T.L. Winslow's 1890s Historyscope 1890-1899 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

1890-1899 C.E.

The Gay Nineties Fin De Siecle Open Door Decade, or, How 'bout That Tiger? Since the coming MF-challenged year 1900 can't be the "real" Millennium, nobody's talking about Armageddon and everybody's talking about taming the tiger and advancing civilization, causing this decade to produce exciting scientific and technical leaps, incl. electricity, radio, automobiles and airplanes, and movies? Just when it all seems to be for the good (give or take an electric chair or two), X-rays and radioactivity are discovered and played around with a little too innocently, revealing the hidden horrors of scientific progress? France and England celebrate pure Wilde decadence along with Mary Cassatt innocence? A good decade for WWII generals and aircraft magnates to be born? A good decade for criminals and crime fighters named Holmes? The Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee Death Knell Decade for American Indian Independence? A good decade for Salisburys? A bad decade to be born if you don't want to be cannon fodder in WWI? A decade of way too many shipwrecks (16), sending a loud message that nobody hears? German Christianity-hating playwright Gerhart "high forehead" Hauptmann becomes fashionable?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) Mar. 4, 1889 Mar. 4, 1893 Benjamin Harrison of the U.S. (1833-1901)
United Kingdom Queen Victoria (1819-1901) June 20, 1837 Jan. 22, 1901 Queen Victoria of U.K. (1819-1901)
United Kingdom Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903) July 25, 1886 Aug. 11, 1892 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903)
Russia Tsar Alexander III (1845-94) Mar. 13, 1881 Nov. 1, 1894 Tsar Alexander III (1845-94)
China Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) Aug. 22, 1861 Nov. 15, 1908 Empress Dowager of China (1835-1908)
Canada Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815-91) Oct. 17, 1878 June 6, 1891 Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815-91)
France Marie Francois Sadi Carnot (1837-94) Dec. 3, 1887 June 25, 1894 Marie Francois Sadi Carnot of France (1837-94)
Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) June 15, 1888 Nov. 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859-1941)
Italy Umberto I (1844-1900) Jan. 9, 1878 July 29, 1900 Umberto I of Italy (1844-1900)
Spain Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) May 17, 1886 Apr. 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941)
Japan Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) Feb. 3, 1867 July 30, 1912 Emperor Meiji of Japan (1852-1912)
Mexico Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) Nov. 29, 1876 May 25, 1911 Porfirio Diaz of Mexico (1830-1915)
Papacy Leo XIII (1810-1903) Feb. 20, 1878 July 20, 1903 Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903)
Turkey Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918) Aug. 31, 1861 Apr. 27, 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey (1842-1918)

1890 - The last wild American Indians get the shitting bull kicked out of them while herds of whites grab Oklahoma, and a white man gets the electric chair, while H.G. Wells ramps up the white man's escapist genre of science-fiction so that white readers can feel far far away no matter how many Vs them darkies score on their sheets? The Vincent Van Gogh Wheat Field With Crows Year?

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Sitting Bull (1831-90) H.G. Wells (1866-1946) Wilhelm II of Germany (1959-1941) Wilhelm II (1859-1941) and Augusta (1888-1921) of Germany Otto von Bismarck of Prussia (1815-98) 'Dropping the Pilot' by Sir John Tenniel, 1890 Count Leo von Caprivi (1831-99) Friedrich von Holstein of Germany (1837-1909) Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (1880-1962) John Sherman of the U.S. (1823-1900) Sir John Forrest of Western Australia (1847-1918) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. of the U.S. (1850-1924) Henry Billings Brown of the U.S. (1836-1913) William Torrey Harris of the U.S. (1835-1909) George Washington Steele of the U.S. (1839-1922) William Preston Taulbee of the U.S. (1851-90) Chief Big Foot (1824-90) Cecil Rhodes of South Africa (1853-1902) Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) Wilford Woodruff (1807-98) Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) Frank T. Hopkins (1865-1951) Cy Young (1867-1955) Kid Nichols (1869-1953) Giovanni Verga (1840-1922) Ludwig Mond (1839-1909) Seth Low (1850-1916) Paul Fort (1872-1960) Hamlin Garland (1860-1940) Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (1825-93) Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915) Jean Psichari (1854-1929) Lyman Stewart (1840-1923) Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921) Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) Diamond Jim Brady Buchanan (1856-1917) Sir John Fowler (1817-98) Sir Benjamin Baker (1840-1907) Willoughby Dayton Miller (1853-1907) Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914) Samuel Ward McAllister (1827-95) Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) Clement Ader (1841-1925) Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907) E.W. Hornung (1866-1921) Anthony Hope (1863-1933) Robert Koch (1843-1910) Jean-Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945) Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) Samuel Hopkins Adams (1863-1930) George Ade (1866-1944) Ray Stannard Baker (1870-1946) Edward William Bok (1863-1930) Kate Chopin (1850-1904) William James (1842-1910) Frances Alice Kellor (1873-1952) Henry Demarest Lloyd (1852-1920) Charles Edward Montague (1867-1928) Frank Norris (1870-1902) David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) Jacob August Riis (1849-1914) Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941) Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926) Paul Fort (1872-1960) Rev. William Eugene Blackstone (1841-1935) Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901) Ernest Dowson (1867-1900) James Theodore Bent (1852-97) Molly Elliot Seawell (1860-1916) Cornelius O'Sullivan (1841-1907) Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (1853-1925) Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius (1857-1928) Louis Dollo (1857-1931) Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932) John Wesley Emerson (1832-99) Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Ignác Goldziher (1850-1921) James A. Herne (1839-1901) Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929) Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) Silas Marcus MacVane (1842-1914) Sir William Mitchell Ramsay (1851-1939) Lunsford Richardson (1854-1919) Winfield Scott Stratton (1848-1902) Cesar Ritz (1850-1918) Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) William Henry Green (1825-1900 Louis Doberman (1834-94) Kate Marsden (1859-1931) William Kemmler's Execution, Aug. 6, 1890 Francis Marion Smith (1846-1931) William Tell Coleman (1824-93) Stephen Tyng Mather (1867-1930) Themistocles Glück (1853-1942) 20 Mule Team 20 Mule Team Borax Monte Ward (1860-1925) Duckpin Bowling Sir Thomas Lipton (1848-1931) Yvette Guibert (1865-1944) Elijah Jefferson Bond (1847-1921) Ouija Board, 1890 Pearl Lenore Curran (1883-1937) Frederick Michael Switzer (1865-1949) Switzer's Licorice 'Woman Bathing' by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), 1890-1 'Still Life with Apples' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1890-4 'Bather Stepping into a Tub' by Edgar Degas (1834-1917), 1890 'Haystacks in Brittany' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1890 'Le Chahut' by Georges Seurat (1859-91), 1890 'Galatea and Pygmalion' by Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), 1890 William Morris (1834-96) William Morris (1834-96) Example Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Paul Serusier (1864-1927) 'The Talisman' by Paul Serusier, 1888 Félix Fénéon (1861-1944) Paul Signac (1863-1935) 'Portrait of Félix Fénéon' by Paul Signac (1863-1935), 1890 Vincent van Gogh (1853-90) 'Wheat Field With Crows' by Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90), 1890 San Miguel Beer Baby Daisy, 1890 Cosby Cup, 1891 Garrick Theatre, 1890 Colo. State Capitol, 1890-4 Elitch Gardens, 1890-2000 John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch Boulder Daily Camera, 1890

1890 The 1889-1890 Flu Pandemic (Oct. 1889-Dec. 1890) rocks the planet, killing 1M worldwide. The Eleventh (11th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 62,947,714 (21.2 per sq. mi.); New York City: 1.341M; the German pop. of the U.S. is now at 2.8M, a majority within the German Triangle of Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis; 75% of the pop. of Chicago are immigrants or children of immigrants, with Germans topping the list at 29%; since 1820 15.6M people have immigrated to the U.S. through New York Harbor and/or Ellis Island: 4.6M from Germany, 3.5M from Ireland, 2.5M from England, 0.9M from Norway-Sweden, 0.46M from Austria-Hungary, 0.41M from Italy, 0.37M from France, 0.36M from Russia-Poland, 0.33M from Scotland, 0.29M from China, 0.17M from Switzerland, 0.15M from Denmark, 1.03M from British North Am. possessions, 0.61M from all other countries; on apr. 18 the U.S. govt. assumes control of immigration, causing Congress to appropriate $75K to construct the first U.S. federal immigration station on Ellis Island, which originally were part of the Oyster Islands, called Gibbet Island in the 1760s, then acquired in the 1770s by merchant Sammuel Ellis, who leases it to the state of N.Y. in 1794. Beginning this year large numbers of Armenians (100K), Southern and Eastern Europeans begin migrating to the U.S., while other Armenians migrate to the Caucasus - it was worth it for John Belushi? The avg. height of urban U.S. men born this year is 1.5 in. shorter than those born in 1830, showing the dismal working and living conditions; it takes until 1920 to regain the stature. In this decade Paris enjoys the Belle Epoque (Fr. "Beautiful Era"), an era of elegance, fashion and gaiety (ends in 1914 with WWI). In this decade the City Beautiful Movement is launched in Chicago, Ill., spreading to Cleveland, Ohio, Detroit, Mich., and Washington, D.C., going on to be called an "architectural design cult" by Jane Jacobs. On Jan. 1 the first annual Rose (Tournament of Roses) Parade is held in Pasadena, Calif., where the weather is in the 70s even in winter; each float must be made entirely of organic (living) materials, with no artificial coloring; if New Year's Day falls on a Sun., the parade is held on Jan 2. On Jan. 2 steamship Persia sinks off Corsica, killing 130. On Jan. 11 after pressure from Cecil Rhodes, the 1890 British Ultimatum to Portugal demands the retreat of Portuguese military forces from their Pink (Rose-Colored) Map in Africa connecting their colonies of Angola and Mozambique, incl. modern-day Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi; the spineless submission by Carlos I damages the monarchy and encourages the repub. movement. On Jan. 20-Apr. 27 the First Internat. Conference of Am. States in Washington, D.C. sees delegates agree to form the Internat. Union of Am. Repubs., which evolves into the Org. of Am. States. On Feb. 3 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Davis v. Beason that federal laws against Islam, er, polygamy don't violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, with Justice Stephen J. Field writing the soundbytes: "However free the exercise of religion may be, it must be subordinate to the criminal laws of the country, passed with reference to actions regarded by general consent as properly the subjects of punitive legislation", and "Swift punishment would follow the carrying into effect of its doctrines, and no heed would be given to the pretense that, as religious beliefs, their supporters could be protected in their exercise by the constitution of the United States." On Feb. 4 the U.S. House of Reps. passes the U.S. Exposition Bill authorizing Chicago to host a world's fair to honor the 400th anniv. of Columbus; it is signed on Apr. 25 by Pres. Harrison; First Nat. Bank of Chicago pres. Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) becomes pres. of the board of dirs., arranging the financing; former Chicago mayor (1879-87) Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (1825-93) steamrolls the women's societies and insures that every kind of sin will be in so that the filthy lucre will be made, then gets reelected in 1893 to be in for the fun; Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show gets banned but sets up outside the gates and makes a killing. On Feb. 9 the Weather Bureau (later the Nat. Weather Service) is created within the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. On Feb. 17 British steamship Duburg sinks in the China Sea, killing 400. On Feb. 21 the First Franco-Dahomean War (ends Oct. 4) begins when the French arrest senior Fon officials in Cotonou and fortify the town, causing word to be sent to Abomey, which sends a force of several thousand, resulting in the 4-hour Battle of Cotonou on Mar. 4 (5:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.), which is a V for the French, who chase them N assisted by warriors from the Kingdom of Porto-Novo, who are routed, then chase the French back to Porto-Novo; on Oct. 3 Dahomey signs a treaty recognizing Porto-Novo as a French protectorate, and cedes Cotonou in return for 20K francs/year; too bad, another war is simmering. On Feb. 22 (2:00 a.m.) the Walnut Grove Dam in NC Ariz. (begun 1886) collapses shortly after being completed, sending 4B gal. of water down the Hassayampa River, killing 70; shoddy construction is blamed, and the dam designer is found to have no civil engineering training. On Feb. 28 British steamship RMA Quetta hits rocks in the Lorres Straits on the Far North Queensland coast of Australia and sinks, killing 134 of 292 aboard, becoming Queensland's worst maritime accident (until ?). In Feb. the Kubota Corp. (originally the Oide Foundry until 1897) is founded in Osaka, Japan by Gonshiro Kubota, going on to produce tractors and heavy equipment; on Apr. 1, 2002 it opens the Solar Ark solar power generation facility in Anpachi, with 5K panels that produce 530K kwh avg. and 630kw max. On Mar. 8 N.D. State U. in Fargo is founded. On Mar. 11 U.S. Rep. (D-Ky.) (1885-9) William Preston Taulbee (b. 1851) is shot on the E staircase of the House wing of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. by newspaper correspondent Charles E. Kincaid, dying later that day at Providence Hospital; blood stains are visible to modern times. On Mar. 18 Kaiser (since 1888) Wilhelm II (probably from jealousy?) forces chancellor (since 1871) Otto von Bismarck (1815-98) to resign, and on Mar. 20 replaces him with Count Georg Leo von Caprivi (1831-99) (until Oct. 26, 1894), making a choice of someone who's ignorant of foreign affairs to take over foreign policy himself, with Friedrich August Karl Ferdinand Julius von Holstein (1837-1909) becoming head of the German Foreign Office (until 1906); Bismarck goes into retirement in Friedrichsruh (20 mi. SE of Hamburg) with the title of duke of Lauenberg, issuing the soundbyte: "The Kaiser is like a balloon: if you don't keep hold of the string, you never know where he'll be off to"; Punch mag. pub. the famous cartoon Dropping the Pilot by Sir John Tenniel, which Germans eagerly adopt, titling it "Der Lotse Geht von Bord" (The Pilot Leaves the Ship); after the Kaiser visits England in the summer, the Russians and French start getting the idea that Germany is starting to form an entente against them with Britain, lubing the wheels leading to WWI? On Mar. 27 the 1890 Middle Mississippi Valley Tornado Outbreak sees an F4 tornado hit Louisville, Ky., killing 74-120, injuring 200, and causing $3M damage. On Mar. 28 Washington State U. in Pullman, Wash. is founded. A lid is put on success in the Land of Opportunity? Not this century? On Apr. 8 the U.S. Sherman Antitrust Act, named after Ohio Sen. (treasury secy. under Pres. Hayes) John Sherman (1823-1900) (brother of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman) is passed in the U.S. by large bipartison majorities in both houses of Congress, and signed by Pres. Harrison on July 2; only 18 antitrust cases are initiated by the underfunded U.S. Dept. of Justice in three admins. (Harrison 7, Cleveland 8, McKinley 3), and 4 of these are against labor unions. In Apr. the Thunderbird, an enormous flying creature with the body of a serpent, a 160-ft. wingspan, two clawed feet, and the face of an alligator is allegedly sighted by two cowboys in the Ariz. desert, who allegedly shoot and kill it, cut off a piece of the wing and bring it to Tombstone, Ariz., where the Tombstone Epigraph pub. an article about it in their Apr. 1892 issue - a hoax? On May 2 the U.S. Organic Act gives away the remainder of Oklahoma territory (the panhandle) to whites, creates the Oklahoma Territory, and officially declares the U.S. Frontier closed; on May 23 the city of Oklahoma City, Okla. (modern pop. 370K/640K), on the North Canadian River is incorporated; the U.S. now has four state capitals with "City" in their names: Jefferson City, Oklahoma City, Carson City, Kansas City - JOCK? On May 6 the Kaiser Wilhelm II addresses the opening of the Reichstag, mentioning the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, pissing-off the Russians and French; the Reichstag then passes an Army Law increasing the size by 18K men, really pissing them off, and causing mutual feelers to be put out via their military officers. On May 19 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules in In re Kemmler that execution by electric chair does not violate the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment, writing the soundbyte: "If the punishment prescribed for an offense against the laws of the State were manifestly cruel and unusual as burning at the stake, crucifixion, breaking on the wheel, or the like, it would be the duty of the courts to adjudge such penalties to be within the constitutional prohibition" - what's wrong with the original idea of trial by ordeal, and if God lets him off, that settles it? On May 19 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules 6-3 in Late Corp. of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. United States to uphold the 1887 U.S. Edmunds-Tucker Act, disincorporating the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons); Justice Fuller dissents on the basis that "it is not authorized under the cover of that power to seize and confiscate the property of persons, individuals, or corporations, without office found, because they may have been guilty of criminal practices"; only $381,812 of $3M in assets are seized, and real property isn't touched because the church acts too fast to prohibit polygamy. On May 19 The Arizona Republic (originally "The Arizona Republican" until 1930) is founded in Phoenix, Ariz.; in 2000 it is acquired by Gannett, reaching a modern-day circ. of 321K daily and 538K Sun. On May 22 after being appointed by Pres. Benjamin Harrison, Fayette County, Ind.-born Repub. Ind. Rep. (1881-9) and former Union maj. George Washington Steele (1839-1922) becomes Okla. Territory gov. #1 (until Oct. 18, 1891), immediately declaring a state of emergency and going on to veto bills to move the capital from Guthrie to Oklahoma City and Kingfisher and work to create a public school and univ. system before resigning after 17 mo. in office. On June 14 the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty is signed, ceding the Danish North Sea island of Heligoland (Helgoland) (under British occupation since 1807) to Germany as of July 1 by Britain's Lord Salisbury in exchange for a much larger strip of African territory, Zanzibar; Germany renounces all claims to Uganda, Zanzibar, and Pemba, causing outcries in Germany, while Sir Henry Stanley the African explorer-journalist of Britain gloats that Germany would have "given a suit for an old trouser's button"; Heligoland becomes part of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, and is heavily fortified with guns and U-boat pens; the Imperial British East Africa Co. (IBEAC) is chartered to develop the Uganda area (until 1895); the whole thing causes Russia and France to believe that Germany is getting in bed with Britain against them, and must have gotten something under the sheets? - just move forward and let me do the mouse work? On June 29 U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1893-1924) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924) sponsors the U.S. Federal Elections (Force) Bill (Compromise of 1890), providing for federal protection of blacks trying to vote in federal elections; too bad, the Repubs. cop out and withdraw support in order to put money first and get the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and McKinley Tariff Act passed - is that the good side or the dark side of the Force? On July 1 the first Japanese gen. election for the Diet under the new constitution is held. On July 3 "Gem State", "Potato State" Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state, followed on July 10 by "Equality State" "Bucking Horse Rider (BHR) State" Wyoming (Del. "alternating meadows and valleys") as the 44th U.S. state (last alphabetically). On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with five new lily-white stars, making the total 43 (design #21), and now incl. N.D., S.D., Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. On July 14 the U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, sponsored by Ohio Sen. John Sherman (of Sherman Anti-Trust Act fame) is passed by the Harrison admin. in exchange for support of the McKinley Tariff, repealing the Bland-Allison Act of 1878 and requiring the U.S. govt. to purchase 4.5M oz. of silver (at a 20:1 ratio to gold) per mo. at market prices, issuing new legal tender Treasury certificates, which soon depletes U.S. gold reserves when everybody begins cashing them in for gold, esp. Euro investors concerned about the coup in Buenos Aires, leading to the Panic of 1893 - if they only new that Treasury silver is later used to produce the first atomic bomb? On July 17 British-born diamond magnate Cecil John Rhodes (1853-1902) becomes PM #7 of Cape Colony (until Jan. 12, 1896), going on to pursues a policy of "painting the map red", i.e., bringing all of Africa under British control, starting by passing the 18995 Glen Grey Act, limiting black vote via financial and educational qualifications, and sending a "pioneer column" of settlers and "police" into Zimbabwe (he'd prefer to call it Rhodesia?) between the Ndebele and Shona areas; meanwhile the African natives begin to suffer a series of ecological crises such as drought, locusts, and rinderpest (cattle disease) (until 1906). On July 26-29 after the wheat crop fails, the Rev. of the Park in Buenos Aires, Argentina starts with the takeover of Artillery Park by members of the Civic (later Radical Civic) Union, forcing the resignation of pres. (since Oct. 12, 1886) Juarez Celman on Aug. 6. On July 27 unieared Vincent van Gogh (b. 1853) shoots himself in the chest in a wheat field in Auvers, France after painting Wheat Field with Crows, and dies two days later on July 29; on July 30 his younger brother Theo van Gogh (b. 1857) gets depressed, tries to get the Durant-Ruel Gallery to hold an exhibit of his paintings, stages his own in his apt. on Sept. 20, ends up in in Auteuil Asylum in Oct., transferred to another institutuion in Utrecht in Nov., and dies 2 mo. later of syphilis on Jan. 25; in 1990 scientists claim that Vincent might have had Meniere's Disease - he likes to become one with his subject? On Aug. 6 (7:00 a.m.) after Thomas Edison helps nix his appeal in hopes that the use of Westinghouse's AC rather than his DC will give them a bad name, convicted common-law wife hatchet murderer William Francis Kemmler (b. 1860) becomes the first person to be executed on an Electric Chair as N.Y. tries out its brand-new 1888 model in Auburn Prison; after being zapped for 17 sec. with 1K volts, he is still breathing, so they juice it up to 2K volts for 70 sec., during which time he catches fire and nauseated witnesses run for it, backfiring on Edison and stinking his name up bigtime, while not harming the rep of AC - the original Green Mile? On Aug. 15 a govt. is set up in Western Australia, with explorer John Forrest (1847-1918) as its first PM on Dec. 22 (until Feb. 15, 1901); he is knighted in 1891. In Aug. Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet in Narva in NE Estonia on the Gulf of Finland; Germany lets its 1887 Reinsurance Treaty with Russia lapse, and the Three Emperors' League dies, causing France and Russia to actively seek an entente to counterbalance the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, as well as a possible 4-way alliance with Britain, despite lack of common interests except mutual fear and hatred of the pesky Huns, er, Germans - Satan, how're ya feeling about setting things up for WWI? On Sept. 12 a radical revolt begins in Ticino, Switzerland after an election gives Conservatives the majority of council seats despite a draw in the popular vote, with the radicals imprisoning the municipal councils of Bellinzona and Lugano and establishing a provisional govt.; the federal govt. sends troops and quells the revolt by Sept. 14, repacking the Ticino council to make it more even; in 1892 the radicals gain power in a new election and pass a new constitution extending civil rights. On Sept. 13 Ft. Salisbury in Southern Rhodesia in the heart of Mashonaland is founded by the mercenary Pioneer Column organized by Cecil Rhodes, and named after British PM the 3rd marquess of Salisbury, becoming Harare, Zimbabwe in 1982 (modern-day pop. 1.6M). On Sept. 19 Turkish frigate Ertugrul sinks off the coast of Japan in a typhoon, killing 540 of 609 aboard incl. Adm. Ali Osman Pasha. On Sept. 25 in order to gain statehood for Utah (and keep the U.S. Army from invading and enforcing the law?), polygamy (plural marriage) (celestial marriage) (new and everlasting covenant marriage) is officially prohibited by the Mormon Church via the Woodruff Manifesto of Mormon pres. #4 (since Apr. 7, 1889) Wilford Woodruff Sr. (1807-98), causing Pres. Benjamin Harrison on Jan. 4, 1893 to issue a Presidential Proclamation granting the 2,451 Mormon plural families in the U.S. amnesty from the 1882 federal anti-polygamy law; that doesn't stop a lot of renegade Mormons from doing it anyway (50K in the year 2000); Congress rejects the name Deseret ("land of honeybees") (taken from the Book of Mormon) (in ancient Egypt, Kenet meant black land, i.e., fertile land, and Deseret meant red land, i.e., the desert), preferring Utah, from a Navajo word meaning upper, after the Shoshone Ute tribe; actually, Woodruff didn't prohibit polygamy per se, only "contracting any marriage forbidden by the law of the land", meaning that it it still okay for church members when and where it is legal? On Sept. 25 after the U.S. Forestry Movement shifts its emphasis from saving trees to the promotion of scientific forest mgt., the U.S. Congress creates Sequoia Nat. Park in Calif., followed on Oct. 1 by Yosemite and Gen. Grant (later King's Canyon) Nat. Park in Calif. On Sept. 29 San Miguel Corp. (La Fabrica de Cerveza de San Miguel) is founded in Manila, Philippines near Malacanan Palace by Don Enrique Barretto de Ycaza y Esteban under a royal grant from Spain, becoming the first brewery in Philippines and in Asia, producing San Miguel Beer (San Miguel Pale Pilsen), which becomes the best-selling beer in the Philippines and Hong Kong; it is not sold in Spain until 1946, and in 1953 the Spanish div. becomes independent; in 1957 it introduces San Miguel Especial, using French barley and hops; in 1963 it founds a factory in Beijing, China.; in 1982 it introduces San Miguel Red Horse Beer, promoting it since 1999 with the annual Red Horse (Hot) Beer (Pambansang) Miziklaban rock band contest; in 1993 it introduces San Miguel 1516, following the 1516 German Beer Purity Laws; in 2009 Kirin of Japan acquires 48.3% of the co. On Oct. 11 after an org. meeting on Aug. 8, the Nat. Society of the Daughters of the Am. Rev. (DAR) is founded in Washington, D.C. by First Lady Caroline Harrison (its first pres.-gen.) et al. to preserve the memory of the men and women who fought for independence in the Am. Rev. War; members must be women at least 18 years of age and directly descended from the heroes; it is incorporated by an act of Congress on Dec. 2, 1896, and begins pub. the Nat. Historical Mag. On Oct. 17 Lyman Stewart (1840-1923) et al. found the Union Oil Co. (Unocal) in Santa Paula, Calif. via the merger of Sespe Oil Co., Hardison and Stewart Oil Co., and Mission Transfer Co., staying free of affiliation with Standard Oil; in 1901 the HQ is moved to Los Angeles, Calif. On Oct. 20 gold is discovered in Cripple Creek, Colo. (20 mi. W of Colorado Springs) in Teller County by Robert Miller "Bob" Womack (-1909), bringing in prospectors; on July 4, 1891 Jefferson, Ind.-born Winfield Scott Stratton (1848-1902) discovers the Independence Lode on the S slope of Battle Mountain in nearby Victor, Colo. ("the City of Mines"), launching the last great gold rush in Colo., causing the pop. to zoom from 500 to 10K by 1893 working 150+ mines while several smelters are built in Canon City; 200K oz. of gold worth $500M is dug from the Independence Lode by 1899, and 21M oz. in the Victor-Cripple Creek mining district; by 1900 Victor has a pop. of 18K, which begins to dwindle during WWI, bottoming at 397 in 2010; too bad, Womack dies penniless. On Nov. 23 William III (b. 1817) dies, and his daughter Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria (1880-1962) becomes queen of the Netherlands (until Sept. 4, 1948), with her mother Queen Emma as regent (until 1898); the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is separated from the Netherlands as an independent neutral state, like the Netherlands, with both going on to become political refugee magnets. On Nov. 24-25 after visiting Palestine in 1888 and coming back enthused with the prospects of a new Israel, Am. Methodist minister (ardent Christian Zionist) William Eugene Blackstone (1841-1935) holds a Conference on the Past, Present, and Future of Israel at his First Methodist Episcopal Church in Chicago, Ill., which incl. Jewish leaders and calls on the Ottomans and other great powers to give Palestine back to the Jews; next year he gets the Blackstone Memorial petition calling for American support of you know what signed by 413 prominent U.S. Christian and Jewish leaders, incl. John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Cyrus McCormick, and presents it to U.S. pres. Benjamin Harrison and secy. of state James G. Blaine, with the soundbyte "for they never abandoned the land. They made no treaty, they did not even surrender. They simply succombed, after the most desperate conflict, to the overwhelming power of the Romans"; U.S. Supreme Court justice Louis D. Brandeis, head of the U.S. Zionist movement later becomes a fan, getting him to reissue the Blackstone Memorial to Pres. Wilson to assure his support for the 1917 Balfour Declaration. On Nov. 29 the Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan, and the first Japanese Diet convenes. In Nov. English nurse-missionary Kate Marsden (1859-1931) is sent by Tsarina Maria Fedorovna on a 2K-mi. journey across Siberia to find a fabled herb that cures leprosy, which turns out not to work; too bad, when she returns, the Victorian establishment hounds her for lesbianism instead of praising her for heroism. On Dec. 15 photogenic Indian celeb Sitting Bull (b. 1831) is killed by Lakota policemen trying to arrest him at the W end of the Cheyenne River - for shitting on a bull, or getting tired of all the bull? On Dec. 18 the U. of Okla. in brand-new Norman, Okla. 20 mi. S of Oklahoma City is founded by the Okla. legislature (sports team nickname: Sooners), along with the U. of Central Okla. in brand-new Edmond, Okla. N of Oklahoma City on Dec. 24 (sports team nickname: Bronchos), and Okla. State U. (originally Okla. Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) College) in brand-new Stillwater, Okla. in NC Okla. on Dec. 25 (sports team nickname: Cowboys/Cowgirls). On Dec. 27 British steamship Shanghai burns and sinks in the China Sea, killing 101. What's the best way to play in Blackhawk? The Bullwhackers way? On Dec. 29 after their holy man Sitting Bull is killed on Dec. 15, causing Lakota chief Big Foot (Si Tanka) (Spotted Elk) (1824-90) and his people to flee, the Wounded Knee Creek Massacre in Creek, S.D. effectively squelches the last dance, last chance for love Ghost Dance Movement, and ends the Indian Wars (and the Native Am. way of life) after 400-500 U.S. soldiers of Custer's 7th Cavalry get payback by massacring 150-300 helpless disarmed Sioux and their families using four large Hotchkiss guns on the excuse that deaf Black Coyote failed to surrender his pot stew weapon; Wovoka loses his influence but lives until 1932; despite American Horse testifying at the inquest, the troopers receive the Medal of Honor; members of the Am. Indian Movement (AIM) finally get justice in Nov. 1972. Brazilian pres. (since 1889) Gen. Manuel Fonseca becomes a dictator and dissolves the congress, causing a revolt in Rio Grande do Sul, followed by desertion by his supporters in the army and navy, causing him to resign. On Dec. 29 South Lee, Mass.-born Yale-educated Henry Billings Brown (1836-1913) (classmate at Yale U. of David Josiah Brewer, whom he calls Henrietta) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #52 (until May 28, 1906) to replace the seat vacated by Samuel F. Miller (1862-90) (keeping the court at nine members), going on to stink himself by writing the majority opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson. The Swiss federal govt. receives the power to enact social insurance. The McKinley Tariff, sponsored by Ohio Rep. William McKinley ("the Napoleon of the Tariff"), chmn. of the House Ways and Means Committee raises avg. tariff rates to 49.5%, the highest ever; it contains a reciprocity element, sponsored by secy. of state James G. Blaine that permits bilateral reductions, but when prices rise it becomes highly unpopular. Nasser ed-Din Shah of Persia gives Britain ownership of its tobacco industry, but Mirza Reza Shirazi issues a fatwa prohibiting tobacco, so he cancels it, and quits smoking. Zulu king Dinzulu is exiled to St. Helena island (until 1897) on trumped-up charges to get him out of the way. The United Mine Workers (UMW) labor union is founded in Columbus, Ohio. Remember, nobody beats the king, nobody? The U.S. Congress authorizes construction of three first-class battleships for its new steel navy: the USS Indiana, the USS Massachusetts, and the USS Oregon, all at 10K tons; also, a 7.3K-ton cruiser USS Columbia - let's kick some Spanish butt? Australia and New Zealand agree to financially support a British naval squadron. Fort-de-France, Martinique almost burns down. The Socialist Armenian Rev. Federation (ARF) (Dashnaktsutyun) is formed by Christian Orthodox Armenians in E Anatolia (Turkey) to fight for Armenian independence, causing the Ottoman govt. under "Bloody" Sultan Hamid II to employ irregular forces of ham-handed Muslim Russian Cossack clone Hamidiye Kurdish tribesmen (the sultan's personal cavalry) to keep them down - get out the kurbash? German Social Dems. convene the Erfurt Congress in Saxony, and next year adopt the Erfurt Program, becoming a V for the doctrines of Karl Marx over Ferdinand Lasalle. In this decade Boroughitis sweeps N.J. In this decade the Irish Lit. Revival (Celtic Twilight) accompanies the growth of Irish nationalism, with major figures incl. William Butler Yeats, James Clarence Mangan, Samuel Ferguson, Douglas Hyde, William Rooney, and Arthur Griffith. In this decade the U.S. Bureau of Education, headed (1889-1906) by philosopher William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) begins introducing reindeer herds into Alaska as a way to prevent starvation and extinction of native species. In this decade Frederick Michael Switzer (1865-1949), founds Switzer's Candy Co. in St. Louis, Mo., starting out selling Buttermels, Chocolate Soldiers, and Yellow Jackets, and switching to 5-cent licorice twists after the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. A French co. begins modernizing the port of Beirut (finished 1895). The first English electrical power station opens in Deptford. The Forth Rail Bridge in Scotland opens, designed by Sir John Fowler (1817-98) and Sir Benjamin Baker (1840-1907). Rock Creek Park in NW Washington, D.C. is established by Congress; on Nov. 7, 1936 a pink granite bench in memorial to French WWI ambassador Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (1855-1932) is erected, becoming the first erected on federal property to a foreign diplomat. The St. Paul and Pacific Railroad reaches the Pacific, and is consolidated into the Great Northern Railroad Co. Former Brooklyn, N.Y. mayor Seth Low (1850-1916) becomes pres. of Colombia College (until 1901). The Nat. Woman Suffrage Assoc. and the Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. merge to form the Nat. Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA), waging state-by-state campaigns, with initial success in the west, starting with Colo. (1893), Utah and Idaho (1896), Wash. (1910), Calif. (1911), Ore., Kan., and Ariz. (1912), Alaska and Ill. (1913), Mont. and Nev. (1914), N.Y. (1917), Mich., S.D., and Okla. (1918). Buffalo Bill's Wild West showman Frank T. Hopkins (1865-1951) wins a 3K-mi. desert race in Arabia across the Gulf of Syria and the borders of two countries against Arabian horsemen on his mixed-blood wild Mustang Hidalgo, earning $100K on a $1K wager; a tall tale? Ft. Bridger in Wyo. (built 1843) is abandoned; Ft. Laramie in Wyo. is degarrisoned - nothing left to shoot at except an old brave, two cripples, and a squaw? The city of Salisbury (originally Ft. Salisbury) in Mashonaland in NE Southern Rhodesia (modern-day pop. 1.6M) is founded on Sept. 12 by the Pioneer Column of the British South Africa Co., named after Conservative British PM (1885-92, 1895-1902) Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903); in 1982 it is renamed Harare. British archeologist James Theodore Bent (1852-97) explores Cilicia Trachea, followed next year by the ruins in Mashonaland in South Africa, followed by Great Zimbabwe, after which in 1893-4 he explores the remote Hadramut country, followed by S Arabia. English journalist Charles Edward Montague (1867-1928) joins the Manchester Guardian, rising to de facto ed. in 1895-1906, turning the newspaper into a campaigner for Home rule and against the Boer War; to get into the army in WWI he dies his white hair black. The Doberman(n) pinscher dog is first bred in Apolda, Thuringen, Germany from the German shepherd, Rottweiler, German pinscher, and the black and tan terrier by breeder Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann (Tobermann) (1834-94) for use by tax collectors. In this decade the era of the frontier gambler in the Am. West (begun 1870) comes to an end as gambling is increasingly outlawed. In this decade the Progressive Era in the U.S. begins (ends 1930), with activists fighting to eliminate political machines and regulate monopolies, and eliminate problems caused by govt. corruption, mass immigration, industrialization, and urbanization, with the Original Thirteen Muckrakers, incl. Samuel Hopkins Adams (1871-1958) (patent medicines), Edward William Bok (1863-1930) (coiner of the term "living room"), Ray Stannard Baker (AKA David Grayson) (1870-1946), Burton Jesse Hendrick (1870-1949) (life insurance), Frances Alice Kellor (1873-1952) (immigrants, women, chronic unemployment), Henry Demarest Lloyd (1852-1920) (Standard Oil Co.), Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Norris Jr. (1870-1902) (wheat trust), David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) (U.S. Senate), Jacob August Riis (1849-1914) (America's first muckraker?), Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941) (beef trust), Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) (meatpacking industry), Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) ("The Shame of the Cities"), Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) (Standard Oil Co.), who all churn out articles in the 15-cent McClure's mag., founded in June 1893 by Samuel S. McClure (1857-1949), exposing the endless rottenness of the Capitalist U.S., giving causes to Progressives (read closet Socialists?) to reform govt. and business at every level, led by Teddy Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr., Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), Jane Addams et al. In this decade most U.S. states begin using Australian ballots, which preserve secret voting by listing the candidates of all major parties rather than just the one doing the printing, and are printed by the govt. rather than the parties to minimize fraud. In this decade the French and Germans hold a big debate on Jus sanguinis vs. Jus soli (right of blood vs. right of territory) to determine citizenship, with the French, led by Ernest Renan on the Jus soli side. In this decade the Demotikist movement in Greek is formed by Kostes Palamas (1859-1943), dramatist Ioannis Kambisis (1872-1902) et al. to propagate the Greek vernacular language of Demotike, producing a large body of lit. works and making it the chief medium of modern-day Greek writers; meanwhile the Greek Purists, led by Alexandros Rangabe (1810-92), dramatist Demetrios Vernadakis (1834-1907) et al. pooh-pooh Demotike and push classic ancient Greek, getting the govt. to adopt it, along with most newspapers, until 1976, when Demotike becomes the official language of Greece. In this decade Herkko Rosvo-Ronkainen of Finland originates the custom of wife-carrying races, which spreads to the U.S. Singer Yvette Guibert (1865-1944), who debut at the Variette Theatre in 1888 and is known for dressing in bright yellow with black gloves and singing raunchy songs becomes the headliner at the Molin Rouge in Montmartre, going on to become a favorite subject of artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. In this decade a group of French painters incl. Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Maurice Denis (1870-1943), and Jean-Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) found the Les Nabis (Hebrew for prophet) art style, using flat areas of color and pattern to create a subjective, mystical style, after being inspired by the 1888 painting "The Talisman" (the Bois d'Amour a Pont-Aven) of Paul Serusier (1864-1927), painted at Pont-Aven under the supervision of Paul Gaugin, who helps name the group. Late in this cent. Indonesians in S Sumatra begin using tampans (ship cloths), small rectangular cloths with a bilateral design based on a ship at the bottom with a tree growing out of it, and humans on each branch, which are used to wrap food and gifts at weddings, births and funerals; after production ceases early next cent., they are passed down as heirlooms. In this decade Am. painter Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921) begins developing his theory of camouflage, later used by the military - starting by camouflaging the "e" in Henderson by making it into an "a"? The Boulder Daily Camera (originally the "Boulder Camera") is founded in Boulder, Colo. by Frederick P. Johnson and Bert Bell, going from weekly to daily in 1891, and changing hands several times along with names while living under the shadow of the U. of Colo. and watching Boulder go hippy in the late 1960s, and upscale in the 1980s. The German Social Dem. newspaper Vorwarts (Vorwärts) begins pub. (until 1933). 17-y.-o. Gore, Va.-born Willa Sibert Cather (1873-1947) moves from Red Cloud, Neb. and becomes ed. of The Hesperian at the U. of Neb. in Lincoln, receiving a bachelor's in English and moving to Pittsburgh, Penn. in 1896 to write for Home Monthly then the Pittsburgh Leader, teaching at Central H.S. and Allegheny H.S. before moving to New York City in 1906 to work on the ed. staff of McClure's Mag.. English wallpaper designer William Morris (1834-96) founds Kelmscott Press in Jan., which goes on to pub. The Kelmscott Chaucer (1896). In this decade James Buchanan "Diamond Jim" Brady (1856-1917) (his own 25 best customers) becomes a big man in Broadway night life in New York City. The London Metropolitan Police move their offices to the Victorian Gothic red-white brick Nat. Opera House on the Thames Embankment, calling it New Scotland Yard. The Royal Economic Society (originally the British Economic Assoc.) in England is founded, receiving a royal charter on Dec. 2, 1902; in 1891 it begins pub. The Economic Journal; in 1998 it begins pub. The Econometrics Journal. In this decade weight-guessing becomes popular at U.S. carnivals. The Am. Tobacco Co. is formed by the Duke family, with James Buchanan "Buck" Duke as pres. Tobacco chewing peaks this year in the U.S. at three pounds per capita. 20 Mule Team Borax brand sodium borate cleaning compound co. is founded as Pacific Coast Borax Co. by "Borax King" Francis Marion "Borax" Smith (1846-1931), who acquires the holdings of William Tell Coleman (1824-93), whose 20-mule teams operated in Death Valley, Calif. from 1883-9; next year Stephen Tyng Mather (1867-1930) comes up with the name 20 Mule Team Borax (registered in 1894); after getting fired in 1898, Thomas Thorkildsen (1869-1950) uses his $17K life savings to purchase a borax mine on Frazier Mt. in Ventura County, Calif., partnering with Mather and going on to sell their co. Sterling Borax to Pacific in 1911 for $10M; in 1964-5 Ronald Reagan later hosts Pacific's TV show "Death Valley Days". The R.T. Davis Mill Co. begins marketing Aunt Jemima brand "self-rising pancake four", which incl. powdered milk, made from a formula he bought in 1889, and adopts the Mammy as its logo. Lung-insulting Kretek brand clove cigarettes are invented by Noto Semito of Kudus. The Edison General Electric Co. begins selling strings of lights for holiday decoration, but it costs hundreds of dollars to light a Christmas tree. In this decade Nat. City Bank of New York becomes the largest bank in the U.S., becoming the first major U.S. bank with a foreign dept. that engages in foreign exchange trading. Shakespeare becomes a threat to U.S. agriculture? The European starling is introduced into the U.S. (Central Park in New York City) from Europe by Eugene Schieffelin (1827-1906) as part of his project to introduce all birds mentioned in Shakespeare's works (in this case Henry IV Pt. I, Act 1, Scene I), and spreads out of control, destroying fruit and vegetable crops. The biennial silver Darwin Medal is founded by the British Royal society to reward research connected with Charles Darwin's theories. The First Folk Revival begins, an academic effort to transcribe and record British folk songs; in 1898 the Folk Song Society is founded in London to collect and pub. British folk songs; in 1911 the English Folk Dance Society is founded; in 1932 they merge to form the English Folk Dance and Song Society. French symbolist poet Paul Fort (1872-1960) founds the Theatre des Arts (later Theatre de l'Oeuvre), which launches the careers of Paul Verlaine (1844-96), Paul Gaugin, and Maurice Maeterlinck. Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915) of the Bibliotheque Nationale founds Le Mercure de France, and next year is forced to resign from the Bibliotheque because of the subversive Le Joujou: Patriotisme. London Jew Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) founds the humorous periodical Ariel, going on to write funny stories incl. The Bachelor's Club (1891) and The Maid's Club (1892). Swiss hotelier Cesar Ritz (1850-1918) buys the Savoy Hotel in London, going on to establish Ritz hotels around the world, incl. the Hotel Ritz in Paris in 1898 and the Carlton in London in 1899, Villeneuve-Loubet-born French chef Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) takes over the kitchens of the new Ritz Savoy Hotel in London, luring the British aristocracy, causing aristocratic women to first be seen dining in public, going on to invent Peach Melba (1893), Melba Toast (1897), Cherries Jubilee (1897), and Tournedos Rossini, introduce a la carte menu in 1899, and train Ho Chi Minh to be a pastry chef; after a financial scandal, Escoffier leaves the Savoy in 1898 and sets up in the new Carlton Hotel in London in 1899, stealing business from the Savoy; in 1903 he pub. Le Guide Culinaire, which codifies, streamlines, and simplifies French haute cuisine, incl. the five mother sauces; in 1913 he serves Kaiser Wilhelm II and his retinue aboard the SS Imperator, causing the kaiser to utter the soundbyte: "I am the emperor of Germany, but you are the emperor of chefs"; he goes on to become known as "king of chefs and chef of kings", originating the brigade de cuisine system, run by chefs de partie. Emerson Electric Co. is founded in Mo. by Civil War Union veteran John Wesley Emerson (1832-99) et al. to manufacture electric motors, selling the first electric fans in the U.S. in 1892, and going on to become the world's largest airplane armament manufacturer in WWII, growing to 140K employees in 150 countries by 2008; its CEO William Stuart Symington (1901-88) becomes the first secy. of the USAF in 1947-50. In this decade Paris Green wallpaper containing arsenic kills thousands. French artist Georges-Pierre Seurat (1859-91) has a son by his model Madeleine Knobloch; he doesn't introduce him to his mother until two days before his 1891 death. English novelist Joseph Conrad captains the stern-wheeler Roi des Belges on a voyage down the Congo River. In this decade the Pleinair (Fr. "in plain air") manner of representing observed effects of outdoor light and atmosphere catches on among French Impressionists. The sunflower (a native of the New World) is reintroduced to North Am. by Russian immigrants. Every year in this decade 20 tons of ivory taken from woolly mammoth remains are shipped from Siberia to London; some mammoth tusks reach 16 ft. in length. Riley Motor Co. is founded in Coventry, England as the Riley Cycle Co. by William Riley (1851-1944), William Victor Riley (1876-1958) et al.; in 1926 it introduces a fabric-body saloon car with the new Riley 9 engine, which features hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, becoming the most important engine development of the 1920s, going on to introduce different body styles incl. the Continental, Deauville, Edinburgh, Falcon, Gamecock, Imp, Kestrel, Lincock, Lynx, Merlin, Monaco, MPH, Sprite, Stelvio, Victor, and Winchester; in 1938 it is acquired by Morris Motors; in 1968 it merges with British Leyland Motor Corp. The Gibson Guitar Corp. is founded in Nashville, Tenn. The Athenian Constitution by Aristotle is discovered by archeologists. After opening a shop in Glasgow, Scotland in 1871 and expanding to 200 shops by the 1880s, taking advantage of falling tea prices to set up his own wholesale distribution network (bypassing London's Mincing Lane) in 1888 to market tea at low low prices to the working class, then traveling the world looking for new items to stock, Thomas Johnstone Lipton (1848-1931) purchases new tea gardens in Ceylon worked by Tamil workers from India, and introduces Lipton brand tea, using orange pekoe and pekoe leaves, witth the slogan: "Direct from the tea gardens to the teapot", becoming a big hit in the U.S.; the brand is acquired by Unilever in 1938. Reebok Internat. Ltd. is founded in Holcombe Brook (near Bolton), England by Joseph William Foster to produce newfangled spiked running shoes, which are made famous by Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell in the 1924 Summer Olympics; in 1960 the co. is renamed Reebok after the African rhebok antelope; in 1979 they begin U.S. distribution, doing well despite being pricier than Nike, Adidas, and Puma. Cuauhtemoc (Cuauhtémoc) Moctezuma Brewery in Monterrey, Mexico is founded by an icemaking co., later becoming Mexican Economic Development Inc. (FEMSA), brewing other beers incl. Dos Equis, Carta Blanca, Tecate, and Sol; in 2010 Dutch brewing giant Heineken Internat. buys it. Menthol ointment Vicks VapoRub begins as Vick's Family Remedies at the Selma, N.C. pharmacy of Lunsford Richardson (1854-1919), changing to Vick's Magic Croup Slave in 1905, and the current name in 1912; the 1918 influenza epidemic causes sales to zoom from $900K to $2.9M in one year. h Sports: On Jan. 3-Mar. 4 the 1890 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Montreal Hockey Club win with a 7-0 record, becoming their 3rd straight title. On Feb. 27 the 2nd Longest Gloved Boxing Match in History sees Danny Needham and Patsy Kerrigan box 100 rounds in San Francisco, Calif. before the match is declared a draw after more than 6.5 hours; the longest is on Apr. 6, 1893. On Aug. 6 Denton True "Cy" (Cyclone) Young (1867-1955) appears in his first ML baseball game with the Cleveland Spiders; he moves to St. Louis in 1899, then to the AL in 1901, playing his last game on Oct. 11, 1911 with the Boston Rustlers. On Nov. 27 after a suggestion by Arthur Stanley, son of Canadian gov.-gen Lord Stanley, the Ontario Hockey Assoc, is founded to govern amateur play in Ontario, with teams incl. the Ottawa Hockey Club, Queen's U. of Kingston, the Toronto Marlboros, and the Toronto Wellingtontons; in 1891 it establishes the Cosby Cup, which is won in 1891-3 by the Ottawa Hockey Club, which leaves the league in 1894; it is last awarded in 1899. Pitcher Charles Augustus "Kid" Nichols (1869-1953) begins playing with the Boston Beaneaters (until 1901), having the first of 10 consecutive seasons with 20 wins or more, becoming the youngest pitcher to win 300 games (1901), and amassing 361 wins in a 15-year career. On Nov. 29 (first Sat. after Thanksgiving) the first Army-Navy Football Game is played in West Point between the Army Black Knights and Navy Midshipmen; Navy defeats Army by 24-0; starting in 1899 games are played mainly in Philly; in 2009 it is moved to the 2nd Sat. in Dec., becoming the last non-bowl contest in college football each year. The Players' Nat. League of Prof. Base Ball Clubs (Players' League) is founded by former New York Giants shortstop John Montgomery "Monte" Ward (1860-1925) (graduate of Columbia Law School), signing over half of NL players; too bad, their profit-sharing system reduces the receipts of the team owners so much that they sell-out to the Nat. League, causing the league to fold; in 1894 Ward retires from baseball and becomes an atty. representing baseball players against the Nat. League. About this time English poet-novelist Ernest Christopher Dowson (1867-1900) coins the word "soccer", along with the phrases "gone with the wind" and "days of wine and roses". Early in this decade Duckpin Bowling is invented in Boston, Mass., spreading to Baltimore, Md. about 1899; in 1982 the Women's Nat. Duckpin Assoc. is founded. Architecture: On May 1 Elitch's Zoological Gardens opens in no-longer-Wild-West Denver, Colo. at 38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. on an apple orchard site owned by John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch (nee Hauck), friends of P.T. Barnum, who winters his animals and equipment in the Sloan Lake area nearby (20th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.), and who attends the opening with Tom Thumb; when John dies in 1891, Mary takes over, training an ostrich to pull her in a small sulky and gaining worldwide publicity; her own light opera stock co. opens on May 30, 1897, producing "Helene", with James O'Neill (father of playwright Eugene O'Neill) as one of the actors; later Sarah Bernhardt plays "Camille" and "La Sorcier", and Mary names a mountain lion kitten after her; young Douglas Fairbanks gets his first acting job there; young Grace Kelly gets her start there after she and her mother rent a basement apt. at 4020 Raleigh St.; the Trocadero Ballroom opens in 1917 under owner John Mulvlihill, featuring Lawrence Welk (1903-92), Benny Goodman, Guy Lombardo et al. (closes 1975); in 1927 the Herbert Schmeck-designed Wildcat wooden roller coaster, followed in by 1928 the Philadelphia Tobggan Co. Carousel, and in 1966 by the John Allen-designed Twister roller coaster; in 1930 it is purchsed by the Gurtler family; in 1994 it moves to to downtown Denver along the Platte River and I-25 near Mile High Stadium and Pepsi Center, with the Twister replaced by the Twister II; in 1996 it is acquired by Premier Parks, which purchases Six Flags in 1997, which sells Elitch's in 2007. On July 4 the cornerstone of the Colo. State Capitol in Denver, designed by E.E. Myers is laid at the intersection of Broadway and 26-mi. Colfax Ave. (originally 15th Ave.) (longest blvd. in the U.S.), becoming the first royal road from the Great Plains to the Rocky Mts. (later known for its motels and hos and porno studios, called "the longest, wickedest street in America" by Playboy mag.), the center of a grid of N-S streets named for Indian tribes from Broadway W to Federal Blvd. (Acoma, Bannock, Cherokee, Delaware, Elati, Fox, Galapagos, Huron, Inca, Santa Fe/Jason, Kalamath, Lipan, Mariposa, Navajo, Osage, Pecos, Quivas, Raritan, Shoshone, Tejon, Umatilla, Vallejo, Wyandot, Zuni), followed by U.S. Civil War Union gens. on the W side of Federal (Grove, Hooker, Irving, Julian, King, Knox Ct., Lowell Blvd., Meade, Newton, Osceola, Perry), designed by E.E. Myers is laid; the Colo. white granite comes from Gunnison, the wainscoting is made of Colo. rose onyx from Beulah (near Pueblo), the foundations and walls from Fort Collins sandstone, and the basement of Colo. white marble; one of the steps is labelled "One Mile Above Sea Level 5,280 ft."; it opens in Nov. 1894; in 1908 a gold dome covered in 200 oz. of gold leaf is added to commemorate the Colo. Gold Rush. The Fraser Mansion at 1701 20th St. N.W. at the intersection of Conn. Ave., 20th St., and R St. in Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. is built, later becoming the home of the Founding Church of Scientology on Oct. 21, 1995-Oct. 31, 2009. The Garrick Theatre (Harrigan's Theatre until 1895) at 67 West 35th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 910) opens, producing the comedy Enter Madame on Aug. 16, 1920 (350 perf.); in 1896-1915 Charles Frohman manages it; in 1916 it is acquired by the Shuberts, who lease it to Otto Kahn, who gives it to the Theatre Guild, producing Saint Joan on Dec. 28, 1923, starring Winifed Lenihan, followed by They Knew What They Wanted (Nov. 24, 1924) (192 perf.); ; in 1925 the Shuberts resume mgt., and after descending to burlesque it closes in 1929. The 16-18-20-story 309-ft. (94m) New York World (Pulitzer) Bldg., designed by George Browne Post (1837-1913) and built for Joseph Pulitzer is completed on Dec. 10, becoming the world's tallest office bldg. (until ?); demolished in 1955. Inventions: On Oct. 9 Clement Ader (1841-1925) makes his first flight in his steam-powered fixed-wing aircraft Ader Eole in Satory, France, flying 50m (160 ft.) at a height of 20 cm., becoming the first takeoff of an airplane solely under its own power. The Baby Daisy vacuum cleaner (designed in France) is introduced in Britain, with suction created by a canvas bellows operated by a footplate, with a metal hose and cotton bag for collecting dust; the bellows operator leans on a broomstick mounted on top; "This movement was a key design feature as it has a double connected bellows, meaning that movement in either direction created a vacuum"; the whole unit is dragged around on boards. The Swiss Army Knife is born when the Swiss Army decides that every soldier needs to carry a knife with a screwdriver to disassemble his Schmidt-Rubin rifle and a can opener for canned food, producing the Model 1890, which incl. a reamer, with a handle made of dark oak and/or ebony; the first lot of 15K is delivered in Oct. 1891 by Wester & Co. of Solingen, Germany; the red handle has a Swiss cross and shield; in 1891 surgical equipment maker Karl Elsener (1860-1918) of Ibach gets the contract to manufacture it, establishing the Victorinox Co. in 1909 after his mother Victoria dies, combining her name with "inox" (Fr. "acier inoxydable"), meaning stainless steel; in 1908 Paul Boechat & Co. of Belermont splits the contract 50-50, becoming Wenger Co., owned by Theodore Wenger, with Victorinox producing the Original Swiss Army Knife and Wenger the Genuine Swiss Army Knife; which is acquired by Victorinox on Apr. 26, 2005, continuing to produce both brands until announcing on Jan. 30, 2013 that only Victorinox will be produced; in WWII U.S. soldiers change the name from Offiziersmesser because it's too hard to pronounce; Victorinox sets up a factory in Monroe, Conn., which produces more and more models with more and more blades, incl. saw, scissors, file, pliers, tweezers, bottle openers, corkscrew, knife chain, belt clip et al. Thomas Edison's talking dolls become a rage at Christmas; they sound like they're possessed?; too bad, they are almost all damaged in shipping, causing him to sell them sans guarantee. Nested wooden Matryoshka Dolls (from the Russian word "mat" = mother) begin to be produced near Moscow to copy Japanese wooden dolls. On May 28 Md. atty. Elijah Jefferson Bond (1847-1921) files for a U.S. patent on the Ouija Board, which is granted next Feb. 10; in 1907 he founds the Swastika Novelty Co., with the word "Nirvana" trademarked; at first it is marketed in novelty shops, until Am. Spiritualist Pearl Lenore Curran (1883-1937) (known for channeling the 1694 spirit of Patience Worth) turns it into a tool for the Occult in WWI; the Ouija board demon is known as Zozo AKA Pazuzu. Peugeot (founded 1812) of France produces the first gas-driven automobile. German-born English industrialist Ludwig Mond (1839-1909) discovers a new method of purifying nickel (element #28) by treating it with carbon monoxide, leading to many advances in industrial catalysts; in 1900 he founds Mond Nickel Co.. In this decade Chicago, Ill. priest Casimir Zeglen develops a bulletproof vest made of silk; Franz Ferdinand is wearing one when he is shot on June 28, 1914, but too bad, he is shot in the neck above the vest. Science: In this decade Western doctors and surgeons begin using surgical gloves filled with powder made from club moss spores or ground pine pollen; in the 1930s talcum powder begins to be used, followed in 1947 by cornstarch; in Mar. 2016 the U.S. FDA bans powdered gloves as a health hazard. In May German surgeon Themistocles Gluck (Glück) (1853-1942) performs the first knee arthroplasty, inserting a hinged ivory joint in the knee of a 17-y.-o. girl, also the first total wrist arthroplasty; in 1891 he performs the first hip replacement surgery, using ivory to replace the femoral head, held with nickel-plated screws, Plaster of Paris, and glue made of pumice and resin - that should hold an elephant? The non-addictive topical anesthetic Benzocaine is isolated in Germany, and given the trade name Anesthesin. The unbearable lightness of Behring? Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) discovers antitoxins in the Berlin lab of physician German chemist Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius (1857-1928) pub. the Curtius Rearrangement, the thermal decomposition of an acyl azide to an isocyanate with the loss of nitrogen, going on to produce azoimide (hydrogen azide) (hydrazoic acid) from organic sources. Robert Koch (1843-1910) while working with Shibasaburo Kitazato (1853-1931) of Japan, and formulates Behring's Law, that blood serum from an individual who had contracted and survived a disease can be used to produce immunity to the same disease in another individual; he first applies it to tetanus, then diphtheria, then cattle TB; meanwhile Koch produces a substance he calls tuberculin, claiming it to be a cure for TB, but later finds it useful only in diagnosis. Swiss psychiatrist Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907) performs the first lobotomy (frontal lobe removal) operations; too bad, one patient dies after the operation, another is found dead in a river 10 days later, and the rest exhibit altered behavior. About this year French-born Belgian paleontologist Louis Antoine Marie Joseph Dollo (1857-1931) formulates Dollo's Law of Irreversibility, which states that in evolution an organism never returns to its exact former state, i.e., complex structures once lost are never regained in their original form. In this decade Canadian nurse Rene Caisse obtains an herbal recipe from an Ojibwa medicine man, which is later called Essiac (Caisse spelled backwards); it consists of burdock root, slippery elm, sheep sorrel, and rhubarb root, and is later used to treat cancer et al. German biologist Hermann Henking (1858-1942) discovers and names the X chromosome, identifying it as a sex chromosome in 1903. Univ. of Mich. dentistry prof. Willoughby Dayton Miller (1853-1907) pub. the microbial theory of dental cavities (caries). After a series of scientific papers beginning in 1872, Bandon, County Cork-born chemist Cornelius O'Sullivan (1841-1907) of Bass & Co. pub. Invertase: a Contribution to the History of an Enzyme, the first analysis of how the enzyme diastase converts the starches in beer mash into maltose sugar, getting promoted to head brewer in 1894. Italian mathematician Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (1853-1925) invents Tensor (Absolute Differential) Calculus (Analysis), which uses contravariant (superscript) and covariant (subscript) array indices to represent physical objects independent of coordinate systems; in 1898 German physicist Woldemar Voigt (1850-1919) coins the term "tensor"; Ricci-Curbastro's student Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) popularizes it in a 1900 textbook, and Albert Einstein later uses it in his Gen. Relativity Theory after taking 10 slow years to learn it, along with elliptic geometry from his friend Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) - just move on up to relieve? Am. pathologist William Russell claims to have found "a characteristic organism of cancer", attributing cancer to bacteria. Nonfiction: John Peter Altgeld (1847-1902), Our Penal Machinery and Its Victims; prison reform. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), La Photographie Judiciaire. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Zur Kritik der Moderne. Nellie Bly (1864-1922), Nellie Bly's Book: Around the World in Seventy-Two Days. William Booth (1829-1912), In Darkest England and the Way Out; bestseller advocating the progressive movement of the unemployed in Britain from city workshops to farm colonies, followed by overseas colonies. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), Essays of an Americanist; Races and Peoples: Lectures on the Science of Ethnography. Alexander Brown (1843-1906), The Genesis of the United States (2 vols.). Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Life of George Eliot. Samuel Butler (1835-1902), The Life and Letters of Samuel Butler; his Episcopalian bishop grandfather, not a writer? Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931), The Navigation Laws. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne; George Washington's Rules of Civility: Traced to Their Sources and Restored. William Cunningham (1849-1919), Growth of English Industry and Commerce During the Early and Middle Ages. Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1842-1933), Following the Guidon; more propaganda for her hubby. Varina Banks Howell Davis (1826-1906), Jefferson Davis: A Memoir By His Wife. Hans Delbruck (1848-1929), The Strategy of Pericles Described Through the Strategy of Frederick the Great. Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932), On the Qualities of Form (Uber Gestaltqualitäten); founds Gestalt Psychology, the theory that the mind sees the entirety before dividing it into parts, with the motto "The whole is greater (other than) the sum of the parts"; "In the case of all things that have several parts and in which the whole is not like a heap, but is a particular something besides the parts, there must be some such uniting factor." Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), The Problem of Human Life as Viewed by the Great Thinkers. Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941), The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (2 vols.); 2nd. ed. 1900 (3 vols.); 3rd ed. 1906-15 (12 vols.); brings out similarities of ancient myths, religions, cults, and rites, and their parallels to Christianity, incl. the concept of the dying king sacrified for the good of the kingdom, pissing-off the Victorian British public by daring to incl. the story of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection in its scope, inviting agnosticism, causing him to move the crucifixion to a speculative appendix, and exclude the discussion of Christianity from the 1-vol. abridged ed. entirely; a gold mine for anthropologists and archeologists, turning on anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, psychologist Sigmund Freud, writers Joseph Campbell, James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, D.H. Lawrence, William Butler Yeats, T.S. Eliot, H. P. Lovecraft, Robert Graves, Ezra Pound et al.; "In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of the day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instance he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and a murderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary" (of Diana Nemorensis AKA Diana of the Wood in the Alban Hills SE of Rome). Ignac Goldhizer (1850-1921), Muhammedanische Studien; shows how the Hadith reflect the legal-doctrinal controversies of the 2 cents. after Muhammad's death; claims that Islamic law is derived from Roman law; becomes known for his love of Islam, incl. praying like a Muslim, even though he is devout Jew, and for dissing Roman Catholicism even though he lives in Hungary and is the first Jewish prof. at Budapest U.; "Islam, as my experience taught me, is the only religion in which superstitious and heathen ingredients are not frowned upon by rationalism, but by orthodox doctrine." Sir Montague Goldsmid, Das Leben von Muhammad (The Life of Mohammed). Edmund Gosse (1849-1928), The Life of Philip Henry Gosse; his father (1810-88). William Henry Green (1825-1900), Primeval Chronology (Bibliotheca Sacra); highly influential article ditching the Bible chronology of Irish archbishop James Ussher; "We conclude that the Scriptures furnish no data for a chronological computation prior to the life of Abraham, and that the Mosaic records do not fix and were not intended to fix the precise date either of the Flood or of the creation of the world" - a Christian would say Sunday not Saturday or Friday? Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943), Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (first book); 2nd ed. 1891; "One of the most striking political tendencies of the last century has been the development of federal government both in Europe and America... The United States of America has borne the strain of growth of territory and population, and is today the strongest and most firmly established of all federal governments that have ever existed." John Milton Hay (1838-1905), Abraham Lincoln: A History (10 vols.); by his personal secy. William James (1842-1910), The Principles of Psychology (2 vols.) (Sept. 25); proposes that psychology concern itself with emotions, habits, consciousness, self, adaptation, and learning, dissing Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's metaphysical idealism, Jeremy Bentham's associationism, Herbert Spencer's materialism, and Immanuel Kant's innatism, describing the human mind as inherently purposive and selective; a novel on psychology?; "A loathsome, distended, tumefied, bloated, dropsical mass, testifying to nothing but two facts: 1st, that there is no such thing as a science of psychology, and 2nd, that W. J. is an incapable." (William James) James Jefferson (1829-1905), Autobiography. Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929), Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries; begins his rise to #1 researcher on ancient Rome. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Barbary Corsairs. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Old Friends: Essays in Epistolary Parody; The Life, Letters and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, First Earl of Iddesleigh; How to Fail in Literature. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), The Cobra Diamond. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), A Strike of Millionaires Against Miners; or, The Story of Spring Valley. Silas Marcus MacVane (1842-1914), Working Principles of Political Economy; 4th ed. 1897. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), Principles of Economics; supplants John Stuart Mill's textbook in the U.K., replacing the term political economy with the term economics, and pioneering the supply and demand curve (Marshallian Cross). James Martineau (1805-1900), The Seat of Authority in Religion - I could tell you but I'd have to kill you? Samuel Ward McAllister (1827-95), Society As I Have Found It; adviser to "the Mrs. Astor" Caroline Schermerhorn Astor, who together created the List of 400 that defines who's the Nobs (old money, who trace their lineage back to colonial New Amsterdam) and who's the Swells (new money) in New York City fashionable elite society (the Tong), with at least three generations of wealthy ancestors who never worked in the trades required to be a Nob; too bad, the Nobs don't like publicity, turning him into a pariah. Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783; by a U.S. Navy Capt.; how British sea power made it #1, and how the U.S. can do it too, making a fan of Theodore Roosevelt, becoming the most influential book on naval strategy, adopted by most major navies, leading to the WWI naval arms race. Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Royal Edinburgh. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay (1851-1930), The Historical Geography of Asia Minor; based on his travels to Asia Minor, becoming the first to give a definite location to many of the cities mentioned in the Book of Acts, maing him the #1 authority on New Testament geography. Ernest Renan (1823-92), L'Avenir de la Science. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York; shocking photos of living conditions in the Big Apple launching muckraking photojournalism and kick-starting the Progressive Era. Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87), Prose (posth.). William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), Alexander Hamilton. John Heyl Vincent (1832-1920), A Study in Pedagogy; the Chautauqua System. Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), Miss Helyett (operetta) (Paris); staged next year in London as "Miss Decima". Alexander Borodin (1833-87), Prince Igor (posth.) (opera) (St. Petersburg); incl. Polovtsian Dances. Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 3 (final version); Symphony No. 4 (final version). Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Suite Bergamasque (piano suite) (rev. 1905); incl. Clair de Lune. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Dumka (Dumky) Trio No. 4 in E minor, Op. 90 (1890-1); a Dumka (Dumy) is a Ukrainian epic ballad of thoughtful or melancholy character; incl. Movement 1, Movement 2, Movement 3, Movement 4, Movement 5, Movement 6. Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945), Cavalleria Rusticana (first opera) (May 17) (Teatro Costanzi, Rome); libretto by Givoanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci; based on a short story by Sicilian-born Giovanni Verga (1840-1922); giant hit, launching the Italian Versimo (Ital. "realism") Movement in dramatic music (esp. grand opera), where works are impersonal and write themselves; incl. Addio alla Madre, Intermezzo. Andre Messager (1858-1929), La Basoche (opera) (Opera Comique, Paris). Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), The Holy Child. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Tod und Verklarung (Death and Transfiguration), Op. 24. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), The Queen of Spades (Pique Dame), Op. 68 (opera) (St. Petersburg); libretto by Modest Tchaikosky; based on the 1834 short story by Alexander Pushkin; too bad, Nadezhda von Meck suddenly cuts off his 6K rubles a year stipend. Art: Sir Frank Brangwyn (1867-1956), Funeral at Sea; wins gold medal at 1891 Paris Salon. David Young Cameron (1865-1945), The Clyde Set (etchings). Eugene Anatole Carriere (1849-1906), Sleep. Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), Woman Bathing (1890-1); The Coiffure (Hairstyle) (1890-1). Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Tulips in a Vase (1890-2); Still Life with Apples (1890-4); "I will astonish Paris with an apple". Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944), Signal of Peace (sculpture). 'Bather Stepping into a Tub' by Edgar Degas (1834-1917), 1890 Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Bather Stepping into a Tub. Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Haystacks in Brittany. Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Pygmalion and Galatea; Pygmalion falls in love with an ivory "milky-white" statue, and Aphrodite brings it to life for him. Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90), Portrait of Dr. Gachet; sells for $82.5M in 1990; Wheat Field with Crows; his last work? Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Lady Godiva; Ophelia. Frederic Leighton (1830-96), The Bath of Psyche. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Still Life with Books (June) (first work). Jean-Louis Meissonier (1815-91), 1807; took 10 years. Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919), King Solomon. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), Closed Eyes. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), Self-Portrait; retires from his govt. job in 1893 to go full-time, visiting the Jardin des Plantes in Paris to paint jungle scnes, and inventing a new genre of portrait with the person in the foreground and a city view in the background. Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926), Wild Meat for Wild Men; a Plains Indian buffalo hunt. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), Seacoast in Moonlight; The Dead Bird (1890-1900). Giovanni Segantini (1858-99), Plowing in the Engadine. Paul Signac (1863-1935), Portrait of Felix Feneon (Félix Fénéon) [1861-1944] (Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles, Tones and Tints; French art critic Feneon, who coined the term "Neo-Impressionism" in 1886. Plays: Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), A Man's Shadow. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Captain Therese. David Belasco (1853-1931) and Henry C. de Mille, Men and Women. Paul Fort (1872-), La Petite Bete; 1-act prose comedy. Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Kong Midas; ridicules playwright Bjornstjerne Bjornson. James A. Herne (1839-1901), Margaret Fleming; abandons melodrama for realism, founding modern Am. drama. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Hedda Gabler; Hedda returns from her honeymoon with boring academic George Tesman, and banks on him getting a professorship, until her ex-lover Eilert arrives to compete for the position, drops out, and threatens suicide; "I felt pity and terror, as though the play had been Greek" (Oscar Wilde); one of the hardest roles for a woman to play. Comte de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-89), Axel; Rosicrucian play. Henry Arthur Jones (1851-1929), Judah. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), L'Intruse (The Intruder); Les Aveugles (The Blind). Poetry: Stephen Phillips (1864-1915) and Laurence Binyon (1869-1943), Primavera (debut). Novels: George Ade (1866-1944), Fables in Slang; launches the "contemporary fable" movement. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), The School of Love. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), La Cristiana. Walter Besant (1836-1901), Armorel of Lyonesse (3 vols.); The Holy Rose. William Black (1841-98), The New Prince Fortunatus; London theatrical life. Louis Henri Boussenard (1847-1910), Dix Mille Ans dans un Bloc de Glace. ( Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), One Life, One Love. Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Bondman; The Scapegoat. Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Let Loose. Kate Chopin (1850-1904), At Fault (first novel). Wilkie Collins (1824-89), Blind Love (3 vols.); preface by Walter Besant. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Wormwood. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Caesar's Column; pub. under alias Edmund Boisgilbert; a worker revolt against a global oligarchy; helps found the dystopian sci-fi novel genre. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Sign of Four; The Firm of Girdlestone. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Stine. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Main-Traveled Roads (short stories); why U.S. farm life sucks. Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915), Sixtine. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925) and Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The World's Desire. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Hunger (Sult); his first major novel; starts out fast with a masterpiece?; a semi-autobio. psychological novel about a starving young man in 19th cent. Kristiania (Oslo), exploring the irrationality of the human mind, pioneering stream of consciousness and interior monologues, becoming a forerunner of Franz Kafka etc. and launching 20th cent. lit. Anthony Hope (1863-1933), A Man of Mark (first novel). E.W. Hornung (1866-1921), A Bride from the Bush. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Born Coquette; April's Lady; A Little Rebel; Her Last Throw. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), The Light That Failed (first novel). Emily Lawless (1845-1913), With Essex in Ireland. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), The Mountain (Gora). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Au Maroc; Le Roman d'un Enfant. Guy de Maupassant (1850-93), Our Sister (Notre Coeur). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Kirsteen. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Truandailles. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), The Serpent in Paradise. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Love and Lore. Molly Elliot Seawell (1860-1916), Little Jarvis. Vsevolod Solovyov (1849-1903), The Great Rosicrucian. Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Dreams. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), The Kreutzer Sonata. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), The Picture of Dorian Gray (July); first pub. in Lippincott's Monthly Mag., with 500 "indecent" words deleted; then pub. in book form next year; coins the name Dorian (Gr. "from Doris"), for the title char., who has "finely-curved scarlet lips" and descends into a life of vice yet stays young while his portrait, er, picture grows old and jaded; when it is destroyed, guess what?; "I am jealous of everything whose beauty does not die." Births: English adventurer Jane Porter on Jan. 1 in Baltimore, Md.; daughter of Prof. Archimedes Q. Porter; becomes Mrs. John Clayton Jr., mate of Tarzan :) Am. DC Comics founder Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson (d. 1965) on Jan. 7 in Greeneville, Tenn.; grandfather of Dana Wheeler-Nicholson (1960-). British Commodore Augustus Willington Shelton Agar (d. 1968) on Jan. 4 in Kandy, Ceylon. Israeli spy (Jewish) ("Heroine of Nili") Sarah Aaronsohn (d. 1917) on Jan. 5 in Zichron Yaakov; sister of Aaron Aaronsohn (1876-1919). Czech poet Rudolf Medek (d. 1940) on Jan. 8 in Hradec Kralove. Austrian art historian (Warburg Inst.) (Jewish) Friedrich "Fritz" Saxl (d. 1948) on Jan. 8 in Vienna. Czech #1 "R.U.R." dramatist-novelist-writer (Jewish) Karel Capek (d. 1938) (pr. CHAP-ek) on Jan. 9 in Prague; popularizer of the word "robot", invented by his brother Josef Capek (1887-1945); not to be confused with Karel Capek-Chod (1860-1927), who worked with him at Narodni Listi mag., and was called "Chod". German journalist-writer (Jewish) Kurt Tucholsky (d. 1935) on Jan. 9 in Berlin; emigrates to Sweden in 1930. Am. "History of the New York Times, 1951-1921" writer-journalist Elmer Davis (d. 1958) on Jan. 13 in Aurora, Ind.; educated at Franklin College, and Queen's College, Oxford U. U.S. Gen. John Porter "Old/Uncle Luke" Lucas (d. 1949) on Jan. 14 in Kearneysville, W. Va. Italian PM #29 (1945) Ferruccio Parri (d. 1981) on Jan. 19 in Pinerolo. U.S. chief justice #13 (1946-53) and U.S. treasury secy. #53 (1945-6) Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson (d. 1953) on Jan. 22 in Lawrence County, Ky.; educated at Centre College. Am. ornithologist jailbird ("Birdman of Alcatraz") Robert Franklin Stroud (d. 1963) on Jan. 28 in Seattle, Wash.; kills a prison guard in 1916, and gets life, ending up spending 54 years behind bars while he becomes an authority on ornithology and tries to leverage it to get released in vain. English-Australian novelist Angela Margaret Thirkell (d. 1961) on Jan. 30 on the Isle of Bute; daughter of John William Mackail (1859-1945) and Margaret Burne-Jones (daughter of Edward Burne-Jones); 1st cousin of Rudyard Kipling and Stanley Baldwin; goddaughter of J.M. Barrie; wife (1911-7) of James Campbell McInnes (1874-1945); mother of Colin MacInnes (1914-76). Am. "Andy in Amos and Andy" radio comedian Charles James Correll (d. 1972) on Feb. 2 in Peoria, Ill.; partner of "Amos" Freeman Gosden (1899-1982). Swiss nuclear physicist Paul Scherrer (d. 1969) on Feb. 3 in St. Gallen. Dutch "De Stijl" architect Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (d. 1963) on Feb. 9 in Purmerend; son of a tobacco-wine merchant; pupil of Theodor Fischer. Russian "Doctor Zhivago" poet-novelist Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (d. 1960) on Feb. 10 in Moscow; educated at the U. of Moscow, and U. of Marburg. Am. "Don Juan" actress-writer-dir. Bess Meredyth (Helen Elizabeth MacGlashen) (d. 1969) on Feb. 12 in Buffalo, N.Y.; wife (1917-27) of Wilfred Lucas (1871-1940) and (1929-62) Michael Curtiz'(1886-1962); mother of John Meredyth Lucas (1919-2002). German Nazi slavemaster Robert Ley (d. 1945) on Feb. 15 in Niederbreidenbach, Westphalia. English statistician-geneticist-eugenicist Ronald Aylmer Fisher (d. 1962) on Feb. 17 in East Finchley, London; educated at Harrow School, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge U. ; knighted in 1952. Am. producer (Jewish) Sol Lesser (d. 1980) on Feb. 17 in Spokane, Wash. Am. "Jim Taylor in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "Daniel Webster in The Devil and Daniel Webster", "Meet Nero Wolfe" actor Edward Arnold (Gunther Edward Arnold Schneider) (b. 1956) on Feb. 18 in New York City; German immigrant parents; father of Edward Arnold Jr. (1920-96); not to be confused with actors Eddie Albert and Edward Albert. Am. "Morocco", "The Front Page" actor Adolphe Jean Menjou (d. 1963) on Feb. 18 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; of French-Irish descent; educated at Cornell U. German Gen. Georg Thomas (d. 1946) on Feb. 20 in Forst (Lausitz), Brandenburg. English "Old Men Forget" Conservative politician-diplomat-writer Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (d. 1954 on Feb. 22; educated at Eton College, and New College, Oxford U.; husband (1919-) of Lady Diana Manners; father of John Julius Norwich (1929-); created viscount in 1952. Am. "Ma Kettle" actress (lesbian?) Marjorie Main (Mary Tomlinson Krebs) (d. 1975) on Feb. 24 in Boggstown (Acton), Ind. English pianist Dame Julia Myra Hess (d. 1965) on Feb. 25 in London; created dame in 1941. Am. Vought Corp. co-founder Chauncy Milton "Chance" Vought (d. 1930) on Feb. 26 in Long Island, N.Y.; educated at the Pratt Inst., NYU, and U. of Penn. English historian Sir George Norman Clark (d. 1979) on Feb. 27 in Halifax, Yorkshire; educated at Balliol College, and All Souls College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1953. Canadian 5'10" "hockey hall-of-fame center (Montreal Canadiens) Maurice Joseph Cletus "Phantom Joe" Malone (d. 1969) on Feb. 28 in Quebec City, Quebec; brother of Jeff Malone (1888-1981). Am. "Microbe Hunters" bacteriologist-writer Paul Henry de Kruif (d. 1971) (pr. KRIFE) on Mar. 2 in Zeeland, Mich.; educated at the U. of Mich. Canadian physician Henry Norman Bethune (d. 1939) on Mar. 3 in Gravenhurst, Ont. Am. "Sgt. Quirt" actor (Jewish) (bi) Edmund Dantes Lowe (d. 1971) on Mar. 3 in San Jose, Calif.; husband (1925-) of Lilyan Tashman (1896-1934). Am. "I Was a Teenage Werewolf" journalist-dramatist-dir. Gene Fowler (d. 1960) on Mar. 8 in Denver, Colo.; father of Gene Fowler Jr. (1917-98). Am. industrialist and U.S. treasury sec. (1953-61) George Magoffin Humphrey (d. 1970) on Mar. 8 in Cheboygan, Mich. Soviet foreign minister (1939-49, 1953-6) Vyachesalv Mikhailovich Molotov (Skriabin) (d. 1986) on Mar. 9 (Feb. 25 Old Style) in Kukarka, Nolinsk region, Vyatka Province; Stalin's closest friend. Am. engineer (Raytheon co. co-founder) Vannevar Bush (d. 1974) on Mar. 11 in Everett, Mass.; inventor of the differential analyzer; founder of the Nat. Science Foundation; father of the World Wide Web. Am. hillbilly singer, conservative Dem. Tex. gov. #34 (1939-41) and U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1941-9) Wilbert Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel (d. 1969) on Mar. 11 in Malta, Ohio; grows up in Reno County, Kan.; moves to Fort Worth, Tex. in 1925; first/only person to defeat Lyndon B. Johnson in an election (in 1941 by 1,311 votes for U.S. Senate). German conductor Fritz Busch (d. 1951) on Mar. 13 in Siegen, Westphalia; brother of Adolf Busch (1891-1952) and Hermann Busch (1897-1975). Libyan king (1951-69) Idris I (Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Senussi) (d. 1983) on Mar. 13 in Al-Jaghbub; grandson of Senussi movement founder (1837) Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1859). German "Tsushima" novelist Frank Thiess (d. 1977) on Mar. 13 in Eluisenstein, Livonia (Latvia). Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli (d. 1957) on Mar. 20 in Recanati, Marche. Am. #1 Wagnerian tenor Lauritz (Lebrecht Hommel) Melchior (d. 1973) on Mar. 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark; father of Ib Melchior (1917-). German anti-Nazi politician Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzen (d. 1945) on Mar. 22 in Dubberow, Pomerania; father of Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (1922-2013). Am. atheist-rationalist writer (white supremacist) Woolsey Teller (d. 1954) on Mar. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; cousin of Charles Lee Smith (1887-1964). Am. OBGYN (birth control pioneer) John Rock (d. 1984) on Mar. 24 in Marlborough, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Mr. Lemon of Orange", "Single O in invi Imagine" actor Elmer Goodfellow "El" Brendel (d. 1964) on Mar. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; German immigrant father, Irish mother. Am. "Rhapsody in Blue" symphonic jazz bandleader (white) ("the King of Jazz") Paul Samuel Whiteman (d. 1967) on Mar. 28 in Denver, Colo. English astronomer Sir Harold Spencer Jones (d. 1960) on Mar. 29 in Kensington; educated at Cambridge U.; astronomer royal of England (1933-55); knighted in 1943. British Bragg's Law of X-Ray Diffraction physicist Sir William Lawrence Bragg (d. 1971) on Mar. 31 in Adelaide, Australia; son of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942); educated at Adelaide U., and Cambridge U.; knighted in 1941. Canadian industrialist Arthur Blaikie Purvis (d. 1941) on Mar. 31 in London, England; Scottish father. Dutch-Am. aircraft designer Anthon Herman Gerard "Anthony" Fokker (d. 1939) on Apr. 6 in Kediri, Dutch East Indies (East Java); works in Germany, then moves to the U.S. in 1922. U.S. Tydings-McDuffie Act Sen. (D-Md.) (1927-51) Millard Evelyn Tydings (d. 1961) on Apr. 6 in Havre de Grace, Md. Am. environmentalist ("Defender of the Everglades") Marjory Stoneman Douglas (d. 1998) on Apr. 7 in Minneapolis, Minn. Italian Mussolini's wife (1915-45) Donna Rachele Mussolini (nee Guidi) (d. 1979) on Apr. 11 in Predappio, Romagna. U.S. Supreme Court justice #80 (1940-9) William Francis "Frank" Murphy (d. 1949) on Apr. 13 in Harbor Beach, Mich. Canadian air marshal Robert Leckie (d. 1975) on Apr. 16 in Glasgow, Scotland. Am. pilot Capt. Victor S. Chapman (d. 1916) on Apr. 17 in New York City; son of John Jay Chapman (1862-1933). Am. "lemonade salesman in Duck Soup" 6'1" comedic actor ("King of the Slow Burn") Edgar Livingston Kennedy (d. 1948) on Apr. 26 in Monterey County, Calif. Am. "Lensman" sci-fi novelist (pioneer of space opera) Edward Elmer "Doc" "Skylark" Smith (d. 1965) on May 2 in Sheboygan, Wisc. Am. "Kitty Foyle" journalist-novelist-poet Christopher Darlington Morley (d. 1957) on May 5 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Haverford College and New College, Oxford U.; ed. of "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations"; co-founder of the Baker Street Irregulars. Am. "National Velvet" film dir. Clarence Leon Brown (d. 1987) on May 10 in Clinton, Mass; moves to Knoxville, Tenn. at age 11. German Col. Gen. (chief of staff) Alfred Jodl (d. 1946) on May 10 in Wuzburg; signer of Germany's unconditional surrender. German Luftwaffe gen. Kurt Student (d. 1978) on May 12 in Birkholz, Brandenburg. Am. "Ship of Fools" writer Katherine Anne (Callie Russell) Porter (d. 1980) on May 15 in Indian Creek, Tex.; descendant of Daniel Boone; hair turns white after the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. Am. actor (Jewish) ("the Jewish Charlie Chaplin") Menasha Skulnik (d. 1970) on May 15 in Warsaw, Poland. North Vietnamese PM (1946-55) and pres. (1946-69) ("the George Washington of Vietnam") "Uncle" Ho Chi Minh ("He Who Enlightens") (Nguyen Sinh Cung) (Nguyen Ai Quoc) (Nguyen the Patriot) (Nguyen That Thanh) (Nguyen Van Thanh) (d. 1969) on May 19 in Annam; father is an official who resigned rather than work for the Frogs. Am. "Ordeal of the Union" historian Joseph Allan Nevins (d. 1971) on May 20 in Camp Point, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill.; student of Evarts Boutell Greene (1870-1947). Am. auto racer Joseph "Joe" Boyer (d. 1924) on May 12 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Irene" composer Harry Austin Tierney (d. 1965) on May 21 in Perth Amboy, N.J.; collaborator of Joseph McCarthy (1885-1943). Am. bassoonist Simon Kovar (Kovarski) (d. 1970) on May 22 in Vilnius, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. English "Foreign Correspondent", "The Fly", "The Razor's Edge" actor Herbert Brough Falcon Marshall (d. 1966) on May 23 in London; husband (1928-40) of Edna Best (1900-74). Austrian film dir.-producer-writer (Jewish) (gay) Paul Czinner (d. 1972) in Budapest; educated at the U. of Vienna; husband (1933-) of Elisabeth Bergner (1897-1986). Am. "Professor Marvel in the Wizard of Oz" actor Frank Morgan (Francis Phillip Wuppermann) (d. 1949) on June 1 in New York City; of the Angostura bitters dynasty; educated at Cornell U. Am. U.S. Capitol architect (1954-70) and Repub. politician John George Stewart (d. 1970) on June 2 in Wilmington, Del. Am. behaviorist psychologist Karl Spencer Lashley (d. 1958) on June 7 in Davis, W. Va.; educated at Johns Hopkins U. English "The Most Dangerous Game" actor-dir.-producer Leslie Banks ( d. 1952) on June 9 in West Derby, Liverpool. Am. "Songs of the Desert", "Allegheny Uprising" film dir. William A. Seiter (d. 1964) on June 10 in New York City; husband (1934-64) of Marian Nixon (1904-83). Austrian Expressionist painter Egon Schiele (d. 1918) on June 12 in Tulln; protege of Gustav Klimt; known for nudes and self-portraits. Am. silent film actress May Allison (d. 1989) on June 14 in Rising Fawn, Ga. German July 20th plotter Social Dem. politician Wilhelm Leuschner (d. 1944) on June 15 in Bayreuth, Bavaria. German oceanographer Georg Adolf Otto Wust (Wüst) (d. 1977) on June 15 in Poznan. English "thin one in Laurel and Hardy" comedian Stan Laurel (Arthur Stanley Jefferson) (d. 1965) on June 16 in Ulverston, Lancashire; partner of Oliver Hardy (1892-1957). Am. DeMolay Internat. founder (Freemason) Frank Sherman "Dad" Land (d. 1959) on June 21 in Kansas City, Mo. Puerto Rican banker-industrialist-politician Alfonso Valdes Cobian (Alfonso Valdés Cobián) (d. 1988) on June 23 in Bayamon. Am. 6' actress-dancer-comedian Frances Charlotte Greenwood (d. 1977) on June 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Sadie Thompson Rain" actress (Roman Catholic) Amelia Jeannine "Jeanne" Eagels (d. 1929) (b. 1894?) on June 26 in Kansas City, Mo.; German-French Huguenot descent father, Irish descent mother named Eagles. French DISH rheumatologist Jacques Forestier (d. 1978) on June 27 in Aix-les-Bains. Am. "Only Yesterday" historian and Harper's Mag. ed. (1941-54) Frederick Lewis Allen (d. 1954) on July 5 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. German "Der Sohn" Expressionist poet-dramatist Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940) on July 8 in Aachen; educated at Oxford U. and U. of Lausanne. German playwright Hanns Johst (d. 1978) on July 8 in Seerhausen bei Riesa, Saxony; grows up in Oschatz and Leipzig; educated at the U. of Leipzig. Am. abstract painter (co-founder of Synchromism) Stanton MacDonald-Wright (d. 1973) on July 8 in Charlottesville, Va.; grows up in Santa Monica, Calif. Am. New York City mayor #100 (1946-50) (Roman Catholic) William O'Dwyer (d. 1964) on July 11 in Bohoia, County Mayo, Ireland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910; educated at Fordham U. British RAF marshal Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder (d. 1967) on July 11 in Glenguin, Scotland. Am. Va. Dem. gov. #57 (1954-8) (founder of Stanley Furniture) Thomas Bahnson Stanley (d. 1970) on Jan. 20 near Spencer, Henry County, Va. Am. IQ Test psychologist Carl Campbell Brigham (d. 1943) on May 4 in Marlborough, Mass.; educated at Princeton U. Am. golfer Charles E. "Chick" Evans Jr. (d. 1979) on July 18 in Indianapolis, Ind.; sponsors a college scholarship for caddies. Australian Labor PM #15 (1945) Francis Michael "Frank" Forde (d. 1983) on July 18 in Mitchell, Queensland. U.S. secy. of defense #5 (1953-7) and Gen. Motors pres. (1941-53) Charles Erwin "Engine Charlie" Wilson (d. 1961) on July 18 in Minerva, Ohio; not to be confused with G.E. pres. Charles Edward "Electric Charlie" Wilson (1886-1972). Am. "Hilda Crocker in December Bride", "Mrs. Potts in Picnic", "Pearl Slaghoople in The Flintstones" actress Verna Felton (d. 1966) on July 20 in Salinas, Calif. Greek king (1922-24, 1935-47) George II (d. 1947) on July 20 in Tatoi (near Athens); eldest son of Constantine I (1868-1923) and Princess Sophia of Prussia (1870-1932); brother of Paul I (1901-64). Am. matriarch Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy (d. 1995) on July 20 in Boston, Mass.; mother of a record three U.S. senators and 1 U.S. pres.; eldest daughter of Boston mayor and civil rights-promoting Mass. rep. (1895-1901) John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald (1863-1950); wife (1914-) of Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. (1888-1969); mother of Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr. (1915-44), John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63), Rosemary Kennedy (1918-2005), Kathleen Kennedy (1920-48), Eunice Kennedy Shriver (1921-), Patricia Kennedy (1924-2006), Robert F. Kennedy (1925-68), Jean Kennedy (1928-), and Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-). Am. banker-philanthropist (founder of WGBH) Maj. Robert Lowell (d. 1978) on July 23 in Chestnut Hill, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; cousin of Abbott Lawrence Lowell (1845-1943). German Protestant educator and anti-Nazi leader Elisabeth Adelheid Hildegard von Thadden (d. 1944) on July 29 in Mohrungen, East Prussia. Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder-mgr. (lefty) ("the Old Perfesser") (#37) Charles Dillon "Casey" Stengel (d. 1975) on July 30 in Kansas City, Mo.; nickname comes from his hometown; mgr. of the "lovable loser" New York Mets in 1962-5. Am. "Arkansas traveller" actor Robin "Bob" Burns (d. 1956) on Aug. 2 in Greenwood, Ark.; popularizes the word "bazooka". Am. actress ("the Queen of the B-Movie Oaters") Marin Sais (d. 1971) on Aug. 2 in San Rafael, Calif.; of Spanish descent. Russian constructivist sculptor (Jewish) Naum Gabo (Naum Neemia Pevsner) (d. 1977) on Aug. 5 in Briansk; brother of Antoine Pevsner (1886-1962); emigrates to England in 1936. Austrian conductor Erich Kleiber (d. 1956) on Aug. 5 in Vienna; becomes Argentine citizen in 1938; father of Carlos Kleiber (1930-2004). Lebanese pres. (1943-52) Bechara (Beshara) El Khoury (el-Khouri) (d. 1964) in Rechmaya; Marionite Christian parents. Am. world's oldest living person (Aug. 27-Dec. 11, 2006) (black) Elizabeth Jones "Lizzie" Bolden (d. 2006) on Aug. 15 in Somerville, Tenn. English stage singer-actress Phyllis Dare (Phyllis Constance Haddie Dones) (d. 1975) on Aug. 15 in Chelsea, London; sister of Zena Dare (1887-1975). French "Divertissement", "Escales" composer Jacques Francois Antoine Ibert (d. 1962) on Aug. 15. Am. pres. advisor and U.S. commerce secy. #8 (1938-40) Harry Lloyd Hopkins (d. 1946) on Aug. 17 in Sioux City, Iowa; educated at Grinnell College. German Reich economic minister Walther Funk (d. 1960) on Aug. 18 in Danzkehmen, East Prussia. Am. atty. and NBA pres. (1949-63) (Jewish) Maurice Podoloff (d. 1985) on Aug. 18 in Kirovohrad, Ukraine; educated at Yale U. Am. "Cthulhu", "Necronomicon" horror fiction writer Howard Phillips "H.P." Lovecraft (d. 1937) on Aug. 20 in Providence, R.I. Am. "The Wreck of the Number Nine", "Remember Pearl Harbor", "Barnacle Bill the Sailor" country musician Carson Jay "Charles" Robison (d. 1957) (AKA Carlos B. McAfee) on Aug. 4 in Oswego, Kan. Canadian 5'7" hockey player Bernard Patrick "Bernie" Morris (d. 1963) on Aug. 21 in Brandon, Man. Am. businessman-diplomat-aviator-horseman (Jewish) Harry Frank Guggenheim (d. 1971) on Aug. 23 in West End, N.J.; educated at Yale U., and Pembroke College, Cambridge U.; sponsor of Robert Goddard; pres. of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics (1925-); husband of Alicia Patterson . Am. Olympic swimmer-surfer ("Father of American Surfing") Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku (d. 1968) on Aug. 24 in Haleakala, Honolulu, Hawaii; brother of Samuel Alapai Kahanamoku (1902-66). French "Wide Sargasso Sea" novelist Jean Rhys (d. 1979) on Aug. 24 in Dominica; Welsh father, Scottish Creole mother. Am. playwright-dir.-producer (Federal Theatre Project dir.) Hallie Flanagan (nee Ferguson) (d. 1969) on Aug. 27 in Redfield, S.D.; educated at Grinnell College, Harvard U., and Vassar College. Am. Dada "Rayograph" photographer (Jewish) Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky) (d. 1976) on Aug. 27 in South Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; lover of Kiki de Montparnasse (Alice Prin) (1901-53). Am. psychologist ("Founder of Social Psychology") (Jewish) Kurt Zadek Lewin (d. 1947) (pr. luh-VEEN) on Sept. 9 in Mogilno, Poland (Posen, Prussia); educated at the U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. Kentucky Fried Chicken king Col. Harland Sanders (d. 1980) on Sept. 9. Italian fashion designer Elsa "Schiap" Schiaparelli (d. 1973) on Sept. 10 in Rome; daufhter of scholar Celestino Schiaparelli and Neapolitan aristocrat Maria-Luisa Schiaparelli; great-niece of Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910); niece of Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910); mother of countess Maria Luisa Yvonne Radha de Wendt de Kerlor (Gogo Schiaparelli), wife of Robert L. Berenson, and mother of Marisa Berenson (1947-) and Berry Berenson (1948-2001); disciple of Paul Poiret; rival of Coco Chanel; collaborator of Salvador Dali and Jean Cocteau. Austrian-Bohemian "The Song of Bernadette" novelist-playwright-poet (Jewish) Franz Werfel (d. 1945) on Sept. 10 in Prague. Scottish "Still Digging" archeologist Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (d. 1976) on Sept. 10 in Glasgow; educated at the U. of London; husband (1914-38) of Tessa Wheeler (1893-1936); knighted in 1952. French cigarette manufacturer (founder of the Monaco Grand Prix) Antony (Anthony) Noghes (Noghčs) (d. 198) on Sept. 13 in Py, Pyrenees-Orientales, Languedoc-Roussillon. English "Hercule Poirot", "Miss Jane Marple" mystery novelist Agatha Christie (Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan) (nee Miller) (d. 1976) on Sept. 15 in Torquay, Devon; created dame in 1971; writes romance novels under the alias Mary Westmacott; hubby (1914-28) Archibald Christie cheats on her in 1926 with Nancy Neele, causing her to divorce him and freak out at the Swan Hydropathic Hotel in Horrogate, Yorkshire for 11 days until a massive manhut locates her, after which she chills out and marries archeologist Max Mallowan in 1930. Swiss "thumbing Your Nose at Satan" composer Frank Martin (d. 1974) on Sept. 15 in Geneva. German Immelmann Turn flying ace ("the Eagle of Lille") Max Immelmann (d. 1916) on Sept. 21 in Dresden. German Stalingrad-surrendering field marshal Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (d. 1957) on Sept. 23 in Greitenau, Hesse-Nassau. U.S. Sen. (D-La.) (1937-72) (Roman Catholic) Allen Joseph Ellender (d. 1972) on Sept. 24 in Montegut, La. English "Misleading Cases" writer-novelist-playwright and MP Sir Alan Patrick Herbert (d. 1971) on Sept. 24 in Ashtead, Surrey; educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1945. Am. "Ruggles of Red Gap", "It's a Great Life" writer-producer Harlan Thompson (d. 1966) on Sept. 24 in Hannibal, Mo. Am. Hollywood Reporter founder (1930) William Richard "Billy" Wilkerson (d. 1962) on Sept. 29 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. "Guadalcanal Diary" film dir. Lewis Seiler (d. 1964) on Sept. 30 in New York City. English "Alfred P. Doolittle in My Fair Lady", "Passport to Pimlico" actor Stanley Augustus Holloway (d. 1982) on Oct. 1 in Essex (Newham), London. Am. actress ("the Madonna of the Screen") Alice Joyce (d. 1955) on Oct. 1 in Kansas City, Mo.; wife (1914-20) Tom Moore, (1920-32) James B. Regan, and (1933-45) Clarence Brown. English actress-poet-playwright (bi) Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs (d. 1950) (AKA Michael Strange) on Oct. 1 in Newport, R.I.; born wealthy; wife (1920-5) of John Barrymore (1882-1942); lover of Margaret Wise Brown (1910-52). Am. "You Bet Your Life" actor-comedian (Jewish) Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx (d. 1977) on Oct. 2 in New York City; his parents pull him out of school with his brothers to go into show biz, making him bitter for life; the name Groucho comes from comic strip char. Groucho Monk. Mexican pres. (1928-30) Emilio Portes Gil (d. 1978) on Oct. 3 in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. Am. "Dr. Glendon in Werewolf of London", "Doc Banton in High Sierra" actor Henry Watterston Hull (d. 1977) on Oct. 3 in Louisville, Ky.;educated at the Cooper Union. Am. anti-Communist activist (Jewish turned Roman Catholic) Benjamin Harrison Freedman (d. 1984) on Oct. 4 in New York City. German helicopter pioneer Heinrich Focke (d. 1979) on Oct. 8 in Bremen. Am. WWI flying ace Edward Vernon "Eddie" "Rick" Rickenbacker (d. 1973) on Oct. 8 in Columbus, Ohio; German-speaking Swiss immigrant parents; changes his birth name "Rickenbacher" to "take the Hun out of his name"; cousin of Adolph Rickenbacker (1886-1976). Canadian Christian fundamentalist faith healer-preacher (founder of the Foursquare Church) Sister Aimee Semple McPherson (Aimee Elizabeth Kennedy) (d. 1944) on Oct. 9 in Salford, Ont.; daddy is 36 years older than mommy - me am a simple person? Canadian 5'11" hockey player Thomas Wilfred "Smokey" "Fred" Harris (d. 1974) on Oct. 11 in Port Arthur, Ont.; brother of Henry Harris (1905-75). Am. "The Awakening Land" novelist Conrad Michael Richter (d. 1968) on Oct. 13. U.S. Repub. pres. #34 (1953-61) and 5-star gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (Ger. "iron hewer") (d. 1969) on Oct. 14 in Denison, Tex.; first 50-state U.S. pres.; at age 15 a scrape on his knee gives him blood poisoning, and he almost loses his leg; first choice is Annapolis but settles for West Point?; husband (1916-) of Mamie Eisenhower (1896-1979). Irish rev. leader (IRA founder) (founder of modern Ireland) Michael John "Mick" Collins (d. 1922) on Oct. 16 in Woodfield, Clonakilty, County Cork; "The genius behind the Irish Republican Army's guerrilla campaign, the inspiration for Begin and Mao." (Peter Hart) Am. modernist photographer-filmmaker (Jewish) Paul Strand (d. 1976) on Oct. 16 in New York City; Bohemian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. actress-poet Michael Strange (Mrs. Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs Tweed) (d. 1950) on Oct. 18 in New York City; wife of actor John Barrymore (1882-1942). U.S. Sen. (D-Ind.) and Supreme Court justice #87 (1949-56) Sherman Minton (d. 1965) on Oct. 20 in Georgetown, Ind.; educasted at Indiana U., and Yale U. Am. "Black Bottom Stomp", "Wolverine Blues" jazz pioneer pianist-composer-bandleader (black) Jelly Roll Morton (Ferdinand Joseph Lamothe or La Menthe) (d. 1941) on Oct. 20 in New Orleans, La. U.S. secy. of state #48 (1944-5) Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (d. 1949) on Oct. 22 in Chicago, Ill. Am. atty. Joseph Nye Welch (d. 1960) on Oct. 22 in Primghar, Iowa; educated at Grinnell College, and Harvard U.; known for telling Joseph McCarthy "Have you no sense of decency sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" Am. aviator Floyd Bennett (d. 1928) on Oct. 25 near Warrensburg, N.Y.; Richard E. Byrd's pilot. Am. baseball pitcher Howard Ellsworth "Smoky Joe" Wood (d. 1985) on Oct. 25 in Kansas City, Mo. German Gen. Hans-Valentine Hube (d. 1944) on Oct. 29 in Naumburg an der Saale. Japanese Lt. Gen. Yoshitsugo Saito (d. 1944) on Nov. 2 in Tokyo. German "The Chalk Circle" novelist Klabund (Alfred Henschke) (d. 1928) on Nov. 4 in Krossen. Czech painter Jan Zrzavy (Zrzavý) (d. 1977) on Nov. 5 in Okrouhlice, Bohemia. Soviet field marshal Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (d. 1950) on Nov. 9 near Poltava, Ukraine. Am. "Capt. Louis Renault in Casablanca" actor William Claude Rains (d. 1967) on Nov. 10 in Camberwell, London, England; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1939. German Nazi spy Hermann Goertz (Görtz) (d. 1947) on Nov. 15 in Lubeck. English "Just William" novelist (female) Richmal Crompton Lamburn (d. 1969) on Nov. 15 in Bury, Lancaster; educated at Royal Holloway College, London. Philippine pres. #6 (1948-53) Elpidio Quirino (d. 1956) on Nov. 16 in Vigan, Luzon. Am. "The Luck of Roaring Camp", "Wanderer of the Wasteland" silent film dir. Irvin Willat (d. 1976) on Nov. 18 in Stamford, Conn.; husband (1923-9) of Billie Dove (1903-97). Am. "Mr. Shellhammer in Miracle on 34th Street", "Horace Vandergelder in The Matchmaker" actor Loring B. Smith "the Great" (d. 1981) on Nov. 18 in Stratford, Conn. Am. "Carl Denham in King Kong" actor Robert Armstrong (d. 1973) on Nov. 20 in Saginaw, Mich. French statesman-gen. ("Father of Modern France") Charles Andre (André) Joseph Marie de Gaulle (d. 1970) on Nov. 22 [Sagittarius] in Lille; educated at Saint-Cyr military school. Am. Yiddish stage actor-dir. (Jewish) Jacob Ben-Ami (d. 1977) on Nov. 23 in Minsk, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918. Russian suprematist artist-architect (Jewish) El (Lazar Markovich) Lissitzky (d. 1941) on Nov. 23 in Pochinok; of Lithuanian Jewish descent. English "Poems from the Trenches" poet (Jewish) Isaac Rosenberg (d. 1918) on Nov. 25 in Bristol; Latvian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Winnetka Plan" educator Carleton Wolsey Washburne (d. 1968) on Dec. 2 in Chicago, Ill. English Vorticist painter David Garshen Bomberg (d. 1957) on Dec. 5 in Birmingham. Am.-Austrian-German "Metropolis" film dir. ("Master of Darkness") Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (d. 1976) on Dec. 5 in Vienna; Jewish mother converts to Roman Catholicism when he's 10; shell-shocked in 1916; moves to France in 1934; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1939; known for wearing a monocle. British (Welsh) occultist Dion Fortune (Violet Mary Firth Evans) (d. 1946) on Dec. 6 in Llandudno; names herself after family motto "Deo, non-fortuna" (For God, not fate); Christian Scientist parents; educated at the U. of London. Czech Bohemian "Epic of Gilgamesh" composer Bohuslav Martinu (d. 1959) on Dec. 8 in Policka, Bohemia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1941. Am. diplomatic historian (isolationist) Charles Callan Tansill (d. 1964) on Dec. 9 in Fredericksburg, Tex.; educated at Catholic U. of Am., and Johns Hopkins U. Norwegian "Sinners in the Summer Sun" radical novelist Sigurd Hoel (d. 1960) on Dec. 14 in Nord-Odal. Am. electrical engineer-inventor Edwin Howard Armstrong (d. 1954) on Dec. 18 in Chelsea, Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U.; inventor of the regenerative radio, superheterodyne radio, and frequency modulation (FM). Am. abstract expressionist painter Mark Tobey (d. 1976) on Dec. 11 in Centerville, Wisc. Am. "Mrs. Margaret Davis in Our Miss Brooks" actress Jane Morgan (d. 1972) on Dec. 16 in North Platte, Neb.; not to be confused with singer Jane Morgan (1920-). Czech chemist (polarographist) ("Father of Electroanalytical Chemistry") Jaroslav Heyrovsky (d. 1967) on Dec. 20 in Prague; educated at Charles U., and Univ. College London. Am. X-ray mutation geneticist (atheist) Hermann Joseph Muller (d. 1967) on Dec. 21 in New York City; educated at Columbia U., and Cornell U.; 2nd cousin of Ursula Le Guin (1929-). Am. "Believe It or Not!" cartoonist Robert LeRoy Ripley (d. 1949) on Dec. 25 in Santa Rosa, Calif. - believe it or not I was born on Xmas? U.S. ambassador James Clement Dunn (d. 1979) on Dec. 27. German actress Katharina "Kathe" "Käthe" Dorsch (d. 1957) on Dec. 29 in Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz. British air ace Lanoe George Hawker (d. 1916) on Dec. 30 in Longparish, Hampshire. Dutch Vitalist novelist-poet Hendrik Marsman (d. 1940) in Zeist. German physician (of Adolf Hitler) Theodor Morell (d. 1948). Austrian skiing champ-instructor Johannes (Hannes) Schneider (d. 1955) in Stuben am Arlberg. English "Childbirth Without Fear" OBGYN ("Father of the Natural Childbirth Movement") Grantly Dick-Read (b. 1959) - chose wrong profession? Afghan PM (1946-53) Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (d. 1959) in Dehradun. British diplomat Sir (Crawfurd) Wilfred Griffin Eady (d. 1962). Am. "The Hicks Histories" historian John Donald Hicks (d. 1972). Am. laetrile cancer chemotherapy pioneer Kanematsu Sugiura (d. 1979). Indian Pashtun leader (Muslim) ("the Frontier Gandhi") Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (d. 1988) in Hashtnagar. Deaths: German theologian Ignaz von Doellinger (b. 1799) on Jan. 14 in Munich. English social reformer Edwin Chadwick (b. 1800) on July 6 in Surrey. English cardinal John Henry Newman (b 1801) on Aug. 11 in Edgbaston, Birmingham; beatified Sept. 19, 2010 (first Englishman since the 17th cent.). English composer John Barnett (b. 1802) on Apr. 16. Mexican gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (b. 1807) on Jan. 18 in Sonoma, Calif.; namesake of Vallejo, Calif. Scottish steam hammer inventor James Nasmyth (b. 1808) on May 7 in Hammerfield, Kent. Am. philosopher Francis Bowen (b. 1811) on Jan. 22 in Boston, Mass. French poet Louise-Victorine Ackermann (b. 1813) on Aug. 2 in Niece. Am. banking tycoon August Belmont Sr. (b. 1813) on Nov. 24 in New York City; leaves a fortune of $10M-$50M. Am. Repub. politician-explorer-gen. John C. Fremont (b. 1813) on July 13 in New York City. Austrian-Bohemian statsman Karl von Auersperg (b. 1814) on Jan. 4 in Prague. Swiss baby formula inventor Henri Nestle (b. 1814) on July 7 (heart attack). Am. humorist Benjamin Penhallon Shillaber (b. 1814) on Nov. 25 in Chelsea, Mass. English churchman Dean Richard Christopher Church (b. 1815) on Dec. 6 in Dover. U.S. Supreme Court justice #36 (1862-90) Samuel Freeman Miller (b. 1816) on Oct. 13 in Washington, D.C. Dutch meteorologist Christoph Buys Ballot (b. 1817) on Feb. 3 in Utrecht. Danish composer Niels Wilhelm Gade (b. 1817); wrote 8 symphonies, 5 overtures, 2 marches, 4 novelettes, and 14 cantatas. Portuguese trader-explorer Antonio da Silva Porto (b. 1817) on Apr. 2 in Kuito, Portuguese Angola. Dutch king (1849-90) William III (b. 1817) on Nov. 23. Am. Mudie's Lending Library founder Charles Edward Mudie (b. 1818) on Oct. 28 in London. English art collector Sir Richard Wallace (b. 1818) on July 20; buried in La Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Estonian journalist Johann Voldemar Jannsen (b. 1819) on July 13 (July 1 Old Style) in Tartu. Swiss poet-novelist Gottfried Keller (b. 1819) on July 15. Irish playwright-actor Dion Boucicault (b. 1820) on Sept. 18 in New York City; wrote 300+ original plays and adaptations, most of which he acted in along with fist wife Agnes Robertson. Ottoman grand vizier (1878-9) Hayreddin Pasha (b. 1820) on Jan. 30 in Istanbul. English superbrain explorer Sir Richard Burton (b. 1821) on Oct. 20 in Trieste, Austria-Hungary (heart attack). Scottish scientist James Croll (b. 1821) on Dec. 15 in Perth. French novelist-playwright Octave Feuillet (b. 1821). Belgian-born French composer Cesar Franck (b. 1822) on Nov. 8. German Troy archeologist Heinrich Schliemann (b. 1822) on Dec. 26 in Naples, Italy. Hungarian statesman Count Julius Andrassy Sr. (b. 1823) on Feb. 18 in Volosca. Am. diplomat-writer George Henry Boker (b. 1823) in Philadelphia, Penn (heart attack). Am. Lakota Sioux chief Big Foot (b. 1824) on Dec. 29 in Creek, S.D. (KIA). Am. humorist Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber (b. 1824) on Nov. 25 in Chelsea, Mass. Italian "Pinocchio" writer Carlo Collodi (b. 1826) on Oct. 26 in Florence. Swiss chemist Jacques-Louis Soret (b. 1827) on May 13. Am. Civil War Union gen. Alfred Howe Terry (b. 1827) on Dec. 16 in New Haven, Conn. U.S. Gen. Clinton Bowen Fisk (b. 1828) on July 9 in New York City. German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke (b. 1828) on Sept. 19 in Domitz. English Salvation Army co-founder Catherine Mumford Booth (b. 1829) on Oct. 4 in Clacton-on-Sea. U.S. Gen. George R. Crook (b. 1830) on Mar. 21 in Chicago, Ill.; commanding officer of Union Army soldier Rutherford B. Hayes, who names his son after him; namesake of Crook City, S.D., Crooks Peak in Ore., and Crook Mt. in Ore.; "He, at least, never lied to us. His words gave us hope." (Oglala Lakota Sioux chief Red Cloud) Am. Pres. Lincoln's bodyguard John Frederick Parker (b. 1830) on June 28 in Washington, D.C. (pneumonia); fired in 1868 for sleeping on duty; his grave at Glenwood Cemetery is unmarked to mark his shame for failing to guard Lincoln during his assassination. British chemist Alexander Parkes (b. 1830) on June 29. French vice-adm. Abel-Nicolas Georges Henri Bergasse Dupetit Thouars (b. 1832) on Mar. 14 in Toulon; give his name to a street in Lima, Peru. U.S. Rep. (R-Calif.) (1873-83) Horace Francis Page (b. 1833) on Aug. 23 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. industrialist B.F. Sturtevant (b. 1833) on Apr. 17 in Jamaica Plain, N.Y. Danish painter Carl Bloch (b. 1834) on Feb. 22 in Copenhagen. Am. Indian holy man Sitting Bull (b. 1831) on Dec. 15 in Standing Rock Indian Reservation, N.D.-S.D. (killed resisting arrest); after being buried in N.D., some businessmen steal his bones and put them in Sitting Bull Park, S.D. Irish-born Am. heavyweight boxing champ Joe Coburn (b. 1835) on Dec. 9 in New York City. French inventor Louis Le Prince (b. 1841) on Sept. 16 in Dijon (disappears from a train). Irish-born Am. poet John Boyle O'Reilly (b. 1844) on Aug. 10. Spanish king (1870-3) Amadeo I (b. 1845) on Jan. 18 in Turin, Italy. English Jewish celeb Hannah Primrose (Rothschild) (b. 1847) on Nov. 19 in Dalmeny, England (typhoid). U.S. Rep. (D-Ky.) (1885-9) William Preston Taulbee (b. 1851) on Mar. 11, 1890 in Washington, D.C. (murdered). Am. Knights of Columbus founder Father Michael Joseph McGivney (d. 1852) on Aug. 14 in Thomaston, Conn. (TB). Dutch earring-impaired painter Vincent van Gogh (b. 1853) on July 29 in Auvers, France (suicide); creates 800 paintings and 700 drawings in a 10-year career, but only sells one during his lifetime? - the good die young? Am. murderer William Kemmler (b. 1860) on Aug. 6 in Auburn Prison, N.Y. (executed). English "Elephant Man" Joseph Merrick (b. 1862) on Apr. 11.

