosive; the German army begins using it for artillery shells in 1902, followed by the British in 1907. Science: Scottish chemist Thomas Graham (1805-69) invents a process for separating gases by atmolysis based on Graham's Law of Gas Diffusion (Effusion). Cato Maximilian Guldberg (1836-1902) and Peter Waage (1833-1900) of Norway first describe chemical equilibrium as a dynamic condition where the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal. English chemist John Alexander Reina Newlands (1837-98) (who just returned from fighting for Giuseppe Garibaldi in Italy) pub. the first Periodic Table of the Elements arranged in order of relative atomic masses, leaving open the possibly of undiscovered elements, and predicting the existence of germanium, scooping Dmitri Mendeleyev of Russia, although he is ridiculed. French archeologist Jules (Julius) Oppert (1825-1905) becomes the first to advance the theory that cuneiform signs were originally pictographs, which takes until 1913 to be accepted. German chemists Ferdinand Reich (1799-1882) and Hieonymus Theodor Richter (1824-98) discover the metallic element Indium (In) (#49) using spectroscopy - rich rectal spectroscopy? Henry Clifton Sorby (1826-1908) of Sheffield, England discovers the microstructure of steel, founding the science of Metallurgy. Nonfiction: Anon., The Statesman's Year-Book (Yearbook) (debut); annual almanac pub. in Britain (until ?). Albert Billroth, Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Happy Thoughts (1863-4); originally pub. in "Punch". Samuel Butler (1835-1902), Darwin Among the Machines (June 13); pub. under the alias Cellarius in the New Zealand Press; prophesies that machines will eventually evolve past humans, and "In the course of ages we shall find ourselves the inferior race". John William Draper (1811-82), History of the Intellectual Development of Europe. Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), L'Esclavage Chez les Musulmans et aux Etats-Unis de L'Amerique. Henry Fawcett (1833-84), Manual of Political Economy. Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), Meteorographica, or Methods of Mapping the Weather; invents the weather map. S.R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-1642 (1863-82). Archibald Geike, On the Phenomena of the Glacial Drift in Scotland; first scientific description of Scottish glacial action. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, The Doctrine of the Sensations of Tone; founds the field of acoustics, noting that the tonal quality of a musical sound is created by the harmonics (overtones). Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95), Zoological Evidences as to Man's Place in Nature. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), Selbstvertheidigung (posth.). William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold. Fanny Kemble (1809-93), Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839; "Knowing what I know, and having seen what I have seen, to do all that lies in my power to show the dangers and the evils of this frightful institution." A.W. Kinglake, The Invasion of the Crimea (1863-87). Edouard Rene Lefevre de Laboulaye (1811-83), Paris en Amerique. Edward William Lane (1801-76), Arabic-English Lexicon and Thesaurus (5 vols.) (1863-74); after his death his grandnephew Stanley Lane-Pool pub. vols. 6-8 (1877-92). Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), The Antiquity of Man (Nature, Oct. 2) - as the cerebral apes exterminate each other in America, Darwin's theory of the origin of species needs more support? John Stuart Mill (1806-73), Utilitarianism. Carl Julius Ploetz (1819-81), An Epitome of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern History (Auszug aus der Alten, Mittleren und Neueren Geschichte), a dictionary of time with parallel synchronized columns on various topics, which is a big hit, reaching a 3rd ed. by 1869; in 1883 an English trans. by William H. Tillinghast and expanded by Harvard U. history prof. Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931) is pub.; in 1915 it becomes A Handbook of Universal History; in 1925 it becomes A Manual of Universal History, revised by Auburn, N.Y.-born historian Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968) (prof. at Columbia U. in 1918-29); in 1940-72 it becomes An Encyclopedia of World History Ancient, Medieval and Modern, Chronologically Arranged, rewritten and ed. by Harvard U. history prof. William Leonard Langer (1896-1977) (eds. #1-5), after which in 1991 it is taken over by 30+ historians led by Carnegie Mellon U. history prof. Peter N. Stearns (1936-), who changes "An" to "The" in the 2001 (6th) ed.; meanwhile the German version is improved independently after getting adopted in 1935 by Ploetz Verlag Herder in Freiburg, reaching 2K pages by 2008. Jules Regnault (1834-94), Calcul des Chances et Philosophie de la Bourse; first modern theory of stock price changes, using a random walk model. Ernest Renan (1823-92), The Life of Jesus (Vie de Jesus); vol. 1 of the 8-vol. "Histoire des Origines du Christianisme" (1863-81); pisses-off the Roman Catholic Church for treating the life of Jesus like any other man and subjecting the Bible to critical scrutiny, becoming a big hit with Rationalists; the fact that he has Celtic roots in Brittany makes it just too cool? Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), The Poll Degree from a Third Point of View (first book). Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823-1901), A History of Christian Names. Music: Hector Berlioz (1803-69), Les Troyens (opera) (Paris); the Trojan Horse. Georges Bizet (1838-75), The Pearl Fishers (Les Pecheurs de Perles) (opera). William Johnson Cory (1823-92) (lyrics) and Capt. Algernon Drummond (music), Eaton Boating Song (June 4); theme song for the wealthy British elite, with a tendency toward pederasty; "Rugby may be more clever,/ Harrow may make more row,/ But we'll row for ever,/ Steady from stroke to bow"; "Swing swing together/ With your bodies between your knees." Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (1829-92), When Johnny Comes Marching Home (Again) (Sept.) (Boston, Mass.); pub. under alias Louis Lambert; about his brother-in-law Union Capt. John O'Rourke, whose sister Annie Gilmore longs for his return from the U.S. Civil War. Johann Strauss II (1825-99), Morgenblatter (Morgenblätter) Waltz, Op. 279. Art: Alexandre Cabanel (1823-89), The Birth of Venus; purchased by Napoleon III. Charles-Francois Daubigny (1817-78), Vintage. Gustave Dore (1832-83), Don Quichotte (illustrations). Thomas Hicks, Edwin Booth as Iago; Edwin Booth is the only actor in the Am. Hall of Fame? Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-65), Riverdale; Andrew Wyeth's 2nd favorite Am. painting of all time. Edouard Manet (1832-83), Le Dejeunere sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass); a woodland picnic with dressed men sitting around with a nude female; exhibited in the Salon des Refuses. Clarke Mills (1815-83), Statue of Freedom; erected over the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Martin Milmore (1844-83), Phosphor (sculpture). Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82), Helen of Troy. Frederick Sandys (1829-1904), Vivien. Simeon Solomon (1840-1905), Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego. Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Flotte Burschen (operetta) (Kai-Theatre, Vienna) (Apr. 18). James Abbott McNeill Whitler (1834-1903), Little White Girl; a white girl in a white dress standing on a white rug in front of a white drapery - talk about pandering to his market? Plays: Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), The Deal Boatman; Man at the Wheel. Octave Feuillet (1821-90), Montjoie. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), The Pretenders. Poetry: Henry Wadworth Longfellow (1807-82), Tales of a Wayside Inn; the Wayside Inn in Sudbury (20 mi. from Cambridge), Mass., a favorite hangout of Harvard College students. Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Philomela (debut). Joseph Victor von Scheffel (1826-86), Frau Adventure: Lieder aus Heinrich von Ofterdingens Zeit. John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92), Barbara Frietchie; patriotic Am. poem; John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92), In War Time. Novels: Edmond About (1828-85), Madelon. Jules Amedee Barbey d'Aurevilly (1808-89), Le Chavalier Des Touches. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), Aurora Floyd; Eleanor's Victory. Nikolai Chernyshevsky (1828-89), What Is to Be Done?; written in Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg as a response to Ivan Turgenev's "Fathers and Sons" (1862), expounding the way a true revolutionary should act through the character of Rakhmetov, a totally-dedicated disciplined ascetic, who sleeps on a bed of nails and eats raw stak, becoming a Soviet Union classic after Lenin becomes a fan; pisses-off Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who writes "Notes from the Underground" (1864) in reaction; too bad, Chernyshevsky goes from bad to worse, receiving a mock execution in 1862, penal servitude in 1864-72, and exile to Vilyuisk, Siberia in 1872-83. George Eliot (1819-80), Romola; about Savonarola; she visited Florence to write it; first pub. serially in Cornhill Mag.. Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-65), Sylvia's Lovers. Theophile Gautier (1811-72), Le Capitaine Fracasse. Edward Everett Hale (1822-1909), The Man Without a Country; inspired by a Northerner whose Southern sympathies got him exiled to Canada; strengthens the Union cause in the North. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64), Our Old Home: A Series of English Sketches; his last work pub. during his lifetime, completed in the Tower of the Wayside after his return from Europe; dedicated to ex-pres. Franklin Pierce. Charles Kingsley (1819-75), The Water Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby; children's book supporting Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species", becoming a big hit in England for decades, after which its prejudices against Irish, Jews, Americans, and the poor cause it to fall out of favor; young chimney sweep Tom and upper class girl Ellie, who drowns and is transformed into a you know what. Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee) (1839-1908), Held in Bondage. Charles Reade (1814-84), Hard Cash; expose of insane asylums. Joseph Roumanille (1818-91), Lou Mege de Cucugnan. George Sand (1804-76), Mademoiselle La Quintinie. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), The Cossacks (Young Manhood); autbio. novel based on his experience in the Caucasian War of 1817-64, about young nobleman Dmitri Olenin, who ditches aristocratic society to move in with the Cossacks, and falls in love with Maryanka despite having fiance Lukashka. Jules Verne (1828-1905), Five Weeks in a Balloon; Or, Journeys and Discoveries in Africa by Three Englishmen (first novel); gives up law training and a job as stock broker to write "voyages extraordinares" - whites see darkest Africa from the air, wishing the gulf were permanent and it remains a nature preserve? Births: Polish physiologist (Jewish) Adolf Beck (d. 1942) on Jan. 1 in Cracow. Austrian minister-pres. (1916-17) Count Heinrich Clam-Martinic (d. 1932) on Jan. 1 in Vienna. French Internat. Olympic Committee founder (1894) Pierre Fredy (Frédy), Baron de Coubertin (d. 1937) on Jan. 1 in Paris. Indian guru Swami Vivekananda (Narendra Nath Datta) (d. 1902) on Jan. 12 in Calcutta; disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhamsa (1836-86). Portuguese pres. #10 (1926) Gen. Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (d. 1929) on Jan. 14 in Lisbon. English Bible scholar Sir Frederic George Kenyon (d. 1952) on Jan. 15 in London; educated at Magdalene College, Oxford U.; father of Margaret Kenyon (1906-78); knighted in 1912. British (Welsh) Liberal PM (1916- 22) David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor (d. 1945) on Jan. 17 in Manchester; grows up in Wales and learns Welsh before English; fights for the common man against the "Dukes". Russian actor-dir.-producer and acting teacher Konstantin (Constantin) Sergeyevich Stanislavsky (Alexeiev) (d. 1938) on Jan. 17 (Jan. 5 Old Style) in Moscow - first movie director ever born? Russian "The Iron Flood" novelist Alexander Serafimovich Popov (d. 1949) on Jan. 19 (Jan. 7 Old Style) in Tsimlyansky, Rostov Oblast. German Youngest Historical School sociologist-economist Werner Sombart (d. 1941) on Jan. 19 in Ermsleben, Harz; educated at the U. of Berlin; coiner of the term "creative destruction". English "Prisoner of Zenda" novelist Anthony Hope (Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins) (d. 1933) on Feb. 9 in London; educated at Marlborough College, St. John's School, Leatherhead and Balliol College, Oxford U.; knighted for propaganda efforts in WWI. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass) () (mayor #38, #40 of Boston in 1906-8, 1910-14) John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald (d. 1950) on Feb. 11 in Boston, Mass.; son of Irish immigrants Thomas Fitzgerald and Rosanna Cox; nicknamed for the way he sings "Sweet Adeline"; father of Rose Kennedy (1890-1995), mother of U.S. pres. John F. Kennedy (1917-63). Am. "The Colonial Period of American History" Imperial historian ("Dean of American Colonial Historians") Charles McLean Andrews (d. 1943) on Feb. 22 in Wethersfield, Conn.; educated at Trinity College, and Johns Hopkins U.; student of Herbert Baxter Adams (1850-1901); teacher of Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880-1971). Spanish painter Joaquin (Joaquín) Sorolla y Bastida (d. 1923) on Feb. 27 in Valencia; known for painting blinding shafts of light. Chinese Methodist missionary (in Shanghai) Charles Jones "Charlie" Soong (Han Jiaozhun or Chiao-Shun) (d. 1918) in Feb. in Wenchang, Hainan Island; of Hakka descent; husband of Nyi Kwei Twang; father of Ailing Soong (1888-1973), Chingling Soong (1893-1981) (Madame Sun Yat-sen), Mayling Soong (1897-2003) (Madame Chiang Kai-shek), Tse Liang Soong (1899-1983), and Tse An Soong (1907-69); emigrates to the U.S. in 1878-86; educated at Duke U., and Vanderbilt U.; friend of Sun Yat-sen. Russian "The Petty Demon" Symbolist poet-novelist-playwright Fyodor Sologub (Fyodor Kuzmich Teternikov) (d. 1927) on Mar. 1 (Feb. 17 Old Style) in St. Petersburg. Italian novelist-poet-playwright Gabriel D'Annunzio (d. 1938) on Mar. 12 in Pescara. Russian "Noosphere" geochemist-mineralogist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (d. 1945) on Mar. 12 in St. Petersburg. Am. railroad engineer-hero John Luther "Casey" Jones (d. 1900) on Mar. 14 in SE Mo. (Cayce, Ky.?). English "The Beloved Vagabond" novelist-playwright William John Locke (d. 1930) on Mar. 20 in Demerara, Guyana; educated at Cambridge U. English Theosophist writer-historian G.R.S. (George Robert Stowe) Mead (d. 1933) on Mar. 22 in Peckham, Surrey; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U. English Rolls-Royce co-founder Sir Frederick Henry Royce, 1st Baronet (d. 1933) on Mar. 27 in Alwalton, Huntingdonshire; collaborator of Charles Stewart Rolls (1877-1910). French PM #75 (1911-12) Joseph Marie Auguste Caillaux (d. 1944) on Mar. 30. Indian statesman Satyendra Prasanno, 1st Baron Sinha (d. 1928) in Mar. in Raipur, Calcutta. Belgian Art Nouveau painter Henry Clemens van de Velde (d. 1957) on Apr. 3 in Antwerp. Irish "The Blue Lagoon" novelist Henry De Vere Stacpoole (d. 1951) (AKA Tyler De Saix) on Apr. 9 in Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire). French metallurgist (inventor of the electric steel furnace) Paul Louis Toussaint Heroult (Héroult) (d. 1914) on Apr. 10 in Normandy. Austro-Hungarian statesman Count Leopold Anton Johann Sigismund Josef Korsinus Ferdinand von Berchtold (d. 1942) on Apr. 18 in Vienna; one of Austria-Hungary's richest men; signer of the 1914 ultimatum to Serbia that starts WWI. German Naturalist poet-dramatist Arno Holz (d. 1929) on Apr. 26 in Rastenberg, East Prussia. Am. newspaper mogul William Randolph Hearst (d. 1951) on Apr. 29 in San Francisco, Calif.; model for the 1941 Orson Welles film "Citizen Kane". Austrian archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria (d. 1963) on May 21 in Zidlochovice Castle (near Brno), Moravia; son of archduke Karl Ferdinand (1818-74) and Elisabeth Franziska; grandson of archduke Charles, duke of Teschen (1771-1847); last Hapsburg grandmaster of the Teutonic Order (1894-1923); only Austrian archduke to graduate from Wiener Neustadt military academy. English 5'11-1/2" world middleweight boxing champ (1891-3), world heavyweight boxing champ (1897-9), and world light heavyweight boxing champ (1903) ("Ruby Robert") ("the Freckled Wonder") ("the Cornishman") Bob Fitzsimmons (Robert Prometheus) (d. 1917) on May 26 in Helston, Cornwall. Am. liberal Christian Social Gospel theologian Shailer Mathews (d. 1941) on May 26 in Portland, Maine; educated at Colby College. English explorer and spiritual writer Sir Francis Edward Younghusband (d. 1942) on May 31 in Muree, India (Pakistan). German-Am. industrial psychologist (Jewish) Hugo Munsterberg (Münsterberg) (d. 1916) on June 1 in Danzig; educated at the U. of Leipzig, and the U. of Heidelberg. Austrian composer-conductor-pianist Paul Felix von Weingartner von Munzberg (Münzberg) (d. 1942) on June 2 in Zara, Dalmatia (Zadar, Croatia); grows up in Graz; teacher of Paul Sacher. English singer-comic Leo Dryden (George Dryden Wheeler Sr.) (d. 1939) on June 6 in London; father (illegitimate) of George Dryden Wheeler (1892-1957), half-brother of Charlie Chaplin; grandfather of Spencer Dryden (1938-2005). British Adm. Sir Arthur Henry Limpus (d. 1931) on June 7 in St. Neots, Huntingdonshire. German Raschig Phenol Process chemist-politician Friedrich August "Fritz" Raschig (d. 1928) on June 8 in Brandenburg an der Havel; educated at the U. of Berlin. Dutch "Noodlot" novelist (gay?) Louis Marie-Anne Couperus (d. 1923) on June 10 in The Hague. Dutch auxin botanist Friedrich August Ferdinand Christian Went (d. 1935) on June 18 in Amsterdam; father of Frits Warmolt Went (1903-90). Am. theater producer-actor William Aloysius Brady (d. 1950) on June 19 in San Francisco, Calif.; grows up in New York City; father of Alice Brady (1892-1939); his 2nd wife is actress Grace George; manager of boxers James J. Jeffries and James J. Corbett. German astronomer Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (d. 1932) on June 21 in Heidelberg; educated at the U. of Heidelberg; discoverer of 200+ planetoids. German diplomat Gottlieb von Jagow (d. 1935) on June 22 in Berlin; educated at the U. of Bonn. Am. historian (dir. #1 of the New School for Social Research) James Harvey Robinson (d. 1936) on June 29 in Bloomington, Ill.; educated at Harvard U., U. of Strasbourg, and U. of Freiburg; friend of Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948). Am. hall-of-fame baseball player-mgr. Wilbert "Uncle Robbie" Robinson (d. 1934) on June 29 in Hudson, Mass. British Liberal politician Reginald McKenna (d. 1943) on July 6 in Kensington, Ldonon; educated at King's College School, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge U. French BCG Vaccine physician-bacteriologist Leon Charles Albert Calmette (d. 1933) on July 12 in Nice; brother of Gaston Calmette (1858-1914). Am. feminist educator (lesbian) Mary Emma Woolley (d. 1947) on July 13 in South Norwalk, Conn.; first woman to receive a degree from Brown U.; pres. of Mount Holyoke College (1900-37). Austrian writer-critic-playwright Hermann Bahr (d. 1934) on July 19 in Linz. English cricketer-actor Sir Charles Aubrey (C. Aubrey) Smith (d. 1948) on July 21 in London; educated at Charterhouse School, and St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1944. Am. baseball player, NL pres. (1914-18), and Repub. Penn. gov. (1911-15) John Kinley Tener (d. 1946) on July 25 in County Tyrone, Ireland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1872; first U.S. state gov. not born in the U.S. since the Am. Rev. War. Russian-Latvian-German Walden Inversion stereochemist Paul Walden (d. 1957) on July 26 in Rozulas, Russia (Pipeni, Latvia). Am. automobile pioneer Henry Ford (d. 1947) on July 30 near Greenfield, Mich. (W of Detroit); born on a farm; Irish father William Ford (1826-1905), 2nd gen. Belgian mother Mary Litogot Ford (1839-76); brother of Margaret Ford (1867-?), Jane Ford (1868-1945), William Ford (1871-1917), and Robert Ford (1873-1934). French Radical PM #79, #109 (1913-4, 1934-5) and pres. #13 (1924-31) (Protestant) Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (d. 1937) on Aug. 1 in Aigues-Vives; goes conservative in his old age. Hungarian "Eclipse of the Crescent Moon", "Slave of the Huns" historical novelist-journalist Geza Gardonyi (Géza Gárdonyi) (Ziegler) (d. 1922) on Aug. 3 in Agardpuszta. Am. Thomas Theorem sociologist William Isaac Thomas (d. 1947) on Aug. 13 in Russell County, Va.; educated at the U. of Tenn. French composer-conductor-organist Henri Constant Gabriel Pierne (Pierné) (d. 1937) on Aug. 16 in Metz. Am. "The Song of the Cardinal", "At the Foot of the Rainbow" novelist-naturalist Gene Stratton-Porter (Geneva Grace Stratton) (d. 1924) on Aug. 17 in Wabash County, Ind. French philosopher (Jewish) (Zionist) Victor Guillaume Basch (Basch Viktor Vilém) (d. 1944) on Aug. 18 in Budapest, Hungary. German "The Lady of the Camelias" actress Adele Sandrock (Feldern-Forster) (d. 1937) on Aug. 19 in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Russian photographer-chemist Sergey (Sergei) Mikhaylovich Prokudin-Gorsky (d. 1944) on Aug. 30 (Aug. 18 Old Style) in Funikova Gora, Vladimir. British "Modern Naval Strategy" Adm. ("cleverest officer in the Navy" - Adm. Sir Jacky Fisher) Sir Reginald Hugh Spencer Bacon (d. 1947) on Sept. 6 in Wiggonholt, West Sussex. English "The Monkey's Paw", "The Toll House" novelist William Wymark "W.W." Jacobs (d. 1943) on Sept. 8 in Wapping, London; educated at Birbeck College. British Labour leader and statesman Arthur Henderson (d. 1935) on Sept. 13 in Glasgow, Scotland; starts out as an ironmolder apprentice in Newcastle. German WWI Adm. Franz Ritter von Hipper (d. 1932) on Sept. 13 in Weilheim in Oberbayen, Bavaria; cmdr. of the German battlecruisers in the 1916 Battle of Jutland. Am. composer-organist-educator Horatio William Parker (d. 1919) on Sept. 15 in Auburndale, Mass.; dean of Yale Music School (1904-19). Am. silent film comic actor ("the Man Who Makes More than the President") John Bunny (d. 1915) on Sept. 21 in New York City. Am. civil rights leader (black) Mary Church Terrell (d. 1954) on Sept. 23 in Memphis, Tenn.; father is former slave who becomes a real estate millionaire; educated at Oberlin College. German Socialist pacifist leader (Jewish) Hugo Haase (d. 1919) on Sept. 29 in Allenstein (Olsztyn), Prussia. German WWI Adm. (CIC of German fleet in 1916-18) Reinhardt (Reinhard) Scheer (d. 1928) on Sept. 30 in Obernkirchen, Hanover. Am. industrialist (Bush family patriarch) Samuel Prescott Bush (d. 1948) on Oct. 4 in Orange, N.J.; husband of Flora Sheldon; father of Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-1972); grandfather of Pres. George H.W. Bush (1924-). German Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt (d. 1938) on Oct. 5 in Berlin. Am. biographer ("Dean of Am. Biographers") Gamaliel Bradford (d. 1932) on Oct. 9 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; pioneer of the psychographic style of biographies. French opera composer Xavier Henry Napoleon Leroux (d. 1919) on Oct. 11 in Velletri, Italy. English statesman ("the Empire Builder") Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain (d. 1937) on Oct. 16; son of Liberal Birmingham mayor Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914); half-brother of Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940); educated at Rugby School, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Scottish engineer (TV pioneer) Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton (d. 1930) on Oct. 18 in Edinburgh; educated at Fettes College. English Young's Theorem mathematician William Henry Young (d. 1942) on Oct. 20 in London; educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge U. Italian Palace de Bellas Artes architect (in Mexico) Adamo Boari (d. 1928) on Oct. 22 in Marrara (Ferrara); educated at the U. of Ferrara, and U. of Bologna. Am. pianist and Berkshire Music Festival patron Elizabeth Sprague "Liz" Coolidge (Elizabeth Penn Sprague) (d. 1953) on Oct. 30 in Chicago, Ill. U.S. treasury secy. #46 (1913-18) William Gibbs McAdoo Jr. (d. 1941) on Oct. 31 near Marietta, Ga.; chmn. #1 of the Federal Reserve Board (1914); educated at the U. of Tenn. English "A Child of the Jago" detective novelist Arthur George Morrison (d. 1945) on Nov. 1 in East End, London. French "Port Saint-Tropez" Neo-Impressionist Pointillist anarchist painter Paul Victor Jules Signac (d. 1935) on Nov. 1 in Paris; disciple of Georges Seurat. German experimental physiologist Max Verworn Richard Constantin (d. 1921) on Nov. 4 in Berlin. French PM #81 (1914-15) Jean Raphael Adrien Rene (René) Viviani (d. 1925) on Nov. 8 in Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria. Am. Armour & Co. pres. Jonathan Ogden Armour (d. 1927) on Nov. 11 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; son of Philip Danforth Armour (1832-1901); educated at Yale U. Am. mountain climber Hudson Stuck (d. 1920) on Nov. 11 in Paddington, London, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1885; educated at King's College London, and U. of the South; becomes archdeacon of the Yukon and the Arctic in 1904. Am. chemist Leo Hendrik (Henricus Arthur) Baekeland (d. 1944) on Nov. 14 in Sint-Martens-Latem (near Ghent), Belgium; educated at the U. of Ghent; emigrates to the U.S. in 1889; inventor of Velox photographic paper, and Bakelite (made from phenol and formaldehyde), the first manmade plastic, the first true synthetic, the key material in the automobile self-starter. German "Weib und Welt" lyric poet Richard Fedor Leopold Dehmel (d. 1920) on Nov. 18 in Wendisch-Hermsdorf, Brandenburg; educated at the U. of Berlin. English (Cornish) novelist-critic Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch (AKA Q) (d. 1944) (pr. KOOCH) on Nov. 21 in Bodmin, Cornwall; educated at Trinity College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1910; prof. of English lit. at Cambridge U. (1912-). French Socialist mathematician and PM #84, #92 (1917, 1925) Paul Painleve (Painlevé) (d. 1933) on Dec. 5 in Paris; educated at the Ecole Normale Superieure. Italian "Cavalleria Rusticana" Versimo operatic composer Pietro Mascagni (d. 1945) on Dec. 7 in Livorno, Tuscany. Am. Sears, Roebuck & Co. co-founder Richard Warren Sears (d. 1914) on Dec. 7 in Stewartville, Minn.; of English descent; grows up in Spring Valley, Minn., where he becomes a friend of Laura Ingalls Wilder's future husband Almanzo Wilder; partner of Alvah Curtis Roebuck (1864-1948). Norwegian "The Scream" Symbolist painter Edvard Munch (d. 1944) (pr. MOONK) on Dec. 12 in Adalsbruk, Loten; loses his mother at age five, and his father, sister and brother during adolescence, and is given electroshock therapy - to which he owes all his talent? Am. architect-historian (Episcopalian) Ralph Adams Cram (d. 1942) on Dec. 16 in Hampton Falls, N.H.; educated at Princeton U.; known for designing Gothic campus bldgs. Spanish-Am. "The Sense of Beauty", "The Life of Reason" philosopher-poet George Santayana (Jorge Agustin Nicolas Ruiz de Santayana y Borras) (d. 1952) on Dec. 16 in Madrid; student of William James; spends 39 years in the U.S. Austrian archduke (heir presumptive from 1896) Franz Ferdinand (d. 1914) on Dec. 18 in Graz; eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig (1833-96) (younger brother of Emperor Franz Josef and Maximilian I) and 2nd wife Maria Annunciata of the Two Sicilies (1843-71); husband (1900-) of Duchess Sophie (1868-1914); loves to hunt and travel, and shoots more than 5K deer before he is shot. French film pioneer Charles Pathe (Pathé) (d. 1957) on Dec. 26 in Chevrey-Cossigny, Seine-et-Marne. Albanian PM #3 (1914-6) Essad Pasha Toptani (d. 1920) in Tirana. Hungarian "Hofeherke" novelist-playwright Sandor Brody (d. 1924) in Eger. Am. "Buster Brown", "Yellow Kid" cartoonist Richard Felton Outcault (d. 1928) in Lancaster, Ohio. Am. automobile manufacturer James Ward Packard (d. 1928) in Warren, Ohio. Egyptian PM (1914-9) Hussein (Husayn) Rushdi Pasha (d. 1928). Am. "The Americanization of Edward Bok" editor-writer Edward William Bok (d. 1930) in Den Helder, Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. at age 6; ed. of "Ladies' Home Journal" (1889-1919); coiner of the term "living room" to replace parlor or drawing room. Am. "Little Book of Bores" writer-artist ("the American Oscar Wilde") Oliver Herford (d. 1935) in Britain; brother of Beatrice Herford (1868-1952). Am. Orientalist (Calvinist) Duncan Black MacDonald (d. 1943). Am. "A History of Science", "The Historians' History of the World" physician-atty.-writer Henry Smith Williams (d. 1943). French painter Lucien Pissarro (d. 1944) in Paris; eldest son of Camille Pissarro (1830-1903); becomes British citizen in 1916. Am. pathologist Simon Flexner (d. 1946); brother of educator Abraham Flexner (1866-1959). English silicone chemist Frederick Stanley Kipping (d. 1949) near Manchester; educated at Munich U. Deaths: Am. clergyman Lyman Beecher (b. 1775); father of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher - both of his kids did good? Am. "'Twas the Night Before Christmas" poet-educator Clement Clarke Moore (b. 1779) on July 10. British statesman Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd marquess of Lansdowne (b. 1780) on Jan. 31 in Derry Hill, Wiltshire. English novelist Frances Trollope (b. 1780) on Oct. 6 in Florence Italy.; pub. 100+ books, the first in her 30s. Am. political leader John Branch (b. 1782) on Jan. 3. German "older of the Brothers Grimm" folklorist-philologist Jacob Grimm (b. 1785) on Sept. 20 in Berlin. Italian astronomer Giovanni Battita Amici (b. 1786) on Apr. 10 in Florence. Am. politician John J. Crittenden (b. 1786) on July 26 in Frankfort, Ky. Austrian "Silent Night" lyricist Franz Xaver Gruber (b. 1787) on June 7. British theologian and archbishop of Dublin Richard Whately (b. 1787): "Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not an honest man." British field marshal Sir Colin Campbell, Baron Clyde (b. 1792) on Aug. 24. Am. politician Roger Sherman Baldwin (b. 1793) on Feb. 19 in New Haven, Conn. Am. Va.-born Texas gov. Sam Houston (b. 1793) on July 26 in Huntsville, Tex.; last words: "Texas! Texas! Margaret!"; specifies in his will that his sons are to be taught to keep away from novels and other "light reading". Afghani emir (1826-63) Dost Mohammad Khan (b. 1793) on June 9 in Herat. German chemist Eilhard Mitscherlich (b. 1793) on Aug. 28 in Schadenberg. Am. Biblical archeologist Edward Robinson (b. 1794) on Jan. 27 in New York City. Swiss mathematician Jakob Steiner (b. 1796) on Apr. 1. French writer Alfred Victor, Comte de Vigny (b. 1797) on Sept. 17 in Paris (stomach cancer). French Romantic painter Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (b. 1798) on Aug. 13 in Paris; leaves 800 oils and 1.6K watercolors, pastels, and etchings; "The last of the great artists of the Renaissance, and the first modern." (Charles Pierre Baudelaire) Welsh poet Eben Fardd (b. 1802). English gen. Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet (b. 1803) on Mar. 11. Am. rear adm. Andrew Hull Foote (b. 1806) on June 26 in New York City; dies en route to his new command of the South Atlantic Blocking Squadron, shocking the nation. U.S. First Lady (1853-7) Jane Means Appleton Pierce (b. 1806) on Dec. 2 in Andover, Mass. (TB); wife of Pres. Franklin Pierce. Danish king (1848-63) Frederick VII (b. 1808) on Nov. 15 in Glucksburg. Am. writer Solomon Northup (b. 1808). Austrian brewer Anton Dreher (b. 1810) on Dec. 2 in Schwechat (near Vienna). Norwegian historian Peter Andreas Munch (b. 1810). English palace-burning diplomat James Bruce, 8th earl of Elgin (b. 1811) on Nov. 20. English Vanity Fair" novelist William Makepeace Thackeray (b. 1811): "Next to excellence is the appreciation of it." Mexican pres. (1855-8) Ignacio Comonfort (b. 1812) on Nov. 3 (KIA). German poet-dramatist Friedrich Hebbel (b. 1813) on Dec. 13. English naval Lt. Henry Gordon Veitch (b. 1814). Am. Southern secessionist leader William Lowndes Yancey (b. 1814). English painter Augustus Leopold Egg (b. 1816) on Mar. 26 in Algiers. Am. Confed. Gen. Lewis Armistead (b. 1817) on July 5 in Gettysburg, Penn. (KIA in Pickett's Charge). Am. Confed. Gen. William Barksdale (b. 1821) on July 3 in Gettysburg, Penn. KIA). Am. Confed. Gen. Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (b. 1824) on May 10 (age 39) in Guiney's Station, Va. (complications resulting from wounds received from his own troops). Madagascar king (1861-3) Radama II (b. 1829) on May 12 in Antananarivo (suicide?). Am. Union Gen. Stephen H. Weed (b. 1831) on July 2 in Gettysburg, Penn. (KIA); KIA defending Little Round top. Hawaiian king (1855-63) Kamehamaha IV (b. 1834) on Nov. 30 in Honolulu (asthma). Am. Union Col. Alonzo Cushing (b. 1841) on July 3 in Gettysburg, Penn. (KIA).



1864 - The Yankees Get Over Their Taffy Jar Approach and Get Out the Meat Grinder Year? The South's Last Hurrah Year? The Colo. Sand Creek Massacre Year?

