T.L. Winslow's 1890s Historyscope 1890-1899 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

1890-1899 C.E.



The Gay Nineties Fin De Siecle Decade, or, How 'bout That Tiger? Since the coming MF-challenged year 1900 can't be the "real" Millennium, nobody's talking about Armageddon and everybody's talking about taming the tiger and advancing civilization, causing this decade to produce exciting scientific and technical leaps, incl. electricity, radio, automobiles and airplanes, and movies? Just when it all seems to be for the good (give or take an electric chair or two), X-rays and radioactivity are discovered and played around with a little too innocently, revealing the hidden horrors of scientific progress? France and England celebrate pure Wilde decadence? A good decade for WWII generals and aircraft magnates to be born? A good decade for criminals and crime fighters names Holmes? A bad decade to be born if you don't want to be cannon fodder in WWI? German Christianity-hating playwright Gerhart "high forehead" Hauptmann becomes fashionable?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) Mar. 4, 1889 Mar. 4, 1893 Benjamin Harrison of the U.S. (1833-1901)
United Kingdom Queen Victoria (1819-1901) June 20, 1837 Jan. 22, 1901 Queen Victoria of Britain (1819-1901)
United Kingdom Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903) July 25, 1886 Aug. 11, 1892 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903)
Russia Tsar Alexander III (1845-94) Mar. 13, 1881 Nov. 1, 1894 Tsar Alexander III (1845-94)
China Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) Aug. 22, 1861 Nov. 15, 1908 Empress Dowager of China (1835-1908)
Canada Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815-91) Oct. 17, 1878 June 6, 1891 Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815-91)
France Marie Francois Sadi Carnot (1837-94) Dec. 3, 1887 June 25, 1894 Marie Francois Sadi Carnot of France (1837-94)
Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) June 15, 1888 Nov. 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859-1941)
Italy Umberto I (1844-1900) Jan. 9, 1878 July 29, 1900 Umberto I of Italy (1844-1900)
Spain Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) May 17, 1886 Apr. 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941)
Japan Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) Feb. 3, 1867 July 30, 1912 Emperor Meiji of Japan (1852-1912)
Mexico Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) Nov. 29, 1876 May 25, 1911 Porfirio Diaz of Mexico (1830-1915)
Papacy Leo XIII (1810-1903) Feb. 20, 1878 July 20, 1903 Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903)
Turkey Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918) Aug. 31, 1861 Apr. 27, 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey (1842-1918)

1890 - The last wild American Indians get the shitting bull kicked out of them while herds of whites grab Oklahoma, and a white man gets the electric chair, while H.G. Wells ramps up the white man's escapist genre of science-fiction so that white readers can feel far far away no matter how many Vs them darkies score on their sheets? The Vincent Van Gogh Wheat Field With Crows Year?

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Sitting Bull (1831-90) H.G. Wells (1866-1946) Wilhelm II of Germany (1959-1941) Wilhelm II (1859-1941) and Augusta (1888-1921) of Germany Otto von Bismarck of Prussia (1815-98) 'Dropping the Pilot' by Sir John Tenniel, 1890 Count Leo von Caprivi (1831-99) Friedrich von Holstein of Germany (1837-1909) Quene Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (1880-1962) John Sherman of the U.S. (1823-1900) Sir John Forrest of Western Australia (1847-1918) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. of the U.S. (1850-1924) David Josiah Brewer of the U.S. (1837-1910) Henry Billings Brown of the U.S. (1836-1913) William Torrey Harris of the U.S. (1835-1909) Chief Big Foot (1824-90) Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) Wilford Woodruff (1807-98) Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) Frank T. Hopkins (1865-1951) Cy Young (1867-1955) Kid Nichols (1869-1953) Giovanni Verga (1840-1922) Ludwig Mond (1839-1909) Seth Low (1850-1916) Paul Fort (1872-1960) Hamlin Garland (1860-1940) Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (1825-93) Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915) Jean Psichari (1854-1929) Lyman Stewart (1840-1923) Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921) Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) Diamond Jim Brady Buchanan (1856-1917) Sir John Fowler (1817-98) Sir Benjamin Baker (1840-1907) Willoughby Dayton Miller (1853-1907) Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914) Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907) Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius (1857-1928) E.W. Hornung (1866-1921) Anthony Hope (1863-1933) Robert Koch (1843-1910) Jean-Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945) Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) Samuel Hopkins Adams (1863-1930) George Ade (1866-1944) Ray Stannard Baker (1870-1946) Edward William Bok (1863-1930) Kate Chopin (1850-1904) William James (1842-1910) Frances Alice Kellor (1873-1952) Henry Demarest Lloyd (1852-1920) Charles Edward Montague (1867-1928) Frank Norris (1870-1902) David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) Jacob August Riis (1849-1914) Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941) Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926) Paul Fort (1872-1960) Rev. William Eugene Blackstone (1841-1935) Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901) Ernest Dowson (1867-1900) James Theodore Bent (1852-97) Molly Elliot Seawell (1860-1916) Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (1853-1925) Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932) John Wesley Emerson (1832-99) Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) Ignác Goldziher (1850-1921) Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929) Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) <Cesar Ritz (1850-1918) Louis Doberman (1834-94) William Kemmler's Execution, Aug. 6, 1890 Francis Marion Smith (1846-1931) William Tell Coleman (1824-93) Stephen Tyng Mather (1867-1930) 20 Mule Team 20 Mule Team Borax Yvette Guibert (1865-1944) Colo. State Capitol, 1890 Elitch Gardens, 1890-2000 Elijah Jefferson Bond (1847-1921) Ouija Board, 1890 Pearl Lenore Curran (1883-1937) William Morris (1834-96) William Morris Example 'Still Life with Apples' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1890-4 'Haystacks in Brittany' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1890 'Le Chahut' by Georges Seurat (1859-91), 1890 'Galatea and Pygmalion' by Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), 1890 Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Paul Serusier (1864-1927) 'The Talisman' by Paul Serusier, 1888 Paul Signac (1863-1935) Félix Fénéon (1861-1944) 'Portrait of Félix Fénéon' by Paul Signac, 1890 Vincent van Gogh (1853-90) 'Wheat Field With Crows' by Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90), 1890

1890 The Eleventh (11th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 62,947,714 (21.2 per sq. mi.); New York City: 1.341M; the German pop. of the U.S. is now at 2.8M, a majority within the German Triangle of Cincinnati, Milwaukee and St. Louis; since 1820 15.6M people have migrated to the U.S. through New York Harbor and/or Ellis Island: 4.6M from Germany, 3.5M from Ireland, 2.5M from England, 0.9M from Norway-Sweden, 0.46M from Austria-Hungary, 0.41M from Italy, 0.37M from France, 0.36M from Russia-Poland, 0.33M from Scotland, 0.29M from China, 0.17M from Switzerland, 0.15M from Denmark, 1.03M from British North Am. possessions, 0.61M from all other countries. Global influenza epidemics rock the planet. Beginning this year large numbers of Armenians (100K), Southern and Eastern Europeans begin migrating to the U.S., while other Armenians migrate to the Caucasus - it was worth it for John Belushi? Beginning about this year the Great Migration of Southern Blacks (ends 1980) begins as they move en masse to Northern cities New York City, Detroit, Chicago et al. looking for economic opportunity, 500K by 1920 and 1.5M-2M by 1930. The avg. height of urban U.S. men born this year is 1.5 in. shorter than those born in 1830, showing the dismal working and living conditions; it takes until 1920 to regain the stature. In this decade Paris enjoys the Belle Epoque (Fr. "Beautiful Era"), an era of elegance, fashion and gaiety (ends in 1914 with WWI). On Jan. 1 the first Rose Parade is held in Pasadena, Calif., where the weather is in the 70s even in winter; each float must be made entirely of organic (living) materials, with no artificial coloring. On Feb. 4 the U.S. House of Reps. passes the U.S. Exposition Bill authorizing Chicago to host a world's fair to honor the 400th anniv. of Columbus; it is signed on Apr. 25 by Pres. Harrison; First Nat. Bank of Chicago pres. Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) becomes pres. of the board of dirs., arranging the financing; former Chicago mayor (1879-87) Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (1825-93) steamrolls the women's societies and insures that every kind of sin will be in so that the filthy lucre will be made, then gets reelected in 1893 to be in for the fun; Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show gets banned but sets up outside the gates and makes a killing. On Feb. 22 (2:00 a.m.) the Walnut Grove Dam in NC Ariz. (begun 1886) collapses shortly after being completed, sending 4B gal. of water down the Hassayampa River, killing 70; shoddy construction is blamed, and the dam designer is found to have no civil engineering training. On Mar. 18 Kaiser Wilhelm II (probably from jealousy?) forces chancellor (since 1871) Otto von Bismarck (1815-98) to resign, and on Mar. 20 replaces him with Count Georg Leo von Caprivi (1831-99) (until Oct. 26, 1894), making a choice of someone who's ignorant of foreign affairs to take over foreign policy himself, with Friedrich August Karl Ferdinand Julius von Holstein (1837-1909) becoming head of the German Foreign Office (until 1906); Bismarck goes into retirement in Friedrichsruh (20 mi. SE of Hamburg) with the title of duke of Lauenberg, issuing the soundbyte: "The Kaiser is like a balloon: if you don't keep hold of the string, you never know where he'll be off to"; Punch mag. pub. the famous cartoon Dropping the Pilot by Sir John Tenniel, which Germans eagerly adopt, titling it "Der Lotse Geht von Bord" (The Pilot Leaves the Ship); after the Kaiser visits England in the summer, the Russians and French start getting the idea that Germany is starting to form an entente against them with Britain, lubing the wheels leading to WWI? 'On Mar. 27 a tornado hits Louisville, Ky., killing 100 and causing $3M damage. A lid is put on success in the Land of Opportunity? Not this century? On Apr. 8 the U.S. Sherman Antitrust Act, named after Ohio Sen. (treasury secy. under Pres. Hayes) John Sherman (1823-1900) (brother of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman) is passed in the U.S. by large bipartison majorities in both houses of Congress, and signed by Pres. Harrison on July 2; only 18 antitrust cases are initiated by the underfunded U.S. Dept. of Justice in three admins. (Harrison 7, Cleveland 8, McKinley 3), and 4 of these are against labor unions. In Apr. the Thunderbird, an enormous flying creature with the body of a serpent, a 160-ft. wingspan, two clawed feet, and the face of an alligator is allegedly sighted by two cowboys in the Ariz. desert, who allegedly shoot and kill it, cut off a piece of the wing and bring it to Tombstone, Ariz., where the Tombstone Epigraph pub. an article about it in their Apr. 1892 issue - a hoax? On May 2 the U.S. Organic Act gives away the remainder of Oklahoma territory (the panhandle) to whites, creates the Oklahoma Territory, and officially declares the U.S. Frontier closed; on May 23 the city of Oklahoma City, Okla. (modern pop. 370K/640K), on the North Canadian River is incorporated; the U.S. now has four state capitals with "City" in their names: Jefferson City, Oklahoma City, Carson City, Kansas City - JOCK? On May 6 the Kaiser Wilhelm II addresses the opening of the Reichstag, mentioning the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, pissing-off the Russians and French; the Reichstag then passes an Army Law increasing the size by 18K men, really pissing them off, and causing mutual feelers to be put out via their military officers. On June 14 the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty is signed, ceding the Danish island of Heligoland (Helgoland) (under British occupation since 1807) to Germany as of July 1 by Britain's Lord Salisbury in exchange for a much larger strip of African territory, Zanzibar; Germany renounces all claims to Uganda, Zanzibar, and Pemba, causing outcries in Germany, while Sir Henry Stanley the African explorer-journalist of Britain gloats that Germany would have "given a suit for an old trouser's button"; Heligoland becomes part of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, and is heavily fortified with guns and U-boat pens; the Imperial British East Africa Co. (IBEAC) is chartered to develop the Uganda area (until 1895); the whole thing causes Russia and France to believe that Germany is getting in bed with Britain against them, and must have gotten something under the sheets? - just move forward and let me do the mouse work? On June 29 U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1893-1924) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924) sponsors the U.S. Federal Elections (Force) Bill, providing for federal protection of blacks trying to vote in federal elections; too bad, the Repubs. cop out and withdraw support in order to put money first and get the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and McKinley Tariff Act passed - is that the good side or the dark side of the Force? On July 1 the first Japanese gen. election for the Diet under the new constitution is held. On July 3 "Gem State", "Potato State" Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state, followed on July 10 by "Equality State" "Bucking Horse Rider (BHR) State" Wyoming (Del. "alternating meadows and valleys") as the 44th U.S. state (last alphabetically). On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with five new lily-white stars, making the total 43 (design #21), and now incl. N.D., S.D., Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. On July 4 the cornerstone of the Colo. State Capitol, in Denver at the intersections of Colfax Ave. (longest blvd. in the U.S., going E-W from the plains to the mountains) and Federal Ave. (the center of a grid of N-S streets named for Indian tribes on the E side and U.S. Civil War Union gens. on the W side), designed by E.E. Myers is laid; the granite comes from Gunnison, the wainscoting is made rose onyx from Beulah (near Pueblo), the foundations and walls of Ft. Collins sandstone, and the basement of Colo. white marble; one of the steps is labelled "5,280 ft.". On July 27 unieared Vincent van Gogh (b. 1853) shoots himself in the chest in a wheat field in Auvers, France after painting Wheat Field with Crows, and dies two days later on July 29; on July 30 his younger brother Theo van Gogh (b. 1857) gets depressed, tries to get the Durant-Ruel Gallery to hold an exhibit of his paintings, stages his own in his apt. on Sept. 20, ends up in in Auteuil Asylum in Oct., transferred to another institutuion in Utrecht in Nov., and dies 2 mo. later of syphilis on Jan. 25; in 1990 scientists claim that Vincent might have had Meniere's Disease - he likes to become one with his subject? On Aug. 6 (7:00 a.m.) after Thomas Edison helps nix his appeal in hopes that the use of Westinghouse's AC rather than his DC will give them a bad name, convicted common-law wife hatchet murderer William Kemmler (b. 1860) becomes the first person to be executed on an Electric Chair as N.Y. tries out its brand-new 1888 model in Auburn Prison; after being zapped for 17 sec. with 1K volts, he is still breathing, so they juice it up to 2K volts for 70 sec., during which time he catches fire and nauseated witnesses run for it - the original Green Mile? On Aug. 15 a govt. is set up in Western Australia, with explorer John Forrest (1847-1918) as its first PM (until 1901); he is knighted in 1891. In Aug. Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet at Narva (in NE Estonia on the Gulf of Finland), Germany lets its 1887 Reinsurance Treaty with Russia lapse, and the Three Emperors' League dies, causing France and Russia to actively seek an entente to counterbalance the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, as well as a possible 4-way alliance with Britain, despite lack of common interests except mutual fear and hatred of the pesky Huns, er, Germans - Satan, how're ya feeling about setting things up for WWI? On Sept. 12 a radical revolt begins in Ticino, Switzerland after an election gives Conservatives the majority of council seats despite a draw in the popular vote, with the radicals imprisoning the municipal councils of Bellinzona and Lugano and establishing a provisional govt.; the federal govt. sends troops and quells the revolt by Sept. 14, repacking the Ticino council to make it more even; in 1892 the radicals gain power in a new election and pass a a new constitution extending civil rights. On Sept. 25 in order to gain statehood for Utah (and keep the U.S. Army from invading and enforcing the law?), polygamy (plural marriage) (celestial marriage) (new and everlasting covenant marriage) is officially prohibited by the Mormon Church via the Woodruff Manifesto of Mormon pres. #4 (since 1889) Wilford Woodruff (1807-98), causing Pres. Benjamin Harrison on Jan. 4, 1893 to issue a Presidential Proclamation granting the 2,451 Mormon plural families in the U.S. amnesty from the 1882 federal anti-polygamy law; that doesn't stop a lot of renegade Mormons from doing it anyway (50K in the year 2000); Congress rejects the name Deseret ("land of honeybees") (taken from the Book of Mormon) (in ancient Egypt, Kenet meant black land, i.e., fertile land, and Deseret meant red land, i.e., the desert), preferring Utah, from a Navajo word meaning upper, after the Shoshone Ute tribe. On Sept. 25 after the U.S. Forestry Movement shifts its emphasis from saving trees to the promotion of scientific forest mgt., the U.S. Congress creates Sequoia Nat. Park in Calif., followed on Oct. 1 by Yosemite and Gen. Grant (later King's Canyon) Nat. Park in Calif. On Oct. 11 the Daughters of the Am. Rev. (DAR) is founded in Washington, D.C. by First Lady Caroline Harrison (its first pres.-gen.) et al. to preserve the memory of the men and women who fought for independence in the Am. Rev. War; members must be women at least 18 years of age and directly descended from the heroes; it is incorporated by an act of Congress on Dec. 2, 1896, and begins pub. the Nat. Historical Mag. On Nov. 23 William III (b. 1817) dies, and his daughter Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria (1880-1962) becomes queen of the Netherlands (until 1948), with her mother Queen Emma as regent (until 1898); the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is separated from the Netherlands as an independent neutral state, like the Netherlands, both going on to become political refugee magnets. On Nov. 24-25 after visiting Palestine in 1888 and coming back enthused with the prospects of a new Israel, Am. Methodist minister (ardent Christian Zionist) William Eugene Blackstone (1841-1935) holds a Conference on the Past, Present, and Future of Israel at his First Methodist Episcopal Church in Chicago, Ill., which incl. Jewish leaders and calls on the Ottomans and other great powers to give Palestine back to the Jews; next year he gets the Blackstone Memorial petition calling for American support of you know what signed by 413 prominent U.S. Christian and Jewish leaders, incl. John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Cyrus McCormick, and presents it to U.S. pres. Benjamin Harrison and secy. of state James G. Blaine, with the soundbyte "for they never abandoned the land. They made no treaty, they did not even surrender. They simply succombed, after the most desperate conflict, to the overwhelming power of the Romans"; U.S. Supreme Court justice Louis D. Brandeis, head of the U.S. Zionist movement later becomes a fan, getting him to reissue the Blackstone Memorial to Pres. Wilson to assure his support for the 1917 Balfour Declaration. On Dec. 15 photogenic Indian celeb Sitting Bull (b. 1831) is killed by Lakota policemen trying to arrest him at the W end of the Cheyenne River - for shitting on a bull, or getting tired of all the bull? What's the best way to play in Blackhawk? The Bullwhackers way? On Dec. 29 after their holy man Sitting Bull is killed, causing Lakota chief Big Foot (Si Tanka) (Spotted Elk) (1824-90) and his people to flee, the Wounded Knee Creek Massacre in Creek, S.D. effectively squelches the last dance, last chance for love Ghost Dance Movement, and ends the Indian Wars (and the Native Am. way of life) after 400-500 U.S. soldiers of Custer's 7th Cavalry get payback by massacring 150-300 helpless disarmed Sioux and their families using four large Hotchkiss guns on the excuse that deaf Black Coyote failed to surrender his pot stew weapon; Wovoka loses his influence but lives until 1932; despite American Horse testifying at the inquest, the troopers receive the Medal of Honor; members of the Am. Indian Movement (AIM) finally get justice in Nov. 1972. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) becomes PM of the South African Parliament (Cape Colony), and pursues a policy of "painting the map red", i.e., bringing all of Africa under British control, starting by passing the Glen Grey Act limiting black vote via financial and educational qualifications, and sending a "pioneer column" of settlers and "police" into Zimbabwe (he'd prefer to call it Rhodesia?) between the Ndebele and Shona areas; meanwhile the African natives begin to suffer a series of ecological crises such as drought, locusts, and rinderpest (cattle disease) (until 1906). Brazilian pres. (since 1889) Gen. Manuel Fonseca becomes a dictator and dissolves the congress, causing a revolt in Rio Grande do Sul, followed by desertion by his supporters in the army and navy, causing him to resign. Yale-educated New Englanders David Josiah Brewer (1837-1910) of Conn. (Jan. 6) (until Mar. 28, 1910) and Henry Billings Brown (1836-1913) (Jan. 5, 1891) (until May 28, 1906) are appointed as the 50th and 51st U.S. Supreme Court justices to replace Samuel F. Miller (1862-90) and Stanley Matthews (1881-9), keeping the court at nine members; Brown later stinks his name up by writing the majority opinion in "Plessy v. Ferguson" (1896)? The Swiss federal govt. receives the power to enact social insurance. The McKinley Tariff, sponsored by Ohio Rep. William McKinley ("the Napoleon of the Tariff"), chmn. of the House Ways and Means Committee raises avg. tariff rates to 49.5%, the highest ever; it contains a reciprocity element, sponsored by secy. of state James G. Blaine that permits bilateral reductions, but when prices rise it becomes highly unpopular. The U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, sponsored by Ohio Sen. John Sherman (of Sherman Anti-Trust Act fame) is passed by the Harrison admin. in exchange for support of the McKinley Tariff; it repeals the Bland-Allison Act of 1878 and requires the U.S. govt. to purchase 4.5M oz. of silver (at a 20:1 ratio to gold) per mo. at market prices, issuing new legal tender Treasury certificates, which soon depletes U.S. gold reserves when everybody begins cashing them in for gold, leading to the Panic of 1893 - if they only new that Treasury silver is later used to produce the first atomic bomb? Nasser ed-Din Shah of Persia gives Britain ownership of its tobacco industry, but Mirza Reza Shirazi issues a fatwa prohibiting tobacco, so he cancels it, and quits smoking. Zulu king Dinzulu is exiled to St. Helena island (until 1897) on trumped-up charges to get him out of the way. The United Mine Workers (UMW) labor union is founded in Columbus, Ohio. Remember, nobody beats the king, nobody? The U.S. Congress authorizes construction of three first-class battleships for its new steel navy: the USS Indiana, the USS Massachusetts, and the USS Oregon, all at 10K tons; also, a 7.3K-ton cruiser USS Columbia - let's kick some Spanish butt? Australia and New Zealand agree to financially support a British naval squadron. Fort-de-France, Martinique almost burns down. The Socialist Armenian Rev. Federation (ARF) (Dashnaktsutyun) is formed by Christian Orthodox Armenians in E Anatolia (Turkey) to fight for Armenian independence, causing the Ottoman govt. under "Bloody" Sultan Hamid II to employ irregular forces of ham-handed Muslim Russian Cossack clone Hamidiye Kurdish tribesmen (the sultan's personal cavalry) to keep them down - get out the kurbash? German Social Dems. convene the Erfurt Congress in Saxony, and next year adopt the Erfurt Program, becoming a V for the doctrines of Karl Marx over Ferdinand Lasalle. In this decade Boroughitis sweeps N.J. In this decade the U.S. Bureau of Education, headed (1889-1906) by philosopher William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) begins introducing reindeer herds into Alaska as a way to prevent starvation and extinction of native species. The capital city of Nairobi ("cold water") in SW Kenya is founded in this decade (modern pop. 2.9M). A French co. begins modernizing the port of Beirut (finished 1895). The first English electrical power station opens in Deptford. The Forth Rail Bridge in Scotland, designed by Sir John Fowler (1817-98) and Sir Benjamin Baker (1840-1907) opens. The St. Paul and Pacific Railroad reaches the Pacific, and is consolidated into the Great Northern Railroad Co. Former Brooklyn, N.Y. mayor Seth Low (1850-1916) becomes pres. of Colombia College (until 1901). The Nat. Woman Suffrage Assoc. and the Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. merge to form the Nat. Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA), waging state-by-state campaigns, with initial success in the west, starting with Colo. (1893), Utah and Idaho (1896), Wash. (1910), Calif. (1911), Ore., Kan., and Ariz. (1912), Alaska and Ill. (1913), Mont. and Nev. (1914), N.Y. (1917), Mich., S.D., and Okla. (1918). Buffalo Bill's Wild West showman Frank T. Hopkins (1865-1951) wins a 3K-mi. desert race in Arabia across the Gulf of Syria and the borders of two countries against Arabian horsemen on his mixed-blood wild Mustang Hidalgo, earning $100K on a $1K wager; a tall tale? Ft. Bridger in Wyo. (built 1843) is abandoned; Ft. Laramie in Wyo. is degarrisoned - nothing left to shoot at except an old brave, two cripples, and a squaw? British archeologist James Theodore Bent (1852-97) explores Cilicia Trachea, followed next year by the ruins in Mashonaland in South Africa, followed by Great Zimbabwe, after which in 1893-4 he explores the remote Hadramut country, followed by S Arabia. English journalist Charles Edward Montague (1867-1928) joins the Manchester Guardian, rising to de facto ed. from 1895-1906, turning the newspaper into a campaigner for Home rule and against the Boer War; to get into the army in WWI he dies his white hair black. The Doberman pinscher dog is first bred in Apolda, Thuringen, Germany from the German shepherd, Rottweiler, German pinscher, and the black and tan terrier by breeder Louis Doberman (Dobermann) (1834-94). In this decade the era of the frontier gambler in the Am. West (begun 1870) comes to an end as gambling is increasingly outlawed. In this decade the Progressive Era in the U.S. begins (ends 1913, 1920, 1930?), with the Original Thirteen Muckrakers: Samuel Hopkins Adams (1871-1958) (patent medicines), Edward William Bok (1863-1930), Ray Stannard Baker (1870-1946), Burton Jesse Hendrick (1870-1949) (life insurance), Frances Alice Kellor (1873-1952) (chronic unemployment), Henry Demarest Lloyd (1852-1920) (Standard Oil Co.), Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Norris Jr. (1870-1902) (wheat trust), David Graham Phillips (1867-1911), Jacob August Riis (1849-1914) (America's first muckraker?), Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941) (beef trust), Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) (meatpacking industry), Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) ("The Shame of the Cities"), Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) (Standard Oil Co.), who all churn out articles in the 15-cent McClure's mag., founded in June 1893 by Samuel S. McClure (1857-1949), exposing the endless rottenness of the Capitalist U.S., giving causes to Progressives (read closet Socialists?) to reform govt. and business at every level, led by Teddy Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr., Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963), Jane Addams et al. In this decade most U.S. states begin using Australian ballots, which preserve secret voting by listing the candidates of all major parties rather than just the one doing the printing, and are printed by the govt. rather than the parties to minimize fraud. In this decade the French and Germans hold a big debate on Jus sanguinis vs. Jus soli (right of blood vs. right of territory) to determine citizenship, with the French, led by Ernest Renan on the Jus soli side. In this decade the Demotikist movement in Greek is formed by Kostes Palamas (1859-1943), dramatist Ioannis Kambisis (1872-1902) et al. to propagate the Greek vernacular language of Demotike, producing a large body of lit. works and making it the chief medium of modern-day Greek writers; meanwhile the Greek Purists, led by Alexandros Rangabe (1810-92), dramatist Demetrios Vernadakis (1834-1907) et al. pooh-pooh Demotike and push classic ancient Greek, getting the govt. to adopt it, along with most newspapers, until 1976, when Demotike becomes the official language of Greece. In this decade Herkko Rosvo-Ronkainen of Finland originates the custom of wife-carrying races, which spreads to the U.S. Singer Yvette Guibert (1865-1944), who debuted at the Variette Theatre in 1888 and is known for dressing in bright yellow with black gloves and singing raunchy songs becomes the headliner at the Molin Rouge in Montmartre, going on to become a favorite subject of artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. In this decade a group of French painters incl. Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Maurice Denis (1870-1943), and Jean-Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) found Les Nabis (Hebrew for prophet) art style, using flat areas of color and pattern to create a subjective, mystical style, after being inspired by the 1888 painting "The Talisman" (the Bois d'Amour a Pont-Aven) of Paul Serusier (1864-1927), painted at Pont-Aven under the supervision of Paul Gaugin, who helps name the group. Late in this cent. Indonesians in S Sumatra begin using tampans (ship cloths), small rectangular cloths with a bilateral design based on a ship at the bottom with a tree growing out of it, and humans on each branch, which are used to wrap food and gifts at weddings, births and funerals; after production ceases early next cent., they are passed down as heirlooms. In this decade Am. painter Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921) begins developing his theory of camouflage, later used by the military - starting by camouflaging the "e" in Henderson by making it into an "a"? The German Social Dem. newspaper Vorwarts (Vorwärts) begins pub. (until 1933). 17-y.-o. Willa Cather becomes ed. of The Hesperian at the U. of Nebraska. English wallpaper designer William Morris (1834-96) founds Kelmscott Press in Jan., which goes on to pub. The Kelmscott Chaucer (1896). In this decade James Brady "Diamond Jim" Buchanan (1856-1917) (his own 25 best customers) becomes a big man in Broadway night life in New York City. The London Metropolitan Police move their offices to the Victorian Gothic red-white brick Nat. Opera House on the Thames Embankment, calling it New Scotland Yard. The Royal Economic Society (originally the British Economic Assoc.) in England is founded, receiving a royal charter on Dec. 2, 1902; in 1891 it begins pub. The Economic Journal; in 1998 it begins pub. The Econometrics Journal. In this decade weight-guessing becomes popular at U.S. carnivals. Elitch's Zoological Gardens opens in no-longer-Wild-West Denver, Colo. at 38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. on May 1 on an apple orchard site owned by John and Mary Elitch, friends of P.T. Barnum, who winters his animals and equipment in the Sloan Lake area nearby (20th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.), and who attends the opening with Tom Thumb; when John dies in 1891, Mary takes over, training an ostrich to pull her in a small sulky and gaining worldwide publicity; her own light opera stock co. opens on May 30, 1897, producing "Helene", with James O'Neill (father of playwright Eugene O'Neill) as one of the actors; later Sarah Bernhardt plays "Camille" and "La Sorcier", and Mary names a mountain lion kitten after her; young Douglas Fairbanks gets his first acting job there; young Grace Kelly gets her start there after she and her mother rent a basement apt. at 4020 Raleigh St.; the Trocadero Ballroom opens in 1917 under owner John Mulvlihill, featuring Lawrence Welk (1903-92), Benny Goodman, Guy Lombardo et al. (closes 1975); Elitch's closes in 2000 when it is bought out by Six Flags. The Am. Tobacco Co. is formed by the Duke family, with James Buchanan "Buck" Duke as pres. Tobacco chewing peaks this year in the U.S. at three pounds per capita. 20 Mule Team Borax brand sodium borate cleaning compound co. is founded as Pacific Coast Borax Co. by "Borax King" Francis Marion "Borax" Smith (1846-1931), who acquires the holdings of William Tell Coleman (1824-93), whose 20-mule teams operated in Death Valley, Calif. from 1883-9; next year Stephen Tyng Mather (1867-1930) comes up with the name 20 Mule Team Borax (registered in 1894); after getting fired in 1898, Thomas Thorkildsen (1869-1950) uses his $17K life savings to purchase a borax mine on Frazier Mt. in Ventura County, Calif., partnering with Mather and going on to sell their co. Sterling Borax to Pacific in 1911 for $10M; in 1964-5 Ronald Reagan later hosts Pacific's TV show "Death Valley Days". The R.T. Davis Mill Co. begins marketing Aunt Jemima brand "self-rising pancake four", which incl. powdered milk, made from a formula he bought in 1889, and adopts the Mammy as its logo. Lung-assaulting Kretek brand clove cigarettes are invented by Noto Semito of Kudus. The Edison General Electric Co. begins selling strings of lights for holiday decoration, but it costs hundreds of dollars to light a Christmas tree. In this decade Nat. City Bank of New York becomes the largest bank in the U.S., becoming the first major U.S. bank with a foreign dept. that engages in foreign exchange trading. The first crude moving picture shows ("Monkeyshines") appear in New York City. Shakespeare becomes a threat to U.S. agriculture? The European starling is introduced into the U.S. (Central Park in New York City) from Europe by Eugene Schieffelin (1827-1906) as part of his project to introduce all birds mentioned in Shakespeare's works (in this case Henry IV Pt. I, Act 1, Scene I), and spreads out of control, destroying fruit and vegetable crops. The biennial silver Darwin Medal is founded by the British Royal society to reward research connected with Charles Darwin's theories. French symbolist poet Paul Fort (1872-1960) founds the Theatre des Arts (later Theatre de l'Oeuvre), which launches the careers of Paul Verlaine (1844-96), Paul Gaugin, and Maurice Maeterlinck. Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915) of the Bibliotheque Nationale founds Le Mercure de France, and next year is forced to resign from the Bibliotheque because of the subversive Le Joujou: Patriotisme. London Jew Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) founds the humorous periodical Ariel, going on to write funny stories incl. The Bachelor's Club (1891) and The Maid's Club (1892). Swiss hotelier Cesar Ritz (1850-1918) buys the Savoy Hotel in London, going on to establish Ritz hotels around the world, incl. the Hotel Ritz in Paris in 1898 and the Carlton in London in 1899; he hires super French chef Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935), who goes on to invent Peach Melba (1893), Melba Toast (1897), Cherries Jubilee (1897), and Tournedos Rossini, introduce a la carte menu in 1899, and train Ho Chi Minh to be a pastry chef. Emerson Electric Co. is founded in Mo. by Civil War Union veteran John Wesley Emerson (1832-99) et al. to manufacture electric motors, selling the first electric fans in the U.S. in 1892, and going on to become the world's largest airplane armament manufacturer in WWII, growing to 140K employees in 150 countries by 2008; its CEO William Stuart Symington (1901-88) becomes the first secy. of the USAF in 1947-50. Lyman Stewart (1840-1923) et al. found the Union Oil Co. (Unocal). In this decade Paris Green wallpaper containing arsenic kills thousands. French artist Georges-Pierre Seurat (1859-91) has a son by his model Madeleine Knobloch; he doesn't introduce him to his mother until two days before his 1891 death. English novelist Joseph Conrad captains the stern-wheeler Roi des Belges on a voyage down the Congo River. In this decade the Pleinair ("en plein air") manner of representing observed effects of outdoor light and atmosphere catches on among French Impressionists. The sunflower (a native of the New World) is reintroduced to North Am. by Russian immigrants. Every year in this decade 20 tons of ivory taken from woolly mammoth remains are shipped from Siberia to London; some mammoth tusks reach 16 ft. in length. The Gibson Guitar Corp. is founded in Nashville, Tenn. The Athenian Constitution by Aristotle is discovered by archeologists. Reebok Internat. Ltd. is founded in Holcombe Brook (near Bolton), England by Joseph William Foster to produce newfangled spiked running shoes, which are made famous by Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell in the 1924 Summer Olympics; in 1960 the co. is renamed Reebok after the African rhebok antelope; in 1979 they begin U.S. distribution, doing well despite being pricier than Nike, Adidas, and Puma. Cuauhtemoc (Cuauhtémoc) Moctezuma Brewery in Monterrey, Mexico is founded by an icemaking co., later becoming Mexican Economic Development Inc. (FEMSA), brewing other beers incl. Dos Equis, Carta Blanca, Tecate, and Sol; in 2010 Dutch brewing giant Heineken Internat. buys it. Sports: The 2nd Longest Gloved Boxing Match in History sees Danny Needham and Patsy Kerrigan box 100 rounds on Feb. 27 in San Francisco, Calif. before the match is declared a draw after more than 6.5 hours; the longest is on Apr. 6, 1893. Denton True "Cy" (Cyclone) Young (1867-1955) appears in his first ML baseball game on Aug. 6, with the Cleveland Spiders; he moves to St. Louis in 1899, then to the AL in 1901, playing his last game on Oct. 11, 1911 with the Boston Rustlers. Pitcher Charles Augustus "Kid" Nichols (1869-1953) begins playing with the Boston Beaneaters (until 1901), having the first of 10 consecutive seasons with 20 wins or more, becoming the youngest pitcher to win 300 games (1901), and amassing 361 wins in a 15-year career. The first Army-Navy Football Game is played in West Point between the Army Black Knights and Navy Midshipmen; Navy defeats Army by 24-0; starting in 1899 games are played mainly in Philly. About this time English poet-novelist Ernest Christopher Dowson (1867-1900) coins the word "soccer", along with the phrases "gone with the wind" and "days of wine and roses". Architecture: The 16-18-20-story 309-ft. (94m) New York World (Pulitzer) Bldg., designed by George Browne Post (1837-1913) and built for Joseph Pulitzer is completed on Dec. 10, becoming the world's tallest office bldg. (until ?); demolished in 1955. Inventions: Thomas Edison's talking dolls become a rage at Christmas; they sound like they're possessed?; too bad, they are almost all damaged in shipping, causing him to sell them sans guarantee. Nested wooden Matryoshka Dolls (from the Russian word "mat" = mother) begin to be produced near Moscow to copy Japanese wooden dolls. Elijah Jefferson Bond (1847-1921) files for a U.S. patent on the Ouija Board on May 28, which is granted next Feb. 10; in 1907 he founds the Swastika Novelty Co., with the word "Nirvana" trademarked; at first it's marketed in novelty shops, until Am. Spiritualist Pearl Lenore Curran (1883-1937) (known for channeling the 1694 spirit of Patience Worth) turns it into a tool for the Occult in WWI. Peanut Butter is invented by St. Louis physician ?. Peugeot (founded 1812) of France produces the first gas-driven automobile. German-born English industrialist Ludwig Mond (1839-1909) discovers a new method of purifying nickel (element #28) by treating it with carbon monoxide, leading to many advances in industrial catalysts; in 1900 he founds Mond Nickel Co.. In this decade Chicago, Ill. priest Casimir Zeglen develops a bulletproof vest made of silk; Franz Ferdinand is wearing one when he is shot on June 28, 1914, but too bad, he was shot in the neck above the vest. Rubber gloves are first used in surgery in John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Md. Science: The non-addictive topical anesthetic Benzocaine is isolated in Germany, and given the trade name Anesthesin. The unbearable lightness of Behring? Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) discovers antitoxins in the Berlin lab of physician Robert Koch (1843-1910) while working with Shibasaburo Kitazato (1853-1931) of Japan, and formulates Behring's Law, that blood serum from an individual who had contracted and survived a disease can be used to produce immunity to the same disease in another individual; he first applies it to tetanus, then diphtheria, then cattle TB; meanwhile Koch produces a substance he calls tuberculin, claiming it to be a cure for TB, but later finds it useful only in diagnosis. Swiss psychiatrist Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907) performs the first lobotomy (frontal lobe removal) operations; too bad, one patient dies after the operation, another is found dead in a river 10 days later, and the rest exhibit altered behavior. In this decade Canadian nurse Rene Caisse obtains an herbal recipe from an Ojibwa medicine man, which is later called Essiac (Caisse spelled backwards); it consists of burdock root, slippery elm, sheep sorrel, and rhubarb root, and is later used to treat cancer et al. German biologist Hermann Henking (1858-1942) discovers and names the X chromosome, identifying it as a sex chromosome in 1903. Italian mathematician Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (1853-1925) invents Tensor (Absolute Differential) Calculus, which uses contravariant (superscript) and covariant (subscript) array indices to represent physical objects independent of coordinate systems; his student Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) popularizes it in a 1900 textbook, and Albert Einstein later uses it in his Gen. Relativity Theory after taking 10 slow years to learn it, along with elliptic geometry from his friend Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) - just move on up to relieve? German chemist Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius (1857-1928) produces azoimide from organic sources using the Curtius Rearrangement. Univ. of Mich. dentistry prof. Willoughby Dayton Miller (1853-1907) pub. the microbial theory of dental cavities (caries). Am. pathologist William Russell claims to have found "a characteristic organism of cancer", attributing cancer to bacteria. Nonfiction: John Peter Altgeld (1847-1902), Our Penal Machinery and Its Victims; prison reform. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), La Photographie Judiciaire. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Zur Kritik der Moderne. Nellie Bly (1864-1922), Nellie Bly's Book: Around the World in Seventy-Two Days. William Booth (1829-1912), In Darkest England and the Way Out; bestseller advocating the progressive movement of the unemployed in Britain from city workshops to farm colonies, followed by overseas colonies. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), Essays of an Americanist; Races and Peoples: Lectures on the Science of Ethnography. Alexander Brown (1843-1906), The Genesis of the United States (2 vols.). Oscar Browning (1837-1923), History of England (4 vols.). Samuel Butler (1835-1902), The Life and Letters of Samuel Butler; his Episcopalian bishop grandfather, not a writer? William Cunningham (1849-1919), Growth of English Industry and Commerce During the Early and Middle Ages. Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1842-1933), Following the Guidon; more propaganda for her hubby. Varina Banks Howell Davis (1826-1906), Jefferson Davis: A Memoir By His Wife. Hans Delbruck (1848-1929), The Strategy of Pericles Described Through the Strategy of Frederick the Great. Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932), On the Qualities of Form (Uber Gestaltqualitäten); founds Gestalt Psychology, the theory that the mind sees the entirety before dividing it into parts, with the motto "The whole is greater (other than) the sum of the parts"; "In the case of all things that have several parts and in which the whole is not like a heap, but is a particular something besides the parts, there must be some such uniting factor." Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), The Problem of Human Life as Viewed by the Great Thinkers. Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941), The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (13 vols.) (1890-1936); ancient myths, cults, and rites, and their parallels to Christianity; a gold mine for anthropologists and archeologists; "In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of the day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instance he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and a murderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary" (of Diana Nemorensis AKA Diana of the Wood in the Alban Hills SE of Rome). Ignac Goldhizer (1850-1921), Muhammedanische Studien; shows how the Hadith reflect the legal-doctrinal controversies of the 2 cents. after Muhammad's death; claims that Islamic law is derived from Roman law; becomes known for his love of Islam, incl. praying like a Muslim, even thou he is devout Jew, and for dissing Roman Catholicism even though he lives in Hungary and is the first Jewish prof. at Budapest U.; "Islam, as my experience taught me, is the only religion in which superstitious and heathen ingredients are not frowned upon by rationalism, but by orthodox doctrine." Sir Montague Goldsmid, Das Leben von Muhammad (The Life of Mohammed). Edmund Gosse (1849-1928), The Life of Philip Henry Gosse; his father (1810-88). John Milton Hay (1838-1905), Abraham Lincoln: A History (10 vols.); by his personal secy. William James (1842-1910), The Principles of Psychology (2 vols.) (Sept. 25); proposes that psychology concern itself with emotions, habits, consciousness, self, adaptation, and learning, dissing Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's metaphysical idealism, Jeremy Bentham's associationism, Herbert Spencer's materialism, and Immanuel Kant's innatism, describing the human mind as inherently purposive and selective; a novel on psychology?; "A loathsome, distended, tumefied, bloated, dropsical mass, testifying to nothing but two facts: 1st, that there is no such thing as a science of psychology, and 2nd, that W. J. is an incapable." (William James) James Jefferson (1829-1905), Autobiography. Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929), Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries; begins his rise to #1 researcher on ancient Rome. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Barbary Corsairs. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Old Friends: Essays in Epistolary Parody; The Life, Letters and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, First Earl of Iddesleigh; How to Fail in Literature. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), The Cobra Diamond. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), A Strike of Millionaires Against Miners; or, The Story of Spring Valley. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), Principles of Economics; supplants John Stuart Mill's textbook in the U.K., replacing the term political economy with the term economics, and pioneering the supply and demand curve (Marshallian Cross). James Martineau (1805-1900), The Seat of Authority in Religion - I could tell you but I'd have to kill you? Samuel Ward McAllister (1827-95), Society As I Have Found It; adviser to "the Mrs. Astor" Caroline Schermerhorn Astor, who together created the List of 400 that defines who's the Nobs (old money) and who's the Swells (new money) in New York fashionable elite society, with at least three generations of wealthy ancestors who never worked in the trades required to be a Nob. Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1789; by a U.S. Navy Capt.; how British sea power made it #1, and how the U.S. can do it too, making a fan of Theodore Roosevelt; the most influential book on naval strategy, adopted by most major navies, leading to the WWI naval arms race. Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Royal Edinburgh. Ernest Renan (1823-92), L'Avenir de la Science. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York; shocking photos of living conditions in the Big Apple; kick-starts the Progressive Era. Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87), Prose (posth.). William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), Alexander Hamilton. John Heyl Vincent (1832-1920), A Study in Pedagogy; the Chautauqua System. Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), Miss Helyett (operetta) (Paris); staged next year in London as "Miss Decima". Alexander Borodin (1833-87), Prince Igor (posth.) (opera) (St. Petersburg); incl. Polovtsian Dances. Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 3 (final version); Symphony No. 4 (final version). Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Suite Bergamasque (piano suite) (rev. 1905); incl. Clair de Lune. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Dumka (Dumky) Trio No. 4 in E minor, Op. 90 (1890-1); a Dumka (Dumy) is a Ukrainian epic ballad of thoughtful or melancholy character; incl. Movement 1, Movement 2, Movement 3, Movement 4, Movement 5, Movement 6. Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945), Cavalleria Rusticana (first opera) (May 17) (Teatro Costanzi, Rome); libretto by Givoanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci; based on a short story by Sicilian-born Giovanni Verga (1840-1922); giant hit, launching the Italian Versimo (Ital. "realism") Movement in dramatic music (esp. grand opera), where works are impersonal and write themselves; incl. Addio alla Madre, Intermezzo. Andre Messager (1858-1929), La Basoche (opera) (Opera Comique, Paris). Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), The Holy Child. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Tod und Verklarung (Death and Transfiguration), Op. 24. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), The Queen of Spades (Pique Dame), Op. 68 (opera) (St. Petersburg); libretto by Modest Tchaikosky; based on the 1834 short story by Alexander Pushkin; too bad, Nadezhda von Meck suddenly cuts off his 6K rubles a year stipend. Art: Sir Frank Brangwyn (1867-1956), Funeral at Sea; wins gold medal at 1891 Paris Salon. Eugene Anatole Carriere (1849-1906), Sleep. David Young Cameron (1865-1945), The Clyde Set (etchings). Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Tulips in a Vase (1890-2); Still Life with Apples (1890-4); "I will astonish Paris with an apple". Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944), Signal of Peace (sculpture). Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Haystacks in Brittany. Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Pygmalion and Galatea; Pygmalion falls in love with an ivory "milky-white" statue, and Aphrodite brings it to life for him. Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90), Portrait of Dr. Gachet; sells for $82.5M in 1990; Wheat Field with Crows; his last work? Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Lady Godiva; Ophelia. Frederic Leighton (1830-96), The Bath of Psyche. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Still Life with Books (June) (first work). Jean-Louis Meissonier (1815-91), 1807; took 10 years. Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919), King Solomon. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), Closed Eyes. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), Self-Portrait; retires from his govt. job in 1893 to go full-time, visiting the Jardin des Plantes in Paris to paint jungle scnes, and inventing a new genre of portrait with the person in the foreground and a city view in the background. Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926), Wild Meat for Wild Men; a Plains Indian buffalo hunt. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), Seacoast in Moonlight; The Dead Bird (1890-1900). Giovanni Segantini (1858-99), Plowing in the Engadine. Paul Signac (1863-1935), Portrait of Felix Feneon (Félix Fénéon) [1861-1944] (Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles, Tones and Tints; French art critic Feneon, who coined the term "Neo-Impressionism" in 1886. Plays: Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), A Man's Shadow. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Captain Therese. David Belasco (1853-1931) and Henry C. de Mille, Men and Women. Paul Fort (1872-), La Petite Bete; 1-act prose comedy. Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Kong Midas; ridicules playwright Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Hedda Gabler; Hedda returns from her honeymoon with boring academic George Tesman, and banks on him getting a professorship, until her ex-lover Eilert arrives to compete for the position, drops out, and threatens suicide; "I felt pity and terror, as though the play had been Greek" (Oscar Wilde); one of the hardest roles for a woman to play. Comte de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-89), Axel; Rosicrucian play. Henry Arthur Jones (1851-1929), Judah. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), L'Intruse (The Intruder); Les Aveugles (The Blind). Poetry: Stephen Phillips (1864-1915) and Laurence Binyon (1869-1943), Primavera (debut). Novels: George Ade (1866-1944), Fables in Slang; launches the "contemporary fable" movement. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), The School of Love. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), La Cristiana. Walter Besant (1836-1901), Armorel of Lyonesse (3 vols.); The Holy Rose. William Black (1841-98), The New Prince Fortunatus; London theatrical life. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), One Life, One Love. Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Bondman; The Scapegoat. Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Let Loose. Kate Chopin (1850-1904), At Fault (first novel). Wilkie Collins (1824-89), Blind Love (3 vols.); preface by Walter Besant. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Wormwood. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Caesar's Column; pub. under alias Edmund Boisgilbert; a worker revolt against a global oligarchy; helps found the dystopian sci-fi novel genre. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Sign of Four; The Firm of Girdlestone. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Stine. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Main-Traveled Roads (short stories); why U.S. farm life sucks. Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915), Sixtine. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925) and Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The World's Desire. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Hunger; starts out fast with a masterpiece? Anthony Hope (1863-1933), A Man of Mark (first novel). E.W. Hornung (1866-1921), A Bride from the Bush. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Born Coquette; April's Lady; A Little Rebel; Her Last Throw. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), The Light That Failed (first novel). Emily Lawless (1845-1913), With Essex in Ireland. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), The Mountain (Gora). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Au Maroc; Le Roman d'un Enfant. Guy de Maupassant (1850-93), Notre Coeur. Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Kirsteen. Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), The Man from Snowy River (Apr. 26). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Truandailles. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), The Serpent in Paradise. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Love and Lore. Molly Elliot Seawell (1860-1916), Little Jarvis. Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Dreams. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), The Kreutzer Sonata. Births: English adventurer Jane Porter on Jan. 1 in Baltimore, Md.; daughter of Prof. Archimedes Q. Porter; becomes Mrs. John Clayton Jr., mate of Tarzan :) British Commodore Augustus Willington Shelton Agar (d. 1968) on Jan. 4 in Kandy, Ceylon. Israeli spy (Jewish) ("Heroine of Nili") Sarah Aaronsohn (d. 1917) on Jan. 5 in Zichron Yaakov; sister of Aaron Aaronsohn (1876-1919). Czech poet Rudolf Medek (d. 1940) on Jan. 8 in Hradec Kralove. Czech #1 "R.U.R." dramatist-novelist-writer (Jewish) Karel Capek (d. 1938) (pr. CHAP-ek) on Jan. 9 in Prague; popularizer of the word "robot", invented by his brother Josef Capek (1887-1945); not to be confused with Karel Capek-Chod (1860-1927), who worked with him at Narodni Listi mag., and was called "Chod". German journalist-writer (Jewish) Kurt Tucholsky (d. 1935) on Jan. 9 in Berlin; emigrates to Sweden in 1930. U.S. Gen. John Porter "Old/Uncle Luke" Lucas (d. 1949) on Jan. 14 in Kearneysville, W. Va. Italian PM #29 (1945) Ferruccio Parri (d. 1981) on Jan. 19 in Pinerolo. U.S. chief justice #13 (1946-53) Frederick Moore Vinson (d. 1953) on Jan. 22 in Lawrence County, Ky. Am. ornithologist jailbird ("Birdman of Alcatraz") Robert Franklin Stroud (d. 1963) on Jan. 28 in Seattle, Wash.; kills a prison guard in 1916, and gets life, ending up spending 54 years behind bars while he becomes an authority on ornithology and tries to leverage it to get released in vain. English-Australian novelist Angela Margaret Thirkell (d. 1961) on Jan. 30 on the Isle of Bute; daughter of John William Mackail (1859-1945) and Margaret Burne-Jones (daughter of Edward Burne-Jones); 1st cousin of Rudyard Kipling and Stanley Baldwin; goddaughter of J.M. Barrie; wife (1911-7) of James Campbell McInnes (1874-1945); mother of Colin MacInnes (1914-76). Am. "Andy in Amos and Andy" radio comedian Charles James Correll (d. 1972) on Feb. 2 in Peoria, Ill.; partner of "Amos" Freeman Gosden (1899-1982). Swiss nuclear physicist Paul Scherrer (d. 1969) on Feb. 3 in St. Gallen. Dutch "De Stijl" architect Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (d. 1963) on Feb. 9 in Purmerend; son of a tobacco-wine merchant; pupil of Theodor Fischer. Russian "Doctor Zhivago" poet-novelist Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (d. 1960) on Feb. 10 in Moscow; educated at the U. of Moscow, and U. of Marburg. Am. "Don Juan" actress-writer-dir. Bess Meredyth (Helen Elizabeth MacGlashen) (d. 1969) on Feb. 12 in Buffalo, N.Y.; wife (1917-27) of Wilfred Lucas (1871-1940) and (1929-62) Michael Curtiz'(1886-1962); mother of John Meredyth Lucas (1919-2002). German Nazi slavemaster Robert Ley (d. 1945) on Feb. 15 in Niederbreidenbach, Westphalia. Am. producer (Jewish) Sol Lesser (d. 1980) on Feb. 17 in Spokane, Wash. Am. "Jim Taylor in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "Daniel Webster in The Devil and Daniel Webster", "Meet Nero Wolfe" actor Edward Arnold (Gunther Edward Arnold Schneider) (b. 1956) on Feb. 18 in New York City; German immigrant parents; father of Edward Arnold Jr. (1920-96). Am. "Morocco", "The Front Page" actor Adolphe Jean Menjou (d. 1963) on Feb. 18 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; of French-Irish descent; educated at Cornell U. German Gen. Georg Thomas (d. 1946) on Feb. 20 in Forst (Lausitz), Brandenburg. English Conservative politician-diplomat-writer Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (d. 1954 on Feb. 22; educated at Eton College, and New College, Oxford U.; husband (1919-) of Lady Diana Manners; father of John Julius Norwich (1929-); created viscount in 1952. Am. "Ma Kettle" actress (lesbian?) Marjorie Main (Mary Tomlinson Krebs) (d. 1975) on Feb. 24 in Boggstown (Acton), Ind. English pianist Dame Julia Myra Hess (d. 1965) on Feb. 25 in London; created dame in 1941. Canadian hockey hall-of-fame center (Montreal Canadiens) Maurice Joseph "Phantom Joe" Malone (d. 1969) on Feb. 28 in Quebec City, Quebec. Am. "Microbe Hunters" bacteriologist-writer Paul Henry de Kruif (d. 1971) (pr. KRIFE) on Mar. 2 in Zeeland, Mich.; educated at the U. of Mich. Canadian physician Henry Norman Bethune (d. 1939) on Mar. 3 in Gravenhurst, Ont. Am. "Sgt. Quirt" actor (Jewish) (bi) Edmund Dantes Lowe (d. 1971) on Mar. 3 in San Jose, Calif.; husband (1925-) of Lilyan Tashman (1896-1934). Am. "I Was a Teenage Werewolf" journalist-dramatist-dir. Gene Fowler (d. 1960) on Mar. 8 in Denver, Colo.; father of Gene Fowler Jr. (1917-98). Am. industrialist and U.S. treasury sec. (1953-61) George Magoffin Humphrey (d. 1970) on Mar. 8 in Cheboygan, Mich. Soviet foreign minister (1939-49, 1953-6) Vyachesalv Mikhailovich Molotov (Skriabin) (d. 1986) on Mar. 9 (Feb. 25 Old Style) in Kukarka, Nolinsk region, Vyatka Province; Stalin's closest friend. Am. engineer Vannevar Bush (d. 1974) on Mar. 11 in Everett, Mass.; inventor of the differential analyzer; founder of the Nat. Science Foundation; father of the World Wide Web. Am. hillbilly singer, Dem. Tex. gov. #34 (1939-41) and U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1941-9) Wilbert Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel (d. 1969) on Mar. 11 in Malta, Ohio; grows up in Reno County, Kan.; first/only person to defeat Lyndon B. Johnson in an election (in 1941 by 1,306 votes for U.S. Senate). German conductor Fritz Busch (d. 1951) on Mar. 13 in Siegen, Westphalia. Libyan king (1951-69) Idris I (Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Senussi) (d. 1983) on Mar. 13 in Al-Jaghbub; grandson of Senussi movement founder (1837) Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1859). Adolf Busch (1891-1952). German "Tsushima" novelist Frank Thiess (d. 1977) on Mar. 13 in Eluisenstein, Livonia (Latvia). Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli (d. 1957) on Mar. 20 in Recanati, Marche. Am. #1 Wagnerian tenor Lauritz (Lebrecht Hommel) Melchior (d. 1973) on Mar. 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark; father of Ib Melchior (1917-). German anti-Nazi politician Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzen (d. 1945) on Mar. 22 in Dubberow, Pomerania; father of Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (1922-2013). Am. "Mr. Lemon of Orange", "Single O in invi Imagine" actor Elmer Goodfellow "El" Brendel (d. 1964) on Mar. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; German immigrant father, Irish mother. Am. "Rhapsody in Blue" symphonic jazz bandleader ("King of Jazz") Paul Samuel Whiteman (d. 1967) on Mar. 28 in Denver, Colo. English astronomer Sir Harold Spencer Jones (d. 1960) on Mar. 29 in Kensington; educated at Cambridge U.; astronomer royal of England (1933-55); knighted in 1943. British physicist Sir William Lawrence Bragg (d. 1971) on Mar. 31 in Adelaide, Australia; son of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942); educated at Adelaide U. and Cambridge U.; knighted in 1941. Dutch-Am. aircraft designer Anthony (Anton) Herman Gerard Fokker (d. 1939) on Apr. 6 in Kediri, Dutch East Indies (East Java); works in Germany, then moves to the U.S. in 1922. U.S. Sen. (D-Md.) (1927-51) Millard Evelyn Tydings (d. 1961) on Apr. 6 in Havre de Grace, Md. Am. environmentalist ("Defender of the Everglades") Marjory Stoneman Douglas (d. 1998) on Apr. 7 in Minneapolis, Minn. Italian Mussolini's wife (1915-45) Donna Rachele Mussolini (nee Guidi) (d. 1979) on Apr. 11 in Predappio, Romagna. U.S. Supreme Court justice #81 (1940-9) William Francis "Frank" Murphy (d. 1949) on Apr. 13 in Harbor Beach, Mich. Canadian air marshal Robert Leckie (d. 1975) on Apr. 16 in Glasgow, Scotland. Am. pilot Capt. Victor S. Chapman (d. 1916) on Apr. 17 in New York City; son of John Jay Chapman (1862-1933). Am. "lemonade salesman in Duck Soup" comedic actor ("King of the Slow Burn") Edgar Livingston Kennedy (d. 1948) on Apr. 26 in Monterey County, Calif. Am. "Lensman" sci-fi novelist (pioneer of space opera) Edward Elmer "Doc" "Skylark" Smith (d. 1965) on May 2 in Sheboygan, Wisc. Am. "Kitty Foyle" journalist-novelist-poet Christopher Darlington Morley (d. 1957) on May 5 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Haverford College and New College, Oxford U.; ed. of "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations"; co-founder of the Baker Street Irregulars. English aviator Sir Alan John Cobham (d. 1973) on May 6; knighted in 1926. Am. "National Velvet" film dir. Clarence Brown (d. 1987) on May 10 in Clinton, Mass; moves to Knoxville, Tenn. at age 11. German Col. gen. (chief of staff) Alfred Jodl (d. 1946) on May 10 in Wuzburg; signer of Germany's unconditional surrender. German Luftwaffe gen. Kurt Student (d. 1978) on May 12 in Birkholz, Brandenburg. Am. "Ship of Fools" writer Katherine Anne (Callie Russell) Porter (d. 1980) on May 15 in Indian Creek, Tex.; descendant of Daniel Boone; hair turns white after the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. Am. actor (Jewish) ("Jewish Charlie Chaplin") Menasha Skulnik (d. 1970) on May 15 in Warsaw, Poland. North Vietnamese PM (1946-55) and pres. (1946-69) ("the George Washington of Vietnam") "Uncle" Ho Chi Minh ("He Who Enlightens") (Nguyen Sinh Cung) (Nguyen Ai Quoc) (Nguyen the Patriot) (Nguyen That Thanh) (Nguyen Van Thanh) (d. 1969) on May 19 in Annam; father is an official who resigned rather than work for the Frogs. Am. "Ordeal of the Union" historian Allan Nevins (d. 1971) on May 20 in Camp Point, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. auto racer Joseph "Joe" Boyer (d. 1924) on May 12 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Irene" composer Harry Austin Tierney (d. 1965) on May 21 in Perth Amboy, N.J.; collaborator of Joseph McCarthy (1885-1943). Am. bassoonist Simon Kovar (Kovarski) (d. 1970) on May 22 in Vilnius, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. English "Foreign Correspondent", "The Fly", "The Razor's Edge" actor Herbert Brough Falcon Marshall (d. 1966) on May 23 in London; husband (1928-40) of Edna Best (1900-74). Austrian film dir.-producer-writer (Jewish) (gay) Paul Czinner (d. 1972) in Budapest; educated at the U. of Vienna; husband (1933-) of Elisabeth Bergner (1897-1986). Am. "Professor Marvel in the Wizard of Oz" actor Frank Morgan (Francis Phillip Wuppermann) (d. 1949) on June 1 in New York City; of the Angostura bitters dynasty; educated at Cornell U. Am. U.S. Capitol architect (1954-70) and Repub. politician John George Stewart (d. 1970) on June 2 in Wilmington, Del. Am. behaviorist psychologist Karl Spencer Lashley (d. 1958) on June 7 in Davis, W. Va.; educated at John Hopkins U. English "The Most Dangerous Game" actor-dir.-producer Leslie Banks (d. 1952) on June 9 in West Derby, Liverpool. Am. "Songs of the Desert", "Allegheny Uprising" film dir. William A. Seiter (d. 1964) on June 10 in New York City; husband (1934-64) of Marian Nixon (1904-83). Austrian Expressionist painter Egon Schiele (d. 1918) on June 12 in Tulln; protege of Gustav Klimt; known for nudes and self-portraits. Am. silent film actress May Allison (d. 1989) on June 14 in Rising Fawn, Ga. German July 20th plotter Social Dem. politician Wilhelm Leuschner (d. 1944) on June 15 in Bayreuth, Bavaria. German oceanographer Georg Adolf Otto Wust (Wüst) (d. 1977) on June 15 in Poznan. English "thin one in Laurel and Hardy" comedian Stan Laurel (Arthur Stanley Jefferson) (d. 1965) on June 16 in Ulverston, Lancashire; partner of Oliver Hardy (1892-1957). Am. DeMolay Internat. founder (Freemason) Frank Sherman "Dad" Land (d. 1959) on June 21 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. 6' actress-dancer-comedian Frances Charlotte Greenwood (d. 1977) on June 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Sadie Thompson Rain" actress Amelia Jeannine "Jeanne" Eagels (d. 1911) (b. 1894?) on June 26 in Boston, Mass.; grows up in Kansas City, Mo. French DISH rheumatologist Jacques Forestier (d. 1978) on June 27 in Aix-les-Bains. Am. "Only Yesterday" historian and Harper's Mag. ed. (1941-54) Frederick Lewis Allen (d. 1954) on July 5 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. German "Der Sohn" Expressionist poet-dramatist Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940) on July 8 in Aachen; educated at Oxford U. and U. of Lausanne. Am. abstract painter (co-founder of Synchromism) Stanton MacDonald-Wright (d. 1973) on July 8 in Charlottesville, Va.; grows up in Santa Monica, Calif. British RAF marshal Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder (d. 1967) on July 11 in Glenguin, Scotland. Am. golfer Charles E. "Chick" Evans Jr. (d. 1979) on July 18 in Indianapolis, Ind.; sponsors a college scholarship for caddies. Australian Labor PM #15 (1945) Francis Michael "Frank" Forde (d. 1983) on July 18 in Mitchell, Queensland. U.S. secy. of defense #5 (1953-7) and Gen. Motors pres. (1941-53) Charles Erwin "Engine Charlie" Wilson (d. 1961) on July 18 in Minerva, Ohio; not to be confused with G.E. pres. Charles Edward "Electric Charlie" Wilson (1886-1972). Am. "Hilda Crocker in December Bride", "Mrs. Potts in Picnic", "Pearl Slaghoople in The Flintstones" actress Verna Felton (d. 1966) on July 20 in Salinas, Calif. Greek king (1922-24, 1935-47) George II (d. 1947) on July 20 in Tatoi (near Athens); eldest son of Constantine I (1868-1923) and Princess Sophia of Prussia (1870-1932); brother of Paul I (1901-64). Am. matriarch Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy (d. 1995) on July 20 in Boston, Mass.; mother of a record three U.S. senators and 1 U.S. pres.; eldest daughter of Boston mayor and civil rights-promoting Mass. rep. (1895-1901) John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald (1863-1950); wife (1914-) of Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. (1888-1969); mother of Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr. (1915-44), John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63), Rosemary Kennedy (1918-2005), Kathleen Kennedy (1920-48), Eunice Kennedy Shriver (1921-), Patricia Kennedy (1924-2006), Robert F. Kennedy (1925-68), Jean Kennedy (1928-), and Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-). Am. banker-philanthropist (founder of WGBH) Maj. Robert Lowell (d. 1978) on July 23 in Chestnut Hill, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; cousin of Abbott Lawrence Lowell (1845-1943). German Protestant educator and anti-Nazi leader Elisabeth Adelheid Hildegard von Thadden (d. 1944) on July 29 in Mohrungen, East Prussia. Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder-mgr. (lefty) ("the Old Perfesser") (#37) Charles Dillon "Casey" Stengel (d. 1975) on July 30 in Kansas City, Mo.; nickname comes from his hometown; mgr. of the "lovable loser" New York Mets in 1962-5. Am. "Arkansas traveller" actor Robin "Bob" Burns (d. 1956) on Aug. 2 in Greenwood, Ark.; popularizes the word "bazooka". Russian constructivist sculptor (Jewish) Naum Gabo (Naum Neemia Pevsner) (d. 1977) on Aug. 5 in Briansk; brother of Antoine Pevsner (1886-1962); emigrates to England in 1936. Austrian conductor Erich Kleiber (d. 1956) on Aug. 5 in Vienna; becomes Argentine citizen in 1938; father of Carlos Kleiber (1930-2004). Am. world's oldest living person (Aug. 27-Dec. 11, 2006) (black) Elizabeth Jones "Lizzie" Bolden (d. 2006) on Aug. 15 in Somerville, Tenn. English stage singer-actress Phyllis Dare (Phyllis Constance Haddie Dones) (d. 1975) on Aug. 15 in Chelsea, London; sister of Zena Dare (1887-1975). French "Divertissement", "Escales" composer Jacques Francois Antoine Ibert (d. 1962) on Aug. 15. Am. pres. advisor and U.S. commerce secy. #8 (1938-40) Harry Lloyd Hopkins (d. 1946) on Aug. 17 in Sioux City, Iowa; educated at Grinnell College. German Reich economic minister Walther Funk (d. 1960) on Aug. 18 in Danzkehmen, East Prussia. Am. "Cthulhu", "Necronomicon" horror fiction author Howard Phillips Lovecraft (d. 1937) on Aug. 20 in Providence, R.I. Am. Olympic swimmer-surfer Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku (d. 1968) on Aug. 24 near Waikiki, Hawaii. French "Wide Sargasso Sea" novelist Jean Rhys (d. 1979) on Aug. 24 in Dominica; Welsh father, Scottish Creole mother. Am. Dada "Rayograph" photographer (Jewish) Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky) (d. 1976) on Aug. 27 in South Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. psychologist ("Founder of Social Psychology") (Jewish) Kurt Zadek Lewin (d. 1947) (pr. luh-VEEN) on Sept. 9 in Mogilno, Poland (Posen, Prussia); educated at the U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. Kentucky Fried Chicken king Col. Harland Sanders (d. 1980) on Sept. 9. Italian fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli (d. 1973) on Sept. 10 in Rome; great-niece of Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910); mother of countess Maria Luisa Yvonne Radha de Wendt de Kerlor (Gogo Schiaparelli), wife of Robert L. Berenson, and mother of Marisa Berenson (1947-) and Berry Berenson (1948-2001). Austrian-Bohemian "The Song of Bernadette" novelist-playwright-poet (Jewish) Franz Werfel (d. 1945) on Sept. 10 in Prague. Scottish "Still Digging" archeologist Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (d. 1976) on Sept. 10 in Glasgow; educated at the U. of London. French cigarette manufacturer (founder of the Monaco Grand Prix) Antony (Anthony) Noghes (Noghès) (d. 198) on Sept. 13 in Py, Pyrenees-Orientales, Languedoc-Roussillon. English "Hercule Poirot", "Miss Jane Marple" mystery novelist Agatha Christie (Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan) (nee Miller) (d. 1976) on Sept. 15 in Torquay, Devon; created dame in 1971; writes romance novels under the alias Mary Westmacott; hubby (1914-28) Archibald Christie cheats on her in 1926 with Nancy Neele, causing her to divorce him and freak out at the Swan Hydropathic Hotel in Horrogate, Yorkshire for 11 days until a massive manhut locates her, after which she chills out and marries archeologist Max Mallowan in 1930. Swiss "thumbing Your Nose at Satan" composer Frank Martin (d. 1974) on Sept. 15 in Geneva. German Immelmann Turn flying ace ("the Eagle of Lille") Max Immelmann (d. 1916) on Sept. 21 in Dresden. German Stalingrad-surrendering field marshal Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (d. 1957) on Sept. 23 in Greitenau, Hesse-Nassau. U.S. Sen. (D-La.) (1937-72) (Roman Catholic) Allen Joseph Ellender (d. 1972) on Sept. 24 in Montegut, La. English "Misleading Cases" writer-novelist-playwright and MP Sir Alan Patrick Herbert (d. 1971) on Sept. 24 in Ashtead, Surrey; educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1945. Am. "Ruggles of Red Gap", "It's a Great Life" writer-producer Harlan Thompson (d. 1966) on Sept. 24 in Hannibal, Mo. Am. "Guadalcanal Diary" film dir. Lewis Seiler (d. 1964) on Sept. 30 in New York City. English "Alfred P. Doolittle in My Fair Lady", "Passport to Pimlico" actor Stanley Augustus Holloway (d. 1982) on Oct. 1 in Essex (Newham), London. English actress-poet-playwright (bi) Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs (d. 1950) (AKA Michael Strange) on Oct. 1 in Newport, R.I.; born wealthy; wife (1920-5) of John Barrymore (1882-1942); lover of Margaret Wise Brown (1910-52). Am. comic (Jewish) Julius "Groucho" Marx (d. 1977) on Oct. 2 in New York City; his parents pull him out of school with his brothers to go into show biz, making him bitter for life; the name Groucho comes from comic strip char. Groucho Monk. Mexican pres. (1928-30) Emilio Portes Gil (d. 1978) on Oct. 3 in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. Am. "Werewolf of London" actor Henry Hull (Vaughan) (d. 1977) on Oct. 3 in Louisville, Ky. Am. anti-Communist activist (Jewish turned Roman Catholic) Benjamin Harrison Freedman (d. 1984) on Oct. 4 in New York City. German helicopter pioneer Heinrich Focke (d. 1979) on Oct. 8 in Bremen. Am. WWI flying ace Edward Vernon "Eddie" "Rick" Rickenbacker (d. 1973) on Oct. 8 in Columbus, Ohio; German-speaking Swiss immigrant parents; changes his birth name "Rickenbacher" to "take the Hun out of his name"; cousin of Adolph Rickenbacker (1886-1976). Canadian Christian fundamentalist faith healer-preacher (founder of the Foursquare Church) Sister Aimee Semple McPherson (Aimee Elizabeth Kennedy) (d. 1944) on Oct. 9 in Salford, Ont.; daddy is 36 years older than mommy - me am a simple person? Am. "The Awakening Land" novelist Conrad Michael Richter (d. 1968) on Oct. 13. U.S. Repub. pres. #34 (1953-61) and 5-star gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (Ger. "iron hewer") (d. 1969) on Oct. 14 in Denison, Tex.; first 50-state U.S. pres.; at age 15 a scrape on his knee gives him blood poisoning, and he almost loses his leg; first choice is Annapolis but settles for West Point?; husband (1916-) of Mamie Eisenhower (1896-1979). Irish rev. leader (IRA founder) (founder of modern Ireland) Michael John "Mick" Collins (d. 1922) on Oct. 16 in Woodfield, Clonakilty, County Cork; "The genius behind the Irish Republican Army's guerrilla campaign, the inspiration for Begin and Mao" (Peter Hart). Am. modernist photographer-filmmaker (Jewish) Paul Strand (d. 1976) on Oct. 16 in New York City; Bohemian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. actress-poet Michael Strange (Mrs. Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs Tweed) (d. 1950) on Oct. 18 in New York City; wife of actor John Barrymore (1882-1942). U.S. Sen. (D-Ind.) and Supreme Court justice #88 (1949-56) Sherman Minton (d. 1965) on Oct. 20 in Georgetown, Ind. U.S. secy. of state #48 (1944-5) Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (d. 1949) on Oct. 22 in Chicago, Ill. Am. atty. Joseph Nye Welch (d. 1960) on Oct. 22 in Primghar, Iowa; educated at Grinnell College, and Harvard U.; known for telling Joseph McCarthy "Have you no sense of decency sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" Am. aviator Floyd Bennett (d. 1928) on Oct. 25 near Warrensburg, N.Y.; Richard E. Byrd's pilot. Am. baseball pitcher Howard Ellsworth "Smoky Joe" Wood (d. 1985) on Oct. 25 in Kansas City, Mo. German Gen. Hans-Valentine Hube (d. 1944) on Oct. 29 in Naumburg an der Saale. Japanese Lt. Gen. Yoshitsugo Saito (d. 1944) on Nov. 2 in Tokyo. German "The Chalk Circle" novelist Klabund (Alfred Henschke) (d. 1928) on Nov. 4 in Krossen. Czech painter Jan Zrzavy (Zrzavý) (d. 1977) on Nov. 5 in Okrouhlice, Bohemia. Soviet field marshal Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (d. 1950) on Nov. 9 near Poltava, Ukraine. Am. "Capt. Louis Renault in Casablanca" actor William Claude Rains (d. 1967) on Nov. 10 in Camberwell, London, England; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1939. English "Just William" novelist (female) Richmal Crompton Lamburn (d. 1969) on Nov. 15 in Bury, Lancaster; educated at Royal Holloway College, London. Philippine pres. #6 (1948-53) Elpidio Quirino (d. 1956) on Nov. 16 in Vigan, Luzon. Am. "Mr. Shellhammer in Miracle on 34th Street", "Horace Vandergelder in The Matchmaker" actor Loring B. Smith "the Great" (d. 1981) on Nov. 18 in Stratford, Conn. Am. "Carl Denham in King Kong" actor Robert Armstrong (d. 1973) on Nov. 20 in Saginaw, Mich. French statesman-gen. ("Father of Modern France") Charles Andre (André) Joseph Marie de Gaulle (d. 1970) on Nov. 22 [Sagittarius] in Lille; educated at Saint-Cyr military school. Am. Yiddish stage actor-dir. (Jewish) Jacob Ben-Ami (d. 1977) on Nov. 23 in Minsk, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918. English "Poems from the Trenches" poet (Jewish) Isaac Rosenberg (d. 1918) on Nov. 25 in Bristol; Latvian Jewish immigrant parents. English Vorticist painter David Garshen Bomberg (d. 1957) on Dec. 5 in Birmingham. Am.-Austrian-German "Metropolis" film dir. ("Master of Darkness") Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (d. 1976) on Dec. 5 in Vienna; Jewish mother converts to Roman Catholicism when he's 10; shell-shocked in 1916; moves to France in 1934; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1939; known for wearing a monocle. British (Welsh) occultist Dion Fortune (Violet Mary Firth Evans) (d. 1946) on Dec. 6 in Llandudno; names herself after family motto "Deo, non-fortuna" (For God, not fate); Christian Scientist parents; educated at the U. of London. Czech Bohemian "Epic of Gilgamesh" composer Bohuslav Martinu (d. 1959) on Dec. 8 in Policka, Bohemia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1941. Norwegian "Sinners in the Summer Sun" radical novelist Sigurd Hoel (d. 1960) on Dec. 14 in Nord-Odal. Am. electrical engineer-inventor Edwin Howard Armstrong (d. 1954) on Dec. 18 in New York City; educated at Columbia U.; inventor of the regenerative radio, superheterodyne radio, and frequency modulation (FM). Am. abstract expressionist painter Mark Tobey (d. 1976) on Dec. 11 in Centerville, Wisc. Am. "Mrs. Margaret Davis in Our Miss Brooks" actress Jane Morgan (d. 1972) on Dec. 16 in North Platte, Neb.; not to be confused with singer Jane Morgan (1920-). Czech chemist (polarographist) ("Father of Electroanalytical Chemistry") Jaroslav Heyrovsky (d. 1967) on Dec. 20 in Prague; educated at Charles U. and Univ. College London. Am. X-ray mutation geneticist (atheist) Hermann Joseph Muller (d. 1967) on Dec. 21 in New York City; educated at Columbia U., and Cornell U.; 2nd cousin of Ursula Le Guin (1929-). Am. "Believe It or Not!" cartoonist Robert LeRoy Ripley (d. 1949) on Dec. 25 in Santa Rosa, Calif. - believe it or not I was born on Xmas? U.S. ambassador James Clement Dunn (d. 1979) on Dec. 27. German actress Katharina "Kathe" "Käthe" Dorsch (d. 1957) on Dec. 29 in Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz. British air ace Lanoe George Hawker (d. 1916) on Dec. 30 in Longparish, Hampshire. British "Twelve against the Gods" journalist and man of letters William Bolitho (Charles William Ryall) (d. 1930) in Cape Town, South Africa; uses his uncle or cousin's name as his alias? Dutch Vitalist novelist-poet Hendrik Marsman (d. 1940) in Zeist. German physician (of Adolf Hitler) Theodor Morell (d. 1948). Austrian skiing champ-instructor Johannes (Hannes) Schneider (d. 1955) in Stuben am Arlberg. English "Childbirth Without Fear" OBGYN ("Father of the Natural Childbirth Movement") Grantly Dick-Read (b. 1959) - chose wrong profession? Am. "George White's Scandals" actor-screenwriter, dir.-producer and dapper showman George White (d. 1968); not to be confused with Ohio gov. (1931-5) George White (1872-1953). Am. "Winnetka Plan" educator Carleton W. Washburne (d. 1968). Am. "Ship of Fools" novelist Katherine Anne Porter (d. 1980) in Indian Creek (near Brownwood), Tex. Am. laetrile cancer chemotherapy pioneer Kanematsu Sugiura (d. 1979). Indian Pashtun leader (Muslim) ("the Frontier Gandhi") Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (d. 1988) in Hashtnagar. Deaths: English social reformer Edwin Chadwick (b. 1800) on July 6 in Surrey. English cardinal John Henry Newman (b 1801) on Aug. 11 in Edgbaston, Birmingham; beatified Sept. 19, 2010 (first Englishman since the 17th cent.). Scottish steam hammer inventor James Nasmyth (b. 1808) on May 7 in Hammerfield, Kent. Am. banking tycoon August Belmont Sr. (b. 1813) on Nov. 24 in New York City; leaves a fortune of $10M-$50M. Am. Repub. politician-explorer-gen. John C. Fremont (b. 1813) on July 13 in New York City. Austrian-Bohemian statsman Karl von Auersperg (b. 1814) on Jan. 4 in Prague. Swiss baby formula inventor Henri Nestle (b. 1814). Am. humorist Benjamin Penhallon Shillaber (b. 1814) on Nov. 25 in Chelsea, Mass. English churchman Dean Richard Christopher Church (b. 1815) on Dec. 6 in Dover. Dutch meteorologist Christoph Buys Ballot (b. 1817) on Feb. 3 in Utrecht. Danish composer Niels Wilhelm Gade (b. 1817); composed 8 symphonies, 5 overtures, 2 marches, 4 novelettes, and 14 cantatas. Dutch king (1849-90) William III (b. 1817) on Nov. 23. Am. Mudie's Lending Library founder Charles Edward Mudie (b. 1818) on Oct. 28 in London. Am. oil well pioneer Col. Edwin Laurentine Drake (b. 1819) on Nov. 9 in Bethlehem, Penn. Estonian journalist Johann Voldemar Jannsen (b. 1819) on July 13 (July 1 Old Style) in Tartu. Swiss poet-novelist Gottfried Keller (b. 1819) on July 15. Irish playwright-actor Dion Boucicault (b. 1820) on Sept. 18 in New York City; wrote 300+ original plays and adaptations, most of which he acted in along with 1st wife Agnes Robertson. English superbrain explorer Sir Richard Burton (b. 1821) on Oct. 20 in Trieste, Austria-Hungary (heart attack). French novelist-playwright Octave Feuillet (b. 1821). Belgian-born French composer Cesar Franck (b. 1822) on Nov. 8. German Troy archeologist Heinrich Schliemann (b. 1822) on Dec. 26 in Naples, Italy. Hungarian statesman Count Julius Andrassy Sr. (b. 1823) on Feb. 18 in Volosca. Am. diplomat-writer George Henry Boker (b. 1823) in Philadelphia, Penn (heart attack). Am. Lakota Sioux chief Big Foot (b. 1824) on Dec. 29 in Creek, S.D. (KIA). Am. humorist Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber (b. 1824) on Nov. 25 in Chelsea, Mass. Italian "Pinocchio" writer Carlo Collodi (b. 1826) on Oct. 26 in Florence. Am. Civil War Union gen. Alfred Howe Terry (b. 1827) on Dec. 16 in New Haven, Conn. German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke (b. 1828) on Sept. 19 in Domitz. English Salvation Army co-founder Catherine Mumford Booth (b. 1829) on Oct. 4 in Clacton-on-Sea. British chemist Alexander Parkes (b. 1830) on June 29. Am. circus proprietor Charles Forepaugh (b. 1831). French vice-adm. Abel-Nicolas Georges Henri Bergasse Dupetit Thouars (b. 1832) on Mar. 14 in Toulon; give his name to a street in Lima, Peru. English composer John Barnett (b. 1802) on Apr. 16. Danish painter Carl Bloch (b. 1834) on Feb. 22 in Copenhagen. Am. Indian holy man Sitting Bull (b. 1831) on Dec. 15 in Standing Rock Indian Reservation, N.D.-S.D. (killed resisting arrest); after being buried in N.D., some businessmen steal his bones and put them in Sitting Bull Park, S.D. Irish-born Am. poet John Boyle O'Reilly (b. 1844) on Aug. 10. Spanish king (1870-3) Amadeus I (b. 1845). English Jewish celeb Hannah Primrose (Rothschild) (b. 1847) on Nov. 19 in Dalmeny, England (typhoid). Am. Knights of Columbus founder Father Michael J. McGivney Jr. (d. 1852) on Aug. 14 in Thomaston, Conn. (TB). Dutch earring-impaired painter Vincent van Gogh (b. 1853) on July 29 in Auvers, France (suicide); creates 800 paintings and 700 drawings in a 10-year career, but only sells one during his lifetime? - the good die young? English "Elephant Man" Joseph Merrick (b. 1862) on Apr. 11.