1891 - The James Naismith Peach Basket Year?

Kicking Bear (1846-1904) Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii (1838-1917) John Owen Dominis (1832-91) Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott of Canada (1821-93) Christopher Plummer (1929-) Nikola P. Pasic of Serbia (1845-1926) Capt. Jorge Montt Alvarez of Chile (1845-1922) Ponciano Leiva of Honduras Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) Jonathan Chace of the U.S. (1829-1917) Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudini (1839-1908) Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) Fredrik Bajer (1837-1922) James Naismith (1861-1939) Marcus Alonzo Hanna of the U.S. (1837-1904) Gifford Pinchot of the U.S. (1865-1947 William Lane (1861-1917) Isaac Burns Murphy (1861-96) Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913) Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) Hubert Greenhough Smith (1855-1935) Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937) Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929) Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943) Reuben Gold Thwaites (1853-1913) Jean Moréas (1856-1910) Leland Stanford of the U.S. (1824-93) David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1858-1927) Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947) Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933) Gerard Philips (1858-1942) Anton Frederik Philips (1874-1952) F.C.S. Schiller (1864-1937) Goldwin Smith (1823-1910) Alden J. Blethen (1845-1915) Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) William Dwight Whitney (1827-94) William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932) Wrigley's, 1891 Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955) Louis Henri Sullivan (1856-1924) William Bradley Coley (1862-1936) Anthony Joseph Drexel Sr. (1826-93) Eugene Dubois (1858-1940) Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) George Gissing (1857-1903) Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907) George Kennan (1845-1924) Gabriel Lippmann (1845-1921) Sir Herbert Hope Risley (1851-1911) Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915) Amos Gager Throop of the U.S. (1811-94) Minnie M. Cox of the U.S. (1869-1933) Frank Wedekind (1864-1918) Edvard Westermarck (1862-1939) Carl Zeller (1842-98) Max Henius (1859-1935) Bartolo Longo (1841-1926) Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) 'The Doctor' by Luke Fildes (1843-1927), 1891 'A Trip to Chinatown', 1891 Tehura 'Woman with a Mango (Tehura)' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1895 Paul Gaugin (1848-1903) 'Self-Portrait' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903) 'Sunset in the Woods' by George Inness (1825-94), 1891 'Surprise!' by Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), 1891 'The Green Interior' by Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), 1891 William Burnet Tuthill (1855-1929) Carnegie Hall, 1891 The Palace Theatre, London, 1891 F.E. Edbrooke (1840-1921) Oxford Hotel, 1891 Greene Vardiman Black (1836-1915) Wainwright Bldg., 1891 George Albert Hormel (1860-1946) Hormel Foods, 1891 Charles William Post (1854-1914) General Foods, 1929 Grape Nuts, 1897

1891 There is a widespread famine in Russia this year, and the Jewish residents of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev are expelled, 100K immigrating to the U.S. via Ellis Island with the help of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (founded 1881). On Jan. 15 Kicking Bear (1846-1904) becomes the last Lakota warrior to surrender to the U.S. govt. in the wake of the Wounded Knee Massacre; by the end of the year he is working on Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Scotland. On Jan. 20 king (since Feb. 13, 1874) Kalakaua (b. 1836) dies in San Francisco, Calif., and on Jan. 29 his sister Liliuokalani (Lydia Dominis) (1838-1917), wife (since 1862) of haole of Italian descent John Owen Dominis (1832-91), who live together in the large white Washington Place mansion in Honolulu becomes monarch #8 (last) of Hawaii (until Jan. 9, 1895), becoming determined to end U.S. and European domination of Hawaii, while the U.S. sugar growers plot behind her back to overthrow her and get Hawaii annexed in order to end duties and prevent sugar growers in La., Colo. and elsewhere from putting them out of business; meanwhile Japan is waiting in the wings?; John dies on Aug. 27 one week after being made prince consort. In Jan. The Strand Magazine begins pub., with initial circ. of 300K, based in Burleigh St. off The Strand, London, ceasing pub. in Mar. 1950; first ed. (1891-1930) is Herbert Greenhough Smith (1855-1935), who goes on to pub. many Arthur Conan Doyle Sherlock Holmes stories and boost his career. On Feb. 1 the whaler Star of the East sees a new Jonah created when harpooner James Bartley disappears while harpooning a sperm whale near the Falkland Islands; after being hoisted on deck 24 hours later, the whale's stomach wiggles and they cut it open, finding Bartley inside alive, his skin permanently blanched white like parchment; pub. in 1947 by Natural History mag. after discovering a letter; made-up by the press to sell print to Bible-thumpers? On Feb. 6 Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudini (1839-1908), a longtime supporter of Giuseppe Garibaldi becomes PM of Italy (until May 15, 1892). On Feb. 6 the Dalton Gang commits its first crime, a train robbery in Alila, Calif.; on Sept. 15 they hold up a train and take $2.5K in Wagoner, Okla. On Feb. 23 after returning from exile in Bulgaria after the abdication of King Milan IV Obrenovic on Mar. 6, 1889, pro-Russian Socialist Nikola P. Pasic (Pashitch) (Pachitch) (1845-1926) becomes PM of Serbia (until Aug. 22, 1892), going on to dominate Serbian politics for the next four decades as PM in 1904-5, 1906-8, 1909-11, 1912-18, 1921-4, and 1924-6. On Mar. 4 after complaints by British writers Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, Walter Besant, and William Black, the U.S. adopts the U.S. Internat. Copyright (Chace) Act of 1891, sponsored by U.S. Sen. (R-R.I.) (1885-9) Jonathan Chace (1829-1917), finally upholding internat. copyrights and ending America's status as a copyright pirate haven where only copyrights of U.S. citizens are respected; poet Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937), secy. of the Am. Copyright League is instrumental in its passage; the right of authors to bargain for their work causes the advent of U.S. literary agents; too bad, Harper & Bros. pub. house had made its main biz the selling of cheap reprints of foreign authors, and almost goes bankrupt, allowing Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) (who partnered with Samuel S. McClure of McClure's Mag. in Mar. 1897) to take control in 1898, only to bail out when he finds out how bad their books look. On Mar. 17 anchor liner SS Utopia collides with British steamship Anson off Gibraltar, killing 574. In Mar. after returning from a round-the-world journey via Japan, future Russian Tsar Nicholas II opens and blesses the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway (Railroad) in Vladivostok, and has a special train built in St. Petersburg to carry him across Russia; the railway segment is completed in 1916. On Apr. 1 the London-Paris Telephone Connection opens. On Apr. 1 Philly-born William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932) founds the William Wrigley Jr. Co. in Chicago, Ill. to sell soap and baking powder, offering free chewing gum with each can, which proves more popular than the baking power, going on to specialize in chewing gum next year and become #1; in 2005 it purchases Life Savers and Altoids from Kraft Foods for $1.5B; on Jan. 23, 2007 it acquires 80% of A. Korkunov for $300M; on Apr. 23, 2008 Mars Co. acquires it for $23B. On Apr. 16 British ship St. Catharis sinks off Caroline Island, killing 90. On May 15 Pope (since 1878) Leo XIII (1810-1903) issues the encyclical Rerum Novarum (Of Revolutionary Change), arguing for the dignity of the working poor and their right to form labor unions, and against Socialism. In May the People's Party of Am. is organized in Cincinnati, Ohio by 400 delegates, becoming known as the Populist Party, going on to get 50 candidates elected to Congress from 16 states and one territory by 1903. On June 6 alcoholic John A. Madonald (b. 1815) dies in office, and on June 16 after Sir John S.D. Thompson is passed over (or declines) for being a (gasp) Roman Catholic convert, Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott (1821-93) (great-grandfather of actor Christopher Plummer, b. 1929) is elected as PM #3 of Canada (until Nov. 24, 1892). On June 29 Italian PM Rudini announces that the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy has been renewed for six (really 12) years, and hints at Britain possibly making it a quadruple alliance, freaking out the French, who fear interference with their N African empire, and the Russians, who want to open the Dardanelles. On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with 44 stars (design #22), which now incl. Wyoming. On July 31 Great Britain declares all territories in South Africa up to the Congo to be within its sphere of influence. On Jan. 16 after British intrigue, the Chilean War of 1891 begins as the Chilean nat. congress calls upon vice-adm. Jorge Montt Alvarez (1845-1922) to overthrow pres. (since 1886) Jose Manuel Balmaceda; Montt's forces occupy the nitrate fields in the N, recruit nitrate workers into their army, and defeat Balmaceda's forces at Concon and Placilla, causing Balmaceda to flee to the Argentine embassy, where he commits suicide on Sept. 19; on Dec. 26 Montt becomes pres. #12 of Chile (until Sept. 18, 1896), and congress reigns over the presidency until 1925; meanwhile labor unrest over unemployment and high food prices feeds the union and anarchist movements. In Aug. France and Russia make a preliminary agreement to consult in the event that pesky Germany should commit an act of agression against either one of them. On Sept. 9 the Japan Society is founded in London, England. On Sept. 22-28 the Okla. Land Run of 1891 is a set of three horseraces among 20K white homesteaders to stake claims on 6,097 plots of 160 acres each on the former lands of the Iowa, Sac and Fox, Potawatomi, and Shawnees in C Okla., founding Tecumseh, Okla. in Pottawatomie County, and Chandler, Okla. in Lincoln County. In the fall the British Liberal Caucus proposes the unified Newcastle Reform Program, incl. Home Rule and electoral reform. On Oct. 1 the first-ever brewery tax in Denmark comes into effect; in 1894 there are 231 breweries in Denmark (pop. 2.1M), which produce 52M gal./year (24 gal. per capita) and pay a tax of $2.5M; there is no tax in Sweden and Switzerland. On Oct. 1 Stanford U. (originally called Leland Stanford Jr. Univ.) in Calif. (founded 1885) officially opens, with former (1872-85) Indiana U. pres. David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) (an evolutionist ichthyologist) as pres. #1 (until 1913); it is coed from the start; tuition is free until 1920. On Oct. 28 (6:00 a.m.) the 8.4 Great (Mino-Owari) (Nobi) Earthquake of Japan of 1891 causes damage over a 4.2K sq. mi. area from Tokyo to Osaka, killing 7K-10K. On Nov. 6 Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer's Last Stand at the Little Bighorn dies at the age of 28 at Fort Riley, Kan. On Nov. 30 former pres. (1874-6) Ponciano Leiva of the Progressive Party becomes pres. of Honduras (until Aug. 7, 1893), causing liberal uprisings that last until WWII. The Wahhabis of Nejd are overthrown by a rival dynasty, causing Abd-al Rahman (youngest son of Faisal) and his son Abdul-Aziz Ibn-Saud (b. 1880) to go into exile. The anti-Sharia liberal-secularist Muslim Young Turk Movement is formed in Geneva. The Third Universal Peace Conference in Rome, led by Swiss journalist Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) founds the Internat. Peace Bureau (Bureau International de la Paix) in Berne, with Fredrik Bajer (1837-1922) of Denmark as its first. pres. (until 1907), becoming the non-govt. internat. peace org., pushing arbitration to stop wars; it wins the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910 - in 1914 they should have taken it back? Bismarck is elected to the German Reichstag, but refuses to serve. Am. sharpshooter Annie Oakley (1860-1926), "America's sweetheart", "Little Sure-Shot" shoots the ashes off Kaiser Wilhelm II's cigarette at an exhibition in Europe; he also visits London - casing the joint? too bad she didn't shoot him and prevent WWI? Ohio Rep. William McKinley is gerrymandered out of his House seat, and, backed by wealthy, protective tariff-loving Cleveland industrialist Marcus Alonzo "Mark" Hanna (1837-1904) is elected gov. of Ohio (reelected in 1893). A sheep shearer strike in Queensland, Australia is quashed by the Australian govt., causing British-born radical journalist William Lane (1861-1917) to propose the New Australia Colony Socialist utopia in Paraguay, founding the New Australia Cooperative Settlement Assoc. next year, after which on July 1, 1893 238 settlers set sail on the Royal Tar; too bad after white supremacist Lane forbids mingling with the natives, along with alcohol, it begins falling apart in 1894, when most of the settlers return to Australia; Lane founds the new colony of Cosme until 1899, then returns to Australia after turning conservative. The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband) is founded one year after the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty to spread German imperialism incl. anti-Semitism, reaching 40K members in 1922, enjoying links to the 300K-member Agrarian League to influence the German state. In New Orleans 11 Italians accused of murdering a policeman are acquitted then lynched; the newspaper accounts contain the first use of the word "Mafia"? The libel action Gordon-Cummings v. Lycett features the Prince of Wales admitting that he played baccarat for high stakes - it's so much less stress? The U.S. Post Office begins Rural Free Delivery (RFD); the carrier has to provide his own horse, buggy, feed, and water, and is paid $45 a mo. for a 25-30 mi. route. The U.S. Forest Reserve Act of 1891, drafted by Gifford Pinchot (1865-1947) finally turns around the wanton squandering of U.S. forests, at the expense of permitting controlled commercial harvesting. The U.S. Three Prisons Act is passed, authorizing the first three federal penitentiaries, incl. USP Leavenworth, USP Atlanta, and USP McNeil Island, with limited supervision by the U.S. Dept. of Justice. The town of Aurora, Colo. (modern-day pop. 361K), a 4 sq. mi. Great Plains area E of Denver, Colo. centered around Colfax Ave., founded last year by Cobourg, Ont., Canada-born wealthy Denver real estate developer and Presbyterian minister Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929) along with Thomas Hayden and Charles Dickenson is incorporated, with H.M. Miliken as mayor #1; in Oct. 1893 Fletcher sells out after the 1893 Silver Crash causes him to lose his fortune and move to Cripple Creek, Colo., leaving the town without a stable source of water and a large water bond debt, causing the remaining owners to petition Denver in vain for annexation, after which in 1902 part of the town becomes part of Adams County, the rest becoming part of South Arapahoe County; in 1907 the town is renamed Aurora, going on to see Fitzsimons Army Hospital open in 1918, Lowry Air Force Base in 1938, and Buckley Air Force Base in 1942; by the late 1970s it becomes the fastest-growing city in the U.S., fighting to gain recognition as co-equal with Denver, hampered by lack of a large central business district. The city of Albuquerque, N.M., on the Rio Grande River is incorporated (modern pop. 250K). Britain annexes Nyasaland, and makes it a protectorate next year, with Sir Henry Hamilton "Harry" Johnston (1858-1927) as the first high commissioner (until 1896), going on to use Royal Navy gunboats to wipe out slavers, and working with Lord Salisbury to formulate the Cape to Cairo Plan to acquire a continuous band of territory for Britain in Africa. Gen. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (1833-1913) becomes German chief of staff (until 1905), spending his last 12 years perfecting the Schlieffen Plan for a quick invasion of France via Belgium and Holland, which is used in WWI after his successor Gen. von Moltke takes Holland out, and used again in WWII after Hitler puts Holland back in. Russia begins the Trans-Siberan Railway from Vladivostok to Chelyabinsk (completed in 1904). The practice of circuit riding by U.S. Supreme Court justices (begun 1789) is abolished. The village of Lestershire in N.Y., 5 mi. E of Endicott is founded by the Endicott-Johnson Corp., one of the largest shoe-manufacturing cos. in the world; in 1916 it is renamed Johnson City in honor of corp. founder George F. Johnson. Buena Vista U. (originally Buena Vista College until 1995) is founded in Storm Lake, Iowa by the Presbyterian Church USA; sports teams are nicknamed the Beavers; alumni incl. Montreal Expos gen. mgr. Jim Fanning. Drexel U. (originally the Drexel Inst. of Art, Science, and Industry until 1936, then Drexel Inst. of Technology until 1970) is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. by banker-financier Anthony Joseph Drexel Sr. (1826-93) for instruction in "practical arts and sciences" for men and women. Seattle U. in Seattle, Wash. is founded by the Jesuits, becoming the largest independent univ. in the NW U.S. The Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Conn. is founded by Yale U. pres. Timothy Dwight V and heiress Maria Harrison Bissell Hotchkiss (1827-1901) to prepare "the pampered sons of rich gentlemen" for Yale U., admitting its first 50 boarding students next year for 600 apiece; the motto is "Be a gentleman"; headmaster George Van Santvoord becomes known as the Duke, causing Time mag. to pub. "Education: The Duke Steps Down" in 1954; the class of 1924 incl. U.S. Navy secy. 1963-7) Paul Nitze, U.N. ambassador (1969-71) Charles Woodruff Yost, U.S. deputy secy. of defense (1961-4) Roswell Gilpatric, an Chapman Rose; in 1974 it goes coed. The Seattle Times (originally the "Seattle Press-Times") daily 4-page newspaper is founded in Seattle, Wash.; on Aug. 10, 1896 Maine-born atty. "Col." Alden J. Blethen (1845-1915) of Kansas City, Mo. and Minneapolis, Minn. acquires it, renaming it the "Seattle Daily Times", and pumping up circ. from 4K to 70K by 1915 by introducing large typefaces for headlines, incl. more photographs, a color comic Sun. supplement, and flamboyant and partisan news coverage, starting by supporting William Jennings Bryan for U.S. pres. in 1896 over William McKinley, who was backed by the rival Seattle Post-Intelligencer; on Mar. 6, 2000 it switches to a morning newspaper; after his death the newspaper stays in the family, incl. lavish-spending Clarance Brettun Blethen (1879-1941) (1915-41), who sells 49.5% of the co.'s voting shares to the Ridder Bros., tying the family up in litigation for decades; William Kingsley Blethen (1913-67) (1949-67); John Alden "Jack" Blethen (1918-93) (1967-82); and Frank A. Blethen (1942-) (1985-), who after lobbying by Ridder is chosen over his duck hunting-loving cousin Jack's son Alden "Buster" Blethen (1952-2006), who becomes nat. advertising mgr.; the newspaper goes on to become the 2nd largest on the West Coast; the mascot is an eagle. Am. playwrights Bronson Crocker Howard (1842-1908) and David Belasco (1853-1931) found the Am. Dramatists Club, which later becomes the Society of Am. Dramatists and Composers, to fight play piracy and assure playwrights fair treatment by producers. Austrian novelist Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) founds the Austrian Society of Peace Lovers, and plays a prominent role in a peace congress in Rome this year, followed by another in Bern in 1894, Antwerp in 1894, and Hamburg in 1897, founding the periodical Die Waffen Nieder! (Lay Down Your Weapons) (named after her 1889 novel) in 1892 (until 1899), and going on to win the 1908 Nobel Peace Prize; Austrian Jewish journalist Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) works with her and helps found the German peace movement, going on to propose the League of Nations and win the 1911 Nobel Peace Prize - Jew and Fried, hmmm, gives Hitler ideas? The Calvinist "Particular" Baptist Church reuinites with the original "General" Baptist Church to create the Baptist Union. New York City Presbyterian minister Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933) becomes pres. of the New York Society for the Prevention of Crime, and does his alma mater Amherst College proud by finding that the pigs, er, police are in league with the criminals, many of whom are in Tammany Hall, giving a speech from the pulpit next Feb. 14 exposing them, causing an investigation in 1894 resulting in a number of police being arrested and convicted. The Nat. Canine Defence League is founded in Britain; reaching 1K members in 1902, 6.5K in 1910, and 300K by 2000; in 2003 it becomes the Dogs Trust. Calif. Inst. of Technology (Caltech) (originally Throop Polytechnic Inst.) is founded in Pasadena, Calif. by businessman-politician (mayor #3 of Pasadena in 1888-90) Amos Gager Throop (1811-94), going on to become home of the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904. Vladimir Lenin receives a law degree from St. Petersburg U. Newspaper publisher Warren G. Harding (b. 1865) of Ohio marries wealthy widow Mrs. Florence Kling DeWolfe (1860-1924), and launches a career in politics, becoming state senator in 1899, lt. gov. in 1904, and U.S. sen. in 1914; they have no children - play the Star Wars theme? Lexington, Miss.-born teacher Minnie M. (Geddings) Cox (1869-1933) is appointed postmaster of Indianola, Miss. by Pres. Harrison, becoming the first African-Am. U.S. postmaster; in 1897 she loses her job under Pres. Cleveland, then regains it in 1897 under Pres. McKinley, continuing to serve under Pres. Theodore Roosevelt; too bad, local white citizens begin agitating to oust her, led by white supremacist politician James K. Vardaman, and vote for her to resign on Jan. 1, 1903, causing Pres. Roosevelt to close the Indianola post office until she resumes her duty, sparking a nat. uproar; when her term expires in 1904, she opens a bank and insurance co. in Indianola. After trying Independence, Kan., Fort Worth, Tex., and Europe, chronically-ill (hypochondriac?) Charles William "C.W." Post (1854-1914) of Springfield, Ill. moves to James Harvey Kellogg's Battle Creek Sanitarium in Battle Creek, Mich. for his health, and in 1895 invents Postum wheat-bran-molasses coffee substitute, founding Postum Cereal Co., which in 1925 acquires Jell-O Co., followed by Swans Down brand cake flour (1926), Minute brand tapioca (1926), Log Cabin syrup (1927), Baker's coconut (1927), Baker's chocolate (1927), and Maxwell House Coffee (1928); in 1897 he invents Grape Nuts brand cereal, which has neither grapes nor nuts in it, and becomes the first mass-marketed cereal; in 1929 the co. becomes Gen. Foods, for which Postum Co. pays $22M for a controlling interest, and in Nov. 1985 is acquired for $5.6B by Philip Morris Co., which acquires Kraft Inc. in 1990 to create Kraft Gen. Foods (KGF), which becomes Kraft again in 1995 - millions try to imagine eating grapes and nuts while crunching on wheat and barley? Internat. Correspondence Schools is founded in Scranton, Penn. - I'll bet they'll need a good paper supply company? The Am. Brewing Academy (later the Wahl-Henius Inst. of Fermentology) is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Aahlborg, Denmark-born biochemist Max Henius (1859-1935) and Robert Wahl (1858-1937), becoming a top school for brewmasters until 1921. Dutch-born impresario-critic Jacob Thomas "Jack" Grein (1862-1935) founds the subscription-only Independent Theatre Society in London to give "special perf. of plays which have a lit. and artistic rather than a commercial value", concentrating on modern realist plays by Euro playwrights. French painter Paul Gaugin invents Tahiti Fever by giving up on bourgeois civilization and selling 30 paintings to finance his move; when he gets there he shacks up with native "Living Eve" wife Tehura - moving in with the palms and grass skirt girls, only to find out that it too becomes a drag? Greek French poet Jean Moreas (Moréas) (1856-1910) ditches Symbolism and founds the Ecole Romane lit. movement, calling for a return to the classic restrained forms of medieval French poetry. Now that he is safely out of the way, Van Gogh's great paintings are exhibited at the Salon des Independents (founded 1884) - the original for years I struggled with my weight? Sigmund Freud moves into 19 Bergasse in Vienna (until 1938). French artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec produces his first music hall posters. Pope Leo XIII founds the Vatican Observatory in Castel Gandolfo, Italy. Alfred Nobel and his assistant Wilhelm Unge move to San Remo, Italy, where he sets up a lab in his Villa Nobel in Sanremo, which he originally calls Mio Nido (My Nest) until a friend reminds him that a nest is for two people, and he's a bachelor? The first lager beer brewery in Ireland is established in Dartry, Dublin. Marcellus F. Berry of the Am. Express Co. launches Am. Express Traveller's Checks. George A. Hormel & Co. meat packing co. is founded in Austin, Minn. by George Albert Hormel (1860-1946) and his brothers Benjamin, Herman, and John, changing its name to Hormel Foods in 1993; products incl. Jennie-O, Dinty Moore, Farmer John, Chi-Chi's, Spam, La Victoria, and Skippy. Brothers Gerard Philips (1858-1942) and Anton Frederik Philips (1874-1952) found Royal Philips Electronics Co. in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which goes on to become a major consumer electronics manufacturer. Sports: On Jan. 7-Mar. 5 the 1891 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Montreal Hockey Club win 8-0. Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955), AKA "the Old Fox" debuts with the St. Louis Browns, Boston Reds, and Chicago Colts, allegedly inventing the screwball and compiling six straight seasons with 20+ Vs in 1894-9, with an AA low ERA of 1.88 in 1898, then helping form the AL in 1901 and ending up managing and owning the Washington Senators. Isaac Burns Murphy (1861-96) (black) becomes the first jockey to win the Kentucky Derby 3x (1884, 1890). Charles Barter of England patents the game of Ping-Pong (Table Tennis), played with a hollow cored ball. Architecture: In Apr. Carnegie Hall two blocks S of Central Park at 881 Seventh Ave. between West 56th St. and West 57th St. in midtown Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 3,671) opens, built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie and designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill (1855-1929), becoming one of the top classical and popular music venues on Earth. On May 5 Carnegie (Music) Hall in New York City has its opening night. The Oxford Hotel at 1612-17th St. in downtown Denver, Colo. is built, designed by Brown Palace architect Frank E. "F.E." Edbrooke (1840-1921); during Prohibition the Cruise Room (with an interior modeled after the lounge on RMS Queen Mary) operates as a speakeasy; by the 1950s it becomes a flophouse on Denver's Skid Row, but after it is listed on the Nat. Register of Historic Places in 1979, a new owner remodels it. The "classic column" 10-story red brick Wainwright Bldg. in St. Louis, Mo., designed by Louis Henri Sullivan (1856-1924) (begun in 1891) is completed. The Blessed Virgin Mary of the Holy Rosary Sanctuary in Pompei, Italy is begun, commissioned by Dominican confessor ("Apostle of the Rosary") (Blessed) Bartolo Longo (1841-1926) to house the miraculous image of Our Lady of the Rosary given to him by his confessor Father Alberto Radente in 1875 after he turned Satanist and reconverted by praying the rosary. The Boston Flag of Judah consisting of two blue horizontal stripes on a white background with a Star of David in the center is created by Lithuanian-born Rabbi Jacob Baruch Askowith of Boston, Mass., and displayed in next year's 400th anniv. Columbus Day Parade; the word "Maccabee" in Hebrew letters is later replaced by "Zion", and adopted by the Second Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland in 1898, then flown at the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, Mo., gaining internat. attention, finally being adopted in 1948 by the new Jewish state of Israel. Inventions: On Oct. 6 George L. Cummings of New York City receives U.S. Patent #460,935 for a "pneumatic sucker" hood that that rests on casters to reduce friction, a flexible hose, and a vacuuming apparatus that can be carried by a truck or permanently installed in a large bldg. French physicist Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) invents Anaglyph Stereoscopic Printing, in which left/right red/blue channels are fed separately to the eye, which combines them into a 3-D image. Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) of France designs the 3.5K-franc Panhard, the first practical gasoline-powered automobile, with four wheels, a front-mounted engine and rear-wheel drive, a crude sliding-gear transmission with an electromagnetic gearbox, and the first castor-angled front wheels, all of which he patents in May 1896; in 1898 Krebs replaces the tiller with an inclined steering wheel with non-reversible steering, and engine balance; in 1901 he begins using nickel steel alloys; in 1902 he invents the automatic diaphragm carburetor; in 1906 he invents the shock absorber; in 1905 he invents the electric brake dynamometer for engine testing; in 1907 he invents the multi-disc clutch; in 1911 he invents the elastomeric flexible coupling (Flector joint); in 1915 he invents the worm gear differential; in 1898-1902 Panhard et Levassor builds 500 cars under license, going on to become one of the largest automobile manufacturers before WWI. On June 21 Nikola Tesla first demonstrates alternating current (AC) for commercial use at the Ames Power Plant in Colo. between Silverton and Telluride, teaming with financier George Westinghouse to take on his ex-boss Thomas Edison and his financial backer J.P. Morgan, who push DC; meanwhile J.D. Rockefeller tries to create a scare about the unsafeness of electricity to preserve his kerosene lighting business; Tesla goes on to build a weird funky lab in Colo. Springs in 1899 to develop wireless transmission of electrical power using Tesla Coils, which he abandons in 1900 after all kinds of weird accidents cause rumors to spread; on July 30 he is granted U.S. citizenship. Irish-born Baltimore, Md. Quaker William Painter (1838-1906) invents the crown bottle cap, and patents it on Feb. 2, 1892 (#468,226, 468,258), forming the Crown Cork and Seal Co. in Baltimore, Md. and becoming a millionaire, going on to invent a crown bottle cap opener, a bottle capping machine, a paper-folding machine, a safety ejection seat for passenger trains, and a machine for detecting countefeit currency; not until the 1960s does the twist-off cap offer any serious competition. The Carcano line of bolt-action military rifles and carbines is introduced in Italy; one later is allegedly used by Lee Harvey Oswald to murder JFK. C.F. Cross, C. Beadle and E.J. Bevan of Courtalds Ltd. in Britain discover how to manufacture Viscose Rayon, and patent it next year. French physicist Jonas ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (1845-1921) invents the Lippmann Plate for color photography, which reproduces colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, with the extremely fine emulsion (0.01 micrometers) having an extremely high resolving power (400 lines/mm), winning him the 1908 Nobel Physics Prize. In early Dec. after his boss Luther Halsey Gulick challenges him to invent a new indoor game for long New England winters, 5'10-1/2" white Canadian-born YMCA physical education teacher James Naismith (1861-1939) of the School for Christian Workers (founded 1885) (Internat. Young Men's Christian Assoc. Training School) (Internat. YMCA College) (Springfield College in 1954) in Springfield, Mass. (founded in 1885) invents the game of Basketball (with 13 rules) (based on the Canadian children's game Duck on a Rock?), using a soccer ball with a simple peach basket (later lost?) as the goal in an effort to create a sport where agility trumps brute force; there are 9 players per side; he introduces it to his 19 students on Dec. 21; the first true game of basketball is played on Jan. 20, 1892, and the Student Unions defeat 23rd St. by a final score of 1-0; a replica of the court is later built in Paris, France by the Paris YMCA Union, becoming the world's oldest basketball court after the one in Springfield burns down; Naismith's student Frank Mahon gives the game its name; on Jan. 15, 1892 the first rules for basketball (by Naismith) are pub. in The Triangle, the Springfield, Mass. YMCA newspaper. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) demonstrates wireless transmission of electrical power at his lab in New York City. Wireless telegraphy is first done on a small scale. The explosive PETN (PENT) (pentaerythrigol tetranitrate) is synthesized in Germany by Bernhard Christian Gottfried Tollens (1841-1918) and P. Wigand; it is patented in 1912, and used in WWI. Science: On Sept. 6 Am. surgeon Henry C. Dalton of St. Louis, Mo. performs the first successful pericardial sac repair operation on a 22-y.o. man with a stab wound in the heart. Am. dentist Greene Vardiman Black (1836-1915) of Chicago, Ill. begins advocating a scientific cavity preparation to prevent recurrence of decay around the margins of the fillings. Am. surgeon William Bradley Coley (1862-1936) successfully treats a tumor by injecting the patient with streptococcal cultures, later killing the bacteria first, pioneering Immunotherapy. Dutch paleoanthropologist Marie Eugene Francois Thomas Dubois (1858-1940) discovers Java Man in Java, Indonesia, naming it Pithecanthropus erectus after becoming convinced that the human species originated in the tropics, becoming the first early hominid specimens to be found outside Africa or Europe, making him world famous; too bad, after fighting the scientific establishment for acceptance and gaining ground, he dies a bitter man; his specimens are later classified as Homo erectus erectus - he went ape? Antibodies are first proposed as responsible for disease immunity by German scientist Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915). Nonfiction: George Bancroft (1800-91), History of the Battle of Lake Erie, and Miscellaneous Papers. Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne (1769-1834), Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte (4 vols.) (posth.) (revised ed.); by Napoleon's private secy.; ed. by R.W. Phipps. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Die Uberwindung des Naturalismus. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Authority of the Holy Scripture; claims that errors may have existed in the original text of the Bible and that Moses didn't write the Pentateuch, and that reason and the Church are equal sources of authority with the Bible, getting him put on trial for heresy in 1892 by the Presbyterian Church, acquitted, then fired next year by the gen. assembly, which only makes him more popular? Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The American Race: A Linguistic Classification. Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Dante: His Life and Writings; The Life of Bartolomeo Colleoni of Anjou and Burgundy. William Cabell Bruce (1860-1946), The Negro Problem; "From first to last it should be borne in mind that the Negro Problem is a race problem." Walter Camp (1859-1925), American Football. Richard Christopher Church (1815-90), History of the Oxford Movement (posth.). Edward Augustus Freeman (1823-92), History of Sicily (1891-4). James Anthony Froude (1818-94), The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), The Mystery of the Buried Crosses (last book); tries to prove the legitimacy of psychic mediums. Laurence Gronlund (1846-99), Our Destiny: The Influence of Socialism on Morals and Religion. Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943), Epoch Maps Illustrating American History. Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943) (ed.), Reuben Gold Thwaites (1853-1913), and Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), Epochs of American History (3 vols.) (1891-3); incl. "The Colonies, 1492-1750", "Formation of the Union, 1750-1829", "Division and Reunion, 1829-1889". George Kennan (1845-1924), Siberia and the Exile System (2 vols.). Fanny Kemble (1809-93), Further Records. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Essays in Little; On Calais Sands. Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906), Experiments in Aerodynamics. Otto Ludwig (1813-65), Shakespeare-Studien (posth.); praises Shakespeare while dissing Friedrich Schiller. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), History of Higher Education in Michigan (first book); Lewis Cass. John M'Clintock and James Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. James Mooney (1861-1921), The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Physical Religion (Gifford Lecture). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Jerusalem. Herbert Hope Risley (1851-1911), The Study of Ethnology in India; founds "the racial theory of Indian civilization" (Thomas Trautmann), with the soundbyte: "By century's end had become a settled fact, that the constitutive event for Indian civilisation, the Big Bang through which it came into being, was the clash between invading, fair-skinned, civilized Sanskrit-speaking Aryans and dark-skinned, barbarous aborigines", claiming that the Rig Veda is an ancient record of it, making a fan of philologist Max Muller; The Tribes and Castes of Bengal (4 vols.); filled with anthropometric data from his survey of Bengal, becoming a classic of scientific racism, dividing Indians into superior light-skinned Aryan and inferior dark-skinned Dravidian races using the ratio of the width of a nose to its height, and claiming that it applied throughout the Indian caste system, with the soundbytes: "The social position of a caste varies inversely as its nasal index", and "Community of race, and not, as has frequently been argued, community of function, is the real determining principle, the true causa causans, of the caste system", getting his ideas incorporated in the 1901 and 1911 Indian censuses. George John Romanes (1848-94), Aristotle As A Naturalist. F.C.S. Schiller (1864-1937), Riddles of the Sphinx: A Study in the Philosophy of Evolution; pub. anon.; rev. ed. 1894 not pub. anon.; attempts to bridge naturalism and metaphysics, accusing the former of ignoring the fact that the latter is required to justify our natural description of the world, and accusing the latter of losing sight of the world we actually live in to construct grand imaginary worlds, making naturalism unable to explain consciousness and freewill, and metaphysics unable to explain the imperfect changing physical world; the rev. ed. (1910) attempts to reconcile his views to William James' pragmatism. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), The Quintessence of Ibsenism (rev. ed. pub. 1913); defends Ibsen. Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900), The Elements of Politics. Goldwin Smith (1823-1910), Canada and the Canada Question; argues that "Canada is a political expression", an artificial state that can only achieve its potential through a "reunion" with the U.S. to create the "United Continent of North America"; in 1868 he spoke against Irish Home Rule, saying "(As I) stand against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the West... I now stand against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the East." William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution (2 vols.). Wilhelm Voge (1868-1952), Dissertation on Ottonian Painting; establishes the existence of the Reichenau School of Painters. Edvard Alexander Westermack (1863-1939), The History of Human Marriage (2 vols.); decribes the Westermarck Effect, where people who live in close domestic proximity early in life later become desensitized to close sexual attraction, adding to theories of incest taboo. William Dwight Whitney (1827-94) (ed.), The Century Dictionary (6 vols.); a combo dictionary-encyclopedia by the first great U.S. linguist; basis of the 2-vol. "New Century Dictionary". Art: George Henry Boughton (1833-1905), Portrait of Rose Standish. Eugene Anatole Carriere (1849-1906), Portrait of Paul Verlaine. Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), The Letter. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Portrait of Madame Cezanne. Walter Crane (1845-1915), The Mower. James Ensor (1860-1949), Skeletons Fighting Over a Hanged Man. Luke Fildes (1843-1927), The Doctor; uses the sickbed of his little son for inspiration; in 1949 the Am. Medical Assoc. prints 65K copies to campaign against Pres. Truman's proposal for nationalized medical care, with the slogan "Keep politics out of this picture". Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Huntsman and Dogs (28" x 48"). George Inness (1825-94), Sunset in the Woods. Jean-Louis Meissonier (1815-91), Barricade. Claude Monet (1840-1926), Grainstacks (Haystacks): Snow Effect. Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Two Young Peasant Women. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), Pierre Loti (1850-1923); Surprise! (Tropical Storm with a Tiger); tiger crouching in jungle; his first jungle scene. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Convent Lily; Cloiser Lillies. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), The Green Interior, or, Figure in Front of a Window with Drawn Curtains. Music: Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Symphony in E major (In Nature's Realm), Op. 91; Symphony No. 2, Op. 92, Carnival Overture. Alexander von Fielitz (1860-1930), Vendetta (opera). Ethelberg Woodbridge Nevin (1862-1901), Water Scenes, Op. 13 (suite); incl. Narcissus (No. 4). Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), A Star Song. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), De Profundis. Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Piano Concerto No. 1 (rev. 1917). Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Points of View. Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900) and Julian Sturgis (1848-1904), Ivanhoe (opera) (Royal English Opera House, Westminster, West End, London) (Jan. 31) (160 perf.); based on the 1820 novel by Sir Walter Scott; first production of the red brick Palace Theatre (originally the Royal English Opera House) at Shaftesbury Ave. near Charing Cross Rd. in West End, London on the W side of Cambridge Circus (cap. 1.4K), designed by architect Thomas Edward Collcutt for Richard D'Oyle Carte.; in 1897 it begins screening films; in 1925 it produces the comedy "No, No, Nanette"; in 1961 it produces "The Sound of Music" (2,385 perf.); in 1972-80 it produces "Jesus Christ Superstar"; in 1985-2004 it produces "Les Miserables"; in 1983 it is acquired by Andrew Lloyd Webber; in 2006-Jan. 2009 it produces Monty Python's "Spamalot". Carl Zeller (1842-98), Der Vogelhandler (Vogelhändler) (operetta) (Vienna). Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Die Mutter (The Mother). Percy Gaunt and Charles H. Hoyt (1859-1900), A Trip to Chinatown (musical) (Madison Square Theater, New York) (Nov. 9) (657 perf.) (longest-running Broadway musical until "Irene" in 1919); features the songs The Bowery, After the Ball (first sheet music to sell 1M copies); filmed in 1926 starring Anna May Wong. Victorien Sardou (1831-1908), Thermidor. Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Spring Awakening (Fruhlings Erwachen) (first play); causes scandal with scenes of masturbation, homosexuality, and suicide, plus references to abortion - give me a kiss for good luck? Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), The Light of the World or The Great Consummation; tries to do for Jesus what he did for Buddha. Herman Melville (1819-91), Timoleon and Other Poems. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Flambeaux Noirs. Novels: F. Antsey (Thomas Antsey Guthrie), Tourmalin's Time Cheques; time travel story. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Fin de Siecle. Maurice Barres (1862-1923), Le Jardin de Berenice. Walter Besant (1836-1901), St. Katherine's by the Tower (3 vols.). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The World, the Flesh and the Devil. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Sakhalin; a lot of brilliant engineering went into making the interior of this prison very not nice? Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Noodlot (Footsteps of Fate); similar to Oscar Wilde's 1890 "The Picture of Dorian Gray". Leon Daudet (1867-1942), Germet et Poussiere. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Doctor Huguet: A Novel; pub. under alias Edmund Boisgilbert; a liberal white intellectual is transformed into a poor black man and forced to see what it's like. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (Oct. 14); pub. in the new The Strand Mag. beginning in the July 1891 issue and ending in 1927 after 56 stories; "I play the game for the game's own sake" (Holmes); Holmes and his nemesis Prof. James Moriarty fall to their deaths in May 1891 in Reichenbach Falls in the Dec. 1893 issue, and the public outcry, bordering on nat. mourning forces a reappearance eight years later in A Scandal in Bohemia, which begins with the line "To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman" (Irene Adler); the 1893 story The Adventure of the Gloria Scott contains the phrase "the chaplain stood with a smoking pistol in his hand", coining the term "smoking gun". In 1893 he pub. the story The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter, introducing his older and smarter but lazier brother Mycroft Holmes. In Dec. 1893 he pub. The Adventure of the Final Problem, introducing Sherlock's archenemy Prof. James Moriarty in 1892, who both deaths from Reichenbach Falls, after which a barrage from fans causes Doyle to relent and bring Shelock back in the 1903 story The Adventure of the Empty House, later collected in the book 1903-4 book The Return of Sherlock Holmes. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Quitt; Unwiederbringlich. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), A New England Nun and Other Stories. Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920), Angel Guerra; man swings from agnostic to Roman Catholic to woo a devout babe. Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Weary Souls (Traette Maend). Andre Gide (1869-1951), Les Cahiers d'Andre (d'André) Walter; an unhappy young religious Romantic idealistic man - they are all that way until they start getting some? George Gissing (1857-1903), New Grub Street; known for its hack writers. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Eric Brighteyes. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), A Group of Noble Dames (short stories). Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Little Irish Girl and Other Stories. J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), La-Bas (Lŕ-bas) (Down There); novelist Durtal turns to the study of the Middle Ages and 15th cent. child molester Gilles de Rais, using his Paris contact Dr. Johannes to find that Satanism is alive and well; Durtal becomes the protagonist of all his subsequent novels incl. "En Route" (1895), "La Cathedrale" (1896), and "L'Oblat" (1903), which explore his conversion to Roman Catholicism and initiation as a Benedictine oblate, making him successful enough to retire from the French civil service after 32 years. Maurus Jokai (1825-1904), There Is No Devil. Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940), The Story of Gosta (Gösta) Berling (The Story of Gösta Berlings Saga) (first novel); set in 1820s Varmland on the shores of Lake Loven (Löven) (Fryken), about deposed minister Gosta Berling, who is saved from freezing by the Mistress of Ekeby; filmed in 1924 by Mauritz Stiller starring Greta Garbo; basis of the 1925 Riccardo Zandonai opera "I Cavalieri di Ekebu". Gosta Berling. Jonas Lie (1833-1908), Trolls (2 vols.) (1891-2). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Le Livre de la Pitie et de la Mort. Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (1839-1908), Epitaph of a Small Winner; Philosopher or Dog? George du Maurier (1834-96), Peter Ibbetson; illustrated by the author. William Morris (1834-96), News from Nowhere; sequel to "A Dream of John Ball" (1888), about a fictitious Socialist English commonwealth. Daniel Owen (1836-95), Enoc Huws. Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Stopfkuchen. Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards (1850-1943), Captain January; a lighthouse keeper and his little girl Star; filmed in 1924 starring Baby Peggy, and in 1936 starring Shirley Temple. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), The Lonesome. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Mary Magdalen. William Sharp (1855-1905), Sospiri di Roma. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Col. Carter of Cartersville (first novel). Carmen Sylva (1843-1916), Handwerkenlieder. Births: Am. "Song of Bernadette", "Johnny Belinda" actor Charles Ambrose Bickford (d. 1967) on Jan. 1 in Cambridge, Mass; born during the first min. of the year; acquitted at age 9 of the attempted murder of a motorist who drove over his dog; educated at MIT. Am. "Their Eyes Were Watching God" Harlem Renaissance novelist (black) Zora Neale Hurston (d. 1960) on Jan. 7 in Notasulga, Ala.; grows up in Eatonville, Fla.; educated at Howard U., and Barnard College. German Nazi official Fritz Waechtler (Wächtler) (d. 1945) on Jan. 7 in Triebes, Thuringia. German physicist (nuclear spectroscopy pioneer) Walther Bothe (d. 1957) on Jan. 8 in Oranienburg, Prussia; educated at the U. of Berlin. Russian dancer-choreographer Bronislava Nijinska (Bronislava Fominitshna Nizhinskaya) (d. 1972) on Jan. 8 in Minsk; Polish parents; sister of Vaslav Nijinsky (1889-1950). U.S. secy. of defense #2 (1949-50) Louis Arthur Johnson (d. 1966) on Jan. 10 in Roanoke, Va.; educated at the U. of Va. English biochemist Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (d. 1952) on Jan. 12 in Kensington, South London; educated at Strand School, and King's College, London. English spymaster Sir John Cecil Masterman (d. 1977) on Jan. 12; educated at Worcester College, Oxford U. Australian WWI Pvt. Jřrgen Christian Jensen (d. 1922) in Logstor, Denmark; emigrates to Australia in 1909. Russian Acmeist poet (Jewish) Osip Emilevich Mandelshtam (Mandelstam) (d. 1938) on Jan. 15 (Jan. 3 Old Style) in Warsaw, Poland. Am. "A Study in Administrative History" historian Leonard Dupee White (d. 1958) on Jan. 17 in Acton, Mass.; educated at Dartmouth College, and U. of Chicago. Egyptian writer Ismail Mazhar (d. 1962) on Jan. 19. Am. violinist (Jewish) Mikhail Saulovich "Mischa" Elman (d. 1967) on Jan. 20 in Talnoye, Ukraine; grandson of a violin-playing Jewish folk musician (klezmer). Italian Communist Party founder Antonio Gramsci (d. 1937) on Jan. 23 in Ales, Cagliari, Sardinia; proposes that Communism establish "cultural hegemony" by destroying all the old Judeo-Christian institutions and their history; source of the term Gramscian Whore. German field marshal ("the Fuehrer's Fireman") Otto Moritz Walter (Walther) Model (d. 1945) on Jan. 24 in Genthin, Saxony. Am. anti-Communist diplomat-journalist-novelist and first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1933-6) William Christian Bullitt Jr. (d. 1967) on Jan. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Yale U. Canadian Montreal Procedure ("I can smell burnt toast") neurosurgeon Wilder Graves Penfield (d. 1976) on Jan. 26 in Spokane, Wash.; grows up in Hudson, Wisc.; emigrates to Canada in 1928; educated at Princeton U., Merton College, Oxford U., and Johns Hopkins U. Am. Luciano/Genovese crime boss ("Prime Minister of the Underworld") Frank Costello (Francesco Castiglia) (d. 1973) on Jan. 26 in Lauropoli, Calabria, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1900. Soviet "The Thaw" propagandist (Jewish) Ilya Grigoyevic Ehrenburg (d. 1967) on Jan. 27 (Jan. 15 Old Style) in Kiev. Am. "The Petrified Forest", "The Adventures of Marco Polo" film dir. Archie L. Mayo (d. 1968) on Jan. 29 in New York City; starts out in vaudeville, selling shirts for a living; retires in 1946. Am. aircraft designer Walter Herschel Beech (d. 1950) on Jan. 30 in Pulaski, Tenn.; collaborator of Clyde Cessna (1879-1954). South African "Twelve Against the Gods" journalist William Bolitho Ryall (Charles William Ryall) (d. 1930) in Jan. in Droitwich; Baptist minister father; friend of Earnest Hemingway, Noel Cowad, Walter Lippman, and Walter Duranty; uses his uncle's name as an alias. Swedish diplomat Johan Birger Essen Dahlerus (d. 1957) on Feb. 6 in Stockholm. German WWII resistance fighter (Christian) Johanna Niederhellmann (d. 1956) on Feb. 6 in Monchengladbach. Austrian-British Anthroposophist Walter Johannes Stein (d. 1957) on Feb. 6 in Vienna; emigrates to England in 1933. British-Am. "Bulldog Drummond", "Lost Horizon", "A Double Life" actor Ronald Charles Colman (d. 1958) on Feb. 9 in Richmond, Surrey; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Italian Socialist politician Pietro Sandro Nenni (d. 1980) on Feb. 9 in Faenza, Emilia-Romagna. Am. Anheuser-Busch CEO (1934-46) Adolphus Busch III (d. 1946) on Feb. 10 in St. Louis, Mo.; son of August Anheuser Busch Sr. (1865-1934); brother of August Anheuser Busch Jr. (1899-1989). Am. "Rhapsody in Blue" novelist-playwright-journalist Elliot Harold Paul (d. 1958) on Feb. 10 in Linden, Malden, Mass. Am. Sears, Roebuck & Co. chmn. (Jewish) Lessing Julius Rosenwald (d. 1979) on Feb. 10 in Chicago, Ill.; son of Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932). Am. "The Meaning and Function of Language" educator-lexicographer Mitford McLeod Mathews Sr. (d. 1985) on Feb. 12 in Jackson, Ala.; father of Am. cryptographer Mitford McLeod Mathews Jr. (1922-1971); educated at Harvard U. Am. operatic bass (Jewish) Alexander Kipnis (d. 1978) on Feb. 13 (Feb. 1 Old Style) in Zhytomyr, Ukraine; father of Igor Kipnis (1930-2002); becomes U.S. citizen in 1931. Welsh #1 short story writer Kate Roberts (d. 1985) on Feb. 13 in Rhosgadfan, Caermarfonshire (modern-day Gwynedd); father Owen Roberts is a slate quarryman; educated at the Univ. College of North Wales, Bangor; marries fellow Plaid Cymru member Morris T. Williams (-1946) in 1928. Am. "American Gothic" painter Grant DeVolson Wood (d. 1942) on Feb. 13 in Anamosa, Iowa; son of Maryville Wood; grows up in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. German Nazi racial ideologist ("the Race Pope") Hans Friedrich Karl Gunther (Günther) (d. 1968) on Feb. 16 in Freiburg. Am. film studio exec-producer and fixer Joseph Edgar Allen John "Eddie" Mannix (d. 1963) on Feb. 25 in Fort Lee, N.J. Am. broadcasting pioneer, RCA CEO and NBC founder (Jewish) David Sarnoff (d. 1971) on Feb. 27 in Uzlyany (near Minsk), Russia (modern-day Belarus); emigrates to the U.S. in 1900. Am. "To Make My Bread" novelist Grace Lumpkin (d. 1980) on Mar. 3 in Milledgeville, Ga. Greek archbishop (1941-9) Damaskinos Papandreou (d. 1949) on Mar. 3 in Dorvitsa. Am. political cartoonist (St. Louis Dispatch, 1913-58) Daniel R. (Robert) Fitzpatrick (d. 1969) on Mar. 5 in Superior, Wisc. Philippine pres. #3 (1943-5) Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia (d. 1959) on Mar. 9 in Tanuauan City, Batangas. Am. "Gunga Din", "High Lama in Lost Horizon" actor (Jewish) Shalom "Sam" Jaffe (d. 1984) on Mar. 10 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Hungarian-British "Science, Faith and Society" physical chemist-philosopher-economist (Jew-turned-Roman Catholic) Michael (Mihaly) Polyani (d. 1976) on Mar. 11 in Budapest, Hungary; brother of Karl Polyani (1886-1964); emigrates to Britain in 1933; father of John Charles Polyani (1929-). Am. Nash-Kelvinator CEO (1937-54) George Walter Mason (d. 1954) on Mar. 12 in Valley City, N.D.; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. psychologist and memory expert Bruno Furst (d. 1965) on Mar. 13 in Metz, France (New York City?). Am. "Hellzapoppin" comedian ("Greatest Ragtime Pianist in the Midwest") Harold Ogden "Chic" Johnson (d. 1962) on Mar. 15 in Chicago, Ill.; of Swedish descent; collaborator of Ole Johnson (1892-1963). Am. novelist Margaret Frances Culkin Banning (d. 1982) on Mar. 18 in Buffalo, Minn. U.S. Supreme Court chief justice #14 (1953-69) and Repub. Calif. gov. #30 (1943-53) (Freemason) Earl Warren (d. 1974) on Mar. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Norwegian immigrant father named Varren, Swedish immigrant mother educated at UCB (Sigma Phi). English "Grand Hotel", "Dark Victory", "Nightmare Alley", "The Razor's Edge", "The Dawn Patrol" film actor-dir. (bi) Edmund Goulding (d. 1959) on Mar. 20 in Feltham, Middlesex, London. Swiss "Therese Etienne" novelist-playwright John (Hermann Emanuel) Knittel (d. 1970) on Mar. 24 in Dharwar, India. German Gen. Wilhelm "Willi" Schneckenburger (d. 1944) on Mar. 30 in Tubingen. Am. bowler ("Greatest 1-Man Bowling Show on Earth") Andrea "Andy" Varipapa (d. 1984) on Mar. 31 in Carfizzi, Calabria, Italy. Am. newspaper publisher Generoso Pope (Generoso Antonio Pompilio Carlo Papa) (d. 1950) on Apr. 1 in Arpaise, Benevento, Italy; father of Fortunato Pope (1918-96), Anthony Pope (1919-2005), and Generoso Pope Jr. (1927-88). Scottish "That's a Good Girl" actor-dir.-producer ("Last of the Knuts") Walter John "Jack" Buchanan (d. 1957) on Apr. 2 in Gairloch, Rossshire; acting partner of Elsie Randolph (1904-82). German surrealist "The Antipope", "Virgin Spanking the Christ Child" painter Max Ernst (d. 1976) on Apr. 2 in Bruhl; moves to France and the U.S. British caricaturist ("dominant cartoonist of the Western world") Sir David Alexander Cecil Low (d. 1963) on Apr. 7 in New Zealand; knighted in 1962. Japanese Adm. Minoru Ota (d. 1945) on Apr. 7 in Chiba Prefecture. Am. "The Law of the Range" cowboy actor Timothy John Fitzgerald "Tim" McCoy (d. 1978) on Apr. 10 in Saginaw, Mich.; of Irish descent; husband (1945-73) of Inga Arvad (1913-73). Am. "Quicksand" novelist (black) Nella Larsen (d. 1964) on Apr. 13 in Chicago, Ill; West Indian father, Danish mother; educated at Fisk U. Indian Untouchable reformer (Dalit Buddhist) Bhimrao Ramji "B.R." Ambedkar (d. 1956) (AKA Babasaheb) in Mhow (modern-day Madhya Pradesh); educated at Columbia U., and London School of Economics. Am. silent film actor-dir. Wallace "Wally" Reid (d. 1923) on Apr. 15 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "George White's Scandals" actor-screenwriter, dir.-producer and dapper showman George (Eassy) White (George Weitz?) (d. 1968) in Apr. 15 in New York City (Toronto, Canada?); not to be confused with Ohio gov. (1931-5) George White. Polish-Am. UFO abductee George Adamski (d. 1965) on Apr. 17 in Bromberg, Prussia, Germany; ethnic Polish parents; emigrates to New York City at age two. Am. "Zoie in Baby Mine", "Aunt Martha in Leave It to Beaver" silent film actress ("best farce actress in the world") Madge Kennedy (d. 1987) on Apr. 19 in Chicago, Ill. British air vice-marshal Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds (d. 1954) on Apr. 20. Am. socialite and modern bra inventor ("literary godmother to the Lost Generation of expatriate writers in Paris) Mary Phelps Jacob (Caresse Crosby) (d. 1970) on Apr. 20 in New Rochelle, N.Y. Richard Bowditch Wigglesworth (d. 1960) on Apr. 25 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Studebaker Corp. pres. (1935-) and U.N. man Paul Gray Hoffman (d. 1974) on Apr. 26 in Western Springs (near Chicago), Ill. Russian "Peter and the Wolf" composer Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (d. 1953) on Apr. 27 in Sontsovka (Krasne), Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine; student of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Am. institutional economist Clarence Edwin Ayres (d. 1972) on May 6 in Lowell, Mass.; educated at Brown U., and the U. of Chicago. Soviet "The Master and Margarita" novelist-playwright Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (d. 1940) on May 3 in Kiev, Ukraine. Am. Social Security Admin. commissioner (1937-53) ("Mr. Social Security") Arthur Joseph Altmeyer (d. 1972) on May 8 in DePere, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; studies with John R. Commons. U.S. treasury secy. #52 (1934-45) (Jewish) Henry Morgenthau Jr. (d. 1967) on May 11 in New York City; son of real estate mogul Henry Morgenthau (1856-1946) and diplomat Josephine Sykes; father of Robert M. Morgenthau (1919-); educated at Dwight School, and Cornell U. Austrian "My Heart and I" tenor (Jewish) Richard Tauber (d. 1948) on May 16 in Linz; exiled in 1938. Am. philosopher (founder of Logical Empiricism) Rudolf Carnap (d. 1970) on May 18. Am. stockbroker-socialite (alcoholic) John Vernou "Black Jack" Bouvier III (d. 1957) on May 19 in East Hampton, N.Y.; educated at Yale U. (Book & Snake); husband (1928-40) of Janet Norton Lee (1907-89); father of Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Bouvier (1929-94) and Caroline Lee Bouvier (1933-). Am. Communist leader Earl Russell Browder (d. 1973) on May 21 in Wichita, Kan.; expelled from the U.S. Communist Party in 1946. German poet and Communist politician Johannes R. Becher (d. 1958) on May 22 in Munich. Am. educator Robert Gordon Sproul (d. 1975) on May 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; pres. of the U. of Calif. (1930-58). Swedish "Barabbas" poet-novelist-playwright Par (Pär) Fabian Lagerkvist (d. 1974) on May 23 in Vaxjo. Am. Dead Sea Scrolls archeologist William Foxworth Albright (d. 1971) on May 24 in Coquimbo, Chile; Am. Methodist missionary parents; educated at John Hopkins U. Am. trustbuster atty.-writer Thurman Wesley Arnold (d. 1969) on June 2 in Laramie, Wyo.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Mormon fundamentalist leader Joseph Leslie Broadbent (d. 1935) on June 3 in Lehi, Utah. Am. model-actress (America's first supermodel) ("Miss Manhattan") ("the Exposition Girl") ("American Venus") Audrey Marie Munson (d. 1996) on June 8 near Syracuse, N.Y. Am. "I Get a Kick Out of You", "I've Got You Under My Skin" composer-songwriter (gay) Cole Albert Porter (d. 1964) on June 9 in Peru, Ind.; educated at Yale U. and Harvard U.; at age 10 (1901) writes "The Song of the Birds" for doting mother Kate; lover of Monty Woolley (1888-1963), whom he meets at Yale U. Am. "42nd Street" lyricist (Jewish) Al Dubin (d. 1945) on June 10 in Zurich, Switzerland. Am. 5'11" light heavyweight boxing champ (1916-20) (Jewish) Battling Levinsky (Barney Lebrowitz) (d. 1949) on June 10 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Soviet aircraft designer Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov (d. 1942) on June 15 (June 27 Old Style) in Sambek. Am. businessman (business partner of Harry S. Truman) (Jewish) Edward "Eddie" Jacobson (1891-1955) on June 17 in Lower East Side, New York City; Jewish Lithuanian immigrant parents; grows up in Leavenworth, Kan. and Kansas City, Mo. Australian "Laurel and Hardy" actress ("The Versatile Vamp") Annie Mae Busch (d. 1946) on June 18 in Melbourne, Victoria; daughter of Frederick William Busch and Elizabeth Maria Lay (Dora Busch); wife (1915-22) of Francis McDonald (1891-1968). German photomontage pioneer John Heartfield (Helmut Herzfeld) (d. 1968) on June 19; changes his name to Heartfield in 1916 as a protest against anti-British sentiment in Germany. Italian architect Pier Luigi Nervi (d. 1979) on June 21 in Sondrio, Lombardy; pioneer in reinforced concrete. Am. "Fagin in Oliver Twist", "Destination: Moon" actor-dir. Irving Pichel (d. 1954) on June 24 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; brother-in-law of Viola Barry (1894-1964). Am. "They Knew What They Wanted", "Paths of Glory", "Gone With the Wind" dramatist Sidney Coe Howard (d. 1939) on June 26 in Oakland, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif., and Harvard U.; father of Jennifer Howard (1925-93). Am. "Johnny Tremain", "Paul Revere and the World He Lived In" novelist-historian Esther Louise Forbes (d. 1967) on June 28 in Westborough, Mass.; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. gen. (first USAF chief of staff) Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz (d. 1974) on June 28 in Boyertown, Penn. Am. 6' 300 lb. prof. wrestler Man Mountain Dean (Frank Simmons Leavitt) (d. 1953) on June 30 in New York City. English artist Sir Stanley Spencer (d. 1959) on June 30 in Cookham, Berkshire; known for Biblical scenes set in Cookham ("a village in Heaven"); knighted in 1959. Am. biochemist (discoverer of the bacteriophage) John Howard Northrop (d. 1987) on July 5 in Yonkers, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U. Japanese Battle of Iwo Jima Gen. Tadamichi Kuribayashi (d. 1945) on July 7 in Nagano Prefecture. Czech poet-writer-critic Josef Hora (d. 1945) on July 8. Am. agricultural economist and Puerto Rican gov. (1946-6) Rexford Guy Tugwell (d. 1979) on July 10 in Sinclairville, N.Y; educated at the U. of Penn., and Columbia U. German jurist (Jewish) Hermann Heller (d. 1933) on July 17 in Teschen, Austrian Silesia. Canadian-Am. "Algiers", "The World is Waiting for the Sunrise" actor-singer-composer-playwright Edwin Eugene "Gene" Lockhart (d. 1957) on July 18 in London, Ont.; husband (1924-) of Kathleen Arthur Lockhart (1894-1978); father of June Lockhart (1925-); grandfather of Anne Lockhart (1953-). Am. contract bridge champ and pacifist Ely (pr. "EE-lee") Culbertson (d. 1955) on July 22 in Poyana de Vervilao, Romania; educated at the U. of Geneva; founder of Bridge World mag. Am. movie mogul (head of Columbia Studios) (Jewish) Harry "King" Cohn (d. 1958) on July 23 in New York City; German Jewish immigrant father, Russian Jewish immigrant mother; brother of Jack Cohn. Am. "Father of the Bride", "Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation", "Dere Mable", humorist-novelist-journalist Edward Streeter (d. 1976) on Aug. 1 in Buffalo, N.Y. English "Colour Symphony" composer Sir Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss (d. 1975) on Aug. 2; Am. father, English mother; educated at Cambridge U., and Royal College of Music; knighted in 1950. British field marshal (Australian gov.-gen. from 1953-60) Sir William Joseph "Uncle Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (d. 1970) on Aug. 6 in Bristol; knighted in 1944; created viscount in 1960. German violinist-composer Adolf Georg Wilhelm Busch (d. 1952) on Aug. 8 in Siegen, Westphalia; brother of Fritz Busch (1890-1951); emigrates to the U.S. in 1939; known as a great Beethoven player. Am. eugenics leader (founder of the Pioneer Fund) Wickliffe Preson Draper (d. 1972) on Aug. 9 in Hopedale, Mass.; son of Draper Looms founder George A. Draper; educated at Harvard U. English "The Brains Trust" philosopher Cyril Edwin Mitchinson (C.E.M.) Joad (d. 1953) on Aug. 12 in Durham; educated at Dragon School and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. gangster-hit man Umberto "the Ghost" Valenti (d. 1922) on Aug. ? in Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Sicily; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910. Scottish chemist John Arnold Cranston (d. 1972) on Aug. 15 in Shanghai, China; educated at Glasgow U. White Russian gen. Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (d. 1938) on Aug. 15; brother of Viktor Pepelyayev (1885-1920). Am. astronomer Milton Lasell Humason (d. 1972) on Aug. 19 in Dodge Center, Minn. Puerto Rican world's oldest living person (Dec. 11, 2006 to Jan. 24, 2007) Emiliano Mercado del Toro (d. 2007) on Aug. 21. French Cubist sculptor (Jewish) Jacques (Chaim Jacob) Lipchitz (d. 1973) on Aug. 22 in Druskininkai, Lithuania; emigrates to France in 1909, and the U.S. in 1940; teacher of Marcel Mouly - Lithuania = land of the Lipchitzes? Austrian dramatist-mgr. Ferdinand Bruckner (Theodor Tagger) (d. 1958) on Aug. 26 in Sofia; son of Anton Bruckner (1824-96). Am. Hallmark Cards founder Joyce Clyde Hall (d. 1982) on Aug. 29 in David City, Neb. Am. "The Raven" writer-journalist Marquis James (d. 1955) on Aug. 29 in Springfield, Mo.; educated at Phillips U. British Pvt. Henry Tandey (d. 1977) on Aug. 30 in Leamington, Worcestershire. Am. Repub. Mont. gov. (1953-61) J. Hugo Aronson (d. 1978) on Sept. 1 in Gallstad, Vastergotland, Sweden. German Nazi Autobahn engineer Fritz Todt (d. 1942) on Sept. 4 in Pforzheim. English fashion designer Capt. Edward Henry Molyneux (d. 1974) (pr. like Mollinucks) on Sept. 5 in Hampstead, London; of Irish and Huguenot descent. Am. baritone John Charles Thomas (d. 1960) on Sept. 6 in Meyersdale, Penn. Swiss diplomat-historian Carl Jacob Burckhardt (d. 1974) on Sept. 10 in Basel. German Gen. Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (d. 1948) on Sept. 11 in Dachau, Bavaria. Am. New York Times publisher (1935-61) (Jewish) Arthur Hayes Sulzberger (d. 1968) on Sept. 12 in New York City; son of Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935); father of Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (1926-) - sells better than burgers? Am. Zionist philosopher-historian (Jewish) Hans Kohn (d. 1971) on Sept. 15 in Prague, Czech.; emigrates to Palestine in 1925, and the U.S. in 1934. Indian independence leader Chempakaraman (Champakaraman) Pillai (Cemapakaraman Pilla) (d. 1934) on Sept. 15 in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), Kerala; of Tamil descent. German U-boat Adm. Karl Doenitz (Dönitz) (d. 1980) on Sept. 16 in Berlin-Grenau. English "Suspicion", "Gigi" actress Isabel Jeans (d. 1985) on Sept. 16 in London; sister of Ursula Jeans (1906-73). German "Mazeppa in The Blue Angel", "In 24 Stunden" actor-singer Hans Philipp August Albers (d. 1960) on Sept. 22 in Hamburg; son of a butcher. Am. cryptography pioneer ("The Man Who Broke Purple") William (Wolf) Frederick Friedman (d. 1969) on Sept. 24 in Kishinev, Bessarabia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1892; husband of Elizabeth Friedman (1892-1980). French (Alsatian) conductor-violinist Charles Munch (Münch) (d. 1968) on Sept. 26 in Strassburg. Am. politician-atty.-ambassador Rush Hudson Limbaugh Sr. (d. 1996) on Sept. 27 in Bolinger County, Mo.; grandfather of Rush Limbaugh (1951-). Japanese Gen. Sosaku Suzuki (d. 1945) on Sept. 27 in Aichi Prefecture. Am. "The Plastic Age" novelist Percy Marks (d. 1956) on Sept. 29 in Covelo, Calif.; grows up in Ukiah, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif., and Harvard U. Am. White House babe "Baby" Ruth Cleveland (d. 1904) on Oct. 3 in New York City; eldest child of five of Grover Cleveland and Frances Cleveland; not the namesake of the Baby Ruth candy bar? British Capt. Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen (d. 1940) on Oct. 8 in Southsea, Hampshire. Am. Curtis Candy Co. candymaker ("Am. Candy Bar King") Otto Y. Schnering (d. 1953) on Oct. 9 in Chicago, Ill. Japanese hawk PM #34 (1937-9), #38 (1940-1), #39 (1941) Prince Fumimaro Konoye (Konoe) (d. 1945) on Oct. 12 in Tokyo; descended from the Fukiwara clan; educated at Tokyo Imperial U. German Catholic nun (Jewish) (St.) Edith Stein (d. 1942) on Oct. 12 in Breslau; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1922. British lt. Reginald Alexander John "Rex" Warneford (d. 1915) on Oct. 15 in Darjeeling, India. Am. historian ("Founding Father of U.S. Diplomatic History") Samuel Flagg Bemis (d. 1973) on Oct. 20 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Clark U., and Harvard U. English physicist Sir James Chadwick (d. 1974) on Oct. 20; discoverer of the neutron. Am. Jolly Green Giant, Marlboro Man, Tony the Tiger advertising pioneer Leo Burnett (d. 1971) on Oct. 21 in St. Johns, Mich. Puerto Rican "Preciosa", "El Cumbanchero" bandleader-composer Rafael Hernandez (d. 1965) on Oct. 24 in Aguadilla. Dominican Repub. dictator (1930-61) Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina (d. 1961) on Oct. 24 in San Cristobal; Haitian descent mother; husband of Lita Milan. Canadian Roman Catholic anti-FDR radio shock jock ("The Fighting Priest") Father Charles Edward Coughlin (d. 1979) on Oct. 25 in Hamilton, Canada; priest at Nat. Shrine of the Little Flower Church in Royal Oak, Mich.; Irish Roman Catholic parents. Am. comedian Fanny Brice (Fannie Borach) (d. 1951) on Oct. 29 in New York City - love that clueless ballerina act? German Gen. Helmuth Otto Ludwig Weidling (d. 1955) on Nov. 2 in Halberstadt, Saxony. Russian "Chapayev" novelist Dmitri Furmanov (d. 1926) on Nov. 7. Soviet NKVD dir. (1934-6) (Jewish) Gengrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda (Yenokh Gershevich Iyeguda) (d. 1938) on Nov. 7 in Rybinsk. Am. "Looney Tunes" composer Carl W. Stalling (d. 1972) on Nov. 10 in Lexington, Mo. Am. "Some Sunday Morning", "Till We Meet Again", "Ain't We Got Fun", "Hooray for Hollywood", "Sleepy Time Gal" songwriter Richard A. Whiting (d. 1938) on Nov. 12 in Peoria, Ill.; father of Margaret Whiting (1924-) and Barbara Whiting Smith (1931-2004). Canadian physician Sir Frederick Grant Banting (d. 1941) on Nov. 14 in Alliston, Ont.; co-discoverer with Charles H. Best (1899-1978) of Canada and J.J.R. Macleod (1876-1935) of insulin (1921); educated at the U. of Toronto. Am. railway heir, diplomat and Dem. N.Y. gov. (1955-9) William Averell Harriman (d. 1986) on Nov. 15 in New York City; son of railroad mogul Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909); brother of E. Roland Harriman (1895-1978); educated at Groton School, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones). German field marshal ("the Desert Fox") (Der Wüstenfuchs) Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (d. 1944) on Nov. 15 in Heidenheim, Wurttemberg. German July 20th Plot Social Dem. politician Julius Leber (d. 1945) on Nov. 16 in Biesheim, Alsace. Italian modernist architect Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (d. 1979) on Nov. 18 in Milan. English "Griffiths in Of Human Bondage", "King Boris in Batman" actor Reginald Denny (Reginald Leigh Dugmore) (d. 1967) on Nov. 20 in Richmond, Surrey; RC airplane enthusiast; not to be confused with Calif. truck driver Reginald Denny (1953-). Am. geneticist Alfred Henry Sturtevant (b. 1970) on Nov. 21 in Jacksonville, Ill.; educated at Columbia U. Am. advertising exec (Jewish) ("Father of Public Relations") Edward Louis Bernays (d. 1995) on Nov. 22 in Vienna, Austria; nephew of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); educated at Cornell U. Am. "Abie's Irish Rose" playwright Anne Nichols (d. 1966) on Nov. 26 in Dales Mill, Ga. Spanish "Generation of '27" poet Pedro Salinas y Serrano (d. 1951) on Nov. 27 in Madrid. Austrian Conservative chancellor (1953-61) Julius Raab (d. 1964) on Nov. 29 in St. Polten, Lower Austria. German "War Cripples" expressionist painter Otto Dix (d. 1969) on Dec. 2 in Untermhaus, Thuringia. Am. aviator Oakley George Kelly (d. 1966) on Dec. 3 in Penn. Am. "Jezebel" actress Fay Okell Bainter (d. 1968) on Dec. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Skippy", "The Clancy Kids", "Always Belittlin'" cartoonist (alcoholic) Percy Lee Crosby (d. 1964) on Dec. 8 in Brooklyn, N.Y. English artist (Jewish) Mark (Marks) Gertler (d. 1939) on Dec. 9 in Spitalfields, London; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; not to be confused with economist Mark Gertler (1951-). British statesman Field Marshal Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (d. 1969) on Dec. 10 in London; dir. of the 1940 Dunkirk evacuation; gov.-gen. #17 of Canada (1946-52). Swedish poet-playwright (Jewish) Nelly Sachs (d. 1970) on Dec. 10 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to Sweden in 1940. Am. cowboy actor Buck (Charles) Jones (Charles Frederick Gebhart) (d. 1942) on Dec. 12 in Vincennes, Indiana; his horse is named Silver. Am. 5'8" blonde-blue actress-producer ("the American Beauty") Katherine Agnew MacDonald (d. 1956) on Dec. 14 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; sister of Mary MacLaren (1896-1985); wife (1910-19) of K. Malcolm Struss, (1924-6) Charles S. Johnson, and (1928-31) Christian Rasmus Holmes (1898-1944). Am. country music singer Alvin Pleasant Delaney "A.P." Carter (d. 1960) (The Carter Family) on Dec. 15 in Maces Spring, Va.; husband of Sara Doughterty Carter (1898-1979); brother-in-law of Maybelle Addington Carter (1909-78). Chinese liberal diplomat-philosopher-writer Hu Shih (Shih-chih) (Hu Hung-hsing) (d. 1962) on Dec. 17 in Shanghai; advocates a gradual adoption of Western ideas along with the dumping of Confucianism. Am. FDR's 6th cousin and lover Margaret Lynch Suckley (d. 1991) on Dec. 20 in Rhinebeck, N.Y.; born in the Wilderstein Mansion; gives FDR the Scottish terrier Fala. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1928-71) (Roman Catholic) John William "Old Jawn" McCormack (d. 1980) on Dec. 21 in Boston, Mass; speaker #45 of the U.S. House (1962-71); Irish Roman Catholic immigrant parents from the 1848 potato famine. Am. Communist-turned-anti-Communist (Jewish) Benjamin "Ben" Gitlow (d. 1965) on Dec. 22 in Elizabethport, N.J.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. German "Piccadilly" dir.-writer Ewald Andre Dupont (d. 1956) on Dec. 25 in Zeitz, Saxony. Am. "Tropic of Capricorn", "Tropic of Cancer" novelist Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980) on Dec. 26 in New York City [Capricorn]. Am. "Destry Rides Again", "Hook, Line and Sinker" film dir. George E. Marshall (d. 1975) on Dec. 29 in Chicago, Ill. French conservative PM (1952-3) Antoine Pinay (d. 1994) on Dec. 30 in Saint-Symphorien-sur-Choise, Rhone. Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood supreme leader (1951-73) (Sunni Muslim) Hassan al-Hudaybe (al Hodeiby) (d. 1973) in Dec. in al-Suwaiha. Anglo-Am. novelist Romer Wilson (Florence Roma Muir Wilson) (d. 1930). Czech "Faithless Marijka" novelist-filmmaker Vladislav Vancura (d. 1942). Am. etcher Arthur William Heintzelman (d. 1965) in Newark, N.J.; moves to Paris in 1921 and invites women to come up and see his etchings? French playwright (gay) Maurice Rostand (d. 1968); son of Edmond Rotand (186-1918) and Rosemonde Gerard (1871-1953); brother of Jean Rostand (1894-1977). German diplomat Hans Thomsen (d. 1968) in Hamburg. Am. "Denishawn" dancer-choreographer Edwin Myers "Ted" Shawn (d. 1972) in Kansas City, Mo.; educated at the U. of Denver; dance partner of wife Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968). French Roman Catholic Cardinal Eugene Tisserant (d. 1972). Am. fashion designer (inventor of the strapless evening gown) Mainbocher (Main Rousseau Bocher) (d. 1976) in Chicago, Ill. Am. artist Justin McCarthy (d. 1977) in Weatherly, Penn. Am. "The Fossil Hunters" abstract painter Edwin Walter Dickinson (d. 1978). Chinese Marxist scholar-poet-politician Kuo Mo-jo (Quo Moruo) (d. 1978). Am. "Gourmet" mag. founder (1941-) Earle R. McAusland (d. 1980). Deaths: Am. "Father of American History" George Bancroft (b. 1800) on Jan. 17. German field marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke (b. 1800). Irish-Am. Proctor and Gamble co-founder James Gamble (b. 1803) on Apr. 29 in Cincinnati, Ohio. U.S. First Lady #11 (1845-9) Sarah Childress Polk (b. 1803) on Aug. 14 in Nashville, Tenn.; in mourning black since hubby James Knox Polk's 1849 death. German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (b. 1804) on June 23 in Gottingen. Am. Ill. militia lt. col. Lewis Crum Bidamon (b. 1806) on Feb. 11 in Nauvoo, Ill. French pres. (1879-87) Francois Paul Jules Grevy (b. 1807) on Sept. 9 in Mont-sous-Vaudrey. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (b. 1807) on Mar. 21 in New York City. Slovak mathematician Joseph Petzval (b. 1807) on Sept. 19 in Vienna; dies a desitute hermit; "I defeated the light, I have it firmly in hand, because there is much darkness in the world too" (last words). Nigerian Anglican bishop Samuel Adjai Crowther (b. 1809). U.S. vice-pres. #15 (1861-5) Hannibal Hamlin (b. 1809) on July 4 in Bangor, Maine. German violinist-composer Fredrik Pacius (b. 1809) on Jan. 8 in Helsinki. Am. Civil War Confed. gen. Albert Pike (b. 1809) on Apr. 2 in Washington, D.C.; on Oct. 23, 1901 the Brig. Gen. Albert Pike Memorial in Washington, D.C. opens to a ceremony attended by thousands of fellow Freemasons, becoming the first (only) outdoor statue (of 18) in Washington, D.C. honoring a Confed. gen., becoming the target of protests. Am. "there's a sucker born every minute" museum and circus promoter P.T. Barnum (b. 1810) on Apr. 7; 1 mo. before his death the New York Evening Sun bows to his request to read his own obituary, and prints it, with the title Great And Only Barnum - He Wanted To Read His Obituary - Here It Is: "More persons, on the whole, are humbugged by believing nothing, than by believing too much." English-born Australian architect Richard Jewell (b. 1810) in Perth. U.S. Repub. atty.-gen. (1876-7) Alphonso Taft (b. 1810) on May 21 in San Diego, Calif. Russian novelist Ivan Goncharov (b. 1812) on Sept. 27 (Sept. 15 Old Style) in St. Petersburg; leaves the memoir An Uncommon Story (pub. 1924), which accuses Ivan Turgenev of stealing his ideas, wishing it to be pub. after his death only if his estate is accused of plagiarism for "historians of Russian literature". Am. Adm. David Dixon Porter (b. 1813) on Feb. 13 in Washington, D.C. Belgian scientist Jean Servais Stas (b. 1813) on Dec. 13 in Brussels. Scottish geologist Sir Andrew Ramsay (b. 1814) on Dec. 9 in Beaumans. Scottish-born Canadian PM #1 (1867-73, 1878-91) Sir John Alexander Macdonald (b. 1815) on June 6 in Ottawa, Ont. French painter Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (b. 1815) on Jan. 21 in Paris. Am. meteorologist William Ferrel (b. 1817) on Sept. 18 in Maywood (near Kansas City), Kan. Am. atty. William Henry Herndon (b. 1818) on Mar. 18 in Springfield, Ill. (pneumonia); dies the same day as his son William "Willie" Herndon. French Provencal writer Joseph Roumanille (b. 1818) on May 24. Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind (b. 1819) on Feb. 9 in La Cote-Saint-Andre (near Grenoble). Am. poet-essayist-editor James Russell Lowell (b. 1819) on Aug. 12 in Cambridge, Mass.; "And what is so rare as a day in June?/ Then, if ever, come perfect days;/ Then Heaven tries Earth if it be in tune,/ And over it softly her warm ear lays." Am. Civil War Union gen. and rear Adm. Samuel Powhatan Carter (b. 1819) on May 26 in Washington, D.C. Am. "Moby-Dick" novelist Herman Melville (b. 1819) on Sept. 28; leaves "Billy Budd, Sailor" (pub. 1924). Am. journalist Donn Piatt (b. 1819): "There is no tyranny so despotic as that of public opinion among a free people." French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (b. 1820) on May 11. Am. Civil War Union Gen. Patrick Edward Connor (b. 1820) on Dec. 17 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. Civil War Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman (b. 1820) on Feb. 14. Romanian PM Ioan Bratianu (b. 1821) on May 16. U.S. Rep. (R-Iowa) (1863-7) Josiah Bushnell Grinnell (b. 1821) on Mar. 31 in Grinnell, Iowa; founder of Grinnell College. German historian Ferdinand Gregorovius (b. 1821) on May 1 in Munich. German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (b. 1823) on Dec. 29 in Berlin: "God made the integers, all else is the work of man." Am. paleontologist Joseph Leidy (b. 1823). Brazilian emperor (1831-89) Pedro II (b. 1825) on Dec. 5 in Paris. English-born Am. Kona coffee manufacturer (b. 1826) on May 18 in Kealakekua, Hawaii. Am. politician George Addison Crawford (b. 1827) on Jan. 26 in Grand Junction, Colo.; namesake of Crawford, Colo. English-born Am. entomologist-actor Harry Edwards (b. 1827) on June 9 in East Harlem, N.Y. Am. "Oahspe" New Age leader John Ballou Newbrough (b. 1828) on Apr. 22 near Las Cruces, N.M. (influenza). Am. Standard Oil magnate Charles Pratt (b. 1830) on May 4; his death leaves John D. Rockefeller as the most powerful man in the oil industry. Russian Theosophy founder Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (b. 1831) - the spiritual more is less? Am. statesman John Owen Dominis (b. 1832) on Aug. 27 in Honolulu, Hawaii; dies 1 week after being made prince consort. German automobile engine inventor Nikolaus August Otto (b. 1832) on Jan. 26 in Cologne. Spanish novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcon (b. 1833) on July 19. English Nat. Secular Society founder and MP (1880-91) Charles Bradlaugh (b. 1833) on Jan. 30 in London: "Better a thousandfold abuse of free speech than denial of free speech. The abuse dies in a day, but the denial slays the life of the people, and entombs the hope of the race." French sculptor Henri Michel Antoine Chapu (b. 1833) on Apr. 21 in Paris. Am. humorist Prentice Mulford (b. 1834): "A person who sets his or her mind on the dark side of life, who lives over and over the misfortunes and disappointments of the past, prays for similar misfortunes and disappointments in the future. If you will see nothing but ill luck in the future, you are praying for such ill luck and will surely get it." Czech journalist-essayist Jan Neruda (b. 1834) on Aug. 22 in Prague. French composer Leo Clement Philibert Delibes (b. 1836) on Jan. 16 in Paris. Hawaiian king #7 (1874-91) Kalakaua I (b. 1836) on Jan. 20 in the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. (Bright's Disease). French politician gen. Georges Boulanger (b. 1837) on Sept. 30 in Brussels (suicide on his own grave at Ixelles Cemetery). Tahitian king (1877-80) Pomare V (b. 1839) on June 12 in Papeete (alcoholism). Chilean pres. (1886-91) Jose Manuel Balmaceda (b. 1840) on Sept. 18 in Santiago. Canadian-Am. "O Canada" musician Calix Lavallee (b. 1842) on Jan. 21 in Boston, Mass. French pedal bicycle inventor Pierre Lallement (b. 1843) on Aug. 29 in Boston, Mass.; dies in obscurity. English "Dorothy" composer Alfred Cellier (b. 1844) on Dec. 28 in Bloomsbury, London. Russian mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya (b. 1850) on Feb. 10. French poet Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854) on Nov. 10 in Marseille (cancer) - the good die young? French pointillist painter Georges Seurat (b. 1859) on Mar. 29 (meningitis?); dies having never sold one of his works; "Our poor friend killed himself by overwork" (Jules Signac) - it was all pointless? Irish nationalist leader Charles Stuart Parnell (b. 1846) on Oct. 6 in Brighton, England; dies of a broken heart?; 150K attend his funderal at Glasnevin Cemetery; Oct. 6 becomes Ivy Day, when Irish Home Rule supporters wear a sprig of you know what in their clothing. Am. architect John Wellborn Root (b. 1850) on Jan. 15 in Chicago, Ill. (pneumonia). Dutch art dealer Theo van Gogh (b. 1857) on Jan. 25 in Utrecht (syphilis).