Andersonville Prison, 1864-5 Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-91) Union Gen. Philip Henry Sheridan (1831-88) Union Gen. Lew Wallace (1827-1905) Confed. Gen. John Bell Hood (1831-79) Union Gen. Grant at Cold Harbor, Va., 1864 Confed. Gen. Wade Hampton III (1818-1902) Union Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis (1805-66) Union Gen. Nathaniel Prentice Banks (1816-94) Confed. Gen. Richard 'Dick' Taylor (1826-79) Union Gen. Thomas William Sweeny (1820-92) Confed. Adm. Raphael Semmes (1809-77) Confed. Gen. William Mahone (1826-95) Union Brig. Gen. Henry Clay Pleasants (1833-80) William T. 'Bloody Bill' Anderson (1839-64) Confed. Capt. James Iredell Waddell (1824-86) Confed. Gen. John Brown Gordon (1832-1904) Union Capt. John Ancrum Winslow (1811-73) Union Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94) Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97) U.S. Capt. Silas Stillman Soule (1838-65) Union Gen. John McAllister Schofield (1831-1906) Benjamin Franklin Wade of the U.S. (1800-78) Henry Winter Davis of the U.S. (1817-65) Charles Sumner of the U.S. (1811-74) Francis Preston Blair Sr. of the U.S. (1791-1876) Union Gen. John Charles Fremont (1813-90) Union Gen. John Cochrane (1813-98) 'Mad' Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845-86) Sir Oliver Mowat of Canada (1820-1903) Gen. Jose Maria Medina of Honduras (1828-78) Kojong II of Korea (1852-1919) Hungson Taewon-Gun of Korea (1820-90) Gen. Mariano Melgarejo Valencia of Bolivia (1818-71) Jose Apolonio Burgos of the Philippines (1837-72) Oakes Ames of the U.S. (1804-73) Charles Godfrey Gunther of the U.S. (1822-85) Charles Eliot Norton (1827-1908) Charles Kingsley (1819-75) Carrie Winder McGavock (1829-1905) Set-tainte (Satanta) (1820-78) Black Kettle (1801-68) Ariz. Gov. John Noble Goodwin (1824-87 George Mortimer Pullman (1831-97) William Black (1841-98) Richard Doddridge Blackmore (1825-1900) Robert Browning (1812-89) Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-81) Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) Rev. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851) Hetty Green (1834-1916) Octavia Hill (1838-1912) James Bryce (1838-1922), 1st Viscount Bryce (1838-1922) Sir Samuel Ferguson (1810-86) Andrew McNally Mahlon Loomis (1826-86) Janos Arany (1817-82) Ludovic Halevy (1834-1908) Henri Meilhac (1831-97) Fustel de Coulanges (1830-89) Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler (1831-95) Sir John Hare (1844-1921) Neuschwanstein, 1869-86 Cooke Castle 'Brace's Rock' by Fitz Hugh Lane, 1864 'The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris' by Johan Jongkind, 1864 'Self-Portrait' by Gustave Moreau (1826-86), 1850 'Oedipus and the Sphinx' by Gustave Moreau (1826-98), 1864 Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1830-1900) 'First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln' by Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1830-1900), 1864 Johan Barthold Jongkind (1819-91) 'The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris' by Johan Barthold Jongkind (1819-91), 1864 National Statuary Hall, 1864-70 Heineken, 1873

1864 The British consulate reports that Jerusalem has a pop. of 15K, incl. 8K Jews, 4.5K Muslims, and 2.5K Christians; in 1914 it has a pop. of 65K, with 45K Jews; a Jewish persecution breaks out in Rome. The U.S. Civil War proves to be the Amputation War, with 75% of all field surgery operations being amputations, taking an avg. of 12 min., with a 77% chance of surviving an arm amputation by the sawbones. As Bismarck says, blood and iron build his German empire? The difficult question of the possession of Schleswig and Holstein (two provinces adjoining Denmark on the S, occupied by Danes and Germans), disputed by Denmark and the German Confederation, has become so complex that "only three persons in Europe were completely acquainted with the truth, the Prince Consort who was dead, a German professor who was in a lunatic asylum, and myself - and I had forgotten it" (British PM Lord Palmerston); on Jan. 16 after Bismarck persuades Austria to join forces with Prussia to invade Denmark if needed, they send an ultimatum to Cophenhagen, demanding cancellation of the new Danish constitution because of its virtual annexation of S-H; Palmerston's stated sympathies in favor of Denmark soon lead to derision for Britain when it fails to come to its defense and lets the Germans invade Schleswig, defeat the Danes at Duppel, then invade Denmark, followed by the ineffective London Conference on Apr. 25, which results in the Peace of Vienna, ceding the "Elbe Duchies" of Schleswig, Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia, who rule together; on Aug. 14 the Gastein Convention (Convention of Badagastein) gives admin. of Holstein to Austria as part of Bismarck's plan to draw it into a war. In Jan. the Bloody Tanks Massacre near Pinal Creek in Ariz. Territory results when rancher King S. Woolsey, pres. of the legislative council pulls a pistol from his coat during a peace parley and murders Pinal Apache chief Paramuca, then has his men murder the other 25-200 gunless Apaches, depending on the source; one white man, Cyrus Lennan is killed when an Indian plays dead then lances him before being gunned down; the blood pools in rock basins, causing the name "bloody tanks", although the whites call it the "Pinole Treaty Battle", and paint themselves as heroes, causing Wooley to be lionized as "Arizona's greatest Indian fighter"; meanwhile the Indians' story (first pub. in 1936) is that the whites had killed off their food supply of deer and stolen their cornfields, causing them to starve, and they had stolen a few cattle and ponies to feed themselves, and only wanted the palefaces to promise not to take any more from them, and when the chief told the paleface that he only wanted peace, Woolsey replied, "We're going to give you peace, a new kind of peace" and fires away, telling his men to "pick out your Indian". In Jan. Kit Carson's forces round up 8K starving Navajos and send them on the first of several Long Walks of the Navajo from Ft. Defiance to new Ft. Sumner at Bosque Redondo (Sp. "Round Forest", N.M., committing atrocities along the way, with 200 dying during the 18-day 450-mi. (720km) trek; by 1865 8K-9K settle on a 40 sq. mi. area in concentration camps where they are forced to live in holes in the ground under armed guards with inadequate rations, where 3.5K die. In Jan. Andersonville Prison (originally named Camp Sumter) is built by the Confeds. in Sumter County, SW Ga. (40 mi. from Butler), opening in Feb. and going on to house 45K Union POWs over the next 14 mo. (until Apr. 1865), of which 12K die from Southern hospitality from exposure, disease, or starvation, not to mention those killed by sharpshooters for crossing the Dead Line around the camp. On Feb. 8 U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1851-74) Charles Sumner (1811-74) (known for his big beating in 1856) introduces another version, with a guarantee of equality, causing a combined amendment to be submitted by the Senate Judiciary Committee to the Senate on Feb. 10; on Apr. 8 the Senate passes it by a 38-6 vote, but on June 15 the House rejects it by 93-65 (for-against). It's a new day in Hell's Kitchen, but Chef Hunley still has some questions about last evening's dinner service? On Feb. 12 after Confed gen. James Longstreet charges his own div. cmdr. and West Point buddy Lafayette McLaws with incompetence, he is put on court-martial, found guilty on May 5, and sentenced to 60 days, after which the sentence is overturned but he is sent to defend Savannah, Ga., becoming bitter and claiming Longstreet used him as a scapegoat for botching his Knoxville Campaign last fall. On Feb. 15 Heineken Brewery in Amsterdam, Holland is founded by Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841-93), who talks his wealthy mother into buying De Hooiberg Brewery (founded 1592) (makers of Haystack brand beer) for him, switching to Bavarian-style bottom fermentation and introducing Heineken brand beer in 1873, made from secret Heineken A-Yeast developed by Dr. Elion, a student of Louis Pasteur; it becomes known for green bottles with a red star; in 1875 it wins the gold medal at the Internat. Maritime Exposition in Paris; in 1933 it becomes the first Euro beer to be imported to the U.S. after the end of Prohibition; in 1975 it moves its main brewery to Zoeterwoude. On Feb. 17 the Confed. ironclad submarine H.L. Hunley (AKA the Fish Boat and the Porpose) named after Horace Lawson Hunley (1823-63) sinks the Union screw sloop-of-war USS Housatonic (one of a group of Union warships blockading Charleston Harbor, S.C.) with an explosive device attached to a pole (beoming the first ship sunk by a sub), then goes to the bottom itself as the hand-cranked propeller shaft fails to work; made in Mobile, Ala. from an iron boiler, er, built to plans, with no periscope, and a candle as the only internal illumination, it had sunk on two previous trial runs, killing five crew the first time (Aug. 29, 1863) and eight the second (Oct. 15, 1863), incl. Hunley; it is found near Sullivans Island in 18 ft. of water by divers in May 1995, raised in Aug. 2000, and the crew officially buried in Charleston in 2004; after the Union fails to take Charleston, its worst naval defeat of the war, former big man rear Adm. Samuel Francis Dupont asks to be relieved of his command, ending his 45-year Navy career on a bummer. On Feb. 24 Confed Gen. Braxton Bragg is summoned to Richmond and made military advisor to pres. Jefferson Davis - I don't like to brag, but? On Feb. 25 fifty Apaches raid the Agua Fria Ranch in N Ariz., stealing all 30 cattle of owner King S. Woolsey, and pissing him off, causing him to organize a party of 101 settlers and get Ariz. gov. #1 (1863-6) John Noble Goodwin (1824-87) to call for their extermination and give him the rank of lt. col., and they set out, finding nothing but women and destroying their wheat fields, getting a commendation from the territorial legislature in July. On Mar. 1 Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler (1831-95) becomes the first black woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S., from the New England Female Medical College in Boston, Mass. - I don't know nuthin' about birthin' babies? On Mar. 3 Gen. Grant, Gen. George Meade, and Gen. Philip Henry Sheridan (1831-88) (a volatile little Irishman on a big black horse?) cross the Rapidan River. On Mar. 10 after his great work in ridding Tenn. of rebels, Ulysses S. Grant is promoted to lt. gen. (first since George Washington), and put in charge of the Union Armies, replacing Gen. Halleck, going on to suspend the exchange of POWs in Mar. to cut off their source of reinforcements, while thinking nothing of trading his troops 2-for-1 in combat to defeat the Confederacy, soon losing 30K of his 100K troops, more men than Gen. Lee commands, causing First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln to call him a butcher; John Wilkes Booth later plots to kidnap Pres. Lincoln to hold him hostage and force the POW policy to be reversed, then decides on assassination after hearing him support voting rights for black people on Apr. 11, 1865? On Mar. 10 Maximilian II (b. 1811) dies, and his 19-y.-o. son "Mad" (Märchenkönig) Ludwig II (1845-86) becomes king of Bavaria (until 1886), and goes on to build a bunch of fairy tale castles around Tegelberg Mt., incl. Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss) (1869-86) (model for Disneyland Castle), et al., leaving mundane state affairs to his trusty ministers. On Mar. 10-May 22 the Red River Campaign (Expedition) sees 30K Union troops under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Prentice (Prentiss) Banks (1816-94) (U.S. House Speaker in 1856-7) invade La. along the Red River, facing 6K-15K Confed. troops under Maj. Gen. Richard Scott "Dick" Taylor (1826-79) (son of pres. Zachary Taylor) and Maj. Gen. Sterling, ending in dismal failure starting on Apr. 8 at the Battle of Mansfield (Sabine Crossroads) (Pleasant Grove) in De Soto Parish, La. (first major battle of the campaign), with 2.9K Union vs. 1.5K Confed. casualties; meanwhile on Mar. 23-May 2 the Camden Expedition in S-C Ark. by Union forces under Maj. Gen. Frederick Steele, a plan to march to Shreveport, La. and link up with the amphibious force of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks and Rear Adm. David D. Porter for a raid up the Red River Valley into Tex. is a failure after Shelby's Raiders harass them along the way, allowing the Confeds. under Maj. Gen. Sterling Price and Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith to win a series of battles, finally forcing them back to Little Rock, Ark. after Shelby captures their supply trains at Mark's Mill; too bad, Confed. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (1824-93) fails to pursue the retreating Yankees, and sends half of his force N to Ark. to meet the army of Gen. Frederick Steele, which had come S from Little Rock, where it was supposed to link up with Banks' army in Shreveport, La., but is now left exposed; on Apr. 30 the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry on the Saline River SW of Little Rock in modern-day Grant County, Ark., sees the 12K overconfident rebels force the Yankees to dig in their heels and kick their butts, allowing Banks' forces to return to Little Rock and keep control of Ark., making Smith and Taylor into bitter enemies; Gen. Sterling Price then decides to bypass Ark. and invade Mo. in hopes that the many Southern sympathizers will rise up. On Mar. 15 conservative Gen. Jose Maria Medina (1826-78), a veteran of the war against gringo William Walker becomes the first pres. of Honduras to endure more than a year (until July 26, 1872), backed by Rafael Carrera of Guatemala. On Mar. 28 Ravi Varma IV dies, and Sir Rama Varma XIV (1848-88) becomes king of Cochin in SW India (not to be confused with Cochin, China), becoming the first to be knighted. On Apr. 4 the U.S. Congress passes a resolution against the establishment of a monarchy in Mexico, which doesn't stop Cactus Emperor Maximilian I, who accepts the crown of Mexico on Apr. 10, and signs the Miramar Convention. On Apr. 8 the Repub.-controlled U.S. Senate passes the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution by 38-6, and sends it to the divided House, which defeats it on June 15 by 93-65 for-against. On Apr. 8 the private Congressionally-chartered Gallaudet U. (originally Columbia Inst. for the Instruction of the Dead and Dumb and the Blind in 1857) is founded in Washington, D.C. for the deaf and hard of hearing, named after Rev. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), starting out as a grammar school and growing into higher education. Hey, we AEIOU's have been missing out on the New World grab up till now, don't we ever get a turn? On Apr. 10 Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph of Austria arrives in Mexico City and is crowned emperor Maximilian I (1832-67) of Mexico (until June 19, 1867), encouraging Confederates to migrate to Mexico along with their slaves, while his rival Benito Juarez watches the Yankees' backs and prevents the French from aiding the Confederates in Tex. Is there a little black dirt on your lily-white pillow? On Apr. 12 the Battle of Ft. Pillow near Memphis is a V for the KKK, er, Confederates under Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, who capture the Union-held fort from its defenders, Southern Unionists and freed blacks; accusations of a massacre of black Union soldiers (incl. some whites and the fort cmr.), causing the river to run red stir Union resentment, but Lincoln decides against retaliation. In Apr. the 1863 Jan. Uprising by the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is crushed by the Russians, the whole experience causing once-liberal Russian Tsar Alexander II to turn reactionary and begin using secret police, which backfires and increases unrest, leading to his own assassination in 1881; the Young Latvian and other nationalist movements are crushed by Russia, leading to Russification; by modern times 40% of the pop. of Latvia is of Russian origin. On May 5-8 the Battle of the Wilderness, the first direct confronation between Gens. Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant sees 65K Confed. troops behind an earthworks cross the Rapidan River on May 3-4, and Grant lead his army of 120K around his E flank over the river, camping in the forested Spotsylvania Wilderness; Lee responds by dividing his army in two, with Gen. Richard "Dick" Stoddert Ewell and Gen. A.P. Hill flanking Grant's troops, and the 1st Corps under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet attacking from the S on May 5; too bad, the Union troops almost overwhelm Hill, who is saved only by nightfall, causing Longstreet to be ordered to break off his attack and relieve Hill, which he does on the morning of May 6 after another Union attack pushes Hill into Widow Tapp's Field and almost captures Gen. Lee; Longstreet then resumes his attack on the S flank, only to become wounded, ending the Confed. attack, except for an attack by Confed. Brig. Gen. John Brown Gordon (1832-1904) at the N flank just before dark. On May 12 Union troops capture a whole div. of Lee's army at the Bloody Angle in the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, then withdraw after the longest sustained combat of the war (20 hours), but winning the war of attrition against the South (18K Union vs. 12K Confed. casualties); on May 21 Gen. Grant discontinues the fight, gets replacements and marches on toward Richmond around Lee's right with 108K men, relentlessly closing in on the weakening rebel army (60K); on May 26 Grant gets overbold, and on May 31 after encountering Confed. positions along the line of Totopotomoy Creek sends Gen. Sheridan's cavalry ahead to capture Cold Harbor (2 mi. from Gaines's Mill and 10 mi. NE of Richmond, near the site of the 1862 Seven Days' Battle), beginning the bloody Battle of Cold Harbor; on June 1 Union troops under Gen. Horatio Gouverneur Wright and Gen. William Farrar "Baldy" Smith (1824-1903) capture much of the Confed. front line while taking 2K casualties, but Lee's forces hold, and on June 2 (morning) counterattack, taking many POWs; on June 3 (4 a.m.) the Yankees begin an advance, and walk into a bloody pre-dawn massacre (5K casualties in 20 min., and 7K by 1:30 p.m.), after which both sides retrench and it becomes a push; on June 12 the Union forces withdraw S across the James River, ending their drive through the Va. Wilderness, with 13K total Union vs. 2.6K Confed. casualties; Grant later admits that the attack is the worst mistake of his career (the only thing he ever admits doing wrong), although at the time he tries to cover it up in an effort to assure Lincoln's renomination; it becomes Lee's last major field V, though he can't afford the casualties. The horseback war brings back shades of Attila the Hun? On May 9-25 Union Gen. Philip Sheridan leads 10K cavalry armed with repeating carbines on a raid in the Richmond vicinity, destroying railroad tracks and rolling stock, incl. 3 wks. of Confed. rations; on May 11 Confed. cavalry Gen. James E.B. (J.E.B.) Stuart (b. 1833) is mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern, 6 mi. N of Richmond (his first wound of the war?), and dies on May 12 (he once said "All I ask of fate is that I may be killed leading a cavalry charge"); he is replaced by wealthy S.C. planter Gen. Wade Hampton III (1818-1902), becoming the only non-Virginian to head the cavalry corps of Lee's army. On May 15 the Battle of New Market sees the Confeds. under Gen. John C. Breckinridge assisted by VMI cadets force Union Gen. Franz Sigel out of the Shenandoah Valley. On May 29 after Lincoln's wing splits to form the Nat. Union Party, leaving only Radical Repubs., the 1864 Repub. Nat. Convention in Cleveland, Ohio nominates U.S. Gen. John Charles Fremont (1813-90) for pres., and U.S. Gen. John Cochrane (1813-98) for vice-pres. In May Gen. Ambrose Burnside is given command of the Ninth Corps of the Army of the Potomac again, participating in the Richmond campaign (until 1864). On June 3 Pres. Lincoln signs the U.S. Nat. Bank Act, a revision of the 1863 Nat. Currency Act establishing an inspection system for nat. banks. On June 15 U.S. Secy. of War Edwin M. Stanton signs an order establishing a military burial ground on the confiscated estate of Robert E. Lee and the Custis family, which becomes Arlington Nat. Cemetery; the land was part of the estate of John Parke Custis, son of First Lady Martha Washington; the mansion was built by his son George Washington Parke Custis. In June the Siege of Petersburg, Va. 20 mi. S of Richmond S of the Appomattox River begins (ends 1865) with the Confeds. setting up strong defenses; on June 9 the First Battle of Petersburg in Va. is a D for 4.5K Union troops under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler against 2.5K Confed. defenders, becoming known as the "battle of old men and young boys". On June 12 Grant's forces, attempting to score a quick knockout of Richmond by capturing Petersburg to the S first, cross the James River with 115K troops (first use of the Gatling gun) after feinting a move towards Richmond that fools Lee, but Confed. Gen. Pierre Toutant Beauregard blocks his arrival long enough for Lee to arrive, and on June 14-17 the Army of the Potomac crosses the James River from the N and moves towards Petersburg to support it. On June 17-18 Confed. forces under Gen. Jubal A. Early defeat Union forces under Maj. Gen. David Hunter at the Battle of Lynchburg in the Shenandoah Valley of Va.; Early then crosses the Potomac on July 5, invades Md. and Penn., and advances to the outskirts of Washington, D.C. on July 11 after the July 9 Battle of the Monacacy River under Union Maj. Gen. Lewis "Lew" Wallace (1827-1905) (of Ben-Hur fame) slows him down (saving Washington?); Lincoln witnesses the attacks from Ft. Stevens in N Washington, D.C. through field glasses while dodging bullets, becoming the first U.S. pres. to see action while in office since Madison in the Battle of Bladensburg on Aug. 24, 1814; the invasion is aborted and Early turns back on July 12. On June 15-18 the Second Battle of Petersburg sees the Union initially gain ground then get chicken and retreat after Confed. Gen. Beauregard uses a bunch of tricks and "Quaker Guns" (logs) to fool the Yankees into puffing up his army size in their minds. On June 21-24 the Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road (First Battle of Weldon Railroad) sees the Union try to cut supply lines S of Petersburg until they are driven off by Confed. troops under Brig. Gen. William Mahone (1826-95). On June 25 the Battle of Staunton River Bridge sees the Union destroy 60 mi. of railroad tracks before Lee's cavalry finally stops them from destroying the key railroad bridge; on June 28 the Battle of Sappony Church sees the fleeing federals engaged as they head N, causing them to abandon many fleeing slaves they were taking with them; on June 29 the First Battle of Ream's Station sees the same fleeing federals run against more Confeds. and end up burning their wagons and abandoning their artillery before fighting through to Union lines on July 2. In the west Grant goes on a holiday cruise? Gen. Grant gives Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-91) command of the military div. of the Mississippi (100K men) with the task of destroying the Confed. Army of Tennessee (45K men) under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and moving against Atlanta, Ga.; Johnston adopts a fight-and-retreat policy, retreating S from Resaca on May 13-15, Adairsville on May 17, New Hope Church on May 25-26, Kennesaw Mountain on June 27, and Marietta, Ga. on June 9-July 3, maneuvering tactically to avoid heavy engagements, then getting trapped into them by Sherman; on June 26 Sherman writes "We have destroyed the land and our animals have eaten up the wheat and corn fields"; on July 17 Pres. Davis replaces Johnston with Gen. John Bell "Sam" "Old Wooden Head" Hood (1831-79), hoping he will prove more aggressive; he later proves too aggressive? On June 19 after a 90-min. battle the war sloop USS Kearsarge, commanded by Capt. (since July 1862) John Ancrum Winslow (1811-73) sinks the CSS Alabama (after it takes a record 69 prizes), captained by Raphael Semmes (1809-77) off Cherbourg, France, ending the career of the South's most famous commerce raider; big man Winslow receives a Congressional vote of thanks and a promotion to commodore, followed by rear Adm. in 1870 with command of the Pacific squadron until 1872 - all I want to do is be in the light? In June Lee's alma mater Va. Military Inst. (VMI) is burned. On July 2 Congress passes the U.S. Wade-Davis Bill, AKA the Ironclad Oath, sponsored by Radical Repubs. Ohio Sen. (1851-69) Benjamin Franklin "Buff" Wade (1800-78) and Md. Rep. Henry Winter Davis (1817-65), upping the ante on Lincoln's 10 percent Reconstruction Proclamation by requiring a majority of white male citizens to swear their allegiance, abolish slavery, repudiate Confed. debts, and other more stringent requirements wanted by the Radical Repubs., incl. male suffrage and military govs.; Lincoln kills it with a pocket veto, causing the sponsors to respond with the Wade-Davis Manfesto, accusing him of seeking relection by the executive establishment of new state govts. On July 4 the U. of Bucharest in Romania is foundedby Prince Alexander John Cuza. On July 18 photographer John Mayall opens up a new studio on King's Road Arches in Brighton, England, five days after the Grand Hotel opens its doors. Atlanta burns, don't stop, can't stop? On July 20 after battles in the Marietta area, Sherman's troops advance toward Atlanta, defeating an attack by Confed. Gen. John Bell Hood at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, then another on July 22 in the Battle of Atlanta, where Union Maj. Gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge, cmdr. of the XVI Corps sees his chance and rides to the front to lead the div. of Thomas William "Fighting Tom" Sweeny (1820-92) into battle, pissing-off Sweeny, who gets into a fistfight with him, after which Sweeny is court-martialed and Dodge dodges all charges; on July 28 the Battle of Ezra Church results when Hood tries to keep them from cutting his communications S of the city, throwing his 18K starving Confeds against 13K fat federals, and getting repulsed with 2,836 casualties vs. 632 for the Yankees; Grenville Dodge is hit by a Confed. sharpshooter in the head while peeping through an eyehole in the Union breastworks, but recovers; this big D leads on Sept. 2 to the Fall of Atlanta and Burning of Atlanta; Pres. Lincoln, heretofore despairing of reelection, now sees a rosy political dawn; Sherman gives an order sparing all bldgs. with Masonic symbols, saving the Grant Mansion; on Sept. 12 Gen. Sherman sends a Letter to the Shocked Mayor of Atlanta, telling him "War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it"; Walter Quintin Gresham is wounded in the Atlanta campaign, laming him for life, and next year is awarded the honorary rank of maj.-gen. and retires. On July 24 the Confeds. under Gen. Jubal A. Early win a V against Union Gen. George H. Crook at the Second Battle of Kernstown in Frederick County, Va., then on July 30 Early's cavalry burns Chambersburg, Penn. to get even for the burning of the Va. Military Inst., but only after they are given a Southernly chance to pay ransom. On July 27-29 the First Battle of Deep Bottom (Darbytown) (Strawberry Plains) (New Market Road) (Gravel Hill) in Henrico County, Va. sees the Union army under Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock and Philip H. Sheridan cross the James River from the S to threaten Richmond in order to divert Confeds. forces defending Petersburg, then withdraw after a Confed. counterattack. On July 30 the Battle of the Crater sees coal miners from the 48th Penn. infantry under Lt. Col. (later brig. gen.) Henry Clay Pleasants (1833-80), who dug a 511-ft.-long tunnel under the Confed. lines at Petersburg at Elliott's Salient detonate explosives, creating a 135-ft. diam. crater, killing 280-350 Confed. soldiers, then get chicken about sending rehearsed black troops at the Confeds., sending unrehearsed white troops instead, who jump into the crater instead of moving around the rim, ending up getting slaughtered, with 5.3K casualties, causing Gen. Grant to call it "the saddest affair I have witnessed in the war"; the news spooks the Yankee pop., giving the Dems. their chance to call for a negotiated peace, and giving them steam for the upcoming pres. elections on Nov. 8. By July Lee's starving Army of Northern Virginia is bottled up in Petersburg while Grant reinforces and prepares for the final conflict; Gen. Longstreet has recovered from his 1864 Wilderness wounds enough to direct Petersburg's defense; meanwhile Confed. Gen. Jubal A. Early returns to the Shenandoah Valley in Aug., and Gen. David Hunter is replaced as cmdr. of cavalry forces in the Union Army of the Potomac by dashing Gen. William Tecumseh Sheridan. In July the U.S. passes the 1864 U.S. Immigration Act, encouraging white immigration to the Union, causing the huddled masses of Europe to begin pouring into the docks of New York City, only to be signed up for the Union army - but a Sumo wrestler and a dwarf? By the end of July Grant cuts off Lee's supplies from the lower South and begin staging for the final assault on Richmond, putting fun-guy Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler in command of the Army of the James in Va. On Aug. 5 Union commodore David G. Farragut, with a fleet of 14 wooden warships and four ironclads fights his way past Confed. forts, entering Mobile Bay; after losing one ironclad, the USS Tecumseh (commanded by Capt. Craven) to torpedoes (mines) in the channel, Farragut has himself lashed to his flagship's mainmast, uttering the immortal soundbyte "Damn the torpedoes - full speed ahead!"; although he captures the forts, he doesn't capture the city of Mobile 30 mi. away, and it remains in rebel hands until Apr. 1865, although it ceases to be a center of blockade-running; Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938) later immortalizes this event in his poem Craven. On Aug. 14-20 the Second Battle of Deep Bottom sees the Yankees under Winfield Scott Hancock cross the James River again at Deep Bottom in a move on Richmond, then gain some Vs at Fussell's Mill, until the Confeds. drive them back over the river. On Aug. 18-21 the Battle of Globe Tavern (Second Battle of Weldon Railroad) sees the Union under Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren cut Petersburg's primary rail connection with Wilmington, N.C., forcing the Confeds. to use wagons for 30 mi. up Boydton Plank Road instead. On Aug. 22 Confed. Gen. Robert E. Lee receives a report that his soldiers are about out of food supplies, after which on Sept. 14-17 the Beefsteak Raid sees 3K Confed. cavalry under Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton ride 100 mi. in N Va. to gather cattle intended for Union troops laying siege to Richmond behind Union lines at Coggin's Point on the James River 5 mi. from Grant's HQ, surprising the 120 guards and stealing 2,468 cattle along with 11 wagons and 304 POWs, with 10 Confeds. KIA, 47 wounded and 4 MIA; Lincoln calls it "the slickest piece of cattle-stealing" he ever heard of; until the end of the war the Confeds. have so much extra beef that they trade it with the Union sentries for luxuries. On Aug. 22 far, far away from the U.S. carnage, after lobbying by Swiss activist Henri Dunant, 13 Euro states agree to the First Geneva Convention, establishing humane regulations regarding the treatment of sick and wounded POWs; all of the sick and those who minister to them are required to display the Swiss Army knife Geneva cross (red on a white background), and battlefield medical facilites are officially neutral. On Aug. 25 the Second Battle of Ream's Station sees Union troops tearing up railroad tracks get ambushed by the Confeds., losing nine guns, 12 flags, and many POWs. On Aug. 29-31 the 1864 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. sees the Dems. call for an armistice to be followed by a nat. convention to restore the Union; they nominate Gen. George B. McClellan, who distances himself from his party's peace platform by declaring that Union must precede peace talks; Abraham Lincoln is renominated, with old-fashioned Jacksonian War Dem. Andrew Johnson of Tenn. nominated for vice-pres. by the Nat. Union Party, a wartime coalition of Repubs. and War Dems. (changed back to Repub. Party in 1868); Johnson is picked to lure Northern Dem. votes away from Gen. McClellan; 22 disgruntled opponents of Lincoln vote for Ulysses S. Grant, who is not a candidate. On Sept. 1-7 the Charlottetown Conference on Prince Edward Island, Canada (named after Queen Victoria's father) to discuss the creation of Canada, gaining the name "Birthplace/Cradle of Confederation", but it is upstaged by a local circus, and they agree to meet later in Quebec; in 1867 the island balks at joining, preferring to remain a colony of the U.K., flirting with joining the U.S. In early Sept. the Confeds. under Gen. Sterling Price invade Mo. with 12K-15K men, aided by Quantrill's Raiders; on Sept. 26-27 they attack Pilot Knob in Iron County, Mo. outside St. Louis, and are held off by a garrison of 1K Yankees, after which Price tries unsuccessfully to take Jefferson City to the W, then is repulsed at the Kan. border, and finally gives up and heads back S on Oct. 23 with his remaining 5K men, losing William Quantrill and William T. "Bloody Bill" Anderson (1839-64), who dies on Oct. 26 in Ray Count, Mo., his body found with a silken cord with 53 knots, plus human scalps on his bridle; Price covers up his failure to Jeff Davis (who never treated him right since he didn't graduate from West Point?) with a glowing report of how he had brilliantly feinted toward St. Louis then maneuvered W to keep the Yankees S of the Missouri River, then marched 1,434 mi., engaging in 43 battles and taking 3K POWs, yada yada yada. On Sept. 29-30 the Battle of Chaffin's Farm (New Market Heights) sees another Union attack on Richmond repulsed after the Yankees capture several forts, forcing the Confeds. to erect a new line of defensive works, weakening their lines at Petersburg. On Sept. 30-Oct. 2 the Battle of Peebles' Farm (Poplar Springs Church) in Dinwiddie County near Petersburg, Va. sees Union troops capture Ft. MacRae and extend their left flank as they close in on Petersburg. On Oct. 1-3 after Union raiders attempt to destroy the saltworks in Smyth County, Va., the First Battle of Saltville in Va. is a Confed. V under Brig. Gen. Stephen G. Burbridge over Union troops under Gen. Alfred E. Jackson, but they stink it up by committing atrocities against captured black Union troops; on Dec. 20-21 the Second Battle of Saltville is a Union V under Gen. George Stoneman, and they destroy the saltworks, dealing a major blow to the Confederacy's ability to preserve meat. On Oct. 5 the Battle of Allatoona (Pass) in Barstow County, Ga. sees a 3,276-man Confed. div. under Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French fail to dislodge a 2,025-man Union garrison under Brig. Gen. John M. Corse from a fortified position protecting the railroad, with 897 Confed. vs. 706 Union casualties. On Oct. 7 the Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads sees the Confeds. attack the Union far right flank before Richmond and rout the Yankee cavalry, but get repulsed by the main Union defensive line, and return to Richmond licking their wounds. On Oct. 9-27 the Quebec Conference, attended by 16 delegates discusses the Canadian Confederation, with the U.S. model muddied by the ongoing Civil War, but finally resulting in the Seventy-Two Resolutions, which are sent to the provinces for approval. On Oct. 12 chief justice (since Mar. 15, 1836) Roger B. Taney (b. 1777) finally kicks the lily-white paint bucket on the same that that his home state Md. abolishes slavery, and on Dec. 6 Cornish, N.H.-born U.S. treasury secy. #25 (1861-4) Salmon Portland Chase (1808-73) becomes U.S. Supreme Court Chief justice #6 and 39th justice of the 10-member U.S. Supreme Court (until May 7, 1873); no more changes till the war is safely won in 1870. On Oct. 13 the Battle of Darbytown Road sees the Union test the new Confed. defensive line in front of Richmond and get repulsed with heavy casualties. On Oct. 19 the Confeds. under Gen. Jubal A. Early rout two-thirds of the Union army at the Battle of Cedar Creek; too bad, the Johnny Rebs are so hungry that they fall to looting the Union camp, allowing Gen. Sheridan to ride on horseback 20 mi. to rally his troops and score a V, then go on to burn the Shenandoah Valley, destroying the food supply of the Army of Northern Va.; Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie, hated by his troops and haunted by his family skeletons scores big points with Sheridan for taking 500 POWs despite a mangled hand, and taking another bullet in the lung which disables him for months, and is promoted to maj.-gen. next Mar. On Sept. 26-27 the after crossing from Ark. to Mo. with the goal of capturing St. Louis, and tries to capture Ft. Davidson near the terminus of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway, the 12K-man Confed. army under Gen. Sterling Price (3K of whom have no weapons) are defeated by the 1.5K-man garrison under Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing Jr. (1829-96) (brother-in-law of William Tecumseh Sherman) at the Battle of Pilot Knob (Ft. Davidson), taking 1.5K casualties vs. 184 for the Union then evacuating and blowing up the fort before retreating, after which Price retreats to Kansas City, Mo., where he is boxed in by two Union armies. On Oct. 23 Union forces led by Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis (1805-66) defeat the Confed. army of Gen. Sterling Price at the Battle of Westport ("the Gettysburg of Missouri") near Kansas City, Mo., becoming the largest U.S. Civil War battle fought W of the Mississippi River (29K total troops), followed on Oct. 25 by the Battle of Mine Creek, where 2.8K Union troops defeat 8K Confeds., after which what's left of the rebel army retreats to Tex., and later flees to Mexico after the war, setting up a colony in Carlota, Veracruz, which goes bust, after which Price returns to Mo. and dies of cholera; the site of the Battle of Westport later becomes Jacob L. Loose Park - he thought it was okay not to boil water back in the States? On Oct. 27-28 the Battle of Fair Oaks and Darbytown Road sees the Union try to take Petersburg again, only to be repulsed by a Confed. counterattack and lose 600 POWs. On Oct. 27-28 the Battle of Boydton Plank Road sees 30K Union troops withdraw from the Petersburg lines and march W to take the Boydton Plank Road until a Confed. counterattack recaptures it, after which Union gen. Winfield Scott Hancock resigns, claiming old war wounds from Gettysburg. On Oct. 28 the Second Battle of Newtonia in Newton County, Mo. sees Union troops incl. the 16th Kansas Cavalry and 2nd Colo. Cavalry under Gen. James G. Blunt encounter and defeat retreating Confed. troops under Maj. Gen. Sterling Price incl. the Iron Brigade under cavalry Gen. Joseph O. "Jo" Shelby, who retreat into Indian Territory. On Oct. 30 after gold is discovered in Last Chance Gulch, Mont. in Oct., 4K-ft. alt. Helena, Mont. is founded, and the Territory of Montana (created on May 26) is organized; by 1868 $16M in gold is dug up, and the town pop. reaches 7.5K. On Oct. 31 after telegraphing a copy of their 16,543-word consitution to Pres. Lincoln for review, "Sagebrush State", "Silver State", "Battle Born State" Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state, even though it doesn't contain enough people to constitutionally authorize statehood, all because of the Comstock Lode on Mt. Davidson in the Sierra Nevada Mts. near 6.5K-ft. Virginia City, and its gold and silver, which is needed to keep the Union solvent; meanwhile N.M. is denied statehood by the Repub.-dominated Congress because it's a Dem. stronghold, Utah because of polygamy, and Repub. stronghold Colo. because of the Sand Creek Massacre - Indian gold is used to finance the killing of whites by whites and that's okay? In Oct. the Confed. raider CSS Shenandoah, under Capt. James Iredell Waddell (1824-86) escapes British port, and in one year of operation sails 58K mi. and takes 30+ Yankee merchant vessels, almost putting New England whaling out of business, and is still burning Yankee whalers in the Bering Sea in July 1865 when a passing British ship brings word of the war's end, making half of its captures into acts of piracy, causing an epic voyage to avoid the whole Union navy and reach a safe neutral port before being captured; after the war the U.S. whaling industry begins reviving until the advent of petroleum products for candles and fuels makes it decline again, shrinking to a few shore-based operations along the Pacific Coast by 1925. On Nov. 1 Md. adopts a new 1864 Md. Constitution officially ending slavery; it takes until Mar. 26, 2007 for the state to officially apologize for its role in the slave trade, days after Va. does it. On Nov. 2 the New York 19th Century 9/11 sees New York City mayor (1864-6) Charles Godfrey Gunther (1822-85) (a Dem.) receives a telegram from U.S. secy. of state William H. Seward warning him of a Confed. plot to burn the city down on election day (Nov. 8), causing Union troops under gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler to occupy the city; on Nov. 25 (Evacuation Day), pissed-off Confed. agents led by Col. Robert Martin, (former subordinate of John Hunt Morgan) stage the New York Attack, setting fire to several crowded hotels to get even for the devastation of the Shenandoah Valley, after which on Nov. 26 police round up 200 suspects, and the Hotel Keepers' Assoc. offers a $20K reward, which doesn't stop the eight rebels from slipping back into Canada; Robert C. Kennedy is later caught trying to rescue some Confed. gens., and hung on Mar. 25, 1865 at Ft. Layfette in New York Harbor, becoming the last Confed. soldier executed by the Union; the whole episode terrorizes New York City, becoming their first 9/11, plus a deja vu for the assassination of JFK and RFK, compounded by the fact that on Nov. 25 brothers Edwin, Junius Jr., and John Wilkes Booth first perform together in the Winter Garden in Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar". On Nov. 8 after initially expecting to lose, then seeing his fortunes turn around with the capture of Mobile and Atlanta, the 1864 U.S. Pres. Election (first wartime election since 1812) (most important pres. election in U.S. history until ?) is a landslide for Abraham Lincoln of the Nat. Union Party, who ran with the slogan "Don't change horses in the middle of a stream", receiving 55% of the popular vote (2,218,388) and 212 electoral votes to George B. McClellan's 45% of the popular vote and 21 electoral votes (1,812,807) (McClellan carries only N.J., plus border states Del. and Ky.); Lincoln makes good use of the new army field vote; only 25 states participate in the election; he now had a mandate to finish the war, and begins strongarming Congress to get a two-thirds majority in the House to pass the 13th Amendment, offering political patronage jobs to lame duck Dem. members, but failing to change a single vote? Lights, action, take two? On Nov. 14-15 Union Gen. William T. Sherman, saying "Let us destroy Atlanta and make it a desolation" burns it again, firing the warehouses and railroad facilities after he orders the city evacuated, and the fire spreads and consumes about a third of the city; on Nov. 16 he begins the 250-mi. Sherman's March to the Sea with 60K troops, POWs, stolen livestock and a trail of newly-freed slaves in a 20-mi.