1891 - The James Naismith Peach Basket Year?

Kicking Bear (1846-1904) Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii (1838-1917) John Owen Dominis (1832-91) Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott of Canada (1821-93) Christopher Plummer (1929-) Nikola P. Pasic of Serbia (1845-1926) Capt. Jorge Montt Alvarez of Chile (1845-1922) Ponciano Leiva of Honduras Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudini (1839-1908) Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) Fredrik Bajer (1837-1922) James Naismith (1861-1939) Marcus Alonzo Hanna of the U.S. (1837-1904) Gifford Pinchot of the U.S. (1865-1947 German Gen. Alfred von Schlieffen Isaac Burns Murphy (1861-96) Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937) Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) Jean Moréas (1856-1910) David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1858-1927) Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933) Gerard Philips (1858-1942) Anton Frederik Philips (1874-1952) Charles William Post (1854-1914) Goldwin Smith (1823-1910) Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) William Dwight Whitney (1827-94) William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932) Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955) Louis Henri Sullivan (1856-1924) Eugene Dubois (1858-1940) Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) George Gissing (1857-1903) Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) Gabriel Jonas Lippmann (1845-1921) Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915) Frank Wedekind (1864-1918) Edvard Westermarck (1862-1939) Carl Zeller (1842-98) Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) Tehura 'Woman with a Mango (Tehura)' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1895 Paul Gaugin (1848-1903) 'Self-Portrait' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903) 'Sunset in the Woods' by George Inness (1825-94), 1891 'Surprise' by Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), 1891 'The Green Interior' by Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), 1891 Greene Vardiman Black (1836-1915) Wainwright Bldg., 1891

1891 There is a widespread famine in Russia this year, and the Jewish residents of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev are expelled, 100K immigrating to the U.S. via Ellis Island with the help of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (founded 1881). On Jan. 15 Kicking Bear (1846-1904) becomes the last Lakota warrior to surrender to the U.S. govt. in the wake of the Wounded Knee Massacre; by the end of the year he is working on Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Scotland. On Jan. 20 King Kalakaua dies in San Francisco, Calif., and on Jan. 29 his sister Liliuokalani (1838-1917) (Lydia Dominis), wife (since 1862) of haole of Italian descent John Owen Dominis (1832-91), who live together in a large white mansion in Honolulu called Washington Place becomes queen of Hawaii, becoming determined to end U.S. and European domination of Hawaii, while the U.S. sugar growers plot behind her back to overthrow her and get Hawaii annexed in order to end duties and prevent sugar growers in La., Colo. and elsewhere from putting them out of business; meanwhile Japan is waiting in the wings?; John dies on Aug. 27 1 week after being made prince consort. On Feb. 1 the whaler Star of the East sees a new Jonah created when harpooner James Bartley disappears while harpooning a sperm whale near the Falkland Islands; after being hoisted on deck 24 hours later, the whale's stomach wiggles and they cut it open, finding Bartley inside alive, his skin permanently blanched white like parchment; pub. in 1947 by Natural History mag. after discovering a letter; made-up by the press to sell print to Bible-thumpers? On Feb. 6 Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudini (1839-1908), a longtime supporter of Giuseppe Garibaldi becomes PM of Italy (until May 15, 1892). On Feb. 6 the Dalton Gang commits its first crime, a train robbery in Alila, Calif.; on Sept. 15 they hold up a train and take $2.5K at Wagoner, Okla. On Feb. 23 after returning from exile in Bulgaria after the abdication of King Milan IV Obrenovic on Mar. 6, 1889, pro-Russian Socialist Nikola P. Pasic (Pashitch) (Pachitch) (1845-1926) becomes PM of Serbia (until Aug. 22, 1892), going on to dominate Serbian politics for the next four decades as PM in 1904-5, 1906-8, 1909-11, 1912-18, 1921-4, and 1924-6. On Mar. 4 after complaints by British writers Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, Walter Besant, and William Black, the U.S. adopts the U.S. Copyright (Chase) Act, finally upholding internat. copyrights and ending America's status as a copyright pirate haven where only copyrights of U.S. citizens are respected; poet Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937), secy. of the Am. Copyright League is instrumental in its passage; the right of authors to bargain for their work causes the advent of U.S. literary agents; too bad, Harper & Bros. pub. house had made its main biz the selling of cheap reprints of foreign authors, and almost goes bankrupt, allowing Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) (who partnered with Samuel S. McClure of McClure's Mag. in 1897) to take control in 1898, only to bail out when he finds out how bad their books look. In Mar. after returning from a round-the-world journey via Japan, future Russian Tsar Nicholas II opens and blesses the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway (Railroad) in Vladivostok, and has a special train built in St. Petersburg to carry him across Russia; the railway segment is completed in 1916. On Apr. 1 the London-Paris Telephone Connection opens. On May 5 Carnegie (Music) Hall in New York City has its opening night. On May 15 Pope (since 1878) Leo XIII (1810-1903) issues the encyclical Rerum Novarum, arguing for the dignity of the working poor and against Socialism. In May the People's Party of Am. is organized in Cincinnati, Ohio by 400 delegates, becoming known as the Populist Party, and gets 50 candidates elected to Congress from 16 states and one territory by 1903. On June 6 alcoholic John A. Madonald (b. 1815) dies in office, and on June 16 after Sir John S.D. Thompson is passed over (or declines) for being a (gasp) converted Roman Catholic, Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott (1821-93) (great-grandfather of actor Christopher Plummer, b. 1929) is elected as PM #3 of Canada (until Nov. 24, 1892). On June 29 Italian PM Rudini announces that the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy has been renewed for six (really 12) years, and hints at Britain possibly making it a quadruple alliance, freaking out the French, who fear interference with their N African empire, and the Russians, who want to open the Dardanelles. On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with 44 stars (design #22), which now incl. Wyoming. On July 31 Great Britain declares all territories in South Africa up to the Congo to be within its sphere of influence. After British intrigue, a civil war begins in Chile as the Chilean nat. congress calls upon vice-adm. Jorge Montt Alvarez (1845-1922) to overthrow pres. (since 1886) Jose Manuel Balmaceda; Montt's forces occupy the nitrate fields in the N, recruit nitrate workers into their army, and defeat Balmaceda's forces at Concon and Placilla, causing Balmaceda to flee to the Argentine embassy, where he commits suicide on Sept. 19; on Aug. 31 Montt becomes pres. (until Sept. 18, 1896), and congress reigns over the presidency until 1925; meanwhile labor unrest over unemployment and high food prices feeds the union and anarchist movements. In Aug. France and Russia make a preliminary agreement to consult in the event that pesky Germany should commit an act of agression against either one of them. On Sept. 9 the Japan Society in London is founded. In the fall the British Liberal Caucus proposes the unified Newcastle Reform Program, incl. Home Rule and electoral reform. On Oct. 28 (6:00 a.m.) the 8.4 Great (Mino-Owari) (Nobi) Earthquake of Japan of 1891 causes damage over a 4.2K sq. mi. area from Tokyo to Osaka, killing 7K-10K. On Nov. 6 Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer's Last Stand at the Little Bighorn dies at the age of 28 at Fort Riley, Kan. On Nov. 30 former pres. (1874-6) Ponciano Leiva of the Progressive Party becomes pres. of Honduras (until Aug. 7, 1893), causing liberal uprisings which last until WWII. The Wahhabis of Nejd are overthrown by a rival dynasty, causing Abd-al Rahman (youngest son of Faisal) and his son Abdul-Aziz Ibn-Saud (b. 1880) to go into exile. The anti-Sharia liberal-secularist Muslim Young Turk Movement is formed in Geneva. The Third Universal Peace Conference in Rome, led by Swiss journalist Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) founds the Internat. Peace Bureau (Bureau International de la Paix) in Berne, with Fredrik Bajer (1837-1922) of Denmark as its first. pres. (until 1907), becoming the non-govt. internat. peace org., pushing arbitration to stop wars; it wins the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910 - in 1914 they should have taken it back? Bismarck is elected to the German Reichstag, but refuses to serve. Am. sharpshooter Annie Oakley (1860-1926), "America's sweetheart", "Little Sure-Shot" shoots the ashes off Kaiser Wilhelm II's cigarette at an exhibition in Europe; he also visits London - casing the joint? too bad she didn't shoot him and prevent WWI? Ohio Rep. William McKinley is gerrymandered out of his House seat, and, backed by wealthy, protective tariff-loving Cleveland industrialist Marcus Alonzo "Mark" Hanna (1837-1904), is elected gov. of Ohio (reelected in 1893). In New Orleans 11 Italians accused of murdering a policeman are acquitted then lynched; the newspaper accounts contain the first use of the word "Mafia"? The libel action Gordon-Cummings v. Lycett features the Prince of Wales admitting that he played baccarat for high stakes - it's so much less stress? The U.S. Post Office begins Rural Free Delivery (RFD); the carrier has to provide his own horse, buggy, feed, and water, and is paid $45 a mo. for a 25-30 mi. route. The U.S. Forest Reserve Act of 1891, drafted by Gifford Pinchot (1865-1947) finally turns around the wanton squandering of U.S. forests, at the expense of permitting controlled commercial harvesting. Britain annexes Nyasaland, and makes it a protectorate next year, with Sir Henry Hamilton "Harry" Johnston (1858-1927) as the first high commissioner (until 1896), going on to use Royal Navy gunboats to wipe out slavers, and working with Lord Salisbury to formulate the Cape to Cairo Plan to acquire a continuous band of territory for Britain in Africa. Gen. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (1833-1913) becomes chief of staff (until 1905), spending his last 12 years perfecting the Schlieffen Plan for a quick invasion of France via Belgium and Holland, which is used in WWI after his successor Gen. von Moltke takes Holland out, and used again in WWII after Hitler puts Holland back in. Russia begins the Trans-Siberan Railway from Vladivostok to Chelyabinsk (completed in 1904). The city of Albuquerque, N.M., on the Rio Grande River is incorporated (modern pop. 250K). The village of Lestershire in N.Y., 5 mi. E of Endicott is founded by the Endicott-Johnson Corp., one of the largest shoe-manufacturing cos. in the world; in 1916 it is renamed Johnson City in honor of corp. founder George F. Johnson. Am. playwrights Bronson Crocker Howard (1842-1908) and David Belasco (1853-1931) found the Am. Dramatists Club, which later becomes the Society of Am. Dramatists and Composers, to fight play piracy and assure playwrights fair treatment by producers. Austrian novelist Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) founds the Austrian Society of Peace Lovers, and plays a prominent role in a peace congress in Rome this year, followed by another in Bern in 1894, Antwerp in 1894, and Hamburg in 1897, founding the periodical Die Waffen Nieder! (Lay Down Your Weapons) (named after her 1889 novel) in 1892 (until 1899), and going on to win the 1908 Nobel Peace Prize; Austrian Jewish journalist Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) works with her and helps found the German peace movement, going on to propose the League of Nations and win the 1911 Nobel Peace Prize - Jew and Fried, hmmm, gives Hitler ideas? The Calvinist "Particular" Baptist Church reuinites with the original "General" Baptist Church to create the Baptist Union. New York City Presbyterian minister Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933) becomes pres. of the New York Society for the Prevention of Crime, and does his alma matter Amherst College proud by finding that the pigs, er, police are in league with the criminals, many of whom are in Tammany Hall, giving a speech from the pulpit next Feb. 14 exposing them, causing an investigation in 1894 resulting in a number of p's being arrested and convicted. The Nat. Canine Defence League is founded in Britain; reaching 1K members in 1902, 6.5K in 1910, and 300K by 2000. Vladimir Lenin receives a law degree from St. Petersburg U. Newspaper publisher Warren G. Harding (b. 1865) of Ohio marries wealthy widow Mrs. Florence Kling DeWolfe (1860-1924), and launches a career in politics, becoming state senator in 1899, lt. gov. in 1904, and U.S. Sen. in 1914; they have no children - play the Star Wars theme? Stanford U. (originally called Leland Stanford Jr. Univ.) in Calif. (founded 1885) officially opens on Oct. 1, with former (1872-85) Indiana U. pres. David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) (an evolutionist ichthyologist) as pres. #1 (until 1913); it is coed from the start. Isaac Burns Murphy (1861-96) (black) becomes the first jockey to win the Kentucky Derby 3x (1884, 1890). Chronically-ill (hypochondriac?) Charles William Post (1854-1914) moves to Battle Creek Sanitarium in Mich. for his health, and in 1897 invents Grape Nuts cereal, which has neither grapes nor nuts in it, and becomes the first mass-marketed cereal - millions try to imagine eating grapes and nuts while crunching on it? Internat. Correspondence Schools is founded in Scranton, Penn. - I'll bet they'll need a good paper supply company? Dutch-born impresario-critic Jacob Thomas "Jack" Grein (1862-1935) founds the subscription-only Independent Theatre Society in London to give "special perf. of plays which have a lit. and artitic rather than a commercial value", concentrating on modern realist plays by Euro playwrights. French painter Paul Gaugin invents Tahiti Fever by giving up on bourgeois civilization and selling 30 paintings to finance his move; when he gets there he shacks up with native "Living Eve" wife Tehura - moving in with the palms and grass skirt girls, only to find out that it too becomes a drag? Greek French poet Jean Moreas (Moréas) (1856-1910) ditches Symbolism and founds the Ecole Romane lit. movement, calling for a return to the classic restrained forms of medieval French poetry. Now that he is safely out of the way, Van Gogh's great paintings are exhibited at the Salon des Independents (founded 1884) - the original for years I struggled with my weight? Sigmund Freud moves into 19 Bergasse in Vienna (until 1938). Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec produces his first music hall posters. Pope Leo XIII founds the Vatican Observatory in Castel Gandolfo, Italy. Alfred Nobel and his assistant Wilhelm Unge move to San Remo, Italy, where he sets up a lab in his Villa Nobel in Sanremo, which he originally calls Mio Nido (My Nest) until a friend reminds him that a nest is for two people, and he's a bachelor? Marcellus F. Berry of the Am. Express Co. launches Am. Express traveller's Checks. Brothers Gerard Philips (1858-1942) and Anton Frederik Philips (1874-1952) found Royal Philips Electronics Co. in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which goes on to become a major consumer electronics manufacturer. Philly-born William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932) founds the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Co. on Apr. 1 to sell soap and baking powder, offering free chewing gum with each purchase, and going on to specialize in chewing gum and become #1; it is purchased by Mars Co. in 2008 for $23B. Sports: Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955), AKA "the Old Fox" debuts with the St. Louis Browns, Boston Reds, and Chicago Colts, allegedly inventing the screwball and compiling six straight seasons with 20+ Vs in 1894-9, with an AA low ERA of 1.88 in 1898, then helping form the AL in 1901 and ending up managing and owning the Washington Senators. Charles Barter of England patents the game of Ping-Pong (Table Tennis), played with a hollow cored ball. Architecture: 306-ft.-tall Bennington Battle Monument in Vermont is completed, becoming the tallest on Earth (until ?). The "classic column" 10-story red brick Wainwright Bldg. in St. Louis, Mo., designed by Louis Henri Sullivan (1856-1924) (begun in 1891) is completed. Inventions: French physicist Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) invents Anaglyph Stereoscopic Printing, in which left/right red/blue channels are fed separately to the eye, which combines them into a 3-D image. Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) of France designs the 3.5K-franc Panhard, the first practical gasoline-powered automobile, with four wheels, a front-mounted engine and rear-wheel drive, a crude sliding-gear transmission with an electromagnetic gearbox, and the first castor-angled front wheels, all of which he patents in May 1896; in 1898 Krebs replaces the tiller with an inclined steering wheel with non-reversible steering, and engine balance; in 1901 he begins using nickel steel alloys; in 1902 he invents the automatic diaphragm carburetor; in 1906 he invents the shock absorber; in 1905 he invents the electric brake dynamometer for engine testing; in 1907 he invents the multi-disc clutch; in 1911 he invents the elastomeric flexible coupling (Flector joint); in 1915 he invents the worm gear differential; in 1898-1902 Panhard et Levassor builds 500 cars under license, going on to become one of the largest automobile manufacturers before WWI. On June 21 Nikola Tesla first demonstrates alternating current for commercial use at the Ames Power Plant in Colo. between Silverton and Telluride; he goes on to build a weird funky lab in Colo. Springs in 1899 to develop wireless transmission of electrical power using Tesla Coils, which he abandons in 1900 after all kinds of weird accidents cause rumors to spread; on July 30 he is granted U.S. citizenship. The Carcano line of bolt-action military rifles and carbines is introduced in Italy; one later is allegedly used by Lee Harvey Oswald to murder JFK. C.F. Cross, C. Beadle and E.J. Bevan of Courtalds Ltd. in Britain discover how to manufacture Viscose Rayon, and patent it next year. French physicist Gabriel Jonas Lippmann (1845-1921) invents the Lippmann Plate for color photography, winning the 1908 Nobel Physics Prize. White Canadian YMCA physical education teacher James Naismith (1861-1939) invents the game of Basketball at Springfield College in Mass., using a simple peach basket (later lost?) as the goal in an effort to create a sport where agility trumps brute force; the first game is played on Jan. 20, and the Student Unions defeat 23rd St. by a final score of 1-0; his student Frank Mahon gives the game its name; on Jan. 15, 1892 the first rules for basketball are pub. in The Triangle, the Springfield, Mass. YMCA newspaper. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) demonstrates wireless transmission of electrical power at his lab in New York City. Wireless telegraphy is first done on a small scale. The explosive PETN (PENT) (pentaerythrigol tetranitrate) is synthesized in Germany by Bernhard Christian Gottfried Tollens (1841-1918) and P. Wigand; it is patented in 1912, and used in WWI. Science: Am. dentist Greene Vardiman Black (1836-1915) of Chicago, Ill. begins advocating a scientific cavity preparation to prevent recurrence of decay around the margins of the fillings. Dutch anthropologist Eugene Dubois (1858-1940) discovers Java Man (Pithecanthropus erectus) in Indonesia after becoming convinced that the human species originated in the tropics and joins the Dutch army, becoming the first early hominid specimens to be found outside Africa or Europe; too bad, after fighting the scientific establishment for acceptance and gaining ground, he dies a bitter man; his specimens are later classified as Homo erectus - he went ape? Antibodies are first proposed as responsible for disease immunity by German scientist Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915). Nonfiction: Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Dante: Life and Works. Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne (1769-1834), Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte (4 vols.) (posth.) (revised ed.); by Napoleon's private secy.; ed. by R.W. Phipps. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Die Uberwindung des Naturalismus. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Authority of the Holy Scripture; claims that errors may have existed in the original text of the Bible and that Moses didn't write the Pentateuch, getting him put on trial for heresy in 1892 by the Presbyterian Church, acquitted, then fired next year by the gen. assembly, which only makes him more popular? Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The American Race: A Linguistic Classification. Walter Camp (1859-1925), American Football. Richard Christopher Church (1815-90), History of the Oxford Movement (posth.). Edward Augustus Freeman (1823-92), History of Sicily (1891-4). James Anthony Froude (1818-94), The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon. Laurence Gronlund (1846-99), Our Destiny: The Influence of Socialism on Morals and Religion. Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943), Epochs of American History (4 vols.) (1891-1926). Fanny Kemble (1809-93), Further Records. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Essays in Little; On Calais Sands. Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906), Experiments in Aerodynamics. Otto Ludwig (1813-65), Shakespeare-Studien (posth.); praises Shakespeare while dissing Friedrich Schiller. John M'Clintock and James Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Physical Religion (Gifford Lecture). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), Jerusalem. George John Romanes (1848-94), Aristotle As A Naturalist. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), The Quintessence of Ibsenism (revised 1913); defends Ibsen. Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900), The Elements of Politics. Goldwin Smith (1823-1910), Canada and the Canada Question; argues that "Canada is a political expression", an artificial state that can only achieve its potential through a "reunion" with the U.S. to create the "United Continent of North America"; in 1868 he spoke against Irish Home Rule, saying "(As I) stand against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the West... I now stand against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the East." William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution (2 vols.). Edvard Alexander Westermack (1863-1939), The History of Human Marriage (2 vols.); decribes the Westermarck Effect, where people who live in close domestic proximity early in life later become desensitized to close sexual attraction, adding to theories of incest taboo. William Dwight Whitney (1827-94) (ed.), The Century Dictionary (6 vols.); a combo dictionary-encyclopedia by the first great U.S. linguist; basis of the 2-vol. "New Century Dictionary". Art: George Henry Boughton (1833-1905), Portrait of Rose Standish. Eugene Anatole Carriere (1849-1906), Portrait of Paul Verlaine. Mary Cassatt (1845-1926), The Letter. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Portrait of Madame Cezanne. Walter Crane (1845-1915), The Mower. James Ensor (1860-1949), Skeletons Fighting Over a Hanged Man. Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Huntsman and Dogs (28" x 48"). George Inness (1825-94), Sunset in the Woods. Jean-Louis Meissonier (1815-91), Barricade. Claude Monet (1840-1926), Grainstacks (Haystacks): Snow Effect. Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Two Young Peasant Women. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), Pierre Loti (1850-1923); Surprise; tiger crouching in jungle. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Convent Lily; Cloiser Lillies. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), The Green Interior, or, Figure in Front of a Window with Drawn Curtains. Music: Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Symphony in E major (In Nature's Realm), Op. 91; Symphony No. 2, Op. 92, Carnival Overture. Alexander von Fielitz (1860-1930), Vendetta (opera). Ethelberg Woodbridge Nevin (1862-1901), Water Scenes, Op. 13 (suite); incl. Narcissus (No. 4). Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), A Star Song. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), De Profundis. Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Piano Concerto No. 1 (rev. 1917). Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Points of View. Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), Ivanhoe (opera). Carl Zeller (1842-98), Der Vogelhandler (Vogelhändler) (operetta) (Vienna). Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Die Mutter (The Mother). Victorien Sardou (1831-1908), Thermidor. Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Spring Awakening (Fruhlings Erwachen) (first play); causes scandal with scenes of masturbation, homosexuality, and suicide, plus references to abortion - give me a kiss for good luck? Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), The Light of the World or The Great Consummation; tries to do for Jesus what he did for Buddha. Herman Melville (1819-91), Timoleon and Other Poems. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Flambeaux Noirs. Novels: F. Antsey (Thomas Antsey Guthrie), Tourmalin's Time Cheques; time travel story. Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Fin de Siecle. Maurice Barres (1862-1923), Le Jardin de Berenice. Walter Besant (1836-1901), St. Katherine's by the Tower (3 vols.). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The World, the Flesh and the Devil. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Sakhalin; a lot of brilliant engineering went into making the interior of this prison very not nice? Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Noodlot (Footsteps of Fate); similar to Oscar Wilde's 1890 "The Picture of Dorian Gray". Leon Daudet (1867-1942), Germet et Poussiere. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Doctor Huguet: A Novel; pub. under alias Edmund Boisgilbert; a liberal white intellectual is transformed into a poor black man and forced to see what it's like. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes; pub. in the new Strand mag. beginning in the July issue and ending in 1927 after 56 stories; "I play the game for the game's own sake" (Holmes); Holmes and his nemesis Prof. James Moriarty fall to their deaths in May 1891 in Reichenbach Falls in the Dec. 1893 issue, and the public outcry, bordering on nat. mourning forces a reappearance eight years later in A Scandal in Bohemia, which begins with the line "To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman" (Irene Adler); the 1893 story The Gloria Scott contains the phrase "the chaplain stood with a smoking pistol in his hand", coining the term "smoking gun". Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Quitt; Unwiederbringlich. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), A New England Nun and Other Stories. Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920), Angel Guerra; man swings from agnostic to Roman Catholic to woo a devout babe. Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Weary Souls (Traette Maend). Andre Gide (1869-1951), Les Cahiers d'Andre (d'André) Walter; an unhappy young religious Romantic idealistic man - they are all that way until they start getting some? George Gissing (1857-1903), New Grub Street; known for its hack writers. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Eric Brighteyes. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), A Group of Noble Dames (short stories); Tess of the D'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented; "What a mommet [scarecrow] of a maid"; causes a public outcry over its infidelity and obscenity. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Little Irish Girl and Other Stories. J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), La-Bas (Down There); French Satanism, starring Durtal (the author). Maurus Jokai (1825-1904), There Is No Devil. Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940), Gosta Berling. Jonas Lie (1833-1908), Trolls (2 vols.) (1891-2). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Le Livre de la Pitie et de la Mort. Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (1839-1908), Epitaph of a Small Winner; Philosopher or Dog? George du Maurier (1834-96), Peter Ibbetson; illustrated by the author. William Morris (1834-96), News from Nowhere; sequel to "A Dream of John Ball" (1888), about a fictitious Socialist English commonwealth. Daniel Owen (1836-95), Enoc Huws. Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Stopfkuchen. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), The Lonesome. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Mary Magdalen. William Sharp (1855-1905), Sospiri di Roma. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Col. Carter of Cartersville (first novel). Carmen Sylva (1843-1916), Handwerkenlieder. Births: Am. "Song of Bernadette", "Johnny Belinda" actor Charles Bickford (d. 1967) on Jan. 1 in Cambridge, Mass; born during the first min. of the year; acquitted at age 9 of the attempted murder of a motorist who drove over his dog; educated at MIT. Am. "Their Eyes Were Watching God" Harlem Renaissance novelist (black) Zora Neale Hurston (d. 1960) on Jan. 7 in Notasulga, Ala.; grows up in Eatonville, Fla.; educated at Howard U., and Barnard College. German Nazi official Fritz Waechtler (Wächtler) (d. 1945) on Jan. 7 in Triebes, Thuringia. German physicist (nuclear spectroscopy pioneer) Walther Bothe (d. 1957) on Jan. 8 in Oranienburg, Prussia; educated at the U. of Berlin. Russian dancer-choreographer Bronislava Nijinska (Bronislava Fominitshna Nizhinskaya) (d. 1972) on Jan. 8 in Minsk; Polish parents; sister of Vaslav Nijinsky (1889-1950). U.S. secy. of defense #2 (1949-50) Louis Arthur Johnson (d. 1966) on Jan. 10 in Roanoke, Va.; educated at the U. of Va. English biochemist Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (d. 1952) on Jan. 12 in Kensington, South London; educated at Strand School, and King's College, London. English spymaster Sir John Cecil Masterman (d. 1977) on Jan. 12; educated at Worcester College, Oxford U. Australian WWI Pvt. Jørgen Christian Jensen (d. 1922) in Logstor, Denmark; emigrates to Australia in 1909. Russian Acmeist poet (Jewish) Osip Emilevich Mandelshtam (Mandelstam) (d. 1938) on Jan. 15 (Jan. 3 Old Style) in Warsaw, Poland. Am. violinist (Jewish) Mikhail Saulovich "Mischa" Elman (d. 1967) on Jan. 20 in Talnoye, Ukraine; grandson of a violin-playing Jewish folk musician (klezmer). Italian Communist Party founder Antonio Gramsci (d. 1937) on Jan. 23 in Ales, Cagliari, Sardinia; proposes that Communism establish "cultural hegemony" by destroying all the old Judeo-Christian institutions and their history; source of the term Gramscian Whore. German field marshal ("the Fuehrer's Fireman") Otto Moritz Walter (Walther) Model (d. 1945) on Jan. 24 in Genthin, Saxony. Am. diplomat-journalist-novelist and first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1933-6) William Christian Bullitt Jr. (d. 1967) on Jan. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Yale U. Canadian Montreal Procedure ("I can smell burnt toast") neurosurgeon Wilder Graves Penfield (d. 1976) on Jan. 25/26 in Spokane, Wash.; grows up in Hudson, Wisc.; emigrates to Canada in 1928; educated at Princeton U., Merton College, Oxford U., and John Hopkins U. Am. Luciano/Genovese crime boss ("Prime Minister of the Underworld") Frank Costello (Francesco Castiglia) (d. 1973) on Jan. 26 in Lauropoli, Calabria, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1900. Soviet "The Thaw" propagandist (Jewish) Ilya Grigoyevic Ehrenburg (d. 1967) on Jan. 27 (Jan. 15 Old Style) in Kiev. Am. "The Petrified Forest", "The Adventures of Marco Polo" film dir. Archie L. Mayo (d. 1968) on Jan. 29 in New York City; starts out in vaudeville, selling shirts for a living; retires in 1946. Am. aircraft designer Walter Herschel Beech (d. 1950) on Jan. 30 in Pulaski, Tenn.; collaborator of Clyde Cessna (1879-1954). Swedish diplomat Johan Birger Essen Dahlerus (d. 1957) on Feb. 6 in Stockholm. Austrian-British Anthroposophist Walter Johannes Stein (d. 1957) on Feb. 6 in Vienna; emigrates to England in 1933. British-Am. "Bulldog Drummond", "Lost Horizon", "A Double Life" actor Ronald Charles Colman (d. 1958) on Feb. 9 in Richmond, Surrey; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Italian Socialist politician Pietro Sandro Nenni (d. 1980) on Feb. 9 in Faenza. Am. "Rhapsody in Blue" novelist-playwright-journalist Elliot Harold Paul (d. 1958) on Feb. 10 in Linden, Malden, Mass. Am. Sears, Roebuck & Co. chmn. (Jewish) Lessing Julius Rosenwald (d. 1979) on Feb. 10 in Chicago, Ill.; son of Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932). Am. "The Meaning and Function of Language" educator-lexicographer Mitford McLeod Mathews Sr. (d. 1985) on Feb. 12 in Jackson, Ala.; father of Am. cryptographer Mitford McLeod Mathews Jr. (1922-1971); educated at Harvard U. Am. operatic bass (Jewish) Alexander Kipnis (d. 1978) on Feb. 13 (Feb. 1 Old Style) in Zhytomyr, Ukraine; becomes U.S. citizen in 1931. Welsh #1 short story writer Kate Roberts (d. 1985) on Feb. 13 in Rhosgadfan, Caernarvonshire (modern-day Gwynedd); father Owen Roberts is a slate quarryman; educated at the Univ. College of North Wales, Bangor; marries fellow Plaid Cymru member Morris T. Williams (-1946) in 1928. Am. "American Gothic" painter Grant DeVolson Wood (d. 1942) on Feb. 13 in Anamosa, Iowa; son of Maryville Wood. German Nazi racial ideologist Hans Gunther (Günther) (d. ?) on Feb. 16. Am. broadcasting pioneer, RCA CEO and NBC founder (Jewish) David Sarnoff (d. 1971) on Feb. 27 in Uzlian (near Minsk), Russia (Belarus); emigrates to the U.S. in 1900. Am. "To Make My Bread" novelist Grace Lumpkin (d. 1980) on Mar. 3 in Milledgeville, Ga. Greek archbishop (1941-9) Damaskinos Papandreou (d. 1949) on Mar. 3 in Dorvitsa. Am. political cartoonist Daniel Robert Fitzpatrick (d. 1969) on Mar. 5 in Superior, Wisc. Philippine pres. #3 (1943-5) Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia (d. 1959) on Mar. 9 in Tanuauan City, Batangas. Am. "Gunga Din" actor (Jewish) Shalom "Sam" Jaffe (d. 1984) on Mar. 10 in New York City. Hungarian-British "Science, Faith and Society" physical chemist-philosopher-economist (Jew-turned-Roman Catholic) Michael (Mihaly) Polyani (d. 1976) on Mar. 11 in Budapest, Hungary; brother of Karl Polyani (1886-1964); emigrates to Britain in 1933; father of John Charles Polyani (1929-). Am. Nash-Kelvinator CEO (1937-54) George Walter Mason (d. 1954) on Mar. 12 in Valley City, N.D.; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. psychologist and memory expert Bruno Furst (d. 1965) on Mar. 13 in Metz, France (New York City?). Am. novelist Margaret Frances Culkin Banning (d. 1982) on Mar. 18 in Buffalo, Minn. U.S. Supreme Court chief justice #14 (1953-69) and Repub. Calif. gov. #30 (1942-53) (Freemason) Earl Warren (d. 1974) on Mar. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif. English "Grand Hotel", "Dark Victory", "Nightmare Alley", "The Razor's Edge", "The Dawn Patrol" film actor-dir. (bi) Edmund Goulding (d. 1959) on Mar. 20 in Feltham, Middlesex, London. Swiss "Therese Etienne" novelist-playwright John (Hermann Emanuel) Knittel (d. 1970) on Mar. 24 in Dharwar, India. German Gen. Wilhelm "Willi" Schneckenburger (d. 1944) on Mar. 30 in Tubingen. Scottish "That's a Good Girl" actor-dir.-producer ("Last of the Knuts") Walter John "Jack" Buchanan (d. 1957) on Apr. 2 in Gairloch, Rossshire; acting partner of Elsie Randolph (1904-82). German surrealist "The Antipope", "Virgin Spanking the Christ Child" painter Max Ernst (d. 1976) on Apr. 2 in Bruhl; moves to France and the U.S. British caricaturist ("dominant cartoonist of the Western world") Sir David Alexander Cecil Low (d. 1963) on Apr. 7 in New Zealand; knighted in 1962. Japanese Adm. Minoru Ota (d. 1945) on Apr. 7 in Chiba Prefecture. Am. "The Law of the Range" cowboy actor Timothy John Fitzgerald "Tim" McCoy (d. 1978) on Apr. 10 in Saginaw, Mich.; of Irish descent; husband (1945-73) of Inga Arvad (1913-73). Am. "Quicksand" novelist (black) Nella Larsen (d. 1964) on Apr. 13 in Chicago, Ill; West Indian father, Danish mother; educated at Fisk U. Am. silent film actor-dir. Wallace "Wally" Reid (d. 1923) on Apr. 15 in St. Louis, Mo. British air vice-marshal Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds (d. 1954) on Apr. 20. Richard Bowditch Wigglesworth (d. 1960) on Apr. 25 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Studebaker Corp. pres. (1935-) and U.N. man Paul Gray Hoffman (d. 1974) on Apr. 26 in Western Springs (near Chicago), Ill. Russian "Peter and the Wolf" composer Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (d. 1953) on Apr. 27 in Sontsovka (Krasne), Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine; student of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Am. institutional economist Clarence Edwin Ayres (d. 1972) on May 6 in Lowell, Mass.; educated at Brown U., and the U. of Chicago. Soviet "The Master and Margarita" novelist-playwright Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (d. 1940) on May 3 in Kiev, Ukraine. Am. Social Security Admin. commissioner (1937-53) ("Mr. Social Security") Arthur Joseph Altmeyer (d. 1972) on May 8 in DePere, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; studies with John R. Commons. Am. treasury secy. (Jewish) (1934-45) Henry Morgenthau Jr. (d. 1967) on May 11 in New York City; son of real estate mogul Henry Morgenthau (1856-1946) and diplomat Josephine Sykes; father of Robert M. Morgenthau; educated at Dwight School, and Cornell U. Austrian "My Heart and I" tenor (Jewish) Richard Tauber (d. 1948) on May 16 in Linz; exiled in 1938. Am. philosopher (founder of Logical Empiricism) Rudolf Carnap (d. 1970) on May 18. Am. Communist leader Earl Russell Browder (d. 1973) on May 21 in Wichita, Kan.; expelled from the U.S. Communist Party in 1946. German poet and Communist politician Johannes R. Becher (d. 1958) on May 22 in Munich. Am. educator Robert Gordon Sproul (d. 1975) on May 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; pres. of the U. of Calif. (1930-58). Swedish "Barabbas" poet-novelist-playwright Par (Pär) Fabian Lagerkvist (d. 1974) on May 23 in Vaxjo. Am. Biblical archeologist (John Hopkins U.) William Foxworth Albright (d. 1971) on May 24. Am. trustbuster atty.-writer Thurman Wesley Arnold (d. 1969) on June 2 in Laramie, Wyo.; educated at Harvard U. Am. model-actress (the first supermodel?) ("Miss Manhattan") ("the Exposition Girl") ("American Venus") Audrey Marie Munson (d. 1996) on June 8 near Syracuse, N.Y. Am. "I Get a Kick Out of You", "I've Got You Under My Skin" composer-songwriter (gay) Cole Albert Porter (d. 1964) on June 9 in Peru, Ind.; educated at Yale U. and Harvard U.; at age 10 (1901) writes "The Song of the Birds" for doting mother Kate; lover of Monty Woolley (1888-1963), whom he meets at Yale U. Am. "42nd Street" lyricist (Jewish) Al Dubin (d. 1945) on June 10 in Zurich, Switzerland. Soviet aircraft designer Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov (d. 1942) on June 15 (June 27 Old Style) in Sambek. German photomontage pioneer John Heartfield (Helmut Herzfeld) (d. 1968) on June 19; changes his name to Heartfield in 1916 as a protest against anti-British sentiment in Germany. Italian architect Pier Luigi Nervi (d. 1979) on June 21 in Sondrio, Lombardy; pioneer in reinforced concrete. Am. "Fagin in Oliver Twist", "Destination: Moon" actor-dir. Irving Pichel (d. 1954) on June 24 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; brother-in-law of Viola Barry (1894-1964). Am. "They Knew What They Wanted", "Paths of Glory", "Gone With the Wind" dramatist Sidney Coe Howard (d. 1939) on June 26 in Oakland, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif., and Harvard U.; father of Jennifer Howard (1925-93). Am. "Johnny Tremain" novelist Esther Forbes (d. 1967) on June 28 in Westborough, Mass. Am. gen. (first USAF chief of staff) Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz (d. 1974) on June 28 in Boyertown, Penn. Am. 6' 300 lb. prof. wrestler Man Mountain Dean (Frank Simmons Leavitt)(d. 1953) on June 30 in New York City. English artist Sir Stanley Spencer (d. 1959) on June 30 in Cookham, Berkshire; known for Biblical scenes set in Cookham ("a village in Heaven"); knighted in 1959. Am. biochemist (discoverer of the bacteriophage) John Howard Northrop (d. 1987) on July 5 in Yonkers, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U. Czech poet-writer-critic Josef Hora (d. 1945) on July 8. Am. agricultural economist and Puerto Rican gov. (1946-6) Rexford Guy Tugwell (d. 1979) on July 10 in Sinclairville, N.Y; educated at the U. of Penn., and Columbia U. German jurist (Jewish) Hermann Heller (d. 1933) on July 17 in Teschen, Austrian Silesia. Canadian "Algiers", "The World is Waiting for the Sunrise" actor-singer-composer-playwright Eugene "Gene" Lockhart (d. 1957) on July 18 in London, Ont.; husband (1924-) of Kathleen Arthur Lockhart (1894-1978); father of June Lockhart (1925-); grandfather of Anne Lockhart (1953-). Am. contract bridge champ and pacifist Ely (pr. "EE-lee") Culbertson (d. 1955) on July 22 in Poyana de Vervilao, Romania; educated at the U. of Geneva; founder of Bridge World mag. Am. movie mogul (head of Columbia Studios) (Jewish) Harry "King" Cohn (d. 1958) on July 23 in New York City; German Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Father of the Bride", "Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation", "Dere Mable", humorist-novelist-journalist Edward Streeter (d. 1976) on Aug. 1 in Buffalo, N.Y. English "Colour Symphony" composer Sir Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss (d. 1975) on Aug. 2; Am. father, English mother; educated at Cambridge U., and Royal College of Music; knighted in 1950. British field marshal (Australian gov.-gen. from 1953-60) Sir William Joseph "Uncle Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (d. 1970) on Aug. 6 in Bristol; knighted in 1944; created viscount in 1960. German violinist-composer Adolf Georg Wilhelm Busch (d. 1952) on Aug. 8 in Siegen, Westphalia; brother of Fritz Busch (1890-1951); emigrates to the U.S. in 1939; known as a great Beethoven player. English "The Brains Trust" philosopher Cyril Edwin Mitchinson Joad (d. 1953) on Aug. 12 in Durham; educated at Dragon School and Balliol College, Oxford U. White Russian gen. Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (d. 1938) on Aug. 15; brother of Viktor Pepelyayev (1885-1920). Am. astronomer Milton Lasell Humason (d. 1972) on Aug. 19 in Dodge Center, Minn. Puerto Rican world's oldest living person (Dec. 11, 2006 to Jan. 24, 2007) Emiliano Mercado del Toro (d. 2007) on Aug. 21. French Cubist sculptor (Jewish) Jacques (Chaim Jacob) Lipchitz (d. 1973) on Aug. 22 in Druskininkai, Lithuania; emigrates to France in 1909, and the U.S. in 1940; teacher of Marcel Mouly - Lithuania = land of the Lipchitzes? Austrian dramatist-mgr. Ferdinand Bruckner (Theodor Tagger) (d. 1958) on Aug. 26 in Sofia; son of Anton Bruckner (1824-96). Am. Hallmark Cards founder Joyce Clyde Hall (d. 1982) on Aug. 29 in David City, Neb. Am. writer-journalist Marquis James (d. 1955) on Aug. 29 in Springfield, Mo. British Pvt. Henry Tandey (d. 1977) on Aug. 30 in Leamington, Worcestershire. Am. Repub. Mont. gov. (1953-61) J. Hugo Aronson (d. 1978) on Sept. 1 in Gallstad, Vastergotland, Sweden. German Nazi Autobahn engineer Fritz Todt (d. 1942) on Sept. 4 in Pforzheim. English fashion designer Capt. Edward H. Molyneux (d. 1974) on Sept. 5 in Hampstead, London; of Irish and Huguenot descent. Am. baritone John Charles Thomas (d. 1960) on Sept. 6 in Meyersdale, Penn. Swiss diplomat-historian Carl Jacob Burckhardt (d. 1974) on Sept. 10 in Basel. German Gen. Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (d. 1948) on Sept. 11 in Dachau, Bavaria. Am. New York Times publisher (1935-61) (Jewish) Arthur Hayes Sulzberger (d. 1968) on Sept. 12 in New York City; son of Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935); father of Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (1926-) - sells better than burgers? Am. Zionist philosopher-historian (Jewish) Hans Kohn (d. 1971) on Sept. 15 in Prague, Czech.; emigrates to Palestine in 1925 and the U.S. in 1934. Indian independence leader Chempakaraman (Champakaraman) Pillai (Cemapakaraman Pilla) (d. 1934) on Sept. 15 in Thiruvananthapuram, Travancore; of Tamil descent. German U-boat Adm. Karl Doenitz (Dönitz) (d. 1980) on Sept. 16 in Berlin-Grenau. English "Suspicion", "Gigi" actress Isabel Jeans (d. 1985) on Sept. 16 in London; sister of Ursula Jeans (1906-73). German "Mazeppa in The Blue Angel", "In 24 Stunden" actor-singer Hans Philipp August Albers (d. 1960) on Sept. 22 in Hamburg; son of a butcher. Am. cryptography pioneer ("The Man Who Broke Purple") William F. Friedman (Wolfe Frederick Friedman) (d. 1969) on Sept. 24 in Kishinev, Bessarabia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1892; husband of Elizabeth Friedman (1892-1980). French (Alsatian) conductor-violinist Charles Munch (Münch) (d. 1968) on Sept. 26 in Strassburg. Am. politician-atty.-ambassador Rush Hudson Limbaugh Sr. (d. 1996) on Sept. 27 in Bolinger County, Mo.; grandfather of Rush Limbaugh (1951-). Japanese Gen. Sosaku Suzuki (d. 1945) on Sept. 27 in Aichi Prefecture. Am. "The Plastic Age" novelist Percy Marks (d. 1956) on Sept. 29. Am. White House babe "Baby" Ruth Cleveland (d. 1904) on Oct. 3; eldest child of Grover Cleveland and Frances Cleveland. British Capt. Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen (d. 1940) on Oct. 8 in Southsea, Hampshire. Japanese hawk PM #34 (1937-9), #38 (1940-1), #39 (1941) Prince Fumimaro Konoye (Konoe) (d. 1945) on Oct. 12 in Tokyo; descended from the Fukiwara clan; educated at Tokyo Imperial U. German Catholic nun (Jewish) (St.) Edith Stein (d. 1942) on Oct. 12 in Breslau; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1922. British lt. Reginald Alexander John "Rex" Warneford (d. 1915) on Oct. 15 in Darjeeling, India. Am. historian Samuel Flagg Bemis (d. 1973) on Oct. 20 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Clark U. and Harvard U. English physicist Sir James Chadwick (d. 1974) on Oct. 20; discoverer of the neutron. Am. Jolly Green Giant, Marlboro Man, Tony the Tiger advertising pioneer Leo Burnett (d. 1971) on Oct. 21 in St. Johns, Mich. Puerto Rican "Preciosa", "El Cumbanchero" bandleader-composer Rafael Hernandez (d. 1965) on Oct. 24 in Aguadilla. Dominican Repub. dictator (1930-61) Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina (d. 1961) on Oct. 24 in San Cristobal; Haitian descent mother; husband of Lita Milan. Am. Roman Catholic anti-FDR radio shock jock ("The Fighting Priest") Charles Edward Coughlin (d. 1979) on Oct. 25 in Hamilton, Canada; priest at Nat. Shrine of the Little Flower Church in Royal Oak, Mich.; Irish Catholic parents. Am. comedian Fanny Brice (Fannie Borach) (d. 1951) on Oct. 29 in New York City - love that clueless ballerina act? German Gen. Helmuth Otto Ludwig Weidling (d. 1955) on Nov. 2 in Halberstadt, Saxony. Russian "Chapayev" novelist Dmitri Furmanov (d. 1926) on Nov. 7. Soviet NKVD dir. (1934-6) (Jewish) Gengrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda (Yenokh Gershevich Iyeguda) (d. 1938) on Nov. 7 in Rybinsk. Am. "Looney Tunes" composer Carl W. Stalling (d. 1972) on Nov. 10 in Lexington, Mo. Am. "Some Sunday Morning", "Till We Meet Again", "Ain't We Got Fun", "Hooray for Hollywood", "Sleepy Time Gal" songwriter Richard A. Whiting (d. 1938) on Nov. 12 in Peoria, Ill.; father of Margaret Whiting (1924-) and Barbara Whiting Smith (1931-2004). Canadian physician Sir Frederick Grant Banting (d. 1941) on Nov. 14 in Alliston, Ont.; co-discoverer with Charles H. Best (1899-1978) of Canada and J.J.R. Macleod (1876-1935) of insulin (1921); educated at the U. of Toronto. Am. railway heir, diplomat and Dem. N.Y. gov. (1955-9) William Averell Harriman (d. 1986) on Nov. 15 in New York City; son of railroad mogul Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909); brother of E. Roland Harriman (1895-1978); educated at Groton School, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones). German "Desert Fox" field marshal Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (d. 1944) on Nov. 15 in Heidenheim, Wurttemberg. German July 20th Plot Social Dem. politician Julius Leber (d. 1945) on Nov. 16 in Biesheim, Alsace. English actor Reginald Denny (d. 1967) on Nov. 20; RC airplane enthusiast; not to be confused with Calif. truck driver Reginald Denny (1953-). Am. geneticist Alfred Henry Sturtevant (b. 1970) on Nov. 21 in Jacksonville, Ill.; educated at Yale U. Am. advertising exec (Jewish) ("Father of Public Relations") Edward Louis Bernays (d. 1995) on Nov. 22 in Vienna, Austria; nephew of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); educated at Cornell U. Am. "Abie's Irish Rose" playwright Anne Nichols (d. 1966) on Nov. 26 in Dales Mill, Ga. Spanish "Generation of '27" poet Pedro Salinas y Serrano (d. 1951) on Nov. 27 in Spanish. Austrian Conservative chancellor (1953-61) Julius Raab (d. 1964) on Nov. 29 in St. Polten, Lower Austria. German "War Cripples" expressionist painter Otto Dix (d. 1969) on Dec. 2 in Untermhaus, Thuringia. Am. "Jezebel" actress Fay Okell Bainter (d. 1968) on Dec. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif. English artist (Jewish) Mark (Marks) Gertler (d. 1939) on Dec. 9 in Spitalfields, London; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; not to be confused with economist Mark Gertler (1951-). British statesman Field Marshal Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (d. 1969) on Dec. 10 in London; dir. of the 1940 Dunkirk evacuation; gov.-gen. #17 of Canada (1946-52). Swedish poet-playwright (Jewish) Nelly Sachs (d. 1970) on Dec. 10 in Berlin; emigrates to Sweden in 1940. Am. cowboy actor Buck (Charles) Jones (Charles Frederick Gebhart) (d. 1942) on Dec. 12 in Vincennes, Indiana; his horse is named Silver. Chinese liberal diplomat-philosopher-writer Hu Shih (Shih-chih) (Hu Hung-hsing) (d. 1962) on Dec. 17 in Shanghai; advocates a gradual adoption of Western ideas along with the dumping of Confucianism. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1928-71) ("Old Jawn") John William McCormack (d. 1980) on Dec. 21 in Boston, Mass; speaker #53 of the U.S. House (1962-71); Irish immigrant parents from the 1848 potato famine. German "Piccadilly" dir.-writer Ewald Andre Dupont (d. 1956) on Dec. 25 in Zeitz, Saxony. Am. "Tropic of Capricorn", "Tropic of Cancer" novelist Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980) on Dec. 26 in New York City [Capricorn]. Am. "Destry Rides Again", "Hook, Line and Sinker" film dir. George E. Marshall (d. 1975) on Dec. 29 in Chicago, Ill. French conservative PM (1952-3) Antoine Pinay (d. 1994) on Dec. 30 in Saint-Symphorien-sur-Choise, Rhone. Anglo-Am. novelist Romer Wilson (Florence Roma Muir Wilson) (d. 1930). Czech "Faithless Marijka" novelist-filmmaker Vladislav Vancura (d. 1942). Egyptian writer Ismail Mazhar (d. 1962). Am. etcher Arthur William Heintzelman (d. 1965) in Newark, N.J.; moves to Paris in 1921 and invites women to come up and see his etchings? French playwright (gay) Maurice Rostand (d. 1968); son of Edmond Rotand (186-1918) and Rosemonde Gerard (1871-1953); brother of Jean Rostand (1894-1977). German diplomat Hans Thomsen (d. 1968) in Hamburg. Am. "Denishawn" dancer-choreographer Edwin Myers "Ted" Shawn (d. 1972) in Kansas City, Mo.; educated at the U. of Denver; dance partner of wife Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968). French Roman Catholic Cardinal Eugene Tisserant (d. 1972). Am. fashion designer (inventor of the strapless evening gown) Mainbocher (Main Rousseau Bocher) (d. 1976) in Chicago, Ill. Am. artist Justin McCarthy (d. 1977) in Weatherly, Penn. Am. "The Fossil Hunters" abstract painter Edwin Walter Dickinson (d. 1978). Chinese Marxist scholar-poet-politician Kuo Mo-jo (d. 1978). Am. "Gourmet" mag. founder (1941-) Earle R. McAusland (d. 1980). Deaths: Am. "Father of American History" George Bancroft (b. 1800) on Jan. 17. German field marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke (b. 1800). Irish-Am. Proctor and Gamble co-founder James Gamble (b. 1803). U.S. First Lady #11 (1845-9) Sarah Childress Polk (b. 1803) on Aug. 14 in Nashville, Tenn.; in mourning black since hubby James Knox Polk's 1849 death. German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (b. 1804) on June 23 in Gottingen. French pres. (1879-87) Francois Paul Jules Grevy (b. 1807) on Sept. 9 in Mont-sous-Vaudrey. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (b. 1807) on Mar. 21 in New York City. Slovak mathematician Joseph Petzval (b. 1807) on Sept. 19 in Vienna; dies a desitute hermit; "I defeated the light, I have it firmly in hand, because there is much darkness in the world too" (last words). Nigerian Anglican bishop Samuel Adjai Crowther (b. 1809). U.S. vice-pres. #15 (1861-5) Hannibal Hamlin (b. 1809) on July 4 in Bangor, Maine. German violinist-composer Fredrik Pacius (b. 1809) on Jan. 8 in Helsinki. Am. "there's a sucker born every minute" museum and circus promoter P.T. Barnum (b. 1810) on Apr. 7; 1 mo. before his death the New York Evening Sun bows to his request to read his own obituary, and prints it, with the title Great And Only Barnum - He Wanted To Read His Obituary - Here It Is: "More persons, on the whole, are humbugged by believing nothing, than by believing too much." English-born Australian architect Richard Jewell (b. 1810) in Perth. U.S. Repub. atty.-gen. (1876-7) Alphonso Taft (b. 1810) on May 21 in San Diego, Calif. Russian novelist Ivan Goncharov (b. 1812) on Sept. 27 (Sept. 15 Old Style) in St. Petersburg. Am. Adm. David Dixon Porter (b. 1813) on Feb. 13 in Washington, D.C. Belgian scientist Jean Servais Stas (b. 1813) on Dec. 13 in Brussels. Scottish geologist Sir Andrew Ramsay (b. 1814) on Dec. 9 in Beaumans. Scottish-born Canadian PM (1867-73, 1878-91) Sir John A. MacDonald (b. 1815). French painter Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (b. 1815) on Jan. 21 in Paris. Am. meteorologist William Ferrel (b. 1817). Am. atty. William Henry Herndon (b. 1818) on Mar. 18 in Springfield, Ill. French Provencal writer Joseph Roumanille (b. 1818) on May 24. Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind (b. 1819) on Feb. 9 in La Cote-Saint-Andre (near Grenoble). Am. poet-essayist-editor James Russell Lowell (b. 1819) on Aug. 12 in Cambridge, Mass.; "And what is so rare as a day in June?/ Then, if ever, come perfect days;/ Then Heaven tries Earth if it be in tune,/ And over it softly her warm ear lays." Am. Civil War Union gen. and rear Adm. Samuel Powhatan Carter (b. 1819) on May 26 in Washington, D.C. Am. "Moby-Dick" novelist Herman Melville (b. 1819 on Sept. 28; leaves "Billy Budd, Sailor" (pub. 1924). Am. journalist Donn Piatt (b. 1819): "There is no tyranny so despotic as that of public opinion among a free people." French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (b. 1820) on May 11. Am. Civil War Union Gen. Patrick Edward Connor (b. 1820) on Dec. 17 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. Civil War Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman (b. 1820) on Feb. 14. German historian Ferdinand Gregorovius (b. 1821) on May 1 in Munich. Romanian PM Ioan Bratianu (b. 1822). German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (b. 1823) on Dec. 29. Am. paleontologist Joseph Leidy (b. 1823). Brazilian emperor (1831-89) Pedro II (b. 1825) on Dec. 5 in Paris. English-born Am. entomologist-actor Harry Edwards (b. 1827) on June 9 in East Harlem, N.Y. Am. Standard Oil magnate Charles Pratt (b. 1830) on May 4; his death leaves John D. Rockefeller as the most powerful man in the oil industry. Russian Theosophy founder Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (b. 1831) - the spiritual more is less? Am. statesman John Owen Dominis (b. 1932) on Aug. 27 in Honolulu, Hawaii; does 1 week after being made prince consort. German automobile engine inventor Nikolaus August Otto (b. 1832) on Jan. 26 in Cologne. Spanish novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcon (b. 1833) on July 19. English Atheist MP Charles Bradlaugh (b. 1833) on Jan. 30: "Better a thousandfold abuse of free speech than denial of free speech. The abuse dies in a day, but the denial slays the life of the people, and entombs the hope of the race." French sculptor Henri Michel Antoine Chapu (b. 1833) on Apr. 21 in Paris. Am. humorist Prentice Mulford (b. 1834). Czech journalist-essayist Jan Neruda (b. 1834) on Aug. 22 in Prague. French composer Leo Clement Philibert Delibes (b. 1836). French politician gen. Georges Boulanger (b. 1837) on Sept. 30 in Brussels (suicide on his own grave at Ixelles Cemetery). Tahitian king (1877-80) Pomare V (b. 1839) on June 12 in Papeete (alcoholism). Chilean pres. (1886-91) Jose Manuel Balmaceda (b. 1840) on Sept. 18 in Santiago. Russian mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya (b. 1850) on Feb. 10. French poet Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854) on Nov. 10 in Marseille (cancer) - the good die young? French pointillist painter Georges Seurat (b. 1859) on Mar. 29 (meningitis?); dies having never sold one of his works; "Our poor friend killed himself by overwork" (Jules Signac) - it was all pointless? Irish nationalist leader Charles Stuart Parnell (b. 1846) on Oct. 6 in Brighton, England; dies of a broken heart?; 150K attend his funderal at Glasnevin Cemetery; Oct. 6 becomes Ivy Day, when Irish Home Rule supporters wear a sprig of you know what in their clothing. Am. architect John Wellborn Root (b. 1850) on Jan. 15 in Chicago, Ill. (pneumonia). Dutch art dealer Theo van Gogh (b. 1857) on Jan. 25 in Utrecht (syphilis).



1892 - The Ellis Island Pledge of Allegiance Year?

Annie Moore (1877-1924) Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931) Abbas II Helmy (Hilmi) of Egypt (1874-1944) Sir John Sparrow David Thompson of Canada (1845-94) Whitelaw Reid of the U.S. (1837-1912) James Baird Weaver of the U.S. (1833-1912) Giovanni Giolitti of Italy (1842-1928) Count Sergei Witte of Russia (1849-1915) Dadabhai Naoroji of Britain (1825-1917) Jose Maria Reina Barrios of Guatemala (1854-98) Andres Bonifacio of the Philippines (1863-97) James Keir Hardie of Scotland (1856-1915) Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain of Britain (1863-1937) John L. Sullivan v. Gentleman Jim Corbett, Sept. 7, 1892 George Shiras Jr. of the U.S. (1832-1924) Jose Rizal of the Philippines (1861-96) John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) Marshall Field (1834-1906) Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940) Henri Moissan (1852-1907) Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) John Froelich (1849-1933) Thomas Neill Cream (1850-92) 'Abdu'l-Baha (1844-1921) Lizzie Borden (1860-1927) Ned Christie (1852-92) Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) David T. Abercrombie (1867-1931) Ezra H. Fitch (1866-1930) Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) 'At the Moulin Rouge' by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 'The Kiss' by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) Sir Arthur Grimble (1888-1956) Maxwell House Hotel Joel Owsley Cheek (1852-1935) Charles Edward Barber (1840-1917) Liberty Head Silver Half Dollar, 1892-1915 Madame Helena Modjeska (1840-1909) Otis Skinner (1858-1942) Knut Wicksell (1851-1926) Arne Garborg (1851-1924) Erich von Drygalski (1865-1949) Frederick Eugene Ives (1856-1937) Henry Luke Bolley (1865-) Francois de Curel (1854-1928) Henry Codman Potter (1835-1908) William Painter (1838-1906) Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) John Wellborn Root (1850-91) Sir James Dewar (1843-1923) Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) Edwin A. Rutenber (1876-1962) Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926) Sir William Osler (1849-1919) Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932) Eusepia Palladino (1854-1918) George Sontag (1864-) Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919) Iwan Gilkin (1858-1924) Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902) Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965) Ellen Gould White (1827-1915) Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938) Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1842-1924) Edward Capehart O'Kelley (1858-1904) John Joseph 'Dirty Jack' Doyle (1869-1958) Le Pétomane (1857-1945) Masonic Temple Building, Chicago, 1892 Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 1892- Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Corn Palace, 1892 Victor Horta (1861-1947) Hotel Tassel, Brussels, 1892-3 Phil May (1864-1903) Phil May Example The Card Players' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1892 'A Virgin' by Abbott Handerson Thayer, 1892-3