1892 - The Ellis Island Pledge of Allegiance Year?

Annie Moore (1877-1924) Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931) Abbas II Helmy (Hilmi) of Egypt (1874-1944) Sir John Sparrow David Thompson of Canada (1845-94) Whitelaw Reid of the U.S. (1837-1912) James Baird Weaver of the U.S. (1833-1912) Giovanni Giolitti of Italy (1842-1928) Count Sergei Witte of Russia (1849-1915) Dadabhai Naoroji of Britain (1825-1917) Jose Maria Reina Barrios of Guatemala (1854-98) Andres Bonifacio of the Philippines (1863-97) James Keir Hardie of Scotland (1856-1915) Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain of Britain (1863-1937) John L. Sullivan v. Gentleman Jim Corbett, Sept. 7, 1892 George Shiras Jr. of the U.S. (1832-1924) Jose Rizal of the Philippines (1861-96) John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) Marshall Field (1834-1906) Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940) Henri Moissan (1852-1907) Arnold Pick (1851-1924) Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) John Froelich (1849-1933) Thomas Neill Cream (1850-92) 'Abdu'l-Baha (1844-1921) Lizzie Borden (1860-1927) Ned Christie (1852-92) Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) David T. Abercrombie (1867-1931) Ezra H. Fitch (1866-1930) Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) 'At the Moulin Rouge' by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 'The Kiss' by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) Sir Arthur Grimble (1888-1956) Maxwell House Hotel Joel Owsley Cheek (1852-1935) Maxwell House Coffee, 1892 Charles Edward Barber (1840-1917) Liberty Head Silver Half Dollar, 1892-1915 Madame Helena Modjeska (1840-1909) Otis Skinner (1858-1942) Knut Wicksell (1851-1926) Arne Garborg (1851-1924) Erich von Drygalski (1865-1949) Frederick Eugene Ives (1856-1937) Henry Luke Bolley (1865-) Francois de Curel (1854-1928) William Painter (1838-1906) Henry Drushel Perky (1843-1906) Shredded Wheat Sir James Dewar (1843-1923) Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) Edwin A. Rutenber (1876-1962) John Fletcher Hurst (1834-1903) Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926) Carl Anton Larsen (1860-1924) Sir William Osler (1849-1919) Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932) Eusepia Palladino (1854-1918) George Sontag (1864-) Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919) John Muir (1838-1914) Iwan Gilkin (1858-1924) Daisy Greville, Countess of Warwick (1861-1938) Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902) Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965) Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93) Senda Berenson Abbott (1868-1954) George Edwardes (1855-1915) Ellen Gould White (1827-1915) Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938) Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1842-1924) Edward Capehart O'Kelley (1857-1904) John Joseph 'Dirty Jack' Doyle (1869-1958) Father Justinas Pranatis (1861-1917) Salada brand tea Phil May (1864-1903) Phil May Example The Card Players' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1892 'A Virgin' by Abbott Handerson Thayer, 1892-3 Le Pétomane (1857-1945) Masonic Temple Building, Chicago, 1892 Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Corn Palace, 1892 Victor Horta (1861-1947) Hotel Tassel, Brussels, 1892-3 Peter Charles Larkin (1855-1930) Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) John Wellborn Root (1850-91) Masonic Temple Bldg., Chicago, 1892 Henry Codman Potter (1835-1908) Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 1892 The Denver Post, 1892 F.E. Edbrooke (1840-1921) Brown Palace Hotel, 1892 Duke of Yorks Theatre, 1892 Ellis Island, 1892

1892 On Jan. 1 after Castle Garden becomes unable to accommodate the flow, Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay about 1 mi. SW of Battery Park opens as the first Federal Immigration station, no longer under the control of New York and its famous corruption, which let "paupers" and other "undesirables" in; instead, the feds begin to close immigration down in their own, more bureaucratic way; between this year and 1924 22M immigrate; the first immigrant this year is 15-y.-o. Annie Moore (1877-1924) (born on Jan. 1) from Ireland; she dies poor in Lower East Side, N.Y. as Annie Moore Schayer. On Jan. 7 Egyptian khedive (since 1879) Sir Tewfik Pasha (b. 1852) dies in Heluan Palace near Cairo, and on Jan. 8 his eldest son Abbas II Helmy (Hilmi) (Hilmy) (1874-1944) becomes the last khedive of Egypt (until Dec. 19, 1914). On Jan. 13 steamship Namehow sinks in the China Sea, killing 414. On Feb. 12 Pres. Abraham Lincoln's birthday is declared a U.S. nat. holiday. On Feb. 29 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in Church of the Holy Trinity v. the U.S. that foreign Christian ministers are not foreign laborers under the 1885 U.S. Alien Contract Labor Law because the U.S. is a Christian nation, and that makes them exempt, with Justice Brewer writing the soundbytes: "Nor are we bound by any expressions in the Constitution, as some have strangely supposed, either not to punish at all, or to punish indiscriminately the like attacks upon the religion of Mahomet or of the Grand Lama, and for this plain reason, that the case assumes that we are a Christian people, and the morality of the country is deeply engrafted upon Christianity, and not upon the doctrines or worship of those impostors", "These, and many other matters which might be noticed, add a volume of unofficial declarations to the mass of organic utterances that this is a Christian nation", and "It is a familiar rule, that a thing may be within the letter of the statute and yet not within the statute, because not within its spirit, nor within the intention of its makers", introducing the Soft Plain Meaning Rule, in opposition to textualism, which later pisses-off Justice Antonin Scalia, who calls it "nothing but an invitation to judicial lawmaking"; in 1905 Brewer pub. The United States: A Christian Nation, containing the soundbyte: "But in what sense can it be called a Christian nation? Not in the sense that Christianity is the established religion or that people are in any matter compelled to support it. On the contrary, the Constitution specifically provides that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." Neither is it Christian in the sense that all of its citizens are either in fact or name Christian. On the contrary, all religions have free scope within our borders. Numbers of our people profess other religions, and many reject all. Nor is it Christian in the sense that a profession of Christianity is a condition of holding office or otherwise engaging in public service, or essential to recognition either politically or socially. In fact, the government as a legal organization is independent of all religions. Nevertheless, we constantly speak of this republic as a Christian Nation - in fact, as the leading Christian Nation of the world. This popular use of the term certainly has significance. It is not a mere creation of the imagination. It is not a term of derision but has substantial basis - one which justifies its use." On Mar. 15 liberal pres. (since 1873) Justino Rufino Barrios (b. 1835) is killed in Chalchuapa, El Salvador while leading an army against Mexico over the disputed coffee-producing Soconusco (Nahuatl "xoconostle" = prickly pear cactus fruit) region in S Chiapas, and his pint-sized son Jose Maria Reina "Reinita" Barrios (1854-98) becomes pres. of Guatemala (until Feb. 8, 1898), building up Guatemala City to look like Paris, running the printing presses and creating inflation, while caving in to the big landowners and helping them crush the mestizo Indian peasants, ending his father's liberal era - somebody ought to what? On Apr. 15 the General Electric Co. is formed by the merger of the Edison Gen. Electric Co. of Schenectady, N.Y. and the Thomson-Houston Electric Co. of Lynn, Mass., backed by Drexel, Morgan & Co. On Apr. 19 after 160-acre plots are allocated to individual Indians, the Okla. Land Run of 1892 opens 3.5M acres of the Cheyenne-Arapaho Rez. in WC Okla. to mainly white homesteaders, incl. some African-Ams., who claim 400+ lots in the new town of Arapaho, Okla. in Custer County, who mainly become cattle ranchers. In Apr. the Johnson County Cattle War (Powder River War) (Wyoming Range War) (1889-93) in NE Wyo. peaks, seeing large cattle operators recruit 25 Tex. gunmen to form the vigilante Invaders group to assassinate enemies of their free range, causing Sheriff Angus to form a 200-man possee, after which federal troops from Ft. McKinney intervene and rescue the Invaders and put them in jail, but it costs so much to house them that they are all released and disappear. On May 15 Italian finance minister (since 1890) Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) becomes PM of Italy (until Dec. 15, 1893), going on to become PM 5x by 1921. On May 28 Dunbar, Scotland-born Am. conservationist ("John of the Mountains") ("the Father of Nat. Parks") John Muir (1838-1914) and a group of professors from UCB and Stanford U. found the Sierra Club in a 14-room mansion in San Francisco, Calif. to protect the Sierra Nevada, with Muir as pres. #1 (until Dec. 24, 1914), going on to get federal protection for the Yosemite Valley and get Glacier Nat. Park and Mount Rainier Nat. Park established. On May 29 Baha'u'llah (Mirza Husayn-'Ali-i-Nuri) (b. 1817) dies, and his eldest son ("the Master") Abdul-Baha (`Abdu'l-Bahá) (1844-1921) ("servant of the glory of God"), living in a Turkish penal colony in Acre, Palestine becomes leader of the Baha'i Faith (until Nov. 28, 1921); he is freed in 1908 - you're unbelievable? On June 7-10 after rejecting James G. Blaine, the 1892 Repub. Nat. Convention in Minneapolis, Minn. grudgingly renominates unpopular Pres. Benjamin Harrison (whose wife Caroline dies in the White House this year after becoming the first First Lady to give a public speech), and nominates Ohio-born New York newspaper publisher and U.S. ambassador (to France and Britain) Whitelaw Reid (1837-1912) for vice-pres. after Levi Parsons Morton pisses-off Harrison for failing to support a bill to enforce voting rights for blacks in the South against a Dem. filibuster, after which he becomes gov. of N.Y. (1895-6); on June 21-23 the 1892 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. renominates former pres. Grover Cleveland on the first ballot for a record 3rd time (1st time that a former U.S. pres. is renominated by a major party), with former Ill. Rep. Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) for vice-pres.; on July 4 the Am. West-based free-silver People's (Populist) Party (founded 1891; dissolved 1908) holds its first nat. convention in Omaha, Neb., and nominates Gen. James Baird Weaver (1833-1912) of Iowa for pres. and James Gaven Field (1826-1902) of Va. for vice-pres., and on July 4 ratifies the Omaha Platform, "a second declaration of independence", attempting to return to placing people above corporate and financial interests, advocating a graduated income tax, secret ballot, direct election of U.S. senators, and an 8-hour workday - return? In June after his relations with Pres. Harrison become strained, U.S. secy. of state (since 1889) James. G. Blaine resigns. In the summer lifelong Austrian bureaucrat Alois Hitler is promoted to Higher Customs Officer at Passau in Germany near the Austrian border, followed in Apr. 1893 by a higher post in Linz, from which he retires on June 25, 1895 to Hafeld village, 30 mi. SW of Linz; little "Adi" (Adolf) is a Muttersohnchen (momma's boy), living with half-brother Alois (7 years older), and half-sister Angela (5 years older); on Mar. 23, 1893 his brother Edmund is born. Good guys, bad attitude, or, Feed Me, Little Shop of Horrors? On July 1 Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Scottish philanthropist owner of Carnegie Steel Co. locks out workers at his plant in Homestead, Penn., causing a strike on July 6, which is stunk-up by mean thug Pinkerton guards, followed by militia; the strike is broken by Nov.; the word "fink" is first used to denote a traitorous rat working for the bosses. On July 1 the Sontag Brothers botch a train robbery near St. Peter, Minn, causing Pinkerton detectives to get on their case, and after robbing a train in Collis, Calif., George Sontag (b. 1864) is captured, and his brother John (b. 1861) goes on the run for year until he is killed in a gunfight at the Stone Corral on June 10, 1893; George is pardoned in 1908 and spends the rest of his lecturing on the follies of a life of crime. On July 4 the Second Franco-Dahomean War (ends Jan. 15, 1894) sees king (since 1889) Behanzin of Dahomey (d. 1906) lead his male and Amazon warriors against the Frogs, er, French, led by Col. Alfred-Amedee Dodds (1842-1922) in a last ditch attempt to save his kingdom from takeover, but ends up surrendering in 1894 and getting shipped to Martinique and later Algeria; the French install his distant relative (army chief of staff) Agoli-Agbo as the 12th and last king of Dahomey (until 1900) (first 1620), but he refuses to sign papers handing over the country as a hello-cowgirl-in-the-sand French protectorate for the next six years. On July 4-26 after Lord Salisbury dissolves the English Parliament, the gen. election leaves the Conservatives with the greatest number of seats, but still in a minority against the combined Liberals and Irish Nationalists (Home Rulers), even though the latter are split into pro and anti Parnell factions; on Aug. 11 British PM (since July 25, 1886) Salisbury resigns, and on Aug. 15 William E. Gladstone becomes British PM again (until Mar. 2, 1894) (4th and last time), forming his 4th cabinet, dependent on Irish Nationalist support, which tries in vain to implement the Newcastle Program. On July 10 the first concrete-paved street is built in Bellefontaine, Ohio, former home of Shawnee leader Blue Jacket - from number 10 to number what on the coverup chart? On July 19 Pittsburgh, Penn.-born Yale-educated George Shiras Jr. (1832-1924) is appointed by Pres. Harrison as U.S. Supreme Court justice #53 to fill the vacancy left by Joseph P. Bradley (1870-92), keeping the court at nine members; on July 26 he is sworn-in (until Feb. 23, 1903), going on to support Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), and become the judge who allegedly decides the vote ruling the 1894 U.S. income tax unconstitutional, causing the 16th Amendment to be passed in 1913 to get around it - they're gonna do it shiras shootin'? On July 21 Pres. Harrison issues Proclamation 335 - 400th Anniv. of the Discovery of America by Columbus, containing the soundbyte: "Columbus stood in his age as the pioneer of progress and enlightenment. The system of universal education is in our age the most prominent and salutary feature of the spirit of enlightenment, and it is peculiarly appropriate that the schools be made by the people the center of the day's demonstration. "Let the national flag float over every schoolhouse in the country and the exercises be such as shall impress upon our youth the patriotic duties of American citizenship. In the churches and in the other places of assembly of the people let there be expressions of gratitude to Divine Providence for the devout faith of the discoverer and for the divine care and guidance which has directed our history and so abundantly blessed our people." In Aug. The Denver Post (originally The Evening Post) newspaper is founded by supporters of Grover Cleveland with $50K capital to promote Colo. Dems.; too bad, Cleveland opposes govt. purchase of silver, causing the newspaper to suspend pub. in Aug. 1893, after which in June 1894 it is refounded with $100K by a new group of investors, who boost sales via "flamboyant circus journalism", changing the name to Denver Evening Post on Nov. 3, 1893, and Denver Post on Jan. 1, 1901. In Aug. U.S. Baptist minister's son Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931) (a Freemason and Christian Socialist) (cousin of Edward Bellamy) writes the Pledge of Allegiance for the 400th anniv. of Columbus' discovery of White Grab-Bag-Land and to promote the schoolhouse flag movement; it is first pub. on Sept. 8 in The Youth's Companion (circ. 500K); on Oct. 21 (Columbus Day) U.S. schoolchildren recite it for the first time; the original version is "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"; he resists the urge to incl. the French Rev. catchword "equality", saying "No, that would be too fanciful, too many thousands of years off in realization"; too bad, he incl. the "Bellamy salute", requiring the arm to be held straight out towards the flag (later adopted by the Nazis), becoming the first U.S. National Socialism? On Aug. 4 Andrew Jackson Borden and Abby Durfee Gray (Borden) (Sarah A. Morse), the father and stepmother of Lizzie Borden (1860-1927) are killed with an axe in Fall River, Mass., at 92 Second St.; although everybody thinks she did it, she is acquitted by an all-male jury in Bedford, Mass. on June 20, 1893; "Lizzie Borden took an axe/ And gave her mother forty whacks./ When she saw what she had done/ She gave her father forty-one." On Aug. 8 Prince Ito Hirobumi becomes PM #5 of Japan (until Aug. 31, 1896). On Aug. 18 France and Russia take the next step against their mutual fear of Germany and sign a military convention, which takes over a year to ratify in secret, freaking Germany with the threat of being surrounded, causing it to increase ties with Austria-Hungary. On Aug. 27 fire seriously damages New York City's original Metropolitan Opera House. On Sept. 6 after whales in the Arctic are overfished, the Dundee Whaling Expedition (ends 1893) leaves Scotland in four steam-powered whaling ships, but harvest no whales; Scottish oceanographer William Speirs Bruce (1867-1921) takes part, exploring the Antarctic coastline; next Jan. 8 Capt. Thomas Robertson discovers Dundee Island. On Oct. 1 after the Am. Baptist Education Society founded it in 1890 as a coeducational secular institution to replace the first Baptist univ. of the same name that closed in 1886, the U. of Chicago in Ill. opens on land worth $200K donated in 1890 by Chicago dept. store king Marshall Field (1834-1906), who also donates $1M to found the Chicago Nat. History (Field) Museum (Columbian Museum) (changed to Field Museum in 1905), housed in the Chicago World's Fair Fine Arts Bldg. in 1894, with another $4M for a new white marble bldg. in Grant Park plus $4M for maintenance. On Oct. 1 John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) starts his 12-year tour as dir. of the U.S. Marine Band. On Oct. 5 the Dalton Gang is decimated while trying to rob two banks at the same time in Coffeyville, Kan. On Oct. 18 the first long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York City is formally opened. On Oct. 28 anchor liner Romania sinks off Corsica, killing 113. On Nov. 2 after a 5-year siege on a fortified log cabin in Wauhillau near Tahlequal, Indian Country (Okla.), U.S. marshals surround Cherokee senator Ned Christie (b. 1852), accused of the 1887 killing of U.S. marshal Dan Maples, and dislodge him using dynamite and a cannon, then assassinate him, and take his corpse to Fayetteville, Ark. and Ft. Smith, where it is paraded around and photographed as a souvenir; somebody else later claims to see Bud Trainer do it. On Nov. 8 former Pres. Cleveland beats incumbent Benjamin Harrison by 5.6M popular and 277 electoral votes to 5.2M popular and 145 electoral votes; Weaver gets 1M popular and 22 electoral votes, and his Populist (People's) Party carries five states (Kansas, N.D., Colo., Neb., Idaho), electing five senators, ten reps., and three govs. (Colo., Ky., N.D.), becoming the first third party to poll more than 10% of the vote in a U.S. Pres. Election (1912, 1924, 1968); Cleveland becomes the first (only) pres. to win non-consecutive terms in the White House. On Nov. 15 Scottish-Canadian physician Thomas Neill Cream (b. 1850) allegedly confesses to being Jack the Ripper as he is being hanged for murder in London. On Nov. 24 John Abbott retires, and on Dec. 5 Conservative Sir John Sparrow David Thompson (1845-94) from Nova Scotia (who gave a big speech in 1885 justifying the execution of Metis leader Louis Riel, and wrote Canada's first criminal code) becomes PM #4 of Canada (until Dec. 12, 1894), becoming the first Nova Scotian and first Roman Catholic Canadian PM, preaching loyalty to the British crown, religious tolerance for you know whats, and no annexation by the devil-dog Protestant U.S.; the first Canadian Criminal Code is passed, incl. a statue criminalizing blasphemous libel, pub. of material exposing the Christian religion to ridicule or contempt or shocking the feelings of Christians. In Nov. Norwegian Capt. Carl Anton Larsen (1860-1924) discovers fossils in the Antarctic, becoming the first person to ski in Antarctica next Dec. on the namesake Larsen Ice Shelf, going on to found the Antarctic whaling industry. On Dec. 5 after efforts by Methodist Episcopal Church bishop (chancellor #1) John Fletcher Hurst (1834-1903), the U.S. Congress passes a bill establishing American U. in Washington, D.C., which is signed by Pres. Benjamin Harrison on Feb. 24, 1893, opening for classes on Oct. 6, 1914 with 28 students; in 1949 it merges with the Wash. College of Law (founded in 1896 as the first coed law school in D.C.); it goes on to become known for political activism; alumni incl. Alice Paul, Robert Byrd, Goldie Hawn, David Gregory, Neil Cavuto, Judy Smith, Barry Levinson, and Star Jones. The Reinsurance Treaty is replaced by the Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention, which is not made public until 1918; it says that if Germany attacks France, Russia will attack Germany, while if Germany attacks Russia, France will attack Germany. Count Sergei Witte (1849-1915) becomes Russian finance minister (until 1903), presiding over the industrialization of Russia, attracting foreign investment and putting Russia on the gold standard in 1897. Indian-born Parsi Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) becomes the first male Asian British MP, elected for Finsbury, London for the Liberal Party (until 1895); as a Zoroastrian he refuses to take his oath on the Bible, substituting the "Khordeh Avesta"; his asst. is Muhammed Ali Jinnah, future founder of Pakistan. Scottish Socialist James Keir Hardie (1856-1915) becomes the first Labour member of the English Parliament. 29-y.-o. well-groomed Conservative Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain (1861-1937), son of Liberal Birmingham mayor Joseph Chamberlain, and half-brother of Conservative Neville Chamberlain becomes a British MP, and goes on to a 45-year career (until 1937). Ida Wells-Barnett begins an anti-lynching crusade in the Am. NE. A Pan-Slav Conference is held in Cracow, promoting the Pan-Slavist movement, which later gets in a Darwinian duel with Pan-Germanism, leading the latter to declare that their "Aryan race" is the master race and the Slav race is the inferior slave race? - buttons come off, somebody's gotta sew them on? Britain and Germany agree on Cameroons (Cameroon) - throw another shrimp on the barbie, mate? Britain declares a protectorate over the Solomon Islands to secure a labor supply for Queensland. Britain declares a protectorate over the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (annexed in 1915), with Sir Sir Arthur Francis Grimble (1888-1956) as gov., who learns Gilbertese and begins producing writings introducing them to the West - Funafuti? Jose Rizal (1861-96) returns from exile in Spain to the Philippines and founds the liberal La Liga Filipina (Philippine League), causing the govt. to banish him to Mindanao; meanwhile working class revolutionary Andres Bonifacio (1863-97) organizes the Katipunan secret rev. society. Emperor Menelik II founds Addis Ababa (New Flower) as the capital of Ethiopia. Ottoman Sultan Abul (Abd-el) Hamid II exiles Jewish immigrants to Palestine - they got lucky? The seat of govt. of French Somaliland is transferred from Obock to Djibouti on the trade route to Ethiopia, but the pokey French take u ntil WWI to complete a railway to Addis Ababa. Rochester, Kent, England-born Sir Martin Conway (1856-1937) claims to become the first to scale 23K-ft. Himalayan peaks; later measurements prove he only reched 22,322 ft. (6,804m); in 1896-7 he explores the interior of Spitsberger, and in 1898 he explores and surveys the Bolivian Andes, scaling Mt. Ancohuma (Sorata) (2,1086 ft./6,427m), stopping 50 ft. short of the summit of Mt. Aconcagua (22,831 ft./6,959m), then exploring Tierra del Fueto and failing to scale Mt. Sarmiento. Robert Peary of the U.S. explores Greenland and proves it to be an island. The Capetown-Johannesburg Railroad is completed. The German railway from the Bosphorus to Angora (Ankara) (begun 1888) is completed. San Francisco, Calif. begins operating electric streetcars, which are half as expensive to build and one-six as expensive to operate as cable cars; next July 2 the first double-decker streetcar in the U.S. begins operation there. After Pope Pius IX proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary on Dec. 8, 1854, Maria Cristina of Austria (Maria Christina Désirée Henriette Felicitas Rainiera von Habsburg-Lothringen, und Österreich), Queen Regent of Spain proclaims Mary of the Immaculate Conception patroness of the entire Spanish infantry. U.S. cable railway trackage peaks next year at 305 mi., after which every town except San Fran abandons cable cars. 1.1M-acre Pike Nat. Forest near Colorado Springs, Colo. is established, named after explorer Zebulon Pike, incl. Pikes Peak and the Garden of the Gods, filled with pink-orange Pikes Peak granite; rivers draining the forest incl. the South Platte River and Fountain Creek; Rampart Reservoir is located within the forest. Jose Marti begins pub. a journal in the U.S. for Cuban independence. The Am. Type Founders' Co. is founded to amalgamate most of the large U.S. type foundries. Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) becomes pres. #1 of the new Am. Psychological Assoc. (APA), founded at Clark U. in Worcester, Mass. in July by 26 men with a $500 contribution by Robert Pearsall Smith of the Am. Society for Psychical Research, becoming the largest prof. org. of psychologists in the U.S. and Canada, with 137K members by 2012. The Am. Jewish Historical Society is founded, becoming the oldest Ethnic History society to survive to modern times; it is followed by the Jewish Historical Society of England (1893), Polish Am. Historical Assoc. (1942), Italian Historical Society of America (1949), Society for Italian Historical Studies (1956), Am. Conference for Irish Studies (1960), Immigration and Ethnic History Society (originally Immigration History Group and Immigration History Society) (1965), and Am. Italian Historical Assoc. (1966). Polish-born Madame Helena Modjeska (1840-1909) and Mass.-born Otis Skinner (1858-1942) become a big star duo on Broadway. The Portland Art Museum in Oregon is founded to focus on NW Native Am. arts. Konigsberg, Germany-born explorer Erich Dagobert von Drygalski (1865-1949) explores West Greenland (until 1893). Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940) becomes a medical missionary among the fishermen and Eskimos in Labrador, raising funds via lectures in the U.S., Canada, and England, and forming the Internat. Grenfell Assoc. in 1912-4 along with the King George V Seaman's Inst. at St. John's, Newfoundland in 1912; he is knighted in 1927. Italian medium Eusepia Palladino (1854-1918) begins giving seances in Milan, causing a sensation and convincing Cesare Lombroso et al.; too bad, she is later exposed as a fraud and trickster. Am. Baptist minister Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) et al. form the nondenominational Brotherhood of the Kingdom to promote the Social Gospel Movement, dropping literal belief in the Bible but using it as an inspiration for creating the "Kingdom of God on Earth", pushing the idea that progress is all positive until he hits the iceberg of WWI? Tim the Railway Dog (-1902), a small mongrel dog begins begging for coins in London's Paddington Station for the widows' and orphans' fund of a British railroad; when he dies his body is put in a glass case with a coin slot so he can continue his work. The Abercrombie & Fitch Co. is founded to market sporting goods by David T. Abercrombie (1867-1931) and Ezra H. Fitch (1866-1930). The Maxwell House Hotel in Nashville, Tenn. begins serving the special Maxwell House brand coffee blend invented by wholesale grocer Joel Owsley Cheek (1852-1935); Pres. Theodore Roosevelt later (Oct. 21, 1907) allegedly declares it "good to the last drop", which becomes the slogan; it goes on to capture one-third of the U.S. coffee market, and become the #1 seller in the U.S. until the late 1980s; in 1928 it is acquired by the Postum Co. (later called Gen. Foods). The cotton boll weevil (beetle) (Anthonomus grandis) is discovered near Brownsville, Tex. after it crossed the Rio Grande River from Mexico, reaching SE Ala. by 1909 going 40-160 mi./year, penetrating all cotton-growing regions of the U.S. by the mid-1920s, adding to the devastation of the Depression; in 1949 it reaches Venezuela, followed in 1950 by Colombia, Brazil in 1983, and Paraguay and Argentina in the 1990s; in 1978 the U.S. Boll Weevil Eradication Program is launched. Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938) debuts in Tbilisi, going on to appear at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow in 1899, becoming the #1 Russian bass, then appearing in the West in 1901 at La Scala, followed by the Metropolitan Opera in 1907; too bad the 1917 Russian Rev. causes him to flee to Finland then Paris for life; he becomes known for his great Boris Godunov and Don Quixote. Antonin Dvorak becomes dir. of the New York City Nat. Conservatory of Music of Am. (until 1895). French flatulist (prof. farter) Le Petomane (Pétomane) (Joseph Pujol) (1857-145) begins performing at the Moulin Rouge in Paris, setting up his own travelling show in 1894 called the Theatre Pompadour, then retiring at the outbreak of WWI and opening a biscuit factory in Toulon. The U.S. Mint begins producing the Liberty Head Silver Half Dollar (until 1916), designed by Charles Edward Barber (1840-1917), who succeeded his father William Barber as chief engraver #6 in 1879; the same design is used on the dime and quarter, becoming the last time coins of different denominations share the same design; meanwhile the U.S. Columbian Exposition Quarter features Queen Isabella I (1451-1504). English caricaturist Phil May (1864-1903) of St. Stephen's Review becomes famous for his wit and economy of line, going on to join the staff of Punch in 1896. Emile Berliner (1851-1929) founds the U.S. Gramophone Co. in Washington, D.C., selling 7-in. disc records starting in Nov. 1894; in 1897 the U.K. Gramophone Co. is founded in London by William Barry Owen and Trevor Williams to partner with Emile Berliner's co., followed by a German branch in 1898. Salada brand tea is founded in Montreal, Canada by Peter Charles Larkin (1855-1930) to sell tea packaged in foil, replacing tea chests, becoming popular and founding a new HQ in 1917 in Boston, Mass., known for large bronze doors depicting the history of the Ceylon tea trade designed by Henry Wilson; in 1969 it is acquired by Kellogg, who sells it in 1988 to Redco Foods. Rutenber Manufacturing Co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Edwin A. Rutenber (1876-1962) to manufacture internal-combustion engines for vehicles, starting with a 1-cylinder engine; in 1898 they produce the first 4-cylinder engine in the U.S.; in June 1902 they change their name to Western Motor Co. and relocate to Logansport, Ind.; Rutenber sells out in 1912, and it is renamed Rutenber Motor Co. U.S. Rubber Co. markets the first rubber-soled shoes in the U.S., which become popular, causing Spalding Sports Co. to begin marketing basketball shoes in 1907. Sports: On Jan. 8-Mar. 7 the 1892 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Ottawa Hockey Club defeat the Montreal Hockey Club 4-3 on Jan. 8 then lose it 1-0 to them on Mar. 7. On Mar. 11 the first public game of Basketball is played in the Springfield, Mass. YMCA in front of a crowd of 200; the student team defeats the faculty team 5-1; Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965) scores the only faculty basket, then later this year becomes head football coach at the U. of Chicago (until 1932). John Joseph "Dirty Jack" Doyle (1869-1958) becomes the first player in ML baseball to be used as a pinch hitter. In July the "Most Shameful Home Run of All Time" is scored when Cap Anson of the Chicago White Stockings hits a fly ball to center in the 8th inning against the Philadelphia Quakers, and it lodges in the doghouse, used to store numbers for the manual scoreboard, and Ed Delahanty gets stuck trying to get the ball until freed by Sam Thompson, allowing Anson to score an "inside-the-doghouse homer". On Sept. 7 in New Orleans, La. the First Heavyweight Title Boxing Match fought with gloves under the I-think-you're-crazy-just-like-me Marquess of Queensbury Rules ends when 26-y.-o. 178-lb. James John "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (1866-1933) ("Father of Modern Boxing") knocks out 33-y.-o. 212-lb. "Boston Strongboy" John Lawrence Sullivan (1858-1918) in the 21st round (Sullivan's only prof. KO) to win the first world heavyweight boxing title (until 1897); the referee is Prof. John Duffy; months earlier, Sullivan was knocked out by a fluke punch from Mrs. Hessie Donahue, wife of boxing school owner Charles Converse of Worcester, Mass.? On Sept. 28 the world's first Night Am.-Rules Football Game is played in Mansfield, Penn. by teams from Mansfield State Normal School (later Mansfield U.) and Wyoming Seminary of Kingston, Penn., using the newfangled electric lights, but they are so dim that it ends after 20 min. and 10 plays at halftime with a 0-0 tie after several players run into a light pole; there are no names or numbers on uniforms, and the ball is larger and rounder than modern-day footballs, resembling a basketball with laces. On Nov. 19 Harvard U. plays football against Yale U. in Springfield, Mass., introducing the Flying Wedge at the start of the 2nd half in place of the usual Princeton V (V Trick). In winter Lithuanian-born Senda Berenson Abbott (1868-1954) of Smith College invents Women's Basketball, with modified rules to keep women from "nervous fatigue", with players assigned zones to minimize movement, and a smaller basketball; on Mar. 22, 1893 the first women's basketball game is played at Smith College; men are not allowed to watch; in 1896 the first intercollegiate women's basketball game is played by Stanford U. and UCB; in 1976 women's basketball becomes an official sport of the Olympic Games. The U. of Md. Terrapins Football Team plays its first season, becoming a rival of the Naval Academy team. Architecture: On Sept. 10 the Duke of York's Theatre (originally the Trafalgar Square Theatre until 1895) in St. Martin's Lane in Westminster, West End, London (cap. 900), designed by Walter Emden for Frank Wyatt and Violete Melnotte opens with "Wedding Eve", going on to debut J.M. Barrie's "Peter Pan" on Dec. 27, 1904. Pont Alexandre III Bridge over the Seine River in Paris, named for Russian tsar Alexander III is completed, pissing-off the Germans, who see it as a slap in the face after the Franco-Russian alliance that puts two enemy armies on its W-E borders. The sandstone and red granite atrium-style Brown Palace Hotel at 17th St. and Tremont Place in the Capitol Hill area of Denver, Colo. is built, designed by architect Frank E. "F.E." Edbrooke (1840-1921) and named after owner Henry C. Brown, becoming one of the first fireproof bldgs. in the U.S., becoming Denver's tallest bldg. (until ); in 1959 22-story 231-room Brown Palace West is built directly across Tremont Pl.; famous guests incl. Molly Brown (1 week after the RMS Titanic disaster), Denver crime boss Jefferson "Soapy" Smith, Chinese pres. Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Queen Marie of Romania, U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Warren G. Harding, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Bill Clinton, and The Beatles. On Dec. 27 Protestant Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of New York #7 Henry Codman Potter (1834-1908), defender of the saloon as the "poor man's club" starts building the Cathedral of St. John the Divine at 112th St. and Amerstdam Ave. in New York City; it is planned to be the world's largest cathedral, 601 ft. long, 146 ft. at the nave, 320 ft. at the transept; the east end is in Romanesque-Byzantine style, the nave and west end in Gothic style; they are still working on it a cent. later. The Corn Palace (made of maize) is built in Mitchell, S.D., and each year its exterior is redesigned with murals made out of corn, grass, wild oats, brome and blue grass et al. to wow tourists - load the buggy, Mabel, and let's giddyap? The 22-story 302-ft.-high Masonic Temple Bldg. in Chicago, Ill. (begun in 1891) (demolished in 1939), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) and his partner John Wellborn Root (1850-91) is completed, becoming the first major skeleton skyscraper, and world's tallest bldg. - Masons do it in the sky? Belgian architect Victor Horta (1861-1947) designs the Hotel Tassel in Brussels for Belgian scientist Edmond Tassel, becoming the first Art Noveau bldg., known for its "whiplash" style. The marble Washington Square Arch in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, N.Y. is built to celebrate the centennial of the 1879 inauguration of Pres. George Washington; it forms the grand southern terminus of Fifth Ave. Inventions: Henry Drushel Perky (1843-1906) invents shredded wheat (small pillow-shaped wheat biscuits) in Denver, Colo. to help his stomach troubles; with friend William Ford of Watertown, N.Y. he develops a machine to produce it, and peddles it from a horse-drawn wagon while trying to sell the machines, until Battle Creek Sanitarium (Seventh-day Adventist) physician John Harvey Kellogg (1853-1943) convinces him to move back east and open up a factory in Niagara Falls, N.Y. along with his brother Will Keith Kellogg, which proves quite lucrative; the Kelloggs then invent wheat flakes and corn flakes - and now we have Cap'n Crunch Crusted Chicken and Crab Cakes? In 1892 Robert Smith of Dresden, Germany patents the wood pulp beer coaster, named after a wagon-like device used by bartenders to ferry beverages to customers; the coasters evolve into ad billboards. Liederkranz Cheese (a mild Limburger variant) is invented by Emil Frey, and named after the San Antonio Liederkranz German Roman Catholic immigrant choir, who like it. Pineapple is first canned by Dole Co. - deep philosophical comment here? James Dewar (1843-1923) of Scotland patents the thermos, getting knighted in 1904. Ill.-born Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) of the U.S. invents the Spray Carburetor. Rudolf (the Red-Nosed?) Diesel (1858-1913) of Munich, Germany patents an internal combustion engine using low-cost fuel (peanut oil), and goes on to perfect the first commercial Diesel Engine at the Krupp factory in Essen. The first successful gasoline-powered farm tractor is developed by John Froelich (1849-1933) in Iowa; it has a 16 hp motor and can go in reverse; John Deer & Co. purchases the patent in 1918 for a song, and Froelich dies broke. Am. inventor Frederick Eugene Ives (1856-1937) patents a 3-color camera, followed by the photochromoscope in 1894. French chemist Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) invents the electric arc furnace, and uses its 3.5K C temp to produce tiny artificial diamonds along with new carbide, silicide, and boride compounds, winning the 1906 Nobel Chem. Prize. Irish-born Baltimore, Md. Quaker William Painter (1838-1906) invents the crown bottle cap, and patents it on Feb. 2, 1892 (#468,226, 468,258), forming the Crown Cork and Seal Co. in Baltimore, Md. and becoming a millionaire; not until the 1960s does the twist-off cap offer any serious competition. Joshua Pusey invents the first book matches - pusey jokes here? Jesse Reno of the U.S. patents the first inclined elevator (moving stairs) on Mar. 15, and in 1895 he sets up a 25 deg. angle escalator ride at Coney Island. The first automatic telephone switchboard goes into operation. Science: On Nov. 6 Holmes Comet (period 6.9 years) is discovered by amateur British astronomer Edwin Holmes (1842-1919); it returns in 2007. Henry Luke Bolley (1865-1956) of N.D. Agricultural College becomes the first to use formaldehyde against grain smuts, later proving that stem rust breeds on the common barberry, not wheat, getting a pure seed law passed in N.D. in 1908. Czech Jewish psychiatrist Arnold Pick (1851-1924) first describes Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), resulting from Pick's Disease, characterized by a build-up of tau proteins in neurons. Nonfiction: James Theodore Bent (1852-97), Ruined Cities of Mashonaland; claims that Great Zimbabwe is the remains of ancient Ophir, where King's Solomon's mines were located; disputed by David Randall-MacIver in 1905, and disproved in 1929 by Gertrude Caton-Thompson, who dates it to the 14th-15th cents. C.E. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), De la Reconstitution du Signalement Anthropometrique au Moyen des Vetements Augustine Birrell (1850-1933), Res Judicatae. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Bible, the Church and Reason. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The American Race. Oscar Browning (1837-1923), The Flight to Varennes. Timothy Cole (1852-1931), Old Italian Masters; reproductions of paintings using his own engraving technique on a trip to Europe in 1883. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), The Life of Thomas Paine: With a History of His Literary, Political and Religious Career in America, France and England (2 vols.). Emile Faguet, Politiques et Moralistes du Dix-neuvieme Siecle. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), Le Planete Mars et ses Conditions D'Habtabilite. F.B. Gummere, Germanic Origins. William James (1842-1910), Psychology, Briefer Course; "The one who thinks over his experiences most, and weaves them into systematic relations with each other will be the one with the best memory." Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), Elements of Civil Government of the State of Michigan. Sir Alfred Milner (1854-1925), England in Egypt. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Anthropological Religion (Gifford Lecture). Alexander Stuart Murray (1841-1904), Handbook of Greek Archaeology. Max Nordau (1849-1923), Entartung (Degeneracy); portrays modern art as the work of born criminals with atavistic personality traits, esp. loss of self-control; becomes a Nazi textbook after adding the buzzwords "Jewish Bolshevik", even though guess who is Jewish. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), The Principles and Practice of Medicine; written while at Johns Hopkins U., where he organized a model teaching clinic; becomes the #1 medical textbook until the 1930s; in 1897 it turns on John D. Rockefeller, causing him to found the Rockefeller Inst. for Medical Research in June 1901, which later becomes Rockefeller U.; in 1903 Osler leaves to fill the regius chair of medicine at Oxford U. Justinas Bonaventure Pranaitis (1861-1917), The Talmud Unmasked; Lithuanian Roman Catholic priest uses direct quotes to show that Jews regard non-Jews as cattle that can be robbed and murdered, and blasphemes Christ; he is later defrocked and discredited as an amateur in court. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Essays in Miniature. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), The Children of the Poor. George John Romanes (1848-94), Darwin and after Darwin. William Sharp (1855-1905), Life of Joseph Severn. John Gilmary Shea (1824-92), The Defenders of Our Faith. Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902), Talks on Haiku from the Otter's Den; coins the term "haiku" for the 17-syllable Japanese poetry art form, which used to be called hokku, which he revives. Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921), The Rationale of Mesmerism. William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), Robert Morris. Paul Vinogradoff (1854-1925), Villainage in England; how the Anglo-Saxon settlements were usually free communities not manors, and the villein of Norman times is a direct descendant. Ellen Gould White (1827-1925), Steps to Christ - a mighty white Christ? Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), Value, Capital and Rent. Music: Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909), Chants d'Espagne, Op. 232 (1892-7); incl. Asturias (Leyenda) (Barcelona). Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1940), Caedmar, A Romantic Opera (July 12); libretto by Frederick Corder. Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 8 in C minor (Vienna) (last symphony). Lottie Collins (1865-1910), Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay; big London music hall hit. Harry Dacre (Frank Dean) (1857-1922), Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two); inspired by Edward VII's mistress Frances Evelyn "Daisy" Greville, Countess of Warwick (1861-1938); chorus: "Daisy, Daisy/ Give me your answer, do/ I'm half crazy/ all for the love of you"; ending: "A bicycle built for two"; becomes the first song sung via computer speech synthesis in the 1968 film "2001: A Space Odyssey". Zdenek Fibich (1850-1900), Komensky Festival Overture; Symphony No. 1. William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Alfred Cellier (1844-91), The Mountebanks (comic opera). Paul Dukas (1865-1935), Polyeucte (overture). Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919), (I) Pagliacci (The Clowns) (opera) (May 21) (Teatro Dal Verme, Milan); conducted by Arturo Toscanini; stars Adelina Stehle as Nedda, Fiorello Giraud as Canio, Victor Maurel as Tonio, and Mario Ancona as Silvio; incl. Vesti la Giubba, No, Pagliacco Non Son; beginning next year it is performed as the Cav/Pag double bill with Pietro Mascagni's 1890 "Cavalleria Rusticana". Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Werther (opera) (Imperial Theare Hofoper, Vienna) (Feb. 16); libretto by Edouard Blau, Paul Milliet, and Georges Hartman based on Goethe's 1774 novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther"; his 2nd biggest hit; incl. Pourquoi me Reveiller, o Souffle du Printemps? Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Job (oratorio). Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Prelude in C-sharp minor (Oct. 8) (Moscow) - the coolest classical piano piece of all time, and he's only 19? Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Mlada (opera) (Nov. 1) (St. Petersburg). George John Romanes (1848-94), Darwin, and After Darwin (3 vols.) (1892-7). Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), En Saga (symphonic poem). Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), The Nutcracker (ballet) (Dec. 18) (Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg); based on E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Nutcracker and the Mouse"; libretto by Marius Petipa; Clara gets a you know what for Xmas; features the Celesta (pr. chel-ES-ta) (small metal bars struck by felt hammers with piano-like keyboard), which is used in "The Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy"; a flop, causing Tchaikovsky to extract a 20-min. Nutcracker Suite that becomes a success; incl. Overture, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, Trepak Dance, Dance of the Toy Flutes, Waltz of the Snowflakes; too bad, the complete ballet remains a flop until the San Francesco Ballet stages it on Xmas Eve, 1944, and the New York City Ballet performs George Balanchine's staging in 1954, becoming a Christmas standard. Art: Joseph E. Baker (1837-1914), The Salem Witch Trials. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), The Card Players. Luis Falero (1851-96), An Allegory of Art. Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931), La Comedie Parisienne (caricatures). Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), When Will You Marry?; sells for $300M in Feb. 2015. Nikolaos Gysis (1842-1901), Historia. Edwin Frederick Holt, A Farmyard Scene. Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), A Daughter of Eve. Claude Monet (1840-1926), Rouen Cathedral Series (1892-5). Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Orpheus (sculpture); Balzac (1892-7) (sculpture). Giovanni Segantini (1858-92), In the Sheep Fold; Ploughing in the Engadine. Alfred Sisley (1830-99), View of the Village of Moret-sur-Loing. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), St. George; How the Virgin Mary Came to Brother Conrad of Offida and Laid Her Son in His Arms. Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921), A Virgin (1892-3); modernized Winged Victory of Samothrace. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), At the Moulin Rouge; At the Moulin de la Galette; The Kiss. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Woman Sweeping; Self-Portrait. Plays: Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), BlanchetteMonsieur de Reboval. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), The Saucy Sally. Johan Bojer (1872-1959), A Mother (first play); wins him a scholarship to continue his ed. F. Osmond Carr (1858-1916), Adrian Ross (1859-1933), and James T. Tanner (1858-1915) debut their musical comedy In Town (musical comedy) (Prince of Wales Theatre, West End, London) (Oct. 15) (Gaiety Theatre, West End, London) (Dec. 26) (292 perf.) (Knickerbocker Theatre, New York) (Sept. 6, 1897) (40 perf.); the first Edwardian musical comedy, launching a new era of modern-dress musical shows, boosting London couturiers, ending with "The Maid of the Mountains" (1917); stars Arthur Roberts, Edmund Payne, Florence St. John, Topsy Sinden, Eric Lewis, and Edmund Payne as Shrimp the Call Boy; produced by George Joseph Edwardes (1855-1915), who teams with writer-dir. James Tolman Tanner (1858-1915); features the song The Man About Town. Francois de Curel (1854-1928), L'Envers d'une Sainte. Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920), Realidad. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Weavers (Die Weber); his greatest play?; ditches individual for social group conflict, using Silesian weavers as the heroes in the five tableaux. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) and Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94), Decon Brodie; Beau Austin; Admiral Guinea. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Gestern (verse drama). Bronson Crocker Howard (1842-1908), Aristocracy; satire on Am. Anglomania. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), The Master Builder; Ibsen enters his "fancy" period; Halvard Solness is going strong until he meets a young bimbo? Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Palleas et Melisande (Palléas et Mélisande) (May 17) (Paris, Bouffes-Parisiens); Symbolist play about a doomed love triangle; panned by critics, but a hit with Octave Mirabeau and the public; made into an opera in 1902 by Claude Debussy, and a symphonic poem in 1902-3 by Arnold Schoenberg; inspires Jean Sibelius' "At the Castle Gate" (1905), which becomes the theme music of the BBC-TV show "The Sky at Night". Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Par le Glaive. Brandon Thomas, Charley's Aunt; a female impersonator. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), Lady Windermere's Fan; it was left in Lord Darlington's residence?; written as a vehicle for Jersey Lily Langtry; "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars." (Lord Darlington) William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Countess Cathleen (verse drama). Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), Tiphar's Wife. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Esther. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Erlosungen (Erlösungen) (debut). Henry Austin Dobson (1840-1921), Eighteenth Century Vignettes. Eugene Field (1850-95), Echoes from the Sabine Farm. Iwan Gilkin (1858-1924), Les Tenebres; frontispiece by Odilon Redon. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Hans Alienus; the search for beauty in space and time. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903), The Song of the Sword. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Barrack-Room Ballads, incl. Gunga Din, Mandalay ("By the old Moulmein Pagoda, lookin' eastward to the sea,/ There's a Burma girl a-settin', and I know she thinks o' me; For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple-bells they say:/ "Come you back, you British soldier; come you back to Mandalay!" Come you back to Mandalay,/ Where the old Flotilla lay:/ Can't you 'ear their paddles chunkin' from Rangoon to Mandalay?/ On the road to Mandalay,/ Where the flyin'-fishes play,/ An' the dawn comes up like thunder outer China 'crost the Bay!"), Tommy, Danny Deever, and Fuzzy-Wuzzy, about the Hamitic Fuzzy-Wuzzy (Hadendoa) tribe in E Sudan. William Larminie, Fand and Other Poems. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), Poems. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Le Pelerin (Pčlerin) Passione (Passioné); Ecole Romane. Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), In Defense of the Bush (July 23); The Man from Ironbark (De. 17). Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), Poems (rev. ed.). Arthur Symons (1865-1945), Silhouettes. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Ballads and Lyrics. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Lake Isle of Innisfree; writes it after hearing water trickling in a fountain in London, reawakening his "ambition formed in Sligo in my teens, of living in imitation of Thoreau on Innisfree"; "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,/ And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;/ Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee,/ And live alone in the bee-loud glade"; makes him return to Dublin in 1896. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), Verbena, Camellia, Stephanotis, etc.. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The Venetians. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Frau J(nny Treibel. Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Fred (Peace). Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), A Spoil of Office. George Gissing (1857-1903), Born in Exile. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Nada the Lily. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Mysteries. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented; originally serialized in The Graphic; his masterpiece? "What a mommet [scarecrow] of a maid"; causes a public outcry over its infidelity and obscenity. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted; 2nd novel by a black woman pub. in the U.S. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908), Uncle Remus and His Friends. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Trinette. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), The O'Connors of Ballinahinch; Nor Wife Nor Maid; A Conquering Heroine; Lady Patty; Nora Creina. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Huldren. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), In the Rukh; the first story about Mowgli as an adult. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Green Fairy Book. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), Grania. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), Vale of Tears (Judol). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Fantome d'Orient. W.H. Mallock, A Human Document; in 1966 Tom Phillips randomly selects it as the basis for A Humument: A Treated Victorian Novel, painting and drawing over the text, revealing new text strings linked by white lines; "a bag lady his muse/And sex with a capital f his search/he himself rated success in flesh to include dogs, rain, rope, and also a certain condition of Asiatic elation”. George Meredith (1828-1909), Jump to Glory Jane; illustrated by Laurence Housman (1865-1959). Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938), Taken From the Enemy (first novel). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Marriage of Elinor. Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), The Old South. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Pierre and His People (first novel). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), La Miseloque. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Imperial Purple; ancient Rome. William Sharp (1855-1905), A Fellowe and His Wife; Pagan Review. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), A Day at La Guerr's and Other Days. Italo Svevo (1861-1928), Una Vita (A Life). Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), The Moon; sci-fi story pub. in a Moscow mag. Mark Twain (1835-1910), The American Claimant. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), The History of David Grieve. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People; his first serious work, about London Jews. Emile Zola (1840-1902), La Debacle; Les Rougon-Macquart series (#19 of 20). Births: Philippine pres. #5 (1946-8) Manuel Acuna (Acuńa) Roxas (d. 1948) on Jan. 1 in Capiz; educated at the U. of Manila. English "Hobbit", "Lord of the Rings" novelist-scholar-linguist (Oxford prof.) (Roman Catholic) John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (d. 1973) (pr. TOLL-keen) (from German "tollkuhn" = dull-keen = foolhardy) on Jan. 3 in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa; of Saxon descent; English bank mgr. father; brother of Hilary Arthur Reuel (1894-); bitten by a large baboon spider as a child; educated at Exeter College, Oxford U.; father of Christopher Reuel Tolkien (1924-); grandfather of Simon Mario Reuel Tolkien (1959-); friend of C.S. Lewis (1898-693); hates cars, preferring to ride a bicycle. Am. "Jefferson and His Time" historian Dumas Malone (d. 1986) on Jan. 10 in Coldwater, Miss.; educated at Emory U., and Yale U. Soviet Ukrainian gen. Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (d. 1941) on Jan. 12 in Vertiyivka, Chernigov. German anti-Nazi Lutheran leader Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemoller (Niemöller) (d. 1984) on Jan. 14 in Lippstadt. Am. "Laurel and Hardy", "Our Gang", "Topper", "One Million B.C." film-TV producer Harold Eugene "Hal" Roach Sr. (d. 1992) on Jan. 14 in Elmira, N.Y.; father of Hal Roach Jr. (1918-72); not to be confused with comedian Hal Roach (1927-). Am. 5'9" amateur athlete (first Am. ice hockey star) Hobart Armory Hare "Hobey" Baker (d. 1918) on Jan. 15 in Bala Cynwyd, Penn.; educated at Princeton U. Am. "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" dir.-producer-writer ("World's Greatest Director" - Erich von Stroheim) Rex Ingram (Reginald Ingram Montgomery Hitchcock) (d. 1950) on Jan. 15 in Dublin, Ireland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911; educated at Yale U.; husband (1917-) of Doris Pawn (1894-1988) and (1921-50) Alice Terry (1899-1987). Am. dir.-actor William Washington "One Shot" Beaudine (d. 1970) on Jan. 15 in New York City. Am. ambassador (to Italy) James David Zellerbach (d. 1963) on Jan. 17. Am. "fat one in Laurel and Hardy" comedian Oliver "Ollie" "Babe" (Norvell) Hardy (d. 1957) on Jan. 18 in Atlanta, Ga.; partner of Stan Laurel (1890-1965); nicknamed Babe by an Italian barber, who says "nice-a-baby" when applying talcum powder to his cheeks. Am. film producer (head of Paramount Pictures) (Jewish) Benjamin Percival "B.P." Schulberg (d. 1957) on Jan. 19 in Bridgeport, Conn.; gives himself the first name Benjamin because Percival sounds too British?; husband of Adeline Jafe-Schulberg (sister of Sam Jaffe); father of Budd Schulberg (1914-2009) and Monty Schulberg; discoverer of Clara Bow. French aircraft manufacturer (Jewish) Marcel Dassault (Bloch) (d. 1986) on Jan. 22 in Paris. Am. "Church Bells Blues" blues musician (black) Luke Jordan (d. 1952) on Jan. 28 in Appomattox County, Va. German "To Be or Not To Be, "Heaven Can Wait" movie dir. (Jewish) Ernst Lubitsch (d. 1947) on Jan. 28 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. Soviet Gen. Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (d. ) on Jan. 28 in Shatrashany, Simbirsk. Am. "Makin' Whoopee", "Yes! We Have No Bananas", "If You Knew Susie", "Merrily We Roll Along" actor-singer-songwriter (Jewish) ("the Apostle of Pep") Eddie "Banjo Eyes" Cantor (Edward Israel Iskowitz) (d. 1964) on Jan. 31 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Spanish PM #67 (1937-9) Juan Negrin y Lopez (Juan Negrín y López) (d. 1956) on Fe. 3 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria. Italian "The Duck Hunter" playwright-judge Ugo Betti (d. 1953) on Feb. 4 in Camerino. Am. physician William Parry Murphy (d. 1987) on Feb. 6 in Stoughton, Wisc.; educated at Harvard U.; co-discoverer (1926) of the liver treatment for pernicious anemia. German "Race and Soul" Nazi psychologist-anthropologist Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss (Clauß) (d. 1974) on Feb. 8 in Offenburg. Am. "Marta Hansen in Mama", "Mother Abbess in The Sound of Music" actress Mary Margaret "Peggy" Wood (d. 1978) on Feb. 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Little John in Robin Hood" actor Alan Hale Sr. (Rufus Alan MacKahan) (d. 1950) on Feb. 10 in Washington, D.C.; father of Alan Hale Jr. (1921-90); husband (1914-50) of Gretchen Hartman (1897-1979). German "Stalingrad" novelist Theodor Otto Richard Plievier (Plivier) (d. 1955) on Feb. 12 in Berlin. U.S. atty.-gen. (1940-1) and Supreme Court justice #82 (1941-54) Robert Houghwout Jackson (d. 1954) on Feb. 13 in Spring Creek, Penn.; granted leave of absence in 1945 to become chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nuremberg Trials. U.S. Navy secy. #47 (1944-7) and defense secy. #1 (1947-9) James Vincent Forrestal (d. 1949) on Feb. 15 in Matteawan (Beacon), N.Y.; of Irish descent; educated at Dartmouth College, and Princeton U. Am. liberal Repub. atty.-politician Wendell Lewis Willkie (d. 1944) on Feb. 18 in Elwood, Ind.; born Lewis Wendell Willkie, but the U.S. Army reverses it during enlistment in WWI; educated at Indiana U.; switches from Dem. to Repub. in mid-1930s; defeated by FDR in 1940. Am. Self System psychiatrist (gay?) Harry Stack Sullivan (d. 1949) on Feb. 21 in Norwich, N.Y.; Roman Catholic Irish immigrant parents; educated at Cornell U.; you can only know another person in terms of harry you stack up with him? Am. labor leader David Dobnievski Dubinsky (d. 1982) on Feb. 22 in Brest-Litovsk, Belarus; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911. Am. "Renascence", "The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver" poet-playwright and feminist activist ("Our Lady of the Sonnets") Edna St. Vincent Millay (Mrs. Eugen Boissevain) (d. 1950) (AKA Nancy Boyd) on Feb. 22 in Rockland, Maine; 3rd woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (1923); after a "Gypsy childhood on the coast of Maine" she is educated at Vassar College, and goes on to beat T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" in 1923 with a vol. of serious sonnets before going silly? Am. "Pissing in the Snow" folklorist Vance Randolph (d. 1980) on Feb. 23 in Pittsburg, Kan.; educated at Clark U.; namesake of Vivian Vance (1909-79). Russian "Cities and Years" novelist Konstantin Alexandrovich Fedin (d. 1977) on Feb. 24 (Feb. 24 Old Style) in Saratov. Am. "The Great McGinty", "Uncle Charley in My Three Sons" actor William Demarest (d. 1983) on Feb. 27 in St. Paul, Minn.; likes to work with dir. Preston Sturges. Canadian hockey player Wilfrid Arthur "Billy" "Wild Beaver" Coutu (d. 1977) on Mar. 1 in North Bay, Ont. Am. "Bye Bye Blackbird", "I Found a Million Dollar Baby", "I'm Looking Over a Four-Leaf Clover" lyricist Mort Dixon (d. 1956) on Mar. 2 in New York City. Russian economist Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev (d. 1938) on Mar. 4 in Kostroma Province (N of Moscow); peasant parents; educated at the U. of St. Petersburg; student of Myhaylo Tugan Baranovsky (1865-1919); inventor of Kondratiev Waves (50-60-year grand Capitalist supercycles) (1925). Am. "Pity Is Not Enough" leftist novelist-writer Josephine Herbst (d. 1969) on Mar. 5 in Sioux City, Iowa; educated at UCB. English "Lady into Fox" novelist-publisher (founder of Nonesuch Press) David "Bunny" Garnett (d. 1981) on Mar. 9 in Brighton. Hungarian Communist dictator (1945-56) (Jewish) Matyas Rakosi (Rákosi) (Rosenfeld) (d. 1971) on Mar. 9 in Ada, Serbia; father is a Jewish grocer, but he repudiates Judaism when he grows up. English "The Land" poet-novelist (bi) Victoria Mary "Vita" Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (d. 1962) on Mar. 9 in Knole House, Kent; descendant of Sir Thomas Sackville (1536-1608); lover of Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Violet Trefusis (1894-1972) et al. Am. Infinite Way founder (Jewish) Joel Solomon Goldsmith (d. 1964) on Mar. 10 in New York City. Swiss "Pacific 231" composer Oscar-Arthur Honegger (d. 1955) on Mar. 10 in Le Havre, France; member of "The Six". Am. New Yorker journalist (1925-75) (bi) Janet Flanner (AKA Genet) (d. 1978) on Mar. 13 in Indianapolis, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Strange Holiness" poet-writer Robert Peter Tristram Coffin (d. 1955) on Mar. 18 in Brunswick, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College, Princeton U., and Oxford U. Finnish Gen. Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (d. 1947) on Mar. 18 in Helsinki. German Gen. Ludwig Cruwell (Crüwell) (d. 1958) on Mar. 20 in Dortmund. Am. "Cully Wilson in Lassie", "George MacMichael in The Real McCoys" actor Andrew Allan "Andy" Clyde (d. 1967) on Mar. 25 in Blairgowrie, Perthshire; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. U.S. liberal Sen. (D-Ill.) (1949-67) (Quaker) (Unitarian) (civil rights champion) Paul Howard Douglas (d. 1976) on Mar. 26 in Salem, Mass.; raised in Maine; educated at Bowdoin College, Columbia U., and Harvard U. Am. "Grand Canyon Suite" composer-pianist Ferdinand Rudolph "Ferde" von Grofe (Grofé) (d. 1972) on Mar. 27 in New York City; of French Huguenot ancestry. Am. "The Rise of the Goldbergs" actor (Jewish) Philip Loeb (d. 1955) on Mar. 28 in Philadelphia, Penn. Belgian scientist Corneille Jean Francois Heymans (d. 1968) on Mar. 28 in Ghent; demonstrator of the existence of the carotid sinus reflex. Hungarian Roman Catholic Cardinal (1946-) Jozsef (Joseph) Mindszenty (Pehm) (d. 1975) on Mar. 29 in Csehimindszent, Austria-Hungary. Polish Hahn-Banach Theorem mathematician ("Founder of Modern Functional Analysis") Stefan Banach (d. 1945) on Mar. 30 in Cracow; teacher of Stanislaw Ulam (1908-84). German Field Marshal ("the Jew Nazi") Erhard Milch (d. 1972) on Mar. 30 in Wilhelmshaven; Jewish father. Am. investor Floyd Bostwick Odlum (d. 1976) on Mar. 30 in Union City, Mich.; husband (1915-35) of Hortense McQuarrie (1881-1970) and Jackie Cochran (1906-80). Am. "Studies in Iconology" art historian (Jewish) Erwin "Pan" Panofsky (d. 1968) on Mar. 30 in Hannover; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933; born to wealthy Silesian mining family; husband (1916-) of Dorothea "Dora" Mosse (1885-1965); father of Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky (1919-2007); student of Margarete Bieber (1879-1978), Wilhelm Voge (1868-1952), and Adolph Goldschmidt (1863-1944); teacher of William S. Heckscher (1904-99) - the real Robert Langdon of Dan Brown's "The Da Vinci Code"? Am. CIA dir. (1946) Adm. Sidney William Souers (d. 1973) on Mar. 30 in Dayton, Ohio. Am. Douglas Aircraft Co. founder (1921) Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (d. 1981) on Apr. 6 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at MIT (first degree awarded in aeronautical engineering). Am. explorer-commentator Lowell Thomas (d. 1981) on Apr. 6 in Woodington, Ohio; travels with Lawrence of Arabia. Am. old-time country musician Henry Whitter (d. 1941) on Apr. 6 near Fries, Grayson County, Va. Austrian-Am. architect (Jewish) Richard Joseph Neutra (d. 1970) on Apr. 8 in Leopoldstadt; educated at the Vienna U. of Tech.; student of Max Fabiani and Karl Mayreder; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923; becomes U.S. citizen in 1929; collaborator of Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953). Am. "Poor Little Rich Girl", "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm", "Daddy Long-Legs" silent film actress-producer (alcoholic) ("America's Sweetheart") ("Little Mary") ("The Girl With the Curls") (first Hollywood movie star) Mary Pickford (Gladys Mary Smith) (d. 1979) on Apr. 8 in Toronto, Canada; British Methodist father, Irish Catholic mother; sister of Jack Pickford (1896-1933); wife (1911-20) of Owen Moore (1886-1930), Douglas Fairbanks Sr. (1920-35) and Charles "Buddy" Rogers (1937-); first actress to make $1M/year. Am. actress Rosemary Theresa Theby (Thebe) (Rose Masing) (d. 1973) on Apr. 8 in St. Louis, Mo.; wife of Harry Myers (1882-1938). Italian conductor-composer (Jewish) Victor de Sabata (d. 1967) on Apr. 10 in Trieste; Italian father, Jewish mother; #1 after Arturo Toscanini. Am. "The Story of the Vivian Girls" novelist Henry Joseph Darger Jr. (d. 1973) on Apr. 12 in Chicago, Ill. Scottish scientist ("Father of Radar") Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt (d. 1973) on Apr. 13 in Brechin, Angus; descendant of James Watt of steam engine fame; educated at the U. of St. Andrews; knighted in 1942. Am. "O Strange New World: American Culture - The Formative Years" writer-poet-critic Howard Mumford Jones (d. 1980) on Apr. 16 in Saginaw, Mich.; educated at the U. of Wisc, and Harvard U.; teacher of David Brion Davis (1927-), and Better Miller Unterberger (1922-2012). Am. mechanical engineer (inventor of catalytic cracking) Eugene Jules Houdry (d 1962) on Apr. 18 in Domont (near Paris), France; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. English "Odette", "No, No, Nanette", "Irene" film dir.-producer Herbert Sydney Wilcox (d. 1977) on Apr. 19 in Norwood, South London; Irish mother from County Cork; husband (1943-77) of Anna Neagle (1904-86). French musician-composer Germaine Tailleferre (d. 1983) on Apr. 19; only female member of "The Six". German aviation pioneer Ehrenfried Guenther () reiherr von Huenefeld () (d. 1929) on May 1 in Konigsberg, East Prussia; educated at the U. of Berlin. German WWI flying ace (80 Vs) ("the Red Baron") ("Le Petit Rouge") ("Der Rote Kampfflieger") Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richhofen (d. 1918) on May 2 in Breslau (Wroclaw). English physicist Sir George Paget Thomson (d. 1975) on May 3 in Cambridge; son of physicist Sir J.J. Thomson (1856-1940); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Canadian Chicago School economist Jacob Viner (d. 1970) on May 3 in Montreal, Quebec; educated at McGill U., and Harvard U. Am. "Conquistador" poet Archibald MacLeish (d. 1982) on May 7 in Glencoe, Ill. Yugoslav Communist PM (1945-80) Marshal Josip Broz Tito (d. 1980) on May 7 in Zagorye (near Zagreb), Croatia. English "Duchess of Brighton in The V.I.P.s", "Miss Marple" actress Dame Margaret Taylor Rutherford (d. 1972) on May 11 in Balham, London; created dame in 1967; cousin of Tony Benn (1925-). English (Welsh) 5'2" flyweight boxing champ ("the Mighty Atom") ("Ghost with the Hammer in His Hand") ("the Tylorstown Terror") Williami James "Jimmy" Wilde (d. 1969) on May 15 in Quakers Yard, Merthyr Tydfil. U.S. Lt. Gen. Manton Sprague Eddy (d. 1962) on May 16 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Morty Wethered in Gold Diggers of 1937" actor Osgood Perkins (James Osgood Ripley Perkins) (d. 1937) on May 16 in West Newton, Mass.; father of Anthony Perkins (1932-92). Am. "South Pacific" opera bass Ezio Pinza (d. 1957) on May 18 in Rome, Italy; grows up in Ravenna. Am. jazz musician (string bass) (black) George Murphy "Pops" Foster (d. 1969) on May 19 in Ascension Parish, New Orleans, La. German Nazi Waffen-SS gen. Josef "Sepp" "Ujac" Dietrich (d. 1966) on May 28 in Hawangen (near Memmingen), Bavaria; starts out as Hitler's chaffeur-bodyguard. Am. 6'1" 200 lb. "Destry Rides Again" Western writer Max Brand (Frederick Schiller Faust) (d. 1944) on May 29 in Seattle, Wash.; German father, Irish mother; creator of Dr. Kildare; uses 20 pen names and writes 30M+ words in his 52-year life. Am. actor (black) Stepin Fetchit (Lincoln Theodore Monroe Perry) (d. 1985) on May 30 in Key West, Fla. Belarussian painter (Jewish) Michel Kikoine (d. 1968) on May 31 in Rechytsa; friend of Chaim Soutine (1893-1943). German Nazi leader Gregor Strasser (d. 1934) on May 31 in Geisenfeld, Upper Bavaria. Afghan king (1919-29) Amanullah Khan (d. 1960) on June 1. English "Greenery Street" novelist Denis George Mackail (d. 1971) on June 3 in Kensington, London; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; "The official chronicler of the domestic preoccupations of the upper middle class in London" (The Times). Am. Duncan Toys Co. founder Donald F. Duncan Sr. (d. 1971) on June 6 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "Me and My Shadow"jazz clarinetist-bandleader ("Mr. Entertainment") ("the High-Hatted Tragedian of Song") ("Is everybody happy?") Theodore Leopold "Ted" Lewis (d. 1971) on June 6 in Circleville, Ohio; not to be confused with English boxer Ted Lewis (1894-1970). Irish politician Kevin Christopher O'Higgins (d. 1927) on June 7 in Stradbally, County Laois; educated at Univ. College, Dublin. Am. "Nightwood" modernist poet-novelist (bi) Djuna Barnes (d. 1982) on June 12 in Storm King Mountain, Cornwall-on-Hudson, N.Y. Am. "The Rocking Horse Winner", "The Planter's Wife" film producer Earl St. John (d. 1968) on June 14 in Baton Rouge, La. Am. "The Hazards of Helen" actress Helen Holmes (d. 1950) on June 19 in Cook County, Ill.; Norwegian immigrant father; grows up in Chicago, Ill. German field marshal (last) Ferdinand Schorner (Schörner) (d. 1973) on June 12 in Munich. South African "Sherlock Holmes" actor Philip St. John Basil Rathbone (d. 1967) on June 13 in Johannesburg; English parents; grows up in England; educated at Repton School. English anthropologist-traveller (first Westerner to cross the Rub' al Khali) Bertram Thomas (d. 1950) on June 13 in Pill (near Bristol); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. English "Bill Snibson in Me and My Girl" actor-dir. Lupino Lane (Henry William George Lupino) (d. 1959) on June 16 in London; brother of Wallace Lupino (1898-1961); father of Lauri Lupino Lane (1921-86); uncle of Ida Lupino (1914-95) and Richard Lupino (1929-2005). Am. Young and Rubicam co-founder Raymond Rubicam (d. 1978) on June 16; partner of John Orr Young (1886-1976). Am. "Moral Man and Immoral Society" Reformed Protestant theologian Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr (d. 1971) on June 21 in Wright City, Mo.; German immigrant parents; educated at Elmhurst College, Eden Theological Seminary, and Yale U. German field marshal (last cmdr. of the Luftwaffe) Robert Ritter von Greim (d. 1945) on June 22 in Bayreuth. Am. "The Good Earth" novelist and civil rights activist Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (d. 1973) on June 26 in Hillsboro, W. Va.; daughter of Am. missionaries in China; spends her childhood in China; her first pub. stories are in the Shanghai Mercury at age 7. English "What Is History?", "A History of Soviet Russia" historian-journalist E.H. (Edward Hallett) Carr (d. 1982) on June 28 in London; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. diplomat Loy Wesley Henderson (b. 1986) on June 28 in Rogers, Ark.; educated at Northwestern U. Am. gay rights pioneer (gay) Henry Gerber (Henry Joseph Dittmar) (d. ?) on June 29 in Bavaria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1913. U.S. Sen. (D-Wyo.) (1949-54) Lester Callaway Hunt (d. 1954) on July 8 in Isabel, Ill.; educated at Ill. Wesleyan U., and St. Louis U. Am. mobster Charles Dean "Dion" O'Banion (d. 1924) on July 8 in Maroa, Ill. French "Joan of Arc" actress Maria (Renee Jeanne) Falconetti (d. 1946) on July 21 in Sermano, Corsica. Am. "Nick Charles in The Thin Man" actor William Horatio Powell (d. 1984) on July 29 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; grows up in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "The Postman Always Rings Twice" hardboiled crime noir novelist-journalist (alcoholic) James Mallahan Cain (d. 1977) on July 1 in Annapolis, Md.; of Irish Roman Catholic descent; educated at Washington College. Am. "Ain't She Sweet", "Happy Days Are Here Again", "My Yiddishe Momme" lyricist-screenwriter (Jewish) Jacob Selig "Jack" Yellen (Jacek Jelen) (d. 1991) on July 6 in Raczki, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. at age 5; grows up in Buffalo, N.Y.; collaborator of Milton Ager and Sophie Tucker. English "Death of a Hero" imagist poet-novelist-writer Richard (Edward Godfree) Aldington (d. 1962) on July 8 in Portsmouth, Hampshire; educated at Dover College, and London U.; husband (1913-38) of Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961). Am. "The Front Page" actor-dir. Slim Summerville (George Joseph Somerville) (d. 1949) on July 10 in Albuquerque, N.M. Am. "Scarlett's pa Gerald O'Hara in Gone With the Wind" actor Thomas Mitchell (d. 1962) on July 11 in Elizabeth, N.J. Canadian 5'7" "hockey hall-of-fame player Harold Lawton "Punch" "Harry" Broadbent (d. 1971) on July 13 in Ottawa, Ont. German "Arcades Project" Marxist philosopher (Jewish) Walter Bendix Shonflies Benjamin (d. 1940) on July 15 in Berlin. Canadian 5'9" hockey hall-of-fame player-coach (Chicago Blackhawks, Toronto Maple Leafs, Montreal Canadiens) James Dickinson "Dick" Irvin Jr. (II) (d. 1957) on July 19 in Hamilton, Ont. Am. Roman Catholic cardinal (1961-) Joseph Elmer Ritter (d. 1967) on July 20 in New Albany, Ind. Am. "The Fifth Column" actress Lenore Ulric (Ulrich) (d. 1970) on July 21 in New Ulm, Minn.; named after the Edgar Allan Poe poem "The Raven"; wife (1928-39) of Sidney Blackmer (1895-1973). Austrian chancellor (1938) Dr. Arthur Seyss-Inquart (Zajtich) (d. 1946) on July 22 in Stannern, Moravia; son of school principal Emil Zajtich and Auguste Hyrenbach; family moves to Vienna in 1907, then changes their Czech Slavic name to the German name Seyss-Inquart; educated at the U. of Vienna. Ethopian emperor (last) (black) (1916-74) Hailie Selassie I ("The Might of the Holy Trinity") (Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael) (d. 1975) on July 23 in Ejersa Goro, Harrar; father of Amha Selassi (1916-97). German acetylene chemist Walter Julius Reppe (d. 1969) on July 29 in Goringen. Am. Worldwide Church of God televangelist Herbert W. Armstrong (d. 1986) on July 31 in Des Moines, Iowa; father of Garner Ted Armstrong (1930-2003). Am. Warner Bros. Studio co-founder (Jewish) Jacob Leonard "Jack" "J.L." Warner (Wonsal) (d. 1978) on Aug. 2 in London, Ont., Canada; brother of Harry Warner (1881-1958), Abe Warner (1884-1967), and Sam Warner (1887-1927). Am. cowboy actor-dir.-producer Edmund Richard "Hoot" Gibson (d. 1962) on Aug. 6 in Tekamah, Neb.; husband (1913-20) of Helen Gibson (1892-1977). Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (d. 1972) on Aug. 9 in Sirkali, Tamil Nadu; educated at Madras Christian College; coiner of the term "library science" with Lee Pierce Butler (1884-1953). Scottish "A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle", "Stony Limits" modernist Communist nationalist Scottish Renaissance poet Hugh MacDiarmid (Christopher Murray Grieve) (d. 1978) on Aug. 11 in Langholm. Am. "Sally of the Sawdust" stage actor-dir. Alfred Davis Lunt Jr. (d. 1977) on Aug. 12 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; husband (1922-) of Lynn Fontanne (1887-1983). French electron wave theory physicist Prince Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie (d. 1987) on Aug. 15 in Dieppe, Seine-Maritime; descendant of Madame de Stael. Canadian-Am. "Prince Valiant" cartoonist Harold Rudolf "Hal" Foster (d. 1982) on Aug. 16 in Halifax, N.S.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1919. Am. "Felix the Cat" animator Otto James Messmer (d. 1983) on Aug. 16 in West Hoboken (Union City), N.J. English actor-dir. George Wheeler Dryden (George Dryden Wheeler Jr.) (d. 1957) on Aug. 31 in London; son of Leo Dryden and Hannah Chaplin (1865-1928); half-brother of Charlie Chaplin and Sydney Chaplin; father of Spencer Dryden (1938-2005). Am. humanist writer Paul Beecher Blanshard (d. 1980) on Aug. 27 in Fredericksburg, Ohio; educated at Harvard U. Am. actress (first prof. stunt woman in the U.S.) Helen Gibson (Rose August Wenger) (d. 1977) on Aug. 27 in Cleveland, Ohio; Swiss-German parents; wife (1913-20) of Hoot Gibson (1892-1962). U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1945-67) and Mass. gov. (1939-45) Leverett Saltonstall (d. 1979) on Sept. 1 in Chestnut Hill, Mass.; descendant of the Mayflower Pilgrims; educated at Harvard U.; "Harvard accent with a South Boston face" (James Michael Curley). English film dir.-writer Adrian Brunel (d. 1958) on Sept. 4 in Brighton, Sussex; educated at Harrow School. French "The Creation of the World" composer (Jewish) Darius Milhaud (d. 1974) on Sept. 4 in Aix-en-Provence; member of "The Six"; emigrates to the U.S. in 1940; teacher of Burt Bacharach (1928-) and Philip Glass (1937-); hears jazz in Harlem, N.Y. in 1922 and becomes a believer. Hungarian-Am. violinist (Jewish) Joseph Szigeti (d. 1973) on Sept. 5 in Budapest; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. English ionosphere physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (d. 1965) on Sept. 6 in Bradford, West Yorkshire; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1941. Pakistani PM #5 (1956-7) (Sunni Muslim) ("the Butcher of Bengal") Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (d. 1963) on Sept. 8 in Midnapore, Bengal, India; educated at Oxford U. Am. Compton Effect physicist Arthur Holly Compton (d. 1962) on Sept. 10 in Wooster, Ohio; brother of Karl Taylor Compton (1887-1954); educated at Princeton U.; known for his little toothbrush mustache. Am. publisher (Jewish) Alfred Abraham Knopf Sr. (d. 1984) (pr. like k'nupf) on Sept. 12 in New York City; educated at Columbia U; father of Alfred A. Knopf Jr. (1918-2009). U.S. Adm. (Seabees founder) Ben "King Bee" Morreell (d. 1978) on Sept. 14 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. New Yorker mag. ed. (1925-60) Katharine Sergeant Angell White (d. 1977) on Sept. 17; educated at Bryn Mawr College; wife (1929-) of E.B. White (1899-1985); mother of Roger Angell (1920-) and Joel White (1930-97). Am. "Walkin' My Baby Back Home" Tin Pan Alley composer-songwriter Fred E. Ahlert (d. 1953) on Sept. 19 in New York City; collaborator of Roy Turk (1892-1934). Irish "The Little Foxes" actress-playwright Patricia Collinge (d. 1974) on Sept. 20 in Dublin. Am. "Mean to Me" Tin Pan Alley songwriter Roy Turk (d. 1934) on Sept. 20 in New York City; collaborator of Fred E. Ahlert (1892-1953). Am. silent film actor-dir.-producer (Charlie Chaplin impersonator) Billy (Billie) West (Roy B. Weissburg) (d. 1975) on Sept. 22 in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. as a child. Am. cryptography pioneer (first female cryptographer?) Elizabeth (Elizebeth) Smith Friedman (d. 1980) on Sept. 24; wife of William Friedman (1891-1969). Am. "Middletown" sociologist Robert Straughton Lynd (d. 1970) on Sept. 26 in New Albana, Ind.; educated at Princeton U. and Columbia U.; husband of Helen Merrel Lynd (1896-1982); father of Straughton Lynd (1929-). Am. "Street Scene" playwright (Jewish) Elmer Rice (Reizenstein) (d. 1967) on Sept. 28 in New York City; pioneer of the flashback technique. British air chief marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse (d. 1970) on Sept. 30 in Croydon; son of Adm. Sir Richard Henry Peirse (1861-); father of Sir Richard Charles Fairfax Peirse (1931-); educated at King's College London. Am. auto racer-manufacturer Gaston Chevrolet (d. 1920) on Oct. 4 in Beaune, Cote-d'Or, France; Swiss parents; brother of Louis Chevrolet (1878-1941) and Arthur Chevrolet (1884-1946). Austrian 5'0" chancellor (1932-4) Engelbert Dollfuss (d. 1934) on Oct. 4 in Texing, Lower Austria. Am. Dallas Morning News publisher Edward Musgrove "Ted" Dealey (d. 1969) on Oct. 5 in Dallas, Tex.; son of George Bannerman Dealey (1859-1946). Am. ambassador (to Sweden, Peru, the Soviet Union, Turkey, Czech., and Canada) (Jewish) Laurence Adolph Steinhardt (d. 1950) on Oct. 6 in New York City. Yugoslavian "The Bridge on the Drina" writer Ivan "Ivo" Andric (Andríc) (d. 1975) on Oct. 9 in Travnik. West German pres. (1959-69) Heinrich Luebke (Lübke) (d. 1972) on Oct. 14 in Enkhausen. U.S. undersecy. of state (1933-43) and diplomat (bi) ("Architect of the U.N.") Benjamin Sumner Welles (d. 1961) on Oct. 14 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Soviet field marshal Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko) (Eremenko) (d. 1970) on Oct. 14 (Oct. 2 Old Style) in Kharkov, Ukraine. Am. "Grand Duchess in Ninotchka" actress Ina Claire (Fagan) (d. 1985) on Oct. 15 in Washington, D.C. German Nazi concentration camp inspector (Waffen-SS Totenkopf Gen.) Theodore Eicke (d. 1943) on Oct. 17 in Solingen. Kenyan PM #1 (1963-4) and pres. #1 (1964-78) Mzee Jomo Kenyatta (d. 1978) on Oct. 20 in Gatundu, British East Africa. English "Waverly in the Man from U.N.C.L.E.", "Professor in North by Northwest" actor (Roman Catholic) Leo G. Carroll (d. 1972) on Oct. 25 in Weedon Bec, Northamptonshire; named after Pope Leo XIII. Hungarian-Am. dancers-actresses Rozsika (Rose) "Rosie" Dolly (Deutsch) (d. 1970) and Janka (Yancsi) "Jenny" Dolly (Deutsch) (d. 1941) (AKA the Dolly Sisters) on Oct. 25 in Balassagyarmat, Hungary; emigrate to the U.S. in 1905. Am. 180 lb. bodybuilding king ("World's Most Perfectly Developed Man") Charles Atlas (Angelo Siciliano) (d. 1972) on Oct. 30 in Acri, Calabria, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1892; bases his "dynamic tension" program for "97-lb. weaklings" on watching a lion stretching in a zoo, uttering the soundbyte "Did you ever see a tiger with a barbell?", and names himself in 1922 after a statue of Atlas on top of a Coney Island hotel. Russian-French world chess champ #4 (1927-35, 1937-46) (alcoholic) Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (d. 1946) on Oct. 31-Nov. 1 in Moscow; educated at the U. of St. Peterburg, and U. of Paris; becomes a French citizen in 1917. British Capt. Gordon Charles Steele (d. 1981) on Nov. 1 in Exeter, Devon. Hungarian operetta composer (Jewish) Paul (Pal) Abraham (d. 1960) on Nov. 2 in Apatin, Austria-Hungary (Serbia). Am. "Mrs. O'Leary in Old Chicago" actress Alice (Mary Rose) Brady (d. 1939) on Nov. 2 in New York City; daughter of William Aloysius Brady (1863-1950). Am. "Mandarin Primer" linguist Yuen Ren Chao (Zhao Yuanren) (d. 1982) on Nov. 3 in Tianjin, China; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910 educated at Cornell U., and Harvard U.; Bertrand Russell's interpreter in China in 1920. British aviation pioneer Capt. John William "Jack" Alcock (d. 1919) on Nov. 5 in Manchester. British biologist (co-founder of population genetics) John Burdon Sanderson "Jack" Haldane (d. 1964) on Nov. 5 in Edinburgh; son of John Scott Haldane (1860-1936); brother of Naomi Mitchison (1897-1999); nephew of Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st viscount Haldane (1856-1928); educated at Eton College and New College, Oxford U. Am. "Hellzapoppin" comedian John Sigvard "Ole" Olsen (d. 1963) on Nov. 6 in Peru, Ind.; Norwegian immigrant father, Swiss-German descent mother; educated at Northwestern U.; collaborator of Chic Johnson (1891-1962). Am. "New Yorker", "Who he?" founder Harold Wallace Ross (d. 1951) on Nov. 6 in Aspen, Colo; Irish immigrant father, schoolteacher mother; Algonquin Round Table member; look like a dishonest Abe Lincoln? British spy Guy Maynard Liddell (d. 1958) on Nov. 8. Am. "Tillie's Punctured Romance" actress Mabel Ethelreid Normand (d. 1930) on Nov. 9 on New Brighton, Staten Island, N.Y. Am. "Nathan Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird", "Chief Winnemucca in Bonanza", "Uncle Gilbert in The Munsters" actor -singer James Richard Hale (d. 1981) on Nov. 16 in Rogersville, Tenn.; educated at Columbia U. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Marie Elizabeth "Babe" Geddes (nee Clemensen) (d. 1961) on Nov. 21 in N.J. Am. world's oldest living person (Jan. 24-28, 2007) Emma Fanchon Faust Tillman (d. 2007) on Nov. 22 in Conn. French artist-designer Erte (Erté) (French pr. of "R.T.") (Romain de Tirtoff) (Roman Petrov de Tyrtov) (d. 1990) on Nov. 23 in St. Petersburg, Russia; father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov is Russian fleet adm., who wants him to follow in his footsteps, causing him to assume the alias when he moves to Paris in 1910 and begins designing costumes and stage sets - now I know just how Jon Voight felt when he smashed his fist into that wall? Am. "The Lost Weekend", "Sunset Boulevard" screenwriter-producer-novelist Charles Brackett (d. 1969) on Nov. 26 in Saratoga Springs, Fla.; great-nephew of George Henry Corliss (1817-88); educated at Williams College, and Harvard U. Spanish dictator generalissimo (1939-75) Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo (Teódulo) Franco y Bahamonde, Salgado y Pardo de Andrade (d. 1975) on Dec. 4 in El Ferrol, Spain. daughter of Edward L. Stratemeyer (1862-1930); educated at Wellesley College. Am. actor Eldon Raymond McKee (d. 1984) on Dec. 7 in Keokuk, Iowa; husband (1923-84) of Marguerite Courtot (1897-1986). Am. "The Atlantic Migration", Hansen's Law historian Marcus Lee Hansen (d. 1938) on Dec. 8 in Neenah, Wisc.; Scandinavian immigrant parents; educated at Central College, U. of Iowa, and Harvard U.; student of Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932). Am. Sun-Maid Raisin Girl Lorraine Collett Petersen (nee Collett) (d. 1983) on Dec. 9 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "Nancy Drew" novelist-publisher Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (d. 1982) (AKA Carolyn Keene, Franklin W. Dixon) on Dec. 11 in Newark, N.J.. Am. architect (inventor of Lincoln Logs) John Lloyd Wright 9d. 1972) on Dec. 12 in Oak Park, Ill.; 2nd son of Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959). Am. billionaire oil tycoon (Getty Oil Co. founder) Jean Paul Getty (d. 1976) on Dec. 15 in Minneapolis, Minn.; son of George Franklin Getty (1855-1930); educated at USC, UCB, and Magdalen College, Oxford U.; father of Sir John Paul Getty Jr. (1932-2003); makes his first million by 1915. Canadian Pvt. George Lawrence Price (d. 1918) on Dec. 15 in Falmouth, N.S. Am. blood fractionation chemist (Jewish) Edwin Joseph Cohn (d. 1953) on Dec. 17 in New York City; educated at Phillips Academy, and the U. of Chicago. British Pvt. Frederick William Owen "Fred" Potts (d. 1943) on Dec. 18 in Reading, Berkshire. Am. silent film actress Winifred Bryston (Brison) (d. 1987) on Dec. 20 in Los Angeles, Calif.; wife (1918-51) of Warner Baxter. Am. golfer Walter Charles Hagen (d. 1969) on Dec. 21 in Rochester, N.Y. Irish "The Meaning of Treason" suffragist novelist-journalist-actress Dame Rebecca West (Cicily or Cicely Isabel Andrews nee Fairfield) (d. 1983) on Dec. 21 in London; Irish father, Scottish mother; grows up in Edinburgh; picks her pen name from Henrik Ibsen's "Rosmersholm"; hooks up with H.G. Wells in 1913-23; mother of Anthony West (1914-87); created CBE in 1949 and DBE in 1959. Am. "The Guilty", "Two Dollar Bettor" actor John Beach Litel (d. 1972) on Dec. 30 in Albany, Wisc. Am. "John Marvin in Lightnin'" stage-film actor James Nelson Robards Sr. (d. ) on Dec. 31 in Hillsdale, Mich.; father of Jason Robards Jr. (1922-2002); raised in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the Am. Academy of Dramatic Arts. Egyptian composer-playwright-singer Sayyid Darwish (d. 1923). Am. serial murderer Harry F. Powers (Herman Drenth) (d. 1932) (AKA Cornelius O. Pierson, A.R. Weaver) in Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910. Iraqi PM (1933, 1940-1) Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (d. 1965) in Baghdad. Am. artist Yasuo Kuniyoshi (d. 1953) in Okayama; educated at the Art Students' League; emigrates to the U.S. in 1906; known for still lifes, nudes, and female circus performers. English Jaguar Car co-founder William Walmsley (d. 1961) in Stockport; partner of Sir William Lyons (1901-85). Canadian biochemist James Bertram Collip (d. 1965) in Belleville, Ont.; educated at the U. of Toronto. Am. pathologist Sadao Otani (d. 1969) in Japan. Am. sculptor Joseph Coletti (d. 1973). Am. Jewish philosopher-historian Nima H. Adlerblum (d. 1974). Am. Ampex Corp. founder Alexander Michael (Matveevich) Poniatoff (d. 1980) in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1927. Deaths: English astronomer Sir George Biddell Airy (b. 1801) on Jan. 2 in Greenwich. English paleontologist Sir Richard Owen (b. 1804). French photographer Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (b. 1804) on Dec. 7. Am. poet-essayist John Greenleaf Whittier (b. 1807) on Sept. 7 in Hampton Falls, N.H.: "One brave deed makes no hero." English travel agency founder Thomas Cook (b. 1808) on July 18 (dysentery). English Cardinal Henry Edward Manning (b. 1808) on Jan. 14 in London: "All human conflict is ultimately theological." English "Idylls of the King" poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson (b. 1809) on Oct. 6 in Lurgashall, Sussex; buried in Westminster Abbey, with the organist putting music to his words: "I hope to see my Pilot face to face, when I have crost the bar"; "'Tis better to have loved and lost/ Than never to have loved at all"; "Theirs is not to reason why,/ Theirs but to do and die"; "My strength is as the strength of ten,/ Because my heart is pure"; "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield"; "Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers"; " “The old order changeth, yielding place to new,/ And God fulfils himself in many ways." French biologist Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Breau (b. 1810) on Jan. 12 in Paris. Am. "Monitor" manufacturer John Flack Winslow (b. 1810) on Mar. 10 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Italian diplomat gen. Enrico Cialdini (b. 1811) on Sept. 8 in Livorno. U.S. Supreme Court justice #41 (1870-92) Joseph Philo Bradley (b. 1813) on Jan. 22 in Washington, D.C. English poet-artist Christopher Pearse Cranch (b. 1815) on Jan. 20. German composer Robert Franz (b. 1815). U.S. Army quartermaster gen. (1861-82) Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (b. 1816) on Jan. 2 in Washington, D.C.; "Without the services of this eminent soldier the national cause must have been lost or deeply imperiled." (William H. Seward) German telegraph tycooon Werner von Siemens (b. 1816). Persian Bahaism founder Baha'u'llah (b. 1817) on May 29 in Bahji Mansion, Akka, Israel; leaves 15K works, mostly tablets, total size equal to 15 Bibles. Am. Dem. politician James W. Denver (b. 1817) on Aug. 9 in Washington, D.C. German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann (b. 1818) on May 5 in Berlin. English astronomer John Couch Adams (b. 1819) on Jan. 21 in Cambridge. German OBGYN Karl Siegmund Franz Crede (b. 1819) on Mar. 14. Am. transatlantic cable industrialist Cyrus West Field (b. 1819) on July 12 in Irvington, N.Y. Am. "Leaves of Grass" poet Walt Whitman (b. 1819) on Mar. 26 in Camden, N.J.; dies where he lived since 1873, leaving the deathbed ed. of "Leaves of Grass" in Jan., consisting of almost 400 poems, with the soundbyte: "L. of G. at last complete - after 33 y'rs of hackling at it, all times & moods of my life, fair weather & foul, all parts of the land, and peace & war, young & old": "I speak the password primeval"; "The chief reason for the being of the United States of America is to bring about the common good will of all mankind, the solidarity of the world"; "The United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem"; "I know nothing grander, better exercise, better digestion ... than a well-contested American national election"; "The proof of a poet is that his country absorbs him as affectionately as he has absorbed it"; "I celebrate myself, and sing myself,/ And what I assume you shall assume,/ For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you"; "I am the poet of the body and I am the poet of the soul" - sounds like a gay pass? Am. baseball inventor Alexander Cartwright II (b. 1820) on July 12 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. Civil War Union gen. Thomas William Sweeny (b. 1820) on Apr. 10 in Long Island, N.Y. Am. Civil War Union Col. John Milton Chivington (b. 1821) on Oct. 4 in Denver, Colo. (cancer). Canadian PM (1873-8) Alexander Mackenzie (b. 1822) on Apr. 27 in Toronto (stroke). Am. Civil War Union Gen. John Pope (b. 1822) on Sept. 23 in Sandusky, Ohio. Irish engineer James Thomson (b. 1822) on May 8. English Eton schoolmaster William Johnson Cory (b. 1823). English historian Edward Augustus Freeman (b. 1823) on Mar. 16 in Alicante, Spain (smallpox): "This would be a great land [the U.S.] if only every Irishman would kill a negro, and be hanged for it." French composer Edouard Lalo (b. 1823) on Apr. 22. French historian Ernest Renan (b. 1823) on Oct. 12 in Paris; a monument to him by Jean Boucher is erected in Treguier, Brittany in 1903, pissing-off Roman Catholics: "Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity and almost no sense of honor... a race of tillers of the soil, the Negro; treat him with kindness and humanity, and all will be as it should; a race of masters and soldiers, the European race. Reduce this noble race to working in the ergastulum like Negroes and Chinese, and they rebel... But the life at which our workers rebel would make a Chinese or a fellah happy, as they are not military creatures in the least. Let each one do what he is made for, and all will be well." Am. writer George William Curtis (b. 1824) on Aug. 31. Am. historian John Gilmary Shea (b. 1824) on Feb. 22 in Elizabeth, N.J.; in 1945 the John Gilmary Shea Prize is established by the Am. Catholic Historical Assoc. for the most original and distinguished contribution to the knowledge of the history of the Roman Catholic Church. English canoeist John MacGregor (b. 1825) on July 16 in Boscombe, Bournemouth. Am. geologist-chemist Thomas Sterry Hunt (b. 1826) on Feb. 12 in New York City. Brazilian pres. #1 (1889-91) Manual Deodoro da Fonseca (b. 1827) on Aug. 23 in Rio de Janeiro. French scientist Jean-Antoine Villemin (b. 1827) on Oct. 6. Am. businessman William Backhouse Astor Jr. (b. 1829) on Apr. 25 in Paris (heart attack). Irish-born Am. "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" bandmaster-composer Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (b. 1829) on Sept. 24 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. Civil War Union gen. Henry Martin Hoyt (b. 1830) on Dec. 1. Am. automobile engine inventor George Brayton (b. 1830) on Dec. 17. Scottish chemist Archibald Scott Couper (b. 1831) on Mar. 11 in Kirkintilloch. English-born Ariz. settler Phillip Darrell Duppa (b. 1832) on Jan. 30 in Phoenix, Ariz. U.S. First Lady (1889-92) Caroline Harrison (b. 1832) on Oct. 25 in Washington, D.C.; wife of pres. Benjamin Harrison. English Baptist preacher Charles Haddon Spurgeon (b. 1834) on Jan. 31 in Menton, Alpes-Maritines. Am. financier and railroad tycoon Jay Gould (b. 1836) on Dec. 2 in Manhattan, N.Y. (TB). Japanese artist Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (b. 1839). German explorer Emin Pasha (b. 1840) on Oct. 23 in Kinene, Sudan (killed by slave traders). Dutch philologist Bernhard Konrad ten Brink (b. 1841) on Jan. 29 in Strassbourg. Scottish philosopher George Croom Robertson (b. 1842) on Sept. 20. Egyptian khedive Sir Tewfik Pasha (b. 1852) on Jan. 7 near Cairo. Am. "dirty little coward" Bob Ford (b. 1862) on June 8 in Creede, Colo.; murdered in his saloon with a sawed-off shotgun by Edward Capehart O'Kelley (1857-1904), who is treated as a hero for avenging "America's Robin Hood" (Theodore Roosevelt), and released from his life sentence on Oct. 14, 1902 after receiving a pardon from Colo. gov. James B. Orman (who received a petition with 7K signatures), after which he ends up dying trying to kill policeman Joseph Grant "Joe" Burnett (1867-1917) in Oklahoma City, Okla.