-wide locust-like destruction, in an effort to "make Georgia howl" and demoralize the Confederacy to prevent it from converting into a guerrilla war; on Dec. 13 Ft. McAllister in Ga. is captured; on Dec. 21 the city of Savannah, Ga. falls, and on Dec. 24 is spared by Sherman as a "Christmas gift" in a dispatch to Lincoln; he then pushes into S.C., the "hell-hole of secession", burning more than a dozen towns in whole or part. On Nov. 21 Pres. Lincoln writes a letter of condolence to Mass. mother Lydia Bixby, whom the adjutant-gen. of Mass. reports has lost five sons "gloriously on the field of battle"; "I pray that our heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom"; in actual fact, only sons Sgt. Charles Bixby (1863 at Fredericksburg) and Pvt. Oliver Bixby (1864, near Petersburg, Va.) are killed in battle; Corp. Henry Bixby is captured at Gettysburg, and later swapped in a POW exchange; Pvt. George Bixby deserts to the Confederates; Pvt. Edward Bixby deserts and flees to Cuba; Mrs. Bixby is an active pacifist who discouraged all her sons from enlisting. On Nov. 25 after 335 Calif. and New Mexico volunteers and 70 scouts under Col. Kit Carson attack the 150 tepees of the Kiowas under chief Little Mountain and Iron Shirt, other Kiowas under paleface-hating chief Satanta (Set-tainte) ("White Bear") (1820-78), Stumbling Bear, and Lean Bear, allied with the Comanches, Apache, and Arapaho counterattack at the Battle of Adobe Walls in the Tex. Panhandle near the Canadian River (near the ruins of William W. Bent's 1845 trading post), and the palefaces get surrounded, using two small mountain howitzers with 12-lb. shells on the swarms of Indians, then retreating toward the village of Little Mountain while being chased by shell-dodging braves; after a bitter tepee-to-tepee fight Kiowa Chief Iron Shirt is killed, the Indians flee, and the tepees are torched by the palefaces; total losses: Indian: 60 killed and wounded; palefaces: two killed and 10 wounded; Indian allies of palefaces: one killed and five wounded; too bad that the palefaces' horses are too tired to chase the fleeing Indians? While Sherman is marching to the sea, Confed. Gen. John Bell Hood leads his dispirited 40K-man Army of Tennessee from Ala. into Tenn. to try to smash the "nothing but victory" Army of the Tennessee of gen. George H. Thomas and then reinforce Gen. Robert E. Lee in Va.; on Nov. 30 they attack entrenched federals of the Army of the Ohio under gen. John McAllister Schofield (1831-1906) at the Battle of Franklin, Tenn. (pop. 2.5K) (5 mi. S of Nashville), and dislodge them in five hours, but at the cost of 9K casualties on both sides (dooming the South?); Thomas' 50K-man army then attacks Hood's 25K-man army at the Battle of Nahville 4 mi. S of Nashville on Dec. 15-16, dissolving the rebels, causing thousands to surrender and the rest (less than half) to flee S to Tupelo, Miss. (birthplace of Elvis Presley and Lawrence Welk star Guy Hovis?); Carrie Winder McGavock (1829-1905) starts the first Confederate cemetery on private land at her Carnton Plantation, with 1,481 graves of Confed. soldiers killed at Franklin. Keep those stiches loose and soon you'll have a nice little cover? Just when white-on-white carnage is starting to end, White is Right America finally goes too far even for its own conscience? On Nov. 29 (morning) in Colorful Colo. the Sand Creek Massacre of the 330-person camp of chiefs Black Kettle (1801-68) (Southern Cheyenne) (115 lodges) and White Antelope (Arapaho) (8 lodges) (9 mi. from modern-day Lamar) along a sluggish trickle of the South Platte shocks the nation with cruelty to native women and children by the volunteer troops of the First Colo. Infantry, led by Methodist minister (since 1844) Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94), who was ordered to take his 750 soldiers to SE Colo. by Colo. Territorial Gov. (1862-5) John Evans (1814-97) to rid the state of Injuns after the mutilated bodies of a white settler, his wife and two young children are exhibited in Denver; after Chivington tells his men the night before, "Kill and scalp all, little and big; nits make lice; kill every topknot", and "I long to be wading in gore", then right before the attack, "Boys, I won't tell you who you are to kill, but remember our murdered women and children on the Platte; take no prisoners", the white devils kill and mutilate about 150 mostly women, children and elderly, even though they had set up camp at the direction of a U.S. gen. and flew a U.S. flag along with a white flag; some soldiers make trophies out of women's vaginas after cutting off their breasts and suckling them; chief White Antelope is castrated, and his scrotum later used as a tobacco pouch; in the night Jack Smith, half-breed son of squawman John S. Smith is murdered in his father's lodge after Chivington tells his men not to take prisoners; Chivington claims an Indian kill of 500-600, vs. 9 of his men killed and 38 wounded, and lies that most of the women and children escaped, burning the bodies and the camp to cover his tracks; 11 white captives are found in the lodges, and later used to justify the attack; mountain man Jim Beckwourth was the guide used to lead them to the camp, but suffers from arthritis and only watches from a distance; despite an attempted coverup, the Denver papers (beginning a long tradition of biased reporting) calling Chivington a hero, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War along with the U.S. Army hold hearings; Capt. Silas Stillman Soule (1838-65) (a dedicated abolitionist), who refused to order his men to fire on the Indians, testifies against Chillington, er, Chivington, "the Butcher of Sand Creek", and is later murdered; in 1865 the U.S. admits guilt and orders reparations, which a cent. later are still not paid; the whole affair causes Colo. statehood to be delayed until 1876; Chivington avoids an ordered court martial because his officer's commission expires, and is hounded to his death in 1894, claiming "I stand by Sand Creek"; by the end of the decade the way of life of the Am. Plains Indians is kaput, allowing white settlers to flock in and set up shop after the bison are exterminated; on July 18, 1865 Pres. Johnson asks Gov. Evans to resign for attempting a coverup; in Aug. 2005 Pres. George W. Bush signs a bill restoring some of their remains to the site and creating the Sand Creek Massacre Nat. Historic Site. In Nov. Confed. Gen. Braxton Bragg is placed in command of the Dept. of N.C., then leads an unsuccessful expedition into Ga. against Gen. Sherman, who is on his march to the sea. On Dec. 8 Pope (since 1846) Pius IX (1792-1878) issues his infamous Syllabus of Errors (Syllabus Errorum), which condemns separation of church and state, freedom of the press and religion, Rationalism, modernism, liberalism, Socialism, etc., all lumped together on the red ink list; on Dec. 8 he also issues the encyclical Quanta Cura (Condemning Current Errors), condemning freedom of religion and speech, and separation of church and state, especially the "insane" idea that "Liberty of conscience and worship is each man's personal right, which ought to be legally proclaimed and asserted in every rightly constituted society; and that a right resides in the citizens to an absolute liberty, which should be restrained by no authority whether ecclesiastical or civil, whereby they may be able openly and publicly to manifest and declare any of their ideas whatever, either by word of mouth, by the press, or in any other way"; meanwhile Italy renounces its claim on Rome, and the capital of Italy is moved from Turin to Florence (until 1870); after several Vs of his Repub. forces in uniting Italy from control by the papal states, Giuseppe Garibaldi is given a triumphal reception in England, with the crowds chanting "We'll get a rope and hang the pope so up with Garibaldi!" On Dec. 15-16 the Battle of Nashville in Tenn. sees 30K Union troops under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas decisively defeat and destroy a 30K-man Confed. army under Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood, with 9K Union cavalry armed with the Spencer Repeating Rifle, ending large-scale fighting in the Western Theater. On Dec. 25 the Jefferson Davis family spends Christmas in the cozy slave-filled Confed. White House, and Varina Davis later pub. Christmas in the Confederate White House in the New York World on Dec. 13, 1896, which becomes a hit. On Dec. 28 Gen. Manuel Mariano Melgarejo Valencia (1818-71) overthrows Gen. Jose Maria de Acha and becomes pres. of Bolivia (until Jan. 15, 1871), murdering his rival and former dictator Manuel Belzu in the bargain, causing a crowd shouting "Viva Belzu" to reverse themselves to "Viva Melgarjo" after he shows them his corpse, after which he goes to become the most incompetent macho dictator in Bolivian history (until ?), confiscating Indian land to give to his white horse, and ordering his army to defend Paris against the Germans in 1870, then being unable to locate it on a map. In Dec. with Pres. Lincoln's consent, Repub. Party founder Francis Preston Blair Sr. (1791-1876) (owner of Blair House in Washington, D.C.) travels to Richmond, Va. to conduct private peace negotiations with Jefferson Davis, leading to a peace conference next Feb. 3. In Dec. Gen. Grant removes Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler from command of the Army of the James for failure to take Ft. Fisher in N.C.; after the war Butler becomes Repub. rep. from Mass. from 1867-75 and 1877-79, then gov. of Mass. from 1882-4; David Dixon Porter goes on to bombard and silence pesky Ft. Fisher, and is made vice-adm. in 1866. The Taiping Rebellion (begun 1850) of up to 1M peasants falls to attacks led by British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon (1833-85); Hong Xiuquan (b. 1814) is killed; total losses are estimated at 20M, seriously weakening the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty and leading to its final collapse in 1912. King George I of Greece approves a dem. 1864 Greek Constitution, with a unicameral Boule elected by universal male suffrage. Brazilian troops invade Uruguay, causing Blanco Gen. Bernard P. Berro to protest then declare war on Brazil, but the Colorados win and Venancio Flores becomes pres., and Berro continues to fight along with Paraguay against the Colorados. The Boers of the Orange Free State start the Boer-Basuto War with the Basutos over disputed land (ends 1866). The Caucasian War (Russian Conquest of the Caucasus) (begin 1817) ends with Russian annexaction of the North Caucasus, incl. Chechnya, Dagestan, Karachay, and the Circassians. 12-y.-o. Kojong II (1852-1919) becomes Yi king of Korea (until 1907), with his father Hungson Taewon-Gun (Taewon'Gun) (1821-98) acting as regent until 1873, then remaining dominant until his death, opposing foreign esp. Christian influence in Korea, while attempting reforms; after so many noble deaths, he decrees that the background color of the Korean flag shall be white, the color of mourning. Britain invades the backward kingdom of Bhutan between India and Tibet (capital Thimphu) (modern pop. 1.7M, one-third from Nepal and two-thirds from Tibet), and starts a war to gain control of its S passes (ends 1865). Frankfurt becomes the 2nd Germany city after the grand duchy of Baden (1862) to grant Jews full civil rights; they begin leaving the overcrowded ghetto and settling the neighboring Ostend suburb. A cyclone and flood destroy Machilipatnam (Bandar) on the Bay of Bengal, killing 30K. U.S. Army Col. Jefferson Jones declares the secessionist Kingdom of Callaway in Mo., causing Union Gen. John Brooks Henderson (1826-1913) to sign a peace treaty with it, recognizing its existence; too bad, in ? Union troops invade and extinguish it. Russian law establishes local legislatures. After one-third of sick cases in the military are found to be caused by venereal disease, the British Parliament passes the Contagious Disease Act, allowing plainclothes police to arrest hos and make them take mandatory medical exams and treatment up to 3 mo. in locked hospitals, increased to 1 year in 1869; since johns are exempt, English women's activist Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) works to get them repealed, and when attempts are made to extend the act to N England in 1869, Fawcett and Josephine Butler lead a movement that repeals it in 1886, which ends up getting slowed down by women nurses who want to keep it to protect the wives of the johns, incl. Fawcett's physician sister Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Filipino Mestizo Roman Catholic priest Jose Apolonio Burgos (1837-72) releases a Manifesto for Ethnic Equality in the Priesthood, leading a religious nationalism movement against the racist Spanish. Montgomery Blair resigns as U.S. postmaster gen. after introducing major improvements in the postal system incl. the use of money orders, free urban delivery, and the sorting of mail in transit on special postal railroad cars. The motto "In God We Trust" first appears on U.S. coins. The U.S. Contract Labor Act aids the importation of immigrant labor. The first federal excise tax for cigarettes is imposed by Congress to help pay for the war - one good to come out of the Grimean (Crimean) War? The Quebec Conference, led by Liberal PM Sir Oliver Mowat (1820-1903) draws up the terms of confederation of the British North Am. provinces. The Klamath Reservation in Ore. is established by the U.S. govt., which forces the Klamath, Modoc and Snake (Yahooskin) Indians to give up their lands in N Calif. and Ore. and move in; too bad, the Modocs and Klamaths are traditional enemies, and don't get along. The Knights of the Golden Circle (founded 1855), which changed its name in 1863 to the Order of Am. Knights, changes it again to Sons of Liberty, with a membership of several hundred thousand in the upper South and Ohio Valley, working to hinder enlistments in the Union Army and encourage desertions, causing most of its leaders to be arrested for conspiracy, and three to be sentenced to death but later released; the govt. crackdown causes the society to collapse. Ft. Dodge, named for Union gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge (1831-1916) (co-founder of Gen. Mills Corp.) is built on the Arkansas River along the Santa Fe Trail in W Kans. Octavia Hill (1838-1912) begins reforming London tenements. Mountain man Jim Beckworth of Calif. is acquitted by a jury of shooting "Nigger Bill". The Salon accepts two paintings by Edouard Manet after French novelist Emile Zola champions him in his newspaper Figaro; in 1866 they become close friends. Karl Marx founds the first Internat. Workingmen's Assoc. in London and New York City (ends 1876); in 1866 its first congress is held in Geneva. Jefferson Davis' son Joe is killed after falling from a high porch onto a brick pavement. Boston Brahmin Unitarian pro-Union reformer (most cultivated man in the U.S.?) Charles Eliot Norton (1827-1908) become ed. of the North Am. Review (until 1868), going on to lead the introduction of European culture and secularization to Harvard U. and other univs. and end the regime of the old Protestant "moral philosophy" course. The love of money is the root of all green? Hetty Green (1834-1916) inherits $7.5M from her Quaker whaling fleet owner father, and goes on to invest in U.S. Civil War War bonds, followed by railroad bonds, and become the richest woman in the world, getting more nutty every year, living like a pauper in a single black dress and undergarments, never washing her hands, and becoming known as "the Witch of Wall Street". British explorers Sir Samuel White and Florence Baker become the first Europeans to reach Lake Albert (Albert Nyanza) and Murchison Falls in Africa. The first salmon cannery in the U.S. opens in Washington, Calif. The Travelers Insurance Co. issues the first accident insurance policy in the U.S. to James Bolter of Hartford, Conn. Colo. Seminary is founded in the mining camp of Denver, Colo. on Mar. 3 by Colo. Territory gov. (1862-5) John Evans (1814-97) the Methodist Church; in 1880 it becomes the U. of Denver, becoming the oldest independent private univ. in the Rocky Mt. region. Quaker coeducational Swarthmore College in Swarthmore (11 mi. SW of Philadelphia), Penn. is founded by James Mott et al. The Knights of Pythias is founded in Washington, D.C., named after the Greek legend of Damon and Phintias, who were known for undying friendship. The Easter promenade down New York City's Fifth Ave. catches on. William Henry Rand (1828-1915), who went into business in 1856 in Chicago printing railroad tickets teams up with Irish-born cartographer Andrew McNally (1838-1904), adding maps and train schedules, forming Rand McNally Pub. Co. in 1868; by the year 2000 the Internet is killing its biz until it goes through a rebirth, recovering lost ground by 2006. William James Carlton of New York City founds the world's first full-service advertising agency, which in 1877 is purchased by James Walter Thompson (1847-1928), becoming J. Walter Thompson Co. (JWT); in 1899 it opens its first London office. English actor Sir John Hare (1844-1921) debuts in Liverpool, going on to become the #1 character actor in England until he retires in 1912, esp. when playing old men, incl. in Sydney Grundy'a "A Pair of Spectacles". Richard Wagner is summoned to the court of Ludwig II of Bavaria, but is expelled in 1866 because of his improprieties and popular objections to the king's friendship with him, although Ludwig remains his lifelong patron. The seaside resort of Llandudno on the Crueddyn Peninsula between the mainland and the Great Orme of the Irish Sea in Wales is crowned "Queen of the Welsh Resorts". Cella's brand chocolate-covered cherry cordial confections are introduced; in 1985 it is acquired by Tootsie Roll Industries. Alexander Levin founds Levin Brewing Co. in Tucson, Ariz., becoming the first brewery in Ariz., after which most towns in Ariz. start a brewery, which are all hampered by lack of refrigeration and alkaline water, after which the arrival of the railroad causes most to shut down by the 1880s; in 1904 the Cooper City Brewing Co. is founded in Douglas, Ariz., prospering until Ariz. enacts Prohibition in 1915. Sports: The Travers Stakes is established at the first racetrack in Saratoga, N.Y. Architecture: The Chicago Lake Tunnel is begun by sanitation engineer Ellis Sylvester Chesbrough (1813-86) to bring clean water into Chicago, Ill. from 60 ft. under Lake Michigan; it opens in 1867. New York City financier Jay Cooke builds Cooke Castle on Gibraltar Island on Lake Erie, built with blue limestone from his native Sandusky, Ohio as a summer retreat - at the Copa, Copa Cabana? The U.S. Congress decides to use the Old Hall of the House to house art, and invites each state to contribute two statues of prominent citizens for the new Nat. Statuary Hall, which opens in 1870; in 1933 the overflow statues begin to be displayed throughout the U.S. Capitol, with 38 statues left in the hall; Am. suffragist Frances Willard (1839-98) becomes the first woman represented. Inventions: On Feb. 20 Washington, D.C. dentist Mahlon Loomis (1826-86) pub. the earliest description of an Electromagnetic (Radio) Transmission System (Wireless Telegraphy), containing the soundbyte: "A process by which telegraphic communications may be made across the ocean without any wires, and also point to point on the earth, dispensing with wires", demonstrating it in Oct. 1866 between two kites 14 mi. apart in Bear's Dean, Loudoun County; on July 20, 1872 he receives U.S. patent 129,971 ("Improvement in Telegraphing"), making him the inventor of radio? Australian inventor Siegfried Marcus experiments with a lightbulb using a gasoline-air mixture, which explodes, leading him to begin designing a gasoline engine, which he abandons after 10 years of effort. French artillery officer Charles-Nicolas Peucellier invents a simple Linkage to Draw a Straight Line. George Mortimer Pullman (1831-97) of the U.S. invents the Railroad Sleeping Car - a Pullman Sleeping Car, almost as good as Boyle's Law and Hooke's Law for perfect surname to go with invention? When he dies, he is entombed in a room-sized block of concrete to prevent angry railroad workers from getting to him. Maine-borne shoemaker Benjamin Franklin Sturtevant (1833-90) invents the first commercially-successful rotary exhaust fan, patenting it in 1867, building the world's largest manufacturing plant in Jamaica Plain, Mass. in 1878, with 400 workers; after he dies his son-in-law Eugene Noble Foss takes over the business, moving it to Hyde Park, N.Y. around 1900 then resigning to become gov. of Mass. in 1910-13, with the plant going on to manufacture Am. Napier automobiles in 1904-9 and military aircraft in 1915-18 before being purchased by Westinghouse in 1945. Science: Norwegian chemist Peter Waage (1833-1900) pub. the Chemical Law of Mass Action - who first published the political one? Nonfiction: Charles Babbage (1791-1871), Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (autobio.). Joseph Bertrand, Treatise on Differential and Integral Calculus (1864-70). James Bryce (1838-1922), 1st Viscount Bryce (1838-1922), The Holy Roman Empire. Demetrio Camarda (1821-82), Essay on the Albanian Language; traces it back to ancient times; follows it with "The Albanian General Alphabet" in 1869. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), Testimonies Concerning Slavery. Fustel de Coulanges (1830-89), La Cite (Cité) Antique; claims that religion is the sole factor in the social and political evolution of Greece and Rome; a classic of 19th cent. French lit.; revised ed. pub. in 1875. John Adams Dix (1798-1879), Speeches and Occasional Addresses (2 vols.). Franciscus Donders (1818-89), On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye. Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), Fraternite et Charite Internationales en Temps de Guerre. Joshua Reed Giddings (1795-1864), History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes. Horace Greeley (1811-72), American Conflict (2 vols.) (1864, 1867). Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (1809-94), Soundings from the Atlantic (essays). William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), Pure Logic; or, The Logic of Quality Apart from Quantity. G. & C. Merriam Co., Webster's American Dictionary; supplants Worcester's 1860 dictionary as #1 in the U.S. William Wallace Mitchell (1803-84), Manual of Bowls Playing; by a cotton merchant from Glasgow, Scotland; becomes a std. work for lawn bowling. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917), The Manners and Customs of the Parsees. John Henry Newman (1801-90), Apologia pro Vita Sua; answers the attacks of anti-Catholic Anglican Christian Chartist Charles Kingsley (1819-75). Pierre le Play (1806-82), La Reforme Sociale (2 vols.). Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822-94), Exploration of the Ancient Catacombs of Rome. John Gilmary Shea (1824-92), The Operations of the French Fleet under the Count de Grasse in 1781-2. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), The Principles of Biology; coins the term "survival of the fittest"; "The survival of the fittest implies multiplication of the fittest." David Ames Wells (1828-98), Our Burden and Our Strength; restores confidence in U.S. currency and war bonds after Civil War losses had depressed half their face value, making him a star. David Friedrich Strauss (1808-74), The Life of Jesus for the German People (Das Leben Jesu fur das deutsche Volk bearbeitet) (13th ed. 1904); draws a firestorm of controversy, along with responses by Daniel Schenkel (1813-85) and Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg (1802-69), which he responds to in the 1865 pamphlet "Die Halben und die Ganzen" (The Half and the Whole" (1865). Benjamin Wilson (1817-1900), The Emphatic Diaglott; English-Greek Bible. Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823-1901), A Book of Golden Deeds. Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), La Chercheuse d'Esprit (comic opera) (Marseille). Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 0 ("Die Nullte") (rev. 1869). Ignaz Brull (1846-1907), Die Bettler von Samarkand (first opera); never performed. Charles Gounod (1818-93), Mireille (opera). Jacques Offenbach (1819-80), La Belle Helene (operetta) (Dec. 17) (Theatre des Varietes, Paris) (700 perf.); libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy; about Helen's elopment with Paris that brought on the Trojan War, starring Hortense "La Sneder" Schneider and Jose Dupuis. Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Pique Dame (operetta) (Graz) (June 22). Robert Volkmann (1815-83), Symphony No. 2 in B-flat major, Op. 53. Art: Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1830-1900), First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln; Lincoln leads his cabinet into the State Dining Room to view it on July 12, then has it exhibited in the East Room; purchased in 1877 for $25K and donated to Congress, who hold a joint session on Lincoln's birthday in 1878 to view it, with Carpenter present. Francois Feyen-Perrin (1826-88), The Beach; A Lesson in Anatomy. Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Croquet. Johan Jongkind (1819-91), The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris. John William Kaye (1814-76), History of the Sepoy War in India (1864-76); revised ed. by Col. G.B. Malleson as "History of the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8" (6 vols.) (1888-9). Jean-Louis Ernest Messonier (1815-91), 1814: Campagne de France. Gustave Moreau (1826-98), Oedipus and the Sphinx (81 in. x 41 in.); he goes Symbolist and produces the perfect example? Samuel Palmer (1805-81), Dream on the Apennines. Prilidiano Pueyrredon (1823-70), Capataz y Peon de Campo. Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82), Beata Beatrix; Horatio Discovering the Madness of Ophelia. Frederick Sandys (1829-1904), Morgan le Fay. William Wetmore Story (1819-95), Cleopatra (sculpture). Plays: Ludovic Halevy (1834-1908) and Henri Meilhac (1831-97), La Belle Helene (operetta); a hit, causing them to continue their collaboration for the rest of the decade. Bronson Crocker Howard (1842-1908), Fantine (debut); based on Victor Hugo's "Les Miserables"; written in Detroit before moving to New York City. Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-95), L'Ami des Femmes. Poetry: Janos Arany (1817-82), The Death of King Buda; first in an unfinished trilogy ("Ildiko", "Prince Csaba"). Teofilo Braga (1843-1924), Visao dos Tempos; Tempestades Sonoras. Robert Browning (1812-89), Dramatis Personae; incl. Caliban upon Setebos; Or, Natural Theology in the Island (a commentary on Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution?), Mr. Sludge, the Medium (mocks Conn. spiritualist Daniel Dunglas Home), Rabbi Ben Ezra; "Grow old along with me!/ The best is yet to be,/ The last of life, for which the first was made:/ Our times are in His hand/ Who saith, 'A whole I planned,/ Youth shows but half; trust God: see all, nor be/ afraid!'"; "Let age approve of youth, and death complete/ the same!" Sir Samuel Ferguson (1810-86), Lays of the Western Gael (Athenaeum Mag., Dec.); earns him a doctorate from Trinity College, Dublin. Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92), Enoch Arden; a sailor leaves his wife Annie and three children to go to sea, gets shipwrecked on a desert island for 10 years, then returns to find her remarried, and never reveals that he's still alive, dying of a broken heart; spawns Enoch Arden Laws, with a time limit of usually seven years before a person can remarry. John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92), Barbara Frietchie; badass matron Barbara Frietchie (1766-1862) and how she waved Old Glory at the rebels with matronly impunity, causing Stonewall Jackson's heart to melt; "'Shoot, if you must, this old gray head,/ But spare your country's flag', she said." Novels: Michael Banim (1796-1874), The Town of the Cascades; temperance novel. Jules Amedee Barbey d'Aurevilly (1808-89), (Un Pretre Marie) Un Prêtre Marié. Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-67), Le Joueur Genereux (Feb. 7); contains the immortal soundbyte "The Devil's best trick is to persuade you he doesn't exist." William Black (1841-98), James Merle (first novel). Richard Doddridge Blackmore (1825-1900), Clara Vaughn (first novel). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1835-1915), Henry Dunbar: The Story of an Outcast; The Doctor's Wife. Charles Dickens (1812-70), Our Mutual Friend (1864-5) (last novel); illustrations by Marcus Stone: "The question [with Mr. Podsnap] about everything was, would it bring a blush into the cheek of the young person [Podsnap's daughter Georgiana]" (Ch. 11); dedicated to Sir James Emerson Tennent "as a memorial of friendship". Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-81), Notes from the Underground; one of the first works of existentialist lit.; memoirs of a bitter isolated (psychological and spiritual misfit) retired civil servant in St. Petersburg, who hates materialistic Western philosophy esp. Nikolay Chernyshevsky's "What Is to Be Done?" (1863) (a big hit with Lenin); pt. 2 is titled "Apropos of the Wet Snow"; first of a string of hits. Georg Moritz Ebers (1837-98), Eine Agyptische Konigstochter (An Egyptian King's Daughter). George Eliot (1819-80), Brother Jacob. Edmond de Goncourt (1822-96) and Jules de Goncourt (1830-70), Renee (Renée) Mauperin; Germinie Lacerteux. Joseph Sheridan LeFanu, Uncle Silas. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), No Way Out (Nekuda). Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Der Hungerpastor. Fritz Reuter (1810-74), Ut Mine Stromtid; the 1848 Rev.; his masterpiece? George Sand (1804-76), Laura, Voyage dans le Cristal. Anthony Trollope (1815-82), The Small House at Allington; #5 in the Barsetshire Chronicles. Jules Verne (1828-1905), Journey to the Center of the Earth; enters through a volcano in Iceland, emerges in Stromboli Island off the N coast of Sicily; Otto Lindenbrock - a lot of U.S. Southerners would like to go with him? Susan Bogert Warner (1819-85), Melbourne House. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Contes a Ninon (first novel). Births: Am. photographer Alfred Stieglitz (d. 1946) on Jan. 1 in Hoboken, N.J.; husband (1924-) of Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986). English Kinemacolor inventor George Albert Smith (d. 1959) on Jan. 4 in Brighton; not to be confused with the Mormon church pres. (1870-1951). Am. baseball Am. League (AL) founder and pres. (1900-27) Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson (d. 1931) on Jan. 5 in Norwalk, Ohio. Am. Sears, Roebuck & Co. co-founder Alvah Curtis Roebuck (d. 1948) on Jan. 9 in Lafayette, Ind.; starts out as a watchmake; partner of Richard Warren Sears (1863-1914). German physicist Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (d. 1928) on Jan. 13 in Fischhausen, East Prussia. English Zionist novelist-playwright (Jewish) Israel Zangwill (d. 1926) on Jan. 21 in London; educated at the Jews' Free School and London U.; brother of Louis Zangwill (1869-1938); father of Oliver Zangwill (1913-87); parents emigrated to England from Russia in 1848 to escape persecution; spends his life trying to liberate Jews from ghettos; coins the term "melting pot". Am. automotive exec Charles Williams Nash (d. 1948) on Jan. 28 in Cortland, Ill. British Liberal politician Lewis (Reginald) Vernon "Loulou" Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt (d. 1922) on Jan. 31 in Nuneham Courtenay, Oxfordshire; created viscount in 1917. Am. botanist-educator (black) ("the Black Leonardo" - Time mag.) George Washington Carver (d. 1943) in Jan. near Diamond Grove, Mo.; born of slave parents, he and his mother are kidnapped by night riders at 1-2 mo. old and taken to Ark., and the owner ransoms him for a $300 horse (mother is never found); leaves home at age 10 and settles in Minneapolis, Kan., graduating from high school, followed by Iowa State U. in 1894; leading African-Am. spokesman in 1885-1915. Australian "Waltzing Matilda", "The Man from Snowy River", "Clancy of the Overflow" bush poet-writer Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson (d. 1941) on Feb. 17 near Orange, N.S.W. Vietnamese emperor #9 (1885-9) Dong Khanh (Nguyen Phuc Ung Ky) (d. 1889) on Feb. 19; nephew of Tu Duc (1847-83); father of Khai Dinh (1885-1925). Czech impressionist poet Antonin Sova (d. 1928) on Feb. 26 in Pacov. Japanese "Drifting Cloud" novelist Futabatei Shimei (Hasegawa Tatsunosuke) (d. 1909) on Feb. 28 in Edo (Tokyo); his father tells him "Kutabatte shimeie" (drop dead) when he informs him he's going to be a novelist. Russian Blue Four expressionist painter Alexei Georgevitz von Jawlensky (d. 1941) on Mar. 13 in Torzhok, Tver; moves to Munich in 1896. Am. movie pioneer William Nicholas Selig (d. 1948) on Mar. 14 in Chicago, Ill. Am. Old West and Indian arist Charles Marion Russell (d. 1926) on Mar. 19 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. playwright (black) Jesse Allison Shipp Sr. (d. 1934) on Mar. 24 in Cincinnati, Ohio; slave parents. Am. baseball player and hall-of-fame bowler Francis Hasbrouck "Frank" Brill (Briell) (d. 1944) on Mar. 30 in Astoria, N.Y. German "Tiefland", "Der Golem" pianist-composer Eugen (Eugene) Francis Charles D'Albert (d. 1932) on Apr. 10 in Glasgow, Scotland; French-Italian father, English mother; speaks only German?; educated at the Royal College of Music, London; student of Franz Liszt (1811-86), who calls him "the young Tausig". British fleet Adm. Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss (d. 1933) (pr. like Weems) on Apr. 12; descendant of William IV; friend of George V; knighted in 1916; created baron in 1919. German "The Protestant Ethic" philosopher-sociologist-economist Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (d. 1920) on Apr. 21 in Erfurt, Saxony; brother of Alfred Weber (1868-1958); educated at the U. of Heidelberg, and U. of Berlin. English caricaturist (alcoholic) Phil May (d. 1903) on Apr. 22 in Wortley (near Leeds). Am. round-the-world journalist Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Jane Cochran Seaman) (d. 1922) on May 5 in Cochran's Mills, Penn.; names herself after a Stephen Foster song. British conservative politician and field marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet (d. 1922) on May 5 in Currygrane, Ballinalee, County Longford, Ireland; educated at Marlborough College. French film producer Leon Ernest Gaumont (d. 1946) on May 10 in Semblancay. German adm. Wilhelm Anton Souchon (d. 1946) on June 2 in Leipzig; of Huguenot ancestry; uncle of Rosa Luxemburg's murderer Hermann Wilhelm Souchon (1894-1982). Am. automotive king Ransom Eli Olds (d. 1950) on June 3 in Geneva, Ohio.; of English (Dorset) descent. German "Thus Spake Zarathustra", "Der Rosenkavalier", "Salome" Romantic composer Richard Strauss (d. 1949) on June 11 in Munich. Am. ornithologist Frank Michler Chapman (d. 1945) on June 12 in West Englewood, N.J. Swedish political scientist Johan Rudolf Kjellen (Kjellén) (d. 1922) on June 13 in Torso; coins the term "geopolitics" (1899). German Alzheimer's Disease psychiatrist Aloysius "Alois" Alzheimer (d. 1915) on June 14 in Marktbreit, Bavaria; educated at Wurzburg U. Russian-German mathematician-physicist Hermann Minkowski (d. 1909) on June 22. Japanese PM #26 (1927-9) gen. Baron Tanaka Giichi (d. 1929) on June 22 in Hagi, Nagato; samurai parents. British lt. gen. Sir Frederick Stanley Maude (d. 1917) on June 24 in Gibraltar; son of Sir Frederick Francis Maude (1821-97); educated at Eton College, and Sandhurst Military Academy. German Third Law of Thermodynamics physical chemist Walther Hermann Nernst (d. 1941) on June 25 in Briesen, West Prussia. English diplomat-economist Alfred Mitchell-Innes (d. 1950) on June 30 in Edinburgh. English "Spies of the Kaiser" mystery novelist-journalist-diplomat William Le Queux (d. 1927) on July 2 in London. Am. businessman-inventor-novelist Col. John Jacob Astor IV (d. 1912) on July 13 in Rhinebeck, N.Y.; son of William Backhouse Astor Jr. (1830-92) and Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor (1830-1908); great-grandson of John Jacob Astor (1763-1848); educated at Harvard U. Am. conservationist Dem. politician (U.S. interior secy. #26, 1913-20) Franklin Knight Lane (d. 1921) on July 15 in DeSable, Prince Edward Island, Canada; emigrates to the U.S. in 1870; educated at the U. of Calif.; U.S. interior secy. (1913-21). English singer-actress ("the queen of her profession") Dame Marie Tempest (Mary Susan Etherington) (d. 1942) on July 15 in London; created dame in 1937. German writer ("The First Lady of Germany" - Thomas Mann) Ricarda Huch (d. 1947) on July 18 in Braunschweig; educated at Zurich U. Swedish symbolist poet Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Eriksson) (d. 1931) on July 20 in Karlbo, Dalarna. U.S. First Lady (1886-9, 1893-7) Frances Cornelia Folsom Cleveland-Preston (d. 1947) on July 21 in Buffalo, N.Y.; wife of Pres. Grover Cleveland. Filipino political philosopher and PM #1 (1899) ("the Sublime Paralytic") ("the Brains of the Revolution") Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (d. 1903) on July 23 in Barangay Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas. German "Spring Awakening", "Pandora's Box" dramatist-novelist Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Wedekind (d. 1918) on July 24 in Hanover. English "Christ in Hades" poet-dramatist Steven Phillips (d. 1915) on July 28 in Somertown (near Oxford); educated at Queen's College, Cambridge U. British diplomat Eyre Alexander Barby Wisbart Crowe (d. 1925) on July 30 in Leipzig; German mother. German-British humanist-pragmatist philosopher Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (d. 1937) on Aug. 16 in Altona, Holstein; educated Rugby School, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Romanian Liberal PM (1909-11, 1913-19, 1922-27) Ion (Ionel) I.C. Bratianu (d. 1927) on Aug. 20 in Florica, Stefanesti; eldest son of Ioan Bratianu (1822-91); father of Gheorghe Bratianu (1898-1953). Am. musician and San Francisco Earthquake mayor #26 (1902-7) (Roman Catholic) Eugene Edward "Handsome Gene" Schmitz (d. 1928) on Aug. 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; German immigrant father, Irish immigrant mother. Greek Liberal PM (1910-15, 1917-20, 1924, 1928-33) Eleutherios (Eleftherios) Venizelos (d. 1936) on Aug. 23 in Mournies (near Chania), Crete. Am. writer Mark Antony De Wolfe (DeWolfe) Howe Jr. (d. 1960) on Aug. 28 in Bristol, R.I.; son of Bishop mark Antony De Wolfe Howe Sr. (1808-95); educated at Lehigh U., and Harvard U.; husband of Fanny Huntington Quincy (1870-1933), sister of Josiah Quincy (1859-1919); father of Quincy Howe (1900-77), Helen Huntington Howe (1905-75), and Mark De Wolfe Howe III (1906-67). British diplomat (pro-Irish traitor) Sir Roger David Casement (d. 1916) on Sept. 1 in Sandycove, Dublin; Protestant father and Roman Catholic mother, who secretly baptizes him at age 3 then dies at age 9. Am. San Francisco political boss (Jewish) Abraham "Abe" Ruef (d. 1936) on Sept. 2 in San Francisco, Calif.; of French Jewish descent; educated at UCB, and Hastings College of Law. French painter Seraphine (Séraphine) Louis "de Senlis" (d. 1942) on Sept. 3 in Arsy (Oise). English Liberal politician and sociologist Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (d. 1929) on Sept. 8 in St. Ive (near Liskeard), Cornwall; brother of Emily Hobhouse (1860-1926). Estonian German biologist (Founder of Biosemiotics) Jakob Johann von Uexkull (Uexküll) (d. 1944) on Sept. 8 in Koonga Paris; discoverer of the notion of umwelt. English atty.-politician-diplomat Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (d. 1958) on Sept. 14 in Cavendish Square, London; created Lord Robert Cecil in 1868-1923. Sri Lankan Buddhist revivalist Anagarika ("homeless one") Dharmapala ("protector of the dharma") (Don David Hewavitarane) (d. 1933) on Sept. 17 in Colombo. Dutch poet Lodewijk van Deyssel (AKA Karel Alberdingk Thym) (d. 1952) on Sept. 22 in Amsterdam. British Lt. Gen. Sir Aylmer Gould "Hunter-Bunter" Hunter-Weston (d. 1940) on Sept. 23. Spanish "Abel Sanchez: The History of a Passion" philosopher-novelist-poet Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (d. 1936) on Sept. 29 in Bilbao; educated at the U. of Madrid; rector of the U. of Salamanca (1901-14, 1930-6). French inventor and pioneer filmmaker Louis Jean Lumiere (Lumière) (d. 1948) on Oct. 5 in Besancon; brother of Auguste Lumiere (1862-1954). German Zimmermann Telegram foreign minister ("most destructive person of the 20th cent.") Arthur Zimmermann (d. 1940) on Oct. 5 in Marggrabova, East Prussia. English tennis player Maud Watson (d. 1946) on Oct. 9 in Harrow, London. English clergyman and mountain climber Sir James Outram (d. 1925) on Oct. 13 in London; not to be confused with the soldier Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet (1803-63). Polish "The Faithful River" novelist-dramatist Stefan Zeromski (d. 1925) on Oct. 14 in Strawczyn (near Kielce). U.S. secy. of state #42 (1915-20) Robert Lansing (d. 1928) on Oct. 17 in Watertown, N.Y.; educated at Amherst College. British (Irish) Brig. Gen. Thomas Pakenham, 5th Earl of Longford (d. 1915) on Oct. 19; father of Francis Pakenham, 7th earl of Longford (1905-2001). Am. automobile manufacturer John Francis Dodge (d. 1920) on Oct. 25 in Niles, Mich.; brother of Horace Elgin Dodge Sr. (1868-1920). Am. military surgeon gen. George Washington Crile (d. 1943) on Nov. 11 near Chili, Ohio; first surgeon to give a successful direct blood transfusion. Austrian pacifist journalist (Jewish) Alfred Hermann Fried (d. 1921) on Nov. 11 in Vienna. French "Arsene Lupin" novelist Maurice Leblanc (d. 1941) on Nov. 11 in Rouen. French 5' painter-lithographer (hunchback) ("the Soul of Montmartre") Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa (d. 1901) on Nov. 24 in Albi, Tarn; known for child-sized legs (27.5") and hypertrophied genitals?; inventor of chocolate mousse ("chocolate mayonnaise") and the Earthquake cocktail (Tremblement de Terre) (absinthe, red wine, cognac). Dutch Socialist "Interieurs" poet Herman Gorter (d. 1927) on Nov. 26. English "As a Man Thinketh" New Thought writer James Allen (d. 1912) on Nov. 28 in Leicester. U.S. secy. of war #46 (1913-16) Lindley Miller Garrison (d. 1932) on Nov. 28 in Camden, N.J.; educated at Harvard U. Dutch Socialist playwright-novelist-ed. (Jewish) Herman Heijermans (d. 1924) on Dec. 3 in Rotterdam; writes plays under alias Koos Habbema and Samuel Falkland. Am. silent film cowboy actor-writer-dir.-producer William Surrey Hart (d. 1946) on Dec. 6 in Newburgh, N.Y.; Irish descent father, German descent mother. French sculptor Camille Claudel (d. 1943) on Dec. 8 in Fere-en-Tardenois, Aisne; sister of Paul Claudel (1868-1955); asst., model, and lover of Augustine Rodin (1840-1917). Australian Lt. Harry "The Breaker" Harbord Morant (d. 1902) on Dec. 9 in Bridgwater, Somerset, England; nicknamed for being good at breaking horses. Am. Christian "New Humanist" journalist-editor-critic Paul Elmer More (d. 1937) on Dec. 12 in St. Louis, Mo.; educated at Harvard U.; collaborator of Irving Babbitt (1865-1933). French auto racer Albert (Georges) Lemaitre (d. 1906) in Ay (near Epernay), Marne. Am. journalist Richard Harding Davis (d. 1916) in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. candymaker Peter Paul Halajian (d. 1927) in Armenia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1890. French "The Talisman" Les Nabis painter Paul Serusier (Sérusier) (d. 1927). English "Temple Shakespeare" scholar-educator (Jewish) Sir Israel Gollancz (d. 1930) in London; brother of Sir Hermann Gollancz (1852-1930); uncle of Sir Victor Gollancz (1893-1967); knighted in 1919. Am. newspaper ed. Arthur Birsbane (d. 1936) in Buffalo, N.Y. Norwegian poet-journalist Nils Collett Vogt (d. 1937) in Christiania (Oslo). Am. architect Whitney Warren (d. 1943) in New York City. Am. educator and transportation expert Emory Richard Johnson (d. 1950) in Waupun, Wisc. Deaths: English meteorology founder Luke Howard (b. 1772) on Mar. 21 in Tottenham, London. Am. politician-orator Josiah Quincy III (b. 1772) on July 1 in Quincy, Mass. U.S. First Lady (1841) Anna Symmes Harrison (b. 1775) on Feb. 25 in North Bend, Ohio. English poet Walter Savage Landor (b. 1775) on Sept. 17 in Florence, Italy: "I strove with none, for none was worth my strife,/ Nature I loved, and next to Nature, Art;/ I warmed both hands before the fire of life,/ It sinks, and I am ready to depart." U.S. chief justice #5 (1836-64) Roger B. Taney (b. 1777) on Oct. 12 in Washington, D.C.; dies the same day that his home state Md. abolishes slavery. English Pyramidology founder John Taylor (b. 1781). Am. businessman Frederic Tudor (b. 1783) on Feb. 6 in Boston, Mass. Am. explorer Stephen Harriman Long (b. 1784) on Sept. 4 in Alton, Ill. El Salvadorian pres. (1829-30, 1830-2) Jose Maria Cornejo (b. 1788) on Nov. 24 in San Vicente. Am. missionary Miron Winslow (b. 1789) on Oct. 22 in the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Am. geologist-geographer Henry Schoolcraft (b. 1793) on Dec. 10. German architect Leo von Klenze (b. 1784) on Jan. 27. English clergyman Fitzroy Stanhope (b. 1787). Scottish Ricardian economist John Ramsay McCulloch (b. 1789) on Nov. 11 in London. British utilitarian writer Nassau William Senior (b. 1790) on June 4. German composer Giacomo Meyerbeer (b. 1791) on May 2; after his death, Richard Wagner begins a vicious anti-Semitic smear campaign against him, and his operas are later banned by the Nazis. U.S. vice-pres. #11 (1845-9) George Mifflin Dallas (b. 1792) on Dec. 31 in Philadelphia, Penn. French Adm. Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars (b. 1793) on Mar. 16. Czech pianist-composer Josef Proksch (b. 1794) on Dec. 20 in Prague. British-Am. actor-mgr. James William Wallack (b. 1794). Am. abolitionist statesman Joshua Reed Giddings (b. 1795) on May 27 in Montreal, Canada. German chemist Karl Ernst Claus (b. 1796) on Mar. 24 in Tartu. French Saint-Simonian technocrat Prosper Enfantin (b. 1796) on Sept. 1 in Paris. Am. Mo. gov. Hamilton Rowan Gamble (b. 1798) on Jan. 31 (complications from a fall). Am. penmanship teacher Platt Rogers Spencer (b. 1800). English statesman George William Frederick Howard (1802-64), 7th earl of Carlisle (b. 1802) on Dec. 5. Am. journalist-poet George Pope Morris (b. 1802). English sporting novelist Robert Smith Surtees (b. 1803) on Mar. 16 in Brighton. Am. "The Scarlet Letter" novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne (b. 1804) on May 19 in Plymouth, N.H.; dies while traveling with ex-pres. Franklin Pierce; buried in Concord, Mass. near the graves of Emerson and Thoreau - seems like the Devil always wins, that's why so many people are on his side? German musical instrument maker Christian Buschmann (b. 1805) on Oct. 1 in Hamburg. Am. commodore William David Porter (b. 1808) on May 1 in New York City (heart disease). Bavarian king (1848-64) Maximilian II (b. 1811) on Mar. 10 in Munich. Japanese Western scholar Sakuma Shozan (b. 1811) on Aug. 12. English mathematician George Boole (b. 1815) on Dec. 8 in Ballintemple, County Cork, Ireland. English caricaturist John Leech (b. 1817). Hungarian dramatist-poet Imre Madach (b. 1823) on Oct. 5 in Also-Sztregova. German Socialist activist Ferdinand Lassalle (b. 1825) on Aug. 31 near Geneva (killed in a duel). Am. Confed. Gen. John Hunt Morgan (b. 1825) on Sept. 4 near Greenville, Tenn.; captured by federal troops while reconnoitering, then shot while attempting to escape, causing suspicions that it was to get even for his escape from Ohio State Penn. German Socialist leader Ferdinand Lasalle (b. 1825). Am. composer Stephen Collins Foster (b. 1826) on Jan. 13 in New York City; dies in a charity ward of Bellevue Hospital; from 1861 his alcoholism (and TB?) causes him to squander his fortune and begin living in cheap boarding houses in New York City; a scrap of paper is found in his effects which says "Dear friends and gentle hearts". British explorer John Hanning Speke (b. 1827) on Sept. 15 (suicide?). Am. Confed. cavalry Gen. Jeb Stuart (b. 1833) on May 12 in Richmond, Va. (shot at Yellow Tavern on May 11): last words: "I am resigned; God's will be done"; in Dec. 2006 a battle flag sewn for him by his wife Flora sells at auction for a record $956K.