1892 On Jan. 1 after Castle Garden becomes unable to accommodate the flow, Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay about 1 mi. SW of Battery Park opens as the first Federal Immigration station, no longer under the control of New York and its famous corruption, which let "paupers" and other "undesirables" in; instead, the feds begin to close immigration down in their own, more bureaucratic way; between this year and 1924 22M immigrate; the first immigrant this year is 15-y.-o. Annie Moore (1877-1924) (born on Jan. 1) from Ireland; she dies poor in Lower East Side, N.Y. as Annie Moore Schayer. On Jan. 7 Egyptian khedive (since 1879) Sir Tewfik Pasha (b. 1852) dies in Heluan Palace near Cairo, and his eldest son Abbas II Helmy (Hilmi) (1874-1944) becomes the last khedive of Egypt (until 1918). On Feb. 12 Pres. Abraham Lincoln's birthday is declared a U.S. nat. holiday. On Feb. 29 the U.S. Supreme Court in Holy Trinity Church vs. U.S. declares the U.S. a "Christian nation". On Mar. 15 liberal pres. (since 1873) Justino Rufino Barrios (b. 1835) is killed in Chalchuapa, El Salvador while leading an army against Mexico over the disputed coffee-producing Soconusco (Nahuatl "xoconostle" = prickly pear cactus fruit) region in S Chiapas, and his pint-sized son Jose Maria Reina "Reinita" Barrios (1854-98) becomes pres. of Guatemala (until Feb. 8, 1898), building up Guatemala City to look like Paris, running the printing presses and creating inflation, while caving in to the big landowners and helping them crush the mestizo Indian peasants, ending his father's liberal era - somebody ought to what? In Apr. the Johnson County Cattle War in NE Wyo. sees large cattle operators recruit 25 Tex. gunmen to form the vigilante Invaders group to assassinate enemies of their free range, causing Sheriff Angus to form a 200-man possee, after which federal troops from Ft. McKinney intervene and rescue the Invaders and put them in jail, but it costs so much to house them that they are all released and disappear. On May 15 Italian finance minister (since 1890) Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) becomes PM of Italy (until Dec. 15, 1893); he goes on to become PM 5x by 1921. On May 29 Baha'u'llah (Mirza Husayn-'Ali-i-Nuri) (b. 1817) dies, and his eldest son ("the Master") Abdul-Baha (`Abdu'l-Bahá) (1844-1921) ("servant of the glory of God"), living in a Turkish penal colony in Acre, Palestine becomes leader of the Baha'i Faith (until Nov. 28, 1921); he is freed in 1908 - you're unbelievable? On June 7-10 after rejecting James G. Blaine, the 1892 Repub. Nat. Convention in Minneapolis, Minn. grudgingly renominates unpopular Pres. Benjamin Harrison (whose wife Caroline dies in the White House this year after becoming the first First Lady to give a public speech), and nominates Ohio-born New York newspaper publisher and U.S. ambassador (to France and Britain) Whitelaw Reid (1837-1912) for vice-pres. after Levi Parsons Morton pisses Harrison off for failing to support a bill to enforce voting rights for blacks in the South against a Dem. filibuster, after which he becomes gov. of N.Y. (1895-6); on June 21-23 the 1892 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. renominates former pres. Grover Cleveland on the first ballot for a record 3rd time (1st time that a former U.S. pres. is renominated by a major party), with former Ill. Rep. Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) for vice-pres.; on July 4 the Am. West-based free-silver People's (Populist) Party holds its first nat. convention in Omaha, Neb., and nominates Gen. James Baird Weaver (1833-1912) of Iowa for pres. and James Gaven Field (1826-1902) of Va. for vice-pres., and on July 4 ratifies the Omaha Platform, "a second declaration of independence", attempting to return to placing people above corporate and financial interests, advocating a graduated income tax, secret ballot, direct election of U.S. senators, and an 8-hour workday - return? In June after his relations with Pres. Harrison become strained, U.S. secy. of state (since 1889) James. G. Blaine resigns. In the summer lifelong Austrian bureaucrat Alois Hitler is promoted to Higher Customs Officer at Passau in Germany near the Austrian border, followed in Apr. 1893 by a higher post in Linz, from which he retires on June 25, 1895 to Hafeld village, 30 mi. SW of Linz; little "Adi" (Adolf) is a Muttersohnchen (momma's boy), living with half-brother Alois (7 years older), and half-sister Angela (5 years older); on Mar. 23, 1893 his brother Edmund is born. Good guys, bad attitude, or, Feed Me, Little Shop of Horrors? On July 1 Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Scottish philanthropist owner of Carnegie Steel Co. locks out workers at his plant in Homestead, Penn., causing a strike on July 6, which is stunk-up by mean thug Pinkerton guards, followed by militia; the strike is broken by Nov.; the word "fink" is first used to denote a traitorous rat working for the bosses. On July 1 the Sontag Brothers botch a train robbery near St. Peter, Minn, causing Pinkerton detectives to get on their case, and after robbing a train in Collis, Calif., George Sontag (b. 1864) is captured, and his brother John (b. 1861) goes on the run for year until he is killed in a gunfight at the Stone Corral on June 10, 1893; George is pardoned in 1908 and spends the rest of his lecturing on the follies of a life of crime. On July 10 the first concrete-paved street is built in Bellefontaine, Ohio, former home of Shawnee leader Blue Jacket - from number 10 to number what on the coverup chart? On July 4-26 after Lord Salisbury dissolves the English Parliament, the gen. election leaves the Conservatives with the greatest number of seats, but still in a minority against the combined Liberals and Irish Nationalists (Home Rulers), even though the latter are split into pro and anti Parnell factions; Salisbury resigns, and William Gladstone becomes PM again and forms his 4th cabinet, dependent on Irish Nationalist support, which tries in vain to implement the Newcastle Program. In Aug. U.S. Baptist minister's son Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931) (a Freemason and Christian Socialist) (cousin of Edward Bellamy) writes the Pledge of Allegiance for the 400th anniv. of Columbus' discovery of White Grab-Bag-Land and to promote the schoolhouse flag movement; it is first pub. on Sept. 8 in The Youth's Companion (circ. 500K); the original version is "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"; he resists the urge to incl. the French Rev. catchword "equality", saying "No, that would be too fanciful, too many thousands of years off in realization"; too bad, he incl. the "Bellamy salute", requiring the arm to be held straight out towards the flag (later adopted by the Nazis), becoming the first U.S. National Socialism? On Aug. 4 Andrew Jackson Borden and Abby Durfee Gray (Borden) (Sarah A. Morse), the father and stepmother of Lizzie Borden (1860-1927) are killed with an axe in Fall River, Mass., at 92 Second St.; although everybody thinks she did it, she is acquitted by an all-male jury in Bedford, Mass. on June 20, 1893; "Lizzie Borden took an axe/ And gave her mother forty whacks./ When she saw what she had done/ She gave her father forty-one." On Aug. 8 Prince Ito Hirobumi becomes PM #5 of Japan (until Aug. 31, 1896). On Aug. 18 France and Russia take the next step against their mutual fear of Germany and sign a military convention, which takes over a year to ratify in secret, freaking Germany with the threat of being surrounded, causing it to increase ties with Austria-Hungary. On Aug. 27 fire seriously damages New York City's original Metropolitan Opera House. On Oct. 1 the U. of Chicago in Ill. opens on land worth $200K donated in 1890 by Chicago dept. store king Marshall Field (1834-1906), who also donates $1M to found the Chicago Nat. History Museum (Columbian Museum) (changed to Field Museum in 1905), housed in the Chicago World's Fair Fine Arts Bldg. in 1894, with another $4M for a new white marble bldg. in Grant Park plus $4M for maintenance. On Oct. 1 John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) starts his 12-year tour as dir. of the U.S. Marine Band. On Oct. 5 the Dalton Gang is decimated while trying to rob two banks at the same time in Coffeyville, Kans. On Oct. 10 Penn.-born Yale-educated George Shiras Jr. (1832-1924) is appointed as the 52nd U.S. Supreme Court justice (until Feb. 23, 1903) to fill the vacancy left by Joseph P. Bradley (1870-92), keeping the court at nine members; Shiras becomes the judge who decides the vote ruling the 1894 U.S. income tax unconstitutional, causing the 16th Amendment to be passed in 1913 to get around it - they're gonna do it shiras shootin'? On Oct. 18 the first long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York is formally opened. On Nov. 2 after a 5-year siege on a fortified log cabin in Wauhillau near Tahlequal, Indian Country (Okla.), U.S. marshals surround Cherokee senator Ned Christie (b. 1852), accused of the 1887 killing of U.S. marshal Dan Maples, and dislodge him using dynamite and a cannon, then assassinate him, then take him to Fayetteville, Ark. and Ft. Smith, where his corpse is paraded around and photographed as a souvenir; somebody else later claims to see Bud Trainer do it. On Nov. 8 former Pres. Cleveland beats incumbent Benjamin Harrison by 5.6M popular and 277 electoral votes to 5.2M popular and 145 electoral votes; Weaver gets 1M popular and 22 electoral votes, and his Populist (People's) Party carries five states (Kansas, N.D., Colo., Neb., Idaho), electing five senators, ten reps., and three govs. (Colo., Ky., N.D.), becoming the first third party to poll more than 10% of the vote in a U.S. Pres. Election (1912, 1924, 1968); Cleveland becomes the first (only) pres. to win non-consecutive terms in the White House. On Nov. 15 Scottish-Canadian physician Thomas Neill Cream (b. 1850) allegedly confesses to being Jack the Ripper as he is being hanged for murder in London. On Nov. 16 the Dahomey-French War (ends 1894) sees king (since 1889) Behanzin of Dahomey (d. 1906) lead his male and Amazon warriors against the Frogs, er, French, led by Col. Alfred-Amedee Dodds (1842-1922) in a last ditch attempt to save his kingdom from takeover, but ends up surrendering in 1894 and getting shipped to Martinique and later Algeria; the French install his distant relative (army chief of staff) Agoli-Agbo as the 12th and last king of Dahomey (until 1900) (first 1620), but he refuses to sign papers handing over the country as a hello-cowgirl-in-the-sand French protectorate for the next six years. On Nov. 24 John Abbott retires, and on Dec. 5 Conservative Sir John Sparrow David Thompson (1845-94) from Nova Scotia (who gave a big speech in 1885 justifying the execution of Metis leader Louis Riel, and wrote Canada's first criminal code) becomes PM #4 of Canada (until Dec. 12, 1894), becoming the first Nova Scotian and first Roman Catholic Canadian PM, preaching loyalty to the British crown, religious tolerance for you know whats, and no annexation by the devil-dog Protestant U.S.; the first Canadian Criminal Code is passed, incl. a statue criminalizing blasphemous libel, pub. of material exposing the Christian religion to ridicule or contempt or shocking the feelings of Christians. In Nov. Norwegian Capt. Carl Larsen discovers fossils in the Antarctic. The Reinsurance Treaty is replaced by the Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention, which is not made public until 1918; it says that if Germany attacks France, Russia will attack Germany, while if Germany attacks Russia, France will attack Germany. Count Sergei Witte (1849-1915) becomes Russian finance minister (until 1903), presiding over the industrialization of Russia, attracting foreign investment and putting Russia on the gold standard in 1897. Indian-born Parsi Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) becomes the first male Asian British MP, elected for Finsbury, London for the Liberal Party (until 1895); as a Zoroastrian he refuses to take his oath on the Bible, substituting the "Khordeh Avesta"; his asst. is Muhammed Ali Jinnah, future founder of Pakistan. Scottish Socialist James Keir Hardie (1856-1915) becomes the first Labour member of the English Parliament. 29-y.-o. well-groomed Conservative Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain (1861-1937), son of Liberal Birmingham mayor Joseph Chamberlain, and half-brother of Conservative Neville Chamberlain becomes a British MP, and goes on to a 45-year career (until 1937). Ida Wells-Barnett begins an anti-lynching crusade in the Am. NE. A Pan-Slav Conference is held in Cracow, promoting the Pan-Slavist movement, which later gets in a Darwinian duel with Pan-Germanism, leading the latter to declare that their "Aryan race" is the master race and the Slav race is the inferior slave race? - buttons come off, somebody's gotta sew them on? Britain and Germany agree on Cameroons (Cameroon) - throw another shrimp on the barbie, mate? Britain declares a protectorate over the Solomon Islands to secure a labor supply for Queensland. Britain declares a protectorate over the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (annexed in 1915), with Sir Arthur Francis Grimble (1888-1956) as gov., who learns Gilbertese and begins producing writings introducing them to the West - Funafuti? Jose Rizal (1861-96) returns from exile in Spain to the Philippines and founds the liberal La Liga Filipina (Philippine League), causing the govt. to banish him to Mindanao; meanwhile working class revolutionary Andres Bonifacio (1863-97) organizes the Katipunan secret rev. society. Emperor Menelik II founds Addis Ababa (New Flower) as the capital of Ethiopia. Ottoman Sultan Abul (Abd-el) Hamid II exiles Jewish immigrants to Palestine - they got lucky? A mass movement begins in Samnye, Korea in Cholla Province to clear the name of Tonghak (Eastern Learning) movement founder Ch'oe Che-u (1824-64), who had been executed in 1864 on trumped-up charges. The seat of govt. of French Somaliland is transferred from Obock to Djibouti on the trade route to Ethiopia, but the pokey French take until WWI to complete a railway to Addis Ababa. Scottish oceanographer William Bruce explores the Antarctic coastline. Englishman William Conway becomes the first to scale 23K-ft. Himalayan peaks. Robert Peary of the U.S. explores Greenland and proves it to be an island. The first railroad line links Capetown and Johannesburg. The Cape-Johannesburg Railroad is completed. The German railway from the Bosphorus to Angora (Ankara) (begun 1888) is completed. San Francisco, Calif. begins operating electric streetcars, which are half as expensive to build and one-six as expensive to operate as cable cars; next July 2 the first double-decker streetcar in the U.S. begins operation there; U.S. cable railway trackage peaks next year at 305 mi., after which every town except San Fran abandons cable cars. Jose Marti begins pub. a journal in the U.S. for Cuban independence. The Am. Type Founders' Co. is founded to amalgamate most of the large U.S. type foundries. Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) becomes pres. #1 of the new Am. Psychological Assoc. (APA), founded at Clark U. in Worcester, Mass. in July by 26 men with a $500 contribution by Robert Pearsall Smith of the Am. Society for Psychical Research, becoming the largest prof. org. of psychologists in the U.S. and Canada, with 137K members by 2012. Polish-born Madame Helena Modjeska (1840-1909) and Mass.-born Otis Skinner (1858-1942) become a big star duo on Broadway. The Portland Art Museum in Oregon is founded to focus on NW Native Am. arts. John Muir et al. found the Sierra Club in a 14-room mansion in Martin, Calif. Erich von Drygalski (1865-1949) of Germany explores West Greenland (until 1893). Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940) becomes a medical missionary among the fishermen and Eskimos in Labrador, raising funds via lectures in the U.S., Canada and England, and forming the Internat. Grenfell Assoc. in 1912-4 along with the King George V Seaman's Inst. at St. John's, Newfoundland in 1912; he is knighted in 1927. Italian medium Eusepia Palladino (1854-1918) begins giving seances in Milan, causing a sensation and convincing Cesare Lombroso et al.; too bad, she is later exposed as a fraud and trickster. Am. Baptist minister Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) et al. form the nondenominational Brotherhood of the Kingdom to promote the Social Gospel Movement, dropping literal belief in the Bible but using it as an inspiration for creating the "Kingdom of God on Earth", pushing the idea that progress is all positive until he hits the iceberg of WWI? Tim the Railway Dog (-1902), a small mongrel dog begins begging for coins in London's Paddington Station for the widows' and orphans' fund of a British railroad; when he dies his body is put in a glass case with a coin slot so he can continue his work. The General Electric Co. is formed by merger. The Abercrombie & Fitch Co. is founded to market sporting goods by David T. Abercrombie (1867-1931) and Ezra H. Fitch (1866-1930). The Maxwell House Hotel in Nashville, Tenn. begins serving the special coffee blend invented by Joel Owsley Cheek (1852-1935); Pres. Theodore Roosevelt allegedly (not really) later (1907) declares it "good to the last drop". The cotton boll weevil (beetle) is discovered near Brownsville, Tex. Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938) debuts in Tbilisi, going on to appear at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow in 1899, becoming the #1 Russian bass, then appearing in the West in 1901 at La Scala, followed by the Metropolitan Opera in 1907; too bad the 1917 Russian Rev. causes him to flee to Finland then Paris for life; he becomes known for his great Boris Godunov and Don Quixote. Antonin Dvorak becomes dir. of the New York City Nat. Conservatory of Music of Am. (until 1895). French flatulist (prof. farter) Le Petomane (Pétomane) (Joseph Pujol) (1857-145) begins performing at the Moulin Rouge in Paris, setting up his own travelling show in 1894 called the Theatre Pompadour, then retiring at the outbreak of WWI and opening a biscuit factory in Toulon. The U.S. Mint begins producing the Liberty Head Silver Half Dollar (until 1915), designed by Charles Edward Barber (1840-1917), who succeeded his father William Barber as chief engraver #6 in 1879; the same design is used on the dime and quarter, becoming the last time coins of different denominations share the same design; meanwhile the U.S. Columbian Exposition Quarter features Queen Isabella I (1451-1504). English caricaturist Phil May (1864-1903) of St. Stephen's Review becomes famous for his wit and economy of line, going on to join the staff of Punch in 1896. Emile Berliner (1851-1929) founds the U.S. Gramophone Co. in Washington, D.C., selling 7-in. disc records starting in Nov. 1894; in 1897 the U.K. Gramophone Co. is founded in London by William Barry Owen and Trevor Williams to partner with Emile Berliner's co., followed by a German branch in 1898. Rutenber Manufacturing Co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Edwin A. Rutenber (1876-1962) to manufacture internal-combustion engines for vehicles, starting with a 1-cylinder engine; in 1898 they produce the first 4-cylinder engine in the U.S.; in June 1902 they change their name to Western Motor Co. and relocate to Logansport, Ind.; Rutenber sells out in 1912, and it is renamed Rutenber Motor Co. Sports: The first public game of Basketball is played in the Springfield, Mass. YMCA on Mar. 11 in front of a crowd of 200; the student team defeats the faculty team 5-1; Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965) scores the only faculty basket, then later this year becomes head football coach at the U. of Chicago (until 1932). John Joseph "Dirty Jack" Doyle (1869-1958) becomes the first player in ML baseball to be used as a pinch hitter. The "Most Shameful Home Run of All Time" is scored in July when Cap Anson of the Chicago White Stockings hits a fly ball to center in the 8th inning against the Philadelphia Quakers, and it lodges in the doghouse, used to store numbers for the manual scoreboard, and Ed Delahanty gets stuck trying to get the ball until freed by Sam Thompson, allowing Anson to score an "inside-the-doghouse homer". In New Orleans, La. on Sept. 7 the First Heavyweight Title Boxing Match fought with gloves under the I-think-you're-crazy-just-like-me Marquess of Queensbury Rules ends when 26-y.-o. 178-lb. James John "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (1866-1933) ("Father of Modern Boxing") knocks out 33-y.-o. 212-lb. "Boston Strongboy" John Lawrence Sullivan (1858-1918) in the 21st round (Sullivan's only prof. KO) to win the first world heavyweight boxing title (until 1897); the referee is Prof. John Duffy; months earlier, Sullivan was knocked out by a fluke punch from Mrs. Hessie Donahue, wife of boxing school owner Charles Converse of Worcester, Mass.? The world's first Night Am.-Rules Football Game is played on Sept. 28 in Mansfield, Penn. by teams from Mansfield State Normal School (later Mansfield U.) and Wyoming Seminary of Kingston, Penn., using the newfangled electric lights, but they are so dim that it ends after 20 min. and 10 plays at halftime with a 0-0 tie after several players run into a light pole; there are no names or numbers on uniforms, and the ball is larger and rounder than modern-day footballs, resembling a basketball with laces. The U. of Md. Terrapins Football Team plays its first season, becoming a rival of the Naval Academy team. Architecture: Pont Alexandre III Bridge over the Seine River in Paris, named for Russian tsar Alexander III is completed, pissing-off the Germans, who see it as a slap in the face after the Franco-Russian alliance that puts two enemy armies on its W-E borders. Protestant Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of New York Henry Codman Potter (1835-1908), defender of the saloon as the "poor man's club" starts building the Cathedral of St. John the Divine at 112th St. and Amerstdam Ave. in New York City; it is planned to be the world's largest cathedral, 601 ft. long, 146 ft. at the nave, 320 ft. at the transept; the east end is in Romanesque-Byzantine style, the nave and west end in Gothic style; they are still working on it a cent. later. The Corn Palace (made of maize) is built in Mitchell, S.D., and each year its exterior is redesigned with murals made out of corn, grass, wild oats, brome and blue grass et al. to wow tourists - load the buggy, Mabel, and let's giddyap? The 22-story 302-ft.-high Masonic Temple Bldg. in Chicago, Ill. (begun in 1890) (demolished in 1939), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) and his partner John Wellborn Root (1850-91) becomes the first major skeleton skyscraper, and world's tallest bldg. - Masons do it in the sky? Belgian architect Victor Horta (1861-1947) designs the Hotel Tassel in Brussels for Belgian scientist Edmond Tassel, becoming the first Art Noveau bldg., known for its "whiplash" style. Inventions: Liederkranz Cheese (a mild Limburger variant) is invented by Emil Frey, and named after the San Antonio Liederkranz German Roman Catholic immigrant choir, who like it. Pineapple is first canned by Dole Co. - deep philosophical comment here? James Dewar (1843-1923) of Scotland patents the thermos, getting knighted in 1904. Ill.-born Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) of the U.S. invents the Spray Carburetor. W.K.L. Dickson perfects the Kinetoscope moving picture camera and viewer. Rudolf (the Red-Nosed?) Diesel (1858-1913) of Munich, Germany patents an internal combustion engine using low-cost fuel (peanut oil), and goes on to perfect the first commercial Diesel Engine at the Krupp factory in Essen. The first successful gasoline-powered farm tractor is developed by John Froelich (1849-1933) in Iowa; it has a 16 hp motor and can go in reverse; John Deer & Co. purchases the patent in 1918 for a song, and Froelich dies broke. Am. inventor Frederick Eugene Ives (1856-1937) patents a 3-color camera, followed by the photochromoscope in 1894. French chemist Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) invents the electric arc furnace, and uses its 3.5K C temp to produce tiny artificial diamonds along with new carbide, silicide, and boride compounds, winning the 1906 Nobel Chem. Prize. Irish-born Baltimore, Md. Quaker William Painter (1838-1906) invents the crown bottle cap, and patents it on Feb. 6, 1894, forming the Crown Cork and Seal Co. and becoming a millionaire; not until the 1960s does the twist-off cap offer any serious competition. Joshua Pusey invents the first book matches - pusey jokes here? Jesse Reno of the U.S. patents the first inclined elevator (moving stairs) on Mar. 15, and in 1895 he sets up a 25 deg. angle escalator ride at Coney Island. The first automatic telephone switchboard goes into operation. Science: Holmes Comet (period 6.9 years) is discovered by amateur British astronomer Edwin Holmes (1842-1919) on Nov. 6; it returns in 2007. Henry Luke Bolley (1865-1956) of N.D. Agricultural College becomes the first to use formaldehyde against grain smuts, later proving that stem rust breeds on the common barberry, not wheat, getting a pure seed law passed in N.D. in 1908. Nonfiction: James Theodore Bent (1852-97), Ruined Cities of Mashonaland; claims that Great Zimbabwe is the remains of ancient Ophir, where King's Solomon's mines were located; disputed by David Randall-MacIver in 1905, and disproved in 1929 by Gertrude Caton-Thompson, who dates it to the 14th-15th cents. C.E. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), De la Reconstitution du Signalement Anthropometrique au Moyen des Vetements Augustine Birrell (1850-1933), Res Judicatae. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Bible, the Church and Reason. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The American Race. Timothy Cole (1852-1931), Old Italian Masters; reproductions of paintings using his own engraving technique on a trip to Europe in 1883. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), The Life of Thomas Paine (2 vols.). Emile Faguet, Politiques et Moralistes du Dix-neuvieme Siecle. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), Le Planete Mars et ses Conditions D'Habtabilite. F.B. Gummere, Germanic Origins. William James (1842-1910), Psychology, Briefer Course; "The one who thinks over his experiences most, and weaves them into systematic relations with each other will be the one with the best memory." Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812. Sir Alfred Milner (1854-1925), England in Egypt. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Anthropological Religion (Gifford Lecture). Max Nordau (1849-1923), Entartung (Degeneracy); portrays modern art as the work of born criminals with atavistic personality traits, esp. loss of self-control; becomes a Nazi textbook after adding the buzzwords "Jewish Bolshevik", even though guess who is Jewish. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), The Principles and Practice of Medicine; written while at John Hopkins U., where he organized a model teaching clinic; becomes the #1 medical textbook until the 1930s; in 1897 it turns on John D. Rockefeller, causing him to found the Rockefeller Inst. of Medical Research in 1901. Francis Parkman (1823-93), A Half Century of Conflict. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Essays in Miniature. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), The Children of the Poor. George John Romanes (1848-94), Darwin and after Darwin. William Sharp (1855-1905), Life of Joseph Severn. Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902), Talks on Haiku from the Otter's Den; coins the term "haiku" for the 17-syllable Japanese poetry art form, which used to be called hokku, which he revives. William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), Robert Morris. Paul Vinogradoff (1854-1925), Villainage in England; how the Anglo-Saxon settlements were usually free communities not manors, and the villein of Norman times is a direct descendant. Ellen Gould White (1827-1925), Steps to Christ - a mighty white Christ? Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), Value, Capital and Rent. Music: Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909), Chants d'Espagne, Op. 232 (1892-7); incl. Asturias (Leyenda) (Barcelona). Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1940), Caedmar, A Romantic Opera (July 12); libretto by Frederick Corder. Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 8 in C minor (Vienna) (last symphony). Lottie Collins (1865-1910), Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay; big London music hall hit. Zdenek Fibich (1850-1900), Komensky Festival Overture; Symphony No. 1. William Gilbert and Alfred Cellier (1844-91), The Mountebanks (comic opera). Paul Dukas (1865-1935), Polyeucte (overture). Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919), (I) Pagliacci (The Clowns) (opera) (May 21) (Teatro Dal Verme, Milan); conducted by Arturo Toscanini; stars Adelina Stehle as Nedda, Fiorello Giraud as Canio, Victor Maurel as Tonio, and Mario Ancona as Silvio; incl. Vesti la Giubba, No, Pagliacco Non Son; beginning next year it is performed as the Cav/Pag double bill with Pietro Mascagni's 1890 "Cavalleria Rusticana". Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Werther (opera) (Imperial Theare Hofoper, Vienna) (Feb. 16); libretto by Edouard Blau, Paul Milliet, and Georges Hartman based on Goethe's 1774 novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther"; his 2nd biggest hit; incl. Pourquoi me Reveiller, o Souffle du Printemps? Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Job (oratorio). Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Prelude in C-sharp minor (Oct. 8) (Moscow) - the coolest classical piano piece of all time, and he's only 19? Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Mlada (opera) (Nov. 1) (St. Petersburg). George John Romanes (1848-94), Darwin, and After Darwin (3 vols.) (1892-7). Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), En Saga (symphonic poem). Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), The Nutcracker (ballet) (Dec. 18) (Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg); based on E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Nutcracker and the Mouse"; Clara gets a you know what for Xmas; incl. Overture, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, Trepak, Dance of the Toy Flutes, Waltz of the Snowflakes; too bad, it's a flop until George Ballanchine resurrects it in annual performances. Art: Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), La Toilette (The Bath). Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), The Card Players. Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931), La Comedie Parisienne (caricatures). Nikolaos Gysis (1842-1901), Historia. Edwin Frederick Holt, A Farmyard Scene. Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), A Daughter of Eve. Claude Monet (1840-1926), Rouen Cathedral Series (1892-5). Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Orpheus (sculpture); Balzac (1892-7) (sculpture). Giovanni Segantini (1858-92), In the Sheep Fold; Ploughing in the Engadine. Alfred Sisley (1830-99), View of the Village of Moret-sur-Loing. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), St. George; How the Virgin Mary Came to Brother Conrad of Offida and Laid Her Son in His Arms. Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921), A Virgin (1892-3); modernized Winged Victory of Samothrace. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), At the Moulin Rouge; At the Moulin de la Galette; The Kiss. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Woman Sweeping; Self-Portrait. Plays: Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), BlanchetteMonsieur de Reboval. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), The Saucy Sally. Johan Bojer (1872-1959), A Mother (first play); wins him a scholarship to continue his ed. Francois de Curel (1854-1928), L'Envers d'une Sainte. Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920), Realidad. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Weavers (Die Weber); his greatest play?; ditches individual for social group conflict, using Silesian weavers as the heroes in the five tableaux. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) and Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94), Decon Brodie; Beau Austin; Admiral Guinea. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Gestern (verse drama). Bronson Crocker Howard (1842-1908), Aristocracy; satire on Am. Anglomania. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), The Master Builder; Ibsen enters his "fancy" period; Halvard Solness is going strong until he meets a young bimbo? Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Palleas et Melisande (Palléas et Mélisande). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Par le Glaive. Adrian Ross, James T. Tanner and F. Osmond Carr, In Town (1st true musical comedy?) (Prince of Wales Theatre, London) (Oct. 15) (292 perf.); stars Edmund Payne as Shrimp the Call Boy, and Arthur Roberts. Brandon Thomas, Charley's Aunt; a female impersonator. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), Lady Windermere's Fan; it was left in Lord Darlington's residence?; written as a vehicle for Jersey Lily Langtry; "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars" (Lord Darlington). William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Countess Cathleen (verse drama). Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), Tiphar's Wife. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Esther. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Erlosungen (Erlösungen) (debut). Henry Austin Dobson (1840-1921), Eighteenth Century Vignettes. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), Oak and Ivy (Lyrics of a Lowly Life) (debut); self-pub. while working as an elevator boy at the Callahan Bldg. in Dayton, Ohio; Teddy Roosevelt later presents him with a ceremonial sword. Eugene Field (1850-95), Echoes from the Sabine Farm. Iwan Gilkin (1858-1924), Les Tenebres; frontispiece by Odilon Redon. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Hans Alienus; the search for beauty in space and time. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903), The Song of the Sword. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Barrack-Room Ballads, incl. Gunga Din; Fuzzy-Wuzzy; about the Hamitic Fuzzy-Wuzzy (Hadendoa) tribe in E Sudan. William Larminie, Fand and Other Poems. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), Poems. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Le Pelerin (Pèlerin) Passione (Passioné); Ecole Romane. Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), In Defense of the Bush (July 23); The Man from Ironbark (De. 17). Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), Poems (rev. ed.). Arthur Symons (1865-1945), Silhouettes. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Ballads and Lyrics. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Lake Isle of Innisfree; writes it after hearing water trickling in a fountain in London, reawakening his "ambition formed in Sligo in my teens, of living in imitation of Thoreau on Innisfree"; "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,/ And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;/ Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee,/ And live alone in the bee-loud glade"; makes him return to Dublin in 1896. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), Verbena, Camellia, Stephanotis, etc.. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The Venetians. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Frau Jenny Treibel. Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Fred (Peace). Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), A Spoil of Office. George Gissing (1857-1903), Born in Exile. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Nada the Lily. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Mysteries. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted; 2nd novel by a black woman pub. in the U.S. Joel Chandler Harris (1845-1908), Uncle Remus and His Friends. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Trinette. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), The O'Connors of Ballinahinch; Nor Wife Nor Maid; A Conquering Heroine; Lady Patty; Nora Creina. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Huldren. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), In the Rukh; the first story about Mowgli as an adult. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Green Fairy Book. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), Grania. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), Vale of Tears (Judol). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Fantome d'Orient. George Meredith (1828-1909), Jump to Glory Jane; illustrated by Laurence Housman (1865-1959). Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938), Taken From the Enemy (first novel). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Marriage of Elinor. Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), The Old South. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Pierre and His People (first novel). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), La Miseloque. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Imperial Purple; ancient Rome. William Sharp (1855-1905), A Fellowe and His Wife; Pagan Review. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), A Day at La Guerr's and Other Days. Italo Svevo (1861-1928), Una Vita (A Life). Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), The Moon; sci-fi story pub. in a Moscow mag. Mark Twain (1835-1910), The American Claimant. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), The History of David Grieve. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People; his first serious work, about London Jews. Emile Zola (1840-1902), La Debacle. Births: Philippine pres. #5 (1946-8) Manuel Acuna (Acuña) Roxas (d. 1948) on Jan. 1 in Capiz; educated at the U. of Manila. English "Hobbit", "Lord of the Rings" novelist-scholar-linguist (Oxford prof.) (Roman Catholic) John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (d. 1973) (pr. TOLL-keen) (from German "tollkuhn" = dull-keen = foolhardy) on Jan. 3 in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa; of Saxon descent; English bank mgr. father; brother of Hilary Arthur Reuel (1894-); bitten by a large baboon spider as a child; educated at Exeter College, Oxford U.; father of Christopher Reuel Tolkien (1924-); grandfather of Simon Mario Reuel Tolkien (1959-). Am. "Jefferson and His Time" historian Dumas Malone (d. 1986) on Jan. 10 in Coldwater, Miss.; educated at Emory U., and Yale U. Soviet Ukrainian gen. Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (d. 1941) on Jan. 12 in Vertiyivka, Chernigov. German anti-Nazi Lutheran leader Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemoller (Niemöller) (d. 1984) on Jan. 14 in Lippstadt. Am. "Laurel and Hardy", "Our Gang", "Topper", "One Million B.C." film-TV producer Harold Eugene "Hal" Roach Sr. (d. 1992) on Jan. 14 in Elmira, N.Y.; father of Hal Roach Jr. (1918-72); not to be confused with comedian Hal Roach (1927-). Am. "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" dir.-producer-writer ("World's Greatest Director" - Erich von Stroheim) Rex Ingram (Reginald Ingram Montgomery Hitchcock) (d. 1950) on Jan. 15 in Dublin, Ireland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911; educated at Yale U.; husband (1917-) of Doris Pawn (1894-1988) and (1921-50) Alice Terry (1899-1987). Am. dir.-actor William Washington "One Shot" Beaudine (d. 1970) on Jan. 15 in New York City. Am. ambassador (to Italy) James David Zellerbach (d. 1963) on Jan. 17. Am. "fat one in Laurel and Hardy" comedian Oliver "Ollie" "Babe" (Norvell) Hardy (d. 1957) on Jan. 18 in Atlanta, Ga.; partner of Stan Laurel (1890-1965). Am. film producer (head of Paramount Pictures) (Jewish) Benjamin Percival Schulberg (d. 1957) on Jan. 19 in Bridgeport, Conn.; husband of Adeline Jafe-Schulberg (sister of Sam Jaffe); father of Budd Schulberg (1914-2009) and Monty Schulberg. French aircraft manufacturer Marcel Dassault (Bloch) (d. 1986) on Jan. 22 in Paris. German "To Be or Not To Be, "Heaven Can Wait" movie dir. (Jewish) Ernst Lubitsch (d. 1947) on Jan. 28 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. Soviet Gen. Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (d. ) on Jan. 28 in Shatrashany, Simbirsk. Am. "Banjo Eyes" actor-singer (Jewish) ("Apostle of Pep") Eddie Cantor (Israel Iskowitz) (d. 1964) on Jan. 31 in New York City; son of Russian immigrants. Italian "The Duck Hunter" playwright-judge Ugo Betti (d. 1953) on Feb. 4 in Camerino. Am. physician William Parry Murphy (d. 1987) on Feb. 6 in Stoughton, Wisc.; educated at Harvard U.; co-discoverer (1926) of the liver treatment for pernicious anemia. Am. "Marta Hansen in Mama", "Mother Abbess in The Sound of Music" actress Mary Margaret "Peggy" Wood (d. 1978) on Feb. 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Little John in Robin Hood" actor Alan Hale Sr. (Rufus Alan MacKahan) (d. 1950) on Feb. 10 in Washington, D.C.; father of Alan Hale Jr. (1921-90). German "Stalingrad" novelist Theodor Otto Richard Plievier (Plivier) (d. 1955) on Feb. 12 in Berlin. U.S. atty.-gen. (1940-1) and Supreme Court justice #83 (1941-54) Robert Houghwout Jackson (d. 1954) on Feb. 13 in Spring Creek, Penn.; granted leave of absence in 1945 to become chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nuremberg Trials. U.S. Navy secy. #47 (1944-7) and defense secy. #1 (1947-9) James Vincent Forrestal (d. 1949) on Feb. 15 in Matteawan (Beacon), N.Y.; Irish descent; educated at Dartmouth College, and Princeton U. Am. liberal Repub. atty.-politician Wendell Lewis Willkie (d. 1944) on Feb. 18 in Elwood, Ind.; born Lewis Wendell Willkie, but the U.S. Army reverses it during enlistment in WWI; educated at Indiana U.; switches from Dem. to Repub. in mid-1930s; defeated by FDR in 1940. Am. Self System psychiatrist (gay?) Harry Stack Sullivan (d. 1949) on Feb. 21 in Norwich, N.Y.; Roman Catholic Irish immigrant parents; educated at Cornell U.; you can only know another person in terms of harry you stack up with him? Am. labor leader David Dobnievski Dubinsky (d. 1982) on Feb. 22 in Brest-Litovsk, Belarus; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911. Am. "Renascence" poet-playwright ("Our Lady of the Sonnets") Edna St. Vincent Millay (Mrs. Eugen Boissevain) (d. 1950) (AKA Nancy Boyd) on Feb. 22 in Rockland, Maine; first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; after a "Gypsy childhood on the coast of Maine" she is educated at Vassar College, and goes on to beat T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" in 1923 with a vol. of sonnets, then goes silly? Am. "Pissing in the Snow" folklorist Vance Randolph (d. 1980) on Feb. 23 in Pittsburg, Kan.; educated at Clark U.; namesake of Vivian Vance (1909-79). Russian "Cities and Years" novelist Konstantin Alexandrovich Fedin (d. 1977) on Feb. 24 (Feb. 24 Old Style) in Saratov. Am. "The Great McGinty", "Uncle Charley in My Three Sons" actor William Demarest (d. 1983) on Feb. 27 in St. Paul, Minn.; likes to work with dir. Preston Sturges. Am. "Bye Bye Blackbird", "I Found a Million Dollar Baby", "I'm Looking Over a Four-Leaf Clover" lyricist Mort Dixon (d. 1956) on Mar. 2 in New York City. Russian economist Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev (d. 1938) on Mar. 4 in Kostroma Province (N of Moscow); born into a peasant family; educated at the U. of St. Petersburg; student of Myhaylo Tugan Baranovsky (1865-1919); inventor of Kondratiev Waves (50-60-year grand Capitalist supercycles) (1925). Am. "Pity Is Not Enough" leftist novelist-writer Josephine Herbst (d. 1969) on Mar. 5 in Sioux City, Iowa; educated at UCB. English "Lady into Fox" novelist-publisher (founder of Nonesuch Press) David "Bunny" Garnett (d. 1981) on Mar. 9 in Brighton. Hungarian Communist dictator (1945-56) (Jewish) Matyas Rakosi (Rákosi) (Rosenfeld) (d. 1971) on Mar. 9 in Ada, Serbia; father is a Jewish grocer, but he repudiates Judaism when he grows up. English "The Land" poet-novelist (bi) Victoria Mary "Vita" Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (d. 1962) on Mar. 9 in Knole House, Kent; descendant of Sir Thomas Sackville (1536-1608); lover of Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Violet Trefusis (1894-1972) et al. Am. Infinite Way founder (Jeish) Joel Solomon Goldsmith (d. 1964) on Mar. 10 in New York City. Swiss "Pacific 231" composer Oscar-Arthur Honegger (d. 1955) on Mar. 10 in Le Havre, France; member of "The Six". Am. New Yorker journalist (1925-75) (bi) Janet Flanner (AKA Genet) (d. 1978) on Mar. 13 in Indianapolis, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Strange Holiness" poet-writer Robert Peter Tristram Coffin (d. 1955) on Mar. 18 in Brunswick, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College, Princeton U., and Oxford U. Finnish Gen. Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (d. 1947) on Mar. 18 in Helsinki. German Gen. Ludwig Cruwell (Crüwell) (d. 1958) on Mar. 20 in Dortmund. U.S. liberal Sen. (D-Ill.) (1949-67) (Quaker) (Unitarian) (civil rights champion) Paul Howard Douglas (d. 1976) on Mar. 26 in Salem, Mass.; raised in Maine; educated at Bowdoin College, Columbia U., and Harvard U. Am. "Grand Canyon Suite" composer-pianist Ferdinand Rudolph "Ferde" von Grofe (Grofé) (d. 1972) on Mar. 27 in New York City; of French Huguenot ancestry. Am. "The Rise of the Goldbergs" actor (Jewish) Philip Loeb (d. 1955) on Mar. 28 in Philadelphia, Penn. Belgian scientist Corneille Jean Francois Heymans (d. 1968) on Mar. 28 in Ghent; demonstrator of the existence of the carotid sinus reflex. Hungarian Roman Catholic Cardinal (1946-) Jozsef (Joseph) Mindszenty (Pehm) (d. 1975) on Mar. 29 in Csehimindszent, Austria-Hungary. Polish Hahn-Banach Theorem mathematician ("Founder of Modern Functional Analysis") Stefan Banach (d. 1945) on Mar. 30 in Cracow; teacher of Stanislaw Ulam (1908-84). German Field Marshal ("the Jew Nazi") Erhard Milch (d. 1972) on Mar. 30 in Wilhelmshaven; Jewish father. Am. investor Floyd Bostwick Odlum (d. 1976) on Mar. 30 in Union City, Mich.; husband (1915-35) of Hortense McQuarrie (1881-1970) and Jackie Cochran (1906-80). Am. art historian (Jewish) Erwin (Irwin) Panofsky (d. 1968) on Mar. 30 in Hanover; emigrates to the U.S. in 1931 - the real Robert Langdon of The Da Vinci Code? Am. CIA dir. (1946) Adm. Sidney William Souers (d. 1973) on Mar. 30 in Dayton, Ohio. Am. Douglas Aircraft Co. founder (1921) Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (d. 1981) on Apr. 6 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at MIT. Am. explorer-commentator Lowell Thomas (d. 1981) on Apr. 6 in Woodington, Ohio; travels with Lawrence of Arabia. Am. "Poor Little Rich Girl", "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm", "Daddy Long-Legs" silent film actress-producer (alcoholic) ("America's Sweetheart") ("Little Mary") ("The Girl With the Curls") (first Hollywood movie star) Mary Pickford (Gladys Mary Smith) (d. 1979) on Apr. 8 in Toronto, Canada; British Methodist father, Irish Catholic mother; sister of Jack Pickford (1896-1933); wife (1911-20) of Owen Moore (1886-1930), Douglas Fairbanks Sr. (1920-35) and Charles "Buddy" Rogers (1937-); first actress to make $1M a year. Italian conductor-composer (Jewish) Victor de Sabata (d. 1967) on Apr. 10 in Trieste; Italian father, Jewish mother; #1 after Arturo Toscanini. Am. "The Story of the Vivian Girls" novelist Henry Joseph Darger Jr. (d. 1973) on Apr. 12 in Chicago, Ill. Scottish scientist ("Father of Radar") Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt (d. 1973) on Apr. 13 in Brechin, Angus; descendant of James Watt of steam engine fame; educated at the U. of St. Andrews; knighted in 1942. English "Odette", "No, No, Nanette", "Irene" film dir.-producer Herbert Sydney Wilcox (d. 1977) on Apr. 19 in Cork, Ireland; husband (1943-) of Anna Neagle (1904-86). French musician-composer Germaine Tailleferre (d. 1983) on Apr. 19; only female member of "The Six". German WWI flying ace (80 Vs) ("the Red Baron") ("Le Petit Rouge") ("Der Rote Kampfflieger") Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richhofen (d. 1918) on May 2 in Breslau (Wroclaw). English physicist Sir George Paget Thomson (d. 1975) on May 3 in Cambridge; son of physicist Sir J.J. Thomson (1856-1940); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Canadian Chicago School economist Jacob Viner (d. 1970) on May 3 in Montreal, Quebec; educated at McGill U., and Harvard U. Am. "Conquistador" poet Archibald MacLeish (d. 1982) on May 7 in Glencoe, Ill. Yugoslav Communist PM (1945-80) Marshal Josip Broz Tito (d. 1980) on May 7 in Zagorye (near Zagreb), Croatia. English "Duchess of Brighton in The V.I.P.s", "Miss Marple" actress Dame Margaret Rutherford (d. 1972) on May 11 in Balham, London; created dame in 1967; cousin of Tony Benn (1925-). U.S. Lt. Gen. Manton Sprague Eddy (d. 1962) on May 16 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Morty Wethered in Gold Diggers of 1937" actor Osgood Perkins (James Osgood Ripley Perkins) (d. 1937) on May 16 in West Newton, Mass.; father of Anthony Perkins (1932-92). Am. "South Pacific" opera bass Ezio Pinza (d. 1957) on May 18 in Rome, Italy; grows up in Ravenna. Am. jazz musician (string bass) (black) George Murphy "Pops" Foster (d. 1969) on May 19 in Ascension Parish, New Orleans, La. German Nazi Waffen-SS gen. Josef "Sepp" "Ujac" Dietrich (d. 1966) on May 28 in Hawangen (near Memmingen), Bavaria; starts out as Hitler's chaffeur-bodyguard. Am. 6'1" 200 lb. "Destry Rides Again" Western writer Max Brand (Frederick Schiller Faust) (d. 1944) on May 29 in Seattle, Wash.; German father, Irish mother; creator of Dr. Kildare; uses 20 pen names and writes 30M+ words in his 52-year life. Am. actor (black) Stepin Fetchit (Lincoln Theodore Monroe Perry) (d. 1985) on May 30 in Key West, Fla. Belarussian painter (Jewish) Michel Kikoine (d. 1968) on May 31 in Rechytsa; friend of Chaim Soutine. German Nazi leader Gregor Strasser (d. 1934) on May 31 in Geisenfeld, Upper Bavaria. Afghan king (1919-29) Amanullah Khan (d. 1960) on June 1. English "Greenery Street" novelist Denis George Mackail (d. 1971) on June 3 in Kensington, London; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; "The official chronicler of the domestic preoccupations of the upper middle class in London" (The Times). Am. "Me and My Shadow"jazz clarinetist-bandleader ("Mr. Entertainment") ("the High-Hatted Tragedian of Song") ("Is everybody happy?") Theodore Leopold "Ted" Lewis (d. 1971) on June 6 in Circleville, Ohio; not to be confused with English boxer Ted Lewis (1894-1970). Irish politician Kevin Christopher O'Higgins (d. 1927) on June 7 in Stradbally, County Laois; educated at Univ. College, Dublin. Am. "Nightwood" modernist poet-novelist (bi) Djuna Barnes (d. 1982) on June 12 in Storm King Mountain, Cornwall-on-Hudson, N.Y. German field marshal (last) Ferdinand Schorner (Schörner) (d. 1973) on June 12 in Munich. South African "Sherlock Holmes" actor Philip St. John Basil Rathbone (d. 1967) on June 13 in Johannesburg; English parents; grows up in England; educated at Repton School. English anthropologist-traveller (first Westerner to cross the Rub' al Khali) Bertram Thomas (d. 1950) on June 13 in Pill (near Bristol); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. English "Bill Snibson in Me and My Girl" actor-dir. Lupino Lane (Henry William George Lupino) (d. 1959) on June 16 in London; brother of Wallace Lupino (1898-1961); father of Lauri Lupino Lane (1921-86); uncle of Ida Lupino (1914-95) and Richard Lupino (1929-2005). Am. Young and Rubicam co-founder Raymond Rubicam (d. 1978) on June 16; partner of John Orr Young (1886-1976). Am. Protestant theologian Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr (d. 1971) on June 21 in Wright City, Mo. German field marshal (last cmdr. of the Luftwaffe) Robert Ritter von Greim (d. 1945) on June 22 in Bayreuth. Am. "The Good Earth" novelist Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (d. 1973) on June 26 in Hillsboro, W. Va.; daughter of Am. missionaries in China; spends her childhood in China; her first pub. stories are in the Shanghai Mercury at age 7. English "What Is History?" historian-journalist Edward Hallett Carr (d. 1982) on June 28 in London; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. diplomat Loy Wesley Henderson (b. 1986) on June 28 in Rogers, Ark. U.S. Sen. (D-Wyo.) (1949-54) Lester Callaway Hunt (d. 1954) on July 8 in Isabel, Ill. French "Joan of Arc" actress Maria (Renee Jeanne) Falconetti (d. 1946) on July 21 in Sermano, Corsica. Am. "Nick Charles in The Thin Man" actor William Horatio Powell (d. 1984) on July 29 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; grows up in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "The Postman Always Rings Twice" novelist-journalist (alcoholic) James Mallahan Cain (d. 1977) on July 1 in Annapolis, Md.; of Irish Roman Catholic descent; educated at Washington College. Am. "Ain't She Sweet", "Happy Days Are Here Again", "My Yiddishe Momme" lyricist-screenwriter (Jewish) Jacob Selig "Jack" Yellen (Jacek Jelen) (d. 1991) on July 6 in Raczki, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. at age 5; grows up in Buffalo, N.Y.; collaborator of Milton Ager and Sophie Tucker. English "Death of a Hero" imagist poet-novelist-writer Richard (Edward Godfree) Aldington (d. 1962) on July 8 in Portsmouth, Hampshire; educated at Dover College, and London U.; husband of Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961). Am. "The Front Page" actor-dir. Slim Summerville (George Joseph Somerville) (d. 1949) on July 10 in Albuquerque, N.M. Am. "Scarlett's pa Gerald O'Hara in Gone With the Wind" actor Thomas Mitchell (d. 1962) on July 11 in Elizabeth, N.J. German "Arcades Project" Marxist philosopher (Jewish) Walter Bendix Shonflies Benjamin (d. 1940) on July 15 in Berlin. Am. Roman Catholic cardinal (1961-) Joseph Elmer Ritter (d. 1967) on July 20 in New Albany, Ind. Am. "The Fifth Column" actress Lenore Ulric (Ulrich) (d. 1970) on July 21 in New Ulm, Minn.; named after the Edgar Allan Poe poem "The Raven"; wife (1928-39) of Sidney Blackmer (1895-1973). Austrian chancellor (1938) Dr. Arthur Seyss-Inquart (Zajtich) (d. 1946) on July 22 in Stannern, Moravia; son of school principal Emil Zajtich and Auguste Hyrenbach; family moves to Vienna in 1907, then changes their Czech Slavic name to the German name Seyss-Inquart; educated at the U. of Vienna. Ethopian emperor (last) (black) (1916-74) Hailie Selassie I ("The Might of the Holy Trinity") (Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael) (d. 1975) on July 23 in Ejersa Goro, Harrar; father of Amha Selassi (1916-97). German acetylene chemist Walter Julius Reppe (d. 1969) on July 29 in Goringen. Am. Worldwide Church of God televangelist Herbert W. Armstrong (d. 1986) on July 31 in Des Moines, Iowa; father of Garner Ted Armstrong (1930-2003). Am. Warner Bros. Studio co-founder (Jewish) Jacob Leonard "Jack" "J.L." Warner (Wonsal) (d. 1978) on Aug. 2 in London, Ont., Canada; brother of Harry Warner (1881-1958), Abe Warner (1884-1967), and Sam Warner (1887-1927). Am. cowboy actor-dir.-producer Edmund Richard "Hoot" Gibson (d. 1962) on Aug. 6 in Tekamah, Neb. Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (d. 1972) on Aug. 9 in Sirkali, Tamil Nadu; coiner of the term "library science" with Lee Pierce Butler (1884-1953). Scottish "A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle", "Stony Limits" modernist Communist nationalist Scottish Renaissance poet Hugh MacDiarmid (Christopher Murray Grieve) (d. 1978) on Aug. 11 in Langholm. Am. "Sally of the Sawdust" stage actor-dir. Alfred Davis Lunt Jr. (d. 1977) on Aug. 12 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; husband (1922-) of Lynn Fontanne (1887-1983). French electron wave theory physicist Prince Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie (d. 1987) on Aug. 15 in Dieppe, Seine-Maritime; descendant of Madame de Stael. Am. "Felix the Cat" animator Otto James Messmer (d. 1983) on Aug. 16 in West Hoboken (Union City), N.J. Canadian-Am. "Prince Valiant", "Tarzan" cartoonist Harold Rudolf "Hal" Foster (d. 1982) on Aug. 18 in Halifax, Nova Scotia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1919. Am. humanist writer Paul Beecher Blanshard (d. 1980) on Aug. 27 in Fredericksburg, Ohio; educated at Harvard U. U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1945-67) and Mass. gov. (1939-45) Leverett Saltonstall (d. 1979) on Sept. 1 in Chestnut Hill, Mass.; descendant of the Mayflower Pilgrims; educated at Harvard U.; "Harvard accent with a South Boston face" (James Michael Curley). French "The Creation of the World" composer (Jewish) Darius Milhaud (d. 1974) on Sept. 4 in Aix-en-Provence; member of "The Six"; emigrates to the U.S. in 1940; teacher of Burt Bacharach (1928-) and Philip Glass (1937-); hears jazz in Harlem, N.Y. in 1922 and becomes a believer. Hungarian-Am. violinist (Jewish) Joseph Szigeti (d. 1973) on Sept. 5 in Budapest; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. English ionosphere physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (d. 1965) on Sept. 6 in Bradford, West Yorkshire; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1941. Am. Compton Effect physicist Arthur Holly Compton (d. 1962) on Sept. 10 in Wooster, Ohio; brother of Karl Taylor Compton (1887-1954); educated at Princeton U.; known for his little toothbrush mustache. Am. publisher (Jewish) Alfred Abraham Knopf Sr. (d. 1984) (pr. like k'nupf) on Sept. 12 in New York City; educated at Columbia U; father of Alfred A. Knopf Jr. (1918-2009). U.S. Adm. (Seabees founder) Ben "King Bee" Morreell (d. 1978) on Sept. 14 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. New Yorker mag. ed. (1925-60) Katharine Sergeant Angell White (d. 1977) on Sept. 17; educated at Bryn Mawr College; wife (1929-) of E.B. White (1899-1985); mother of Roger Angell (1920-) and Joel White (1930-97). Am. "Walkin' My Baby Back Home" Tin Pan Alley composer-songwriter Fred E. Ahlert (d. 1953) on Sept. 19 in New York City; collaborator of Roy Turk (1892-1934). Irish "The Little Foxes" actress-playwright Patricia Collinge (d. 1974) on Sept. 20 in Dublin. Am. "Mean to Me" Tin Pan Alley songwriter Roy Turk (d. 1934) on Sept. 20 in New York City; collaborator of Fred E. Ahlert (1892-1953). Am. cryptography pioneer (first female cryptographer?) Elizabeth (Elizebeth) Smith Friedman (d. 1980) on Sept. 24; wife of William Friedman (1891-1969). Am. "Middletown" sociologist Robert Straughton Lynd (d. 1970) on Sept. 26 in New Albana, Ind.; educated at Princeton U. and Columbia U.; husband of Helen Merrel Lynd (1896-1982); father of Straughton Lynd (1929-). Am. "Street Scene" playwright (Jewish) Elmer Rice (Reizenstein) (d. 1967) on Sept. 28 in New York City; pioneer of the flashback technique. British air chief marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse (d. 1970) on Sept. 30 in Croydon; son of Adm. Sir Richard Henry Peirse (1861-); father of Sir Richard Charles Fairfax Peirse (1931-); educated at King's College London. Am. auto racer-manufacturer Gaston Chevrolet (d. 1920) on Oct. 4 in Beaune, Cote-d'Or, France; Swiss parents; brother of Louis Chevrolet (1878-1941) and Arthur Chevrolet (1884-1946). Austrian 5'0" chancellor (1932-4) Engelbert Dollfuss (d. 1934) on Oct. 4 in Texing, Lower Austria. Am. Dallas Morning News publisher Edward Musgrove "Ted" Dealey (d. 1969) on Oct. 5 in Dallas, Tex.; son of George Bannerman Dealey (1859-1946). Am. ambassador (to Sweden, Peru, the Soviet Union, Turkey, Czech., and Canada) (Jewish) Laurence Adolph Steinhardt (d. 1950) on Oct. 6 in New York City. Yugoslavian "The Bridge on the Drina" writer Ivan "Ivo" Andric (Andríc) (d. 1975) on Oct. 9 in Travnik. West German pres. (1959-69) Heinrich Luebke (Lübke) (d. 1972) on Oct. 14 in Enkhausen. Am. diplomat (bi) Benjamin Sumner Welles (d. 1961) on Oct. 14 in New York City; educated at Harvard U.; U.S. undersecy. of state (1933-43); architect of the U.N. Soviet field marshal Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko) (Eremenko) (d. 1970) on Oct. 14 (Oct. 2 Old Style) in Kharkov, Ukraine. Am. "Grand Duchess in Ninotchka" actress Ina Claire (Fagan) (d. 1985) on Oct. 15 in Washington, D.C. German Nazi concentration camp inspector (Waffen-SS Totenkopf Gen.) Theodore Eicke (d. 1943) on Oct. 17 in Solingen. Kenyan pres. (1964-78) Mzee Jomo Kenyatta (d. 1978) on Oct. 20. English "Waverly on the Man from U.N.C.L.E.", "Professor in North by Northwest" actor (Roman Catholic) Leo G. Carroll (d. 1972) on Oct. 25 in Weedon Bec, Northamptonshire; named after Pope Leo XIII. Am. 180 lb. bodybuilding king ("World's Most Perfectly Developed Man") Charles Atlas (Angelo Siciliano) (d. 1972) on Oct. 30 in Acri, Calabria, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1892; bases his "dynamic tension" program for "97-lb. weaklings" on watching a lion stretching in a zoo, uttering the soundbyte "Did you ever see a tiger with a barbell?", and names himself in 1922 after a statue of Atlas on top of a Coney Island hotel. Russian-French world chess champ #4 (1927-35, 1937-46) (alcoholic) Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (d. 1946) on Oct. 31-Nov. 1 in Moscow; educated at the U. of St. Peterburg, and U. of Paris; becomes a French citizen in 1917. British Capt. Gordon Charles Steele (d. 1981) on Nov. 1 in Exeter, Devon. Hungarian operetta composer (Jewish) Paul (Pal) Abraham (d. 1960) on Nov. 2 in Apatin, Austria-Hungary (Serbia). Am. "Mrs. O'Leary in Old Chicago" actress Alice (Mary Rose) Brady (d. 1939) on Nov. 2 in New York City; daughter of William Aloysius Brady (1863-1950). British biologist (co-founder of population genetics) John Burdon Sanderson "Jack" Haldane (d. 1964) on Nov. 5 in Edinburgh; son of John Scott Haldane (1860-1936); brother of Naomi Mitchison (1897-1999); nephew of Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st viscount Haldane (1856-1928); educated at Eton College and New College, Oxford U. Am. "Hellzapoppin" comedian John Sigvard "Ole" Olsen (d. 1963) on Nov. 6 in Peru, Ind.; educated at Northwestern U.; partner of Chic Johnson. Am. "New Yorker" "Who he?" founder Harold Wallace Ross (d. 1951) on Nov. 6 in Aspen, Colo; Irish immigrant father, schoolteacher mother; Algonquin Round Table member; look like a dishonest Abe Lincoln? British spy Guy Maynard Liddell (d. 1958) on Nov. 8. Am. "Tillie's Punctured Romance" actress Mabel Ethelreid Normand (d. 1930) on Nov. 9 on New Brighton, Staten Island, N.Y. Am. "Nathan Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird", "Chief Winnemucca in Bonanza", "Uncle Gilbert in The Munsters" actor Richard Hale (d. 1981) on Nov. 16 in Rogersville, Tenn. Am. world's oldest living person (Jan. 24-28, 2007) Emma Fanchon Faust Tillman (d. 2007) on Nov. 22 in Conn. French artist-designer Erte (Erté) (French pr. of "R.T.") (Romain de Tirtoff) (Roman Petrov de Tyrtov) (d. 1990) on Nov. 23 in St. Petersburg, Russia; father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov is Russian fleet adm., who wants him to follow in his footsteps, causing him to assume the alias when he moves to Paris in 1910 and begins designing costumes and stage sets - now I know just how Jon Voight felt when he smashed his fist into that wall? Am. "The Lost Weekend", "Sunset Boulevard" screenwriter-producer-novelist Charles Brackett (d. 1969) on Nov. 26 in Saratoga Springs, Fla.; great-nephew of George Henry Corliss (1817-88); educated at Williams College, and Harvard U. Spanish dictator generalissimo (1939-75) Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo (Teódulo) Franco y Bahamonde, Salgado y Pardo de Andrade (d. 1975) on Dec. 4 in El Ferrol, Spain. Am. "Nancy Drew", "Hardy Boys" novelist-publisher Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (d. 1982) (AKA Carolyn Keene, Franklin W. Dixon) on Dec. 11 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Wellesley College. Am. billionaire oil tycoon (Getty Oil Co. founder) Jean Paul Getty (d. 1976) on Dec. 15 in Minneapolis, Minn.; son of George Franklin Getty (1855-1930); educated at USC, UCB, and Magdalen College, Oxford U.; makes his first million by 1915. Canadian Pvt. George Lawrence Price (d. 1918) on Dec. 15 in Falmouth, N.S. Am. blood fractionation chemist (Jewish) Edwin Joseph Cohn (d. 1953) on Dec. 17 in New York City; educated at Phillips Academy, and the U. of Chicago. British Pvt. Frederick William Owen "Fred" Potts (d. 1943) on Dec. 18 in Reading, Berkshire. Am. golfer Walter Charles Hagen (d. 1969) on Dec. 21 in Rochester, N.Y. Irish "The Meaning of Treason" suffragist novelist-journalist-actress Dame Rebecca West (Cicily or Cicely Isabel Andrews nee Fairfield) (d. 1983) on Dec. 21 in London; Irish father, Scottish mother; grows up in Edinburgh; picks her pen name from Henrik Ibsen's "Rosmersholm"; hooks up with H.G. Wells in 1913-23; mother of Anthony West (1914-87); created CBE in 1949 and DBE in 1959. Am. "The Guilty", "Two Dollar Bettor" actor John Beach Litel (d. 1972) on Dec. 30 in Albany, Wisc. Egyptian composer-playwright-singer Sayyid Darwish (d. 1923). Iraqi PM (1933, 1940-1) Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (d. 1965) in Baghdad. Am. artist Yasuo Kuniyoshi (d. 1953) in Okayama; educated at the Art Students' League; emigrates to the U.S. in 1906; known for still lifes, nudes, and female circus performers. English Jaguar Car co-founder William Walmsley (d. 1961) in Stockport; partner of Sir William Lyons (1901-85). Canadian biochemist James Bertram Collip (d. 1965) in Belleville, Ont.; educated at the U. of Toronto. Am. pathologist Sadao Otani (d. 1969) in Japan. Am. architect Richard J. Neutra (d. 1970). Am. sculptor Joseph Coletti (d. 1973). Am. Jewish philosopher-historian Nima H. Adlerblum (d. 1974). Am. Ampex Corp. founder Alexander Michael (Matveevich) Poniatoff (d. 1980) in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1927. Deaths: English astronomer Sir George Biddell Airy (b. 1801) on Jan. 2 in Greenwich. English paleontologist Sir Richard Owen (b. 1804). Am. poet-essayist John Greenleaf Whittier (b. 1807) on Sept. 7 in Hampton Falls, N.H.: "One brave deed makes no hero." English travel agency founder Thomas Cook (b. 1808) on July 18 (dysentery). English Cardinal Henry Edward Manning (b. 1808) on Jan. 14. British "Idylls of the King" poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson (b. 1809) on Oct. 6; buried in Westminster Abbey. Am. "Monitor" manufacturer John F. Winslow (b. 1810) in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Italian diplomat gen. Enrico Cialdini (b. 1811) on Sept. 8 in Livorno. U.S. Supreme Court justice #40 (1870-92) Joseph Philo Bradley (b. 1813) on Jan. 22 in Washington, D.C. English poet-artist Christopher Pearse Cranch (b. 1815) on Jan. 20. German composer Robert Franz (b. 1815). German telegraph tycooon Werner von Siemens (b. 1816). Persian Bahaism founder Baha'u'llah (b. 1817) on May 29 in Bahji Mansion, Akka, Israel; leaves 15K works, mostly tablets, total size equal to 15 Bibles. Am. Dem. politician James W. Denver (b. 1817) on Aug. 9 in Washington, D.C. German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann (b. 1818) on May 5 in Berlin. English astronomer John Couch Adams (b. 1819) on Jan. 21 in Cambridge. German OBGYN Karl Siegmund Franz Crede (b. 1819) on Mar. 14. Am. transatlantic cable industrialist Cyrus West Field (b. 1819) on July 12 in Irvington, N.Y. Am. "Leaves of Grass" poet Walt Whitman (b. 1819) on Mar. 26 in Camden, N.J.; dies where he lived since 1873: "I speak the password primeval"; "The chief reason for the being of the United States of America is to bring about the common good will of all mankind, the solidarity of the world"; "The United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem"; "I know nothing grander, better exercise, better digestion ... than a well-contested American national election"; "I celebrate myself, and sing myself,/ And what I assume you shall assume,/ For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you"; "I am the poet of the body and I am the poet of the soul" - sounds like a gay pass? Am. baseball inventor Alexander Cartwright II (b. 1820) on July 12 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. Civil War Union gen. Thomas William Sweeny (b. 1820) on Apr. 10 in Long Island, N.Y. Am. Civil War Union Col. John Milton Chivington (b. 1821) on Oct. 4 in Denver, Colo. (cancer). Canadian PM (1873-8) Alexander Mackenzie (b. 1822) on Apr. 27 in Toronto (stroke). Am. Civil War Union Gen. John Pope (b. 1822) on Sept. 23 in Sandusky, Ohio. Irish engineer James Thomson (b. 1822) on May 8. English Eton schoolmaster William Johnson Cory (b. 1823). English historian Edward Augustus Freeman (b. 1823) on Mar. 16 in Alicante, Spain (smallpox): "This would be a great land [the U.S.] if only every Irishman would kill a negro, and be hanged for it." French composer Edouard Lalo (b. 1823) on Apr. 22. French historian Ernest Renan (b. 1823) on Oct. 12 in Paris; a monument to him by Jean Boucher is erected in Treguier, Brittany in 1903, pissing-off Roman Catholics: "Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity and almost no sense of honor... a race of tillers of the soil, the Negro; treat him with kindness and humanity, and all will be as it should; a race of masters and soldiers, the European race. Reduce this noble race to working in the ergastulum like Negroes and Chinese, and they rebel... But the life at which our workers rebel would make a Chinese or a fellah happy, as they are not military creatures in the least. Let each one do what he is made for, and all will be well." Am. writer George William Curtis (b. 1824) on Aug. 31. Scottish canoeist John MacGregor (b. 1825). Brazilian pres. #1 (1889-91) Manual Deodoro da Fonseca (b. 1827) on Aug. 23 in Rio de Janeiro. French scientist Jean-Antoine Villemin (b. 1827) on Oct. 6. Irish-born Am. "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" bandmaster-composer Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (b. 1829) on Sept. 24 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. businessman William Backhouse Astor Jr. (b. 1830) on Apr. 25 in Paris (heart attack). Am. Civil War Union gen. Henry Martin Hoyt (b. 1830) on Dec. 1. Am. automobile engine inventor George Brayton (b. 1830) on Dec. 17. Scottish chemist Archibald Scott Couper (b. 1831) on Mar. 11 in Kirkintilloch. U.S. First Lady (1889-92) Caroline Harrison (b. 1832) on Oct. 25 in Washington, D.C.; wife of pres. Benjamin Harrison. English Baptist preacher Charles Haddon Spurgeon (b. 1834) on Jan. 31 in Menton, Alpes-Maritines. Am. financier and railroad tycoon Jay Gould (b. 1836) on Dec. 2 in Manhattan, N.Y. (TB). Japanese artist Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (b. 1839). German explorer Emin Pasha (b. 1840) on Oct. 23 in Kinene, Sudan (killed by slave traders). Dutch philologist Bernhard Konrad ten Brink (b. 1841) on Jan. 29 in Strassbourg. Scottish philosopher George Croom Robertson (b. 1842) on Sept. 20. Egyptian khedive Sir Tewfik Pasha (b. 1852) on Jan. 7 near Cairo. Am. "dirty little coward" Bob Ford (b. 1862) on June 8 in Creede, Colo.; murdered in his saloon with a sawed-off shotgun by Edward Capehart O'Kelley (1858-1904), who is treated as a hero for avenging "America's Robin Hood" (Theodore Roosevelt), and released from his life sentence on Oct. 14, 1902 after receiving a pardon from Colo. gov. James B. Orman (who received a petition with 7K signatures), after which he ends up dying trying to kill policeman Joseph "Joe" Burnett (-1917) in Oklahoma City.



1893 - The Everybody's in the Process of Becoming Something Modern But Not Quite Sure Yet What That Means Year of Cleve and Steve? The Chicago's World's Fair gets the Twentieth Century started ahead of time, complete with all its abundance, technology, white racism, and sin, while the legendary American Frontier dries up?

Grover Cleveland of the U.S. (1837-1908) Adlai Ewing Stevenson of the U.S. (1835-1914) Walter Quintin Gresham of the U.S. (1832-95) Dr. Leander Starr Jameson (1853-1917) Sanford Ballard Dole of the U.S. (1844-1926) John Leavitt Stevens of the U.S. (1820-95) Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1857-1931) Howell Edmunds Jackson of the U.S. (1832-95) Julius Sterling Morton of the U.S. (1832-1902) Domingo Vázquez of Honduras Jose Santos Zelaya of Nicaragua (1853-1919) George Tupou II of Tonga (1874-1918) Princess Victoria Mary of Teck (1867-1953) Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. of the U.S. (1828-98) Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) Emma Goldman (1869-1940) Alexander Berkman (1870-1936) Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (1869-1932) Whitcomb L. Judson (1836-1909) Judson Clasp Olin Levi Warner (1844-96) Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921) Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940) George Moore (1852-1933) William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943) Frederick William Rueckheim George Francis FitzGerald (1851-1901) Leon Brunschvicg (1869-1944) Karl Bücher (1847-1930) Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938) Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston (1841-1908) Lord Stanley Cup Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924) Stephen Crane (1871-1900) Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920) Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) Karl Pearson (1857-1936) Douglas Hyde (1860-1949) Eoin MacNeill of Ireland (1867-1945) Karl May (1842-1912) Mrs. Patrick Campbell (1865-1940) Hans Goldschmidt (1861-1923) Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939) Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932) Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) Edward Weston (1850-1936) Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923) Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) Charles Frohman (1860-1915) Emil Paur (1855-1932) August Weismann (1834-1914) Fridtjof nansen (1861-1930) Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) Jean Lorrain (1855-1906) Lady Margaret Rachel Scott (1874-1938) John Wellborn Root (1850-91) Frederick Pabst (1836-1904 Pabst Blue Ribbon Cracker Jack Henry Drushel Perky (1843-1906) Shredded Wheat Nancy Green (1834-1923) as Aunt Jemima Maud Powell (1867-1920) Sophia Hayden Bennett (1868-1953) Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (1861-1907) George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943) Frederick Louis Maytag (1857-1937) Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (1861-96) Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) Georgia Cayvan (1857-1906) Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929) Henry Harland (1861-1905) Mary Kingsley (1862-1900) John Haden Badley (1865-1967) Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954) Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934) Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929) The Kneisel Quartet Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) 'Frieze of Dancers' by Edgar Degas (1834-1917), 1893 'In Bed' by Henry de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1893 Edvard Munch (1863-1944) 'The Scream' by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), 1893 Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) Winslow House, 1893 Shaftesbury Memorial, 1893 Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) Duryea Automobile, 1893 Black Maria Studio, 1893 Winslow Homer (1836-1910) 'The Fox Hunt' by Winslow Homer (1836-1910), 1893