1893 - The Everybody's in the Process of Becoming Something Modern But Not Quite Sure Yet What That Means Year of Cleve and Steve? The Chicago's World's Fair gets the Twentieth Century started ahead of time, complete with all its abundance, technology, white racism, and sin, while the legendary American Frontier and its silver boom towns dries up amid the Panic of 1893?

Grover Cleveland of the U.S. (1837-1908) Adlai Ewing Stevenson of the U.S. (1835-1914) Walter Quintin Gresham of the U.S. (1832-95) Dr. Leander Starr Jameson (1853-1917) John Leavitt Stevens of the U.S. (1820-95) Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1857-1931) Sanford Ballard Dole of the U.S. (1844-1926) James Henderson Blount (1837-1903) Howell Edmunds Jackson of the U.S. (1832-95) Julius Sterling Morton of the U.S. (1832-1902) Domingo Vázquez of Honduras Jose Santos Zelaya of Nicaragua (1853-1919) George Tupou II of Tonga (1874-1918) Princess Victoria Mary of Teck (1867-1953) Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. of the U.S. (1828-98) Davis Hanson Waite of the U.S. (1825-1901) Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), 1909 Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) Emma Goldman (1869-1940) Alexander Berkman (1870-1936) Esther Cleveland (1893-1980) Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (1869-1932) Jeanne Schmahl (1846-1915) Juliette Adam (1836-1936) Whitcomb L. Judson (1836-1909) Judson Clasp Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921) Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940) George Moore (1852-1933) William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943) Frederick William Rueckheim George Francis FitzGerald (1851-1901) Leon Brunschvicg (1869-1944) Karl Bücher (1847-1930) Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938) Helen Greenebaum Solomon (1858-1942) Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston (1841-1908) Lord Stanley Cup Martina Sofia Helena Bergman-Österberg (1849-1915) The Gymslip Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924) Stephen Crane (1871-1900) Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920) Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) Karl Pearson (1857-1936) Douglas Hyde (1860-1949) Eoin MacNeill of Ireland (1867-1945) Karl May (1842-1912) Mrs. Patrick Campbell (1865-1940) Hans Goldschmidt (1861-1923) Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939) Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932) Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) Edward Weston (1850-1936) Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923) Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) Ida Conquest (1876-1937) Charles Frohman (1856-1915) Emil Paur (1855-1932) August Weismann (1834-1914) Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938) Jean Lorrain (1855-1906) Lady Margaret Rachel Scott (1874-1938) Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) John Wellborn Root (1850-91) Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) Maud Powell (1867-1920) Olin Levi Warner (1844-96) George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) Ferris Wheel, 1893 Frederick Pabst (1836-1904 Pabst Blue Ribbon Cream of Wheat Cracker Jack Henry Drushel Perky (1843-1906) Shredded Wheat Henry John Heinz (1844-1919) Heinz Ketchup Nancy Green (1834-1923) as Aunt Jemima Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (1861-96) Sophia Hayden Bennett (1868-1953) Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (1861-1907) George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943) Frederick Louis Maytag (1857-1937) Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) Georgia Cayvan (1857-1906) Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929) George Louis Beer (1872-1920) Charles Eudes Bonin (1865-1929) Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) Henry Harland (1861-1905) Mary Kingsley (1862-1900) John Haden Badley (1865-1967) Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954) Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934) James Ford Rhodes (1848-1927) Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929) Hermann Sudermann (1857-1928) The Kneisel Quartet Sidney Jones (1861-1946) Owen Hall (1853-1907) 'A Gaiety Girl', 1893 Gaiety Girls, 1893 Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) 'Frieze of Dancers' by Edgar Degas (1834-1917), 1893 'Diana of the Tower' by Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907), 1892-3 'In Bed' by Henry de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1893 Edvard Munch (1863-1944) 'The Scream' by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), 1893 Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) Winslow House, 1893 Sir Alfred Gilbert (1854-1934) Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain, 1893 Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) Duryea Automobile, 1893 Black Maria Studio, 1893 Waldorf Hotel (1893) and Astoria Hotel (1897) William Waldorf Astor (1848-1919) Henry Janeway Hardenbergh (1847-1918) 'The Boating Party' by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), 1893-4 'The Child's Bath' by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), 1893 Winslow Homer (1836-1910) 'The Fox Hunt' by Winslow Homer (1836-1910), 1893 Good & Plenty, 1893 Sunkist, 1893 Dr. Young's Ideal Rectal Dilators, 193