1865 - The Die, Official, Die 13th Amendment Appomattox Surrender Lincoln Assassination Sultana Disaster Year? It's official, mistletoe, just friends? End game and show trials in messed-up cadaver-filled America? As Rudolf says, entropy is always increasing, so the less-white immigration surge into New York more than makes up for the piles of lily white cadavers, and it's back to business as usual in the Great American People Laundry as the winner's side calls it a New Birth of Freedom? A great year to start a mass consumer business in the U.S.?

Bearded Abraham Lincoln of the U.S. (1809-65) James Mitchell Ashley of the U.S. (1824-96) James Falconer Wilson of the U.S. (1828-95) James Brooks Henderson of the U.S. (1826-1913) Fernando Wood of the U.S. (1812-81) George Hunt Pendleton of the U.S. (1825-89) Lyman Trumbull of the U.S. (1813-96) Francis Preston Blair Sr. of the U.S. (1791-1876) Appomattox Courthouse Village, Va. Surrender, Apr. 9, 1865 House of Wilmer McLean in Appomattox Couthouse Village, Va. (1814-82) Traveller (1857-70) carrying Gen. Robert E. Lee Confed. Gen. Edward Porter Alexander (1835-1910) U.S. Brig. Gen. Ely Parker (1828-95) Abraham Lincoln on his death bed, Apr. 14-15, 1865 Andrew Johnson of the U.S. (1808-75) Eliza McCardle Johnson of the U.S. (1810-76) Steamboat 'Sultana', 1863-5 Carpetbaggers, 1865-77 Union Gen. Alfred Howe Terry (1827-90) U.S. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909) U.S. Gen. Robert Kingston Scott (1826-1900) Confed. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (1824-93) U.S. Gen. James Harrison Wilson (1837-1925) U.S. Gen. Edward Francis Winslow (1837-1914) Union Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard (1835-1907) Tunis Campbell of the U.S. (1812-91) Elizabeth Van 'Crazy Bet' Lew (1818-1900) Laura Keene (1826-73) U.S. Maj. Henry Reed Rathbone (1837-1911) Clara Harris (1845-83) Joseph K. Barnes of the U.S. (1817-83) Charles Augustus Leale (1842-1932) John Wilkes Booth (1838-65) Edwin Thomas Booth (1833-93) Mary Elizabeth Eugenia Jenkins Surratt (1823-65) John Surratt (1844-1916) Surratt Boarding House Dr. Samuel Mudd (1833-83) Lewis Powell (1844-65) George Atzerodt (1835-65) U.S. Sgt. Boston Corbett (1832-94) David Edgar Harold (1842-65) Michael O'Laughlen Jr. (1840-65) Samuel Bland Arnold (1834-1906) Edmund Spangler (1825-75) Reverdy Johnson of the U.S. (1796-1876) Union Gen. Thomas Maley Harris (1817-1906) Union Gen. LaFayette Curry Baker (1826-68) James Harvey Strobridge (1827-1921) Vicente Cerna Sandoval of Guatemala Gen. Mariano Ignacio Prado of Peru (1826-1901) Powers Boothe (1948-) U.S. Gen. Alexander T. Shaler (1827-1911) Confed. Brig. Gen. Stand Watie (1806-71) Frederick William Seward of the U.S. (1830-1915) U.S. Maj. Martin Robinson Delany (1812-85) Clement Claiborne Clay Jr. (1816-82) Jacob Merritt Howard of the U.S. (1805-71) Confed. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77) Jacob Thompson (1810-85) James Hudson Taylor (1832-1905) Dorothea Dix (1802-87) Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926) Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919) Ward Hill Lamon (1828-93) Francois Léonce Verny of France (1837-1908) Red Cloud (1822-1909) Paul Bogle (1822-65) Edward John Eyre of Britain (1815-1901) John Russell, 1st Earl Russell of Britain (1792-1878) Edward Whymper (1840-1911) Lord John Acton of Britain (1834-1902) Benjamin Altman (1840-1913) William Booth (1829-1912) Catherine Booth (1829-90) Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Samuel Cunliffe Lister (1815-1906) Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) Sir William Huggins (1824-1910) Friedrich August von Kekulé (1829-96) William Edward Hartpole Lecky (1838-1903) John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) Gregor Mendel (1822-84) John Stuart Mill (1806-73) Maria Mitchell (1818-89) Hermann Johann Philipp Sprengel (1834-1906) Jean Servais Stas (1831-91) Thomas Sutherland (1834-1922) Jean-Antoine Villemin (1827-92) Karl von Voit (1831-1908) Cyrus West Field (1819-92) Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819-91) Sir Daniel Gooch, 1st Baronet (1816-89) Sir John Pender (1815-96) Tom Taylor (1817-80) Ezra Cornell (1807-74) Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) Reuben Eaton Fenton of the U.S. (1819-85) Karl Weierstrass (1815-97) Bernhard Bolzano (1781-1848) Sir John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury (1834-1913) Martha Schofield (1839-1916) Richard Grant White (1822-85) James Black (1823-93) Jean-Baptiste Leon Say (1826-96) Marie-Esprit Leon Walras (1834-1910) Lewis Carroll (1832-98) Alice Pleasance Liddell (1852-1934) Henry George Liddell (1811-98) Robinson Duckworth (1834-1911) Sir John Tenniel (1820-1914) 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' by Sir John Tenniel 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' by Sir John Tenniel William Ross Wallace (1819-81) Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902) John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (1839-1937) William Avery Rockefeller Jr. (1841-1922) Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913) Jules Jaluzot (1834-1916) Marshall Field (1834-1906) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836-1917) Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905) William Russell Grace (1832-1904) George Grote (1794-1871) Asa Shinn Mercer (1839-1917) Potter Palmer (1826-1902) Levi Zeigler Leiter (1834-1904) Giosuè Carducci (1835-1907) Amos Emerson Dolbear (1837-1910) Thomas William Robertson (1829-71) Karl Millöcker (1842-99) Asa Packer (1805-79) Julius Plucker (1801-68) Charles de Young (1847-80) Michael H. de Young (1849-1925) Rev. Isaac Smith Kalloch (1831-87) Rev. Henry Baker Tristram (1822-1906) Claus Spreckels (1828-1908) Antonio Pastor (1837-1908) Henry Wheeler Shaw (1818-85) Henry Martin Tupper (1831-93) John Wesley Hyatt (1837-1920) Nikolai Leskov (1831-95) Julius von Sachs (1832-97) Knut Fredrik Idestam (1838-1916) Jesse Chisholm (1806-68) George Washington Duke (1820-1905) John Batterson Stetson (1830-1906) Stetson Hats John Sholto Douglas, 8th Marquis of Queensberry (1844-1900) Boston Old City Hall 'Olympia' by Edouard Manet (1832-83), 1863 Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-90) 'The Sermon on the Mount' by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-79 'The Last Supper' by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-79 'The Crucifixion' by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-79 'The Burial of Jesus' by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-79 'The Resurrection' by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-79 William Barton Rogers (1804-82) Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908) Max and Moritz, by Wilhelm Busch Constantino Brumidi (1805-80) 'The Apotheosis of Washington' by Constantino Brumidi (1805-80), 1865 Charles-Francois Daubigny (1817-78) 'Coucher de Soleil' by Charles-Francois Daubigny (1817-78), 1865 Hamm's Logo Madison Square Theatre, 1865 Belvedere Castle, 1865

1865 Between 1865-90 the rates on freight trains drop and services grow from 10B to 72B ton-mi. Chivalry is as chivalry does? Early in the year Confed. Pres. Jefferson Davis sends a message to England and France offering to abolish slavery in exchange for official recognition; the war ends before either country responds. On Jan. 13 Confed. Gen. John Bell Hood resigns his command in Tupelo, Miss. (future birthplace of Elvis Presley and Lawrence Welk singer Guy Hovis). On Jan. 4 Conway, Mass.-born Marshall Field (1834-1906), gen. mgr. of Cooley & Wadsworth in Chicago, Ill. buys into the retail store of aging Potter Palmer (1826-1902), and forms a 3-way partnership with rich Jew (descended from the Bavarian house of Leiter) Levi Zeigler Leiter (1834-1904), going on to found Marshal Field & Co. in Jan. 1881 and zoom to the top; on Aug. 30, 2005 it is acquired by Macy's. On Jan. 13-15 Union forces under Brig Gen. Alfred Howe Terry (1827-90) capture Confed. stronghold Ft. Fisher in Wilmington, N.C. with an amphibious assault. On Jan. 16 Union Gen. Sherman issues Field Order 15 in Savannah, Ga., setting apart for blacks the islands S of Charleston, S.C., abandoned rice fields along rivers for 30 mi. from the sea, "and the country bordering the St. Johns River, Florida", with no whites allowed on Georgia's offshore islands; N.J.-born freedman and abolitionist Tunis Campbell (1812-91) is appointed military gov. of five Georgia sea islands, and establishes a govt. on St. Catherine's Island, where he distributes land to other blacks, organizes a bicameral legislature and a supreme court, makes himself pres., provides schools, and establishes a militia to keep out whites. On Jan. 16 the London Mathematical Society is founded in London, England, with mathematician Augustus De Morgan as pres. #1. (until 1866). On Jan. 20 Pres. Lincoln invites U.S. Rep. Oakes Ames into his office and keeps him after midnight, telling him, "If the subsidies provided [for the Union Pacific Railroad] are not enough to build the road, ask double and you shall have it; the road must be built"; by the end of the year it reaches Kansas City, Mo.; meanwhile on Jan. 7 Irish-born Central Pacific construction boss James Harvey Strobridge (1827-1921) places an ad in the Sacramento Union announcing jobs for 5K laborers at $3 a day, but after few apply because they can make more in the Nevada silver mines, he contracts with the Chinese Six Cos., an immigration agency named for six areas of S China to provide 9K laborers from Calif. and Guangzhou (Canton) province in China to go with the 1K white suckers that bit; 500+ Chinese end up dying trying to blast through 7K-ft. Donner Pass. The Confederacy is done for, stick it with a fork? On Jan. 31 after abolitionist Ohio Repub. Rep. (1859-9) James Mitchell Ashley (1824-96) (House floor mgr.) (known for traveling with John Brown's widow to see his execution, writing a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, and introducing the first bill for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery on Dec. 14, 1863) moves for a reconsideration on Jan. 6, causing a month-long House debate with crowded galleries, giving Ashley time to swing some lame duck Dems., and Pres. Lincoln sends a last minute trick message to the House claiming that he has "no knowledge" of Southern peace reps. in Washington, D.C. even though he sent Repub. leader Francis Preston Blair Sr. (1791-1876) to Richmond, Va. to persuade Jefferson Davis to send commissioners incl. vice-pres. Alexander Stephens to discuss peace terms, and had them held up at Gen. Grant's HQ in Va. on Jan. 29 to help the amendment pass, and Radical Repub. leader Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868) on Jan. 13 cops-out and claims it's only to create "equality before the law" rather than racial equality, weathering sarcastic questions from Copperhead Dem. N.Y. rep. (1863-5) (Tammany Hall sachem) Fernando Wood (1812-81) and Ohio rep. (1857-85) (pro-slavery leader) "Gentleman" George Hunt Pendleton (1825-89), the Thirteenth (13th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime, originally introduced by U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.). (1855-73) Lyman Trumbull (1813-96) (chmn. of the Senate Judiciary Committee) is approved by the 38th Congress by 119-56-8 to a great cheer incl. blacks in the gallery, and sent to the states for ratification on Feb. 1, and after Ga. becomes state #27 of 36 to ratify it on Dec. 6, on Dec. 18 it is officially adopted by U.S. secy. of state William Seward; Stevens later utters the soundbyte: "The greatest measure of the nineteenth century was passed by corruption, aided and abetted by the purest man in America"; Lincoln could have waited until Mar. to call a special session of the Congress, with enough votes to pass it assured, but claims that prompt bipartisan approval would show nat. unity; he really thinks it can't be passed if the war ends first?; in 1864 the Cooperheads pub. the pamphlet Abraham Africanus I: His Secret Life, Revealed under the Mesmeric Influence, claiming that Lincoln signed a contract with the Devil to become pres. for life and "subvert the liberties of the American people and debach their civic aspirations", which doesn't keep the amendment from passing; Fla. ratifies it on Dec. 28, N.J. in 1866, Tex. in 1870, Del. in 1901, and Ky. in 1976; Mo. and Tenn. abolish slavery by state action in Jan.; too bad, the Southern states soon exploit the loophole that slavery is permissible as punishment for crimes, soon getting freed slaves sentenced to "time at hard labor" sans prisons, creating the Convict Lease Labor Racket, which lasts until WWII although in 1928 Ala. becomes the last state to do it officially; it takes until Feb. 7, 2013 for Miss. to finally ratify it after it's ratified in 1995 but the notification isn't sent to Congress until the Oct. 8, 2012 Steven Spielberg film Lincoln alerts U. of Miss. profs. Ranjan Batra and Ken Sullivan to kick the Miss. secy. of state in the pants. On Jan. 31 Gen. Robert E. Lee is named gen.-in-chief of all the armies of the confounded Confederacy. In Jan. U.S. secy. of state William H. Seward offers to purchase the Danish West Indies (modern-day U.S. Virgin Islands), going on a tour of the region, where he also visits the Domincan Repub. offering to purchase Samana Bay, pressing until the last days of the Johnson admin. in vain. In Jan. an oil well is discovered in Pithole Creek, Penn., and by July four wells in the new town of Pithole pump 2K barrels a day, 30% of all the oil produced in Penn., causing the town pop. to grow to 12K, with 50 hotels, and driving oil prices down from $12 last year to $2.40 a gal.; meanwhile the first oil pipeline (6-mi.-long) is laid in Penn. In Jan. the gold value of the Union greenback is down to 46 cents, and Confed. paper money is down to $17 per $1000; when the war ends, Confed. money becomes worthless, and the greenback doesn't regain full value until the end of 1878. On Feb. 3 the Hampton Roads Conference aboard the River Queen near Ft. Monroe in Hampton, Va., the first of the war between the Union and Confederacy is a bust after Pres. Lincoln and William Seward demand reunion and Confed. vice-pres. Alexander Stephens wants to stay independent, the emancipation issue dealing it a double-whammy; a harebrained scheme by Francis Preston Blair to get them to kiss and make up in order to attack Emperor Maximilian in Mexico is dropped - why, I can't keep my mammie? On Feb. 4 a broad transverse stripe of red is added to the official white Confed. flag so that the Yankees won't mistake it for a truce flag - cute little cheerleaders are too dear? On Feb. 5-7 the Battle of Hatcher's Run sees a Union attempt to intercept Confed. supply trains repulsed. On Feb. 6 John Cabell Breckinridge becomes the 5th and last Confed. war secy. (until May 10), going on to work for an honorable surrender, bucking Jefferson Davis, who wanted to fight forever. On Feb. 17 Columbia, S.C. falls, burnt to the groundy ground ground by Gen. William "Pizza Hut Pan Pizza" Tecumseh Sherman, followed by Charleston, S.C. on Feb. 18, which falls to the Union fleet; fleeing Confed. soldiers go S and join Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston's army. On Feb. 20 the Battle of Ft. Myers in SW Fla. sees Confed. Fla. troops siege the fort, killing one black Union soldier and injuring three before retreating after dark; the Union troops abandon the fort in Mar.; next Feb. 21 Manuel A. Gonzalez and his 5-y.-o. son Manuel S. Gonzales from Key West become the first permanent settlers of the city of Fort Myers, Fla., which becomes a major winter resort after the building of the Royal Palm Hotel in 1898, attracting Thomas Edison, Henry Ford et al. On Feb. 22 Tenn. adopts a new 1865 Tenn. Constitution abolishing slavery. On Feb. 23 Lee reinstates Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston as cmdr. of the Army of the Tennessee, and Gen. Braxton Bragg is assigned to serve under him. On Feb. 27 after recruiting thousands of blacks for the military in R.I., Conn., and Cleveland, and visiting Lincoln on Feb. 8, impressing him with his intelligence, causing him to reconsider an appeal made to him in 1863 by Frederick Douglass (1818-95), former African nationalist (now that the Civil War is on, I'll give it another chance?) Martin Robinson Delany (1812-85) is commissioned as a maj. in the 52nd U.S. Colored Troops, becoming the first black line field officer in the U.S. Army; in Feb. the first occupation troops to arrive in Charleston, S.C., the "holy of holies" of the Confederacy are guess, black units, incl. the Third and Fourth S.C. Regiments, partially manned by former slaves of that very city where the secession convention had been held in 1861 and the Dem. Party had been disrupted by a Southern walkout in 1860. In Feb. Washburn U. in Topeka, Kan. is founded as Lincoln College, renamed to Washburn College in 1968 after Ichabod Washburn pledges $25K, causing the sports teams to be named the Ichabods. On Mar. 2 John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937) of Cleveland, Ohio (who actually made his money selling booze to Union troops during the Civil War, then laundered it, and is known for the soundbyte "I would rather earn 1% of 100 peoples' efforts than 100% of my own efforts"?) dissolves his produce business relationship with Maurice B. Clark (1827-1901), and goes into biz with his brother William Avery Rockefeller Jr. (1841-1922), tycoon Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913), and chemist Samuel Andrews (1836-1904), pumping up his 2-y.-o. oil refinery to 500 barrels per day, becoming the first large oil refinery in Cleveland, which has 50 refineries by next year (#2 to Pittsburgh), producing massive pollution while making J.D. wealthy. On Mar. 3 Congress sets up within the U.S. War Dept. the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedman's Bureau) to provide 400K freed slaves with "provisions, clothing and fuel", with Gen. Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909) as dir.; Pres. Johnson cancels Sherman's Field Order 15, and sends troops to restore the land given to blacks to their former white owners; the bureau takes over abandoned and confiscated land, and Howard gets Gen. Sherman to promise that every freedman will get "forty acres and a mule", offering it for rental in 40-acre tracts to "loyal refugees and freedmen", who can buy the land at a fair price within three years; too bad, the amount of land available is too limited for everybody to get theirs, being limited to a 30-mi.-wide coastal strip from Charleston S to St. John's River in Fla., and Howard receives orders to evict blacks from all other plots except on the Sea Islands; on July 23 black Maj. Martin Robinson Delany is appointed asst. commissioner and gives lectures to white officers, pissing them off with his uppityness, getting him removed on Aug. 7, while white Maj. Gen. Robert Kingston Scott (1826-1900) (new gov. of S.C.) replaces gen. Rufus Saxton as head of the Freedman's Bureau, becoming known for corruption - all I got is this t-shirt? On Mar. 3 the Colorado River Indian Reservation is established by an act of Congress; going on to reach 264,250 acres, incl. 225,914 in Yuma County, Ariz., and 38,366 in San Bernardino and Riverside Counties in Calif. The great speech in U.S. history? On Mar. 4 U.S. pres. #16 Abraham Lincoln of the Union Party is inaugurated for a 2nd term in the 22nd U.S. Pres. Inauguration; first U.S. pres. to be elected for a 2nd term and not finish it (McKinley, Nixon); Raleigh, N.C.-born Andrew Johnson (1808-75) becomes the 16th U.S. vice-pres. (he never went to school and was taught to read to the other tailors by his boss while sewing, and to write and do math by his wife Eliza, and is drunk as a skunk during his inauguration); Hannibal Hamlin becomes a collector in the port of Boston, Mass.; the first time that African-Ams. march in the inauguration parade; on Mar. 4 Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, delivered to a biracial audience (the blacks considering him as their savior) is only 701 words, lasts 7 min., and is Biblical in tone, complete with a dramatic moment when the clouds part and bathe him in brilliant sunlight, beginning with the soundbyte: "Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away", remarking on how both sides pray to the same God and read the same Bible, and how one people can force another people to sweat to give them free bread, considering the war as God's retribution on all whites for the sin of slavery (which started in Jamestown in 1619, 246 years earlier), and concluding: "With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds... to do all that shall achieve a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations"; John Wilkes Booth attends Lincoln's inauguration and inaugural ball, where Frederick Douglass is barred by guards until Lincoln orders him to pass, then calls him his friend and asks for his valued opinion on the speech, which Douglass calls a sacred effort. On Mar. 8-10 the all-cavalry Battle of Monroe's Crossroads in Hoke County, N.C. sees the Confederates under Gen. Wade Hampton take the Union by surprise, catching womanizing Gen. Hugh Judson "Kil-Cavalry" Kilpatrick (1836-81) ("a hell of a damn fool" - Gen. Sherman) by surprise in his nightshirt dallying with a loose woman, causing "Kilpatrick's Shirt-Tail Skedaddle", becoming the last cavalry campaign of the war; 5 wks. later during surrender negotiations for the Confederacy's last army in the East, Hampton and Kilpatrick trade epithets and almost get into a fistfight? On Mar. 11 500 bounty jumpers are arrested by U.S. Army provost marshals, the majority having deserted 3x-30x in order to keep the enlistment bounty, which is larger than the $30 offered for their apprehension, creating a lucrative racket when the captors begin letting them go in return for a cut. On Mar. 13 the Confederate Congress narrowly passes a Confed. Emancipation Act, sponsored by secy. of state Judah P. Benjamin and backed by Gen. Robert E. Lee, promising emancipation to any slave who joins the Confed. military, despite the logical contradictions, becoming too little, too late? On Mar. 14 the Mud Lake Massacre (Battle of Mud Lake) sees 29 U.S. soldiers under Capt. wells attack a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, Nev., killing 29 of 30. On Mar. 18 the Confederate Congress adjourns for the last time. On Mar. 17 actor John Wilkes Booth, "the handsomest man in America" (wears a ring on his right pinkie) allegedly talks Mary Surratt's son John Harrison Surratt Jr. (1844-1916) out of merely kidnapping Pres. Lincoln in favor of assassinating him; on Mar. 18 he gives his last performance as Duke Pescara in The Apostate. On Mar. 19 (Sun.) after telling him that the siege of Petersburg is wearing his army down, Gen. Lee attends church services for the last time with Jefferson Davis in Richmond, Va., then rides back 20 mi. S to Petersburg to make his last stand to save the key railroad hub. On Mar. 19-21 the Confeds. under Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston mount a desperation attack on Sherman's left wing at the Battle of Bentonville, N.C. in an attempt to stop him from getting through the Carolinas, becoming Sherman's last major battle and the last major Confed. offensive; the Confeds. get licked, and end up retreating from Greenville, S.C., allowing Sherman and Grant to join up at Petersburg; Confed. lines have thinned out to only about 1K soldiers per mi. On Mar. 22 Wilson's Raid (ends Apr.) by 13.5K Union calvary under Brig. Gen. James Harrison Wilson (1837-1925), all armed with new 7-shot Spencer repeating rifles begins, systematically destroying Southern manufacturing facilities in Ala. and Ga., while the shrinking ragtag 2.5K-man rebel cavalry of Confed. Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest tries unsuccessfully to stop them; on Mar. 28 the Oxmoor and Irondale iron furnaces at Elyton near Birmingham, Ala. are destroyed, followed on Mar. 31 by the Roupes Valley Ironworks in Tannehill, followed by the military training facilities at the U. of Ala. in Tuscaloosa; on Mar. 31 the HQ of Forrest is overrun and his secret military documents captured, and he makes a stand on Apr. 1 at the Ebenezer Church in Plantersville, then regroups to make a last stand at the key town of Selma, Ala. On Mar. 25 (dawn) the Battle of Ft. Steadman (Hare's Hill) sees last-chance Gen. Lee attempt to break out of WWI-like Petersburg and attempt to capture a Union supply depot at City Point, suffering 2.9K casualties, incl. 1.9K captured in the Union counterattack, almost 10% of his army. On Mar. 25 the Claywater Meteorite explodes just before reaching ground level in Vernon County, Wisc.; 1.5 kg of fragments are recovered. On Mar. 28 Pres. Lincoln meets with his main military cmdrs. on the sidewheeler ferry River Queen, telling them that he hopes they can avoid a bloody Armageddon and avoid a Confed. guerrilla war, telling them that when the war ends there must be no "bloody work" incl. executions and reprisals. In Mar. Pres. Lincoln sends a Statement to Congress, saying: "I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me and the financial institutions in the rear. Of the two, the one in my rear is my greatest foe"; this later causes conspiracy theorists to blame the Rothschild internat. banking family for his assassination. Apr. 1865: The month that saved the U.S.? On Apr. 1 (dawn) Union Gen. Sheridan, supported by Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren launches the Battle of Five Forks Crossroads on the Confed. right flank on the White Oak Road 15 mi. SE of Dinwiddie Courthouse, SW of Petersburg, Va., becoming the last major battle of the war, with the Union defeating the desperate Confeds. under Maj. Gen. George Edward Pickett, taking 5K POWs and causing the rest to flee, giving the Yankees possession of the key White Oak Road and South Side Railroad, exposing Richmond 20 mi. to the N; Gen. Lee's nephew cavalry gen. Fitzhugh Lee (1835-1905) leads an attack that forces Sheridan to retreat from Five Forks. On Apr. 2 the Battle of Selma in Ala. is a V for the Union against the ragtag cavalry of Confed. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, who flees to Marion, Ala. On Apr. 2 (Sun.) after the Union army begins an 18-hour all-out attack on Petersburg, Jefferson Davis receives a telegram from Gen. Lee while sitting in his usual pew #63 in St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Richmond telling him toevacuate immediately; Gen. Lee abandons starving Richmond and Petersburg in a desperate flight towards Lynchburg, Va. and its rails, which can carry him to link up with Gen. Johnston in N.C.; after sending Lee a telegram asking if he can hold out longer, which Lee tears up, Pres. Jefferson Davis gathers his archives and treasures, tidies his desk so the Yankees won't accuse him of being a slob, and takes a train ahead of the advancing federals along with most of his cabinet; at night Confed. soldiers obey orders to destroy all military supplies, breaking open whiskey barrels and creating a drunken mob; after a fire set to destroy tobacco warehouses is caught by the wind, the Confed. arsenal at Richmond burns down, with 100K shells going off, burning the city down and destroying 900 bldgs. On Apr. 3 Petersburg surrenders, and Richmond is occupied after local Yankee sympathizer Elizabeth "Crazy Bet" Lew (1818-1900) (who pretends to be nuts to divert suspicion) passes them info. through five relay stations she set up, then raises the first Union flag in Richmond; Gen. A.P. Hill (b. 1825) is killed at Petersburg; Jefferson Davis and his cabinet flee S to Danville, Va. on the S border, proclaiming it the new Confed. capital, then flee on Apr. 10 to Greensboro, N.C. after hearing of Lee's surrender at Richmond after issuing his last pres. proclamation and holding his last cabinet meeting, leaving several hundred Union POWs in six tobacco warehouses, where up to 5K had been held during the war, and 1,314 died in 1864 during a smallpox epidemic; meanwhile Pres. Lincoln visits Richmond in a rowboat, and sits in Jefferson Davis' chair; after Davis & co. are captured the Confederate Treasury, incl. 4kg of Mexican silver dollars disappears, and isn't found until ?. On Apr. 4 Gen. Lee, freed from the millstone of Petersburg and hoping to work new miracles to save the war, having ordered 350K emergency rations stored in Richmond shipped by rail arrives at Amelia Courthouse, Va., but finds that a screwup has shipped guns and ammo but no food; at night he sends out foraging wagons begging farmers for food, and at dawn they return empty; by Apr. 9 the starving army of 30K-35K death-marches down to 25K. On Apr. 5 (night) Gen. Grant orders Gen. Sheridan not just to harass but to get ahead of Gen. Lee's army, and on Apr. 6 he catches them at the Battle of Sailor's Creek (Sayler's Creek) (Little Sailor's Creek) (Harper's Farm) (Marshall's Cross Roads) (Hillsman Farm) (Double Bridges) (Lockett's Farm) near Farmville, Va. (last major battle between Lee and Grant), where the hand-to-hand combat is so savage that Gen. Lee grabs a battle flag and leads the charge; when the wind catches the flag and wraps it around him, his troops shout "Who will fight for Master Robert - we will we will!" On Apr. 7 after five days of starvation Lee's army finds food in Farmville, Va., and fires the High Bridge over the rain-swollen Appomattox River, but the Yankees put the fires out and save it, causing Lee's troops to have to skedaddle from the town without finishing their meals. On Apr. 8 Gen. Lee receives two Union communiques suggesting surrender, but shrugs them off, hoping to escape to the Blue Ridge Mts., where he believes he can hold out for 20 years; at night he sees Union campfires to the S, E, and W. The Yankees make a McLean sweep of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which is too chivalrous and gentlemanly to Vietnamize of America? On Apr. 9 (Palm Sun.) (dawn) with the bulk of Gen. Sherman's forces moving N towards Va. since Feb., while Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's cavalry traps him, Gen. Lee stages a last-ditch attempt to break-out to the S, which fails after Union superiority is too great, and he is caged by an iron circle; Gen. Lee then holds a morning conference with his cmdrs., where artillery Brig. Gen. Edward Porter Alexander (1835-1910) (the officer in charge of the massive artillery bombardment preceding Pickett's Charge) suggests a guerrilla war, but Lee rejects it with the soundbyte: "It is our duty to live"; at 1:30 p.m. disobeying orders from Jefferson Davis to not surrender, Confed. Gen. Robert Edward Lee (1807-70), dressed in his best dress uniform complete with jewelled ceremonial sword (a proverbial Easter Bunny who's lost a shoe?) (thinking he will become a POW) picks the time and place then unconditionally surrenders to mud-splattered Union Gen. Ulysses S. "Unconditional Surrender" Grant (1822-85) (who arrives half an hour after Lee, sans sword) in the parlor of the 2-story brick home of retired (since 1854) wholesale grocer Wilmer McLean (1814-82) in nearby Appomattox Courthouse Village, Va., on Clover Hill near Lynchburg, Va. (his goal, where he could have gained food and supplies and joined Gen. Johnston's army by rail), four years to the day after Confed. pres. Jefferson Finis Davis (1808-89) (prophetic middle name?) and his cabinet decided to attack Ft. Sumter; "After four years of arduous service marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of North Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources" (Lee); at Pres. Lincoln's orders, Grant grants the Army of Northern Va. a complete amnesty on the condition of signing a parole promising to never take up arms against the Union again; Lee has 26,765 men left at the surrender; there are 175K Confed. troops still at arms; at Lee's request (to save face), Grant permits the remaining rebel officers to keep their sidearms, and the soldiers to keep their private horses and mules for the "spring planting", and orders food and fodder to be supplied to them; Gen. Grant orders all Union celebrations to halt; Grant's adjutant is Seneca Iroquois Indian Col. Ely Samuel Parker (1828-95) (writer of the final draft of the Confed. surrender terms), whom Lee at first mistakes for a negro, saying "I'm glad to see one real American here", to which Parker replies "We're all Americans, sir"; Parker is later promoted to brig. gen. retroactive to the surrender, and becomes head of the Federal Commission on Indian Affairs in 1869-71; Lee's iron-grey (black mane and tail) 16-hand "Confed. grey" horse (purchased for $200 for $200) Traveller (1857-70) carries him that day; Grant's horse is named Cincinnatus; Pres. Lincoln asks that Dixie be played when he receives news of Lee's surrender on Apr. 9; the war began in Wilmer McClean's house along Bull Run near Manassas Junction, and it ends in his new living room (making it a McClean sweep?); pro-Confed. British Roman Catholic politician Lord John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton (1834-1902) (known for the soundbyte "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely", whose notes to PM William Gladstone helped sway many in the British govt. to the Confed. cause) writes Lee: "I mourn for the stake which was lost at Richmond more deeply than I rejoice over that which was saved at Waterloo", adding that he "deemed that you were fighting battles for our liberty, our proress, and our civilization"; the U.S. Civil War (begun 1861) ends, with total casualties of 620K-700K killed (6X the number per capita killed in WWII) out a total of 2.5M-2.75M Union and 750K-1.25M Confed. soldiers (overwhelmingly white, except for 38K black army troops and 2.8K black sailors), leaving the Southern economy and landscape pretty much kaput, and 3.5M black U.S. slaves (worth $4B) to be set free with nowhere to go; battle deaths are 111K Union and 94K Confed., with disease killing 250K Union and 164K Confed. troops, for a total of 360K Union and 258K Confed. deaths; 112 every thousand Union and 150 every thousand Confed. troops in battle were wounded; on Apr. 20 Mathew Brady takes his famous Photo of Robert E. Lee after he heads straight back to Richmond, in his back porch, wearing his Confed. uniform for the last time; Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), who graduated from Harvard in July 1864 and used his daddy to get him a job on Gen. Grant's staff as a capt. early this year is present at Appomattox, and later sits at his dying daddy's bedside, and is later nearby at two more U.S. pres. assassinations (Garfield, McKinley); Confed. Gen. Jubal A. Early, after being relieved of command in early Mar. after a defeat in Penn. by Union Gen. Custer, flees to Texas, Mexico, Cuba, then Toronto, Canada until 1869, when he returns to Lynchburg, Va. to practice law; Civil War monuments are later erected, from Gettysburg, Penn. (northernmost) to Vicksburg, Miss. (southernmost). On Apr. 10 (a.m.) Gen. Lee issues Order No. 9, telling his troops to surrender, and assuaging bitterness against the damned Yankees; in the morning Lee meets with Grant again, telling him On Apr. 10 Jefferson Davis receives news of Lee's surrender at his new Confed. capital of Danville, Va., telling his cabinet that they will continue their fight, then going into the next room and crying like a baby; at midnight after Union troops attack, he and five cabinet members flee again by train through N.C. The look of love? The U.S. Civil War ends, John Brown's body sleeps well now, but the play does goes on - um? On Apr. 11 a few days before he is shot, Lincoln tells his close friend and bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon (1828-93) (his White House protocol chief) of a dream about seeing his own wake? On Apr. 11 (evening) Pres. Lincoln delivers Lincoln's Last Public Address from the White House balcony, in which he offers reconciliation to the Confed. states, attempting to pull off a Prodigal Son solution, saying "Finding themselves safely at home, it would be utterly immaterial whether they had been abroad"; he also supports voting rights for black people, pissing-off John Wilkes Booth at the thought of nigger citizenship and making him change his original plan of kidnapping Lincoln to assassinating the n-word lover? On Apr. 12 Gen. Lee's 28K troops formally surrender; the Union troops shoulder their arms to show respect. On Apr. 13 Mobile, Ala. and Montgomery, Ala. (first capital of the Confederacy) surrender. On Apr. 13 Raleigh, N.C. is occupied by Union forces. On Apr. 14 Ft. Sumter hosts a massive celebration on the 4th anniv. of its fall, with speakers incl. William Lloyd Garrison and Henry Ward Beecher; big hero Brig Gen. Robert Anderson (1861 cmdr.) comes out of retirement; a few hundred black soldiers are brought out by the Planter, and at noon Anderson rehoists the 33-star Stars and Stripes to the sound of salutes by all the forts in the harbor. Drinkin' with Lincoln for the last time, or, It's a nice day for a White Wedding? On Apr. 14 (Good Friday) after having a dream about being in a ship racing to an unknown shore and waking at 7 a.m., U.S. pres. (since 1861) Abraham Lincoln (b. 1809) spends the afternoon discussing postwar policy with his cabinet, saying that he wants "no persecution, no bloody work" or radical restructuring of Southern socioeconomic life, and signs a law establishing the U.S. Bureau of Secret Service as a branch of the Treasury Dept.; at 3:00 p.m. he takes a walk with his wife, talking about travel plans incl. the Rocky Mts., Calif., and Jerusalem before returning to Springfield, Ill. to practice law; in the evening, after liquoring up at Taltavul's Saloon next door, leaving his bodyguard John Frederick Parker (1830-90) and valet Charles Forbes to have a few more, happy Lincoln goes to Ford's Theater (between E and F Sts. on 10th St., across E Street from the modern-day FBI HQ) at about 8:15 p.m. to attend a performance of Tom Taylor's 1858 Our American Cousin, starring English-born co-producer Laura Keene (Mary Frances Moss) (1826-73); vice-pres. Andrew Johnson was offered tickets but declined; at 10:14 p.m. during Act 3 (waiting for the play's biggest laugh line), while sitting in an above-stage booth with his wife Mary Todd Lincoln and Maj. Henry Reed Rathbone (1837-1911) and his fiance Clara Harris (1845-83) (daughter of U.S. Sen. Ira Harris of N.Y., a friend of Lincoln) (who accepted the invitation after the Grants declined at 11 a.m.), Shakespeare-lover Lincoln is shot in the back of the head by the left ear with a .44 Derringer pistol by "the youngest tragedian in the world", famous Shakespearean actor John Wilkes Booth (1838-65) (who learned that afternoon that Lincoln would be attending), who then fights off Basil, er, Henry Rathbone with a large dagger, severely wounding him in his left arm, after which he escapes by leaping onto the stage, catching his spur on the Treasury flag decorating the box and breaking his left fibula just above the ankle, then theatrically shouting "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Thus Ever to Tyrants), followed by "The South is avenged", exeunting out the back door after Rathbone shouts "Stop that man"; Booth timed his shot to come during the laughter after the line: "Don't know the manners of good society, eh? Well, I guess I know enough to turn you inside out, old gal, you sockdologizing old man trap" by actor Harry Hawk (who was onstage alone); his older brother Edwin Thomas Booth (1833-93) had just saved Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln at a train platform in Jersey City, N.J. a few weeks earlier, which saves his Shakespearean acting career and allows him to rise to the top later after he disowns John Wilkes Booth; Mary Todd Lincoln is the one who really shot Abe Lincoln?; Laura Keene IDs Booth and holds the dying Lincoln's head in her lap until he is taken to a house across the street; Lincoln's last words are "She won't think anything about it", in reply to his wife, who asked him "What will Miss Harris think of my hanging onto you so?"; Lincoln was mouthing some words about loving Jesus as he was shot, and planned on joining a Christian church on Easter Sunday?; his wallet is found to contain a Confederate $5 bill; Booth rides his horse over a bridge (the only one not closed?), talks his way past guards, then rides out of Washington (still decorated in honor of the war victory) before word of the shooting gets around, disappearing into the woods of Md., then leading the feds for 12 days on the greatest manhunt so far in U.S. history; at the same time Booth's accomplice Lewis Thornton Powell (AKA Paine or Payne) (1844-65) targets U.S. secy. of state William H. Seward, who is recovering from a fractured arm and jaw sustained nine days earlier when he was accidentally thrown from his carriage, talking his way past his servant William Bell by claiming to be delivering medicine, then attacking him in his bedroom and trying to shoot him, only to have the pistol misfire, then stabbing him repeatedly but not fatally in the neck before his frail daughter Fanny (d. 1866) squawks, bringing Seward's sons and house staff, who stop him after he stabs four others, incl. son Frederick William Seward (1830-1915) (asst. secy. of state, who is serving as acting secy.), whom he hits on the head with his pistol (either that, or Freddy was the first to confront him before he got to his daddy); vice-pres. Andrew Johnson gets lucky when his chosen assassin, German-born George Andreas Atzerodt (1835-65) chickens out of stabbing him in his sleeping quarters in Kirkwood House and ends up drunk in the barroom instead, but he goofs up and arouses suspicion, then leaves a gun, Bowie knife, and map of Va. in his hotel room, along with a bank book owned by John Wilkes Booth, and is arrested in bed on Apr. 20 in Germantown, Md.; meanwhile Lincoln is carried across 10th St. to the William Petersen Boarding House by three doctors and some soldiers, and placed naked diagonally on a bed on the 1st floor (since he was so tall), and dies the next morning (Apr. 15) at 7:22 a.m. after 23-y.