1893 An Ottoman census which incl. women gives the total pop. at 17.4M. The Panic of 1893, blamed by the Cleveland admin. on mismanagement of silver and decline of U.S. gold reserves causes the U.S. to experience its most severe depression so far; the homeless become a problem for the 1st time; anti-Catholic activity heats up. On Jan. 2 the Columbian Issue by the U.S. Post Office goes on sale, featuring Queen Isabella of Spain on the 5 cent stamp ("Columbus Soliciting Aid of Isabella"), along with the first-ever $1-$5 U.S. stamps; the $1 stamp is "Isabella Pledging Her Jewels"; the $4 stamp is "Isabella and Columbus", becoming the first to bear the portrait of a woman (next Martha Washington in 1902). On Jan. 13 workers at the Manningham Mills in Bradford, England go on strike, causing the Independent Labour Party (a precursor to the current Labour Party) to hold its first meeting in Bradford under Scottish Socialist MP (since 1892) James Keir Hardie (1856-1915); it goes on to contest 28 seats in the 1895 gen. election. On Jan. 16-17 knowing that pres.-elect Cleveland is against Hawaiian annexation, U.S. sugar growers in Honolulu, in collusion with U.S. minister to Hawaii John Leavitt Stevens (1820-95) stage a (bloodless?) revolt led by newspaper pub. Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1857-1931) and other cocky descendants of U.S. missionaries, backed by U.S. troops from the USS Boston, proclaiming Hawaii a repub. with a provisional govt. next July 4, and "ceding" 1.8M acres of land from the Hawaiian monarchy; Queen Liliuokalani, who keeps cool and forbids her people to fight is deposed by Sanford Ballard Dole (1844-1926) and the Missionary Party, and imprisoned in Iolani Palace; in Feb. the Yankees try to push an annexation treaty through the lame duck Congress, but La. and Colo. sugar beet interests block it; meanwhile the queen sends emissaries to Washington, D.C. seeking removal of the troops, but they ignore her and choose Pearl Harbor lagoon as HQ for the U.S. Pacific fleet; in Nov. 1993 Pres. William Clinton signs U.S. Public Law 103-150, acknowledging that the invasion was illegal - but we'll keep it? On Jan. 25 Charles Frohman (1860-1915) and Raphael "Al" Hayman (1847-1917) open the Empire Theatre in New York City across from the Metropolitan Opera House near 40th St., going on to become the #1 New York City playhouse until the 1940s; demolished in 1952; David Belasco's "The Girl I Left Behind Me" is the first production. In Jan. after making use of the Marias Pass, which he discovers in 1899, allowing him to build a rival track N of the Northern Pacific which enjoys easier and shallower terrain, the Great Northern Railway from St. Paul, Minn. to Seattle, Wash. (1.7K mi.) is completed, and owner James Jerome Hill (1838-1916) gets the U.S. govt. to open Montana to homesteading; too bad, the Panic of 1893 then arrives, but Hill proves his capitalist cajones by risking an employee strike to repeatedly cut wages while giving his customers credit and lowering his freight rates by 13%, emerging with his net worth going up by $10M, and his eye on Chicago. On Feb. 1 Thomas Edison opens his barn-like Black Maria (pr. ma-RYE-uh) motion picture studio in West Orange, N.J., becoming the first movie studio in the U.S. and world; one of his first films is Two Men Boxing (1891). On Feb. 18 George Tupou II (1874-1918) becomes king of Tonga (until 1918), going on to marry Lavinia Veiongo Fotu (1879-1902), who can produce an heir combining the three main royal bloods, although this almost leads to a civil war, and he proves an inept leader, leading to Tonga becoming a British protectorate in 1905? On Mar. 4 N.J.-born U.S. pres. #22 "Uncle Jumbo" Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) becomes the 24th U.S. pres. (until 1897) in the 31st U.S. Pres. Inauguration, making the man not from O-hi-O both the 22nd and 24th pres. (1885-9, 1893-7); Ky.-born Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) becomes the 23rd U.S. vice-pres.; a ticket from Cleveland's 1st inaugration ceremony gets you into this one; former treasury sec. (under Pres. Arthur) Walter Quintin Gresham (1832-95) becomes secy. of state #33 (until 1895); on Mar. 4 Tenn.-born Howell Edmunds Jackson (1832-95) is appointed as the 53rd U.S. Supreme Court justice (until Aug. 8, 1895) to replace Samuel Blatchford (1882-93) and Lucius Lamar II (1888-93) (until Jan. 23, 1893), reducing the court to eight members until next year. On Mar. 7 Julius Sterling Morton (1832-1902), founder of Arbor day on Apr. 10, 1872, and father of Morton Salt Co. founder Joy Morton (1855-1934) becomes U.S. agriculture secy. #3 (until Mar. 5, 1897). On Mar. 9 Pres. Cleveland withdraws the Hawaiian annexation treaty and rebukes the sugar growers for the way they took over the govt.; after sending an investigator to Honolulu to investigate, who recommends that the queen be restored, Sanford Dole defies his order to reinstate her, and she hurts herself by demanding that the 60+ Am. rebels be beheaded instead of given amnesty, causing Hawaii to become a loose cannon, with neither party considered acceptable to rule it? In Apr. a large Tonghak demonstration is held in Ch'ungch'ong, Korea. Food is Love, or the Devil in the White City? The 20th Century begins ahead of schedule in the greatest World's Fair of All Time? On May 1 Pres. Cleveland presses a golden telegraph key in front of a crowd of 300K (largest in U.S. history) to start the giant Westinghouse electrical generators lighting 120K lightbulbs and open the $27M World's Columbian Expedition (Chicago World's Fair) (closes Nov. 1) in the "White City" of 150 neoclassic bldgs. in Jackson Park, 686 acres of reclaimed swamp along the shore of Lake Michigan 7 mi. S of downtown Chicago (built of plaster-cement-fiber staff on flammable wooden-steel frames, not marble, and painted using newfangled spray-painting equipment), designed by Daniel H. Burnham and John Wellborn Root (1850-91) (who dies trying to meet the crushing time constraints); Frank Lloyd Wright (b. 1867) quits college to work for Burnham, who first sends him to the Beaux Arts in Paris, and he comes back saying that the Columbian Exposition set U.S. architecture back 50 years; Francis Bellamy's new "Pledge of Allegiance" is recited by children at the fair's dedication; the Exposition orchestra, conducted by Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) features violinist Maud Powell (1867-1920), who proves that woman can work in them newfangled orchestra thingies; the Court of Honor features the magnificent Peristyle by Charles Atwood, Daniel French's 65-ft.-tall statue The Republic, as well as colossal heads of artists Michelangelo et al. by French-born Beaux Arts popularizer Olin Levi Warner (1844-96) in the Palace of Fine Arts, which houses 10K pieces of art so crowded together that nobody can view them all; the 1687 ft. x 787 ft. x 245 ft. tall (500K sq. ft.) (44 acre) Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Bldg. (opened in Oct. 1892 in front of a crowd of 100K), the largest bldg. in the world, has a crowd cap. of 300K and is lit with 10K electric lights, and the endless exhibits are worth at least $50M; the U.S. Liberty Bell is displayed in the Penn. exhibit in a replica of Independence Hall; the Japanese Village is the first exposure of Americans to cool Japanese culture, and is the only non-white exhibition not snickered at; the Cold Storage Bldg. features an indoor skating rink, and burns down on July 10 with the loss of 13 firemen and four workers, who climb to the top of the metal tower then burn alive or jump while the crowds watch; the polychrome pro-Modern Transportation Bldg. is designed by Louis Henri Sullivan; the Women's Bldg., designed by 21-y.-o. Am. architect Sophia Hayden Bennett (1868-1953) (first female in the U.S. with an architecture degree) features exclusively work by women (too bad, welcome to reality, Hayden is only paid $1K for her design, 10% of what men earn); the first-ever (264 ft., 1.2K ton) Ferris Wheel, built by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) (36 salon cars, each holding 40-60 passengers, with five glass panels) is the highlight and the financial salvation of the fair, and is set up at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair then scrapped; an all-electric kitchen is featured; the Captive Balloon costs $2 for a ride to 1,490 ft. plus a photo, and it crashes in high winds and goes out of biz; the Shedd Aquarium Bldg., the largest indoor aquarium in the world causes an awakening of the environmental movement; the Midway Plaisance of future U.S. congressman (Jewish) Sol Bloom "the Music Man" (1870-1949), designed by Frederick Law Olmsted is the big moneymaker, filled with booze, cigars and bawdy entertainment, incl. the Streets of Cairo ("Beautiful Orient") Bldg., complete with a replica of the Sphinx, featuring Little Egypt (Farida Mazar Spyropoulos) and the "Naughty Girls from Algeria", who dance the Hootchy-Kootchy (Hoochie-Koochie) (Kouta-Kouta), AKA the "danse du ventre" (belly dance) (named by Bloom), with the first perf. of Bloom's uncopyrighted Snake Charmer Tune ("Oh they don't wear pants on the sunny side of France"), which pisses off Head Prude Anthony Comstock into trying to shut it down, which only makes it more popular and causes the dance to spread around the U.S., complete with a better 1895 version of the song The Streets of Cairo, or The Poor Little Country Maid, by James Thornton (1861-1938), who uses his wife Bonnie to demonstrate it; the U. of Chicago is later built on the site of the Midway Plaisance, and the Chicago Bears football team becomes known as "the monsters of the Midway"; Boilerplate the Mechanical Marvel, a mechanical robot is another don't-miss; the fair introduces the word "cafeteria"; the Rumford Kitchen showcases food science, incl. luncheon menus with nutritional info.; chili con carne is introduced; Joseph Garis Cochrane displays her new automatic dishwater (patented 1886); carmel maker Milton S. Hershey sees chocolate-making machinery at the fair and buys it; Henry Perky's shredded wheat is popularized, along with Wrigley's new Juicy Fruit chewing gum; German-born Frederick William "Fritz" Rueckheim and his brother Louis Rueckheim introduce Cracker Jack (which comes in a "wax-sealed" packages, and begins including toys as prizes starting in 1912, then features Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo in 1918; Pabst Blue Ribbon Beer, made by Capt. Frederick Pabst (1836-1904) (since 1882, when he started tying silk ribbons to his Select Beer) wins a blue ribbon, and guess what, 30M ft. of silk blue ribbon shipped with the beer that made Milwaukee famous by the turn of the cent.?; Bavarian sausage vendor Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger starts out providing white gloves to eat them with, then switches to rolls when they keep the gloves as souvenirs; Henry Heinz attracts people to his 2nd-floor out-of-the way booth by handing out Heinz pickle pins, going on to give away 50M of them; R.T. Davis Mill Co. hires Ky.-born former slave Nancy Green (1834-1923) to demonstrate Aunt Jemima pancake mix in front of their 24-ft.-high 12-ft.-diam. world's largest flour barrel, causing the co.'s sales to go through the roof; writer L. Frank Baum later models his Emerald City after the White City; "Devil in the White City" serial killer Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (Herman Webster Mudgett) (1861-96) ("the Torture Doctor") sobers it up with some World's Fair murders after he builds a 105-rom hotel nearby filled with torture chambers, and lures 27+ young women to their deaths, torturing and gassing them in a soundproof room, then butchering their bodies in the basement and selling the parts to medical schools; the fair closes on Nov. 1 after hosting 27M visitors from 73 nations, and makes a small profit; on the night of Oct. 28 disgruntled insane newspaper distributor Patrick Eugene Joseph Prendergast (1868-1894) (who thought that he was owed a govt. job for supporting his election campaign) murders Chicago mayor Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (b. 1825) in his home with a small revolver, causing many to skip the closing ceremonies for his Nov. 1 funeral; Prendergast is hanged next July 13 after his atty. Clarence Darrow unsuccessfully raises the insanity defense - he didn't get the job, did he? On June 14 Philadelphia, Penn. observes the first Flag Day, to commemorate June 14, 1777, when Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes. On June 20 Ind.-raised Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926), grand secy. of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen since 1893 organizes the Am. Railway Union, becoming its first pres. (until 1897). On June 22 the British battleships HMS Victoria and HMS Camperdown collide off the coast of Tripoli, killing 358. On June 27 the New York stock market crashes. In the summer Pres. Cleveland has a secret operation to remove a huge tumor in the jaw, which is covered-up to the public; he begins wearing a rubber jaw. On July 27 New York executes its 4th electrocution, of William Taylor; after the first jolt fails to kill him and the generator blows, he is kept alive on morphine for 1 hour 9 min. until it can be fixed and the final jolt administered - what did you do today, honey? On July 30 Scientific American carries the first known automobile ad, from Winston Motor Car Co., with the slogan "Dispense with a Horse". On Aug. 7 Domingo Vazquez (Vázquez) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 22, 1894). In Aug. self-taught white English babe Mary Kingsley (1862-1900), whose daddy died and left her an income allowing her to do her thing arrives in Luanda, Angola and begins living with the natives, learning their survival skills, and going on to explore the Ogowe River to visit the cannibal Fang tribe, then climb 13,760-ft. Mount Cameroon by a new route, finally returning to England in Oct. 1895 and shocking the WASP prudes by telling them that blacks aren't really inferior, that polygamy is natural for them, but not admitting to sex with blacks? On Sept. 11-27 the seminal Parliament of World Religions in Chicago, Ill. sees Hindu guru Swami Vivekananda (Narendra Nath Datta) (1863-1902) give an inspiring speech on the opening day starting with "Sisters and Brothers of America", introducing Hinduism and the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western World. On Sept. 19 women in New Zealand become the first in the world to gain the right to vote, and the country goes on to show its new zeal by a slew of social welfare legislation until the 21st cent. On Sept. 28 the first known use of the term "hot dog" in print appears in the Knoxville Journal: "Even the weinerwurst men began preparing to get the 'hot dogs' read for sale Saturday night"; the Oct. 19, 1895 issue of the Yale Record contains the phrase "they contentedly munched hot dogs during the whole service". In Sept. the World Parliament of Religions convenes, bringing together Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Buddhists, Confucians, polytheists and pagans in an attempt to "combine into one world-religion what is best"; too bad, it doesn't work, since they all think they've got the only truth. On Nov. 7 Colo. becomes the first U.S. state to grant women the vote. On Nov. 12 the Durand Line Agreement defines the S borders of Afghanistan. On Nov. 13 Swaziland is annexed by Transvaal. In Nov. the First Matebele (Matabele) War in British South Africa sees the Brits under Dr. Leander Starr "Doctor Jim" Jameson (1853-1917) (former friend of King Lobengula, whom he treated for gout and talked into the original 1889 mining concession) slaughter the Matebeles with the Maxim gun and occupy Bulawayo; meanwhile King Lobengula takes sick in Dec., and this time Doctor Jim no workee for him. On Dec. 27 the secret Dual Alliance between Russia and France is ratified by the French Parliament through an interchange of letters (ending Jan. 4, 1894), whereby France will provide Russia 1.3M troops in the event of an attack by Germany (or Austria-Hungary backed by Germany), and Russia will provide France 700K troops in the event of an attack by Germany (or Austria-Hungary backed by Germany). Pres. Cleveland demands and obtains repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, splitting the party between gold and silver Dems.; when this move fails to cure the panic, and gold reserves decline below $100M, Cleveland resorts to both public and private (e.g. J.P. Morgan) bond issues, sealing his rep. as a conservative. The Second Irish Home Rule Bill introduced by PM William Gladstone passes the House of Commons but is defeated in the House of Lords. Giovanni Giolitti is forced to resign for withholding records relevant to a bank scandal, retiring to private life until 1901, and Francesco Crispi becomes PM of Italy for the 2nd time (until 1896). Liberal Jose Santos Zelaya (1853-1919), backed by disgruntled conservatives becomes pres. of Nicaragua (until 1909), and initiates educational and other reforms - hey everybody it's limo time? Dahomey is occupied and annexed by France. The U.S. creates its first official ambassadors (as opposed to ministers or envoys), starting with Britain, France, Germany and Italy, followed by Russia in 1898 and Brazil in 1905; Del.-born Dem. Sen. (1869-85) Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. (1828-98) becomes the first U.S. ambassador to the Court of St. James in Britain (until 1897). The British Oil Rivers Protectorate in N Nigeria changes its name to Niger Coast Protectorate. British diplomat Mortimer Durand draws a boundary line between Pakistan and Afghanistan that ignores the existence of the large Pasthun pop., who ignore the boundary. Natal is granted self-govt., becoming a province of South Africa in 1910-94. Vientiane (Laos) becomes a French protectorate, and is incorporated into the Union of Indochina. Rabih al-Zubayr finishes conquering Chad (until 1900), and declares himself king of a resurrected Muslim Borno kingdom, erecting a magnificent palace in his capital of Dikoa (Dikwa), going on to make money from the slave trade. The Panama Canal Corruption Trial is held in Paris. The French Monteil Mission tries to occupy the High-Oubangui in Sudan. The Alldeutschland Verband (Pan-German League) is founded. Novosibirsk in Siberia, the "Chicago of Russia" is founded on the Trans-Siberian Railway (modern pop. 1M). Swedish engineer Andre explores the Arctic in a balloon. After gold is discovered in Birch Creek, Circle, Alaska 50 mi. S of the Arctic Circle 160 mi. NE of Fairbanks is founded as a transit point between the Yukon River and Bering Sea, growing to 700 pop. in 1896, then dwindling after gold is discovered in the Klondike in 1897 and Nome in 1899; it later becomes the unofficial terminus of the Pan-Am. Highway. German explorer Goetzen crosses Africa from east to west. The 36-mi. Manchester Ship Canal in NW England is completed. After the 1866 discovery of dynamite finally makes it possible, the Corinth Canal in Greece, first begun by Nero in 67 C.E. opens after 40M francs are spent in 1830 by Greece, another 30M in 1869 by Austria, and 5M more are given to a Greek co. in 1890 to finish it. Gold is discovered near Kalgoorlie-Boulder ("Kal") in Western Australia, becoming "the richest square mile of gold-bearing dirt in the world"; eventually a man-made canyon 1 mi. x 2 mi. x 1.2K ft. deep is created by miners, who extract over 1.3K tons. 1893 is a good year for funky legal pronouncements from on high? After the U.S. Civil War ruins the Southern tomato biz, allowing Caribbean competitors to gain a foothold, and after the war ends they get the U.S. Congress to pass the 1883 Tariff Act to slow them down with a 10% tax on veggies, leaving a loophole for fruits, and cagey wholesalers John Nix et al. sue the U.S. govt. in 1887 on the claim that tomatoes are botanically classified as fruits (ovary and seeds of flowering plants), which New York port collector Edward L. Hedden counters by pointing out that eggplants, cucumbers, squashes, peppers and peas are common regarded as vegetables, the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court in Nix v. Hedden unanimously declares the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, of the nightshade family) to be a vegetable for the purposes of the 1883 Tariff Act, with Horace Gray writing the majority opinion, becoming a highlight for the boring nutty fruitcake full-of-it Melville Fuller court; in 2003 a N.J. state rep. unsuccessfully tries to make the Jersey tomato the state fruit (high-bush blueberry wins), but Ark. makes it the state fruit and vegetable to cover all bases. Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical Providentissimus Deus (On the Study of the Holy Scripture), flip-flopping on the 1633 Galileo condemnation and rejecting the Biblical fundamentalism of Cardinal Bellarmine and the Qualifiers of the Holy Office - wow, that sounds like a balanced article, or, Thank You for Matchless Smoking? A Frog tries to become a combo Passepartout and Marco Polo? French diplomat Charles Eudes Bonin (1865-1929), new envoy to the Mung people of Laos begins an expedition to explore the Mekong River to resolve a territorial dispute between Siam and Annam, getting Siam to relinquish its claims; in 1895 he gets a promotion and begins another expedition from Hanoi up the Red River into SW China, then N into the Gobi Desert of Mongolia, through Tibet to the Siberian frontier, then on to Beijing and France in 1897; in 1898 he starts out in Shanghai, travels up the Yangtze River to the Tibetan border, then Beijing, N into S Mongolia then N Tibet, visiting Qinhai Lake (Koko Nur) and Lop Nur, returning E to Beijing along Marco Polo's route, returning with the first scientific maps of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. English explorer Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938) begins an Arctic expedition in Russia and Lapland, then next year begins exploring Franz Josef Land (until 1897), proving that it is an archipelago not a continent; meanwhile Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) of Norway leads an unsuccessful expedition to the North Pole (ends 1896) which drifts with the Arctic ice pack and reaches a record N lat.; English explorer Frederick George Jackson happens on them by accident in 1896 as they are trying to to return by sledge, saving their lives. The La. sugar crop finally reaches its prewar levels. Am. physician Henry L. Coit of Essec County, N.J. gets the Medical Milk Commission to formed to certify milk for cleanliness, whether pasteurized or not; too bad, certified milk costs up to 4x the price of uncertified milk, causing Macy's owner Nathan Straus to set up "milk depots" in New York City to provide low-cost pasteurized milk and crusade against unpasteurized milk; the first commercial pasteurizing machines are introduced in 1895, and the first compulsory pasteurization law is passed in Chicago, Ill. in 1908. Victoria Mary of Teck (1867-1953) marries Duke George of York (later George V). Russian-born Emma Goldman (1869-1940), co-leader with Alexander Berkman (1870-1936) of the U.S. anarchist movement is arrested and sentenced to 1 year on Blackwell's Island in New York City for giving a speech under the trumped-up charge of cha-cha-cha incitement to riot, which only adds to her fame, launching her on a lecture tour of England and Scotland starting in 1894 - what, no riots? Queen Isabella becomes the first female put on a U.S. coin. Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940) becomes pres. of the Henry Street (Nurses') Settlement in New York City, becoming a leader in social work. 14-y.-o. Joseph Stalin (b. 1879) obtains a scholarship to Tiflis Theological Seminary; he is expelled 5 years later after being caught 14 times reading forbidden literature such as Marx, Hugo and Darwin. 24-y.-o. well-dressed English barrister Mohandas Gandhi is kicked out of the first class compartment on a train in South Africa because he isn't white, then thrown off the train, which sets him on his life course - just because you're not wearing clothes doesn't mean you're not intuitive? Austrian-born Emil Paur (1855-1932) becomes conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (until 1898). Chicago-born Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (1869-1932) moves to Broadway, becoming America's first musical "impresario extraordinaire". Romanian violinist Franz Kneisel (1865-1926) leads the Boston Symphony Orchestra perf. at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, then forms the Kneisel Quartet from orchestra members. The Field Museum of Natural History is founded in Chicago. The Imperial Inst. is founded in South Kensington, London. The U. of Glasgow (founded 1450) admits women, founding Queen Margaret and Muirhead Colleges for women. John Haden Badley (1865-1967) founds Bedales School in Haywards Heath, England, with a progressive curriculum incl. manual labor in fields and gardens, cooking, tailoring and bootmaking; it goes coed in 1898. The St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park in St. Augustine Beach, Fla. opens on May 20. Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale is founded by Leon Brunschvicg (1869-1944), Xavier Leon, and Elie Halevy (1870-1937). The Gaelic League is founded on July 31 in Dublin, Ireland by Douglas Hyde (1860-1949) and Eoin MacNeill (1867-1945) to promote Irish history and culture, going on to pub. Gaelic Journal. Polish-born Marie Curie (b. 1867) becomes the first woman to receive a physics degree at the Sorbonne in Paris, one of only two women in their science program of 1K students, and first in her class - you let them out of the kitchen and the boudoir and look what they do? French absurdist playwright Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) coins the term "'Pataphysics" as a parody of Metaphysics, with the definition "The science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments"; the apostrophe is needed to avoid the pun "patte a physique" (leg of physics); on May 11, 1948 the College de 'Pataphysique is founded in Paris, with the motto "Eadem mutata resurgo" (I rise again the same though changed). The 159 ft. Gustave Zede (Zédé) cylindrical hull submarine is launched on June 1. The Carl Lindstrom Co. is founded in Berlin, Germany by Swedish inventor Carl Lindstrom (1869-1932) to produce phonographs (gramophones) and phonograph records. Paul R. Reynolds founds the first literary agency in the U.S. in New York City. Electrical wizard Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923) begins his long career with General Electric Co. Frederick Louis Maytag (1857-1937) founds the Maytag Co., going on to produce reliable washing machines and become known for his soundbyte "Is everybody happy?" Babington's English Tea Room in London opens, becoming a good place to get a scone. Sports: The Longest Gloved Boxing Match in History on Apr. 6-7 sees Andy Bowen and and Jack Burke fight 110 rounds (7 hours 19 min.) before the referees call it a "no contest" after both fighters refuse to continue. The first Lord Stanley Cup for hockey, donated last year by Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston (16th Earl of Derby) (1841-1908) (gov.-gen. of Canada in 1888-93) is won by the 9-member Montreal Amateur Athletic Assoc. Lady Margaret Rachel Scott (1874-1938) wins her first of three consecutive British women's golf championships. German immigrant Chris von der Ahe, owner of the St. Louis Browns baseball team in Mo. becomes the first to sell hot dogs at baseball games - pass the salmonella? Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) designs the Winslow House in River Forest, Ill., the first house he builds on his own; diverges from the Victorian house by having no front and no back? The Shaftesbury Memorial, by Alfred Gilbert (1854-1934) in Piccadilly Circus, London is unveiled, crowned with the aluminum statue of Anteros, which he calls "the Angel of Christian Charity", but is popularly known as Eros. Inventions: Ill.-born brothers Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) build the Duryea Automobile, complete with the first pneumatic tires, becoming the first successful automobile produced in the U.S. Thermite, a mixture of aluminum and iron rust powder is invented by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt (1861-1923); it burns at 2.5K C and can be used for welding; he patents it in 1895. The first weight-loss pill is invented by ?. Danish-born Am. chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) invents Velox photographic paper, and sells his patent to Kodak for $1M. Karl Benz builds his first 4-wheel car; meanwhile Henry Ford builds his first car. On Aug. 29 Whitcomb L. Judson (1836-1909) of Chicago, Ill. patents the C-Curity Clasp Locker (invented in 1891), a bulky zipper for shoes and boots, marketed in 1896 as a "universal fastener"; too bad, it often jams or springs open; the modern zipper is not invented until Dec. 1913 by the can-do head designer of his co., Gideon Sundback from Sweden, who adds cups on the back of the teeth. Am. glassmaker Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) of Toledo, Ohio (Founder of Libbey Glass Co. of Toledo, Ohio in 1888) exhibits the world's first dress made of fiberglass at the Chicago World's Fair, modelled by actress Georgia Cayvan (1857-1906); commercial fiberglass is not invented until 1938. Henry Drushel Perky (1843-1906) invents shredded wheat (small pillow-shaped wheat biscuits) in Denver, Colo. to help his stomach troubles; with friend William Ford of Watertown, N.Y. he develops a machine to produce it, and peddles it from a horse-drawn wagon while trying to sell the machines, until Battle Creek Sanitarium (Seventh-day Adventist) physician John Harvey Kellogg (1853-1943) convinces him to move back east and open up a factory in Niagara Falls, N.Y. along with his brother Will Keith Kellogg, which proves quite lucrative; the Kelloggs then invent wheat flakes and corn flakes - and now we have Cap'n Crunch Crusted Chicken and Crab Cakes? The Underwood No. 1 Typewriter goes on sale, featuring visible typing on the front side of the paper, plus an accelerating sublever for faster speed, taking the market from Remington; it still uses the QWERTY keyboard arrangement. English-born Am. chemist Edward Weston (1850-1936), competitor of Thomas Edison invents the Weston Cell, a cadmium-mercury battery that is so stable it becomes the internat. standard for EMF in 1911, after which he waves his patent rights, since he has 308 other patents. Science: The cause of cattle tick fever is discovered to be an arthropod that can transmit it between animals. Russian neurologist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhtereve (Bechterev) (1857-1927) gives the first modern description of Ankylosing Spondylitis, causing it to become known as Bekhterev's Disease. Irish physicist (Trinity College, Dublin) George Francis FitzGerald (1851-1901) suggests that a body undergoing motion contracts in the direction of motion, but doesn't explain why - that would take an Einstein? German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) founds modern psychiatry with the clinical approach based on syndromes (patterns of symptoms), classifying psychosis into manic depression and dementia praecox ("sub-acute development of a peculiar simple condition of mental weakness occurring at a youthful age"), becoming the "Founder of Modern Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology" - so that's why psychiatry is full of krap? French chemist Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) discovers Moissanite, silicon carbide crystals found in meteorites in Diablo Canyon, Ariz. that look similar to diamonds. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) invents statistical moments and standard deviation. Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931), 1891 founder of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Ill., the first interracial hospital and training school for black nurses and interns performs the first pericardial sac repair operation. Nonfiction: Herbert Baxter Adams (1850-1901), The Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (2 vols.). Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), Letters of Women. James Theodore Bent (1852-97), The Sacred City of the Ethiopians. Pierre Berthelot, Traite Pratique de Calorimetrie Chimique. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), Identification Anthropometrique. Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924), Appearance and Reality; big hit with philosophical Idealists. Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), Milton's Prosody. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch. Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), The Pursuit of Happiness. Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-90), Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah; disguises himself as a Muslim to avoid execution; tells about how they think that the apes around Arafat and Taif are Jews who were punished by Allah for breaking the Sabbath. Karl Bucher (1847-1930), The Rise of the National Economy; founds the study of non-market (gift and exchange) economics. Douglas Campbell, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America. Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1842-1933), Tenting on the Plains; #2 in a trilogy of her life with hubby Gen. Armstrong Custer. Felix Dahn (1834-1912), Julian the Apostate (3 vols.). Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), The Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Engine (Theorie und Konstruktion eines Rationellen Warmemotors). Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Story; claims that Bacon is the real Shakespeare, and also the secret son of Elizabeth I, which is why he concealed his authorship. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), The Universities and the Churches. Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942) and Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), La Donna Deliquente - why do we like watching cat fights? Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829-1902), History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649 (5 vols.). James Geikie (1839-1915), Fragments of Earth Lore: Sketches and Addresses, Geological and Geographical. Lazar Goldschmidt, The Babylonian Talmud (German trans.) (12 vols.) (1893-1934). Henri Houssaye (1848-1911), 1815 (3 vols.) (1893, 1899, 1905). Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95), Evolution and Ethics; "The practice of that which is ethically best - what we call goodness or virtue - involves a course of conduct which, in all respects, is opposed to that which leads to success in the cosmic struggle for existence... Laws and moral precepts are directed to the end of curbing the cosmic process." - my name is Huxley, and I'm England's favorite animal? Pere Hyacinthe (1827-1912), Mon Testament, Ma Protestation. Sir Richard C. Jebb (1841-1905), Attic Orators. Emil Krapelin (1856-1926), Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie, 4th ed.; introduces the concept of demential praecox, which later subsumes catatonia and dementia paranoides. Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929), Maps of Ancient Rome (1893-1901); becomes std. work. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Speeches and Table-Talk of the Prophet Muhammad. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Homer and the Epic. Arthur Lillie (1831-), The Influence of Buddhism on Primitive Christianity; pisses-off Albert Schweitzer, who calls it "among the fictitious works on the life of Jesus." Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Rhythm of Life (essays). George Moore (1852-1933), Modern Painting. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Theosophy, or Psychological Religion (Gifford Lecture). Frederick A. Ober, In the Wake of Columbus; a special investigation of the true island where he made first landfall ends in no clue? Francis Parkman (1823-93), A Half-Century of Conflict. Coventry Patmore (1823-96), Religio Poetae. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), The Beginnings of the English Romantic Movement: A Study in Eighteenth Century Literature; athletic Yale U. English prof. since 1892 gets internat. attention for his course on modern novels, causing the admin. to force him to give it up, after which he becomes Lampson Prof. of English Lit. in 1901, retiring in 1933 after 41 years. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Essays in Idleness. George John Romanes (1848-94), An Examination of Weismannism; August Weismann. William T. Stead, If Christ Came to Chicago. John Addington Symonds (1840-93), Biography of Michelangelo; very gay-friendly? Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939), Instead of a Book, By a Man Too Busy to Write One; anarchist essays from his periodical "Liberty" by a colleague of Lysander Sooner, calling for the abolition of rent and interest. Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932), The Significance of the Frontier in American History (July 12); his thesis, read to the Am. Historical Assoc. during the Chicago World's Fair; proposes the Frontier Thesis, that the civilized-savage frontier molds the white Am. spirit and creates freedom, "breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities", and creating a new type of citizen (if not race?); the thesis catches on bigtime with academia and the gen. pop., the racial-religious-cultural undertones only serving to spice it up? - but America is already running out of frontier? August Weismann (1834-1914), Germ Plasm: A Theory of Heredity; his work with sea urchin eggs and chopping off of mice tails (plus the fact that Jewish boys are never born circumcised?) leads him to propose Weismannism, the theory that the germ plasm continues from generation to generation and is rigidly separated from the somatoplasm, thus making transmission of acquired characteristics impossible. Music: Isaac Albeniz, The Magic Opal (opera). Eugen d'Albert (1864-1932), Der Rubin (opera); Piano Sonata in F sharp minor, Op. 10; String Quartet No. 2 in E flat major, Op. 11; Piano Concerto No. 2 in E major, Op. 12; Der Mensch und das Leben, Op. 14. Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Serres Chaudes (song cycle); lyrics by Maurice Maeterlinck. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), String Quartet No. 1 in G minor, Op. 10 (Dec. 29) (Paris); only work he assigns an opus to; Le Demoiselle Elue (Élue); based on a poem by Dante Gabriel Rossetti; Nocturnes (1893-99). Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), "New World" Symphony No. 9 [5] in E minor, Op. 95 (5th and last symphony); composed during his U.S. visit in 1892-5, inspired in part by Negro spirituals; his biggest hit; "American" String Quartet in F, Op. 96 (June 10); composed in Spillville, Iowa; uses Am. Negro and Am. Indian music themes; 1st Movement, 2nd Movement, 3rd Movement, 4th Movement. Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), Epthalia (opera) (Deutsches Theater, Denver) (Feb. 9); first opera written by an African-Am. to be successfully produced; The Martyr (Deutsches Theater, Denver) (Aug. 16); an Egyptian nobleman is executed for worshipping Jehovah. Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), Utopia, Limited (comic operetta #13). Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921), Hansel and Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) (opera) (Weimar) (Dec. 23). Andre Messager (1853-1929), Madame Chrysantheme (operetta); incl. Le Jour Sous. Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), Hora Novissima (church oratorio); The Dream King and His Love. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Overture to an Unwritten Tragedy. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Manon Lescaut (opera #3) (4 acts) (Teatro Regio Turin); based on Abbe Prevost's 1731 novel; his first hit; stars Cesira Ferrani as Manon Lescaut, and Achille Moro as her brother Sgt. Lescaut. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Lemminkainen Legends (1893-9); Karelia Suite, Op. 10. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), "Pathetique" Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (Oct. 28) (Oct. 16 Old Style); debuts nine days before his premature death; incl. Pathetique Finale. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), Falstaff (opera) (Feb. 9) (La Scala, Milan); adapted by Arrigo Boito from Shakespeare's "Merry Wives of Windsor" and "Henry IV"; his last opera; his last comic opera 50 years earlier was a flop, but he finally got over it since his comedy is about over, and he will soon join Margherita?; leaves an unfinished King Lear, with libretto by Antonio Somma, which he offers to composer Pietro Mascagni, with the soundbyte: "The scene in which King Lear finds himself on the heath scared me." Art: Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), The Boating Party. Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Frieze of Dancers; they secure their ribbons before performing? Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931), Les Temps Difficiles (caricatures). Winslow Homer (1836-1910), The Fox Hunt (38"x 68.5"); a flock of starving crows closes in on a fox stranded in deep snow; his largest painting, immediately purchased by the Penn. Academy of Fine arts, becoming his first to get in a major U.S. museum, finally giving him financial success; Andrew Wyeth's favorite Am. painting of all time? Edvard Munch (1863-1944), The Scream; his masterpiece, which he repaints several times until 1910; painted after witnessing a blood-red sunset over Oslow in 1892 caused by Krakatoa, writing in his diary that he felt "a great, undending scream piercing through Nature". Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), In Bed; L'Estampe Originale; dancer Jane Avril and printer Pere Cotelle. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Mother and Sister of the Artist; The Yellow Curtain. Plays: David Belasco (1853-1931), The Girl I Left Behind Me (Empire Theater, New York). Georges Courteline (1858-1929), Boubouroche. Max Halbe (1865-1944), Jugend. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Harry Greenbank and Sidney Jones, A Gaiety Girl (first true musical comedy?) (Prince of Wales Theatre, London) (Oct. 14) (413 perf.). Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Beaver Coat (Der Biberpelz); Hannele ("dream-poem"); first drama in history with a child as heroine? Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Dora Kremer. Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Amazons (farce); The Second Mrs. Tanqueray; his first hit outside England; another vehicle for Lily Langtry; makes a star of English actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell (1865-1940). Victorien Sardou (1831-1908), Madame Sans-Gene: Historical Romance of the Revolution. Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Anatol. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Mrs. Warren's Profession middle-aged English madame and her prudish Cambridge-educated daughter Vivie, who discovers how mommy's fortune was made, forgives her since it saved her from poverty, then is shocked to find out that she's still a madame; after a fight with the British censors, he gets it performed on Jan. 5, 1902 at the members-only New Lyric Club, but when he gets it produced in New York City in 1905, Anthony Comstock calls the pigs on it, getting it closed after one perf., calling him an "Irish smut dealer", to which Shaw replies "Comstockery is the world's standing joke at the expense of the United States. Europe likes to hear of such things. It confirms the deep-seated conviction of the Old World that America is a provincial place, a second-rate country-town civilization after all"; it is not shown publicly in England until 1925. Hermann Sudermann (1857-1928), Die Heimat ("Magda"). Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), A Woman of No Importance (London, Haymarket Theatre) (Apr. 19). Poetry: Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929), America the Beautiful; writes it after a trip to Pikes Peak, Colo.; first printed in "The Congregationalist" on July 4, 1895. William Wilfred Campbell (1858-1918), The Dread Voyage. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Aber die Liebe. Michael Field (Edith Emma Cooper) (1862-1913), Underneath the Bough. Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920), A Roadside Harp; "What trout shall coax the rod of yore/ In Itchen stream to dip?" William Ernest Henley (1849-1903), London Voluntaries. Jose Maria de Heredia (1842-1905), Les Trophees; 50 sonnets. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), M'Andrew's Hymn; "Interdependence, absolute, forseen, ordained, decreed." Josef Svatopluk Machar (1864-1942), Tristium Vindobona. Joaquin Miller (1837-1913), Building of the City Beautiful. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Enone au Clair Visage. Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Green Bays (parodies). Charles G.D. Roberts, Songs of the Common Day; Ave! An Ode for the Shelley Centenary. Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), Verses. Francis Thompson, The Hound of Heaven; "I fled Him, down the nights and down the days:/ I fled Him, down the arches of the years." Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Irish Love Songs. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Celtic Twilight. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Ivory Gate (3 vols.); The Rebel Queen (3 vols.). Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Griselda (verse novel). Hall Caine (1853-1931), Cap'n Davey's Honeymoon. Lewis Carroll (1832-98), Sylvie and Bruno Concluded; sequel to "Sylvie and Bruno" (1889). Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Diana Tempest. Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (1861-1907), The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (first novel); praised by Robert Louis Stevenson. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Barabbas: A Dream of the World's Tragedy. Stephen Crane (1871-1900), Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (first novel). Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Majesteit. Grazia Deledda (1875-1936), Racconti Sardi (short stories). Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), The End of the World (La Fin du Monde); a comet collides with the Earth. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Irrungen; Wirrungen. Anatole France (1844-1924), La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), Jane Field (first novel). Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Der Kosterjager. George Gissing (1857-1903), The Odd Women. Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), Pagan Papers. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), The Heavenly Twins; why male-female marriage sucks. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Montezuma's Daughter. Henry Harland (1861-1905), Mademoiselle Miss. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Fles. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Mad Prank; The Red House Mystery; Lady Verner's Flight. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Ungt Folk (Young People). Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Buveurs d'Ames. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), L'Exilee; Matelot. Karl May (1842-1912), Winnetou (3 vols.); about a great Apache chief and his white blood-brother Old Shatterhand; big hit in Germany; makes fans of Adolf Hitler and Albert Einstein. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Mrs. Falchion. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), L'Aine. Mark Rutherford (1829-1913), Catherine Furze. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Madam Sapphira: A Fifth Avenue Story. Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Dream Life and Real Life: A Little African Story. Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), From the Five Rivers (short stories). Lew Wallace (1827-1905), The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople Fell. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), Ghetto Tragedies. Births: Japanese world's oldest living person (Jan. 29, 2007 to Aug. 13, 2007) Yone Minagawa (d. 2007) on Jan. 4 in Kyushu. Indian yogi Paramahansa Yogananda (d. 1952) on Jan. 5 in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. German Nazi art-loving air marshal Gen. Hermann Goering (Göring) (d. 1946) on Jan. 12 in Rosenheim, Bavaria. German art-stealing artist-architect-journalist and Nazi commissioner of occupied Eastern Europe ("Nazi Racial Philosopher") Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (d. 1946) on Jan. 12 in Reval (Tallinn, Estonia). Am. horror-fantasy writer-poet-artist Clark Ashton Smith (d. 1961) on Jan. 13 in Long Valley, Calif.; friend of H.P. Lovecraft. French "Beef Carcass" expressionist artist (Jewish) Chaim Soutine (d. 1943) on Jan. 13 in Smilavichy (near Minsk), Belarus; emigrates to France in 1913. Yugoslav PM (1939-41) Dragisa Cvetkovic (d. 1969) on Jan. 15 in Nis. Am. novelist-dramatist-ed. Charles Fulton Oursler (AKA Anthony Abbott) (d. 1952) on Jan. 22 in Baltimore, Md.; father of Will Oursler (1913-85). German "Maj. Heinrich Strasser in Casablanca" actor Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (d. 1943) on Jan. 22 in Berlin; emigrates to Britain in 1933. Am. Repub. politician Frank Carlson (d. 1987) on Jan. 23 in Cloud County, Kan. French "Julia Sets" mathematician Gaston Maurice Julia (d. 1978) on Feb. 3 in Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria. Am. comedian-actor-pianist ("the Schnozzola") James Francis "Jimmy" Durante (d. 1980) on Feb. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Italian-Am. parents - would I deny you Flonase? Am. tennis player (gay) William Tatem "Big Bill" "Gentleman Bill" Tilden II (d. 1953) on Feb. 10 in Philadelphia, Penn.; born in a wealthy family; eats steak and potatoes 3x a day. Am. army chief of staff 5-star gen. Omar Nelson Bradley (d. 1981) on Feb. 12 in Clark, Mo. Am. "The Wingless Victory", "The Barretts of Wimpole Street" stage actress-writer-producer (lesbian) Katharine Cornell (d. 1974) on Feb. 16 in Berlin, Germany; grows up in Buffalo, N.Y. Soviet gen. (CIC from 1925-8) Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (d. 1937) on Feb. 16 (Feb. 4 Old Style) in Alexandrovskoye, Smolensk; distant relative of Leo Tolstoy. English "Suspicion" actor Sir Cedric (OE "war leader") Hardwicke (d. 1964) on Feb. 19 in Stourbridge. Am. "The Sound of Music" playwright Russel Crouse (d. 1966) on Feb. 20 in Findlay, Ohio; collaborator of Howard Lindsay (1889-1968). Belgian spy-hero Gabrielle Alina Eugenia maria Petit (d. 1916) on Feb. 20 in Tournai, Hainaut. Spanish #1 clasical guitarist-composer Andres Segovia (d. 1987) on Feb. 21 in Linares. English "The Meaning of Meaning" lit. critic Ivor Armstrong Richards (d. 1979) on Feb. 26 in Sandbach, Cheshire; educated at Clifton College and Magdalene College, Cambridge U. Am. "The Tree of Culture" anthropologist Ralph Linton (d. 1953) on Feb. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Swarthmore College, and U. of Penn. Russian "Mother" film dir.-writer-actor Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (d. 1953) on Feb. 16 (Feb. 28 Old Style) in Penza. Am. tongue-athlete poet-playwright, costume designer, and socialite (bi) Mercedes de Acosta (d. 1968) on Mar. 1 in New York City; Cuban father, Spanish mother (descended from the dukes of Alba); lover of Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Edith Wharton, Eva La Gallienne, Pola Negri, Amy Lowell, Alla Nazimova, Tallulah Bankhead, Isadora Duncan, Tamara Karsavina et al. Am. "Kiss Me, Kate", "My Fair Lady" choreographer-dancer-teacher Hanya Holm (Johanna Eckert) (d. 1992) on Mar. 3 in Worms. Am. ceramic "Mama of Dada" artist Beatrice Wood (d. 1998) on Mar. 3 in San Francisco, Calif.; inspiration for Rose DeWitt Bukater in "Titanic" (1997). German anti-Nazi politician Erwin Planck (d. 1945) on Mar. 12 in Berlin; son of Max Planck (1858-1947). English "Ladies in Retirement" actress Isobel Elsom (Isobel Jeannette Reed) (d. 1981) on Mar. 16 in Cambridge. British "Dulce Et Decorum Est" war poet Wilfred Edward Salter Owen (d. 1918) on Mar. 18 in Owestry, Shropshire. Am. baseball hall-of-fame 1B player (St. Louis Browns) "Gorgeous" George Harold Sisler (d. 1973) on Mar. 24 in Manchester, Ohio. Am. astronomer Walter Baade (d. 1960) on Mar. 24 in Schrottinghausen, Germany. Am. educator-scientist-diplomat James Bryant Conant (d. 1978) on Mar. 26 in Dorchester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; pres. of Harvard U. (1933-53); reorganizes the curriculum to stress gen. education at the undergraduate level. Hungarian "Ideology and Utopia" sociologist (Jewish) Karl Mannheim (d. 1947) on Mar. 27 in Budapest. Am. 20th Century Fox pres. (1942-62) Spyros P. Skouras (d. 1971) on Mar. 28 in Skhourohorion, Greece; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910, but never loses his accent, causing Bob Hope to quip "Spyros has been here twenty years but he still sounds as if he's coming next week." German Adm. Theodor Krancke (d. 1973) on Mar. 30 in Magedeburg. Austrian conductor Clemens Heinrich Krauss (d. 1954) on Mar. 31 in Vienna. English actress-comedian Dame Esmerelda Cicely Courtneidge (d. 1980) on Apr. 1 in Sydney, Australia; daughter of Robert Cortneidge (1859-1939). French historian Bernard Fay (d. 1978) on Apr. 3 in Paris; educated at Harvard U. English "Ashley Wilkes in Gone With the Wind" actor (Jewish) Leslie Howard (Steiner) (Stainer) (d. 1943) on Apr. 3 in London; Hungarian Jewish father, English Jewish mother; educated at Dulwich College, London. Am. Johnson & Johnson CEO (1938-63) (philanthropist) Robert Wood Johnson II (d. 1968) on Apr. 4 in New Brunswick, N.J.; son of Robert Wood Johnson Sr. (1845-1910). Am. CIA dir. (1953-61) and Council of Foreign Relations dir. (1927-) (Freemason) Allen Welsh Dulles (d. 1969) on Apr. 7 in Watertown, N.Y.; Presbyterian minister father; brother of John Foster Dulles (1888-1959); educated at Princeton U., and George Washington U. Am. watercolor painter Charles Ephraim Burchfield (d. 1967) on Apr. 9 in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio. English Socialist publisher (Jewish) Sir Victor Gollancz (d. 1967) on Apr. 9 in London; nephew of Sir Hermann Gollancz (1852-1930) and Sir Israel Gollancz (1864-1930); educated at New College, Oxford U. Am. U.S. undersecy. of state (1945-7) and secy. of state #51 (1949-53) Dean Gooderham Acheson (d. 1971) on Apr. 11 in Middletown, Conn.; educated at Groton School, Yale U. (Scroll & Key), and Harvard U. Am. blues singer (black) ("Empress of the Blues") Bessie Smith (d. 1937) on Apr. 15 in Chattanooga, Tenn. Am. dancer Irene Castle (nee Foote) (d. 1969) on Apr. 17 in New Rochelle, N.Y.; wife of Vernon Castle (1887-1918). Am. "Safety Last!" silent movie comedian Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr. (d. 1971) on Apr. 20 in Burchard, Neb. Spanish Surrealist painter-sculptor Joan (pr. "HWAN") Miro i Ferra (Miró i Ferrà) (d. 1983) on Apr. 20 in Barcelona. Am. world's oldest living person (Aug. 13, 2007-Nov. 26, 2008) Edna Ruth Scott Parker (d. 2008) on Apr. 20 in Morgan County, Ind. Am. "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" novelist Corinne Anita Loos (d. 1981) (pr. like luce) on Apr. 26 in Sisson, Calif. Am. theatrical producer and stage designer Norman Melancton Bel Geddes on Apr. 27 in Adrian, Mich.; father of Barbara Bel Geddes (1922-2005). Yugoslavian prince regent (1934-41) Paul Karadordevic (d. 1976) on Apr. 27. Am. physical chemist Harold Clayton Urey (d. 1981) on Apr. 29; collaborator of Stanley Miller (1930-); discoverer of heavy water and deuterium; student of the origin of planets; conducts weird experiments to create life - out of year-old clay and urine? German foreign minister (1938-45) Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (d. 1946) on Apr. 30 in Wesel, Rhine Province. Am. golfer Francis DeSales Ouimet (d. 1967) on May 8; French-Canadian father, Irish mother. Am. psychologist (polygraph and Wonder Woman inventor) William Moulton Marston (d. 1947) on May 9 in Cliftondale, Mass. Am. Thematic Apperception Test psychologist Henry Alexander Murray (d. 1988) on May 13 in New York City; educated at Columbia U.; husband of Christiana Drummond Morgan (1897-1967). English actor Stanley Lupino (d. 1942) on May 15 in London; brother of Barry Lupino (1882-1963); husband of Connie Emerald (1892-1959); father of Ida Lupino (1914-95). British RAF Marshal Sir Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford (d. 1971) on May 21 in Hungerford, Berkshire. Am. actress Peggy Hopkins Joyce (Marguerite "Peggy" Upton) (d. 1957) on May 26 in Berkley, Va.; known for lavish lifestyle and six husbands incl. (1910) Everett Archer Jr., (1913-17) Sherburne Hopkins, (1920-1) J. Stanley Joyce, (1924-6) Count Gosta Morner, (1945-53) Anthony Easton, and (1953-7) Andrew C. Meyer. Am. "Smilin' Through" silent film actress Norma Talmadge (d. 1957) on May 26 in Jersey City, N.J..; sister of Constance Talmadge (1897-1973) and Natalie Talmadge (1896-1969). Welsh economist and Plaid Cymru leader David James Davies (d. 1956) on June 2 in Carmel, Carmarthenshire; educated at Colo. State U., and Seattle U. Romanian PM (1939) Armand Calinescu (d. 1939) on June 4 in Pitesti. Am. "No Time for Comedy" playwright (Jewish) Samuel Nathaniel Behrman (d. 1973) on June 9 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Australian "The Montforts", "When Blackbirds Sing" novelist Martin a Beckett Boyd (AKA Martin Mills) (d. 1972) on June 10 in Lucerne, Switzerland; grows up in Melbourne. Am. "Mammie in Gone With the Wind" actress-singer (black) Hattie McDaniel (d. 1952) on June 10 in Wichita, Kan.; grows up in Denver, Colo. French Cpl. Jules Andre Peugeot (d. 1914) on June 11 in Etupes; a teacher; first French soldier KIA in WWI. English "Lord Peter Wimsey", "The Man Born to be King" Christian humanist novelist Dorothy Leigh Sayers (d. 1957) (pr. sehrs) on June 13 in Oxford; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U.; coins the phrase "It pays to advertise". Czech microtonal composer Aliois Haba (d. 1973) on June 21 in Vizovice. Am. Disney exec Roy Oliver Disney (d. 1971) on June 24 in Chicago, Ill.; older brother of Walt Disney (1901-66). U.S. Repub. interior secy. #35 (1953-6) James Douglas McKay (d. 1959) on June 24 in Portland, Ore. German Gen. Otto Lasch (d. 1971) on June 25 in Pless (Pszczyna). Am. "New Yorker" cartoonist Helen Hokinson (d. 1949) on June 29 in Mendota, Ill. English Fabian Socialist Labour leader (Jewish) Harold Joseph Laski (d. 1950) on June 30 in Manchester; educated at New College, Oxford U.; friend of Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. East German Communist leader (1950-71) Walter Ulbricht (d. 1973) on June 30 in Leipzig - you'll brick 'em in good? Am. civil rights leader and novelist (black) Walter Francis White (d. 1955) on July 1 in Atlanta, Ga.; passes for white with blonde-blue and all the goodies. Am. Gestalt Therapy psychiatrist (Jewish) Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon "Fritz" Perls (d. 1970) on July 8 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1946; husband (1930-) of Laura Perls (1905-90). Am. expressionist painter-printmaker Abraham Rattner (d. 1978) on July 8 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; Russian father, Romanian mother. Am. "I Saw Hitler" journalist Dorothy Thompson (d. 1961) on July 9 in Lancaster, N.Y.; of German descent; wife (1928-42) of Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951); mother of Michael Lewis (1930-) - nights must have been interesting? Am. "Hunchback of Notre Dame" film dir. William Dieterle (d. 1972) on July 15 in Ludwigshafen, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. German "Little Man, What Now?" novelist Hans Fallada (Rudolf Wilhelm Adolf Ditzen) (d. 1947) on July 21 in Berlin; named after Lucky Hans and Falada the Horse in the Grimm fairy tale "The Goose Girl". Am. "Yancey Cravat in Cimarron" 6'0" actor Richard Dix (Ernest Carlton Brimmer) (d. 1949) on July 18 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. psychiatrist Karl Augustus Menninger (d. 1990) on July 22 in Topeka, Kan.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "The Negro in Chicago" sociologist (black) Charles S. Johnson (d. 1956) on July 24 in Bristol, Va. Am. "The Lovesick Man", "Hitler in Hell" artist-caricaturist George (Georg Ehrenfried) Grosz (d. 1959) on July 26 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1932. Am. "Some Like It Hot" comedian Joe Evans Brown (d. 1973) on July 28 in Holgate, Ohio. Pakistani leader ("Mother of the Nation") Fatima Jinnah (d. 1967) on July 30 in Karachi; sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). Greek king (1917-20) Alexander I (d. 1920) on Aug. 1 in Athens; son of Constantine I (1868-1923) and Sophia of Prussia (1870-1932). Am. economist-banker (Jewish) (Zionist) Alexander Sachs (d. 1973) on Aug. 1 in Rossien, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1904; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Russian silent film actress Vera Kholodnaya (Vera Vasilyevna Levchenko) (d. 1919) on Aug. 5 in Pltava. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1929-76) John William Wright Patman (d. 1976) on Aug. 6 in Hughes Springs, Tex. Am. agrarian poet-essayist-critic Donald Grady Davidson (d. 1968) on Aug. 8 in Campbellsville, Tenn.; educated at Vanderbilt U. Am. "Mrs. Bob Cratchit in A Christmas Carol" actress Kathleen Arthur Lockhart (d. 1978) on Aug. 9 in Southsea, Hampshire; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924; wife (1924-) of Gene Lockhart (1891-1957); mother of June Lockhart (1925-); grandmother of Anne Lockhart (1953-). Am. "Devil and Daniel Webster", "Ballad of Baby Doe" composer Douglas Stuart Moore (d. 1969) on Aug. 10 in Cutchogue, Long Island, N.Y. Am. civil rights atty. (Jewish) Samuel Simon Leibowitz (d. 1978) on Aug. 14 in Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1897; educated at Cornell U.; defends the Scottsboro Boys. Am. "The Little Foxes" actor Carl Benton Reid (d. 1973) on Aug. 14 in Lansing, Mich. Am. auto exec Harlow Herbert Curtice (d. 1962) on Aug. 15 in Petrieville, Mich.; works his way up from bookkeeper. German "Hangover Square" dir. John Brahm on Aug. 17 in Hamburg; husband (1937-41) of Dolly Haas (1910-94). Am. 5'0" blonde bombshell actress-writer Mae West (d. 1980) on Aug. 17 [Leo] in Brooklyn, N.Y.; father is a dick, er, detective, salesman and prize fighter, mother is a dressmaker and model; begins performing at age 7; secretly marries entertainer Frank Wallace in 1911, and never lives with him doesn't divorce him until 1942. French Impressionist "Faust et Helene" composer Marie-Juliette Olga Lili Boulanger (d. 1918) on Aug. 21; sister of Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979). South African-Australian "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" actor Cecil Kellaway (d. 1973) on Aug. 22. Am. "Excuse My Dust" writer-poet-critic-epigramist (Jewish) (Communist) (alcoholic) Dorothy Rothschild "Dot" "Dottie" Parker (d. 1967) on Aug. 22 in Long Branch, N.J.; Jewish father, Roman Catholic mother, Protestant stepmother; kicked out of a Roman Catholic elementary school for calling the Immaculate Conception "spontaneous combustion"; wife (1917-8) of Edwin Pond Parker II (1893-) and (1934-47, 1950-63) "queer as a billy goat" Alan Campbell; names her parrot Onan because he spills his seed on the ground? Am. Dem. La. gov. #40 (1928-32) and U.S. Sen. (1932-5) ("Share the Wealth") Huey Pierce "Kingfish" Long Jr. (d. 1935) on Aug. 30 in Winnfield, La.; educated at La. State U. U.S. Marine Corps commandant #19 (1948-51) Gen. Clifton Bedsoe Cates (d. 1970) on Aug. 31 in Tiptonville, Tenn. Am. "Queen of Sheba", "She" actress Betty Blythe (Elizabeth Blythe Slaughter) (d. 1972) on Sept. 1 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. atty. (of Al Capone) Edward Joseph "Easy Eddie" O'Hare (Gael. "bitter, angry") (d. 1939) on Sept. 5 in St. Louis, Mo.; Irish immigrant parents; father of Butch O'Hare (1914-43). Am. "Mr. Crumb in Blondie" actor Irving Bacon on Sept. 6; brother of Lloyd Bacon (1889-1955). Am. "WWII Flying Tigers" military aviator Lt. Gen. Claire Lee Chennault (d. 1958) on Sept. 6 in Commerce, Tex. British Coservative MP (Jewish) Isaac Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha (d. 1957) on Sept. 7 in Devenport, Plymouth (Hamstead?); educated at Clifton College, and St. John's College, Oxford U. Portuguese world's oldest living person (Nov. 26, 2008-Jan. 2, 2009) Maria de Jesus dos Santos (d. 2009) on Sept. 10 in Olival, Ourem. Am. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (d. 1977) on Sept. 12 in Steuben County, Ind.; dir. of U.S. Selective Service System (1941-70). Am. jazz clarinetist (white) Lawrence James "Larry" Shields (d. 1953) (Original Dixieland Band) on Sept. 13 in New Orleans, La.; brother of Harry Shields (1899-1971) and Eddie Shields; inspiration for Benny Goodman. British "Private Life of Henry VIII", "The Third Man" film dir. (Jewish) Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Kellner) (d. 1956) on Sept. 16 in Pusztaturpaszto, Austria-Hungary; knighted in 1942 (first dir. to be knighted). Am. theatrical producer Earl Carroll (d. 1948) on Sept. 16 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Hungarian Vitamin C physiologist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt (Nagyrápolt) (d. 1986) on Sept. 16 in Budapest. Polish Socialist leader Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski (d. 1940) on Sept. 19 in Vilnius. German Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall architect Bernhard Hans Henry Scharoun (d. 1972) on Sept. 20 in Bremen. U.S. surgeon gen. (1936-48) Thomas Parran Jr. (d. 1968) on Sept. 28 in St. Leonard, Md.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. romance novelist Faith Baldwin (d. 1978) on Oct. 1 in New Rochelle, N.Y. Am. "Ain't She Sweet" composer-pianist (Jewish) Milton Ager (d. 1979) on Oct. 6 in Chicago, Ill.; husband of Cecilia Ager; father of Shana Alexander (1925-). Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha (d. 1956) on Oct. 6 near Dhaka, Bangladesh. Am. silent film actress-dir. Lillian Gish (Lillian de Guiche) (d. 1993) on Oct. 14 in Springfield, Ohio.; sister of Dorothy Gish (1898-1968). Romanian king (1930-40) (Greek Orthodox) Carol II (d. 1953) on Oct. 15 in Peles; eldest son of Ferdinand and Marie (daughter of Prince Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, 2nd eldest son of Queen Victoria); father of Michael I (1921-). Japanese writer (founder of the Macrobiotic diet) George Ohsawa (Yukikazu Sakurazawa) (d. 1966) on Oct. 18. Am. "Gold Diggers of Broadway", "Broadway Melody of 1936/8", "The Babe Ruth Story" film dir. Roy Del Ruth (d. 1961) on Oct. 18 in Del. Am. Marx Brothers comedian (Jewish) Milton "Gummo" Marx (d. 1977) on Oct. 23 in New York City; leaves the troupe after being drafted into the army in WWI. Am. "King Kong" film dir. Merian Caldwell Cooper (d. 1973) on Oct. 24 in Jacksonville, Fla.; father of Maciej Slomczynski (1922-98). German White Rose dissident Kurt Huber (d. 1943) on Oct. 24 in Chur, Switzerland; grows up in Stuttgart and Munich. German Reich minister of justice Roland Freisler (d. 1945) on Oct. 30 in Celle, Lower Saxony. Am. "The Brothers Ashkenazi" Yiddish novelist (Jewish) Israel Joshua Singer (d. 1944) on Nov. 3 in Bilgoraj, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934; brother of Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91). Am. Ford Motor Co. pres. (1919-43) Edsel Bryant Ford (d. 1943) on Nov. 6 in Detroit, Mich.; son of Henry Ford (1863-1947). Thai Chakri king #7 (1925-35) Rama VII Prajadhipok (d. 1941) on Nov. 8 in Bangkok; youngest son of Rama V (1853-1910) and Queen Saovabha; brother of Rama VI (1881-1925); educated at Eton College, and Woolwich Military Academy. Am. "The Late George Apley", "Mr. Moto" novelist John Phillips Marquand (d. 1960) on Nov. 10 in Wilmington, Del.; educated at Harvard U. Am. aviator Clarence Duncan Chamberlin (d. 1976) on Nov. 11 in Denison, Iowa; 2nd man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, and 1st to carry a passenger. Belgian PM (1935-7) Paul Guillaume van Zeeland (d. 1973) on Nov. 11 in Soignies. Am. chemist Edward Adelbert Doisy (d. 1986) on Nov. 13 in Hume, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and Harvard U. Italian "Acquainted With Grief" modernist writer-poet Carlo Emilio Gadda (d. 1973) on Nov. 14 in Milan; educated at Milan Polytechnic. Am. auto racer Thomas "Tommy" Milton (d. 1962) on Nov. 14 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. auto engineer-stylist Harley J. Earl (d. 1969) on Nov. 22 in Hollywood, Calif.; invents clay modeling of auto designs, wraparound windshield, hardtop sedan, factory 2-tone paint, and tailfins. Soviet politician (Jewish) (atheist) Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (d. 1991) on Nov. 22 in Kabany, Radomyshl, Ukraine. Japanese Seicho-no-ie founder Masaharu Taniguchi (d. 1985) on Nov. 22 in Kobe. Am. jazz stride pianist (black) William Henry Joseph Bonaparte Bertholoff "Willie the Lion" Smith (d. 1973) on Nov. 23 in Goshen, N.Y.; one of the big three stride pianists with Fats Waller and James P. Johnson. Am. "The Modern Temper" critic-essayist-naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch (d. 1970) (pr. KROOTCH) on Nov. 25 in Knoxville, Tenn.; educated at Columbia U. - sounds like a lame name? English Pvt. Herbert George Columbine (d. 1918) on Nov. 28 in Penge, London. German Communist writer-activist-dramatist (Jewish) Ernst Toller (d. 1939) on Dec. 1 in Samotschin, Prussia (now Poland). English pacifist writer-poet-critic Sir Herbert Edward Read (d. 1968) on Dec. 4 in Kirkbymoorside, North Yorkshire; educated at the U. of Leeds. English "Lolly Willowes" Communist novelist-poet (lesbian) Sylvia Townsend Warner (d. 1978) on Dec. 6 in Harrow on the Hill; wife (1930-69) of Mary Valentine Ackland (1906-69). Am. "Kirkus Reviews" founder (1933) Virginia Kirkus (nee Glick) (d. 1980) on Dec. 7 in Meadville, Penn.; educated at Vassar College, and Columbia U. Am. "The Best Things in Life Are Free", "Sunny Side Up", "You're the Cream in My Coffee", "Good News" lyricist (Jewish) Lew Brown (Louis Brownstein) (d. 1958) on Dec. 10 in Odessa, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1898; collaborator of Ray Henderson (1896-1970), and Buddy De Sylva (1895-1950). Am. "Rico Bandello in Little Caesar", "Johnny Rocco in Key Largo", "Dathan in The Ten Commandments" actor (Jewish) Edward Goldenberg Robinson (Emanuel Goldenberg) (d. 1973) on Dec. 12 in Bucharest, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1903; educated at CCNY. German "The Deputy" theatrical dir.-producer (in the U.S.) (1939-58) Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (d. ?) on Dec. 17 in Greifenstein-Ulm. Canadian flying ace Capt. Arthur Roy "Brownie" Brown (d. 1944) on Dec. 23 in Carleton Place, Ont. Am. Ziegfield Follies 4'10" actress-dancer-singer Ann "Penny" "Tiny" Pennington (d. 1971) on Dec. 23 in Wilmington, Del.; known for dancing the Black Bottom; best friends with Fanny Brice, whom she loans large sums of money to; not to be confused with Playboy model Ann Pennington (1950-). Am. "Madame X", "Dodsworth" actress-novelist-aviator Ruth Chatterton (d. 1961) on Dec. 24 in New York City; English and French descent; wife of Ralph Forbes, (1932-4) George Brent and (1942-60) Barry Thomson. Am. "Lullaby of Broadway", "You'll Never Know", "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe", "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", "That's Amore", "Jeepers Creepers", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby" composer-lyricist Harry Warren (Salvatore Antonio Guaragna) (d. 1981) on Dec. 24 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Italian immigrant parents; first major U.S. songwriter to write primarily for film. Am. illustrator Russell Patterson (d. 1977) on Dec. 26 in Omaha, Neb.; known for his 1920s "Pattterson Girl" flapper girls, "simultaneously brazen and innocent" (Armando Mendez). Indian "The Spiritual Heritage of India" Ramakrishna Order monk Swami Prabhavananda (d. 1976) on Dec. 26 in India; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Chinese "Great Leap Forward", "Little Red Book" Communist Party animal (chmn.) Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (Chin. "To Shine on the East") (d. 1976) on Dec. 26 in Shao Shan, Hunan (C China); starts out fighting the decadent Manchu Dynasty, followed by the Nationalists. Czech "The Idea" animator Berthold Bartosch (d. 1968) on Dec. 29 in Bohemia; moves to Berlin in 1920. English "Testament of Youth" Christian feminist pacifist writer-nurse Vera Mary Brittain (d. 1970) on Dec. 29 in Newcastle-under-Lyme; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U.; wife (1925-) of George Catlin (1896-1979); sister of Edward Brittain; mother of John Brittain-Catlin (1927-7) and Shirley Williams (1930-). Russian Futurist poet Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovski (d. 1930) in Bagdadi, Kutais, Georgia. Am. NAACP secy. (1931-55) (black) Walter Francis White (d. 1955) in Atlanta, Ga. Am. Zionist rabbi (Jewish) Abba Hillel Silver (Abraham Silver) (d. 1963) in Naumiestis, Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. at age 9; educated at the U. of Cincinnati. Am. "Journey in the Dark" novelist Martin Flavin (d. 1967). Jamaican PM (1959-62) Norman Washington Manley (d. 1969); of Irish-African descent; educated at Oxford U.; father of Michael Manley (1924-97). Am. football coach (Columbia U., 1930-56) Lou "Luigi Piccolo" Little (d. 1979) in Leominster, Mass. English landscape painter John N. Nash (d. 1977). Canadian hockey player Frank Selke (d. 1985). Am. artist Charles Ephraim Burchfield (d. ?) in Ashtabula, Ohio. Am. publisher-merchant-philanthropist Marshall Field III in Chicago, Ill; grandson son of Marshall Field (1834-1906). Japanese feminist leader Fusae Ichikawa (d. 1981) in Bisai, Aichi Prefecture. Czech novelist Marie Pujmanova (d. ?). Deaths: German radical Julius Froebel (b. 1805). Am. statesman Hamilton Fish (b. 1808) on Sept. 7 in Garrison, N.Y. French pres. (1873-9) Comte Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon (b. 1808) on Oct. 17 in Chateau de La Forest, Loiret. Am. Smith & Wesson co-founder Horace Smith (1808) on Jan. 15. Swiss artist Karl Bodmer (b. 1809). English actresss Fanny Kemble (b. 1809). Hungarian composer Ferenc Erkel (b. 1810). German mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer (b. 1810) on May 14. English classical scholar Benjamin Jowett (b. 1817). Spanish poet-playwright Jose Zorrilla (b. 1817). Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (b. 1818) on Feb. 20 in New Orleans, La. Am. politician and Civil War Union gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler (b. 1818) on Jan. 11 in Washington, D.C. - does your butt have space for all my shoes and hats? French "Ave Maria" composer Charles Gounod (b. 1818) on Oct. 18 in Saint-Cloud. Am. suffragist Lucy Stone (b. 1818) on Oct. 18 in Dorchester, Mass. Am. baseball founder Abner Doubleday (b. 1819) on Jan. 26. Irish physicist John Tyndall (b. 1820). U.S. pres. #19 (1877-81) Rutherford B. Hayes (b. 1822) on Jan. 17 in Fremont, Ohio; last words: "I know I'm going where Lucy is." Am. historian Francis Parkman (b. 1823) on Nov. 8 in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Mass. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (b. 1824) on Mar. 28 in Sewanee, Tenn. Am. railroad tycoon Leland Stanford (b. 1824) on June 21 in Palo Alto, Calif. French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (b. 1825) on Aug. 16. U.S. Supreme Court justice #48 (1888-93) Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II (b. 1825) on Jan. 23 in Ga. French historian Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (b. 1828) on Mar. 5. Am. Repub. politician-statesman James G. Blaine (b. 1830) on Jan. 27 in Washington, D.C.; his 1830 Classic Revival frame house at Capitol and State Sts. in Augusta, Maine becomes the governor's mansion in 1919. French statesman Jules Francois Camille Ferry (b. 1832). Am. actor Edwin Thomas Booth (b. 1833) on June 7 in New York City; elder brother of John Wilkes Booth. Am. Episcopal bishop Philips Brooks (b. 1835) on Jan 23 in Boston, Mass.; his funeral is a major event. Am. Civil War Union gen. Charles Ewing (b. 1835) on June 20 in Washington, D.C. English artist John Atkinson Grimshaw (b. 1836). Am. New Thought leader Julius A. Dresser (b. 1838) in Boston, Mass. English gay poet-essayist John Addington Symonds (b. 1840) on Apr. 19 in Rome; buried near Shelley. Russian composer Peter Tchaikovsky (b. 1840) on Nov. 6 (Oct. 25 Old Style) (dysentery) (cholera) (suspected pathetic suicide?) - the good die young if they don't boil their water when they make their chai? French writer Guy de Maupassant (b. 1850) on July 6 - the good die young? Am. actress Georgiana Drew Barrymore (b. 1856) on July 2 in Santa Barbara, Calif. (TB).



1894 - The Tsar Nicholas II Cat in the Hat Year?

Assassination of Sadi Carnot on June 24, 1894 by Sante Geronimo Caserio (1873-94) Sadi Carnot of France (1837-94) Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier of France (1847-1907) William Gladstone of Britain (1809-98) Nicholas II of Russia (1868-1918) Dr. Seuss (1904-91), The Cat in the Hat Russian Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (1872-1918) Matilda Kshesinskaya (1872-1971) Russian Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich (1879-19560 French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux of France (1853-1944) Joseph Reinach of France (1856-1921) Prussian Prince Chlodwig of Hohenlohe (1819-1901) Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) Sir Mackenzie Bowell of Canada (1823-1917) Chlodwig, Prince Hohenlohe of Germany (1819-1901) Prince Iwao Oyama of Japan (1842-1916) Japanese Adm. Count Sukeyuki Itoh (1843-1914) Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (1836-95) Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) Richard Olney of the U.S. (1835-1917) John Peter Altgeld of the U.S. (1847-1902) Policarpo Bonilla of Honduras (1858-1928) Emile Henry (1872-94) Elwood Haynes (1857-1925) Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. (1854-1951) Edward Douglass White of the U.S. (1845-1921) Sven Anders Hedin (1865-1921) Shibasaburo Kitasato (1853-1931) Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) Simon Lake (1866-1945) August Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Lumière (1864-1948) Antoine Lumière (1839-1911) Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918) Hugh Duffy (1866-1954) Big Ed Delahanty (1867-1903) Billy Hamilton (1866-1940) Big Sam Thompson (1860-1922) Bobby Lowe (1865-1951) Eugen Sandow (1867-1925) Eugen Sandow (1867-1925) Pierre Giffard (1853-1922) Albert Lemaitre (1864-1906)

Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) Gunnar Heibert (1857-1929) Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1851-1940) Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (1858-1935) Rosa Bonheur (1822-99) Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943) Mark Twain (1835-1910) and Henry Huttleston Rogers (1840-1909) Robert William Chambers (1865-1933) James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) Max von Schillings (1868-1933) Leo Frobenius (1873-1938) Bliss Carman (1861-1929) Frank Harris (1856-1931) Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903) George du Maurier (1834-96) Trilby Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910) Frederic William Maitland (1850-1906) Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872-98) Henry Drummond (1851-97) William John Locke (1863-1930) Arthur Morrison (1863-1945) Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951) Katharine Tynan (1861-1931) Edward Hill Amet (1860-1948) Philip Henry Wicksteed (1844-1927) Sir Frederick Pollock (1845-1937) 'The Yellow Book', 1894-7 Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Max Klinger (1857-1920) Max Klinger Example Gustave Caillebotte Example Georges Rouault (1871-1958) Georges Rouault Example Tower Bridge, 1894 Frederick P. Ott (1860-1936) 'Summer Landscape' by George Inness (1825-94), 1894 'Richard Wagner (1813-83)' by Franz von Lenbach, 1894 'Idle Hours' by William Merritt Chase (1849-1916), 1894

1894 In Jan. king (since 1868) Lobengula (b. 1845) of Matabeleland dies of smallpox, dysentery, or poison, but either way Cecil Rhodes has taken over, and by Oct. 1897 he has himself a new diamond-studded homeland for whitey, which he modestly names Rhodesia. In Jan.-Feb. fires in Chicago, Ill. partly destroy the remains of the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, causing the rest to be quickly torn down, except the Japanese Exhibit (which is torched by an arsonist in WWII) and the Fine Arts Bldg. On Feb. 12 French anarchist Emile Henry (b. 1872) bombs Cafe Terminus near the Gare St. Lazare in revenge for the execution of Auguste Vaillant on Feb. 5 (for throwing a small bomb into the Chamber of Deputies and wounding several people to call attention to the plight of the poor), killing one and wounding 19, becoming the first modern terrorist attack on innocent civilians instead of the govt.; after speaking out against the bourgeoisie at his trial, he is guillotined. On Feb. 22 Policarpo Bonilla (1858-1928) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 1, 1899). On Mar. 5 Liberal "Grand Old Man" William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) resigns as British PM, and Queen Vicky, who doesn't like Liberals anyway selects an imperialistic Liberal, foreign secy. Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (1847-1929) (a horse-lover who quit college so he could own a horse, and vowed to marry an heiress, win the Derby and become PM, and already married Jewish banker Baron Mayer de Rothschild's daughter Hannah Rothschild (1851-90) in 1878 after she inherited his estate and became the richest woman in England, leaving him a well-fixed bisexual whose popularity "almost eclipsed royalty", and who's done it all, incl. winning the Derby this year and next) to replace him (until June 22, 1895), becoming the 3rd consecutive British PM to have attended Eton and Christ Church, Oxford (Gladstone, Salisbury) (next Balfour); after continuing to try to implement the Newcastle program, he doesn't last a year before resigning to go back to his horses and pretty boys? On Mar. 12 Coca-Cola narc, er, soft drink is first bottled by Biedenharn Candy Co. in Vicksburg, Miss., run by Joe Biedenharn, who sells it by the case; meanwhile the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta, Ga. opens in Dallas, Tex., and by next year it has addicts in every U.S. state and territory, causing two men from Tenn. to acquire exclusive U.S. rights to bottle and sell it in 1899 - enjoy thirst? On Apr. 26 Confucian teacher Chon Pong-jun (1854-95) becomes leader of the growing Tonghak movement in Korea, which begins to win against govt. forces, causing the king on June 10 to call for help from the Chinese, who send 3K men, causing the Japanese to respond on June 25 with 8K men, who occupy Seoul, after which the two powers forget about the Tonghaks, starting the First Sino-Japanese War (ends 1895) on July 23 after Japan seizes the Kyongbok Palace, forces the Korean govt. to conclude an alliance with it on Aug. 26, and accept reforms incl. ending slavery; on Sept. 17 14 Chinese ships under Qing Beiyang Fleet Adm. Ding Ruchang (1836-95) (who is wounded along with other offices on the bridge from the first shot of his own vessel the Dingyuan) are defeated by 12 Japanese ships under Adm. Count Sukeyuki Itoh (1843-1914) on the Yellow Sea in Korea Bay at the mouth of the Yalu River in the naval Battle of the Yalu River (largest naval battle of the war), with five Chinese ships sunk and three damaged vs. four Japanese ships damaged and no ships sunk, and 1.35K Chinese vs. 290 Japanese casualties; the Chinese suffer from corrupt munitions manufacturers who fill some of the shells with cement instead of high explosives; on Oct. 24 (night) 10K Japanese troops under field marshal Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922) cross the Yalu River by pontoon bridge into S Manchuria, suprising 23K Chinese troops under Chinese gen. Sung Ching, and defeating them after a 3-hour battle, losing only four killed and 140 wounded, after which the Japanese take the local capital of Antung (Dandong) in Liaoning Province, and divide forces, one group going after Port Arthur and the other Mukden; on Nov. 6 Kinchow (Jinxian) is captured, followed by the port of Dalian on Nov. 7; on Nov. 21 (midnight) the Battle (Massacre) of Lushunkou (Port Arthur) sees 15K Japanese troops attack and defeat 13K Chinese troops and capture the port by night, after which the Japanese enter the city, only to find Chinese soldiers dressed up as civilians sniping at them, pissing them off and causing them to round up and massacre adult males at will, ending with 4.5K Chinese killed vs. 29 Japanese; meanwhile the Tonghaks rise in rebellion, forming the Righteous Army (Uibyong), becoming the largest peasant uprising in Korean history (ends 1895). On Apr. 28 wealthy Penn.-born populist "General" Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. (1854-1951) leads the ragtag Coxey's Army of the unemployed to Washington, D.C., seeking legislation providing interest-free funds for roads to be built by the unemployed, and on May 1 is arrested for walking on the grass before he can deliver his speech at the Capitol, being released on June 10 after being nominated for Congress in Ohio; he goes on to become mayor of Massillion, Ohio from 1933-3 and to run for U.S. pres. On May 31 historian Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux (1853-1944) becomes French minister of foreign affairs (until June 14, 1898), going on to work for a rapprochement with Russia and delimit the French colonies in Africa, while not trusting England as far as he can throw the Eiffel Tower, leading to the 1898 Fashoda Incident. On June 22 the first Automobile Race (really a reliability trial) is held from Paris to Rouen and back (80 mi.), and is won in 5 hours by French automaker De Dion-Bouton in a steam engine car going an avg. of 17 mph. On June 23 French Baron Pierre de Fredy (Frédy), Baron de Coubertin (1863-1937) holds an internat. congress at the Sorbonne in Paris to resurrect the ancient Greek Olympics, and founds the Internat. Olympic Committee (IOC) - if this Millennium doesn't bring Christ back, it's time to give the ancient pagans another chance? On June 24 French pres. (since 1887) Sadi Carnot (b. 1837) is stabbed in his carriage in Lyon by French anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio (b. 1873), and dies on June 25, after which Caserio is guillotined on Aug. 16, his last words being "Courage comrades! Long live anarchy!"; on June 27 Left Republican Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier (1847-1907) becomes pres. #5 of France (until Jan. 16, 1895). On June 28 pres. Grover Cleveland signs the U.S. Labor Day Act, making the first Monday in Sept. a legal holiday, "devoted to no man... to no sect, race, or nation" (Samuel Gompers) - especially that uppity General Coxey? In the summer an Armenian uprising begins in Sasun in E Anatolia (S Armenia), which is brutally put down by Kurdish Hamidiye troops in the Hamidian (Hamidiyean) Massacre (1894-6), causing an outcry in Europe; Sultan Abdul Hamid II officially denies any massacres, which continue until 1896, killing 200K and causing 100K to emigrate to the U.S. and the Caucasus. On July 4 the Repub. of Hawaii, with its own sugar-grower-written U.S.-style (with property qualifications for voters) 1894 Hawaii Constitution is proclaimed, while Queen Liliuokalani reluctantly abdicates - black is black, I want my island back? On July 4 Elwood Haynes (1857-1925) successfully tests the first American-made automobile (buggyaut, quadricycle) at the Apperson wagon works in Kokomo, Ind., and patents it. After winning a strike on the Great Northern Railway, the Am. Railway Union of Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) backs the poorly-paid Pullman workers (catching Mr. Pullman asleep at the switch?), tying up all rail transportation in Ill., causing U.S. atty.-gen. (1893-5) Richard Olney (1835-1917), backed by Pres. Cleveland to stink the U.S. govt. up by getting writs of injunction from federal courts forbidding them from acts of violence, then sending U.S. troops in to keep the trains running, supposedly to keep the U.S. mail going; German-born liberal Bryan-backing Ill. gov. (1893-7) John Peter Altgeld (1847-1902) protests to Pres. Cleveland that his state militia has the case under control and federal troops aren't called for, but gets widely condemned as radical as Clevie Baby steamrolls in the new federal power of "government by injunction"; in July after being arrested on a phony murder conspiracy charge, Debs (along with other union officials) is arrested for violating an injunction, and Debs gets 6 mo. in Woodstock jail for contempt, where he is visited by Victor Berger and given Marx's "Das Kapital", becoming a Marxist-Socialist. On Aug. 18 the U.S. Congress establishes the Bureau of Immigration. Dirty deeds and they're done dirt cheap, with your money? On Aug. 27 the U.S. Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act is passed, reducing only slightly the high rates of the 1890 McKinley Tariff due to the Senate adding 600+ amendments, betraying Pres. Cleveland's intentions of tariff reform, and causing him to call its passage "party perfidy and party dishonor"; Cleveland lets it become law without his signature; some Illuminati, er, wiseguy slips in a 2% income tax to make up for it; not so fast there, next Apr. 8 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 5-4 in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. that the income tax is unconstitutional because it is a direct tax, which must be apportioned, making a constitutional amendment mandatory; it takes until 1913. In Aug. the British Glen Grey Act provides for African self-govt., with black voters required to pass property and educational tests - to prove they aren't apes? On Sept. 1 the Hinckley Forest Fire in Minn. burns 480 sq. mi., destroying six towns and killing 480. On Oct. 29 aging former liberal PM of Bavaria (1866-70) Prince Chlodwig Carl Viktor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst (Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Ratibor and Corvey) (1819-1901) becomes chancellor and PM of Prussia (until Oct. 17, 1900), going on to remain in the background and leave affairs to his secys. Gas-ex, the pressure's off? On Nov. 1 Russian tsar (since 1881) Alexander III (b. 1845) dies, and his eldest son Nicholas II (1868-1918) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat?) becomes Russian Romanov tsar #18 (last) (until Mar. 15, 1917), signing a military agreement with France; on Nov. 14 he marries his hemophilia-carrying relative (also related to the British and every other inbred royal house of Europe by now?) Princess Viktoria Alix Helena Luise Beatrice of Hessen and Darmstadt (Alix of Hesse and by Rhine) (1872-1918) (who converts from Lutheran to Russian Orthodox and becomes Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova, followed by St. Alexandra the Passion Bearer in 2000) in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, breaking the heart of his jello-fruit-passions lover, St. Petersburg ballerina (who likes to bet on #17 in Monte Carlo) Matilda Kshesinskaya (Kschessinskaya) (1872-1971), causing her to get even by hooking up with his cousin Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich (1879-1956), having his baby Vladimir, then in the 1920s after fleeing to Paris marrying him; Alexandra accompanies the dead tsar's coffin to St. Petersburg, causing the crowd to murmur "She comes to us behind a coffin" - does she wear a tarlatan or tulle tutu? On Dec. 12 Sir John Thompson (b. 1845) dies suddenly in Windsor Castle in England, and on Dec. 21 Conservative Sen. Sir Mackenzie Bowell (1823-1917) is appointed PM #5 of Canada (until Apr. 27, 1896); the 2nd Mackenzie. Nicaragua, supported by the U.S. invades the British kingdom of Mosquitia in San Juan del Norte (Greytown), Nicaragua (founded 1848) and swats it like a you know what - pelicans are supposed to eat fish not what? The British govt. announces the halt of indentured emigration from India. Bulgarian dictator-PM (since 1887) Stefan Stambulov (b. 1854) resigns after failing to get Ferdinand I recognized by the Euro powers, then is assassinated next year. The 20th century's problem with Jews doesn't wait for the starting gun? The Dreyfus Affair stinks up France after French Jewish military officer Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) is framed for treason (selling secret military info. to the Germans) and convicted "in camera" by royalist anti-republican officers, then stripped of rank and his sword broken, and made into an example of traitors in the republican govt. in an attempt to discredit it; it takes until 1906 for him to be released from priz; (near fear, the Jewish PC press is here?) French Jewish deputy Joseph Reinach (1856-1921) (oldest of the three famous Reinach archeologist brothers, and a former assoc. of Leon Gambetta) champions Dreyfus' cause, only to be criticized for defending him only because they are both Jews, causing him to lose his seat in the chamber of deputies; Austrian-Hungarian-born Jew Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), Paris correspondent for the Vienna Neue Freie Presse covers the story, causing him to freak and abandon the idea of gradual assimilation of Jews like him into Christian Europe, predict a future Holocaust and begin advocating a separate Jewish state, founding let's-have-our-own-Jewish-state Zionism; he ends up predicting a Holocaust 33 times in his writings, making him a genuine Jewish prophet? Alexander I Obrenovich of Serbia suspends the liberal 1888 constitution, annuls a series of laws passed by the radical govt., adding to his unpopularity by marrying commoner Madame Draga Mashin. Dr. Leander Starr Jameson leads a white occupation of kingless Matabeleland. Just when he's picking up steam with his new Independent Labour Party, an explosion at a colliery in Pontypridd, Wales kills 251 miners, and British MP James Keir Hardy asks that a message of condolence to the victims be added to a congratulatory address on the birth of royal heir Prince Edward (later Edward VIII), which is refused, after which he gives a speech attacking the monarchy, bringing on an uproar which loses him his seat next year. Uganda becomes a British protectorate. The British annex spectacular coastal wonderland Pondoland, connecting Cape Colony and Natal on the Indian Ocean. Chlodwig, Prince Hohenlohe (Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst) (1819-1901) succeeds Count Caprivi as German chancellor (until Oct. 17, 1900); Germany and Russia sign a commercial treaty. The Ethnike (Ethniké) Hetaeria (Hetairia) (Gr. "nat. assoc."), a secret anti-Turkish military society is founded in Greece to kick Turkey out of "it's" occupied provinces, esp. Crete. La.-born Edward Douglass White (1845-1921) is appointed on Dec. 19 as the 54th U.S. Supreme Court justice (until May 19, 1921) to bring it back up to nine members - they're dropping like ripe apples all this decade? New Zealand enacts the first known minimum wage law. Britain passes the Spencer Program, providing £31M more funding for naval shipbuilding, keeping the naval arms race with France and Russia going and causing the U.S. and Germany to join. The 400+-page Merchant Shipping Act finally makes crimping (forced naval service) illegal in Britain. Geronimo and his family, barred from returning to their homeland are moved to Ft. Sill in Okla., and Big G goes on to become a celeb, appearing at fairs and signing photos of his jive self. The 1.55K-ton screw sloop USS Kearsarge, which sank the Confederate raider Alabama in 1864 is lost in the West Indies, and by popular demand its name is given to one of the new U.S. battleships, becoming the only battleship not named after a state. Inheritance taxes (death duties) are introduced in Britain. Swedish explorer Sven Anders Hedin (1865-1952) travels in Tibet, becoming the last person to receive a Swedish knighthood in 1902. The Nat. Municipal (later Civic) League is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. by Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Joseph Napoleon, Louis Brandeis, Marshall Field, Frederick Law Olmsted et al. to plan the future development of U.S. cities - and their demographic makeup? Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. in built. Easton, Penn.-born James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) and Columbia, S.C.-born James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) found the Psychological Review to compete with the Am. Journal of Psychology (1887); Cattell goes on to make psychology into a respectable academic discipline, the NYT calling him "the Dean of American Science"; too bad, his opposition to U.S. involvement in WWII gets him fired from Columbia U., causing U.S. univs. to establish tenure. The Church of the Higher Life in Boston, Mass. is founded by Helen Van Anderson, becoming the first regular New Thought org. Famous Am. writer Mark Twain (1835-1910), despite earning as much as $250K year since 1880, declares bankruptcy, going on a world tour next year to pay off his debts, and receiving help from Standard Oil exec Henry Huttleston Rogers (1840-1909). The term "red-light district" is coined by The Sentinel of Milwaukee, Wisc. - causing a run on red lights at the light store? The U. of Tulsa in Okla. is founded. Billboard (originally Billboard Advertising) mag. is founded in Cincinnati, Ohio to cover the bill posting industry; it begins covers movies in 1909 and radio in the 1920s; on Jan. 4, 1936 it pub. the first Billboard music hit parade; on July 20, 1940 it pub. its first music popularity chart, followed in 1958 by the Hot 100; in 1961-2005 it is devoted entirely to music. Thomas Edison opens his Kinetoscope Parlor in New York City, and starts out with Fred Ott's Sneeze (Jan. 7) and Fred Ott Holding a Bird, starring mechanic Frederick P. Ott (1860-1936). French animal painter Rosa Bonheur (1822-99) ("The Horse Fair", "Deer in the Forest", "Weaning the Calves", etc.) becomes the first woman to win the grand cross of the French Legion of Honor. Ziegfeld's Follies, a combo of song, dance and comedy opens on Broadway in Longacre Square (Broadway and 42nd). The Impressionist paintings of Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) are rejected by the Musee Luxembourg in Paris - making them more popular? German "tortured imagination" painter Max Klinger (1857-1920) switches to sculpture, and goes on to make statues of Beethoven, Nietzsche, Brahms, and Wagner. John Quincy Adams' grandson Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918), prof. of history at Harvard (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Am. comedian Dick Smothers?) becomes pres. of the Am. Historical Assoc., giving an inaugural address on the increasing interest in the philosophy of history, which in retrospect is weird because he ends up claiming that history is devoid of purpose?; his railroad official brother Charles Francis Adams (II) (1835-1915) becomes pres. of the AHA in 1901. After Columbia U. won't admit her, New York City-born Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) (student of James McKeen Cattell and Edward B. Titchener) becomes the first woman to be granted a Ph.D. in psychology (at Cornell U.). The weekly Christian Socialist journal The New Age begins pub. (until 1922); in 1907 it is sold to Alfred Richard Orage and Holbrook Jackson, going on to pioneer Vorticism and Imagism; after Orage meets P.D. Ouspensky in 1914, it begins focusing on Spiritualism. The 40th anniv. of the writing career of German novelist Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910) is celebrated by the German nation. The Yellow Book, founded by Charles Elkin Mathews (1851-1921) and John Lane (1854-1925), and edited by Am.-born Henry Harland (1861-1905) begins pub. (ends 1897), becoming a key British lit. periodical, its yellow cover later giving rise to the term "Yellow 1890s" of Aestheticism and Decadence, and mentioned in Oscar Wilde's "Picture of Dorian Gray". Former Edison employee Edward Hill Amet (1860-1948) invents the Magniscope movie projector, teaming up with Waukegan, Ill. theater mgr. (former Chicago newspaper vendor) George Kirke Spoor (1872-1953) and selling it to several major movie theaters, cranking out a series of war films incl. bathtub naval battles; he ceases production of the Magniscope in 1900 after the release of the Selig Polyscope, selling out to Spoor, who founds the Nat. Film Renting Co., distributing projectors and films to theaters nationwide; employees incl. Donald J. Bell (1869-1934) and Albert S. Howell (1879-1951), who in 1907 found Bell & Howell Co. in Skokie, Ill., introducing an all-metal camera in 1912 that helps to make 35mm film the industry std., introducing a home movie camera in the 1920s, reaching 500 employees and $1M sales by 1925. The Bata Shoe Co. is founded in Zlin, Czech. by Tomas Bata (1876-1932), going on to supply the Austro-Hungarian army in WWI; by 1932 it produces 75K pairs a day. Beatrice Creamery Co. in Beatrice, Neb. is founded by George Everett Haskell and William W. Bosworth, leasing 50K hand cream separators to farmers by 1905, which they pay for from their cream sales proceeds; after moving to Chicago in 1913, it goes on to become the #1 U.S. dairy co., with the Meadow Gold brand; after overextending with Avis Rent A Car, Playtex, Tropicana et al. it ends up the target of the largest leveraged buyout in history in 1986 ($8.7B). Salesman James Couden paints the first "Drink Coca-Cola" sign on the wall of the Young Brothers Pharmacy in Cartersville, Ga. for free in return for selling the beverage. Sports: In the winter of 1894-5 a group of U.S. college students visit Canada and bring the game of hockey to the U.S. On Feb. 9 the North Am. Jockey Club is founded n New York City, going on to regulate U.S. horse racing and fight organized crime and corruption at racetracks; there are 314 racetracks operating in the U.S., which is down to 25 by 1908 after anti-gambling sentiment causes horseracing to be banned in virtually every state. On July 22 after sponsoring the Paris-Brest-Paris cycle race in 1891, and the Paris-Belfort running race in 1892, the 5K-franc Paris-Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition, sponsored by Pierre Giffard (1853-1922) of Le Petit Journal, the world's first competitive motor race (although the ad says "it will not be a race") is preceded by four days of exhibitions and qualifying events in front of large crowds is won by Marquis Jules Albert de Dion (1856-1946), who is disqualified because his steam vehicle needed a "stoker", making the winner Albert (Georges) Lemaitre (1864-1906) in his 3hp Peugeot Type 7. On Sept. 27 Aqueduct Racetrack (AKA the Big A) for horseracing opens in Queens, N.Y. near a conduit of the Brooklyn Water Works that carries water from Long Island to the Ridgewood Reservoir. The Railway Stakes Thoroughbred horserace is founded at Ascot Racecourse in Perth, Australia; by 2007 prize money reaches $1M. Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) of Germany defeats William Steinitz of the U.S. to win become world chess champ #2 (until 1921). While guest-lecturing at Stanford U., Pres. Benjamin Harrison slips into a college baseball game without paying the 25 cent admission, and 19-y.-o. student home team mgr. Herbert Hoover (future pres.) catches him and makes him pay up - brother, spare a dime? Hugh Duffy (1866-1954) of the Boston Beaneaters (1892-1900), sets the ML batting avg. record with a .438 avg. incl. 18 homers and 145 RBI; meanwhile William Robert "Sliding Billy" Hamilton (1866-1940) of the Philadelphia Phillies (1890-5) scores a ML record of 192 runs scored, and hits over .400 (.404) with fellow outfielders Samuel Luther "Big Sam" Thompson (1860-1922) (.407), Edward James "Big Ed" Delahanty (1867-1903) (.407), and George A. "Tuck" Turner (1873-1945) (.416), becoming the first all-.400-hitting outfield (until ?). Robert Lincoln "Bobby" "Link" Lowe (1865-1951) hits four homers for the Boston Beaneaters against Cincinnati on May 30; next time is July 13, 1896 by Ed Delahanty; he is present when Lou Gehrig repeats the feat in 1932; no player hits more in a ML game until ?. Architecture: The Grand Opera House in Galveston, Tex. is built, surviving the 1900 hurricane. Tower Bridge downstream of London Bridge on the Thames River in London is built, with a double-leaf bascules providing a 250-ft. opening between its twin towers; the stairway has almost 300 steps. Inventions: Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) produces the first 3-hp steam-powered Oldsmobile, beating Henry Ford by two years; by 1899 he is producing 400 cars a year. The Holland Brothers open the first Kinetoscope movie parlor in New York City, selling tickets at 25 cents to see 5 of 10 choices; meanwhile William Dickson of Edison Labs combines sound and film for the first time, while Edison's studio produces films featuring famous German strongman Eugen Sandow (1867-1925), plus the Sioux Ghost Dance and Buffalo Dance. Henri-Alexander Deslandres (1853-1948) invents the Spectroheliograph. Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar makes its debut. Simon Lake (1866-1945) develops the first modern submarine, the Argonaut Jr. German "Glider King" Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) files for a patent on a triangle control frame hang glider, the Derwitzer, going on 2K+ flights and learning how to hover against a 10 mph updraft, inspiring the Wright Brothers. Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1851-1940) of England invents the Coherer for detecting radio signals, becoming a big breakthrough for vacuum tube technology. Brothers Auguste Lumiere (Lumière) (1862-1954) and Louis Lumiere (Lumière) (1864-1948), who with their photographer father Antoine Lumiere (Lumière) (1839-1911) (Fr. "lumiere" = light) set up a photographic equipment factory in Lyons, France in the 1880s invent the Cinematograph (camera-projector combo), one of the first motion picture cameras. Serbian-born Am. physicist Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (1858-1935) invents the Pupin Loading Coil, which greatly extends the range of long distance telephones by adding distributed inductance to the line; the patent is later acquired by AT&T. Science: The bacillus Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) that causes the bubonic plague (Black Death) is discovered independently by Shibasaburo Kitasato (1852-1931) of Japan and Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) of Russia. Nonfiction: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Symbolisten. John Bartlett (1820-1905), Complete Concordance to Shakespeare's Dramatic Works and Poems. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), The Psychology of Peoples. Charles Booth (1840-1916), The Aged Poor in England and Wales. Charles Augustus Briggs (1841-1913), The Messiah of the Gospels; The Messiah of the Apostles. John Burroughs (1837-1921), Riverby. Katharine Coman (1857-1915), The Growth of the English Nation. John Rogers Commons (1862-1945), Social Reform and the Church. Hans Delbruck (1848-1929), Life of Marshal-Counts Neithardt von Gneisenau. Henry Drummond (1851-97), The Ascent of Man (Lowell Lectures, Boston); altruism is needed in natural selection? Alice Morse Earl (ed.), The Diary of Anna Green Winslow, A Boston School Girl of 1771. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Socialism: An Examination of Its Nature, Its Strength and Its Weakness; Socialism and Social Reform. Frederick William Farrar (1831-1903), The Life of Christ as Represented in Art; blames the Spanish Inquisition for ruining religious art, and praises the English Pre-Raphaelites for bringing back the good stuff. Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Die Geheimbunde Afrikas. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Crumbling Idols. James Geikie (1839-1915), The Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the Antiquity of Man. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Die Systematische Phylogenie. William Hechler (1845-1931), The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine; Anglican priest predicts it will happen in 1897-8; meets Theodor Herzl in Mar. 1896 right before the 1897 First Zionist Congress. William Ernest Henley et al., A Dictionary of Slang and Its Analogues (1894-1904). Benjamin Kidd, Social Revolution. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth; expose of corporate dirty laundry and attack on monopolies. Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), The Dawn of Astronomy. Frederic William Maitland (1850-1906) and Sir Frederick Pollock (1845-1937) History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I. Orison Swett Marden (1850-1924), Pushing to the Front, or Success Under Difficulties, or Success Under Difficulties; biggest bestseller to date in personal development despite (because of?) a depression, with fans incl. Thomas Edison, Harvey Firestone, Henry Ford, and J.P. Morgan; "go-at-it-veness" and "stick-to-it-iveness"; "The world makes way for a determined man." Karl Marx (1818-83) and Friedrich Engels (1820-95), Das Kapital, Vol. 3: The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole (posth.); the most important volume? Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), Les Inscriptions des Pyramides de Saqaarah. Thomas Mun, England's Treasure by Foreign Trade. Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932), The Scientific Bases of Analytical Chemistry; founds modern Physical Chemistry. Austin Norman Palmer (1860-1927), Palmer's Guide to Business Writing; sells 1M+ copies; his Palmer Method of penmanship, developed in 1888, which begins to supplant the Spencerian Method of the 1840s. Charles Ranhofer (1836-99), The Epicurean; 1K-page encyclopedic cookbook. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), In the Dozy Hours. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), The Philosophy of Freedom. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912), Lehrbuch der Botanik fur Hochschulen (Textbook of Botany); becomes std. textbook. Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) and Sidney Webb (1859-1947), History of Trade Unionism. Philip Henry Wicksteed (1844-1927), An Essay on the Coordination of the Laws of Distribution; an attempted mathematical proof that a distributive system that rewards factory owners according to marginal productivity will exhaust the total product produced. Movies: Lumiere Brothers, The Serpentine Dance; stars Annabelle. Music: Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), The Pearl of Iran, A Romantic Opera; libretto by composer. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (Prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune) (based on a poem by Stephane Mallarme) (Dec. 22) (Paris). Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Humoresques, Op. 101, the most famous short piano piece after Beethoven's "Fur Elise"; listen. Cesar Franck (1822-90), Hulda (opera) (posth.) Victor Herbert (1859-1924), 2nd Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 30 (Mar.) (New York Philharmonic); Prince Ananias (operetta). Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov (1859-1935), Caucasian Sketches, Op. 10; incl. Procession of the Sardar. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), The Mohammedan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 2 ("Resurrection"); 80-min. 5-movement score attempting to capture the travail of human existence and ultimate salvation through God's love? Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Thais (Thaïs) (opera) (Opera Garnier, Paris) (Mar. 16); based on the Anatole France novel; stars Sybil Sanderson as pagan Alexandrian babe Thais, who Cenobite Christian monk Athanael (Jean-Francois Delmas) tries to convert to Christianity, only to get tripped up by lust; incl. the super-popular Meditation from Thais. Andre Messager (1853-1929), Mirette (operetta) (Savoy Theatre, London). Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Prelude in C-sharp minor, Op. 3 no. 2. Max von Schillings (1868-1933), Ingwelde (opera). Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Guntram (opera) (May 10) (Weimar); incl. the famous Guntram Finale. Art: Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872-98), Drawings for Oscar Wilde's "Salome"; incl. The Toilet of Salome, Herodias and Salome. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Femme au Chapeau Vert (Woman in a Green Hat). Matthew Corbett, Morning Glory. Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Femme a son toilette. George Inness (1825-94), Summer Landscape. Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904), Portrait of Richard Wagner; them genius eyes? Georges Rouault (1871-1958), Infant Jesus among the Doctors; brings instant fame. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), A Rose from Armida's Garden; Love Sonnets. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), In the Parlor at the Rue des Moulins; The Two Girlfriends (1894-5). Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Married Life. Plays: Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), El Nido Ajeno (Other Birds' Nests). Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), L'Engrenage. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), The Charlatan. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Rothschild's Fiddle. Sir Israel Gollancz (1864-1930) (ed.), The Temple Shakespeare (1894-6). Knut Hamsum, Pan. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Hanneles Himmelfahrt. Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Balkonen (The Balcony); his masterpiece? Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Little Eyolf. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Vers la Joie. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Arms and the Man. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Wapping Old Stairs (musical); Talbot's first of many musicals. Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Thankful Poor. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Land of Heart's Desire (verse drama). Poetry: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), Adzuma; Or, The Japanese Wife. Bliss Carman (1861-1929) and Richard Hovey (1864-1900), Songs from Vagabondia. Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), Poems and Verses. Frederik Willem van Eeden (1860-1932), De Broeders: Tragedie van het Recht. Douglas Hyde (1860-1949), Love Songs of Connacht. Willem Kloos (1859-1938), Verzen; revolutionizes Dutch literary diction. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Ban and Arriere Ban. Josef Svatopluk Machar (1854-1942), Magdalen. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Eriphyle. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Mes Paradis. Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), Astrophel. Novels: Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863-1938), Il Trionfo Della Morte (The Triumph of Death). John Jacob Astor IV (1864-1912), A Journey in Other Worlds (only novel). Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Cuentos de Amor. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The Christmas Hirelings; Thou Art the Man. Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Manxman. Robert William Chambers (1865-1935), In the Quarter (first novel). Kate Chopin (1850-1904), Bayou Folk (short stories). Leon Daudet (1867-1942), L'Astre Noir. Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), The Land of Pluck: Stories and Sketches for Young Folk. Marcellus Emants (1848-1923), Een Nagelaten Bekentenis. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Meine Kinderjahre; Effi Briest; poetic realism? Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), Pembroke. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Die Martinsklause. George Gissing (1857-1903), In the Year of Jubilee. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), On Manifold Nature; coins the term "New Woman". George Grossmith and Weedon Grossmith, Diary of a Nobody. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The People of the Mist. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Pan; another masterpiece? Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Life's Little Ironies (short stories). Jose Maria de Heredia (1842-1905), Historia de laa Nonne Alferez. Anthony Hope (1863-1933), The Dolly Dialogues; The Prisoner of Zenda; illustrations by Charles Dana Gibson; the King of Ruritania? Frank Harris (1856-1931), Elder Conklin (short stories). Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), Peter's Wife; The Hoyden. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), The Jungle Book (2 vols.); Mowgli, Sabu, Shere Khan the Tiger, Rikki-Tikki-Tavi the Mongoose, Baloo the Bear; written in Brattleboro, Vt., home of Kipling's wife Caroline, whom he married in 1892; by now he's getting so popular that people keep his personal checks uncashed as souvenirs? Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Yellow Fairy Book. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), Maelcho. William John Locke (1863-1930), At the Gate of Samaria (first novel). George du Maurier (1834-96), Trilby; bestseller (200K in the U.S.) about 1850s bohemian Paris, illustrated by the author; coins the term "Svengali" for the evil Jewish musical genius who turns half-Irish working girl Trilby O'Ferrall into a diva through hypnosis; the London stage production features narrow-brimmed "crumpled" soft felt hats with indented crowns, which become known as trilby hats (trilbys). Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), La Maison de la Vielle. George Moore (1852-1933), Esther Waters; makes his lit. rep. William Morris (1834-96), The Wood Beyond the World. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Martin Hewitt: Investigator. Teuvo Pakkala (1862-1925), Elsa. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Trail of the Sword. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Amori Senza Amore (short stories). Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943), Night Watch (Nattevagt); The Old Adam (Den Gamle Adam); men's fear of women's sexuality. Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910), Kloster Lugau; his masterpiece? Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Love Stories. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Enthralled. William Sharp (1855-1905), Vistas; Pharais: A Romance of the Isles (first novel); pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Intended (first novel). Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), Tales of the Punjab (short stories). Stendhal (1783-1842), Lucien Leuwen (posth.). Mark Twain (1835-1910), Pudd'nhead Wilson; mystery novel about a black slave giving birth to her white massuh's baby and switching him at birth with the master's baby by his white wife, causing the white baby to be raised as black and the mulatto baby to be raised as white; one of the first crime novels to use fingerprints to solve the crime. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), A Cluster of Nuts, Being Sketches Among My Own People. Mrs. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Marcella. Stanley B. Weyman, Under the Red Robe. Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), Horace Chase. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), The King of Schnorrers. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Trilogy of the Three Cities (1894-8). Births: Indian Bose-Einstein Statistics physicist Satyendra Nath (Satyendranath) Bose (d. 1974) on Jan. 1 in Calcutta, West Bengal. Polish-Am. conductor Artur Rodzinski (d. 1959) on Jan. 1 in Spalato, Dalmatia (Split, Croatia); emigrates to the U.S. in 1925. Am. "The Bishop's Wife", "Portrait of Jennie" novelist-poet-playwright (Jewish) Robert Gruntal Nathan (d. 1985) on Jan. 2 in New York City; cousin of Emma Lazarus and Benjamin Cardozo; nephew of Maud Nathan and Annie Nathan Meyer; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Greed", "Wedding March", "Elvira Nugie Nugent in The Gale Storm Show" actress ZaSu (Zazu) Pitts (d. 1963) (pr. "ZAY-sue", "ZAH-zoo") on Jan. 3 in Parsons, Kan.; ZaSu = Eliza + Susan; grows up in Santa Cruz, Calif. Am. journalist (Washington Post ed. in 1933-40) Felix Muskett Morley (d. 1982) on Jan. 6 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Haverford College, Oxford U., and the Brookings Inst. Polish Franciscan friar-martyr (St.) Maximilian (Raymund) Kolbe (d. 1941) on Jan. 8 in Zdunska Wola. English "The Primrose Path" actor-writer-dir.-producer Reginald Denham (d. 1983) on Jan. 10 in London. Am. "Here Comes Mr. Jordan" film dir. Alexander Hall (d. 1968) on Jan. 11 in Boston, Mass. French 5'11-1/2" light heavyweight boxer ("the Orchid Man") Georges Carpentier (d. 1975) on Jan. 12 in Lievin (near Lens), Palas-de-Calais. Am. jazz music publisher (Jewish) Irving Mills (AKA Joe Primrose) (d. 1985) on Jan. 16 in New York City; discoverer of Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway et al. Am. "Little Orphan Annie" cartoonist (Freemason) Harold Lincoln Gray (d. 1968) on Jan. 20 in Kankakee, Ill. Am. "The Incredible Flutist" neoclassical composer Walter Hamor Piston Jr. (d. 1976) on Jan. 20 in Rockland, Maine; grandson of Italian immigrant Antonio Pistone; educated at Harvard U. and the Ecole Normale in Paris, where he studies under organist Nadia Boulanger; teacher of Leonard Bernstein. English "The Flashing Stream" playwright-novelist-poet Charles Langbridge Morgan (d. 1958) on Jan. 22 in Bromley, Kent. Bulgarian tsar (1918-43) Boris III (Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver) (d. 1943) on Jan. 30 in Sofia; eldest son of Ferdinand I (1861-1948) and Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma; father of Simeon II (1937-). Am. "I'll Hold You in My Dreams", "Wabash Blues", "You're in the Army Now" bandleader-songwriter Isham Edgar Jones (d. 1956) on Jan. 31 in Coalton, Ohio. Am. movie dir. ("great Am. poet of the cinema") ("poet of the underdog") John "Jack" "Pappy" "Coach" Ford (John Martin Feeney) (Sean Aloysius O'Feeney or O'Fearna) (d. 1973) on Feb. 1 in Cape Elizabeth, Maine; 13th of 13 children; brother Francis is an actor-dir.; father Sean O'Fearna (O'Feeney) emigrated from Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland; mother Barbara Curran emigrated from the Aran Islands; family moves to Portland, Ore., where he attends h.s., then he goes back and graduates from the U. of Maine; wears a patch over his left eye; Pres. Nixon promotes him to adm.; his movies always slip in bits of his Irish heritage, such as U.S. cavalry men singing "The Bold Fenian Men". Am. Ping-Pong Flight aviator Henry Tyndall "Dick" Merrill (d. 1982) on Feb. 1 in Iuka, Miss.; descendant of Daniel Boone. Am. jazz stride pianist (black) ("Father of Stride Piano") James Price "Jimmy" Johnson (d. 1955) on Feb. 1 in New Brunswick, N.J. British lexicographer Eric Honeywood Partridge (d. 1979) (AKA Corrie Denison) on Feb. 6 in Gisborne, New Zealand; grows up in Australia; educated at the U. of Queensland and Balliol College, Oxford U. Canadian air marshal (1938-44) William Avery "Billy" Bishop (d. 1956) on Feb. 8 in Owen Sound, Ont.; 72 Vs in WWI (3rd highest among Allies). Am. "The Champ" movie dir.-producer King Vidor (d. 1982) on Feb. 8 in Galveston, Tex. Russian physicist (Jewish) Yakov (Jacov) Ilyich Frenkel (d. 1952) on Feb. 10 in Rostov-on-Don. British Conservative PM (1957-63) Maurice Harold "Supermac" Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, 1st Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (d. 1986) on Feb. 10 in Chelsea, London; expelled from Eton for buggery?; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; created earl in 1984. Am. actor-comedian-violinist (Jewish) Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky) (d. 1974) on Feb. 14 in Waukegan, Ill.; plays a Hollywood star with impeccable timing, himself. Am. "first Jane in Tarzan movies" actress Enid Markey (d. 1981) on Feb. 22 in Dillon, Calif. Indian guru Meher Baba ("compassionate father") (Merwan Sheriar Irani) (d. 1969) on Feb. 25 in Pune. Am. "The Front Page", "Stagecoach", "Gunga Din", "His Girl Friday" screenwriter-novelist-dir.-producer (Jewish) ("the Shakespeare of Hollywood") (first to receive an original screenplay Oscar) Ben Hecht (d. 1964) on Feb. 28 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; grows up in Racine, Wisc. East German PM (1949-64) Otto Grotewohl (d. 1964) on Mar. 11 in Braunschweig. Am. diplomat-lobbyist (United Fruit Co.) Spruille Braden (d. 1978) on Mar. 13 in Elkhorn, Mont. Am. explorer-filmmaker Osa Helen Johnson (nee Leighty) (d. 1953) on Mar. 14 in Chanute, Kan.; wife of Martin Elmer Johnson (1884-1937). Am. "In Abraham's Bosom" playwright Paul Eliot Green on Mar. 17 in Lillington, N.C.; educated at UNC and Cornell U. U.S. labor secy. (1953) Martin Patrick Durkin (d. 1955) on Mar. 18 in Chicago, Ill. Am. baseball player (2B) William Adolph "Bill Wamby" Wambsganss (d. 1985) on Mar. 19 in Cleveland, Ohio; first unassisted triple WS play (1920). French WWI #1 Allied flying ace (75 Vs vs. 80 for Manfred von Richthofen) Rene Paul Fonck (d. 1953) on Mar. 27 in Saulcy-sur-Meurthe. Soviet aircraft designer Sergei (Sergey) Vladimirovich Ilyushin (d. 1977) on Mar. 30 (Mar. 18 Old Style) in Dilialevo. Am. "Heaven Can Wait", "The Jazz Singer" playwright-screenwriter Samson Raphaelson (d. 1983) on Mar. 30 in New York City. Am. inventor Anatol M. Joseph (Josephewitz) (d. 1980) on Mar. 31 in Siberia, Russia. English feminist pacifist writer Dora Black, Lady Russell (d. 1986) on Apr. 3; 2nd wife (1920-) of Bertrand Russell (1872-1970); educated at Girton College, Cambridge U.; mother of John Russell, 4th earl Russell (1921-87); created countess in 1931. Soviet Communist Party First Secy. (1953-64) and PM (1958-64) Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (d. 1971) on Apr. 5 in Kalinovka (near Kursk), Ukraine. Am. oldest living person (Jan. 2, 2009-Sept. 11, 2009) (black) Gertrude Baines (d. 2009) on Apr. 6 in Shellman, Ga. English "Chalet School" children's writer Elinor M. Brent-Dyer (Gladys Eleanor May Dyer) (d. 1969) on Apr. 6; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1930. Am. statistician (inventor of the confidence interval) (Roman Catholic turned agnostic) Jerzy Neyman (Splawa-Neyman) (d. 1981) on Apr. 16 in Bendery, Bessarabia, Russia; educated at Kharkov U., and U. of Warsaw; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "The Pearl of Death" acromegalic horror actor Rondo K. Hatton (d. 1946) on Apr. 22 in Hagerstown, Md. Am. "Seventh Heaven", "Farewell to Arms" film dir. Frank Borzage (d. 1962) on Apr. 23 in Roncone, Austria-Hungary (Italy); emigrates to the U.S. in the early 1980s; husband (1916-41) of Lorena B. Rogers; winner of the first Oscar for directing (1927). English "Capt. Smollett in Treasure Island", "Pontius Pilate in Salome" actor Basil Sydney (d. 1968) on Apr. 23 in St. Osyth, Essex. German Nazi leader (deputy Fuhrer) Walter (Walther) Richard Rudolf Hess (d. 1987) on Apr. 26 in Alexandria, Egypt; of Greek descent; moves to Germany at age 14, and serves in the same WWI regiment with Adolf Hitler. Am. composer-conductor-lexicographer-musicologist Nicolas (Nikolai Leonidovich) Slonimsky (d. 1995) on Apr. 27 in St. Petersburg, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Austrian mathematician-physicist (Jewish) Marietta Blau (d. 1970) on Apr. 29 in Vienna; educated at the U. of Vienna; moves to Mexico in 1938, and the U.S. in 1944, then back to Austria in 1960; another dame snubbed for a Nobel Prize in favor of a man (Cecil Powell in 1950)? English "Journey's End" journalist Charles Vernon Oldfield Bartlett (d. 1983) on Apr. 30 in Westbury, Wiltshire. Czech Dvorak Simplified Keyboard inventor August Dvorak (d. 1975) on May 5; distant cousin of Czech composer Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Am. cardinal (1967-) Francis John Joseph Brennan (d. 1968) on May 7 in Shenandoah, Penn. Am. "The Intelligent Investor" economist (Jewish) ("Father of Value Investing") Benjamin Graham (Grossbaum) (d. 1976) on May 8 in London, England; emigrates to the U.S. at age 1; educated at Columbia U. U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1967-73) Ellsworth Bunker (d. 1984) on May 11. Am. choreographer ("high priestess of modern dance") Martha Graham (d. 1991) on May 11 in Allegheny, Penn.; first teacher is Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968). English "The Sun is My Undoing" novelist-playwright Marguerite Steen (d. 1975) on May 12 in Liverpool; lover of Sir William Nicholson (1872-1949). Am. "Lost Horizon", "It's a Wonderful Life", "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "High Noon" film score composer-conductor (Jewish) Dimitri Zinovievich Tiomkin (d. 1979) on May 10 in Kremenchuk, Poltava, Ukraine; emigrates to Germany in 1924 and the U.S. in 1925; husband of Albertina Rasch (1895-1967); collaborator of Ned Washington (1901-76). Canadian actress-comedian ("Funniest Woman in the World") Beatrice Gladys "Bea" Lillie (Lady Peel) on May 29 in Toronto. Am. "Town Hall Tonight" comedian Fred Allen (John Florence Sullivan) (d. 1956) on May 31 in Cambridge, Mass. French "Voyage au Bout de la Nuit" anti-Semitic novelist Louis-Ferdinand Celine (Céline) (Destouches) (d. 1961) on May 27 in Courbevoie. Am. "Sam Spade", "Maltese Falcon" mystery writer (Communist) Dashiell Hammett (d. 1961) on May 27 in St. Mary's County, Md.; known for his white hair; hooks up with Lillian Hellman (1905-84) in 1930. Austrian-Am. "The Blue Angel", "The Scarlet Empress", "Last Command" film dir. (Jewish) Josef (Jonas) (von) Sternberg (d. 1969) on May 29 in Vienna; grows up in New York City. Polish ambassador to Germany (1934-9) Jozef (Józef) Lipski (d. 1958) on June 5. English writer (bi) Violet Trefusis (nee Keppel) (d. 1971) on June 6; daughter of Alice Keppel (1868-1947), mistress of Edward VII; lover of Vita Sackville-West (1896-1962). Am. aircraft designer Alexander Nikolaievich Procofiev de Seversky (d. 1974) on June 7 in Tiflis (Tbilisi), Georgia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918. Am. "Happy Critic" poet-writer-critic Mark Albert Van Doren (d. 1972) on June 13 in Hope, Ill.; brother of writer Carl Van Doren (1885-1950); father of Charles Van Doren (1926-); educated at the U. of Ill. and Columbia U. Am. "The Postman Always Rings Twice", "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" dir. Tay Garnett (d. 1977) on June 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. psychiatrist (Jewish) Leo Kanner (d. 1981) (pr. like Conner) on June 13 in Klekotow (Klekotiv), Brody, Galicia (Ukraine); educated at the U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924. Am. composer-arranger Robert Russell Bennett (d. 1981) on June 15 in Kansas City, Mo. Czech writer-journalist Josef Kopta (d. 1962) on June 16 in Libochovice. Soviet field marshal (1944-) Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (d. 1949) on June 16 in Yaroslavl. Am. "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male/Female" sexologist-zoologist (gay?) Alfred Charles Kinsey (d. 1956) on June 23 in Hoboken, N.J.; educated at Bowdoin College, and Harvard U.; has childhood rickets, and grows up to be an expert on the Gall wasp before tiring of entomology - so he naturally is interested in small private parts? English king (Jan. 20-Dec. 11, 1936) Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor) (d. 1972) on June 23 in White Lodge, Richmond Park; eldest son of George V and Mary; brother of Albert Windsor, duke of York (George VI) (1895-1952); educated at the Royal Naval College; invents the Windsor knot for a necktie; popularizes gaudy Fair Isle (Shetland Islands) knit pullovers in the 1920s. Am. baseball hall-of-fame exec (New York Yankees) George Martin Weiss (d. 1972) on June 23 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at Yale U. German rocket science pioneer Hermann Julius Oberth (d. 1989) on June 25 in Hermannstadt, Transylvania (Sibiu, Romania). Am. ambassador (to Britain) Lewis Williams Douglas (d. 1974) on July 2 in Bisbee, Ariz.; educated at Amherst College and MIT. Am. "After You've Gone" lyricist (black) John Turner Layton Jr. (d. 1978) on July 2 in Washington, D.C.; collaborator of Henry Creamer (1879-1930). Russian superfluidity physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (d. 1984) on July 8 in Kronstadt; educated at Cambridge U. German Catholic Trade Union leader and July 20th plotter Bernhard Letterhaus (d. 1944) on July 10 in Barmen, Wuppertal. Am. "Diga Diga Doo", "On the Sunny Side of the Street", "I Can't Give You Anything But Love", "I'm in the Mood for Love", "A Lovely Way to Spend an Evening" songwriter James Francis "Jimmy" McHugh (d. 1969) on July 10 in Boston, Mass.; collaborator of Dorothy Fields (1905-74). Am. "Cocoanuts", "The Sheik", "Stagecoach", "Gabriel Over the White House" film producer (Jewish) Walter Wanger (Feuchtwanger) (d. 1968) (pr. to rhyme with ranger) on July 11 in San Francisco, Calif. Soviet writer-playwright Isaak Emmanuilovich Babel (d. 1940) on July 12 (June 30 Old Style) in Moldavanka (near Odessa). Am. dir.-producer (Jewish) David Fleischer (d. 1979) on July 14; brother of Max Fleischer (1883-1972). British Adm. of the Fleet Philip Louis Vian (d. 1968) on July 15 in London. Belgian Roman Catholic priest and Big Bang physicist-astronomer Georges Henri Joseph Edouard Lemaitre (d. 1966) on July 17 in Charleroi. Am. Quick's Test physician Armand James Quick (d. 1978) on July 18 in Theresa, Wisc. Am. microwave oven inventor (1945) Percy Lebaron Spencer (d. 1970) on July 19 in Howland, Maine; no formal education. Am. Cord Automobile founder Errett Lobban "E.L." Cord (d. 1974) on July 20 in Warrensburg, Mo. English "Curly Top", "Stowaway", "Heidi", "The Little Princess", "Jeeves" 6'4" actor Arthur Vreary Treacher (d. 1975) on July 23 in Brighton, East Sussex. Am. "Grandpa McCoy in The Real McCoys" actor Walter Andrew Brennan (d. 1974) on July 25 in Lynne, Mass.; Irish immigrant parents. Bosnian Black Hand assassin Gavrilo Princip (d. 1918) on July 25; starts WWI. English "Brave New World" novelist-essayist-poet Aldous (OG "old") Leonard Huxley (d. 1963) on July 26 in Godalming, Surrey; grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95); brother of Julian Huxley (1887-1975); educated at Eton College and Oxford U.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1937. Am. right-wing journalist (Roman Catholic) Francis James Westbrook Pegler (d. 1969) on Aug. 2 in Minneapolis, Minn.; first columnist to win a Pulitzer Prize for reporting (1941); starts out anti-New Deal, anti-fascist and anti-union, then gradually becomes anti-civil rights, anti-Semitic, and pro-fascist, becoming known as "the stuck whistle of journalism". Canadian Lance-Cpl. Frederick Fisher (d. 1915) on Aug. 3 in St. Catharines, Ont. Irish independence leader Daniel "Dan" Breen (d. 1969) on Aug. 11 in Grange, County Tipperary. U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1958-61) Donald Read Heath (d. 1981) on Aug. 12 in Topeka, Kan. German SS Col. Paul Blobel (d. 1951) on Aug. 13 in Potsdam. Soviet Gen. Maksim (Maxim) Alexeyevich Purkayev (d. 1953) on Aug. 14 (Aug. 26 Old Style) in Nalitovo. Am. singer and cabaret owner (in France) (black) (redhead) Ada Beatrice Queen Victoria Louise Virginia "Bricktop" Smith (d. 1984) on Aug. 14 in Alderson, W. Va. Am. Cajun Dem. La. state sen. (1940-4, 1948-52, 1964-8, 1968-71) Dudley Joseph "Cousin Dud" LeBlanc (d. 1971) on Aug. 16 near Youngsville, Lafayette Parish; known for promoting Hadacol. Am. labor leader George Meany (d. 1980) on Aug. 16 in Bronx, N.Y; AFL pres. (1952-5) and AFL-CIO pres. (1955-79); starts out as a plumber. English automobile manufacturer (Rootes Group founder) William Edward "Billy" Rootes, 1st Baron Rootes (d. 1964) on Aug. 17 in Goudhurst, Kent; knighted in 1942; created baron in 1959. English "Fourteenth of October" novelist (lesbian) Bryher (Annie Winnifred Ellerman) (d. 1983) on Sept. 2 in Margate; daughter of John Ellerman (1862-1933); lover (1918-) of Hilda Doolittle (H.D.) (1886-1961). French "Radetzky March", "Job" novelist (Jewish) (alcoholic) Joseph Roth (d. 1939) on Sept. 2 in Brody (near Lviv), Austria-Hungary; emigrates to France in 1933. British Gen. Sir Douglas David Gracey (d. 1964) on Sept. 3 in Muzaffarnagar, North-Western Provinces, British India. Am. "An American in Paris", "Gigi" MGM big budget musical producer (1939-) (Jewish) Arthur Freed (Grossman) (d. 1973) on Sept. 9 in Charleston, S.C. German Communist politician Friedrich "Fritz" Ebert Jr. (d. 1979) on Sept. 12 in Bremen; son of Fritz Ebert Sr. (1871-1925). Am. "The Great Dictator", "His Gal Friday" ("Sneezy in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs") comic actor Billy Gilbert (William Gilbert Barron) (d. 1971) on Sept. 12 in Louisville, Ky. Am. auto racer James Anthony "Jimmy" Murphy (d. 1924) on Sept. 12 in San Francisco, Calif.; Irish immigrant parents. Dutch Penning Trap, Penning Gauge physicist Frans Michel Penning (d. 1953) on Sept. 12 in Gorinchem. English "An Inspector Calls" novelist John Boynton Priestley (d. 1984) on Sept. 13 in Bradford. Polish "The Common Man" poet (Jewish) Julian Tuwim (Heb. "good") (d. 1953) on Sept. 13 in Lodz; emigrates to the U.S. in 1942. Am. "Dressed to Kill" screenwriter-lyricist Paul Girard Smith (d. 1968) on Sept. 14 in Omaha, Neb. French "La Grande Illusion" film dir.-writer Jean Renoir (d. 1979) on Sept. 15 in Paris; 2nd son of Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919); brother of Pierre Renoir Jr. (1885-1952); father of Alain Renoir; uncle of Claude Renoir (1914-93). English "Mary Rose in Peter Pan", "Mrs. Sanderson in The Haunting" actress Fay Compton (Virginia Lilian Emeline Compton Mackenzie) (d. 1978) on Sept. 18 in West Kensington, London; daughter of actors Edward Compton and Virginia Bateman; sister of Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972) and Viola Compton; granddaughter of Henry Compton (1805-77); wife (1912-13) of Harry Pelissier (1874-1913); mother of Anthony Pelissier (1912-88). U.S. Dem. labor secy. (1945-8) Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach (d. 1948) on Sept. 20 in Superior, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wash. - labor's swollen back? Am. "Wabash Moon" composer-pianist Dave Dreyer (d. 1967) on Sept. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y. German soprano Elisabeth Rethberg (Sattler) (d. 1976) on Sept. 22 in Schwarzenburg. Am. FDR advisor (Jewish) Benjamin Victor Cohen (d. 1983) on Sept. 23, Muncie, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago and Harvard U. Am. golfer Tommy Armour (d. 1968) on Sept. 24 in Edinburgh, Scotland; suffers mustard gas in WWI and is given an audience with George V; become U.S. citizen in 1920. Am. "Black Bourgeoisie" sociologist (black) Edward Franklin Frazier (d. 1962) on Sept. 24 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Howard U. Am. "Sahara", "Algiers" playwright (Jewish) (Communist) John Howard Lawson (d. 1977) on Sept. 25 in New York City; educated at Williams College. Am. majuscule-challenged poet-playwright-writer-painter Edward Estlin Cummings (e e cummings) (d. 1962) on Oct. 14 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at Cambridge Latin School, and Harvard U.; son of a Boston pastor; likes hyphens and parentheses, and detests commas, periods, and capital letters. German Gen. Walther (Walter) Warlimont (d. 1976) on Oct. 3 in Osnabruck. Israeli PM #2 (1953-5) (Jewish) Moshe Sharett (Shertok) (d. 1965) on Oct. 15 in Kherson, Ukraine; emigrates to Palestine in 1906. English world welterweight boxing champ (1915-6, 1917-9) (Jewish) ("the Aldgate Sphinx") Ted "Kid" Lewis (Gershon Mendeloff) (d. 1970) on Oct. 24 in East End, London; first boxer to use a protective mouthpiece; not to be confused with Am. entertainer Ted Lewis (1892-1971). French "Revolution of the World Manifesto" writer-ed. Eugene Jolas (AKA Theo Rutra) (d. 1952) on Oct. 26 in Union City, N.J.; grows up in Lorraine, France. Am. Knight-Ridder newspaper publisher John Shively Knight (d. 1981) on Oct. 26 in Bluefield, W. Va.; educated at Cornell U. German Nazi slavemaster Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (d. 1946) on Oct. 27 in Hassfurt, Bavaria - I just wanted to hire somebody to section out my basement? Am. diplomat Robert Daniel Murphy (d. 1978) on Oct. 28. German Lutheran pastor Karl Friedrich Stellbrink (d. 1943) on Oct. 28 in Munster. French biologist-philosopher Jean Rostand (d. 1977) on Oct. 30 in Paris; son of Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) and Rosemonde Gerard (1871-1953); brother of Maurice Rostand (1891-1968). German Gen. Karl Wilhelm von Schlieben (d. 1964) on Oct. 30 in Eisenach. German Luftwaffe Gen. Ulrich Otto Eduard Kessler (d. 1983) on Nov. 3 in Danzig-Langfuhr. Am. Saturday Evening Post (1916-63) painter-illustrator Norman Percevel Rockwell (d. 1978) on Nov. 3 in New York City; father of Thomas Rhodes Rockwell (1933-). German Nazi gen. ("Savior of Paris") Dietrich von Choltitz (d. 1966) on Nov. 9 in Schloss Wiese. Am. aeronautical engineer Edward Pearson Warner (d. 1958) on Nov. 9 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Harvard U. and MIT. Am. silent film actress Beverly Bayne (Pearl Beverly Bain) (d. 1982) on Nov. 11 in Minneapolis, Minn. German SS Gen. Arthur Nebe (d. 1945) on Nov. 13 in Berlin. Austrian politician-philosopher Count Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi (d. 1972) on Nov. 16 in Tokyo; son of Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi (1859-1906) and Mitsuko Aoyama (1874-1941); co-founder of the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Hapsburg (1912-). English "Inheritance" novelist Phyllis Eleanor Bentley on Nov. 19 in Halifax, West Yorkshire; educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College; known for tales of West Riding, Yorkshire life and its textile industry. German Gen. Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Hossbach (d. 1980) on Nov. 22 in Unna. Am. "What Price Glory" playwright-novelist-critic-journalist Laurence Tucker Stallings (d. 1968) on Nov. 25 in Macon, Ga.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. mathematician and computer scientist (Cybernetics founder) Norbert Wiener (d. 1964) on Nov. 26 in Columbia, Mo.; father is prof. of Slavonic languages at Harvard U.; graduates from Tufts College at age 14, receives a Ph.D. in math from Harvard U. at age 18, and becomes a math instructor at MIT at age 19 until retirement in 1960. Am. "New York Times" drama critic Brooks Atkinson (d. 1984) on Nov. 28 in Melrose, Mass. Am. "Travelling Standing Still" poet Genevieve Taggard (d. 1948) on Nov. 28 in Waitsburg, Wash.; grows up in Hawaii. Am. "Philadelphia Story", "Love Affair" screenwriter Donald Ogden Stewart (d. 1980) on Nov. 30 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at Yale U.; blacklisted by Hollywood in 1950, then emigrates to England. Am. "Imitation of Life" actor (first big screen Perry Mason) Warren William (Krech) (d. 1948) on Dec. 2 in Aitkin, Minn. Am. Wrigley Co. pres. (1932-61) and Chicago Cubs owner Philip Knight Wrigley (d. 1977) on Dec. 5 in Chicago, Ill.; son of William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932); father of William Wrigley III (1933-99). Am. Modernist painter Stuart Davis (d. 1964) on Dec. 7 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Popeye" cartoonist Elzie Crisler Segar (d. 1938) on Dec. 8 in Chester, Ill. Am. humorist writer-cartoonist James Grover Thurber (d. 1961) on Dec. 8 in Columbus, Ohio. Japanese potter Shoji Hamada (d. 1978) on Dec. 9 in Mizonokuchi, Kanagawa Prefecture. Australian historian Capt. John Linton Treloar (d. 1952) on Dec. 10 in Melbourne. Am. iron lung inventor (1928) Philip Drinker (d. 1972) on Dec. 12 in Haverford, Penn.; educated at Princeton U. Am. "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?" songwriter (Jewish) Jay Gorney (Abraham Jacob Gornetzsky) (d. 1990) on Dec. 12 in Bialystock, Russia (Poland); emigrates to the U.S. in 1906; father of Karen Lynn Gorney (1945-); collaborator of Yip Harburg. Am. "Calamity Jane" film dir.-actor-producer David Butler (d. 1979) on Dec. 17 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. "Boston Pops" conductor (Jewish) Arthur Fiedler (d. 1979) on Dec. 17 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston Latin School. Am. sportswriter and MLB commissioner #3 (1951-65) Ford Christopher Frick (d. 1978) on Dec. 19 in Wawaka, Ind. Australian Liberal PM #12 (1939-41, 1949-66) Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (d. 1978) (pr. like mings) on Dec. 20 in Jeparit; of Scottish descent; knighted in 1963. Am. "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm" actress Edith Taliaferro (d. 1958) on Dec. 21; sister of Mabel Taliaferro (1887-1979); cousin of Bessie Barriscale (1884-1965); debuts at age 2 in "Shore Acres" with James A. Herne. Am. N.J. atty.-gen. (1934-44) (prosecutor of Bruno Hauptmann) David Theodore Wilentz (d. 1988) on Dec. 21 in Dvinsk, Russia (Daugavpils, Latvia); emigrates to the U.S. in 1895; father of Robert Nathan Wilentz (1927-96); father-in-law of Leon Hess (1914-99). U.S. Adm. Theodore Edson "Ted" Chandler (d. 1945) on Dec. 26 in Annapolis, Md. Am. "Cane" Harlem Renaissance novelist-poet (black) (Quaker) Nathan Eugene Toomer (d. 1967) on Dec. 26 in Washington, D.C.; African-Am., Native Am., Dutch, French, Welsh, German, and Jewish descent; attends both all-white and all-black schools. Am. paleontologist Alfred Sherwood Romer (d. 1973) on Dec. 28 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U. Am. silent film actress Doris Pawn (d. 1988) on Dec. 29 in Norfolk, Neb.; wife (1917-20) of Rex Ingram (1892-1950). Norwegian "Beyond Sing the Woods" novelist Trygve Gulbranssen (d. 1962). Am. "Flying Leathernecks", "The Invisible Man" actor Wiliam Harrigan (d. 1966). Am. "voice of Humbert the Huntsman in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" actor Stuart Buchanan (d. 1974). Argentine painter Aquiles Badi (d. 1976) in Buenos Aires. Canadian newspaper publisher (Freemason) Roy Herbert Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet (d. 1976) in Toronto, Ont., Canada; father of Kenneth R. Thomson (1923-2006). Am. children's writer-illustrator Katherine Milhous (d. 1977) in Philadelphia, Penn.; of Penn. Dutch descent. Am. church historian (Congregationalist) Roland Herbert Bainton (d. 1984) in Ilkeston, Derbyshire; emigrates to the U.S. in 1902; educated at Yale U. Deaths: English explorer-naturalist Brian Houghton Hodgson (b. 1800) on May 23 in London. English statesman Henry George Grey, 3rd earl Grey (b. 1802) on Oct. 9. Hungarian patriot Louis Kossuth (b. 1802) on Mar. 20 in Turin, Italy. Am. law reformer David Dudley Field Jr. (b. 1805). French Suez Canal builder Count Ferdinand de Lesseps (b. 1805) on Dec. 7 in Guilly, Vatan, Indre. Am. inventor Norbert Rillieux (b. 1806) on Oct. 8 in Paris. Am. clergyman Tryon Edwards (b. 1809): "One of the great lessons the fall of the leaf teaches, is this: Do your work well and then be ready to depart when God shall call"; "If you would know anything thoroughly, teach it to others"; "Between two evils, choose neither; between to goods, choose both"; "Science has sometimes been said to be opposed to faith, and inconsistent with it. But all science, in fact, rests on a basis of faith, for it assumes the permanence and uniformity of natural laws - a thing which can never be demonstrated." Am. physician-writer-poet Oliver Wendell Holmes (b. 1809) on Oct. 7: "A man may fulfill the object of his existence by asking a question he cannot answer, and attempting a task he cannot achieve." Am. Colo. gov. #1 (1861-2) William Gilpin (b. 1813) on Jan. 20 in Denver, Colo.; dies after being hit by a horse and buggy. Belgian mathematician Eugene Charles Catalan (b. 1814). Belgian saxophone inventor Adolphe Sax (b. 1814) on Nov. 3 in Paris. Am. Civil War Confederate gen. Jubal A. Early (b. 1816) on Mar. 2 in Lynchburg, Va. (after falling down stairs). English marine painter Sir Oswald Walters Brierly (b. 1817) on Dec. 14. English Nineveh archeologist Sir Austin Henry Layard (b. 1817) on July 5. Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac (b. 1817) on Apr. 15. German economist Wilhelm Roscher (b. 1817) on June 4 in Leipzig. Am. women's lib crusader and fashion leader Amelia Jenks Bloomer (b. 1818) on Dec. 30 in Council Bluffs, Iowa. English historian James Anthony Froude (b. 1818) on Oct. 20 in Kingsbridge, Devon: "History is a voice forever sounding across the centuries the laws of right and wrong. Opinions alter, manners change, creeds rise and fall, but the moral law is written on the tablets of eternity"; "The practical effect of a belief is the real test of its soundness." French poet Charles Marie Leconte de Lisle (b. 1818) on July 17 in Voisins. English Liberal politician-judge John Duke Coleridge, 1st baron Coleridge (b. 1820) on June 14. Scottish politician Dudley Marjoribanks, 1st baron Tweedmouth (b. 1820) on Mar. 4. Russian mathematician Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (b. 1821) on Dec. 8 in St. Petersburg. German physicist-physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz (b. 1821). Italian archeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi (b. 1822) on Sept. 20 in Castel Gandolfo. German botanist Nathanael Pringsheim (b. 1823) on oct. 6 in Berlin. Am. painter George Inness (b. 1825) on Aug. 3 in Bridge of Allan, Scotland; dies after viewing a sunset, throwing up his hands and crying "My God, oh how beautiful", then falling to the ground. English-born Australian opera singer Marie Carandini (b. 1826) on Apr. 13 in London. German chemist Moritz Traube (b. 1826) on June 28 in Berlin. Am. linguist William Dwight Whitney (b. 1827). Austrian surgeon Albert Christian Theodor Billroth (b. 1829). Russian composer-conductor-pianist Anton Rubinstein (b. 1829) on Nov. 20 in Peterhof (heart disease). German pianist-conductor Hans von Bulow (b. 1830) in Cairo, Egypt: "Bach is the Old Testament and Beethoven the New Testament of music"; "A tenor is not a man but a disease"; "Always conduct with the score in your head, not your head in the score." English poet Christina Georgina Rossetti (b. 1830) on Dec. 29. French economist Jules Regnault (b. 1834) on Dec. 9 in Paris. French pres. #4 (1887-94) Sadi Carnot (b. 1837) on June 25 in Lyon (assassinated); stabbed by Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio (1873-94). Bengali writer Bankim Chandra Chatterji (b. 1838). French Bourbon head Louis-Philippe Albert of Orleans, comte de Paris (b. 1838) on Sept. 8 in Stowe House, Surrey, England. German physicist August Kundt (b. 1839) on May 21 in Israelsdorf, Lubeck. English essayist-critic Walter Pater (b. 1839). Am. novelist Constance Fenimore Woolson (b. 1840) on Jan. 24 in Venice, Italy (suicide from a window). French composer Emmanuel Chabrier (b. 1841) on Sept. 13. Am. actor-playwright-mgr. Steele MacKaye (b. 1842) on Feb. 25; patents 100+ theatrical inventions, incl. the Nebulator to create clouds onstage. English explorer Verney Lovett Cameron (b. 1844) on Mar. 24. Russian tsar (1881-94) Alexander III (b. 1845) on Nov. 1 in Livadiya, Crimea (nephritis). English painter Charles Burton Barber (b. 1845). Canadian-born English biologist George John Romanes (b. 1848) on May 23 - the good die young? British "Treasure Island" novelist Robert Louis Stevenson (b. 1850) on Dec. 3 in Samoa (stroke); dies after writing his last novel Catriona (David Balfour), a sequel to Kidnapped; leaves unfinished St. Ives, completed in 1898 by Arthur Quiller-Couch; he is buried at his own request on the summit of Vaea Peak: "I have a grand memory for forgetting"; "Under the wide and starry sky/ Dig the grave and let me lie:/ Glad did I live and gladly die,/ And I laid me down with a will./... Here he lies where he long'd to be;/ Home is the sailor, home from the sea,/ And the hunter home from the hill." German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (b. 1857) on Jan. 1 in Bonn; the discoverer of radio waves didn't make it to 40?