1893 An Ottoman census which incl. women gives the total pop. at 17.4M. On Jan. 2 the Columbian Issue by the U.S. Post Office goes on sale, featuring Queen Isabella of Spain on the 5 cent stamp ("Columbus Soliciting Aid of Isabella"), along with the first-ever $1-$5 U.S. stamps; the $1 stamp is "Isabella Pledging Her Jewels"; the $4 stamp is "Isabella and Columbus", becoming the first to bear the portrait of a woman (next Martha Washington in 1902). On Jan. 6 the U.S. Congress grants a charter for a Nat. Cathedral to the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation in Washington, D.C., signed by Pres. Benjamin Harrison; in 1896 Rt. Rev. Henry Yates Satterlee is consecrated as the first bishop of Washington, D.C., immediately securing land on Mount Saint Alban for the cathedral; the foundation stone isn't laid until Sept. 29, 1907. On Jan. 10 Populist Party candidate Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901) becomes Colo. gov. #8 (until Jan. 8, 1895), going on to support bimetallism and federalized banking, declare war against Jefferson Randolph "Jeff" "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98) and his corruption machine in Dirty Denver, Colo., protect striking miners and railroad workers, and help get women's suffrage passed in Colo. (2nd U.S. state), giving the Bloody Bridles Speech in 1893, with the soundbyte: "It is better, infinitely better that blood should flow to the horses' bridles rather than our national liberties should be destroyed"; meanwhile Denver receives a new municipal charter from the state legislature that decentralizes the mayor's power into six admin. depts., two appointed by the mayor, two elected, and two appointed by the gov., giving him his tool to fight Soapy Smith. On Jan. 13 workers at the Manningham Mills in Bradford, England go on strike, causing the Independent Labour Party (a precursor to the current Labour Party) to hold its first meeting in Bradford under Scottish Socialist MP (since 1892) James Keir Hardie (1856-1915); it goes on to contest 28 seats in the 1895 gen. election. On Jan. 16-17 knowing that pres.-elect Cleveland is against Hawaiian annexation, U.S. sugar growers in Honolulu, in collusion with U.S. minister to Hawaii John Leavitt Stevens (1820-95) stage a nearly bloodless overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii led by newspaper pub. Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858-1931) and other cocky descendants of U.S. missionaries, backed by U.S. troops from the USS Boston, proclaiming Hawaii a repub. with a Provisional Govt. of Hawaii (ends July 4, 1894), and "ceding" 1.8M acres of land from the Hawaiian monarchy; Queen Liliuokalani, who keeps cool and forbids her people to fight is deposed by Sanford Ballard Dole (1844-1926) and the Missionary Party, and imprisoned in 'Iolani Palace; in Feb. the Yankees try to push an annexation treaty through the lame duck Congress, but La. and Colo. sugar beet interests block it; meanwhile the queen sends emissaries to Washington, D.C. seeking removal of the troops, but they ignore her and choose Pearl Harbor lagoon as HQ for the U.S. Pacific fleet; on Nov. 23, 1993 Pres. Bill Clinton signs U.S. Public Law 103-150 AKA the Apology Resolution, acknowledging that the invasion was illegal - but we'll keep it? On Jan. 25 Boston, Mass.-born blonde-blue actress Ida Conquest (1876-1937) makes her stage debut as First Girl Friend in The Harvest at Miner's Theater on Fifth Ave. in Manhattan, N.Y., going on to become a top Broadway star; her final Broadway appearance is in Henrik Ibsen's "Little Eyolf" (1910) at the Nazimova 39th Street Theatre. On Jan. 25 Charles Frohman (1856-1915) and Raphael "Al" Hayman (1847-1917) open the Empire Theatre in New York City across from the Metropolitan Opera House near 40th St., going on to become the #1 New York City playhouse until the 1940s; demolished in 1952; David Belasco's "The Girl I Left Behind Me" is the first production. In Jan. after making use of the Marias Pass, which he discovers in 1899, allowing him to build a rival track N of the Northern Pacific which enjoys easier and shallower terrain, the Great Northern Railway from St. Paul, Minn. to Seattle, Wash. (1.7K mi.) (begun 1857) is completed, and owner James Jerome Hill (1838-1916) gets the U.S. govt. to open Montana to homesteading; too bad, the Panic of 1893 then arrives, but Hill proves his capitalist cajones by risking an employee strike to repeatedly cut wages while giving his customers credit and lowering his freight rates by 13%, emerging with his net worth going up by $10M, and his eye on Chicago; the railway closes in 1970. In Jan. French feminists Jeanne Elizabeth Schmahl (1846-1915), Juliette Adam (1836-1936) et al. found the Avant-Courriere (Forerunner) Assoc. to call for the right of women to be witnesses in court and for married women to dispose of the product of their labor, dissolving after the passing of the 1907 Married Woman's Earnings (Schmahl) Act. On Feb. 1 Thomas Edison opens his barn-like Black Maria (pr. ma-RYE-uh) motion picture studio in West Orange, N.J., becoming the first movie studio in the U.S. and world; one of his first films is Two Men Boxing (1891). On Feb. 8 anchor liner Trinalria sinks off the coast of Spain, killing 115. On Feb. 18 George Tupou II (1874-1918) becomes king of Tonga (until Apr. 5, 1918), going on to marry Lavinia Veiongo Fotu (1879-1902), who can produce an heir combining the three main royal bloodlines, although this almost leads to a civil war, and he proves an inept leader, leading to Tonga becoming a British protectorate in 1905? On Feb. 18 after Pres. Harrison nominates him on Feb. 2 to replace Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II (1888-93) (who died on Jan. 23), Paris, Tenn.-born Dem. Howell Edmunds Jackson (1832-95) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #54 (until Aug. 8, 1895) reducing the court to eight members until next year after Samuel Blatchford (1820-93) dies on July 7; Jackson becomes the first justice to hire a law school grad as his clerk, future U.S. Supreme Court justice James Clark McReynolds. 1893 is a good year for funky legal pronouncements from on high? On Mar. 3 after the U.S. Civil War ruins the Southern tomato biz, allowing Caribbean competitors to gain a foothold, the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Tariff Act of 1883 (Mongrel Tariff Act), which raises tariffs on some items and lowers them on others, exempting fruit not vegetables, pissing-off tomato growers John Nix et al., who sue the U.S. govt. in 1887 on the claim that tomatoes are botanically classified as fruits (ovary and seeds of flowering plants), which New York port collector Edward L. Hedden counters by pointing out that eggplants, cucumbers, squashes, peppers, and peas are commonly regarded as vegetables; on May 10, 1893 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Nix v. Hedden to declare the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, of the nightshade family) to be a vegetable for the purposes of the 1883 Tariff Act, with Horace Gray writing the majority opinion, becoming a highlight for the boring nutty fruitcake full-of-it Melville Fuller court; in 2003 a N.J. state rep. unsuccessfully tries to make the Jersey tomato the state fruit (high-bush blueberry wins), but Ark. makes it the state fruit and vegetable to cover all bases; meanwhile the Southern Calif. Fruit Exchange is founded in Claremont (near Los Angeles), Calif. by orange grower Edward L. Dreher (1877-1964), who becomes "the Father of the Calif. Citrus Industry"; in 1896 lemon growers join; by 1905 it has 5K members (45% of the Calif. citrus industry), dropping the Southern; in 1907 it launches the Sunkist brand; in 1952 it becomes Sunkist Growers Inc. Uncle Jumbo gets taken down the drain by the Panic of 1893, causing a Repub. landslide in 1894 and the agrarian-silverite seizure of his Dem. Party in 1896 and launching the Progressive Era? On Mar. 4 N.J.-born U.S. pres. #22 "Uncle Jumbo" Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) becomes the 24th U.S. pres. (until Mar. 4, 1897) in the 31st U.S. Pres. Inauguration in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. in a snowstorm, making the man not from O-hi-O both the 22nd and 24th pres. (1885-9, 1893-7); Ky.-born Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) becomes the 23rd U.S. vice-pres. (until Mar. 4, 1897); a ticket from Cleveland's first inaugration ceremony gets you into this one; former treasury secy. (under Pres. Arthur) Walter Quintin Gresham (1832-95) becomes secy. of state #33 (until May 28, 1895); after the appointment of receivers for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad on Feb. 20, Cleveland convinces Congress to repeal the 1890 U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, leading to the Panic of 1893, blamed by the Cleveland admin. on mismanagement of silver and decline of U.S. gold reserves, causing the U.S. to experience its most severe depression so far; the homeless become a problem for the first time; anti-Roman Catholic activity heats up. On Mar. 7 Julius Sterling Morton (1832-1902), founder of Arbor day on Apr. 10, 1872, and father of Morton Salt Co. founder Joy Morton (1855-1934) becomes U.S. agriculture secy. #3 (until Mar. 5, 1897). On Mar. 31 the Dundee Advertiser in Scotland pub. a speech by R. Scott Moncrieff, commissioner of the Society for the Relief of Persecuted Jews about a visit to Palestine he made in Aug. 1891, with the soundbyte: "The question was often asked how many Jews there were in Palestine, and that question he had endeavoured to find an answer to. In Palestine he found after much inquiry - although he had considerable difficulty in getting reliable facts - that there were at least 75,000 Jews, young and old. The great bulk - much more than half - of the Jews were in Jerusalem. After inquiring at different Rabbis and at Christian residenters, he was led to conclude that there must be at least 45,000 Jews in and around Jerusalem." On Apr. 1 the rank of chief petty officer is officially established in the U.S. Navy; boatswain's mate and gunner's mate were in use since 1797. On Apr. 21 PM William Gladstone's Govt. of Ireland Bill 1893 (Second Home Rule Bill) is approved 347-304 by the House of Commons, but fails by 41-419 in the House of Lords. In Apr. a large Tonghak demonstration is held in Ch'ungch'ong, Korea. In Apr. after leaving India, 24-y.-o. well-dressed Porbandar, India-born Gujarat, India-raised London-educated barrister Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) is kicked out of the first class compartment on a train in South Africa because he isn't white, then thrown off the train, which sets him on his life course of fighting against white oppression, founding the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 - just because you're not wearing clothes doesn't mean you're not intuitive? Food is Love, or the Devil in the White City? The 20th Century begins ahead of schedule in the greatest World's Fair of All Time? On May 1 Pres. Cleveland presses a golden telegraph key in front of a crowd of 300K (largest so far in U.S. history) to start the giant Westinghouse electrical generators lighting 120K lightbulbs and open the $27M World's Columbian Expedition (Chicago World's Fair) (closes Oct. 30) in the "White City" of 150 neoclassic bldgs. in Jackson Park, 686 acres of reclaimed swamp along the shore of Lake Michigan 7 mi. S of downtown Chicago (built of plaster-cement-fiber staff on flammable wooden-steel frames, not marble, and painted using newfangled spray-painting equipment), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) and John Wellborn Root (1850-91) (who dies trying to meet the crushing time constraints); on May 12 the South Side Elevated Railroad reaches Jackson Park to provide service to the fair, becoming the first "el", based on the nickname "alley L"; Frank Lloyd Wright (b. 1867) quits college to work for Burnham, who first sends him to the Beaux Arts in Paris, and he comes back saying that the Columbian Exposition set U.S. architecture back 50 years; Francis Bellamy's new "Pledge of Allegiance" is recited by children at the fair's dedication; the Exposition orchestra, conducted by Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) features violinist Maud Powell (1867-1920), who proves that woman can work in them newfangled orchestra thingies; the Court of Honor features the magnificent Peristyle by Charles Atwood, Daniel French's 65-ft.-tall statue The Republic, as well as colossal heads of artists Michelangelo et al. by French-born Beaux Arts popularizer Olin Levi Warner (1844-96) i n the Palace of Fine Arts, which houses 10K pieces of art so crowded together that nobody can view them all; the 1687 ft. x 787 ft. x 245 ft. tall (500K sq. ft.) (44 acre) Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Bldg. (opened in Oct. 1892 in front of a crowd of 100K), the largest bldg. in the world, has a crowd cap. of 300K and is lit with 10K electric lights, and the endless exhibits are worth at least $50M; the U.S. Liberty Bell is displayed in the Penn. exhibit in a replica of Independence Hall; the Japanese Village is the first exposure of Americans to cool Japanese culture, and is the only non-white exhibition not snickered at; the Cold Storage Bldg. features an indoor skating rink, and burns down on July 10 with the loss of 13 firemen and four workers, who climb to the top of the metal tower then burn alive or jump while the crowds watch; t he polychrome pro-Modern Transportation Bldg. is designed by Louis Henri Sullivan; the Women's Bldg., designed by 21-y.-o. Am. architect Sophia Hayden (1868-1953) (first female in the U.S. with an architecture degree) features exclusively work by women (too bad, welcome to reality, Hayden is only paid $1K for her design, 10% of what men earn); the first-ever (264 ft., 1.2K ton) Ferris Wheel, built by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) (36 salon cars, each holding 40-60 passengers, with five glass panels) is the highlight and the financial salvation of the fair, and is set up at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair then scrapped; an all-electric kitchen is featured; the Captive Balloon costs $2 for a ride to 1,490 ft. plus a photo, and it crashes in high winds and goes out of biz; the Shedd Aquarium Bldg., the largest indoor aquarium in the world causes an awakening of the environmental movement; the Midway Plaisance of future U.S. congressman (Jewish) Sol Bloom "the Music Man" (1870-1949), designed by Frederick Law Olmsted is the big moneymaker, filled with booze, cigars and bawdy entertainment, incl. the Streets of Cairo ("Beautiful Orient") Bldg., complete with a replica of the Sphinx, featuring Little Egypt (Farida Mazar Spyropoulos) and the "Naughty Girls from Algeria", who dance the Hootchy-Kootchy (Hoochie-Koochie) (Kouta-Kouta), AKA the "danse du ventre" (belly dance) (named by Bloom), with the first perf. of Bloom's uncopyrighted Snake Charmer Tune ("Oh they don't wear pants on the sunny side of France"), which pisses-off Head Prude Anthony Comstock into trying to shut it down, which only makes it more popular and causes the dance to spread around the U.S., complete with a better 1895 version of the song The Streets of Cairo, or The Poor Little Country Maid, by James Thornton (1861-1938), who uses his wife Bonnie to demonstrate it; the U. of Chicago is later built on the site of the Midway Plaisance, and the Chicago Bears football team becomes known as "the monsters of the Midway"; Boilerplate the Mechanical Marvel, a mechanical robot is another don't-miss; the fair introduces the word "cafeteria"; the Rumford Kitchen of home economics founder Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (1842-1911) showcases food science, incl. luncheon menus with nutritional info.; chili con carne is introduced; Joseph Garis Cochrane displays her new automatic dishwater (patented 1886); carmel maker Milton S. Hershey sees chocolate-making machinery at the fair and buys it; Henry Perky's shredded wheat is popularized, along with Wrigley's new Juicy Fruit brand chewing gum; German-born Frederick William "Fritz" Rueckheim and his brother Louis Rueckheim introduce Cracker Jack brand caramel-coated popcorn with peanuts (which is registered in 1896, comes in a "wax-sealed" packages in 1899, gets a boost from the 1908 song "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" by Albert Von Tilzer and Jack Norworth, and begins incl. silly trivial toys as prizes starting in 1912, then features Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo in 1918, with the motto "The more you eat the more you want"); they actually don't introduce it until 1896?; Pabst Blue Ribbon Beer, made by Capt. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich "Frederick" Pabst (1836-1904) (since 1882, when he started tying silk ribbons to his Select Beer) wins a blue ribbon, and guess what, 30M ft. of silk blue ribbon shipped with the beer that didn't quite make Milwaukee famous by the turn of the cent.?; Cream of Wheat farina breakfast porridge mix made from wheat semolina makes its debut; Bavarian sausage vendor Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger starts out providing white gloves to eat them with, then switches to rolls when they keep the gloves as souvenirs; Henry John "H.J." Heinz (1844-1919) attracts people to his 2nd-floor out-of-the way booth by handing out Heinz pickle pins, going on to give away 100M of them during the next cent.; R.T. Davis Mill Co. hires Ky.-born former slave Nancy Green (1834-1923) to demonstrate Aunt Jemima pancake mix in front of their 24-ft.-high 12-ft.-diam. world's largest flour barrel, causing co. sales to go through the roof; writer L. Frank Baum later models his Emerald City after the White City; "Devil in the White City" serial killer Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (Herman Webster Mudgett) (1861-96) ("the Torture Doctor") sobers it up with some World's Fair murders after he builds a 105-room hotel nearby filled with torture chambers, and lures 27+ young women to their deaths, torturing and gassing them in a soundproof room, then butchering their bodies in the basement and selling the parts to medical schools; the fair closes on Oct. 30 after hosting 27M visitors from 73 nations, and makes a small profit; on the night of Oct. 28 disgruntled insane newspaper distributor Patrick Eugene Joseph Prendergast (1868-94) (who thought that he was owed a govt. job for supporting his election campaign) murders Chicago mayor Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (b. 1825) in his home with a small revolver, causing many to skip the closing ceremonies for his Nov. 1 funeral; Prendergast is hanged next July 13 after his atty. Clarence Darrow unsuccessfully raises the insanity defense - he didn't get the job, did he? On June 14 Philadelphia, Penn. observes the first Flag Day, to commemorate June 14, 1777, when Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes. On June 20 Ind.-raised Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926), grand secy. of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen since 1893 organizes the Am. Railway Union, becoming its first pres. (until 1897). On June 22 British battleships HMS Victoria and HMS Camperdown collide off the coast of Tripoli, Syria, killing 357. On June 27 the New York stock market crashes. In the summer Pres. Cleveland has a secret operation to remove a huge tumor in the jaw, which is covered-up to the public; he begins wearing a rubber jaw. On July 17 after Pres. Harrison supports annexation and sends a treaty to the U.S. Senate, and new Pres. Cleveland withdraws the Hawaiian annexation treaty and rebukes the sugar growers for the way they took over the govt., sending an investigator to Honolulu to investigate, the Blount Report is delivered to Pres. Cleveland by white supremacist former U.S. Rep. (D-Ga.) (1873-93) James Henderson Blount (1837-1903), rejecting the idea of annexing a bunch of Polynesians to the lily white U.S., and calling for U.S. troops to restore Da Queen to powah, after which Sanford Dole defies his order to reinstate her, and she hurts herself by demanding that the 60+ Am. rebels be beheaded instead of given amnesty, causing Hawaii to become a loose cannon, with neither party considered acceptable to rule it? On July 25 Liberal Jose Santos Zelaya (1853-1919), backed by disgruntled conservatives becomes pres. of Nicaragua (until Dec. 21, 1909), and initiates educational and other reforms - hey everybody it's limo time? On July 27 New York executes its 4th electrocution, of William Taylor; after the first jolt fails to kill him and the generator blows, he is kept alive on morphine for 1 hour 9 min. until it can be fixed and the final jolt administered - what did you do today, honey? On July 30 Scientific American carries the first known automobile ad, from Winston Motor Car Co., with the slogan "Dispense with a Horse". On July 31 the Gaelic League is founded on July 31 in Dublin, Ireland by Douglas Ross Hyde (1860-1949) and Eoin MacNeill (1867-1945) to promote Irish language, history, and culture, going on to pub. Gaelic Journal and spearhead the Gaelic Revival, which began with the formation of the Ulster Gaelic Society in 1830. On Aug. 7 Domingo Vazquez (Vázquez) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 22, 1894). In Aug. self-taught white English babe Mary Kingsley (1862-1900), whose daddy died and left her an income allowing her to do her thing arrives in Luanda, Angola and begins living with the natives, learning their survival skills, and going on to explore the Ogowe River to visit the cannibal Fang tribe, then climb 13,760-ft. Mount Cameroon by a new route, finally returning to England in Oct. 1895 and shocking the WASP prudes by telling them that blacks aren't really inferior and that polygamy is natural for them, but not admitting to sex with blacks? On Sept. 11-27 the first annual World Parliament of Religions at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Ill. brings together Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Christian Scientists, Spiritualists, Confucians, Baha'is, Jains, polytheists, and pagans in an attempt to "combine into one world-religion what is best", becoming the first interfaith gathering, birthing a global movement; too bad, it doesn't work, since they all think they've got the only truth; Nat. Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) is founded by Hannah Greenebaum Solomon (1858-1942), becoming the first nat. assoc. of Jewish women, pissing-off Jewish men; Hindu guru Swami Vivekananda (Narendra Nath Datta) (1863-1902) gives an inspiring speech on the opening day starting with "Sisters and Brothers of America", introducing Hinduism and the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western World. On Sept. 16 (noon) the Okla. Land Run of 1893 sees the 2-mi.-wide 225-mi.-long Cherokee Outlet (Strip) in NC-NW Okla. opened to 100K white migrants claiming 40K homesteads on 6M acres, populating the towns of Enid, Okla. in NC Okla. (named after a char. in Alfred Lord Tennyson's "Idylls of the King") and Woodward, Okla. near the Okla. Panhandle along the almost kaput Great Western Cattle Trail (founded 1874) on the S bank of the North Canadian River, which is on the Southern Kansas Railway, becoming a loading point for cattle grazed in the Cherokee Outlet; East Woodward is originally called Denver. On Sept. 19 women in New Zealand become the first in the world to gain the right to vote, and the country goes on to show its new zeal by a slew of social welfare legislation until the 21st cent. On Sept. 28 the first known use of the term "hot dog" in print appears in the Knoxville Journal: "Even the weinerwurst men began preparing to get the 'hot dogs' read for sale Saturday night"; the Oct. 19, 1895 issue of the Yale Record contains the phrase: "They contentedly munched hot dogs during the whole service". In Oct. the First Matabele (Matebele) War in British South Africa sees the Brits under Edinburgh, Scotland-born Sir Leander Starr "Doctor Jim" "Lanner" Jameson (1853-1917) (former friend of King Lobengula, whom he treated for gout and talked into the original 1889 mining concession) slaughter the Matebeles with the new Maxim (Machine) Gun and occupy Bulawayo; meanwhile King Lobengula takes sick in Dec., and this time Doctor Jim no workee for him, so the company wins a decisive V in Jan., dissolving the Ndebele Kingdom. On Nov. 1 steamship Wairaro sinks off the coast of New Zealand, killing 134. On Nov. 1 the Western Mail of Cardiff, Wales pub. an interview with Arab Christian Yusuf Audi, "chief of the Dahr Awad tribe", "a lineal descendant of Jonadab, the son of Rechab", describing the laziness and illiteracy of the Muslims in Palestine, with the soundbyte: "The Jews, who number 35,000 are in a majority, and all the remainder are either Mohammedans or Christians, there being about 20,000 of each." On Nov. 7 after support by Populist gov. (since Jan. 10, 1893) Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901), Colo. becomes the 2nd U.S. state after Wyo. to grant women the vote; too bad, after is voted out of office in 1894, Waite reverses his opinion of women's suffrage. On Nov. 12 the Durand Line Agreement defines the S borders of Afghanistan. On Nov. 13 Swaziland is annexed by Transvaal. On Nov. 17 the Buckhorn Exchange eating-drinking establishment at 1000 Osage St. in Denver, Colo, named after the Buckhorn Lodge across the street is founded by former Buffalo Bill Cody companion Henry H. "Shorty Scout" Zietz (1949), and is issued Colo. liquor license No. 1, becoming Denver's most famous restaurant, with patrons incl. U.S. presidents Teddy Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan, and celebs Princess Anne, Scott Carpenter, Jack Swigert, Will Rogers, Roy Rogers, Bob Hope, Jimmy Cagney, and Charleton Heston; in 1938 Chief Red Cloud, nephew of Sitting Bull leads a delegation of 30 Sioux and Blackfoot Indians down Osage St., handing Zietz Gen. George Custer's military saber from the 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn; the walls go on to display 575 pieces of taxidermy and 125 guns along with cool vintage photographs; in 1972 it is designated a historic landmark by the city. On Nov. 18 Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical Providentissimus Deus (On the Study of the Holy Scripture), flip-flopping on the 1633 Galileo condemnation and rejecting the Biblical fundamentalism of Cardinal Bellarmine and the Qualifiers of the Holy Office - wow, that sounds like a balanced article, or, Thank You for Matchless Smoking? On Dec. 27 the secret Dual Alliance between Russia and France is ratified by the French Parliament through an interchange of letters (ending Jan. 4, 1894), whereby France will provide Russia 1.3M troops in the event of an attack by Germany (or Austria-Hungary backed by Germany), and Russia will provide France 700K troops in the event of an attack by Germany (or Austria-Hungary backed by Germany). Pres. Cleveland demands and obtains repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, splitting the party between gold and silver Dems.; when this move fails to cure the panic, and gold reserves decline below $100M, Cleveland resorts to both public and private (e.g. J.P. Morgan) bond issues, sealing his rep. as a conservative. Dahomey is occupied and annexed by France. The U.S. creates its first official ambassadors (as opposed to ministers or envoys), starting with Britain, France, Germany and Italy, followed by Russia in 1898 and Brazil in 1905; Del.-born Dem. Sen. (1869-85) Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. (1828-98) becomes the first U.S. ambassador to the Court of St. James in Britain (until 1897). The British Oil Rivers Protectorate in N Nigeria changes its name to Niger Coast Protectorate. British diplomat Mortimer Durand draws a boundary line between Pakistan and Afghanistan that ignores the existence of the large Pasthun pop., who ignore the boundary. Natal is granted self-govt., becoming a province of South Africa in 1910-94. Vientiane (Laos) becomes a French protectorate, and is incorporated into the Union of Indochina. Rabih al-Zubayr finishes conquering Chad (until 1900), and declares himself king of a resurrected Muslim Borno kingdom, building a magnificent palace in his capital of Dikoa (Dikwa), going on to make money from the slave trade. The Panama Canal Corruption Trial is held in Paris. The French Monteil Mission tries to occupy the High-Oubangui in Sudan. The city of Novosibirsk ("New Siberia") on the Ob River in SW Siberia (original name Novonikolayevsk until Sept. 12, 1926) (modern-day pop. 1.4M7M/1.57M) is founded on the Trans-Siberian Railway, becoming known as "the Chicago of Russia" for its rapid growth and industralization under Joseph Stalin. German explorer ? Goetzen crosses Africa from east to west. Gold is discovered near Kalgoorlie-Boulder ("Kal") in Western Australia, becoming "the richest square mile of gold-bearing dirt in the world"; eventually a man-made canyon 1 mi. x 2 mi. x 1.2K ft. deep is created by miners, who extract over 1.3K tons. A Frog tries to become a combo Passepartout and Marco Polo? French diplomat Charles Eudes Bonin (1865-1929), new envoy to the Mung people of Laos begins an expedition to explore the Mekong River to resolve a territorial dispute between Siam and Annam, getting Siam to relinquish its claims; in 1895 he gets a promotion and begins another expedition from Hanoi up the Red River into SW China, then N into the Gobi Desert of Mongolia, through Tibet to the Siberian frontier, then on to Beijing and France in 1897; in 1898 he starts out in Shanghai, travels up the Yangtze River to the Tibetan border, then Beijing, N into S Mongolia then N Tibet, visiting Qinhai Lake (Koko Nur) and Lop Nur, returning E to Beijing along Marco Polo's route, returning with the first scientific maps of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. English explorer Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938) begins an Arctic expedition in Russia and Lapland, then next year begins the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition, financed by newspaper Alfed Harmsworh to explore Franz Josef Land (until 1897), proving that it is an archipelago not a continent; meanwhile Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) of Norway leads an unsuccessful expedition to the North Pole (ends 1896) which drifts with the Arctic ice pack and reaches a record N lat., influencing future expeditions with innovations in equipment, clothing, and techniques; on June 17, 1896 Jackson happens on them by accident in Franz Josef Land as they are trying to to return by sledge, saving their lives. The La. sugar crop finally reaches its prewar levels. The 36-mi. Manchester Ship Canal in NW England is completed. After the 1866 discovery of dynamite finally makes it possible, the Corinth Canal in Greece, first begun by Nero in 67 C.E. opens after 40M francs are spent in 1830 by Greece, another 30M in 1869 by Austria, and 5M more are given to a Greek co. in 1890 to finish it. Am. physician Henry L. Coit of Essex County, N.J. gets the Medical Milk Commission to be formed to certify milk for cleanliness, whether pasteurized or not; too bad, certified milk costs up to 4x the price of uncertified milk, causing Macy's owner Nathan Straus to set up "milk depots" in New York City to provide low-cost pasteurized milk and crusade against unpasteurized milk; the first commercial pasteurizing machines are introduced in 1895, and the first compulsory pasteurization law is passed in Chicago, Ill. in 1908. Victoria Mary of Teck (1867-1953) marries Duke George of York (later George V). Russian-born Emma Goldman (1869-1940), co-leader with Alexander Berkman (1870-1936) of the U.S. anarchist movement is arrested and sentenced to 1 year on Blackwell's Island in New York City for giving a speech under the trumped-up charge of cha-cha-cha incitement to riot, which only adds to her fame, launching her on a lecture tour of England and Scotland starting in 1894 - what, no riots? Queen Isabella becomes the first female put on a U.S. coin. Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940) becomes pres. of the Henry Street (Nurses') Settlement in New York City, becoming a leader in social work. 14-y.-o. Joseph Stalin (b. 1879) obtains a scholarship to Tiflis Theological Seminary; he is expelled five years later after being caught 14x reading forbidden literature incl. Marx, Hugo and Darwin. Austrian-born Emil Paur (1855-1932) becomes conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (until 1898). Chicago-born Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (1869-1932) moves to Broadway, becoming America's first musical "impresario extraordinaire". Romanian violinist Franz Kneisel (1865-1926) leads the Boston Symphony Orchestra perf. at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, then forms the Kneisel Quartet from orchestra members. The Field Museum of Natural History is founded in Chicago. The Imperial Inst. is founded in South Kensington, London. British naval historian John Knox Laughton and British Adm. Sir Cyprian Bridge found the Navy Records Society to pub. documents on British naval history; U.S. Rear Adm. Alfred Thayer Mahan becomes the first overseas member. The U. of Glasgow (founded 1450) admits women, founding Queen Margaret and Muirhead Colleges for women. John Haden Badley (1865-1967) founds Bedales School in Haywards Heath, England, with a progressive curriculum incl. manual labor in fields and gardens, cooking, tailoring, and bootmaking; it goes coed in 1898. The St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park in St. Augustine Beach, Fla. opens on May 20. Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale is founded by Leon Brunschvicg (1869-1944), Xavier Leon, and Elie Halevy (1870-1937). Polish-born Marie Curie (b. 1867) becomes the first woman to receive a physics degree at the Sorbonne in Paris, one of only two women in their science program of 1K students, and first in her class - you let them out of the kitchen and the boudoir and look what they do? Oriental studies prof. (Calvinist) Duncan Black MacDonald (1863-1943) is hired by Hartford Theological Seminary in Conn., setting up a school devoted to missionary work among Muslims in the Middle East, becoming the largest Protestant school in the U.S. for missions to the Muslim World. French absurdist playwright Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) coins the term "'Pataphysics" as a parody of Metaphysics, with the definition: "The science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments"; the apostrophe is needed to avoid the pun "patte a physique" (leg of physics); on May 11, 1948 the College de 'Pataphysique is founded in Paris, with the motto "Eadem mutata resurgo" (I rise again the same though changed). The 159 ft. Gustave Zede (Zédé) cylindrical hull submarine is launched on June 1. The Carl Lindstrom Co. is founded in Berlin, Germany by Swedish inventor Carl Lindstrom (1869-1932) to produce phonographs (gramophones) and phonograph records. Paul R. Reynolds founds the first literary agency in the U.S. in New York City. Electrical wizard Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923) begins his long career with General Electric Co. Frederick Louis Maytag (1857-1937), founds the Maytag Co., going on to produce reliable washing machines and become known for his soundbyte: "Is everybody happy?" Babington's English Tea Room in London opens, becoming a good place to get a scone. Good & Plenty pink-white sweet black licorice coated hard candy is introduced by Quaker City Confectionary Co. in Philly, becoming the oldest branded candy in the U.S.; in 1973 it is acquired by Warner-Lambert, followed in 1982 by Leaf Candy Co., which is acquired in 1996 by Hershey Foods; K-Carmine dye, produced from the crushed bodies of the female cochineal insect is used for the pink candies. Sports: On Jan. 7-Mar. 7 the 1893 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season (games alternate between rover and non-rover versions) sees the Montreal Hockey Club win for the 6th straight time, becoming the first winner of the Stanley Cup (La Coupe Stanley) (originally the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup) on May 15, donated last year by Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston (16th Earl of Derby) (1841-1908) (gov.-gen. of Canada in 1888-93), who returns to England during the 1893 season and never watches a championship game or sees his trophy. On Feb. 7 Vanderbilt U. plays the Nashville, Tenn. YMCA, becoming the first college to play a non-college opponent in basketball. On Feb. 10 the first Rocky Mountain Showdown sees the U. of Colo Buffaloes football team defeat the Colo. State U. Rams by 70-6; it is suspended in 1959-82, and not played yearly until 1995; in 1998-? it is played at Mile High Stadium in Denver, Colo., except 2004-5, and 2009, which are played at Folsom Field in Boulder, Colo.; the winner is awarded the Centennial Trophy; as of 2015 the Buffs lead the Rams 63-22-2. On Apr. 6-7 the Longest Gloved Boxing Match in History sees Andy Bowen and and Jack Burke fight 110 rounds (7 hours 19 min.) before the referees call it a "no contest" after both fighters refuse to continue. On Apr. 8 Geneva College defeats New Brighton YMCA in basketball by 3-0 in Beaver Falls, Penn. Lady Margaret Rachel Scott (1874-1938) wins her first of three consecutive British women's golf championships. German immigrant Chris von der Ahe, owner of the St. Louis Browns baseball team in Mo. becomes the first to sell hot dogs at baseball games - pass the salmonella? After visiting the U.S., Swedish-born Martina Sofia Helena Bergman-Osterberg (Bergman-Österberg) (1849-1915) of Hampstead, London invents Netball for women, which is played outdoors on grass, with baskets replaced by rings with nets, with players limited to zones on the court and no dribbling allowed to allow for female modesty; it goes on to spread throughout the British Empire; in 1897 her student Mary Tait invents the Gymslip (Pinafore Dress) (Jumper Dress) sleeveless tunic with pleated skirt for women to replace ground-length skirts and mutton-arm blouses. The Narragansett Machine Co. begins selling iron basketball baskets with a net and chain, replacing peach baskets. Architecture: On Mar. 13 William Waldorf "Willy" Astor, 1st Viscount Astor (18481919) opens the 225-ft. 13-story 450-room Waldorf Hotel at 5th Ave. and 33rd St. in New York City next door to a house owned by Willy's aunt Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor (1830-1908) on the future site of the Empire State Bldg., connected by Peacock Alley, becoming the world's largest hotel (until 1963), transforming the concept of a facility for transients into a prestigious destination for visitors, which shocks Victorian society by admitting single women; the architect is Henry Janeway Hardenbergh (1847-1918) of Willard Hotel fame; pince-nez-wearing Prussian-born George Charles Boldt (1851-1916), owner of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philly becomes the proprietor, popularizing Thousand Island dressing and Waldorf Salad; after initially being called "Astor's (Boldt's) Folly", a benefit concret for St. Mary's Hospital for Children on opening day attended by the elite paying $5 each causes it to become a success, earning $4.5M the first year; in 1931 a new 47-story Art Deco bldg. opens at 301 Park Ave. - visiting blue bloods have a home? After the World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair), held 22 years after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 features a monotonous plethora of neoclassical Greek-Roman architecture, pissing-off the Prairie School of midwestern U.S. architects, led by Frank Lloyd Wright, they go on to create a unique horizontal style to echo the flat treeless expanses; Richland Center, Wisc-.-born architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) designs the William H. Winslow House in River Forest (Highland Park), Ill., becoming the first house he builds on his own, and the first Prairie School style house, "opening the box", diverging from the std. Victorian house by having no front and no back; after his own residence in Oak Park, Ill., built in 1889 while working for the firm of Adler & Sullivan in Chicago, he goes on to design the Ward W. Willits House in Highland Park, Ill. (1901), Unity Church in Oak Park, Ill. (1904), the Frederick C. Robie House in Chicago (1906), the Hollyhock House in Los Angeles, Calif. (1917), Taliesen III in Spring Green, Wisc. (1925), Fallingwater in Bear Run, Ohiopyle, Penn. (1935), Honeycomb House in Stanford, Calif. (1936), the S.C. Johnson Admin. Bldg. in Racine, Wisc. (1936), Taliesen West in Scottsdale, Ariz. (1937), S.C. Johnson Research Tower in Racine, Wisc. (1944), the Unitarian Meeting House in Shorewood Hills, Wisc. (1947), V.C. Morris Gift Shop in San Francisco, Calif. (1948), the Price Co. Tower in Bartlesville, Okla. (1952), Beth Sholom Synagogue in Elkins Park, Penn. (1954), and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City (1959). The Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain (begun 1885) by London-born English New Sculpture Movement sculptor Sir Alfred Gilbert (1854-1934) in Piccadilly Circus, London is unveiled, crowned with the aluminum statue of Anteros, which he calls "the Angel of Christian Charity", popularly known as Eros, becoming the world's first aluminum statue. Inventions: On Jan. 10 James J. Harvey of Kidminster, England receives British Patent #546 for a "pneumatic dusting machine" "for removing dust from the surface of books, ornaments, pictures, and the like", requiring two operators, "one of them working a bellows and the other pushing the dust collector from place to place". On Aug. 29 Whitcomb L. Judson (1836-1909) of Chicago, Ill. patents the C-Curity Clasp Locker (invented in 1891), a bulky zipper for shoes and boots, marketed in 1896 as a "universal fastener"; too bad, it often jams or springs open; the modern zipper is not invented until Dec. 1913 by the can-do head designer of his co., Gideon Sundback from Sweden, who adds cups on the back of the teeth. Ill.-born brothers Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) build the Duryea Automobile, complete with the first pneumatic tires, becoming the first successful automobile produced in the U.S. Thermite, a mixture of aluminum and iron rust powder is invented by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt (1861-1923); it burns at 2.5K C and can be used for welding; he patents it in 1895. Frank J. Kellogg markets the first weight-loss pill, a thyroid extract called the "safe fat reducer"; too bad, its use can cause sudden death. Danish-born Am. chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) invents Velox photographic paper, and sells his patent to Kodak for $1M. Karl Benz builds his first 4-wheel car; meanwhile Henry Ford builds his first car. Am. glassmaker Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) of Toledo, Ohio (Founder of Libbey Glass Co. of Toledo, Ohio in 1888) exhibits the world's first dress made of fiberglass at the Chicago World's Fair, modeled by actress Georgia Cayvan (1857-1906); commercial fiberglass is not invented until 1938. The Underwood No. 1 Typewriter goes on sale, featuring visible typing on the front side of the paper, plus an accelerating sublever for faster speed, taking the market from Remington; it still uses the QWERTY keyboard arrangement. English-born Am. chemist Edward Weston (1850-1936), competitor of Thomas Edison invents the Weston Cell, a cadmium-mercury battery that is so stable it becomes the internat. standard for EMF in 1911, after which he waves his patent rights since he has 308 other patents. Self-retaining hard rubber Dr. Young's Ideal Rectal Dilators hit the market as a cure for all mental health problems; their sale is shut down in 1940 by the U.S. atty. for the Southern District of N.Y. Science: The cause of cattle tick fever is discovered to be an arthropod that can transmit it between animals. On July 10 African-Am. surgeon Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931), 1891 founder of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Ill., the first interracial hospital and training school for black nurses and interns performs the second successful pericardial sac repair operation on heart stab patient James Cornish. Russian neurologist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bechterev (1857-1927) gives the first modern description of Ankylosing Spondylitis, causing it to become known as Bekhterev's Disease. Irish physicist (Trinity College, Dublin) George Francis FitzGerald (1851-1901) suggests that a body undergoing motion contracts in the direction of motion, but doesn't explain why - that would take an Einstein? German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) founds modern psychiatry with the clinical approach based on syndromes (patterns of symptoms), classifying psychosis into manic depression and dementia praecox ("sub-acute development of a peculiar simple condition of mental weakness occurring at a youthful age"), becoming the "Founder of Modern Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology" - so that's why psychiatry is full of krap? French chemist Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) discovers Moissanite, silicon carbide crystals found in meteorites in Diablo Canyon, Ariz. that look similar to diamonds. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) invents statistical moments and standard deviation. Nonfiction: Herbert Baxter Adams (1850-1901), The Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (2 vols.). George Louis Beer (1872-1920), The Commercial Policy of England Toward the American Colonies. Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), Letters of Women. James Theodore Bent (1852-97), The Sacred City of the Ethiopians. Pierre Berthelot, Traite Pratique de Calorimetrie Chimique. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), Identification Anthropometrique. Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924), Appearance and Reality; big hit with philosophical Idealists. Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), Milton's Prosody. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The Pursuit of Happiness. Oscar Browning (1837-1923), The Citizen, His Rights and Responsibilities; Guelphs and Ghibellines: A Short History of Mediaeval Italy from 1250-1409; the pro-pope Guelphs and pro-HRE Ghibellines back when they didn't call it church vs. state. Oscar Browning (1837-1923) (ed.), The Science of Education, Its General Principles Deduces from Its Aim, and The Aesthetic Revelation of the World, by Johann Friedrich Herbart, tr. from the German. Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-90), Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah; disguises himself as a Muslim to avoid execution; tells about how they think that the apes around Arafat and Taif are Jews who were punished by Allah for breaking the Sabbath. Karl Bucher (1847-1930), The Rise of the National Economy; founds the study of non-market (gift and exchange) economics. Douglas Campbell, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America. Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1842-1933), Tenting on the Plains; #2 in a trilogy of her life with hubby Gen. Armstrong Custer. Felix Dahn (1834-1912), Julian the Apostate (3 vols.). Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), The Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Engine (Theorie und Konstruktion eines Rationellen Warmemotors). Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Story; claims that Bacon is the real Shakespeare, and also the secret son of Elizabeth I, which is why he concealed his authorship. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), The Universities and the Churches. Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942) and Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), La Donna Deliquente - why do we like watching cat fights? Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829-1902), History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649 (5 vols.). James Geikie (1839-1915), Fragments of Earth Lore: Sketches and Addresses, Geological and Geographical. Henri Houssaye (1848-1911), 1815 (3 vols.); incl "The First Restoration, the Return from Elba and the Hundred Days" (1893), "Waterloo" (1899), and "The White Terror" (1905). Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95), Evolution and Ethics; "The practice of that which is ethically best - what we call goodness or virtue - involves a course of conduct which, in all respects, is opposed to that which leads to success in the cosmic struggle for existence... Laws and moral precepts are directed to the end of curbing the cosmic process" - my name is Huxley, and I'm England's favorite animal? Pere Hyacinthe (1827-1912), Mon Testament, Ma Protestation. Sir Richard C. Jebb (1841-1905), Attic Orators. Emil Krapelin (1856-1926), Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie, 4th ed.; introduces the concept of dementia praecox, which later subsumes catatonia and dementia paranoides. Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929), Maps of Ancient Rome (1893-1901); becomes std. work. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Speeches and Table-Talk of the Prophet Muhammad. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Homer and the Epic. Arthur Lillie (1831-), The Influence of Buddhism on Primitive Christianity; pisses-off Albert Schweitzer, who calls it "among the fictitious works on the life of Jesus." Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Rhythm of Life (essays). George Moore (1852-1933), Modern Painting. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Theosophy, or Psychological Religion (Gifford Lecture). Frederick A. Ober, In the Wake of Columbus; a special investigation of the true island where he made first landfall yields no clue? Coventry Patmore (1823-96), Religio Poetae. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), The Beginnings of the English Romantic Movement: A Study in Eighteenth Century Literature; athletic Yale U. English prof. since 1892 gets internat. attention for his course on modern novels, causing the admin. to force him to give it up, after which he becomes Lampson Prof. of English Lit. in 1901, retiring in 1933 after 41 years. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Essays in Idleness. James Ford Rhodes (1848-1927), History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (9 vols.) (1893-1919); vol. 8 History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 (1918) wins the 2nd-ever Pulitzer Prize in history. George John Romanes (1848-94), An Examination of Weismannism; August Weismann. Howard Hyde Russell (1855-1946), A Lawyer's Examination of the Bible; tries to prove the authenticity of the Resurrection by legal criteria. William T. Stead, If Christ Came to Chicago. Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), An Agnostic's Apology. John Addington Symonds (1840-93), Biography of Michelangelo; very gay-friendly? Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939), Instead of a Book, By a Man Too Busy to Write One; anarchist essays from his periodical "Liberty" by a colleague of Lysander Sooner, calling for the abolition of rent and interest. Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932), The Significance of the Frontier in American History; read to the Am. Historical Assoc. at the Chicago World's Fair on July 12, proposing the Frontier Thesis of Am. History, overturning the theory of Theodore Roosevelt that battles between trans-Appalachian pioneers and Indians forged the American race, claiming that the ever-expanding frontier shaped the Am. character and destiny, making the U.S. the unique democracy it is today, with the unlimited acreage of land free for the taking as long as Nature, wild Indians, Mexicans, etc. could be tamed, along with freedom from European nobility, church hierarchies, and landed gentry creating a people known for egalitarianism, lack of interest in high culture, and violence, as depicted in zillions of Hollywood Westerns, "breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities", and creating a new type of citizen (if not race?), the racial-religious-cultural undertones only serving to spice it up?; after it is pub. and distributed, it takes Am. historians by storm, becoming an accepted theory by scholars until recent times when the PC police move in nibble at the fringes, criticizing its lack of mention of the role of women, waves of new immigrants and big cities on the frontier, etc.; "American democracy was born of no theorist's dream; it was not carried in the Susan Constant to Virginia, nor in the Mayflower to Plymouth. It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier"; in the 1990s the Internet and World Wide attempt to extend the Great Am. Frontier to the entire world electronically? In 1910 he moves to Harvard U., teaching a gen. of students who take over Am. academia before leaving in 1922 to study at the Huntington Library in Los Angeles, Calif.; too bad, Turner never pub. a major book on the Frontier Thesis despite 40 years of research. August Weismann (1834-1914), Germ Plasm: A Theory of Heredity; his work with sea urchin eggs and chopping off of mice tails (plus the fact that Jewish boys are never born circumcised?) leads him to propose Weismannism, the theory that the germ plasm continues from generation to generation and is rigidly separated from the somatoplasm, thus making transmission of acquired characteristics impossible. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), Division and Reunion, 1829-1889 (first book); a hit with U.S. historians. Music: Isaac Albeniz, The Magic Opal (opera). Eugen d'Albert (1864-1932), Der Rubin (opera); Piano Sonata in F sharp minor, Op. 10; String Quartet No. 2 in E flat major, Op. 11; Piano Concerto No. 2 in E major, Op. 12; Der Mensch und das Leben, Op. 14. Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Serres Chaudes (song cycle); lyrics by Maurice Maeterlinck. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), String Quartet No. 1 in G minor, Op. 10 (Dec. 29) (Paris); only work he assigns an opus # to; Le Demoiselle Elue (Élue); based on a poem by Dante Gabriel Rossetti; Nocturnes (1893-99). Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 95, B. 178 ("From the New World") (5th and last symphony), composed during his U.S. visit in 1892-5, inspired in part by Negro spirituals, becoming his biggest hit; "American" String Quartet in F, Op. 96 (June 10); composed in Spillville, Iowa; uses Am. Negro and Am. Indian music themes; 1st Movement, 2nd Movement, 3rd Movement, 4th Movement. Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), Epthalia (opera) (Deutsches Theater, Denver) (Feb. 9); first opera written by an African-Am. to be successfully produced; The Martyr (Deutsches Theater, Denver) (Aug. 16); an Egyptian nobleman is executed for worshiping Jehovah. Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), Utopia, Limited (comic operetta #13). Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921), Hansel and Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) (opera) (Weimar) (Dec. 23). Andre Messager (1853-1929), Madame Chrysantheme (operetta); incl. Le Jour Sous. Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), Hora Novissima (church oratorio); The Dream King and His Love. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Overture to an Unwritten Tragedy. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Manon Lescaut (opera #3) (4 acts) (Teatro Regio Turin); based on Abbe Prevost's 1731 novel; his first hit; stars Cesira Ferrani as Manon Lescaut, and Achille Moro as her brother Sgt. Lescaut. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Lemminkainen Legends (1893-9); Karelia Suite, Op. 10. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), "Pathetique" Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (Oct. 28) (Oct. 16 Old Style); debuts nine days before his premature death; incl. Pathetique Finale. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), Falstaff (opera) (Feb. 9) (La Scala, Milan); adapted by Arrigo Boito from Shakespeare's "Merry Wives of Windsor" and "Henry IV"; his last opera; his last comic opera 50 years earlier was a flop, but he finally got over it since his comedy is about over, and he will soon join Margherita?; leaves an unfinished King Lear, with libretto by Antonio Somma, which he offers to composer Pietro Mascagni, with the soundbyte: "The scene in which King Lear finds himself on the heath scared me." Art: Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), The Boating Party (1893-4); The Child's Bath. Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Frieze of Dancers; they secure their ribbons before performing? Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931), Les Temps Difficiles (caricatures). Winslow Homer (1836-1910), The Fox Hunt (38"x 68.5"); a flock of starving crows closes in on a fox stranded in deep snow; his largest painting, immediately purchased by the Penn. Academy of Fine arts, becoming his first to get in a major U.S. museum, finally giving him financial success; Andrew Wyeth's favorite Am. painting of all time? Edvard Munch (1863-1944), The Scream (Norwegian "Skrik" = Shriek); his masterpiece, which he repaints in four versions by 1910; painted after witnessing a blood-red sunset over Oslo in 1892 caused by Krakatoa and rare nacreous (polar stratospheric) clouds, writing in his diary that he felt "a great, undending scream piercing through Nature"; the 1895 version sells for almost $120M. Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907), Diana (of the Tower) (sculpture); ends up on top of the Madison Square Garden in 1893-1925, followed in 1932 by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), In Bed; L'Estampe Originale; dancer Jane Avril and printer Pere Cotelle. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Mother and Sister of the Artist; The Yellow Curtain. Plays: David Belasco (1853-1931), The Girl I Left Behind Me (Empire Theatre, New York). Georges Courteline (1858-1929), Boubouroche. Max Halbe (1865-1944), Jugend. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Beaver Coat (Der Biberpelz); Hannele ("dream-poem"); first drama in history with a child as heroine? Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Dora Kremer. Sidney Jones (1861-1946), Owen Hall (1853-1907), and Harry Greenbank (1865-99), A Gaiety Girl (Prince of Wales Theatre, West End, London) (Oct. 14) (413 perf.); first true musical comedy: produced by George Edwardes; stars C. Hayden Coffin, Louie Pounds, Decima Moore, Eric Lewis, W. Louis Bradfield; features the Gaiety Girls incl. Blanche Massey, who soon attract wealthy Stage Door Johnnies hoping to escort them to dinner and later propose matrimony; after worldwide success, Jones, Hall, and Greenbank become a team producing the successful Daly's Theatre musicals incl. "An Artist's Model" (1895), "The Geisha" (1896), "A Greek Slave" (1898), and "San Toy" (1899). Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Amazons (farce); The Second Mrs. Tanqueray; his first hit outside England; another vehicle for Lily Langtry; makes a star of English actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell (1865-1940). Victorien Sardou (1831-1908), Madame Sans-Gene: Historical Romance of the Revolution. Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Anatol. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), The Philanderer; not pub. until 1898 and not staged until Feb. 20, 1905; Mrs. Warren's Profession; based on his 1882 novel "Cashel Bryon's Profession"; middle-aged English madame and her prudish Cambridge-educated daughter Vivie, who discovers how mommy's fortune was made, forgives her since it saved her from poverty, then is shocked to find out that she's still a madame; after a fight with the British censors, he gets it performed on Jan. 5, 1902 at the members-only New Lyric Club, but when he gets it produced in New York City in 1905, Anthony Comstock calls the pigs on it, getting it closed after one perf., calling him an "Irish smut dealer", to which Shaw replies "Comstockery is the world's standing joke at the expense of the United States. Europe likes to hear of such things. It confirms the deep-seated conviction of the Old World that America is a provincial place, a second-rate country-town civilization after all"; it is not shown publicly in England until 1925. Hermann Sudermann (1857-1928), Heimat (Home) (AKA Magda); most successful drama of the end of the 19th cent.; about a New Woman who revolts against paternal tyranny. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), A Woman of No Importance (London, Haymarket Theatre) (Apr. 19). Poetry: Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929), America the Beautiful; writes it after a trip to Pikes Peak, Colo.; first printed in "The Congregationalist" on July 4, 1895. William Wilfred Campbell (1858-1918), The Dread Voyage. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Aber die Liebe. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), Oak and Ivy (Lyrics of a Lowly Life) (debut); self-pub. while working as an elevator boy at the Callahan Bldg. in Dayton, Ohio; Teddy Roosevelt later presents him with a ceremonial sword. Michael Field (Edith Emma Cooper) (1862-1913), Underneath the Bough. Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920), A Roadside Harp; "What trout shall coax the rod of yore/ In Itchen stream to dip?" William Ernest Henley (1849-1903), London Voluntaries. Jose Maria de Heredia (1842-1905), Les Trophees; 50 sonnets. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), M'Andrew's Hymn; "Interdependence, absolute, forseen, ordained, decreed." Josef Svatopluk Machar (1864-1942), Tristium Vindobona. Joaquin Miller (1837-1913), Building of the City Beautiful. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Enone au Clair Visage. Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Green Bays (parodies). Charles G.D. Roberts, Songs of the Common Day; Ave! An Ode for the Shelley Centenary. Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), Verses. Francis Thompson, The Hound of Heaven; "I fled Him, down the nights and down the days:/ I fled Him, down the arches of the years." Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Irish Love Songs. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Celtic Twilight. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Ivory Gate (3 vols.); The Rebel Queen (3 vols.). Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Griselda (verse novel). Hall Caine (1853-1931), Cap'n Davey's Honeymoon. Lewis Carroll (1832-98), Sylvie and Bruno Concluded; sequel to "Sylvie and Bruno" (1889). Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Diana Tempest. Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (1861-1907), The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (first novel); praised by Robert Louis Stevenson. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Barabbas: A Dream of the World's Tragedy. Stephen Crane (1871-1900), Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (first novel). Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Majesteit. Grazia Deledda (1875-1936), Racconti Sardi (short stories). Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), The End of the World (La Fin du Monde); a comet collides with the Earth. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Irrungen; Wirrungen. Anatole France (1844-1924), La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), Jane Field (first novel). Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Der Kosterjager. George Gissing (1857-1903), The Odd Women. Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), Pagan Papers. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), The Heavenly Twins; why male-female marriage sucks. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Montezuma's Daughter. Henry Harland (1861-1905), Mademoiselle Miss. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Fles. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Mad Prank; The Red House Mystery; Lady Verner's Flight. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Ungt Folk (Young People). Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Buveurs d'Ames. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), L'Exilee; Matelot. Karl May (1842-1912), Winnetou (3 vols.); about a great Apache chief and his white blood-brother Old Shatterhand; big hit in Germany; makes fans of Adolf Hitler and Albert Einstein. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Mrs. Falchion. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), L'Aine. Mark Rutherford (1829-1913), Catherine Furze. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Madam Sapphira: A Fifth Avenue Story. Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Dream Life and Real Life: A Little African Story. Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), From the Five Rivers (short stories). Lew Wallace (1827-1905), The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople Fell. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), Ghetto Tragedies. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Le Docteur Pascal; Les Rougon-Macquart (#20 of 20); about a physician from Plassans who believes in heredity as dominant over environment, classifying the 30 descendants of his grandmother Adelaide Fouque (Tante Dide). Births: Japanese world's oldest living person (Jan. 29, 2007 to Aug. 13, 2007) Yone Minagawa (d. 2007) on Jan. 4 in Kyushu. Indian yogi Paramahansa Yogananda (d. 1952) on Jan. 5 in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. Am. historian-economist (Jewish) Herbert Feis (d. 1972) on June 7 in New York City; Alsatian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Harvard U. German Nazi art-loving air marshal Gen. Hermann Goering (Göring) (d. 1946) on Jan. 12 in Rosenheim, Bavaria. Soviet MiG aircraft designer (Jewish) Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich (d. 1976) on Jan. 12 in Rubanshchina, Kursk, Ukraine; educated at Kharkov U., and Montpellier U.; collaborator of Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (1905-70). Am. Dem. Tex. gov. #36 (1947-9) Beauford Halbert Jester (d. 1949) on Jan. 12 in Corsicana, Tex.; educated at UTA (Kappa Sigma), and Harvard U. German art-stealing artist-architect-journalist and Nazi commissioner of occupied Eastern Europe ("Nazi Racial Philosopher") Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (d. 1946) on Jan. 12 in Reval (Tallinn, Estonia). Am. horror-fantasy writer-poet-artist Clark Ashton Smith (d. 1961) on Jan. 13 in Long Valley, Calif.; friend of H.P. Lovecraft; one of the Big Three of Weird Tales along with Lovecraft and Robert E. Howard. French "Beef Carcass" expressionist artist (Jewish) Chaim Soutine (d. 1943) on Jan. 13 in Smilavichy (near Minsk), Belarus; emigrates to France in 1913. Yugoslav PM (1939-41) Dragisa Cvetkovic (d. 1969) on Jan. 15 in Nis. Am. novelist-dramatist-ed. Charles Fulton Oursler (AKA Anthony Abbott) (d. 1952) on Jan. 22 in Baltimore, Md.; father of Will Oursler (1913-85). German "Maj. Heinrich Strasser in Casablanca" actor Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (d. 1943) on Jan. 22 in Berlin; emigrates to Britain in 1933. Am. Repub. politician Frank Carlson (d. 1987) on Jan. 23 in Cloud County, Kan. Canadian 5'9" hall-of-fame hockey player Julius Francis "Frank" "Pembroke Peach" Nighbor (d. 1966) on Jan. 26 in Pembroke, Ont. Chinese pres. (1968-72) ("Mother of Modern China") (Methodist-turned-Communist) Madame Sun Yat-sen (Chingling Soong) (d. 1981) on Jan. 27 in Chuansha, Pudong, Shanghai; sister of Ailing Soong (1888-1973) and Mayling Soong (Madame Chiang Kai-shek) (1897-2003); wife (1915-) of Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925). French "Julia Sets" mathematician Gaston Maurice Julia (d. 1978) on Feb. 3 in Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria. Am. comedian-actor-pianist ("the Schnozzola") (Roman Catholic) James Francis "Jimmy" Durante (d. 1980) on Feb. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Italian immigrant parents - would I deny you Flonase? Am. tennis player (gay) William Tatem "Big Bill" "Gentleman Bill" Tilden II (d. 1953) on Feb. 10 in Philadelphia, Penn.; born to a wealthy family; eats steak and potatoes 3x a day. Am. army chief of staff 5-star gen. Omar Nelson Bradley (d. 1981) on Feb. 12 in Clark, Mo. Am. historian Fred Albert Shannon (d. 1963) on Feb. 12 in Sedalia, Mo.; educated at Ind. State Teachers College, Indiana U., and U. of Iowa. Am. historian James Phinney Baxter III (d. 1975) on Feb. 15 in Portland, Maine; grandson of James Phinney Baxter (1831-1921); educated at Phillips Academy, Williams College, and Harvard U. Am. "The Wingless Victory", "The Barretts of Wimpole Street" stage actress-writer-producer (lesbian) Katharine Cornell (d. 1974) on Feb. 16 in Berlin, Germany; grows up in Buffalo, N.Y. Soviet gen. (CIC from 1925-8) Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (Tukhachevski) (d. 1937) on Feb. 16 (Feb. 4 Old Style) in Alexandrovskoye, Smolensk; distant relative of Leo Tolstoy. English "Suspicion" actor Sir Cedric (OE "war leader") Hardwicke (d. 1964) on Feb. 19 in Stourbridge. Am. "The Sound of Music", "Life with Father", "State of the Union" playwright-librettist-producers Russel Crouse (d. 1966) on Feb. 20 in Findlay, Ohio; collaborator of Howard Lindsay (1889-1968); father of Timothy Crouse (1947-). Belgian spy-hero Gabrielle Alina Eugenia maria Petit (d. 1916) on Feb. 20 in Tournai, Hainaut. Spanish #1 clasical guitarist-composer Andres Segovia (d. 1987) on Feb. 21 in Linares. Polish strongman (Jewish) ("the Strongest Man in the World") Siegmund (Zishe) (Sische) "Ice King" Breitbart (d. 1925) on Feb. 22 in Strykow (near Lodz). English "The Meaning of Meaning" lit. critic Ivor Armstrong Richards (d. 1979) on Feb. 26 in Sandbach, Cheshire; educated at Clifton College and Magdalene College, Cambridge U. Am. "The Tree of Culture" anthropologist Ralph Linton (d. 1953) on Feb. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Swarthmore College, and U. of Penn. Russian "Mother" film dir.-writer-actor Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (d. 1953) on Feb. 16 (Feb. 28 Old Style) in Penza. Am. tongue-athlete poet-playwright, costume designer, and socialite (bi) Mercedes de Acosta (d. 1968) on Mar. 1 in New York City; Cuban father, Spanish mother (descended from the dukes of Alba); lover of Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Edith Wharton, Eva La Gallienne, Pola Negri (1897-1987), Amy Lowell, Alla Nazimova, Tallulah Bankhead, Isadora Duncan, Tamara Karsavina et al. Am. "Kiss Me, Kate", "My Fair Lady" choreographer-dancer-teacher Hanya Holm (Johanna Eckert) (d. 1992) on Mar. 3 in Worms. Am. ceramic "Mama of Dada" artist Beatrice Wood (d. 1998) on Mar. 3 in San Francisco, Calif.; inspiration for Rose DeWitt Bukater in "Titanic" (1997). Am. Eskimo Pie inventor Christian Kent Nelson (d. 1992) on Mar. 11 in Denmark. Hungarian Fate Psychology psychologist (Jewish) Leopold Szondi (d. 1986) on Mar. 11 in Nitra, modern-day Slovakia; original family name Sonnenschein. German anti-Nazi politician Erwin Planck (d. 1945) on Mar. 12 in Berlin; son of Max Planck (1858-1947). French politician (Jewish) Jules Salvador Moch (d. 1985) on Mar. 15 in Paris; coiner of the term "Cold War" (1948)? English "Ladies in Retirement" actress Isobel Elsom (Isobel Jeannette Reed) (d. 1981) on Mar. 16 in Chesterton, Cambridge; educated at Howard College; wife of (1942-58) Carl Harbord. Am. jazz pianist John Jean Goldkette (d. 1962) on Mar. 18 in Valenciennes, France (Patras, Greece?); Danish mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911. British "Dulce Et Decorum Est" war poet Wilfred Edward Salter Owen (d. 1918) on Mar. 18 in Owestry, Shropshire. Am. baseball hall-of-fame 1B player (St. Louis Browns) "Gorgeous" George Harold Sisler (d. 1973) on Mar. 24 in Manchester, Ohio. Am. astronomer Walter Baade (d. 1960) on Mar. 24 in Schrottinghausen, Germany. Am. educator-chemist-diplomat (1st U.S. ambassador to West Germany, 1955-7) James Bryant Conant (d. 1978) on Mar. 26 in Dorchester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; pres. #23 of Harvard U. (1933-53); reorganizes the curriculum to stress gen. education at the undergraduate level, dispensing with class rankings, requirements for Latin classes, and athletic scholarships, requiring the SAT and coed classes, admitting the first women to the medical and law schools. Hungarian "Ideology and Utopia" sociologist (Jewish) Karl Mannheim (d. 1947) on Mar. 27 in Budapest. English archeologist Tessa Verney Wheeler (d. 1936) on Mar. 27 in Johannesburg, South Africa; educated at Univ. College London; wife (1914-38) Mortimer Wheeler (1890-1976). Am. 20th Century Fox pres. (1942-62) Spyros Panagiotis Skouras (d. 1971) on Mar. 28 in Skhourohorion, Greece; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910, but never loses his accent, causing Bob Hope to quip "Spyros has been here twenty years but he still sounds as if he's coming next week." German Adm. Theodor Krancke (d. 1973) on Mar. 30 in Magedeburg. Austrian conductor Clemens Heinrich Krauss (d. 1954) on Mar. 31 in Vienna. English actress-comedian Dame Esmerelda Cicely Courtneidge (d. 1980) on Apr. 1 in Sydney, Australia; daughter of Robert Cortneidge (1859-1939). French historian Bernard Fay (d. 1978) on Apr. 3 in Paris; educated at Harvard U. English "Ashley Wilkes in Gone With the Wind" actor (Jewish) Leslie Howard (Steiner) (Stainer) (d. 1943) on Apr. 3 in Upper Norwood, London; Hungarian Jewish father Ferdinand Steiner, English Jewish mother Lilian Blumberg; educated at Dulwich College, London. Am. Johnson & Johnson CEO (1938-63) (philanthropist) Robert Wood Johnson II (d. 1968) on Apr. 4 in New Brunswick, N.J.; son of Robert Wood Johnson Sr. (1845-1910). Am. aviation pioneer Frederick Joseph "Fred" Noonan (d. 1937) on Apr. 4 in Cook county, Ill. Am. CIA dir. (1953-61) and Council of Foreign Relations dir. (1927-) (Freemason) Allen Welsh Dulles (d. 1969) on Apr. 7 in Watertown, N.Y.; Presbyterian minister father; brother of John Foster Dulles (1888-1959); educated at Princeton U., and George Washington U. Am. 4'0" 85 lb. pioneering parachutist ("the Doll Girl") Georgia Ann Thompson "Tiny" Broadwick (d. 1978) on Apr. 8 in Oxford, N.C. Am. watercolor painter Charles Ephraim Burchfield (d. 1967) on Apr. 9 in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio. English Socialist publisher (Jewish) Sir Victor Gollancz (d. 1967) on Apr. 9 in London; nephew of Sir Hermann Gollancz (1852-1930) and Sir Israel Gollancz (1864-1930); educated at New College, Oxford U. Am. U.S. undersecy. of state (1945-7) and secy. of state #51 (1949-53) Dean Gooderham Acheson (d. 1971) on Apr. 11 in Middletown, Conn.; educated at Groton School, Yale U. (Scroll & Key), and Harvard U. Am. blues singer (black) (bi) ("the Empress of the Blues") Bessie Smith (d. 1937) on Apr. 15 in Chattanooga, Tenn. Am. dancer Irene Castle (nee Foote) (d. 1969) on Apr. 17 in New Rochelle, N.Y.; wife of Vernon Castle (1887-1918). Am. "Safety Last!" silent film comedian Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr. (d. 1971) on Apr. 20 in Burchard, Neb.; known for wearing trademark eyeglasses. Spanish Surrealist painter-sculptor Joan (pr. "HWAN") Miro i Ferra (Miró i Ferrŕ) (d. 1983) on Apr. 20 in Barcelona. Am. world's oldest living person (Aug. 13, 2007-Nov. 26, 2008) Edna Ruth Scott Parker (d. 2008) on Apr. 20 in Morgan County, Ind. Am. theatrical producer and stage designer Norman Melancton Bel Geddes on Apr. 27 in Adrian, Mich.; father of Barbara Bel Geddes (1922-2005). Yugoslavian prince regent (1934-41) Paul Karadordevic (d. 1976) on Apr. 27. Am. physical chemist Harold Clayton Urey (d. 1981) on Apr. 29; collaborator of Stanley Miller (1930-); discoverer of heavy water and deuterium; student of the origin of planets; conducts weird experiments to create life - out of year-old clay and urine? German foreign minister (1938-45) Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (d. 1946) on Apr. 30 in Wesel, Rhine Province. Spanish monarchist politician Jose Calvo Sotelo (d. 1936) on May 6 in Tui. Canadian hockey hall-of-fame mgr.-coach (Toronto Maple Leafs, Montreal Canadiens) Francis Joseph Aloysius "Frank" Selke (d. 1985) on May 7 in Berlin, Ont. Am. golfer Francis DeSales Ouimet (d. 1967) on May 8; French-Canadian father, Irish mother. Am. psychologist (polygraph and Wonder Woman inventor) William Moulton Marston (d. 1947) on May 9 in Cliftondale, Mass. Am. Thematic Apperception Test psychologist Henry Alexander Murray (d. 1988) on May 13 in New York City; educated at Columbia U.; husband of Christiana Drummond Morgan (1897-1967). English actor Stanley Lupino (d. 1942) on May 15 in London; brother of Barry Lupino (1882-1963); husband of Connie Emerald (1892-1959); father of Ida Lupino (1914-95). British RAF Marshal Sir Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford (d. 1971) on May 21 in Hungerford, Berkshire. Am. actress Peggy Hopkins Joyce (Marguerite "Peggy" Upton) (d. 1957) on May 26 in Berkley, Va.; known for lavish lifestyle and six husbands incl. (1910) Everett Archer Jr., (1913-17) Sherburne Hopkins, (1920-1) J. Stanley Joyce, (1924-6) Count Gosta Morner, (1945-53) Anthony Easton, and (1953-7) Andrew C. Meyer. Am. "Smilin' Through" silent film actress Norma Talmadge (d. 1957) on May 26 in Jersey City, N.J..; sister of Constance Talmadge (1897-1973) and Natalie Talmadge (1896-1969). Am. Dem. Tex. gov. #30 (1927-31) Daniel James "Dan" Moody Jr. (d. 1966) on June 1 in Taylor, Tex.; educated at the U. of Tex. Welsh economist and Plaid Cymru leader David James Davies (d. 1956) on June 2 in Carmel, Carmarthenshire; educated at Colo. State U., and Seattle U. Romanian PM (1939) Armand Calinescu (d. 1939) on June 4 in Pitesti. Am. "No Time for Comedy" playwright (Jewish) Samuel Nathaniel Behrman (d. 1973) on June 9 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Australian "The Montforts", "When Blackbirds Sing" novelist Martin a Beckett Boyd (AKA Martin Mills) (d. 1972) on June 10 in Lucerne, Switzerland; grows up in Melbourne. Am. "Mammie in Gone With the Wind" actress-singer (black) Hattie McDaniel (d. 1952) on June 10 in Wichita, Kan.; grows up in Denver, Colo. French Cpl. Jules Andre Peugeot (d. 1914) on June 11 in Etupes; a teacher; first French soldier KIA in WWI. English "Lord Peter Wimsey", "The Man Born to be King" Christian humanist novelist Dorothy Leigh Sayers (d. 1957) (pr. sehrs) on June 13 in Oxford; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U.; coins the phrase "It pays to advertise". French film producer (Jewish) Jacques Haik (d. 1950) on June 20 in Tunis, Tunisia. Czech microtonal composer Aliois Haba (d. 1973) on June 21 in Vizovice. Am. Disney exec Roy Oliver Disney (d. 1971) on June 24 in Chicago, Ill.; older brother of Walt Disney (1901-66). U.S. Repub. interior secy. #35 (1953-6) James Douglas McKay (d. 1959) on June 24 in Portland, Ore. German Gen. Otto Lasch (d. 1971) on June 25 in Pless (Pszczyna). Am. blues musician (black) Big Bill Broonzy (Lee Conley Bradley) (d. 1958) on June 26 in Lake Dick, Ark. (Scott, Miss.?). Am. "New Yorker" cartoonist Helen Hokinson (d. 1949) on June 29 in Mendota, Ill. English Fabian Socialist Labour leader (Jewish) (Zionist) Harold Joseph Laski (d. 1950) on June 30 in Manchester; educated at New College, Oxford U.; friend of Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. East German Communist leader (1950-71) Walter Ulbricht (d. 1973) on June 30 in Leipzig - you'll brick 'em in good? Am. civil rights leader and novelist (black) Walter Francis White (d. 1955) on July 1 in Atlanta, Ga.; passes for white with blonde-blue and all the goodies. Am. labor activist Warren Knox Billings (d. 1972) n July 4 in Middletown, N.Y. Am. historian Roscoe Carlyle Buley (d. 1968) on July 8 in Georgetown, Ind.; educated at Indiana U., and U. of Wisc. Am. Gestalt Therapy psychiatrist (Jewish) Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon "Fritz" Perls (d. 1970) on July 8 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1946; husband (1930-) of Laura Perls (1905-90). Am. expressionist painter-printmaker Abraham Rattner (d. 1978) on July 8 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; Russian father, Romanian mother. Am. "I Saw Hitler", "On the Record" journalist ("First Lady of American Journalism") Dorothy Thompson (d. 1961) on July 9 in Lancaster, N.Y.; of German descent; wife (1928-42) of Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951); mother of Michael Lewis (1930-) - nights must have been interesting? Am. "Hunchback of Notre Dame" film dir. William Dieterle (d. 1972) on July 15 in Ludwigshafen, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. German "Little Man, What Now?" novelist Hans Fallada (Rudolf Wilhelm Adolf Ditzen) (d. 1947) on July 21 in Berlin; named after Lucky Hans and Falada the Horse in the Grimm fairy tale "The Goose Girl". Am. "Yancey Cravat in Cimarron" 6'0" actor Richard Dix (Ernest Carlton Brimmer) (d. 1949) on July 18 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. psychiatrist Karl Augustus Menninger (d. 1990) on July 22 in Topeka, Kan.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "The Negro in Chicago" sociologist (black) Charles Spurgeon Johnson (d. 1956) on July 24 in Bristol, Va.; educated at Va. Union U. Am. "The Lovesick Man", "Hitler in Hell" artist-caricaturist George (Georg Ehrenfried) Grosz (d. 1959) on July 26 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1932. Am. "Alibi Ike", "Some Like It Hot" "Well, nobody's perfect" comedian Joe Evans Brown (d. 1973) on July 28 in Holgate, Ohio. Pakistani leader ("Mother of the Nation") Fatima Jinnah (d. 1967) on July 30 in Karachi; sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). Greek king (1917-20) Alexander I (d. 1920) on Aug. 1 in Athens; son of Constantine I (1868-1923) and Sophia of Prussia (1870-1932). Am. economist-banker (Jewish) (Zionist) Alexander Sachs (d. 1973) on Aug. 1 in Rossien, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1904; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Russian silent film actress Vera Kholodnaya (Vera Vasilyevna Levchenko) (d. 1919) on Aug. 5 in Poltava (modern-day Ukraine); grows up in Moscow. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1929-76) John William Wright Patman (d. 1976) on Aug. 6 in Hughes Springs, Tex.; educated at Cumberland U. Am. agrarian poet-essayist-critic (white supremacist) Donald Grady Davidson (d. 1968) on Aug. 8 in Campbellsville, Tenn.; educated at Vanderbilt U. Am. "Mrs. Bob Cratchit in A Christmas Carol" actress Kathleen Arthur Lockhart (d. 1978) on Aug. 9 in Southsea, Hampshire; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924; wife (1924-) of Gene Lockhart (1891-1957); mother of June Lockhart (1925-); grandmother of Anne Lockhart (1953-). Am. "Devil and Daniel Webster", "Ballad of Baby Doe" composer Douglas Stuart Moore (d. 1969) on Aug. 10 in Cutchogue, Long Island, N.Y. Am. "Harvey Griffin in Hazel" actor Howard Irving Smith (d. 1968) on Aug. 12 in Attleboro, Mass. Am. civil rights atty. (Jewish) Samuel Simon Leibowitz (d. 1978) on Aug. 14 in Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1897; educated at Cornell U.; defender of the Scottsboro Boys. Am. "The Little Foxes" actor Carl Benton Reid (d. 1973) on Aug. 14 in Lansing, Mich. Am. auto exec (GM CEO, 1958-8) Harlow Herbert Curtice (d. 1962) on Aug. 15 in Petrieville, Mich.; works his way up from bookkeeper. German "Hangover Square" dir. John Brahm on Aug. 17 in Hamburg; husband (1937-41) of Dolly Haas (1910-94). Am. 5'0" blonde bombshell actress-writer Mary Jane "Mae" West (d. 1980) on Aug. 17 [Leo] in Brooklyn, N.Y.; father is a dick, er, detective, salesman and prize fighter, mother is a dressmaker and model; begins performing at age 7; secretly marries entertainer Frank Wallace in 1911, never lives with him, and doesn't divorce him until 1942. French Impressionist "Faust et Helene" composer (child prodigy) Marie-Juliette Olga Lili Boulanger (d. 1918) on Aug. 21 in Paris; sister of Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979). Am. gangster George "Bugs" Moran (Adelard Cunin) (d. 1957) on Aug. 21 in St. Paul, Minn. South African-Australian "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" actor Cecil Kellaway (d. 1973) on Aug. 22. Am. "Excuse My Dust", "Constant Reader" writer-poet-critic-epigramist (Jewish) (Communist) (alcoholic) Dorothy "Dot" "Dottie" Parker (nee Rothschild) (d. 1967) on Aug. 22 in Long Branch, N.J.; Jewish father, Roman Catholic mother, Protestant stepmother; kicked out of a Roman Catholic elementary school for calling the Immaculate Conception "spontaneous combustion"; wife (1917-8) of Edwin Pond Parker II (1893-) and (1934-47, 1950-63) "queer as a billy goat" Alan Campbell; names her parrot Onan because he spills his seed on the ground? Am. chemist Ernest Henry Volwiler (d. 1992) on Aug. 22 in Hamilton, Ohiop; educated at Miami U., and U. of Ill. Am. Dem. La. gov. #40 (1928-32) and U.S. Sen. (1932-5) ("Share the Wealth") Huey Pierce "Kingfish" Long Jr. (d. 1935) on Aug. 30 in Winnfield, La.; educated at La. State U. U.S. Marine Corps commandant #19 (1948-51) Gen. Clifton Bedsoe Cates (d. 1970) on Aug. 31 in Tiptonville, Tenn. Am. "Queen of Sheba", "She" actress Betty Blythe (Elizabeth Blythe Slaughter) (d. 1972) on Sept. 1 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. atty. (of Al Capone) Edward Joseph "Easy Eddie" O'Hare (Gael. "bitter, angry") (d. 1939) on Sept. 5 in St. Louis, Mo.; Irish immigrant parents; father of Butch O'Hare (1914-43). Am. "Mr. Crumb in Blondie" actor Irving Bacon on Sept. 6; brother of Lloyd Bacon (1889-1955). Am. "WWII Flying Tigers" military aviator Lt. Gen. Claire Lee Chennault (d. 1958) on Sept. 6 in Commerce, Tex. British Conservative MP (Jewish) Isaac Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha (d. 1957) on Sept. 7 in Devenport, Plymouth (Hamstead?); educated at Clifton College, and St. John's College, Oxford U. Am. celeb child Esther Cleveland (d. 1980) on Sept. 9 in the White House, Washington, D.C.; 2nd child of Pres. Grover Cleveland and Frances Cleveland; first child of a U.S. pres. born in the White House (until ?); mother of Philippa Foot (1920-2010). Portuguese world's oldest living person (Nov. 26, 2008-Jan. 2, 2009) Maria de Jesus dos Santos (d. 2009) on Sept. 10 in Olival, Ourem. Am. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (d. 1977) on Sept. 12 in Steuben County, Ind.; dir. of U.S. Selective Service System (1941-70). Am. jazz clarinetist (white) Lawrence James "Larry" Shields (d. 1953) (Original Dixieland Band) on Sept. 13 in New Orleans, La.; brother of Harry Shields (1899-1971) and Eddie Shields; inspiration for Benny Goodman. British "Private Life of Henry VIII", "The Third Man" film dir. (Jewish) Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Kellner) (d. 1956) on Sept. 16 in Pusztaturpaszto, Austria-Hungary; knighted in 1942 (first dir. to be knighted). Am. theatrical producer Earl Carroll (d. 1948) on Sept. 16 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Hungarian Vitamin C physiologist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt (Nagyrápolt) (d. 1986) on Sept. 16 in Budapest. Polish Socialist leader Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski (d. 1940) on Sept. 19 in Vilnius. German Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall architect Bernhard Hans Henry Scharoun (d. 1972) on Sept. 20 in Bremen. Am. silent film actress Dorothy Dalton (d. 1972) on Sept. 22 in Chicago, Ill.; wife (1910-11, 1913-14) of Lew Cody (1884-1934) and (1924-55) Arthur Hammerstein (1872-1955); mother of Elaine Hammerstein (1897-1948). Am. silent film actress Gladys Brockwell (Lindeman) (d. 1929) on Sept. 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S. surgeon gen. (1936-48) Thomas Parran Jr. (d. 1968) on Sept. 28 in St. Leonard, Md.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. romance novelist Faith Baldwin (d. 1978) on Oct. 1 in New Rochelle, N.Y. Am. "Ain't She Sweet" composer-pianist (Jewish) Milton Ager (d. 1979) on Oct. 6 in Chicago, Ill.; husband of Cecilia Ager; father of Shana Alexander (1925-). Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha (d. 1956) on Oct. 6 near Dhaka, Bangladesh. Am. silent film actress-dir. Lillian Gish (Lillian de Guiche) (d. 1993) on Oct. 14 in Springfield, Ohio.; sister of Dorothy Gish (1898-1968). Romanian king (1930-40) (Greek Orthodox) Carol II (d. 1953) on Oct. 15 in Peles; eldest son of Ferdinand and Marie (daughter of Prince Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, 2nd eldest son of Queen Victoria); father of Michael I (1921-). Japanese writer (founder of the Macrobiotic diet) George Ohsawa (Yukikazu Sakurazawa) (d. 1966) on Oct. 18. Am. "Gold Diggers of Broadway", "Broadway Melody of 1936/8", "The Babe Ruth Story" film dir. Roy Del Ruth (d. 1961) on Oct. 18 in Del. Am. silent film actor-comedian-dir.-writer (alcoholic) Charley Chase (Charles Joseph Parrott) (d. 1940) on Oct. 20 in Baltimore, Md.; brother of James Parrott (1897-1939). Am. Marx Brothers comedian (Jewish) Milton "Gummo" Marx (d. 1977) on Oct. 23 in New York City; leaves the troupe after being drafted into the army in WWI. Am. "King Kong" film dir. Merian Caldwell Cooper (d. 1973) on Oct. 24 in Jacksonville, Fla.; father of Maciej Slomczynski (1922-98). German White Rose dissident Kurt Huber (d. 1943) on Oct. 24 in Chur, Switzerland; grows up in Stuttgart and Munich. English 5'7.5" world welterweight boxing champ (1915-6, 1917-9) (Jewish) ("the Aldgate Sphinx") Ted "Kid" Lewis (Gershon Mendeloff) (d. 1970) on Oct. 28 (Oct. 24, 1894?) in East End, London; first boxer to use a protective mouthpiece; not to be confused with Am. entertainer Ted Lewis (1892-1971). German Reich minister of justice Roland Freisler (d. 1945) on Oct. 30 in Celle, Lower Saxony. Am. "The Brothers Ashkenazi" Yiddish novelist (Jewish) Israel Joshua Singer (d. 1944) on Nov. 3 in Bilgoraj, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934; brother of Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91). Am. Ford Motor Co. pres. (1919-43) Edsel Bryant Ford (d. 1943) on Nov. 6 in Detroit, Mich.; son of Henry Ford (1863-1947). Am. historian-novelist (first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for history) Margaret Kernochan Leech Pulitzer (d. 1974) on Nov. 7 in Newburgh, N.Y.; educated at Vassar College; wife (1928-) of Ralph Pulitzer (1879-1939), son of Joseph Pulitzer; member of the Algonquin Round Table. Thai Chakri king #7 (1925-35) Rama VII Prajadhipok (d. 1941) on Nov. 8 in Bangkok; youngest son of Rama V (1853-1910) and Queen Saovabha; brother of Rama VI (1881-1925); educated at Eton College, and Woolwich Military Academy. Am. "The Late George Apley", "Mr. Moto" novelist John Phillips Marquand (d. 1960) on Nov. 10 in Wilmington, Del.; educated at Harvard U. Am. aviator Clarence Duncan Chamberlin (d. 1976) on Nov. 11 in Denison, Iowa; 2nd man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, and 1st to carry a passenger. Belgian PM (1935-7) Paul Guillaume van Zeeland (d. 1973) on Nov. 11 in Soignies. Am. chemist Edward Adelbert Doisy (d. 1986) on Nov. 13 in Hume, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and Harvard U. Italian "Acquainted With Grief" modernist writer-poet Carlo Emilio Gadda (d. 1973) on Nov. 14 in Milan; educated at Milan Polytechnic. Am. auto racer Thomas "Tommy" Milton (d. 1962) on Nov. 14 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. Empire State Bldg. architect William Frederick Lamb (d. 1952) on Nov. 21 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Williams College, Columbia U., and Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Polish avant-garde painter Wladyslaw Strzeminski (d. 1952) on Nov. 21 in Minsk. Am. auto engineer-stylist Harley J. Earl (d. 1969) on Nov. 22 in Hollywood, Calif.; invents clay modeling of auto designs, wraparound windshield, hardtop sedan, factory 2-tone paint, and tailfins. Soviet politician (Jewish) (atheist) Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (d. 1991) on Nov. 22 in Kabany, Radomyshl, Ukraine. Japanese Seicho-no-ie founder Masaharu Taniguchi (d. 1985) on Nov. 22 in Kobe. Am. jazz stride pianist (black) William Henry Joseph Bonaparte Bertholoff "Willie the Lion" Smith (d. 1973) on Nov. 23 in Goshen, N.Y.; one of the big three stride pianists with Fats Waller and James P. Johnson. Am. "The Modern Temper" critic-essayist-naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch (d. 1970) (pr. KROOTCH) on Nov. 25 in Knoxville, Tenn.; educated at Columbia U. - sounds like a lame name? English Pvt. Herbert George Columbine (d. 1918) on Nov. 28 in Penge, London. German Communist writer-activist-dramatist (Jewish) Ernst Toller (d. 1939) on Dec. 1 in Samotschin, Prussia (now Poland). English pacifist writer-poet-critic Sir Herbert Edward Read (d. 1968) on Dec. 4 in Muscoates, North Riding of Yorkshire; educated at the U. of Leeds. English "Lolly Willowes" Communist novelist-poet (lesbian) Sylvia Townsend Warner (d. 1978) on Dec. 6 in Harrow on the Hill; wife (1930-69) of Mary Valentine Ackland (1906-69). Am. "Kirkus Reviews" founder (1933) Virginia Kirkus (nee Glick) (d. 1980) on Dec. 7 in Meadville, Penn.; educated at Vassar College, and Columbia U. Am. "The Best Things in Life Are Free", "Sunny Side Up", "You're the Cream in My Coffee", "Good News" lyricist (Jewish) Lew Brown (Louis Brownstein) (d. 1958) on Dec. 10 in Odessa, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1898; collaborator of Ray Henderson (1896-1970), and Buddy De Sylva (1895-1950). Am. "Rico Bandello in Little Caesar", "Johnny Rocco in Key Largo", "Dathan in The Ten Commandments" actor (Jewish) Edward Goldenberg Robinson (Emanuel Goldenberg) (d. 1973) on Dec. 12 in Bucharest, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1903; educated at CCNY. German "The Deputy" theatrical dir.-producer (in the U.S.) (1939-58) Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (d. ?) on Dec. 17 in Greifenstein-Ulm. Canadian flying ace Capt. Arthur Roy "Brownie" Brown (d. 1944) on Dec. 23 in Carleton Place, Ont. Am. Ziegfield Follies 4'10" actress-dancer-singer Ann "Penny" "Tiny" Pennington (d. 1971) on Dec. 23 in Wilmington, Del.; known for dancing the Black Bottom; best friends with Fanny Brice, whom she loans large sums of money to; not to be confused with Playboy model Ann Pennington (1950-). Am. "Madame X", "Dodsworth" actress-novelist-aviator Ruth Chatterton (d. 1961) on Dec. 24 in New York City; English and French descent; wife of Ralph Forbes, (1932-4) George Brent and (1942-60) Barry Thomson. Am. "Lullaby of Broadway", "You'll Never Know", "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe", "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", "That's Amore", "Jeepers Creepers", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby" composer-lyricist Harry Warren (Salvatore Antonio Guaragna) (d. 1981) on Dec. 24 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Italian immigrant parents; first major U.S. songwriter to write primarily for film. Am. actor-producer Joe Rock (Simburg) (d. 1984) on Dec. 25 in New York City; husband of Louise Granville; grandfather of Christopher Pate. Am. illustrator Russell Patterson (d. 1977) on Dec. 26 in Omaha, Neb.; known for his 1920s "Pattterson Girl" flapper girls, "simultaneously brazen and innocent" (Armando Mendez). Indian "The Spiritual Heritage of India" Ramakrishna Order monk Swami Prabhavananda (d. 1976) on Dec. 26 in India; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Chinese "Great Leap Forward", "Little Red Book" Communist Party animal (chmn.) (atheist) Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (Chin. "To Shine on the East") (d. 1976) on Dec. 26 in Shaoshan, Hunan (C China); husband (1907-10) of Luo Yixiu (1889-1910), (1920-30) Yang Kaihui (1901-30), (1930-7) He Zizhen (1909-84), and (1939-76) Jiang Qing (Madame Mao) (1914-91); educated at Hunan U.; starts out fighting the decadent Manchu Dynasty, followed by the Nationalists. Czech "The Idea" animator Berthold Bartosch (d. 1968) on Dec. 29 in Bohemia; moves to Berlin in 1920. English "Testament of Youth" Christian feminist pacifist writer-nurse Vera Mary Brittain (d. 1970) on Dec. 29 in Newcastle-under-Lyme; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U.; wife (1925-) of George Catlin (1896-1979); sister of Edward Brittain; mother of John Brittain-Catlin (1927-7) and Shirley Williams (1930-). Russian Futurist poet Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovski (d. 1930) in Bagdadi, Kutais, Georgia. Am. jazz clarinetist Lorenzo Tio Jr. (d. 1933) in New Orleans, La.; son of Lorenzo Tio Sr. (1867-1901); nephew of Louis "Papa" Tio (1862-1922). Am. NAACP secy. (1931-55) (black) Walter Francis White (d. 1955) in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Atlanta U. Am. mobster Francesco "Frank" "Don Ciccio" "Wacky" Scalice (Scalise) (d. 1957) in Palermo, Sicily. Am. Zionist rabbi (Jewish) Abba Hillel Silver (Abraham Silver) (d. 1963) in Naumiestis, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. at age 9; educated at the U. of Cincinnati. Am. "Journey in the Dark" novelist Martin Flavin (d. 1967). Jamaican PM (1959-62) Norman Washington Manley (d. 1969); of Irish-African descent; educated at Oxford U.; father of Michael Manley (1924-97). Am. football coach (Columbia U., 1930-56) Lou "Luigi Piccolo" Little (d. 1979) in Leominster, Mass. English landscape painter John N. Nash (d. 1977). Am. artist Charles Ephraim Burchfield (d. ?) in Ashtabula, Ohio. Am. publisher-merchant-philanthropist Marshall Field III in Chicago, Ill; grandson son of Marshall Field (1834-1906). Japanese feminist leader Fusae Ichikawa (d. 1981) in Bisai, Aichi Prefecture. Czech novelist Marie Pujmanova (d. ?). Deaths: German radical Julius Froebel (b. 1805). English artist William Frederick Woodington (b. 1806) on Dec. 24 in Brixton Hill. Am. statesman Hamilton Fish (b. 1808) on Sept. 7 in Garrison, N.Y. French pres. (1873-9) Comte Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon (b. 1808) on Oct. 17 in Chateau de La Forest, Loiret. Am. Smith & Wesson co-founder Horace Smith (1808) on Jan. 15. Swiss artist Karl Bodmer (b. 1809) on Oct. 30 in Paris, France. English actresss Fanny Kemble (b. 1809) on Jan. 15 in London. Hungarian "Himnusz" composer Ferenc Erkel (b. 1810) on June 15 in Budapest. German mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer (b. 1810) on May 14. Am. Mormon leader William B. Smith (b. 1811) on Nov. 13 in Osterdock, Iowa. English "Smith's Bible Dictionary" editor William Smith (b. 1813) on Oct. 7 in London. French-born Am. priest Edward Sorin (b. 1814) on Oct. 31 in Notre Dame, Ind. Am. historian Henry Warren Torrey (b. 1814) on Dec. 14 in Cambridge, Mass. Scottish-born Australian inventor James Harrison (b. 1816) on Sept. 3 in Geelong, Victoria. English classical scholar Benjamin Jowett (b. 1817). English botanist Richard Spruce (b. 1817) on Dec. 28. Spanish poet-playwright Jose Zorrilla (b. 1817). Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (b. 1818) on Feb. 20 in New Orleans, La. Am. politician and Civil War Union gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler (b. 1818) on Jan. 11 in Washington, D.C. - does your butt have space for all my shoes and hats? French "Ave Maria" composer Charles Gounod (b. 1818) on Oct. 18 in Saint-Cloud. Am. suffragist Lucy Stone (b. 1818) on Oct. 18 in Dorchester, Mass. Am. baseball founder Abner Doubleday (b. 1819) on Jan. 26. Swiss-born Am. theologian Philip Schaff (b. 1819) on Oct. 20 in New York City. U.S. Supreme Court justice #48 (1882-93) Samuel Blatchford (b. 1820) on July 7 in Newport, R.I. Am. Baptist minister James Robinson Graves (b. 1820) on June 26 in Memphis, Tenn. Irish physicist John Tyndall (b. 1820). English painter Ford Madox Brown (b. 1821) on Oct. 6 in London. U.S. Gen. Edward Fitzgerald Beale (b. 1822) on Apr. 22 in Washington, D.C. U.S. pres. #19 (1877-81) Rutherford B. Hayes (b. 1822) on Jan. 17 in Fremont, Ohio; last words: "I know I'm going where Lucy is." Scottish shipping magnate Sir William Mackinnon, 1st baronet (b. 1823) on June 22 in London, England. Am. historian Francis Parkman (b. 1823) on Nov. 8 in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Mass. German-born Am. composer-violinist Julius Eichberg (b. 1824) on Jan. 19 in Boston, Mass. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (b. 1824) on Mar. 28 in Sewanee, Tenn. Am. railroad tycoon Leland Stanford (b. 1824) on June 21 in Palo Alto, Calif. French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (b. 1825) on Aug. 16. U.S. Supreme Court justice #49 (1888-93) Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II (b. 1825) on Jan. 23 in Ga. Am. banker-philanthropist Anthony Joseph Drexel Sr. (b. 1826) on Jan. 30 in Karlsbad, Bohemia (heart attack). French historian Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (b. 1828) on Mar. 5. Am. writer-activist Ezra Heywood (b. 1829) on May 22 (TB); dies after deciding on July 2, 1878 to name the year 1873 as "Y.L. (Year of Love) 1", with the notation B.L. for years before that. Am. Repub. politician-statesman James G. Blaine (b. 1830) on Jan. 27 in Washington, D.C.; his 1830 Classic Revival frame house at Capitol and State Sts. in Augusta, Maine becomes the governor's mansion in 1919. French statesman Jules Francois Camille Ferry (b. 1832). Am. actor Edwin Thomas Booth (b. 1833) on June 7 in New York City; elder brother of John Wilkes Booth. Am. Baptist minister Henry Martin Tupper (b. 1831) on Nov. 12 in Raleigh, N.C. Am. Episcopal bishop Phillips Brooks (b. 1835) on Jan 23 in Boston, Mass.; his funeral is a major event. Am. Civil War Union gen. Charles Ewing (b. 1835) on June 20 in Washington, D.C. Austrian physicist Josef Stefan (b. 1835) on Jan. 7 in Vienna. English artist John Atkinson Grimshaw (b. 1836). Am. New Thought leader Julius A. Dresser (b. 1838) in Boston, Mass. English gay poet-essayist John Addington Symonds (b. 1840) on Apr. 19 in Rome; buried near Shelley. Russian composer Peter Tchaikovsky (b. 1840) on Nov. 6 (Oct. 25 Old Style) (dysentery) (cholera) (suspected pathetic suicide?) - the good die young if they don't boil their water when they make their chai? Dutch brewer Gerard Heineken (b. 1841) on Mar. 18 in Amsterdam. French writer Guy de Maupassant (b. 1850) on July 6 - the good die young? Am. Long Branch Saloon owner Luke Short (b. 1854) on Sept. 8 in Geuda Springs, Kan. (Bright's disease). Am. actress Georgiana Drew Barrymore (b. 1856) on July 2 in Santa Barbara, Calif. (TB).

1894 - The Tsar Nicholas II Cat in the Hat Year?

Assassination of Sadi Carnot on June 24, 1894 by Sante Geronimo Caserio (1873-94) Sadi Carnot of France (1837-94) Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier of France (1847-1907) Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery of Britain (1847-1929) Hannah Primrose (de Rothschild), Countess of Rosebery (1851-90) William Gladstone of Britain (1809-98) Nicholas II of Russia (1868-1918) Dr. Seuss (1904-91), The Cat in the Hat Russian Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (1872-1918) Matilda Kshesinskaya (1872-1971) Russian Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich (1879-19560 French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux of France (1853-1944) Joseph Reinach of France (1856-1921) Prussian Prince Chlodwig of Hohenlohe (1819-1901) Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) Sir Mackenzie Bowell of Canada (1823-1917) Chlodwig, Prince Hohenlohe of Germany (1819-1901) Prince Iwao Oyama of Japan (1842-1916) Japanese Adm. Count Sukeyuki Itoh (1843-1914) Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (1836-95) Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) Richard Olney of the U.S. (1835-1917) John Peter Altgeld of the U.S. (1847-1902) Policarpo Bonilla of Honduras (1858-1928) Emile Henry (1872-94) Elwood Haynes (1857-1925) Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. (1854-1951) Edward Douglass White of the U.S. (1845-1921) Shibasaburo Kitasato (1853-1931) Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) Simon Lake (1866-1945) Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918) Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930) Tom Smothers (1937-) and Dick Smothers (1939-) Charles Francis Adams Jr. (1835-1915) Hugh Duffy (1866-1954) Big Ed Delahanty (1867-1903) Billy Hamilton (1866-1940) Big Sam Thompson (1860-1922) Bobby Lowe (1865-1951) Eugen Sandow (1867-1925) Eugen Sandow (1867-1925) Pierre Giffard (1853-1922) Albert Lemaitre (1864-1906) Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) Giuseppe Morello (1867-1930) Salvatore D'Aquila (1873-1928) Joe Masseria (1886-1931) Al Mineo (1880-1930) Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) Carsten Borchgrevink (1864-1934) Sven Anders Hedin (1865-1921) Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) Albert Goodwill Spalding (1850-1915) Gunnar Heibert (1857-1929) Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1851-1940) Sir Charles Algernon Parsons (1854-1931) Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (1858-1935) Rosa Bonheur (1822-99) Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943) Charlie Soong (1863-1918) Mark Twain (1835-1910) and Henry Huttleston Rogers (1840-1909) Robert William Chambers (1865-1933) James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) Max von Schillings (1868-1933) Leo Frobenius (1873-1938) Bliss Carman (1861-1929) Frank Harris (1856-1931) Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903) George du Maurier (1834-96) Trilby Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910) Prescott Farnsworth Hall (1868-1921) Charles Warren (1868-1954) Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872-98) Henry Drummond (1851-97) William John Locke (1863-1930) Pierre Lou˙s (1870-1925) Frederic William Maitland (1850-1906) Sir Frederick Pollock (1845-1937) Arthur Morrison (1863-1945) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951) Katharine Tynan (1861-1931) Edward Hill Amet (1860-1948) Magniscope, 1894 Philip Henry Wicksteed (1844-1927) 'The Yellow Book', 1894-7 'His Excellency', 1894 'The Shop Girl', 1894 'Summertime' by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), 1894 Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Gustave Caillebotte Example Max Klinger (1857-1920) Max Klinger Example Georges Rouault (1871-1958) Georges Rouault Example Tower Bridge, 1894 Frederick P. Ott (1860-1936) 'Summer Landscape' by George Inness (1825-94), 1894 'Richard Wagner (1813-83)' by Franz von Lenbach, 1894 'Idle Hours' by William Merritt Chase (1849-1916), 1894 'Ophelia' by John William Waterhouse (1849-1917), 1894 'Oviri' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1894 William H. Danforth (1870-1955) Albert Webster Edgerly (1852-1926) 'Poker Game' by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge (1844-1934), 1894 Ralston-Purina Co., 1894 Chex Breakfast Cereal, 1937 Dos Equis Logo