-o. Army asst. surgeon Charles Augustus Leale (1841-1932) (first doctor to reach Lincoln after the shooting, who goes on to hold his hand to the end) assesses the wound as mortal, and U.S. Army surgeon gen. Joseph K. Barnes (1817-83) sticks things in his brain looking for the bullet, probably inducing his death (the Derringer ball stopped behind his left eye, and his frontal lobes weren't affected by the bullet?); Barnes continues his brilliant career by presiding over the death of U.S. Pres. James Garfield in 1881; Lincoln becomes the 2nd straight victim of the Zero-Year Presidential Curse (after W.H. Harrison); during the night war secy. Edwin M. Stanton unofficially runs the federal govt. from the rear parlor of the boarding house, and after the bad news utters the soundbyte "Now he belongs to the ages" (or was that angels?) (or was he referring to Charles Darwin (1809-82), and said apes?); between 1860 and his death approx. 450 songs and instrumental pieces were written about him, followed by 75 more funeral marches and 25 memorial pieces after death; Uncle Sam soon gains a beard in tribute to Abe; his death was the result of a conspiracy of world bankers or the Vatican?; he was actually suffering from the genetic syndrome called MEN 2B, had cancer, and would only have lived another year anyway? Let's go outback tonight? On Apr. 14/15 (early a.m.) after traveling with young outdoorsman David Edgar Herold (1842-65) and retrieving stored weapons and supplies in Surrattsville, Md., John Wilkes Booth makes it to the home of Confed. sympathizer, gentleman farmer, ex-slave owner, and physician Samuel Alexander Mudd (1833-83) of Oak Hill Plantation in S Md. 30 mi. SE of Washington, D.C., who sets his leg, then hustles him out to a chain of clandestine Southerners, incl. Thomas A. Jones, who helps him and Herold cross the Potomac into Va. after helping them hide in a pine forest ("Booth's lost week"); Booth met with Mudd in nearby Bryantown, Md. in Nov./Dec. 1864 to plan his escape route? On Apr. 14 Guatemalan dictator (since 1839) Rafael Carrera (b. 1814) dies, and on Apr. 14 Pedro de Aycinena y Pinol (Piñol) (1802-97) becomes provisional pres. of Guatemala; on May 24 Gen. Vicente Cerna Sandoval becomes pres. of Guatemala (until June 29, 1871), continuing the conservative rule (until June 29, 1871) - cancel my bar mitzvah? On Apr. 15 Reuters News Service scoops the news of Lincoln's assassination in Europe a week ahead of the competition after their U.S. agent James McClean hires a tug, overtakes the mailboat bound for Britain, and throws a canister containing his dispatch onto it. On Apr. 15 (Sat. before Easter) poor white redneck Raleigh, N.C.-born vice-pres. (former mayor of Greenville, Tenn., who was illiterate until age 21, and started out in 1834 by helping pass a new Tenn. constitution denying free blacks the right to vote, then became gov. of Tenn. in 1853, signing a law requiring blacks freed from slavery to be deported straight to Africa, but doesn't own slaves any more, and supported John C. Breckinridge in the 1860 election, and only met with Lincoln twice) (a drunken buffoon who had been widely written off until now, and was selected by Lincoln to reconcile the South with the North, although he is a Dem. not a Repub., and a total white supremacist who thinks of blacks as savages that should go back to the plantation and stay out of politics), Andrew Johnson (1808-75) of the Union Party (2nd and last pres. of this party) (the last Jacksonian pres. of the common people, white people that is, with a record 29 pres. vetoes vs. Jackson's record 12; Johnson's vetoes are overturned a record 15x) AKA "the Tennessee Tailor", "Sir Veto", "King Andy", "Andy the Sot", "Old Andy", "the Father of the Homestead Act" becomes the 17th U.S. pres. (until 1869) in the 23rd U.S. Pres. Inauguration (the 2nd Andrew after #7 Jackson) (3rd U.S. pres. not to have a vice-pres. after Tyler and Fillmore); his inauguration is interrupted by a talking parrot?; First Lady is Eliza McCardle Johnson (1810-76); during his first 6 weeks in office he makes speeches filled with vengeful statements against the Southern planter aristocracy and showing disdain for blacks; during his first 8 mos. in office, while Congress is in recess, Johnson oversees Reconstruction of eight Confed. states (Tenn., Ark., and La. had already been reconstructed by Lincoln), hoping for an egalitarian white South of yeoman farmers, but sees that tabled as traditional Southern leaders are returned to office by Southern voters, who petition for and get wholesale pardons; Repub. Party founder Francis Preston Blair Sr. gets pissed at Repub. Reconstruction measures and flops back to his, er, Jackson's Dem. Party, as does Montgomery Blair. On Apr. 16 (Sun.) (Black Easter) (night) Columbus, Ga. is captured from 3K rebels under Maj. Gen. (Thomas) Howell Cobb (1815-68) in an attack by 300 Union cavalry troops under (you guessed it?) Brig. Gen. Edward Francis Winslow (1837-1914), who becomes a hero, taking 1.2K POWs and large quantities of munitions and burning the "cottonclad" ramming ship CSS Jackson, becoming the last battle of the U.S. Civil War (begun 1861); Savannah, Ga.-born Confed. Col. Charles A.L. Lamar (b. 1824) is shot from his horse at the end of the 14th St. bridge in a last attempt to rally the rebels, becoming the last Confed. officer KIA in the war; Cobb was the provisional 1st pres. of the Confederacy for two weeks before Jefferson Davis, so it seems like poetic justice?; earlier in the day West Point, Ga. is also captured, allowing the Yankees to cross the Chattahoochee River into Ga. from the W; Confed. Brig. Gen. Robert Charles Tyler (b. 1833) is killed at West Point, becoming the last Confed. Gen. to be KIA. On Apr. 16 (night) Jefferson Davis and his family are denied lodgings in rural N.C. by the local pop., who blame the loss of the war on him, causing them to have to camp out. A rat is detected in the soup? On Apr. 17 Md.-born Washington, D.C. boarding house owner Mary Elizabeth Eugenia Jenkins Surratt (b. 1823) (541 H St. NW) is arrested on conspiracy charges in connection with Lincoln's assassination; her son John Surratt, a Confed. courier who met with Booth et al. but claims he distanced himself after learning of Booth's plan (although he never rats them out) flees to Canada. On Apr. 18 Confed. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Confed. war secy. John C. Breckinridge meet with Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett House near Durham Station, N.C.; Breckinridge drinks 10 oz. of whiskey; after they all agree that slavery is kaput, Breckinridge wows South-loving Sherman (who never had a problem with slavery, only secession) into understanding the plight of the South, with Sherman already having uttered the soundbyte that when the war is over "I will share with you my last cracker", writing a surrender proposal offering them an amnesty a la Appomattox Court House; too bad, when the terms are received in Washington, D.C., the Union hotheads start a firestorm of controversy, which the other side answers by saying that if they aren't accepted the war might begin again, which doesn't cause them to be accepted. On Apr. 18 Confed. pres. Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet arrive in Charlotte, N.C. with a contingent of 1K diehard soldiers; after they are chased out by Union forces under Gen. George Armstrong Custer, the citizens talk him out of destroying Thomas Jefferson's U. of Va. On Apr. 18-20 Lincoln's body lies in state in the East Room of the White House and then in the Capitol; on Apr. 21 after a funeral procession down Pennsylvania Ave., it is placed aboard a funeral train that moves slowly through the country for 16 days, pausing for ceremonies at major towns from Baltimore to Chicago (N to New York and W to Springfield); on Apr. 30 it reaches Indianapolis, Ind., arriving at night in Chicago, where 125K file past his coffin for two days; on May 3 the train arrives at Springfield, Ill., and the body is interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery on May 4; in 1871 it is moved to a newly constructed tomb nearby; George M. Pullman offers the use of his new Pioneer railroad sleeping car for the final link of Lincoln's funeral train from Chicago to Springfield, gaining publicity which makes many railroad execs drop objections and begin making modifications in their bridges and station platforms; Mary Todd goes bonkers, resenting her son Robert's attempts to have her institutionalized. On Apr. 20 Robert E. Lee (no longer a gen. or even a citizen, but with more moral authority) writes a Letter to Jefferson Davis telling him to give up the thought of guerrilla war and step in line; diehard rebels scan every word in vain for a hint to keep rebelling. On Apr. 20 Wilson's Raiders capture Macon, Ga., ending Wilson's Raid (begun in Mar.) after capturing five fortified cities, 288 cannon, 6,820 POWs and suffering 725 Union vs. 1.2K Confed. casualties; only military targets are destroyed, not the entire region like in Sherman's March to the Sea. On Apr. 20 the War Dept. offers a record $100K reward "for the murderer of President Abraham Lincoln and his accomplice" David Herold; Col. Everton Judson Conger (1834-1918) hunts and ultimately finds Booth, earning the dough - and spawns yet another Harrison Ford movie? On Apr. 24 Dr. Samuel Mudd is arrested for the crime of waiting 24 hours to report Booth's visit, and railroaded by a military commission to a life sentence for aiding and abetting a murderer, escaping the death sentence by 1 vote; his maltreatment by the authorities and public launches the phrase "his name is mud". On Apr. 25 after Gen. Johnston's army is defeated by the Yankees again and begins retreating, Jefferson Davis orders them to "fight on", authorizing guerrilla warfare; Johnson, calling it "the greatest of crimes", contacts Gen. Sherman for a surrender negotiation. Hippocrates rolls over in his grave? On Apr. 25 after pissing-off the military by agreeing to Spanish demands and handing over vast guano deposits, Peruvian pres. (since 1863) Juan Antonio Pezet is overthrown by Gen. Mariano Ignacio Prado (1826-1901) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Powers Boothe (1948-), for a Booth deja vu moment?), who becomes pres. #18 of Peru (until Jan. 7, 1868), going on to form an alliance with Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador. On Apr. 26 (2 a.m.) after they are spotted rowing across the Potomac, Powers, er, John Wilkes Booth et al. are surrounded by federal troops in Garrett's Barn near Bowling Green (Port Royal), Va., who set it on fire, causing David Herold to surrender; Booth holds out but despite orders to take him alive he is shot through the spinal cord with a Colt revolver by overzealous cavalry Sgt. Thomas P. "Boston" Corbett (1832-94) (a born-again Christian who wears his hair long to look like Christ and castrated himself in 1858 with a pair of scissors, and claims God told him to do it, and later ends up in an insane asylum in Topeka, Kan.), and dies within hours, going out like a true ham, saying "Tell mother I die for my country... useless, useless" (meaning his hands?) - Richard III, or perhaps Hamlet? On Apr. 26 Confed. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrenders his army to Gen. Sherman at Durham Station, N.C., incl. all troops in the Carolinas, Ga., and Fla.; after a little baksheesh launders him, he becomes a U.S. Rep. from Va. in 1879-81. On Apr. 27 (2:00 a.m.) the 1.7K-ton Mississippi River sidewheel steamboat Sultana (launched Jan. 3, 1863), en route from St. Louis, Mo. to New Orleans, La. carrying Union POWs home has a triple boiler explosion a short distance out of Hopefield, Ark. (7 mi. N of Memphis, Tenn.), killing 1,547 of 2.3K aboard, mostly from Andersonville and Cahaba prison camps, from burning or drowning; it was designed to carry only 376, but previous steamers had left almost empty and bribery is suspected? - good month for bottom-feeders? In Apr. Paraguayan armies ignore Argentina's wishes and invade Corrientes to attack Brazilian bases, seizing a small river port, causing leaders of Argentina, Brazil and the Colorado Party of Uruguay on May 1 to sign the Pact of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay and the Blancos in Uruguay, beginning the War of the Triple Alliance (ends 1870), in which 50K of 123K Brazilians who fight end up killed; with British financing, the allies destroy the Paraguayan navy and isolate Paraguay by the end of the year. On May 1 Jefferson Davis conducts a council of war in Abbeville, N.C., refusing to heed advice to quit; there are still tens of thousands of Confed. troops in uniform. On May 1 the first Memorial Day is held by former slaves in Charleston, S.C. to honor 257 Union soldiers buried in a mass grave in a Confed. prison camp, digging them up, giving them a proper burial, then celebrating with a parade of 10K led by 2.8K black children. On May 2 Pres. Johnson issues a pres. proclamation charging Jefferson Davis, Ala. Sen. (1861-3) Clement Claiborne Clay Jr. (1816-82) (whose portrait appears on the Confed. $1 bill), Jacob Thompson (1810-85) of N.C. (inspector gen. of the Confed. Army and confidential agent to Canada in 1864-5), and other Confederate reps. in Canada with having "incited, concerted, and procured" Lincoln's assassination; he never revokes it, but incl. them all in his pres. pardon of 1868. On May 5 Jefferson Davis meets with his 14-man Confed. cabinet for the last time in Washington, Ga., and the Confed. govt. is officially dissolved; Confed. secy. of war (since Feb. 6) John C. Breckinridge (who takes steps to have the Confed. archives captured intact by the Yankees for posterity) escapes to Cuba in a tiny boat (deja vu?), and ends up in England, where he remains until the amnesty proclamation of 1868; former Confed. secy. of state Judah P. Benjamin, fearing he will be accused of being behind the assassination and Dreyfused, having disguised himself as a Christian clergyman to escape Richmond, attends the last cabinet meeting, flees England via Fla. and the West Indies, becomes a member of the British bar, and works his way up to queen's counsel in 1872 before retiring at the top in 1881, having authored a standard law reference work on private property. On May 5 the first train holdup in the U.S. takes place in North Bend, Ohio (outside Cincinnati). On May 8 Confed. Gen. Richard "Dick" Taylor (1826-79) (son of Pres. Zachary Taylor) (known for his knowledge of military history), commanding all Confed. forces in Ala., Miss., and E La. surrenders his forces to Union gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (1817-73) (a fellow Kentuckyian) at Citronelle, Ala., effectively ending the U.S. Civil War. On May 10 (dawn) after hearing that Atlanta was occuped by Yankees, causing his 2K-man cavalry to become mutinous, Confed. pres. Jefferson Davis is captured in drag 1.5 mi. N of Irwinville, Ga. by 136 Union cavalry under Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard (1835-1907) of the 4th Mich. Regiment (under gen. James H. Wilson), and imprisoned in Ft. Monroe outside Richmond on Chesapeake Bay for two years (until May, 1867), at first kept in leg irons in a damp casemate until news of his treatment causes outrage in the North, after which he is finally transferred to decent quarters; his capture dressed in women's clothing is lampooned by the Union newspapers; actually all his wife did is throw a shawl over his shoulders as he fled in his nightclothes? On May 10 U.S. Pres. Johnson declares that all armed resistance is "virtually at an end". On May 12 the military Trial of John Wilke Booth's Conspirators, under Maj. Gen. David Hunter (1802-86) (close friend and pallbearer of Lincoln) begins, and on June 29 Mary Elizabeth Eugenia Jenkins Surratt (b. 1823), Lewis Thornton Payne (Paine) (Powell) (b. 1844), George Andreas Atzerodt (b. 1835), David Edgar Herold (b. 1842), John Harrison Surratt (1844-1916), Dr. Samuel Alexander Mudd (1833-83), Michael O'Laughlen (O'Laughlin) Jr. (b. 1840), Edmund Spangler (1825-75) (stagehand at Ford's Theatre, who claims that all he did was obey Booth's request tohold his horse), and Samuel Bland Arnold (1834-1906) are found guilty of conspiracy to murder Pres. Lincoln; after her first choice U.S. Sen. (Md.) Reverdy Johnson (1796-1876) passes her to him, Mary Surratt is defended by inexperienced atty. Col. Frederick Argyle Aiken (1837-78) (future city ed. of the Washington Post), whose defense argument rails at the way she is being railroaded, after he gets judge Andrew Wylie to sign a writ of habeas corpus granting her a new civil trial, but Pres. Johnson suspends it, all of which makes the public begin to believe in her innocence; on July 7 the first four are hanged, and Surratt becomes the first woman in U.S. history to be tried by a military tribunal, and the first witch,er, to be federally executed; John Surratt escapes to Canada, then England, then Rome, where he joins the Papal Zouaves, then is arrested by U.S. officials in Alexandria, Egypt on Nov. 23, 1866, and returns after the statute of limitations on all of the charges except murder expires, a hung jury (8 not guilty, 4 guilty) acquitting him of that in Md.; the rest of the conspirators are all later pardoned by Pres. Johnson, except O'Laughlin, who dies in prison of yellow fever; Dr. Samuel Mudd ("his name is mud") receives a life sentence for treason and conspiracy to assassinate Lincoln (4th person in U.S. history convicted of treason after Benedict Arnold, Thomas Dorr, and John Brown), and spends four years on the Dry Tortugas Island of Garden Key off Fla. ("the Devil's Island of the U.S.") ministering to yellow fever victims before being pardoned in Mar. 1869 by Pres. Andrew Johnson, broken in health; his conviction is not overturned until ?; Secret Service chief LaFayette Curry Baker (1826-68), who was in New York City when the assassination took place and had no direct responsibility for protecting the pres. becomes a scapegoat, accused of negligence, but goes on to lead the quick capture of Booth so brilliantly that he is promoted to brig. gen., then gets involved in a large and lucrative trade in pardons of former Confed. officers and men that extends into the White House, causing Congress to refuse to fund his operations, bragging tall-tale-telling Baker to resign, and the Secret Service to be disbanded; Union Brig. Gen. Thomas Maley Harris (1817-1906) serves on the assassination investigation committee, and in 1897 pub. Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, claiming a Vatican plot - justice for the rich is still the American Way? On May 12-13 after the soldiers fail to hear of the war's end on Apr. 9, the Battle of Palmito Ranch (Hill) in S Texas on the Rio Grande River is the last land engagement of the U.S. Civil War; the Confeds. win. On May 21 the Singapore cholera pandemic of 1863 spreads to the Suez Canal, followed by Jeddah and Alexandria in June, and Istanbul by late June; in Sept. cholera strikes Marseilles then Paris, and 200 die a day as sulfur is burned to combat the "miasma" in the air, ignoring John Snow's 1853 observations in London, after which 4,349 die in 2 mo.; Louis Pasteur's infant daughter Camille dies in the epidemic while he carries out experiments on it - shame on him? On May 23-24 a Grand Review of the Federal Armies is held in Washington, D.C., marching up Pennsylvania Ave.; Gen. Armstrong Custer's horse loses control, causing him to ride by the reviewing stand twice (Custer's last stand?); Meade's and Grant's armies are disbanded within a week; Custer emerges from the war having been wounded only once and having lost 11 horses shot from under him. On May 25 Ft. Spanish ordnance depot explodes in Mobile, Ala., killing 300. On May 26 Confed. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (1824-93) and Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner surrender at New Orleans, La. in the name of Confed. forces W of the Mississippi, and the rest of the Confeds. surrender at Shreveport, La., ending the U.S. Civil War (begun 1776?); in 1866 Smith becomes pres. of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. (until 1868), then becomes chancellor of the U. of Nashville, Tenn. (1870-75); Buckner becomes gov. of Ky. from 1887-91, and Nat. Dem. candidate for vice-pres. in 1896. Wanna know why Ford pardoning Nixon seems like deja vu? On May 29 after issuing the soundbyte "There is no such thing as reconstruction; those states have not gone out of the Union, therefore reconstruction is unnecessary", Pres. Johnson announces plans for a Presidential Reconstruction of the Former Confederacy, along with an Amnesty Proclamation, requiring the South to repudiate its war debts, repeal all secession laws, and abolish slavery forever in order to walk, which is greeted with widespread censure for his leniency by Northerners and widespread relief by Southerners; Johnson also issues a proclamation permitting a native Unionist to become provisional gov. of each rebel state, with authority to call a convention elected by loyal voters to aid reintegration into the Union on its terms, incl. ratifying the 13th Amendment, but no requirement for negro suffrage; only S.C. and Miss. fail to repudiate their war debt, and only Miss. refuses to ratify the 13th Amendment; he issues blanket pardons to most rebels, adding to Lincoln's already ample exclusion list anybody with taxable property of $20K, but requires officers and plantation owners to write personal letters requesting clemency first, all of which pisses off the radical Repubs., headed by Thaddeus Stevens, who call for a total restructuring of Southern society with enfranchisement of blacks; meanwhile hordes of kiss-me-once-kiss-me-twice planters rush to Washington to personally petition Johnson for their little ole pardons, and by fall he grants 13K-15K of them - kiss me daddy? On May 31 Confed. Gen. John Hood is captured at Natchez, Miss. In May a small Union force surprises William Quantrill and his raiders in Ky., and fatally wounds him. On June 2 Confed. forces W of the Mississippi River under Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith surrender at Galveston, Tex. On June 5 the first safe-deposit vault opens in New York City, costing $1.50 per year for each $1K stored. On June 11 a Brazilian navy squadron defeats the Paraguayan navy at the naval Battle of Riachuelo, becoming the largest non-ironclad steam-powered naval battle in history? On June 19 the last 250K Southern slaves in Tex. learn that they had been freed 2.5 years earlier by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation from Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger (1822-76) when his 2K Union troops land by ship in Galveston, Tex.; the day becomes the Juneteenth nat. holiday with U.S. blacks. On June 23 Confed. Brig. Gen. Stand Watie (Isaac S. Waite) (1806-71) (a Cherokee AKA Degataga = "stand firm") surrenders his Cherokee-Creek-Seminole cavalry at Ft. Towson near Doaksville in Okla. Indian Territory, becoming the last significant rebel army to give up. On June 25 British Protestant missionary James Hudson Taylor (1832-1905), known for wearing Chinese clothing in China in 1854-60 founds the China Inland Mission in Brighton, England. In June Pres. Johnson sends officials to Ft. Laramie to negotiate a treaty with Cheyenne and Sioux leaders for the construction of forts along the Powder River; too bad, news that a large military party has started for Montana Territory before any treaty has been signed enrages the Oglala Sioux, led by 43-y.-o. Red Cloud (Makhpiya Luta) (1822-1909), who attacks Army engineers working on the Bozeman Trail from Ft. Laramie through Indian lands, and holds them POW for over two weeks, causing Dept. of the Missouri cmdr. gen. Grenville Mellen Dodge to order the First Powder River (Connor) Expedition to punish them on June 20-Oct. 7, led by Brig. Gen. Patrick Edward Connor (1820-91), who uses Jim Bridger as a guide; on Aug. 29 the Battle of the Tongue River is a V for 400 U.S. soldiers over 500 the Arapahos led by Chief Black Bear, ending the Arapaho threat but only riling the Sioux up more. In the summer a forest fire near Silverton, Oregon destroys almost 1M acres. On July 4 Congress adopts a new U.S. flag (design #18) with 36 stars, which now incl. Nevada - optimism proves justified? On July 4 the Christian Mission of the Revival Assoc., later renamed the Salvation Army is founded in the East End Whitechapel section of London by English evangelist (former Nottingham pawnbroker) William Booth (1829-1912) and his wife Catherine Booth (nee Mumford) (1829-90) to help the "submerged tenth" of "disinherited" people, who endure a much lower standard of comfort "than the London cab horse, unable to buy as much food as given to the worst criminals in our jails"; they brave hecklers and also crusade against prostitution; their motto is "blood and fire"; Booth sends a telegram to members reading "Others!" On July 5 the U.S. Secret Service is founded, headed by Col. William P. Wood (1820-1903) (Mexican-Am. War vet and head of the Capital Prison in Washington, D.C.) (until 1869) to protect the money supply, nearly one-third of which is counterfeit because each bank prints its own, each with a different design, making the police powerless until the U.S. govt. issues its own greenbacks, which soon backfires when all the counterfeiters work toward a common goal and produce good fakes; pres. protection is not added until 1901; SS agents are paid a whopping $3 a day and told that "their service belongs to the govt. through 24 hours of each day"; Wood offers a $25 per head bonus, and within a year 200 boodlers (counterfeiters) are arrested. On July 6 an Adams Express rail car en route to Boston from New York City is robbed of $500K+; the Pinkerton Nat. Detective Agency soon catches the perps. On July 14 a British party led by artist Edward Whymper (1840-1911) makes the first ascent of the Matterhorn in the Alps on the Swiss-Italian border on his 8th attempt; too bad, on their descent four members fall to their deaths, and Whymper and two others luck out when the rope attaching them to the others breaks, ending the Golden Age of Alpinism (begun 1854) - home is a suitcase, a journey? On July 21 Wild Bill Hickok (1837-76) shoots Beavis and, er, Dave Butt dead in the market square of Springfield, Mo., becoming the first true Wild West showdown. On July 23 Cyrus West Field (1819-92), Sir Daniel Gooch, 1st Baronet (1816-89), cable manufacturer Sir John Pender (1815-96) et al. try for a 4th time to lay an underwater transatlantic cable, leaving Valentia Bay, Ireland on the Great Eastern with 5K tons (2.3K mi.) of newly designed heat-treated "Patent Steel" cable, but the overly brittle iron casing fails, causing the cable to snap after 1,186 mi., and they call it off again; they raise another £600K and try it again in 1866. On July 27 Welsh settlers arrive in S Argentina at Chubut Valley. On July 30 the steamer Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Calif., killing 225. On Aug. 20 the flatulent Convention of Bad Gastein, signed by Prussia and Austria acknowledges the sovereignty of the Prussian Kaiser and Austrian emperor over their respective duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, with both to be admitted to the Prussian-led Zollverein (customs union), even though Austria is not a member. On Aug. 21 a military commission headed by Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace tries Swiss-born Capt. Henry Hartmann Wirz (b. 1823), POW camp cmdr. of Camp Sumter (Andersonville) Confed. Prison near Andersonville, Ga. for "murder, in violation of the laws and customs of war", after 12K Union POWs die there in 14 mo., up to 97 a day; after refusing a pardon in exchange for testimony against Jefferson Davis, he is found guilty, then hanged on Nov. 10 in the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C. at the foot of Capitol Hill, becoming the only U.S. Civil War soldier executed for war crimes; the fall fails to break his neck, and he dies slowly while being taunted by the vengeful observers; the Nat. Prisoner of War Museum is founded at the site; 25,976 Confeds. die in Union POW camps vs. 30,218 Yankees in Confed. POW camps. On Aug. 25 the Shergotty Mars Meteorite falls in Sherghati, Gaya, Bihar, India. In Aug. Confed. naval officer James Iredell Waddell (1824-86), who is preparing to attack San Francisco, Calif., learns that the war has ended and docks at Liverpool, surrending to British authorities on Nov. (last official surrender of the U.S. Civil War), remaining with his crew in England until an amnesty is granted. On Sept. 20 Vassar Female College in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. opens, becoming the first women's college in the U.S.; its initial 30 faculty incl. 22 women; Maria Mitchell (1818-89) becomes the first female prof. of astronomy. On Sept. 21 the Austrian govt. suspends the constitution and dissolves the rump Reichstrat of 1861. On Sept. 29 the Repub. of Honduras is founded, with a new 1865 Honduran Constitution that guarantees the right of habeas corpus for the 1st time - habeas banana? On Oct. 11 hundreds of black men and women, led by Baptist deacon Paul Bogle (1822-65) march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay Rebellion, which is quickly quashed by gov. Edward John Eyre (1815-1901) (known for exploring S Australia in the 1840s), who has 450 blacks executed, many more flogged, and 1K native homes burned, which arouses public indignation, resulting in his censure and dismissal; representative govt. in Jamaica is not restored until 1884. On Oct. 18 "Do-nothing" Lord Palmerston (b. 1784) dies suddenly after winning the July election and increasing his majority, dealing with the Fenian Uprising in Ireland and getting pissed at the Yanks for helping them, and musing that Germany should become strong as a buffer against Russia and that Britain should strike an alliance with France against the U.S.; on Oct. 29 Liberal John "Languid Johnny" Russell, 1st Earl Russell (1792-1878) (grandfather of philosopher Bertrand Russell) (known as Lord John Russell until his elevation to earl on July 30, 1861) (educated at the U. of Edinburgh rather than Oxford or Cambridge - next Gordon Brown) becomes British PM (until June 28, 1866) (last true Whig to become PM), but as he is old and in the House of Lords, progressive, guilt-ridden (his family made big bucks on slavery, woo woo woo) anti-imperialist, advanced Liberal (started out in 1833 as a high Tory) William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) becomes the real leader of the Liberal Party, the most efficient and eloquent speaker in the Parliament, the "Grand Old Man", advocate of the moral policies of Prince Albert and David Livingstone of using the empire to spread the three C's (civilization, commerce, and Christianity) (but surely not color?); Glad Bag becomes known for night forays into the red light district in hopes of bribing hos to go straight (and do him if they still want the money - just kidding?); on the Conservative side Lord Derby (14th Earl) leads the House of Lords, and pro-imperialist Benjamin Disraeli leads the House of Commons; a new epoch begins in Britain as both vie to woo the ever-mourning fattening sexless queen, and Disraeli finally wins, causing Victoria to end up advocating the reverse of her dead hubby's anti-imperialist policies. In Oct. Otto von Bismarck and Napoleon III meet secretly in Biarritz, and plan a war with Austria, with Nappy promising not to help Austria in event of a war with Prussia in return for vague promises of territory along the Rhine River, Belgium or Luxembourg; when Bismarck later reneges, Franco-Prussian relations tank. On Nov. 11 Civil War Union nurse-surgeon and POW Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919) is awarded the Medal of Honor by Pres. Johnson; it is revoked in 1917 when Congress revises the standards to "actual combat with an enemy", but she refuses to give it back, and it is posth. restored in 1977 - cha-cha-cha? On Nov. 13 the U.S. Treasury issues its first gold certificates. On Nov. 26 the Battle of Papudo sees the Spanish ship Covadonga captured by the Chileans and the Peruvians N of Valparaiso, Chile. On Dec. 1 Shaw U. (originally Raleigh Inst. until 1875) is founded in Raleigh, N.C. by Baptist minister Henry Martin Tupper (1831-93) of the Am. Baptist Home Mission Society, becoming the first historically black college established in the U.S. after the U.S. Civil War. On Dec. 9 the New York Stock Exchange opens a new trading floor at 10-12 Broad St. On Dec. 10 Belgian king (since 1831) Leopold I (b. 1790) dies, and on Dec. 17 his 30-y.-o. 2nd son Leopold II (1835-1909) becomes king #2 of Belgium (until Dec. 17, 1909), going on to set up a Belgian waffle kingdom in the Congo - with black molasses on the outside and a white cream center? On Dec. 11 the U.S. Congress creates the U.S. House Appropriations Committee and the U.S. House Committee on Banking and Commerce to reduce the workload of the Ways and Means Committee. On Dec. 18 the lucky Thirteenth (13th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, prohibiting slavery except as punishment for a crime after "due process of law"; the slaves in the two remaining Union slaveholding border states of Del. and Ky. are finally freed; William Lloyd Garrison declares the mission of the Am. Anti-Slavery Society accomplished, but Wendell Phillips and others continue on until 1870, with Phillips as the new pres., until the passing of the 14th-15th Amendments; the amendment was drafted by Abraham Lincoln and U.S. Sen. (R-Mich.) Jacob Merritt Howard (1805-71), who also helped draft the 14th Amendment; too bad, the white establishment in the South soon finds ways to turn due process of law for free blacks into a nigger machine by making petty crimes subject to long prison terms at hard labor under conditions even worse than their previous slave days, because they no longer have white owners who try to keep them healthy, but new prison guards who love to work them to death - free at last, yes, but where's the government handouts? If you swim a little faster you can get home by Xmas? On Dec. 24 the "social club" Ku Klux Klan (KKK) (Gr. "kuklos" = circle) is formed in Pulaski, Tenn. by disgruntled Johnny Rebs (incl. many Freemasons) remembering Calhoun's 1849 speech about what the Yankees would do to their white race if they won the war, and pissed-off at the Carpetbaggers, Yankee opportunists who flood into the South carrying all their belongings in a you know what to lord it over the former masters in cahoots with freed blacks and turncoat white "scalawags"; its motto is "Non silba sed anthar" (Not for one's self but for others); Confed. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77) becomes the first Grand (Imperial) Wizard in 1867 and takes it down a dark path, their elaborate rituals and white sheets disguising their faces soon becoming the uniform of white supremacist terrorists to keep the blacks down, augmented by the superstitiousness of the blacks, who think that they're ghosts; a majority of Southern whites join by the end of the decade, working to return local and state govt. to white Dem. Party control; it is forced to officially disband in 1872, and then goes underground, becoming the Southerners' private thang, making it no fun to be a black living in the South - we're just ice cream men, in charge of what color cone can dip into what color ice cream without getting whacked off? In Dec. Congress meets, and to their consternation the same old faces show up from the South before the war, incl. Confed. vice-pres. Alexander H. Stephens, four generals, eight colonels, and six cabinet members; Congress says ixnay to the Prodigal Son story in the Bible, excludes all members from Confed. states from their seats, and sets up a Joint Committee on Reconstruction with nine members from the House and six from the Senate, but soon Radicals Thaddeus Stevens of Penn. and Charles Sumner of Mass. are calling the shots. As the Civil War ends, the U.S. govt. stops issuing paper money; in 1873 it stops coining silver; the total amount of money in circulation this year is $30 per person; by 1889 it falls to $23. Russia gets into an expansive mood, and captures Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan (modern pop. 23.3M), thereby controlling the S shore of the Aral Sea, and also takes over Turkmenistan (capital Ashkhabad or Ashgabat, meaning "city of Love") (modern pop. 4.2M) (until 1885), thereby controlling the W shore of the Caspian Sea and a border with Iran and Afghanistan. After defeating the forces of Bhutan, ending the war (begun 1864), Britain negotiates a treaty agreeing to pay an annual allowance to Bhutan in return for ceding control of its S passes to them, and agreeing to accept British mediation in any future disputes with their neighbors. The Young Ottomans secret society is founded in Turkey by a group of pro-Western intellectuals who want to modernize the Ottoman Empire and adopt a constitutional govt. while clinging to Islam - a self-defeating effort? The Indian Wars begin in the U.S. as European-descended whites fight and subdue all the Native Americans in the U.S. by 1890 in a rather one-sided genocide. The Kiowas under chief Set-tainte (Satanta) sign the Little Arkansas River Treaty in Kansas. Mt. Hood in the Cascade Range in Oregon erupts for the last time and becomes extinct. Wellington replaces Auckland as the capital of New Zealand, becoming the southernmost nat. capital. The Dominican Repub., occupied by Spain since 1858 begins independent again, and former pres. Buenaventura Baez returns from Europe to begin a third term; too bad, the U.S. Senate refuses to ratify his proposed treaty of annexation, leaving him swinging in the wind, and he is toppled by a second coup next year, and bounces back for two more terms before running out of bounce. The Comprehensive Nat. Code (Taejon t'ongp'yon), an update of the Choson state code of admin. law is proclaimed in Korea. After backsheesh by stagecoach owners, the British Parliament passes the Locomotives on Highways (Red Flag) Act, requiring a self-propelled (steam-powered) carriage to travel at a max rate of 6.4 kmph (4 mph) (3.2 kmph or 2 mph in towns) and have three attendants, one to steer, one to stoke the engine, and one to walk 50m ahead carrying a red flag to signal the driver when to stop, becoming the first speed limit in Britain; the red flags are eliminated in 1878, and the act is repealed in 1896 after the development of steam cars and buses is stifled, causing Britain to fall behind Germany, France and the U.S. John Stuart Mill (1806-73) becomes a MP from Westminster (until 1868), voting with the Radical Party to improve conditions for working people and for women's suffrage. Benjamin Samuel Phillips becomes the 2nd Jewish lord mayor of London (first in 1855). During the Civil War the U.S. Colored Troops enlist a total of 178K black Americans, about 10% of the Union army total; 29.5K serve in the U.S. Navy, about 25% of the total; Company E of the Fourth U.S. Colored Troops gains fame for defending Washington, D.C. After the U.S. Civil War ends, more than half of the blacks who used the Underground Railroad to escape to Canada return within five years; too bad, white legislators in Fla., Ga., La., Miss., S.C., and Tex. enact "black code", AKA Jim Crow laws to keep emancipated slaves from taking any work other than field jobs in an effort to restore slavery, going on to systematically build a legal structure turning them into virtual slaves again, forcing them into segregated areas, weeding out the independent and strong with trumped up petty offenses that land them in long hard labor prison terms, and taking care of those who mess with "our white wimmin'" with the KKK; by the end of the year. over 2K blacks are murdered in the South; meanwhile the war kills rice cultivation in the Carolinas and Ga., causing the slack to be taken up along the Mississippi River in La., Ark. and Tex.; the Sacramento Valley of Calif. increases wheat production; ruined Southern planters are maddened by a good market for cotton but no capital or credit. Solider-explorer Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, who was promoted to Lt. Col. for gallantry in the Mexican War and was placed in command of the army post in St. Louis, Mo. during the Civil War is promoted to brig. gen. Mass.-born laissez-faire economist David Ames Wells (1828-98) is appointed chmn. of the U.S. Nat. Revenue Commission, then next year becomes the first commissioner of U.S. revenue, opposing income tax and initiating stamps for tobacco and liquor instead; his position is abolished in 1870 after he flip-flops and opposes the Repub. protectionist position, advocating free trade. The first spike of the transcontinental Union Pacific railroad is driven in Omaha, Neb. Horace Greeley co-opts John Soule's 1851 phrase "Go West, young man" in an editorial to a Congregational clergyman who lost his voice. Benjamin Altman (1840-1913) quits his daddy's penny-ante dry goods store and opens a more classy joint of his own, which grows into one of the biggest dept. stores on Earth, and is incorporated in 1913 on his death under the name B. Altman & Co. so that it will go on forever - or until Armageddon or the Internet, whichever comes first? As the Civil War ends, Texas has nothing but a zillion head of cattle to sell (5M running wild), so frontier scout Jesse Chisholm (1806-68) blazes the Chisholm Trail from San Antonio to Abilene, Kan. (ends in the 1880s); meanwhile on Dec. 25 the $1.5M Union Stock Yards in Chicago, Ill., built by Samuel Waters Allerton (1828-1914) and John B. Sherman on railroad money open on a 345-acre tract of reclaimed swamp land SW of the city limits, which later expands to 475 acres, benefitting from the virtual shutdown of the Mississippi Valley by the war, along with meat-packing centers St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati, with pens that can hold 10K head of cattle and 100K hogs; meanwhile Chicago doubles its packing capacity in one year, with eight new major plants plus many smaller ones, serving nine railroads; the stock yards peak in 1924 and finally close on July 30, 1971. A new drainage system for London opens after six years of work under the supervision of Metropolitan Board of Works chief engineer and designer Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819-91); it is completed in 1875, with 83 mi. of intercepting sewers. Ft. Selden is built across the Rio Grande River from Mt. Robledo at the S entrance to the Jornada del Muerto to protect travelers on El Camino Real from Apaches; unfortunately the Indians can look down into the fort from the mountain and see when the soldiers are gone; after the fort is abandoned a legend that $80K in gold is buried there causes treasure hunters to pock-mark it with holes. John August Sutter (of gold rush fame) leaves Calif. for Penn. when his farm is destroyed by an arsonist; he applies to Congress for restitution for his lost gold, but they never give enough spare change to pay attention. Cattle disease in Britain raises prices, increasing demand for cheap, fatty U.S. bacon and Australian canned meats. Abolition of slavery in the U.S. changes the diet of freed slaves to almost exclusively bacon, corn pone, corn bread spread with fat and molasses, and coffee sweetened with molasses, which is also the diet of many Western settlers, although some can afford canned fruits and veggies. The secret Molly Maguires society of Irish-American miners is formed in E Penn. to fight oppressive conditions (ends 1875). Cornelius Vanderbilt orders his Hudson River Railroad employees not to connect with the New York Central. About this time U.S. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant allegedly gifts a trick exploding cigar to Horace Norton, founder of Norton College, but he decides to keep it unsmoked as a souvenir; in 1932 his grandson Winstead Norton smokes it at a graduate reunion and it blows up in his face. The 3K-mi. Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad, (AKA the Katy), from St. Louis, Mo. to Kansas City, San Antonio, Houston, and Galveston is begun. The Southern Pacific Railroad is organized in Calif. to link San Francisco with San Diego. After the Civil War, Easter becomes a popular holiday with Americans. The U.S. Mint begins issuing nickel 3-cent coins; they are discontinued in 1889 after they prove unpopular. Asa Shinn Mercer (1839-1917) takes 500 orders from male residents of Seattle, Wash. for mail order brides at $300 each, and then makes a round-trip to New England, coming back with "Mercer's Maidens" after an arduous journey by land and sea, and they all get married, incl. one to Mercer himself. The London Metropolitan Fire Service is founded. The New York City Metropolitan Fire Dept. is created by the N.Y. legislature under a Repub.-controlled board of commissioners to replace the volunteer fire cos. controlled by Tammany Hall, starting with 700 men in Manhattan and Brooklyn under Civil War Union Gen. Alexander T. Shaler (1827-1911), who organizes it under military lines. Wheat futures trading begins in Chicago, Ill. after years of informal speculation in "to arrive" grains during the Crimean and Civil Wars; hedging doesn't begin until 1879. City Bank of New York obtains a federal charter and becomes the Nat. City Bank of New York. The Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Co. Ltd. is founded on Mar. 3 at 1 Queen's Road in Hong Kong by Scottish banker Thomas Sutherland (1834-1922), and goes on to use "sound Scottish banking principles" to keep it strong despite other Hong Kong bank failures. Mexican authorities shut down the Nat. U. of Mexico (founded 1551); it doesn't reopen until 1910. Cornell U. in Ithaca, N.Y. is founded by Western Union co-founder Ezra Cornell (1807-74) and N.Y. state sen. Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) on a Morrill Act land grant after N.Y. Repub. gov. (1865-8) Reuben Eaton Fenton (1819-85) signs a bill creating it on Apr. 27. Mass. Inst. of Tech. (MIT) is founded in Cambridge, Mass. downriver from Harvard U. by geologist William Barton Rogers (180r-82), power loom inventor Erastus Brigham Bigelow (1814-79) et al., and financed with $70K by Boston philanthropist William Johnson Walker (1790-1865), who in 1860 offered Harvard $130K to reform its medical school and was rejected when he demanded a whole new faculty; the motto is "Mens et Manus" (Mind and Hand); athletic teams are named the Engineers; a 168-acre campus opens in 1916 along the N bank of the Charles River basin; by 2014 its alumni incl. 81 Nobel laureates. The U. of Kentucky in Lexington is founded. The U. of Maine is founded in Orono, Maine. The Schofield Normal and Industrial School for freed blacks opens in the Sea Islands of S.C. under educator Martha Schofield (1839-1916); only 10% of Southern blacks are literate. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836-1917) jumps through all the hoops, becoming the first licensed woman physician in Britain (#2 in the world after Elizabeth Blackwell in the U.S.); in 1873 she becomes the first female member of the British Medical Assoc., and 1908 she becomes the first female mayor in England (Aldeburgh). Yale U. opens the first dept. of fine arts in the U.S. Lehigh U. on South Mountain in Bethlehem, Penn. in Lehigh Valley in Moravian country is founded as an engineering school by railroad magnate Asa Packer (1805-79), who provides free tuition to all students in 1871-91. The San Francisco Examiner in Calif. begins pub. on June 12 as the "Daily Examiner", founded in rip-roaring get-rich-quick Calif. by brothers Michael H. de Young (1849-1925) and Charles De Young (1847-80) (Dutch Jews whose mother ran a whorehouse in St. Louis?) after borrowing a $20 gold piece from their landlord to pub. a theater program sheet; in 1880 Charles is shot and killed by Milton Kalloch, son of Baptist minister Isaac Smith Kalloch (1831-87) to get even for shooting his daddy for preaching against their whorehouse connections, and is elected mayor while recuperating; later Michael is shot by Adolph B. Spreckels (1857-1924), son of German-born rival Hawaii sugar king Claus Spreckels (1828-1908), owner of the Pacific (Honolulu) Commercial Advertiser; sympathetic juries acquit both gunmen - because that's the San Francisco treat, the future of Silicon Valley is secure? The liberal abolitionist weekly The Nation ("flagship of the left") is founded on July 6 in New York City by Irish-born anti-imperialist Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902) to cover current events, becoming a leading liberal reformist mag. featuring distinguished lit. eds. Carl Van Doren, Mark Van Doren, John Macy, Ludwig Lewisohn, and J. W. Krutch. The juvenile mag. Our Young Folks begins pub., with contributors incl. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Horatio Alger Jr., and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps; in 1873 it merges with "St. Nicholas". The Radical, chief organ of the Radical Club (mainly New England Unitarian and Transcendentalist thinkers opposed to the supernaturalism of Christianity) begins pub. (until 1872), featuring Moncure D. Conway, Henry James Sr., and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Lutzen, Saxony-born German theology student Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900 suddenly quits and gives up his faith, writing to his sister Elisabeth the soundbyte: "Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire", going on to study philology and philosophy and soon discovering atheist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's "The World as Will and Representation", Friedrich Albert Lange's "History of Materialism", and Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species", getting an appointment as prof. of classical philology at the U. of Basel in 1869 at age 24, later reaching the pinnacle of philosophy and calling himself the Antichrist before becoming a partial invalid in 1874, becoming an opium addict, then collapsing in 1889 and becoming demented for the rest of his life. The Nat. Temperance Society and Publishing House is founded in the U.S. by Penn.-born alcohol-hating James Black (1823-93) and Maine-born alcohol-hating Quaker Neal S. Dow (1804-97), AKA "the Napoleon of Temperance". The Jennings Pedestal Vase Co. installs the first known pay toilets (using Joseph Bramah's design) outside the Royal Exchange in London; price is one penny, unchanging for the next cent. Crosby Opera House in Chicago, Ill. opens Apr. 20. Tony Pastor's Opera House opens in New York City on Aug. 14 at 201 Bowery under the mgt. of actor-clown-comedian-balladeer Antonio "Tony' Pastor (1837-1908), who becomes the "father of vaudeville". Bookbinder's Restaurant opens near the Schuylkill River in Philly, becoming famous for its red snapper soup. Au Printemps opens in Paris on May 11 (Thur.) under former Bon Marche dept. store head Jules Jaluzot (1834-1916). The law firm of Ropes and Gray is founded in Boston, Mass. by John Codman Ropes (1836-99) and John Chipman Gray (1839-1915), becoming a leader in intellectual property law - they know the ropes about the gray areas? German chemicals co. Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik (BASF) is founded in Mannheim on Apr. 6, and on Apr. 21 moves to the Hemshof district of Ludwigshafen. William Wallace "Will" Cargill (1844-1909) of Wisc. buys his first wooden grain elevator in Conover, Iowa, and goes on to build a network of elevators throughout the Am. Midwest, becoming the #1 private corp. in the U.S. William Carter of Needham, Mass. founds Carter's Infant Wear, going on to become the #1 U.S. supplier of baby and toddler apparel. Del Monte Corp. is founded in Calif. by James K. Armsby, going to become a leading U.S. preserver and packer of fruits and vegetables. Hamm's Brewery is founded over artesian wells in Swede Hollow in Phalen Creek Valley in E St. Paul, Minn. by German-born brewer Theodore Hamm (1825-1903) after he inherits Excelsior Brewery from business assoc. A.F. Keller; the ad slogan is: "From the Land of Sky Blue Waters/Comes the water best for brewing/ Hamm's the Beer Refreshing"; the mascot is the Hamm's Beer bear; in 1965 it is acquired by Heublein, who sells it in 1975 to Olympia Brewing Co., which is acquired in 1983 by Pabst, who trades the Hamm's brewery to Stroh Brewing Co., which shuts the brewery down in 1997; in 2006 Miller Brewing Co. acquires the brand name. Mme. Demorest expands her paper dress pattern selling biz in the U.S. to 300 female agents, and goes on to expand to Europe. Hungarian-born stillmaster Charles Fleischmann (1834-89) visits Cincinnati to attend his sister's wedding, and deplores the cruddy quality of yeast, deciding to go into biz and rising to the top. W.R. Grace & Co. is founded by Irish-born William Russell Grace (1832-1904) in New York City to engage in the triangle trade with South Am. and Europe; he goes on to become the first Roman Catholic mayor of New York City in 1880 and again in 1884, being the mayor to receive the Statue of Liberty from France - looks nice to passengers on his steamships? The Nokia conglomerate in Finland starts as a wood pulp mill on the outskirts of Helsinki. French economists Jean-Baptiste Leon Say (1826-96) and Marie-Esprit Leon Walras (1834-1910) (founder of gen. equilibrium theory) found a bank for producers' cooperatives as an alternative to rev. activity; it fails in 1868, but Say and Walras become prominent economists - you don't say? Frederic Storm and George Storm begin manufacturing hand-rolled White Owl brand cigars in Bayside, Queens, N.Y. in Little Neck Bay, named after a snowy owl that flew into Frederic's bedroom - during a storm? Great Western Champagne is introduced by the Pleasant Valley Wine Co. of Hammondsport, N.Y. (founded 1860), becoming the first N.Y. sparkling champagne. Juan Serralles (1845-1921) founds Don Q Rum in Puerto Rico, using sugar from his own 300-acre Hacienda Mercedita, worked by slaves and free labor. Speaking of slaves and free labor, the end of the U.S. Civil War and its emancipation turns into a joke for many black men, who are put in jail on trumped-up vagrancy charges and then hired out in return for their room and board in de facto lifetime slavery, which is covered-up by the media and the state govts. until the 1950s. After the U.S. Civil War ends, the bloody Confederate state of Mo. spawns clans of notorious bank robbers and outlaws, who are protected and idolized by the Mo. pop. as rebel Robin Hoods, incl. the James-Younger Gang, the Clanton Gang (Cowboys), and the Earp Gang. Nokia Co. is founded in Tempere, Finland by mining engineer Knut Fredrik Idestam (1838-1916) as a wood pulp mill and paper manufacturer, expanding in 1868 to Nokia 9 mi. to the W on the Nokianvirta (Finnish "soot martin" or sable) River; in 1967 it merges with two other cos. to become a conglomerate, and in 1982 it begins producing car phones. John Arbuckle and Charles Arbuckle of Pittsburgh, Penn. purchase the new self-emptying coffee bean roaster of Jabez Burns, and begin selling pre-roasted coffee in 1 lb. paper bags, calling it Ariosa, which becomes a hit with Am. West cowboys, and is later copied by James Folger; in 1905 John Arbuckle invents the Yuban blend of Arabica beans selected from the freshest shipments from South Am.; in ? the brand is acquired by Kraft Foods. After serving in the Confed. navy and being captured in Apr. then released, George Washington Duke (1820-1905) founds W. Duke & Sons to produce the Pro Bono Publico (For the Public Good) pipe tobacco, moving to Durham, N.C. in 1874 and retiring in 1880, leaving the business to his son Buck Duke, who goes on to found the Am. Tobacco Co., largest tobacco manufacturer on Earth. Sports: A baseball convention representing 91 clubs meets in New York City, and prof. baseball is born. On Oct. 8 Eddie Cuthbert of the Philadelphia Keystones makes the first sliding steal of a base in baseball history. English racing's Triple Crown (Two Thousand Guineas, Derby, St. Leger) is won by French-bred horse Gladiateur (1862-76). William Gilbert "Gilly" "W.G." Grace (1848-1915) debuts as a cricketer in Gentlemen vs. Players, going on to turn cricket into a spectator sport in a 44-year career. 21-y.-o. Scottish boxing fan John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (1844-1900) et al. found the Amateur Athletic Club to turn boxing into a scientific amateur sport. Architecture: Boston Old City Hall, designed by Arthur Delevan Gilman (1821-82) and Gridley James Fox Bryant (1816-99), son of railroad builder Gridley Bryant (1789-1867) is completed. Madison Square Theatre (AKA Fifth Ave. Theatre) at Broadway and West 24th St. between Sixth Ave. and Broadway near the Fifth Ave. intersection in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1K) opens, staging Divorce by Augustin Daly in 1871 for 200 perf., going on to pioneer advances in stage technology, theater design, and tour mgt.; it is demolished in 1908. The Ringstrasse (begun 1857) in Vienna opens, later hosting magnificent public bldgs. and parks in a fast-growing metropolis. The Tweed Ring saps big bucks out of the budget for the New York County Courthouse N of City Hall, keeping it from being finished to keep their sluice open; meanwhile Belvedere Castle is built in Central Park, soon hailed as a "folly". After the end of the U.S. Civil War, the 12-ft.-wide Shotgun House becomes popular in New Orleans, La., spreading throughout the Am. South until the 1920s. Inventions: William A. Bullock (1813-67) of Philly invents an improved rotary press using a continuous roll of paper which cuts the sheets before they are printed; paper strong enough to form a long web running over many cylinders, and quick-drying inks are still in the future; too bad, Bullock gets killed by one of his own infernal machines. Am. physicist Amos Emerson Dolbear (1837-1910) invents the first telephone receiver with a permanent magnet, but the dope futzes around and doesn't patent it, allowing Alexander Graham Bell to a-little-bit-mo' a-little-bit-mo' in 1876 and get all the credit and dough - the Dolbear System? James H. Mason of the U.S. patents the coffee percolator on Dec. 26 - 107 years to Mr. Coffee? Cans made of thinner steel come into general use, with a rim around the top that leads to the invention of the can opener. Am. inventor John Wesley Hyatt (1837-1920) invents the Composition Billiard Ball, replacing ivory using Parkesine (celluloid); he then begins trying to find a way to produce celluloid faster and cheaper. Samuel Cunliffe Lister, Baron Masham (1815-1906) perfects a machine that uses silk factory waste to make goods that can compete with virgin silk made from perfect cocoons. Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, known for his Civil War balloons for the U.S. Army invents an ice-making machine. German chemist Herman Johann Philipp Sprengel (1834-1906) invents a high-vacuum mercury pump, which is later used to develop the electric light bulb. John Batterson Stetson (1830-1906) begins making $5-$30 "10 gallon" Stetson Hats in Philadelphia, Penn., which become known as the "Hat of the West" and the "Boss of the Plains", growing to 3K non-union employees by 1900; they're actually modified Mexican sombreros with 4-in. crowns and 4-in. brims, and can carry 10 galions or ribbons plus a leather strap hatband. Henry Wilde pioneers electric arc welding. W.B. Wilkinson invents reinforced concrete. About this time Bisque Dolls, made of unglazed porcelain are made in France. Science: ? Besant and ? Ferrers coin the term orthocenter for the intersection of the three altitudes of a triangle. The original Rudolf the Red-Nosed Rain On Your Parade, Dear? German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (Gottlieb) (1822-88) coins the term "entropy", and reformulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics using it: "The entropy of the Universe is constantly increasing to an eventual maximum" - that sounds good and bad at the same time? British astronomer Sir William Huggins (1824-1910) demonstrates spectroscopically that light from the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) comes from stars and not from gas clouds, although other nebulae produce light that is characteristic of glowing gases. German chemist Friedrich August Kekule (Kekulé) von Stradonitz (1829-96) and Scottish chemist Archibald Scott Couper (1831-92) independently pub. the theory of chemical bonds, suggesting that carbon is tetravalent, and that carbon-carbon bonds are the key structural feature of organic compounds, becoming the key insight that gets modern organic chemistry cooking? In 1865 von Stradonitz develops Benzene Ring Theory to explain the properties of aromatic compounds, based on a dream about a snake swallowing its own tail. After reading Louis Pasteur's 1861 paper and creating a sprayer to create a mist of carbolic acid (phenol), English surgeon Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) performs the first antiseptic surgery in Glasgow during the treatment of a compound fracture; in 1867 he pub. On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery; his method goes on to reduce the surgical death rate from 45% to 15%; too bad, it's too late for U.S. Civil War use. Austrian Augustinian monk (abbot) Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-84) pub. Mendel's Laws of Heredity ("In any given pair of contrasting traits, one trait is dominant and the other recessive" et al.), establishing the principle of basic units called genes, based on laborious experiments begun in 1857 on peas in the monastery garden in Brunn, incl. the principles of unit characters, dominance and recessiveness, segregation, and free assortment; pub. in the obscure Transactions of the Brunn Nat. History Society, they go almost unnoticed by biologists until 1900; meanwhile Charles Victor Naudin (1815-99) of France finds certain regularities in the inheritance of characteristics in plant hybridization experiments, but misses the big picture - and then it's McDonald's McGriddles, breakfast snack for you, bedtime snack for me? English chemist John Alexander Reina Newlands (1837-98) pub. the Law of Octaves, showing that elements can be arranged in groups of eight with similar corresponding properties. German mathematician Julius Plucker (1801-68) invents Plucker Coordinates - lucky plucker jokes here? German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832-97) discovers that chlorophyll in plants is found only in small bodies (later termed chloroplasts), and that chlorophyll is the key compound in combining carbon dioxide and oxygen to produce starch while releasing more oxygen. Belgian scientist Jean Servais Stas (1813-91) produces the first modern table of atomic weights, using oxygen as the index (set at 16), and shows conclusively that atomic weights are not always integral. Jean-Antoine Villemin (1827-92) of France shows that TB (tuberculosis) is a contagious disease. German physiologist Karl von Voit (1831-1908) shows that the pathways by which food is converted to energy are complicated, and food is not simply burned to produce energy, but many intermediate reactions take place. Prussian-born German mathematician ("Father of Modern Analysis") Karl Weierstrass (1815-97) proves the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem, that every bounded infinite set of points in a Euclidean space has at least one accumulation point, for which every neighborhood of that point contains a point in the set; it was proved earlier by Austrian Roman Catholic priest-mathematician Bernhard (Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk) Bolzano (1781-1848), so they share credit; the theorem along with the Intermediate Value Theorem (proved by Bolzano in 1817) and Weierstrass' definition of uniform convergence of a sequence of functions and his definition of a continuous function become the basis of the modern theory underlying mathematical limits, the unyummiest subject for college math students. Nonfiction: Bronson Alcott (1799-1888), Ralph Waldo Emerson; lauds him to the skies? The Ancient Laws and Institutes of Ireland (1865-1901); pub. by a British royal commission established in 1852. Matthew Arnold (1822-88), Essays in Criticism. Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924), The Book of Were-Wolves. Henri Baudrillart (1821-92), La Liberte du Travail. Orestes Brownson (1803-76), The American Republic; how the U.S. has "a religious as well as a political destiny" - no ACLU to worry about yet? Ramon de Campoamor y Compoosorio (1817-1901), Lo Absoluto. Felix Dahn (1834-1912), Prokopius von Caesarea. Mary Abigail Dodge (1833-96), A New Atmosphere; argues against the view of women that "the great business of their life is marriage", and for greater female self-reliance and gender equality. Augustine Joseph Hickey Duganne (1823-84), Camps and Prison: Twenty Months in the Department of the Gulf; vivid account of his Civil War experiences as a Union officer. John William Draper (1811-82), Thoughts on the Future Civil Policy of America. Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), La Renovation de l'Orient. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), Real and Imaginary Worlds. Archibald Geikie (1835-1924), Scenery of Scotland; first detailed description of the topography of a country. Kersey Graves (1813-83), The Biography of Satan; Or, A Historical Exposition of the Devil and His Fiery Dominions. Disclosing the Oriental Origin of the Belief in a Devil and Future Endless Punishment; 4th ed. 1924. Rees Howell Gronow (1794-1865), Captain Gronow: His Reminiscences of Regency and Victorian Life, 1810-60. George Grote (1794-1871), Plato and Other Companions of Sokrates (4 vols.); earns him a rep as the #1 Plato scholar of the 19th cent.; too bad, he dies before he can complete a companion work on Aristotle. Sir John Cam Hobhouse (1786-1869), Recollections of a Long Life (autobio.). August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-92), Introduction to Modern Chemistry (Einleitung in die Moderne Chemie); puts him on the map in the chemistry teaching biz. William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), The Coal Question: An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal Mines; introduces Jevons' Paradox that improving energy efficiency reduces energy costs, increasing use, and pioneers the concept of energy depletion. John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870), Mr. Ambrose's Letters on the Rebellion; a defense of the Union cause. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe (2 vols.); the fall of Church-think to the onslaught of Science; makes it sound like Science is the way out of all our problems? Eliphas Levi (1810-75), The Science of Spirits. David Livingstone (1813-73), Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and its Tributaries; disses the slave traders while talking up the commercial potential for white Englishmen? Sir John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury (1834-1913), Prehistoric Times, as Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages; becomes std. textbook on archaeology for years; meanwhile the author, who is Charles Darwin's neighbor and friend in Downe, Bromley, London goes on to become a banker, hymenopterist, and Liberal MP (1870-). James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field; the super physics breakthrough of the 19th cent., unifying the laws of electricity and magnetism by treating light as an electromagnetic wave; he describes them as eight equations, six of which are written as three separate equations for each Cartesian axis, for a total of 20 equations in 20 unknowns, and it takes until 1884 for Oliver Heaviside and Willard Gibbs to reduce them to four equations using partial time derivatives; too bad, Maxwell's Silver Hammer can't explain how atoms can radiate light and not lose all their energy? John Stuart Mill (1806-73), Auguste Comte and Positivism. Francis Parkman (1823-93), France and England in North America (7 vols.) (1865-92); incl. "The Pioneers of France in the New World" (1865), "The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century" (1867), "La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West" (1869), "The Old Regime in Canada" (1874), "Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV" (1877), "Montcalm and Wolfe" (1884), "A Half Century of Conflict" (1892); creates a market for books on early French Am. and the Am. frontier, making a fan of Teddy Roosevelt; despite numerous errors it ranks "Among the most brilliant achievements of the writing of history as an art" (Edmund Wilson). Edmund Wilson calls it "among the most brilliant achievements John Ruskin (1819-1900), Sesame and Lilies; reading, education, woman's work, and social morals. Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829-1905), Reflexes of the Brain; the physiological basis of mental processes. Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), The 'Times' on the American War: A Historical Study; about how The Times of London kept wrongly predicting the success of Southern independence; Sketches from Cambridge. David Friedrich Strauss (1808-74), Die Halben und die Ganzen (The Half and the Whole); response to critics Daniel Schenkel (1813-85) and Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg (1802-69); The Christ of Belief and the Jesus of History (Der Christus des Glaubens und der Jesus der Geschichte); disses Friedrich Schleiermacher's lectures on the life of Jesus. Hippolyte Taine (1828-93), La Philosophie de l'Art. Henry David Thoreau (1817-62), Cape Cod (posth.); his visits in 1849, 1850, 1855; how he walked around the "great beach" and saw salt fish stacked up on the wharves of Provincetown "looking like corded wood, maple and yellow birch with the bark left on". Henry Baker Tristram (1822-1906), The Land of Israel, a Journal of Travels with Reference to Its Physical History; his visits to Palestine in 1858 and 1863 (later 1872), describing it as desolate; "Both in the north and south [of the Sharon Plain], land is going out of cultivation, and whole villages are rapidly disappearing from the face of the earth. Since the year 1838, no less than 20 villages have been thus erased from the map and the stationary population extirpated." Richard Grant White (1822-85), Life and Genius of Shakespeare. Forbes Benignus Winslow (1810-74), On Uncontrollable Drunkenness; testifies before the House of Commons on this subject in 1872, helping establish the plea of insanity in British criminal cases. Music: Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) and Hans Christian Anderson (1805-85), Ich Liebe Dich; big hit. Franz Liszt (1811-86), The Legend of St. Elizabeth (oratorio) (Aug. 15) (Budapest). Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864), L'Africaine (The African) (posth.) (opera) (Apr. 28) (Grand Opera, Paris); libretto by Eugene Scribe; about Vasco da Gama; incl. Oh! Paradis! Karl Millocker (1842-99), Der Tote Gast (operetta) (debut); based on the novel by Heinrich Zschokke; libretto by Ludwig Harisch. Ray Palmer (1808-87), Hymns and Sacred Pieces. Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Symphony No. 8 in B minor (Unfinished) (Dec. 17) (Vienna); first performance. Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Die Schone (Schöne) Galathee (The Beautiful Galatea) (operetta) (Carltheater, Vienna) (Sept. 9). Richard Wagner (1813-83), Tristan und Isolde (opera) (June 10) (Royal Court Theater, Munich); based on the 1210 vers. by Gottfried von Strassburg; contains Liebestod (Love Death). Henry Clay Work (1832-84), Marching Through Georgia; Sherman's March. Art: Antoine Louis Bayre, Walking Lion (sculpture). Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-90), Prometheus Unbound; Frederiksborg Palace Chapel (1865-79); 23 paintings of scenes from the life of Christ, which are later made heavy use of by the Mormon Church - the Mormons' Historyscoper? Ford Madox Brown (1821-93), Work; begun in 1852; attempts to portray the entire Victorian social system. Constantino Brumidi (1805-80), The Apotheosis of Washington; 4,664 sq. ft. fresco on the ceiling of the U.S. Capitol dome in Washington, D.C., visible through the oculus in the rotunda (180 ft. above the floor), for which he is paid $40K; portrays George Washington becoming a god and looking down at everybody, with red-capped Liberty at his right and Victory at his left, and a circle of 13 maidens representing the original 13 colonies, with those that seceded having their backs turned to him; on the perimeter are six large scenes representing War or Freedom (Columbia), Science (Minerva), Marine (Neptune), Commerce (Mercury), Mechanics (Vulcan), and Agriculture (Ceres). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), Ave Picardia Nutrix (mural). Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-75), Temperance (sculpture). Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875), Bohemienne a la Fontaine. Gustave Courbet (1819-77), Girl with Seagulls; Trouville; Countess Karoly; Jo, the Beautiful Irish Girl. Charles-Francois Daubigny (1817-78), Coucher de Soleil. Gustave Dore (1832-83), Illustrations to the Bible (engravings); incl. Jesus Collapses Under the Cross. Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Bird Catchers; The Veteran; Prisoners from the Front; the surrender of Confeds. to a Union officer; exhibited in New York City in 1866. J.A.D. Ingres (1780-1867), Self-Portrait at Age 79. George Innes (1825-94), Peace and Plenty; Delaware Valley. Edouard Manet (1832-83), Olympia; accepted by the Salon, it arouses protests in academic circles because of its unorthodox realism - you da man? Gustave Moreau (1826-98), Orpheus. Edward Poynton (1836-), Unto Death; a Roman soldier on guard at Pompeii. Prilidiano Pueyrredon (1823-70), El Bano (Baño); La Siesta; Lavanderas del Bajo Belgrano; Recorriendo la Estancia. James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Portrait of Jo, the Beautiful Irishwoman; his I-got-my-mind-set-on-you mistress. Plays: Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Windsor Castle. David Belasco (1853-1931), Jim Black, or The Regulator's Revenge; written at age 12 after running away from San Francisco to New York City and making his acting debut last year as the young Duke of York opposite Charles Kean in "Richard III". Dion Boucicault (1820-90), The Wicklow Wedding (Arrah na Pogue); a young Irish peasant girl hides a fugitive from the English. Dion Boucicault (1820-90) and Joseph Jefferson (1829-1905), Rip Van Winkle (London); title role played by Am. actor Joseph Jefferson for 40 years. Heinrich Laube (1806-84), Der Deutsche Krieg (9 vols.) (1865-6); the Thirty Years' War. Thomas William Robertson (1829-71), Society (comedy) (Nov. 11) (Prince of Wales's Theatre, London); stars Marie Wilton; a big hit, causing the Prince of Wales to visit and a new row of stalls to be added; a milestone in Victorian drama for its realism, paving the way for Gilbert and Sullivan. Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), Atalanta in Calydon; drama in classical form with choruses; "When the hounds of spring are on winter's traces,/ The mother of months in meadow or plain/ Fills the shadows and windy places/ With lisp of leaves and ripple of rain"; Chastelard: A Tragedy; the early career of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Tom Taylor (1817-80), Henry Dunbar, or A Daughter's Tears (Dec. 9) (Royal Olympic Theatre, London); based on the 1864 novel by Mary Elizabeth Braddon. Poetry: Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), Idyls and Legends of Inverburn. Giosue Carducci (1835-1907), Hymn to Satan (Inno a Satana); popular anti-clerical rev. poem aimed at the 20th Vatican Ecumenical Council, portraying the Vatican as the Devil. Bret Harte (1836-1902) (ed.), Outcroppings: Being Selections of California Verse (anthology). George Heath (1844-69), Preludes (Simple Poems). George Moses Horton (1798-1880), Naked Genius. Victor Hugo (1802-85), Chansons des Rues et des Bois. Edward Lear (1812-88), The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82) (tr.), Dante's Divine Comedy (3 vols.) (1865-7). James Russell Lowell (1819-91), Ode Recited at the Commemoration to the Living and Dead Soldiers of Harvard University; Pindaric ode for Union soldiers; revised as "The Cathedral" (1877). John Henry Newman (1801-90), The Dream of Gerontius; set to music in 1900 by Edward Elgar. Margaret Junkin Preston (1820-97), Beechenbrook: A Rhyme of the War (debut); incl. "Under the Shade of the Tree", taken from the dying words of her sister's hubby Stonewall Jackson. Rene Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907), Stances et Poemes (debut). Thomas Buchanan Read (1822-72), A Summer Story, Sheridan's Ride, and Other Poems; Sheridan's rallying of the Union army at Cedar Creek, Va. John Godfrey Saxe (1816-87), The Times, The Telegraph, and Other Poems; Clever Stories of Many Nations Rendered in Rhyme. Lajos Tolnai (1837-1902), Lyric Poems. Paul Verlaine (1844-96), Poemes Saturniens. William Ross Wallace (1819-81), What Rules the World; "The hand that rocks the cradle/ Is the hand that rules the world". Walt Whitman (1819-92), Drum-Taps; former nurse (wound dresser) in the Civil War goes poet; contains his famous elegy on the death of Lincoln, When Lilacs Last in the Door-yard Bloom'd, plus Pioneers! O Pioneers!, Hymn of the Dead Soldiers, The Wound Dresser, O Captain! My Captain!; too bad, the Interior Dept. sacks him from his clerk job for incl. explicit sexual references in his 1855 "Leaves of Grass", causing him to get a new job in the office of the U.S. atty. gen until his 1873 stroke. John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92), National Lyrics; incl. Laus Deo, commemorating the end of slavery. Novels: Edmond About (1828-85), La Vieille Roche. Jose de Alencar (1829-77), Iracema. Teofilo Braga (1843-1924), Contos Fantasticos. Lewis Carroll (1832-98), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (original title Alice's Adventures Underground"); based on a story he first told to Alice Pleasance Liddell (1852-1934), 2nd daughter of Greek scholar Henry George Liddell (1811-98), dean of Christ Church (1855-91) on July 4 in a row boat on The Isis from Folly Bridge, Oxford to Godstow for a picnic, rowed by Rev. Robinson Duckworth (1834-1911); illustrations by Sir John Tenniel (1820-1914), who was introduced by mutual friend, "Our American Cousin" playwright Tom Taylor (1817-80); "I'm late for a very important date" (White Rabbit); the Mad Hatter is claimed to really be PM William Gladstone; too bad, Carroll is later found to have been dabbling in a little soft child porn? (healthy outdoor nature photos?). Bankim Chandra Chatterji (1838-94), The Chieftain's Daughter. Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates; Hans and Gretel in a Dutch village; Gretel wins a skating contest, and their daddy is treated by a famous doctor. Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov (1831-95), Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. Charles James Lever (1806-72), Tony Butler; Luthell of Arran. Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), Max and Moritz: A Story of Seven Boyish Pranks; an illustrated children's story that later inspires the Katzenjammer Kids, making him the inventor of the comic strip?; in 1887 it becomes the first foreign children's book trans. into Japanese, by Shinjiro Shibutani. Ouida (1839-1908), Strathmore; Or, Wrought by His Own Hand. Charles Reade (1814-84), Griffith Gaunt; the marriage problem. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Kaunitz. Henry Wheeler Shaw (1818-85), Josh Billings: His Sayings; illiterate Yankee cracker barrel philosophy; a hit, launching a series incl. an annual "Allminax" in 1869-80. Adalbert Stifter (1805-68), Witiko; set in the 12th cent; a favorite of Hermann Hesse, Thomas Mann, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Robert Smith Surtees (1803-64), Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds (posth.). Anthony Trollope (1815-82), The Belton Estate. Giovanni Verga (1840-1922), Storia di una Peccatrice; I Carbonari Della Montagna. Jules Verne (1828-1905), From the Earth to the Moon; three scientists and a journalist get shot from a cannon in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Emile Zola (1840-1902), La Confession de Claude. Births: Am. "As I Like It in Scribner's" writer-critic William Lyon Phelps (d. 1943) on Jan. 2; educated at Yale U., and Harvard U. Colombian astronomer Julio Garavito Armero (d. 1920) on Jan. 5 in Bogota. Canadian chief justice (1933-44) Sir Lyman Poore Duff (d. 1955) on Jan. 7 in Meaford, Ont.; educated at the U. of Toronto; knighted in 1934. Am. musical patron (lesbian) Winnaretta Singer, Princess Edmond de Polignac (d. 1943) on Jan. 8; #20 of 24 children of sewing machine king Isaac Merritt Singer (1811-75). Am. mini-celeb (blind) Mary Amelia Ingalls (d. 1928) on Jan. 10 in Pepin, Wisc.; older sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957). French music hall singer Yvette (Emma Laure Esther) Guilbert (d. 1944) on Jan. 20 in Paris. Ukrainian economist-politician-statesman Myhaylo Tuhan-Baranovsky (d. 1919) on Jan. 20 in Solonom; teacher of Nikolai Kondratiev (1892-1938). Am. violinist Franz Kneisel (d. 1926) on Jan. 26 in Bucharest, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1893; teacher of Joseph Fuchs and Lillian Fuchs. Finnish pres. #1 (1919-25) Kaarlo Juho Stahlberg (d. 1952) on Jan. 28. French bicyclist-journalist Henri Desgrange (d. 1940) on Jan. 31 in Paris. Am. plant pathologist Henry Luke Bolley (d. 1956) on Feb. 1 in Manchester (near Lawrenceburg), Ind.; educated at Purdue U.; plays QB in Purdue's first football game in 1887 against DePauw U. Am. U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1906-17), candymaker, and thoroughbred horse breeder George William Loft (d. 1943) on Feb. 6 in New York City. German geophysicist and polar explorer Erich Dagobert von Drygalski (d. 1949) on Feb. 9 in Koningsberg, East Prussia. English "Eliza Doolittle in Pygmalion" stage-screen actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell (Margot Schneider) (Beatrice Stella Tanner) (d. 1940) on Feb. 9 in Kensington, London. Am. lawman-atty. Elfego Baca (d. 1945) on Feb. 10 in Soccoro, N.M.; known for having 9 lives. Polish poet-novelist-playwright Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer (d. 1940) on Feb. 12 in Ludzmierz, Podhale. German theologian Ernst Troeltsch (d. 1923) on Feb. 17 in Haunstetten. Swedish explorer-scientist Sven Anders Hedin (d. 1952) on Feb. 19 in Stockholm; one-sixteenth Jewish; knighted in 1902 (last Swede to be given hereditary title). English progressive educator John Haden Badley (d. 1967) on Feb. 21 in Dudley, Worcestershire; educated at Rugby School and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. Avon Products Inc. founder Alexander Dawson Henderson Sr. (d. 1925) on Feb. 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; father of Alexander Dawson Henderson Jr. (1895-1964) and Girard Brown Henderson (1905-83); not to be confused with Canadian photographer Alexander Henderson (1831-1913). Am. medical missionary (Newfoundland, Labrador) Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (d. 1940) on Feb. 28 in Parkgate, Cheshire; educated at Oxford U., and London Hospital; missionary to Labrador (1892-). Welsh "Days and Nights" symbolist poet Arthur William Symons (d. 1945) on Feb. 28; Cornish parents; experiences a mental breakdown in 1909 and doesn't pub. anything new until 1931. Am. printer and Old Goudy/Californian/Copperplate Gothic type designer Frederic William Goudy (d. 1947) on Mar. 8. English "The Arcadians" conductor-composer Howard Talbot (Richard Lansdale Munkittrick) (d. 1928) on Mar. 9 in Yonkers, N.Y.; of Irish descent; emigrates to England at age 4; educated at the Royal College of Music. Chinese liberal rev. leader Tan Sitong (T'an Szut'ung) (d. 1898) on Mar. 10. English-Chinese writer Edith Maude Eaton (AKA Sui-Sin Far) (d. 1914) on Mar. 15 in England. Am. entolomologist William Morton Wheeler (d. 1937) on Mar. 19 in Milwaukee, Wisc. English historian and Liberal politician Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher (d. 1940) on Mar. 21 in London; eldest son of Herbert William Fisher (1826-1903); educated at New College, Oxford U.; husband of Lettice Ilbert (1875-1956); father of Mary Bennett (1913-2005). Am. maj. gen. William Sidney Graves (d. 1940) on Mar. 27 in Mount Calm, Tex. Am. journalist-diplomat Stephen Bonsal (d. 1951) on Mar. 29 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at the U. of Heidelberg, U. of Bonn, and U. of Vienna. German gunsmith Wilhelm Brenneke (d. 1951) on Mar. 30 in Hanover. Austrian-German colloid chemist Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (d. 1929) on Apr. 1 in Vienna, Austria. Am. department store magnate (Jewish) Abraham Lincoln Filene (d. 1957) on Apr. 5 in Boston, Mass.; son of William Filene (1830-1901); brother of Edward Albert Filene (1860-1937). English "Garden of Kama" poet Laurence Hope (Adela Florence Nicolson) (d. 1904) on Apr. 9 in Stoke Bishop, Gloucestershire; sister of Annie Sophie Cory (1868-1952). German politician-gen. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm von Ludendorff (d. 1937) on Apr. 9 in Kruszevnia, Prussia. German-Am. electrical engineer-inventor Charles Proteus Steinmetz (d. 1923) on Apr. 9 in Breslau, Poland. Am. Socialist suffragette and civil rights worker Mary White Ovington (d. 1951) on Apr. 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; co-founder of the NAACP. English "I'm Henery the Eighth, I Am" comedian Harry Champion (William Henry Crump) (d. 1942) on Apr. 17 in Bethnal Green, East London. Brazilian immunologist Vita Brazil (Oswaldo Vital Brazil Mineiro da Campanha) (d. 1950) on Apr. 28 in Campanha, Minas Gerais; pioneer in anti-spider, scorpion and spider serums. Am. playwright William Clyde Fitch (d. 1909) on May 2 in Elmira, N.Y. Austrian PM (1917-18) Baron Maximilian "Max" Hussarek von Heinlein (d. 1935) on May 3 in Pressburg. English "The Four Feathers" novelist Alfred Edward Woodley "A.E.W." Mason (d. 1948)? on May 7 in Dulwich, London; educated at Trinity College, Oxford U. British Brig. Gen. Charles FitzClarence (d. 1914) on May 8 in Bishopscourt, County Kildare, Ireland; paternal grandfather George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, 1st earl of Munster is an illegitimate son of William IV. Dutch "Movement of Eighty" poet Albert Verwey (d. 1937) on May 15 in Amsterdam. Am. pacifist evangelist John Raleigh Mott (d. 1955) on May 25 in Livingston Manor, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U.; YMCA leader. Dutch Zeeman Effect physicist Pieter Zeeman (d. 1943) on May 25 in Zonnemaire, Zeeland; educated at the U. of Leiden. Am. "The King in Yellow" artist-writer Robert William Chambers (d. 1933) on May 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y. English cricketer George Lohmann (d. 1901) on June 2 in London. English king (1910-36) George V (d. 1936) on June 3; son of Edward VII and Alexandra. French composer ("the French Bruckner") Lucien Denis Gabriel Alberic Magnard (d. 1914) on June 9 in Paris; son of Francois Magnard, ed. of "Le Figaro"; student of Vincent d'Indy. Danish "The Four Temperaments" composer-conductor-violinist Carl August Nielsen (d. 1931) on June 9 in Sortelung (near Odense). Am. Arctic explorer-physician Frederick Albert Cook (d. 1940) on June 10 in Callicoon, N.Y.; German immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U.. and NYU; claims to beat Robert Peary to the North Pole on Apr. 21, 1908. Irish "Land of Heart's Desire" poet-dramatist William Butler Yeats (d. 1939) on June 13 in Sandymount (near Dublin); son of portraitist John Butler Yeats (1839-1922); brother of artist Jack Butler Yeats (1871-1957). English actress Dame Mary Louise "May" Whitty (d. 1948) on June 19 in Liverpool; wife of Ben Webster (1864-1947); mother of Margaret Webster (1905-72); created dame in 1918 (first actress). German physiologist Otto Frank (d. 1944) on June 21 in Gross-Umstadt. Scottish "Sunrise on Badenoch Hills" painter-etcher Sir David Young Cameron (d. 1945) on June 25 in Glasgow; knighted in 1924. Am. Ashcan School painter-teacher Robert Henri (Robert Henry Cozad) (d. 1929) on June 25 in Cincinnati, Ohio; riverboat gambler father; member of The Eight; known for his gypsy portraits. Am. Italian art critic (Jewish) Bernard Berenson (Bernhard Valvrojenski) (d. 1959) on June 26 in Butrimonys, Lithuania; brother of Senda Berenson Abbott (1868-1954); emigrates to the U.S. in 1875; educated at Boston U., and Harvard U. Australian Gen. (Jewish) Sir ("Our modern Judas Maccabaeus" - London Jewish Chronicle) John Monash (d. 1931) on June 27 in Melbourne, Victoria; son of German Jewish immigrants; nephew by marriage of historian Heinrich Graetz. Am. isolationist progressive pro-Soviet U.S. Sen. (R-Ohio) (1907-40) ("the Lion of Idaho") William Edgar Borah (d. 1940) on June 29 near Fairfield, Ill. Japanese longevity champ Shigechiyo Izumi (d. 1986) on June 29 in Ryukyu Islands. French occultist (Freemason) (founder of Martinism) Gerard Encausse (AKA Papus) (d. 1916) on July 13 in La Coruna, Spain; French father, Spanish mother; emigrates to France at age 4. English London Daily Mail newspaper publisher Viscount Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe (d. 1922) on July 15 near Dublin, Ireland; brother of Lord Rothermere (1868-1940); an up-from-poverty story? Irish novelist George A. Burmingham (Rev. James Owen Hannay) (d. 1950) on July 16 in Belfast. Am. "Mad Youth' actress Margaret Fealy (d. 1955) on July 18 in Memphis, Tenn.; wife of Rafaello Cavallo; mother of Maude Fealy (1883-1971). English poet-novelist-dramatist-illustrator Laurence Housman (d. 1959) on July 18 in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire; brother of A.E. Housman (1859-1936). Am. Mayo Clinic surgeon Charles Horace Mayo (d. 1939) on July 19 in Rochester, Minn.; son of William Worrall Mayo (1819-1911); brother of William James Mayo (1861-1939); father of Charles W. Mayo (1898-1968). German Maj. Gen. ("Hero of Omaruru") Erich Victor Carl August Franke (d. 1936) on July 21 in Zuckmantel, Silesia. English sci-fi novelist Matthew Phipps Shiel (Shiell) (d. 1947) on July 21 in Montserrat, West Indies. Danish-Am. Rosicrucian mystic-astrologer ("greatest Western mystic of the 20th cent."?) Max Heindel (Carl Louis von Grasshoff) (d. 1919) on July 23 in Aarhus. U.S. Supreme Court justice #72 (1923-30) Edward Terry Sanford (d. 1930) on July 23 in Knoxville, Tenn.; educated at the U. of Tenn., and Harvard U. German Social Dem. chancellor (1918-9) Philipp Scheidemann (d. 1939) on July 26. Latvian Soviet Supreme Court Chmn. (1923-32) Peter (Pyotr) Ivanovich Stucka (Stuchka) (d. 1932) on July 26 (July 14 Old Style) in Koknese Parish, Livonia. Am. "New Humanist" scholar-educator Irving Babbitt (d. 1933) on Aug. 2 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at Harvard U.; collaborator of Paul Elmer More (1864-1937). Russian "The Seasons", "Raymonda" composer Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (d. 1936) on Aug. 10 in St. Petersburg. English actress Hannah Chaplin (Hannah Harriet Pedlingham Hill) (d. 1928) on Aug. 11 in Walworth, London; mother of Sydney Chaplin (1885-1965), Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), and George Wheeler Dryden (1892-1957); grandmother of Geraldine Chaplin (1944-). U.S. Forest Service chief #1 (1905-10) and Repub. politician Gifford Pinchot (d. 1946) on Aug. 11 in Milford (Simsbury), Penn.; his family makes its fortune from clear-cutting forests in Penn. for farms, then turns around and decides to invest it in forest conservation, grooming their son by sending him to schools in Europe plus Yale U. (Skull & Bones). Russian Symbolist poet Dmitri Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (d. 1942) on Aug. 14 in St. Petersburg. Japanese physicist Nagaoka Hantaro (d. 1950) on Aug. 15 in Omura, Nagasaki Prefecture; educated at the U. of Tokyo. Japanese Reiki founder Mikao Usui (d. 1926) on Aug. 15 in Taniai. Afghan journalist ("Father of Afghan Journalism") Mahmud Beg Tarzi (d. 1933) on Aug. 23 in Ghazni; an ethnic Pashtun. Romanian king #2 (1914-27) (Roman Catholic) Ferdinand I (d. 1927) on Aug. 24 in Sigmaringen, Germany; son of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1835-1905) and Princess Antonio of Portugal (1845-1913). Am. archeologist-Egyptologist-historian James Henry Breasted (d. 1935) on Aug. 27 in Rockford, Ill.; educated at Yale U., and Berlin U.; coiner of the term "Fertile Crescent". U.S. Repub. vice-pres. #30 (1925-9) and U.S. ambassador (to Britain) (1929-32) Charles Gates "Hell and Maria" Dawes (d. 1951) on Aug. 27 in Marietta, Ohio; son of Rufus Dawes (1839-); educated at the U. of Neb. Latvian poet-playwright Janis Rainis (d. 1929) on Sept. 11. English historian and suffragist Mary Bateson (d. 1906) on Sept. 12 in Robin Hood's Bay; daughter of William Henry Bateson (1812-81); sister of Margaret Heitland (1860-1938) and William Bateson (1861-1926); educated at Newnham College, Cambridge U.; student of Mandell Creighton (1843-1901). British Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood (d. 1951) on Sept. 13 in Khadki, India; created baron in 1938. British "Scarlet Pimpernel" novelist-playwright Baroness Emma "Emmuska" Magdolna Rozalia Maria Jozefa Borbala Orczy de Orzi (Emma Magdalena Rosalia Maria Josefa Barbara Orczy) (d. 1947) (pr. OR-tsee) on Sept. 23 in Tarnaors, Hungary; emigrates to England in 1880. Egyptian liberal pan-Islamist Salafiyya jurist Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935) on Sept. 23 near Tripoli; student of Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905); wants to restore the caliphate and Sharia. French painter Suzanne (Marie-Clementine) Valadon (d. 1938) on Sept. 23 in Bessines-sur-Gartempe, Haute-Vienne; starts out as a circus acrobat then has a fall from a trapeze; first female painter admitted to the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts; mother of Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955). French "Sorcerer's Apprentice" composer (Jewish) Paul Dukas (d. 1935) on Oct. 1 in Paris; studies at the Paris Conservatory, and becomes its dir. in 1928. French Egyptologist-archeologist Georges Albert Legrain (d. 1917) on Oct. 4 in Paris. Norwegian "Batwings" novelist-dramatist Hans Ernst Kinck (d. 1926) on Oct. 11 in Oksfjord. English chemist Sir Arthur Harden (d. 1940) on Oct. 12 in Manchester; educated at the U. of Manchester. Am. politician James Rudolph Garfield (d. 1950) on Oct. 17; son of pres. James A. Garfield (1831-81). Am. "Unforgotten Years" writer (in London) Logan Pearsall Smith (d. 1946) on Oct. 18 in Millville, N.J.; Quaker parents. German Berliner Succession Movement artist Walter Leistikow (d. 1908) on Oct. 25 in Bromberg. Am. businessman (Jewish) Benjamin Guggenheim (d. 1912) on Oct. 26 in Philadelphia, Penn.; son of Meyer Guggenheim (1828-1905); brother of Solomon Robert Guggenheim (1861-1949); father of Peggy Guggenheim (1898-1979). English soccer player Tinsley Lindley (d. 1940) on Oct. 27 in Nottingham. U.S. Repub. pres. #29 (1921-3) Warren Gamaliel "Winnie" Harding (d. 1923) on Nov. 2 in Blooming Grove, Ohio; educated at Ohio Central College; first U.S. pres. born after the Civil War; no African ancestry. Am. hotelier Spencer Penrose (d. 1939) on Nov. 2; builder of the Broadmoor Hotel in Colo. Springs, Colo.; brother of Boies Penrose (1860-1921). Am. film pioneer Edwin Thanhouser (d. 1956) on Nov. 11 in Baltimore, Md. French chef Prosper Montagne (Montagné) (d. 1948) on Nov. 14 in Carcassonne. Am. archeologist Edgar Lee Hewett (d. 1946) on Nov. 23 in Warren County, Ill.; educated at the U. of N Colo. Am. New York City mayor (1904-9) George Brinton McClellan Jr. (d. 1940) on Nov. 23 in Dresden, Saxony; son of Gen. George B. McClellan (1826-85). English Red Cross nurse-martyr Edith Louisa Cavell (d. 1915) on Dec. 4 in Swardeston, Norfolk. German Gen. Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger, Graf von der Goltz (d. 1946) on Dec. 8 in Zullichau, Brandenburg. French mathematician (Jewish) Jacques-Salomon Hadamard (d. 1963) on Dec. 8 in Versailles. Finnish #1 "Swan of Tuonela" composer (bald) (Freemason) Jean (Johan Julius Christian) Sibelius (d. 1957) on Dec. 8 in Hameenlinna (Tavastehus); educated at the U. of Helsinki; pupil of Karl Goldmark; adopts the name Jean in memory of an uncle. Am. historian-educator Ephraim Douglass Adams (d. 1930) on Dec. 18 in Decorah, Iowa; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. "Becky Sharp" stage actress Minnie Maddern Fiske (Marie Augusta Davey) (d. 1932) on Dec. 19 in New Orleans, La. Irish feminist patriot actress Edith Maud Gonne (d. 1953) on Dec. 20 in Tongham (near Farnham), Surrey, England; her parents are married one day before she is born, causing her to later claim her birth year as 1866; hooks up with poet William Butler Yeats in 1896, then dumps him for Maj. John MacBride in 1903 after converting to Roman Catholicism. Am. "The House in Good Taste" interior decorator (bi) Elsie de Wolfe (Lady Mendl) (d. 1950) on Dec. 20. Am. Salvation Army gen. #4 Evangeline Cory Booth (d. 1950) on Dec. 25 in South Hackney, London, England; daughter of founder William Booth (1829-1912) and Catherine Mumford Booth (1829-90). Am. Anheuser-Busch CEO (1913-34) August Anheuser Busch Sr. (d. 1934) on Dec. 29 in St. Louis, Mo.; son of Adolphus Busch (1839-1913) and Lilly Eberhard Anheuser, daughter of Eberhard Anheuser (1806-80); eight brothers and five sisters; father of Adolphus Busch III (1891-1946)and August Anheuser "Gussie" Busch Jr. (1899-1989). British "The Jungle Book", "The Man Who Would Be King", "Gunga Din" writer-poet (Freemason) Joseph Rudyard Kipling (d. 1936) on Dec. 30 in Bombay, India; spends his early years in India, speaking Hindi as his first language, then moves in with his Aunt Rosa in England; first Brit to receive Nobel Lit. Prize (1907); will only write when his pen has black ink in it? Austrian 8'9" giant Josef Winkelmaier (d. 1887). Am. bad poet Rev. John Brown Gordon Coogler (d. 1901) in Doko, S.C.; "Poems Written While You Wait" (sign in his printing shop); spawns fan clubs across the U.S. Russian "Mad Love" silent film dir. Evgeni Bauer (Yevgeni Frantsevich Bauer) (d. 1917) in Moscow. French Sinologist Edouard Chavannes (d. 1918). Am. theatrical mgr. (Jewish) Alfred "Alf" Hayman (d. 1921) in Wheeling, W. Va.; brother of Al Hayman (1847-1917); collaborator of Charles Frohman. French diplomat-traveler Charles Eudes Bonin (d. 1929) in Poissy (near Paris). Am. Shakespearean scholar Horace Howard Furness Jr. (d. 1930); son of Horace Howard Furness Sr. (1833-1912). Am. Scoville Pepper Hotness Scale chemist Wilbur Lincoln Scoville (d. 1942). Am. candymaker Frederick Michael Switzer Sr. (d. 1949) in St. Louis, Mo.; Irish immigrant father; father of Frederick Michael Switzer Jr. (9106-97). British racquets-tennis champ Peter Walker Latham (d. 1953). Deaths: French Society of the Sacred Heart founder St. Madeleine Sophie Barat (b. 1779) on May 25 in Paris; canonized by Pope Pius XI on May 24, 1925. Am. episcopal bishop Thomas Church Brownell (b. 1779) on Jan. 13 in Hartford, Conn. French naturalist-physician Leon Jean Marie Dufour (b. 1780) on Apr. 18. Am. treasury secy. #11 (1833) William John Duane (b. 1780) on Sept. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn. Venezuelan-Chilean poet-statesman Andres Bello (b. 1781) on Oct. 15 in Santiago, Chile. Swedish liberal leader Carl Henrik (b. 1783) on Jan. 25 in Stockholm after seeing Sweden get a modern parliamentary system this year, along with open govt. fiscal policy, free trade, and mass public education. British PM Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (b. 1784) on Oct. 18 in Brockett Hall, Hertfordshire; 3rd non-royal to be buried in Westminster Abbey; "Though he made a joke when asked to do the right thing, he always did it" (Florence Nightingale): "Nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests." English scientist Samuel Hunter Christie (b. 1784) on Jan. 24. Am. lexicographer Joseph Emerson Worcester (b. 1784) on Oct. 27. English botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker (b. 1785) on Aug. 12 in Kew, Surrey. Am. surgeon Valentine Mott (b. 1785). U.S. Supreme Court justice #25 (1837-65) John Catron (b. 1786) on May 30 in Nashville, Tenn. English inventor Thomas Hancock (b. 1786) on Mar. 26 in London. Japanese artist Utagawa Kunisada (b. 1786). Am. abolitionist Arthur Tappan (b. 1786) on July 23. Am. Santa Fe Trail pioneer trader William Becknell (b. 1787) on Apr. 30 in Tex. Canadian-born British shipping magnate Sir Samuel Cunard (b. 1787) on Apr. 28 in Kensington, London. Italian cardinal Luigi Ciacchi (b. 1788) on Dec. 17 in Rome. British Adm. William Henry Smyth (b. 1788) on Sept. 8 in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire; namesmake of Mare Smythii on the Moon. Am. fur trading magnate Pierre Chouteau (b. 1789) on Sept. 6 in St. Louis, Mo. English caricaturist Isaac Robert Cruikshank (b. 1789). Canadian statesman William Machin Stairs (b. 1789) on Nov. 28 in Halifax, N.S. Belgian king #1 (1831-65) Leopold I (b. 1790) on Dec. 10 in Laeken. Am. philanthropist William Johnson Walker (b. 1790) on Apr. 2 in Newport, R.I.; leaves $1M to institutions of learning in his will. Spanish dramatist Angel de Saavedra (b. 1791) on June 22. English painter Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (b. 1793) on Dec. 24 in Pisa, Italy. Austrian painter Ferdinand Waldmuller (b. 1793) on Aug. 23 in Hinterbruhl. Am. clergyman-orator Edward Everett (b. 1794) on Jan. 15 in Boston, Mass. Am. Va. planter and Confed. soldier Edmund Ruffin (b. 1794) on June 17/18 in Redmoor Plantation, Amelia County, Va. (suicide after writing in his diary: "I hereby... proclaim my unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule... & to the perfidious, malignant, & vile Yankee race", then putting a bullet through his head). French zoologist Achille Valenciennes (b. 1794) on Apr. 13. British military surgeon James Barry (b. 1795) on July 25. Dutch queen (1840-9) Anna Pavlovna of Russia (b. 1795) on Mar. 1 in The Hague. Italian soprano Giuditta Pasta (b. 1797) on Apr. 1 in Blevio on Lake Como. Am. naval Capt. William Francis Lynch (b. 1801) on Oct. 17. English Crystal Palace architect Sir Joseph Paxton (b. 1803) on June 8 in Sydenham (near London). Am. rear Adm. Samuel Francis du Pont (b. 1803) on June 23 in Washington, D.C.; Washington's Du Pont Circle is later named for him. British Liberal-Radical statesman Richard Cobden (b. 1804) on Apr. 2 in London; on Apr. 3 he is eulogized in the House of Commons by Lord Palmerston and Disraeli. Am. painter Fitz Hugh (really Fitz Henry?) Lane (b. 1804) on Aug. 14. French painter Eugene Deveria (b. 1805) on Feb. 3 in Pau. British HMS Beagle Capt. Robert Fitzroy (b. 1805) on Apr. 30 (suicide). Irish mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton (b. 1805) on Sept. 2 in Dublin; inventor of quaternions (ii=jj=kk=ijk=-1). British diplomat-explorer Sir Robert H. Schomburgk (b. 1804) on Mar. 11 in Schaneberg (near Berlin). Italian patriot gen. Manfredo Fanti (b. 1806) on Apr. 5 in Florence. French papal army gen. Christophe de Lamoriciere (b. 1806) on Sept. 11 in Prouzel, Somme. Am. Fla. gov. John Milton (b. 1807) on Apr. 1 in Marianna, Fla. Scottish writer-minister Alexander Hislop (b. 1807) on Mar. 13 in Arbroath. Spanish composer Sebastian Iradier (b. 1809) on Dec. 6. U.S. Repub. pres. #16 (1861-5) Abraham Lincoln (b. 1809) on Apr. 15 in Washington, D.C. (assassinated); leaves U.S. Patent #6469 for refloating stranded boats over shoals, which is later used in WWII (only patent held by a U.S. pres.); his "complete limning" would require "the eyes and brains and fingertouch of Plutarch and Aeschylus and Michael Angelo, assisted by Rabelais" (Walt Whitman); "The ballot is stronger than the bullet"; "No man is good enough to govern another man without that other's consent"; "As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy"; "You can fool all of the people some of the time, and some of the people all of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time." French Socialist writer Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (b. 1809) on Jan. 19 in Passy (near Paris): "The great are only great because we are on our knees - let us rise!" English novelist Elizabeth Gaskell (b. 1810) on Nov. 12 in Holybourne, Hampshire; leaves her unfinished final novel Wives and Daughters, after which the eds. of Cornhill's Mag. use her outline to finish it in seralization. German chemist Ludwig Ferdinand Wilhelmy (b. 1812). German dramatist Otto Ludwig (b. 1813) on Feb. 25 in Dresden. Guatemalan dictator Rafael Carrera (b. 1814) on Apr. 14. Austrian-Hungarian physician Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (b. 1818) on Aug. 13 near Vienna; dies in a mental asylum after contracting septicemia in a finger, which is a riot since he spent his career trying to convince physicians to wash their hands and sterilize their instruments?; he never used a microscope to view puerperal fever bacteria? German explorer Heinrich Barth (b. 1821) on Nov. 25 in Berlin. Am. Lincoln assassination figure Mary E. Surratt (b. 1823) on July 7 in Washington Arsenal, Washington, D.C. (hanged). Am. Confed. Gen. A.P. Hill (b. 1825) on Apr. 2 in Petersburg, Va. (KIA). English boxer Tom Sayers (b. 1826) on Nov. 8 in London. Am. Lincoln assassination conspirator George Atzerodt (b. 1835) on July 7 in Washington Arsenal, Washington, D.C. (hanged). English household engineer Isabella Beeton (b. 1836) on Feb. 6. Am. Confederate guerrilla William Clarke Quantrill (b. 1837) on June 6 in Louisville, Ky.; dies of gunshot wounded received on May 10 near Taylorsville, Ky. Am. actor-assassin John Wilkes Booth (b. 1838) on Apr. 26 in Garrett's Barn in Port Royal (near Bowling Green), Va. (murdered); in 1999 famous Shakespearean actors join in an effort to save his childhood home Tudor Hall near Baltimore, Md. Am. Lincoln assassination conspirator David Herold (b. 1842) on July 7 in Washington Arsenal, Washington, D.C. (hanged). Am. Lincoln assassination conspirator Lewis Powell (b. 1844) on July 7 in Washington Arsenal, Washington, D.C. (hanged).



1866 - Who was that little girl in that Macon dream home? The Old American South is Gone With the Wind, and now groans under the bootheel of the North while trying to hang onto its precious white women, incl. dentists? Meanwhile, if you're an American Indian, who do you think is your biggest competition?

Alfred Nobel (1833-96) Carol I of Romania (1839-1914) Elisabeth of Wied (1843-1916) Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799-1869) Prussian Prince Chlodwig of Hohenlohe (1819-1901) U.S. Commodore John Rodgers Jr. (1812-82) U.S. Col. Henry B. Carrington (1824-1912) U.S. Capt. William Judd Fetterman (1833-66) Sioux Chief Hollow Horn Bear (1850-1913) Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu of Japan (1837-1913) Princess Chikako of Japan (1846-77) Spanish Adm. Casto Méndez Núñez (1824-69) French Adm. Pierre-Gustave Roze (1812-82) Benjamin Franklin Stephenson of the U.S. (1823-71) Montagu Corry, Lord Rowton of Britain (1838-1903) John C. O'Neill (1843-78) Jack Daniel (1849-1911) Reno Gang David Livingstone (1813-73) Lucy B. Hobbs (1833-1910) Henry Bergh (1811-88) Hermann Cohen (1842-1918) Theophile Gautier (1811-72) Théophile Gautier (1811-72) John Venn (1834-1923) Charles Marie Rene Leconte de Lisle (1818-94) Jose Maria de Heredia y Girard (1842-1905) Horace Howard Furness (1833-1912) Mary Ellen Pleasant (1814-1904) Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919) Robert Whitehead (1823-1905) Sir Henry Irving (1838-1905) Sir John Robert Seeley (1834-95) Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) Bedrich Smetana (1824-84) Karel Sabina (1813-77) Ambroise Thomas (1811-96) Max Bruch (1838-1920) Robert Hamerling (1830-89) Nikolai Nekrasov (1821-78) John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92) U.S. Gen. Clinton Bowen Fisk (1828-90) Philip Schaff (1819-93) Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924) Heinrich Anton de Bary (1831-88) Moses Easterly Lard (1818-80) Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816-92) John M. Bozeman (1835-67) John MacGregor (1825-92) Lucy Walker (1836-1916) Charles Elmer Hires (1851-1937) Hires Root Beer ad James Vernor Sr. (1843-1927) Conrad Kohrs Needle Gun Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) 'My Father' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1866 'Camille Doncieux (Lady in Green)' by Claude Monet (1840-1926), 1866 'The Black Crook', 1866 George Ehret (1835-1927) Grey Poupon, 1866

1866 The Russian Empire reaches its max. extent of 23.7M sq. km, incl. territories in E Europe, Asia, and North Am. On Jan. 11 British steamship London en route to Melbourne, Australia sinks in the Bay of Biscay, killing 220. In Jan. the Repub.-controlled 39th U.S. Congress (begun Mar. 4) reconvenes (until Mar. 4), and goes nonlinear at Pres. Johnson's brand of non-vengeful Reconstruction, believing him to have given away the fruits of victory, going on to repudiate his program and substitute their own, founded on the enfranchisement of the freed slaves; Johnson, who, although born poor had been a slaveowner opposes black suffrage, driving moderate and conservative Repubs. into the Radical camp; meanwhile in Jan. the 2nd U.S. Capitol Dome is completed after 11 years. On Feb. 2 a black delegation led by Frederick Douglass meets with Pres. Johnson to discuss black suffrage, but Johnson continues his opposition; on Apr. 9 Congress overrides Johnson's veto and passes the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1866, conferring citizenship and equal rights on blacks, and imposing criminal penalties on violators; on July 9 S.C. becomes the 28th state to approve the Fourteenth (14th) (XIV) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing due process and equal protection to all citizens, and granting United States citizenship to blacks; the term "United States" starts being used as a singular instead of a plural noun; too bad, the 14th Amendment ends up being used as a crowbar for the federal govt. to quash states rights. On Feb. 7 the naval Battle of Abtao is a push between a Spanish naval squadron and a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet near Abtao Island in the Chiloe Archipelago of C Chile, after which Spain decides to target Peruvian ports, starting with Valparaiso, where they destroy the Chilean merchant fleet while British and U.S. naval cmdrs. in the area stand by, with U.S. minister to Chile Hugh Judson Kirkpatrick (1836-81) asking U.S. Commodore John Rodgers Jr. (1812-82) why he won't attack the Spanish fleet, causing Spanish Adm. Casto Mendez Nunez (Méndez Núñez) (1824-69) to issue the soundbyte: "Even if I have only one ship left I will continue the bombardment, because Spain, the Queen and I prefer honor without ships than ships without honor" - and it's all over bat shit? On Feb. 12 both houses of Congress gather for a memorial address in tribute to assassinated Pres. Abraham Lincoln, starting the tradition of celebrating his birthday. On Feb. 12 under the leadership of U.S. secy. of state William H. Steward, Congress demands the removal of French troops from Mexico; on May 31 Napoleon III announces the start of the evacuation; repub. troops begin to close in on Emperor Maximilian I, and later in the year the end of the U.S. Civil War allows Lincoln to send spare military supplies to them to help. On Feb. 13 the Jesse James Gang, composed of unemployed Confed. soldiers stages the first daylight bank robbery in the U.S. at the Clay County Savings Assoc. in Liberty, Mo., taking $15K in gold coins. On Feb. 21 Lucy B. Hobbs (Taylor) (1833-1910) becomes the first woman to graduate from a dental school with a DDS, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati, Ohio - the real transcendentalists? On Feb. 22 after failing to create an alliance of prosperous peasants and turning the landowners against him, the "monstrous coalition" of conservatives and liberals incl. Liberal Party (wealthy conservative?) opposition leader Ioan Bratianu forces Alexander John Cuza to abdicate and flee the country, and on Apr. 20 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen succeeds as Carol I (1839-1914) of Romania (until Oct. 10, 1914), a domnitor (ruling prince) until Mar. 15, 1881; on June 13 a new joint constitution is adopted; prohibited from marrying a Romanian, in 1869 Carol I marries lit. giant (the Nora Roberts of the 19th cent.?) Elisabeth (Elizabeth) of Wied (1843-1916), prospective bride of Edward VII of England, who becomes known by her lit. name Carmen Sylva. On Apr. 2 Pres. Johnson declares that the "insurrection" has ended in all states except Texas; on May 10 he proclaims the end of hostilities; on Aug. 20 he gives notice of the resumption of civil govt. in all states that had seceded. On Apr. 3 the U.S. Supreme (Chase) Court rules in Ex Parte Milligan that trying citizens in military tribunals is unconstitutional when civilian courts are operating. See why everyone is talking about Veronica Bismars and Needle Dick? On Apr. 8 Prussian PM Otto von Bismarck allies Prussia with Italy, then on June 9 sends Prussian troops from Schlesweg into Holstein to drive Austria out and annex it, starting the Seven Weeks' War (Austro-Prussian War) (Prussian-German War) (German Civil War) between Prussia and Italy against Austria when Austria chickens out and withdraws its forces from Holstein without a battle, Bismarck waits for it to make a mistake, and on June 14 the Diet of Frankfurt passes a Bavarian motion to mobilize all non-Prussian and non-Austrian forces, causing Bismarck to declare the Federal Act violated and start a war with the South German states, quickly winning, then along with Italy declaring war on Austria; on June 24 the Italians under Gen. Enrico Calidini are defeated at the Battle of Custozza; Austria, thinking it can kick Prussia's butt easily, makes a secret treaty with France to sit it out; on June 27 the Prussians defeat Hanover at the Battle of (Bad) Langensalza; too bad, the Prussians under Gen. Helmuth von Moltke surprise the Austrians with secret veapons, viz. the use of railroads for rapid troop deployment, the use of breech-loading Needle Guns which can fire 4x as fast as the Austrian muzzle-loaders, and pre-measured mobile bridges in case the Austrians destroy the real ones, and on July 3 they win a decisive V at the 450K-man Battle of Koniggratz (Sadowa) (Sadova) (Hradec Kralove) (in NW Czech. near modern-day Hradec Kralove) despite massed steel-rifled cannon barrage fire, ending the effectiveness of cavalry regiments and presaging the fun to come in WWI; "The needle gun is king" (London Times); on July 20 the Austrians destroy the Italian fleet at the naval Battle of Lissa and push the Austrians out of the old Venetian Repub., which is annexed to the kingdom of Italy; on July 26 the Peace of Nicolsburg (Nikolsburg) in Bavaria disbands the German Confederation, and creates the North German Confederation (1867-71), with South German states having the right to form a South German Confederation; Prussia is united by annexing the middle states formed between the east and west by the 1814 Congress of Vienna, incl. the town of Fulda, favorite of German bishops for assemblies; on Aug. 23 the Peace (Treaty) of Prague gives Prussia the provinces of Schleswig, Holstein, Hanover (until 1945), the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, the duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt-am-Main (the latter three combined into the hilly, thickly forested, mineral-rich province of Hesse-Nassau), making it the largest German state (two-thirds of the land area and pop.), passing Austria and becoming the #1 power on the Euro Continent; on Oct. 12 the Treaty of Vienna ends the war between Austria and Italy; sad Saxony pays a heavy cash indemnity to Prussia and is forced to join the North German Confederation (ends 1871), consisting of 21 small states (Anhalt, Hamburg, Oldenburg, Waldeck etc.) ruled by Prussia, with the Prussian king as head, and the independent states appointing deputies for the Bundesrat (upper house), with the Reichstag (lower house) (which cannot propose new laws) elected by all adult males, and on Apr. 16, 1867 a new 1867 North German Federation Constitution, which arch-conservative Bismarck later says is granted to keep the liberals quiet; Austria and the small liberal Roman Catholic states of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt opt out of the confederation, which is conservative and Protestant-dominated; Liechtenstein becomes an independent principality; Transylvania is reunited with Hungary; Sardinia wins Venetia in NE Italy for allying with Prussia; Bismarck now plots to sandbag the independent German states into the confederation by triggering a war with France which drives them into his needle guns, er, arms, and Napoleon III plays into his hands when he welcomes a war with Germany to restore his popularity? On Apr. 10 the Am. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh (1811-88) after he becomes outraged at the treatment of horses, becoming the first humane org. in the Western Hemisphere - did they forget about the bison? On May 1-3 the Memphis Riots of 1866 start when white policeman shoot it out with black soldiers recently mustered out of the Untion Army, after which white mobs rampage black neighbhoords, killing 46 blacks and 2 whites and injuring 75 blacks, causing $100K property damage until federal troops restore the peace, after which the black pop. falls 25% by 1870. On May 2 the Battle of Callao sees a 14-ship Spanish ironclad fleet under Adm. Casto Mendez Nunez bombard the Peruvian port of Callao then withdraw without doing major damage after Peruvian coastal defenses under Gen. Mariano Ignacio Prado hold, and 50 Spanish sailors are killed and 83 wounded vs. 200 Peruvian casualties, with Prado taking nine wounds; Peruvian war minister Col. Galvez is KIA when an armored turret blows up; the big D causes Spain to give up on the Chincha Islands, ending the Chincha War (begun 1863), and Peru has a new nat. holiday, even though the war bankrupts Peru and leaves Chile on top. 'On May 30 the Sunni Muslim Deobandi movement is founded in Deoband, India by Mohammed Qasim Nanautawi, spreading throughout South Asia, and later becoming known for their propensity for terrorism along with Wahhabi/Salafists, although in 2008 they issue a fatwa that terrorism and the killing of innocents violates Islam. On May 31-June 1 (night) the Fenian Invasion of Canada (ends Oct. 1871) begins as 800-1.5K Fenian troops under Cork, Ireland-born U.S. Gen. Thomas William "Fighting Tom" Sweeney (1820-92) and County Monaghan, Ireland-born U.S. Col. John Charles O'Neill (1843-78) cross the Niagara River from Buffalo, N.Y. and capture Ft. Erie with a master plan of seizing the Canadian transportation network and forcing the British to free Ireland; on June 2 they defeat a British force at the Battle of Ridgeway Heights (Lime or Limestone Ridge) near Ft. Erie; too bad, the U.S. govt. (which up till now had been looking the other way because of British failure to support the Union cause in the U.S. Civil War) interrupts their supply lines across the Niagara River and arrests reinforcements, and it peters out within a week, after which the U.S. govt. pays for their railroad tickets back in return for a promise not to invade again; Sweeny is arrested then released. On May 16 Congress authorizes the the U.S. Mint to begin issuing 5-cent pieces (nickels), starting with the 75% copper, 25% nickel Shield Nickel (until 1883). In May the success of the North and its large working class in the U.S. Civil War against the aristocratic South giving him hope, PM Lord Russell introduces a Parliamentary Reform Bill, the first since the Chartists' demand in 1848, its aim being to give urban laborers suffrage; when there is no loud public support, the bill fails, and Russell resigns in June; John Stuart Mill's advocacy of women's suffrage in debates on the bill helps kick off the English suffragist movement. In May Christian Crete begins a revolt against Muslim Turkish rule, seeking union with Greece, which backs the rebels (ends 1869). In May the Chincha War (begun 1864) between Peru and Spain ends with a big D for Spain, and it gives up the Chincha Islands. In May writer Mark Twain sails for Hawaii to write about it for the Sacramento Union, then returns to San Francisco to host a stage show, followed by more trips to France, Russia and the Holy Land next year; it all gets incorporated in his 2nd book The Innocents Abroad (1869). On June 16 the XIV (14th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is sent by the 39th Congress to the states for ratification (ratified 1868). In the summer the U.S. Army constructs three posts along the "Bloody" Bozeman Trail, named after John M. Bozeman (1835-67) (soon killed by Injuns) to protect settlers and gold seekers traveling NW from the N. Platte River to Virginia City, Mont.: Ft. Reno (formerly Ft. Conor) on the Powder River, Ft. Phil Kearny (July 15) in Sheridan County, Wyo. near the forks of the Big and Little Piney Creeks, and Ft. C.F. Smith at the foot of the Big Horn Mts., causing the Sioux, Northern Cheyennes, and Arapaho, led by Oglala Sioux Chief Red Cloud to strike back in the Red Cloud War, making 51 attacks near Ft. Kearny, commanded by Col. Henry B. Carrington (1824-1912) on July 17-Dec. 31, killing 61 civilians and 98 soldiers; on Dec. 21 the Fetterman Massacre sees Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse attack a wagon train before noon, causing 80 infantry under Capt. William Judd Fetterman (b. 1833) and 27 cavalrymen under 2nd Lt. George W. Grummond to be sent, only to stumble into an ambush by several hundred warriors led by Sioux chief Hollow Horn Bear (Matho Hehlogeca) (1850-1913) on the far side of Lodge Trail Ridge, annihilating first Fetterman's then Grummond's soldiers, becoming the 2nd biggest Indian V over the palefaces after Custer's Last Stand; an inquiry clears Carrington after he claims he told them not to cross the ridge, and anybody who heard otherwise is outranked?; in 1908 Carrington utters the soundbyte: "A company of regulars could whip a thousand [Indians] and a regiment could whip the whole array of hostile tribes", getting twisted into the soundbyte: "Give me 80 men and I'll ride through the whole Sioux nation"; Chief Hollow Horn Bear seems to believe it, turning peacemaker in the 1870s, becoming a celeb in Washington, D.C. and getting featured on the $5 U.S. bill and a 14-cent postage stamp. On June 28 Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799-1869) becomes British PM again (3rd time); too bad, like the other times he lasts less than two years, and is out on Feb. 27, 1868. On July 13 Cyrus W. Field & co. leave Valentia Bay in the jumbo ship SS Great Eastern (built 1858) on their 5th attempt to lay 2.4K mi. of underwater telegraph cable, and on July 27 at 9 a.m. reach Heart's Content in Newfoundland, not only laying the cable, but finding the lost 1865 cable and splicing it to the new line, giving not one but two working underwater telegraph cables linking the U.S. and Britain; the Great Eastern goes on to lay cables from France to the U.S., Bombay to Aden, and along the Red Sea before ending up as an amusement park in Liverpool, and being broken up on Mersyside in 1888 - I didn't want to do it, I didn't want to do it? On July 20 rice-chomping Japanese shogun (since 1858) Tokugawa Iyemochi (b. 1847) dies of heart failure due to beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), ending his short marriage with emperor Komei's half-sister (daughter of emperor Ninko) princess Kazunomiya Chikako (1846-77) to unite the court and bafuku (shogunate), and on Aug. 29 Tokugawa Yoshinobu Hitotsubashi (1837-1913) (AKA Keiki) becomes the 15th and last Tokugawa shogun of Japan (until Nov. 19, 1867), and in Aug. he sends another expedition to Choshu Province in SW Honshu Island (capital Yamaguchi) to destroy the rebellious feudal fief, armed with French weapons; too bad, the other great feudal lords get pissed-off at his assumption of authority, and his expedition is routed. On July 23 Pres. Johnson signs the U.S. Judicial Circuits Act, which reorganizes the U.S. circuit courts, reducing the number from 10 to nine, and provides for the gradual elmination of U.S. Supreme Court justices from 10 to seven; the title of chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court is changed to chief justice of the U.S. On July 25 Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first U.S. officer to hold the rank of General of the Army (5 stars). On July 30 the New Orleans Riot of 1866 in La. sees blacks massacred by mobs of whites aided by local police after they parade outside the Mechanics Inst., where a reconvened La. Constitutional Convention is taking place, killing 44 blacks and injuring 106, along with three white Radical Repubs. and one white protester; "Who can doubt that the President is the author of these tragedies?", cries his opponent Charles Sumner. In July Switzerland outlaws export of weapons and war materials. On Aug. 15 Kiowa chief Set-tainte ("White Bear"), "the Scourge of the Southern Plains" raids Cooke County, Tex. with 23 warriors and ambushes the family of paleface James Box, killing and scalping him twice, then taking his wife Mary and three daughters ages 17 to 7, and killing an infant; after raping the wife and two oldest daughters, and making the youngest walk barefoot on hot coals, they ransom them to Capt. Andrew Sheridan of Ft. Dodge, Kan. for $2.8K in weapons, food and cash; 17-y-o. Margaret later gives birth to a half-breed baby. On Oct. 1 the Naval Hospital in Washington, D.C. opens, becoming the first U.S. Veterans Hospital; the first patient admitted is "ordinary seaman, colored" Benjamin Drummond. On Oct. 2 a train holdup in Seymour, Ind. by the Reno brothers becomes the second in the U.S. (first 1865), and the first transcontinental train robbery. On Oct. 3 U.S. steamship Evening Star en route from New York City to New Orleans, La. sinks, killing 250. On Oct. 6 (eve.) after making a good living as bounty jumpers during the U.S. Civil War, the Reno (Brothers) Gang (Jackson Thieves) of Ind., led by Franklin "Frank" Reno, John Reno, Simeon "Sam" Reno, and William "Bill" Reno becomes the first outlaw gang in the U.S. when they rob an Ohio & Miss. Railway train near Seymour, Ind. of $16K; on Nov. 17, 1867 they rob the Daviess County Courthouse in Gallatin, Mo., followed in Dec. by another train robbery of $8K near Seymour, followed by three more robberies in Feb.