1895 - The TV Play Tough Blow Wilde Trial Year? The year of X-rays and radio is also the year in which the U.S. begins to pass up the U.K. in its own time machine, aided by a Vanderbilt-Churchill particle interchange event?

Joseph Chamberlain of Britain (1836-1914) Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois of France (1851-1925) Félix Faure of France (1841-99) Miura Goro of Japan (1847-1926) Consuelo Vanderbilt (1877-1964) Charles Richard John 'Sunny' Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871-1934) Gladys Marie Deacon (1881-1977) Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) Booth Tarkington (1869-1946) Rufus Wheeler Peckham of the U.S. (1838-1909) Pop Warner (1871-1954) Jose Marti (1853-95) French Gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (1849-1916) Sir Sri Rama Varma XV of Cochin (1852-1932) Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933), Dalai Lama #13 John Hays Hammond Sr. (1855-1936) Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) Henri Poincare (1854-1912) Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1841-1919) Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (1845-1923) George Westinghouse (1846-1914) Sidney Webb (1859-1947) and Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Graham Wallas (1858-1932) Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914) Sir Henry Joseph Wood (1869-1944) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925) Gustave le Bon (1841-1931) Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Carl Kellner (1851-1905) Sir Frederic Kenyon (1863-1952) Georg Friedrich Knapp (1842-1926) Percival Lowell (1855-1916) Georges Sorel (1847-1922) Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (1870-1945) John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (1844-1900) Grant Allen (1848-99) Walter Chauncey Camp (1859-1925) Willa Cather (1873-1947) W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939) Inessa Armand (1874-1920) Isabelle McClung (1879-) Pauline Johnson (1861-1913) Edith Lewis (1882-1972) Horace Rawlins (1874-1940) Sergei Taneyev (1856-1915) Otokar Brezina (1868-1929) Frederick Delius (1862-1934) Francis Schlatter (1856-96) George B. Selden (1846-1922) William Collins Whitney of the U.S. (1841-1904) Montague Stanley Napier (1870-1931) Napier Ad Napier Logo King Camp Gillette (1855-1932) Konsantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) Edwin Votey (1856-1931) Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99) Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Brander Matthews (1852-1929) Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946) Banjo Paterson (1864-1941) Victor Herbert (1859-1924) Harry Bache Smith (1860-1936) Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) Alphonse Mucha Example William George Morgan (1870-1942) Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945) Still Life with a Curtain' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1895 'Death Tears a Child from Its Mother' by Kathe Kollwitz, 1895-8 'Bronco Buster' by Frederic Remington (1861-1909), 1895 'The Race Track' by Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), 1895-1910 'Brit and I' by Carl Larsson, 1895 Crescent Park Carousel

1895 The industrial output of the U.S. catches up to the U.K. - the devil has a brand-new toy? The Great Rapprochement begins between the U.S. and Britain (ends 1915). On Jan. 1 Czech artist Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939), after years as a starving artist living above a Cremerie in Paris, where he gained a lot of friends incl. Gaugin, and founded the Bal des Quat'z Arts artists' ball, presents a poster for Sara Bernhardt's play "Gismonda", becoming an instant star with his sensuous style, and launching the French Art Nouveau Movement (ends 1914), centered in a Paris art gallery called guess what run by Siegfried Bing (1838-1905), who opens it in Dec., writes La Culture Artistique en Amerique for the French govt., and goes on to exhibit works by Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), Henry Van de Velde, Louis Comfort Tiffany et al. - remodel your home at better than sale prices? On Jan. 5 French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus is publicly stripped of his rank and sent to Devil's Island; he is ultimately vindicated after spending four years there, his conviction annuled in 1899 by a "cour de cassation", retried, reconvicted, and pardoned by a decree of Pres. Emile Loubet in 1899; his 2nd conviction is reversed in 1906, and he is given the Legion of Honor and promoted to major. On Jan. 6 Rufus Wheeler Peckham (1838-1909) of N.Y. (brother of Boss Tweed prosecutor Wheeler Hazard Peckham) is appointed as the 55th U.S. Supreme Court justice (until Oct. 24, 1909) to fill the vacancy created by short-timer Howell E. Jackson (1893-5), leaving the court at nine members. On Jan. 16 Jean Casimir-Perier resigns, and on Jan. 17 after moderate repub. Henri Brisson gets a majority of votes on the first ballot, causing the left to unite and put forward a candidate who offends no one, Felix (Félix) Francois Faure (1841-99) becomes pres. #7 of France (until Feb. 16, 1899), going on to amnesty the anarchists, incl. Emile Pouget. On Jan. 18 the Japanese fleet bombards Teng-chow-foo across from Port Arthur; on Jan. 20-Feb. 12 the 23-day Battle of Weihaiwei (8 mi. E of Port Arthur) sees the remnants of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet bottled up in Weihaiwei Naval Base on the Shangdong Peninsula opposite Lushunkou sieged and taken despite a severe snowstorm (Jan. 31-Feb. 1) by the Japanese Second Army Corps under Iwao Oyama (1842-1916), who becomes a hero and is created marquis (1895) and field marshal (1898); Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (b. 1836) is offered asylum in Japan, but commits suicide instead on Feb. 12, and the remnants of his Beiyang Fleet surrender to the Japanese in total humiliation, after which Ding is treated like manure and not given a proper Chinese burial by the govt. until 1912; the Chinese finally begin peace negotiations. On Jan. 24 Queen Liliuokalani formally abdicates, and works to stop annexation by the U.S. in vain. Feasting with panthers, or, Cruel to be kind means that I love ya, or, He calls me his lucky penny but I am the lucky one, or, Explain it to my lawyer, prick? A new meaning to Gay Nineties? This love story is no fairy tale? Assume the position? The original Gay Eye for the Straight Guy? A seminal event in modern history? On Feb. 14 Oscar Wilde's final play The Importance of Being Earnest debuts at St. James's Theater in London, giving him three hit plays playing simultaneously; too bad, he is accused (via a card left at Oscar's club) of "posing as a Somdomite" (sic) by the marquess of er, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensbury (1844-1900) over his relationship with his son Lord Alfred Bruce "Bosie" Douglas (1870-1945), the love of Wilde's gay life, whom he met as an undergrad at Oxford (after Bosie had read Wilde's wild gay book "The Picture of Dorian Gray", and was obsessed with its gay imagery); at Bosie's insistence, Wilde makes the big mistake of suing for libel, which ends up exposing his long list of young male lovers in court, causing him to drop his suit, and the crown to have him arrested while drinking hock and seltzer and talking to Bosie at the Cadogan Hotel in London by a Scotland Yard Inspector for the crime of sodomy (carrying up to 10 inches, er, years); his prosecutor is future Liberal PM (1908-16) Herbert Henry Asquith (1852-1928), whose gay son Anthony Asquith (1902-68) dir. the Earnest play in 1952; after a great speech from the courtroom dock, where he uses Bosie's line "the love that dare not speak its name", he ends up convicted on May 25 and sentenced to two years for offenses to minors; the British govt. doesn't declassify its memos on the trial until 1999. On Mar. 4 the Battle of Yingkou (Newchwang) (Niuzhhuang) outside the treaty port town of Yingkou in Manchuria is a V for the Japanese, who then bombard the town of Tianzhuangtai on the other side of the Liao River, razing it, effectively ending Chinese resistance in the war; meanwhile by the end of Mar. Japanese troops seize the Pescadores Islands near Taiwan. On Mar. 11 Britain and Russia sign an agreement describing their respective spheres of influence in Afghanistan, and defining its N borders; meanwhile slavery is abolished in Afghanistan. On Mar. 28 in answer to rumors of French designs on the Sudan, British under-secy. of foreign affairs Sir Edward Grey issues the Grey Declaration in Parliament that the whole Nile Valley is a British sphere of influence, warning that Britain will regard any French advance in Sudan as an "unfriendly act". On Apr. 1 the three presidency armies of India are united into a single Indian Army. On Apr. 17 after Japanese and Korean govt. forces brutally quash the Tonghaks and execute the leaders, the Treaty of Shimonoseki in the new town (1889) of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture (known for its big fugu catch) ends the First Sino-Japanese War (begun 1894), giving Japan the upper hand in Korea, with Taiwan (Formosa) (until 1945), the Pescadores, and Port Arthur given to Japan (later returned in exchange for an indemnity); Japan takes over Taipei, Taiwan and turns it into a modern city; China's defeat opens the way for imperialist penetration and unrest, while Japanese control is challenged by popular uprisings. On May 8 Utah adopts the 1896 Utah Constitution. In May the British South Africa Co. territory S of Zambezi becomes Rhodesia, with capital at Salisbury; British Bechuanaland is attached to the Cape of Good Hope, with N Bechuanaland remaining a British protectorate (until 1966). On June 21 after failing to get any of his legislation passed, Lord Rosebery resigns, and on June 25 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903) becomes British PM (until June 25, 1895), forming his 3rd cabinet, uniting his Conservatives with the Liberal Unionists, riding on a wave of British Unionist and imperial sentiment; wealthy self-made manufacturer Liberal Unionist Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) (former mayor of Birmingham) (father of Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain) surprises everybody by turning down the treasury secy. position in favor of secy. of the colonial office (until 1903), and pushes British imperialism into its most active phase ever, with Salisbury trying to reinstitute close relations with Germany and the Triple Alliance to balance the French and Russians. In the summer the first 8-week Proms of daily orchestral classical music concerts are held in Royal Albert Hall, London. On Aug. 5 Kaiser Wilhelm II and Lord Salisbury have a talk at the Cowes Yacht Races on the Isle of Wright, kibbutzed by Friedrich von Holstein, which ends up making the two distrust each other implicitly. On Aug. 10 (Sat.) the first nightly Promenade Concert is held at Queen's Hall in London, arranged by impresario Robert Newman (1858-1926) and conducted by Sir Henry Joseph Wood (1869-1944), running for ten weeks and becoming a big hit, with the soundbyte by Newman "I am gong to run nightly concerts and train the public by easy stages, popular at first, gradually raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music"; they later become known as the BBC Proms, giving British composers an audience. On Aug. 24 the London Saturday Review pub. an article containing the soundbyte (p. 34): "We English have always waged war against our competitors in trade and transport. Our main competitor today is no longer France, but Germany... In a war against Germany we would be in a position to win a lot and to lose nothing"; on Feb. 1, 1896 another article contains the soundbyte: "If tomorrow every German were eliminated, there would be no British business nor any English enterprise which would not profit. If every Englishman were to vanish tomorrow, the Germans would reap gains... One of the two must quit the field. Get ready for the fight with Germany, for Germaniam esse delendam"; on Sept. 11, 1897 another article contains the soundbyte: "Everywhere where the English flag has followed the Bible, and trade the flag... the German trader fights the English... States have waged wars for years over a town or rights to a throne; and should we not wage war when an annual trade of five billion is at stake?" In Aug. after a well-publicized 40-day fast in Albuquerque, N.M. German immigrant Catholic faith-healer shoemaker Jesus clone Francis Schlatter (1856-96) stirs up dusty Denver, Colo. for 2 mo., drawing crowds of 5K a day (200K total) to his perch at 32nd & Quivas St., only to abscond overnight on Nov. 13-14, leaving 50K unopened letters; he dies of exposure in Mexico's Sierra Madres within a few mo. - physician, heal thyself? In Aug. distinguished white Am. ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99) (expert on the Am. Indians) gives a pres. address to the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, stinking himself up with scientific white racism, claiming that all races are not equally endowed, and indeed some have "an inborn tendency, constitutionally recreant to the codes of civilization, and therefore technically criminal", and that the inborn limitations of "races, nations, tribes... supply the only sure foundation for legislation, not a priori notions of the rights of man" (Charles A. Lofgren). On Sept. 18 African-Am. educator Booker Taliaferro (pr. like toliver) Washington (1856-1915) gives his Atlanta Compromise Address at the Cotton States Exposition, calling for black acquiesence in disfranchisement and social segregation if whites will encourage black progress in economic and educational opportunity - we'll be good niggers, boss? On Sept. 23 Paris match factory worker Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) founds the Syndicalist Confederation Generale du Travail (CGT), which becomes the oldest and largest French trade union, known for Communist domination. Is that any way to treat the people who brought you Noah's Ark? On Sept. 30 Armenians stage a demonstration in Constantinople, and on Oct. 1 the first Armenian Massacres begin in Constantinople, causing the Euro powers to put pressure on Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who on Oct. 17 promises reforms of the minor (to him) Armenian situation; meanwhile the massacres continue all over Anatolia. On Oct. 8 Korean Queen Min (b. 1851) is murdered by a plot led by Japanese legation minister viscount Miura Goro (1847-1926); in Dec. Japan forces the Kabo Reforms (a clone of the Meiji reforms) on the Korean govt., elevating the Korean king to emperor, declaring total independence from China with a constitutional monarchy and a Japanese-style cabinet, a modern police force and army, independent judiciary, and 3-level education system; the yangban class system is abolished along with Chinese-style civil service exams. On Oct. 23 Kerala Varma V dies, and Sir Sri Rama Varma XV (Ozinja Vallia Thampuran) (1852-1932) becomes king of Cochin in India (until Dec. 7, 1914), the first of six rulers to be portrayed on postage stamps - this year, chance has to be more than a slogan? In Oct. the London School of Economics and Political Science of London U. near the Aldwych in England is founded by Fabians Sidney Webb (1859-1947), Martha Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) (coiner of the term "collective bargaining"), George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), and Graham Wallas (1858-1932) to focus on research into poverty, inequality, and related Socialist issues, becoming a big influence on the British Labour Party; in 1900 it joins London U. as the faculty of economics, becoming associated with Harold Laski and R.H. Tawney. In Oct. the Fourth British-Ashanti War begins (ends 1896) when King Prempeh I refuses to accept British control, and the Brits use the excuse of alleged violations of the 1874 Fomena Treaty to send a force under Col. Sir Francis Scott; meanwhile oh-boy-my-big-chance Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858-96) obtains Queen Vicky's permission to join them "to prove my devotion to my adopted country", and sets sail on Dec. 7. On Nov. 1 justice minister Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois (1851-1925) becomes PM #64 of France (until Apr. 29, 1896), forming a radical cabinet, causing the senate to block his funding until his govt. collapses amid an indifferent public. Paris Hilton had nothing over this here-i-am-rock-you-like-a-hurricane babe? On Nov. 6 gorgeous Am. railroad heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt (1877-1965), daughter of railroad millionaire Commodore Vanderbilt's son William K. Vanderbilt and his once-impoverished wife Alva, who everybody knows is worth $20M, is auctioned off to new hubby Charles Richard John "Sunny" Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871-1934) (nicknamed Sunny because he used to be the earl of Sunderland), who uses her dough to refurbish Blenheim Palace; the duke's grandmother tells her "Your first duty is to have a child, and it must be a son, because it would be intolerable to have that little upstart Winston become a duke"; she does so, along with a "spare" (her words), freeing the duke's 1st cousin Winston Churchill to pursue a political career; too bad, the marriage sucks and they divorce in 1921, he marrying big blue-green eyed Gladys Marie Deacon (1881-1977), who remains childless and dines with a pistol at her dinner table until he converts to Roman Catholicism and begins making plans to enter a monastery in Italy. On Dec. 7-8 30K Abyssinians defeat 2.4K Italians at the Battle of Amba Alagi Mt., the Italians fighting to their last bullet and losing 1.8K. On Dec. 29-Jan. 2 Dr. Leander Starr Jameson leads the diastrous Jameson Raid on Johannesburg, Transvaal, hoping to spark an uprising of Uitlander miners and draw British intervention in the South African Repub.; the leaders of the Johannesburg Reform Committee are arrested and sentenced to death, but released after paying large fines; after his release, Am. mining engineer John Hays Hammond Sr. (1855-1936), chief engineer of Cecil Rhodes mines heads back to the U.S. and ends up as a friend of U.S. pres. William Taft, who appoints him a special U.S. ambassador. In Dec. Pres. Grover Cleveland has lights made for the White House Christmas Tree by the General Electric Co., causing Christmas lighting to catch on for the rich. Jose Marti (1853-95) returns to Cuba and unites the pop. to fight for its independence from Spain, causing about 10% of the pop. to be killed, incl. himself; next year rev. gen. Calixto Garcia Iniguez (Iñiguez) (1839-98) escapes from Spain and arrives with a well-supplied expedition, becoming CIC of the rev. Cuban army - another type A personality? Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933), 13th Dalai Lama reaches majority and assumes political power in Tibet, ending the tradition of puppet dalai lamas by going on to create a small nat. army and attempt to establish diplomatic links with other nations to deal with power grabs by China, Britain, and Russia. A liberal rev. in Ecuador ushers in nearly a half cent. of Radical Liberal rule, marked by disestablishment of the Catholic Church and the entrance of Protestant evangelists. The Second French-Hova War sees the Frogs invade Malagasy (Madagascar), land on the far coast at Majunga, and take 6K deaths from malaria to sneak up on Antananarivo, losing only 20 soldiers in the fighting, then exile PM Rainilaiarivony, who dies next year; Queen Ranavalona III is permitted to stay, but after the French declare the island a French colony next Aug., causing a revolt, they depose and exile her on Feb. 28, 1897 to Reunion, then in Mar. 1899 to Algiers for life (1917), making French gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (1849-1916) a villain in Madagascar. A rev. against the Repub. of Hawaii is quashed, causing Queen Liliokalani to be arrested for complicity, and she is tried and found guilty of treason, resulting in house arrest in her palace, during which the pissed-off Polynesian composes the song Aloha Oe ("Farewell to Thee") (alt. trans.: oy ve?), which helps win her release?; "Farewell to you, farewell to you/ The charming one who dwells in the shaded bowers/ One fond embrace,/ 'Ere I depart/ Until we meet again". The Bannock War (Uprising) of 1895 starts when Wyo. passes a law prohibiting the killing of elk for their teeth, followed by the arrests of several Bannock elk hunters, leading to wild rumors of a revolt that brings the U.S. Army, who find a peaceful situation and leave. Pres. Cleveland puts the U.S. consular service on a limited merit basis, requiring previous State Dept. service or the passing of a qualifying exam (until 1906). Ohio Gov. William McKinley is stuck for $100K in cosigned notes after a friend's business fails, and his partner Marcus Alonzo Hanna comes to the rescue, retiring from business to devote himself to making McKinley the Repub. pres. nominee. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), who joined an underground rev. group in 1893 is arrested and sent to prison for 14 mo., then exiled to E Siberia for 3 years (until 1899), where he marries serious brain babe Nadezhda Konstantinovna "Nadya" Krupskaya (1869-1939) in 1898; too bad, she contracts Graves' disease and develops fish eyes and goes fat and sterile, causing him to fool around with French-born Communist Inessa Armand (Ines Stephane) (1874-1920) et al., contracting syphilis. Neb. becomes the "Tree Planter State". Dutch girl Margaretha Geertruida Zelle (b. 1876) meets an army officer through a personal ad in the newspaper, marries him, moves with him to Java, then flees from him a few years later to the stages of Paris, where she assumes the name Mata Hari. "Ben-Hur" author Lew Wallace visits his hometown of Indianapolis, Ind., and is met by 26-y.-o. aspiring novelist Booth Tarkington (1869-1946), whom he discourages from continuing, saying, "The publication of my first novel was almost enough to ruin my law practice". The Sixth Internat. Geographical Conference in London decides on the Antarctic as the most pressing geographical need for exploration. Dutch immigrant Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) founds the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance in New York City. The first public film show in Paris is held at the Hotel Scribe. In the middle of this decade the new U.S. art form of Jazz appears in the streets of New Orleans, La., mixing African, Creole, French and other ingredients, and ending up being exported all over the world; at this time the city is not segregated. The Cheers bar in Boston, Mass. is established :) The first Festival of Mountain and Plain is held in the Civic Center of Denver, Colo. The first Biennale eshibition of modern art is held in Venice, Italy; it is later held from May-Oct. in even-numbered years. Lincoln Memorial U. in Cumberland Gap, Tenn. is founded by Oliver Otis Howard, founder of Howard U. The first prof. society of accountants is founded in the Netherlands, followed by Sweden in 1899 and Belgium in 1903. The term "feminism" is imported to Britain and the U.S. from France. The Fogg Art Museum of Harvard U. in Cambridge, Mass. opens, developing the largest and most extensive art collection of any U.S. univ. Austrian mystic Carl Kellner (1851-1905) founds the Order Templi Orientis (OTO), which is later (1922-47) headed by Aleister Crowley (1875-47). Herbert Hoover becomes a geology major in the first graduating class of Stanford U.; 285-ft. Hoover Tower is built on the Romanesque Stanford campus in 1941. 22-y.-o. small town Neb. cross-dressing writer Willia Cather (1873-1947) (AKA William Cather) moves to Pittsburgh, Penn. and meets fashionable 16-y.-o. sweet cheeks Isabelle McClung (1879-) (daughter of a judge), and they fall in love (mental or physical or both, tongues are wagging?), Cather moving into a spare room in her home to write, until she is wooed to New York City in 1906 by McClure's Mag, remaining in love for life even though McClung marries a man in 1915, moving in with new licks Edith Lewis (1882-1972) (a fellow Nebraskan she met in New York City in 1903) in Greenwich Village from 1909-47, and they are later buried together - come to my window? An art dealer discovers Paul Cezanne and stages a solo exhibition of 150 of his canvases in Paris, while Cezanne ignores it and stays in Provence. Welsh symbolist poet Arthur Symons (1865-1945) begin pub. the lit. mag. The Savoy (until 1896), going for eight issues with contributors incl. W.B. Yeats, G.B. Shaw, and Joseph Conrad. John D. Rockefeller, richest man in Gilded Age U.S. files income taxes for the 1st time, reporting 1894 income of $1.25M (7K the avg. per capita income); in 2007 hedge fund mgr. James Simons reports $1.7B in income (38K times the avg.), while two other hedge fund mgrs. make over $1B, and the top 25 make $14B combined. Georges Sorel (1847-1922) et al. found the French mag. Devenir Social to promote rev. syndicalism. The Horseless Age monthly mag. begins pub., becoming the first automotive mag. in the U.S.; too bad, its high cost limits it to the wealthy, and it only has a circ. of 800. The Tilden Trust creates the New York Library by joining the Astor and Lenox libraries, opening their collections to the public. Mass.-born W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt) Dubois (1868-1963) becomes the first African-Am. to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard U. (history). In Dec. ex-Edison employee William Kennedy Dickson (1860-1935) et al. found the Am. Mutoscope and Biograph Co. in N.J. to manufacture the flip-card Mutoscope, which is used for peep shows; the first studio is at 841 Broadway at 13th St. in Manhattan, N.Y., mounted on tracks to catch sunlight; in 1906 they move to 11 East 14th St. near Union Square, becoming the first movie studio relying exclusively on artificial light. French journalist Martha Distel founds the Le Cordon Bleu (The Blue Ribbon) culinary school in Paris; next Jan. the first classes are held, featuring a newfangled electric stove; chef Henri Paul Pellaprat teaches there for 32 years, and pub. the million-selling L'Art Culinaire, along with La Cuisine Familiale et Pratique. Charles Ranhofer and Charles Delmonico introduce the "alligator pear" (avocado) (imported from South Am.) in Delmonico's Restaurant in New York City. The Kliegl Brothers John H. Kliegl and Anton Tiberius Kliebl emigrate to the U.S. from Germany, founding Universal Electric Stage Lighting Co. next year to manufacture fixtures and controls for theaters (until the 1990s), incl. Klieg Lights (carbon arc limelights). Schwinn Bicycle Co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by German-born mechanical engineer Ignaz Schwinn (1860-1945), becoming the #1 U.S. bicycle manufacturer of the 20th cent. Austrian luxury lead glass crystal manufacturer Sarovski is founded by Daniel Swarovski (Swartz) (1862-1956) in Wattens, Tyrol; its logo is a swan. English steam engine maker Napier and Son (founded 1808) is inherited by Montague Stanley Napier (1870-1931), who goes into automobile manufacturing, converting a Panhard "Old Number 8" from a tiller to a steering wheel, and improving the oiling, then designing their own engines in 1900; in 1907 they are producing 100 cars a year, rising to 700 by 1912, many for use as London taxis, promoting their use in auto racing and winning many victories until 1908; in 1917 they introduce the 12-cylinder 1,375 hp Napier Lion W (triple-four) aluminum block aircraft engine, most powerful in the world until the 1930s; they get out of the car business in 1924 after building a total of 4,258 to concentrate on engines. Sports: The Am. Bowling Congress is founded, standardizing the rules and helping bowling to become the #1 U.S. participant sport by the mid 20th cent. On Sept. 28 the first Prof. Am.-Rules Football Game is played in Latrobe, Penn.; Spalding's Official Football Guide begins pub., ed. (until 1924) by Walter Chauncey Camp (1859-1925), who was first called "the Father of Am. Football" in 1892 by Caspar Whitney (1862-1929) in Harper's Weekly, going on to turn it into a game of crazy, er, heroes that captures the Am. imagination. On Oct. 4 the first U.S. Open Golf Championship is held in Newport, R.I., won by Horace Rawlins (1874-1940), who becomes the first winner of a golf major outside Britain. Peter Latham of Britain becomes the world lawn tennis champ (until ?). On Nov. 28 (Thanksgiving Day) a 54.36 mi. auto race (first in the U.S.) is held in Chicago, Ill., and James Frank Duryea (1869-1967) (one of the two Duryea brothers) wins in 7 hours 17 min. at an avg. speed of 7.5 mph using a 4-cycle engine; in 1895 the Duryea Brothers found Duryea Motor Wagon Co. in Springfield, Mass., but it folds in 1898. Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner (1871-1954) becomes head football coach at the U. of Ga. (until 1896), launching a 44-year career at Cornell U. (1897-8, 1904-6), Carlile Indian Industrial School in Penn. (1899-1903, 1907-14) (where he coaches Jim Thorpe), the U. of Pittsburgh (1915-23), Stanford U. (1924-32), and Temple U. (1933-8), achieving 319 major NCAA college football wins, and four nat. championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1926). Architecture: The Crescent Park Carousel, complete with 56 jumping and six stationary horses, four chariots and one camel is built by Charles I.D. Looff in East Providence, R.I., and is designated a nat. historic landmark in 1987. Franklin Field at the U. of Penn. in Philadelphia opens on Apr. 20, hosting the annual Army-Navy Football Game. Kiel Canal through Schleswig-Holstein in Germany (begun 1887) from the mouth of the Elbe River via Rendsburg to Kiel Bay is opened on June 21 - fulfilling fantasies through cash? Cardinal Vaughan lays the foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral. Inventions: On Nov. 5 George B. Selden (1846-1922) of N.Y. is granted a U.S. patent for the gasoline-powered automobile after filing on May 8, 1879; local bank teller George Eastman is a witness; in 1899 he sells a license to William Collins Whitney (1841-1904) (U.S. secy. of the Navy in 1885-9), owner of the monopolistic Electric Vehicle Co. (1897-1907), and works to collect a 0.75% royalty from all cars sold by the Assoc. of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, later founding Selden Motor Vehicle Co.; after Ford Motor Co. is founded in 1903, they take him on in a mammoth 8-year case that generates 14K case pages, and Selden wins, but Ford wins the appeal on Jan. 10, 1911 because his engines are based on the 1876 German Otto Engine, not the 1872 Brayton Engine of R.I. inventor George Brayton (1830-92). HP Sauce is introduced in Britain, becoming the favorite way for Northerners to differentiate themselves from Southerners. Francois Baranthon of France invents a water bicycle with an inflatable rubber bag to use as a life preserver. G.V. Black standardizes cavity preparation and manufacture of silver fillings. French steam car maker De Dion-Bouton (founded 1883) invents a 1-cylinder internal combustion engine with trembler coil ignition that works best at high rpm, reaching a record 3.5K rpm; after being mounted on a tricycle frame and fitted with new Michelin pneumatic tires, it goes on the market next year as the Petite Voiture Tricar, which is a big hit, causing a 4-wheeler to be marketed in 1898, and the Model D Voiturette in 1900, which puts the engine under seat and makes the passenger face the driver, who sits in the rear; as a topper, in 1902 the Crazy Frog outfit comes up with the Model K, with a front-mounted engine under a crocodile hood, rear entry of passengers, and a decelerator pedal that applies a transmission brake. King Camp Gillette (1855-1932) of the U.S. invents the safety razor - now it's safe for men to shave their what? C. von Linde invents a machine for liquefying air. Italian Baron Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) invents radio telegraphy, with a contraption that can ring a bell a few yards away in his yard in Bologna; next year he travels to London to stir up interest. Listerine is first marketed to dentists as a mouthwash; it's not sold over the counter until 1914. William George Morgan (1870-1942) invents the game of Volleyball in a YMCA in Holyoake, Mass. for those who find basketball too strenuous, calling it Mintonette, played by hitting a basketball over a rope. Dr. Shields invents a milking machine - does it suck? The roll-operated Pianola is invented by Edwin Votey (1856-1931) of Detroit, Mich. Using ideas developed by Tesla, George Westinghouse (1846-1914) designs an electricity generating system, and wins a contract to build a power station at Niagara Falls. Science: French physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) proves that cathode rays are made of corpuscles with negative electric charge. French physicist Henri Poincare (1854-1912) founds Algebraic Topology, applying it to celestial mechanics. Wilhelm Konrad (Conrad) Roentgen (1845-1923) of Wurzburg U. in Germany on Dec. 28 pub. Eine Neue Art von Strahlen, announcing the discovery of X-Rays (X for unknown, like in algebra) (AKA Roentgen Rays) the year before while fooling around with a Crookes Tube (CRT) when a photographic plate enclosed in a dark box ca,e out fogged, proving that the box walls are transparent to them; he soon is taking X-ray photos of the hand - imagine what else? English scientists John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919) and Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) discover the first "noble" (inert) gas, chemical element Argon (Ar) (#18), isolated from air; Ramsay proves that helium (discovered in the Sun's atmosphere in 1868) exists on Earth in the uranium ore elevite; later it is found that it exists in all radioactive minerals as a result of radioactive decay, which emits alpha particles (helium nuclei). Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovski (1857-1935) discovers the principle of rocket reaction propulsion - impulse engines, Scotty? Nonfiction: Thomas Bailey Aldrich (1836-1907), An Old Town by the Sea (essays). Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women. Eugen Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), The Positive Theory of Capital and Its Critics. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (La Psychologie des Foules); big hit; becomes the Bible of Fascist leaders Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, and is used by Sigmund Freud's nephew Edward Bernays to create mass media manipulation and propaganda. Gamaliel Bradford (1863-1932), Types of American Character; the "psychography" method of biography, abstracting a characterization out of the events and actions of a subject. Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), John Keats [1795-1821], a Critical Study. Isaac A. Cornelison, The Relation of Religion to Civil Government in the United States of America, a State without a Church, But Not without a Religion. David Miller Dewitt, The Judicial Murder of Mary E. Surratt. Edward Dicey, Bulgaria, the Peasant State. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Studien uber Hysterie. Elbridge Thomas Gerry (1837-1927) and A.F. Currier, Corporal Punishment for Certain Forms of Crime; the founder of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children advocates the electric chair as a substitute for hanging? H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Church and State. Frederick George Jackson (1860-1938), The Great Frozen Land. Henry James (1843-1916), The Middle Years (autobio.). Sir Frederic Kenyon (1863-1952), Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts; claims that Egyptian papyri and archeological evidence corroborate the Christian Gospels; "The last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed." Georg Friedrich Knapp (1842-1926), The State Theory of Money; coins the term "metallism", founds Chartalism (Lat. "charta" = token or ticket), which claims that "money is a creature of law" (fiat money) rather than a commodity, with taxation establishing it as currency, "that which is accepted at the public pay offices", opposing the metallist theory that the value of currency depends on the quantity of precious metal backing it. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), Madame Blavatsky and Her Theosophy; Croquet: Its History, Rules, and Secrets. Percival Lowell (1855-1916), Mars; claims that there are canals and oases on Mars that are signs of past intelligent life. Karl Marx (1818-83), Das Kapital, Vol. 3 (posth.). Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), The Czech Question. Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), Ancient History of the Classical Peoples of the Orient (3 vols.) (1895-7). Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Makers of Modern Rome. Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932), Electrochemistry; founds modern electrochemistry. Charles Henry Parkhurst (1842-1933), Our Fight with Tammany. Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), The Golden Pomp; anthology of 16th-17th cent. lyrists. Mark Twain (1835-1910), Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses. ?, Standard Dictionary of the English Language; basis of the Funk and Wagnalls "New Standard Dictionary of the English Language". Movies: William Kennedy Dickson (at Edison Studios), First Experimental Sound Film. Thomas Edison (1847-1931), The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots (Aug. 28). Lumiere Brothers, First Films. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Ghismonda (opera). Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924), A Garland of Country Songs. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Over the Hills and Far Away (fantasy overture) (1895-7). Zdenek Fibich (1850-1900), Symphony No. 2. Victor Herbert (1859-1924) and Harry Bache Smith (1860-1936), The Wizard of the Nile (operetta) (Casino Theatre, New York) (Nov. 4); an internat. hit. Wilhelm Kienzl (1857-1941), Der Evangelimann (opera) (Berlin). Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 2 ("Resurrection"); his 2nd most popular symphony. Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), Salome (opera); La Coupe Enchantee (opera). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Christmas Eve (opera) (Dec. 10) (St. Petersburg). Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Op. 28 (Cologne). Sergei Taneyev (1856-1915), Oresteia (musical trilogy) (Oct. 17) (Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg); his masterpiece?; incl. Clitemnestra's Aria. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-93), Swan Lake (opera) (posth.); debuts for the 2nd time at Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg; the first (1877) production was a flop, but this one rocks da house; incl. Swan Lake Main Theme. James Thornton (1861-1938), The Streets of Cairo or The Poor Little Country Maid. Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937), Symphony No. 9 for Organ ("Gothique"). Art: Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901), Venus Genetrix. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Still Life with a Curtain; Still Life with Onions (1895-1900). Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Woman with a Mango (Tehura). Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945), Revolt of the Weavers (three prints) (1895-8); illustrations to Gerhard Hauptmann's "Die Weber"; incl. Death Tears a Child from Its Mother. Carl Larsson (1853-1919), Brit and I. Frederic Remington (1861-1909), Bronco Buster (sculpture). Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse) (1895-1910). Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Beatrice. Plays: Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Mrs. Ponderbury's Past. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Harry Greenbank and Sidney Jones, An Artist's Model (musical) (Daly's Theatre, London) (Feb. 2) (392 perf.); stars Marie Tempest. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Florian Geyer (tragedy); based on the 16th cent. Peasants' War. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) and Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94), Macaire. Henry James (1843-1916), Guy Domville; after being jeered off the stage on opening night, he goes back to writing novels. Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), Caesar Antichrist; Christ is really a Roman agent out to dominate spirituality? Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Candida; best comedy since Richard Brinsley Sheridan? Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Earth Spirit (Erdgeist); first of two "Lulu" plays (2nd 1904), about a hot young dancer who rises in German society by hooking up with wealthy guys, and ends up as a poverty-stricken ho while experimenting with lesbianism and encountering Jack the Ripper. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), The Importance of Being Earnest (London) (Feb. 14). Poetry: Hilaire Beloc (1870-1953), Verses and Sonnets. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Mysterious Ranges. Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), The Purple Cow; appears in his San Francisco periodical The Lark, which he edits from 1895-7. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), Behind the Arras: A Book of the Unseen. Svatopluk Cech (1846-1908), The Songs of a Slave; against Austrian oppression of Bohemians. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), Majors and Minors. Frederik Willem van Eeden (1860-1932), Het Lied van Schijn en Wezen (The Song of Seeming and Being) (1895-1922). Arne Garborg (1851-1924), Haugtussa. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Dikter; goes naturalistic. Henriette Roland Holst (1895-), Sonnetten en Verzen in Terzinen Geschreven. Pauline Johnson (1861-1913), The White Wampum (debut); half-Mohawk half-English Canadian poet becomes a hit. Archibald Lampman (1861-99), Lyrics of Earth. Karl May (1842-1912), Ave Maria. Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914), In Phanta's Schloss; the joy of discovering one's mental powers? Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), Waltzing Matilda; becomes the most popular Australian bush ballad, and the unofficial nat. anthem. Arthur Symons (1865-1945), London Nights. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Heures Claires. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Poems; based on ancient Irish folklore. Novels: Anon., Germania Triumphans; by a German?; predicts German actions in WWII. Grant Allen (1848-99), The Woman Who Did; promotes the "New Woman", startling Victorian England with the example of an independent woman who has a child out of wedlock, causing English novelist Annie Sophie Cory to write The Woman Who Didn't; The British Barbarians; time travel novel. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Arco Iris. Walter Besant (1836-1901), Beyond the Dreams of Avarice. Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928), The Mayflower (Flor de Mayo). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), Sons of Fire. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The King in Yellow (short stories); a drama who drives those who read it insane. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Almayer's Folly (first novel); a trader in the Malaysian Archipelago and his halfcast daughter, and the pretentious house he builds; first of three novels with Capt. Lingard ("An Outcast of the Islands", "The Rescue"). Marie Corelli (1855-1924), The Sorrows of Satan; bestseller. Stephen Crane (1871-1900), The Red Badge of Courage; realistic novel about Pvt. Henry Fleming in the U.S. Civil War, who flees the battle and longs for a wound; Crane had never been to war personally; censored passages are restored in 1982. Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Wereldvrede. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Schloss Hubertus. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Rose of Dutcher's Coolly (first novel). H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Joan Haste; Heart of the World. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Jude the Obscure (last novel); stonemason Jude Fawley dreams of being a scholar at Christminster U., and scandalously shacks up with his married cousin Sue Bridehead, who goes religious on him and leaves him to go back to her hubby after her boy Little Father Time kills two siblings and commits suicide; violent criticism as nothing but smut causes him to announce next year that he's going to abandon novel-writing and turn to poetry and drama - all the stuff just came out of me? Henry Harland (1861-1905), Grey Roses. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), The Three Graces; A Tug of War; The Professor's Experiment; Molly Darling and Other Stories. J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), En Route; author gives up Satanism for Roman Catholicism and enters a Trappist monastery. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Flaggermus-Vinger (short stories). Andrew Lang (1844-1912), My Own Fairy Book. Nikolai Leskov (1831-95), The Rabbit Warren. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Demagogue and Lady Phayre. Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Sensations et Souvenirs. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Galilee; Le Desert; Jerusalem. Ian Maclaren, Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush; bestseller. Brander Matthews (1852-1929), His Father's Son. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), St. Peter's Umbrella. George Moore (1852-1933), The Celibates (short stories). Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Chronicles of Martin Hewitt. Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938), Mordred: A Tragedy. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Peer and the Woman; A Daughter of the Marionis. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), When Valmond Came to Pontiac; An Adventurer of Icy North. Verner Z. Reed, La-To-Kah. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Flamboche. William Sharp (1855-1905), The Gipsy Christ and Other Tales; Mountain Lovers; The Laughter of Peterkin; The Sin-Eater and Other Tales; last three pub. under alias Fiona Mcleod. Rev. Charles Monroe Sheldon, In His Steps: What Would Jesus Do?. Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916), Quo Vadis?; bestseller of 1897; Rome in the time of Nero; "Quo Vadis Domine?" (Where are you going, Lord?) St. Peter asks Jesus on the Appian Way while fleeing his own crucifixion in Rome, to which Jesus answers "To be crucified again", causing Peter to turn around and take his medicine (John 13:36). Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), A Gentleman Vagabond. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Pierrot! A Story. Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Three Fair Maids, or the Burkes of Derrymore. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Stolen Bacillus and Other Stories (short stories); The Time Machine: An Invention (original title "The Chronic Argonauts") (first novel); a man builds a machine in which he travels backward to the beginning of time and forward to the extinction of the Sun, meeting the Morlocks, descendants of the protetariat, who live underground herding the Eloi, descendants of the aristocrats on the surface for meat; makes him a star, after which he cranks out sci-fi hits for the next decade (until 1906). Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), The Front Yard and Other Italian Stories (posth.). Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), A Drama in Dutch (first novel); pub. under alias "Z.Z." Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), The Ravens and the Crows Are Picking Us to Pieces (short stories) (debut); Poland's 1863 revolt against Russia. Births: Am. FBI dir. #1 (1935-72) (Freemason) (gay?) ("that old cocksucker" - Richard Nixon) J. (John) Edgar Hoover (d. 1972) on Jan. 1 in Washington, D.C.; English-German ancestry father, Swiss descent mother; educated at George Washington U. Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte (d. 1948) on Jan. 2 in Stockholm. Am. Grumman Aircraft co-founder ("Red Mike") Leroy Randle "Roy" Grumman (d. 1982) on Jan. 4 in Huntington, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. and MIT. French Roman Catholic theologian Marie-Dominique Chenu (d. 1990) on Jan. 7 in Soisy-sur-Seine, Essonne. Am. football hall-of-fame QB and coach (Chicago Cardinals, 1920-5) (Chicago Bears, 1926-9) John Leo "Paddy" Driscoll (d. 1968) on Jan. 11 in Evanston, Ill; known for his drop-kicks and punting; educated at Northwestern U.; plays 13 games for the Chicago Cubs in 1917. Am. Hammond Organ inventor Laurens Hammond (d. 1973) on Jan. 11 in Evanston, Ill. German resistance fighter Rudiger (Rüdiger) Schleicher (d. 1945) on Jan. 14 in Stuttgart. Finnish AIM Method fodder-improving biochemist Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (d. 1973) on Jan. 15. Am. stockbroker, HUAC chmn., and U.S. rep. (R-N.J.) (1936-50) John Parnell Thomas (d. 1970) on Jan. 16 in Jersey City, N.J. German Vice-Adm. Friedrich Frisius (d. 1970) on Jan. 17 in Bad Salzuflen, Principality of Lippe. Spanish fashion designer Cristobal Balenciaga Eisaguirre (d. 1972) on Jan. 21 in Getaria, Gipuzkoa. Am. "The Modern Corporation Private Property" writer-diplomat Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (d. 1971) (pr. like burley) on Jan. 27 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. songwriter-producer and record exec George Gard "Buddy" DeSylva (d. 1950) on Jan. 27 in New York City; son of Hal De Forrest (1862-1938); grows up in Calif.; educated at USC; collaborator of Lew Brown (1893-1958) and Ray Henderson (1896-1970). Am. "Daddy Long Legs", "Who's Sorry Now", "I Wanna Be Loved By You" "songwriter Harry Ruby (d. 1974) on Jan. 27 in New York City; collaborator of Bert Kalmar (1884-1947). Am. feminist poet-writer Muna Lee (d. 1965) (AKA Newton Gayle) on Jan. 29 in Raymond, Miss.; wife (1919-46) of Luis Munoz Marin (1898-1980). Am. football player-coach-owner ("Mr. Everything") (founder of the Chicago Bears) George Stanley "Papa Bear" Halas Sr. (d. 1983) on Feb. 2 in Chicago, Ill.; Bohemian immigrant parents. German SS Gen. Friedrich August Jeckeln (d. 1946) on Feb. 2 in Homberg, Baden. English "Dr. Watson" actor William Nigel Ernle "Willie" Bruce (d. 1953) on Feb. 4 in Ensanada, Baja Calif., Mexico; English parents; educated at Abingdon School, Berkshire; good cricket player. Nazi SS 1st lt. Johann Baptist Albin "Hanns" Rauter (d. 1949) on Feb. 4 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Am. Repub. politician Robert Marion La Follette Jr. (d. 1953) on Feb. 6 in Madison, Wisc.; son of Robert M. La Follette Sr. (1855-1925); brother of Philip La Follette (1897-1965). Am. baseball #1 player (pitcher/right field) (#3) (lefty) ("the Bambino") ("the Sultan of Swat") ("the Big Bam") George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. (d. 1948) on Feb. 6 in Baltimore, Md.; his parents run a saloon near the Camden Yards rail station, which later becomes the site of the Orioles Stadium and the Babe Ruth Museum; sent to St. Mary's Industrial School in Baltimore in 1902-14, where he learns to play baseball from 6'6" 250 lb. Brother Matthias, whose uppercut swing and pigeon-toed run style he copies. Am. "Days of Our Years" journalist-minister (Christian Zionist) Pierre van Paassen (d. 1968) on Feb. 7 in Gorinchem, Netherlands; emigrates to Canada in 1914, and the U.S. in 1922. Irish independence leader Sean Treacy (Tracy) (d. 1920) on Feb. 14 in Tipperary. Am. Notre Dame U. football star (#66) (1917-20) George "Gipper" Gipp (d. 1920) on Feb. 18 in Laurium, Mich. Soviet WWII gen. Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (d. 1970) on Feb. 18 (Feb. 6 Old Style) in Furmanivka, S Bessarabia; defender of Moscow and Stalingrad. Am. "Oliver Wendell Holmes in The Magnificent Yankee", "Buffalo Bill Cody in Annie Get Your Gun" actor Louis Calhern (Carl Henry Vogt) (d. 1956) on Feb. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Danish Vitamin K biochemist Carl Peter Henrik Dam (d. 1976) on Feb. 21 in Cophenhagen; educated at the U. of Graz - that dam vitamin? Am. playwright-screenwriter-producer-dir. (Jewish) Joseph Albert Fields (d. 1966) on Feb. 21 in New York City; son of Polish Jewish immigrant Lew Fields (Moses Schoenfeld) (1967-1941); brother of Herbert Fields (1897-1958) and Dorothy Fields (1905-74); collaborator of Jerome Chodorov (1911-2004). Am. henchman actor Charles King (d. 1957) on Feb. 21 in Hillsboro Hill County, Tex. Am. football hall-of-fame coach (founder of the Philadelphia Eagles) De Benneville "Bert" Bell (d. 1959) on Feb. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. French novelist-playwright-filmmaker Marcel Pagnol (d. 1974) on Feb. 28 in Aubagne (near Marseille), Bouches-du-Rhone; first filmmaker elected to the Academie Francaise (1946). German July 20th plotter Luftwaffe Lt. Col. Caesar (Cäsar) von Hofacker (d. 1944) on Mar. 2 in Ludwigsburg; son of Gen. Eberhard von Hofacker; cousin of Col. Claus von Staufenberg. Norwegian economist Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (d. 1973) on Mar. 3 in Oslo; educated at the U. of Oslo. U.S. Army Chief of Staff Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (d. 1993) on Mar. 3 in Ft. Monroe, Va. Am. comic book illustrator and animator (Jewish) Milt Gross (d. 1953) on Mar. 4 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. "Three Stooges" comedic actor (Jewish) Shemp Howard (Samuel Horwitz) (d. 1955) on Mar. 4 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Moe Howard (1897-1975) and Curly Howard (1903-52). French auto racer-spy Robert Marcel Charles Benoist (d. 1944) on Mar. 20 in Rambouillet. Norwegian gymnast Gustav Adolf Bayer (d. 1977) on Mar. 23; not to be confused with German chemist Gustav von Bayer (1835-1917). Am. modernist composer and transpersonal astrologer Dane Rudhyar (Daniel Chenneviere) (d. 1985) on Mar. 23 in Paris. French "The Man Who Planted Trees" novelist Jean Giono (d. 1970) on Mar. 30 in Monosque, Provence. Am. Repub. politician-diplomat, gov. #59 of Mass. (1953-7) and U.S. secy. of state (1959-61) (Freemason) Christian Archibald Herter Sr. (d. 1966) on Mar. 28 in Paris; son of U.S. expatriate artists Albert and Adele Herter (nee McGinnis); educated at Harvard U.; husband (1917-) of heiress Mary Caroline Pratt (1895-1980) (granddaughter of Standard oil magnate Charles Pratt); father of Christian Archibald Herter Jr. (1919-2007); as a boy his father uses him as a model in a painting of the Magna Charta Signing, which ends up in the Wisc. Supreme Court bldg. Am. Mormon Church pres. (1973-85) Spencer Woolley Kimball (d. 1985) on Mar. 28 in Salt Lake City, Utah; grows up in Thatcher, Ariz. German Nazi leader Joseph Burckel (Bürckel) (d. 1944) on Mar. 30 in Lingenfeld, Germersheim, Bavaria. French "The Man Who Planted Trees", "Pan Trilogy" novelist-playwright Jean Giono (d. 1970) on Mar. 30 in Manosque, Provence. Am. World Bank atty., banker and pres. advisor John Jay McCloy (d. 1989) on Mar. 31 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard Law School. Am. "Downhearted Blues" jazz-blues singer-songwriter (black) Alberta Hunter (d. 1984) on Apr. 1 in Memphis, Tenn.; retires in the 1950s, then resumes her career in the 1970s. Italian "The Merchant of Venice" composer (Jewish) Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (d. 1968) on Apr. 3 in Florence; teacher of Louis W. Ballard and Ron Purcell. German Gen. Hermann Foertsch (d. 1961) on Apr. 4 in Drahnow. Am. ballroom dancing instructor (Jewish) Arthur Murray (Moses Teichmann) (d. 1991) on Apr. 4 in Todhajca, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (Poland); emigrates to the U.S. in 1897; father of twins Phyllis and Jane Murray (wife of Dr. Henry Heimlich). Am. "Stagecoach", "Bringing Up Baby" screenwriter Dudley Nichols (d. 1960) on Apr. 6 in Wapakoneta, Ohio; educated at the U. of Mich.; first to refuse an Oscar (1936). Am. "Wheeler & Woolsey" comedian Bert Wheeler (d. 1968) on Apr. 7 in Paterson, N.J.; collaborator of Robert Woolsey (1888-1938). French stage-screen actor Michel Simon (d. 1975) on Apr. 9 in Geneva, Switzerland; father of Francois Simon (1917-82). Anglo-Danish civil engineer (designer of Sydney Opera House) Sir Ove Nyquist Arup (d. 1988) on Apr. 16 in Newcastle upon Tyne, England; educated at Copenhagen U.; knighted in 1971. Albanian king Zog I (Ahmed Bey Zogu) (d. 1961) on Apr. 18. Kiwi "Roderick Alleyn" detective novelist and theater dir. Dame Ngaio Marsh (d. 1982) on Apr. 23; knighted in 1966. Am. sleep researcher (Jewish) ("Father of Sleep Research") Nathaniel Kleitman (d. 1999) on Apr. 26 in Kishinev, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1915; educated at the U. of Chicago; teacher of Eugene Aserinsky (1921-98) and William Charles Dement (1928-). Norwegian novelist Ronald August Fangen (d. 1946) on Apr. 29 in Kragero. English "The Proms" conductor-organist-composer Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent (d. 1967) on Apr. 29 in Ashford, Kent; knighted in 1947. Soviet NKVD dir. (1937-40) ("the Vanishing Commissar") Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Ezhov) (d. 1940) on May 1 in St. Petersburg (Marjampole, Lithuania?). Am. "Blue Moon", "The Lady Is a Tramp", "Manhattan" lyricist (Jewish) Lorenz "Larry" Hart (d. 1943) on May 2 in New York City; Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U.; collaborator of Richard Rodgers (1902-79). French "Chlochemerle" novelist Gabriel Chevallier (d. 1969) on May 3 in Lyon. Am. "The Sheik" sex symbol silent film actor ("the Latin Lover") Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filibert Guglielmi d'Antonguolla di Valentina) (d. 1926) on May 6 in Castellaneta, Italy; son of an army veterinarian; emigrates to New York City in 1913 - look what's coming over on the boat? Am. "The Catholic Hour" anti-Communist Roman Catholic bishop (of Rochester, N.Y., 1966-9) Fulton John Sheen (d. 1979) on May 8 in El Paso, Ill.; educated at the Catholic U. of Louvain. Am. "Axel's Castle" #1 lit. critic Edmund Wilson (d. 1972) on May 8 in Red Bank, N.J.; educated at Princeton U.; husband (1938-46) of Mary McCarthy (1912-89). Am. "Tol'able David", "Way Down East" actor Richard Semler "Dick" Barthelmess (d. 1963) on May 9 in New York City; first nominee for Best Actor Oscar (1927-8). Japanese world's oldest person (Sept. 11, 2009-) Kama Chinen on May 10 in Okinawa. French "Four Musketeers" tennis hall-of-fame player Jacques "Toto" Brugnon (d. 1978) on May 11 in Paris. Am. composer (black) William Grant Still (d. 1978) on May 11 in Woodville, Miss. Am. chemist William Francis Giauque (d. 1982) on May 12 in Niagara Falls, Ont., Canada; Am. parents; educated at UCB. Indian New Age philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti (d. 1986) on May 12 in Madanapalle, Madras (Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh); a Telugu-speaking Brahmin; pupil of Theosophical Society leader Annie Besant (1847-1933). U.S. Sen. (R-Conn.) (1952-63) Prescott Sheldon Bush (d. 1972) on May 15 in Columbus, Ohio; son of railroad-steel exec. Samuel Prescott Bush (1863-1948) and Flora Sheldon; father of pres. George H.W. Bush (1924-); educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones). Nicaraguan leftist rev. leader Augusto Nicolas Calderon Sandino (d. 1934) on May 18 in Niquinomo. Am. biochemist (Rolfing founder) Ida Pauline Rolf (d. 1979) on May 19 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Barnard College, and Columbia U. Scottish poet Charles Hamilton Sorley (d. 1915) on May 19 in Aberdeen; educated at Malborough College. Mexican modernizer-reformer pres. (1934-40) Gen. Lazaro Cardenas (Lázaro Cárdenas) del Rio (d. 1970) on May 21 in Jiquilpan, Michoacan; born to a lower middle class family, he has to support the family at age 16. German Waffen SS Gen. Felix Martin Julius Steiner (d. 1966) on May 23 in Stalluponen, East Prussia. Am. publisher (Jewish) Samuel Irving Newhouse (Solomon Neuhaus) Sr. (d. 1979) on May 24; father of Samuel Irving Newhouse Jr. (1927-). Am. photographer Dorothea Lange (d. 1965) on May 25 in Hoboken, N.J; known for Depression Era and Japanese-Am. camp work. Am. "Pickett's Charge" historian-novelist George Rippey Stewart Jr. (d. 1980) on May 31 in Sewickley, Penn.; educated at Princeton U., UCB, and Columbia U. Polish Gen. Count Tadeusz Komorowski (Bor-Komorowski) ("Bor" = Forest) (d. 1966) on June 1 in Lwow (Kviv). Italian Fascist politician (foreign affairs minister, 1929-32) Dino Grandi (d. 1988) on June 4 in Mordano, Bologna; educated at the U.k of Bologna; his portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Robert De Niro? Am. Zippo lighter inventor George G. Blaisdell (d. 1978) on June 5 in Bradford, Penn. Am. "Hopalong Cassidy" actor William Lawrence Boyd (d. 1972) on June 5 in Hendrysburg (near Cambridge), Ohio. German Gen. Karl Heinrich Georg Ferdinand Kreipe (d. 1976) on June 5 in Niederspier, Thuringia. U.S. Pvt. Henry Nicholas John Gunther (d. 1918) on June 6 in Baltimore, Md.; last soldier KIA in WWI? German Gen. Kurt Zeitzler (d. 1963) on June 6 in Gossmar. French WWI/WWII ace (14+1 Vs) Lt. Marius Jean Paul Elzeard Ambrogi (d. 1971) on June 9 in Marseilles. Am. "Worlds in Collision" psychiatrist (Jewish) Immanuel Velikovsky (d. 1979) on June 10 in Vitebsk, Russia (Belarus); co-founder of Hebrew U. in Jerusalem; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. Am. "Jiminy Cricket in Walt Disney's Pinocchio" singer-actor Clifton A. "Cliff" "Ukelele Ike" Edwards (d. 1971) on June 14 in Hannibal, Mo. Spanish world's oldest living person (Jan. 2, 2009-Jan. 6, 2009) Manuela Fernandez Fojaco (d. 2009) on June 18 in Llamas, Aller, Asturias. German Nazi gauleiter of Ukraine (Christian) Erich Koch (d. 1989) on June 19 in Elberfeld, Wuppertal, Prussia. Am. world heavyweight boxing champ #8 (1919-26) ("the Manassa Mauler") William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey (d. 1983) (AKA Kid Blackey) on June 24 in Manassa, Colo. Am. world's oldest lving person (Jan. 6, 2009-) Olivia Patrick "Pat" Thomas (nee Trevellyan) (d. 2009) on June 29 in Snyder, N.Y. Am. "Swanee", "Tea for Two" lyricist-composer (Jewish) Irving Caesar (Keiser) (d. 1996) on July 4 in New York City; Romanian Jewish immigrant father; brother of Arthur Caesar. Am. psychologist and psychical researcher Gardner Murphy (d. 1979) on July 8 in Chillicothe, Ohio; educated at Yale U., Harvard U., and Columbia U. Soviet Cherenkov radiation physicist Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (d. 1971) on July 8 in Vladivostok. Am. "The Big Parade" actor ("the Great Lover of the Silent Screen") John Gilbert (John Cecil Pringle) (d. 1936) on July 10 in Logan, Utah. German "Carmina Burana" composer-educator Carl Orff (d. 1982) on July 10 in Munich. Norwegian Wagnerian opera soprano Kirsten Flagstad (d. 1962) on July 12 in Hamar. Am. Futurist "comprehensive thinker", "roam home to a dome" architect-educator (Unitarian) (inventor of the geodesic dome) Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller Jr. (d. 1983) on July 12 in Milton, Mass.; educated at Bates College; coiner of the terms "Spaceship Earth", "ephemeralization" (doing more with less), and "synergetics". Am. "Show Boat", "Carousel", "South Pacific", "The King and I", "Flower Drum Song", "The Sound of Music" librettist-lyricist-stage producer (half-Jewish) Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (d. 1960) (rhymes with twine) on July 12 in New York City; Jewish father William is son of Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919); mother Alice Nimmo is Scottish and raises him Christian; educated at Columbia U.; collaborator of Richard Rodgers (1902-79) - is that like son of a gun? Am. "Theodore Roosevelt", "Roman Castevet in Rosemary's Baby" actor Sidney Blackmer (d. 1973) on July 13 in Salisbury, N.C.; husband (1928-39) of Lenore Ulric (1892-1970) and (1943-73) Suzanne Kaaren. Am. botanist (Boysenberry inventor) Rudolph Boysen (d. 1950) on July 14. Am. "I Got the World on a String", "Sing, My Heart", "Stormy Weather" lyricist Ted Koehler (d. 1973) on July 14 in Washington, D.C.; collaborator of Harold Arlen (1905-86). English writer-critic Frank Raymond Leavis (d. 1978) on July 14 in Cambridge; educated at Perse School, and Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Hungarian Bauhaus prof. (Jewish) Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (Weisz) (d. 1946) (pr. "MO-hoi-naj"] on July 20; of Jewish Hungarian descent. Am. cowboy actor (alcoholic) Kenneth Olin "Ken" Maynard (d. 1973) on July 21 in Vevay, Ind.; his white stallion is named Tarzan. Am. Los Angeles mayor (1953-61) C. Norris Poulson (d. 1982) on July 23 in Baker County, Ore. English "I, Claudius", "Good-bye to All That", "The White Goddess" historical novelist-poet-scholar Robert Ranke Graves (d. 1985) on July 24 in Wimbledon, London; son of Alfred Perceval Graves (1846-1931) and Amalie von Ranke (niece of Leopold von Ranke); brother of Charles Patrick Graves (1899-1971); half-brother of Philip Perceval Graves (1876-1953); educated at Charterhouse School, and St. John's College, Oxford U.; partner (1929-36) of Laura Riding (1901-91). German SS Gen. Udo Gustav Wilhelm Egon von Woyrsch (d. 1983) on July 24 in Schwanowitz or Zwanowice, Brzeg County, Silesia. Am. Burns and Allen comedian (Roman Catholic) Gracie Allen (Grace Ethel Cecile Rosalie Allen) (d. 1964) on July 26 in San Francisco, Calif.; wife (1926-64) of George Burns (1896-1996). Am. silent film actor Kenneth Harlan (d. 1967) on July 26 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Fordham U.; husband (1924-7) of Marie Prevost (1898-1937). Am. actress ("The Girl Who Is Too Beautiful") Barbara La Marr (Reatha Dale Watson) (d. 1926) (AKA Folly Lytell) on July 28 in Yakima, Wash. Russian "Scenes from the Bathhouse", "A Man Is Not a Flea" writer Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko (d. 1958) on July 29 in Poltava, Ukraine. English "Mr. Cinders" actor Charles Robert William "Bobby" Howes (d. 1972) on Aug. 4 in Battersea. Am. "Puttin' on the Ritz" entertainer-aviator Harry Richman (Harold Reichman) (d. 1972) on Aug. 10 in Cincinnati, Ohio. English physicist Sir Charles Drummond Ellis (d. 1980) on Aug. 11 in Hampstead; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. "Cowardly Lion in The Wizard of Oz" actor Herbert "Bert" Lahr (Irving Lahrheim) (d. 1967) on Aug. 13 [Leo] in New York City. Austrian actress ("Austria's first movie star") Liane Haid (d. 2000) on Aug. 16 in Vienna. Am. "The Cat and the Canary" actor Lucien Littlefield (d. 1960) on Aug. 16 in San Antonio, Tex. Am. toymaker (Jewish) ("Toy King of America") ("the Henry Ford of the Toy Industry") ("the Toycoon") Louis Marx (d. 1982) on Aug. 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; German Jewish immigrant parents; father of Barbara Marx Hubbard (1929-), Louis Marx Jr., and Patricia Marx Ellsberg (1938-). British air ace (44 Vs) Albert Ball (d. 1917) on Aug. 14 in Nottingham. Am. "With These Hands" songwriter (Jewish) Benny Davis (d. 1979) on Aug. 21 in New York City. Am. "Grandmama in The Addams Family" actress Blossom Rock (Marie Blake) (Edith Marie Blossom MacDonald) (d. 1978) on Aug. 21 in Philadelphia, Penn.; sister of Jeanette MacDonald (1903-65). Am. economist David LeFrevre Dodd (d. 1988) on Aug. 23 in Berkeley County, W. Va.; educated at the U. of Penn., and Columbia U. Am. Boston archbishop of Boston (1944-7) and cardinal (1958-) Richard James Cushing (d. 1970) on Aug. 24 in South Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston College. Am. Dem. La. gov. #45 (1939-40, 1948-52, 1956-60) ("Last of the Red Hot Poppas") Earl Kemp Long (d. 1960) on Aug. 26 in Winnfield, La.; son of Huey P. Long Sr. (1852-1937); brother of "Kingfish" Huey P. Long Jr. (1893-1935); lover of Blaze Starr (1932-). Am. Brig. Gen. and N.J. state police supt. #1 (1921-36) Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Sr. (d. 1958) on Aug. 28 in Newark, N.J.; father of H. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012). German Nazi politician Hinrich Lohse (d. 1964) on Sept. 2 in Muhlenbarbek, Schleswig-Holstein. Am. civil rights atty. (black) ("the Man Who Killed Jim Crow") Charles Hamilton Houston (d. 1950) on Sept. 3 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard U. German soprano Meta Seinemeyer (d. 1929) on Sept. 5. German V-2 rocket program leader maj.-gen. Walter Robert Dornberger (d. 1980) on Sept. 6 in Giessen. Soviet Gen. Aleksei Innokentievich Antonov (d. 1962) on Sept. 9 in Grodno; of Tatar ancestry. Albanian MP Avni Rustemi (d. 1924) on Sept. 11 in Libohove, Gjirokaster. Am. "The Parent Trap", "Grandma Effie Hanks in Pistols 'n' Petticoats" actress Ruth McDevitt (Ruth Thane Shoecraft) (d. 1976) on Sept. 13 in Coldwater, Mich. U.S. defense secy. #4 (1951-3) ("Architect of the Cold War") Robert Abercrombie Lovett (d. 1986) on Sept. 14 in Huntsville, Tex. educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones) and Harvard U. English cricketer Charles "Father" Stowell Marriott (d. 1966) on Sept. 14 in Heaton Moor, Lancashire; not to be confused with writer Charles Marriott (1869-1957). Romanian celeb (wife of Carol II) Magda (Elena) Lupescu (d. 1977) on Sept. 15 in Jassy; wife (1947-53) of Carol II (1893-1953). Canadian PM (1957-63) John George Diefenbaker (d. 1979) on Sept. 18 in Grey County, Ont.; leader of Progressive Conservative Party (1956-67); educated at the U. of Sask. Spanish autogyro inventor Juan de la Cierva (d. 1936) on Sept. 21 in Murcia. Am. "Scarface", "Inherit the Wind" actor (Jewish) Paul Muni (Meshilem Meier "Moony" Weisenfreund) (d. 1967) on Sept. 22 in Lviv, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1902. Indian maharaja (1925-61) Lt. Gen. Sir Hari Singh Indar mahindar Bahadur (d. 1961) on Sept. 23 in Amar Mahal Palace, Jammu, India. Am. physician-physiologist (pioneer in cardiac catheterization) Andre Frederic Cournand (d. 1988) on Sept. 24 in Paris; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. English "Goodbye Mr. Chips" producer-dir.-writer Victor Saville (d. 1979) on Sept. 25 in Birmingham. Am. ambassador to Israel (1954-9) Edward B. Lawson (d. 1962) on Sept. 26 in Newport, Tenn. Soviet chemist Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (b. 1896) on Sept. 26; 1956 Nobel Chem. Prize. German Waffen-SS Gen. Jurgen (Jürgen) (Josef) Stroop (d. 1952) on Sept. 26 in Detmold. English historian Sir Charles Alexander Petrie, 3rd Baronet (d. 1977) on Sept. 28 in Liverpool; of Irish descent. Am. statistician-economist Harold Hotelling (d. 1973) on Sept. 29 in Fulda, Minn. Am. parapsychology researcher J.B. (Joseph Banks) Rhine (d. 1980) on Sept. 29 in Waterloo, Penn.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "All Quiet on the Western Front", "Mutiny on the Bounty" dir. (Jewish) Lewis Milestone (Milstein) (d. 1980) on Sept. 30 in Kishinev, Bessarabia (Chisinau, Moldova). Soviet marshal Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky (d. 1977) on Sept. 30 (Sept. 18 Old Style). Am. Abbott and Costello comic (Jewish?) William Alexander "Bud" Abbott (d. 1974) on Oct. 2 in Asbury Park, N.J.; partner of Lou Costello (1906-59). Am. "Washington Star" ed. Benjamin Mosby "Ben" McKelway (d. 1976) on Oct. 2 in Fayeteville, N.C. Am. 5'5" "The General" actor-dir. ("the Great Stone Face") ("the Michelangelo of Silent Comedy") Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton VI (d. 1966) on Oct. 4 in Piqua, Kan.; son of Joe Keaton (1867-1946) and Myra Keaton (1877-1955); cousin of Richard Lupino (1929-2005); brother of Harry Keaton (1904-83) and Louise Keaton (1906-81); husband (1921-32) of Natalie Talmadge (1898-1969), (1933-6) Mae Scriven, and (1940-66) Eleanor Keaton; father of Buster Keaton Jr. (1922-2007) and Bob Talmadge (1924-); known for porkpie hat, slapshoes, and deadpan expression; his nickname is devised by Harry Houdini at age 6 mo. after he falls down some stairs and he remarks "That was a real buster", becoming the first to use the name Buster, making it popular; right index finger amputated at the knuckle at age 3. Soviet super spy ("Stalin's James Bond") Richard "Ramsay" Sorge (d. 1944) on Oct. 4 in Sabunchi, Azerbaijan; German father, Russian mother; great-nephew of Friedrich Adolf Sorge (1826-1906); fights for the Germans in WWI, is wounded, and becomes a Communist in the military hospital. Am. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-9) and CIA dir. (1950-3) Gen. Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (d. 1961) on Oct. 5 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Penhally" novelist-critic Caroline Ferguson Gordon (d. 1981) on Oct. 6 in Todd County, Ky. Argentine pres. (1946-55, 1973-4) gen. Juan Domingo Peron (d. 1974) on Oct. 8 near Lobos, Buenos Aires; part Scottish and Italian father, Spanish-Am. Indian mother. German Luftwaffe field marshal Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (d. 1945) on Oct. 10 in Barzdorf (near Striegau), Lower Silesia; 4th cousin of Manfred "Red Baron" von Richthofen (1892-1918). Chinese writer-inventor Lin Yutang (d. 1976) on Oct. 10 in Banzai, Zhangzhou, Fujian; Christian minister father; educated at Harvard U. German Nazi official (July 20th Plotter) Count Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorf (d. 1944) on Oct. 14 in Merseburg. Am. historian (of Science and Technology) Lewis Mumford (d. 1990) on Oct. 19 in Flushing, N.Y.; educated at CCNY. Am. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn", "Genie in the Thief of Baghdad" actor (black) Rex Ingram (d. 1969) on Oct. 20 in Cairo, Ill.; first African-Am. male to graduate from Northwestern U. medical school, and first to be hired for a contract role in a soap opera, "The Brighter Day" in 1962; not to be confused with dir. Rex Ingram (1895-1950). Am. silent film actress Edna Purviance (d. 1958) on Oct. 21 in Paradise Valley, Nev.; discovered in a cafe by Charlie Chaplin, who appears in 35 films with her. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1935-9) Fontaine Maury Maverick Sr. (d. 1954) on Oct. 23 in San Antonio, Tex.; grandson of Sam Maverick (1803-70); father of Maury Maverick Jr. (1921-2003); coins the term "gobbledygook". Israeli PM #3 (1963-9) (Jewish) Levi Eshkol (Skolnik) (d. 1969) on Oct. 25 in Oratov (near Kiev), Ukraine. Am. "Rio Rita", "Victor Moritz in Frankenstein" actor-singer John Boles (d. 1969) on Oct. 28 in Greenville, Tex. German Sulfa drug bacteriologist Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (d. 1964) on Oct. 30 in Lagow, Brandenburg. Am. physician-physiologist Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr. (d. 1973) on Oct. 30 in Orange, N.J.; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). English military strategist ("the captain who teaches generals") Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (d. 1970) on Oct. 31 in Paris; educated at St. Paul's School, and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1966. German pianist-composer Walter Wilhelm Gieseking (d. 1956) on Nov. 5 in Lyon, France. Am. "The Front Page" playwright-screenwriter Charles Gordon MacArthur (d. 1956) on Nov. 5 in Scranton, Penn.; brother of John D. MacArthur (1897-1978); husband (1928-56) of Helen Hayes (1900-93); foster father of Charles MacArthur (1937-); buys 2.6K acres in Palm Beach County, Fla. in 1954 for $5.5M. Am. Northrop Corp. founder and Lockheed Corp. co-founder (pioneer of the flying wing) John Knudsen "Jack" Northrop (d. 1981) on Nov. 10 in Newark, N.J.; grows up in Santa Barbara, Calif. Armenian "The Green Hat" writer-novelist-playwright Michael Arlen (Dikran Kouyoumdjian) (d. 1956) on Nov. 16 in Rousse, Bulgaria. German composer-conductor (Jewish) Paul Hindemith (d. 1963) on Nov. 16 in Hanau; pupil of Arnold Mendelssohn and Bernhard Sekles; banned by the Nazis for his modernity. Mexican "A Letter to God" novelist-poet-journalist Gregorio Lopez y Fuentes (d. 1966) on Nov. 17 in El Mamey, Huasteca. English "Magnolia Street" novelist-poet (Jewish) Louis Golding (d. 1958) on Nov. 19 in Manchester; of Ukrainian Jewish descent; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. Czech Gen. Alois Liska (d. 1977) on Nov. 20 Zaborci (near Liberec). Soviet statesman (atheist) Anastas Hovhanessi Mikoyan (d. 1978) on Nov. 25 (Nov. 13 Old Style) in Sanahin, Yelizavetpol; of Armenian descent; not to be confused with aircraft designer A.I. Mikoyan (1905-70). Pakistani "Now or Never" nationalist (Sunni Muslim) (creator of the name Pakistan) Choudhry Rahmat Ali (d. 1951) on Nov. 16 in Balachaur, Punjab; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Am. "...And Ladies of the Club" novelist Helen Hooven Santmyer (d. 1986) on Nov. 25 in Cincinnati, Ohio; grows up in Xenia, Ohio; educated at Wellesley College, and Oxford U. Czech pres. (1968-75) Ludvik Svoboda (d. 1979) on Nov. 25 in Hroznatin (near Bratislava), Moravia. Am. Alcoholics Anonymous founder William G. Wilson ("Bill W.") (d. 1971) on Nov. 26. French zoologist Pierre-Paul Grasse (Grassé) (d. 1985) on Nov. 27 in Perigeux, Dordogne. Spanish "Thousands Cheer" conductor-pianist Jose Iturbi (d. 1980) on Nov. 28 in Valencia. Am. "42nd Street" "parade of faces" dir.-choreographer Busby Berkeley (William Berkeley Enos) (d. 1976) on Nov. 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. Liberian pres. #19 (1944-71) (black) (Methodist) William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman (d. 1971) on Nov. 29 in Harper. British Capt. Edward Harold Brittain (d. 1918) on Nov. 30 in Macclesfield, Cheshire; brother of Vera Brittain. Am. Dem. Ga. gov. #56 (1937-41) Eurith Dickinson "Ed" Rivers (d. 1967) on Dec. 1 in Center Point, U.; educated at la Salle U. English "Tarka the Otter" children's novelist Henry William Williamson (d. 1977) on Dec. 1 in Brockley, London. English pianist Harriet Cohen (d. 1967) on Dec. 2 in London. Austrian psychoanalyst (Jewish) ("Founder of Child Psychoanalysis") Anna Freud (d. 1982) on Dec. 3 in Vienna; 6th and last child of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Martha Bernays (1861-1951); a lifelong virgin, her daddy psychoanalyzes her for masturbating. English zoologist-statistician Lancelot Thomas Hogben (d. 1975) on Dec. 9 in Portsmouth; grows up in Southsea, Hampshire; Plymouth Brethren parents; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. helicopter designer Henry Adler Berliner (d. 1970) on Dec. 13 in Washington, D.C.; son of Emile Berliner (1851-1929). French "Le Capital de la Douleur" surrealist poet Paul Eluard (Eugene Grindel) (d. 1952) on Dec. 14 in Saint-Denis. British Windsor king #3 (1936-52) George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (d. 1952) on Dec. 14 in Sandringham, Norfolk; 2nd son of George V (1865-1936) and Mary of Teck (1867-1953); brother of David Windsor (Edward VIII) (1894-1972); father of Elizabeth II (1926-) by wife Elizabeth; last emperor of India (1936-47). German Wannsee Conference diplomat Martin Franz Julius Luther (d. 1945) on Dec. 16 in Berlin. Am. "Ain't Misbehavin'", "Honeysuckle Rose" composer (black) Andy Razaf (Andriamanenta Paul Razafinkarefo or Razafkeriefo) (d. 1973) on Dec. 16 in Washington, D.C.; descendant of Queen Ranavalona III of Madagascar; raised in Harlem, N.Y. Am. banker-philanthropist Edward Roland Noel "Bunny" Harriman (d. 1978) on Dec. 24 in New York City; son of railroad mogul Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909); brother of W. Averell Harriman (1891-1986); educated at Groton School, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones); classmate of Prescott Bush (1895-1972). Am. "The Lonesome Road" conductor-composer (Jewish) Nathaniel Shilkret (d. 1982) on Dec. 25 in Austria. English "The Boat", "The Go-Between" novelist Leslie Poles Hartley (d. 1972) on Dec. 30 in Wittlesey, Cambridgeshire; educated at Harrow School, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. "Nola", "Lopez Speaking" bandleader-pianist Vincent Lopez (d. 1975) on Dec. 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Portuguese immigrant parents. Swedish meteorologist-explorer Finn Adolf Erik Johan Malmgren (d. 1928) on ? in Goteborg. Am. blues singer (black) Trixie Smith (d. 1943) on ? in Atlanta, Ga. Indian scientist Yellapragada Subba Row (d. 1948) on ? in ?; developer of the first antibiotic (Gramicidin), and many other miracle drugs. Am. "The Children of God" novelist Vardis Fisher (d. 1968) on ? in Annis, Idaho; educated at the U. of Utah, and U. of Chicago. Irish nationalist Robert Briscoe (d. 1969) on ? in ?. Am. architect William Wilson Wurster (d. 1973) on ? in Stockton, Calif. U.S. nat. security advisor #1 (1953-5) and #4 (1957-9) Robert Cutler (d. 1974) on ? in Boston, Mass; educated at Harvard U. Palestinian anti-Semitic Arab Muslim nationalist leader (grand mufti of Jerusalem in 1921-48) Mohammad (Muhammad) Amin al-Husayni (al-Husseini) (d. 1974) on ? in Jerusalem; great-uncle of Yasser Arafat (1929-2004). Welsh poet-painter David M. Jones (d. 1974) on ? in ?. Soviet PM (1955-8) Nikolai A. Bulganin (d. 1975) on ? in ?. Am. bandleader Meyer Davis (d. 1976) on ? in ?. Peruvian statesman Victor Raul Haya de la Torre (d. 1979) on ? in ?; educated at Oxford U. Am. architect Wallace K. Harrison (d. 1981) on ? in ?. British writer Gayelord Hauser (d. 1984) on ? in ?. Am. economist Holbrook Working (d. 1985) on ? in Ft. Collins, Colo.; brother of Elmer Working; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. OPA head (1941-2) Leon Henderson (d. 1986) on ? in Millville, N.J.; educated at Swarthmore College. English WWII nurse Mary Lindell (d. 1986) (AKA Comtesse de Milleville, the Comtesse de Moncy, and Marie-Claire) in Surrey. Am. abstract expressionist artist (Jewish) Ben-Zion Weinman (d. 1987) on ? in ?; Polish parents. Am. "Don Winslow of the Navy" novelist Frank V. Martinek (d. ?). Deaths: Hungarian inventor Anyos Jedlik (b. 1800) on Dec. 13 in Gyor. Am. theologian Edward Beecher (b. 1803) on July 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld (b. 1803) on Feb. 3. Italian "Storia Universale" historian-novelist Cesare Cantu (b. 1804) on Mar. 11 in Milan. U.S. Supreme Court justice #39 (1870-80) William Strong (b. 1808) on Aug. 19 in Lake Minnewassa, N.Y. English Orientalist Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (b. 1810). English fuel cell inventor Sir William Robert Grove (b. 1811) on Aug. 1 in London. Am. geologist James Dwight Dana (b. 1813) on Apr. 14. German novelist-dramatist Gustav Freytag (b. 1816) on Apr. 30. French physician (BCG vaccine co-developer) Alphonse Guerin (b. 1816). Hungarian chemist Janos Irinyi (b. 1817). Am. black leader Frederick Douglass (b. 1817) on Feb. 20 in his 20-room Cedar Hill Mansion in the black Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C. at 1411 W. St. S.E. German historian Heinrich von Sybel (b. 1817) on Aug. 1. Irish poet Cecil Frances Alexander (b. 1818). Belgian painter Jean Francois Portaels (b. 1818) on Feb. 8 in Schaerbeek. Am. architect James Renwick Jr. (b. 1818) on June 23 in New York City; designed the Smithsonian Inst. Bldg., the Corcoran Galleries in Washington, D.C., and Grace Church and St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City. Am. sculptor-poet William Wetmore Story (b. 1819) on Oct. 7. Austrian (Dalmatian) composer Franz von Suppe (b. 1819) on May 21 in Vienna. German Socialist thinker (Marxism co-founder) Friedrich Engels (b. 1820) on Aug. 5 in London: "The state is not abolished, it withers away." Am. songwriter George Frederick Root (b. 1820) on Aug. 6 in Bailey Island, Maine. English railway supt. Patrick Stirling (b. 1820) on Nov. 11. English mathematician Arthur Cayley (b. 1821) on Jan. 26. Austrian chemist Johann Loschmidt (b. 1821) on July 8 in Vienna. Turkish reformer Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (b. 1822) on May 25; leaves a multi-vol. Ottoman History. French #1 chemist Louis Pasteur (b. 1822) on Sept. 28 in Marnes-la-Coquette: "Will, work and success... fill human existence." French novelist-playwright Alexandre Dumas fils (b. 1824) on Nov. 27 in Marly-le-Roi, Yvelines: "All generalizations are dangerous, even this one." English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (b. 1825) on June 29 in Eastbourne, Sussex: "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me." English fashion designer Charles Frederick Worth (b. 1825) on Mar. 10 in Paris. Am. railroad exec William Mahone (b. 1826) on Oct. 8 in Washington, D.C. Am. architect Richard Morris Hunt (b. 1827) on July 31 in Newport, R.I.; designed the Metropolitan Museum in New York City (part), and the Nat. Observatory in Washington, D.C. Am. Civil Union gen. Ely Parker (b. 1828) on Aug. 31 in Fairfield, Conn.; dies in poverty. U.S. Repub. Sen. (1883-95) James Falconer Wilson (b. 1828) on Apr. 22 in Fairfield, Iowa. Egyptian khedive (1863-79) Ismael (Ismael) (b. 1830). Russian novelist Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov (b. 1831) on Mar. 5 in St. Petersburg (breast cancer). Am. soldier-jurist-statesman Walter Quintin Gresham (b. 1832) on May 28 in Washington, D.C. U.S. Supreme Court justice (1893-5) Howell Edmunds Jackson (b. 1832) on Aug. 8 (TB). German physicist Franz Ernst Neumann (b. 1832) on May 23. German inventor Eugen Langen (b. 1833). English historian Sir John Seeley (b. 1834). English-born Am. baseball hall-of-fame player-mgr. Harry Wright (b. 1835) on Oct. 3 in Atlantic City, N.J. Welsh novelist Daniel Owen (b. 1836) on Oct. 22. Chinese Adm. Ding Ruchang (b. 1836) on Feb. 12 (suicide). Austrian masochist novelist Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (b. 1836) on Mar. 9 in Lindheim (Mannheim?) (in an asylum?). French artist Emile Munier (b. 1840) on June 29. Am. pharmacist Silas Mainville Burroughs (b. 1846) on Feb. 6 in Monte Carlo, Monaco (pneumonia). English politician Lord Randolph Churchill (b. 1849) on Jan. 24 in London (syphilis). Am. "Wynken, Blynken and Nod", "Little Boy Blue" journalist-poet Eugene Field (b. 1850). Am. outlaw John Wesley Hardin (b. 1853) on Aug. 19 in El Paso, Tex.; killed 42 men by 1878 when he was put in prison. Cuban rev. leader Jose Marti (b. 1853) on May 19 (KIA). Bulgarian PM (1887-94) Stefan Stambulov (b. 1854) (assassinated).