1894 In Jan. king (since 1868) Lobengula (b. 1845) of Matabeleland dies of smallpox, dysentery, or poison, but either way Cecil Rhodes has taken over, and by Oct. 1897 he has himself a new diamond-studded homeland for whitey, which he modestly names Rhodesia. In Jan.-Feb. fires in Chicago, Ill. partly destroy the remains of the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, causing the rest to be quickly torn down, except the Japanese Exhibit (which is torched by an arsonist in WWII) and the Fine Arts Bldg. On Feb. 7 after the Panic of 1893 frees silver miners to work in gold mines, and the owners lower the daily wage from $3 to $2.50/day and increase working hours from 8 to 10, the 5-mo. Cripple Creek Miner's Strike of 1894 by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) (founded 1893) sees miners blow up the Strong Mine on Battle Mountain on May 24, after which the Colo. state militia is called out (first time for any state) in support of the workers to fight illegal state deputies on June 6, helping the strikers win a V over the owners; too bad, this only hardens the owners. On Feb. 12 after getting away with placing a time bomb at the HQ of the Carmaux Mining Co. on Rue des Bons-enfants on Nov. 8, 1892, killing five police officers who were trying to remove it, Spanish-born French anarchist Emile Henry (b. 1872) bombs Cafe Terminus near the Gare St. Lazare in revenge for the execution of Auguste Vaillant on Feb. 5 (for throwing a small bomb into the Chamber of Deputies and wounding several people to call attention to the plight of the poor), killing one and wounding 19, becoming the first modern terrorist attack on innocent civilians instead of the govt.; on May 21 after speaking out against the bourgeoisie at his trial, with the soundbyte "There are no innocent bourgeois", he is guillotined. On Feb. 22 Policarpo Bonilla (1858-1928) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 1, 1899). On Feb. 26 the Morgan Report, sponsored by the U.S. Congress finds all parties in the Hawaii overthrow of Jan. 1893 not guilty except Queen Liliuokalani. In Feb. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. is founded in Winston (modern-day Winston-Salem), N.C. by George T. Brown and his brother-in-law Robert Lynn Williamson; in 1927 they are acquired by British Am. Tobacco Co.; in 1929 they introduce Wings brand 10-cent cigarettes; in 1933 they introduce Kool brand menthol cigarettes are introduced, becoming the first popular menthol cigarettes, overtaking Spud brand, introduced in 1927 by Axton-Fisher Tobacco Co; in 1936 they introduce the low-cost Viceroy brand; in the early 1970s they introduce the Laredo brand do-it-yourself cigarette kit, which proves a dud and is discontinued; in 1978 and 1994, export and U.S. rights are acquired to Lucky Strike brand. On Mar. 2 British PM (since Aug. 15, 1892) (Liberal "Grand Old Man") William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) resigns, and Queen Vicky, who doesn't like Liberals anyway selects an imperialistic Liberal, foreign secy. Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (1847-1929) (a horse-lover who quit college so he could own a horse, and vowed to marry an heiress, win the Derby and become PM, and already married Jewish banker Baron Mayer de Rothschild's daughter Hannah Rothschild (1851-90) in 1878 after she inherited his estate and became the richest woman in England, leaving him a well-fixed bisexual whose popularity "almost eclipsed royalty", and who's done it all, incl. winning the Derby this year and next) to replace him on Mar. 5 (until June 22, 1895), becoming the 3rd consecutive British PM to have attended Eton and Christ Church, Oxford (Gladstone, Salisbury) (next Balfour); after continuing to try to implement the Newcastle program, he doesn't last a year before resigning to go back to his horses and pretty boys? On Mar. 12 Coca-Cola narc, er, soft drink is first bottled by Biedenharn Candy Co. in Vicksburg, Miss., run by Joe Biedenharn, who sells it by the case; meanwhile the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta, Ga. opens in Dallas, Tex., and by next year it has addicts in every U.S. state and territory, causing two men from Tenn. to acquire exclusive U.S. rights to bottle and sell it in 1899 - enjoy thirst? On Mar. 12 lily white Thibodaux, La.-born former sugar cane plantation owner (Roman Catholic) Edward Douglass White Jr. (1845-1921) (Confed. soldier in the U.S. Civil War), a maternal relative of the Lee family of Va. becomes U.S. Supreme Court jutice #55 (until Dec. 18, 1910), bringing it back up to nine members. On Mar. 15 the Denver City Hall War begins after new (since Jan. 10, 1893) Colo. gov. Davis Hanson Waite attempts to dismantle Soapy Smith's corrupt machine in Denver, Colo., firing Jackson Orr and D.J. Martin from the Denver Fire and Police Board, who defy him and hole-up in city hall along with 300 other city officials, causing Waite to call out the state milia and federal troops, who are stopped from firing their two cannons and two Gatling guns by news that the Colo. Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case, ruling that the gov. has the power to remove the officials but can't use militia on them, after which the new officials begin passing laws ending his corruption permanently, and after Soapy and his bother Bascomb Smith are charged with attempted murder for the beating of a saloon mgr. they flee to Mexico, trying to swindle Porfirio Diaz by offering the services of a fake foreign legion headed by "Col." Smith before moving to the Klondike during the 1897 Kondike Gold Rush, getting chased out of Skagway and spending time in St. Louis, Mo. and Washington, D.C. before returning in Jan. 1898 to set up shop. On Apr. 26 Confucian teacher Chon Pong-jun (1854-95) becomes the leader of the growing Tonghak movement in Korea, which begins to win against govt. forces, causing the king on June 10 to call for help from the Chinese, who send 3K men, causing the Japanese to respond on June 25 with 8K men, who occupy Seoul, after which the two powers forget about the Tonghaks, starting the First Sino-Japanese War (ends 1895) on July 23 after Japan seizes the Kyongbok Palace, forces the Korean govt. to conclude an alliance with it on Aug. 26, and accept reforms incl. ending slavery and the class system, allowing commoners to adopt surnames; on Sept. 17 14 Chinese ships under Qing Beiyang Fleet Adm. Ding Ruchang (1836-95) (who is wounded along with other offices on the bridge from the first shot of his own vessel the Dingyuan) are defeated by 12 Japanese ships under Marshal Adm. Count Ito (Itoh) Sukeyuki (1843-1914) on the Yellow Sea in Korea Bay at the mouth of the Yalu River in the naval Battle of the Yalu River (largest naval battle of the war), with five Chinese ships sunk and three damaged vs. four Japanese ships damaged and no ships sunk, and 1.35K Chinese vs. 290 Japanese casualties; the Chinese suffer from corrupt munitions manufacturers who fill some of the shells with cement instead of high explosives; on Oct. 24 (night) 10K Japanese troops under field marshal Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922) cross the Yalu River by pontoon bridge into S Manchuria, suprising 23K Chinese troops under Chinese gen. Sung Ching, and defeating them after a 3-hour battle, losing only four KIA and 140 wounded, after which the Japanese take the local capital of Antung (Dandong) in Liaoning Province, and divide forces, one group going after Port Arthur and the other Mukden; on Nov. 6 Kinchow (Jinxian) is captured, followed by the port of Dalian on Nov. 7; on Nov. 21 (midnight) the Battle (Massacre) of Lushunkou (Port Arthur) sees 15K Japanese troops attack and defeat 13K Chinese troops and capture the port by night, after which the Japanese enter the city, only to find Chinese soldiers dressed up as civilians sniping at them, pissing them off and causing them to round up and massacre adult males at will, ending with 4.5K Chinese killed vs. 29 Japanese; meanwhile the Tonghaks rise in rebellion, forming the Righteous Army (Uibyong), becoming the largest peasant uprising in Korean history (ends 1895). On Apr. 28 wealthy Penn.-born Socialist populist "General" Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. (1854-1951) leads the ragtag 500-man Coxey's Army (Commonweal of Christ) of the unemployed to Washington, D.C., protesting unemployment and seeking legislation providing interest-free funds for roads to be built by the unemployed, arriving on Apr. 29, and on May 1 he is arrested for trespassing for walking on the grass before he can deliver his speech at the Capitol, being released on June 10 after being nominated for Congress in Ohio; after trying it again in 1914, he goes on to become mayor of Massillon, Ohio in 1931 and run for U.S. pres. On May 31 historian Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux (1853-1944) becomes French minister of foreign affairs (until June 14, 1898), going on to work for a rapprochement with Russia and delimit the French colonies in Africa, while not trusting England as far as he can throw the Eiffel Tower, leading to the 1898 Fashoda Incident. On May 31 the U.S. Senate passes a resolution encouraging Hawaii to establish its own form of govt. On May 31 Harvard U. grads Prescott Farnsworth Hall (1868-1921), Charles Warren (1868-1954), Robert DeCourcy Ward (1867-1931) et al. found the Immigration Restriction League in Boston, Mass. to exclude immigrants from S and E Europe (Ireland, Italy, and Germany) for inferior "racial qualities" that are threatening their way of life incl. high wage scale; after introducing a bill to Congress on Apr. 8, 1918 to place numerical limits on immigration, it disbands after Hall's 1921 death. On June 24 French pres. (since 1887) Sadi Carnot (b. 1837) is stabbed in his carriage in Lyon by French anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio (b. 1873), and dies on June 25, after which Caserio is guillotined on Aug. 16, his last words being "Courage comrades! Long live anarchy!"; on June 27 Left Republican Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier (1847-1907) becomes pres. #5 of France (until Jan. 16, 1895). On June 25 steamship Norge sinks on Rockall Reef in the North Atlantic, killing 600. On June 28 pres. Grover Cleveland signs the U.S. Labor Day Act, making the first Monday in Sept. a legal holiday, "devoted to no man... to no sect, race, or nation" (Samuel Gompers) - especially that uppity General Coxey? In the summer an Armenian uprising begins in Sasun in E Anatolia (S Armenia), which is brutally put down by Kurdish Hamidiye troops in the Hamidian (Hamidiyean) Massacre (1894-6), causing an outcry in Europe; Sultan Abdul Hamid II officially denies any massacres, which continue until 1896, killing 200K and causing 100K to emigrate to the U.S. and the Caucasus. On July 4 the Provisional Govt. of Hawaii is replaced by the Repub. of Hawaii (ends Aug. 12, 1898), with its own sugar-grower-written U.S.-style (with property qualifications for voters) 1894 Hawaii Constitution is proclaimed, naming Sanford B. Dole as pres. #1, while next Jan. 9 Queen Liliuokalani reluctantly abdicates - black is black, I want my island back? On July 4 Elwood Haynes (1857-1925) successfully tests the first American-made automobile (buggyaut, quadricycle) at the Apperson wagon works in Kokomo, Ind., and patents it. After winning a strike on the Great Northern Railway, the Am. Railway Union of Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) backs the poorly-paid Pullman workers (catching Mr. Pullman asleep at the switch?), tying up all rail transportation in Ill., causing U.S. atty.-gen. #40 (1893-5) Richard Olney (1835-1917), backed by Pres. Cleveland to stink up the U.S. govt. by getting writs of injunction from federal courts forbidding them from acts of violence, then sending U.S. troops in to keep the trains running, supposedly to keep the U.S. mail going; German-born liberal Bryan-backing Ill. gov. (1893-7) John Peter Altgeld (1847-1902) protests to Pres. Cleveland that his state militia has the case under control and federal troops aren't called for, but gets widely condemned as radical as Clevie Baby steamrolls in the new federal power of "government by injunction"; in July after being arrested on a phony murder conspiracy charge, Debs (along with other union officials) is arrested for violating an injunction, and Debs gets 6 mo. in Woodstock jail for contempt, where he is visited by Victor Berger and given Marx's "Das Kapital", becoming a Marxist-Socialist. On Aug. 18 the U.S. Congress establishes the Bureau of Immigration. Dirty deeds and they're done dirt cheap, with your money? On Aug. 27 the U.S. Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act is passed, reducing only slightly the high rates of the 1890 McKinley Tariff due to the Senate adding 600+ amendments, betraying Pres. Cleveland's intentions of tariff reform, and causing him to call its passage "party perfidy and party dishonor"; Cleveland lets it become law without his signature; some Illuminati, er, wiseguy slips in a 2% income tax to make up for it; not so fast there, next Apr. 8 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 5-4 in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. that the income tax is unconstitutional because it is a direct tax, not one proportioned to each state's pop., making a constitutional amendment mandatory; it takes until 1913. In Aug. the South African Glen Grey Act provides for African self-govt., with black voters required to pass property and educational tests, forcing Xhosa men into employment - to prove they aren't apes? On Sept. 1 the Hinckley Forest Fire in Minn. burns 480 sq. mi., destroying six towns and killing 480. On Oct. 29 aging former liberal PM of Bavaria (1866-70) Prince Chlodwig Carl Viktor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst (Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Ratibor and Corvey) (1819-1901) becomes chancellor and PM of Prussia (until Oct. 17, 1900), going on to remain in the background and leave affairs to his secys. Gas-ex, the pressure's off? On Nov. 1 Russian tsar (since Mar. 13, 1881) Alexander III (b. 1845) dies, and his eldest son Nicholas II (1868-1918) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat?) becomes Russian Romanov tsar #18 (last) (until Mar. 15, 1917), signing a military agreement with France; on Nov. 14 he marries his hemophilia-carrying relative (also related to the British and every other inbred royal house of Europe by now?) Princess Viktoria Alix Helena Luise Beatrice of Hessen and Darmstadt (Alix of Hesse and by Rhine) (1872-1918) (who converts from Lutheran to Russian Orthodox and becomes Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova, followed by St. Alexandra the Passion Bearer in 2000) in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, breaking the heart of his jello-fruit-passions lover, St. Petersburg ballerina (who likes to bet on #17 in Monte Carlo) Matilda Kshesinskaya (Kschessinskaya) (1872-1971), causing her to get even by hooking up with his cousin Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich (1879-1956), having his baby Vladimir, then in the 1920s after fleeing to Paris marrying him; Alexandra accompanies the dead tsar's coffin to St. Petersburg, causing the crowd to murmur "She comes to us behind a coffin" - does she wear a tarlatan or tulle tutu? On Dec. 12 Sir John Thompson (b. 1845) dies suddenly in Windsor Castle in England, and on Dec. 21 Conservative Sen. Sir Mackenzie Bowell (1823-1917) is appointed PM #5 of Canada (until Apr. 27, 1896); the 2nd Mackenzie. On Dec. 12 after invading Madagascar in 1883 to protect their alleged territory, forcing them to sign the Treaty of Tamatave in Jan. 1886, ceding Antsiranana and paying a fine of 10M francs, the Second Franco-Hova (Franco-Malagasy) War (ends Sept. 1895) sees the Frogs invade Madagascar, landing on the far coast at Majunga and taking Tamatave, then take 6K deaths from malaria to sneak up on Antananarivo in late Sept., losing only 20 soldiers in the fighting, then exile PM Rainilaiarivony, who dies next year; Queen Ranavalona III is permitted to stay, but after the French declare the island a French colony next Aug., causing a revolt, they depose and exile her on Feb. 28, 1897 to Reunion, then in Mar. 1899 to Algiers for life (1917), making French gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (1849-1916) a villain in Madagascar. On Dec. 15 the First Italo-Ethiopian War begins with the Battle of Halai (Halay), which is an Italian V, after which the Italians occupy Adwa. Nicaragua, supported by the U.S. invades the British kingdom of Mosquitia in San Juan del Norte (Greytown), Nicaragua (founded 1848) and swats it like a you know what - pelicans are supposed to eat fish not what? The British govt. announces the halt of indentured emigration from India. Bulgarian dictator-PM (since 1887) Stefan Stambulov (b. 1854) resigns after failing to get Ferdinand I recognized by the Euro powers, then is assassinated next year. The 20th century's problem with Jews doesn't wait for the starting gun? The Dreyfus Affair stinks up France after French Jewish military officer Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) is framed for treason (selling secret military info. to the Germans) and convicted "in camera" by royalist anti-republican officers, then stripped of rank and his sword broken, and made into an example of traitors in the republican govt. in an attempt to discredit it; it takes until 1906 for him to be released from priz; (near fear, the Jewish PC press is here?) French Jewish deputy Joseph Reinach (1856-1921) (oldest of the three famous Reinach archeologist brothers, and a former assoc. of Leon Gambetta) champions Dreyfus' cause, only to be criticized for defending him only because they are both Jews, causing him to lose his seat in the chamber of deputies; Austrian-Hungarian-born Jew Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), Paris correspondent for the Vienna Neue Freie Presse covers the story, causing him to freak and abandon the idea of gradual assimilation of Jews like him into Christian Europe, predict a future Holocaust and begin advocating a separate Jewish state, founding let's-have-our-own-Jewish-state Zionism; he ends up predicting a Holocaust 33 times in his writings, making him a genuine Jewish prophet? Alexander I Obrenovich of Serbia suspends the liberal 1888 constitution, annuls a series of laws passed by the radical govt., adding to his unpopularity by marrying commoner Madame Draga Mashin. Shanghai-born Methodist missionary Charles Jones "Charlie" Soong (1863-1918) meets Sun Yat-Sen in a Methodist church in Shanghai, backing his anti-Manchu activities then fleeing China next year after an attempted uprising fails, with Sun staying behind because he kept his name out of it; Soong goes on to have children Ai-Ling, Ching-Ling, and May-Ling, who are educated in the U.S.; in 1912 Ching-Ling travels to China just as Sun's republic collapses, and flees with him to Tokyo, engaging in an illicit romance that pisses-off daddy Charlie, who disowns her and breaks all ties with Sun. Dr. Leander Starr Jameson leads a white occupation of kingless Matabeleland. Just when he's picking up steam with his new Independent Labour Party, an explosion at a colliery in Pontypridd, Wales kills 251 miners, and British MP James Keir Hardy asks that a message of condolence to the victims be added to a congratulatory address on the birth of royal heir Prince Edward (later Edward VIII), which is refused, after which he gives a speech attacking the monarchy, bringing on an uproar which loses him his seat next year. After futile attempts at resistance by the natives, the British Protectorate of Uganda is founded by the British (until 1962), ending the 14th cent. Kingdom of Buganda, becoming a major producer of cotton and coffee. After futile attempts at resistance by the natives, the British annex the spectacular coastal wonderland of Pondoland, connecting Cape Colony and Natal on the Indian Ocean. Chlodwig, Prince Hohenlohe (Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst) (1819-1901) succeeds Count Caprivi as German chancellor (until Oct. 17, 1900); Germany and Russia sign a commercial treaty. The Ethnike (Ethniké) Hetaeria (Hetairia) (Gr. "nat. assoc."), a secret anti-Turkish military society is founded in Greece to kick Turkey out of "its" occupied provinces, esp. Crete. New Zealand enacts the first known minimum wage law. Britain passes the Spencer Program, providing Ł31M more funding for naval shipbuilding, keeping the naval arms race with France and Russia going and causing the U.S. and Germany to join. The 400+-page Merchant Shipping Act finally makes crimping (forced naval service) illegal in Britain. Geronimo and his family, barred from returning to their homeland are moved to Ft. Sill in Okla., and Big G goes on to become a celeb, appearing at fairs and signing photos of his jive self. The 1.55K-ton screw sloop USS Kearsarge, which sank the Confederate raider Alabama in 1864 is lost in the West Indies, and by popular demand its name is given to one of the new U.S. battleships, becoming the only battleship not named after a state. Inheritance taxes (death duties) are introduced in Britain. The town of Severance, Colo. (modern-day pop. 597) gets its first post office, becoming known for Bruce's Bar, which serves plates of genuine Rocky Mountain oysters (fried bulls balls). The Genealogical Society of Utah is founded on Nov. 13, by the LDS (Mormon) Church, working out of the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, going on to become the largest genealogical society on Earth. Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink (1864-1934) begins exploring the Antarctic, visiting the mainland; in 1898 he leads an Antarctic expedition (ends 1900), which becomes the first party to winter on the Antarctic continent and sets a record for S latitude. Swedish explorer Sven Anders Hedin (1865-1952) begins the first of three expeditions in C Asia (ends 1908), visiting Chinese Turkestan and Tibet, becoming the last person to receive a Swedish knighthood in 1902. The Nat. Municipal (later Civic) League is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. by Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Joseph Napoleon, Louis Brandeis, Marshall Field, Frederick Law Olmsted et al. to plan the future development of U.S. cities - and their demographic makeup? Sicilian-born Giuseppe "the Old Fox" Morello (1867-1930), known as "Clutch Hand" for his deformed 1-finger right hand emigrates to New York City, founding the Morello crime family (AKA the 107th Street Mob) based in Italian Harlem in East Harlem, Lower East Side, Manhattan, N.Y., becoming known for barrel murders and going on to defeat the rival Neapolitan Camorra in Brooklyn and become New York City's first capo di tutti capi (boss of bosses); in 1909 he is imprisoned in Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for counterfeiting, and in 1910 his captain, Silician-born Salvatore "Toto" D'Aquila (1873-1928) leaves the Morello crime family and forms his own, eventually becoming the new boss of bosses, operating from East Harlem and the Bronx and expanding into Brooklyn and Little Italy in Lower East Side, Manhattan, ordering Morello murdered after his 1920 release and return to New York City, causing him to join up with Sicilian-born Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria (1886-1931) ("the man who can dodge bullets") as his consiglieri (war chief), while Masseria survives assassination attempts by D'Aquila's Sicilian-born hitman Umberto "the Ghost" Valenti (1891-1922) on May 8, May 10, and Aug. 9, 1922 until he is ambushed and killed by Lucky Luciano and Morello on Aug. 11, 1922, after which D'Aquila struggles, losing associates Saverio "Sam" Pollacia (defects to Masseria), Joseph Lonardo (-1927) (murdered on Oct. 13, 1927), and Frankie Yale (-1928) (murdered in July 1928), moving to the Bronx across from the Bronx Zoo in 1925 and hanging on until his Oct. 10, 1928 assassination in Manhattan, after which his underboss Alfred Manfredi "Al" Mineo (1880-1930) becomes boss of the D'Aquila crime family, which later becomes the Gambino crime family; meanwhile Morello flourishes until the Castellammarese War starts in 1929, after which he is murdered on Aug. 15, 1930 by "Buster from Chicago" (Sebastiano Domingo), according to informer Joseph Valachi (it was really him?). Easton, Penn.-born James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) and Columbia, S.C.-born James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) found the Psychological Review to compete with the Am. Journal of Psychology (1887); Cattell goes on to make psychology into a respectable academic discipline, the NYT calling him "the Dean of American Science"; too bad, his opposition to U.S. involvement in WWII gets him fired from Columbia U., causing U.S. univs. to establish tenure. The Church of the Higher Life in Boston, Mass. is founded by Helen Van Anderson, becoming the first regular New Thought org. Famous Am. writer Mark Twain (1835-1910), despite earning as much as $250K year since 1880, declares bankruptcy, going on a world tour next year to pay off his debts, and receiving help from Standard Oil exec Henry Huttleston Rogers (1840-1909). The term "red-light district" is coined by The Sentinel of Milwaukee, Wisc. - causing a run on red lights at the light store? The U. of Tulsa in Okla. is founded. Billboard (originally Billboard Advertising) mag. is founded in Cincinnati, Ohio to cover the bill posting industry; it begins covering movies in 1909 and radio in the 1920s; on Jan. 4, 1936 it pub. the first Billboard music hit parade; on July 20, 1940 it pub. its first music popularity chart, followed in 1958 by the Hot 100; in 1961-2005 it is devoted entirely to music. Thomas Edison opens his Kinetoscope Parlor in New York City, and starts out with Fred Ott's Sneeze (Jan. 7) and Fred Ott Holding a Bird, starring mechanic Frederick P. Ott (1860-1936). French animal painter Rosa Bonheur (1822-99) ("The Horse Fair", "Deer in the Forest", "Weaning the Calves", etc.) becomes the first woman to win the grand cross of the French Legion of Honor. Ziegfeld's Follies, a combo of song, dance, and comedy opens on Broadway in Longacre Square (Broadway and 42nd). The Impressionist paintings of Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) are rejected by the Musee Luxembourg in Paris - making them more popular? German "tortured imagination" painter Max Klinger (1857-1920) switches to sculpture, going on to make statues of Beethoven, Nietzsche, Brahms, and Wagner. John Quincy Adams' grandson Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918), prof. of history at Harvard U. (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Am. comedian Dick Smothers (1939-)?) becomes pres. of the Am. Historical Assoc., giving an inaugural address on the increasing interest in the philosophy of history, which in retrospect is weird because he ends up claiming that history is devoid of purpose?; his railroad official brother (pres. of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1884-90) Charles Francis Adams Jr. (1835-1915) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Am. comedian Tom Smothers (1937-)?), becomes pres. of the AHA in 1901. After Columbia U. won't admit her, New York City-born Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) (student of James McKeen Cattell and Edward B. Titchener) becomes the first woman to be granted a Ph.D. in psychology (at Cornell U.). The weekly Christian Socialist journal The New Age begins pub. (until 1922); in 1907 it is sold to Alfred Richard Orage and Holbrook Jackson, going on to pioneer Vorticism and Imagism; after Orage meets P.D. Ouspensky in 1914, it begins focusing on Spiritualism. The 40th anniv. of the writing career of German novelist Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910) is celebrated by the German nation. The Yellow Book, founded by Charles Elkin Mathews (1851-1921) and John Lane (1854-1925), and edited by Am.-born Henry Harland (1861-1905) begins pub. (ends 1897), becoming a key British lit. periodical, its yellow cover later giving rise to the term "Yellow 1890s of Aestheticism and Decadence", and mentioned in Oscar Wilde's "Picture of Dorian Gray". Former Edison employee Edward Hill Amet (1860-1948) invents the portable Magniscope movie projector, teaming up with Waukegan, Ill. theater mgr. (former Chicago newspaper vendor) George Kirke Spoor (1872-1953) and selling it to several major movie theaters, cranking out a series of war films incl. bathtub naval battles; he ceases production of the Magniscope in 1900 after the release of the Selig Polyscope, selling out to Spoor, who founds the Nat. Film Renting Co., distributing projectors and films to theaters nationwide; employees incl. Donald Joseph Bell (1869-1934) and Albert Summers Howell (1879-1951), who on Feb. 17, 1907 found Bell & Howell Co. in Skokie, Ill., introducing an all-metal camera in 1912 that helps to make 35mm film the industry std., introducing a home movie camera in the 1920s, reaching 500 employees and $1M sales by 1925. The Bata Shoe Co. is founded in Zlin, Czech. by Tomas Bata (1876-1932), going on to supply the Austro-Hungarian army in WWI; by 1932 it produces 75K pairs a day. Purina Mills is founded in St. Louis, Mo. by William H. Danforth (1870-1955) to produce animal and pet food incl. Purina Cat Chow, Purina Dog Chow, Purina Horse Chow, Purina Monkey Chow, Purina Pig Chow, Purina Rabbit Chow et al.; in 1898 after Albert Webster Edgerly (1852-1926) founds the kooky white supremacist Ralstonism Movement (Regime, Activity, Light, Strength, Temperation, Oxygen, Nature) in Ralston Heights (Hopewell), N.J., which advocates eating of whole grain cereal along with castration of non-Caucasians, and prohibits Caucasians from eating watermelon, they expand to whole wheat breakfast cereals, changing their name in 1902 to Ralston-Purina Co.; in 1937 they introduce Chex brand cereal (Wheat Chex, Rice Chex, Bran Chex), which later uses chars. from Charles M. Schulz's "Peanuts" comic strip in it ads, and is sold to Gen. Mills in 1997; in 1953 Danforth pub. I Dare You!, which expounds his Checkerboard Philosophy: Physical, Mental, Social, Religious.; in 1963-8 it owns Van Camp Sea Food Co., makers of Chicken of the Sea brand tuna; in 1968-85 it owns Jack in the Box fast food restaurants; in 1986 Purina Mills (U.S. business only) is sold to British Petroleum (BP), which sells it to Land O'Lakes; in 1986 Ralston Purina acquires Eveready Battery Co. and Continental Baking Co.; in 1994 the Ralston business becomes Ralcorp Holdings; in 2001 the internat. Purina business is sold to Cargill; in 2001 Ralston Purina merges with Nestle. Beatrice Creamery Co. in Beatrice, Neb. is founded by George Everett Haskell and William W. Bosworth, leasing 50K hand cream separators to farmers by 1905, which they pay for from their cream sales proceeds; after moving to Chicago in 1913, it goes on to become the #1 U.S. dairy co., with the Meadow Gold brand; after overextending with Avis Rent A Car, Playtex, Tropicana et al. it ends up the target of the largest leveraged buyout in history in 1986 ($8.7B). The Ontario Brewers' and Maltsters' Assoc. is founded in Canada; by next year there are 128 breweries in Canada, producing 17.6M gal., incl. 69 in Ontario, 21 in British Columbia, 19 in Quebec, 9 in Manitoba, 5 in Nova Scotia, 3 in New Brunswick, and 1 in Prince Edward Island; the only tax on breweries beside a $50/year license is 2 cents/lb. on malt, which began in 1890. Wilhelm Hasse of the Moctezuma Brewery in Mexico creates Siglo XX (20th Century) brand beer, later called Dos Equis; in 2006-16 they run the Most Interesting Man in the World ad campaign. Salesman James Couden paints the first "Drink Coca-Cola" sign on the wall of the Young Brothers Pharmacy in Cartersville, Ga. for free in reurn for selling the beverage. Sports: In the winter of 1894-5 a group of U.S. college students visit Canada and bring the game of hockey to the U.S. On Jan. 5-Mar. 10 the 1894 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Montreal Hockey Club and Ottawa Hockey Club tie 5-3, after which the Stanley Cup playoff game on Mar. 17 sees the Montreal Hockey Club win by 3-2, defending their title on Mar. 22 with a 3-1 win over the Ottawa Hockey Club. On Feb. 9 the North Am. Jockey Club is founded n New York City, going on to regulate U.S. horse racing and fight organized crime and corruption at racetracks; there are 314 racetracks operating in the U.S., which is down to 25 by 1908 after anti-gambling sentiment causes horseracing to be banned in virtually every state. On May 30 Robert Lincoln "Bobby" "Link" Lowe (1865-1951) hits four straight homers in consecutive at-bats for the Boston Beaneaters against Cincinnati; next time is July 13, 1896 by Ed Delahanty; Lowe is present when Lou Gehrig repeats the feat on June 3, 1932; repeated by Rocky Colavito on June 10, 1959, Mike Schmidt on Apr. 17, 1976, Mike Cameron on May 2, 2002, and Carlos Delgado on Sept. 25, 2003; no ML player hits more than four homers in consecutive at-bats until ? On June 22 the first Automobile Race (really a reliability trial) is held from Paris to Rouen and back (80 mi.), and is won in 5 hours by French automaker De Dion-Bouton in a steam engine car going an avg. of 17 mph. On June 23 Paris, France-born Baron Pierre de Fredy (Frédy), Baron de Coubertin (1863-1937) holds an internat. congress at the Sorbonne in Paris to resurrect the ancient Greek Olympics, and founds the Internat. Olympic Committee (IOC) - if this Millennium doesn't bring Christ back, it's time to give the ancient pagans another chance? On July 22 after sponsoring the Paris-Brest-Paris cycle race in 1891, and the Paris-Belfort running race in 1892, the 5K-franc Paris-Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition, sponsored by Pierre Giffard (1853-1922) of Le Petit Journal, the world's first competitive motor race (although the ad says "it will not be a race") is preceded by four days of exhibitions and qualifying events in front of large crowds is won by Marquis Jules Albert de Dion (1856-1946), who is disqualified because his steam vehicle needed a "stoker", making the winner Albert (Georges) Lemaitre (1864-1906) in his 3hp Peugeot Type 7. On Sept. 27 Aqueduct Racetrack (AKA the Big A) for horseracing opens in Queens, N.Y. near a conduit of the Brooklyn Water Works that carries water from Long Island to the Ridgewood Reservoir. Morris Park Racecourse in Westchester County, N.Y. opens for thoroughbred horseracing, hosting the Belmont Stakes; next year it hosts the Preakness Stakes; in 1895 Bronx annexes it, and it becomes Morris Park; it closes in 1904. The Edmonton Hockey Club in Canada is founded, consisting of the elite Thistles and junior Stars, made up mostly of Scottish players; after the Thistles play a series against the Mounties from Ft. Saskatchewan in 1895, the Stars first play the South Edmonton Shamrocks on Jan. 1896, and the Thistles first play the Shamrocks on Jan. 31, 1896, they are officially organized on Nov. 20, 1896; at first playing games on the North Saskatechewan River, they soon move into the Thistle Rink (cap. 2K), which burns down in 1912; they fold in 1910. The Railway Stakes Thoroughbred horserace is founded at Ascot Racecourse in Perth, Australia; by 2007 prize money reaches $1M. Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) of Germany defeats Wilhelm Steinitz of the U.S. to win become world chess champ #2 (until 1921). While guest-lecturing at Stanford U., Pres. Benjamin Harrison slips into a college baseball game without paying the 25 cent admission, and 19-y.-o. student home team mgr. Herbert Hoover (future pres.) catches him and makes him pay up - brother, spare a dime? Hugh Duffy (1866-1954) of the Boston Beaneaters (1892-1900), sets the ML batting avg. record with a .438 avg. incl. 18 homers and 145 RBI; meanwhile William Robert "Sliding Billy" Hamilton (1866-1940) of the Philadelphia Phillies (1890-5) scores a ML record of 192 runs scored, and hits over .400 (.404) with fellow outfielders Samuel Luther "Big Sam" Thompson (1860-1922) (.407), Edward James "Big Ed" Delahanty (1867-1903) (.407), and George A. "Tuck" Turner (1873-1945) (.416) becoming the first all-.400-hitting outfield (until ?); Thompson ends his career in 1906 with the Detroit Tigers with a .331 career batting avg., and a record RBIs/games played ratio of .923, which is not broken until ? The North Avenue Ice Palace in Baltimore, Md. opens, becoming the first ice rink in North Am. utilizing a mechanically-frozen ice surface. After James Naismith asks Albert Goodwill Spalding (1850-1915) of Spalding Sports in Chicago, Ill. (founded 1876) to do it, they produce their first basketballs, which go on to become the official balls of the NBA until 1977, when Rawlings of St. Louis, Mo. (founded 1887) takes over. Architecture: The Grand Opera House in Galveston, Tex. is built, surviving the 1900 hurricane. Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. is built. Tower Bridge downstream of London Bridge on the Thames River in London is built, with a double-leaf bascules providing a 250-ft. opening between its twin towers; the stairway has almost 300 steps. Inventions: On Aug. 2 after London-born Anglo-Irish inventor Sir Charles Algernon Parsons (1854-1931) invents the modern compound steam turbine in 1884, his steamship Turbinia ("the Ocean Greyhound") is launched, becoming the first steam turbine-powered steamship, and the world's fastest ship (until ?) (34 knots), paving the way for the next generation of steamships incl. the dreadnoughts after the cavitation problem is solved by the cavitation tunnel. Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) produces the first 3-hp steam-powered Oldsmobile, beating Henry Ford by two years; by 1899 he is producing 400 cars a year. The Holland Brothers open the first Kinetoscope movie parlor in New York City, selling tickets at 25 cents to see 5 of 10 choices; meanwhile William Dickson of Edison Labs combines sound and film for the first time, while Edison Studios produces films featuring famous German strongman Eugen Sandow (1867-1925), plus the Sioux Ghost Dance and Buffalo Dance. Henri-Alexander Deslandres (1853-1948) invents the Spectroheliograph. Simon Lake (1866-1945) develops the first modern submarine, the Argonaut Jr. German "Glider King" Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) files for a patent on a triangle control frame hang glider, the Derwitzer, going on 2K+ flights and learning how to hover against a 10 mph updraft, inspiring the Wright Brothers. Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1851-1940) of England invents the Coherer for detecting radio signals, becoming a big breakthrough for vacuum tube technology. Serbian-born Am. physicist Michael Idvorsky (Mihajlo Idvorski) Pupin (1858-1935) invents the Pupin Loading Coil, which greatly extends the range of long distance telephones by adding distributed inductance to the line; the patent is later acquired by AT&T. Science: The bacillus Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) that causes the bubonic plague (Black Death) is discovered independently by Kitasato Shibasaburo (1853-1931) of Japan and Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (1863-1943) of Russia. Dmitry Mendeleev of Russia discovers that vodka is best when formulated to exactly 80 proof (40% alcohol), becoming the std. for modern vodka. Nonfiction: Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930), The Control of the Purse in the United States Government (first book). Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Symbolisten. John Bartlett (1820-1905), Complete Concordance to Shakespeare's Dramatic Works and Poems. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), The Psychology of Peoples. Charles Booth (1840-1916), The Aged Poor in England and Wales. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Messiah of the Gospels; The Messiah of the Apostles. John Burroughs (1837-1921), Riverby. Katharine Coman (1857-1915), The Growth of the English Nation. John Rogers Commons (1862-1945), Social Reform and the Church. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), The Writings of Thomas Paine (2 vols.) (1894-6). Hans Delbruck (1848-1929), Life of Marshal-Counts Neithardt von Gneisenau. Henry Drummond (1851-97), The Ascent of Man (Lowell Lectures, Boston); altruism is needed in natural selection? Alice Morse Earl (ed.), The Diary of Anna Green Winslow, A Boston School Girl of 1771. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Socialism: An Examination of Its Nature, Its Strength and Its Weakness; Socialism and Social Reform. Frederick William Farrar (1831-1903), The Life of Christ as Represented in Art; blames the Spanish Inquisition for ruining religious art, and praises the English Pre-Raphaelites for bringing back the good stuff. Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Die Geheimbunde Afrikas. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Crumbling Idols. James Geikie (1839-1915), The Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the Antiquity of Man. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Die Systematische Phylogenie. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. William Hechler (1845-1931), The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine; Anglican priest predicts it will happen in 1897-8; meets Theodor Herzl in Mar. 1896 right before the 1897 First Zionist Congress. William Ernest Henley et al., A Dictionary of Slang and Its Analogues (1894-1904). Nicolae Iorga (1871-1940), Despre conceptia actuala a istoriei si geneza ei; "History is the systematic exposition, free from all unrelated purpose, of facts irrespective of their nature, methodically acquired, through which human activity manifested itself, irrespective of place and time." Benjamin Kidd (1858-1916), Social Revolution. John Knox Laughton (1830-1915), State Papers Relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Anno 1588. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth; expose of corporate dirty laundry and attack on monopolies. Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), The Dawn of Astronomy. Orison Swett Marden (1850-1924), Pushing to the Front, or Success Under Difficulties, or Success Under Difficulties; biggest bestseller to date in personal development despite (because of?) a depression, with fans incl. Thomas Edison, Harvey Firestone, Henry Ford, and J.P. Morgan; "go-at-it-veness" and "stick-to-it-iveness"; "The world makes way for a determined man." Karl Marx (1818-83) and Friedrich Engels (1820-95), Das Kapital, Vol. 3: The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole (posth.); the most important volume? Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), Les Inscriptions des Pyramides de Saqaarah. James Mooney (1861-1921), Siouan Tribes of the East; Native American Ghost Dance Songs. Thomas Mun, England's Treasure by Foreign Trade. Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932), The Scientific Bases of Analytical Chemistry; founds modern physical chemistry. Austin Norman Palmer (1860-1927), Palmer's Guide to Business Writing; bestseller (1M copies); introduces the Palmer Method of penmanship, developed in 1888, which goes on to supplant the Spencerian Method of the 1840s; advocates "muscle motion", i.e., using the proximal muscles of the arm rather than the fingers to move while writing, allowing speeds rivaling a typewriter to be achieved; students practice looping circles, causing the Palmer Scan to be coined for a circular antenna sweep in radar engineering. Charles Ranhofer (1836-99), The Epicurean; 1K-page encyclopedic cookbook. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), In the Dozy Hours. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), The Philosophy of Freedom. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912), Lehrbuch der Botanik fur Hochschulen (Textbook of Botany); becomes std. textbook. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)), The Kingdom of God Is Within You; pub. in Germany after being banned in Russia; a new org. for society based on the Christian concept of universal love. Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) and Sidney Webb (1859-1947), History of Trade Unionism. Philip Henry Wicksteed (1844-1927), An Essay on the Coordination of the Laws of Distribution; an attempted mathematical proof that a distributive system that rewards factory owners according to marginal productivity will exhaust the total product produced. Movies: William Kennedy Dickson (1860-1935), Two Men Dancing (First Experimental Sound Film) (Edison Studios) (Sept.); first synchronized sound film; first depiction of homosexuality in film?; Dickson plays the violin, becoming the first film where the dir. appears on film. Lumiere Brothers, The Serpentine Dance; stars Annabelle. Music: Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), The Pearl of Iran, A Romantic Opera; libretto by composer. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (Prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune) (based on a poem by Stephane Mallarme) (Dec. 22) (Paris). Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Humoresques, Op. 101, the most famous short piano piece after Beethoven's "Fur Elise"; listen. Cesar Franck (1822-90), Hulda (opera) (posth.) Victor Herbert (1859-1924), 2nd Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 30 (Mar.) (New York Philharmonic); Prince Ananias (operetta). Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov (1859-1935), Caucasian Sketches, Op. 10; incl. Procession of the Sardar. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Mohammedan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 2 ("Resurrection"); 80-min. 5-movement score attempting to capture the travail of human existence and ultimate salvation through God's love? Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Thais (Thaďs) (opera) (Opera Garnier, Paris) (Mar. 16); based on the Anatole France novel; stars Sybil Sanderson as pagan Alexandrian babe Thais, who Cenobite Christian monk Athanael (Jean-Francois Delmas) tries to convert to Christianity, only to get tripped up by lust; incl. the super-popular Meditation from Thais. Andre Messager (1853-1929), Mirette (operetta) (Savoy Theatre, London). Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Prelude in C-sharp minor, Op. 3 no. 2. Max von Schillings (1868-1933), Ingwelde (opera). Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Guntram (opera) (May 10) (Weimar); incl. the famous Guntram Finale. Art: Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872-98), Drawings for Oscar Wilde's "Salome"; incl. The Toilet of Salome, Herodias and Salome. Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), Summertime. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Femme au Chapeau Vert (Woman in a Green Hat). Cassius Marcellus Coolidge (1844-1934), Poker Game; first of 18 oil paintings titled "Dogs Playing Poker" (1894-1910); 16 are commissioned in 1903 by Brown & Bigelow to advertise their cigars; auctioned for $658K by Sotheby's on Nov. 18, 2015. Matthew Corbett, Morning Glory. Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Femme a son toilette. Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Oviri (ceramic sculpture); the Tahitian goddess of mourning shown coddling wolves. George Inness (1825-94), Summer Landscape. Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904), Portrait of Richard Wagner; them genius eyes? Georges Rouault (1871-1958), Infant Jesus among the Doctors; brings him instant fame. Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926), Indians Herding Horses Across River (20.5" x 33"); Piegans and Crows stealing horses in the Judith Basin. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), A Rose from Armida's Garden; Love Sonnets. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), In the Parlor at the Rue des Moulins; The Two Girlfriends (1894-5). Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Married Life. John William Waterhouse (1849-1917), The Lady of Shalott Looking at Lancelot; Ophelia. Plays: Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), El Nido Ajeno (Other Birds' Nests). Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), L'Engrenage. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), The Charlatan. Frank Osmond Carr (1858-1916) and William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911), His Excellency (comic opera) (Lyric Theatre, West End, London) (Oct. 27) (162 perf.) (Broadway Theatre, New York) (Oct. 14, 1895) (88 perf.); produced by George Edwardes; set in Elsinore, Denmark in 1801; stars George Grossmith as Gov. George Griffenfeld, Rutand Barrington as the Prince Regent, Jessie Bond as the gov.'s daughte Nanna, Ellaline Teriss as his other daughter Thora, Alice Barnett as his fiance Dame Hecla Cortlandt, John Le Hay as Syndic Mats Munck, and Charles Kenningham as sculptor Erling Sykke. Ivan Caryll (1861-1921), H.J.W. Dam, Adrian Ross (1859-1933), and Lionel Monckton (1861-1924), The Shop Girl (musical comedy) (Gaiety Theatre, West End, London) (Nov. 24) (546 perf.) (Palmer's Theatre, New York) (Oct. 28, 1895) (72 perf.); produced by George Edwardes; stars Seymour Hicks as medical student Charles Appleby, George Grossmith Jr. as Bertie Boyd, Arthur Williams as Royal Stores Proprietor Mr. Hooley, Edmund Payne as shopwalker Mr. Miggles, Maria Davis as Lady Appleby, Willie Warde as her financial secy. Mr. Tweet, Ada Reeve/Kate Cutler/Ellaline Terriss as Bessie Brent the Shop Girl, and Topsy Sinden as dancer Violet Deveney; introduces a coherent story to burlesque, starting a craze. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Rothschild's Fiddle. Sir Israel Gollancz (1864-1930) (ed.), The Temple Shakespeare (1894-6). Knut Hamsum, Pan. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Hanneles Himmelfahrt. Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Balkonen (The Balcony); his masterpiece? Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Little Eyolf. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Vers la Joie. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Arms and the Man (Avenue Theatre, West End, London) (Apr. 21) (Herald Square Theatre, New York) (Sept. 17); his first success; title comes from Virgil's "Aeneid" ("Arma virumque cano" - Of arms and the man I sing); influenced by Henrik Ibsen; seeks to introduce a new realism into English drama, attempting to show the futility of war; set during the 1885 Serbo-Bulgarian War; Bulgarian woman Raina Petkoff is engaged to war hero Sergius Saranoff until she falls for Swiss mercenary soldier in the Serbian army Capt. Bluntschli, "my chocolate-cream soldier"; filmed in 1932 and 1958. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Wapping Old Stairs (musical); Talbot's first of many musicals. Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Thankful Poor. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Land of Heart's Desire (verse drama). Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), Adzuma; Or, The Japanese Wife. Bliss Carman (1861-1929) and Richard Hovey (1864-1900), Songs from Vagabondia. Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), Poems and Verses. Frederik Willem van Eeden (1860-1932), De Broeders: Tragedie van het Recht. Douglas Hyde (1860-1949), Love Songs of Connacht. Willem Kloos (1859-1938), Verzen; revolutionizes Dutch lit. diction. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Ban and Arriere Ban. Pierre Louys (1870-1925), The Songs of Bilitis; lesbian poetry supposedly translated from the walls of a Greek tomb in Cyprus written by Sappho's contemporary, a courtesan; fools scholars; becomes popular with illustrators incl. Louis Icart, Willy Pogany, Georges Barbier et al. Josef Svatopluk Machar (1854-1942), Magdalen. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Eriphyle. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Mes Paradis. Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), Astrophel. Novels: Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863-1938), Il Trionfo Della Morte (The Triumph of Death). John Jacob Astor IV (1864-1912), A Journey in Other Worlds (only novel). Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Cuentos de Amor. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The Christmas Hirelings; Thou Art the Man. Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Manxman. Robert William Chambers (1865-1935), In the Quarter (first novel). Kate Chopin (1850-1904), Bayou Folk (short stories). Leon Daudet (1867-1942), L'Astre Noir. Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), The Land of Pluck: Stories and Sketches for Young Folk. Marcellus Emants (1848-1923), Een Nagelaten Bekentenis. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Meine Kinderjahre; Effi Briest; poetic realism? Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), Pembroke. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Die Martinsklause. George Gissing (1857-1903), In the Year of Jubilee. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), On Manifold Nature; coins the term "New Woman". George Grossmith and Weedon Grossmith, Diary of a Nobody. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The People of the Mist. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Pan; another masterpiece? Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Life's Little Ironies (short stories). Jose Maria de Heredia (1842-1905), Historia de laa Nonne Alferez. Anthony Hope (1863-1933), The Dolly Dialogues; The Prisoner of Zenda; illustrations by Charles Dana Gibson; the King of Ruritania? Frank Harris (1856-1931), Elder Conklin (short stories). Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), Peter's Wife; The Hoyden. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), The Jungle Book (short stories) (2 vols.); Mowgli, Sabu, Shere Khan the Tiger, Rikki-Tikki-Tavi the Mongoose; written in Brattleboro, Vt., home of Kipling's wife Caroline, whom he married in 1892; by now he's getting so popular that people keep his personal checks uncashed as souvenirs? Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Yellow Fairy Book. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), Maelcho. William John Locke (1863-1930), At the Gate of Samaria (first novel). George du Maurier (1834-96), Trilby; bestseller (200K in the U.S.) about 1850s bohemian Paris, illustrated by the author; coins the term "Svengali" for the evil Jewish musical genius who turns half-Irish working girl Trilby O'Ferrall into a diva through hypnosis; the London stage production features narrow-brimmed "crumpled" soft felt hats with indented crowns, which become known as trilby hats (trilbys). Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), La Maison de la Vielle. George Moore (1852-1933), Esther Waters; makes his lit. rep. William Morris (1834-96), The Wood Beyond the World. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Martin Hewitt: Investigator. Teuvo Pakkala (1862-1925), Elsa. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Trail of the Sword. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Amori Senza Amore (short stories). Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943), Night Watch (Nattevagt); The Old Adam (Den Gamle Adam); men's fear of women's sexuality. Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Kloster Lugau; his masterpiece? Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Love Stories. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Enthralled. William Sharp (1855-1905), Vistas; Pharais: A Romance of the Isles (first novel); pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Intended (first novel). Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), Tales of the Punjab (short stories). Stendhal (1783-1842), Lucien Leuwen (posth.). Mark Twain (1835-1910), Pudd'nhead Wilson; mystery novel about a black slave giving birth to her white massuh's baby and switching him at birth with the master's baby by his white wife, causing the white baby to be raised as black and the mulatto baby to be raised as white; one of the first crime novels to use fingerprints to solve the crime. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), A Cluster of Nuts, Being Sketches Among My Own People. Mrs. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Marcella. Stanley B. Weyman, Under the Red Robe. Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), Horace Chase. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), The King of Schnorrers. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Trilogy of the Three Cities (1894-8). Births: Indian Bose-Einstein Statistics mathematical physicist Satyendra Nath (Satyendranath) Bose (d. 1974) on Jan. 1 in Calcutta, West Bengal; self-taught. Polish-Am. conductor Artur Rodzinski (d. 1959) on Jan. 1 in Spalato, Dalmatia (Split, Croatia); emigrates to the U.S. in 1925. Am. "The Bishop's Wife", "Portrait of Jennie" novelist-poet-playwright (Jewish) Robert Gruntal Nathan (d. 1985) on Jan. 2 in New York City; cousin of Emma Lazarus and Benjamin Cardozo; nephew of Maud Nathan and Annie Nathan Meyer; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Greed", "Wedding March", "Elvira Nugie Nugent in The Gale Storm Show" actress ZaSu (Zazu) Pitts (d. 1963) (pr. "ZAY-sue", "ZAH-zoo") on Jan. 3 in Parsons, Kan.; ZaSu = Eliza + Susan; grows up in Santa Cruz, Calif. Am. journalist (Washington Post ed. in 1933-40) Felix Muskett Morley (d. 1982) on Jan. 6 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Haverford College, Oxford U., and the Brookings Inst. Polish Franciscan friar-martyr (St.) Maximilian (Raymund) Kolbe (d. 1941) on Jan. 8 in Zdunska Wola. English "The Primrose Path" actor-writer-dir.-producer Reginald Denham (d. 1983) on Jan. 10 in London. Am. Pathfinder internat. physician (birth control and eugenics advocate) Clarence James Gamble (d. 1966) on Jan. 10; grandson of James Gamble (1803-94), founder of Proctor & Gamble; educated at Princeton U., and Harvard U. Am. "Here Comes Mr. Jordan" film dir. Alexander Hall (d. 1968) on Jan. 11 in Boston, Mass. French 5'11-1/2" light heavyweight boxer ("the Orchid Man") Georges Carpentier (d. 1975) on Jan. 12 in Lievin (near Lens), Palas-de-Calais. Am. jazz music publisher (Jewish) Irving Mills (AKA Joe Primrose) (d. 1985) on Jan. 16 in New York City; discoverer of Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway et al. Am. "Little Orphan Annie" cartoonist (Freemason) Harold Lincoln Gray (d. 1968) on Jan. 20 in Kankakee, Ill. Am. "The Incredible Flutist" neoclassical composer Walter Hamor Piston Jr. (d. 1976) on Jan. 20 in Rockland, Maine; grandson of Italian immigrant Antonio Pistone; educated at Harvard U., and Ecole Normale in Paris, where he studies under organist Nadia Boulanger; teacher of Leonard Bernstein. English "The Flashing Stream" playwright-novelist-poet Charles Langbridge Morgan (d. 1958) on Jan. 22 in Bromley, Kent. Canadian 5'10" hockey player Alfred "Alf" "Dutch" Skinner (d. 1961) on Jan. 26 in Toronto, Ont. Bulgarian tsar (1918-43) Boris III (Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver) (d. 1943) on Jan. 30 in Sofia; eldest son of Ferdinand I (1861-1948) and Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma; father of Simeon II (1937-). Am. "I'll Hold You in My Dreams", "Wabash Blues", "You're in the Army Now" bandleader-songwriter Isham Edgar Jones (d. 1956) on Jan. 31 in Coalton, Ohio. Am. movie dir. ("great Am. poet of the cinema") ("poet of the underdog") John "Jack" "Pappy" "Coach" Ford (John Martin Feeney) (Sean Aloysius O'Feeney or O'Fearna) (d. 1973) on Feb. 1 in Cape Elizabeth, Maine; 13th of 13 children; brother Francis is an actor-dir.; father Sean O'Fearna (O'Feeney) emigrated from Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland; mother Barbara Curran emigrated from the Aran Islands; family moves to Portland, Ore., where he attends h.s., then he goes back and graduates from the U. of Maine; wears a patch over his left eye; Pres. Nixon promotes him to adm.; his movies always slip in bits of his Irish heritage, such as U.S. cavalry men singing "The Bold Fenian Men". Am. Ping-Pong Flight aviator Henry Tyndall "Dick" Merrill (d. 1982) on Feb. 1 in Iuka, Miss.; descendant of Daniel Boone. Am. jazz stride pianist (black) ("Father of Stride Piano") James Price "Jimmy" Johnson (d. 1955) on Feb. 1 in New Brunswick, N.J. British lexicographer Eric Honeywood Partridge (d. 1979) (AKA Corrie Denison) on Feb. 6 in Gisborne, New Zealand; grows up in Australia; educated at the U. of Queensland and Balliol College, Oxford U. Canadian air marshal (1938-44) William Avery "Billy" Bishop (d. 1956) on Feb. 8 in Owen Sound, Ont.; 72 Vs in WWI (3rd highest among Allies). Am. "The Champ" movie dir.-producer King Vidor (d. 1982) on Feb. 8 in Galveston, Tex. Russian physicist (Jewish) Yakov (Jacov) Ilyich Frenkel (d. 1952) on Feb. 10 in Rostov-on-Don. British Conservative PM (1957-63) Maurice Harold "Supermac" Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, 1st Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (d. 1986) on Feb. 10 in Chelsea, London; expelled from Eton for buggery?; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; created earl and viscount in 1984. Am. actor-comedian-violinist (Jewish) Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky) (d. 1974) on Feb. 14 in Waukegan, Ill.; plays a Hollywood star with impeccable timing, himself. Am. "first Jane in Tarzan movies" actress Enid Markey (d. 1981) on Feb. 22 in Dillon, Calif. Indian guru Meher Baba ("compassionate father") (Merwan Sheriar Irani) (d. 1969) on Feb. 25 in Pune. Am. "The Front Page", "Stagecoach", "Gunga Din", "His Girl Friday" screenwriter-novelist-dir.-producer (Jewish) ("the Shakespeare of Hollywood") (first to receive an original screenplay Oscar) Ben Hecht (d. 1964) on Feb. 28 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; grows up in Racine, Wisc. East German PM (1949-64) Otto Grotewohl (d. 1964) on Mar. 11 in Braunschweig. Am. diplomat-lobbyist (United Fruit Co.) Spruille Braden (d. 1978) on Mar. 13 in Elkhorn, Mont. Am. explorer-filmmaker Osa Helen Johnson (nee Leighty) (d. 1953) on Mar. 14 in Chanute, Kan.; wife of Martin Elmer Johnson (1884-1937). Am. "In Abraham's Bosom" playwright Paul Eliot Green on Mar. 17 in Lillington, N.C.; educated at UNC and Cornell U. Am. "voice of Humbert the Huntsman in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" actor Stuart Buchanan (d. 1974) on Mar. 18. U.S. labor secy. (1953) Martin Patrick Durkin (d. 1955) on Mar. 18 in Chicago, Ill. Am. baseball player (2B) William Adolph "Bill Wamby" Wambsganss (d. 1985) on Mar. 19 in Cleveland, Ohio; first unassisted triple WS play (1920). Am. "Dolph Pillsbury in All the King's Men" curmudgeonly old man actor William Henry "Will" Wright (d. 1962) on Mar. 26 in San Francisco, Calif. French WWI #1 Allied flying ace (75 Vs vs. 80 for Manfred von Richthofen) Rene Paul Fonck (d. 1953) on Mar. 27 in Saulcy-sur-Meurthe. Am. "Flying Leathernecks", "The Invisible Man" "Original Mister Roberts" actor Wiliam Harrigan (d. 1966) on Mar. 27 in New York City; son of Edward Harrigan (); grandson of David Braham; brother-in-law of Loshua Logan. Soviet aircraft designer Sergei (Sergey) Vladimirovich Ilyushin (d. 1977) on Mar. 30 (Mar. 18 Old Style) in Dilialevo. Am. "Heaven Can Wait", "The Jazz Singer" playwright-screenwriter Samson Raphaelson (d. 1983) on Mar. 30 in New York City. Am. inventor Anatol M. Joseph (Josephewitz) (d. 1980) on Mar. 31 in Siberia, Russia. English feminist pacifist writer Dora Black, Lady Russell (d. 1986) on Apr. 3; 2nd wife (1920-37) of Bertrand Russell (1872-1970); educated at Girton College, Cambridge U.; mother of John Russell, 4th earl Russell (1921-87); created countess in 1931. Am. Bell Aircraft Corp. founder Lawrence Dale "Larry" Bell (d. 1956) on Apr. 5 in Mentone, Ind; grows up in Santa Monica, Calif. Soviet Communist Party First Secy. (1953-64) and PM (1958-64) Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (d. 1971) on Apr. 5 in Kalinovka (near Kursk), Ukraine. Am. oldest living person (Jan. 2, 2009-Sept. 11, 2009) (black) Gertrude Baines (d. 2009) on Apr. 6 in Shellman, Ga. English "Chalet School" children's writer Elinor M. Brent-Dyer (Gladys Eleanor May Dyer) (d. 1969) on Apr. 6; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1930. Portuguese pres. #12 (1951-8) air force marshal Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (d. 1964) on Apr. 12 in Lisbon. Am. statistician (inventor of the confidence interval) (Roman Catholic-turned-agnostic) Jerzy Neyman (Splawa-Neyman) (d. 1981) on Apr. 16 in Bendery, Bessarabia, Russia; educated at Kharkov U., and U. of Warsaw; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "The Pearl of Death" acromegalic horror actor Rondo K. Hatton (d. 1946) on Apr. 22 in Hagerstown, Md. Am. "Seventh Heaven", "Farewell to Arms" film dir. Frank Borzage (d. 1962) on Apr. 23 in Roncone, Austria-Hungary (Italy); emigrates to the U.S. in the early 1980s; husband (1916-41) of Lorena B. Rogers; winner of the first Oscar for directing (1927). English "Capt. Smollett in Treasure Island", "Pontius Pilate in Salome" actor Basil Sydney (d. 1968) on Apr. 23 in St. Osyth, Essex. German Nazi leader (deputy Fuhrer) Rudolf Walter (Walther) Richard Hess (d. 1987) on Apr. 26 in Alexandria, Egypt; of Greek descent; moves to Germany in 1908, and serves in the same WWI regiment with Adolf Hitler. Am. composer-conductor-lexicographer-musicologist Nicolas (Nikolai Leonidovich) Slonimsky (d. 1995) on Apr. 27 in St. Petersburg, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Romanian rear adm. Horia Macellariu (d. 1989) on Apr. 28 in Craiova. Austrian mathematician-physicist (Jewish) Marietta Blau (d. 1970) on Apr. 29 in Vienna; educated at the U. of Vienna; moves to Mexico in 1938, and the U.S. in 1944, then back to Austria in 1960; another dame snubbed for a Nobel Prize in favor of a man (Cecil Powell in 1950)? English "Journey's End" journalist Charles Vernon Oldfield Bartlett (d. 1983) on Apr. 30 in Westbury, Wiltshire. Am. Dem. diplomat Herschel Vespasian Johnson (d. 1966) on May 3 in Atlanta, Ga.; grows up in N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C., and Harvard U. English aviator Sir Alan John Cobham (d. 1973) on May 6; knighted in 1926. Czech Dvorak Simplified Keyboard inventor August Dvorak (d. 1975) on May 5; distant cousin of Czech composer Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Am. cardinal (1967-) Francis John Joseph Brennan (d. 1968) on May 7 in Shenandoah, Penn. Am. country musician (blind) George Riley Puckett (d. 1946) (Gid Tanner and the Skillet Lickers) on May 7 in Dallas, Ga. Am. "The Intelligent Investor" economist (Jewish) ("Father of Value Investing") Benjamin Graham (Grossbaum) (d. 1976) on May 8 in London, England; emigrates to the U.S. at age 1; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Lost Horizon", "It's a Wonderful Life", "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "High Noon" film score composer-conductor (Jewish) Dimitri Zinovievich Tiomkin (d. 1979) on May 10 in Kremenchuk, Poltava, Ukraine; emigrates to Germany in 1924, and the U.S. in 1925; husband of Albertina Rasch (1895-1967); collaborator of Ned Washington (1901-76). U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1967-73) Ellsworth Bunker (d. 1984) on May 11. Am. choreographer ("High Priestess of Modern Dance") Martha Graham (d. 1991) on May 11 in Allegheny, Penn.; first teacher is Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968). English "The Sun is My Undoing" novelist-playwright Marguerite Steen (d. 1975) on May 12 in Liverpool; lover of Sir William Nicholson (1872-1949). German Marxist philosopher (lapsed Jew) Friedrich Pollock (d. 1970) on May 22 in Freiburg im Breisgau; friend of Max Horkheimer (1895-1973). French "Voyage au Bout de la Nuit" anti-Semitic novelist-physician Louis-Ferdinand Celine (Céline) (Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches) (d. 1961) on May 27 in Courbevoie, Paris. Am. "Sam Spade", "Maltese Falcon" mystery writer (Communist) Dashiell Hammett (d. 1961) on May 27 in St. Mary's County, Md.; known for his white hair; hooks up with Lillian Hellman (1905-84) in 1930. Austrian-Am. "The Blue Angel", "The Scarlet Empress", "Last Command" film dir. (Jewish) Josef (Jonas) (von) Sternberg (d. 1969) on May 29 in Vienna; grows up in New York City. Canadian actress-comedian ("Funniest Woman in the World") Beatrice Gladys "Bea" Lillie (Lady Peel) on May 29 in Toronto. Am. "Town Hall Tonight" comedian Fred Allen (John Florence Sullivan) (d. 1956) on May 31 in Cambridge, Mass. Am. geophysicist John Clarence Karcher (d. 1978) on June 4 in Dale, Ind.; educated at the U. of Okla. Hungarian film producer-dir. (Roman Catholic) Gabriel Pascal (d. 1954) on June 4 in Arad; disciple of Meher Baba; known for filming the plays of George Bernard Shaw. Polish ambassador to Germany (1934-9) Jozef (Józef) Lipski (d. 1958) on June 5. English writer (bi) Violet Trefusis (nee Keppel) (d. 1971) on June 6; daughter of Alice Keppel (1868-1947), mistress of Edward VII; lover of Vita Sackville-West (1896-1962). Am. P-35 aircraft designer Alexander Nikolaievich Procofiev de Seversky (d. 1974) on June 7 in Tiflis (Tbilisi), Georgia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918. Am. "Happy Critic" poet-writer-critic Mark Albert Van Doren (d. 1972) on June 13 in Hope, Ill.; brother of writer Carl Van Doren (1885-1950); father of Charles Van Doren (1926-); educated at the U. of Ill., and Columbia U. Am. "The Postman Always Rings Twice", "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" dir. Tay Garnett (d. 1977) on June 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. psychiatrist (Jewish) Leo Kanner (d. 1981) (pr. like Conner) on June 13 in Klekotow (Klekotiv), Brody, Galicia (Ukraine); educated at the U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924. Am. composer-arranger Robert Russell Bennett (d. 1981) on June 15 in Kansas City, Mo. Czech writer-journalist Josef Kopta (d. 1962) on June 16 in Libochovice. Soviet field marshal (1944-) Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (d. 1949) on June 16 in Yaroslavl. Am. "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male/Female" sexologist-zoologist (gay?) Alfred Charles Kinsey (d. 1956) on June 23 in Hoboken, N.J.; educated at Bowdoin College, and Harvard U.; has childhood rickets, and grows up to be an expert on the Gall wasp before tiring of entomology - so he naturally is interested in small private parts? English king (Jan. 20-Dec. 11, 1936) Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor) (d. 1972) on June 23 in White Lodge, Richmond Park; eldest son of George V and Mary; brother of Albert Windsor, duke of York (George VI) (1895-1952); educated at the Royal Naval College; invents the Windsor knot for a necktie; popularizes gaudy Fair Isle (Shetland Islands) knit pullovers in the 1920s. Am. baseball hall-of-fame exec (New York Yankees) George Martin Weiss (d. 1972) on June 23 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at Yale U. German rocket science pioneer Hermann Julius Oberth (d. 1989) on June 25 in Hermannstadt, Transylvania (Sibiu, Romania). Am. legislator (black) Crystal Bird Fauset (nee Crystal Dreda Bird) (d. 1965) on June 27 in Princess Anne, Md.; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Daisy Buchanan in The Great Gatsby" silent film actress Lois Wilson (d. 1988) on June 28 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; grows up in Ala.; educated at the U. of West Ala.; first Miss Alabama. Am. ambassador (to Britain) Lewis Williams Douglas (d. 1974) on July 2 in Bisbee, Ariz.; educated at Amherst College and MIT. Am. photographer (Jewish) Andre Kertesz (André Kertész) (Kertész Andor) (d 1985) on July 2 in Budapest; emigrates to the U.S. in 1936; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1944. Am. "After You've Gone" lyricist (black) John Turner Layton Jr. (d. 1978) on July 2 in Washington, D.C.; collaborator of Henry Creamer (1879-1930). Russian superfluidity physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (d. 1984) on July 8 in Kronstadt; educated at Cambridge U. German Catholic Trade Union leader and July 20th plotter Bernhard Letterhaus (d. 1944) on July 10 in Barmen, Wuppertal. Am. "Diga Diga Doo", "On the Sunny Side of the Street", "I Can't Give You Anything But Love", "I'm in the Mood for Love", "A Lovely Way to Spend an Evening" songwriter James Francis "Jimmy" McHugh (d. 1969) on July 10 in Boston, Mass.; collaborator of Dorothy Fields (1905-74). Am. "Cocoanuts", "The Sheik", "Stagecoach", "Gabriel Over the White House" film producer (Jewish) Walter Wanger (Feuchtwanger) (d. 1968) (pr. to rhyme with ranger) on July 11 in San Francisco, Calif. Soviet writer-playwright Isaak Emmanuilovich Babel (d. 1940) on July 12 (June 30 Old Style) in Moldavanka (near Odessa). Am. dir.-producer (Jewish) David Fleischer (d. 1979) on July 14; brother of Max Fleischer (1883-1972). British Adm. of the Fleet Philip Louis Vian (d. 1968) on July 15 in London. Belgian Roman Catholic priest and Big Bang physicist-astronomer Georges Henri Joseph Edouard Lemaitre (d. 1966) on July 17 in Charleroi. Am. Quick's Test physician Armand James Quick (d. 1978) on July 18 in Theresa, Wisc. Am. microwave oven inventor (1945) Percy Lebaron Spencer (d. 1970) on July 19 in Howland, Maine; no formal education. Am. Cord Automobile founder Errett Lobban "E.L." Cord (d. 1974) on July 20 in Warrensburg, Mo. U.S. Supreme Court justice #83 (1943-9) Wiley Blount Rutledge (d. 1949) on July 20 in Cloverport, Ky.; educated at Maryville College, U. of Wisc., and U. of Colo. English "Curly Top", "Stowaway", "Heidi", "The Little Princess", "Perfect Butler Jeeves" 6'4" actor Arthur Vreary Treacher (d. 1975) on July 23 in Brighton, East Sussex. Am. "Grandpa McCoy in The Real McCoys" actor Walter Andrew Brennan (d. 1974) on July 25 in Lynne, Mass.; Irish immigrant parents. Bosnian Black Hand assassin Gavrilo Princip (d. 1918) on July 25; starts WWI. English "Brave New World" novelist-essayist-poet Aldous (OG "old") Leonard Huxley (d. 1963) on July 26 in Godalming, Surrey; grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95); brother of Julian Huxley (1887-1975); educated at Eton College and Oxford U.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1937. Am. right-wing journalist (Roman Catholic) Francis James Westbrook Pegler (d. 1969) on Aug. 2 in Minneapolis, Minn.; first columnist to win a Pulitzer Prize for reporting (1941); starts out anti-New Deal, anti-fascist and anti-union, then gradually becomes anti-civil rights, anti-Semitic, and pro-fascist, becoming known as "the stuck whistle of journalism". Canadian Lance-Cpl. Frederick Fisher (d. 1915) on Aug. 3 in St. Catharines, Ont. Indian pres. #4 (1969-74) V.V. (Varahagiri Venkata) Giri (d. 1980) on Aug. 10 in Berhampur (modern-day Odisha). Irish independence leader Daniel "Dan" Breen (d. 1969) on Aug. 11 in Grange, County Tipperary. U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1958-61) Donald Read Heath (d. 1981) on Aug. 12 in Topeka, Kan. German SS Col. Paul Blobel (d. 1951) on Aug. 13 in Potsdam. Soviet Gen. Maksim (Maxim) Alexeyevich Purkayev (d. 1953) on Aug. 14 (Aug. 26 Old Style) in Nalitovo. Am. singer and cabaret owner (in France) (black) (redhead) (bi) (Roman Catholic) ("the Doyenne of Cafe Society") Ada Beatrice Queen Victoria Louise Virginia "Bricktop" Smith (d. 1984) on Aug. 14 in Alderson, W. Va.; lover of Josephine Baker. Am. Cajun Dem. La. state sen. (1940-4, 1948-52, 1964-8, 1968-71) Dudley Joseph "Coozan Dud" LeBlanc (d. 1971) on Aug. 16 near Youngsville, Lafayette Parish; known for promoting Hadacol. Am. labor leader (AFL pres. in 1952-5 and AFL-CIO pres. in 1955-79) George Meany (d. 1980) on Aug. 16 in Bronx, N.Y; starts out as a plumber. English automobile manufacturer (Rootes Group founder) William Edward "Billy" Rootes, 1st Baron Rootes (d. 1964) on Aug. 17 in Goudhurst, Kent; knighted in 1942; created baron in 1959. Am. Objectivist poet (Jewish) Charles (Ezekiel) Reznikoff (d. 1976) on Aug. 31 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Mo., and NYU. Russian celeb Gala Dali (Elena Ivanovna Diakonova) (d. 1982) on Sept. 7 (Aug. 26 Old style) in Kazan; wife (1934-) of Salvador Dali (1904-89). English "Fourteenth of October" novelist (lesbian) Bryher (Annie Winnifred Ellerman) (d. 1983) on Sept. 2 in Margate; daughter of John Ellerman (1862-1933); lover (1918-) of Hilda Doolittle (H.D.) (1886-1961). French "Radetzky March", "Job" novelist (Jewish) (alcoholic) Joseph Roth (d. 1939) on Sept. 2 in Brody (near Lviv), Austria-Hungary; emigrates to France in 1933. British Gen. Sir Douglas David Gracey (d. 1964) on Sept. 3 in Muzaffarnagar, North-Western Provinces, British India. Am. "An American in Paris", "Gigi" MGM big budget musical producer (1939-) (Jewish) Arthur Freed (Grossman) (d. 1973) on Sept. 9 in Charleston, S.C. German Communist politician Friedrich "Fritz" Ebert Jr. (d. 1979) on Sept. 12 in Bremen; son of Fritz Ebert Sr. (1871-1925). Am. "The Great Dictator", "His Gal Friday" ("Sneezy in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs") comic actor Billy Gilbert (William Gilbert Barron) (d. 1971) on Sept. 12 in Louisville, Ky. Am. auto racer James Anthony "Jimmy" Murphy (d. 1924) on Sept. 12 in San Francisco, Calif.; Irish immigrant parents. Dutch Penning Trap, Penning Gauge physicist Frans Michel Penning (d. 1953) on Sept. 12 in Gorinchem. English "An Inspector Calls" novelist John Boynton Priestley (d. 1984) on Sept. 13 in Bradford. Polish "The Common Man" poet (Jewish) Julian Tuwim (Heb. "good") (d. 1953) on Sept. 13 in Lodz; emigrates to the U.S. in 1942. Am. "Dressed to Kill" screenwriter-lyricist Paul Girard Smith (d. 1968) on Sept. 14 in Omaha, Neb. French "La Grande Illusion" film dir.-writer Jean Renoir (d. 1979) on Sept. 15 in Paris; 2nd son of Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919); brother of Pierre Renoir Jr. (1885-1952); father of Alain Renoir; uncle of Claude Renoir (1914-93). English "Mary Rose in Peter Pan", "Mrs. Sanderson in The Haunting" actress Fay Compton (Virginia Lilian Emeline Compton Mackenzie) (d. 1978) on Sept. 18 in West Kensington, London; daughter of actors Edward Compton and Virginia Bateman; sister of Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972) and Viola Compton; granddaughter of Henry Compton (1805-77); wife (1912-13) of Harry Pelissier (1874-1913); mother of Anthony Pelissier (1912-88). U.S. Dem. labor secy. (1945-8) Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach (d. 1948) on Sept. 20 in Superior, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wash. - labor's swollen back? Am. Chicago Blackhawks coach (1937-9) William Joseph "Bill" Stewart (d. 1964) on Sept. 20 in Fitchburg, Mass.; grows up in Boston, Mass.; grandfather of Paul Stewart (1954-). Am. "Wabash Moon" composer-pianist Dave Dreyer (d. 1967) on Sept. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y. German soprano Elisabeth Rethberg (Sattler) (d. 1976) on Sept. 22 in Schwarzenburg. Am. FDR advisor (Jewish) Benjamin Victor Cohen (d. 1983) on Sept. 23, Muncie, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago, and Harvard U. Am. golfer Tommy Armour (d. 1968) on Sept. 24 in Edinburgh, Scotland; suffers mustard gas in WWI and is given an audience with George V; become U.S. citizen in 1920. Am. "Black Bourgeoisie" sociologist (black) Edward Franklin Frazier (d. 1962) on Sept. 24 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Howard U. Irish nationalist Robert "Bob" Briscoe (d. 1969) on Sept. 25 in ?; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents named Cherrick. Am. "Sahara", "Algiers" playwright (Jewish) (Communist) John Howard Lawson (d. 1977) on Sept. 25 in New York City; educated at Williams College. Am. "Are You Lonesome Tonight?", "Ukelele Lady" singer (alcoholic) ("the Original Radio Girl") ("First Lady of Radio") Vaughn De Leath (Leonore Vonderlieth) (d. 1943) on Sept. 26 in Mount Pulaski, Ill.; grows up in Los Angeles, Calif German Gen. Walther (Walter) Warlimont (d. 1976) on Oct. 3 in Osnabruck. Am. entomologist Raymond Corbett Shannon (d. 1945) on Oct. 4 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Cornell U., and George Washington U. Argentine 6'2-1/2" boxer Luis Angel Firpo (d. 1960) on Oct. 11 in Junin, Buenos Aires. Am. "The Enormous Room", "Tulips and Chimneys" majuscule-challenged poet-playwright-writer-painter Edward Estlin Cummings (e e cummings) (d. 1962) on Oct. 14 in Cambridge, Mass.; Unitarian parents; educated at Cambridge Latin School, and Harvard U.; likes hyphens and parentheses, and detests commas, periods, and capital letters. Am. UNICEF exec dir. (1947-65) Maurice Pate (d. 1965) on Oct. 24 in Pender, Neb.; grows up in Denver, Colo.; educated at Princeton U. Israeli PM #2 (1954-5) (Jewish) Moshe Sharett (Shertok) (d. 1965) on Oct. 15 in Kherson, Ukraine; emigrates to Palestine in 1906. Polish abstract artist (Jewish) Henryk Berlewi (d. 1967) on Oct. 20 in Warsaw. French "Revolution of the World Manifesto" writer-ed. Eugene Jolas (AKA Theo Rutra) (d. 1952) on Oct. 26 in Union City, N.J.; grows up in Lorraine, France. Am. Knight-Ridder newspaper publisher John Shively Knight (d. 1981) on Oct. 26 in Bluefield, W. Va.; educated at Cornell U. German Nazi slavemaster Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (d. 1946) on Oct. 27 in Hassfurt, Bavaria - I just wanted to hire somebody to section out my basement? Am. diplomat Robert Daniel Murphy (d. 1978) on Oct. 28. German Lutheran pastor Karl Friedrich Stellbrink (d. 1943) on Oct. 28 in Munster. French biologist-philosopher Jean Rostand (d. 1977) on Oct. 30 in Paris; son of Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) and Rosemonde Gerard (1871-1953); brother of Maurice Rostand (1891-1968). German Gen. Karl Wilhelm von Schlieben (d. 1964) on Oct. 30 in Eisenach. German aerodynamics pioneer Alexander Martin Lippisch (d. 1976) on Nov. 2 in Munich; educated at the U. of Heidelberg; emigrates to the U.S. in 1945. German Luftwaffe Gen. Ulrich Otto Eduard Kessler (d. 1983) on Nov. 3 in Danzig-Langfuhr. Am. Saturday Evening Post (1916-63) painter-illustrator Norman Percevel Rockwell (d. 1978) on Nov. 3 in New York City; father of Thomas Rhodes Rockwell (1933-). German Nazi gen. ("Savior of Paris") Dietrich von Choltitz (d. 1966) on Nov. 9 in Graeflich Wiese, Silesia, Prussia. Am. aeronautical engineer Edward Pearson Warner (d. 1958) on Nov. 9 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Harvard U. and MIT. Am. silent film actress Beverly Bayne (Pearl Beverly Bain) (d. 1982) on Nov. 11 in Minneapolis, Minn. German SS Gen. Arthur Nebe (d. 1945) on Nov. 13 in Berlin. Austrian politician-philosopher Count Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi (d. 1972) on Nov. 16 in Tokyo; son of Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi (1859-1906) and Mitsuko Aoyama (1874-1941); co-founder of the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Hapsburg (1912-). English "Inheritance" novelist Phyllis Eleanor Bentley on Nov. 19 in Halifax, West Yorkshire; educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College; known for tales of West Riding, Yorkshire life and its textile industry. French artist-writer-theater designer Jean Hugo (d. 1984) on Nov. 19 in Paris. Am. silent film actress ("the Orchid Lady of the Screen") Corinne Mae Griffith (d. 1979) on Nov. 21 in Texarkana, Tex. German Gen. Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Hossbach (d. 1980) on Nov. 22 in Unna. Am. "What Price Glory" playwright-novelist-critic-journalist Laurence Tucker Stallings (d. 1968) on Nov. 25 in Macon, Ga.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. mathematician and computer scientist (Cybernetics founder) Norbert Wiener (d. 1964) on Nov. 26 in Columbia, Mo.; father is prof. of Slavonic languages at Harvard U.; graduates from Tufts College at age 14, receives a Ph.D. in math from Harvard U. at age 18, and becomes a math instructor at MIT at age 19 until retirement in 1960. Am. "The Egg Tree" children's writer-illustrator (Quaker) Katherine Milhous (d. 1977) on Nov. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn.; of Penn. Dutch descent. Am. New York Times drama critic Brooks Atkinson (d. 1984) on Nov. 28 in Melrose, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. journalist Henry Stuart Hazlitt (d. 1993) on Nov. 28 in Philadelphia, Penn.; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; collateral descendent of William Hazlitt (1778-1830); eductaed at CCNY. Am. "Travelling Standing Still" poet Genevieve Taggard (d. 1948) on Nov. 28 in Waitsburg, Wash.; grows up in Hawaii. Am. "The Philadelphia Story", "Tarnished Lady", "Love Affair" screenwriter Donald Ogden Stewart (d. 1980) on Nov. 30 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at Yale U.; blacklisted by Hollywood in 1950 before emigrating to England. Am. "Imitation of Life" actor (first big screen Perry Mason) Warren William (Krech) (d. 1948) on Dec. 2 in Aitkin, Minn. South African gov.-gen. (last) (1959-61) and pres. #1 (1961-7) Charles Robberts "Blackie" Swart (d. 1982) on Dec. 5 in in Winburg. Am. Wrigley Co. pres. (1932-61) and Chicago Cubs owner Philip Knight Wrigley (d. 1977) on Dec. 5 in Chicago, Ill.; son of William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932); father of William Wrigley III (1933-99). Am. Modernist painter Stuart Davis (d. 1964) on Dec. 7 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Popeye" cartoonist Elzie Crisler "E.C." Segar (d. 1938) on Dec. 8 in Chester, Ill. Am. humorist writer-cartoonist James Grover Thurber (d. 1961) on Dec. 8 in Columbus, Ohio. Japanese potter Shoji Hamada (d. 1978) on Dec. 9 in Mizonokuchi, Kanagawa Prefecture. Australian historian Capt. John Linton Treloar (d. 1952) on Dec. 10 in Melbourne. Am. iron lung inventor (1928) Philip Drinker (d. 1972) on Dec. 12 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Princeton U. Am. "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?" songwriter (Jewish) Jay Gorney (Abraham Jacob Gornetzsky) (d. 1990) on Dec. 12 in Bialystock, Russia (Poland); emigrates to the U.S. in 1906; father of Karen Lynn Gorney (1945-); collaborator of Yip Harburg. Am. "Calamity Jane" film dir.-actor-producer David Butler (d. 1979) on Dec. 17 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. Boston Pops conductor #18 (1930-79) (Jewish) Arthur Fiedler (d. 1979) on Dec. 17 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston Latin School. Am. sportswriter and MLB commissioner #3 (1951-65) Ford Christopher Frick (d. 1978) on Dec. 19 in Wawaka, Ind. Australian Liberal PM #12 (1939-41, 1949-66) Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (d. 1978) (pr. like mings) on Dec. 20 in Jeparit; of Scottish descent; knighted in 1963. Am. "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm" actress Edith Taliaferro (d. 1958) on Dec. 21; sister of Mabel Taliaferro (1887-1979); cousin of Bessie Barriscale (1884-1965); debuts at age 2 in "Shore Acres" with James A. Herne. Am. N.J. atty.-gen. (1934-44) (prosecutor of Bruno Hauptmann) David Theodore Wilentz (d. 1988) on Dec. 21 in Dvinsk, Russia (Daugavpils, Latvia); emigrates to the U.S. in 1895; father of Robert Nathan Wilentz (1927-96); father-in-law of Leon Hess (1914-99). U.S. Adm. Theodore Edson "Ted" Chandler (d. 1945) on Dec. 26 in Annapolis, Md. Am. "Cane" Harlem Renaissance novelist-poet (black) (Quaker) Nathan Eugene Toomer (d. 1967) on Dec. 26 in Washington, D.C.; African-Am., Native Am., Dutch, French, Welsh, German, and Jewish descent; attends both all-white and all-black schools. Am. Romer's Gap paleontologist Alfred Sherwood Romer (d. 1973) on Dec. 28 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at Amherst College, and Columbia U. Am. silent film actress Doris Pawn (d. 1988) on Dec. 29 in Norfolk, Neb.; wife (1917-20) of Rex Ingram (1892-1950). Israeli mayor of Jerusalem (1955-9) (founder of "The Jerusalem Post") (Jewish) Gershon Agron (d. 1959) in Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. at age 5. Am. historian Edward Mead Earle (d. 1954). Norwegian "Beyond Sing the Woods" novelist Trygve Gulbranssen (d. 1962). Argentine painter Aquiles Badi (d. 1976) in Buenos Aires. Canadian newspaper-TV mogul (Freemason) Roy Herbert Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet (d. 1976) in Toronto, Ont., Canada; father of Kenneth Roy Thomson, 2nd baron Thomson of Fleet (1923-2006). Am. church historian (Congregationalist) Roland Herbert Bainton (d. 1984) in Ilkeston, Derbyshire; emigrates to the U.S. in 1902; educated at Yale U. Deaths: English explorer-naturalist Brian Houghton Hodgson (b. 1800) on May 23 in London. Mexican. last gov. of Alta Calif. (1832, 1845-6) Pio Pico (b. 1801) on Sept. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. English statesman Henry George Grey, 3rd earl Grey (b. 1802) on Oct. 9. Hungarian patriot Louis Kossuth (b. 1802) on Mar. 20 in Turin, Italy. Am. law reformer David Dudley Field Jr. (b. 1805). French Suez Canal builder Count Ferdinand de Lesseps (b. 1805) on Dec. 7 in Guilly, Vatan, Indre. Am. inventor Norbert Rillieux (b. 1806) on Oct. 8 in Paris. Am. businessman-politician Samuel Northrup Castle (b. 1808) on July 14 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. clergyman Tryon Edwards (b. 1809): "One of the great lessons the fall of the leaf teaches, is this: Do your work well and then be ready to depart when God shall call"; "If you would know anything thoroughly, teach it to others"; "Between two evils, choose neither; between to goods, choose both"; "Science has sometimes been said to be opposed to faith, and inconsistent with it. But all science, in fact, rests on a basis of faith, for it assumes the permanence and uniformity of natural laws - a thing which can never be demonstrated." Am. physician-writer-poet Oliver Wendell Holmes (b. 1809) on Oct. 7: "A man may fulfill the object of his existence by asking a question he cannot answer, and attempting a task he cannot achieve." Am. sculptor Chauncey Ives (b. 1810) in Rome, Italy. Am. Caltech founder Amos Gager Throop (b. 1811). Am. Colo. gov. #1 (1861-2) William Gilpin (b. 1813) on Jan. 20 in Denver, Colo.; dies after being hit by a horse and buggy. Scottish-born Am. philosopher James McCoth (b. 1811) on Nov. 16 in Princeton, N.J. Belgian mathematician Eugene Charles Catalan (b. 1814). Belgian saxophone inventor Adolphe Sax (b. 1814) on Nov. 3 in Paris. Am. Civil War Confederate gen. Jubal A. Early (b. 1816) on Mar. 2 in Lynchburg, Va.; dies after falling down stairs. English archeologist Sir Charles Thomas Newton (b. 1816) on Nov. 28 in Margate. English marine painter Sir Oswald Walters Brierly (b. 1817) on Dec. 14. English Nineveh archeologist Sir Austin Henry Layard (b. 1817) on July 5. Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac (b. 1817) on Apr. 15. German economist Wilhelm Roscher (b. 1817) on June 4 in Leipzig. Am. women's lib crusader and fashion leader Amelia Jenks Bloomer (b. 1818) on Dec. 30 in Council Bluffs, Iowa. English historian James Anthony Froude (b. 1818) on Oct. 20 in Kingsbridge, Devon: "History is a voice forever sounding across the centuries the laws of right and wrong. Opinions alter, manners change, creeds rise and fall, but the moral law is written on the tablets of eternity"; "The practical effect of a belief is the real test of its soundness." French poet Charles Marie Leconte de Lisle (b. 1818) on July 17 in Voisins. Am. anti-Mormon activist Thomas Coke Sharp (b. 1818) on Apr. 9 in Carthage, Ill. French writer-scientist Louis Figuier (b. 1819) on Nov. 8. Canadian gov.-gen. #1 (1867-8) Charles Monck, 4th viscount Monck (b. 1819) on Nov. 29 in Enniskerry, Ireland. English Liberal politician-judge John Duke Coleridge, 1st baron Coleridge (b. 1820) on June 14. Scottish politician Dudley Marjoribanks, 1st baron Tweedmouth (b. 1820) on Mar. 4. Am. Gen. William Franklin Raynolds (b. 1820) on Oct. 18 in Detroit, Mich. Russian mathematician Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (b. 1821) on Dec. 8 in St. Petersburg. German physicist-physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz (b. 1821). French writer-photographer Maxime Du Camp (b. 1822) on Feb. 9. Italian archeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi (b. 1822) on Sept. 20 in Castel Gandolfo. German botanist Nathanael Pringsheim (b. 1823) on Oct. 6 in Berlin. Am. painter George Inness (b. 1825) on Aug. 3 in Bridge of Allan, Scotland; dies after viewing a sunset, throwing up his hands and crying "My God, oh how beautiful", then falling to the ground. German-born Am. brewer-banker Valentin Blatz (b. 1826) on May 26 in St. Paul, Minn.; dies on route from Calif. to Milwaukee, Wisc. English-born Australian opera singer Marie Carandini (b. 1826) on Apr. 13 in London. Am. railroad entrepreneur William Austin Hamilton Loveland (b. 1826) in Lakewood, Colo.; namesake of Loveland, Colo. and Loveland Pass in Colo. German chemist Moritz Traube (b. 1826) on June 28 in Berlin. Am. linguist William Dwight Whitney (b. 1827) on June 7 in New Haven, Conn. Austrian surgeon Albert Christian Theodor Billroth (b. 1829). Russian composer-conductor-pianist Anton Rubinstein (b. 1829) on Nov. 20 in Peterhof (heart disease). German pianist-conductor Hans von Bulow (b. 1830) in Cairo, Egypt: "Bach is the Old Testament and Beethoven the New Testament of music"; "A tenor is not a man but a disease"; "Always conduct with the score in your head, not your head in the score." English poet Christina Georgina Rossetti (b. 1830) on Dec. 29. German Doberman Pinscher breeder Karl Friedrich Louis Doberman (b. 1834) on June 9 in Apolda, Saxe-Weimer-Eisenach. French economist Jules Regnault (b. 1834) on Dec. 9 in Paris. French pres. #4 (1887-94) Sadi Carnot (b. 1837) on June 25 in Lyon (assassinated); stabbed by Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio (1873-94). Bengali writer Bankim Chandra Chatterji (b. 1838). French Bourbon head Louis-Philippe Albert of Orleans, comte de Paris (b. 1838) on Sept. 8 in Stowe House, Surrey, England. German physicist August Kundt (b. 1839) on May 21 in Israelsdorf, Lubeck. English essayist-critic Walter Pater (b. 1839). Am. novelist Constance Fenimore Woolson (b. 1840) on Jan. 24 in Venice, Italy (suicide from a window). French composer Emmanuel Chabrier (b. 1841) on Sept. 13. German music historian Philipp Spitta (b. 1841) on Apr. 13. Am. actor-playwright-mgr. Steele MacKaye (b. 1842) on Feb. 25; patents 100+ theatrical inventions, incl. the Nebulator to create clouds onstage. English explorer Verney Lovett Cameron (b. 1844) on Mar. 24. Russian tsar (1881-94) Alexander III (b. 1845) on Nov. 1 in Livadiya, Crimea (nephritis). English painter Charles Burton Barber (b. 1845). Canadian-born English biologist George John Romanes (b. 1848) on May 23 - the good die young? British "Treasure Island" novelist Robert Louis Stevenson (b. 1850) on Dec. 3 in Samoa (stroke); dies after writing his last novel Catriona (David Balfour), a sequel to Kidnapped; leaves unfinished St. Ives, completed in 1898 by Arthur Quiller-Couch; he is buried at his own request on the summit of Vaea Peak: "I have a grand memory for forgetting"; "Under the wide and starry sky/ Dig the grave and let me lie:/ Glad did I live and gladly die,/ And I laid me down with a will./... Here he lies where he long'd to be;/ Home is the sailor, home from the sea,/ And the hunter home from the hill." German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (b. 1857) on Jan. 1 in Bonn; the discoverer of radio waves didn't make it to 40? Mexican "Over the Waves" composer Juventino Rosas (b. 1868) on July 9 in Cuba (spinal myelitis). Spanish-born French anarchist Emile Henry (b. 1872) on May 21 in Paris (guillotined); last words: "Courage, camarades! Vive l'anarchie!"

1895 - The TV Play Tough Blow Wilde Trial Year? The year of X-rays and radio is also the year in which the U.S. begins to pass the U.K. in its own time machine, aided by a Vanderbilt-Churchill particle interchange event?

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) Joseph Chamberlain of Britain (1836-1914) Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois of France (1851-1925) Félix Faure of France (1841-99) Miura Goro of Japan (1847-1926) Japanese Gen. Odera Yasuzumi (1846-95) Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858-96) Robert William Wilcox (1855-1903) Consuelo Vanderbilt (1877-1964) Charles Richard John 'Sunny' Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871-1934) Gladys Marie Deacon (1881-1977) Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) Booth Tarkington (1869-1946) Rufus Wheeler Peckham of the U.S. (1838-1909) Pop Warner (1871-1954) Jose Marti (1853-95) French Gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (1849-1916) Sir Sri Rama Varma XV of Cochin (1852-1932) Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933), Dalai Lama #13 John Hays Hammond Sr. (1855-1936) Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1841-1919) Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) Morris William Travers (1872-1961) Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (1845-1923) George Westinghouse (1846-1914) Sidney Webb (1859-1947) and Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Graham Wallas (1858-1932) Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914) Robert Newman (188-1926) Sir Henry Joseph Wood (1869-1944) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925) Gustave le Bon (1841-1931) Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Carl Kellner (1851-1905) Sir Frederic Kenyon (1863-1952) Georg Friedrich Knapp (1842-1926) Percival Lowell (1855-1916) Georges Sorel (1847-1922) Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (1870-1945) John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (1844-1900) Henry Gaylord Wilshire (1861-1927) Grant Allen (1848-99) Walter Chauncey Camp (1859-1925) Willa Cather (1873-1947) W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939) Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940) Lord John Acton of Britain (1834-1902) Inessa Armand (1874-1920) John Bigelow of the U.S. (1817-1911) Cesáreo Fernández Duro (1830-1908) Isabelle McClung (1879-) Pauline Johnson (1861-1913) Edith Lewis (1882-1972) Hastings Rashdall (1858-1924) Horace Rawlins (1874-1940) Howard Hyde Russell (1855-1946) Sergei Taneyev (1856-1915) Otokar Brezina (1868-1929) Frederick Delius (1862-1934) Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) Francis Schlatter (1856-96) George B. Selden (1846-1922) Axel Cappelen (1858-1919) William Collins Whitney of the U.S. (1841-1904) Montague Stanley Napier (1870-1931) Napier Ad Napier Logo Konsantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) Edwin Votey (1856-1931) Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99) Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Sir Henry Irving (1838-1905) Brander Matthews (1852-1929) Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946) Buddy Bolden (1877-1931) Banjo Paterson (1864-1941) Victor Herbert (1859-1924) Harry Bache Smith (1860-1936) 'An Artists Model', 1895 'Gentleman Joe, The Hansom Cabbie', 1895 'The Importance of Being Earnest', 1895 Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (1870-1945) John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (1844-1900) Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) Alphonse Mucha Example Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) Jugendstil, Riga William George Morgan (1870-1942) Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945) The Ashscan School of Artists, Everett Shinn (1876-1953), Robert Henri (1865-1929), John French Sloan (1871-1951), 1896 Still Life with a Curtain' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1895 'Death Tears a Child from Its Mother' by Kathe Kollwitz, 1895-8 'Bronco Buster' by Frederic Remington (1861-1909), 1895 'The Race Track' by Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), 1895-1910 'Brit and I' by Carl Larsson, 1895 'Flaming June' by Frederic Leighton (1830-96), 1895 Carlos Schwabe (1866-1926) 'Death and the Grave Digger', by Carlos Schwabe (1866-1926), 1895 William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (1860-1935) Herman Casler (1867-1939) The Mutoscope, 1894 Biograph Projector, 1896 August Lumičre (1862-1954) and Louis Lumičre (1864-1948) Antoine Lumičre (1840-1911) Crescent Park Carousel