-Mar., 1868, and another on July 10, which is foiled by Pinkerton agents; in Mar. 1868 the resident of Seymour form a vigilante group to lynch them, causing them to flee W to Iowa, where they rob the Harrison County treasury of $14K, and the Mills County treasury of $12K, and are arrested by Pinkerton detective in Council Bluffs, Iowa, but escape on Apr. 1, 1868. On Oct. 12 Carleton College is founded in Northfield, Minn. by the Congregational Churches of Minn., named after benefactor William Carleton (1797-1876) of Charlestown, Mass. In Oct. a French expedition to Korea led by Adm. Pierre-Gustave Roze (1812-82) in response to persecution of Roman Catholics occupies and sacks Kanghwa Island at the mouth of the Han River, but is unable to continue to the capital of Seoul and is forced to withdraw, becoming known as the French Disturbance of 1866; the U.S. vessel USS General Sherman sails up the Taedong River toward Pyongyang and is attacked by local Koreans, killing all 24 aboard, causing the U.S. to plan to open Korea to Westerners by force (1871). On Nov. 1-2 a priest in Corfu, Greece records a Leonid meteor shower. In early Nov. after Pres. Johnson breaks with the Radical Repubs. in Congress and embarks on a "swing around the circle", a long railroad journey from Philadelphia to Pittsburg via New York, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, in which he makes a spectacle of himself by his vulgar stump speaking, causing conservative and moderate Repubs. to be driven into the Radical camp in herds, the 1866 U.S. elections see anti-Johnson Repubs. carry every Northern state legislature, every Northern gov. race, and return large majorities to both houses of Congress. On Nov. 27 Lincoln assassination figure John Surratt (b. 1844) is captured in Alexandria, Egypt after his cover in Rome is blown, and is tried for murder next June 10-Aug. 10, and the jury deadlocks 4-8 guilty-not, so he is freed in the summer of 1868, becoming a schoolteacher in Rockville, Md., where on Dec. 6, 1870 he gives a public lecture on his side of the assassination, claiming the Confed. govt. wasn't involved; a 2nd lecture scheduled for Dec. 30 is cancelled after a mob forms?; he goes on to live to the ripe old age of 72 (1916). On Dec. 31 at the instigation of composer Richard Wagner, Chlodwig Carl Viktor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst (Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Ratibor and Corvey) (1819-1901) becomes PM of Bavaria (until Mar. 7, 1870), arguing for closer ties with Prussia, getting Bismarck to use the Welfen-Funds from the House of Hanover to pay off Ludwig II's large debts, then reorganizing the Bavarian army on the Prussian model, creating a military union of the S states, and helping found the customs parliament (Zollparlament), becoming vice-pres. on Apr. 28, 1868; too bad, his opposition to the ultramontane position incl. papal infallibility causes an opposition to form that eventually forces him to resign. Ismail of Egypt is granted rights of primogeniture by the Turkish sultan. The Boer-Basuto War (begun 1864) ends with the Treaty of Thaba Bosia, with the Basutos ceding the disputed land and French missionaries expelled at Boer insistence; too bad, the Basuto soon take up arms again. Chile and Spain go briefly to war as a result of hostilities between Spain and Peru. Switzerland grants Jews equal rights to movement and settlement. Shir Ali's half-brothers Mohammed (Muhammad) A'zam and Muhammad Afdal drive him out of Kabul to Herat; A'zam becomes ruler of Afghanistan until 1867, followed by Afdal (until 1868). The 62-sq.mi. Alemannic-speaking Alpine principality of Liechtenstein becomes sovereign, with Austria administering its ports (until 1920). The U.S. Mining Act of 1866 gives miners the right to build roads to their claims on public lands. David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70) becomes the first adm. in the U.S. Navy. Montagu William Lowry, Lord Rowton (1838-1903) becomes private secy. to Benjamin Disraeli, continuing until his death in 1881. Mulatto mountain man Jim Beckwourth is sent with Jim Bridger and Hank Williams to turn the Crows from the warpath, and they succeed, with Beckwourth proclaimed as their chief again (1st time 1831), only this time they make sure he won't skip out by throwing a feast next year and poisoning him, then burying him with honors. Vancouver Island (a crown colony since 1849) joins British Columbia. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) holds its first meeting in the Maxwell House in Memphis, Tenn. - coffee or bourbon? Gen. Ambrose Burnside becomes gov. of R.I. (until 1869). The Grand Army of the Repub. (GAR) is founded in Decatur, Ill. for Union Civil War vets by Dr. Benjamin Franklin Stephenson (1823-71); membership peaks at 409K in 1890, and the last member dies in 1955, with their many stately meeting halls disappearing - guys with guns? After the end of the Civil War, New Orleans, La. begins to systematically lose its Mississippi River traffic to railroads, causing the economy to slump for the rest of the cent.; meanwhile the city is known as the most unsanitary in the U.S. Lincoln U. for Negroes in Jefferson City, Mo. is founded by members of two black Civil War regiments. Part-black-but-passes Mary Ellen Pleasant (1814-1904), who claims to be the child of a voodoo priestess and Va. gov. John Hampden Pleasants (1797-1846) (ed. of the "Richmond Constitutional Whig") becomes the "Calif. Mother of Civil Rights" when she fights for equal rights for blacks on San Francisco trams. Dr. T.J. Barnardo (1845-1905) (a Freemason) opens his first home for destitute children in Stepney, London. Peter Tchaikovsky begins teaching at the new Moscow Musical Conservatory, which is later named for him. N.H.-born Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) "discovers" Christian Science when she spontaneously recovers from a severe injury - those eyes broke my heart? The Am. Evangelical Alliance is founded by Philip Schaff (1819-93). The Parnassians, a school of French ex-Romantic poets, led by scarlet-waistcoat-loving Pierre Jules Theophile Gautier (1811-72), and incl. Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-67), Charles Marie Rene Leconte de Lisle (1818-94), and Cuban-born Jose Maria de Heredia y Girard (1842-1905), who repress emotions and concentrate on form, with the motto "Ars gratia artis" pub. their first collection Le Parnasse Contemporain (3 vols.) (1866, 1871, 1876). After an epidemic caused by the genetic susceptibility of Hawaiians, the Molokai Leper Colony in Hawaii is founded by the Hawaiian govt. on a remote peninsula jutting from the N coast; it is so mismanaged that Jack London later calls it "the most cursed place on Earth" and "the pit of Hell". The Union Pacific lays 300 mi. of track by the end of the year, while the Central Pacific traverses the 7K-ft. Sierra Nevada range. German immigrant Adolf Pfannenschmidt from Rinteln founds the town of Pfannenschmidtstadt in warm sunny S Calif. (355 days of sunshine a year), which later becomes Hollywood, Calif. becoming known for orange groves. The new Italian Repub. dissolves all monasteries; Monte Cassino Abbey, founded in the 6th cent. by St. Benedict of Benedictine Rule fame becomes a nat. monument; too bad, the Allies destroy it on Feb. 15, 1944 during the Battle of Monte Cassino. Scottish Presbyterian medical missonary David Livingstone (1813-73), backed by the London Missionary Society, friends and admirers begins exploring the lakes and rivers of C Africa to discover the source of the Nile (until his death), starting at the Ruvuma River, then to Lake Tanganyika next year, then W, where he discovers the Luapula (Upper Congo) River in S Congo, followed by Lake Mweru and Lake Bangweulu among the headwaters of the Congo River; meanwhile, people back home begin to wonder what's cooking, er, what's happened to him? Uncontrolled use of opium and morphine among Am. soldiers on both sides of the Civil War creates masses of addicts who return to society with the heebie jeevies? The Japanese shogunate builds Japan's first modern naval arsenal in Yokosuka, supervised by French engineer Francois Leonce (Léonce) Verny (1837-1908). The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded. Jasper Newton "Jack" Daniel (1849-1911) establishes a whiskey distillery in dry Lynchburg, Tenn. and perfects his Kentucky bourbon formula. German Holstein-born Conrad Kohrs buys a decade-old cattle ranch in Deer Lodge, Mont. from Canadian pioneer Johnny Grant, and turns it into the 10M-acre Grant-Kohrs Ranch, which launches the cattle biz in big blue sky country Mont. A hotel is built on volcanic Kilauea, Hawaii. After serving as the head chef for the Rothschild family until 1848, followed by the mgr. of the Les Freres Provencaux Restaurant at the Palais-Royal in Paris, Bordeaux-born French chef (pupil of Marie-Antoine Careme) Adolph Duglere (Dugléré) (1805-84) becomes head chef of the Cafe Anglais in Paris (founded 1802), which becomes #1 in Paris in the 19th cent., going on to invent the dish Pommes Anna, along with Tournedos Rossini (really invented by Escoffier or Careme?). Henry Sherwin and Edward Williams found Sherwin-Williams Co. to "cover the Earth with paint". Sidley Austin LLP (originally Sidley Austin Brown & Wood LLP) law firm is founded via the merger of Sidley & Austin of Chicago, Ill. and Brown & Wood of New York City, going on to obtain First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln as a client and become the 6th-largest U.S. law firm by the time Barack Obama gets summer associate job there in 1989 and meets Michelle Obama. Am. abolitionist bestelling author Hinton Rowan Helper returns from a 5-year stint as U.S. consul at Buenos Aires, and squanders his fortune trying to construct a railroad from the Strait of Magellan to the Bering Strait, ending up in poverty. Winslow Homer visits the Universal Exposition in France, and views Barbizon school landscapes and Japanese woodblock prints, influencing his style. Starving author Herman Melville takes a job as a customs inspector in New York City, which he keeps until 1885; his novels panned by critics and the public alike, he turns to poetry. English #1 stage actor Sir Henry Irving (1838-1905) makes his London debut; actually, his name is John Henry Brodribb, but he reaches such heights that he is knighted in 1895 and changes his name, becoming the inspiration for Bram Stoker's Count Dracula. Big man Charles Dickens makes a reading tour of England and Scotland, then does it again in the U.S. in 1868 - meeting the Cartwrights in Nevada? Am. writer Samuel Clemens AKA Mark Twin begins his lecturing career with "Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands". Harvard-educated Shakespearean scholar Horace Howard Furness (1833-1912), having toured Europe in 1855-6 and got admitted to the bar in 1859, and his Unitarian clergyman daddy William Henry Furness having got his way on the abolition issue, he begins devoting his life to compiling the New Variorum Ed. of the Works of Shakespeare, later getting his son Horace Howard Furness Jr. (1865-1930) to help; the first vol. ("Romeo and Juliet") is pub. in 1871, and the 14th ("Antony and Cleopatra") is pub. in 1907; the son carries on alone with "Julius Caesar" in 1913 and "King John" in 1919. Tenn.-born preacher Moses Easterly Lard (1818-80) gives a popular sermon this year in Ray County, Mo. The Russian lit. periodical Sovremennik (The Contemporary) (founded 1836) is suppressed by the mean old tsar, embittering starry-eyed ed. Nikolai Alexeyevich Nekrasov (1821-78), who becomes ed. of the more PC Annals of the Fatherland in 1868 and writes epic poetry attacking admin. abuses and pining over the suffering of the people without suggesting any regime changes. The Mo. Historical Society is founded in St. Louis, Mo. on Aug. 11. Fisk U. in Nashville, Tenn. is founded for freed blacks by Tenn. Freedmen's Bureau head Brig. Gen. Clinton Bowen Fisk (1828-90), who endows it with $30K; sports teams are called the Bulldogs. Henry Holt (1840-1926) and Frederick Leypoldt (1835-84), who migrated to the U.S. from Stuttgart, Germany in 1855 found Henry Holt Publishing Co. in New York City. French mustard manufacturers Maurice Grey and Auguste Poupon begin making Grey Poupon brand mustard in Dijon, France; in 1946 it is acquired by Heublein Co., which in 1982 is acquired by R.J. Reynolds, which merges it with Nabisco in 1985 to form RJR Nabisco, which in 1999 is acquired by Kraft Foods; in 1980s they begin airing the "Pardon me, would you have any Grey Poupon?" ads. Philly pharmacist Charles Elmer Hires (1851-1937) discovers the formula for Hires Root Beer on May 16 while honeymooning in N.J. and drinking "root tea" at his honeymoon hotel, then changing the name to make it more marketable; too bad, it is sold as a powder that must be mixed with yeast, water, and sugar, and doesn't catch on, until Rev. Dr. Russell Conwell gets him to present it at the 1876 U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philly, touting it as "The Temperance Drink" and "the greatest health-giving beverage in the world". After returning from the U.S. Civil War, Detroit, Mich. pharmacist James Vernor Sr. (1843-1927) begins selling Vernors Ginger Ale, later discovering the oak aging process, with the motto "Deliciously different". German-born George Ehret (1835-1927) founds the Hell Gate Brewery on the East River between 92nd and 93rd Sts. and 2nd and 3rd Aves. in New York City, surviving a fire on Sept. 19, 1870 and growing to 33.5K barrels/year in 1872, and 101K barrels in 1874, becoming the largest brewery in the U.S. in 1877, reaching 220K barrels/year in 1880, 412.8K barrels/year in 1890, and 601K barrels/year in 1900; too bad, he decides to take a trip back to Germany just before WWI breaks out, stirring suspicions of disloyalty, hurting sales, which are completely shut down in 1920 by Prohibition; he dies in Jan. 1927 during Prohibition, leaving a $40M estate, after which his heirs sell out in Apr. 1935, and in July 1935 acquire the Interboro Beverage Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y. before selling out to Schlitz in 1949, becoming their first brewing plant outside Milwaukee. Sports: On June 23 the Cincinnati Red Stockings (originally Cincinnati Base Ball Club) baseball team is founded, joining the NABBP in 1867, playing on the Union Cricket Club grounds, causing many cricket club members to join; in 1868 English-born center fielder William Henry "Harry" Wright (1835-95) becomes team mgr., introducing uniforms to baseball, with the red you know whats giving the team its name; in 1869 it becomes the first salaried team, with the season running from Mar. 15-Nov. 15, playing the first game on May 4, 1869, defeating the Great Westerns of Cincinnati by 45-9, going on to have a perfect season (57-0) after defeating the New York Mutuals on Nov. 6 by 17-8. Thomas Mitchell "Old Tom" Morris Jr. (1821-1908) of St. Andrews wins his first pro golf championship. James Gordon Bennett Jr. wins the first trans-oceanic boat race. Jerome Park Racetrack in Westchester County, N.Y. opens for thoroughbred horseracing, served by Fordham Station, becoming the site of the Belmont States until 1890; in 1867-89 it hosts the 1-mi. Champagne Stakes for 2-y.-o. horses, and in 1868-94 it hosts the Ladies Handicap for fillies and mares. Scottish-born London barrister John "Rob Roy" MacGregor (1825-92), who learned about canoeing (kayaking) during a trip to the U.S. and Canada in 1858 founds the English Royal Canoe Club, going on to turn it into a sport. Canadian-born English mountaineer Lucy Walker (1836-1916) becomes the first female to summit the Swiss Wetterhorn. Architecture: Ladoga Canal in Russia (begun 1861) is completed. Inventions: On July 10 Edson P. Clark of Mass. patents the first indelible pencil - write that down? Dynamite is discovered too late for the American Civil War but there will be plenty of future wars for it? Am. cattleman Charles Goodnight (1836-1929) invents the Chuckwagon - most potent anti-Indian weapon since smallpox? French mechanic Pierre Lailement obtains the first U.S. patent on a pedal bicycle. Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833-96) discovers dy-no-mite Dynamite, which he calls "Improved Explosive Compound", uttering the immortal soundbyte: "I should like to invent a substance or machine with such terrible power of mass destruction that war would thereby be made impossible forever"; he receives a patent on Nov. 25, 1867, insuring vast riches as his prediction proves to work out the opposite. German inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816-92), brother of Sir William Siemens (1823-83) and Carl Heinrich von Siemens (1829-1906) invents the Electric Dynamo, which uses electromagnets instead of permanent magnets, causing the Siemens Co. (founded 1847) to grow into a giant. English engineer Robert Whitehead (1823-1905) invents the self-propelled Underwater Torpedo - combined with dynamite, this will make war possible for a long time to come? The breech-loaded rifle is developed in the U.S., England, France, and Germany, replacing the muzzle-loaded rifle developed ca. 1475. Science: German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) ("Darwin's Bulldog on the Continent") ("the Huxley of Germany") who had a special chair in zoology created for him at the U. of Jena last year 1865 bites bigtime on Darwin's theory of evolution, and coins the word "phylogeny" for the origin and evolution of a race of animals or plants, in distinction from "ontogeny" for a single organism, and reveals the new mantra "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", AKA the Gastrea Theory; in 1868 he pub. an article on Monera, a pious fraud designed to push Darwinian evolution over on the German scientific community - post block ergo propter block? On Apr. 15 Karl Richard Lepsius discovers the Table of Canopus (Canopus Stone) in Egypt, which serves as a double-check on the trans. of the Rosetta Stone. Joseph Norman Lockyer of England begins spectroscopic observation of sunspots and finds that the rainfall on Earth is related to their number. Nonfiction: Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924), Curious Myths of the Middle Ages; favorite of H.P. Lovecraft. Heinrich Anton de Bary (1831-88), Morphology and Physiology of Mushrooms; big breakthrough; founds modern mycology. Ioan Bratianu (1822-91), La Question Religieuse en Roumanie. James Buchanan (1791-1868), Administration on the Eve of the Rebellion. Jacob Burckhardt (1818-97), History of the Renaissance in Italy. Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1830-1900), Six Months at the White House with Abraham Lincoln (autobio.). Hermann Cohen (1842-1918), Platonic Ideal theory Psychologically Developed (first work); he goes on to found the Neo-Kantian schoool at the U. of Marburg in the late 1870s, becoming "probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century." (Jewish Virtual Library) John Smith Dye, History of the Plots and Crimes of the Great Conspiracy to Overthrow Liberty in America. Theophile Gautier (1811-72), La Russie; cool travel book. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), General Morphology. Edouard Rene Lefevre de Laboulaye (1811-83), Memoirs of Franklin (2 vols.) (1866-7). Friedrich Lange, History of Materialism. Pierre Larousse (1817-75), Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX Siecle (1866-76); combined dictionary and encyclopedia; pub. in 1876 by his Librarie Larousse pub. house. Lin-Le, Ti-Ping Tien-Kwoh (History of the Taiping Revolution); written by a white man using a Chinese name. John MacGregor (1825-92), A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe on River and Lakes of Europe; big hit, launching the sport of kayaking; "In walking you are bounded by every sea and river, and in a common sailing-boat you are bounded by every shallow and shore; whereas... a canoe can be paddled or sailed, or hauled, or carried over land or water." Bon Louis Henri Martin (1810-83), Russia and Europe. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917), The European and Asiatic Races. Francis Parkman (1823-93), The Book of Roses; horticulture of roses. Louis Pasteur (1822-95), Etudes sur le Vin (Studies on Wine). Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), On a New List of Categories (May 14); founds Philosophical Pragmatism, which rejects the idea that the function of thought is to mirror reality, considering it to be a product of the interaction between the organism and environment, whose function is as an instrument or tool for prediction, action, and problem solving, hence most philosophical topics are best viewed in terms of their practical uses. Ernest Renan (1823-92), Histoire des Origines du Christianisme (History of the Origins of Christianity) (8 vols.) (1866-81). Sir John Robert Seeley (1834-95), Ecce Homo: A Survey of the Life and Work of Jesus Christ; pub. anon.; Christ as founder of a theocratic state. Mary Somerville (1780-1872), Molecular and Microscopic Science. John Venn (1834-1923), The Logic of Chance; introduces the frequency interpretation of probability. Music: Anon., The Maple Leaf Forever; about Canada; "In days of yore/ From Britain's shore". Georges Bizet (1838-75), Symphony No. 1 in C major ("Roma") (1866-8). Max Bruch (1838-1920), Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor; the #1 Romantic violin concerto? Ignaz Brull (1846-1907), First Serenade for Orchestra. Jacques Offenbach (1819-80), La Vie Parisienne (operetta) (Oct. 31) (Theatre du Palais Royal, Paris); libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy; incl. Ouverture, Finale. Bedrich Smetana (1824-84), The Bartered Bride (Prodana Nevesta) (comic opera) (Provisional Theater, Prague) (May 30); libretto by Karel Sabina (1813-77), who hides his name behind his initials after being accused in 1870 of being a police informant and an 8-man jury in 1872 finds him guilty; doesn't become popular until 1870; incl. Overture, Dance of the Comedians. Franz von Suppe (1819-95), Leichte Kavallerie (Light Cavalry Overture) (Lone Ranger Theme) (operetta) (Mar. 21) (Carltheater, Vienna) - would have sounded great during the U.S. Civil War? Ambroise Thomas (1811-96), Mignon (opera) (Nov. 17) (Opera Comique, Paris); giant hit; incl. Adieu Mignon. Richard Grant White (1822-85), The New Gospel of Peace According to St. Benjamin; satire. Art: Paul Cezanne (1869-1906), Portrait of Artist's Father. Gustave Courbet (1819-77), Nude Woman with a Parrot. Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Ballet Scenes (1866-). Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Death of Caesar; Death of Marshal Ney. Claude Monet (1840-1926), Camille Doncieux (Lady in Green). Plays: Charles M. Barras (1826-73), Theodore Kennick, and Thomas Baker, The Black Crook (3.2K-seat Niblo's Garden, New York) (Sept. 12) (474 perf.); the first Broadway musical; set in 1600 in the Harz Mts. of Germany, about evil Count Wolfenstein, who woos village girl Amina from her fiance Rodolph by having his servant Hertzog make a pact with the Devil, only to be saved by Fairy Queen Stalacta; The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post debuts, becoming the first Broadway musical comedy. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Black Eyed Susan; or The Little Bill That Was Taken Up. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917) and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), Cox and Box; or The Long Lost Brothers (comic opera); based on the 1847 farce by John Maddison Morton; big hit. Sir William Gilbert (1836-1911), Dulcamara; or The Little Duck and the Great Quack (first play) (St. James's Theatre, London); burlesque of Donizetti's opera "L'Elisire d'Amore", written in 10 days. Ludovic Halevy (1834-1908) and Henri Meilhac (1831-97), Barbe-Bleue (Bluebeard) (operetta); no libretto. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Brand; Norwegian pastor, his wife Agnes and son Ulf, and gypsy girl Gerd, who prefers the "ice church" in the mountains to his crap; first in a string of Norwegian masterpieces by a wannabe Viking who grows to look like Santa Claus? Thomas William Robertson (1829-71), Ours. George Sand (1804-76), The Japanese Lily (Le Lis du Japon). Poetry: Dion Boucicault (1820-90), The Shaughraun (comic melodrama) (Drury Lane, London); author plays Con, making him a top star. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), London Poems. Robert Hamerling (1830-89), Ahasver in Ram; Ahasuerus the Angel of Doubt equals the Wandering Jew equals Nero? George Heath (1844-69), Heart Strains. Herman Melville (1819-91), Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (Aug. 17); "Weird John Brown/ The meteor of the war." Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), The Prince's Progress, and Other Poems. John Godfrey Saxe (1816-87), The Masquerade and Other Poems. Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), Poems and Ballads; incl. Sapphics, Anactoria (Sappho musing on the difference between carnal love and artistic immortality), The Triumph of Time, Dolores, Hymn to Proserpine; the unabashedly sensual pagan poems with themes of sadomasochism, lesbianism, irreligion and the death wish cause a firestorm of controversy, causing him to become more popular, and to pub. Notes on Poems and Reviews; he becomes the new #1 poet of England, expected to succeed Tennyson and Browning, although he never makes it? John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92), Snow-Bound: A Winter Idyl; helps everybody forget the Civil War, and makes him a star, even if he is a Quaker. Novels: Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-67), Les Epaves. Ricahrd Doddridge Blackmore (1825-1900), Cradock Nowell: A Tale of the New Forest. Wilkie Collins (1824-89), Armadale. Alphonse Daudet (1840-97), Lettres de Mon Moulin. Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-81), Crime and Punishment; written to pay off his gambling debts; St. Petersburg student Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russ. "raskolnik" = schismatic) thinks he's a genius and wants to be the next Napoleon, proving it by killing greedy hated female pawnbroker Alyona Ivanovna with an axe, after which he breaks down and confesses to pious ho Sonia Semyonovna Marmeladova and police Lt. Ilya Petrovich, and is exiled to Siberia with his teenie daughter Sonia. George Eliot (1819-80), Felix Holt, the Radical. Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-65), Wives and Daughters (posth.). Victor Hugo (1802-85), Les Travailleurs de la Mer. Charles Kingsley (1819-75), Hereward the Wake: Last of the English, 18-y.-o. Hereward of Mercia, son of Earl Leofric and Lady Godiva, the last Anglo-Saxon holdout against the Normans, who kills 15 of them at a drunken feast with help from his buddy Martin Lightfoot, then turns rebel, holding up with his gang at Ely in the Fens, repelling William I the Conqueror until he is betrayed by Countess Alftruda and swears fealty to him to save his babe Torfrida, after which he is assassinated by Ivo Taillebois; makes Hereward into an English folk hero. Sidney Lanier (1842-81), Tiger Lillies (first and only novel). Charles James Lever (1806-72), Sir Brooke Fosbrooke. Petroleum V. Nasby (1833-88), Swingin' Round the Cirkle. George Sand (1804-76), Le Dernier Amour (The Last Love); dedicated to Gustave Flaubert. Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823-1901), The Dove in the Eagle's Nest. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Les Mysteres de Marseille; about lovers Philippe Cayol and Blanche de Cazalis, niece of millionaire Marseilles politician De Cazalis, Births: British classical Greek scholar, humanist, and Liberal activist George Gilbert Aime (Aimé) Murray (d. 1957) on Jan. 2 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; educated at St. John's College, Oxford U.; G.B. Shaw bases the char. Adolphus Cusins in "Major Barbara" on him. Greek PM (1915, 1921-2) Demetrios (Dimitrios) Gounaris (d. 1922) on Jan. 5 in Patras. German caffeine chemist (Jewish) Wilhelm Traube (d. 1942) on Jan. 10 in Ratisbor, Silesia; son of Moritz Traube (1826-94). Greek-Armenian spiritualist George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (d. 1949) on Jan. 13 in Alexandropol, Russia (Gyumri, Armenia); Greek father, Armenian mother. Am. New Thought writer Horatio Willis Dresser (d. 1954) on Jan. 15 in Yarmouth, Maine; son of Julius A. Dresser (1838-93). Swedish ecclesiastical historian and archbishop of Uppsala (1914-) Lars Olof Jonathan "Nathan" (Söderblom) (d. 1931) on Jan. 15 in Helsingland; educated at Uppsala U. British theater mgr. and film producer Sir Oswald Stoll (d. 1942) on Jan. 20 in Melbourne; emigrates to Britain in ?; knighted in 1919. Russian Orthodox patriarch #12 (1943-4) Sergius I (Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky) (d. 1944) on Jan. 23 (Jan. 11 Old Style) in Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod. Belgian Socialist statesman Emile Vandervelde (d. 1938) on Jan. 25 in Ixelles; educated at the Free U. of Brussels. French "Jean-Christophe" novelist-dramatist and art historian (mysic) Romain Rolland (d. 1944) on Jan. 29 in Clamecy, Nievre. Am. "Purple Cow", "Goops" humorist-illustrator Frank Gelett Burgess (d. 1951) on Jan. 30 in Boston, Mass.; educated at MIT - ever seen one? Scottish anthropologist-anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (d. 1955) on Feb. 5 in Aberdeen; educated at the U. of Aberdeen, and Univ. College, London; knighted in 1921. Canadian cigar manufacturer and philanthropist (Jewish) Sir Mortimer Barnett Davis (b. 1928) on Feb. 6 in Montreal, Quebec; knighted in 1916 (first Canadian-born Jew). Am. "Fables in Slang" humorist writer George Ade (d. 1944) on Feb. 9 in Kentland, Ind. Am. entomologist (Baha'i) Harrison Gray Dyar Jr. (d. 1929) on Feb. 14 in New York City; educated at MIT. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player William Robert "Sliding Billy" Hamilton (d. 1940) on Feb. 16 in Newark, N.J. U.S. agriculture secy. #5 (1913-20) and U.S. treasury secy. #48 (1920-1) David Franklin Houston (d. 1940) on Feb. 17 in Monroe, N.C.; educated at the U. of C., and Harvard U. German "Wassermann test for syphilis" bacteriologist August Paul von Wassermann (d. 1925) on Feb. 21 in Bamberg. English journalist Hugh Chisholm (d. 1924) on Feb. 22 in London; ed. of the 10th-12 eds. of The Encyclopedia Britannica; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U.; not to be confused with Internat. Paper Co. founder Hugh Chisholm (1847-1912). Italian anti-Fascist "Philosophy of Spirit" philosopher-critic Benedetto Croce (d. 1952) on Feb. 25 in Pescasseroli. French Maj. Sylvain Eugene Raynal (d. 1939) on Mar. 3 in Bordeaux. Am. Mutoscope-Biograph inventor Herman Casler (d. 1939) on Mar. 12 in Canastota, N.Y. English Shakespearean scholar Sir Edmund Kerchever Chambers (d. 1954) on Ma. 16 in West Ilsley, Berkshire; educated at Marlborough College, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1925. U.S. Supreme Court justice #71 (1922-39) Pierce Butler (d. 1939) n Mar. 17 in Dakota County, Minn.; Irish Roman Catholic immigrant parents; educated at Carleton College. Am. Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co. founder Fred Wardell (d. 1952) on Mar. 30 in Toronto, Canada. Am. social reformer Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge (d. 1948) on Apr. 1 in Lexington, Ky.; educated at Wellesley College, and U. of Chicago. Italian "Fantasia Contrappuntistica" composer-pianist Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto Busoni (d. 1924) on Apr. 1 in Empoli (near Florence); father is a clarinetist, mother is a pianist. South African PM (1924-39) gen. James Barry Munnik Hertzog (d. 1942) on Apr. 3 near Wellington, Cape Colony. Am. inventor (Roman Catholic) David T. Kenney (d. 1922) on Apr. 3; Irish immigrant parents. Am. muckraker journalist Joseph Lincoln Steffens (d. 1936) on Apr. 6 in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif. Am. "miracle worker" educator Anne Sullivan (Johanna Mansfield Sullivan Macy) (d. 1936) on Apr. 14 in Feeding Hills, Mass.; teacher of Hellen Keller; Irish immigrant parents. Am. brewer Mathias Jacob "Matt" Leinenkugel (d. 1926) on Apr. 16 in Sauk City, Wisc.; son of Jacob Leinenkugel (1842-99). English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (d. 1927) on Apr. 17 in London. German Gen. Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (d. 1936) on Apr. 22 in Schleswig. Russian painter and stage designer (Jewish) Leon Nikolaevich (Samoilovitch) Bakst (Leib "Lev" Rosenberg) (d. 1924) on May 10 in Grodno, Belarus. French "Gymnopedies", "Messe des Pauvres" composer-pianist Alfred Eric Leslie "Erik" Satie (d. 1925) (AKA Virginie Lebeau, Francois de Paule) on May 17 in Honfleur; calls himself a phonometrician (somebody who measures and writes down sounds) instead of a musician. Am. "The Master Key System" New Thought writer (Freemason) Charles Francis Haanel (d. 1949) on May 22 in Ann Arbor, Mich. French auto racer Fernand Charron (d. 1928) on May 30 in Angers. English "A.J. Raffles" novelist Ernest William Hornung (d. 1921) on June 7 in Middlesbrough; Hungarian immigrant father; husband (1893-) of Constance Doyle, sister of Arthur Conan Doyle. German art historian (Jewish) (founder of the Warburg Inst.) Abraham Moritz "Aby" Warburg (d. 1929) on June 13 in Hamburg; son of Moritz Warburg; brother of Max Warburg (1867-1946), Paul Warburg (1868-1932), and Felix Moritz Warburg (1871-1937); "Hamburger at heart, Jew by blood, Florentine in spirit". Am. silent film actress Flora Finch (d. 1940) on June 17 in London, England; emigrates to the U.S. as a child. Australian novelist-poet ("Australia's greatest short story writer") Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson (d. 1922) on June 17 in Grenfell, N.S.W.; son of Louisa Lawson (1848-1920). English King Tut Egyptologist George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon (d. 1923) on June 26 in Highclere Castle, Hampshire; educated at Eton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. psychologist Lightner Witmer (d. 1956) on June 28 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn.; coiner of the term "clinical psychology". French Gen. Charles Emmanuel Marie Mangin (d. 1925) on July 6 in Sarrebourg. German surgeon Georg Kelling (d. 1945) on July 7 in Dresden. German Lt. Gen. Christoph Emanuel Hermann Ritter Mertz von Quirnheim (d. 1947) on July 23 in Ansbach; father of Col. Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim (1905-44). Am. Graustarkian "Brewster's Millions" novelist George Barr McCutcheon (d. 1928) on July 26; known for colorful, melodramatic, implausible stories about the imaginary kingdom of Graustark. Portuguese pres. #6 (1919-23) Antonio Jose de Almeida (d. 1929) on July 27 in Penacova, Sao Pedro de Alva. English "The Tale of Peter Rabbit" children's book writer-illustrator Helen Beatrix Potter (d. 1943) on July 28 in South Kensington, London; born in a well-to-do family; elder sister of Bertram Potter; falls in love with Norman Warne, son of her publisher, but he dies before they can get married; moves to Hill Top in 1905; marries country lawyer William Heelis in 1913. Am. Repub. atty.-financier and U.S. secy. of the Navy (1929-33) Charles Francis "Uncle Charlie" "Deacon" Adams (III) (d. 1954) on Aug. 2 in Quincy, Mass; great-grandson of John Quincy Adams; educated at Harvard U. Am. black explorer Matthew Alexander Henson (d. 1955) on Aug. 6 in Md.; first man to reach the South Pole? Am. explorer (black) Matthew Alexander Henson (d. 1955) on Aug. 6 in Nanjemov, Charles County, Md.; partner of Robert Peary. Am. actor-dir.-writer-producer Hobart Van Zandt Bosworth (d. 1943) on Aug. 11 in Marietta, Ohio; direct descendant of Mile Standish, John Alden, and Priscilla Alden, and the Van Zandt family, first Dutch settlers to land in the New World. Italian Fiat Co. co-founder Giovanni Agnelli (d. 1945) on Aug. 13 in Villar Perosa (near Pinerolo), Piedmont. Am. "The Kallikak Family" eugenicist psychologist (Quaker) Henry Herbert Goddard (d. 1957) on Aug. 14 in East Vassalboro, Maine; educated at Haverford College; inventor of the you-don't-want-to-be-one-but-ah-yes-you-do term "moron". Belgian mathematician Charles Jean Gustave Nicolas Le Vieux, Baron de la Vallee Poussin (Vallée-Poussin) (d. 1962) on Aug. 14 in Leuven.; educated at the Catholic U. of Leuven. Am. Shakespearean actress Julia Marlowe (Sarah Frances Frost) (d. 1950) on Aug. 17 near Keswick, Cumberland, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1875; wife of Edward Hugh Sothern (1859-1933). Am. medical supply magnate Fairleigh Stanton Dickinson Sr. (d. 1948) on Aug. 22 in Beaufort, N.C.; father of Fairleigh Dickinson Jr. (1919-96). U.S. diplomat James Watson Gerard (d. 1951) on Aug. 25 in Geneseo, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U., and NYU. Am. 6'1" heavyweight boxing champ (1892-7) ("Father of Modern Boxing") James John "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (Lat. "dark as a raven") (d. 1933) on Sept. 1 in San Francisco, Calif.; not to be confused with Irish big game hunter Jim Corbett (1875-1955). Am. isolationist Progressive Calif. gov. (1911-7) and U.S. Sen. (1917-45) Hiram Warren Johnson (d. 1945) on Sept. 2 in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at UCB. Scottish philosopher John M'Taggart Ellis M'Taggart (d. 1925) on Sept. 3. Am. "Commonsense" psychiatrist (coiner of the term "mental hygiene") Adolf Meyer (d. 1950) on Sept. 13 in Niederwenigen (near Zurich); emigrates to the U.S. in 1892; pushes the use of detailed case histories for patients. Am. educator-reformer John Charles Campbell (d. 1919) on Sept. 14 in Ind.; educated at Williams College, and Andover Theological Seminary; husband (1907-19) of Olive Dame Campbell (1882-1954). French typhus bacteriologist Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (d. 1936) on Sept. 21 in Rouen, Normandy; educated at Lycee Pierre Corneille. English "War of the Worlds", "Time Machine", "Outline of History" historian-writer ("Father of Science Fiction") Herbert George Wells (d. 1946) on Sept. 21 in Bromley, Kent; father is a cricketer, mother is a lady's maid; educated under Thomas Henry Huxley at the Normal School of Science in London; marries his cousin Isabel Wells in 1891, then gets bored and marries Amy Catherine "Jane" Robbins in 1894. Am. folklorist John Avery Lomax (d. 1948) on Sept. 23 in Goodman, Mass.; father of Alan Lomax (1915-2002). Am. fruit fly zoologist (founder of modern genetics) Thomas Hunt Morgan (d. 1945) on Sept. 25 in Lexington, Ky.; educated at Johns Hopkins U. - them fruit flies is hopkins around the campus? Italian Roman Catholic holy breed mare (11 children) Blessed Eurosia Fabris (AKA Mamma Rosa) (d. 1932) on Sept. 27 in Quinto Vicentino (near Vicenza); feast: Jan. 8. Am. philologist Carl Darling Buck (d. 1955) on Oct. 2 in Orland, Maine; educated at Yale U. Canadian-Am. scientist-engineer-inventor ("the Thomas Edison of Canada") Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (d. 1932) on Oct. 6 in Knowlton, Quebec; inventor of continuous wave radio transmission. Am. educator (founder of Berry College) Martha McChesney Berry (d. 1942) on Oct. 7 in Cherokee County, Ala. French diplomat Philippe Berthelot (d. 1934) on Oct. 9 in Sevres, Hauts-de-Seine; son of Marcellin Berthelot (1827-1907). British Labour PM #1 (1924, 1929-35) James Ramsay "Jamie" MacDonald (d. 1937) on Oct. 12 in Lossiemouth, Morayshire, Scotland. Swedish economist Karl Gustav Cassel (d. 1945) on Oct. 20 in Stockholm; educated at Uppsala U.; teacher of Bertil Ohlin and Gunnar Myrdal. English "The Great Impersonation", "General Besserly's Puzzle Box" mystery novelist ("Prince of Storytellers") Edward Phillips Oppenheim (d. 1946) on Oct. 22 in London. Norwegian industrialist Samuel "Sam" Eyde (d. 1940) on Oct. 29 in Arendal; educated at the U. of Berlin. German "Frau Luna", "Berliner Luft", "Glow Little Glow Worm" conductor-composer (father of Berlin opera) Carl Emil Paul Lincke (d. 1946) on Nov. 7 in Jungfernbrucke, Berlin. English Austin Mini automobile manufacturer Sir Herbert "PA" Austin, 1st Baron Austin (d. 1931) on Nov. 8 in Little Missenden, Buckinghamshire; lives in Australia in 1884-93; knighted in 1917. Chinese physician and rev. Communist leader (co-founder of the Kuomintang) ("Father of the Nation") Sun Yat-sen (d. 1925) on Nov. 12 in Xiangshan County, Guangdong; husband (1895-1915) of Lu Muzhen (1867-1952), (1903-6) Kaoru Otsuki (1888-1970), and (1915-25) Chingling Soong (1893-1981); partner (1892-1925) of Chen Cuifen (1873-1960). Am. "1910 Flexner Report" educator Abraham Flexner (d. 1959) on Nov. 13 in Louisville, Ky.; brother of pathologist Simon Flexner (1863-1946). Am. Chicago Renaissance poet-playwright-humorist Bert Leston Taylor (d. 1921) on Nov. 13 in Goshen, Mass.; educated at CCNY. English tenor Gervase Cary Elwes (d. 1921) on Nov. 15 in Billing, Northampton; parents convert to Roman Catholicism when he is 5. Am. jurist and ML baseball commissioner #1 (1920-44) Kenesaw Mountain Landis (d. 1944) on Nov. 20 in Millville, Ohio.; known for blocking blacks from playing in the ML. Norwegian modernist Symbolist poet Sigbjorn Obstfelder (d. 1900) on Nov. 21 in Stavanger. Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder-mgr. Hugh Duffy (d. 1954) on Nov. 26 in River Point, R.I.; namesake of Duffy's Cliff at Fenway Park in Boston, Mass. Am. Lincoln Memorial Beaux-Arts architect Henry Bacon (d. 1924) on Nov. 28 in Watseka, Ill. Am. "The Auctioneer" stage actor David Warfield (d. 1951) on Nov. 28 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. climatologist-eugenicist Robert DeCourcy Ward (d. 1931) on Nov. 29 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; first prof. of climatology in the U.s. German-Am. tenor-impresario John Andreas Dippel (d. 1933) on Nov. 30 in Kassel. Russian abstract art founder Wassily (Vassily) Kandinsky (Kandinski) (d. 1944) on Dec. 4 (Dec. 16 Old Style) in Moscow; pupil of Franz von Stuck; co-founder (1912) with Paul Klee of the avant-garde Blaue Reiter group. Swiss coordination theory chemist Alfred Werner (d. 1919) on Dec. 12 in Mullhausen, Alsace. English Bloomsbury group painter-art critic Roger Eliot Fry (d. 1934) on Dec. 14 in London; educated at King's College, Cambridge U.; husband (1896-) of Helen Coombe. English celeb Sylvia Jocelyn Llewelyn Davies (d. 1910); daughter of George du Maurier (1834-96); sister of Gerald du Maurier (1873-1934); mother of the five boys who inspire Peter Pan. Am. physiologist Graham Lusk (d. 1932). Am. illustrator-cartoonist Louis M. Glackens (d. 1933) in Philadelphia, Penn.; brother of William Glackens (1870-1938). Am. educator (founder of the Yale School of Drama) George Pierce Baker (d. 1935). English "Ragged Messenger", "The Devil's Garden" novelist-playwright William Babington Maxwell (d. 1938); son of Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1835-1915). British gov.-gen. of Canada (1926-31) and viceroy of India (1931-6) Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Marquess of Willingdon (d. 1941) in Ratton (near Eastbourne), East Sussex; created earl in 1931, and marquess in 1936. Am. satiric Socialist cartoonist Arthur Henry "Art" Young (d. 1943). Am. "Disinherited Son's Loyalty" film producer-actor Adam Kessel Jr. (d. 1946). Englis