1896 - The Tough Bitch Radioactivity Cross of Gold Thus Spake Zarathustra Modern Olympics Year?

William Jennings Bryan of the U.S. (1860-1925) Arthur Sewall of the U.S. (1835-1900) Thomas Edward Watson of the U.S. (1856-1922) John McAuley Palmer of the U.S. (1817-1900) Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr. of the U.S. (1823-1914) British Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener (1850-1916) Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet of Canada (1821-1915) Sir Wilfrid Laurier of Canada (1841-1919) Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippines (1869-1964) British Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of Iran (1853-1907) Hamoud bin Mohammed of Zanzibar (1853-1902) So Chae-p'il of Korea (1864-1951) Federico Errázuriz Echaurren of Chile (1850-1901) Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) James Brendan Bennet Connolly of the U.S. (1868-1957) Thomas Edward Burke of the U.S. (1875-1929) Spiridon Louis of Greece (1873-1940) British Lt.-Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) British Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) Catherine Breshkovsky (1844-1934) Alfred Austin (1835-1913) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935) Homer Plessy (1863-1925) William Sharp (Fina MacLeod) (1855-1905) Maud Booth (1865-1948) and Ballington Booth (1857-1940) Mary Scott Lord Dimmick Harrison (1858-1948) George Washington Carver (1864-1943) Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1842-1924) Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Alfred Harmsworth (1865-1922) Harold Harmsworth (1868-1940) Abraham Lincoln Erlanger (1859-1930) Werner Sombart (1863-1941) Charles Thompson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) Marc Klaw (1858-1936) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927) Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) Richard Strauss (1864-1949) Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919) Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) William Merritt Chase (1849-1916) Christian Sinding (1856-1941) Charles M. Manly (1876-1927) and Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) Henry Ford (1863-1947) William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913) Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928) Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) Olds Pirate, 1896 Alexander Winton (1860-1932) Baron de la Vallee Poussin (1866-1962) Jacques-Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963) Otto Richard Lummer (1860-1925) Ernst Pringsheim (1859-1917) Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) Harriet Emilie Cady (1848-1941) C. Edmund Kells (1856-1928) William Bell Wait (1839-1916) William Chandler Roberts-Austen (1843-1902) Ernest Chausson (1855-99) Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928) John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910) William Allen White (1868-1944) Richard Dehmel (1863-1920) Dorothy Dix (1861-1951) Eleonora Duse (1858-1924) Bridget Driscoll (1825-96) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943) Adolf Brand (1874-1945) Abraham Cahan (1860-1951) John Dewey (1859-1952) Abraham Geiger (1810-74) Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) Katherine Tingley (1847-1929) Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934) Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938) Horace Dutton Taft (1861-1943) William Selig (1864-1948) Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931) Abigail Jane Scot Duniway (1834-1915) Stephen Phillips (1864-1915) Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860-1908) Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) Richard Felton Outcault (1863-1928) 'The Yellow Kid', 1896- Parlophone Max Beerbohm (1872-1956) 'The May Irwin Kiss', 1896 'Boy with Skull' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1896-8 'The Flying Dutchman' by Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), 1896 'Troll Who Smells Christian Blood' by Niels Hansen-Jacobsen, 1896 'War I' by Arnold Böcklin, 1896 'War II' by Arnold Böcklin, 1896 Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921) 'The Caress' by Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921), 1896 'The Geisha', 1896 'Ubu Roi' by Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), 1896 Dartboard, 1896 Alexandre Darracq (1855-1931) Darracq 6-1/2 HP, 1900 Darracq Flying Fifteen 1904 Émile Mayade (1853-98) Emile Mayade's 1986 Panhard et Levassor

1896 On Jan. 1 the Venezuelan Boundary Commission, chaired by Oscar II of Sweden and Norway is formed to settle the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain (ends 1897); John Hopkins U. pres. Daniel Coit Gilman is a member. On Jan. 2 Dr. Starr Jameson surrenders at Doornkop; on Jan. 3 Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II sends the Kruger Telegram, congratulating Pres. Paul Kruger and offering military aid in a misguided attempt to win British friendship, which backfires, causing the British govt. to seek an agreement with France and Russia, resulting in a Jan. 15 agreement with France abandoning British claims in Siam, but no deal with the Russkies; on Jan. 6 Cecil Rhodes resigns as PM after being implicated in the Jameson Raid. On Jan. 4 "Beehive State" Utah (Ute "people of the mountains") is admitted as the 45th U.S. state - are you my tah, er, pah? On Jan. 4 Prince Henry of Battenberg arrives in Africa, and promptly contracts malaria at Prahsu (30 mi. from Kumasi), is shipped back, and dies on HMS Blonde en route on Jan. 20; on Jan. 20 after British troops arrive in Kumasi, Prempeh I of Ashanti submits to the gov. of Cape Coast without a fight, and is arrested along with his royal family, ending the Fourth British-Ashanti War (begun 1895); on Jan. 1, 1897 they are deported to Sierra Leone then the Seychelles, clearing the way for British annexation of Going Going Ghana in 1902; Prempeh returns in 1924 as a private citizen, and after petitions from his sujects he is reenstooled, er, reinstalled on the Golden Stool in 1926, ending up dying in 1931 when a giant tree falls on him - Ghana is ready for Shirley Temple Black? On Feb. 11 King Kojong of Korea flees to the Russian legation during yet another uprising, remaining under Russian protection for the next year while being used by the Russians to gain dominance, resulting in the Lobanov-Yamagata Agreement of June 9, establishing a condominium with Japan; Russia sends advisors, founds a Russian-Korean bank, and gains timber and mining concessions. In Feb. Tsar Nicholas II and Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand kiss and make up, and Crown Prince Boris (b. 1894) is baptized into the Russian Orthodox faith, causing Russia to begin securing the recognition of Ferdinand by the powers - here's a cute little icon, boy? Oops, a bunch of African blacks kicks lily-white Italian butt in a fair fight? On Mar. 1-2 the Ethiopians (Abyssinians) under Emperor Menelik II disastrously defeat the Italians at the Battle of Adowa (Aduwa), ending the First Ethiopian War (begun 1885); Italy withdraws its protectorate, and Italian commissioners are forced to kneel in front of black guys on thrones, causing Humbert I's popularity to tank, and Francesco Crispi's cabinet to fall; seeing their chance, Crispi's many enemies charge him with embezzlement and get him censured but not prosecuted, allowing him to get reelected to the chamber of deputies, only to become whimp because of ill health? On Mar. 10 after the Adowa disaster causes Giovanni Giollit's cabinet to fall, Antonio Starabba becomes PM of Italy again (until June 29, 1898). On Mar. 12 the British under Maj. Gen. (later field marshal) Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (1850-1916) begin the reconquest of the Sudan from the Mahdists by an advance on Dongola with a simultaneous plan to protect the Nile River from designs of the pesky French, building a railway for supply. On Mar. 21 William Q. Judge (b. 1851) dies in New York City, and Katherine Tingley (1847-1929) becomes leader of the Theosophical Society, going on to move the HQ in 1900 to Point Loma (near San Diego), Calif. On Apr. 6 recently widowed (1892) 62-y.-o. former U.S. pres. (1889-93) Benjamin Harrison (b. 1833) marries his wife's much younger widowed (married for 11 weeks) 38-y.-o. niece Mary Scott Lord Dimmick (1858-1948) (who had moved into the White House in 1889 to be his wife's asst., allowing him to play head of the nation with her?), shocking his grown children, who snub the marriage; they skip the honeymoon and go right into rabbit raising in Indianapolis, and have no sons and 1 daughter, atty. Elizabeth Harrison Walker (1897-1955), finding time to go to Venezuela to help settle the boundary dispute; when her old fart hubby dies in 1901, she spends her last 47 years as a widow, for a total of five years of marriage with two men. On Apr. 6-15 the modern I (1st) Summer Olympic Games, organized by Pierre de Fredy (Frédy), Baron de Coubertin (1863-1937) and the Union des Sport Athletiques are held in Athens, Greece (that's in Europe not Asia), with 241 athletes (all men) from 14 countries; the U.S. team is almost late in arriving on the German freighter Barbarossa because they didn't know that Greece still uses the Old Style calendar; the first championship (silver not gold) medal is awarded to Boston-born James Brendan Bennet Connolly (1868-1957) of the U.S. (who takes a leave of absence from Harvard, and is robbed in Naples and has to chase the bum down to get his boat ticket back) for the hop, skip, and jump (triple jump) (13.71m, almost 1m ahead of #2), making him the first Olympic champ since 389 C.E. (he also comes in 2nd in the high jump and 3rd in the long jump); crouch-starter (Boston U. student) Thomas Edward "Tom" Burke (1875-1929) of the U.S. wins the 100m dash in 12.0 sec. and the 400m in 54.2 sec.; the Greeks remain winless until the last event, the marathon (ending in Panathenaic Stadium), which is won by 23-y.-o. mineral water supplier Spiridon (Spyridon) "Spiros" Louis (1873-1940); Haralambos Vassilakos of Greece places 2nd, and yet another Greek, Dimitries Velokas places 3rd; later it is discovered that Velokas had hidden a horse and carriage in a park and ridden part of the way, so his medal is stripped from him and awarded to Gyulla Kellner of Hungary. On Apr. 23 the first moving picture shows are viewed by the U.S. public at Koster and Bial's Music Hall on 34th St. in New York City; Vitascope Hall on Canal St. in New Orleans, La. opens on June 26, becoming the first movie theater in the U.S.; New Orleans also had the first U.S. opera house in 1796, and also originates jazz. On Apr. 27 Sir Mackenzie Bowell resigns, and Conservative on May 1 Conservative (Baptist) Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet (1821-1915) becomes PM #6 of Canada 69 days before the election, which he loses on July 8 after the Liberals favor rights for French-speaking Manitobans; on July 11 Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919) becomes PM #7 of Canada (until Oct. 6, 1911), the first French-Canadian PM, uttering the soundbyte "Canada is free and freedom is its nationality", going on to work to establish Canada as autonomous within the British empire, even if it never becomes a melting pot like you know what down south. On May 1 ignorant dissolute Persian shah (since Sept. 17, 1848) Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (b. 1831) is assassinated in Tehran in a shrine while celebrating his 50th anniv. by Mirza Reza Kermani, and his intellectual and well-pleasured son Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar (1853-1907) becomes Qajar shah #5 of Persia (until 1907), going on to found the Iranian constitution and Iranian cinema while enjoying his wives and boys, and once giving the main garrison of Tehran to his boy ho Little Satan while drunk. On May 18 Sheikh Al-Sabah (1837-1915) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor Anthony Quinn (1915-2001)?) becomes ruler of Kuwait (until Nov. 28, 1915) after killing his two brothers Mohammad I and Jarrah, claiming to liberate it from the Ottomans. On May 26 the first Dow Jones Industrial Average is pub., consisting of a dozen stocks (40.94). On May 27 255 people are killed by a tornado in St. Louis, Mo. and East St. Louis, Ill. In late May gold is discovered at Fortymile Creek in Alaska. On June 6 George Samuelson and Frank Harpo leave New York Harbor in an 18-ft. rowboat, arriving 56 days later on the Scilly Islands off England, becoming the first to row across the Atlantic Ocean. On June 16-18 the 1896 Repub. Nat. Convention in St. Louis, Mo. Penn. is sewn-up in advance by president-maker Marcus Alonzo Hanna, who bills his protective tariff loving man Ohio Gov. William A. McKinley as the "Advance Agent of Prosperty", and fights off House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed's bid to get him nominated on the first ballot, then changes pres. campaigns forever with new advertising-style campaign practices that make a monkey out of old fashioned William Jennings Bryan; McKinley's close friend Garret A. Hobart of N.J. is nominated for vice-pres.; when the party platform adopts a gold plank, a small group of Western "Silver Republicans" bolt. On July 1 the Malay Treaty of Federation unites Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang as the Federated Malay States (FMS) (unitl 1946) under the British gov. of the Straits Settlements, while retaining separate British residents; it counts 218K people in a census, of whom only 53% are Malays, the rest Chinese and Indians; the Unfederated Malay States (UMS) of Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu have a similar composition. On July 2 So Chae-p'il (Philip Jaisohn) (1864-1951) (recently returned from the U.S., where he studied medicine) founds the Independence Club in Korea, lobbying against foreign imperialism (ends 1898). On July 4 Congress approves a new U.S. flag with 45 stars (design #23), which now incl. Utah; no more changes for 12 years as the U.S. slides into the 20th cent. with 45 states, gaining 30 this cent. On July 7-11 the 1896 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. is held; at first no candidate stands out, until strong-voiced 36-y.-o. 3-term Neb. rep. William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) gives his pro-silver Cross of Gold Speech on July 8, electrifying the audience with the soundbyte "You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold", and the "Boy Orator of the Platte" is nominated for pres. the next day on the 3rd ballot; wealthy Maine shipbuilder Arthur Sewall (1835-1900) is nominated for vice-pres.; after getting pissed-off at Bryan for picking anti-trade union candidate Sewall, the People's (Populist) Party splits with Bryan, nominating anti-Catholic, anti-black (pro-KKK), anti-Semitic (later anti-WWI, anti-Wilson, anti-League of Nations) Thomas Edward "Tom" Watson (1856-1922) of Ga. for vice-pres., who goes on to receive 217K votes; the anti-Bryan anti-free-silver 1896 Nat. "Sound Money" Dem. Party (Gold Dems.) Convention in Indianapolis, Ind. nominates former Ill. gov. and Civil War Union gen. John McAuley Palmer (1817-1900) for pres. and former Ky. gov. and Civil War Confed. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr. (1823-1914) of Ky. for vice-pres. On July 18 the Daughters of the Confederacy is formed in Atlanta, Ga. with an initial membership of 100. On July 28 after Standard Oil Co. co-founder Henry Morrison Flager (1830-1913) builds the Fla. East Coast Railway and finances its development, the city of Miami, Fla. (pop. 360K/2.4M) (Dade County) on Biscayne Bay (based on an old Indian name) is incorporated. Flagler graciously declining the honor of having it called Flagler - it would later have been nice to call it Fagler? On Aug. 16 William Allen White (1868-1944), owner of the Emporia Gazette pub. the editorial "What's the Matter With Kansas?", rocketing him to nat. fame with Repubs., after which he becomes good friends with Theodore Roosevelt and the unofficial spokesman for middle America. On Aug. 17 a prospecting party discovers gold in the Klondike in Bonanza (Rabbit) Creek, Alaska, setting off a gold rush. On Aug. 17 Bridget Driscoll (b. 1825) becomes the first person to die in a gasoline engine automobile accident after an automobile belonging to the Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co. runs over her on the grounds of the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London. On Aug. 23 the Philippine rev. against the Spanish breaks out with the Cry of Balintawak (Pugadlawin), led by Katipunan founder Andres Bonifacio; unfortunately the intellectuals (ilustrados) don't back the rebels?; on Nov. 11 the Spanish are repulsed by Filipino rebels under Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) in Cavite at the Battle of Binakayan (their first V), causing the rebellion to spread to other provinces; on Dec. 30 Jose Rizal is executed (shot), increasing popular resentment and adding fuel. On Aug. 25 sultan (since 1893) Sayyid Hamad bin Thuwaini al-Busaid dies, and his nephew Sayyid Khalid bin Barghash al-Busaid (1874-1927), eldest son of sultan #2 Sayyid Barghash bin Said al-Busaid seizes power from the British choice Hamoud bin Mohammed, becoming sultan #6, which pisses them off, causing them on Aug. 27 to issue an ultimatum at 8:00, then start a war which begins at 9 a.m. and ends 36-45 min. later after British warships open fire and the new sultan hastily surrenders, becoming the shortest war on record; al-Busaid flees to Zanzibar, and on Aug. 28 Hamoud bin Mohammed (1853-1902) becomes sultan (until July 18, 1902), paying the Brits back by banning slavery, for which Queen Vicky decorates him. On Aug. 26 Armenians of the Dashnak Party seize the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople (Istanbul), setting off large-scale massacres of Armenians there while pleas for European intervention go unheeded. In Aug. Chinese ambassador Li Hung Chang visits the U.S., causing Chop Suey to become popular in the U.S. after his chef devises it in New York City. On Sept. 8 Russia and China sign the Manchuria Convention. On Sept. 18 Federico Errazuriz (Errázuriz) Echaurren (1850-1901), son of former pres. Federico Errazuriz Zanartu becomes pres. of Chile (until July 12, 1901). On Oct. 13 amateurs George Law, Jim Shirley, and "The Kid" Pierce rob the Bank of Meeker in NW Colo. about 3 p.m., but it goes bad when they emerge to face armed citizens, causing them try and take hostages, backfiring in the killing of all three. On Nov. 3 after William Jennings Bryan tries to change the main campaign issue from protective tariffs to free silver, stumping 13K mi. across the country at 600 speaking stops, McKinley prefers to campaign from his front porch in Canton, Ohio, receiving a total of 750K persons between June and Nov., delivering campaign speeches in which he is fond of saying "of the government", while big Repub. money makes up the difference with an antisilver "educational campaign" of hundreds of millions of pamphlets, McKinley wins the 1896 U.S. Pres. Election, defeating Bryan by 7M popular (271 electoral) votes to 6.5M popular (176 electoral) votes. On Nov. 15 an article in the New York Journal observes that Bloomers are becoming fashionable for female bicycle riders in Paris, even when not biking; modern female underwear evolves from these, as women find their first way to be free of the family jeweler for awhile by biking. On Nov. 16 impresario Oscar Hammerstein I (1847-1919), owner of the Manhattan Opera House decides to get out of financial trouble by switching the best known talent to the worst, and introduces the god-awful Cherry Sisters, Elizabeth, Effie, Jessie, and Addie at the Olympia Theatre in New York City, who end up performing behind a wire screen as they sing "Cherries ripe, Boom-de-ay, Cherries red, Boom-de-ay, the Cherry Sisters have come to stay"; when it folds, he goes back to high quality fare. On Nov. 25 William Marshall of London receives the first parking ticket after leaving his car in Tokenhouse Yard; the case is dismissed. The Nobel Prizes are born with a bang or a whimper? On Dec. 10 dynamite king Alfred Nobel (b. 1833) dies of heart trouble after uttering the immortal soundbye "Isn't it the irony of life that I have been prescribed nitroglycerin to be taken internally?", and in his (ironic?) will establishes the Nobel Prizes in peace, literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology (but not math, why?), which begin to be awarded in 1901 (so it's easier to remember who goes with what?); all prizes are chosen by a Swedish academy except peace, which he insists be chosen by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Storting, to be awarded to "the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the promotion of peace congresses"; have to wait till 1969 for economics; a life bachelor, what woman would want a man who says that "No happiness goes with inherited fortune"? :) - noble gases are inert, Nobel gases are a blast? Niger is incorporated into French West Africa, joining Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Upper Volta (Dahomey in 1904). France annexes Madagascar. The British declare a protectorate over Sierra Leone, pissing-off local tribes. A military alliance is formed between Transvaal and Orange Free State. British Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) easily puts down the Second Matabele War in Rhodesia (ends 1897) of the Ndebele-Shona, which the Africans call the First Chimurenga (Shona for struggle); after the rise of Communism, the Shona get even with the Brits in the Second Chimurenga of 1966-80. An Anglo-French Concord guarantees the independence of Siam (Thailand). The Cretan Revolt against Turkish rule begins in Crete (ends 1897), with Christians rebels proclaiming union with Greece. The Triple Alliance is tacitly renewed for another six years. Afghanistani emir Abdul Rahman Khan conquers the polytheistic territory of Kafiristan in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and forces the Kafir pop. to convert to Sunni Islam, integrating it as the province of Nurestan (Land of Light). Tsar Nicholas II visits Paris and London. Who's-dat type poet Alfred Austin (1835-1913) becomes poet laureate of England after Queen Victoria passes over better Welsh poet Sir Lewis Morris (1833-1907) because of his friendship with notorious sodomite Oscar Wilde, and even better 31-y.-o. English poet Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), who pisses her off by calling her "Missis Victorier" and "the widow of Windsor"? After passing-for-white passenger Homer Plessy (1863-1925) (African-Am. great-grandmother) of New Orleans, La. is set up by the New Orleans Committee of Citizens and refuses to leave a railroad car reserved for (pure) whites only and is jailed under a La. law, allowing the committee to fight it in court, the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that no person is denied any of his rights under the 14th Amendment (due process) if the states provide "separate but equal" (white and black) public facilities (overturned in 1956); justice David Josiah Brewer doesn't participate in the decision; John Marshall Harlan dissents, claiming that segregating the races on public transports denies blacks equal protection of the laws; the decision shuts blacks out for the next 75 years, and stiffens black determination, with the committee uttering the soundbyte "We, as freemen still believe that we were right and our cause is sacred" - what about that skunky African armpit odor, and what if a black buck is left alone with an unattended prime white female - case closed until the Jews come to the rescue? Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid move to a remote area of Wyo. known as the Hole in the Wall. Russian rev. leader Catherine Breshkovsky (1844-1934) returns from exile in Siberia (since 1878), and founds the Socialist Revolutionists, which in 1902 becomes the Socialist Rev. Party after she flees to Switzerland in 1900, becoming known as the Babushka (Grandmother) of the Russian Rev. Utah and Idaho become the 2nd and 3rd U.S. states to allow women the vote; Ill.-born Abigail Jane Scott Duniway (1834-1915) leads the effort in Idaho, followed by Wash. in 1910, and Ore. in 1912. The building of the East African Kenya-Uganda Railway from Lake Victoria to Mombasa is disrupted by two maneless 9-ft.-long killer lions nicknamed "Ghost" and "Darkness", who kill 28 laborers plus a bunch of natives (allegedly up to 135 total) before engineer Lt.-Col. John Henry Patterson (1867-1947) (Val Kilmer) calls in big game hunter Remington (Michael Douglas) while Man Friday, er, Samuel (John Kani) sees omens in the meaning of the name Tsavo River, which is "place of slaughter"; in 2009 scientific studies indicate that they really only ate 4-72, most likely 35; subject of the Stephen Hopkins' 1996 film The Ghost and the Darkness, starring Val Kilmer as Patterson. Victoria, Australia enacts minimum wage legislation, with a board on which workers and employers have equal representation, becoming the model for the 1909 British Trade Boards Act. The Royal Victorian Order is founded. The Irish Agricultural Org. Society is founded to try to rehabilitate Ireland's ruined agriculture. Ballington Booth (1857-1940), son of Salvation Army founders William and Catherine Booth, who was U.S. cmdr. from 1887, leaves the org. after a dispute with his father on methods of operation and founds the Volunteers of America (VOA) with his wife Maud Ballington Booth (nee Charlesworth) (1865-1948). The Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, Penn. is founded. The first public showing of a motion picture takes place in New York City. Niagara Falls opens to the public. New York becomes the first U.S. state to regulate the accounting prof. The Nat. Portrait Gallery in London is moved from Bethnal Green to Westminster. After being fired from Mignon in 1894 for messing up the words, Italian tenor Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) becomes a star performing in La Traviata at the Teatro del Fondo in Naples. Italian actress Eleonora Duse (1858-1924) makes a triumphant tour of the U.S., which turns on pres. Grover Cleveland and his wife, who shocks Washington society by giving the first-ever tea for an actress. Am. outlaw John Wesley Hardin is released from prison, and pub. his Autobiography of John Wesley Hardin, which is later made into the film The Lawless Breed, starring Rock Hudson (dir. by Raoul Walsh). The chandelier at the Paris Opera falls, later becoming a main prop of the play "Phantom of the Opera". Freiberg, Moravia-born Austrian Jewish neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) coins the term "psychoanalysis". The Coptic Berlin Codex 8502 (Akhmim Codex) is discovered in Akhmim, Egypt, containing three Gnostic documents not destroyed by the Church: The Gospel of Mary (fragmentary), The Apocryphon of John, and The Sophia Jesu Christi; they are not pub. until 1955 - the real Da Vinci Code? Jewish-Am. publisher Adolph Simon Ochs (1858-1935) buys the New York Times. Charles Frohman (1856-1915), Al Hayman (1847-1917), Abraham Lincoln "Abe" Erlanger (1859-1930), Marcus "Marc" Klaw (1858-1936), Samuel Frederic Nixon-Nirdlinger (1848-1918), and Fred Zimmermann of Philly form the Theatrical Syndicate in New York City, which goes on to become a monopoly by the late 1910s; about this time Woodlawn Cemetery in New York City becomes the cemetery of choice for Jewish, er, theater people. Parsons School of Design (Parsons The New School for Design) (originally the Chase School) in Greenwich Village, N.Y. is founded by Impressionist painter William Merritt Chase (1849-1916). English cartoonist Phil May (1864-1893) joins Punch. Alfred Harmsworth (1865-1922) (later Lord Northcliffe) and his brother Harold Harmsworth (1868-1940) (later Lord Rothermere) begin pub. the London Daily Mail on May 4, with the mottoes "The busy man's daily journal" and "The penny newspaper for a halfpenny". Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer (1861-1951) becomes ed. of the women's section of the New Orleans Picayune (until 1901), writing a love advice column under the title "Dorothy Dix Talks", later adopting the name. George Bernard Shaw pub. the article Blaming the Bard in Saturday Review, dissing Shakespeare, with the soundbyte: "This immortal pilferer of other men's stories and ideas, with his monstrous rhetorical fustian, his unbearable platitudes, his pretentious reduction of the subtlest problems of life to commonplaces against which a Polytechnic debating club would revolt, his incredible unsuggestiveness, his sententious combination of ready reflection with complete intellectual sterility, and his consequent incapacity for getting out of the depth of even the most ignorant audience, except when he solemnly says something so transcendentally platitudinous that his more humble-minded hearers cannot bring themselves to believe that so great a man really meant to talk like their grandmothers." The art nouveau mags. Die Jugend (Ger. "Youth") (July 4) and Simplicissimus begin pub. in Munich (until 1926). The Taft School in Watertown, Conn. is founded by Horace Dutton Taft (1861-1943). William Nicholas Selig (1864-1948) founds Selig Polyscope Co. in Chicago, Ill., starting out making industrial films before moving to Edendale, Calif. in NW Hollywood in 1909. Parlophone (Parlophon) is founded in Germany by the Carl Lindstrom Co., becoming a top jazz label in the 1920s; in 1927 it is acquired by Columbia Graphophone Co., which later becomes EMI. The comic strip The Yellow Kid by Richard Felton Outcault (1863-1928) debuts in the New York Journal after Outcault suggests that a 1-toothed figure in "Hogan's Alley" in New York World appear in bright yellow clothes to make him more popular last year; its name supplies the term "yellow journalism" for dishonest reporting by the New York World et al.; next year the comic is transferred to the New York Herald, becoming the first cartoon character to be commercially merchandised, incl. on gum, toys, and cigarettes. The cable-driven Underground Railway (shooglie) opens in Glasgow. The Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant opens. Freed slave ("magician in the lab") George Washington Carver (1864-1943) becomes dir. of agricultural research at Tuskegee Inst. in Ala., pioneering Chemurgy, the science of using agricultural products for commercial uses, going on to develop 100+ products from the sweet potato and 300+ products from the peanut, freeing the Am. South from the bondage of the cotton crop while confounding theories of black racial inferiority. After black women's clubs are refused permission to exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World's fair, the Nat. Assoc. of Colored Women in Washington, D.C. is founded by Harriet Tubman (1820-1913), Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1842-1924), Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) (pres. #1) et al. from over 100 black women's clubs, going on to campaign for women's suffrage and against Jim Crow laws and lynching, reaching 300K members by 1918. Am. sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910) becomes the first pres. of the Nat. Sculpture Society, which designs the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in Syracuse, N.Y., the Statue of Gen. Sheridan in Washington, D.C., and the Statue of Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock in Philly. Chicago judge Goggin dismisses robbery charges brought against notorious hos Kitty Adams ("Terror of State Street)" and Jennie Clark, who go on to carry out 100+ violent robberies after luring johns into dark alleys and pulling knives on them, causing police to call them the "Kitty and Jennie Gang". Bohemian-born Austrian composer Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) converts from Judaism to Christianity - got an idea from the Dreyfus affair? William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951), owner (since 1887) of the San Francisco Examiner buys the failing New York Morning Journal, hiring top writers incl. Stephen Crane and Julian Hawthorne and starting into a circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer, stealing his Sunday staff along with color comics inventor Richard F. Outcault, and engaging in yellow journalism to boost circ., becoming the only major Eastern newspaper to support William Jennings Bryan and his Bimetallism this year. The New York World becomes the first newspaper with a color supplement, using a new 4-color printing press, and featuring the Yellow Kid cartoon "Hogan's Alley". Adolf Brand (1874-1945) founds Der Eigene, the first homosexual journal in the world (ends 1931), followed in 1903 by Geimeinschaft der Eigenen, the 2nd gay org. in the world; too bad, after he outs German chancellor Prince von Bulow in 1907, and ends up in priz for 18 mo., then gets two more mo. for obscenity, he joins the German army in WWI and marries a female nurse, then returns to activism during the 1920s, only to see the Nazis come down on him so hard that he gives it up completely by the early 1930s. In 1896 after selling his Gladiator Bicycle Co., Pierre Alexandre Darracq (1855-1931) founds Automobiles Darracq S.A. in Suresnes (near Paris), France, expanding by 1905 to Britain, Italy, and Spain; in 1900 they produce their first car, the Darracq 6-1/2 HP, with a wood chassis, which sells 100 units; in 1902 they begin producing cars in Germany with Adam Opel; in 1904 they produce the Darracq Flying Fifteen, with a pressed steel chassis, capturing 10% of the French market; in 1920 the British arm buys it out, then sells it to the Rootes group in 1935, ending it as a distinct marque. Sports: On Sept. 24-Oct. 3 the 1.71km 1896 Paris-Marseille-Paris Race, the world's first open motor race has 31 entrants, and is won by Emile (Émile) Mayade (1853-98) (who came in 7th in the 1894 Paris-Rouen race) in an 8 hp Panhard et Levassor, the first-ever 4-cylinder car. Geneva, Ohio-born automotive pioneer Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) races Grangemouth, Scotland-born automotive pioneer Alexander Winton (1860-1932) in his Olds Pirate racing car at Daytona Beach, Fla., beating him by 0.20 sec. The Duke of Windsor's (Prince of Wales') horse Persimmon wins the Derby. Heavyweights Robert Fizsimmons and Tom Sharkey fight in San Francisco on Dec. 2, with pistol-toting Wyatt Earp (1848-1929) as sole referee; his decision lands up in court and makes him a nat. figure, not the O.K. Corral Gunfight. Architecture: The first all-steel bldg. opens in England, in West Hartlepool. Cornelius Vanderbilt builds the 73-room Italian Renaissance-style "summer cottage" called The Breakers in Newport, R.I. at 44 Ochre Point Ave. Lew Wallace builds a Byzantine red-brick study in Crawfordsville, Ind. (near South Bend), near where he wrote "Ben-Hur". Inventions: On June 4 Henry Ford (1863-1947) makes his first successful pre-dawn test-drive of his horseless carriage Quadricycle on the streets of Detroit, Mich.; meanwhile Charles B. King manufactures the first automobile in Detroit. U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) and his asst. Charles M. Manly (1876-1927) fly a steam-driven model airplane on May 6 over the Potomac River for 1.5 mi., followed by another which reaches an alt. of 3K ft., and another to 4.2K ft., becoming the first mechanically-propelled heavier-than-air machines. Lancashire, England carpenter Brian Gamlin creates the std. numbering plan (20 on top) for the Dartboard. Italian-Irish scientist Marchese Guglielmo Marconi receives the first patent for a communication system by means of electromagnetic waves (radio) on June 2. William Bell Wait (1839-1916) invents the 12-key Kleidograph, a practical typewriter for the blind using his New York Point, consisting of two lines of 1-4 points, compared to Braille, which uses three lines of 1-2 points; too bad, by 1916 Braille becomes a de facto std. A device is patented in the U.S. on May 19 to "produce dimples on the human body or to nurture and maintain dimples already existing". Johnson & Johnson begins manufacturing Lister's Towels, the first commercial sanitary napkin; too bad, advertising is thought improper, so U.S. women prefer to wear a reusable flannel diaper until 1925. Tootsie Rolls are invented by Austrian immgrant Leo Hirsfield in New York City, and named after his 5-y.-o. daughter Clara. Science: Swedish scientist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) first describes the effect of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect. French neurologist Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) describes Babinski's Sign, an isolated dorsal flexion of the great toe caused by pyramidal tract injury. German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) of the U. of Strasbourg accurately determines the constant of universal gravitation. Burlington, Vt.-born psychologist John Dewey (1859-1952) pub. the paper The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology, treating the stimulus separate from the response, and considering the sensory stimulus, the central connection, and the motor response as working together, founding Social Behaviorism. German physicists Otto Richard Lummer (1860-1925) and Ernst Pringsheim (1859-1917) begin studying blackbody radiation, and they go on to verify the Stefan-Boltzmann Law relating radiated energy to temperature, but in 1899 they find anomalies in the laws relating radiated energy to frequency, giving Max Planck his big chance. Austrian newspaper Wiener Presse reports German physicist William Roentgen's discovery of X-rays on Jan. 5; on Jan. 29 they are first used to treat breast cancer in the U.S. French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) (grandson of Antoine Cesar Becquerel) discovers radioactivity after wrapping a photographic plate in black paper, placing a thin crystal of a uranium salt on the paper, and finding that the developed plate is darkened where radiations from the uranium strike it; he finds that the radiation can also pass through aluminum and copper sheets - peeking under God's didies? Am. dentist C. Edmund Kells (1856-1928) adapts X-rays to dentistry, and goes on to hire the first female dental assistant. Ernest Rutherford detects electrical waves magnetically. Russian-Latvian-German chemist Paul Walden (1863-1957) discovers Walden Inversion, the first Stereoinversion Reaction; in the early 1900s Christopher Ingold finds that it doesn't work with tertiary alcohols, which is solved in the Sept. 12, 2013 issue of Nature by Ryan A. Shenvi et al. of the Scripps Research Inst. Sven Anders Hedin explores the Tarim Basin of Chinese Turkestan (Gobi Desert), and discovers the ruins of an ancient city populated by Caucasians (Tocharians). Robert Koch, now dir. of the Berlin Inst. of Health develops a method of vaccination against South African rinderpest (cattle plague). English metallurgist Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen (1843-1902) pub. the surprising result than hot gold diffuses faster into hot lead (at 300C) than salt diffuses into water at room temperature (15C). German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900. English physicist Charles Thompson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) invents the principles behind the Cloud Chamber, which uses air saturated with water vapor to expose the tracks of ionizing radiation; he constructs the first one in 1911, and receives the Nobel Prize in 1927. Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) and his student Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) discover the Zeeman Effect, the splitting of an electromagnetic spectrum line in a moderately strong magnetic field into 2-3 polarized lines (normal effect) or many polarized lines (anomalous effect); Lorentz supplies the theoretical interpretation, and both win the 1902 Nobel Physics Prize. Belgian mathematician Charles Jean Gustave Nicolas Baron de la Vallee Poussin (1866-1962) and French mathematician Jacques-Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963) independently prove the Prime Number Theorem, that all natural numbers are the product of one or more primes. Philly-born psychologist Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) opens the world's first psychological clinic at the U. of Penn., founding Clinical Psychology and coining the term. Nonfiction: Lyman Abbott (1835-1922), Evolution of Christianity (Lowell Lectures). Eugen Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), Karl Marx and the Close of His System; a capitalist criticism of Marxist theory; how economics is an economic more than political question. Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), The Works of Max Beerbohm (first book); his essays from "The Yellow Book", later causing George Bernard Shaw to write the soundbyte "The younger generation is knocking at the door, and as I open it there steps spritely in the incomparable Max". Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Matiere et Memoire. Harriet Emilie Cady (1848-1941), Lessons in Truth: A Course of Twelve Lessons in Practical Christianity; bestselling (1.6M copies) course on New Thought. John Dewey (1859-1952), The Reflex Arc in Psychology; the basis of all his future work? Albert Venn Dicey (1835-1922), Conflict of Laws. Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (1831-1901), The American People's Money; the Free Silver platform. W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963), The Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), The Social Law of Service. Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), The Struggle for a Spiritual Content of Life; humans have souls, and are therefore at the junction of nature and spirit, thus they should try to overcome the non-spiritual part of their nature by trying to achieve a spiritual life. Fanny Farmer, Fanny Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook; goes through 10 eds. by 1914. Abraham Geiger (1810-74), Judaism and Islam (posth.); tr. of his 1833 doctoral thesis by F.M. Young; shows how the Quran borrows from or depends on the Talmud and other rabbinic lit. Charles Gounod (1818-93), Memoires d'un Artiste (posth.). Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), On the Jewish State (Der Judenstaat); foundation document of Zionism. Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935), Sappho and Socrates; gay love is okay if you don't mind it? David George Hogarth (1862-1927), A Wandering Scholar. William James (1842-1910), The Will to Believe. Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), L'Anarchie: Sa Philosophie, Son Ideal. Rodolfo Lanciani (1846-1919), Pagan and Christian Rome. Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941), Common Sense in Chess. W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), Democracy and Liberty. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Treasure of the Humble (13 essays). Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), Jan Hus; ditches Romantic Czech nationalism for a new realism based on you know whose achievements. Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Color of Life and Other Essays. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), The Evolution of the Art of Music. Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Adventures in Criticism. Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916), The Gases of the Atmosphere: The History of their Discovery. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), Out of Mulberry Street. Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951), Honest Dollars. George Santayana (1863-1952), The Sense of Beauty. William Sharp (1855-1905), Fair Women in Painting and Poetry. Werner Sombart (1863-1941), Sozialismus und Soziale Bewegung; how the inherent contradictions of capitalism create a "love for the mass" among the proletariat, leading to "a communistic way of life" in social production. William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), A History of Banking in All the Leading Nations (4 vols.). Edward B. Tichener (1867-1927), An Outline of Psychology; founds Structuralism, and coins the term along with Functionalism. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), What Is Art?; "Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man, woman, consciously, by means of certain external signs, hand on to others feelings he has lived through and that other people are infected by those feelings and also experience them." Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Hobbes: Leben und Lehre. Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918), The History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom; by a co-founder of Cornell U.; wins the argument with the public. Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), Studies in the Theory of Public Finance; advocates progressive taxation and a welfare state. Movies: Thomas Edison (1847-1931), Black Mother Gives Baby a Morning Bath; The May Irwin Kiss; first film with a human kiss. Music: Edmond Audran (1842-1901), La Poupee (operetta) (Paris). Amy Marcy Beach, Gaelic Symphony in E Minor, Op. 32. Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Poeme (for violin and piano), Op. 25; Some Dances for Piano, Op. 26. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Appalachia. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), The Wood Dove (symphonic poem). A.J. Fynn, Where the Columbines Grow; written after a wagon trip to the San Luis Valley in Colo.; becomes the Colo. state song in 1915. Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), The Grand Duke (comic operetta #14 of 14). Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928), Negro Episode (New York). Luca Giordano, Andrea Chenier (opera) (Milan). Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), Istar (symphonic poem). Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860-1908), Woodland Sketches, Op. 51; incl. To a Wild Rose; Indian Suite. Carl Nielsen, Hymns Amoris. Horatio William Parker (1863-1919), The Legend of St. Christopher (oratorio). Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), La Boheme (Bohème) (opera) (Teatro Regio, Turin) (Feb. 1); libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Henri Murger's "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme"; debut conducted by Arturo Toscanini, who repeats 50 years later for a first; Marcello, Rodolfo and Colline; Rodolfo burns his poems to keep his stove going in Act 1; incl. Musetta's Waltz. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), The Maiden in the Tower (opera) (unpub.). Christian Sinding (1856-1941), Rustle of Spring (Fruhlingsrauschen) (for piano); mentioned in "The Music Man" by Meredith Willson. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Also Sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (Nov. 30) (Berlin). Hugo Wolf (1860-1903), Der Corregidor (opera) (Milan); too bad, Wolf becomes mentally ill in 1897. Art: Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848-1936), Evolution of Civilization; mural inside the dome of the main reading room of the Library of Congress, showing 12 seated figures, incl. Egypt (writing), Judea (religion), Greece (philosophy), Rome (govt.), Islam (physics), Middle Ages (modern languages), Italy (fine arts), Germany (printing), Spain (exploration), England (lit.), France (emancipation), America (science). Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901), War (2 versions). David Young Cameron (1865-1945), North Italy (etchings). Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Boy with Skull (Jeune Homme a la Tete de Mort) (1896-8). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), The Muses Saluting the Spirit of Enlightenment (mural) (Boston Public Library). Lovis Corinth (1858-1925), Self-Portrait with Skeleton. Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944), Pictures of People (drawings). Niels Hansen-Jacobsen (1861-1941), Troll Who Smells Christian Blood (sculpture). Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921), The Caress. Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Portrait of a Lady. Frederic Leighton (1830-96), Clytie. Maximilien Luce (1858-1941), Paris, Animated Street in the Evening. Mihaly Munkacsy (1844-1900), Ecce Homo. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), The Flying Dutchman. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Portrait of Mrs. W. St. Clair Baddeley. James Tissot (1836-1902), The Life of Christ; 350 watercolors; Lemercier of Paris pays him 1.1M francs for them; he spends the rest of his life painting 350 watercolors of the Old Testament. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), Alone. Plays: James Matthew Barrie (1860-1937), The Little Minister; stars Maude Adams. Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Charm and Other Drawing-Room Plays. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Les BienfaiteursL'Evasion. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), The Sea Gull (Seagull); Trepliov kills it; bombs in St. Petersburg, then produced by the Moscow Art Theater in 1898, bringing him instant fame. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Harry Greenbank and Sidney Jones, The Geisha: The Story of a Tea House (musical) (Daly's Theatre, London) (Apr. 25) (760 perf.); stars Marie Tempest as O Mimosa San (who marries a Chinese man) and Letty Lind as Molly Seamore (who marries an English man) at the Tea House of Ten Thousand Joys - play that 13-silk-stringed koto one more time? Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), John Gabriel Borkman. Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), Ubu Roi (King Ubu) (Dec. 10); absurdist take on Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth", "Hamlet", and "Richard III", about a commoner slob who usurps the throne of Poland via regicide, invades Russia and is soundly defeated, then is killed by the dead king's sons; meanwhile he uses the royal "we" and calls the wind "that which blows", etc.; opening line: "Shitteth!"; after the audience boos it folds after opening night, making Jarry a celeb, going around talking like Ubu and carrying a loaded pistol. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Monte Carlo (musical) (Avenue Theatre, London) (Aug. 27). Poetry: Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), Bad Child's Book of Beasts. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Sunrise in the West. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Weib und Welt. Eugene Field (1850-95), Poems of Childhood (posth.). A.E. Housman (1859-1936), A Shropshire Lad (debut); slowly launches his rep. as a top English poet; incl. To An Athlete Dying Young; "Eyes the shady night has shut/ Cannot see the record cut". Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Douze Chansons. Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp) (1855-1905), The Lonely Hunter; "But my heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill". Jan Neruda (1834-91), Good Friday Songs (posth.). Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), Hay and Hell and Booligal (Apr. 25); Mulga Bill's Bicycle. Stephen Phillips (1864-1915), Christ in Hades: A Phantasy; makes him a star. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), Odes and Other Poems (debut). Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), Poems and Ballads. Eugene Manlove Rhodes (1869-1934), Charlie Graham. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Larenopfer. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), The Children of the Night (1890-97). Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-94), New Poems (posth.). Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909), A Tale of Balen. Novels: Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Master Craftsman (2 vols.). Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), London Pride. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), Effie Hetherington. Abraham Cahan (1860-1951), Yekl: A Tale of the New York Ghetto (first novel); turned into the 1975 film "Hester Street". Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Maker of Moons; The Mystery of Choice. Theodor Fontane (1819-98), Die Poggenpuhls. Karl Gjellerup (1857-1919), The Mill. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The Wizard. Owen Hall (1853-1907), The Track of a Storm. Joel Chandler Harris (1845-1908), Sister Jane: Her Friends and Acquaintances. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Kamertjeszonde (2 vols.); Schetsen (13 vols.) (1896-1909); sketches of Dutch small-town life; pub. under alias Samuel Falkland. Anthony Hope (1863-1933), The Heart of Princess Osra (short stories); prequel to "Prisoner of Zenda". Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), A Lonely Girl (Maid); A Point of Conscience. William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Many Cargoes (short stories) (debut); about "men who go down to the sea in ships of moderate tonnage" (Punch); big hit, launching his career. Henry James (1843-1916), Embarrassments. Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938), Moloch. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), A Monk of Fife; a young Scot in France in 1429-31. William John Locke (1863-1930), Some Women and a Man: A Comedy of Contrasts. Pierre Louys, Aphrodite. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), A Ghost in Lublo; The Siege of Beszterce. William Morris (1834-96), The Well at the World's End. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), Adventures of Martin Hewitt: Third Series; A Child of the Jago; the horrible violent living conditions in East End, London. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), False Evidence; A Modern Prometheus; The Mystery of Mr. Bernard Brown; The Wooing of Fortune. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Seats of the Mighty; the English conquest of Quebec. Marcel Proust (1871-1922), Les Plaisirs et les Jours; collection of pastiches (caricatures of the styles of other writers). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Grandes Amoureuses. William Sharp (1855-1905), Ecce Puella and Other Prose Imaginings; The Washer of the Flood; pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Tom Grogan; bestseller. Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), On the Face of the Waters; the 1857 Indian Mutiny. Jules Verne (1828-1905), Facing the Flag; France is threatened by the Fulgurator super-weapon invented by mad scientist (the first in sci-fi?) Thomas Roch; Eugene Turpin (1848-1927), inventor of Melinite sues Verne, claiming that Roch is really him, and Verne is successfully defended by future French pres.-PM Raymond Poincare. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Sir George Tressady. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Melusine (first novel); a play on his name "Water Man" via the spirit of sacred springs. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Island of Dr. Moreau; genetic experiments to make animals into people; M'Ling the human-dog. Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-94), Dorothy and Other Italian Stories (posth.). Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), The World and A Man. Births: U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.) (1951-69) Everett McKinley Dirksen (d. 1969) on Jan. 4 in Pekin, Ill.; German immigrant parents; identical twin brother Thomas. French artist Andre Aime Rene (André-Aimé-René) Masson (d. 1987) on Jan. 4 in Balagny-sur-Therain. Am. psychic medium Arthur Ford (d. 1971) on Jan. 8. Am. real estate tycoon (Jewish) Abram Nicholas Pritzker (d. 1986) on Jan. 9 in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. at age 9; educated at Harvard U.; brother of Jack Pritzker; father of Jay Arthur Pritzker (1922-99), Robert Alan Pritzker (1926-), and Donald Pritker. Am. actress Jane Novak (d. 1990) on Jan. 12 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. Wechsler Intelligence Scale psychologist (Jewish) David "Wex" Wechsler (d. 1981) on Jan. 12 in Lespezi, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. as a child; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Am. poet Ramon Guthrie (d. 1973) on Jan. 14 in New York City. Am. "U.S.A. Trilogy" novelist John Roderigo Dos Passos (d. 1970) on Jan. 14 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Eisenhower White House chief of staff #3 (1958-61) Wilton Burton "Jerry" Persons (d. 1977) on Jan. 19; educated at Auburn U. Am. "Burns and Allen", "Oh, God!" comedian (Jewish) George Burns (Nathan Birnbaum) (d. 1996) on Jan. 20 in New York City's Lower East Side; 9th of 12 children; his family calls him "Nattie"; husband (1926-64) of Gracie Allen (1895-1964). Am. "A Chump at Oxford" dir.-writer Alfred John Goulding (d. 1972) on Jan. 26 in Melbourne, Australia. Am. "Billy the Kid vs. Dracula" actress Olive Carey (Oliver Fuller Golden) (d. 1988) on Jan. 31 in New York City; wife (1920-47) of Harry Carey Sr. (1878-1947); mother of Harry Carey Jr. (1921-). Am. rear Adm. and AEC chmn. (1953-8) Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (d. 1974) on Jan. 31 in Charleston, W. Va. Mexican archeologist Alfonso Caso y Andrade (d. 1970) on Feb. 1 in Mexico City. German quantum tunneling physicist Friedrich Hund (d. 1997) on Feb. 4. Am. "Varga Girl" artist Alberto Vargas (d. 1982) on Feb. 9 in Arequipa, Peru; emigrates to the U.S. in 1916. Russian pianist Alexander Brailowsky (d. 1976) on Feb. 16 in Kiev; of Polish descent?; student of Theodor Leschetizky; specialist in the works of Chopin; becomes a French citizen in 1926. French poet and art critic (Surrealism founder) Andre (André) Breton (d. 1966) on Feb. 19 in Tinchebray (Orne), Normandy. Am. comedian (Jewish) Edward "Eddie" Jacobs (d. 1980) on Feb. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; vaudeville partner of Jimmy Durante (1893-1980). Am. "Jailhouse Rock" film dir. Richard (Rollo Smort) Thorpe (d. 1991) on Feb. 24 in Hutchinson, Kan.; fired as dir. of "The Wizard of Oz" (1939). Am. "gung-ho" Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Evans Fordyce Carlson (d. 1947) on Feb. 26 in Sidney, N.Y. Soviet official Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (d. 1948) on Feb. 26 (Feb. 14 Old Style) in Mariupol. Am. physician Philip Showalter Hench (d. 1965) on Feb. 28 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Indian PM (1977-9) Morarji Desai (d. 1995) on Feb. 29. Am. "The God That Failed" journalist (Jewish) Louis Fischer (d. 1970) on Feb. 29 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "The High and the Mighty" film dir. William Augustus Wellman (d. 1975) on Feb. 29; great-great-grandson of DOI signer Francis Lewis (1713-1803). Am. conductor-composer-pianist (gay) Dimitri (Dimitris) Mitropoulos (d. 1960) on Mar. 1 (Feb. 18 Old Style) in Athens; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1946. Am. jeweller ("the King of Diamonds") Harry Winston (d. 1978) on Mar. 1. Am. basketball coach Clair Francis Bee (d. 1983) on Mar. 2 in Grafton, W. Va. Am. ambassador (to Turkey) Fletcher Warren (d. 1992) on Mar. 3. Am. writer-poet-publisher Robert Menzies McAlmon (d. 1956) on Mar. 9 in Clifton, Kan. Am. "Encyclopedia of World History" historian (Unitarian) William Leonard Langer (d. 1977) on Mar. 16 in South Boston, Mass; German immigrant parents; brother of Walter Charles Langer (1899-1981); educated at Harvard U. British Vienna Circle mathematician-physicist-philosopher (Jewish) Friedrich Waismann (d. 1959) on Mar. 21 in Vienna, Austria; educated at the U. of Vienna; student of Moritz Schlick; emigrates to Britain in 1938. Austrian "Alfred Dreyfus in The Life of Emile Zola", "Otto Frank in The Diary of Anne Frank" actor Joseph Schildkraut (d. 1964) on Mar. 22 in Vienna; moves to the U.S. in the early 1900s. Am. architect William Edmond Lescaze (d. 1969) on Mar. 27 in Onex, Switzerland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Am. "Idiot's Delight", "Abe Lincoln in Illinois", "There Shall Be No Night" playwright-journalist-biographer Robert Emmet Sherwood (d. 1955) on Apr. 4 in New Rochelle, N.Y. English Object Relations Theory psychoanalyst Donald Woods Winnicott (d. 1971) on Apr. 7 in Plymouth, Devon; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge U.; known for the soundbyte "Keeping alive, keeping well, keeping awake"; believes in a "core incommunicado element" in each person which "never communicates with or is influenced by the external world". Am. "Over the Rainbow", "April in Paris", "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" lyricist (Jewish) ("Broadway's social conscience") Edgar Yipsel "Yip" "Yipsel" Harburg (Isidore Hochberg) (d. 1981) on Apr. 8 in New York City; nickname is short for Young People's Socialist League; educated at CUNY; skips to Uruguay to avoid WWI; blacklisted in 1951-62. Am. "Irene" stage actress (in England) ("First Lady of West End Musicals") Edith Day (d. 1971) on Apr. 10 in Minneapolis, Minn.; namesake of the Edith Day Cocktail, made of dry gin, grapefruit juice, egg white, and sugar. Am. USAF 4-star gen. Ira Clarence Eaker (d. 1987) on Apr. 13 in Field Creek, Tex. Russian chemist-physicist Nikolai Nikolayevich Semyonov (d. 1986) on Apr. 15 (Apr. 3 Old Style) in Saratov; educated at Petrograd U. U.S. CIA deputy dir. (1946) Kingman Douglass (d. 1971) on Apr. 16 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at Yale U. Romanian Symbolist Dada poet-writer (in French) (Jewish) Tristan Tzara (Samuel or Samy Rosenstock) (AKA S. Samyro) (d. 1963) on Apr. 16 (Apr. 4 Old Style) in Moinesti, Moldavia; educated at the U. of Bucharest. Am. lightweight boxer (Jewish) ("the Ghetto Wizard") Benjamin Leiner "Benny" Leonard (d. 1947) on Apr. 17 in New York City. French "Les Garcons", "Les Jeunes Filles" novelist-playwright-critic (bi) Henri Millon de Montherlant (d. 1972) on Apr. 20 in Paris. Am. silent film actress Victoria Forde (d. 1964) on Apr. 21 in New York City; daughter of Eugenie Forde (1879-1940). English "The Constant Nymph" novelist-playwright Margaret Moore Kennedy (Lady Davies) (d. 1967) on Apr. 23 in London; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U. Am. Music Corp. of Am. (MCA) founder (1924) Jules C. Stein (d. 1981) on Apr. 26 in South Bend, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. German WWI #2 ace Ernst Udet (d. 1941) on Apr. 26 in Frankfurt am Main (suicide); suicide note: "Iron One, you are responsible for my death" (referring to Hermann Goering, who blamed him for losing the Battle of Britain); the Nazis cover up his suicide and claim he died testing a new secret veapon. Am. chemist (discoverer of nylon) Wallace Hume Carothers (d. 1937) on Apr. 27 in Burlington, Iowa - a geek with a way with women? Am. baseball hall-of-fame mgr.-player (2B) Rogers "The Raj" Hornsby (d. 1963) on Apr. 27 in Winters, Tex. Am. silent film actress Natalie Talmadge (d. 1969) on Apr. 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; sister of Norma Talmadge (1893-1957) and Constance Talmadge (1897-1973); wife (1921-32) of Buster Keaton (1895-1966). British historian Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (nee Fitzgerald) (1977) on Apr. 29 in Tenby, Wales; of Irish descent; educated at St. Hilda's College, Oxford U. Am. gen. Mark Wayne Clark (d. 1984) on May 1 in Sackets Harbor, N.Y. English "101 Dalmations" novelist-playwright Dorothy Gladys "Dodie" Smith (d. 1990) on May 3 in Whitefield (near Bury), Lancashire. Am. baseball pitcher Jonathan Thompson Walter "Tom" Zachary (d. 1969) on May 7 in Graham, N.C. Am. "Cheyenne Autumn", "Crazy Horse" writer Mari Susette Sandoz (d. 1966) on May 11 in Hay Springs, Neb. English "Squire Trelawney in Treasure Island" actor Walter Fitzgerald (Bond) (d. 1976) on May 18 in Keyhan, Derby. English dir.-producer (head of Ealing Studios, 1938-) (Jewish) Sir Michael Elias Balcon (d. 1977) on May 19 in Birmingham; E European Jewish immigrant parents; maternal grandfather of Daniel Day-Lewis (1957-); knighted in 1948. Am. baseball exec (Cincinnati Reds) Warren Crandall Giles (d. 1979) on May 28 in Tiskilwa, Ill. Am. "Scarface", "Bringing Up Baby", "Rio Bravo" dir.-writer-producer Howard Winchester Hawks (d. 1977) on May 30 in Gosen, Ind.; educated at Cornell U., and Yale U.; born to a wealthy Midwest paper mill family. Italian Air Marshal Italo Balbo (d. 1940) on June 6 in Ferrara; #2 to Benito Mussolini, known for opposing anti-Jewish racial laws and an alliance with Nazi Germany. British Lt. Frederick William Hedges (d. 1954) on June 6 in Umballa, India. Am. oldest African descent man in the world (2007-8) George Rene Francis on June 6. English "Journey's End" playwright-novelist Robert Cedric Sherriff (d. 1975) on June 6 in Hampton Wick, Middlesex; educated at New College, Oxford U. Am. aviator (first WWI U.S. ace) Douglas Campbell (d. 1990) on June 7 in San Francisco, Calif.; son of astronomer William Wallace Campbell (1862-1938). Am. physical chemist Robert Sanderson Mulliken (d. 1986) on June 7 in Newburyport, Mass.; educated at MIT. Hungarian PM (1953-5, 1956) Imre Nagy (d. 1958) on June 7 in Kaposvar. Am. economist (Jewish) Isador Lubin (d. 1978) on June 9. French automobile manufacturer Jean Pierre Peugeot (d. 1966) on June 16 in Valentigney. English Duchess of Windsor (1937-) Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (d. 1986) on June 19 in Blue Summit, Penn.; wife (1918-27) of Earl Winfield Spencer Jr., (1928-37) Ernest Aldrich Simpson, and (1937-72) Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (Edward VIII) (1894-1972) - she blew the summit? Am. "Another Language" stage actress Dorothy Stickney (d. 1998) on June 21 in Dickinson, N.D. Am. physicist (Jewish) Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky (d. 1966) on June 29 in Taganrog, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1913; educated at USC and Caltech. Am. computer scientist Hans Peter Luhn (d. 1964) on July 1 in Barmen, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in ?. Austrian actor (in Poland) Karol Juliusz "Igo" Sym on July 3 in Innsbruck. Am. "Molly in My Man Godfrey", "She Married Her Boss", "Once in a Lifetime" actress-psychic Jean Dixon (d. 1981) on July 14 in Waterbury, Conn.; not to be confused with Am. psychic Jeane L. Dixon (1904-97). German Waffen-SS chief of staff (1940-5) Gottlob Christian Berger (d. 1975) on July 16 in Gerstetten, Wurttemberg. Norwegian U.N. secy.-gen. #1 (1946-52) Trygve Halvdan Lie (d. 1968) on July 16 in Oslo. Am. millionaire white segregationist leader (Roman Catholic) Leander Henry Perez Sr. (d. 1969) on July 16 in Dalcour, La. Am. "Here Come the Clowns", "The Philadelphia Story" playwright Philip Jerome Quinn Barry (d. 1949) on June 18 in Rochester, N.Y. Scottish "The Keys of the Kingdom", "The Stars Look Down" physician-novelist Archibald Joseph Cronin (d. 1981) on July 19 in Cardross, Dunbartonshire; Roman Catholic father, Protestant mother; educated at the U. of Glasgow; likes to write against bigotry and social injustice. Am. "Chicago" playwright-journalist Maurine Dallas Watkins (d. 1969) on July 27 in Louisville, Ky.; educated at Yale U. Russian ballet dancer-choreographer Leonide Massine (Leonid Fyodorovich Myasin) (d. 1979) on Aug. 9 in Moscow. Am. "The Yearling" novelist Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (d. 1953) on Aug. 8 in Washington, D.C. German physical chemist Erich Armand Arthur Joseph Huckel (Hückel) (d. 1980) on Aug. 9 in Charlottenburg, Berlin; educated at the U. of Gottingen. Swiss childhood developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (d. 1980) on Aug. 9 in Neuchatel; educated at the U. of Neuchatel, and the U. of Zurich. Am. "There's No Business Like Show Business" film dir. Walter Lang (d. 1972) on Aug. 10 in Memphis, Tenn. German Gen. Rudolf Schmundt (d. 1944) on Aug. 13 in Metz, Alsace-Lorraine. Am. Cori Cycle biochemist (Jewish) Gerty Theresa Cori (nee Radnitz) (d. 1957) on Aug. 15 in Prague; converts to Roman Catholicism and emigrates to the U.S. in 1922 with husband Carl Cori (1896-1984). Am. gen. (Manhattan Project dir.) Leslie Richard Groves (d. 1970) on Aug. 17 in Albany, N.Y.; descended from French Huguenots; educated at MIT. English "The Devil with Hitler" Screen Actors Guild co-founder actor Alan Mowbray (Alfred Ernest Allen) (d. 1969) on Aug. 18 in London. Canadian actor Jack Pickford (John Charles Smith) (d. 1933) on Aug. 18 in Toronto, Ont.; brother of Mary Pickford (1892-1979). Am. "Docks of New York" actress (Madonna clone?) Olga Vladimirovna Baclanova (d. 1974) on Aug. 19 in Moscow, Russia. French conservative free market economist (adviser to Charles de Gaulle) Jacques Leon Rueff (d. 1978) on Aug. 23 in Paris; educated at the Ecole Polytechnique. Am. world's oldest person Besse Berry Cooper (nee Brown) on Aug. 26 in Sullivan County, Tenn. Am. Theremin inventor Leon Theremin (Lev Sergeyevich Termen) (d. 1993) on Aug. 27 (Aug. 15 Old Style) in St. Petersburg; of French descent. Am. "Invaders from Mars" actor Morris Ankrum (Nussbaum) (d. 1964) on Aug. 28 in Danville, Ill.; educated at USC and UCB. Irish "Thy Neighbour's Wife", "The Informer" novelist Liam O'Flaherty (d. 1984) on Aug. 28 in Gort nag Capall, Inishmore, County Galway. Canadian "Things to Come" actor Raymond Hart Massey (d. 1983) on Aug. 30 in Toronto, Ont.; suffers shell shock in WWI. Indian Hare Krishna leader Abhay Charan De Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (d. 1977) on Sept. 1 in Calcutta; arrives in the U.S. in 1965. French "Theater of Cruelty", "The Theater and Its Double" poet-playwright-actor-dir. Antoine Marie Joseph "Antonin" Artaud (d. 1948) on Sept. 4 in Marseille. Am. "Dancing in the Dark", "That's Entertainment" lyricist (Jewish) Howard Dietz (d. 1983) on Sept. 8 in New York City; collaborator of Arthur Schwartz (1900-84); educated at Columbia U., which gives him the idea for the MGM trademark. Am. dancer Adele Marie Astaire (nee Austerlitz) (d. 1981) on Sept. 10 in Omaha, Neb.; Austrian Roman Catholic father, German-descent Lutheran mother; older sister and dancing partner (from childhood until 1932) of Fred Astaire (1899-1987). Am. "The Cat and the Canary" actor-writer-dir. (alcoholic) Elliott Nugent (d. 1980) on Sept. 20 in Dover, Ohio; son of J.C. Nugent (1868-1947); friend of James Thurber. Am. longevity champ Walter Breuning (d. 2011) on Sept. 21 in Melrose, Minn. Am. "Great Gatsby" writer Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (d. 1940) on Sept. 24 in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at Princeton U. U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1935-74) Leslie Cornelius Arends (d. 1985) on Sept. 27 in Melvin, Ill.; educated at Oberlin College, and Ill. Wesleyan U. U.S. Sen. (D-N.C.) (1954-74) Sam J. Ervin Jr. (d. 1985) on Sept. 27; chmn. of the 1973 Senate Watergate Committee. Am. vaudeville performer and Three Stooges mgr. Ted Healy (Clarence Ernst Nash) (d. 1937) on Oct. 1 in Houston, Tex. Pakistani PM #1 (1947-51) Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (d. 1951) on Oct. 2 in Karnal. French "Pepe le Moko" dir. Julien Duvivier (d. 1967) on Oct. 8 in Lille. Am. football team owner (Washington Redskins) George Preston Marshall (d. 1969) on Oct. 11 in Grafton, W. Va.; pioneer of the halftime show. Italian "Ossi di Seppia" poet Eugenio Montale (d. 1981) on Oct. 12 in Genoa. English "Sheriff of Nottingham in The Adventures of Robin Hood" fish-lipped actor Melville Cooper (d. 1973) on Oct. 15 in Birmingham. Am. "Honey in the Horn" novelist Harold Lenoir Davis (d. 1960) on Oct. 18 in Yoncalla, Ore.; starts out a cowboy, typesetter, and surveyor before turning poet, after which H.L. Mencken encourages him to try novel-writing. German "The Blue Angel", "Destry Rides Again", "The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T" composer Friedrich Hollaender (d. 1976) on Oct. 18 in London, England; son of Victor Hollander; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933-56. U.S. interior secy. (1950-3) Oscar Littleton Chapman (d. 1978) on Oct. 22 in Omega, Va.; educated at the U. of Denver. Am. biochemist Charles Glen King (d. 1988) on Oct. 22 in Entiat, Wash. Am. "Puttin' On the Ritz" silent film actress (Jewish) Lilyan Tashman (d. 1934) on Oct. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; wife (1925-) of Edmund Lowe (1890-1971). Am. "Merry Mount" composer-conductor Howard Harold Hanson (d. 1981) on Oct. 28 in Wahoo, Neb.; Swedish parents; educated at Northwestern U. Am. "Rosemary's Baby", "Maude in Harold and Maude", "Orville Boggs' mother in Every Which Way But Loose" actress Ruth Gordon Jones (d. 1985) on Oct. 30 in Wollaston, Mass.; sea captain father; wife (1942-85) of Garson Kanin (1912-99). Am. "Sweet Mama Stringbean", "His Eye Is on the Sparrow" jazz singer (black) (bi) Ethel Waters (d. 1977) on Oct. 31 in Chester, Penn. English "Undertones of War" writer-poet Edmund Charles Blunden (d. 1974) on Nov. 1 in London; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U.; friend of Siegfried Sassoon. Phillipine pres. #8 (1957-61) Carlos Polistico Garcia (d. 1971) on Nov. 4 in Talibon, Bohol. U.S. First Lady (1953-61) (last born in the 19th cent.) Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (d. 1979) on Nov. 14 in Boone, Iowa; wife (1916-) of Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1967). Am. "Fibber McGee", "Orville in The Rescuers" actor James "Jim" Jordan (d. 1988) on Nov. 16 in Peoria, Ill. English fascist Blackshirt leader Sir Oswald Ernal Mosley, 6th Baronet (d. 1980) on Nov. 16 in Rolleston Hall (near Burton-on-Trent); educated at Royal Military College, Sandhurst; father of Sir Nicholas Mosley (1923-). Soviet (Russian) psychologist (Jewish) (founder of Cultural-Historical Psychology) Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (d. 1934) on Nov. 17 (Nov. 6 Old Style) in orsha. Austrian "Theo Kretschmar-Schuldorff in "The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp", "Gaslight", "Forty-Ninth Parallel", "The Red Shoes" actor (in England) (Jewish) (gay) Anton Walbrook (Adolf Anton Wilhelm Wohlbrück) (d. 1967) on Nov. 19 in Vienna. Japanese world's oldest person Chiyono Hasegawa on Nov. 20. Am. "I'm Always Chasing Rainbows" songwriter-composer Harry Carroll (d. 1962) on Nov. 28 in Atlantic City, N.J. Am. "Shine on Harvest Moon", "Button Up Your Overcoat", "Love Me or Leave Me" singer ("America's Sweetheart of Song") Ruth Etting (d. 1978) on Nov. 23 in David City, Neb.; wife (1922-37) of Martin "Moe the Gimp" Snyder and (1938-) Myrl Alderman. Am. "Cary Grant's mother in North by Northwest", "Grace Kelly's mother in To Catch a Thief" actress Jessie Royce Landis (nee Medbury) on Nov. 25 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Four Saints in Three Acts", "The Mother of Us All" modernist composer Virgil Thomson (d. 1989) on Nov. 25 in Kansas City, Mo; educated at Havard U.; collaborator of Gertrude Stein (1874-1946). Am. philosopher (Jewish) Irwin Edman (d. 1954) on Nov. 28 in New York City. Am. "Turn, Magic Wheel", "A Time to Be Born" novelist-playwright Dawn Powell (d. 1965) on Nov. 28 in Mount Gilead, Ohio; educated at Lake Erie College. Am. "That Old Gang of Mind", "Bye Bye Blackbird", "You're the Cream of My Coffee", "Life is Just a Bowl of Cherries" songwriter Ray Henderson (Raymond Brost) (d. 1970) on Dec. 1 in Buffalo, N.Y.; collaborator of Lew Brown (1893-1958) and Buddy De Sylva (1895-1950). Soviet #1 WWII marshal ("the Eisenhower of Russia") Georgi (Georgy) Konstantinovich Zhukov (d. 1974) on Dec. 1 (Nov. 19 Old Style) in Strelkovka, Kaluga, Russia. Am. Cori Cycle biochemist Carl Ferdinand Cori (d. 1984) on Dec. 5 in Prague; grows up in Trieste, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922 with wife Gerty Cori (1896-1957). Am. "I Got Rhythm", "Embraceable You" lyricist (Jewish) Israel "Ira" (Heb. "watchful") Gershwin (d. 1983) on Dec. 6 in New York City; brother of George Gershwin (1898-1937); Russian Jewish immigrant parents named Gershowitz. English "Left Hand, Right Hand" poet-novelist-essayist Sir Francis Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, 5th Baronet (d. 1969) on Dec. 6 in London; brother of Dame Edith Louisa Sitwell (1887-1964) and Sir Sacheverell Sitwell (1897-1988). Am. Calif. gov. #31 (1953-9) Goodwin Knight (d. 1970) on Dec. 9 in Provo, Utah; educated at Stanford U. Am. fiberglass inventor (1938) Russell Games Slayter (d. 1964) on Dec. 9 in Argos, Ind.; educated at Purdue U. Am. aviator-army Lt. Gen. James Harold Doolittle (d. 1993) on Dec. 14 in Alameda, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif. and MIT. Am. "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn" novelist Betty Smith (Elisabeth Wehner) (d. 1972) on Dec. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; German immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Mich. Soviet Field Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (d. 1968) on Dec. 21 in Warsaw (Velikiye Luki near Pskov?); noble Polish parents; grows up in Warsaw. Sicilian "Il Gattopardo" novelist Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Duke of Palma and 11th Prince of Lampedusa (d. 1957) on Dec. 23 in Palermo. Am. anthropologist (Jewish) Hortense Powdermaker (d. 1970) on Dec. 24 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Groucher College, and London School of Economics - with a name like that she should be an archeologist? Am. "Early Autumn", "The Rains Came" novelist Louis Bromfield (d. 1956) on Dec. 27 in Mansfield, Ohio; educated at Cornell U., and Columbia U.; becomes an Am. expatriate in France from the end of WWI until 1939. German-Swiss "The Devil's General" playwright-novelist (Jewish) Carl Zuckmayer (d. 1977) on Dec. 27 in Nackenheim, Rheinhessen; grows up in Mainz; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1946 and Swiss citizen in 1966. Am. "Beloved Enemy", "Claudia and David" novelist-playwright (Jewish) Rose Franken (nee Lewin) (d. 1988) on Dec. 28 in Gainesville, Tex. Am. composer Roger Huntington Sessions (d. 1985) on Dec. 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. and Yale U. Mexican social realist Communist painter-muralist Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (d. 1974) on Dec. 29 in Camargo, Chihuahua. Chinese "Relations with Women" poet-playwright Hsu Chi-mo (Xu Zhimo) (d. 1931) on ? in ?. Hungarian-Am. neurologist (Jewish) Ladislas J. Meduna (d. 1964) on ? in Budapest; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "John Henry" novelist-playwright Roark Bradford (d. 1948) on ? in Lauderdale County, Tenn.; father of Richard Bradford (1932-). German chemist Fritz Mietzsch (d. 1958) on ? in ?. Am. Freuhauf Trailer Co. co-founder Harvey Charles Fruehauf (d. 1968) on ? in ?; son of August Charles Fruehauf (1868-1930). Am. Farrar, Straus and Giroux pub. house founder (1945) John C. Farrar (d. 1974) on ? in ?. English ballerina Lydia Sokolova (Hilda Munnings) (d. 1974) on ? in Wanstead; first English ballerina in the Ballets Russes (1913). Am. historian William Yandell Elliott (d. 1979) on ? in Murfreesboro, Tenn.; educated Vanderbilt U., and Balliol College, Oxford U.; teacher of Henry Kissinger (1923-). Am. "Middletown" sociologist Helen Merrel Lynd (d. 1982) on ? in ?; wife of Robert Straughton Lynd (1892-1970); mother of Straughton Lynd (1929-). Am. abstract painter-critic-journalist Charmion Von Wiegand (d. 1983) on ? in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Barnard College and Columbia U. Am. "The Modern Corporation and Private Propert" economist Gardiner C. Means (d. 1988) on ? in Windham, Conn.; educated at Harvard U. Am. industrialist (majority shareholder in Gen. Dynamics since 1959) (Jewish) Henry Crown (Krinsky) (d. 1990) on ? in ?; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents. Malawian dictator (1961-94) Hastings Kamuzu Banda (b. 1997) on ? near Kasungu; baptized into the Church of Scotland in 1905; later gives his birthday as May 14, 1906. Am. investor ("Father of the Mutual Fund") Philip Carret (d. 1998) on ? in ?. Deaths: Am. Unitarian clergyman William Henry Furness (b. 1802). English pianist (wife of Charles Darwin) Emma Darwin (b. 1808) on Oct. 7. Italian statesman-gen.-mathematician Federico Luigi, Count of Menabrea (b. 1809) on May 24 in Saint Capin. Am. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" writer Harriet Beecher Stowe (b. 1811) on July 1 in Hartford, Conn.; bured at Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass. - she could have turned out to be most anyone, almost anyone with the possible exception of the one who I wanted her to be, Or, no matter how big the wall of Bad, it only takes one trumpeter and the force of Good? French composer Ambroise Thomas (b. 1811) on Feb. 12 in Paris. Dutch novelist Pieter Hasebroeck (b. 1812). English celeb Emily Sarah Tennyson (b. 1813) on Aug. 10. U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.) (1855-73) Lyman Trumbull (b. 1813) on June 25 in Chicago, Ill. French novelist Arsene Houssaye (b. 1815). French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau (b. 1819) in Venteuil. German pianist-composer Clara Josephine Wiek Schumann (b. 1819) on May 20; wife of composer Robert Schumann. Am. geologist Josiah Dwight Whitney (b. 1819) on Aug. 15 in Lake Sunapee, N.H.; namesake of Mount Whitney. Irish "Speranza" writer Jane Francisca Agnes, Lady Wilde (b. 1821) on Feb. 3 in Chelsea, London; mother of Oscar Wilde (1854-1900). Am. Confederate Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith (b. 1821) on June 24 in New York City. Am. Civil War photographer Mathew B. Brady (b. 1823) on Jan. 15 in New York City. French novelist-critic Edmond de Goncourt (b. 1822); bequeaths his estate for the 1902 foundation of the Academie Goncourt, which awards the yearly monetary Prix Goncourt to the author of the best prose work by a French writer starting in 1903. English "Tom Brown's Schooldays" writer and social reformer Thomas Hughes (b. 1822). French writer Edmond Louis Antoine Huot (b. 1822) on July 16 in Champrosay. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. John Echols (b. 1823) on May 24 in Staunton, Va. English poet-critic Coventry Patmore (b. 1823) on Nov. 26 in Lymington; turned into the poet Carleon Anthony by Joseph Conrad in his 1913 novel "Chance"; "Nearly all our disasters come from a few fools having the 'courage of their convictions'." U.S. Rep. (R-Ohio) (1859-69) James Mitchell Ashley (b. 1824) on Sept. 18 in Ann Arbor, Mich. Austrian Viennese organist and romantic composer Anton Bruckner (b. 1824) on Oct. 11 in Vienna; leaves nine symphonies, which are much revised by his friends; his original compositions are not pub. until 1929. German-born Australian botanist Sir Ferdinand von Mueller (b. 1825) on Oct. 10 in Melbourne. French economist Jean-Baptiste Leon Say (b. 1826) on Apr. 21 in Paris. English writer Elizabeth Charles (b. 1828) on Mar. 28 in Hampstead, London: "To know how to say what others only know how to think is what makes men poets or sages, and to dare to say what others only dare to think makes men martyrs or reformers - or both." English archbishop of Canterbury (1882-96) Edward White Benson (b. 1829) on Oct. 11 (heart disease). Am. Civil War Union gen. Thomas Ewing Jr. (b. 1829) on Jan. 21 in New York City (hit by an omnibus). English painter Sir John Everett Millais (b. 1829). German chemist Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (b. 1829) on July 13 in Bonn. Portuguese #1 poet Joao de Deus Ramos (b. 1830) on Jan. 11. English painter-sculptor Frederick Lord Leighton (b. 1830). German-Jewish banker-philanthropist Baron Moritz von Hirsch (b. 1831) on Apr. 21. Persian shah (1848-96) Nasser ed-Din Shah Qajar (b. 1831) on May 1 in Tehran. Swedish industrialist-chemist-engineer-inventor Alfred Nobel (b. 1833) on Dec. 10 in San Remo, Italy; granted 355 patents. Am. politician Benjamin Helm Bristow (b. 1832) on June 22 in New York City. French-born English "Trilby" novelist-artist George du Maurier (b. 1834) on Oct. 8 in Hampstead, London. English poet-artist William Morris (b. 1834) on Oct. 3. German historian Heinrich von Treitschke (b. 1834) on Apr. 28 in Berlin: "The Jews are our misfortune" (Die Juden sind unser Ungluck). Brazilian composer Antonio Carlos Gomez (b. 1839). German philosopher Richard Avenarius (b. 1843) on Aug. 18. French lyric poet Paul Verlaine (b. 1844) on Jan. 8 in Paris. Am. sculptor Olin Levi Warner (b. 1844) on Aug. 14 in New York City (cycling accident in Central Park). German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal (b. 1848) on Aug. 10 near Rhinow (near Berlin); killed in a glider crash after 2K+ successful flights (sudden gust of wind), uttering the soundbyte "Small sacrifices must be made": "To invent an airplane is nothing. To build one is something. To fly is everything." Irish-born Am. Theosophical Society leader William Q. Judge (b. 1851) on Mar. 21 in New York City. Am. Ferris wheel inventor George Ferris (b. 1859) on Nov. 22. Am. "Devil in the White City" serial murderer Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (b. 1860) on May 7 in Philadelphia, Penn. (hanged); buried in cement so he can't be dug up and dissected like he did to others. Philippine patriot novelist-poet Jose Rizal (b. 1861) on Dec. 30 (executed). Am. Mark Twain's daughter Suzy Twain (b. 1872).