1895 The industrial output of the U.S. catches up to the U.K. - the devil has a brand-new toy? The Great Rapprochement begins between the U.S. and Britain (ends 1915), where the U.S. turns from Anglophobia to Anglophilia, insuring its alignment with Britain during WWI and WWII? On Jan. 1 after years as a starving artist living above a Cremerie in Paris, where he gained a lot of friends incl. Gaugin, and founded the Bal des Quat'z Arts artists' ball, Czech artist Alphonse (Alfons Maria) Mucha (1860-1939), presents a poster for Sara Bernhardt's play "Gismonda", becoming an instant star with his sensuous style, launching the French Art Nouveau Movement (ends 1914), centered in a Paris art gallery called guess what run by Siegfried Bing (1838-1905), who opens it in Dec., writes La Culture Artistique en Amerique for the French govt., and goes on to exhibit works by Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), Henry Clemens van de Velde (1863-1957), Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) et al.; the style becomes a total art style, spreading to architecture, furniture, jewelry, textiles, ceramics, etc., becoming known as Jugendstil in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, and the Baltic states, Modernism in Spain and Russia, and Secessionsstil in Austria and Czech. - remodel your home at better than sale prices? On Jan. 5 French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus is publicly stripped of his rank and sent to Devil's Island; he is ultimately vindicated after spending four years there, his conviction annuled in 1899 by a "cour de cassation", retried, reconvicted, and pardoned by a decree of Pres. Emile Loubet in 1899; his 2nd conviction is reversed in 1906, and he is given the Legion of Honor and promoted to major. On Jan. 6-9 the 1895 Wilcox Rebellion (Counter-Rev.) in Hawaii, led by sees royalists lose three battles in Oahu, causing queen (since Jan. 29, 1891) Liliuokalani to reluctantly abdicate on Jan. 24 and swear allegiance to the Repub. of Hawaii, after which she is arrested for complicity, then tried and found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in prison, resulting in house arrest in her palace for two years, during which time the pissed-off Polynesian queen composes the song Aloha Oe ("Farewell to Thee") (alt. trans.: oy ve?), which helps win her release?; "Farewell to you, farewell to you/ The charming one who dwells in the shaded bowers/ One fond embrace,/ 'Ere I depart/ Until we meet again"; the Kingdom of Hawaii is kaput, going into exile and plotting a comeback in vain. On Jan. 16 Jean Casimir-Perier resigns, and on Jan. 17 after moderate repub. Henri Brisson gets a majority of votes on the first ballot, causing the left to unite and put forward a candidate who offends no one, Felix (Félix) Francois Faure (1841-99) becomes pres. #7 of France (until Feb. 16, 1899), going on to amnesty the anarchists, incl. Emile Pouget. My way or the highway? On Jan. 18 the Japanese fleet bombards Teng-chow-foo across from Port Arthur; on Jan. 20-Feb. 12 the 23-day Battle of Weihaiwei (8 mi. E of Port Arthur) sees the remnants of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet bottled up in Weihaiwei Naval Base on the Shangdong Peninsula opposite Lushunkou sieged and taken despite a severe snowstorm (Jan. 31-Feb. 1) by the Japanese Second Army Corps under Iwao Oyama (1842-1916), who becomes a hero and is created marquis (1895) and field marshal (1898); on Feb. 9 Japanese gen. Odera Yasuzumi is KIA, becoming the highest ranking casualty in the First Sino-Japanese War; Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (b. 1836) is offered asylum in Japan, but commits suicide instead on Feb. 12, and the remnants of his Beiyang Fleet surrender to the Japanese in total humiliation, after which Ding is treated like manure and not given a proper Chinese burial by the govt. until 1912; the Chinese finally begin peace negotiations. On Jan. 24 Queen Liliuokalani formally abdicates, and works to stop annexation by the U.S. in vain. On Jan. 30 German steamship Elbe collides with British steamship Grathie in the North Sea, killing 335. On Feb. 8 South African Breweries (originally Castle Breweries) is founded in Johannesburg, South Africa to service miners and prospectors; in 1950 it moves its HQ to London, England; in 2002 it acquires Miller Brewing Co., becoming SAB Miller. Feasting with panthers, or, Cruel to be kind means that I love ya, or, He calls me his lucky penny but I am the lucky one, or, Explain it to my lawyer, prick? A new meaning to Gay Nineties? This love story is no fairy tale? Assume the position? The original Gay Eye for the Straight Guy? A seminal event in modern history? On Feb. 14 Oscar Wilde's final play The Importance of Being Earnest debuts at St. James's Theater in London, giving him three hit plays playing simultaneously; too bad, he is accused (via a card left at Oscar's club) of "posing as a Somdomite" (sic) by the marquess of er, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensbury (1844-1900) over his relationship with his son Lord Alfred Bruce "Bosie" Douglas (1870-1945), the love of Wilde's gay life, whom he met as an undergrad at Oxford (after Bosie had read Wilde's wild gay book "The Picture of Dorian Gray", and was obsessed with its gay imagery); at Bosie's insistence, Wilde makes the big mistake of suing for libel, which ends up exposing his long list of young male lovers in court, causing him to drop his suit, and the crown to have him arrested while drinking hock and seltzer and talking to Bosie at the Cadogan Hotel in London by a Scotland Yard Inspector for the crime of sodomy (carrying up to 10 inches, er, years); his prosecutor is future Liberal PM (1908-16) Herbert Henry Asquith (1852-1928), whose gay son Anthony Asquith (1902-68) dir. the Earnest play in 1952; after a great speech from the courtroom dock, where he uses Bosie's line "the love that dare not speak its name", he ends up convicted on May 25 and sentenced to two years for offenses to minors; the British govt. doesn't declassify its memos on the trial until 1999. On Mar. 4 the Battle of Yingkou (Newchwang) (Niuzhhuang) outside the treaty port town of Yingkou in Manchuria is a V for the Japanese, who then bombard the town of Tianzhuangtai on the other side of the Liao River, razing it, effectively ending Chinese resistance in the war; meanwhile by the end of Mar. Japanese troops seize the Pescadores (Penghu) Islands near Taiwan. On Mar. 10 Spanish cruiser Reina Regente sinks in the Atlantic off Gibraltar, killing 400. On Mar. 11 Britain and Russia sign an agreement describing their respective spheres of influence in Afghanistan, and defining its N borders; meanwhile slavery is abolished in Afghanistan. On Mar. 28 in answer to rumors of French designs on the Sudan, British under-secy. of foreign affairs Sir Edward Grey issues the Grey Declaration in Parliament that the whole Nile Valley is a British sphere of influence, warning that Britain will regard any French advance in Sudan as an "unfriendly act". On Apr. 1 the three presidency armies of India are united into a single Indian Army. On Apr. 8 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 5-4 in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. that the 1894 U.S. Income Tax Act is unconstitutional because it imposes direct taxes without apportioning them between states, necessitating a constitutional amendment. On Apr. 17 after Japanese and Korean govt. forces brutally quash the Tonghaks and execute the leaders, the Treaty of Shimonoseki in the new town (1889) of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture (known for its big fugu catch) ends the First Sino-Japanese War (begun 1894), giving Japan the upper hand in Korea, with Taiwan (Formosa) (until 1945), the Pescadores, and Port Arthur given to Japan (later returned in exchange for an indemnity); Japan takes over Taipei, Taiwan and turns it into a modern city; China's defeat opens the way for imperialist penetration and unrest, while Japanese control is challenged by popular uprisings. On May 23 the Okla. Land Run of 1895 (last), based on land swindled from the Kickapoo Indians in the U.S. Kickapoo Allotment Act of Mar. 30, 1893 gives away 88K acres out of 206,662 to homesteaders, with more land set aside for schools, of which 90K acres are later opened for homesteading; after this land grabs are handled by auction or lottery. In May the British South Africa Co. territory S of Zambezi becomes Rhodesia, with capital at Salisbury; British Bechuanaland is attached to the Cape of Good Hope, with N Bechuanaland remaining a British protectorate (until 1966). On June 11 after being appointed Regius Prof. Of Modern History at Cambridge U., John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton (1834-1902) delivers his inaugural lecture The Study of History, with the soundbyte: "History is the arbiter of controversy, the monarch of all she surveys," which makes a big splash, calling for historians to reject historicism, which limits moral judgments to the specific context in which events being discussed took place, and become moral arbiters, with the soundbyte: "Never to debase the moral currency or lower the standard of rectitude, but try others by the final maxim that governs your own lives, and to suffer no man and no cause to escape the undying penalty which history has the power to inflict on wrong", adding: "I hope... this will aid you to see that the action of Christ who is risen on mankind whom he redeemed fails not, but increases; that the wisdom of divine rule appears not in the perfection but in the improvement of the world; and that achieved liberty is the one ethical result that rests on the converging and combined conditions of advancing civilization. Then you will understand what a famous philosopher said, that History is the true demonstration of Religion." On June 22 after failing to get any of his legislation passed, dilettante British PM (since Mar. 5, 1894) Lord Rosebery resigns, and on June 25 former PM (1885-6, 1886-92) Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) becomes British PM (until July 11, 1902), becoming the last British PM to sit in the House of Lords, and first British PM of the 20th cent., forming his 3rd cabinet, uniting his Conservatives with the Liberal Unionists, riding on a wave of British Unionist and imperial sentiment; wealthy self-made manufacturer Liberal Unionist Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) (former mayor of Birmingham) (father of Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain) surprises everybody by turning down the treasury secy. position in favor of secy. of the colonial office (until 1903), and pushes British imperialism into its most active phase ever, with Salisbury trying to reinstate close relations with Germany and the Triple Alliance to balance the French and Russians. In June Italy's attempts to turn Ethiopia into a protectorate backfire when Ethiopia gains support from Russia after a visit by Menelik II, mobilizing 1896 armed troops at Addis Ababa, defeating the Italians at the Battle of Amba Alagi on Dec. 7, then sieging Italian-held Fort Meqele (Makale) (Mak'ele) (Mekelle) until it surrenders in Jan. On Aug. 5 Kaiser Wilhelm II and Lord Salisbury have a talk at the Cowes Yacht Races on the Isle of Wright, kibbutzed by Friedrich von Holstein, which ends up making the two distrust each other implicitly. On Aug. 10 (Sat.) the first nightly Promenade Concert is held at Queen's Hall in London, arranged by impresario Robert Newman (1858-1926) and conducted by Sir Henry Joseph Wood (1869-1944), running for 10 weeks and becoming a big hit, with the soundbyte by Newman: "I am gong to run nightly concerts and train the public by easy stages, popular at first, gradually raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music"; they later become known as the BBC Proms, giving British composers an audience. On Aug. 24 the London Saturday Review pub. an article containing the soundbyte (p. 34): "We English have always waged war against our competitors in trade and transport. Our main competitor today is no longer France, but Germany... In a war against Germany we would be in a position to win a lot and to lose nothing"; on Feb. 1, 1896 another article contains the soundbyte: "If tomorrow every German were eliminated, there would be no British business nor any English enterprise which would not profit. If every Englishman were to vanish tomorrow, the Germans would reap gains... One of the two must quit the field. Get ready for the fight with Germany, for Germaniam esse delendam"; on Sept. 11, 1897 another article contains the soundbyte: "Everywhere where the English flag has followed the Bible, and trade the flag... the German trader fights the English... States have waged wars for years over a town or rights to a throne; and should we not wage war when an annual trade of five billion is at stake?" In Aug. after a well-publicized 40-day fast in Albuquerque, N.M. German immigrant Catholic faith-healer shoemaker Jesus clone Francis Schlatter (1856-96) stirs up dusty Denver, Colo. for 2 mo., drawing crowds of 5K a day (200K total) to his perch at 32nd & Quivas St., only to abscond overnight on Nov. 13-14, leaving 50K unopened letters; he dies of exposure in Mexico's Sierra Madres within a few mo. - physician, heal thyself? In Aug. distinguished white Am. ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99) (expert on the Am. Indians) gives a pres. address to the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, stinking himself up with scientific white racism, claiming that all races are not equally endowed, and indeed some have "an inborn tendency, constitutionally recreant to the codes of civilization, and therefore technically criminal", and that the inborn limitations of "races, nations, tribes... supply the only sure foundation for legislation, not a priori notions of the rights of man" (Charles A. Lofgren). On Sept. 18 African-Am. educator Booker Taliaferro (pr. like toliver) Washington (1856-1915) gives his Atlanta Compromise Address at the Cotton States Exposition, calling for black acquiesence in disfranchisement and social segregation if whites will encourage black progress in economic and educational opportunity - we'll be good niggers, boss? On Sept. 23 Paris match factory worker Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) founds the Syndicalist Confederation Generale du Travail (CGT), which becomes the oldest and largest French trade union, known for Communist domination. Is that any way to treat the people who brought you Noah's Ark? On Sept. 30 Armenians stage a demonstration in Constantinople, and on Oct. 1 the first Armenian Massacres begin in Constantinople, causing the Euro powers to put pressure on Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who on Oct. 17 promises reforms of the minor (to him) Armenian situation; meanwhile the massacres continue all over Anatolia. In early Oct. the first Festival of Mountain and Plain is held in the Civic Center of Denver, Colo. (until 1899, then 1901 and 1912), featuring a rodeo and parade. On Oct. 8 Korean Queen Min (b. 1851) is murdered by a plot led by Japanese legation minister viscount Miura Goro (1847-1926); in Dec. Japan forces the Kabo Reforms (a clone of the Meiji reforms) on the Korean govt., elevating the Korean king to emperor, declaring total independence from China with a constitutional monarchy and a Japanese-style cabinet, a modern police force and army, independent judiciary, and 3-level education system; the yangban class system is abolished along with Chinese-style civil service exams. On Oct. 23 Kerala Varma V dies, and Sir Sri Rama Varma XV (Ozinja Vallia Thampuran) (1852-1932) becomes king of Cochin in India (until Dec. 7, 1914), the first of six rulers to be portrayed on postage stamps - this year, chance has to be more than a slogan? In Oct. the London School of Economics and Political Science of London U. near the Aldwych in England is founded by Fabians Sidney Webb (1859-1947), Martha Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) (coiner of the term "collective bargaining"), George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), and Graham Wallas (1858-1932) to focus on research into poverty, inequality, and related Socialist issues, becoming a big influence on the British Labour Party; in 1900 it joins London U. as the faculty of economics, becoming associated with Harold Laski and R.H. Tawney. In Oct. the Fourth British-Ashanti (Anglo-Ashanti) War begins (ends Feb. 1896) when King Prempeh I refuses to accept British control, and the Brits use the excuse of alleged violations of the 1874 Fomena Treaty to send a force under Col. Sir Francis Scott; meanwhile oh-boy-my-big-chance Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858-96) obtains Queen Vicky's permission to join them "to prove my devotion to my adopted country", and sets sail on Dec. 7. On Nov. 1 justice minister Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois (1851-1925) becomes PM #64 of France (until Apr. 29, 1896), forming a radical cabinet, causing the senate to block his funding until his govt. collapses amid an indifferent public. Paris Hilton had nothing over this here-i-am-rock-you-like-a-hurricane babe? On Nov. 6 gorgeous Am. railroad heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt (1877-1965), daughter of railroad millionaire Commodore Vanderbilt's son William K. Vanderbilt and his once-impoverished wife Alva, who everybody knows is worth $20M, is auctioned off to new hubby Charles Richard John "Sunny" Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871-1934) (nicknamed Sunny because he used to be the earl of Sunderland), who uses her dough to refurbish Blenheim Palace; the duke's grandmother tells her: "Your first duty is to have a child, and it must be a son, because it would be intolerable to have that little upstart Winston become a duke"; she does so, along with a "spare" (her words), freeing the duke's 1st cousin Winston Churchill to pursue a political career; too bad, the marriage sucks and they divorce in 1921, he marrying big blue-green eyed Gladys Marie Deacon (1881-1977), who remains childless and dines with a pistol at her dinner table until he converts to Roman Catholicism and begins making plans to enter a monastery in Italy. On Nov. 26 the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc. (HSPA) is founded, going on to open offices in Manila and Vigan, Ilocos Sur to recruit Filipino workers, offering them free passage to Hawaii and set up a lobbying effort in Washington, D.C. to lobby for labor and immigration polices and legislation beneficial to the Hawaiian sugar industry; the 1934 U.S. Tydings-McDuffie Act limits Filipino immigration to 50 workers/year. On Dec. 3 Albany, N.Y.-born Rufus Wheeler Peckham (1838-1909) of N.Y. (friend of John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt, and brother of Boss Tweed prosecutor Wheeler Hazard Peckham, who was nominated by Pres. Cleveland last year, but blocked by his rival Sen. David Hill of N.Y. in favor of Edward Douglass White) is nominated by Pres. Cleveland as U.S. Supreme Court justice #56 to fill the vacancy created by short-timer Howell E. Jackson (1893-5), and is confirmed on Dec. 9, taking office in Jan. (until Oct. 24, 1909), leaving the court at nine members. On Dec. 7-8 30K Abyssinians under Menelik II defeat 2.4K Italians under Gen. Pietro Toselli and Gen. Oreste Baratieri at the First Battle of Mt. Amba Alagi, the Italians fighting to their last bullet and losing 1.8K, retrieting to their half-finished Fort Mek'ele, where the Ethiopians siege them next Jan. 6-21. On Dec. 17 the Anti-Saloon League of Am. (founded as a state-level org. in Oberlin, Ohio in 1893) is formed in Washington, D.C. by atty.-turned-minister Howard Hyde Russell (1855-1946), author of "A Lawyer's Examination of the Bible" (1893), quickly growing to the most powerful Prohibition lobby in the U.S., passing the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Prohibition Party and going on to get the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed in 1920; too bad, it gets in bed with the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), stinking it up. On Dec. 28 the Lumiere Brothers demonstrate their Cinematograph in the Salon Indien of the Grand Cafe below the Jockey Club in Paris. On Dec. 29-Jan. 2 Cape Colony PM #10 (Feb. 22, 1904-Feb. 2, 1908) Leander Starr Jameson leads the diastrous Jameson Raid on Johannesburg, Transvaal, hoping to spark an uprising of Uitlander miners and draw British intervention in the South African Repub.; the leaders of the Johannesburg Reform Committee are arrested and sentenced to death, but released after paying large fines; after his release, San Francisco, Calif.-born mining engineer John Hays Hammond Sr. (1855-1936), chief engineer of Cecil Rhodes mines heads back to the U.S. and ends up as a friend of U.S. pres. William Taft, who appoints him a special U.S. ambassador. In Dec. Pres. Grover Cleveland has lights made for the White House Christmas Tree by the General Electric Co., causing Christmas lighting to catch on for the rich. In Dec. ex-Edison employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (1860-1935) et al. found the Am. Mutoscope and Biograph Co. in N.J. to manufacture the hand-cranked 68mm Rolodex 850 flip-card Mutoscope, patented on Nov. 21, 1894 by Herman Casler (1867-1939), which is used for peep shows; in 1896 Casler invents the 68mm Biograph Projector, getting around Edison's patent by using friction rollers instead of sprockets; the first studio is at 841 Broadway at 13th St. in Manhattan, N.Y., mounted on tracks to catch sunlight; in 1906 they move to 11 East 14th St. near Union Square, becoming the first movie studio relying exclusively on artificial light; in 1899 a letter is printed in the London Times railing against the "vicious demoralising picture shows in the penny-in-the-slot machines. It is hardly possible to exaggerate the corruption of the young that comes from exhibiting under a strong light, nude female figures represented as living and moving, going into and out of baths, sitting as artists' models etc. Similar exhibitions took place at Rhyl in the men's lavatory, but, owing to public denunciation, they have been stopped." Jose Marti (1853-95) returns to Cuba and unites the pop. to fight for its independence from Spain, causing about 10% of the pop. to be killed, incl. himself; next year rev. gen. Calixto Garcia Iniguez (Ińiguez) (1839-98) escapes from Spain and arrives with a well-supplied expedition, becoming CIC of the rev. Cuban army - another type A personality? Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933), 13th Dalai Lama reaches majority and assumes political power in Tibet, ending the tradition of puppet dalai lamas by going on to create a small nat. army and attempt to establish diplomatic links with other nations to deal with power grabs by China, Britain, and Russia. A liberal rev. in Ecuador ushers in nearly a half cent. of Radical Liberal rule, marked by disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church and the entrance of pesky Protestant evangelists. The Bannock War (Uprising) of 1895 starts when Wyo. passes a law prohibiting the killing of elk for their teeth, followed by the arrests of several Bannock elk hunters, leading to wild rumors of a revolt that brings the U.S. Army, who find a peaceful situation and leave. Pres. Cleveland puts the U.S. consular service on a limited merit basis, requiring previous U.S. State Dept. service or the passing of a qualifying exam (ntil 1906). Ohio Gov. William McKinley is stuck for $100K in cosigned notes after a friend's business fails, and his partner Marcus Alonzo Hanna comes to the rescue, retiring from business to devote himself to making McKinley the Repub. pres. nominee. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), who joined an underground rev. group in 1893 is arrested and sent to prison for 14 mo., then exiled to E Siberia for 3 years (until 1899), where he marries serious brain babe Nadezhda Konstantinovna "Nadya" Krupskaya (1869-1939) in 1898; too bad, she contracts Graves' disease and develops fish eyes and goes fat and sterile, causing him to cheat on her and fool around with French-born Communist Inessa Armand (Ines Stephane) (1874-1920) et al., contracting syphilis. Revere Beach, Mass. 4 mi. N of Boston, Mass. is founded, becoming the first public beach in the U.S. Neb. becomes the "Tree Planter State". Dutch girl Margaretha Geertruida Zelle (b. 1876) meets an army officer through a personal ad in the newspaper, marries him, moves with him to Java, then flees from him a few years later to the stages of Paris, where she assumes the name Mata Hari. "Ben-Hur" author Lew Wallace visits his hometown of Indianapolis, Ind., and is met by 26-y.-o. aspiring novelist Booth Tarkington (1869-1946), whom he discourages from continuing, saying, "The publication of my first novel was almost enough to ruin my law practice." The Sixth Internat. Geographical Conference in London decides on the Antarctic as the most pressing geographical need for exploration. Dutch immigrant Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) founds the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance in New York City. The Am. Historical Assoc. (AHA) establishes the annualJustin Winsor Prize, named after co-founder Justin Winsor (1831-96) for new authors of history in the Western Hemisphere; the first award goes to Herman V. Ames for "The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States"; it goes biennial in 1908, and is discontinued in 1938; since Winsor was pres. of the Am. Library Assoc. (ALA), it establishes the Justin Winsor Prize in 1978 for the best library history essay; the first award goes to Dennis Thomison for "The Private Wars of Chicago's Big Bill Thompson". The first public film show in Paris is held at the Hotel Scribe. In the middle of this decade the new U.S. art form of Jazz appears in the streets of New Orleans, La., mixing African, Creole, French and other ingredients, and ending up being exported all over the world; at this time the city is not segregated. The Cheers bar in Boston, Mass. is established :) The first Biennale eshibition of modern art is held in Venice, Italy; it is later held from May-Oct. in even-numbered years. Lincoln Memorial U. in Cumberland Gap, Tenn. is founded by Oliver Otis Howard, founder of Howard U. The first prof. society of accountants is founded in the Netherlands, followed by Sweden in 1899 and Belgium in 1903. The term "feminism" is imported to the U.K. and U.S. from France. Austrian mystic Carl Kellner (1851-1905) founds the Order Templi Orientis (OTO), which is later (1922-47) headed by Aleister Crowley (1875-47). The Fogg Art Museum of Harvard U. in Cambridge, Mass. opens, developing the largest and most extensive art collection of any U.S. univ. Herbert Hoover becomes a geology major in the first graduating class of Stanford U.; 285-ft. Hoover Tower is built on the Romanesque Stanford campus in 1941. Wilshire Blvd. in Los Angeles, Calif. is founded by Cincinnati, Ohio-born outspoken Socialist Henry Gaylord Wilshire (1861-1927) on a 35-acre barley field, who donates a strip of land 120' x 1,200' to the city on the conditions that it will be named for him and have no railroad lines or commercial-industrial trucking; it goes on to extend 15.83 mi. E from Ocean Ave. in Santa Monica to Grand Ave. in downtown Los Angeles, running parallel with Santa Monica Blvd. to the Miracle Mile district between Fairfax and Highland Aves. (known for its museums), connecting five major business districts incl. Beverly Hills, hosting most of the city's post-1956 skyscrapers incl. One Wilshire (1966) at Grand, which becomes "the main hub of the Internet for the entire Pacific Rim", and Aon Center at 707 Wilshir Blvd.; it becomes the main street of Koreatown; J. Paul Getty builds a mansion there that is seen in the 1950 film "Sunset Boulevard". Top British Shakespearean actor Henry Irving (1838-1905) becomes the first actor to receive a knighthood. 22-y.-o. small town Neb. cross-dressing writer Willa Cather (1873-1947) (AKA William Cather) moves to Pittsburgh, Penn. and meets fashionable 16-y.-o. sweet cheeks Isabelle McClung (1879-) (daughter of a judge), and they fall in love (mental or physical or both, tongues are wagging?), Cather moving into a spare room in her home to write, until she is wooed to New York City in 1906 by McClure's Mag, remaining in love for life even though McClung marries a man in 1915, moving in with new licks Edith Lewis (1882-1972) (a fellow Nebraskan she met in New York City in 1903) in Greenwich Village in 1909-47, and they are later buried together - come to my window? An art dealer discovers Paul Cezanne and stages a solo exhibition of 150 of his canvases in Paris, while Cezanne ignores it and stays in Provence. About this year the realist Ashcan School (term coined by Art Young in 1916), a reaction to the conservative Nat. Academy of Design is founded, going on to flourish in New York City's Greenwich Village through the 1920s, producing paintings celebrating slums, tenements, and business districts, with major artists incl. Robert Henri (Robert Henry Cozad) 1865-1929), George Luks (1867-1933), William Glackens (1870-1938), John French Sloan (1871-1951), and Everett Shinn (1876-1953). Welsh symbolist poet Arthur Symons (1865-1945) begin pub. the lit. mag. The Savoy (until 1896), going for eight issues with contributors incl. W.B. Yeats, G.B. Shaw, and Joseph Conrad. John D. Rockefeller, richest man in Gilded Age U.S. files income taxes for the first time, reporting 1894 income of $1.25M (7K the avg. per capita income); in 2007 hedge fund mgr. James Simons reports $1.7B in income (38K times the avg.), while two other hedge fund mgrs. make over $1B, and the top 25 make $14B combined. Georges Sorel (1847-1922) et al. found the French mag. Devenir Social to promote rev. syndicalism. The Horseless Age monthly mag. begins pub., becoming the first automotive mag. in the U.S.; too bad, its high cost limits it to the wealthy, and it only has a circ. of 800. After trustee John Bigelow (1817-1911) (U.S. ambassador to France during the U.S. Civil War) comes up with the idea, the Tilden Trust creates the New York Public Library by joining the struggling Astor and Lenox libraries, opening their collections to the public; in Feb. 1901 it absorbs the New York Free Circulating Library; Andrew Carnegie donates $2.5M to build 65 branch libraries. Mass.-born W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du Bois (1868-1963) becomes the first African-Am. to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard U. (history). About this year New Orleans, La.-born cornetist Charles Joseph "Buddy" "King" Bolden (1877-1931) begins playing his own New Orleans style of ragtime (AKA jass), pioneering "funk" in music, and inventing the Big Four syncopated bass drum pattern (the 2nd half is called the Hambone), becoming known as "the Father of Jazz"; too bad about 1907 he develops a mental illness and vanishes from the scene. French journalist Marthe Distel founds the Le Cordon Bleu (Fr. "The Blue Ribbon") cooking school in Paris, growing to 20K students by modern times; in Jan. the first classes are held, featuring a newfangled electric stove; co-founder chef Henri-Paul Pellaprat (1869-1954) teaches there for 32 years, pub. the million-selling L'Art Culinaire, along with La Cuisine Familiale et Pratique; in 1945 Madame Elisabeth Brassart (1897-1992) buys Le Cordon Bleu, selling it in 1984 to family friend Andre J. Cointreau. Charles Ranhofer and Charles Delmonico introduce the "alligator pear" (avocado) (imported from South Am.) in Delmonico's Restaurant in New York City. The Lee-Enfield Rifle AKA Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (SMLE), manufactured by the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield, England becomes the std. rifle of the British Army (until 1957). The Kliegl Brothers John H. Kliegl and Anton Tiberius Kliegl emigrate to the U.S. from Germany, founding Universal Electric Stage Lighting Co. next year to manufacture fixtures and controls for theaters (until the 1990s), incl. Klieg Lights (carbon arc limelights), which turn night into day on a stage and cause "Kliegl eye". Schwinn Bicycle Co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by German-born mechanical engineer Ignaz Schwinn (1860-1945), becoming the #1 U.S. bicycle manufacturer of the 20th cent. Austrian luxury lead glass crystal manufacturer Sarovski is founded by Daniel Swarovski (Swartz) (1862-1956) in Wattens, Tyrol; its logo is a swan. English steam engine maker Napier and Son (founded 1808) is inherited by Montague Stanley Napier (1870-1931), who goes into automobile manufacturing, converting a Panhard "Old Number 8" from a tiller to a steering wheel, and improving the oiling, then designing their own engines in 1900; in 1907 they are producing 100 cars a year, rising to 700 by 1912, many for use as London taxis, promoting their use in auto racing and winning many victories until 1908; in 1917 they introduce the 12-cylinder 1,375 hp Napier Lion W (triple-four) aluminum block aircraft engine, most powerful in the world until the 1930s; they get out of the car business in 1924 after building a total of 4,258 to concentrate on engines. South African Breweries (SAB) (originally Castle Breweries) is founded in Johannesburg, South Africa to service miners and prospectors; in May 2002 it acquires Miller Brewing for $5.6B to create SAB Miller, 2nd largest brewing co. on Earth; in 2007 SABMiller and Molson Coors combine to form MillerCoors. Sports: On Jan. 3-Mar. 8, 1895 the 1895 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Montreal Victorias win with a 6-2 record, winning the Stanley Cup after the Montreal Hockey Club defeats Queen's U. 5-1 on Mar. 9. On Feb. 9 the first-ever intercollegiate basketball game sees Minnesota A&M defeat Hamline U. by 9-33, launching College Basketball. On Feb. 9 after meeting James Naismith in 1892, Lockport, N.Y.-born William George Morgan (1870-1942) invents the game of Volleyball in a YMCA in Holyoke, Mass. (10 mi. from Springfield) for those who find basketball too strenuous, calling it Mintonette, played by hitting a basketball over a rope; Alfred Halstead gives it the name volley ball. On Easter Tue. the first Welsh Grand National steeplechase is held at Ely Racecourse in Cardiff; in 1948 it moves to Caerleon, followed by Chepstow in 1949; in 1969 it moves to Feb.; in 1979 it moves to Dec. 27. On Sept. 9 the Am. Bowling Congress (ABC), led by restaurateur ("Father of 10-Pin Bowling") "Father of Bowling" Thomas Curtis (originator of the tournament concept) is founded at a meeting at Beethoven Hall in New York City, superseding the Nat. Bowling Assoc. (NBA), establishing modern standardized rules for pin bowling, incl. 10 balls with max. 300 score (replacing 20 balls with max. 200 score), 12 in. between pins, and max. ball weight set at 16 lbs., helping bowling to become the #1 U.S. participant sport by the mid-20th cent.; in 1916-50 it limits membership to white males; in 1993 "male only" is removed from its constitution; in 2005 it merges with the Women's Internat. Bowling Congress (WIBC), Young Am. Bowling Alliance, and USA Bowling to become the United States Bowling Congress (USBC); super-hard lignum vitae (Lat. "wood of life") (palo santo or holy wood) (pockholz) (guyacan) (guaiacum) (bastard greenheart) (ironwood) wood from the Caribbean is initially used for bowling balls. On Sept. 28 the first Prof. Am.-Rules Football Game is played in Latrobe, Penn.; Spalding's Official Football Guide begins pub., ed. (until 1924) by Walter Chauncey Camp (1859-1925), who was first called "the Father of Am. Football" in 1892 by Caspar Whitney (1862-1929) in Harper's Weekly, going on to turn it into a game of crazy, er, heroes that captures the Am. imagination. On Oct. 4 the first U.S. Open Golf Championship is held in Newport, R.I., won by Horace Rawlins (1874-1940), who becomes the first winner of a golf major outside Britain. On Nov. 28 (Thanksgiving Day) a 54.36 mi. auto race (first in the U.S.) is held in Chicago, Ill., and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) (one of the two Duryea brothers) wins in 7 hours 17 min. at an avg. speed of 7.5 mph using a 4-cycle engine; in 1895 the Duryea Brothers found Duryea Motor Wagon Co. in Springfield, Mass., but it folds in 1898. The Big Ten Conference (B1G) (originally the Western Conference) is founded by seven teams in the NCAA's Division 1 incl. the U. of Chicago, U. of Ill., U. of Mich., U. of Minn., Northwestern U., Purdue U., and the U. of Wisc., expanding to 14 colleges and 28 sports (14 men's, 14 women's), becoming the oldest Div. 1 college athletic conference in the U.S. Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner (1871-1954) becomes head football coach at the U. of Ga. (until 1896), launching a 44-year career at Cornell U. (1897-8, 1904-6), Carlile Indian Industrial School in Penn. (1899-1903, 1907-14) (where he coaches Jim Thorpe), the U. of Pittsburgh (1915-23), Stanford U. (1924-32), and Temple U. (1933-8), achieving 319 major NCAA college football wins and four nat. championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1926). British racquets world champ (1887-1902) Peter Walker Latham (1865-1953) of Britain becomes the world lawn tennis champ (until 1905, then 1907-8). The value of a field goal in basketball is changed from 3 to 2 points; the free throw value is changed from 3 to 1 point; the free throw line in men's basketball is moved from 20 ft. to 15 ft.; backboards made of wood are introduced to eliminate interference from the balcony. Architecture: On June 21 the Kiel Canal through Schleswig-Holstein in Germany (begun 1887) from the mouth of the Elbe River via Rendsburg to Kiel Bay is opened - fulfilling fantasies through cash? On Oct. 31 the Spanish Baroque Jefferson Hotel in Richmond, Va. (begun 1892) opens, designed by Am. Beaux-Arts architects John Merven Carrere (Carrčre) (1858-1911) and Thomas Hastings (1860-1929), becoming one of the top hotels in the U.S., with guests incl. Pres. William McKinley, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, Pres. Calvin Coolidge, Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Pres. Bill Clinton, Pres. George H.W. Bush, Pres. George W. Bush, and Pres. Barack Obama, writers Henry James, Gertude Stein, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, and Margaret Mitchell, aviator Charles Lindbergh, explorer Sir Edmund Hillary, and entertainers Charlie Chaplin, Frank Sinatra, The Rolling Stones, Dolly Parton, and Elvis Presley; a week after the opening an engagement party is held on the roof for Irene Langhorne and Gibson Girl illustrator Charles Dana Gibson; the hotel becomes famous for housing live alligators in marble pools in its Palm Court until 1948, replacing them with bronze statues; in 1901 a fire guts it, and it is reopened in 1907; the 1981 film "My Dinner with Andre" is filmed there. The Crescent Park Carousel, complete with 56 jumping and six stationary horses, four chariots and one camel is built by Charles I.D. Looff in East Providence, R.I., and is designated a nat. historic landmark in 1987. Franklin Field at the U. of Penn. in Philadelphia opens on Apr. 20, hosting the annual Army-Navy Football Game. Cardinal Vaughan lays the foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral. Inventions: On Feb. 13 brothers Auguste Lumiere (Lumičre) (1862-1954) and Louis Lumiere (Lumičre) (1864-1948) of Lyon, France, who with their Haute-Saone, Ormoy-born photographer father Charles-Antoine Lumiere (Lumičre) (1840-1911) (Fr. "lumiere" = light) set up a photographic equipment factory in Lyons, France in the 1880s patent the Cinematograph camera-projector combo, one of the first motion picture cameras, using a perforated film, and the first showing movies to an audience instead of an individual viewer like Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope; on Sept. 28 their first film Leaving the Lumiere Factory in Lyon (Sortie de l'usine Lumiere de Lyon), the almost first true motion picture debuts at L'Eden Cinema in La Ciotat, followed by Paris on Dec. 28. On Nov. 5 George B. Selden (1846-1922) of N.Y. is granted a U.S. patent for the gasoline-powered automobile after filing on May 8, 1879; local bank teller George Eastman is a witness; in 1899 he sells a license to William Collins Whitney (1841-1904) (U.S. secy. of the Navy in 1885-9), owner of the monopolistic Electric Vehicle Co. (1897-1907), and works to collect a 0.75% royalty from all cars sold by the Assoc. of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, later founding Selden Motor Vehicle Co.; after Ford Motor Co. is founded in 1903, they take him on in a mammoth 8-year case that generates 14K case pages, and Selden wins, but Ford wins the appeal on Jan. 10, 1911 because his engines are based on the 1876 German Otto Engine, not the 1872 Brayton Engine of R.I. inventor George Brayton (1830-92). On Dec. 28 after producing and detecting them for the first time on Nov. 8, German physicist Wilhelm Konrad (Conrad) Roentgen (Röntgen) (1845-1923) of Wurzburg U. in Germany pub. Eine Neue Art von Strahlen, announcing the discovery of X-Rays (X for unknown, like in algebra) (AKA Roentgen Rays) the year before while fooling around with a Crookes Tube (CRT) when a photographic plate enclosed in a dark box ca,e out fogged, proving that the box walls are transparent to them; he soon is taking X-ray photos of the hand, launching a new era in medicine - imagine what else? HP Sauce is introduced in Britain, becoming the favorite way for Northerners to differentiate themselves from Southerners. Francois Baranthon of France invents a water bicycle with an inflatable rubber bag to use as a life preserver. G.V. Black standardizes cavity preparation and manufacture of silver fillings. French steam car maker De Dion-Bouton (founded 1883) invents a 1-cylinder internal combustion engine with trembler coil ignition that works best at high rpm, reaching a record 3.5K rpm; after being mounted on a tricycle frame and fitted with new Michelin pneumatic tires, it goes on the market next year as the Petite Voiture Tricar, which is a big hit, causing a 4-wheeler to be marketed in 1898, and the Model D Voiturette in 1900, which puts the engine under seat and makes the passenger face the driver, who sits in the rear; as a topper, in 1902 the Crazy Frog outfit comes up with the Model K, with a front-mounted engine under a crocodile hood, rear entry of passengers, and a decelerator pedal that applies a transmission brake. C. von Linde invents a machine for liquefying air. Italian Baron Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) invents radio telegraphy, with a contraption that can ring a bell a few yards away in his yard in Bologna; next year he travels to London to stir up interest. Listerine is first marketed to dentists as a mouthwash; it's not sold over the counter until 1914. Dr. Shields invents a milking machine - does it suck? The roll-operated Pianola is invented by Edwin Votey (1856-1931) of Detroit, Mich. Using ideas developed by Tesla, George Westinghouse (1846-1914) designs an electricity generating system, and wins a contract to build a power station at Niagara Falls. J.W. Foster and Sons of England produces the first spiked running shoes; they go on to supply them to the 1924 Summer Olympics team incl. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell. Science: On Sept. 4 Norwegian surgeon Axel Hermansen Cappelen (1858-1919) performs the first successful cardiac surgery on a heart stab victim, who dies on Sept. 6 of complications (coronary occlusion). French physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) proves that cathode rays are made of corpuscles with negative electric charge. French polymath mathematician-physicist ("the last Universalist" - Eric Temple Bell) Henri Jules Poincare (Poincaré) (1854-1912) pub. the paper Analysis Situs, defining Poincare Duality, proposing the Poincare Conjecture (solved in 2003), and founding Algebraic Topology, later applying it to celestial mechanics. English Argonauts, er, scientists John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) and Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) discover the first "noble" (inert) gas, chemical element Argon (Ar) (#18), isolated from air; Ramsay proves that helium (discovered in the Sun's atmosphere in 1868) exists on Earth in the uranium ore elevite; later it is found that it exists in all radioactive minerals as a result of radioactive decay, which emits alpha particles (helium nuclei). Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovski (1857-1935) discovers the principle of rocket reaction propulsion - impulse engines, Scotty? Nonfiction: Thomas Bailey Aldrich (1836-1907), An Old Town by the Sea (essays). Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women. Eugen Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), The Positive Theory of Capital and Its Critics. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (La Psychologie des Foules); big hit; becomes the Bible of Fascist leaders Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, and is used by Sigmund Freud's nephew Edward Bernays to create mass media manipulation and propaganda. Gamaliel Bradford (1863-1932), Types of American Character; the "psychography" method of biography, abstracting a characterization out of the events and actions of a subject. Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), John Keats [1795-1821], a Critical Study. Oscar Browning (1837-1923), The Age of the Condottieri: A Short History of Mediaeval Italy from 1409-1530. Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931), The United States of America, 1765-1865; 2nd ed. 1930. Isaac A. Cornelison, The Relation of Religion to Civil Government in the United States of America, a State without a Church, But Not without a Religion. Bishop Mandell Creighton (1843-1901), The Early Renaissance in England. David Miller Dewitt, The Judicial Murder of Mary E. Surratt. Edward Dicey, Bulgaria, the Peasant State. Sir Edward Durning-Lawrence (1837-1914), A Short History of Lighting from the Earliest Times. Cesareo Fernando Duro (1830-1908), History of the Spanish Armada from the Union of Castile and Aragon (9 vols.) (1895-1903); becomes a std. work. Joseph Favre (1849-1903), Dictionnaire Universel de Cuisine et d'Hygične Alimentaire (4 vols.). Edward Augustus Freeman (1823-92), Comparative Politics: Six Lectures Read Before the Royal Institution in January and February, 1872, with The Unity of History, the Rede Lecture Read Before the University of Cambridge, May 29, 1872 (posth.). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Studien uber Hysterie. Isaac K. Funk (ed.), A Standard Dictionary of the English Language; basis of the Funk and Wagnalls "New Standard Dictionary of the English Language". Elbridge Thomas Gerry (1837-1927) and A.F. Currier, Corporal Punishment for Certain Forms of Crime; the founder of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children advocates the electric chair as a substitute for hanging? H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Church and State. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Die Weltratsel (Welträtsel) (The Riddle of the Universe) (1895-99) (English trans. 1901); applies Darwin's Theory of Evolution to philosophy and religion, trying to explain conscousness as arising from the nature of matter and energy. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Out of the East: Reveries and Studies in New Japan. Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938), The Great Frozen Land. Henry James (1843-1916), The Middle Years (autobio.). Sir Frederic Kenyon (1863-1952), Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts; claims that Egyptian papyri and archeological evidence corroborate the Christian Gospels; "The last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed." Georg Friedrich Knapp (1842-1926), The State Theory of Money; coins the term "metallism", founds Chartalism (Lat. "charta" = token or ticket), which claims that "money is a creature of law" (fiat money) rather than a commodity, with taxation establishing it as currency, "that which is accepted at the public pay offices", opposing the metallist theory that the value of currency depends on the quantity of precious metal backing it. John Knox Laughton (1830-1915), Nelson. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), Madame Blavatsky and Her Theosophy; Croquet: Its History, Rules, and Secrets. Percival Lowell (1855-1916), Mars; claims that there are "non-natural features" on Mars incl. canals and oases of that are signs of past intelligent life, turning on the public while pissing-off prof. astronomers; followed by "Mars and Its Canals" (1906), "Mars as the Abode of Life" (1908); in 1909 the 60-in. Mount Wilson Observatory telescope in South Calif. becomes operational, showing the canals to have irregular features showing they are geological in origin. Frederic William Maitland (1850-1906) and Sir Frederick Pollock (1845-1937) The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I; "the best book on English legal history ever published in the English language", making Maitland the "Modern Father of English Legal History". Karl Marx (1818-83), Das Kapital, Vol. 3 (posth.). Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), The Czech Question. Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), Ancient History of the Classical Peoples of the Orient (3 vols.) (1895-7). Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), The Western Posts and the British Debts. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), The Antichrist; about how Christianity teaches a "slave morality", and holds back the yah-baby dream-is-back Superman; The Will to Power (Der Wille zur Macht) (pub. posth. in 1901); "Not contentment, but more power; not peace at all, but war"; "Truth is ugly. We possess art lest we perish from truth"; "The real philosophers are commanders and lawgivers; they say: 'Thus shall it be!' They determine first the Whither and the Why of mankind, and thereby set aside the previous labor of all philosophical workers...; they grasp at the future with a creative hand, and whatever is and was, becomes for them thereby a means, an instrument, and a hammer. Their 'knowing' is creating, their creating is a lawgiving, their will to truth is Will to Power." Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Makers of Modern Rome. Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932), Electrochemistry; founds modern electrochemistry. Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933), Our Fight with Tammany. Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940), Basics of Racial Hygiene: The Efficiency of Our Race and the Protection of the Weak (Grundlinien einer Rassenhygiene); proposes Nordic race-based eugenics - love at 425 degrees? Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), The Golden Pomp: A Procession of English Lyrics from Surrey to Shirley; anthology of 16th-17th cent. lyricists. Hastings Rashdall (1858-1924), The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (2 vols.); becomes a std. work, giving the first modern understanding of the medieval origins of universities as arising spontaneously "as a scholastic Guild, whether of Masters or Students... without any express authorisation of King, Pope, prince or Prelate"; the first univ. to get official recognition was the U. of Paris in 1231 in the papal bull Parens Scientiarum. Sir John Robert Seeley (1834-95), The Growth of Political Policy (posth.). Mark Twain (1835-1910), Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), George Washington: A Profile; slams the cherry tree story of Parson Weems: "Of its factual truth there is no evidence whatever." Movies: Thomas Edison (1847-1931), The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots (Aug. 28). Lumiere Brothers, First Films. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Ghismonda (opera). Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924), A Garland of Country Songs. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Over the Hills and Far Away (fantasy overture) (1895-7). Zdenek Fibich (1850-1900), Symphony No. 2. Victor Herbert (1859-1924) and Harry Bache Smith (1860-1936), The Wizard of the Nile (operetta) (Casino Theatre, New York) (Nov. 4); an internat. hit. Wilhelm Kienzl (1857-1941), Der Evangelimann (opera) (Berlin). Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 2 ("Resurrection"); his 2nd most popular symphony. Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), Salome (opera); La Coupe Enchantee (opera). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Christmas Eve (opera) (Dec. 10) (St. Petersburg). Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Op. 28 (Cologne). Sergei Taneyev (1856-1915), Oresteia (musical trilogy) (Oct. 17) (Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg); his masterpiece?; incl. Clitemnestra's Aria. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), Swan Lake (opera) (posth.); debuts for the 2nd time at Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg; the first (1877) production was a flop, but this one rocks da house; incl. Swan Lake Main Theme. James Thornton (1861-1938), The Streets of Cairo or The Poor Little Country Maid. Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937), Symphony No. 9 for Organ ("Gothique"). Art: Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901), Venus Genetrix. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Still Life with a Curtain; Still Life with Onions (1895-1900). Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Woman with a Mango (Tehura). Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945), Revolt of the Weavers (three prints) (1895-8); illustrations to Gerhard Hauptmann's "Die Weber"; incl. Death Tears a Child from Its Mother. Carl Larsson (1853-1919), Brit and I. Frederic Leighton (1830-96), Flaming June; his magnum opus. Frederic Remington (1861-1909), The Bucking Broncho (Bronco) (bronze sculpture); in 2014 the Denver Art Museum loses its bet over the outcome of the Denver Broncos-Seattle Seahawks Super Bowl and has to loan the sculpture to the Seattle Art Museum for 3 mo. Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926), Buffalo Hunt No. 7; auctioned for $1.25M. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse) (1895-1910). Carlos Schwabe (1866-1926), La Mort et le Fossoyeur (Death and the Gravedigger); Symbolist. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Beatrice. Plays: Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Mrs. Ponderbury's Past. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Florian Geyer (tragedy); based on the 16th cent. Peasants' War. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) and Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94), Macaire. Henry James (1843-1916), Guy Domville; after being jeered off the stage on opening night, he goes back to writing novels. Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), Caesar Antichrist; Christ is really a Roman agent out to dominate spirituality? Sidney Jones (1861-1946), Owen Hall (1853-1907), and Harry Greenbank (1865-99), An Artist's Model (musical) (Daly's Theatre, West End, London) (Lyric Theatre, West End, London) (May 28, 1895) (392 perf.) (Broadway Theatre, New York) (Dec. 21, 1895; stars Marie Tempest/Florence Perry as rich widow Adele, who started as a you know what then married a millionaire, along with C. Hayden Coffin as art student Rudolph Blair, Letty Lind as Daisy Vane, Leonora Braham as Lady Barbara Cripps, Louie Pounds as Amy Criips, Eric Lewis as Sir George St. Alban, and Marie Studholme as art student Jessie. Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Candida; best comedy since Richard Brinsley Sheridan? Walter Alfred Slaughter (1860-1908) and Basil Hood (1864-1917), Gentleman Joe, The Hansom Cabbie (musical comedy) (Prince of Wales's Theatre) (Mar. 2) (391 perf.); a vehicle for comedian Arthur Roberts (1852-1933), coiner of the word "spoof". Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Earth Spirit (Erdgeist); first of two "Lulu" plays (2nd 1904), about a hot young dancer who rises in German society by hooking up with wealthy guys, and ends up as a poverty-stricken ho while experimenting with lesbianism and encountering Jack the Ripper. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People (St. James's Theatre, London) (Feb. 14) (86 perf.); gives him three hit plays playing simultaneusly, later becoming his most popular play; orphan Ernest/Jack Worthing finds his daddy's name is Gen. Ernest John Moncrieff; Ernest and Gwendolyn Fairfax (daughter of Lady Bracknell), Algernon Moncrieff and Cecily Cardew (ward of Jack Worthing), Dr. Rev. Canon Frederick Chausuble and Miss Laetitia Prism; Lady Bracknell: "My nephew, you seem to be displaying signs of triviality"; "On the contrary, Aunt Augusta, I've now realized for the first time in my life the vital importance of being Ernest"; filmed in 1952, 1992, and 2002. Poetry: Hilaire Beloc (1870-1953), Verses and Sonnets. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Mysterious Ranges. Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), The Purple Cow; appears in his San Francisco periodical The Lark, which he edits from 1895-7. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), Behind the Arras: A Book of the Unseen. Svatopluk Cech (1846-1908), The Songs of a Slave; against Austrian oppression of Bohemians. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), Majors and Minors. Frederik Willem van Eeden (1860-1932), Het Lied van Schijn en Wezen (The Song of Seeming and Being) (1895-1922). Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Haugtussa. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Dikter; goes naturalistic. Henriette Roland Holst (1895-), Sonnetten en Verzen in Terzinen Geschreven. Pauline Johnson (1861-1913), The White Wampum (debut); half-Mohawk half-English Canadian poet becomes a hit. Archibald Lampman (1861-99), Lyrics of Earth. Karl May (1842-1912), Ave Maria. Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914), In Phanta's Schloss; the joy of discovering one's mental powers? Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), The Man from Snowy River and Other Verses (Apr. 26) (debut); Waltzing Matilda; pub. as sheet music in 1903; first recorded in 1926 by John Collinson and Russell Callow; becomes the most popular Australian bush ballad, and the unofficial Australian nat. anthem. Arthur Symons (1865-1945), London Nights. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Heures Claires. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Poems; based on ancient Irish folklore. Novels: Anon., Germania Triumphans; by a German?; predicts German actions in WWII. Grant Allen (1848-99), The Woman Who Did; promotes the "New Woman", startling Victorian England with the example of an independent woman who has a child out of wedlock, causing English novelist Annie Sophie Cory to write The Woman Who Didn't; The British Barbarians; time travel novel. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Arco Iris. Walter Besant (1836-1901), Beyond the Dreams of Avarice. Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928), The Mayflower (Flor de Mayo). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), Sons of Fire. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The King in Yellow (short stories); a drama who drives those who read it insane. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Almayer's Folly (first novel); a trader in the Malaysian Archipelago and his halfcast daughter, and the pretentious house he builds; first of three novels with Capt. Lingard ("An Outcast of the Islands", "The Rescue"). Marie Corelli (1855-1924), The Sorrows of Satan; bestseller. Stephen Crane (1871-1900), The Red Badge of Courage; realistic novel about Pvt. Henry Fleming in the U.S. Civil War, who flees the battle and longs for a wound; Crane had never been to war personally; censored passages are restored in 1982. Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Wereldvrede. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Schloss Hubertus. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Rose of Dutcher's Coolly (first novel). H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Joan Haste; Heart of the World. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Jude the Obscure (last novel); stonemason Jude Fawley dreams of being a scholar at Christminster U., and scandalously shacks up with his married cousin Sue Bridehead, who goes religious on him and leaves him to go back to her hubby after her boy Little Father Time kills two siblings and commits suicide; violent criticism as nothing but smut causes him to announce next year that he's going to abandon novel-writing and turn to poetry and drama - all the stuff just came out of me? Henry Harland (1861-1905), Grey Roses. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), The Three Graces; A Tug of War; The Professor's Experiment; Molly Darling and Other Stories. J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), En Route; author gives up Satanism for Roman Catholicism and enters a Trappist monastery. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Flaggermus-Vinger (short stories). Andrew Lang (1844-1912), My Own Fairy Book. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), The Rabbit Warren. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Demagogue and Lady Phayre. Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Sensations et Souvenirs. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Galilee; Le Desert; Jerusalem. Ian Maclaren, Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush; bestseller. Brander Matthews (1852-1929), His Father's Son. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), St. Peter's Umbrella. George Moore (1852-1933), The Celibates (short stories). Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Chronicles of Martin Hewitt. Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938), Mordred: A Tragedy. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Peer and the Woman; A Daughter of the Marionis. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), When Valmond Came to Pontiac; An Adventurer of Icy North. Verner Z. Reed, La-To-Kah. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Flamboche. William Sharp (1855-1905), The Gipsy Christ and Other Tales; Mountain Lovers; The Laughter of Peterkin; The Sin-Eater and Other Tales; last three pub. under alias Fiona Mcleod. Rev. Charles Monroe Sheldon, In His Steps: What Would Jesus Do?. Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916), Quo Vadis: A Narrative of the Time of Nero; bestseller of 1897; Rome in the time of Nero; "Quo Vadis Domine?" (Where are you going, Lord?) St. Peter asks Jesus on the Appian Way while fleeing his own crucifixion in Rome, to which Jesus answers "To be crucified again", causing Peter to turn around and take his medicine (John 13:36). Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), A Gentleman Vagabond. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Pierrot! A Story. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Three Fair Maids, or the Burkes of Derrymore. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Stolen Bacillus and Other Stories (short stories) (1893-5); The Time Machine: An Invention (first novel) (original title "The Chronic Argonauts"); a man builds a machine in which he travels backward to the beginning of time and forward to the extinction of the Sun, meeting the Morlocks, descendants of the proletariat, who live underground herding the Eloi, descendants of the aristocrats on the surface for meat; makes him a star, after which he cranks out sci-fi hits for the next decade (until 1906). Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), The Front Yard and Other Italian Stories (posth.). Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), A Drama in Dutch (first novel); pub. under alias "Z.Z." Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), The Ravens and the Crows Are Picking Us to Pieces (short stories) (debut); Poland's 1863 revolt against Russia. Births: Am. FBI dir. #1 (1935-72) (Freemason) (gay?) ("that old cocksucker" - Richard Nixon) J. (John) Edgar Hoover (d. 1972) on Jan. 1 in Washington, D.C.; English-German ancestry father, Swiss descent mother; educated at George Washington U. Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte (d. 1948) on Jan. 2 in Stockholm. Am. Grumman Aircraft co-founder ("Red Mike") Leroy Randle "Roy" Grumman (d. 1982) on Jan. 4 in Huntington, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. and MIT. Am. "Freight Train" blues-folk musician-singer-songwriter (black) Elizabeth "Libba" Cotten (nee Neville) (d. 1987) on Jan. 5 in Chapel Hill, N.C. French Roman Catholic theologian Marie-Dominique Chenu (d. 1990) on Jan. 7 in Soisy-sur-Seine, Essonne. Am. football hall-of-fame QB and coach (Chicago Cardinals, 1920-5) (Chicago Bears, 1926-9) John Leo "Paddy" Driscoll (d. 1968) on Jan. 11 in Evanston, Ill; known for his drop-kicks and punting; educated at Northwestern U.; plays 13 games for the Chicago Cubs in 1917. Am. Hammond Organ inventor Laurens Hammond (d. 1973) on Jan. 11 in Evanston, Ill. Indian biochemist Yellapragada Subbarow (d. 1948) on Jan. 12 in Madras; discoverer of the function of ATP as the cell's energy source; developer of the first antibiotic (Gramicidin), and many other miracle drugs. German resistance fighter Rudiger (Rüdiger) Schleicher (d. 1945) on Jan. 14 in Stuttgart. Finnish AIM Method fodder-improving biochemist Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (d. 1973) on Jan. 15. Am. stockbroker, HUAC chmn., and U.S. rep. (R-N.J.) (1936-50) John Parnell Thomas (d. 1970) on Jan. 16 in Jersey City, N.J. German Vice-Adm. Friedrich Frisius (d. 1970) on Jan. 17 in Bad Salzuflen, Principality of Lippe. Am. actress Mary MacLaren (MacDonald) (d. 1985) on Jan. 19 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; sister of Katherine MacDonald (1891-1956). Spanish Basque fashion designer Cristobal Balenciaga Eisaguirre (d. 1972) on Jan. 21 in Getaria, Gipuzkoa. Am. "The Modern Corporation Private Property" writer-diplomat Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (d. 1971) (pr. like burley) on Jan. 27 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. songwriter-producer and record exec George Gard "Buddy" DeSylva (d. 1950) on Jan. 27 in New York City; son of Hal De Forrest (1862-1938); grows up in Calif.; educated at USC; collaborator of Lew Brown (1893-1958) and Ray Henderson (1896-1970). Am. "Daddy Long Legs", "Who's Sorry Now", "I Wanna Be Loved By You" "songwriter Harry Ruby (d. 1974) on Jan. 27 in New York City; collaborator of Bert Kalmar (1884-1947). Am. feminist poet-writer Muna Lee (d. 1965) (AKA Newton Gayle) on Jan. 29 in Raymond, Miss.; wife (1919-46) of Luis Munoz Marin (1898-1980). Am. actor Percy Alfred Helton (d. 1971) on Jan. 31 in Manhattan, N.Y.; known for raspy falsetto voice. Am. football player-coach-owner ("Mr. Everything") (founder of the Chicago Bears) George Stanley "Papa Bear" Halas Sr. (d. 1983) on Feb. 2 in Chicago, Ill.; Bohemian immigrant parents. German SS Gen. Friedrich August Jeckeln (d. 1946) on Feb. 2 in Homberg, Baden. English "Dr. Watson" actor William Nigel Ernle "Willie" Bruce (d. 1953) on Feb. 4 in Ensanada, Baja Calif., Mexico; English parents; educated at Abingdon School, Berkshire; good cricket player. Nazi SS 1st lt. Johann Baptist Albin "Hanns" Rauter (d. 1949) on Feb. 4 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Am. Repub. politician Robert Marion La Follette Jr. (d. 1953) on Feb. 6 in Madison, Wisc.; son of Robert M. La Follette Sr. (1855-1925); brother of Philip La Follette (1897-1965). Am. baseball #1 player (pitcher/right field) (#3) (lefty) ("the Bambino") ("the Sultan of Swat") ("the Big Bam") George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. (d. 1948) on Feb. 6 in Baltimore, Md.; his parents run a saloon near the Camden Yards rail station, which later becomes the site of the Orioles Stadium and the Babe Ruth Museum; sent to St. Mary's Industrial School in Baltimore in 1902-14, where he learns to play baseball from 6'6" 250 lb. Brother Matthias, whose uppercut swing and pigeon-toed run style he copies. Am. "Days of Our Years" journalist-minister (Christian Zionist) Pierre van Paassen (d. 1968) on Feb. 7 in Gorinchem, Netherlands; emigrates to Canada in 1914, and the U.S. in 1922. German "The Eclipse of Reason", "Dialectic of Enlightenment" Marxist philosopher-sociologist (Jewish) Max Horkheimer (d. 1973) on Feb. 14 in Zuffenhausen (modern-day Stuttgart), Wurttemberg. Irish independence leader Sean Treacy (Tracey) (Tracy) (d. 1920) on Feb. 14 in Tipperary. Am. Notre Dame U. football star (#66) (1917-20) George "Gipper" Gipp (d. 1920) on Feb. 18 in Laurium, Mich. Soviet WWII gen. Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (d. 1970) on Feb. 18 (Feb. 6 Old Style) in Furmanivka, S Bessarabia; defender of Moscow and Stalingrad. Am. "Oliver Wendell Holmes in The Magnificent Yankee", "Buffalo Bill Cody in Annie Get Your Gun" actor Louis Calhern (Carl Henry Vogt) (d. 1956) on Feb. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; grows up in St. Louis, Mo. Danish Vitamin K biochemist Carl Peter Henrik Dam (d. 1976) on Feb. 21 in Cophenhagen; educated at the U. of Graz - that dam vitamin? Am. playwright-screenwriter-producer-dir. (Jewish) Joseph Albert Fields (d. 1966) on Feb. 21 in New York City; son of Polish Jewish immigrant Lew Fields (Moses Schoenfeld) (1967-1941); brother of Herbert Fields (1897-1958) and Dorothy Fields (1905-74); collaborator of Jerome Chodorov (1911-2004). Am. henchman actor Charles King (d. 1957) on Feb. 21 in Hillsboro Hill County, Tex. Am. football hall-of-fame coach (founder of the Philadelphia Eagles) De Benneville "Bert" Bell (d. 1959) on Feb. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. French chef Fernand Point (d. 1955) on Feb. 25 in Louhans, Saone-et-Loire; teacher of Paul Bocuse (1926-). French novelist-playwright-filmmaker Marcel Pagnol (d. 1974) on Feb. 28 in Aubagne (near Marseille), Bouches-du-Rhone; first filmmaker elected to the Academie Francaise (1946). German July 20th plotter Luftwaffe Lt. Col. Caesar (Cäsar) von Hofacker (d. 1944) on Mar. 2 in Ludwigsburg; son of Gen. Eberhard von Hofacker; cousin of Col. Claus von Staufenberg. Am. "The Disruption of American Democracy" historian (Baptist) Roy Franklin Nichols (d. 1973) on Mar. 3 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Rutgers U., and Columbia U. Norwegian economist Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (d. 1973) on Mar. 3 in Oslo; educated at the U. of Oslo. U.S. Army Chief of Staff Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (d. 1993) on Mar. 3 in Ft. Monroe, Va. Am. comic book illustrator and animator (Jewish) Milt Gross (d. 1953) on Mar. 4 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. "Three Stooges" comedic actor (Jewish) Shemp Howard (Samuel Horwitz) (d. 1955) on Mar. 4 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Moe Howard (1897-1975) and Curly Howard (1903-52). French auto racer-spy Robert Marcel Charles Benoist (d. 1944) on Mar. 20 in Rambouillet. Am. pshrink Fredric Wertham (Friedrich Ignatz Wertheimer) (d. 1981) on Mar. 20 in Munich, Germany; educated at the U. of Munich, U. of Erlangen, and U. of Wurzburg; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. Norwegian gymnast Gustav Adolf Bayer (d. 1977) on Mar. 23; not to be confused with German chemist Gustav von Bayer (1835-1917). Am. silent film actress Edna Mayo (Lane) (d. 1970) on Mar. 23 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. modernist composer and transpersonal astrologer Dane Rudhyar (Daniel Chenneviere) (d. 1985) on Mar. 23 in Paris. French "The Man Who Planted Trees" novelist Jean Giono (d. 1970) on Mar. 30 in Monosque, Provence. Am. Repub. politician-diplomat, gov. #59 of Mass. (1953-7) and U.S. secy. of state (1959-61) (Freemason) Christian Archibald Herter Sr. (d. 1966) on Mar. 28 in Paris; son of U.S. expatriate artists Albert and Adele Herter (nee McGinnis); educated at Harvard U.; husband (1917-) of heiress Mary Caroline Pratt (1895-1980) (granddaughter of Standard oil magnate Charles Pratt); father of Christian Archibald Herter Jr. (1919-2007); as a boy his father uses him as a model in a painting of the Magna Charta Signing, which ends up in the Wisc. Supreme Court bldg. Am. Mormon Church pres. #12 (1973-85) Spencer Woolley Kimball (d. 1985) on Mar. 28 in Salt Lake City, Utah; grows up in Thatcher, Ariz. German Nazi leader Joseph Burckel (Bürckel) (d. 1944) on Mar. 30 in Lingenfeld, Germersheim, Bavaria. French "The Man Who Planted Trees", "Pan Trilogy" novelist-playwright Jean Giono (d. 1970) on Mar. 30 in Manosque, Provence. Am. World Bank atty., banker and pres. advisor John Jay McCloy (d. 1989) on Mar. 31 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard Law School. Am. "Downhearted Blues" jazz-blues singer-songwriter (black) Alberta Hunter (d. 1984) on Apr. 1 in Memphis, Tenn.; retires in the 1950s, then resumes her career in the 1970s. Italian "The Merchant of Venice" composer (Jewish) Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (d. 1968) on Apr. 3 in Florence; teacher of Louis W. Ballard and Ron Purcell. German Gen. Hermann Foertsch (d. 1961) on Apr. 4 in Drahnow. Am. ballroom dancing instructor (Jewish) Arthur Murray (Moses Teichmann) (d. 1991) on Apr. 4 in Todhajca, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (Poland); emigrates to the U.S. in 1897; father of twins Phyllis and Jane Murray (wife of Dr. Henry Heimlich). Am. "Stagecoach", "Bringing Up Baby" screenwriter Dudley Nichols (d. 1960) on Apr. 6 in Wapakoneta, Ohio; educated at the U. of Mich.; first to refuse an Oscar (1936). Am. "Wheeler & Woolsey" comedian Bert Wheeler (d. 1968) on Apr. 7 in Paterson, N.J.; collaborator of Robert Woolsey (1888-1938). French stage-screen actor Michel Simon (d. 1975) on Apr. 9 in Geneva, Switzerland; father of Francois Simon (1917-82). Anglo-Danish civil engineer (designer of Sydney Opera House) Sir Ove Nyquist Arup (d. 1988) on Apr. 16 in Newcastle upon Tyne, England; educated at Copenhagen U.; knighted in 1971. Kiwi "Roderick Alleyn" detective novelist and theater dir. Dame Ngaio Marsh (d. 1982) on Apr. 23; knighted in 1966. Am. sleep researcher (Jewish) ("Father of Sleep Research") Nathaniel Kleitman (d. 1999) on Apr. 26 in Kishinev, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1915; educated at the U. of Chicago; teacher of Eugene Aserinsky (1921-98) and William Charles Dement (1928-). Norwegian novelist Ronald August Fangen (d. 1946) on Apr. 29 in Kragero. English "The Proms" conductor-organist-composer Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent (d. 1967) on Apr. 29 in Ashford, Kent; knighted in 1947. Soviet NKVD dir. (1937-40) ("the Vanishing Commissar") Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Ezhov) (d. 1940) on May 1 in St. Petersburg (Marjampole, Lithuania?). Am. "Blue Moon", "Manhattan", "The Lady Is a Tramp", "Bewitched, Bothered, and Bewildered" 4'11" lyricist (Jewish) (closet gay) (alcoholic) Lorenz Milton "Larry" Hart (d. 1943) on May 2 in New York City; Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U.; collaborator of Richard Rodgers (1902-79). French "Chlochemerle" novelist Gabriel Chevallier (d. 1969) on May 3 in Lyon. Dutch-Am. Reformed Christian theologian-philosopher Cornelius Van Til (d. 1987) on May 3 in Grootegast; educated at Calvin College, and Princeton U. Am. "The Sheik" sex symbol silent film actor ("the Latin Lover") Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filibert Guglielmi d'Antonguolla di Valentina) (d. 1926) on May 6 in Castellaneta, Italy; son of an army veterinarian; emigrates to New York City in 1913 - look what's coming over on the boat? Am. aviation pioneer James Howard "Dutch" Kindelberger (d. 1962) on May 8 in Wheeling, W. Va.; German immigrant parents. Am. "The Catholic Hour" anti-Communist Roman Catholic bishop (of Rochester, N.Y., 1966-9) Fulton John Sheen (d. 1979) on May 8 in El Paso, Ill.; educated at the Catholic U. of Louvain. Am. "Axel's Castle" #1 lit. critic Edmund Wilson (d. 1972) on May 8 in Red Bank, N.J.; educated at Princeton U.; husband (1938-46) of Mary McCarthy (1912-89). Am. "Tol'able David", "Way Down East" actor Richard Semler "Dick" Barthelmess (d. 1963) on May 9 in New York City; educated at Trinity College; first nominee for Best Actor Oscar (1927-8). Japanese world's oldest person (Sept. 11, 2009-) Kama Chinen on May 10 in Okinawa. French "Four Musketeers" tennis hall-of-fame player Jacques "Toto" Brugnon (d. 1978) on May 11 in Paris. Am. composer (black) William Grant Still (d. 1978) on May 11 in Woodville, Miss. Am. chemist William Francis Giauque (d. 1982) on May 12 in Niagara Falls, Ont., Canada; Am. parents; educated at UCB. Indian New Age philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti (d. 1986) on May 12 in Madanapalle, Madras (Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh); a Telugu-speaking Brahmin; pupil of Theosophical Society leader Annie Besant (1847-1933). U.S. Sen. (R-Conn.) (1952-63) Prescott Sheldon Bush (d. 1972) on May 15 in Columbus, Ohio; son of railroad-steel exec. Samuel Prescott Bush (1863-1948) and Flora Sheldon; father of U.S. pres. George H.W. Bush (1924-); grandfather of U.S. pres. George W. Bush (1946-); educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones). Nicaraguan leftist rev. leader Augusto Nicolas Calderon Sandino (d. 1934) on May 18 in Niquinomo. Am. biochemist (Rolfing founder) Ida Pauline Rolf (d. 1979) on May 19 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Barnard College, and Columbia U. Scottish poet Charles Hamilton Sorley (d. 1915) on May 19 in Aberdeen; educated at Malborough College. Mexican modernizer-reformer pres. (1934-40) Gen. Lazaro Cardenas (Lázaro Cárdenas) del Rio (d. 1970) on May 21 in Jiquilpan, Michoacan; born to a lower middle class family, he has to support the family at age 16. German Waffen SS Gen. Felix Martin Julius Steiner (d. 1966) on May 23 in Stalluponen, East Prussia. Am. publisher (Jewish) Samuel Irving Newhouse (Solomon Isadore Neuhaus) Sr. (d. 1979) on May 24; Belarus Jewish immigrant father, Austria-Hungary Jewish immigrant mother; father of Samuel Irving Newhouse Jr. (1927-) and Donald Edward Newhouse (1929-); educated at Rutgers U. Am. photographer Dorothea Lange (d. 1965) on May 26 in Hoboken, N.J; of German descent; wife (1935-) of Paul Schuster Taylor (1895-1984); known for Depression Era and Japanese-Am. camp work. Am. "Pickett's Charge" historian-novelist George Rippey Stewart Jr. (d. 1980) on May 31 in Sewickley, Penn.; educated at Princeton U., UCB, and Columbia U. Polish Gen. Count Tadeusz Komorowski (Bor-Komorowski) ("Bor" = Forest) (d. 1966) on June 1 in Lwow (Kviv). Italian Fascist politician (foreign affairs minister, 1929-32) Dino Grandi (d. 1988) on June 4 in Mordano, Bologna; educated at the U.k of Bologna; his portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Robert De Niro? Am. Zippo lighter inventor George G. Blaisdell (d. 1978) on June 5 in Bradford, Penn. Am. "Hopalong Cassidy" actor William Lawrence Boyd (d. 1972) on June 5 in Hendrysburg (near Cambridge), Ohio. German Gen. Karl Heinrich Georg Ferdinand Kreipe (d. 1976) on June 5 in Niederspier, Thuringia. U.S. Pvt. Henry Nicholas John Gunther (d. 1918) on June 6 in Baltimore, Md.; last soldier KIA in WWI? German Gen. Kurt Zeitzler (d. 1963) on June 6 in Gossmar. French WWI/WWII ace (14+1 Vs) Lt. Marius Jean Paul Elzeard Ambrogi (d. 1971) on June 9 in Marseilles. Am. "Worlds in Collision" psychiatrist (Jewish) Immanuel Velikovsky (d. 1979) on June 10 in Vitebsk, Russia (Belarus); co-founder of Hebrew U. in Jerusalem; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. Canadian 5'9" hockey hall-of-fame player-coach-mgr. (Detroit Red Wings, 1927-63) John James "Jack" Adams (d. 1968) on June 14 in Fort William, Ont. Am. "Jiminy Cricket in Walt Disney's Pinocchio" singer-actor Clifton A. "Cliff" "Ukelele Ike" Edwards (d. 1971) on June 14 in Hannibal, Mo. Am. "Louise in Down on the Farm", "Sadie in Swing Your Lady" silent film actress Louise Fazenda (d. 1962) on June 17 in Lafayette, Ind.; of Portuguese descent; wife (1927-62) of Hal B. Wallis (1898-1986). Spanish world's oldest living person (Jan. 2, 2009-Jan. 6, 2009) Manuela Fernandez Fojaco (d. 2009) on June 18 in Llamas, Aller, Asturias. Am. "Judith of Bethulia" silent film actress Sarah Blanche Sweet (d. 1986) on June 18 in Chicago, Ill. German Nazi gauleiter of Ukraine (Christian) Erich Koch (d. 1989) on June 19 in Elberfeld, Wuppertal, Prussia. Am. 6'1" world heavyweight boxing champ #8 (1919-26) (Mormon) ("the Manassa Mauler") William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey (d. 1983) (AKA Kid Blackey) on June 24 in Manassa, Colo. Am. world's oldest living person (Jan. 6, 2009-) Olivia Patrick "Pat" Thomas (nee Trevellyan) (d. 2009) on June 29 in Snyder, N.Y. Am. "Swanee", "Tea for Two" lyricist-composer (Jewish) Irving Caesar (Keiser) (d. 1996) on July 4 in New York City; Romanian Jewish immigrant father; brother of Arthur Caesar. Am. psychologist and psychical researcher Gardner Murphy (d. 1979) on July 8 in Chillicothe, Ohio; educated at Yale U., Harvard U., and Columbia U. Soviet Cherenkov radiation physicist Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (d. 1971) on July 8 in Vladivostok. Am. "The Big Parade" actor (Mormon) ("the Great Lover of the Silent Screen") John Gilbert (John Cecil Pringle) (d. 1936) on July 10 in Logan, Utah. German "Carmina Burana" composer-educator Carl Orff (d. 1982) on July 10 in Munich. Norwegian Wagnerian opera soprano Kirsten Flagstad (d. 1962) on July 12 in Hamar. Am. Futurist "comprehensive thinker", "roam home to a dome" architect-educator (Unitarian) (inventor of the geodesic dome) Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller Jr. (d. 1983) on July 12 in Milton, Mass.; educated at Bates College; coiner of the terms "Spaceship Earth", "ephemeralization" (doing more with less), and "synergetic". Am. historian Fletcher Melvin Green (d. 1978) on July 12 near Gainesville, Ga.; educated at Emory U., and U. of N.C.; student of Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton (1878-1961). Am. "Show Boat", "Carousel", "South Pacific", "The King and I", "Flower Drum Song", "The Sound of Music" librettist-lyricist-stage producer (half-Jewish) Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (d. 1960) (rhymes with twine) on July 12 in New York City; Jewish theatrical mgr. father William Hammerstein is son of Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919); mother Alice Nimmo is Scottish and raises him Episcopalian; educated at Columbia U.; collaborator of Richard Rodgers (1902-79) - is that like son of a gun? Am. "Theodore Roosevelt", "Roman Castevet in Rosemary's Baby" actor Sidney Blackmer (d. 1973) on July 13 in Salisbury, N.C.; husband (1928-39) of Lenore Ulric (1892-1970) and (1943-73) Suzanne Kaaren. Am. botanist (Boysenberry inventor) Rudolph Boysen (d. 1950) on July 14. Am. "I Got the World on a String", "Sing, My Heart", "Stormy Weather" lyricist Ted Koehler (d. 1973) on July 14 in Washington, D.C.; collaborator of Harold Arlen (1905-86). English writer-critic Frank Raymond "F.R." Leavis (d. 1978) on July 14 in Cambridge; educated at Perse School, and Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Am. gangster Machine Gun Kelly (George Kelly Barnes) (d. 1954) on July 18 in Memphis, Tenn. Hungarian constructivist painter-photographer and Bauhaus prof. (Jewish) Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (László Moholy Nagy) (Weisz) (d. 1946) (pr. "mo-holi-naj") on July 20 in Bacsborsod; of Jewish Hungarian descent. Am. cowboy actor (alcoholic) Kenneth Olin "Ken" Maynard (d. 1973) on July 21 in Vevay, Ind.; his white stallion is named Tarzan. Soviet aerospace engineer Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi (d. 1975) on July 22 in Hlybokaye, Russia (Belarus). Am. Los Angeles mayor (1953-61) C. Norris Poulson (d. 1982) on July 23 in Baker County, Ore. English "I, Claudius", "Good-bye to All That", "The White Goddess" historical novelist-poet-scholar Robert Ranke Graves (d. 1985) on July 24 in Wimbledon, London; son of Alfred Perceval Graves (1846-1931) and Amalie von Ranke (niece of Leopold von Ranke); brother of Charles Patrick Graves (1899-1971); half-brother of Philip Perceval Graves (1876-1953); educated at Charterhouse School, and St. John's College, Oxford U.; partner (1929-36) of Laura Riding (1901-91). German SS Gen. Udo Gustav Wilhelm Egon von Woyrsch (d. 1983) on July 24 in Schwanowitz or Zwanowice, Brzeg County, Silesia. Polish painter-printmaker (Jewish) Jankel Adler (d. 1949) on July 26 in Tuszyn (near Lodz); 7th of 10 children, all of whom but him die in the Holocaust. Am. Burns and Allen comedian (Roman Catholic) Grace Ethel Cecile Rosalie "Gracie" Allen (d. 1964) on July 26 in San Francisco, Calif.; wife (1926-64) of George Burns (1896-1996); mother of Sandra Jean Burns (1934-2010) and Ronald Jon Burns (1935-2007). Am. silent film actor Kenneth Harlan (d. 1967) on July 26 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Fordham U.; husband (1924-7) of Marie Prevost (1898-1937). Am. actress ("The Girl Who Is Too Beautiful") Barbara La Marr (Reatha Dale Watson) (d. 1926) (AKA Folly Lytell) on July 28 in Yakima, Wash. Russian "Scenes from the Bathhouse", "A Man Is Not a Flea" writer Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko (d. 1958) on July 29 in Poltava, Ukraine. English "Mr. Cinders" actor Charles Robert William "Bobby" Howes (d. 1972) on Aug. 4 in Battersea. Am. middleweight boxing champ (1926_ (black) (first African-Am.) ("the Georgia Deacon") (leftie) Theodore "Tiger" Flowers (d. 1927) on Aug. 5 in Camilla, Ga. Am. "Puttin' on the Ritz" entertainer-aviator Harry Richman (Harold Reichman) (d. 1972) on Aug. 10 in Cincinnati, Ohio. English physicist Sir Charles Drummond Ellis (d. 1980) on Aug. 11 in Hampstead; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. toymaker (Jewish) ("Toy King of America") ("the Henry Ford of the Toy Industry") ("the Toycoon") Louis Marx (d. 1982) on Aug. 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Austrian Jewish immigrant parents; father of Barbara Marx Hubbard (1929-), Louis Marx Jr., and Patricia Marx Ellsberg (1938-). Am. adm. (supreme allied cmdr. #1 of NATO forces in the Atlantic in 1951-4) Lynde Dupuy McCormick (d. 1956) on Aug. 12 in Annapolis, Md. Am. "Cowardly Lion in The Wizard of Oz" actor Herbert "Bert" Lahr (Irving Lahrheim) (d. 1967) on Aug. 13 [Leo] in New York City. British air ace (44 Vs) Albert Ball (d. 1917) on Aug. 14 in Nottingham. Austrian actress ("Austria's first movie star") Liane Haid (d. 2000) on Aug. 16 in Vienna. Am. "The Cat and the Canary" actor Lucien Littlefield (d. 1960) on Aug. 16 in San Antonio, Tex. Am. "Art and Life in America" art historian Oliver Waterman Larkin (d. 1970) on Aug. 17 in Medford, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "With These Hands" songwriter (Jewish) Benny Davis (d. 1979) on Aug. 21 in New York City. Am. "Grandmama in The Addams Family" actress Blossom Rock (Edith Marie Blossom MacDonald) (d. 1978) (AKA Marie Blake, Blossom MacDonald) on Aug. 21 in Philadelphia, Penn.; elder sister of Jeanette MacDonald (1903-65). Hungarian "The English Patient" aviator-explorer (gay) Laszlo Almasy (László Ede Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós) (d. 1951) on Aug. 22 (Nov. 3?) in Borostyanko (modern-day Bernstein im Burgenland, Austria); of aristocratic Hungarian birth. Am. economist David LeFrevre Dodd (d. 1988) on Aug. 23 in Berkeley County, W. Va.; educated at the U. of Penn., and Columbia U. Am. Boston archbishop of Boston (1944-7) and cardinal (1958-) Richard James Cushing (d. 1970) on Aug. 24 in South Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston College. Am. Dem. La. gov. #45 (1939-40, 1948-52, 1956-60) ("Last of the Red Hot Poppas") Earl Kemp Long (d. 1960) on Aug. 26 in Winnfield, La.; son of Huey P. Long Sr. (1852-1937); brother of "Kingfish" Huey P. Long Jr. (1893-1935); lover of Blaze Starr (1932-). Am. Brig. Gen. and N.J. state police supt. #1 (1921-36) Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Sr. (d. 1958) on Aug. 28 in Newark, N.J.; father of H. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012). German Nazi politician Hinrich Lohse (d. 1964) on Sept. 2 in Muhlenbarbek, Schleswig-Holstein. Am. civil rights atty. (black) ("the Man Who Killed Jim Crow") Charles Hamilton Houston (d. 1950) on Sept. 3 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard U. German soprano Meta Seinemeyer (d. 1929) on Sept. 5. German V-2 rocket program leader maj.-gen. Walter Robert Dornberger (d. 1980) on Sept. 6 in Giessen. Soviet Gen. Aleksei Innokentievich Antonov (d. 1962) on Sept. 9 in Grodno; of Tatar ancestry. Albanian MP Avni Rustemi (d. 1924) on Sept. 11 in Libohove, Gjirokaster. Am. "The Parent Trap", "Grandma Effie Hanks in Pistols 'n' Petticoats" actress Ruth McDevitt (Ruth Thane Shoecraft) (d. 1976) on Sept. 13 in Coldwater, Mich. U.S. defense secy. #4 (1951-3) ("Architect of the Cold War") Robert Abercrombie Lovett (d. 1986) on Sept. 14 in Huntsville, Tex. educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones) and Harvard U. English cricketer Charles "Father" Stowell Marriott (d. 1966) on Sept. 14 in Heaton Moor, Lancashire; not to be confused with writer Charles Marriott (1869-1957). Romanian celeb (wife of Carol II) Magda (Elena) Lupescu (d. 1977) on Sept. 15 in Jassy; wife (1947-53) of Carol II (1893-1953). Canadian PM #13 (1957-63) John George Diefenbaker (d. 1979) on Sept. 18 in Grey County, Ont.; leader of Progressive Conservative Party (1956-67); educated at the U. of Sask. Spanish autogyro inventor Juan de la Cierva y Codorniu, 1st Count of De La Cierva (d. 1936) on Sept. 21 in Murcia. Am. "Scarface", "Inherit the Wind" actor (Jewish) Paul Muni (Meshilem Meier "Moony" Weisenfreund) (d. 1967) on Sept. 22 in Lviv, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1902. Indian maharaja (1925-61) Lt. Gen. Sir Hari Singh Indar mahindar Bahadur (d. 1961) on Sept. 23 in Amar Mahal Palace, Jammu, India. Am. physician-physiologist (pioneer in cardiac catheterization) Andre Frederic Cournand (d. 1988) on Sept. 24 in Paris; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. English "Goodbye Mr. Chips" producer-dir.-writer Victor Saville (d. 1979) on Sept. 25 in Birmingham. Am. ambassador to Israel (1954-9) Edward B. Lawson (d. 1962) on Sept. 26 in Newport, Tenn. Soviet chemist Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (b. 1896) on Sept. 26; 1956 Nobel Chem. Prize. German Waffen-SS Gen. Jurgen (Jürgen) (Josef) Stroop (d. 1952) on Sept. 26 in Detmold. English historian Sir Charles Alexander Petrie, 3rd Baronet (d. 1977) on Sept. 28 in Liverpool; of Irish descent. Am. statistician-economist Harold Hotelling (d. 1973) on Sept. 29 in Fulda, Minn. English Benedictine monk-priest-historian David (Michael Clive) Knowles (d. 1974) on Sept. 29 in Studley, Warwickshire; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U. Am. psychic researcher ("the Father of Modern Parapsychology") Joseph Banks "J.B." Rhine (d. 1980) on Sept. 29 in Waterloo, Penn.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. USAF Maj. Gen. Albert Francis Hegenberger (d. 1983) on Sept. 30 in Boston, Mass.; educated at MIT. Am. "All Quiet on the Western Front", "Mutiny on the Bounty" dir. (Jewish) Lewis Milestone (Milstein) (d. 1980) on Sept. 30 in Kishinev, Bessarabia (Chisinau, Moldova). Soviet marshal Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky (d. 1977) on Sept. 30 (Sept. 18 Old Style). Am. Abbott and Costello comic (Jewish?) William Alexander "Bud" Abbott (d. 1974) on Oct. 2 in Asbury Park, N.J.; partner of Lou Costello (1906-59). Am. Washington Star ed. Benjamin Mosby "Ben" McKelway (d. 1976) on Oct. 2 in Fayeteville, N.C. Am. 5'5" "The General" actor-dir. ("the Great Stone Face") ("the Michelangelo of Silent Comedy") Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton VI (d. 1966) on Oct. 4 in Piqua, Kan.; son of Joe Keaton (1867-1946) and Myra Keaton (1877-1955); cousin of Richard Lupino (1929-2005); brother of Harry Keaton (1904-83) and Louise Keaton (1906-81); husband (1921-32) of Natalie Talmadge (1898-1969), (1933-6) Mae Scriven, and (1940-66) Eleanor Keaton; father of Buster Keaton Jr. (1922-2007) and Bob Talmadge (1924-); known for porkpie hat, slapshoes, and deadpan expression; his nickname is devised by Harry Houdini at age 6 mo. after he falls down some stairs and he remarks "That was a real buster", becoming the first to use the name Buster, making it popular; right index finger amputated at the knuckle at age 3. Soviet super spy ("Stalin's James Bond") Richard "Ramsay" Sorge (d. 1944) on Oct. 4 in Sabunchi, Baku, Azerbaijan; German father, Russian mother; great-nephew of Friedrich Adolf Sorge (1826-1906); fights for the Germans in WWI, is wounded, and becomes a Communist in the military hospital. Am. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-9) and CIA dir. (1950-3) Gen. Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (d. 1961) on Oct. 5 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Penhally" novelist-critic Caroline Ferguson Gordon (d. 1981) on Oct. 6 in Todd County, Ky. Argentine pres. (1946-55, 1973-4) gen. Juan Domingo Peron (d. 1974) on Oct. 8 near Lobos, Buenos Aires; part Scottish and Italian father, Spanish-Am. Indian mother. Albanian PM (1922-4), pres. (1925-8) and king #1 (1928-39) Zog I (Ahmed Muhtar Zogoli or Zogu) (d. 1961) on Oct. 8 in Burrel, Ottoman Empire. Am. fighter pilot (first African-Am.) (black) ("the Black Swallow Death") Eugene Jacques (James) Bullard (d. 1961) on Oct. 9 in Columbus, Ga.; Martinique immigrant father, Haitian-descent Creek Indian mother. German Luftwaffe field marshal Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (d. 1945) on Oct. 10 in Barzdorf (near Striegau), Lower Silesia; 4th cousin of Manfred "Red Baron" von Richthofen (1892-1918). Chinese writer-inventor Lin Yutang (d. 1976) on Oct. 10 in Banzai, Zhangzhou, Fujian; Christian minister father; educated at Harvard U. German Nazi official (July 20th Plotter) Count Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorf (d. 1944) on Oct. 14 in Merseburg. German "Conflict", "None Shall Escape", "The Patriot" novelist-dramatist Alfred Neumann (d. 1952) on Oct. 15 in Lautenburg; emigrates to the U.S. in 1941. Am. historian (of science and technology) Lewis Mumford (d. 1990) on Oct. 19 in Flushing, N.Y.; educated at CCNY. Am. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn", "Genie in the Thief of Baghdad" actor (black) Rex Ingram (d. 1969) on Oct. 20 in Cairo, Ill.; first African-Am. male to graduate from Northwestern U. medical school, and first to be hired for a contract role in a soap opera, "The Brighter Day" in 1962; not to be confused with dir. Rex Ingram (1895-1950). Am. "Of Thee I Sing", "Animal Crackers", "The Cocoanuts", "Stage Door", "My Man Godfrey" dramatist-lyricist (Jewish) (Socialist-turned-Conservative) Morrie Ryskind (d. 1985) on Oct. 20 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U. Am. silent film actress Edna Purviance (d. 1958) on Oct. 21 in Paradise Valley, Nev.; discovered in a cafe by Charlie Chaplin, who appears in 35 films with her. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1935-9) Fontaine Maury Maverick Sr. (d. 1954) on Oct. 23 in San Antonio, Tex.; grandson of Sam Maverick (1803-70); father of Maury Maverick Jr. (1921-2003); coiner of the term "gobbledygook". English actor Jack Warner (Horace John Waters) (d. 1981) on Oct. 24 in Bromley-by-Bow, Poplar, London. Israeli PM #3 (1963-9) (Jewish) Levi Eshkol (Skolnik) (d. 1969) on Oct. 25 in Oratov (near Kiev), Ukraine. Am. "Rio Rita", "Victor Moritz in Frankenstein" actor-singer John Boles (d. 1969) on Oct. 28 in Greenville, Tex. German Sulfa drug bacteriologist Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (d. 1964) on Oct. 30 in Lagow, Brandenburg. Am. physician-physiologist Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr. (d. 1973) on Oct. 30 in Orange, N.J.; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). Am. Sweet Trials physician (black) Ossian Sweet (d. 1960) on Oct. 30 in Bartow, Fla.; educated at Wilberforce U., and Howard U. English military strategist ("the captain who teaches generals") Capt. Basil Henry Liddell Hart (d. 1970) on Oct. 31 in Paris; educated at St. Paul's School, and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1966. Am. "Am I Blue?", "Stormy Weather" jazz-blues singer-actress (black) (bi) Ethel Waters (d. 1977) on Oct. 31 in Chester, Penn. French actor Pierre Richard-Willm (d. 1983) on Nov. 3 in Bayonne. Am. "When the Red, Red Robin", "I'm Looking Over a Four-Leaf Clover", "Side by Side" Tin Pan Alley songwriter (alcoholic) Henry MacGregor "Harry" Woods (d. 1896) on Nov. 4 in North Chelmsford, Mass.; born sans fingers on his left him, which doesn't stop him from playing the piano; educated at Harvard U.; collaborator of Gus Kahn (1886-1941). German pianist-composer Walter Wilhelm Gieseking (d. 1956) on Nov. 5 in Lyon, France. Am. "The Front Page" playwright-screenwriter Charles Gordon MacArthur (d. 1956) on Nov. 5 in Scranton, Penn.; brother of John D. MacArthur (1897-1978); husband (1928-56) of Helen Hayes (1900-93); foster father of Charles MacArthur (1937-); buys 2.6K acres in Palm Beach County, Fla. in 1954 for $5.5M. Am. Grand Ole Opry founder George Dewey Hay (d. 1968) on Nov. 9 in Attica, Ind. Am. Northrop Corp. founder and Lockheed Corp. co-founder (pioneer of the flying wing) John Knudsen "Jack" Northrop (d. 1981) on Nov. 10 in Newark, N.J.; grows up in Santa Barbara, Calif. Armenian "The Green Hat" writer-novelist-playwright Michael Arlen (Dikran Kouyoumdjian) (d. 1956) on Nov. 16 in Rousse, Bulgaria. German composer-conductor (Jewish) Paul Hindemith (d. 1963) on Nov. 16 in Hanau; pupil of Arnold Mendelssohn and Bernhard Sekles; banned by the Nazis for his modernity. Russian philosopher-lit. critic Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (d. 1975) on Nov. 17 in Oryol. Mexican "A Letter to God" novelist-poet-journalist Gregorio Lopez (López) y Fuentes (d. 1966) on Nov. 17 in El Mamey, Huasteca. English "Magnolia Street" novelist-poet (Jewish) Louis Golding (d. 1958) on Nov. 19 in Manchester; of Ukrainian Jewish descent; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. Czech Gen. Alois Liska (d. 1977) on Nov. 20 Zaborci (near Liberec). Am. "Edmund Pendleton, 1721-1803" atty.-writer (white supremacist) David John Mays (d. 1971) on Nov. 22. Soviet statesman (atheist) Anastas Hovhanessi Mikoyan (d. 1978) on Nov. 25 (Nov. 13 Old Style) in Sanahin, Yelizavetpol; of Armenian descent; brother of MiG aircraft designer Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (1905-70). Pakistani "Now or Never" nationalist (Sunni Muslim) (creator of the name Pakistan) Choudhry Rahmat Ali (d. 1951) on Nov. 16 in Balachaur, Punjab; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Am. "...And Ladies of the Club" novelist Helen Hooven Santmyer (d. 1986) on Nov. 25 in Cincinnati, Ohio; grows up in Xenia, Ohio; educated at Wellesley College, and Oxford U. Czech pres. #8 (1968-75) Ludvik (Ludvík) Svoboda (d. 1979) on Nov. 25 in Hroznatin (near Bratislava), Moravia. Am. Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder William Griffith Wilson ("Bill W.") (d. 1971) on Nov. 26 in East Dorset, Vt. French zoologist Pierre-Paul Grasse (Grassé) (d. 1985) on Nov. 27 in Perigeux, Dordogne. Spanish "Thousands Cheer" conductor-pianist Jose Iturbi Baguena (José Iturbi Báguena) (d. 1980) on Nov. 28 in Valencia. Am. "42nd Street" "parade of faces" dir.-choreographer Busby Berkeley (Berkeley William Enos) (d. 1976) on Nov. 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Stagecoach" stuntman Enos Edward "Yakima" Canutt (d. 1986) on Nov. 29 in Colfax, Wash. Liberian pres. #19 (1944-71) (black) (Methodist) William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman (d. 1971) on Nov. 29 in Harper. British Capt. Edward Harold Brittain (d. 1918) on Nov. 30 in Macclesfield, Cheshire; brother of Vera Brittain. Am. Dem. Ga. gov. #56 (1937-41) Eurith Dickinson "Ed" Rivers (d. 1967) on Dec. 1 in Center Point, U.; educated at la Salle U. English "Tarka the Otter" children's novelist Henry William Williamson (d. 1977) on Dec. 1 in Brockley, London. English pianist Harriet Cohen (d. 1967) on Dec. 2 in London. Am. organist ("Poet of the Organ") Jesse Crawford (d. 1962) on Dec. 2 in Woodland, Calif. Austrian psychoanalyst (Jewish) ("Founder of Child Psychoanalysis") Anna Freud (d. 1982) on Dec. 3 in Vienna; 6th and last child of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Martha Bernays (1861-1951); a lifelong virgin, her daddy psychoanalyzes her for masturbating. Kiwi activist Dame Whina Cooper (d. 1994) on Dec. 9 in Te Karaka, Hokianga; created dame in 1981. English "Mathematics for the Million", "Science for the Citizen" pacifist zoologist-statistician Lancelot Thomas Hogben (d. 1975) on Dec. 9 in Portsmouth; grows up in Southsea, Hampshire; Plymouth Brethren parents; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; enemy of the eugenics movement; creator of Interglossa; develops the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) as a model organism for biological research. Am. helicopter designer Henry Adler Berliner (d. 1970) on Dec. 13 in Washington, D.C.; son of Emile Berliner (1851-1929). French "Le Capital de la Douleur" surrealist poet Paul Eluard (Éluard) (Eugene Emile Paul Grindel) (Eugčne Émile Paul Grindel) (d. 1952) on Dec. 14 in Saint-Denis. British Windsor king #3 (1936-52) George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (d. 1952) on Dec. 14 in Sandringham, Norfolk; 2nd son of George V (1865-1936) and Mary of Teck (1867-1953); brother of David Windsor (Edward VIII) (1894-1972); father of Elizabeth II (1926-) by wife Elizabeth; last emperor of India (1936-47). German Wannsee Conference diplomat Martin Franz Julius Luther (d. 1945) on Dec. 16 in Berlin. Am. "Ain't Misbehavin'", "Honeysuckle Rose" composer (black) Andy Razaf (Andriamanenta Paul Razafinkarefo or Razafkeriefo) (d. 1973) on Dec. 16 in Washington, D.C.; descendant of Queen Ranavalona III of Madagascar; raised in Harlem, N.Y. Am. aviator and USAF brig. gen. Harold Ross Harris (d. 1988) on Dec. 20 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Throop College of Tech. (Caltech). Am. banker-philanthropist Edward Roland Noel "Bunny" Harriman (d. 1978) on Dec. 24 in New York City; son of railroad mogul Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909); brother of W. Averell Harriman (1891-1986); educated at Groton School, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones); classmate and friend of Prescott Bush (1895-1972). Am. "The Lonesome Road" conductor-composer (Jewish) Nathaniel Shilkret (d. 1982) on Dec. 25 in Austria. English "The Boat", "The Go-Between" novelist Leslie Poles "L.P." Hartley (d. 1972) on Dec. 30 in Wittlesey, Cambridgeshire; educated at Harrow School, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. "Nola", "Lopez Speaking" bandleader-pianist Vincent Lopez (d. 1975) on Dec. 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Portuguese immigrant parents. Swedish meteorologist-Arctic explorer Finn Adolf Erik Johan Malmgren (d. 1928) on ? in Goteborg. Am. blues singer (black) Trixie Smith (d. 1943) on ? in Atlanta, Ga. Am. "Buck Rogers" cartoonist "Lt." Dick Calkins (d. 192) in Grand Rapids, Mich. Am. "The Children of God" novelist Vardis Fisher (d. 1968) on ? in Annis, Idaho; educated at the U. of Utah, and U. of Chicago. Am. architect William Wilson Wurster (d. 1973) on ? in Stockton, Calif. U.S. nat. security advisor #1 (1953-5) and #4 (1957-9) Robert Cutler (d. 1974) on ? in Boston, Mass; educated at Harvard U. Palestinian anti-Semitic Arab Muslim nationalist leader (grand mufti of Jerusalem in 1921-48) Mohammad (Muhammad) Amin al-Husayni (al-Husseini) (d. 1974) on ? in Jerusalem; great-uncle of Yasser Arafat (1929-2004). Welsh poet-painter David M. Jones (d. 1974) on ? in ?. Soviet PM (1955-8) Nikolai A. Bulganin (d. 1975) on ? in ?. Am. bandleader Meyer Davis (d. 1976) on ? in ?. Peruvian statesman Victor Raul Haya de la Torre (d. 1979) on ? in ?; educated at Oxford U. Am. architect Wallace K. Harrison (d. 1981) on ? in ?. British writer Gayelord Hauser (d. 1984) on ? in ?. Am. economist Holbrook Working (d. 1985) on ? in Ft. Collins, Colo.; brother of Elmer Working; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. OPA head (1941-2) Leon Henderson (d. 1986) on ? in Millville, N.J.; educated at Swarthmore College. English WWII nurse Mary Lindell (d. 1986) (AKA Comtesse de Milleville, the Comtesse de Moncy, and Marie-Claire) in Surrey. Am. abstract expressionist artist (Jewish) Ben-Zion Weinman (d. 1987) on ? in ?; Polish parents. Am. "Don Winslow of the Navy" cartoonist Cmdr. Frank V. Martinek (d. ?). English "Sex and Culture" social anthropologist Joseph Daniel "J.D." Unwin (d. 1936). Deaths: Hungarian inventor Anyos Jedlik (b. 1800) on Dec. 13 in Gyor. Am. theologian Edward Beecher (b. 1803) on July 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld (b. 1803) on Feb. 3. Italian "Storia Universale" historian-novelist Cesare Cantu (b. 1804) on Mar. 11 in Milan. Am. Calif. gov. #1 (1849-51) Peter Hardeman Burnett (b. 1807) on May 17 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. Episcopal bishop Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe Sr. (b. 1808) on July 31 in Bristol, R.I. U.S. Supreme Court justice #40 (1870-80) William Strong (b. 1808) on Aug. 19 in Lake Minnewassa, N.Y. English Orientalist Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (b. 1810). English fuel cell inventor Sir William Robert Grove (b. 1811) on Aug. 1 in London. French military officer Baron Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthes (b. 1812) on Nov. 2 in Soultz-Haut-Rhin, Germany. French match inventor Charles Sauria (b. 1812) on Aug. 22 in Saint-Lothain. Am. geologist James Dwight Dana (b. 1813) on Apr. 14 in New Haven, Conn. English Liberal politician Henry Austin Bruce, 1st baron Aberdare (b. 1815) on Feb. 25 in London. German novelist-dramatist Gustav Freytag (b. 1816) on Apr. 30. French physician (BCG vaccine co-developer) Alphonse Guerin (b. 1816). Hungarian noiseless match chemist Janos Irinyi (b. 1817) on Dec. 17 in Vertes (modern-0day Letavertes). Am. abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass (b. 1817) on Feb. 20 in Washington, D.C.; dies in his 20-room Cedar Hill Mansion at 1411 W. St. S.E. in the black Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C., where he lived since 1877, which becomes the Frederick Douglass Nat. Historic Site in 1988; perched on a hilltop, it features a sweeping view of the Washington, D.C. skyline incl. the U.S. Capitol. "It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men." German historian Heinrich von Sybel (b. 1817) on Aug. 1 in Marburg. German naturalist Carl Vogt (b. 1817) on May 5 in Geneva, Switzerland. Irish poet Cecil Frances Alexander (b. 1818). Belgian painter Jean Francois Portaels (b. 1818) on Feb. 8 in Schaerbeek. Am. architect James Renwick Jr. (b. 1818) on June 23 in New York City; designed the Smithsonian Inst. Bldg., the Corcoran Galleries in Washington, D.C., and Grace Church and St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City. Am. sculptor-poet William Wetmore Story (b. 1819) on Oct. 7. Austrian (Dalmatian) composer Franz von Suppe (b. 1819) on May 21 in Vienna. German Socialist thinker (Marxism co-founder) Friedrich Engels (b. 1820) on Aug. 5 in London: "The state is not abolished, it withers away." Am. songwriter George Frederick Root (b. 1820) on Aug. 6 in Bailey Island, Maine. English railway supt. Patrick Stirling (b. 1820) on Nov. 11. English mathematician Arthur Cayley (b. 1821) on Jan. 26 in Cambridge. Austrian chemist Johann Loschmidt (b. 1821) on July 8 in Vienna. Am. dept. store magnate Eben Dyer Jordan (b. 1822) on Nov. 15 in Boston, Mass. Turkish reformer Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (b. 1822) on May 25; leaves a multi-vol. Ottoman History. French #1 chemist Louis Pasteur (b. 1822) on Sept. 28 in Marnes-la-Coquette: "Will, work and success... fill human existence." Russian economist-statesman Nikolai Bunge (b. 1823) on June 15 (June 3 Old Style). French novelist-playwright Alexandre Dumas fils (b. 1824) on Nov. 27 in Marly-le-Roi, Yvelines: "All generalizations are dangerous, even this one." English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (b. 1825) on June 29 in Eastbourne, Sussex: "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me." English fashion designer Charles Frederick Worth (b. 1825) on Mar. 10 in Paris. Am. railroad exec William Mahone (b. 1826) on Oct. 8 in Washington, D.C. Am. architect Richard Morris Hunt (b. 1827) on July 31 in Newport, R.I.; designed the Metropolitan Museum in New York City (part), and the Nat. Observatory in Washington, D.C. Am. "The Four Hundred" high society arbiter Samuel Ward McAllister (b. 1827) on Jan. 31 in New York City; dies while dining alone at the Union Club; on Feb. 5 his funeral is attended by Chauncey Depew, Cornelius Vanderbilt II and other high society figures. Am. Civil Union gen. Ely Parker (b. 1828) on Aug. 31 in Fairfield, Conn.; dies in poverty. Spanish gen. Manuel Pavia y Rodriguez de Albuquerque (b. 1828) on Jan. 4. U.S. Repub. Sen. (1883-95) James Falconer Wilson (b. 1828) on Apr. 22 in Fairfield, Iowa. Egyptian khedive (1863-79) Ismael (Ismael) (b. 1830). Russian novelist Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov (b. 1831) on Mar. 5 in St. Petersburg (breast cancer). Am. soldier-jurist-statesman Walter Quintin Gresham (b. 1832) on May 28 in Washington, D.C. U.S. Supreme Court justice (1893-5) Howell Edmunds Jackson (b. 1832) on Aug. 8 (TB). German physicist Franz Ernst Neumann (b. 1832) on May 23 in Konigsberg. German inventor Eugen Langen (b. 1833) on Oct. 2. English historian Sir John Seeley (b. 1834) on Jan. 13 in Cambridge (cancer): "History is the school of statesmanship"; "History is past politics, and politics present history"; "History without politics descends to mere literature." Irish-born Pres. Lincoln's valet Charles Forbes (b. 1835) on Oct. 11 in Washington, D.C. English-born Am. baseball hall-of-fame player-mgr. Harry Wright (b. 1835) on Oct. 3 in Atlantic City, N.J. Welsh novelist Daniel Owen (b. 1836) on Oct. 22. Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (b. 1836) on Feb. 12 (suicide). Austrian masochist novelist Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (b. 1836) on Mar. 9 in Lindheim (Mannheim?) (in an asylum?). French artist Emile Munier (b. 1840) on June 29 in Paris. Swiss biologist Friedrich Miescher (b. 1844) on Aug. 26 in Davos (TB). Scottish surgeon Robert Lawson Tait (b. 1845) on June 13 in Llandudno, Wales (kidney failure). Am.-born British pharmacist Silas Mainville Burroughs (b. 1846) on Feb. 6 in Monte Carlo, Monaco (pneumonia). Japanese gen. Odera Yasuzumi (b. 1846) on Feb. 9 in Weihai, China (KIA). Honduran pres. (1883-91) Luis Bogran (b. 1849) on July 9 in Guatemala City, Guatemala. English politician Lord Randolph Churchill (b. 1849) on Jan. 24 in London (syphilis). Am. "Wynken, Blynken and Nod", "Little Boy Blue" journalist-poet Eugene Field (b. 1850) on Nov. 4 in Chicago, Ill. (heart attack). Am. outlaw John Wesley Hardin (b. 1853) on Aug. 19 in El Paso, Tex.; killed 42 men by 1878 when he was put in prison. Cuban rev. leader Jose Marti (b. 1853) on May 19 near Contramaestre and Cauto (KIA); the song "Guantanamera" is later composed from a poem in his book "Versos Sencillos" (Simple Verses), becoming the nat. Cuban anthem. Bulgarian PM #9 (1887-94) Stefan Stambulov (b. 1854) on July 19 in Sofia (assassinated). Scottish explorer Joseph Thomson (b. 1858) on Aug. 2 in London, England: "He who goes gently, goes safely; he who goes safely, goes far."

1896 - The Tough Bitch Radioactivity Cross of Gold Thus Spake Zarathustra Modern Olympics Year?