1897 - The Tough Pick Year? A creaky-greasy-yeasty kind of exaggerated pi year for mothers?

1897 Brussels Internat. Exhibition William McKinley of the U.S. (1843-1901) Ida McKinley of the U.S. (1847-1907) Garret Augustus Hobart of the U.S. (1844-99) Sir Alfred Milner of Britain (1854-1925) Bernhard von Bülow of Germany (1849-1929) Antonio the Council of Brazil (1830-97) Adrien Victor Joseph, Baron de Gerlache de Gomery (1866-1934) Jamal al-Din al-Afghan (1839-97) Sir William Randal Cremer of Britain (1828-1908) Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) Carter Henry Harrison Jr. (1860-1953) Luigi Amedeo Francesco, Duke of the Abruzzi (1873-1933) Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted (1853-1927) British Gen. William Hope Meiklejohn British Gen. Sir Bindon Blood (1842-1940) Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) Max Simon Nordau (1849-1923) 'Gentleman' Jim Corbett (1866-1933) Bob Fitzsimmons (1862-1917) John J. McDermott Black Jack Ketchum (1863-1901) Sam Ketchum (1854-99) Laura Bullion (1876-1961) Ben 'The Tall Texan' Kilpatrick (1874-1912) George 'Big Nose' Curry (1864-1900) Elzy Lay (1868-1934) Sir J.J. (Joseph John) Thomson (1856-1940) Eduard Buchner (1860-1917) Hans Buchner (1850-1902) Arthur Heffter (1859-1925) John Jacob Astor IV (1864-1912) Arthur Brisbane (1864-1936) Josef Breuer (1842-1925) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Bertha Pappenheim (1859-1936) Karl Abraham (1877-1925) Alexander Winton (1860-1932) Winton Motor Co. Ad Winton Logo James Ward Packard (1863-1928) William Doud Packard (1861-1923) Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947) Sir Patrick Manson (1844-1912) Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) Raymond Roussel (1877-1933) Paul Dukas (1865-1935) Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) John Addington Symonds (1840-93) Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) Lyman Abbott (1835-1922) Henri Büsser (1872-1973) Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931) Sir Henry Tate (1819-99) George Ellery Hale (1868-1938) Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914) Charles Tyson Yerkes (1837-1905) Friedrich Delitzsch (1850-1922) Amos Emerson Dolbear (1837-1910) Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) Joseph McCabe (1867-1955) Oscar Metenier (1859-1913) Giuseppe de Luca (1876-1950) Amanda McKittrick Ross (1860-1939) Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938) David Schwarz (1852-97) Kurd Lasswitz (1848-1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Arthur Schnabel (1882-1951) Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832-1914) Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) Alice Guy (1873-1968) Leon Gaumont (1864-1916) Pop Rock (-1916), J. Stuart Blackton (1875-1941), and Albert E. Smith (1875-1958) John Galsworthy (1867-1933) Ellen Glasgow (1874-1945) Thomas Maley Harris (1817-1906) Paul Lincke (1866-1946) W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) Rudolph Dirks (1877-1968) Katzenjammer Kids Grand Guignol Poster Beautiful Jim Key (1889-1912) Peter Paul Mauser (1838-1914) Mauser Gewehr Rifle, 1897 Grant's Tomb, 1897 The Ten American Painters, 1897 Tate Gallery, 1897 Walter Crane (1845-1915) 'International Solidarity of Labour' by Walter Crane (1845-1915), 1897 'Where Do We Come From?' by Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), 1897 Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918) 'The Dream' by Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), 1897 'Day (Truth)' by Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), 1897 'Boulevard Montmartre in Daylight' by Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), 1897 'Boulevard Montmartre at Night' by Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), 1897 'Sleeping Gypsy' by Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), 1897 Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor (1830-1908) George Charles Boldt (1851-1916) Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 1897

1897 In Jan.-Feb. a bill to declare pi as equal to 16 divided by the square root of 3 almost passes the legislature of Indiana - Pythagoras rolls over in his grave? Airship mania hits the U.S. early this year, with people reporting lighter-than-air ships in the skies - angel vanguards for Armageddon? On Feb. 2 the Greek Cretan Committee and the Ethnike Hetaeria crank up the Cretan Revolt by attacking Turkish posts in Macedonia, starting the Greco-Turkish War (Thirty Days' War) of 1897, AKA Black 97, and get Crete to proclaim union with Greece on Feb. 6, which causes the Greek govt. on Feb. 10 to send troop ships; on Mar. 2 the Euro powers promise autonomy to Crete while demanding withdrawal of Greek troops on pain of "measures of constraint"; when Greece calls their bluff, a blockade of Crete is begun on Mar. 18; too bad, on Apr. 17 Turkey declares war on Greece, which it is unprepared for; Serbia and Bulgaria are prevented from joining Turkey by threats from Russia, which demands that the Turks cease hostilities; on May 10 after a series of defeats by the Turks, the Greek army degenerates into a panic-stricken mob, and Greece appeals to the powers for help and withdraws the troops; after Turkey is defeated in Thessaly, an armistice is arranged on May 19, and on Sept. 18 the Peace of Constantinople is signed, establishing autonomy for Crete under European control with only symbolic Ottoman presence, which causes thousands of Muslims to flee from Crete and Greece to W Anatolia, which gets more and more funky and diverse; humbled Greece is forced to pay a large indemnity to Turkey, adding to its foreign debt and foreign control of its finances - at least the Turks can kick Armenian butt to feel better? On Feb. 17 the Am. Nat. Congress of Mothers (forerunner of the Nat. PTA) is founded in Washington, D.C.; in 1899 it publicly complains about "the incompetency of parents", causing the scientific parenting racket to be born as experts rush to the fore? On Feb. 18 the British capture the kingdom of Benin in a punitive expedition, and add it to the Niger Coast Protectorate, looting it of 900 bronze sculptures. On Feb. 20 King Kojong of Korea leaves the Russian legation and moves into the a new palace in Seoul, and on Oct. 17 takes the title of emperor. A Mount Rushmore reject takes office in the White House? On Mar. 4 Ohio-born cigar-chomping piercing-stare Civil War Union Maj. and U.S. rep. William McKinley Jr. (1843-1901) (the Major) (the Mask of Calm) becomes the 25th U.S. pres. (until Sept. 14, 1901) in the 32nd U.S. Pres. Inauguration (last U.S. Civil War vet); 2nd pres. to be elected for a 2nd term and not finish it (Lincoln, Nixon); N.J.-born Garret Augustus Hobart (1844-99) becomes the 24th U.S. vice-pres.; at the inauguration ball McKinley's wife faints?; Cleveland retires to Princeton, N.J., becoming a trustee and occasionally lecturing to students; First Lady is Ida Saxton McKinley (1847-1907), a semi-invalid who likes to crochet slippers for charity and wear Victorian high fashion while dosing on laudanum; Ohio Sen. John Sherman becomes U.S. secy. of state, but resigns next year shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish-Am. War; Chicago banker Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) becomes U.S. treasury sec. #42 (until Jan. 31, 1902), going on to work to get the currency backed solely by gold in 1900. On Mar. 15 Winton Motor Carriage Co. is incorporated in Cleveland, Ohio by Scottish-born bicycle manufacturer Alexander Winton (1860-1932), who in May introduces a 10 hp model that achieves an astounding speed of 33.64 mph on a local horse track; to silence criticism about durability, Winton makes an 800-mi. endurance run from Cleveland to New York City; on Mar. 24, 1898 Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Penn. becomes his first customer after responding to an ad in Scientific American; in 1898 Winton sells 22 cars, and produces the world's first semi-truck, selling the first one in 1899; in 1898 he sells one to James Ward Packard, who after showing dissatisfaction is challenged by Winton to do better, causing him found his own co.; in 1899 Winton sells 100+ cars, making his co. the largest gas-powered automobile manufacturer in the U.S., causing H.W. Koler to open the first automobile dealership in the U.S. in Reading, Penn., for which Winton builds the first auto-hauler; in 1901 news that Reginald Vanderbilt and Alfred Vanderbilt purchased his cars boosts the co. image; too bad, after failing to keep up with technical developments, the co. ceases production on Feb. 11, 1924, but continues to sell engines, specializing only in marine engines by 1936, becoming popular with the U.S. Navy in WWII; it goes defunct in 1962. On May 10 the Exposition Internationale de Bruxelles world fair in Brussels, Belgium opens, with 27 participating countries; it features a Palace of the Colonies to show off African imports coffee, cacao, and tobacco; it closes on Nov. 8 after 7.8M attend. On May 14-15 German Jewish gay physician Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) organizes the Scientific Humanitarian Committee to lobby for the repeal of German penal code paragraph 175 criminalizing homosexuality, and goes on to gather 5K signatures, incl. Albert Einstein, Hermann Hesse, Kathe Kollwitz, Thomas Mann, and Martin Buber, causing him to become known as "the Einstein of Sex"; the Reichstag nixes his proposals even under threat of outing some of its members. On June 2 61-y.-o. Mark Twain (b. 1835) is quoted by the New York Journal as saying from London that "The report of my death was an exaggeration". On June 15 Eugene V. Debs founds the Social Dem. Party of Am. On June 16 the U.S. signs a Treaty of Annexation of Hawaii with Doleland, er, Hawaii, despite over 20K Hawaiians signing an Anti-Annexation Petition. On June 22 fat, wrinkled, triple-chinned, white-haired, ever-mourning super-popular Queen Victoria celebrates her Diamond Jubilee (60th year as queen), featuring an overflow of imperialistic sentiment and a 245-carat Jubilee Diamond, and a progress to St. Paul's Cathedral, where a special stand is erected for survivors of the Charge of the Light Brigade; French chef Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) creates flaming Cherries Jubilee (with warmed kirsch) to mark the event. On June 28 the San Marino-Italy Treaty of Friendship is signed, and renewed on Mar. 31, 1939. On July 17 the Klondike Gold Rush begins after the steamship Portland lands in Seattle, Wash. carrying a ton of gold divided among 68 miners. On July 22 there is a shootout between stock detectives and rustlers in the Hole-in-the-Wall area of NC Wyo. (modern-day Kaycee). On July 26-Aug. 2 the Siege of Malakand in the North West Frontier Province of British India is a V for 10K British troops under Brig. Gen. William Hope Meiklejohn and Gen. Sir Bindon Blood (1842-1940) over 10K rebel Muslim Pashtun tribesmen led by "the Mad Fakir/Mullah of Wat" Saidullah ("God-intoxicated") (Mullah Mastun), who claims miraculous powers and declared a jihad against the British Empire, pinning the British Malakand South camp and Ft. Chakdara down until a relief force arrives; 2nd lt. Winston Churchill accompanies the relief force in his first combat experience, riding a big grey charger and getting disappointed when he isn't allowed to take over command. In July the first 10-day Cheyenne Frontier Days rodeo and Am. West celebration is held in Cheyenne, Wyo.; by 2000 the 600K visitors gobble up 100K pancakes and 1.5 tons of ham, and 1.8K prof. rodeo stars vie for the $1M grand prize. In July the Electric Carriage and Wagon Co. begins running 12 electric hansom cabs, becoming the first taxicab co. in New York City; after building the Electrobat electric car, by 1899 it has 100 taxicabs; too bad, in 1907 a fire destroys 300 vehicles, causing it to shut down, causing horsedrawn cabs to become the primary transport. On Aug. 16 the Belgian Antarctic Expedition sets sail, led by Baron Adrien Victor Joseph de Gerlache de Gomery (1866-1934); it returns in Mar. 1899 with the first photos of Antarctica. On Aug. 24 Mass.-born Am. essayist Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) coins the phrase "Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it" in an editorial in the Hartford Courant; Mark Twain quotes it and ends up getting credit. On Aug. 29-31 the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland is led by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) and Max Simon Nordau (1849-1923), formulating a Zionist platform and org., and adopting Hatikvah as its anthem; Red Cross founder Henri Dunant is a prize guest; they go on to revive the Hebrew language; Herzl goes on to meet with the pope, kaiser, sultan (4x), and other leaders to garner support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine, becoming the first Zionist efforts to establish a Jewish state in Israel; the refusal of Sultan Abdulhamid II to give land to Jews for settlement leads to the abolition of the sultanate and caliphate?; Zionist leader Litman Rosenthal has a conversation with Herzel, in which he utters his Great War Prophecy: "The great European war must come. With my watch in hand do I await this terrible moment. After the great European war is ended the Peace Conference will assemble. We must be ready for that time. We will assuredly be called to this great conference of the nations and we must prove to them the urgent importance of a Zionist solution to the Jewish Question." In Aug. Sir Alfred Milner (1854-1925) becomes British high commissioner of British South Africa (until 1905) and gov. of Cape Colony (until 1901). On Sept. 21 after 8-y.-o. Manhattan-born Virginia O'Hanlon (1889-1971) writes to editor Francis Pharcellus Church (1839-1906) of The New York Sun, asking if there really is a Santa Claus, he pub. the famous reply: "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus", which becomes so popular that they reprint the correspondence every year until 1949 when the paper goes out of business. In Sept. the Canudos War sees 30K black, Indian and mestizo settlers in the dry bushland Bahia province in NE Brazil on the Vaza-Barris River led by bearded Christ-like Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel ("Anthony the Counselor") (1830-97), who claims to be a prophet heralding the return of Portuguese king Sebastian I (1554-78) and dresses in a blue tunic, straw hat, and leather sandals hold off the Brazilian army for 1 mo. before Maciel dies on Sept. 21 and they surrender on Oct. 2, after which they are massacred and raped, the best remaining women sent to brothels, leaving only 150 survivors; 5K escape to shanty towns in large cities?; "At the end of the world, the land will change into sea, and vice-versa" (Maciel). In Oct. the movies come to Korea. On Nov. 1 after a power struggle causes the ascension of Emilio Aguinaldo and the execution of Andres Bonifacio, and the Cuban rev. makes the Spanish eager to end the fighting, the Biak Na Bato (Biyak-na-bato) Repub. in the Philippines is declared; a truce is signed with Spain on Dec. 15 under the condition that Aguinaldo accept a money payment and go into exile in Hong Kong. On Nov. 4 two German missionaries are murdered in Kiaochow in N China, causing the German army to occupy it, claiming it as a "leased territory". The first great leap in powered flight in twenty years? On Nov. 3 an all-metal (aluminum) 135-ft.-long 46-ft.-diam. 3-prop dirigible powered by a 12 hp. Daimler engine, designed by Croatian Jewish inventor David Schwarz (1852-97) takes off from Berlin's Tempelhof Field and flies several mi. before the propeller belts break and it crashes; Schwarz had died on Jan. 31 from a heart attack after receiving a telegram from the German govt. offering to buy his invention; Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, who witnesses the test buys the plans from his widow. In Nov. the Cape Railway reaches Bulawayo. On Dec. 8 the Royal Automobile Club is founded in London as the Automobile Club of Great Britain, until Edward VII orders its name changed to upgrade its status; in 1911 they move into a French Renaissance club house at 89-91 Pall Mall, the largest in London. On Dec. 9 the Ketchum Gang, led by Thomas E. "Black Jack" Ketchum (1863-1901), his brother Samuel W. "Sam" Ketchum (1854-99), Will Carver (1868-1901) (who uses the alias G.W. Franks) and his half-German half-Indian gang moll Laura "Della Rose" Bullion (1876-1961), and her step-brother Edwin H. Cullen attempt to hold up a Southern Pacific train near Steins Pass, N.M., but Cullen is killed and the robbery foiled; meanwhile the allied Wild Bunch, incl. Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) (1866-1908), Harry "the Sundance Kid" Longabaugh (1867-1908), Ben "The Tall Texan" Kilpatrick (1874-1912), George Sutherland "Big Nose" "Flat Nose" Curry (1864-1900), Harvey "Kid Curry" Logan, and William Ellsworth "Elzy" Lay (1868-1934) lay low from this Apr. until June 1899, while Lay's wife Maude Davis gives birth to daughter Marvel Lay Murdock in 1897, and the gang allegedly considers enlisting in the U.S. Army to fight in the Spanish-Am. War as the "Wild Bunch Riders". On Dec. 12 the comic strip The Katzenjammer Kids by German-born cartoonist Rudolph Dirks (1877-1968) debuts, becoming the first true comic strip in the U.S., the first to present a story in consecutive panels, and the first to enclose dialogue in balloons; the name is changed to "Hans and Fritz" in 1912, and to "The Captain and the Kids" during WWI; the phrase "on the Fritz" is coined; a thriving industry of underground porno versions comes along quickly? - good for your complexion? The U.S. Organic Act of 1897 doubles U.S. forest reserves from 19M to 38M acres. Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein retires, and after strings are pulled by Wilhelm II's personal friend Prince Philip of Eulenberg-Hertefeld (1847-1921), Bernhard von Bulow (Bülow) (1849-1929) is appointed as German foreign minister; the prince and von Bulow are closet gay lovers? There is a severe famine in India. Russia occupies Port Arthur. Zululand is incorporated into Natal Colony, and it becomes a crime for a white man to marry an Indian in Natal. The sultan of Zanzibar abolishes slavery. The Anglo-Am. Arbitration Treaty is negotiated by English pacifist Liberal MP Sir William Randal Cremer (1828-1908) (secy. of the Workmen's Peace Assoc. since 1871), winning him the 1903 Nobel Peace Prize (first to do so solo). Germany's Operational Plan Three calls for shelling New York City, seizing the coast of Va., and then taking Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, along with Boston and Philly, causing U.S. vice-adm. August Thomsen to utter the soundbyte "At the moment every thinking German officer is occupied with the consequences of a belligerent conflict between Germany and the United States of America"; after Germany fails to interest other Euro powers in an alliance against the U.S., they drop the plan. Mathieu Dreyfus discovers that the document on which his brother Alfred was convicted was actually written by hazy anti-Semitic royalist officer Maj. M.C. Esterhazy, helping the fit to hit the shan? France establishes a protectorate over the Kingdom of Ouagadougou (pr. wah-gah-DOO-goo) (Mossi Empire) in Upper Volta. An British imperial conference calls for a federated empire with an imperial parliament representing self-governing dominions; Canada grants preferential customs duties to British imports. The U.S. Tea Importation Act, the first U.S. law regulating food products is passed. The U.S. passes the Dingley Tariff, drafted by Maine Rep. (since 1881) Nelson Dingley (1832-99), which replaces the Wilson-Gorham Act and raises tariff rates to the highest level in U.S. history (57%); it remains in effect until 1909. Former New York mayor, U.S. Civil Service Commisioner (1889-95) and New York City Police Commissioner (1895-7) Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) becomes asst. Navy secy. (until 1898), and begins increasing its size, raising it from 5th to 2nd in rank among the world's navies in 10 years. Iowa passes a law banning cigarettes. Carter Henry Harrison Jr. (1860-1953), son of Chicago mayor Carter Henry Harrison Sr. becomes mayor of Chicago, Ill. (until 1905, then 1911-15), continuing its rep as sin city, famous for maps of brothels and the Mickey Finn. Italian mountaineer Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco, Duke of the Abruzzi (1873-1933) makes the first ascent of Mt. St. Elias in Alaska. Hollywood, Calif., founded by a group seeking a Christian utopia officially becomes a town after it opens its first post office at the Sackett Hotel. The Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. officially opens its doors to the public with grandiose new facilities, incl. a 23-carat gold plated dome; the three bldgs. are named after U.S. presidents. Robert Todd Lincoln becomes pres. of the Pullman Co. (until 1911), followed by chmn. of the board. Arthur Brisbane (1864-1936) becomes ed. of the Hearst-owned New York Evening Journal (until 1921), going on to become the patron saint of yellow journalism, and utter the soundbyte "Never forget that if you don't hit a newspaper reader between the eyes with your first sentence, there is no need of writing a second one." The bldgs. on Ellis Island in New York harbor burn down, causing 28 new ones to be constructed, followed in 1898 and 1905 by two additional artificial islands created by dumping earth and rock, and joined by causeways, increasing the area from 3 to 27.5 acres. The 150-ft. domed granite General Grant Nat. Monument (AKA Grant's Tomb) at Riverside Dr. and W. 122nd St. opens, housing the sarcophagi of Grant and his wife surrounded by busts of Union Army leaders. Brooklyn Museum of Art is founded in Brooklyn, N.Y., and housed in a 500K-sq.-ft. Beaux Arts bldg., becoming the 2nd largest art museum in the New York City area. The Cooper-Hewitt Nat. Design Museum of the Smithsonian Inst. is founded by Amy, Eleanor, and Sarah Hewitt, daughters of New York City Mayor Abram S. Hewitt and grand-daughters of industrialist Peter Cooper in the Carnegie mansion in New York City at Fifth Ave. and 91st St. (Museum Mile), becoming the only U.S. museum solely focused on design; it eventually boasts the world's largest collection of the drawings of Winslow Homer. The Tennessee Centennial Exposition in Nashville features a full-scale replica of the Athenian Parthenon, complete with the Elgin marbles, which is rebuilt and opened to the public in 1931; mixed-breed Hambletonian-Arabian Beautiful Jim Key (1889-1912) the wonder horse, trained by William Key (1833-1909) is a big hit, and goes on to a 9-year career doing math, debating politics, and making predictions. A merger of oil cos. creates Shell Oil, named by English Jewish founder Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted (1853-1927), who ran the Shell Shop in London, selling boxes decorated with tropical sea shells, and not only imported boxes but oil, and found it more profitable. Columbia College becomes a univ., and pres. Seth Low gives it $1M for a new library. William James gives a lecture questioning human immortality. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), who moved to Paris in 1891 to study art, creates his own unique style after seeing the work of the French Impressionists. PC (Christian) Gustav Mahler becomes conductor of the Vienna Opera. Watkins Books in London is founded by Madame Blavatsky's friend John M. Watkins; it goes on to pub. the Watkins' Spiritual 100 List. Syrian-born Muslim modernist scholars Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) and Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) found the weekly Al-Manar, promoting education in Western science and technology despite the restrictions of their medieval faith. Ohio electric lighting manufacturer brothers James Ward Packard (1863-1938) and William Doud Packard (1861-1923) found the Ohio Automobile Co., and in 1899 they build the first Packard automobile, renaming the co. to Packard Motor Co. Australian bushman Lewis Harold Bell Lasseter (1880-1931) claims to find a "gold reef" far out beyond the Petermann Range in C Australia; in 1911 he finally raises funds for an expedition to find Lasseter's Reef, but dies before he reaches it, and nobody ever verifies his claim. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) becomes pres. of the Nat. Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (until 1919), going on to gain the vote for 6M British women over age 30 in 1918. The Ten Am. Painters (all Impressionists) resign from the Society of Am. Artists to protest its crass commercialism, although the latter had broken away from the Nat. Academy of Design 20 years earlier for ditto; the new group gives annual exhibitions for 20 years (until 1919), and guess what? Italian baritone Giuseppe de Luca (1876-1950) debuts in Piacenza singing Valentin in Gounod's Faust, and goes on to becoming #1. Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) receives a state annuity enabling him to retire from teaching at the Helsinki Conservatory and spend all his time composing, and he goes on to become Finland's #1 composer, cranking out seven symphonies and other works, incl. 100 songs in his studio in Jarvenpaa (Järvenpää) on the outskirts of Helsinki. Austrian Jewish pianist Arthur (Artur) Schnabel (1882-1951) makes his debut in Vienna, going on to give concerts in England, Russia, and the U.S. Alice Guy (Guy-Blach) (Guy-Blaché) (1873-1968) becomes the first film dir., working for the French production co. of Leon Gaumont (1864-1946) to film The Cabbage Fairy (La Fee aux Choux). In 1896 after their 3-man Internat. Novelty Co. fails, causing them to have to get jobs, and New York Evening World reporter Blackton interviews Thomas Edison about his new film projector and is talked into buying $800 worth of equipment from him, American Vitagraph Studios is founded in New York City by English immigrants Albert Edward Smith (1875-1958), James Stuart Blackton (1875-1941), and Ronald A. Reader, joined in 1898 by older wiser English immigrant William T. "Pop" Rock (-1916) (ahead of his time?), showing their first films at Tony Pastor's New 14th St. Theatre on Mar. 23, starting out by filming fun things incl. Niagara Falls at Passaic Falls, N.J., going on to film their first "story picture" The Burglar on the Roof on May 16, 1897, in which Mrs. Olsen, wife of the bldg. janitor thinks a fight between a policeman and burglar is real and hits the burglar with her broom, cracking audiences up; they go on to film news events incl. the Spanish-Am. War, Teddy Roosevelt's charge up San Juan Hill in Cuba, the Boer War, the 1900 Galveston Flood, the 1901 assassination of Pres. McKinley, the 1904 inaugration of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, and fake the Battle of Santiago Bay in a water tank after bragging that they had it but didn't; too bad, they pass-up filming the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk on Dec. 14, 1903 after seeing the "fool contraption" and deciding it can't fly; in 1900 they pioneer animation; in 1905 they build their first studio in Flatbush, Brooklyn, N.Y., with profits of $7,975 in 1899 zooming to $120,749 in 1906, becoming the most prolific U.S. film producer by 1908, producing eight films a week from their stock co. of 400 actors incl. Broncho Billy Anderson, Annette Kellerman, Paul Panzer, Florence Lawrence, Florence Turner ("the Vitagraph Girl"), Maurice Costello (first matinee idol), Gladys Hulette, and Julia Swayne Gordon; in Feb. 1925 they sell out to Warner Brothers for $735K. Wilhelm Hasse of the Moctezuma Brewery in Mexico creates Siglo XX (20th Century) brand beer, later called Dos Equis. Sports: On Mar. 17 (St. Patrick's Day) 30-y.-o. 183-lb. James John "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (1866-1933) loses the heavyweight boxing title (St. Patrick's Day) by KO in the 14th round in Carson City, Nev. to 34-y.-o. 167-lb. Bob Fitzsimmons (Robert Prometheus) (1862-1917) of England, who becomes world heavyweight boxing champ #2 (until 1899), and the last British heavyweight boxing champ (until ?). On Aug. 19 the first Boston Marathon (24 mi. or 39 km), organized by Olympic champ Tom Burke et al. is run; the winner is Irish-born John J. McDermott of the U.S. with a time of 2:55:10.2. Architecture: John Jacob Astor IV (1864-1912) builds the 17-story Astoria Hotel at 5th Ave. and 34 St. in New York City next door to the 13-story Waldorf Hotel (built 1893 by his brother William Astor) on a site at 350 5th Ave. owned by Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor (1830-1908) on the future site of the Empire State Bldg., connected by Peacock Alley, becoming the world's largest hotel (until ?), transforming the concept of a facility for transients into a prestigious destination for visitors, which shocks Victorian society by admitting single women; Prussian-born George Charles Boldt (1851-1916), owner of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philly becomes the proprietor, popularizing Thousand Island dressing and Waldorf Salad; in 1931 a new 47-story Art Deco bldg. opens at 301 Park Ave. - visiting blue bloods have a home? The 293-seat Grand Guignol theater (smallest in Paris), founded by Oscar Metenier (1859-1913) opens in the Pigalle area of Paris, becoming known for naturalistic horror shows featuring low life (closes 1962), becoming a favorite spot for royalty and celebs in evening dress in the 1920s and 1930s. Sugar cube magnate Sir Henry Tate (1819-99) donates the Tate Gallery in London to the British people - la dolce vitate? Vienna builds the Risenrad, a giant Ferris wheel which becomes a landmark - good with anything from jeans to evening attire? Inventions: German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) invents the Cathode-Ray Tube Oscillograph. Peter Paul Mauser (1838-1914) of Germany invents the bolt-action Mauser Gewehr magazine rifle, which becomes #1 and is adopted for official use by govts. throughout Europe and South Am. Campbell's Soup debuts with 21 varieties, the most popular being tomato - with a cheese sandwich? The first motion picture commercial, an ad for Admiral brand cigarettes is made by Thomas Edison's co. from his Black Maria Studio in West Orange, N.J. Twin brothers Francis Stanley and Freelan Stanley build the first Stanley Steamer automobile. The Winchester Model 1897 is the first successful pump action shotgun; the Browning Auto-5 "Humpback" autoloader (the first semi-auto shotgun) competes with it starting in 1903. The Wright Wave Motor in Manhattan Beach N.Y. is built to turn ocean wave energy into electricity, but collapses; the Starr Wave Motor in Redondo Beach, Calif. is built in 1907, and does ditto. Science: German chemist Eduard Buchner (1860-1917) observes bubble formation in sugar-filled yeast extract in experiments of his bacteriologist brother Hans Buchner (1850-1902), and breaks up yeast cells with hundreds of atmospheres of pressure, fine quartz sand, and filter paper and still obtains fermentation, laying to rest Pasteur's theory that only living yeast cells can do it, discovering zymase, the first enzyme, and later receiving the 1907 Nobel Chem. Prize. German linguist Friedrich Delitzsch (1850-1922) disses the 1863 theory of Jules Oppert that cuneiform is based on pictographs, claiming that it is based on a small kernel of basic signs which deliciously expand into hundreds of signs. Am. physicist Amos Emerson Dolbear (1837-1910) pub. Dolbear's Law, that a male (snowy) cricket chirps a number of times in 15 sec. equal to the temp in Fahrenheit minus 40 (e.g., 30 times at 70F). German physician and chemist Arthur Heffter (1859-1925) isolates Mescaline, the hallucinatory agent in peyote cactus, and becomes the first "psychonaut", willing to test the stuff on himself. English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947) proves that a lack of vitamins causes disease - that's what I tell my wife? After Scottish physician Sir Patrick Manson (1844-1912) suggests the hypothesis, Indian-born English physician Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) discovers in Secunderabad, India that malaria isn't caused by breathing bad air, but by a parasite (bacillus) transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, which he finally isolates on Aug. 21 after having one bite patient Hussain Khan, then using birds to trace out its life cycle, winning him the 1902 Nobel Med. Prize. The discovery of the electron (the first subatomic particle) and the similarity of its motion to visible light is first described by English physicist Sir J.J. (Joseph John) Thomson (1856-1940), who experimentally determines the ratio of its mass to its charge, making him "the father of the electron"; he has been dir. of the Cavendish Lab at Cambridge U. (founded 1874) since 1894, and it goes on to generate 14 Nobel Prize winners, who discover the atomic nucleus, cloud chamber, and atom smasher. William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) studies cathode rays. Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisc., designed by Chicago-born George Ellery Hale (1868-1938), and financed by streetcar magnate Charles Tyson Yerkes (1837-1905) begins operation, with the largest refracting telescope on Earth, a whopping 40 in. Nonfiction: Lyman Abbott (1835-1922), The Theology of an Evolutionist; Christianity and Social Problems. Grant Allen (1848-99), The Evolution of the Idea of God; agnostic evolutionist proposes the "ghost theory". Edward Arber (ed.), The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623, A.D., As Told by Themselves, Their Friends and Their Enemies. Claude Auge (1854-1924), Nouveau Larousse Illustre (8 vols.) (1897-1904). Edward White Benson (1829-96), Cyprian (posth.). Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), La Comparaison des Ecritures et l'Identification Graphique. Josef Breuer (1842-1925) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Studies on Hysteria; case studies of hysterical patient Anna O. (Bertha Pappenheim) (1859-1936), developing the Talking Cure; Breuer later splits with Freud over Freud's obsession with sex; Freud calls Bremen, Germany-born Karl Abraham (1877-1925) his "best pupil"; too bad the good die young? Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-99), Religions of Primitive People. Samuel Butler (1835-1902), The Authoress of the Odyssey; claims that it was written by a young Sicilian woman familiar with the Sicilian coast. John Dewey (1859-1952), My Pedagogic Creed. Amos Emerson Dolbear (1837-1910), The Cricket As A Thermometer; Dolbear's Law. Can you grasp this? Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) and John Addington Symonds (1840-93), Studies in the Psychology of Sex: Sexual Inversion (vol. 2 of 6) (1897-1910); first English medical textbook on homosexuality ("a barbarously hybrid word... I claim no responsibility for it"), which Ellis approves of, and denies is immoral, a disease or a crime; 7 of the 20 examples are of man-boy love; after a celebrated obscenity trial it is banned in England as a "wicked, bawdy, scandalous, and obscene book", causing a U.S. publisher to pub. it, changing it from vol. 1 to vol. 2 of the series; it is limited to medical profs. until 1935; the 3rd ed. (1915) talks about the "great prevalence of sexual inversion in American cities", and how the fellatio-seeking "fairies" wear red ties as their badge - like Ronald Reagan? Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Der Westafrikanische Kulturkreis; decides to devote his career to exploring Africa, decides that it's not so primitive after all, but has various culture areas (Kulturkreise). Julis von Hann (1839-1921), Handbook of Climatology. Thomas Maley Harris (1817-1906), Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln; U.S. Civil War Union gen. claims a Vatican plot. Mary Kingsley (1862-1900), Travels in West Africa; bestseller. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Book of Dreams and Ghosts. Rodolfo Lanciani (1846-1919), The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Pickle the Spy; identifies Prince Charles Edward's traitorous spy as Scottish Jacobite Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell (1725-61). Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), The Sun's Place in Nature. Joseph McCabe (1897-1955), Twelve Years in a Monastery; Roman Catholic priest turns Atheist-Freethinker crusader. Desire Joseph Mercier (1851-1926), Les Origines de la Psychologie Contemporaine. Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Children (essays). Henri Moissan (1852-1907), The Electric Arc Furnace (Le Four Electrique). Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Work of the Digestive Glands (first book); his work on the physiology of digestion going back to 1879. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Varia. Francesco De Sanctis (1818-83), La Letteratura Italiana nel Secolo XIX (Italian Lit. in the 19th Cent.). Frederick Sleigh (1832-1914), Forty-One Years in India (autobio.). Goldwin Smith (1823-1910), Guesses on the Riddle of Existence; how Darwinism has wrecked the Christian faith, but he still can't dump spiritual truth for Agnosticism. Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Der Nietzsche-Kultus. Mark Twain (1835-1910), Following the Equator; his 1895-6 tour of Oceania, India, and Africa; "Nothing has been left undone, either by man or Nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his round"; "I could easily learn to prefer an elephant to any other vehicle, partly because of that immunity from collisions"; "All the territorial possessions of all the political establishments in the earth - incl. America, of course - consist of pilferings from other people's wash. No tribe, however insignificant, and no nation, however mighty, occupies a foot of land that was not stolen. When the English, the French, and the Spaniards reached America, the Indian tribes had been raiding each other's territorial clothes-lines for ages, and every acre of ground in the continent had been stolen and restolen 500 times." John Venn (1834-1923), The Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, 1349-1897. Sidney Webb (1859-1947) and Beatrice Webb (1858-1943), Industrial Democracy. Movies: Albert E. Smith's The Humpty Dumpty Circus is the world's first animated film using the stop-motion technique; released on Nov. 2, 1908. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Gernot (opera); Seejungfraulein, Op. 15. Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), Comedy Overture (for orchestra). Henri Busser (1872-1973), Daphnis et Chloe (opera). Ernest Chausson (1855-99), String Quartet in C minor. Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), Fervaal (opera) (Brussels); set in S France during the Muslim invasion of 732. Paul Dukas (1865-1935), Sorcerer's Apprentice (L'Apprenti Sorcier) (orchestral scherzo); based on a ballad by Goethe. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Heroic Song (symphonic poem). Victor Herbert (1859-1924) and Harry Bache Smith (1860-1936), The Serenade (operetta) (Kickerbocker Theater, New York) (Mar. 16) (79 perf.). Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), Fervaal (opera) (Brussels). Paul Lincke (1865-1946), Venus auf Erden (From Venus to Earth) (operetta) (Berlin). Andre Messager (1853-1929), Les p'Tites Michu (operetta). Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Elegy for Brahms. Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), Vendee (opera). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Mozart and Salieri (Dec. 7) (Nov. 25 Old Style) (Moscow); libretto from Alexander Pushkin's 1830 verse drama that claimed that jealous Salieri poisoned Mozart. John Philip Sousa (1854-1932), The Stars and Stripes Forever (march); played by circus bands as a distress signal. Amy Woodforde-Finden (1860-1919), O Flower of All the World Song; her first hit, based on her travels to India. Art: Eugene Anatole Carriere (1849-1906), Christ on the Cross. Walter Crane (1845-1915), International Solidarity of Labour. Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931), Doux Pays (caricatures). Skip the booze, go with the eggnog? Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Nevermore; Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (D'ou venons-nous? Que sommes-nous? Ou allons-nous? (12 ft. long); the masterpiece of his Tahitian work, about the impenetrable mystery of existence. Nikolaos Gysis (1842-1901), Nymph and Eros. Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), The Dream; Day (Truth). Max Klinger (1857-1920), Christ in Olympus. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Dinner Table. Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Boulevard Montmartre at Night (Boulevard des Italiens); Boulevard Montmartre in Daylight; the Las Vegas of France as seen from the Grand Hotel of Paris on 13 canvases. Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Victor Hugo (sculpture). Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), Sleeping Gypsy. Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Das Tschaperl. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Les Trois Filles de Monsieur Dupont; the cruddy French dowry system and its effects on middle-class girls. Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), His Majesty (comic opera); music by Alexander Mackenzie. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Uncle Vanya. Jacques Copeau (1879-1949), Morning Fog (Brouillard du Matin) (Nouveau Theatre, Paris) (Mar. 27) (first play). Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Sunken Bell. Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Folkeraadet. Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Briseis; music by Chabrier. Hugh Morton and Gustave Kerker, The Belle of New York (musical comedy) (New York); after it flops it moves to London next year and is a hit, with 674 perf.; makes Nellie Stewart, and Edna May as Violet. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Le Chemineau. Edmond Rostand (1868-1918), Cyrano de Bergerac (Paris) (Dec. 28); petite nose Christian and big nose Cyrano love Roxanne - serious nose de burgerac? Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Reigen; earns him the rep of a pornographer, and he is later cited by Adolf Hitler as an example of "Jewish filth". Arthur Symons (1865-1945), Amoris Victima. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Milord Sir Smith (musical); The Sorrows of Satan (musical) (Shaftesbury Theatre, London); Dandy Dan the Lifeguardsman; features the song Someone Ought to Speak to Millie Simpson. Poetry: Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Winds from the Poles. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), Ballads of Lost Haven: A Book of the Sea. Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920), Patrons. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Recessional; written for the queen's Diamond Jubilee, moving her to tears. Stephane Mallarme (1842-98), Un Coup de des Jamais n'Abolira le Hasard (A Roll of the Dice Will Never Abolish Chance). Sir Henry Newbolt (1862-1938), Admirals All; incl. Drake's Drum. Stephen Phillips (1864-1915), To Milton Blind; The Woman with the Dead Soul. Jean Psichari (1854-1929), The Dream of Gianniris. Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), Mori Ame (July 12). Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832-1914), The Coming of Love (debut); about the Romany, based on stories told him by friend George Borrow. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Secret Rose. Novels: Edward Bellamy (1850-98), Equality; prequel to "Looking Backward"; incl. The Parable of the Water Tank. Richard Doddridge Blackmore (1825-1900), Dariel. Leon Bloy (1846-1917), La Femme Pauvre (The Poor Woman). Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Christian. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), Lorraine. Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Devotee: An Episode in the Life of a Butterfly. Kate Chopin (1850-1904), A Night in Acadie (short stories). Mary Elizabeth Coleridge (1861-1907), The Knight with Two Faces. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), The Nigger of the Narcissus - the good ole days when you could get away with using the N-word? Richard Harding Davis (1864-1916), Soldiers of Fortune; illustrations by Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944). Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), Jerome. John Galsworthy (1867-1933), From the Four Winds (short stories) (first work); pub. under alias John Sinjohn. Stefan George (1868-1933), Das Jahr der Seele. Andre Gide (1869-1951), Les Nourritures Terrestres; the joys of hedonism. George Gissing (1857-1903), The Whirlpool. Ellen Glasgow (1874-1945), The Descendant (first novel). Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), The Beth Book. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Jetsam. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), The Well-Beloved. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Karolinerna (1897-8). Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Kamertjeszonde; Jewish family life in the Netherlands; written under alias Koos Habbema. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (1855-97), An Anxious Moment; Lovice (posth); The Coming of Chloe (posth.). William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), The Skipper's Wooing. Hans Ernst Kinck (1865-1926), Fa Hav til Hei (short stories). Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Captains Courageous; coming of age sea novel in fishing trawler "We're Here" off the Grand Banks; 15-y.-o. Harvey Cheyne Jr., spoiled son of a railrood tycoon in Gloucester, Mass.; title comes from the ballad "Mary Ambree": "When captains courageous, whom death could not daunt" - so what's with the blue jackets? Kurd Lasswitz (1848-1910), Auf Zwei Planeten (Two Planets); Martians run out of water and use anti-gravity to travel to Earth; the first technically correct transit between the orbits of two planets, turning on Wernher von Braun. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Pink Fairy Book. William John Locke (1863-1930), Derelicts. Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Monsieur de Bougrelon. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Ramuntcho. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Liza of Lambeth. Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Gof. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), The Gentry. Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker. Margaret Oliphant (1828-97), The Ways of Life. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Postmaster of Market Deighton; The Amazing Judgment. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Seats of the Mighty. Amanda McKittrick Ros (1860-1939), Irene Iddesleigh (first novel); a young Canterbury lady marries an older man, realizes she doesn't love him, and elopes with her tutor Oscar Otwell to the U.S., but he turns out to be a drunken abuser and she returns to England; incl. the famous soundbyte "Speak! Irene! Wife! Woman! Do not sit in silence and allow the blood that boils in my veins to ooze through cavities of unrestrained passion and trickle down to drench me with its crimson hue!"; establishes her as the queen of horrible prose, gaining her fans incl. Mark Twain, Aldous Huxley, and Lord Beveridge after a 1898 review by Barry Pain in the London journal Black & White contains the soundbyte: "The book has not amused. It began by doing that. Then, as its enormities went on getting more and more enormous in every line, the book seemed something titanic, gigantic, awe-inspiring. The world was full of Irene Iddesleigh" - the Tiny Tim of novelists? Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), La Doublure (verse novel). Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Death, the Knight,and the Lady: A Ghost Story. Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), In the Permanent Way and Other Stories. August Strindberg (1849-1912), Inferno (autobiographical). Lew Wallace (1827-1905), The Wooing of Malkatoon. Victor Vasarely (1906-97), Die Juden von Zimdorf (The Dark Pilgrimage). H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Invisible Man; filmed in 1933. Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), The Beautiful Miss Brook. Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), The Labors of Sisyphus; Tsarist efforts to Russify Poland. Births: Am. biographer Catherine Drinker Bowen (d. 1973) on Jan. 1 in Haverford, Penn. Am. dir. (lesbian) Dorothy Arzner (d. 1979) on Jan. 3 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at UCLA; companion of Marion Morgan; launches the careers of Katharine Hepburn, Rosalind Russell, Sylvia Sidney, and Lucille Ball. Am. actress-screenwriter-philanthropist Marion Davies (Marion Cecilia Douras) (d. 1961) on Jan. 3 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; sister-in-law of George W. Lederer; lover of William Randolph Hearst. Am. sultry silent film actress-singer Pola Negri (Barbara Apollonia Chalupiec) (d. 1987) on Jan. 3 in Lipno, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1941; turns down the role of Norma Desmond in "Sunset Boulevard" (1950), and becomes the real one? Am. journalist (Jewish) Merryle Stanley Rukeyser (d. 1988) on Jan. 3 in Chicago, Ill.; grows up in Manhattan, N.Y.; father of Louis Rukeyser (1933-2006) and William S. Rukeyser; educated at Columbia U. Am. diplomat-jurist Philip C. Jessup (d. 1986) on Jan. 5 in New York City. Hungarian Nat. Socialist Arrow Cross Party PM (1944-5) Ference Szalasi (Szálasi) (d. 1946) on Jan. 6 in Kosice; of Armenian, German, Hungarian, Slovak, and Rusyn descent. English "The Pot Boils" novelist (Margaret) Storm Jameson (d. 1986) on Jan. 8 in Whitby, Yorkshire. English "The Devil Rides Out" mystery novelist Dennis Yates (Yeats) Wheatley (d. 1977) on Jan. 8 in South London; expelled from Dulwich College. German Nazi tank cmdr. an liberal politician Gen. Hasso-Eccard "Hans" Freiherr von Manteuffel (d. 1978) on Jan. 14 in Potsdam; coins the post-WWII Germany army name "Bundeswehr". Am. "Sahara", "Life with Luigi" actor John Patrick Carrol "Joe" Naish (d. 1973) on Jan. 21 in New York City; of Irish descent, but never plays an Irish char., being picked for other ethnic roles, incl. Am. Indian. German Nazi official Arthur Karl Greiser (d. 1946) on Jan. 22 in Schroda. Am. opera soprano Rosa Ponselle (Rose Melba Ponzillo) (d. 1981) on Jan. 22 in Meriden, Conn.; Italian immigrant parents. Indian nationalist leader (Socialist) Subhas Chandra Bose (d. 1945), AKA Netaji ("respected leader") on Jan. 23 in Cuttack, Orissa, Bengal; educated at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge U. Canadian spymaster-airman ("the Quiet Canadian") Sir William Samuel Stephenson (Clouston Stranger) (d. 1989) (AKA Intrepid) on Jan. 23 in Winnipeg, Man.; knighted in 1945; first non-U.S. citizen to receive the Pres. Medal for Merit (1946); the real James Bond 007? English poet Pvt. Alexander Corry "Alec" de Candole (d. 1918) on Jan. 26 in Cheltenham. Soviet "Lonely White Sail" novelist-playwright Valentin Petrovich Katayev (d. 1986) on Jan. 28 (Jan. 16 Old Style) in Odessa, Ukraine. Am. restaurant king Howard Deering Johnson (d. 1972) on Feb. 2 in Boston, Mass. Am. aviation pioneer and USAF Maj. Gen. Leigh Wade (d. 1991) on Feb. 2 in Cassopolis, Mich. German chancellor (1963-6) and economist ("Father of the Economic Miracle") Ludwig William Erhard (d. 1977) on Feb. 4 in Furth. German political activist (Jewish) Anton von Padua Alfred emil Hubert Georg Graf von Arco auf Valley (d. 1945) on Feb. 5 in Sankt martin im Innkreis, Upper Austria. Am. gangster (Jewish) Louis "Lepke" (Yiddish "Little Louis") Buchalter (d. 1944) on Feb. 6 in Manhattan, N.Y.; E European Jewish immigrant parents. Am. composer Quincy Porter (d. 1966) on Feb. 7 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at Yale U. Am. microbiologist John Franklin Enders (d. 1985) on Feb. 10 in West Hartford, Conn.; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key), and Harvard U. Am. football player-coach (West Point) Earl Henry "Red" Blaik (d. 1989) on Feb. 15 in Detroit, Mich. Peruvian economist-diplomat-publisher Pedro Gerado Beltran (d. 1979) on Feb. 17 in Peru. Am. Jesuit priest Leonard Edward Feeney (d. 1978) on Feb. 18 in Lynn, Mass. Am. actress (Roman Catholic) Alma Rubens (Alma Genevieve Reubens) (d. 1931) (AKA Genevieve Driscoll) on Feb. 19 in San Francisco, Calif.; French descent father, Irish descent mother. Am. "The Picture of Dorian Gray" magic realist artist Ivan Le Lorraine Albright (d. 1983) on Feb. 20 in North Harvey, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. contralto (black) Marian Anderson (d. 1993) on Feb. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn. Palestinian Baiha'i leader (guardian) (1921-57) Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (d. 1957) on Mar. 1 in Akka; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. real estate magnate and philanthropist (Bankers Life founder) John Donald MacArthur (d. 1978) on Mar. 6 in Pittston, Penn.; brother of Charles Gordon MacArthur (1895-1956); brother-in-law of Helen Hayes (1900-93). Am. Structure of Intellect psychologist Joy Paul Guilford (d. 1987) on Mar. 7 in Marquete, Neb.; educated at the U. of Neb., and Cornell U.; student of Edward Titchener. Am. "The Aeolian Harp", "The Banshee" pianist-composer (bi) Henry Dixon Cowell (d. 1965) on Mar. 11 in Menlo Park, Calif.; coins the term "tone cluster"; imprisoned in 1936-40 in San Quentin State Prison on a morals charge. Chinse painter Pan Tianshou (d. 1971) on Mar. 14 in Ninghai, Zhejiang Province. Am. "London After Midnight" "unspoiled lover" 6' blonde-blue silent film actor Conrad Nagel (d. 1970) on Mar. 16 in Keokuk, Iowa. French Vichy Gen. Joseph Darnand (d. 1945) on Mar. 19 in Coligny. Am. oldest person in South Sacramento, Calif. (black) (Muslim convert) Mother Ruby Muhammad on Mar. 20 in Ga. Am. Stroop Effect psychologist John Ridley Stroop (d. 1973) on Mar. 21 in Rutherford County, Tenn.; educated at Lipscomb U. Austrian "The Mass Psychology of Fascism" Orgone scientist (Jewish) (Communist) Wilhelm Reich (d. 1957) on Mar. 24 in Dobrzanica (Dobzau), Galicia. Am. "The Ten Commandments" silent film vamp actress Nita Naldi (Anita Donna "Nonna" Dooley) (d. 1961) on Apr. 1 in New York City. French "Marius", "Grand Illusion" actor Pierre Fresnay (Pierre Jules Louis Laudenbach) (d. 1975) on Apr. 4 in Paris. Am. gossip columnist (Jewish) Walter Winchell (Weinschel) (d. 1972) on Apr. 7 in Harlem. N.Y; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?" novelist Horace McCoy (d. 1955) on Apr. 14 in Pegram (Nashville), Tenn.; likes to write standing up. Am. "Our Town" dramatist-novelist Thornton Niven Wilder (d. 1975) on Apr. 17 in Madison, Wisc.; father is a diplomat, causing him to be taken back and forth to China during his youth; educated at Oberlin College, and Yale U.; lives with his sister Isabel. Japanese world's oldest living person (first male to reach 116 years) (last surviving man born in the 19th cent.) Jiroemon Kimura (d. 2013) on Apr. 19 in Kamiukawa. Am. silent film actress Constance Talmadge (d. 1973) on Apr. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; sister of Norma Talmadge (1893-1957) and Constance Talmadge (1896-1969). Am. gen. ("Father of the Berlin Airlift") Lucius Dubignon Clay (d. 1978) on Apr. 23 in Marietta, Ga.; no relation to Henry Clay; youngest child of U.S. Sen. Alexander Stephens Clay (1853-1910); father of gen. Lucius D. Clay Jr. (1919-94) and gen. Frank Butner Clay (1921-2006). Canadian Liberal PM #14 (1963-8) Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (d. 1972) on Apr. 23 in Newton Brook, Toronto, Ont.; educated at St. John's College, Oxford U. Am. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf (d. 1941) on Apr. 24 in Winthrop, Mass.; educated at MIT. Am. Harper & Row chmn. Augustus Cass Canfield Jr. (d. 1986) on Apr. 26 in New York City; son of Augustus Cass Canfield Sr. (1854-1904) and Josephine Houghteling; great-grandson of Lewis Cass; educated at Groton School, Harvard U., and New College, Oxford U.; adopted father of Michael Temple Canfield (1926-69), son of Kiki Preston and Prince George, Duke of Kent? Am. literary critic-philosopher (agnostic) Kenneth Duva Burke (d. 1993) on May 5 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Columbia U. U.S. CIA dir. #3 (1947-50) Rear Adm. Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter (d. 1982) on May 8 in St. Louis, Mo. German "The Blue Angel", "Police Chief Brown in The Threepenny Opera" film actor-dir. (Jewish) Kurt Gerron (d. 1944) on May 11 in Berlin. German SS chief Richard Hermann Hildebrandt (d. 1952) on may 13 in Worms. Norwegian chemical physicist Odd Hassel (d. 1981) on May 17 in Kristiania (Oslo); educated at the U. of Oslo. Am. "It's a Wonderful Life", "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" film dir. Francesco Rosario "Frank" Capra (d. 1991) on May 18 in Bisacquino, Palermo, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1903. English physicist Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (d. 1967) on May 27 in Todmorden; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1948. Am. pianist-conductor-composer George (Gyorgy) Szell (d. 1970) on June 7 in Hungary. British Conservative PM (1955-7) Sir Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon (d. 1977) on June 12 in Bishop Auckland, Durham; educated at Eton College and Christ Church College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1954; created earl in 1961; known for wearing a Homburg hat. German chemist Georg Wittig (d. 1987) on June 16 in Berlin. German gen. (Hitler's personal pilot) Hans Baur (d. 1993) on June 19 in Ampfing, Bavaria. English physical chemist Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (d. 1967) on June 19 in London. Am. "Three Stooges" comedic actor (Jewish) Moe Howard (Moses Harry Horwitz) (d. 1975) on June 19 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Shemp Howard (1895-1955) and Curly Howard (1903-52). Am. UFO researcher USMC Maj. Donald Edward Keyhoe (d. 1988) on June 20 in Ottumwa, Iowa. Am. billionaire shipping magnate Daniel Keith Ludwig (d. 1992) on June 24 in South Haven, Mich. Am. silent film actress Viola Dana (Virginia Flugrath) (d. 1987) on June 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Italian-Am. "Great Guns" comedian-dir. Montague "Monty" Banks (Mario Bianchi) (d. 1950) on July 18 in Cesena; husband (1940-) of Gracie Fields (1898-1979). Swiss chemist (Jewish) Tadeus (Tadeusz) Reichstein (d. 1996) on July 20 in Wloclawek, Poland. Am. "Sky Pioneer" pilot Amelia Earhart (d. 1937) on July 24 in Atchison, Kan. French "Dame aux Camelias" singer-actress Yvonne Printemps (Wignolle) (d. 1977) on July 25 in Ermont. Am. "Redhead", "Annie Get Your Gun" screenwriter-librettist (Jewish) Herbert Fields (d. 1958) on July 26 in New York City; son of Polish Jewish immigrant father Lew Fields (Moses Schoenfeld) (1967-1941); brother of Joseph Fields (1895-1966) and Dorothy Fields (1905-74). Am. "The Poseidon Adventure", "The Snow Goose" journalist-novelist Paul William Gallico (d. 1976) on July 26 in New York City; educated at Columbia U. Am. poet Louise Bogan (d. 1970) on Aug. 11 in Livermore Falls, Maine. Am. children's writer Charlie May Hogue (d. 1977) on Aug. 17 near Monticello, Ark.; wife of John Gould Fletcher (1886-1950). British "My Boy Jack" lt. John "Jack" Kipling (d. 1915) on Aug. 17 in Rottingdean, Sussex; only son of Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) and Caroline Starr Balestier; educated at Wellington College. Norwegian "The Ice Palace" novelist Tarjei Vesaas (d. 1970) on Aug. 20 in Vinje, Telemark. Austrian "Catherine the Great" actress (Jewish) Elisabeth Bergner (nee Ettel) (d. 1986) on Aug. 22 in Drohobycz; wife (1933-) of Paul Czinner (1890-1972). Am. "Tip-Toe Through the Tulips" jazz singer-guitarist ("Grandfather of the Jazz Guitar") ("the Crooning Troubadour") Nick Lucas (Dominic Nicholas Anthony Lucanese) (d. 1982) on Aug. 22 in Newark, N.J. French "Algiers", "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" actor Charles Boyer (d. 1978) on Aug. 28 in Figeac. German Gen. ("the Butcher of Crete)" Friedrich-Wilhelm Mueller (Müller) (d. 1947) on Aug. 29 in Barmen, Prussia. Am. "Norman Maine in A Star is Born", "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", "Al Stephenson in The Best Years of Our Lives" actor Fredric March (Ernst Frederick McIntyre Bickel) (d. 1975) on Aug. 31 in Racine, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; husband (1927-75) of Florence Eldridge (1901-88). Am. "Meet Me in St. Louis", "Junior Miss" writer Sally Benson (d. 1972) (AKA Esther Evarts) on Sept. 3 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. William Morrow & Co. owner (1931-) Francis Thayer Hobson (d. 1967) on Sept. 4 in Denver, Colo.; educated at Yale U.; husband (1930-7) of Laura Z. Hobson (1900-86). English psychoanalyst Wilfred Ruprecht Bion (d. 1979) on Sept. 8 in Mathura, India; educated at Bishop's Stortford College, Queen's College, Oxford U., and Univ. College London. Am. country singer ("the Singing Brakeman") ("the Blue Yodeler") ("the Father of Country Music") James Charles "Jimmie" Rodgers (d. 1933) on Sept. 8 in Meridian, Miss. (Geiger, Ala.?). French physicist Irene (Irène) Joliot-Curie (d. 1956) on Sept. 12 in Paris; daughter of Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Marie Curie (1867-1934); wife (1926-) of Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie (1900-58). French theatrical actor-dir.-producer Michel Saint-Denis (d. 1971) (AKA Jacques Duchesne) on Sept. 13 in Beauvais; nephew of Jacques Copeau (1879-1949). Am. Repub. politician ("Mr. Cincinnati") Charles Phelps Taft II (d. 1983) on Sept. 20 in Cincinnati, Ohio; son of William Howard Taft and Helen Herron Taft; brother of Robert Alphonso Taft (1889-1953) and Helen Herron Taft Manning (1891-1987). Canadian "Mrs. Miniver", "Dr. Edward Morbius in Forbidden Planet", "Adm. Harriman Nelson in Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea" actor Walter Davis Pidgeon (d. 1984) on Sept. 23 in East St. John, New Brunswick. Am. 5'5-1/2" "As I Lay Dying", "Absalom, Absalom!" novelist-poet and postmaster William Cuthbert "Will" Faulkner (d. 1962) on Sept. 25 in New Albany, Miss. (40 mi. S of Memphis, Tenn.); educated at the U. of Miss.; great-grandson of William Clark Falkner (1825-89) [Col. John Sartoris]; grows up in Oxford, Miss [Yoknapatawpha County]. Italian pope (1963-78) Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini) (d. 1978) on Sept. 26 in Concesio (near Brescia). French Surrealist poet-novelist-journalist (Communist) Louis Aragon (Andrieux) (d. 1982) on Oct. 3 in Paris. Am. "Miles Archer in The Maltese Falcon", "DA Thomas Mara in Miracle on 34th Street", "Mr. Radcliffe in Blondie" actor Jerome Cowan (d. 1972) on Oct. 6 in New York City. Am. thoroughbred owner-breeder Fred W. Hooper (d. 2000) on Oct. 6 in Ga. Am. psychologist Christiana Drummond Morgan (nee Councilman) (d. 1967) on Oct. 6 in Boston, Mass.; wife of Henry Alexander Murray (1893-1988). Am. "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", "Blood and Sand", "Silk Stockings" film dir. Rouben Mamoulian (d. 1987) on Oct. 8 in Tiflis, Georgia; of Armenian descent; emigrates to England in 1922, and the U.S. in 1923. Am. poet-novelist Joseph Auslander (d. 1965) on Oct. 11 in Philadelphia, Penn.; husband of Audrey Wurdemann (1911-60); poet laureate of the U.S. #1 (1937-41). USAF Gen. Nathan Farragut Twining (d. 1982) on Oct. 11 in Monroe, Wisc. Soviet Maj. Gen. Ivan Alexeyevich Susloparov (d. 1974) on Oct. 19 in e of Krutikhintsy, Kumyonsky District, Kirov Oblast. Am. costume designer (Jewish-turned-Roman Catholic) Edith Head (Edith Claire Posener) (d. 1981) on Oct. 28 in San Bernardino, Calif. German Nazi propaganda minister (1933-45) and chancellor (1945) Paul Joseph (Josef) Goebbels (d. 1945) on Oct. 29 in Rheydt; educated at Heidelberg U. Scottish "The Corn King and the Spring Queen" feminist novelist-poet Naomi May Margaret Mitchison (d. 1999) on Nov. 1 in Edinburgh; daughter of John Scott Haldane (1860-1936); sister of J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964); educated at Dragon School, and St. Anne's School, Oxford; friend of J.R.R. Tolken, and one of the proofreaders of "The Lord of the Rings". Norwegian-Am. meteorologist Jacob Aall Bonnevie Bjerknes (d. 1975) on Nov. 2 in Stockholm; son of meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862-1951); creator of the Norwegian Cyclone Model. Am. "The Vagabond King" stage actor Dennis King (Pratt) (d. 1971) on Nov. 2 in Coventry; emigrates to the U.S. in 1921. Am. microbiologist Cornelius Bernardus (Kees) Van Niel (d. 1985) on Nov. 4 in Haarlem, Netherlands; educated at Delft U.; student of Jan Kluyver (1888-1956). Am. "Citizen Kane" screenwriter-producer (Jewish) Herman Jacob Mankiewicz (d. 1953) on Nov. 7 in New York City; educated at Columbia U.; German Jewish immigrant parents; brother of Joseph L. Mankiewicz (1909-93); father of Frank Mankiewicz (1924-). Am. Catholic Worker Movement co-founder Dorothy Day (d. 1980) on Nov. 8 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Ill. English chemist Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (d. 1978) on Nov. 9 in Cambridge. Am. human personality psychologist Gordon Willard Allport (d. 1967) on Nov. 11 in Montezuma, Ind.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "The Cobra" silent film actress Gertrude Olmstead (d. 1975) on Nov. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; wife (1926-68) of Robert Z. Leonard (1889-1968). British (Welsh) Socialist Labour leader Aneurin (Nye) Bevan (d. 1960) on Nov. 15 in Tredegar, Monmouthshire; Baptist father, Methodist mother. English physicist (inventor of Operations Research) Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (d. 1974) on Nov. 18 in London; educated at Cambridge U.; created baron in 1969. U.S. Army pilot Lt. Quentin Roosevelt (d. 1918) on Nov. 19 in Oyster Bay, N.Y.; youngest son of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919); brother of Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (1887-1944). Russian 4'9" anarchist (Jewish) Mollie (Molly) Steimer (Marthe Alperine) (d. 1980) on Nov. 21 in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. at age 15; deported in 1922; friend of Emma Goldman. Am. silent film vamp actress Mercedes Dagmar Godowsky (d. 1975) on Nov. 24 in Vilna, Lithuania; daughter of Leopold Godowsky (1870-1938); sister of Leo Godowsky Jr., who invents Kodachrome film in the 1930s. Sicilian Genovese crime family boss Charles "Lucky" Luciano (Salvatore Lucania) (d. 1962) on Nov. 24 in Lercara Friddi; emigrates to the U.S. in 1907; childhood smallpox scars his face. Am. Mafia boss "Don" Vito Genovese (d. 1969) on Nov. 27 in Rosiglino, Naples. Japanese "Confessions of Love" novelist-writer (female) Chiyo Uno (d. 1996) on Nov. 28 in Iwakuni. Australian "Capt. Hook in Peter Pan" actor-dir. (Roman Catholic) Cyril Ritchard (Trimnell-Ritchard) (d. 1977) on Dec. 1 in Surry Hills, Sydney, N.S.W. Soviet economist (Jewish) Evsei Grigorievich Liberman (d. 1981) in Slavuta, Ukraine. Am. Vanity Fair painter-cartoonist William Victor Gropper (d. 1977) on Dec. 3 in New York City. Irish novelist-playwright Kate O'Brien (d. 1974) on Dec. 3 in Limerick; educated at Univ. College, Dublin. Am. "The Grapes of Wrath", "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit" dir.-screenwriter Nunnally Hunter Johnson (d. 1977) on Dec. 5 in Columbus, Ga.; starts out as a journalist writing short stories on the side and trying to sell them to Hollywood. Am. "Washington Merry-Go-Round" journalist-columnist Andrew Russell "Drew" Pearson (d. 1969) on Dec. 13 in Evanston, Ill.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy. Austrian chancellor (1934-8) Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg (Alois Josef Johann Edler von Schuschnigg) (d. 1977) on Dec. 14 in Trento (Riva del Garda). U.S. Repub. Rep. (1940-8) and Sen. (1949-73) Margaret Chase Smith (d. 1995) on Dec. 14 in Skowhegan, Maine; first woman to serve in both houses of Congress. French tenor #1 Georges Thill (d. 1984) on Dec. 14; pupil of Fernando De Lucia. German Gen. Theodor Busse (d. 1986) on Dec. 15 in Frankfurt an der Oder. Am. jazz pianist-bandleader (black) Fletcher Hamilton Henderson Jr. (d. 1952) on Dec. 18 in Cuthbert, Ga.; member of Alpha Phi Alpha. Soviet field marshal (1944-) Ivan Stepanovich Konev (d. 1973) on Dec. 28 (Dec. 16 Old Style) near Podosinovets (Kirov Oblast); Stalin's favorite gen., known for his "wicked little eyes, shaven head that looked like a pumpkin, and an expression full of self-conceit". U.S. Pvt. (black) Henry Lincoln Johnson in Alexandria, Va. Am. writer Rudolph Fisher (d. 1934) on ? in ?. English scientist Frederick Soddy (d. 1956) on ? in ?. Austrian composer Erich Wolfgang Korngold (d. 1957) on ? in ?. Am. architect Louis Skidmore (d. 1962) on ? in Lawrenceburg, Ind. - skid row and more? Am. Marxist writer (Jewish) Joseph Freeman (d. 1965) on ? in Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. at age 7. English leftist journalist (ed. of The New Statesman, 1930-60) Basil Kingsley Martin (d. 1969) on ? in London; educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge U. Greek ecumenical patriarch #267 of Constantinople (1946-8) Maximos (Maximus) V (d. 1972) on ? in Sinope. Am. historian Constance McLaughlin Green (d. 1975) on ? in ?. Am. Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) founder (black) Elijah Mohammad (Poole) (d. 1975) on ? in Sandersville, Ga. Spanish Catalan physician (plaster cast therapy pioneer) Josep Trueta i Raspall (d. 1977) on ? in Barcelona. Am. Ford Motor Co. chmn. Ernest R. Breech (d. 1978). English lit. critic George Richard Wilson Knight (d. 1985) on ? in ?; educated at Dulwich College. Deaths: Am. Civil War Union Brig. Gen. and prohibitionist politician Neal S. Dow (b. 1804) on Oct. 2 in Portland, Maine. Am. writer and ex-slave Harriet Ann Jacobs (b. 1813). English shorthand inventor Sir Isaac Pitman (b. 1813) on Jan. 12: "Well-arranged time is the surest mark of a well-arranged mind"; "I have no intention of becoming a shorthand author." Am. writer Rev. Henry Theodore Cheever (b. 1814) on Feb. 13 in Worcester, Mass. Am. Colo. gov. #2 (1862-5) John Evans (b. 1814) on July 2 in Denver, Colo.; namesake of Mount Evans. English educator Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff (b. 1814) on Mar. 20 in London. English mathematician James Joseph Sylvester (b. 1814) on Mar. 15 in Oxford. German mathematician Karl Weierstrass (b. 1815) on Feb. 19. English psychiatrist Sir John Charles Bucknill (b. 1817) in Bournemouth. Swiss art historian Jakob Burckhardt (b. 1818) on Aug. 8 in Basel: "History is the record of what one age finds worthy of note in another"; "History is still in large measure poetry to me." Am. New York Sun ed. Charles Anderson Dana (b. 1819) on Oct. 17. British-Am. Drew-Barrymore acting dynasty founder Louisa Lane Drew (b. 1820) on Aug. 31 in Larchmont, N.Y. Am. "poet of the Confederacy" Margaret Junkin Preston (b. 1820) on Mar. 28 in Lexington, Va. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Lafayette McLaws (b. 1821) on July 24 in Savannah, Ga.; leaves A Soldier's General: The Civil War Letters of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws (pub. 2002). French funambulist Charles Blondon (b. 1824) on Feb. 19 in Ealing, London (diabetes). English poet-anthologist Francis Turner Palgrave (b. 1824). Hungarian poet Janos Vajda (b. 1827). Scottish novelist Margaret Oliphant (b. 1828) on June 25; pub. 120+ works. Manx poet Thomas Edward Brown (b. 1830). English MP gen. Sir Henry Marshman Havelock-Allan (b. 1830) on Dec. 30 in Afghanistan; killed by Afridi clansmen in the Khyber Pass. Russian painter Aleksei Savrasov (b. 1830). Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Joseph Orville Shelby (b. 1830) on Feb. 13 in Adrian, Mo. Am. inventor George Mortimer Pullman (b. 1831) on Oct. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; entombed in a room-sized block of concrete to prevent angry railroad workers from getting to him. French dramatist-librettist Henri Meilhac (b. 1831) on July 6 in Paris. German postmaster Heinrich von Stephan (b. 1831) on Apr. 8 in Berlin. Am. historian-librarian Justin Winsor (b. 1831) on Oct. 22 in Cambridge, Mass. Am. astronomer Alvan Graham Clark (b. 1832) on June 9. German botanist Julius von Sachs (b. 1832) on May 29 in Wurzburg. German composer Johannes Brahms (b. 1833) on Apr. 3. Am. landscape painter Homer Dodge Martin (b. 1836) on Feb. 2 in St. Paul, Minn. Iranian Shiite #1 Pan-Islamic activist Jamal al-Din al-Afghan (b. 1839) in Constantinople. Am. political economist Henry George (b. 1839) on Oct. 29: "We must make land common property." French novelist Alphonse Daudet (b. 1840) on Dec. 16 in Paris. Spanish nun St. Teresa of Jesus Jornet Ibars (b. 1843) on Aug. 26; beatified in 1958; canonized in 1973 by Pope Paul VI. French automobile pioneer Emile Levassor (b. 1843) on Apr. 14 in Paris; dies of injuries sustained in an auto crash in 1896 in the Paris-Marseille-Paris Rally after swerving to avoid a dog. Italian engineer Galileo Ferraris (b. 1847) on Feb. 7. Scottish theologian-biologist Henry Drummond (b. 1851) on Mar. 11. English explorer James Theodore Bent (b. 1852) on May 5 in London (malaria). Croatian aviation pioneer David Schwarz (b. 1852) on Jan. 13 in Vienna (heart attack). Irish novelist Margaret Wolfe Hungerford (b. 1855) on Jan. 24 (typhoid fever): "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder." French Carmelite nun St. Theresa of Liseux (b. 1873).