William Jennings Bryan of the U.S. (1860-1925) Arthur Sewall of the U.S. (1835-1900) Thomas Edward Watson of the U.S. (1856-1922) John McAuley Palmer of the U.S. (1817-1900) Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr. of the U.S. (1823-1914) William Allen White (1868-1944) British Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener (1850-1916) British Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet of Canada (1821-1915) Sir Wilfrid Laurier of Canada (1841-1919) Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of Iran (1853-1907) Khalid bin Barghash of Zanzibar (1874-1927) Hamoud bin Mohammed of Zanzibar (1853-1902) So Chae-p'il of Korea (1864-1951) Gen. Li Hung-chang of China (1823-1901) Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippines (1869-1964) Federico Errázuriz Echaurren of Chile (1850-1901) Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) James Brendan Bennet Connolly of the U.S. (1868-1957) Thomas Edward Burke of the U.S. (1875-1929) Spiridon Louis of Greece (1873-1940) British Lt.-Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) British Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) Catherine Breshkovsky (1844-1934) Alfred Austin (1835-1913) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935) Homer Plessy (1863-1925) William Sharp (Fina MacLeod) (1855-1905) Maud Booth (1865-1948) and Ballington Booth (1857-1940) Mary Scott Lord Dimmick Harrison (1858-1948) George Washington Carver (1864-1943) Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1842-1924) Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northldliffe (1865-1922) Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere (1868-1940) Abraham Lincoln Erlanger (1859-1930) Werner Sombart (1863-1941) Charles Thompson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) Marc Klaw (1858-1936) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) Ludwig Rehn (1849-1930) Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927) Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) Richard Strauss (1864-1949) Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919) Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) William Merritt Chase (1849-1916) Christian Sinding (1856-1941) Charles M. Manly (1876-1927) and Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) Henry Ford (1863-1947) William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913) Julia Tuttle (1849-98) Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) Eugene-Anatole Demarcay (1852-1903) Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928) Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) Olds Pirate, 1896 Alexander Winton (1860-1932) Baron de la Vallée-Poussin (1866-1962) Jacques-Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963) Otto Richard Lummer (1860-1925) Ernst Pringsheim (1859-1917) Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) Harriet Emilie Cady (1848-1941) C. Edmund Kells (1856-1928) William Bell Wait (1839-1916) William Chandler Roberts-Austen (1843-1902) Ernest Chausson (1855-99) Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928) Joe Ladue (1855-1901) George Mercer Dawson (1849-1901) Soapy Smith (1860-98) John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910) William Allen White (1868-1944) Richard Dehmel (1863-1920) Dorothy Dix (1861-1951) Eleonora Duse (1858-1924) Bridget Driscoll (1825-96) Fannie Farmer (1857-1915) Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829-1902) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943) Lydia Moss Bradley (1816-1908) Adolf Brand (1874-1945) Abraham Cahan (1860-1951) John Dewey (1859-1952) Abraham Geiger (1810-74) Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) Pierre Louys (1870-1925) Katherine Tingley (1847-1929) Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934) Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938) Horace Dutton Taft (1861-1943) William Selig (1864-1948) Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931) Abigail Jane Scot Duniway (1834-1915) Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860-1908) Stephen Phillips (1864-1915) Edward Arlington Robinson (1869-1935) Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) Crash at Crush, Sept. 15, 1896 Richard Felton Outcault (1863-1928) 'The Yellow Kid', 1896- Fritz Maytag III (1937-) Anchor Steam logo Parlophone Edwin Stanton Porter (1870-1941) John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) Charles Klein (1867-1915) 'El Capitan', 1896 Max Beerbohm (1872-1956) Max Beerbohm (1872-1956) Self-Portrait James Tissot (1836-1902) 'The May Irwin Kiss', 1896 'Boy with Skull' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1896-8 'The Flying Dutchman' by Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), 1896 'Troll Who Smells Christian Blood' by Niels Hansen-Jacobsen, 1896 'War I' by Arnold Böcklin, 1896 'War II' by Arnold Böcklin, 1896 Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921+) 'The Caress' by Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921), 1896 'The Geisha', 1896 'The House of the Devil', 1896 'Ubu Roi' by Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), 1896 'The Shepherdess of Rolleboise' by Daniel Ridgway Knight (1839-1924), 1896 'Hylas and the Nymphs' by John William Waterhouse (1849-1917), 1894 Dartboard, 1896 Sir Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) Merneptah Stele Alexandre Darracq (1855-1931) Darracq 6-1/2 HP, 1900 Darracq Flying Fifteen 1904 Émile Mayade (1853-98) Emile Mayade's 1986 Panhard et Levassor Olympia Beer St. Nicholas Rink, 1896-1962

1896 On Jan. 1 the Venezuelan Boundary Commission, chaired by Oscar II of Sweden and Norway is formed to settle the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain (ends 1897); Johns Hopkins U. pres. Daniel Coit Gilman is a member. On Jan. 2 Dr. Leander Starr Jameson is defeated at Doornkop ("thorn hill"); on Jan. 3 Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II sends the Kruger Telegram, congratulating Pres. Paul Kruger and offering military aid in a misguided attempt to win British friendship, which backfires, causing the British govt. to seek an agreement with France and Russia, resulting in a Jan. 15 agreement with France abandoning British claims in Siam, but no deal with the Russkies; on Jan. 6 Cape Colony PM #7 (since July 17, 1890) Cecil Rhodes resigns after being implicated in the Jameson Raid, effective Jan. 12. On Jan. 4 after a ban on polygamy is written into the state constitution, "Beehive State" Utah (Ute "people of the mountains") is admitted as the 45th U.S. state; a debate begins about whether to call a resident of Utah a Utahan or a Utahn (ends ?) - are you my tah, er, pah? On Jan. 4 Prince Henry of Battenberg arrives in Africa, and promptly contracts malaria at Prahsu (30 mi. from Kumasi), is shipped back, and dies on HMS Blonde en route on Jan. 20; on Jan. 20 after British troops arrive in Kumasi, Prempeh I of Ashanti submits to the gov. of Cape Coast without a fight, and is arrested along with his royal family, ending the Fourth British-Ashanti War (begun 1895); on Jan. 1, 1897 they are deported to Sierra Leone then the Seychelles, clearing the way for British annexation of Going Going Ghana in 1902; Prempeh returns in 1924 as a private citizen, and after petitions from his sujects he is reenstooled, er, reinstalled on the Golden Stool in 1926, ending up dying in 1931 when a giant tree falls on him - Ghana is ready for Shirley Temple Black? In Jan. a 24-day heat wave in Australia sees temps reach 48C, killing 437 incl. many children; the max temp is above 38.8C for 3+ weeks. On Feb. 11 King Kojong of Korea flees to the Russian legation during yet another uprising, remaining under Russian protection for the next year while being used by the Russians to gain dominance, resulting on June 9 in the Lobanov-Yamagata Agreement, establishing a condominium with Japan; Russia sends advisors, founds a Russian-Korean bank, and gains timber and mining concessions. In Feb. Tsar Nicholas II and Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand kiss and make up, and Crown Prince Boris (b. 1894) is baptized into the Russian Orthodox faith, causing Russia to begin securing the recognition of Ferdinand by the powers - here's a cute little icon, boy? Oops, a bunch of African blacks kicks lily-white Italian butt in a fair fight? On Mar. 1-2 the Ethiopians (Abyssinians) under Emperor Menelik II disastrously defeat the Italians at the Battle of Adowa (Aduwa), ending the First Ethiopian War (begun 1885); Italy withdraws its protectorate, and Italian commissioners are forced to kneel in front of black guys on thrones, causing Humbert I's popularity to tank, and Francesco Crispi's cabinet to fall; seeing their chance, Crispi's many enemies charge him with embezzlement and get him censured but not prosecuted, allowing him to get reelected to the chamber of deputies, only to become a whimp because of ill health? On Mar. 10 after the Adowa disaster causes Giovanni Giollit's cabinet to fall, Antonio Starabba becomes PM of Italy again (until June 29, 1898). On Mar. 12 the British under Maj. Gen. (later field marshal) Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (1850-1916) begin the reconquest of the Sudan from the Mahdists by an advance on Dongola with a simultaneous plan to protect the Nile River from designs of the pesky French, building a railway for supply. On Mar. 21 William Q. Judge (b. 1851) dies in New York City, and Katherine Tingley (1847-1929) becomes leader of the Theosophical Society, going on to move the HQ in 1900 to Point Loma (near San Diego), Calif. In Mar. British Gen. Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941) easily puts down the Second Matabele War in Rhodesia (ends Oct. 1897) of the Ndebele-Shona, which the Africans call the First Chimurenga War (Shona for struggle); after the rise of Communism, the Shona get even with the Brits in the Second Chimurenga War of 1966-80. On Apr. 6 recently widowed (1892) 62-y.-o. former U.S. pres. (1889-93) Benjamin Harrison (b. 1833) marries his wife's much younger widowed (married for 11 weeks) 38-y.-o. niece Mary Scott Lord Dimmick (1858-1948) (who had moved into the White House in 1889 to be his wife's asst., allowing him to play head of the nation with her?), shocking his grown children, who snub the marriage; they skip the honeymoon and go right into rabbit raising in Indianapolis, and have no sons and 1 daughter, atty. Elizabeth Harrison Walker (1897-1955), finding time to go to Venezuela to help settle the boundary dispute; when her old fart hubby dies in 1901, she spends her last 47 years as a widow, for a total of five years of marriage with two men. On Apr. 6-15 the modern I (1st) Summer Olympic Games, organized by Pierre de Coubertin and the Union des Sport Athletiques are held in Athens, Greece (that's in Europe not Asia), with 241 athletes (all men) from 14 countries; the U.S. team is almost late in arriving on the German freighter Barbarossa because they didn't know that Greece still uses the Old Style calendar; the first championship (silver not gold) medal is awarded to Boston-born James Brendan Bennet Connolly (1868-1957) of the U.S. (who takes a leave of absence from Harvard, and is robbed in Naples and has to chase the bum down to get his boat ticket back) for the hop, skip, and jump (triple jump) (13.71m, almost 1m ahead of #2), making him the first Olympic champ since 389 C.E. (he also comes in 2nd in the high jump and 3rd in the long jump); crouch-starter (Boston U. student) Thomas Edmund "Tom" Burke (1875-1929) of the U.S. wins the 100m dash in 12.0 sec. and the 400m in 54.2 sec.; the Greeks remain winless until the last event, the marathon (ending in Panathenaic Stadium), which is won by 23-y.-o. mineral water supplier Spiridon (Spyridon) "Spiros" Louis (1873-1940); Haralambos Vassilakos of Greece places 2nd, and yet another Greek, Dimitries Velokas places 3rd; later it is discovered that Velokas had hidden a horse and carriage in a park and ridden part of the way, so his medal is stripped from him and awarded to Gyulla Kellner (1871-1940) of Hungary. On Apr. 23 the first commercial moving picture shows are viewed by the U.S. public at Koster and Bial's Music Hall on 34th St. in New York City; on June 26 Vitascope Hall on Canal St. in New Orleans, La. opens, becoming the first movie theater in the U.S.; New Orleans also had the first U.S. opera house in 1796, and also originates jazz; On June 29 the Keith-Albee vaudeville theater circuit stages the first U.S. exhibition of the Lumiere Cinematographe at the Union Square Theatre in New York City; on Oct. 19 the Edisonia Parlors and Vitascope Hall in the basement of the Ellicott Square Bldg. at 305 Main St. in Buffalo, N.Y. becomes the first in Buffalo; Connellsville, Penn.-born electrician Edwin Stanton (Stratton?) Porter (1870-1941) is hired by Raff & Gammon of New York City, agents for the films and projectors of Thomas Edison, then quits to tour with the Projectorscope from the Internat. Film Co. of Kuhn and Webster, visiting the West Indies, South Am., Canada, and back to the U.S., returning to New York in 1898 and working at the Eden Musee in Manhattan, showing Edison films of the Spanish-Am. War before joining Edison Manufacturing Co. in 1899, soon rising to head of the studio, becoming the #1 filmmaker in the U.S. in the 1900s decade. On Apr. 27 Sir Mackenzie Bowell resigns, and on May 1 seven days after parliament dissolves, Conservative Nova Scotia PM (1864-7) (Baptist) Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet (1821-1915) becomes PM #6 of Canada 69 days before the election, which he loses on July 8 (shortest term as Canadian PM until ?) after the Liberals favor rights for French-speaking Manitobans; on July 11 Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919) becomes PM #7 of Canada (until Oct. 6, 1911), becoming the first Francophone Canadian PM, uttering the soundbyte: "Canada is free and freedom is its nationality", going on to work to establish Canada as autonomous within the British empire, even if it never becomes a melting pot like you know what down south. On May 1 ignorant dissolute Persian shah (since Sept. 17, 1848) Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (b. 1831) is assassinated in Tehran in a shrine while celebrating his 50th anniv. by Mirza Reza Kermani, and his intellectual and well-pleasured son Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar (1853-1907) becomes Qajar shah #5 of Persia (until 1907), going on to found the Iranian constitution and Iranian cinema while enjoying his wives and boys, and once giving the main garrison of Tehran to his boy ho Little Satan while drunk. On May 4 after acquiring The Evening News in 1894, Alfred Harmsworth (1865-1922) (later Lord Northcliffe) and his brother Harold Harmsworth (1868-1940) (later Lord Rothermere) begin pub. the London Daily Mail, with the mottoes "The busy man's daily journal" and "The penny newspaper for a halfpenny", setting the world record for daily circ., going on to acquire the Weekly Dispatch (founded Sept. 27, 1881) and turn it into the Sunday (Weekly) Dispatch, which becomes the highest circ. Sun. newspaper in Britain, merging on June 18, 1961 with the Sunday Express, going on to become the 2nd biggest-selling U.K. newspaper after The Sun; in Feb. 2017 editors of Wikipedia vote to ban it as an unreliable source. On May 8 Utah adopts the 1896 Utah Constitution. On May 18 Sheikh Al-Sabah (1837-1915) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor Anthony Quinn (1915-2001)?) becomes ruler of Kuwait (until Nov. 28, 1915) after killing his two brothers Mohammad I and Jarrah, claiming to liberate it from the Ottomans. On May 18 after passing-for-white passenger Homer Plessy (1863-1925) (African-Am. great-grandmother) of New Orleans, La. is set up by the New Orleans Committee of Citizens and refuses to leave a railroad car reserved for (pure) whites only and is jailed under a La. law, allowing the committee to fight it in court, the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules 7-1 in Plessy v. Ferguson that no person is denied any of his rights under the 14th Amendment (due process) if the states provide "separate but equal" (white and black) public facilities (overturned in 1956); justice David Josiah Brewer doesn't participate in the decision; John Marshall Harlan dissents, claiming that segregating the races on public transports denies blacks equal protection of the laws; the decision shuts blacks out for the next 75 years, and stiffens black determination, with the committee uttering the soundbyte: "We, as freemen still believe that we were right and our cause is sacred" - what about that skunky African armpit odor, and what if a black buck is left alone with an unattended prime white female - case closed until the Jews come to the rescue? On May 26 the first Dow Jones Industrial Average is pub., consisting of a dozen stocks (40.94). On May 27 255 people are killed by a tornado in St. Louis, Mo. and East St. Louis, Ill. In late May gold is discovered at Fortymile Creek in Alaska, followed on Swedish engineer ? Andre explores the Arctic in a balloon. On June 6 George Samuelson and Frank Harpo leave New York Harbor in an 18-ft. rowboat, arriving 56 days later on the Scilly Islands off England, becoming the first to row across the Atlantic Ocean. On June 16-18 the 1896 Repub. Nat. Convention in St. Louis, Mo. Penn. is sewn-up in advance by president-maker Marcus Alonzo Hanna, who bills his protective tariff loving man Ohio Gov. William A. McKinley as the "Advance Agent of Prosperty", and fights off House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed's bid to get him nominated on the first ballot, then changes pres. campaigns forever with new advertising-style campaign practices that make a monkey out of old fashioned William Jennings Bryan; McKinley's close friend Garret A. Hobart of N.J. is nominated for vice-pres.; when the party platform adopts a gold plank, a small group of Western "Silver Republicans" bolt. On June 19-Mar. 9 the Leadville Miners' Strike sees silver miners protesting low wages backed by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) defeated by the owners, who almost get the union dissolved, turning its leaders radical and militant and leaving the Am. Federation of Labor (AFL). On July 1 the Malay Treaty of Federation unites Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang as the Federated Malay States (FMS) (unitl 1946) under the British gov. of the Straits Settlements, while retaining separate British residents; it counts 218K people in a census, of whom only 53% are Malays, the rest Chinese and Indians; the Unfederated Malay States (UMS) of Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu have a similar composition. On July 2 So Chae-p'il (Philip Jaisohn) (1864-1951) (recently returned from the U.S., where he studied medicine) founds the Independence Club in Korea, lobbying against foreign imperialism (ends 1898). On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with 45 stars (design #23), which now incl. Utah; no more changes for 12 years as the U.S. slides into the 20th cent. with 45 states, gaining 30 this cent. On July 7-11 the 1896 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. is held; at first no candidate stands out, until strong-voiced 36-y.-o. 3-term Neb. rep. William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) gives his pro-silver Cross of Gold Speech on July 9, electrifying the audience with the soundbyte "You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold", and the "Boy Orator of the Platte" is nominated for pres. the next day on the 3rd ballot; wealthy Maine shipbuilder Arthur Sewall (1835-1900) is nominated for vice-pres.; after getting pissed-off at Bryan for picking anti-trade union candidate Sewall, the People's (Populist) Party splits with Bryan, nominating anti-Roman Catholic, anti-black (pro-KKK), anti-Semitic (later anti-WWI, anti-Wilson, anti-League of Nations) Thomas Edward "Tom" Watson (1856-1922) of Ga. for vice-pres., who goes on to receive 217K votes; the anti-Bryan anti-free-silver 1896 Nat. "Sound Money" Dem. Party (Gold Dems.) Convention in Indianapolis, Ind. nominates former Ill. gov. and Civil War Union gen. John McAuley Palmer (1817-1900) for pres., and former Ky. gov. and Civil War Confed. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr. (1823-1914) of Ky. for vice-pres.; Emporia Gazette ed. ("the Sage of Emporia) William Allen White (1868-1944) of Kan. pub. the article "What's the Matter with Kansas?", attacking Bryan, Dems., and Populists for frightening capital away from Kan. with their anti-business policies, which becomes a hit, causing the Repubs. to distribute hundreds of thousands of copies, making him a nat. figure. On July 18 the Daughters of the Confederacy is formed in Atlanta, Ga. with an initial membership of 100. On July 28 after Standard Oil Co. co-founder Henry Morrison Flager (1830-1913) builds the Fla. East Coast Railway and finds out that the Great Orange Belt Freeze of 1894-5 spared the Miami River, and purchases the land from ("the Mother of Miami") Julia DeForest Tuttle (nee Sturtevant) (1849-98), then finances its development, the city of Miami, Fla. (modern-day pop. 450K/5.5M) in Dade County on Biscayne Bay (named after the Mayaimi (Maymi) (Maimi) people) is incorporated, Flagler graciously declining the honor of having it called Flagler - it would later have been nice to call it Fagler? In July after black women's clubs are refused permission to exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World's fair, the Nat. Assoc. of Colored Women (NACW) (changed in 1904 to Nat. Assoc. of Colored Women's Clubs) in Washington, D.C. is founded by Harriet Tubman (1820-1913), Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1842-1924), Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) (pres. #1) et al. from 100+ black women's clubs, going on to campaign for women's suffrage and against Jim Crow laws and lynching, reaching 300K members by 1918. On Aug. 16 gold is discovered at the Discovery Claim in Bonanza Creek (originally Rabbit Creek) in Yukon Territory launching the Klondike Gold Rush (ends 1899) of 100K mostly disappointed prospectors, who discover millions of dollars in gold; after gold is discovered in Birch Creek, Circle, Alaska 50 mi. S of the Arctic Circle 160 mi. NE of Fairbanks, founded in 1893 as a transit point between the Yukon River and Bering Sea reaches 700 pop., then dwindles after gold is discovered in Nome in 1899, later becoming the unofficial terminus of the Pan-Am. Highway; next Jan. Dawson City in Yukon Territory 17km N of the Discovery Claim is founded by Joseph Francis "Joe" Ladue (1855-1901), who names it after Canadian geologist George Mercer Dawson (1849-1901), becoming the center of the gold rush and the capital of Yukon Territory in 1898-1952; next July 29 Skagway on the Alaska Panhandle is founded after the steamer Queen docks at Moore's Wharf, growing to 8K by spring 1898 and 10K by June 1898, becoming the largest city of Alaska, who are worked over by crime boss Jefferson Randolph "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98), who gives the town its rep as "little better than a hell on earth". On Aug. 16 William Allen White (1868-1944), owner of the Emporia Gazette pub. the editorial "What's the Matter With Kansas?", rocketing him to nat. fame with Repubs., after which he becomes good friends with Theodore Roosevelt and the unofficial spokesman for middle America. On Aug. 17 Bridget Driscoll (b. 1825) becomes the first person to die in a gasoline engine automobile accident after an automobile belonging to the Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co. runs over her on the grounds of the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London. On Aug. 23 the Philippine rev. against the Spanish breaks out with the Cry of Balintawak (Pugadlawin), led by Katipunan founder Andres Bonifacio; unfortunately the intellectuals (ilustrados) don't back the rebels?; on Nov. 11 the Spanish are repulsed by Filipino rebels under Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) in Cavite at the Battle of Binakayan (their first V), causing the rebellion to spread to other provinces; on Dec. 30 Jose Rizal is executed (shot), increasing popular resentment and adding fuel. On Aug. 25 sultan (since 1893) Sayyid Hamad bin Thuwaini al-Busaid dies, and his nephew Sayyid Khalid bin Barghash al-Busaid (1874-1927), eldest son of sultan #2 Sayyid Barghash bin Said al-Busaid seizes power from the British choice Hamoud bin Mohammed, becoming sultan #6, which pisses them off, causing them on Aug. 27 to issue an ultimatum at 8:00, then start a war which begins at 9 a.m. and ends 36-45 min. later after British warships open fire and the new sultan hastily surrenders, becoming the shortest war on record (until ?); al-Busaid flees to Zanzibar, and on Aug. 28 Hamoud bin Mohammed (1853-1902) becomes sultan (until July 18, 1902), paying the Brits back by banning slavery next year, for which Queen Vicky decorates him. On Aug. 26 Armenians of the Dashnak Party seize the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople (Istanbul), setting off large-scale massacres of Armenians there while pleas for European intervention go unheeded. In Aug. the 10-day 1896 Eastern North Am. Heat Wave from Chicago, Ill. to Newark, N.J., New York City, and Boston, Mass. kills 1.5K esp. manual laborers despite NYC police commissioner Theodore Roosevelt ordering free ice distributed at police stations and permission to sleep in New York City parks so they won't fall off their roofs at night when the temps don't drop. In Aug. Chinese ambassador ("the yellow Bismarck") Gen. Li Hung-chang (Li Hongzhang) (1823-1901) visits the U.S., causing Chop Suyi, er, Chop Suey to become popular in the U.S. after his chef allegedly devises it in New York City. On Sept. 8 Russia and China sign the Manchuria Convention. On Sept. 15 the Crash at Crush between Dallas an Houston, Tex. sees a staged head-on train crash by the Mo.-Kan.-Tex. (Katy) Railroad attended by 40K end in disaster when the boilers of both engines explode, sending flying debris that kills two and injures several; ragtime composer Scott Joplin copyrights the "Great Crush Collision March" on Oct. 15. On Sept. 18 Federico Errazuriz (Errázuriz) Echaurren (1850-1901), son of former pres. Federico Errazuriz Zanartu becomes pres. of Chile (until July 12, 1901). On Sept. 28 Pathe Freres (Pathé Frčres) film studio is founded in France by the Pathe Brothers Charles, Emile, Theophile, and Jacques, becoming the world's largest film equipment and production co. by the early 1900s; in 1908 they invent the newsreel. On Sept. 29 (Michaelmas) the first Ford Lecture in British History at Oxford U., named after benefactor James Ford (1779-1851) is delivered by English historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829-1902). On Oct. 13 amateurs George Law, Jim Shirley, and "The Kid" Pierce rob the Bank of Meeker in NW Colo. about 3 p.m., but it goes bad when they emerge to face armed citizens, causing them try and take hostages, backfiring in the killing of all three. In Oct. Bradley U. (originally Bradley Polytechnic Inst.) in Peoria, Ill. is chartered by philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley (1816-1908). On Nov. 3 after William Jennings Bryan tries to change the main campaign issue from protective tariffs to free silver, stumping 13K mi. across the country at 600 speaking stops, McKinley prefers to campaign from his front porch in Canton, Ohio, receiving a total of 750K persons between June and Nov., delivering campaign speeches in which he is fond of saying "of the government", while big Repub. money makes up the difference with an antisilver "educational campaign" of hundreds of millions of pamphlets, McKinley wins the 1896 U.S. Pres. Election, defeating Bryan by 7M popular (271 electoral) votes to 6.5M popular (176 electoral) votes. On Nov. 15 an article in the New York Journal observes that Bloomers are becoming fashionable for female bicycle riders in Paris, even when not biking; modern female underwear evolves from these, as women find their first way to be free of the family jeweler for awhile by biking. On Nov. 16 impresario Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919), owner of the Manhattan Opera House decides to get out of financial trouble by switching the best known talent to the worst, and introduces the god-awful Cherry Sisters, Elizabeth, Effie, Jessie, and Addie at the Olympia Theatre in New York City, who end up performing behind a wire screen as they sing "Cherries ripe, Boom-de-ay, Cherries red, Boom-de-ay, the Cherry Sisters have come to stay"; when it folds, he goes back to high quality fare. On Nov. 25 William Marshall of London receives the first parking ticket after leaving his car in Tokenhouse Yard; the case is dismissed. The Nobel Prizes are born with a bang or a whimper? On Dec. 10 dynamite king Alfred Nobel (b. 1833) dies of heart trouble after uttering the immortal soundbye "Isn't it the irony of life that I have been prescribed nitroglycerin to be taken internally?", and in his (ironic?) will establishes the Nobel Prizes in peace, literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology (but not math, why?), which begin to be awarded in 1901 (so it's easier to remember who goes with what?); all prizes are chosen by a Swedish academy except peace, which he insists be chosen by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Storting, to be awarded to "the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the promotion of peace congresses"; have to wait till 1969 for economics; a life bachelor, what woman would want a man who says that "No happiness goes with inherited fortune"? :) - noble gases are inert, Nobel gases are a blast? Niger is incorporated into French West Africa, joining Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Upper Volta (Dahomey in 1904). France annexes Madagascar. The British declare a protectorate over Sierra Leone, pissing-off local tribes. A military alliance is formed between Transvaal and Orange Free State. An Anglo-French Concord guarantees the independence of Siam (Thailand). The Cretan Revolt against Turkish rule begins in Crete (ends 1897), with Christians rebels proclaiming union with Greece. The Triple Alliance is tacitly renewed for another six years. Afghanistani emir Abdul Rahman Khan conquers the polytheistic territory of Kafiristan in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and forces the Kafir pop. to convert to Sunni Islam, integrating it as the province of Nurestan (Land of Light). Tsar Nicholas II visits Paris and London. Who's-dat type poet Alfred Austin (1835-1913) becomes poet laureate of England after Queen Victoria passes over better Welsh poet Sir Lewis Morris (1833-1907) because of his friendship with notorious sodomite Oscar Wilde, and even better 31-y.-o. English poet Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), who pisses her off by calling her "Missis Victorier" and "the widow of Windsor"? Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid move to a remote area of Wyo. known as the Hole in the Wall. Russian rev. leader Catherine Breshkovsky (1844-1934) returns from exile in Siberia (since 1878), and founds the Socialist Revolutionists, which in 1902 becomes the Socialist Rev. Party after she flees to Switzerland in 1900, becoming known as the Babushka (Grandmother) of the Russian Rev. Utah and Idaho become the 2nd and 3rd U.S. states to allow women the vote; Ill.-born Abigail Jane Scott Duniway (1834-1915) leads the effort in Idaho, followed by Wash. in 1910, and Ore. in 1912. The building of the East African Kenya-Uganda Railway from Lake Victoria to Mombasa is disrupted by two maneless 9-ft.-long killer lions nicknamed "Ghost" and "Darkness", who kill 28 laborers plus a bunch of natives (allegedly up to 135 total) before white engineer Lt.-Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) calls in big game hunter Remington (Michael Douglas) while Man Friday, er, Samuel (John Kani) sees omens in the meaning of the name Tsavo River, which is "place of slaughter"; in 2009 scientific studies indicate that they really only ate 4-72, most likely 35; subject of the Stephen Hopkins' 1996 film The Ghost and the Darkness, starring Val Kilmer as Patterson. Victoria, Australia enacts minimum wage legislation, with a board on which workers and employers have equal representation, becoming the model for the 1909 British Trade Boards Act. The city of Harbin (Manchu "place for drying fishing nets") in Heilongjiang Province, NE China (modern-day pop. 10.6M) becomes the main construction center for the Chinese Eastern Railway through Manchuria, which by 1904 links the Trans-Siberian Railroad coming from E Lake Baikal, Siberia with the Russian port of Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan (East Sea); during the 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War it becomes a base for Russian military operations; after the 1917 Russian Rev. it becomes a haven for refugees, with the largest pop. of any Russian city outside the Soviet Union, gaining the nickname "Eastern Moscow"; in the 1920s it becomes China's fashion capital; in 1985 it begins hosting the annual winter ice sculpture festival in 2004 it is voted China's top tourist city. The U. of the Witwatersrand (originally South African School of Mines until 1904, then Transvaal Technical Inst. until 1906, Transvaal U. College until 1910, South African School of Mines and Technology until 1920, and Univ. College, Johannesburg until 1922) is founded in Johannesburg, South Africa, becoming the #1 univ. in South Africa; in 1959 the Extension of University Education Act forces it to comply with apartheid, ending its policy of admitting black students on merit; in 1990 apartheid is abolished, and the univ. is desegregated; alumni incl. writer Nadine Gordimer and rocker Manfred Mann - you were divine, it's been three years, get on with it? The Royal Victorian Order is founded to recognize distinguished personal service to the British monarch and/or his/her family or viceroy; the official day is June 20, its chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its motto is "Victoria". The Irish Agricultural Org. Society is founded to try to rehabilitate Ireland's ruined agriculture. The Am. Nurses Assoc. (ANA) (originally the Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States of America) is founded in New York City, moving the HQ to Silver Spring, Md.; it goes on to found the Am. Nurses Foundation (1955), the Am. Academy of Nursing (1973), and the Am. Nurses Credentialing Center (1973). Ballington Booth (1857-1940), son of Salvation Army founders William and Catherine Booth, who was U.S. cmdr. from 1887, leaves the org. after a dispute with his father on methods of operation and founds the Volunteers of America (VOA) with his wife Maud Ballington Booth (nee Charlesworth) (1865-1948). The Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, Penn. is founded. Niagara Falls opens to the public. New York becomes the first U.S. state to regulate the accounting profession. The Nat. Portrait Gallery in London is moved from Bethnal Green to Westminster. Theatrical mgrs. and booking agents Charles Frohman (1856-1915), Al Hayman (1847-1917), Abraham Lincoln "Abe" Erlanger (1859-1930), Marcus "Marc" Klaw (1858-1936), Samuel Frederic Nixon-Nirdlinger (1848-1918), and Fred Zimmermann of Philly form the Theatrical Syndicate in New York City, which goes on to gain a monopoly over the entire U.S. (until 1910); about this time Woodlawn Cemetery (founded in 1863) George M. Cohan, and Antoinette Perry, musicians incl. Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, W.C. Handy, and Max Roach, and writers incl. Joseph Pulitzer, Damon Runyon, Countee Cullen, and Herman Melville. After being fired from Mignon in 1894 for messing up the words, Italian tenor Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) becomes a star performing in La Traviata at the Teatro del Fondo in Naples. Italian actress Eleonora Duse (1858-1924) makes a triumphant tour of the U.S., which turns on pres. Grover Cleveland and his wife, who shocks Washington society by giving the first-ever tea for an actress. Am. outlaw John Wesley Hardin (1853-95) is released from prison after being sentenced to 25 years in 1877 for multiple murder, and pub. The Life of John Wesley Hardin As Written by Himself, which is made into the 1953 film The Lawless Breed, starring Rock Hudson (dir. by Raoul Walsh). The chandelier at the Paris Opera falls, later becoming a main prop of the play "Phantom of the Opera". Freiberg, Moravia-born Austrian Jewish neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) coins the term "psychoanalysis". The Coptic Berlin Codex 8502 (Akhmim Codex) is discovered in Akhmim, Egypt, containing three Gnostic documents not destroyed by the Church, incl. The Gospel of Mary (fragmentary), The Apocryphon of John, and The Sophia Jesu Christi; they are not pub. until 1955 - the real Da Vinci Code? Jewish-Am. publisher Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935) buys the New York Times. Parsons School of Design (Parsons The New School for Design) (originally the Chase School) in Greenwich Village, N.Y. is founded by Impressionist painter William Merritt Chase (1849-1916), becoming the first school in the U.S. to offer programs in fashion design, graphic design, interior design, and advertising; graduates incl. artists Alexander Calder, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, and Norman Rockwell, and fashion designers Tom Ford, Donna Karan, Marc Jacobs, Isaac Mizrahi, Anna Sui, Alexander Wang, and Jason Wu. English cartoonist Phil May (1864-1893) joins Punch. Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer (1861-1951) becomes ed. of the women's section of the New Orleans Picayune (until 1901), writing a love advice column under the title "Dorothy Dix Talks", later adopting the name. Elizabeth Cady Stantin is nearly expelled from the suffrage movement because she challenges patriarchal Christianity. George Bernard Shaw pub. the article Blaming the Bard in Saturday Review, dissing Shakespeare, with the soundbyte: "This immortal pilferer of other men's stories and ideas, with his monstrous rhetorical fustian, his unbearable platitudes, his pretentious reduction of the subtlest problems of life to commonplaces against which a Polytechnic debating club would revolt, his incredible unsuggestiveness, his sententious combination of ready reflection with complete intellectual sterility, and his consequent incapacity for getting out of the depth of even the most ignorant audience, except when he solemnly says something so transcendentally platitudinous that his more humble-minded hearers cannot bring themselves to believe that so great a man really meant to talk like their grandmothers." The art nouveau mags. Die Jugend (Ger. "Youth") (July 4) and Simplicissimus begin pub. in Munich (until 1926). The Taft School in Watertown, Conn. is founded by Horace Dutton Taft (1861-1943). William Nicholas Selig (1864-1948) founds Selig Polyscope Co. in Chicago, Ill., starting out making industrial films before moving to Edendale, Calif. in NW Hollywood in 1909. Parlophone (Parlophon) is founded in Germany by the Carl Lindstrom Co., becoming a top jazz label in the 1920s; in 1927 it is acquired by Columbia Graphophone Co., which later becomes EMI. The comic strip The Yellow Kid by Richard Felton Outcault (1863-1928) debuts in the New York Journal after Outcault suggests that a 1-toothed figure in "Hogan's Alley" in New York World appear in bright yellow clothes to make him more popular last year; its name supplies the term "yellow journalism" for dishonest reporting by the New York World et al.; next year the comic is transferred to the New York Herald, becoming the first cartoon character to be commercially merchandised, incl. on gum, toys, and cigarettes. The cable-driven Underground Railway (shooglie) opens in Glasgow. The Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant opens. after Southern farmers complain about depleted infertile soil from generations of cotton monoculture, freed slave ("magician in the lab") George Washington Carver (1864-1943) becomes dir. of agricultural research at Tuskegee Inst. in Ala., pioneering Chemurgy, the science of using agricultural products for commercial uses, going on to develop 100+ products from the sweet potato and 300+ products from the peanut, freeing the Am. South from the bondage of the cotton crop while confounding theories of black racial inferiority. 17-y.-o. Albert Einstein drops out of highs school, loses his German citizenship, and enrolls in the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich; in 1901 he graduates at the bottom of his class, becomes a Swiss citizen, and gets the lowest ranking position for an engineer at the Swiss Patent Office, technical asst., goiing on to pub. four groundbreaking physics articles in Annalen der Physik in 1905 and gaining a doctorate from the U. of Zurich plus worldwide support from Zionists, finally getting an appointment as assoc. prof. at Zurich U. in 1909. Am. sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910) becomes the first pres. of the Nat. Sculpture Society, which designs the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in Syracuse, N.Y., the Statue of Gen. Sheridan in Washington, D.C., and the Statue of Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock in Philly. Chicago judge Goggin dismisses robbery charges brought against notorious hos Kitty Adams ("Terror of State Street)" and Jennie Clark, who go on to carry out 100+ violent robberies after luring johns into dark alleys and pulling knives on them, causing police to call them the "Kitty and Jennie Gang". Bohemian-born Austrian composer Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) converts from Judaism to Christianity - got an idea from the Dreyfus affair? San Francisco, Calif.-born William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951), owner (since 1887) of the San Francisco Examiner buys the failing New York Morning Journal, hiring top writers incl. Stephen Crane and Julian Hawthorne and starting a circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer, stealing his Sunday staff along with color comics inventor Richard F. Outcault, and engaging in yellow journalism to boost circ., becoming the only major Eastern newspaper to support William Jennings Bryan and his Bimetallism this year. The New York World becomes the first newspaper with a color supplement, using a new 4-color printing press, and featuring the Yellow Kid cartoon "Hogan's Alley". Adolf Brand (1874-1945) of Berlin, Germany founds Der Eigene, the first homosexual journal in the world (ends 1931), followed in 1903 by Geimeinschaft der Eigenen, the 2nd gay org. in the world; too bad, after he outs German chancellor Prince von Bulow in 1907, and ends up in priz for 18 mo., then gets two more mo. for obscenity, he joins the German army in WWI and marries a female nurse, then returns to activism during the 1920s, only to see the Nazis come down on him so hard that he gives it up completely by the early 1930s. After selling his Gladiator Bicycle Co., Pierre Alexandre Darracq (1855-1931) founds Automobiles Darracq S.A. in Suresnes (near Paris), France, expanding by 1905 to Britain, Italy, and Spain; in 1900 they produce their first car, the Darracq 6-1/2 HP, with a wood chassis, which sells 100 units; in 1902 they begin producing cars in Germany with Adam Opel; in 1904 they produce the Darracq Flying Fifteen, with a pressed steel chassis, capturing 10% of the French market; in 1920 the British arm buys it out, then sells it to the Rootes group in 1935, ending it as a distinct marque. The Anchor Brewing Co. is founded in San Francisco, Calif. by Ernst F. Baruth and his son-in-law Otto Schinkel Jr. to produce steam beer (Calif. common beer), which has been fermented sans refrigeration ever since the 1849 Calif. Gold Rush; in 1906 the brewery burns down after the Great San Francisco Earthquake, and is rebuilt in 1907; after reopening in 1933 it burns down again, and is rebuilt again; in 1965 it is saved from bankruptcy by Frederick Louis "Fritz" Maytag III (1937-), great-grandson of Maytag Corp. founder Frederick Louis Maytag, who returns it to its original brewing method, then helps competitors learn microbrewing technology to keep his brewery from having to get too big and lower the quality; in 1981 they trademark the term Steam Beer. Olympia Brewing Co. is founded in Tumwater, Wash. at the S end of Puget Sound by German immigrant Leopold Friedrich Schmidt to produce Olympia Beer, made with water from artesian wells, with the slogan "It's the water", becoming popular in the Pacific Northwest through the 1960s, and a favoite of Clint Eastwood, who features it in his films; too bad, sales flatten in the 1970s, which it tries to rescue by acquiring Hamm's and Lone Star in the 1970s until selling-out to Stroh in 1996, which is acquired in 1999 by Pabst; in 2003 the Tumwater brewery is closed, but is contract-brewed by MillerCoors in Los Angeles, Calif. Sports: On Jan. 3-Mar. 7 the 1896 Amateur Hockey Assoc. of Canada (AHAC) Season sees the Montreal Victorias with with a 7-1 record; on Feb. 14 the Winnipeg Victorias of the Manitoba Hockey Assoc. (MHA) defeat the Montreal Victorias 2-0 to win the Stanley Cup, becoming the first non-AHAC team; on Dec. 30 the Montreal Victorias defeat the Winnipeg Victorias 6-5 to win the Stanley Cup back. On Jan. 18 the first intercollegiate basketball game with five players per side sees the U. of Chicago (coach Amos Alonzo Stagg) defeat the U. of Iowa in Iowa City by 15-12. On Sept. 24-Oct. 3 the 1.71km 1896 Paris-Marseille-Paris Race, the world's first open motor race has 31 entrants, and is won by Emile (Émile) Mayade (1853-98) (who came in 7th in the 1894 Paris-Rouen race) in an 8 hp Panhard et Levassor, the first-ever 4-cylinder car. Geneva, Ohio-born automotive pioneer Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) races Grangemouth, Scotland-born automotive pioneer Alexander Winton (1860-1932) in his Olds Pirate racing car at Daytona Beach, Fla., beating him by 0.20 sec. On Nov. 7 the first known prof. basketball game is played at the Masonic Temple in Trenton, N.J. in the 3rd floor banquet hall; the Trenton YMCA defeats the Brooklyn YMCA by 15-1; each player gets $15 except Fred Cooper, who gets $16; after chicken wire is used to protect spectators, sports writers begin calling players "cagers". On Nov. 7 St. Nicholas Rink AKA The Rink at the NE corner of 66th St. and Columbus Ave. in Manhattan, N.Y. opens as the home of the St. Nicholas Hockey Club of the Am. Amateur Hockey League (AAHL), designed by Flagg and Chambers and built by Cornelius Vanderbilt and John Jacob Astor, becoming the 2nd ice rink in North Am. with a mechanically-frozen ice surface; on Feb. 26, 1900 it hosts the first ice hockey game between Harvard U. and Yale U., with Yale winning by 5-4; in 1906 it is converted to boxing, becoming a popular arena for prize fighting after it is legalized in 1911; in 1917 it hosts the first women's ice hockey game in the U.S., with the St. Nicholas team defeating Boston 1-0; the men's team switches to the Eastern Amateur Hockey League (EAHL) and moves to Madison Square Garden; on Aug. 6, 1956 the DuMont Network airs its last show "Boxing from St. Nicholas Arena"; on May 19, 1962 Cassius Clay KOs Billy Daniels in round 7; it closes after the last boxing match on May 28, 1962, becoming a production center for ABC-TV and local station WABC-TV and home of "Eyewitness News"; the bldg. is demolished in the 1980s. On Dec. 2 heavyweights Robert Fizsimmons and Tom Sharkey fight in San Francisco, Calif., with pistol-toting Wyatt Earp (1848-1929) as sole referee; his decision lands in court and makes him a nat. figure, not the O.K. Corral Gunfight. The Duke of Windsor's (Prince of Wales') horse Persimmon wins the Derby. Architecture: Hero's Square (Hosök tere ) in Budapest, Hungary is begun (finished 1900) on the 1000th anniv. of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, featuring statues of the Seven Chieftains of the Magyars. The first all-steel bldg. opens in England, in West Hartlepool. Cornelius Vanderbilt builds the 73-room Italian Renaissance-style "summer cottage" called The Breakers in Newport, R.I. at 44 Ochre Point Ave. Lew Wallace builds a Byzantine red-brick study in Crawfordsville, Ind. (near South Bend), near where he writes "Ben-Hur". Inventions: On June 4 Henry Ford (1863-1947) makes his first successful pre-dawn test-drive of his horseless carriage Quadricycle on the streets of Detroit, Mich.; meanwhile Charles B. King manufactures the first automobile in Detroit. On May 6 U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) and his asst. Charles M. Manly (1876-1927) fly the steam-driven unmanned Aerodrome No. 5 model airplane over the Potomac River for 1,005m (3,297 ft.), followed by another run of 700m (2,300 ft.) at 25 mph, becoming the first mechanically-propelled heavier-than-air machines; on Nov. 28 Aerodrome No. 6 flies 1,460m (4,790 ft.), witnessed by Alexander Graham Bell, after which the U.S. govt. gives him $50K to develop the piloted Aerodrome A for aerial recon, which flies on June 18, 1901. On June 2 Italian-Irish scientist Marchese Guglielmo Marconi receives the first patent for a communication system by means of electromagnetic waves (radio); too bad, in 1943 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that all of Marconi's radio patents are invalid, and awards them to Nikola Tesla. William Bell Wait (1839-1916) invents the 12-key Kleidograph, a practical typewriter for the blind using his New York Point, consisting of two lines of 1-4 points, compared to Braille, which uses three lines of 1-2 points; too bad, by 1916 Braille becomes a de facto std. Lancashire, England carpenter Brian Gamlin creates the std. numbering plan (20 on top) for the Dartboard. J.E. Howard and J.C. Tate receive British Patent #2,577 for an improved apparatus "to remove dust from cushions, carpets, and other articles", using compressed air to generate suction. A device is patented in the U.S. on May 19 to "produce dimples on the human body or to nurture and maintain dimples already existing". Johnson & Johnson begins manufacturing Lister's Towels, the first commercial sanitary napkin; too bad, advertising is thought improper, so U.S. women prefer to wear a reusable flannel diaper until 1925. Science: On Jan. 5 Austrian newspaper Wiener Presse reports German physicist William Roentgen's discovery of X-rays; on Jan. 29 they are first used to treat breast cancer in the U.S. In Apr. Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, using values for the radiant heat of the full moon at different elevations above the horizon supplied by Samuel Pierpont Langley to compute the heat absorbed by the atmosphere, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age, with the conclusion: "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"; too bad, he only proves that atmospheric CO2 absorbs and blocks infrared energy before returning it to space, not that it can return any of it to the surface?; in 1906 he pub. The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations, amending his views, lowering his estimates to 1.6C-3.9C and considering increased CO2 to be beneficial; "Since, now, warm ages have alternated with glacial periods, even after man appeared on the earth, we have to ask ourselves: Is it probable that we shall in the coming geological ages be visited by a new ice period that will drive us from our temperate countries into the hotter climates of Africa? There does not appear to be much ground for such an apprehension. The enormous combustion of coal by our industrial establishments suffices to increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air to a perceptible degree"; "We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind"; too bad, Arrhenius didn't realize that he used measurements by Langley that weren't of CO2 but water vapor? On Sept. 7 after performing the first successful thyroidectomy in 1880, and reporting a connection between aniline and bladder cancer in 1895, German surgeon Ludwig Wilhelm Carl Rehn (1849-1930) of Frankfurt performs the first successful (complication-free) cardiac surgery on 22-y.-o. stab victim Wilhelm Justus; too bad, cardiac surgery isn't widely accepted until WWII battlefield surgeons resort to it. French neurologist Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) describes Babinski's Sign, an isolated dorsal flexion of the great toe caused by pyramidal tract injury. German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) of the U. of Strasbourg accurately determines the constant of universal gravitation. French chemist Eugene-Anatole Demarcay (1852-1903) discovers the hard silvery metallic element Europium (Eu) (#63) in samples of samarium, taking until 1901 to isolate it; meanwhile in 1898 he uses spectroscopy to confirm that Marie Curie has discovered the element radium. Burlington, Vt.-born psychologist John Dewey (1859-1952) pub. the paper The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology, treating the stimulus separate from the response, and considering the sensory stimulus, the central connection, and the motor response as working together, founding Social Behaviorism. German physicists Otto Richard Lummer (1860-1925) and Ernst Pringsheim (1859-1917) begin studying blackbody radiation, and they go on to verify the Stefan-Boltzmann Law relating radiated energy to temperature, but in 1899 they find anomalies in the laws relating radiated energy to frequency, giving Max Planck his big chance. Charlton, London-born English archeologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) discovers the Merneptah Stele in Luxor, Egypt, which contains the earliest known mention of Israel. French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) (grandson of Antoine Cesar Becquerel) discovers radioactivity after wrapping a photographic plate in black paper, placing a thin crystal of a uranium salt on the paper, and finding that the developed plate is darkened where radiations from the uranium strike it; he finds that the radiation can also pass through aluminum and copper sheets - peeking under God's didies? Am. dentist C. Edmund Kells (1856-1928) adapts X-rays to dentistry, and goes on to hire the first female dental assistant. Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) and his student Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) discover the Zeeman Effect, the splitting of an electromagnetic spectrum line in a moderately strong magnetic field into 2-3 polarized lines (normal effect) or many polarized lines (anomalous effect); Lorentz supplies the theoretical interpretation, and both win the 1902 Nobel Physics Prize. Ernest Rutherford detects electrical waves magnetically. Russian-Latvian-German chemist Paul Walden (1863-1957) discovers Walden Inversion, the first Stereoinversion Reaction; in the early 1900s Christopher Ingold finds that it doesn't work with tertiary alcohols, which is solved in the Sept. 12, 2013 issue of Nature by Ryan A. Shenvi et al. of the Scripps Research Inst. Sven Anders Hedin explores the Tarim Basin of Chinese Turkestan (Gobi Desert), and discovers the ruins of an ancient city populated by Caucasians (Tocharians). Robert Koch, now dir. of the Berlin Inst. of Health develops a method of vaccination against South African rinderpest (cattle plague). English metallurgist Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen (1843-1902) pub. the surprising result than hot gold diffuses faster into hot lead (at 300C) than salt diffuses into water at room temperature (15C). German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900. Scottish physicist Charles Thompson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) invents the principles behind the Cloud (Wilson) Chamber, which uses air saturated with water vapor to expose the tracks of ionizing radiation; he constructs the first one in 1911, and receives the Nobel Prize in 1927. Belgian mathematician Charles Jean Gustave Nicolas Baron de la Vallee Poussin (Charles-Jean Étienne Gustave Nicolas Le Vieux, Baron de la Vallée Poussi) (1866-1962) and French mathematician Jacques-Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963) independently prove the Prime Number Theorem, that all natural numbers are the product of one or more primes. Philly-born psychologist Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) opens the world's first psychological clinic at the U. of Penn., founding Clinical Psychology and coining the term. Nonfiction: Lyman Abbott (1835-1922), Evolution of Christianity (Lowell Lectures). K.B. Absolon and M.A. Naficy, First Successful Cardiac Operation on a Human. Eugen Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), Karl Marx and the Close of His System; a capitalist criticism of Marxist theory; how economics is an economic more than political question. Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), The Works of Max Beerbohm (first book); his essays from "The Yellow Book", later causing George Bernard Shaw to write the soundbyte: "The younger generation is knocking at the door, and as I open it there steps spritely in the incomparable Max". Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Matiere et Memoire. Harriet Emilie Cady (1848-1941), Lessons in Truth: A Course of Twelve Lessons in Practical Christianity; bestselling (1.6M copies) course on New Thought. Edward Treacher Collins (1862-1932), Researches into the Anatomy and Pathology of the Eye; makes him an internat. star. Bishop Mandell Creighton (1843-1901), The English National Character; Queen Elizabeth; rev. ed. 1906. John Dewey (1859-1952), The Reflex Arc in Psychology; the basis of all his future work? Albert Venn Dicey (1835-1922), Conflict of Laws. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), The American People's Money; the Free Silver platform. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), The Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), The Social Law of Service. Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), The Struggle for a Spiritual Content of Life; humans have souls, and are therefore at the junction of nature and spirit, thus they should try to overcome the non-spiritual part of their nature by trying to achieve a spiritual life. Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), Boston Cooking-School Cookbook; standardizes kitchen measurements, containing 1,850 recipes, becoming a perennial bestseller, going through 13 eds. by 1990. Abraham Geiger (1810-74), Judaism and Islam (posth.); tr. of his 1833 doctoral thesis by F.M. Young; shows how the Quran borrows from or depends on the Talmud and other rabbinic lit. Charles Gounod (1818-93), Memoires d'un Artiste (posth.). Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Kokoro: Hits and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), On the Jewish State (Der Judenstaat); foundation document of Zionism. Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935), Sappho and Socrates; gay love is okay if you don't mind it? David George Hogarth (1862-1927), A Wandering Scholar. Robert G. Ingersoll (1833-99), Why I Am An Agnostic. William James (1842-1910), The Will to Believe. Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), L'Anarchie: Sa Philosophie, Son Ideal. Rodolfo Lanciani (1846-1919), Pagan and Christian Rome. Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941), Common Sense in Chess. John Knox Laughton (1830-1915), Nelson and His Companions in Arms. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), Democracy and Liberty. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Treasure of the Humble (13 essays). Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), Jan Hus; ditches Romantic Czech nationalism for a new realism based on you know whose achievements. Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Color of Life and Other Essays. James Mooney (1861-1921), The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 (2 vols.). Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), The Evolution of the Art of Music. Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Adventures in Criticism. Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916), The Gases of the Atmosphere: The History of their Discovery. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), Out of Mulberry Street. Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951), Honest Dollars. George Santayana (1863-1952), The Sense of Beauty. Sir John Robert Seeley (1834-95), Introduction to Political Science: Two Series of Lectures (posth.). William Sharp (1855-1905), Fair Women in Painting and Poetry. Werner Sombart (1863-1941), Sozialismus und Soziale Bewegung; how the inherent contradictions of capitalism create a "love for the mass" among the proletariat, leading to "a communistic way of life" in social production. William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), A History of Banking in All the Leading Nations (4 vols.). Edward B. Tichener (1867-1927), An Outline of Psychology; founds Structuralism, and coins the term along with Functionalism. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), What Is Art?; "Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man, woman, consciously, by means of certain external signs, hand on to others feelings he has lived through and that other people are infected by those feelings and also experience them." Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Hobbes: Leben und Lehre. United States Brewers' Assoc., Documentary History of the United States Brewers' Association with a Sketch of Ancient Brewers' Guilds: Modern Brewers' Associations, Scientific Stations and Schools, Publications, Laws and Statistics Relating to Brewing Throughout the World (2 vols.). Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918), The History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (2 vols.); by a co-founder of Cornell U.; wins the argument with the public; based on his 1869 lecture "The Battle-Fields of Science"; "In all modern history, interference with science in the supposed interest of religion, no matter how conscientious such interference may have been, has resulted in the direst evils both to religion and to science, and invariably; and, on the other hand, all untrammelled scientific investigation, no matter how dangerous to religion some of its stages may have seemed for the time to be, has invariably resulted in the highest good both of religion and of science." Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), Studies in the Theory of Public Finance; advocates progressive taxation and a welfare state. Movies: Thomas Edison (1847-1931)'s Black Mother Gives Baby a Morning Bath; The May Irwin Kiss; first film with a human kiss. Georges Melies' The House of the Devil (The Haunted/Devil's Castle) (Le Manoir du diable) (Dec. 24); stars Melies, Jehanne d'Alcy, and Jules-Eugene Legris, becoming the first horror film ever made; it shows the Devil (Legris) materializing from a bat form, becoming a movie cliche. Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), La Poupee (operetta) (Paris). Amy Marcy Beach, Gaelic Symphony in E Minor, Op. 32. Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Poeme (for violin and piano), Op. 25; Some Dances for Piano, Op. 26. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Appalachia. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), The Wood Dove (symphonic poem). A.J. Fynn, Where the Columbines Grow; written after a wagon trip to the San Luis Valley in Colo.; becomes the Colo. state song in 1915. Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), The Grand Duke (comic operetta #14 of 14). Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928), Negro Episode (New York). Luca Giordano, Andrea Chenier (opera) (Milan). Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), Istar (symphonic poem). Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860-1908), Woodland Sketches, Op. 51; incl. To a Wild Rose; Indian Suite. John Bach McMaster (1852-1932), With the Fathers: Studies in the History of the United States; The Origin, Meaning and Application of the Monroe Doctrine. Carl Nielsen, Hymns Amoris. Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), The Legend of St. Christopher (oratorio). Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), La Boheme (Bohčme) (opera) (Teatro Regio, Turin) (Feb. 1); libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Henri Murger's "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme"; debut conducted by Arturo Toscanini, who repeats 50 years later for a first; Marcello, Rodolfo and Colline; Rodolfo burns his poems to keep his stove going in Act 1; incl. Musetta's Waltz. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), The Maiden in the Tower (opera) (unpub.). Christian Sinding (1856-1941), Rustle of Spring (Fruhlingsrauschen) (for piano); mentioned in "The Music Man" by Meredith Willson. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Also Sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (Nov. 30) (Berlin). Hugo Wolf (1860-1903), Der Corregidor (opera) (Milan); too bad, Wolf becomes mentally ill in 1897. Art: Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848-1936), Evolution of Civilization; mural inside the dome of the main reading room of the Library of Congress, showing 12 seated figures, incl. Egypt (writing), Judea (religion), Greece (philosophy), Rome (govt.), Islam (physics), Middle Ages (modern languages), Italy (fine arts), Germany (printing), Spain (exploration), England (lit.), France (emancipation), America (science). Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901), War (2 versions). David Young Cameron (1865-1945), North Italy (etchings). Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Boy with Skull (Jeune Homme a la Tete de Mort) (1896-8). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), The Muses Saluting the Spirit of Enlightenment (mural) (Boston Public Library). Lovis Corinth (1858-1925), Self-Portrait with Skeleton. Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944), Pictures of People (drawings). Niels Hansen-Jacobsen (1861-1941), Troll Who Smells Christian Blood (sculpture). Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921), The Caress. Daniel Ridgway Knight (1839-1924), The Shepherdess of Rolleboise. Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Portrait of a Lady. Maximilien Luce (1858-1941), Paris, Animated Street in the Evening. Mihaly Munkacsy (1844-1900), Ecce Homo. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), The Flying Dutchman. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Portrait of Mrs. W. St. Clair Baddeley. James Tissot (1836-1902), The Life of Christ; 350 watercolors; Lemercier of Paris pays him 1.1M francs for them; he spends the rest of his life painting 350 watercolors of the Old Testament. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), Alone. John William Waterhouse (1849-1917), Hylas and the Nymphs. Plays: James Matthew Barrie (1860-1937), The Little Minister; stars Maude Adams. Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Charm and Other Drawing-Room Plays. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Les BienfaiteursL'Evasion. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), The Sea Gull (Seagull) (Russ. "Chayka") (Alexandrinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg) (Oct. 17); his first major play; middlebrow story writer Boris Trigorin (Chekhov's greatest male role), ingenue Nina (Vera Komissarzhevskaya), fading actress Irina Arkadina, and her symbolist playwright son Konstantin Treplev; Trepliov kills it; opening night sees Vera lose her voice; produced by the Moscow Art Theater in 1898, dir. by Konstantin Stanislovsky, becoming one of the biggest hits in Russian theater history, bringing him instant fame. Sidney Jones (1861-1946), Owen Hall (1853-1907), and Harry Greenbank (1865-99), The Geisha: The Story of a Tea House (musical) (Daly's Theatre, West End London) (Apr. 25) (760 perf.) (2nd longest running British musical to date); produced by George Edwardes; stars Marie Tempest as O Mimosa San (who marries a Chinese man), and Letty Lind as Molly Seamore (who marries English man Reginald "Reggie" Fairfax, played by Hayden Coffin) at the Tea House of Ten Thousand Joys - play that 13-silk-stringed koto one more time? Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), John Gabriel Borkman. Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), Ubu Roi (King Ubu) (Dec. 10); absurdist take on Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth", "Hamlet", and "Richard III", about a commoner slob who usurps the throne of Poland via regicide, invades Russia and is soundly defeated, then is killed by the dead king's sons; meanwhile he uses the royal "we" and calls the wind "that which blows", etc.; opening line: "Shitteth!"; after the audience boos it folds after opening night, making Jarry a celeb, going around talking like Ubu and carrying a loaded pistol. John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) and Charles Klein (1867-1915), El Capitan (operetta) (Tremont Theatre, Boston) (Apr. 13) (Broadway Theatre, New York) (Apr. 20) (112 perf.) (Lyric Theatre, London) (July 10, 1889) (140 perf.); stars De Wolf Hopper as Don Errico Medigua, who replaces ex-viceroy Don Luiz Cazarro (T.S. Guise), and secretly has rebel leader El Capitan killed, then impersonates him, after which Cazarro's daughter Estrelda (Edna Wallace Hopper) falls for him, not knowing he's already married to Marganza (Alice Hosmer), and has a daughter Isabel (Bertha Waltzinger); meanwhile the rebels capture Lord Champberlain Senor Amabile Pozzo (Alfred Klein), causing the fake El Capitan to have to lose his rebel army to the Spaniards, after which all ends happily; John W. Parr plays insurgent Scaramba; features the march El Capitan. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Monte Carlo (musical) (Avenue Theatre, London) (Aug. 27). Poetry: Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), Verses and Sonnets (debut); The Bad Child's Book of Beasts. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Sunrise in the West. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Weib und Welt. Eugene Field (1850-95), Poems of Childhood (posth.). A.E. Housman (1859-1936), A Shropshire Lad (debut); slowly launches his rep. as a top English poet; incl. To An Athlete Dying Young; "Eyes the shady night has shut/ Cannot see the record cut". Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Douze Chansons. Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp) (1855-1905), The Lonely Hunter; "But my heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill". Jan Neruda (1834-91), Good Friday Songs (posth.). Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), Hay and Hell and Booligal (Apr. 25); Mulga Bill's Bicycle. Stephen Phillips (1864-1915), Christ in Hades: A Phantasy; makes him a star. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), Odes and Other Poems (debut). Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Poems and Ballads. Eugene Manlove Rhodes (1869-1934), Charlie Graham. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Larenopfer. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), The Torrent and the Night Before (debut); pays $100 for 500 copies, which arrive too late to surprise his mother with; he follows with The Children of the Night (1897), which incl. Richard Cory, about a self-loathing rich man, making fans of Pres. Teddy Roosevelt and his son Kermit Roosevelt, causing Teddy to give him a sinecure at the New York Customs Office for $2K/year. Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), New Poems (posth.). Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), A Tale of Balen. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Master Craftsman (2 vols.). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), London Pride. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), Effie Hetherington. Abraham Cahan (1860-1951), Yekl: A Tale of the New York Ghetto (first novel); turned into the 1975 film "Hester Street". Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Maker of Moons; The Mystery of Choice. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Die Poggenpuhls. Karl Gjellerup (1857-1919), The Mill. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The Wizard. Owen Hall (1853-1907), The Track of a Storm. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908), Sister Jane: Her Friends and Acquaintances. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Kamertjeszonde (2 vols.); Schetsen (13 vols.) (1896-1909); sketches of Dutch small-town life; pub. under alias Samuel Falkland. Anthony Hope (1863-1933), The Heart of Princess Osra (short stories); prequel to "Prisoner of Zenda". Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Lonely Girl (Maid); A Point of Conscience. William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Many Cargoes (short stories) (debut); about "men who go down to the sea in ships of moderate tonnage" (Punch); big hit, launching his career. Henry James (1843-1916), Embarrassments. Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938), Moloch. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), A Monk of Fife; a young Scot in France in 1429-31. William John Locke (1863-1930), Some Women and a Man: A Comedy of Contrasts. Pierre Louys (1870-1925), Aphrodite: Ancient Manners (first novel); bestseller (350K copies) attempting to "express pagan sensuality with stylistic perfection". Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), A Ghost in Lublo; The Siege of Beszterce. William Morris (1834-96), The Well at the World's End. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Adventures of Martin Hewitt: Third Series; A Child of the Jago; the horrible violent living conditions in East End, London. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), False Evidence; A Modern Prometheus; The Mystery of Mr. Bernard Brown; The Wooing of Fortune. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Seats of the Mighty; the English conquest of Quebec. Marcel Proust (1871-1922), Les Plaisirs et les Jours; collection of pastiches (caricatures of the styles of other writers). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Grandes Amoureuses. William Sharp (1855-1905), Ecce Puella and Other Prose Imaginings; The Washer of the Flood; pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Tom Grogan; bestseller. Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), On the Face of the Waters; the 1857 Indian Mutiny. Jules Verne (1828-1905), Facing (For) the Flag; France is threatened by the Fulgurator super-weapon invented by mad scientist (the first in sci-fi?) Thomas Roch; Eugene Turpin (1848-1927), inventor of Melinite sues Verne, claiming that Roch is really him; Verne is successfully defended by future French pres.-PM Raymond Poincare. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Sir George Tressady. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Melusine (first novel); a play on his name "Water Man" via the spirit of sacred springs. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Island of Dr. Moreau; genetic experiments to make animals into people; Edward Prendick is shipwrecked in the S Pacific Ocean; Montgomery and his manservant M'ling the human-dog. Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), Dorothy and Other Italian Stories (posth.). Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), The World and A Man. Births: U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.) (1951-69) (Freemason) Everett McKinley Dirksen (d. 1969) on Jan. 4 in Pekin, Ill.; German immigrant parents; identical twin brother Thomas. French artist Andre Aime Rene (André-Aimé-René) Masson (d. 1987) on Jan. 4 in Balagny-sur-Therain. Am. psychic medium Arthur Ford (d. 1971) on Jan. 8. Am. real estate tycoon (Jewish) Abram Nicholas Pritzker (d. 1986) on Jan. 9 in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. at age 9; educated at Harvard U.; brother of Jack Pritzker; father of Jay Arthur Pritzker (1922-99), Robert Alan Pritzker (1926-), and Donald Pritker. Am. silent film actress Jane (Johana B.) Novak (d. 1990) on Jan. 12 in St. Louis, Mo.; Bohemian immigrant father. Russian (White) adventurer Boris Mikhailovich Skossyreff (d 1944) on Jan. 12 in Vilna; Boris I of Andorra in 1934. Am. Wechsler Intelligence Scale psychologist (Jewish) David "Wex" Wechsler (d. 1981) on Jan. 12 in Lespezi, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. as a child; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Am. poet-novelist-writer Ramon Guthrie (d. 1973) on Jan. 14 in New York City. Am. "U.S.A. Trilogy" novelist John Roderigo Dos Passos (d. 1970) on Jan. 14 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Eisenhower White House chief of staff #3 (1958-61) Wilton Burton "Jerry" Persons (d. 1977) on Jan. 19; educated at Auburn U. Am. "Burns and Allen", "Oh, God!" comedian (Jewish) George Burns (Nathan Birnbaum) (d. 1996) on Jan. 20 in New York City's Lower East Side; Romanian Jewish immigrants; 9th of 12 children; his family calls him "Nattie"; husband (1926-64) of Gracie Allen (1895-1964); father of Sandra Jean Burns (1934-2010) and Ronald Jon Burns (1935-2007). Am. "A Chump at Oxford" dir.-writer Alfred John Goulding (d. 1972) on Jan. 26 in Melbourne, Australia. Am. "Billy the Kid vs. Dracula" actress Olive Carey (Oliver Fuller Golden) (d. 1988) on Jan. 31 in New York City; wife (1920-47) of Harry Carey Sr. (1878-1947); mother of Harry Carey Jr. (1921-). Am. rear Adm. and AEC chmn. (1953-8) (Jewish) Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (d. 1974) on Jan. 31 in Charleston, W. Va. Mexican archeologist Alfonso Caso y Andrade (d. 1970) on Feb. 1 in Mexico City. German quantum tunneling physicist Friedrich Hermann Hund (d. 1997) on Feb. 4 in Karlsruhe. Am. "Varga Girl" artist Alberto Vargas (d. 1982) on Feb. 9 in Arequipa, Peru; emigrates to the U.S. in 1916. Russian pianist Alexander Brailowsky (d. 1976) on Feb. 16 in Kiev; of Polish descent?; student of Theodor Leschetizky; specialist in the works of Chopin; becomes a French citizen in 1926. French "The Surrealist Manifsto" poet and art critic (atheist) (Surrealism founder) Andre (André) Breton (d. 1966) on Feb. 18 in Tinchebray, Orne, Normandy. Am. comedian (Jewish) Edward "Eddie" Jacobs (d. 1980) on Feb. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; vaudeville partner of Jimmy Durante (1893-1980). Am. chef (Caesar Salad creator) Caesar Cardini (d. 1956) on Feb. 24 in Lago Maggiore, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Am. "Jailhouse Rock" film dir. Richard (Rollo Smort) Thorpe (d. 1991) on Feb. 24 in Hutchinson, Kan.; fired as dir. of "The Wizard of Oz" (1939). U.S. Sen. (D-Ark.) (1943-77) John Little McClellan (d. 1977) n Feb. 25 in Sheridan, Ark. Am. "gung-ho" Carlson's Raiders, Carson's (Long) Patrol Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Evans Fordyce Carlson (d. 1947) on Feb. 26 in Sidney, N.Y.; coins the term "gung-ho". Soviet official Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (d. 1948) on Feb. 26 (Feb. 14 Old Style) in Mariupol. Am. physician Philip Showalter Hench (d. 1965) on Feb. 28 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Indian PM #4 (1977-9) Morarji Desai (d. 1995) on Feb. 29 in Bhadeli, Bombay; of Gujarati descent. Am. "The God That Failed" journalist (Jewish) Louis Fischer (d. 1970) on Feb. 29 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "The High and the Mighty" film dir. William Augustus Wellman (d. 1975) on Feb. 29; great-great-grandson of DOI signer Francis Lewis (1713-1803). Am. conductor-composer-pianist (gay) Dimitri (Dimitris) Mitropoulos (d. 1960) on Mar. 1 (Feb. 18 Old Style) in Athens; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1946. Am. jeweler ("the King of Diamonds") Harry Winston (d. 1978) on Mar. 1; Ukrainian immigrant parents. Am. basketball coach Clair Francis Bee (d. 1983) on Mar. 2 in Grafton, W. V.; educated at Waynesburg U. Am. ambassador (to Turkey) Fletcher Warren (d. 1992) on Mar. 3. Am. writer-poet-publisher Robert Menzies McAlmon (d. 1956) on Mar. 9 in Clifton, Kan. Am. "An Encyclopedia of World History" historian (Unitarian) William Leonard Langer (d. 1977) on Mar. 16 in South Boston, Mass; German immigrant parents; brother of Walter Charles Langer (1899-1981); educated at Harvard U.; husband (1921-42) of Susanne Katherina Langer (nee Knauth) (1895-85). British Vienna Circle mathematician-physicist-philosopher (Jewish) Friedrich Waismann (d. 1959) on Mar. 21 in Vienna, Austria; educated at the U. of Vienna; student of Moritz Schlick; emigrates to Britain in 1938. Austrian "Alfred Dreyfus in The Life of Emile Zola", "Otto Frank in The Diary of Anne Frank" actor Joseph Schildkraut (d. 1964) on Mar. 22 in Vienna; moves to the U.S. in the early 1900s. Am. architect William Edmond Lescaze (d. 1969) on Mar. 27 in Onex, Switzerland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Am. "Idiot's Delight", "Abe Lincoln in Illinois", "There Shall Be No Night", "The Petrified Forest" 6'8" playwright-journalist-biographer Robert Emmet Sherwood (d. 1955) on Apr. 4 in New Rochelle, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U.; coiner of the term "arsenal of democracy". English Object Relations Theory psychoanalyst Donald Woods Winnicott (d. 1971) on Apr. 7 in Plymouth, Devon; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge U.; known for the soundbyte "Keeping alive, keeping well, keeping awake"; believes in a "core incommunicado element" in each person which "never communicates with or is influenced by the external world". Am. "Over the Rainbow", "April in Paris", "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" lyricist (Jewish) ("Broadway's social conscience") Edgar Yipsel "Yip" "Yipsel" Harburg (Isidore Hochberg) (d. 1981) on Apr. 8 in New York City; nickname is short for Young People's Socialist League; educated at CUNY; skips to Uruguay to avoid WWI; blacklisted in 1951-62. Am. "Irene" Edwardian musical stage actress (in England) ("First Lady of West End Musicals") Edith Day (d. 1971) on Apr. 10 in Minneapolis, Minn.; namesake of the Edith Day Cocktail, made of dry gin, grapefruit juice, egg white, and sugar. Am. USAF 4-star gen. Ira Clarence Eaker (d. 1987) on Apr. 13 in Field Creek, Tex. Russian chemist-physicist Nikolai Nikolayevich Semyonov (Semenov) (d. 1986) on Apr. 15 (Apr. 3 Old Style) in Saratov; educated at Petrograd U. U.S. CIA deputy dir. (1946) Kingman Douglass (d. 1971) on Apr. 16 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at Yale U. Romanian Symbolist Dada poet-writer (in French) (Jewish) Tristan Tzara (Samuel or Samy Rosenstock) (AKA S. Samyro) (d. 1963) on Apr. 16 (Apr. 4 Old Style) in Moinesti, Moldavia; educated at the U. of Bucharest. Am. lightweight boxer (Jewish) ("the Ghetto Wizard") Benny Leonard (Benjamin Leiner) (d. 1947) on Apr. 17 in New York City. French "Les Garcons", "Les Jeunes Filles" novelist-playwright-critic (bi) Henri Millon de Montherlant (d. 1972) on Apr. 20 in Paris. Am. silent film actress Victoria Forde (d. 1964) on Apr. 21 in New York City; daughter of Eugenie Forde (1879-1940). Am. Nazca Lines historian-archeologist Paul August Kosok (d. 1959) on Apr. 21 in Long Island City, N.Y.; German immigrant parents. English "The Constant Nymph" novelist-playwright Margaret Moore Kennedy (Lady Davies) (d. 1967) on Apr. 23 in London; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U. Am. Music Corp. of Am. (MCA) founder (1924) Jules C. Stein (d. 1981) on Apr. 26 in South Bend, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. German WWI #2 ace Ernst Udet (d. 1941) on Apr. 26 in Frankfurt am Main (suicide); suicide note: "Iron One, you are responsible for my death" (referring to Hermann Goering, who blamed him for losing the Battle of Britain); the Nazis cover up his suicide and claim he died testing a new secret veapon. Am. chemist (discoverer of nylon) Wallace Hume Carothers (d. 1937) on Apr. 27 in Burlington, Iowa - a geek with a way with women? Am. baseball hall-of-fame mgr.-player (2B) Rogers "The Raj" Hornsby (d. 1963) on Apr. 27 in Winters, Tex. Korean feminist poet-writer Na Hye-sok (d. 1948) (AKA Jeongwol) on Apr. 28 in Suwon. Am. silent film actress Natalie Talmadge (d. 1969) on Apr. 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; sister of Norma Talmadge (1893-1957) and Constance Talmadge (1897-1973); wife (1921-32) of Buster Keaton (1895-1966). British historian Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (nee Fitzgerald) (1977) on Apr. 29 in Tenby, Wales; of Irish descent; educated at St. Hilda's College, Oxford U. Am. gen. Mark Wayne Clark (d. 1984) on May 1 in Sackets Harbor, N.Y. Indian nationalist diplomat-politician >V.K. (Vengalil Krishnan) Krishna Menon (d. 1974) on May 3 in Thiruvangad, Thalassery, Madras. English "101 Dalmations", "I Capture the Castle" "The Starlight Barking" children's novelist-playwright Dorothy Gladys "Dodie" Smith (d. 1990) (AKA Charles Henry Percy) on May 3 in Whitefield (near Bury), Lancashire. Argentine horseman-writer Aime Felix (Aimé Félix) "A.F." Tschiffely (d. 1954) on May 7 in Bern, Swizterland. Am. baseball pitcher Jonathan Thompson Walter "Tom" Zachary (d. 1969) on May 7 in Graham, N.C. Am. "Cheyenne Autumn", "Crazy Horse" writer Mari Susette Sandoz (d. 1966) on May 11 in Hay Springs, Neb. English "Squire Trelawney in Treasure Island" actor Walter Fitzgerald (Bond) (d. 1976) on May 18 in Keyhan, Derby. Hungarian photographer (Jewish) Martin Munkcacsi (Munkácsi) (Mermelstein Marton) (d. 1963) on May 18 in Kolosvar. Am. mountaineer (Seventh Day Adventist) ("Grandma Whitney") Hulda Hoehn Crooks (d. 1997) on May 19. English dir.-producer (head of Ealing Studios, 1938-) (Jewish) Sir Michael Elias Balcon (d. 1977) on May 19 in Birmingham; E European Jewish immigrant parents; maternal grandfather of Daniel Day-Lewis (1957-); knighted in 1948. Am. hall-of-fame baseball exec (Cincinnati Reds) Warren Crandall Giles (d. 1979) on May 28 in Tiskilwa, Ill.; educated at Washington & Lee U. Am. "Scarface", "Bringing Up Baby", "Rio Bravo" dir.-writer-producer Howard Winchester Hawks (d. 1977) on May 30 in Gosen, Ind.; educated at Cornell U., and Yale U.; born to a wealthy Midwest paper mill family. British world's oldest man Henry William Allingham (d. 2009) on June 6 in Clapton, London. Italian Air Marshal Italo Balbo (d. 1940) on June 6 in Ferrara; #2 to Benito Mussolini, known for opposing anti-Jewish racial laws and an alliance with Nazi Germany. British Lt. Frederick William Hedges (d. 1954) on June 6 in Umballa, India. Am. oldest African descent man in the world (2007-8) George Rene Francis on June 6. English "Journey's End" playwright-novelist Robert Cedric Sherriff (d. 1975) on June 6 in Hampton Wick, Middlesex; educated at New College, Oxford U. Am. aviator (first WWI U.S. ace) Douglas Campbell (d. 1990) on June 7 in San Francisco, Calif.; son of astronomer William Wallace Campbell (1862-1938). Am. physical chemist Robert Sanderson Mulliken (d. 1986) on June 7 in Newburyport, Mass.; educated at MIT. Hungarian PM (1953-5, 1956) Imre Nagy (d. 1958) on June 7 in Kaposvar. Am. "Clara Edwards in The Andy Griffith Show" actress Sarah Hope Summers (d. 1979) on June 7 in Mattoon, Ill.; grows up in Walla Walla, Wash.; educated at Northwestern U. Am. economist (Jewish) Isador Lubin (d. 1978) on June 9. French automobile manufacturer Jean Pierre Peugeot (d. 1966) on June 16 in Valentigney. English Duchess of Windsor (1937-) Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (d. 1986) on June 19 in Blue Summit, Penn.; only child of Teackle Wallis Warfield; wife (1916-26) of bi Navy officer Earl Winfield Spencer Jr. (1888-1950), (1928-37) Anglo-British shipping exec Ernest Aldrich Simpson (1897-1958), and (1937-72) Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (Edward VIII) (1894-1972) - she blew the summit? Am. "Another Language" stage actress Dorothy Stickney (d. 1998) on June 21 in Dickinson, N.D. Am. physicist (Jewish) Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky (d. 1966) on June 29 in Taganrog, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1913; educated at USC and Caltech. Am. computer scientist Hans Peter Luhn (d. 1964) on July 1 in Barmen, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in ?. Austrian actor (in Poland) Karol Juliusz "Igo" Sym on July 3 in Innsbruck. Am. "Molly in My Man Godfrey", "She Married Her Boss", "Once in a Lifetime" actress-psychic Jean Dixon (d. 1981) on July 14 in Waterbury, Conn.; not to be confused with Am. psychic Jeane L. Dixon (1904-97). German Waffen-SS chief of staff (1940-5) Gottlob Christian Berger (d. 1975) on July 16 in Gerstetten, Wurttemberg. Norwegian U.N. secy.-gen. #1 (1946-52) Trygve Halvdan Lie (d. 1968) on July 16 in Oslo. Am. millionaire white segregationist leader (Roman Catholic) Leander Henry Perez Sr. (d. 1969) on July 16 in Dalcour, La. Am. "Here Come the Clowns", "The Philadelphia Story" playwright Philip Jerome Quinn Barry (d. 1949) on June 18 in Rochester, N.Y. Scottish "The Keys of the Kingdom", "The Stars Look Down" physician-novelist Archibald Joseph "A.J." Cronin (d. 1981) on July 19 in Cardross, Dunbartonshire; Roman Catholic father, Protestant mother; educated at the U. of Glasgow; likes to write against bigotry and social injustice. Am. silent film actress Gladys Hulette (d. 1991) on July 21 in Arcade, N.Y. Scottish "Inspector Alan Grant", "A Shilling for Candles" mystery novelist Josephine Tey (Elizabeth MacKintosh) (d. 1952) (AKA Gordon Daviot) on July 25 in Inverness; Josephine is her mother's first name. Am. "Chicago" playwright-journalist Maurine Dallas Watkins (d. 1969) on July 27 in Louisville, Ky.; educated at Yale U. Russian ballet dancer-choreographer Leonide Massine (Leonid Fyodorovich Myasin) (d. 1979) on Aug. 9 in Moscow. Am. "The Yearling" novelist Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (d. 1953) on Aug. 8 in Washington, D.C. German physical chemist Erich Armand Arthur Joseph Huckel (Hückel) (d. 1980) on Aug. 9 in Charlottenburg, Berlin; educated at the U. of Gottingen. Swiss childhood developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (d. 1980) on Aug. 9 in Neuchatel; educated at the U. of Neuchatel, and the U. of Zurich. Am. "There's No Business Like Show Business" film dir. Walter Lang (d. 1972) on Aug. 10 in Memphis, Tenn. German Gen. Rudolf Schmundt (d. 1944) on Aug. 13 in Metz, Alsace-Lorraine. Am. Cori Cycle biochemist (Jewish) Gerty Theresa Cori (nee Radnitz) (d. 1957) on Aug. 15 in Prague; converts to Roman Catholicism and emigrates to the U.S. in 1922 with husband Carl Cori (1896-1984). Am. radio pioneer Clarence Denton "C.D." Tuska (d. 1985) on Aug. 15 in New York City. Am. gen. (Manhattan Project dir.) Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (d. 1970) on Aug. 17 in Albany, N.Y.; of French Huguenot descent; educated at MIT. English "The Devil with Hitler" Screen Actors Guild co-founder actor Alan Mowbray (Alfred Ernest Allen) (d. 1969) on Aug. 18 in London. Canadian actor Jack Pickford (John Charles Smith) (d. 1933) on Aug. 18 in Toronto, Ont.; brother of Mary Pickford (1892-1979). Am. banker (Jewish) James Paul Warburg (d. 1969) on Aug. 18 in Hamburg, Germany; son of Paul Warburg (1868-1932); educated at Harvard U. Am. "Docks of New York" actress (Madonna clone?) Olga Vladimirovna Baclanova (d. 1974) on Aug. 19 in Moscow, Russia. Am. "John Henry" novelist-playwright Roark Whitney Wickliffe Bradford (d. 1948) on Aug. 21 in Lauderdale County, Tenn.; father of Richard Bradford (1932-2002). Am. country singer-musician ("the Red-Haired Music Maker") ("the Pineapple Picador") Wendell Woods Hall (d. 1969) on Aug. 23 in St. George, Kan. French conservative free market economist (adviser to Charles de Gaulle) Jacques Leon Rueff (d. 1978) on Aug. 23 in Paris; educated at the Ecole Polytechnique. Am. world's oldest person Besse Berry Cooper (nee Brown) on Aug. 26 in Sullivan County, Tenn. Am. Theremin inventor Leon Theremin (Lev Sergeyevich Termen) (d. 1993) on Aug. 27 (Aug. 15 Old Style) in St. Petersburg; of French descent. Am. "Invaders from Mars" actor Morris Ankrum (Nussbaum) (d. 1964) on Aug. 28 in Danville, Ill.; educated at USC and UCB. Irish "Thy Neighbour's Wife", "The Informer" novelist Liam O'Flaherty (d. 1984) on Aug. 28 in Gort nag Capall, Inishmore, County Galway. Canadian "Things to Come" actor Raymond Hart Massey (d. 1983) on Aug. 30 in Toronto, Ont.; suffers shell shock in WWI. Indian Hare Krishna leader Abhay Charan De Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (d. 1977) on Sept. 1 in Calcutta; arrives in the U.S. in 1965. Am. "The Laytons" actress-musician (black) Amanda E. Randolph (d. 1967) on Sept. 2 in Louisville, Ky. French "Theater of Cruelty", "The Theater and Its Double" poet-playwright-actor-dir. Antoine Marie Joseph "Antonin" Artaud (d. 1948) on Sept. 4 in Marseille; suffers from childhood meningitis. Am. "Dancing in the Dark", "That's Entertainment" lyricist (Jewish) Howard Dietz (d. 1983) on Sept. 8 in New York City; collaborator of Arthur Schwartz (1900-84); educated at Columbia U., which gives him the idea for the MGM trademark. Am. dancer Adele Marie Astaire (nee Austerlitz) (d. 1981) on Sept. 10 in Omaha, Neb.; Austrian Roman Catholic father, German-descent Lutheran mother; older sister and dancing partner (from childhood until 1932) of Fred Astaire (1899-1987). Am. "The Cat and the Canary" actor-writer-dir. (alcoholic) Elliott Nugent (d. 1980) on Sept. 20 in Dover, Ohio; son of J.C. Nugent (1868-1947); friend of James Thurber. Am. longevity champ Walter Breuning (d. 2011) on Sept. 21 in Melrose, Minn. Am. "Great Gatsby" writer Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (d. 1940) on Sept. 24 in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at Princeton U. U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1935-74) Leslie Cornelius Arends (d. 1985) on Sept. 27 in Melvin, Ill.; educated at Oberlin College, and Ill. Wesleyan U. U.S. Sen. (D-N.C.) (1954-74) Sam J. Ervin Jr. (d. 1985) on Sept. 27; chmn. of the 1973 Senate Watergate Committee. Am. vaudeville performer and Three Stooges mgr. Ted Healy (Clarence Ernst Nash) (d. 1937) on Oct. 1 in Houston, Tex. Pakistani PM #1 (1947-51) Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (d. 1951) on Oct. 2 in Karnal. French "Pepe le Moko" dir. Julien Duvivier (d. 1967) on Oct. 8 in Lille. Am. Davisson-Germer Experiment physicist Lester Halbert Germer (d. 1971) on Oct. 10 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Columbia U.; collaborator of Clinton Davisson (1881-1958). Am. Washington Redskins owner (1932-69) George Preston Marshall (d. 1969) on Oct. 11 in Grafton, W. Va.; pioneer of the halftime show. Italian "Ossi di Seppia" poet Eugenio Montale (d. 1981) on Oct. 12 in Genoa. English "Sheriff of Nottingham in The Adventures of Robin Hood" fish-lipped actor Melville Cooper (d. 1973) on Oct. 15 in Birmingham. Am. "Honey in the Horn" novelist Harold Lenoir Davis (d. 1960) on Oct. 18 in Yoncalla, Ore.; starts out a cowboy, typesetter, and surveyor before turning poet, after which H.L. Mencken encourages him to try novel-writing. German "The Blue Angel", "Destry Rides Again", "The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T" composer Friedrich Hollaender (d. 1976) on Oct. 18 in London, England; son of Victor Hollander; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933-56. U.S. interior secy. (1950-3) Oscar Littleton Chapman (d. 1978) on Oct. 22 in Omega, Va.; educated at the U. of Denver. Am. biochemist Charles Glen King (d. 1988) on Oct. 22 in Entiat, Wash. Am. "Puttin' On the Ritz" silent film actress (Jewish) (blonde) (lesbian) Lilyan Tashman (d. 1934) on Oct. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; wife (1925-) of Edmund Lowe (1890-1971). Am. "Merry Mount" composer-conductor Howard Harold Hanson (d. 1981) on Oct. 28 in Wahoo, Neb.; Swedish parents; educated at Northwestern U. Am. "Rosemary's Baby", "Maude in Harold and Maude", "Orville Boggs' mother in Every Which Way But Loose" actress Ruth Gordon Jones (d. 1985) on Oct. 30 in Wollaston, Mass.; sea captain father; wife (1942-85) of Garson Kanin (1912-99). Am. "Sweet Mama Stringbean", "His Eye Is on the Sparrow" jazz singer (black) (bi) Ethel Waters (d. 1977) on Oct. 31 in Chester, Penn. English "Undertones of War" writer-poet Edmund Charles Blunden (d. 1974) on Nov. 1 in London; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U.; friend of Siegfried Sassoon. Irish IRA terrorist Seamus (James) "Jim" O'Donovan (d. 1979) on NOv. 3 in County Roscommon. Phillipine pres. #8 (1957-61) Carlos Polistico Garcia (d. 1971) on Nov. 4 in Talibon, Bohol. Am. Dem. Okla. gov. #12 (1943-7) (Southern Baptist) (teetotaller) Robert Samuel Kerr (d. 1963) on Sept. 11 in near Ada, Pontotoc County, Okla.; born in a log cabin; educated at the U. of Okla. U.S. First Lady (1953-61) (last born in the 19th cent.) Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (d. 1979) on Nov. 14 in Boone, Iowa; wife (1916-) of Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1967). Am. "Fibber McGee", "Orville in The Rescuers" actor James "Jim" Jordan (d. 1988) on Nov. 16 in Peoria, Ill. English fascist Blackshirt leader Sir Oswald Ernal Mosley, 6th Baronet (d. 1980) on Nov. 16 in Rolleston Hall (near Burton-on-Trent); educated at Royal Military College, Sandhurst; father of Sir Nicholas Mosley (1923-). Soviet (Russian) psychologist (Jewish) (founder of Cultural-Historical Psychology) Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (d. 1934) on Nov. 17 (Nov. 6 Old Style) in orsha. Austrian "Theo Kretschmar-Schuldorff in "The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp", "Gaslight", "Forty-Ninth Parallel", "The Red Shoes" actor (in England) (Jewish) (gay) Anton Walbrook (Adolf Anton Wilhelm Wohlbrück) (d. 1967) on Nov. 19 in Vienna. Japanese world's oldest person Chiyono Hasegawa on Nov. 20. Am. "I'm Always Chasing Rainbows" songwriter-composer Harry Carroll (d. 1962) on Nov. 28 in Atlantic City, N.J. Am. "Shine on Harvest Moon", "Button Up Your Overcoat", "Love Me or Leave Me" singer ("America's Sweetheart of Song") Ruth Etting (d. 1978) on Nov. 23 in David City, Neb.; wife (1922-37) of Martin "Moe the Gimp" Snyder and (1938-) Myrl Alderman. Am. "Cary Grant's mother in North by Northwest", "Grace Kelly's mother in To Catch a Thief" actress Jessie Royce Landis (nee Medbury) on Nov. 25 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Four Saints in Three Acts", "The Mother of Us All" modernist composer Virgil Thomson (d. 1989) on Nov. 25 in Kansas City, Mo; educated at Havard U.; collaborator of Gertrude Stein (1874-1946). Am. philosopher (Jewish) Irwin Edman (d. 1954) on Nov. 28 in New York City. Am. "Turn, Magic Wheel", "A Time to Be Born" novelist-playwright Dawn Powell (d. 1965) on Nov. 28 in Mount Gilead, Ohio; educated at Lake Erie College. Am. "That Old Gang of Mind", "Bye Bye Blackbird", "You're the Cream of My Coffee", "Life is Just a Bowl of Cherries" songwriter <