1898 - The A Lot's Happened Since Dewey Took Manila Year? The Mother-Child Reunion Is Only an Ocean Way Year? The Year of Benevolent Assimilation?

Battle of El Caney, July 1, 1898 U.S. Adm. George Dewey (1837-1917) Teddy (Theodore) Roosevelt of the U.S. (1858-1919) John Milton Hay of the U.S. (1838-1905) U.S. Commodore Winfield Scott Schley (1839-1911) U.S. Lt. Gen. Arthur MacArthur Jr. (1845-1912) U.S. Adm. William Thomas Sampson (1840-1902) Spanish Adm. Pascual Cervera (1839-1909) Dr. Leonard Wood of the U.S. (1860-1927) Rough Riders, 1898 Richard Harding Davis (1864-1916) Richmond Pearson Hobson of the U.S. (1870-1937) Theophilé Delcassé of France (1852-1923) Jean-Baptiste Marchand of France (1863-1934) Manuel Jose Estrada Cabrera of Guatemala (1857-1923) Eleutherios Venizelos of Greece (1864-1936) Apolinario Mabini of Philippines (1864-1903) Marquis Okuma Shigenobu of Japan (1838-1922) Japanese Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922) German Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930) Joseph McKenna of the U.S. (1843-1926) U.S. Ensign Worth Bagley (1874-98) German Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930) Caleb Davis Bradham (1867-1934) Kiyoshi Shiga (1871-1957) Kang Youwei of China (1858-1927) Heinrich Dreser (1860-1924) Charles Maurras (1868-1952) Bai Bureh of Sierra Leone (1840-1908) Wong Kim Ark (1873-) Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931) Carsten Borchgrevink (1864-1934) Lorenzo Snow (1814-1901) Elizabeth Towne (1865-1960) Thomas Crapper (1836-1910) Solomon Schechter (1847-1915) Sigbert Ganser (1853-1931) Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Tan Sitong of China (1865-98) Martinus Beijerinck (1851-1931) Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931) Wilhelm Brenneke (1865-1951) Laurence Housman (1865-1959) Dmitri Ivanovski (1864-1920) Henry James (1843-1916) John Luther Long (1861-1927) Charles Major (1856-1913) Eden Phillpotts (1862-1960) Bram Stoker (1847-1912) Oswald Garrison Villard (1872-1949) George Sewall Boutwell (1818-1905) Titta Ruffo (1877-1953) Francois Thureau-Dangin (1872-1944) Georges de Porto-Riche (1849-1930) Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (1853-1937) Morgan Robertson (1861-1915) Myhaylo Tuhan-Baranovsky (1865-1919) Josef Holecek (1853-1929) Peter Verigin (1859-1924) Secondo Pia (1855-1941) Richard James Horatio Gottheil (1862-1936) Marie Curie (1867-1934) Pierre Curie (1859-1906) John Philip Holland (1840-1914) USS Holland, 1898 Marc Birkigt (1878-1953) Hispano Suiza 45 Cr, 1911 Hispano-Suiza H6, 1919-33 Hispano-Suiza Logo Louis Renault (1877-1944) Renault Voiturette, 1898-1903 Conrad Hubert (1856-1828) Eveready Flashlight, 1898 'Bathers' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1898- 'The Plague' by Arnold Böcklin, 1898 Bayard Bldg., 1898

1898 On Jan. 1 the consolidation and incorporation of Greater New York City, at the mouth of the Hudson (North) River occurs with the merger of Brooklyn and Manhattan; the city's five boroughs Manhattan (New York County), the Bronx (Bronx County), Brooklyn (Kings County), Queens (Queens County) and Richmond (Richmond County, Staten Island) have 3.4M residents total. On Jan. 1 the British begin imposing a hut tax in Sierra, Leone, causing the Hut Tax War as the Temnes led by chief Bai Bureh (1840-1908) revolt against British colonialists, causing the Mende to join also; after pioneering modern guerrilla tactics and scoring some Vs against the Brits, Bai Bureh is captured in Port Loko on Nov. 11, uttering the soundbyte "De war done done", and the British exile him to Gold Coast (Ghana) along with Mende chief Nyagua and Sherbro chief Kpana Lewis; Bai Bureh returns in 1905. On Jan. 12 Prince Ito Hirobumi becomes PM #7 of Japan; on June 30 marquis Okuma Shigenobu (1838-1922) (who learned English from a Dutch missionary and came to admire the New Testament and Declaration of Independence) becomes PM #8 as head of his new Constitutional Govt. Party, forming the first partisan cabinet in Japan, which only lasts 4 mo.; on Nov. 8 screw-civilians field marshal Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922) (expert on Prussian military science, who modernized the army) becomes Japanese PM #3 (until Oct. 19, 1900), setting up rules giving the military control over the cabinet. On Jan. 13 after new evidence clearing Alfred Dreyfus is uncovered in 1896, and the real culprit Maj. Charles Marie Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (1847-1923) is exposed, causing the French army to start a gigantic coverup and acquit Esterhazy in a closed-door court martial on Jan. 10-11 which ignites anti-Semitic riots in Paris, a hero arose to fight for his free-ee-ee-dom, and Emile Zola (1840-1902) pub. J'Accuse!, an open letter to the pres. of France on the front page of the Paris daily L'Aurore, blowing the whistle on "one of the greatest iniquities of the century" and accusing the court of "condemning an accused person on the strength of a secret document" and "in obedience to orders... knowingly acquitted a guilty man", and uttering the immortal soundbyte "La verite est en marche et rien ne l'arretera" (The truth is on the march and nothing can stop it, bozos); too bad, it only pisses the anti-Semitic Frogs off, and they get him convicted on Feb. 23, 1899 of libel, after which he flees to England until the govt. falls, returning triumphantly with that "you merde-eaters in France screw you" attitude?; Esterhazy is shuttled off quietly to Britain and given a pension, where he spends the rest of his life pub. anti-Semitic lit.; meanwhile the left is revitalized by the Dreyfus affair, causing the reactionary anti-Semitic Action Francaise to be formed by French poet Charles Maurras (1868-1952) et al. On Jan. 20 after Manchu emperor (since 1875) Guang Xu (Kwang-su) tries the Hundred Days of Reforms to Westernize China, four liberals are appointed to the grand council, incl. Tan Sitong (1865-98) and Kang Youwei (1858-1927); too bad, the emperor ends up confined to his palace for 10 years by his manly woman aunt empress dowager Cixi so she can run everything, and the "Six Gentlemen of the Hundred Days' Reform" end up executed, incl. Sitong, while Youwei flees to India. On Jan. 26 Philly-born Joseph McKenna (1843-1926), son of Irish immigrants is appointed as the 56th U.S. Supreme Court justice (until Jan. 5, 1925) to replace the vacancy left by the last Civil-War appointee Stephen J. Field (1863-97); no more changes until 1902. On Feb. 8 pres. (since 1892) Jose Maria Reina (Reyna) Barrios (b. 1854) is assassinated by Oscar Zellinger (a German), and Manuel Jose Estrada Cabrera (1857-1923) becomes dictator-pres. of Guatemala (until Apr. 15, 1920), going on to become a sock puppet of the U.S.-owned United Fruit Co. and German financiers and institute a secret banana republic police which foments opposition centered around the Church hierarchy; meanwhile he builds a Temple of Minerva in Guatemala City in 1905 (demolished 1971) in an attempt to foist the Cult of Minerva on the banana picking pop. (demolished in the early 1950s); other temples are built in Quetzaltenango and other cities. The U.S. flexes its imperialist muscle on the Spanish Main, but benevolently? On Feb. 15 the U.S. battleship USS Maine mysteriously blows up in Havana Harbor, killing 260+ officers and crew; the mast is later placed in Arlington Cemetery; after William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World vie to sensationalize the event and inflame public opinion, and Pres. Fuzzy Roosevelt opines about saving the poor Cuban people from Spanish oppression, war becomes inevitable, and McKinley is powerless to stop it; Hearst telegraphs artist Frederic Remington in Havana in Mar.: "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war"; the slogan "Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain" becomes popular; on Apr. 25 the Spanish-Am. War ("the Journalist's War") begins (ends Aug. 12), turning the U.S. into an imperialist power; too bad, it is later determined that the Maine blew up because of an onboard accident. On Mar. 19-May 24 the battleship USS Oregon races to join the naval squadron of Commodore Winfield Scott Schley (1839-1911) (flagship Brooklyn) at Key West; it arrives after a 68-day 13K-mi. voyage just in time to help destroy the Spanish fleet outside Santiago on July 3, where U.S. Navy officer Richmond Pearson Hobson (1870-1937) becomes a hero for trying to trap the Spanish fleet by sinking a collier, then is mobbed and kissed by herds of hysterical women in the U.S., and goes on to become a U.S. rep. from Ala. in 1907-15 and introduce the first proposed prohibition amendment to the You Ass Consti Tush; the voyage is later used to drum up support for a new isthmian (Panama) canal. On Mar. 28 the First German Naval Law is passed by the Reichstag, drafted by marine minister Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930), laying the basis for Germany's naval expansion based on the Tirpitz Plan, which figures that the Brits would seek to avoid a military confrontation with a rising German naval power in order to keep their ability to run their world empire, and prefer an arms race instead. The original Wong Raiders of the Lost Ark, or the original Wong Way Corrigan? On Mar. 28 the U.S. Supreme Court votes 6-2 in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark that Wong Kim Ark (1873-), a child born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrants is a U.S. citizen - the limes are permanently down now and all the white citizens can do is wall the towns? In Mar. the secret society of Boxers (Righteous Harmony Band), an anti-foreign, anti-Western org. of Kung-Fu (Chin. "skill") experts recruited from provinical militias is formed in China as a response to German occupation of the Qindao region and British seizure of Weihai, and next year it begins a terror campaign against all foreign devils, er, nationals and Chinese Christians, esp. in N China, backed by dowager empress Cixi - do you do you want my fist? On Apr. 8 British troops under field marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (1850-1916) win the Battle of Atbara River against the Egyptian dervishes, then on Sept. 2 massacre Muslim tribesmen led by the Mahdi's successor Abdallahi ibn Muhammad (1846-99) at the Battle of Omdurman in the Sudan using Maxim guns; meanwhile the Marchand Mission of 150 French troops under military emissary Jean-Baptiste Marchand (1863-1934) race toward the Nile River from Libreville (Gabon) with the cooperation of the govt. of the Congo, reaching it after 14 mo. of hard trekking in C Africa at Fashoda (Kodok) in S Sudan on July 10, and hoisting the French flag. On Apr. 10 despite Prussia never having had a major navy, after naval secy. of state (1897-1916) Adm. Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz (1849-1930) takes Mahan's advice and pushes for a Riskflotte (Risk Fleet) that the British Royal Navy can't defeat without unacceptable losses, the German Reichstag passes the First Fleet Act, declaring a full-blown naval arms race with Britain; 2nd act in 1900. On Apr. 18 French Symbolist painter Gustave Moreau (b. 1826), teacher of Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault dies, and Georges Rouault becomes dir. of the Gustave Moreau Museum in Paris, cranking out Expressionist paintings filled with areas of glowing color heavily outlined in black that look like medieval stained-glass windows - well you can call me lazy but I feel right at home? On Apr. 24 after Pres. McKinley flip-flops from trying to head off war with Spain to supporting it (causing House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed to split ranks with him, then resign from Congress in 1900), Spain declares war on the U.S. after rejecting an ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba, causing the U.S. to send 40K troops to Yellow Fever Land, starting the Spanish-Am. War (ends Dec.). On Apr. 25 the Rosen-Nishi Agreement between Russia and Japan pledges non-intervention by both countries in the internal affairs of Korea, although Japan is allowed a free hand in economic matters. On Apr. 25 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court unanimously decides in Williams v. Mississippi that Southern blacks can be tried by all-white juries even when all blacks are kept from serving on juries by state literacy tests, poll taxes and other subterfuges; an ostensibly fair law like literacy tests and poll taxes to prove people literate and solvent, they rule, can only be voided if its application has been proven to be discriminatory - legal viagra for white Jim Crow supremacists? In Apr. Germany and Austria withdraw their ships from the blockade of Crete after Turkey agrees to withdraw all its forces; Britain, France, Russia and Italy divide Crete into four depts., guarded by occupation forces; the last Turks leave Crete on Nov. 28, along with large numbers of Muslims; Prince George, second son of George I of Greece is appointed Cretan high commissioner for the Euro occupation forces; for the next decade Crete is all about forcing the Euros to permit union with Greece, led by pro-Greek political leader Eleutherios Venizelos (1864-1936). On May 1 after Navy asst. secy. Theodore Roosevelt orders him and his Pacific Fleet to take up position in the Philippines without direct authorization of his superiors, U.S. Commodore George Dewey (1837-1917) steams safely past the supposed fortress of 1 mi. x 4 mi. Corregidor Island in Manila Bay (which separates the channel into two, Boca Chica and Boca Grande), then gives the command "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley", destroying the Spanish fleet in the (mock?) Battle of Manila Bay, causing the Spanish to surrender, making Dewey a hero and keeping the Philippines from total rebel control. On May 11 the torpedo boat USS Winslow attacks Cardenas Harbor, and is disabled by Spanish gunboats, resulting in the death of black cabin cook Elijah B. Tunnell, who becomes the first U.S. casualty of the Spanish-Am. War, and ensign Worth Bagley (b. 1874), who becomes the first and only U.S. naval officer to die in the war, plus three others. On May 19 Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo returns from exile to Manila; after the Battle of Alapan on May 28-June 12 Aguinaldo declares the Philippines independent from Spain; on July 1 Spanish forces surrender to the Filipino rebels; Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (1864-1903) drafts a nationalist platform guaranteeing the property rights of the ilustrados (intellectuals), weakening Aguinaldo's position with the rank and file. On June 1 the U.S. fleet under Adm. William Thomas Sampson (1840-1902) begins blockading Santiago harbor in Cuba; on July 3 the Spanish fleet under Adm. Pascual Cervera y Topete (1839-1909) attempts to break out, and is destroyed in a 5-hour battle. On June 14 France and Britain sign a convention delimiting their spheres of influence on the Niger River, followed by a joint declaration on Mar. 21, 1899. On June 15 the Am. Anti-Imperialist League is formed in New England (until 1921) by Mark Twain (1835-1910), Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914), John Dewey (1859-1952), Charles Francis Adams Jr., Samuel Gompers, William James (1842-1910), liberal journalist Oswald Garrison Villard (1872-1949) (son of New York Evening Post owner Henry Villard and grandson of William Lloyd Garrison) et al. to fight against U.S. annexation of the "insular areas" (the Philippines), with former U.S. treasury secy. (1869-73) George Sewall Boutwell (1818-1905) as its first pres. (until 1905); too bad, the founders are mainly for the gold standard and free trade, and in 1900 the league backs anti-imperialist but anti-gold-standard William Jennings Bryan for pres., causing Villard to split and form the short-lived Nat. Party; after endorsing U.S. entry into WWI, it disbands in 1921. On June 20 cruiser USS Charleston captures the island of Guam from the Spanish. In June foreign affairs expert Theophile Delcasse (Theophilé Delcassé) (1852-1923) becomes French foreign minister (until June 1905), going on to shape Euro politics with a French alliance with Britain and Russia against Germany, Austria and Italy. In the summer the Dukhobors religious sect (kicked out of the Orthodox Church in 1785) with help from English Quakers and Russian writer Leo Tolstoy is permitted to emigrate to British territory, and the first group of 1,126 members sails for Cyprus, followed by two other parties totalling 4K to Canada next Jan., and finally all 7.5K members end up in Canada in Saskatchewan and Assiniboia, joined in 1902 by their leader Peter "Lordly" Verigin (1859-1924) after release from exile in Siberia. On July 1 the U.S. Nelson Bankruptcy Act of 1898 is passed, becoming the first U.S. law protecting cos. from creditors; it is amended by the 1938 Chandler Act, and replaced by the 1978 Bankruptcy Act. Caney or can't they? Only their what knows for sure? On July 1 the Battle of El Caney in Cuba sees 500 Spanish solders under Gen. Joaquin Vara del Rey hold 8K U.S. soldiers for 12 hours, preventing them from taking San Juan Hill while killing 80 and wounding 350 Yankees and taking only 150 casualties of their own, proving that the Spanish coulda been a contender if they had better generals?; the heroics of Calixto Garcia Iniguez cause him to be named Cuban rep. to the U.S. commission on Cuba at the end of the war, although he is denied entrance to Santiago de Cuba after the Spanish surrender. On July 1-2 the Battle of San Juan Hill during the naval Battle of Santiago helps capture the port of Santiago, and gives Col. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) and his Rough Riders (1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry) (after he resigns as asst. secy. of the Navy this year to organize it) a claim to fame, even though they really go up Kettle Hill because San Juan Hill is too well defended, and fight dismounted in Cuba due to logistical problems; Teddy's fame is mainly the work of Am. war correspondent Richard Harding Davis (1864-1916); since many cowboys from N.D. are in the unit, N.D. becomes known as the Roughrider State; Teddy's superior officer and Rough Riders organizer is brig. Leonard Wood (1860-1927), personal physician to presidents Cleveland and McKinley, after whom a military base in Mo. is later named; after being mustered out in the summer, Roosevelt is elected gov. of New York in Nov. by a plurality of 18,079 votes. On July 1 the Siege of Baler (last action of the Spanish-Am. War) begins (ends June 2, 1899), after a small Spanish garrison of 50 soldiers begins holding out against 800 Philippine insurgents in a church despite lack of provisions, becoming known as "the last Spanish troops in the Philippines". This magic moment, so different and so new, was like any other, until what happened? On July 7 the U.S. Senate by a 42-21 vote accepts the annexation of Hawaii (209-91 in the House); on Aug. 12 Pres. McKinley proclaims the legal theft, er, annexation, and a formal ceremony is held in Honolulu, which is boycotted by Hawaiians; the cool Hawaiian flag (with 8 stripes for the 8 islands, plus a field) is taken down, cut up and distributed as souvenirs, pissing the Hawaiians off more? On July 25 the U.S. army invades Puerto Rico; for the next two years Puerto Rico is governed by a U.S. military occupation. On Aug. 12 Manila falls to U.S. forces, ending the Spanish-Am. War (begun Apr. 25); U.S. Brig. Gen. Arthur MacArthur Jr. (1845-1912) (father of Gen. Douglas MacArthur) is appointed military gov. of the Philippines until next year, when William Howard Taft is appointed civilian gov. and he gets in a pissing match with him and is removed - old soldiers never die? On Aug. 24 Russian Tsar Nicholas II invites 26 nations to a peace conference at The Hague for next year, and they agree to attend, although with mutual mistrust and dislike. On Sept. 2 Wilford Woodruff (b. 1807) dies, and on Sept. 13 Lorenzo Snow (1814-1901) becomes Mormon pres. #5 (until 1901). On Sept. 8 Queen Wilhelmina is crowned queen of the Netherlands (until 1948) - I'd like to have it like this for the rest of my life? On Sept. 18 a flotilla of gunboats on the Nile led by Horatio Kitchener reaches French-held Fashoda, beginning the Fashoda Incident (Crisis), nearly bringing Britain and France to war, but after a visit by Russian envoy Muraviev to Paris in Oct. results in no support, and foreign minister Theophile Delcasse calms the chamber of deputies, France backs down, withdraws from Fashoda on Nov. 3 and relinquishes its claims to the upper Nile region on Mar. 21, 1899 in return for junk land in the Sahara; Delcasse's policy of friendship with Britain hits a snag, but he keeps it going? On Sept. 30 John Milton Hay (1838-1905), former private secy. of Abraham Lincoln, and U.S. ambassador to Britain since 1897 becomes U.S. secy. of state (until July 1, 1905). In Oct. Kaiser Wilhelm II visits Palestine and Syria, incl. Damascus, Constantinople, strengthening Ottoman-German ties and launching the Pan-Arab movement, resulting in Germany becoming their #1 weapons supplier, investing heavily in the Baghdad Railway (1899) and other capital projects; on Oct. 28 after the Kaiser rides under festive arches erected by dignitaries of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, Austrian-Hungarian Zionist founder Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) briefly meets with him outside the walls of Jerusalem as he rides by on a white stallion with a gold helmet, and after Herzl waits with his safari hat in hand for an official recognition of his plan for resettling Jews in Israel, the Kaiser utters the soundbyte "The land needs water, very much wasser." On Nov. 21 France and Italy sign a commercial treaty ending their long hard tariff war, and marking Italy's gradual departure from the Triple Alliance, caused by failure of their colonial policy as well as domestic instability. In Nov. the Korean Independence Club is dissolved, but popular opinion calls the king to reinstate it, then he flip-flops on Dec. 26 and arrests its leaders, causing riots. Yet another Treaty of Paris (last 1856)? On Dec. 10 the Treaty of Paris is signed by the U.S. and Spain, ending Spain's 400-year domination of Cuba, which is granted its independence; U.S. troops run the Cuban govt. for the next four years; Philippine independence claims are ignored, and the U.S. purchases the Philippines from Spain for $20M (making the Pacific Ocean an American lake?); Puerto Rico and Guam are placed under U.S. control (the U.S. ends up owning a third of Guam); on Dec. 21 Pres. McKinley issues a proclamation stating that the U.S. policy on the Philippines is one of benevolent assimilation. On Dec. 29 Zeta Beta Tau ("Zebes") Jewish fraternity is founded by Richard James Horatio Gottheil (1862-1936) at Columbia U. as a Zionist youth society, with the initials ZBT interpreted from the Book of Isaiah to mean "All Men Are Brothers"; by 2000 it has 130K brothers and 80 student chapters; famous brothers incl. Jack Benny, Leonard Bernstein, Peter Yarrow, Burton Baskin, Samuel Goldwyn, Jack Warner, Armand Hammer, George Macy, Bernard Gimbel, William S. Paley, Newton Minow, Robert Shapiro, Mike Wallace, and Jerry Bruckheimer. Julio Argentino Roca is reelected pres. of Argentina (until 1904). Paul Kruger is reelected pres. of Transvaal (South African Repub.), and anti-immigrant feelings by Afrikaners harden, while Uitlander agitation increases, and Sir Alfred Milner tries to help them. Gifford Pinchot becomes chief of the Div. of Forestry of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (until 1910). After the tin mines of Oruro supplant the silver mines of Potosi, La Paz (founded in 1548) replaces Sucre as the capital of Bolivia, becoming the highest nat. capital. British support of the U.S. in its war with Spain, despite gen. European opposition, initiates the Era of Good Feelings between Britain and the U.S., where commonalities in culture are emphasized and past peccadillos overlooked. Carsten Borchgrevink (1864-1934) of Norway leads an Antarctic expedition (ends 1900), which becomes the first party to winter on the Antarctic continent and sets a record for S latitude. Mary Baker Eddy founds the Christian Science Pub. Society in Boston, Mass. as the pub. arm of the First Church of Christ, Scientist; in 1908 it begins pub. the Christian Science Monitor. Romanian-born Jewish scholar Solomon Schechter (1847-1915), prof. of Hebrew at the U. of London travels to the Near East and Egypt, where he collects 50K ancient mss. and fragments, incl. several lost chapters of the apocryphal Old Testament book of Ecclesiasticus, all of which he donates to Cambridge U. The village of Harbin, China is linked by a railroad, and begins to blossom, becoming the 10th largest city in China (modern pop. 2.5M). New Zealand adopts old age pensions. The Swiss federal govt. receives the power to purchase privately owned railroads and unify and enforce civil and penal codes. The U.S. Congress raises taxes on cigarettes 200% to pay for the war with Spain, and passes the first federal excise tax on telephones. The Russian Social Dem. Labor Party is founded on Marxist principles, later spawning the Bolsheviks. Austrian Emperor Francis Josef I's wife Elizabeth is assassinated by an Italian anarchist in Geneva. The U.S. Geological Survey finds that 20,32-ft. Mt. McKinley in Alaska is taller than 19,850-ft. Mt. Logan in the Yukon, once considered the tallest peak in North Am. The city of Tulsa, Okla. (Creek "old town") (founded in 1836 by Creek and Lochapoka Indians), on the Arkansas River is incorporated on Jan. 18, later becoming known as "the Oil Capital of the World". The ancient Jewish town of Kfar Saba (Heb. "grandfather's village") in C Israel is reestablished by Jews who purchase 7.5K dunams of land from an Arab village; after the Ottomans make life difficult there, combined with the remote location, there are only 14 Jews living there in 1922, but it grows to 4,320 in 1945 and 81.6K in 2007. Anaconda Mine owner Marcus Daly negotiates a pact with the Standard Oil Co. to form the Amalgamated Copper Co., becoming one of the largest trusts to date in history. Russia obtains a lease of Port Arthur. Britain's new 99-year lease of Hong Kong goes into effect, with the addition of the New Territories (18 sq. mi.) on the Kowloon Peninsula on the mainland of China - welcome to the casino, I'm Mister Money? The Ecole Francais d'Extreme-Orient is established in Saigon, Vietnam by the French for the study of East Asian culture; moved to Hanoi in 1900. DePaul U. in Chicago, Ill. is founded by the Roman Catholic Vicentians, going on to become the largest Roman Catholic U. in the U.S. Annie Besant founds Central Hindu College in Benares, India. Wilhelm Gericke becomes conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra again (until 1906). After the govt.-run Assoc. of Berlin Artists rejects a landscape by Walter Leistikow (1865-1908), wealthy German Jewish artist Max Liebermann (1847-1935) launches the Berliner Succession (Berliner Sezession) avant-garde art gallery for 65 artists as an alternative (ends 1911). Elizabeth Towne (1865-1960) of Holyoke, Mass. begin pub. The Nautilus: A Journal of New Thought (until Aug. 1953), popularizing New Thought. The Nat. Live Stock Assoc. holds its first meeting in Denver, Colo., featuring a lecture on "The American Hog: Now Bred for Meat Rather than Grease"; their BBQ is crashed by "hobos and hoodlums", who "gorged themselves on beer... men on their bellies were draining the dregs from the beer barrels" while waiters chuck chunks of meat and bread at them; next year the bums don't show up, but the delegates "worshiped Bacchus" with booze and dancing girls. By this year there are at least 50 automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Paris Metro is begun. The Glasgow School of Art in Scotland is founded; the bldg. is designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) (finished 1909). Dublin-born Victor Herbert (1859-1924) becomes conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra in Penn. (until 1904). English actor Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (1853-1937) becomes a star with his perf. of Shakespeare's "Hamlet", going on to be touted as the greatest in the role in the 19th cent. Italian baritone Titta Ruffo (1877-1953) makes his debut in Rome, becoming known as "the voice of the lion", and rising to #2 in opera after Giuseppe de Luca - a little too bit ruffo to be #1? Arturo Toscanini appears at La Scala in Milan. The William Morris Agency is founded in New York City by a Jewish German immigrant, becoming the #1 lit. and talent agency in the world, with a trademark consisting of a W superimposed on an M to make four X's. Wallaces' Farmer farm mag., owned by "Uncle Henry" Wallace of Iowa (grandfather of U.S. agriculture and commerce secy. Henry Wallace) begins pub. in Jan. (until ?), with a cover photo of a giant hog named Tecumseh. The rebuilding of Khartoum begins. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange in Ill. is founded; called the Chicago Butter and Egg Board until 1919. Hiltl Restaurant is opened in Zurich, Switzerland for "grass eaters" (Grassfressen) (vegetarians). Nabisco (Nat. Biscuit Co.) is founded from the merger of several U.S. cracker cos. Orrefors Swedish glassworks opens. Hispano Suiza (Spanish-Swiss) (original name La Cuadra) is founded in Barcelona, Spain by artillery capt. Emilio de la Cuadra and Swiss engineer Marc Birkigt (1878-1953) to build gasoline engines, with a stork logo; in 1902 they sell it to J. Castro, who goes bankrupt in Dec. 1903, and on June 14, 1904 it is restructured, opening the assembly factory Hispano France in 1911 in the Paris suburb of Levallois-Perret; in 1911 they design the first 4-cylinder 16-valve engine, and the first real sports car, the Hispano Suiza 45 Cr; in 1919-33 they produce the luxurious "car of the century" H6, with an inline 6-cylinder overhead camshaft engine based on their WWI V8 aluminum aircraft engine; in 1923 the French subsidiary becomes semi-autonomous. Louis Renault (1877-1944) builds his first automobile, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, with a revolutionary universally-jointed driveshaft and 3-speed gearbox with reverse, and the 3rd gear in direct drive; on Nov. 24 after winning a bet by driving it up steep Lepic St. in Montmarte, he receives his first 13 orders. Architecture: The 12.5-mi. Simplon Tunnel through the Alps between Brig, Switzerland and Domodossola, Italy is begun, becoming the world's longest tunnel (finished 1906). Josef Olbrich designs the Secession Bldg. in Vienna, with a simple cubelike form and flat undecorated walls, starting a trend. Sports: The Arizona Cardinals (originally Morgan Athletic Club, then Racine Normals) are formed in Chicago, Ill., becoming the oldest U.S. football club to survive to modern times; after getting dark red uniforms from the defunct Chicago Maroons college team, they change their name to Chicago Cardinals in 1920 and join the NFL, then merge with the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1944 for one season, then move to St. Louis, Mo. in 1960, where they become known as "the Big Red", then move to Phoenix, Ariz. in 1988, playing in the Sun Devil Stadium of Arizona State U., becoming the Phoenix Cardinals, changing their name to Arizona Cardinals in 1994; they don't win a Super Bowl until ?. The Chicago Unions Giants black baseball team is formed in Ill. by Frank C. Leland; in 1905 they become the Leland Giants. ML baseball introduces the Balk Rule. Architecture: The Bayard (Bayard-Condict) Bldg. in New York City, designed by Henri Louis Sullivan is built, becoming his only work in the Big Apple. Inventions: German gunsmith Wilhelm Brenneke (1865-1951) invents the Brenneke Slug, the first modern shotgun slug. Nikola Tesla demonstrates a radio-controlled boat called the teleautomaton. Bayer Pharmaceutical Products of Darmstadt, Germany begins marketing a new, rather habit-forming cough suppressant formula (good also for laryngitis and TB), with its trademarked drug heroin (diacetylmorphine) as it main ingredient ("Heroin, the medicine for coughs"); the name is derived from the German word heroisch (large, powerful); German chemist Heinrich Dreser (1860-1924) is dir. of research, and is also responsible for the commercialization of Bayer Aspirin about this time. Pepsi-Cola (originally "Brad's Drink") is first marketed on Aug. 28 by Bern, N.C. pharmacist Caleb Davis Bradham (1867-1934) as a cure for stomach troubles and a digestive aid, named after pepsin and cola, even though it contains no pepsin, only cola, vanilla, sugar, and "rare oils"; he doesn't incorporate until 1902, and registers his trademark in 1903, then goes bankrupt in 1923 when sugar prices skyrocket, selling out for $35K. Karl Ferdinand Braun patents the principle of resonance-coupled circuits for radio transmitters and receivers. Albert Giblin, an employee of the British firm owned by Thomas Crapper (1836-1910) patents the Silent Valveless Water Waste Preventer. :) John Philip Holland (1840-1914) completes the USS Holland (SS-1), a submarine with internal combustion engines for surface operation and electric motors for undersea operation, and launches it in Elizabeth, N.J., selling it to the U.S. Navy, becoming the first sub they formally commission. Russian New York City immigrant (1891) Conrad Hubert (Akiba Horowitz) (1856-1928) patents a clover-leaf bicycle flashlight, founding the Am. Ever-Ready Flashlight Co. (later the Ever Ready Co.); meanwhile his partner Joshua Lionel Cowen (who invented the flashlight for illuminating a flower pot and sold it to him) patents a device for igniting a photographer's flash, then goes into toy trains. Arthur Constantine Krebs invents the steering wheel for his Panhard cars as a replacement for the tiller, complete with non-reversible steering and engine balance, which is first used in the Paris-Amsterdam race on July 7-13; when his driver Fernand Charron wins, Charles Stewart Rolls of Britain introduces steering wheels in his cars. Kites are first used bigtime for observation in the Spanish-Am. War. German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin begins work on the zeppelin. Science: Viruses are discovered and named by Dutch microbiologist Martinus Willem Beijerinck (1851-1931), starting with tobacco mosaic virus; too bad, in 1892 Russian microbiologist Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski (1864-1920) discovered viruses first, but didn't pub. his findings - you get the nail polish remover, I'll get the cookies? Polish-born French brain babe Marie Curie (1867-1934) coins the term "radioactivity"; she and her hubby Pierre Curie (1859-1906) discover the radioactive elements radium (Ra) (#88) (named after radioactivity) (Dec. 21) and polonium (Po) (#84) (named after her native Poland) in pitchblende from the St. Joachimsthal mines in Bohemia, winning them the 1903 Nobel Physics Prize; early medical uses found for radioactivity in cancer treatment cause it to be billed as a fountain of youth until its cancer-causing power is discovered. German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn (1848-1916) of Halle discovers radioactive element radon (Rn) (#86) as a gas given off by radium, becoming the 3rd radioactive element discovered after radium and polonium. German psychiatrist Sigbert Josef Maria Ganser (1853-1931) first describes drip-drip-drip Ganser Syndrome AKA Nonsense Syndrome, Balderdash Syndrome, Syndrome of Approximate Answers, (Hysterical) Pseudodementia, and Prison Psychosis. Italian physician Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) first describes the Golgi Apparatus in the cell using his Golgi staining technique with silver chromate, winning the 1906 Nobel Med. Prize; it is not verified until the 1950s using the electron microscope. The rare gas elements Krypton (Kr) (#36) (1 part in 20M in the atmosphere), Neon (Gr. "new") (Ne) (#10) (1 part in 65K in the atmosphere), and Xenon (Xe) (#54) are discovered by British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in liquid air. Japanese bacteriologist Kiyoshi Shiga (1871-1957) discovers the dysentery bacillus. Wilhelm Wien identifies a positive particle in ionized gas which leads him next year to invent Mass Spectroscopy, using the mass/charge ratio; after J.J. Thompson takes over in 1913, the particle turns out to be the proton. Williamsburg, Mass.-born psychologist Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (1874-1949), student of James McKeen Catrell at Columbia U. pub. his dissertation "Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals", pioneering animal psychology experiments, and concluding that they learn by trial and error not insight, but at different speeds, which he calls Connectionism. Photographs are first taken utilizing artificial light. The Shroud of Turin is discovered to be a negative image of a crucified man by Italian photographer Secondo Pia (1855-1941) after he takes the first photos of it on May 28. Nonfiction: Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Journalism for Women. Otto von Bismarck (1815-98), Reflections and Reminiscences (Gedanken und Errinerungen) (autobio.). Bowker Co., The American Art Directory. Borden Parker Bowne (1847-1910), Philosophy of Theism, The Christian Revelation. Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), The Meaning of Education: Contributions to a Philosophy of Education. Samuel Butler (1835-1902) (tr.), Homer's Iliad. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War; articles first pub. in the Daily Telegraph for £5 each. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), Susan Hamilton, Lady Ardagh, and Susan Marie Elizabeth Stewart-Mackenzie Jeune, Baroness St. Helier, The Modern Marriage Market. Sir George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), The Tides and Kindred Phenomena of the Solar System. Neal S. Dow (1804-97), Reminiscences (posth.). Charles William Eliot (1834-1926), Educational Reform. John Fiske (1842-1901), The American Revolution (2 vols.); The Critical Period of American History: 1783-1789. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), Ulysses Grant: His Life and Character. James Geikie (1839-1915), Earth Sculpture. Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908), University Problems. J.R. Green, A Short History of the English People. Laurence Gronlund (1846-99), The New Economy. Sven Anders Hedin (1865-1952), Through Asia. J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), La Cathedrale; studies Chartres Cathedral and its symbolism to bring him to God. A.S. Kizevetter, Zolotaya Orda i Islam v Istorii Srednevekovii Rossii; relations between Muslims and Mongols in Medieval Rus. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), Saladin: All-Powerful Sultan and the Uniter of Islam. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Making of Religion; The Companions of Pickle. Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837), Zibaldone (posth.). Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Labor Co-Partnerships. Patrick Manson (1844-1922), Tropical Diseases. Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), Modern Man and Religion. Alice Meynell (1847-1922), The Spirit of Place (essays); London Impressions. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Auld Lang Syne (autobio.). Robert Edwin Peary (1856-1920), Northward Over the Great Ice; incl. a nude photo of his Eskimo mistress Allakasignwah, which is not much appreciated by his dutiful wife Josephine and their daughters. Jean Jacques Elisee Reclus (1830-1905), La Revolution et l'Ideal Anarchique. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Philadelphia: The Place and the People. Leon Say (1826-96), Les Finances de la France sous la Troisieme Republique (4 vols.) (1898-1901) (posth.). Boris Sidis (1867-1923), The Psychology of Suggestion: A Research into the Subconscious Nature of Man and Society. Georges Sorel (1847-1922), L'Avenir Socialiste des Syndicats. Francois Thureau-Dangin (1872-1944), First Steps in Assyrian: A Book for Beginners; a description of cuneiform signs, strengthening the music-in-the-air theory that they were originally based on pictographs. Myhaylo Tugan-Baranovsky (1865-1919), The Russian Factory in Past and Present. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929), Why is Economics not an Evolutionary Science; coins the term Evolutionary Economics, making use of anthropology to deny that there is a universal human nature, emphasizing the conflict between "industrial" or instrumental and "pecuniary" or ceremonial values, which becomes known as the Ceremonial/Instrumental Dichotomy. Lester Frank Ward (1841-1913), Outlines of Sociology. Ellen Gould White (1827-1915), The Desire of Ages; life of Christ. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), Universal Algebra; develops the ideas of neglected German mathematician Hermann Grassmann. Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), Interest and Prices; distinguishes between natural and money rate of interest, and proposes that interest rates be used to maintain price stability instead of the gold standard like the Austrian School of Economics wants, making a fan of John Maynard Keynes, and inspiring the Stockholm School of Economics. Movies: Thomas Edison (1847-1931), Burial of the Victims of the Maine; The Statue of Liberty - he expected it to move? Lumiere Brothers, Lyon, France; one of the first stable tracking shots. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Die Abreise (opera). Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), Violin Sonata in E Minor. Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Chanson Perpetuelle; lyrics by Charles Cros. Zdenek Fibich (1850-1900), Symphony No. 3. Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), Nadia (opera). Victor Herbert (1859-1924), The Fortune Teller (operetta) (Wallack's Theatre, New York) (Sept. 26) (40 perf.). Edward Alexander MacDowell, Sea Pieces, Op. 55. Andre Messager (1853-1929), Veronique (opera). Ethelberg Woodbridge Nevin (1862-1901), The Rosary. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Sadko (opera) (Jan. 7) (Dec. 26 Old Style) (Solodovnikov Theatre, Moscow); The Tsar's Bride (opera); The Noblewoman Vera Sheloga (opera). Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Symphony No. 1 in E minor (1898-9). James Thornton (1861-1938), When You Were Sweet Sixteen; big favorite of barbershop quartets. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), Stabat Mater; Te Deum. Amy Woodforde-Finden (1860-1919), Song of the Lotus-Lily; lyrics by Marie Carelli. Art: Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901), The Plague. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Bathers (series) (1898-1905). John Collier (1850-1934), Lady Godiva. Robert Henri (1865-1929), Woman in Manteau. Jule Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Love Sharpening Its Arrows. Plays: Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910), Paul Lange and Tora Parsberg; against political intolerance. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Le Resultat des Courses; the evils of betting by Parisian workmen. Clyde Fitch (1865-1909), Barbara Frietchie. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Harry Greenbank and Sidney Jones, A Greek Slave (musical) (Daly's Theatre, London) (June 8) (349 perf.); stars Marie Tempest, Letty Lind, and Rutland Barrington. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Ghetto. Seymour Hicks, Harry Nicholls, and Ivan Caryll, A Runaway Girl (musical) (Gaiety Theatre, London) (May 21) (593 perf.). Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Medee; La Reine Fiammette; music by Xavier Leroux. Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Gay Lord Quex (comedy). Georges de Porto-Riche (1849-1930), Theatre d'Amour; incl. La Chance de Francoise, L'Infidele, Amoureuse, Le Passe. Maurice Prendergast (1858-1924), The Balloon; St. Mark's Venice; Easter Procession St. Mark's; Grand Canal, Venice (1898-9); Monte Pincio (1898-9). Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Le Chien de Garde. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Caesar and Cleopatra; You Never Can Tell (comedy); coins the name Gloria. Carl Spitteler (1845-1924), Conrad der Leutnant. Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927), Beatrice. August Strindberg (1849-1912), The Road to Damascus (trilogy) (1898-1902). Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Aubes (first play). Poetry: Wilfred Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), The Quatrains of Youth. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), By the Aurelian Wall, And Other Elegies. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Wessex Poems. Laurence Housman (1865-1959), Spikenard. Kostes Palamas (1859-1943), Taphos (The Tomb). Banjo Paterson (1864-1941), T.Y.S.O.N. (Dec. 15). Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), The Ballad of Reading Gaol; written in exile in France, and pub. under the alias c.3.3 (cell block C, landing 3, cell 3); about the hanging of Royal Horse Guards trooper Charles Thomas Wooldridge (b. 1866) on July 7, 1896 for murdering his wife Laura Ellen, which he witnessed in jail; "Yet each man kills the thing he loves/ By each let this be heard./ Some do it with a bitter look,/ Some with a flattering word./ The coward does it with a kiss,/ The brave man with a sword!" Francis Wilson (1854-1935), The Eugene Field I Knew. Novels: Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), The Man from the North (first novel). Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Changeling. William Black (1841-98), Wild Eelin. Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928), The Cabin (La Barraca). Pieter Cornelis Boutens (1870-1943), Verzen. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), Rough Justice. Sandor Brody (1863-1924), The Silver Goat. Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), Father Anthony. Abraham Cahan (1860-1951), The Imported Bridegroom and Other Stories. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), Ashes of Empire. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), The Uncalled (first novel). Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), Dream Days. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Doctor Theme; Swallow. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Victoria; miller's son Johannes falls in love with wealthy landowner heiress. Henry Harland (1861-1905), Comedies and Errors. Joel Chandler Harris (1845-1908), Tales of the Home Folks in Peace and War (short stories). Josef Holecek (1853-1929), Our People (10 vols.) (1898-1930). Anthony Hope (1863-1933), Rupert of Hentzau; sequel to "Prisoner of Zenda". William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Sea Urchins (More Cargoes) (short stories). Henry James (1843-1916), The Turn of the Screw; The Two Magics. Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950), Himmerland Stories (1898-1910). Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Prisoners of Hope (first novel); about colonial Va. Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938), Olesya. John Luther Long (1861-1927), Madame Butterfly (short story); turned into a play in 1900 by David Belasco (1853-1931) and into an opera in 1904 by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Figures et Choses qui Passaient; Judith Renaudin. Charles Major (1856-1913), When Knighthood Was in Flower (first novel); bestselling romance about Henry VIII's England. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), New Zrinyiad. Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), The Adventures of Francois. George Moore (1852-1933), Evelyn Innes. Frank Norris (1870-1902), Moran of the Lady Letty. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), Mysterious Mr. Sabin; A Daughter of Astrea; As a Man Lives. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Battle of the Strong. Eden Phillpotts (1862-1960), Children of the Mist; first of 18 novels about Dartmoor, England. Morgan Robertson (1861-1915), Futility; about ocean liner Titan, which hits an iceberg on a calm Apr. night en route to New York City, after which many die for lack of lifeboats. Amanda McKittrick Ros (1860-1939), Delina Delaney; makes her enough money to buy her home Iddesleigh; "Have you ever visited that portion of Erin's plot that offers its sympathetic soil for the minute survey and scrutinous examination of those in political power, whose decision has wisely been the means before now of converting the stern and prejudiced, and reaching the hand of slight aid to share its strength augmenting its agricultural richness?"; "I first read this sentence nearly three years ago. Since then, I have read it once a week in an increasingly desperate search for meaning, but I still don't understand it." (Nick Page) Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Entre Nous (posth.). Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Caleb West, Master-Driver. Bram Stoker (1847-1912), Dracula; original title "The Undead"; written after eight years of research on vampire lit. and visits to Slains Castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and the Church of St. John the Baptist in Fairview, Ireland; Lucy Westenra "went to the window and looked out, but could see nothing, except a big bat". Italo Svevo (1861-1928), Senilita (As a Man Grows Older) (Emilio's Carnival). Mark Twain (1835-1910), From the 'London Times' of 1904; describes the Telelectroscope, a "limitless-distance" telephone; "Day by day, and night by night, he called up one corner of the globe after another, and looked upon its life, and studied its strange sights, and spoke with its people, and realized that by grace of this marvellous instrument he was almost as free as the birds of the air, although a prisoner under locks and bars"; a prediction of the Internet? Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Helbeck of Bannisdale. Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832-1914), Aylwin; bestseller about the Romany (Gypsies). H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The War of the Worlds; incl. "The Coming of the Martians", and "The Earth Under the Martians". Births: French Algiers Putsch gen. Andre Zeller (d. 1979) on Jan. 1 in Besancon. Am. "Spirit of St. Louis" aviator and aircraft manufacturer Tubal Claude Ryan (d. 1982) on Jan. 3 in Parsons, Kan. Am. "You Asked For It" TV host Art Baker (Arthur Shank) (d. 1966) on Jan. 7 in New York City. English "Sally" singer-comedian Dame Gracie Fields (nee Stansfield) (d. 1979) on Jan. 9 in Rochdale, Lancashire; begins singing in a movie theater at age 8; marries Italian dir. Monty Banks (1897-1950) in 1940, causing her to lose her British citizenship. Danish playwright and Lutheran pastor Kaj Harald Leininger Munk (d. 1944) on Jan. 13 in Lolland. Am. "Mutiny on the Boundy", "The Way We Were", "The Goodbye Girl" film editor Margaret Booth (d. 2002) on Jan. 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Now, Voyager", "The Corn is Green"" dir. Irving Rapper (d. 1999) on Jan. 16 in London, England. Am. Dem. Miss. gov. (1960-4) Ross Robert Barnett (d. 1987) on Jan. 22 in Standing Pine, Miss.; educated at the U. of Miss. Russian "Alexander Nevsky", "Battleship Potemkin" dir.-producer Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (d. 1948) on Jan. 23 in Riga, Latvia; architect father. British actor Wallace Lupino (d. 1961) on Jan. 23 in Edinburgh, Scotland; brother of Lupino Lane (1892-1959); father of Richard Lupino, uncle of Ida Lupino. Am. "Ride the High Country" actor Randolph Scott (Crane) (d. 1987) on Jan. 23 in Orange County, Va. Am. writer-activist Winifred "Freda" Utley (d. 1978) on Jan. 23 in London, England; educated at King's College, London; starts out Communist, visits the Soviet Paradise Union, sees her hubby Arcadi Brdichevsky arrested in 1936, escapes to the U.S., and turns anti-Communist. Canadian industrialist-philanthropist and British MP (1939-45) Willard Garfield Weston (d. 1978) on Jan. 26 in Toronto, Ont. British gen. Sir Richard Loudon McCreery (d. 1967) on Feb. 1 in Market Harborough; descendant of John McAdam (1756-1836); educated at Eton College, and Sandhurst; knighted in 1944. Finnish Modernist architect Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto (d. 1976) on Feb. 3 in Kuortane; big on wood and fan-shaped bldgs. Am. Modernist "Dark Symphony" poet-educator (black) Melvin Beaunorus Tolson (d. 1966) on Feb. 6 in Moberly, Mo.; educated at Lincoln U. and Columbia U.; head of the 1935 debate team at Wiley College in Marshall, Tex. Australian actress Dame Judith (Frances Margaret) Anderson (d. 1992) on Feb. 10 in Adelaide. German (Bavarian) "Mother Courage" poet-playwright-mgr. Eugen Berthold Friedrich "Bertolt" Brecht (d. 1956) on Feb. 10 in Augsburg. Am. "Guys and Dolls", "The Wild One" actor Robert Keith (Rolland Keith Richey) (d. 1966) on Feb. 10 in Fowler, Ind.; father of Brian Keith (1921-97); husband of Laura Anne Corinne Jackson, Helena Shipman, (1927-32) Hollywood Sign jumper Peg Entwistle (1908-32), and Dorothy Tierney. French "Belle du Jour" novelist-journalist (Jewish) Joseph Kessel (d. 1979) on Feb. 10 in Clara, Entre Rios, Argentina; Lithuanian Jewish father. German anti-Nazi activist Walter Kreiser (d. 1958) on Feb. 10 in Heilbronn. Am. nuclear physicist (Jewish) Leo Szilard (d. 1964) on Feb. 11 in Budapest, Hungary; emigrates to England in 1933, and the U.S. in 1938, becoming a U.S. citizen in 1943; discoverer of the nuclear chain reaction in 1933 while waiting for traffic lights to change on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, England. U.S. ambassador to France (1949-52), West Germany (1957-9), and Britain (1961-9) ("the last American aristocrat" - Nelson D. Lankford) David K.E. Bruce (d. 1977) on Feb. 12 in Charlotte County, Va.; educated at the U. of Va. Am. "A Patch of Blue", "Phroso the Clown in Freaks" actor Wallace Ford (Samuel Jones Gundy) (d. 1966) on Feb. 12 in Bolton, Lancashire, England; appears in many John Ford flicks although he is no relation. Am. composer Roy Ellsworth Harris (d. 1979) on Feb. 12 in Chandler, Okla. Am. astronomer (founder of Gen. Morphological Analysis) Fritz Zwicky (d. 1974) on Feb. 14 in Varna, Bulgaria; Swiss parents; father is Bulgarian ambassador to Norway; emigrates to the U.S. in 1925. Japanese "Black Rain" novelist Masuji Ibuse (d. 1993) on Feb. 15 in Kamo, Fuuyama, Hiroshima. Italian actor-singer-songwriter Toto (Totò) (Antonio Focas Flavio Angelo Ducas Comneno De Curtis Di Bisanzio Gagliardi) (d. 1967) on Feb. 15 in Naples; born in poverty, rises to become the #1 Italian actor of all time. Italian 6'1-1/2" automaker ("the Commendatore") Enzo Anselmo Ferrari (d. 1988) on Feb. 18 in Modena. Am. Time Mag. co-founder Briton Hadden (d. 1929) on Feb. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Yale U.; business partner of Henry R. Luce (1898-1967). Puerto Rican gov. #1 (1949-65) Jose Luis Alberto Munoz (Muñoz) Marin (d. 1980) on Feb. 18 in San Juan; educated at the U. of Ohio; husband (1919-46) of Muna Lee (1895-1965). Russian inventor Semyon Davidovich Kirlian (d. 1978) on Feb. 20 in Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar); of Armenian descent. Am. anti-Semitic white supremacist conservative Christian preacher-politician Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith (d. 1976) on Feb. 27 in Pardeeville, Wisc.; friend of Huey P. Long; builder of the Christ of the Ozarks in 1966. French philologist George Dumezil (Dumézil) (d. 1986) on Mar. 4 in Paris. German Gen. Hans Krebs (d. 1945) on Mar. 4 in Helmstedt. Chinese PM #1 (1949-76) and foreign minister #1 (1949-58) (atheist) Chou En-lai (Zhou Enlai) (d. 1976) on Mar. 5 in Zhejiang; grows up in Huaian, Jiangsu. Chinese sociologist-statesman and first lady (1948-75) ("Dragon Lady") Madame Chiang Kai-shek (nee Soong Mei-ling) (d. 2003) (b. 1897?) on Mar. 5 in Shanghai; educated at Wellesley College; wife (1927-) of Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975). Am. silent film actress Dorothy Elizabeth Gish (d. 1968) on Mar. 11 in Dayton, Ohio; sister of Lillian Gish (1893-1993). Am. "Sons of Katie Elder", "How the West Was Won" dir.-producer Henry Hathaway (d. 1985) on Mar. 13 in Sacramento, Calif. Am. artist Reginald Marsh (d. 1954) on Mar. 14 in Paris, France; grows up in Nutley, N.J.; educated at Yale U. known for his depictions of life in New York City; not to be confused with actor Reginald Marsh (1926-2001). Puerto Rican Afro-Antillano poet Luis Pales (Palés) Matos (d. 1959) on Mar. 20 in Guyama. Am. Puma founder Rudolf Dassler (d. 1974) on Mar. 26 in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria; brother of Adidas founder Adi Dassler (1900-78). Am. child prodigy (peridromophile) William James Sidis (d. 1944) (AKA Frank Folupa) on Apr. 1 in New York City: highly educated Russian Jewish immigrant parents cram him with education starting at infancy, and he allegedly reads at 18 mo. and speaks eight languages at age 8; "A wonderfully successful result of a scientific forcing experiment" (New York Times); educated at Harvard U.; uncle of Clifton Fadiman (1904-99); claims the Universe is eternal and the Big Bang is bull; argues for universal use of 1-way streets. Belgian "The Strange Ride" surrealist playwright-poet Michel de Ghelderode (Adhemar Adolphe Louis Martens) (d. 1962) on Apr. 3 (Palm Sun.) in Ixelles. Am. "Private Izzy Murphy" actor-singer-songwriter-producer (Jewish) ("Toastmaster General of the U.S.") George Albert Jessel (d. 1981) on Apr. 3 in Bronx, N.Y.; known for liking young show girls, giving great eulogies, and supporting both the Vietnam War and civil rights, calling the New York Times "Pravda" on The Tonight Show in 1971. Am. Time Mag. publisher-editor Henry Robinson Luce (d. 1967) on Apr. 3 in Dengzhou, China; son of Presbyterian missionaries; educated at Yale U.; husband (1935-) of Clare Boothe Luce (1903-87); conservative Repub. and leader of the pro-Chiang Kai-shek China Lobby. Austrian tenor Julius Patzak (d. 1974) on Apr. 9 in Vienna. Am. Green Bay Packers football coach Earl Louis "Curly" Lambeau (d. 1965) on June 1 in Green Bay, Wisc. Am. "Old Man River" singer-actor-activist (Communist) (black) Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (d. 1976) on Apr. 9 in Princeton, N.J.; of Igbo descent; educated at Rutgers U. (Cap & Skull) (Phi Beta Kappa) (valedictorian) and Columbia U.; inducted into the college football hall of fame in 1995. Am. "Chelsea Rooming House poet Horace Gregory (d. 1982) on Apr. 10 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; husband (1925-) of Marya Zaturenska (1902-82). U.S. Rep. (D-S.C.) (1939-73) John L. McMillan (d. 1979) on Apr. 12 near Mullins, S.C. Am. soprano Alice Josephine "Lily" Pons (d. 1976) on Apr. 12 in Draguignan (near Cannes), France; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1940. Am. electrical engineer (inventor of the negative feedback amplifier in 1927) Harold Stephen Black (d. 1983) on Apr. 14 in Leominster, Mass.; educated at Worcester Polytechnic Inst. Am. "Dinner at Eight" actor William Lee Tracy (d. 1968) on Apr. 14 in Atlanta, Ga. Am. auto racer Peter DePaolo (d. 1980) on Apr. 15 in Philadelphia, Penn.; nephew of Ralph De Palma (1882-1956). Am. Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. CEO (1941-) Harvey Samuel Firestone Jr. (d. 1973) on Apr. 20 in Chicago, Ill.; son of Harvey Firestone Sr. (1868-1938); educated at Princeton U. Spanish "History of the Heart" poet Vicente Pio Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (d. 1984) on Apr. 26 in Seville. Am. playwright-biographer-gag writer ("Captain of Comedy") ("King of the Gag Writers") (Jewish) David Freedman (d. 1936) on Apr. 26 in Botosani, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1900; educated at CCNY. English filmmaker ("Father of British and Canadian Documentary Film") John Grierson (d. 1972) on Apr. 26 in Deanston (near Doune), Scotland; brother of Ruby Grierson (1904-40); educated at the U. of Chicago; founder of the Nat. Film Board of Canada. Am. "Madeline" children's writer-illustrator-humorist Ludwig Bemelmans (d. 1962) on Apr. 27 in Meran, Tirol, Austria; Belgian parents; emigrates to the U.S. in 1914. German SS Capt. August Hirt (d. 1945) on Apr. 28 in Mannheim, Baden. English "Hound of the Baskervilles", "The Lemon Drop Kid" dir. Sidney Lanfield (d. 1972) on Apr. 30. Israeli PM #4 (1969-74) (Jewish) Golda Meir (Meyerson) (nee Mabovitch) (d. 1978) on May 3 in Kiev, Russia; emigrates to Milwaukee, Wisc. in 1906; moves to Denver, Colo. in 1913, where she meets sign painter Morris Myerson, returns to Milwaukee in 1914, attends North Div. H.S. and the U. of Wisc., becomes a schoolteacher, marries him in 1917, moves with him to join a kibbutz in Palestine in 1921, and works her way up the Zionist ladder; minister of labor from 1949-56; changes name to Meir in 1956; minister of foreign affairs from 1956-66. Am. baby food magnate Daniel Frank "Dan" Gerber (d. 1974) on May 6 in Fremont, Newaygo, Mich. German SS officer Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (d. 1945) on May 6 in Maffersdorf, Bohemia. Am. "Story of Civilization" historian (Jewish) Ariel Durant (Chaya Kaufman) (d. 1981) on May 10 in Proskurov (Chmelnitski), Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1901; wife of Will Durant (1885-1981). Malaysian sultan (1938-42, 1945-60) Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum (d. 1960) on May 13 in Selangor. Am. "Shim-Me-Sha-Wabble" jazz drummer (black) Arthur James "Zutty" Singleton (d. 1975) on May 14 in Bunkie, La. French "Garance in Les Enfants du Paradis", "old woman in the Longest Day" actress-singer-model Arletty (Leonie Marie Julie Bathiat) (d. 1992) on May 15 in Courbevoie (near Paris). Am. New Thought minister Joseph Murphy (d. 1981) on May 20 in Ireland; educated at USC. Am. internat. trader (Occidental Petroleum founder) (Jewish) Armand Hammer (d. 1990) on May 21 in New York, N.Y.; of Russian Jewish descent; grandfather of Michael Armand Hammer (1955-); great-grandfather of Armie Hammier (1986-). German Adm. Walter Hennecke (d. 1984) on May 23 in Betheln, Saxony. Am. "Willie Walters in The Bing Crosby Show" actor Frank McHugh (d. 1981) on May 23 in Homestead, Penn. German Nazi official (Reichskommissar of Norway) Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (d. 1945) on May 23 in Essen. Am. humorist (founder of Random House) (Jewish) Bennett Alfred Cerf (d. 1971) on May 25 in New York City; of Alsatian and German descent; educated at Columbia U. Am. Long Count Fight heavyweight boxing champ (1926-8) ("the Fighting Marine") James Joseph "Gene" Tunney (d. 1978) on May 25 in New York City. Am. "The Power of Positive Thinking" minister-speaker-writer Norman Vincent Peale (d. 1993) on May 31 in Bowersville, Ohio; student of Ernest Holmes (1887-1960); Methodist minister father; ordained by the United Methodist Church in 1922, then quits in 1932 to minister the Marble Collegiate Reformed Church in New York City for 50+ years. Am. baritone "Whispering" Jack Smith (John Schmidt) (d. 1950) on May 31 in Bronx, N.Y.; his voice is injured by mustard gas in WWI, causing him to develop a distinctive whispering style of singing. U.S. Adm. Jerauld Wright (d. 1995) on June 4 in Amherst, Mass.; NATO Atlantic Fleet cmdr. (SACLANT) (1954-60). Italian shoe designer Salvatore Ferragamo (d. 1960) on June 5 in Bonito. Spanish "Lament for a Bullfighter" poet-playwright (gay) Federico Garcia Lorca (d. 1936) (pr. gar-THEE-ah) on June 5 in Fuente Vaqueros; likes to wear bow ties? Am. "Holiday Inn" actor Walter Abel on June 6 in St. Paul, Minn. British Royal Ballet founder (1931) Dame Ninette de Valois (Edris Stannus) (d. 2001) on June 6 in Blessington, County Wicklow, Ireland; emigrates to England in 1905; created dame in 1951. Italian novelist-dramatist-journalist-diplomat Curzio Malaparte (Kurt Erich Suckert) (d. 1957) on June 9 in Prato, Tuscano; German father, Italian Lombard mother; Malaparte is a pun on the word Bonaparte. English psychiatrist-mathematician (Quaker) Lionel Sharples Penrose (d. 1972) on June 11; educated at Cambridge U.; father of Oliver Penrose (1929-), Roger Penrose (1931-), and Jonathan Penrose (1933-). Dutch artist Maurits Cornelis "Mauk" Escher (d. 1972) on June 17 in Leeuwarden. British last WWI trench soldier ("the Last Fighting Tommy") Henry John "Harry" Patch (d. 2009) on June 17 in Combe Down, Bath, Somerset. German "All Quiet on the Western Front" novelist ("the recording angel of the Great War") Erich Paul Remark (Erich Maria Remarque) (d. 1970) on June 22 in Osnabruck, Westphalia (25 mi. from the Netherlands border). German aircraft designer-industrialist Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt (d. 1978) on June 26 in Frankfurt am Main. Am. "Uncle Petri in Lassie" actor George Chandler (d. 1985) on June 30 in Waukegan, Ill. Soviet diplomat Vladimir Georgievich Dekanozov (Dekanozishvili) (d. 1953) on June ? in Baku. Am. journalist and "American Mercury" ed. (Jewish) Eugene Lyons (d. 1985) on July 1 in Uzlian, Russia; grows up in New York City; 1st cousin of David Sarnoff (1891-1971). U.S. Battle of the Bulge "Nuts!" gen. Anthony Clement McAuliffe (d. 1975) on July 2 in Washington, D.C. English actress Gertrude Lawrence (Gertrud Alexandra Dagmar Lawrence Klasen) (d. 1952) on July 4 in London; lifelong friend of Noel Coward (1899-1973); makes stage debut at age 10 in "Babes in the Wood" in London. German-Austrian "Comintern March" composer (Jewish) ("the Karl Marx of Music") Hanns Eisler (d. 1962) on July 6 in Leipzig; moves to Vienna in 1901; brother of Austrian Communist Party co-founder Ruth Fischer (1895-1961) and Gerhard Eisler (1897-1968); flees to the U.S. in 1933, and is deported in 1948 after being put on the Hollywood Blacklist. English "The Loom of Youth" novelist (inventor of the cocktail party) Alexander Raban "Alec" Waugh (d. 1981) on July 8 in London; brother of Evelyn Waugh (1903-66). Am. Dem. Ky. gov. #49 (1955-9) and ML baseball hall-of-fame commissioner #2 (1945-50) Albert Benjamin "Happy" Chandler Sr. (d. 1991) on July 14 in Corydon, Ky. Am. photographer (inventor of the autopole) Berenice (Bernice) Abbott (d. 1991) on July 17 in Springfield, Ohio; student of Man Ray. German "Totally Administered Society", "One-Dimensional Man", "Eros and Civilization" Frankfurt School philosopher-sociologist (Jewish) Herbert Marcuse (d. 1979) on July 19 in Berlin; emigrates to Switzerland in 1933; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1940. Soviet field marshal Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (d. 1968) on July 21 in Kozliki, Grodno. Am. "John Brown's Body" poet-novelist Stephen Vincent Benet (Benét) (d. 1943) on July 22 in Bethlehem, Penn.; son of Col. James Walker Benet, col. of ordnance in the U.S. Army., and brother of poet William Rose Benet (1886-1950); educated at Yale U. Am. sculptor Alexander "Sandy" Calder (d. 1976) on July 22 in Lawnton, Penn.; begins making mobiles and wire constructions of circuses in 1926, then turns to abstract art in 1930. Am. economist (Jewish) ("Founder of Econometrics") Jacob Marschak (d. 1977) on July 23 in Kiev, Ukraine; educated at the U. of Heidelberg; starts out as Russian Menshevik, then emigrates to Germany in 1919, and the U.S. in 1940. Am. "Phantom of the Opera" film dir. Arthur Lubin (Arthur William Lubovsky) (d. 1995) on July 25 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. surgeon Charles William Mayo (d. 1968) on July 28 in Rochester, Minn.; son of Charles H. Mayo (1865-1939). English archeologist Anthony John Arkell (d. 1980) on July 29 in Hinxhill, Kent. Am. physicist (Jewish) Isidor Isaac Rabi (d. 1988) on July 29 in Rymanow, Galicia (Poland); emigrates to the U.S. at age 1; educated at Cornell U., and Columbia U. English "Nature's Mirror" sculptor-painter Henry Spencer Moore (d. 1986) on July 30 in Castleford, Yorkshire; educated at the Leeds School of Art; known for his abstract monumental bronze sculptures located around the world, featuring reclining nudes and mother-child motifs, rock-tree-bone motifs, and massive garment folds. Italian car manufacturer-racer Ernesto Maserati (d. 1975) on Aug. 4; brother of brother of Bindo Maserati (1883-1980), Alfieri Maserati (1887-1932), and Ettore Maserati (1894-1990). Italian Neo-Ricardian economist (in Britain) (Jewish) (agnostic) Piero Sraffa (d. 1983) on Aug. 5 in Turin; educated at the London School of Economics. Am. "Tin Man and Hickory in The Wizard of Oz" actor John Joseph "Jack" Haley (d. 1979) on Aug. 10 in Boston, Mass.; father of Jack Haley Jr. (1933-2001). Austrian actor (Jewish) Oskar Homolka (d. 1978) on Aug. 12 in Vienna. French "Four Musketeers" tennis hall-of-fame player ("the Bounding Basque") Jean Robert Borotra (d. 1994) on Aug. 13 in Domaine du Pouy (near Biarritz), Aquitaine. Am. "Sgt. Les Hart in Burke's Law", "The Big Sleep" actor John Regis Toomey (d. 1991) on Aug. 13 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Am. "Prevention" health food mag. publisher (Jewish) Jerome Irving Rodale (Cohen) (d. 1971) on Aug. 16 in New York City; father of Robert David Rodale (1930-90); popularizes the term "organic" for food grown sans pesticides. Am. Niscience founder Ann Ree Colton (d. 1984) on Aug. 17 in Atlanta, Ga. Polish physicist and pacifist Leopold Infeld (d. 1968) on Aug. 20 in Cracow; collaborator of Albert Einstein at Princeton U. in 1936-8. Am. Abe Lincoln's next-to-last descendant Mary Lincoln "Peggy" Beckwith (d. 1975) on Aug. 22 in Des Moines, Iowa; sister of Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith (1904-85). Am. stage actress (Jewish) Francine Larrimore (Fanya Levovsky) (d. 1975) on Aug. 22 in Verdun, France; niece of Jacob Adler (1855-1926); sister-in-law of Robert Warwick (1878-1964). Am. art collector (Jewish) Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (d. 1979) on Aug. 26; daughter of Benjamin Guggenheim (1865-1912); niece of Solomon Robert Guggenheim (1861-1949); wife (1942-6) of Max Ernst (1891-1976). Am. "Exile's Return" Marxist novelist-poet-journalist-critic Malcolm Cowley (d. 1989) on Aug. 28 in Belsano, Penn. Am. "Sullivan's Travels", "The Great McGinty" screenwriter Preston Sturges (Edmund Preston Biden) (d. 1959) on Aug. 29 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Lola Delaney in Come Back, Little Sheba", "Hazel" actress Shirley Booth (Marjory Ford) (d. 1992) on Aug. 30 in New York City. Am. "Island of Lost Souls", "Wings" actor Richard Arlen (Sylvanus Richard Van Mattimore) (d. 1976) on Sept. 1 in St. Paul, Minn. U.S. ambassador to Taiwan (1953-7) and Yugoslavia (1958-61) Karl Lott Rankin (d. 1991) on Sept. 4 in Manitowoc, Wisc; educated at Caltech, and Princeton U. Am. "The Cardinal" novelist Henry Morton Robinson (d. 1961) on Sept. 7 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Columbia U. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player-mgr. ("the Fordham Flash") ("the Old Flash") Francis "Frank" "Frankie" Frisch (d. 1973) on Sept. 9 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Fordham U. Am. "The Broadway Melody" actress-writer Bessie Love (Juanita Horton) (d. 1986) on Sept. 10 in Midland, Tex. Am. "The Shape of Content" Social Realist painter (Jewish) Benjamin "Ben" Shahn (d. 1969) on Sept. 12 in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1906. Am. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty", "Topper" film dir. Norman Zenos McLeod (d. 1964) on Sept. 20 in Grayling, Mich. Russian artist (gay) Pavel Tchelitchev (Tchelitchew) (d. 1957) on Sept. 21; emigrates to France in 1923 and the U.S. in 1934; lover of Charles Henri Ford (1913-2002). Am. "Mushrooms, Russia and History" ethnomycologist Robert Gordon Wasson (d. 1986) on Sept. 22 in Great Falls, Mont.; educated at Columbia U., and London School of Economics. Australian pathologist (penicillin pioneer) Sir Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide (d. 1968) on Sept. 24 in Adelaide; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1944; created baron in 1965; collaborator of Ernst Boris Chain (1906-79) - the romance is gone or is it back? French politician Jacques Doriot (d. 1945) on Sept. 26 in Bresles, Oise. Am. "Rhapsody in Blue" composer (Jewish) George Gershwin (Jacob Gershowitz) (d. 1937) on Sept. 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Ira Gershwin (1896-1983); Russian Jewish immigrant parents named Gershowitz. Am. "Tea for Two", "I Want to Be Happy" composer-producer Vincent Millie Youmans (d. 1946) on Sept. 27 in New York City. German Nazi gynecologist Carl Clauberg (d. 1957) on Sept. 28 in Wupperhof. Russian (con man?) agronomist-geneticist Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (d. 1976) on Sept. 29. French silent film actress Renee Adoree (Renée Adorée) (La Fonte) (d. 1933) on Sept. 30 in Lille, Nord. Am. modernist architect Roland Anthony Wank (d. 1970) on Oct. 2 in Budapest, Hungary; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924; head architect of the TVA from 1933-44. Am. "Going My Way", "An Affair to Remember" film dir.-producer-writer (Roman Catholic) Thomas Leo McCarey (d. 1969) on Oct. 3 in Los Angeles, Calif.; teams Stan Laurel with Oliver Hardy at Hal Roach Studio, and creates Cary Grant's onscreen persona based on his own mannerisms and physical resemblance. Am. "The Big Broadcast of 1937/1938", "Easy Living", "Hold Back the Dawn" dir. (gay) Mitchell Leisen (d. 1972) on Oct. 6 in Menominee, Mich. German educator (July 20th plotter) Adolf Reichwein (d. 1944) on Oct. 3 in Bad Ems. Am. conductor-cellist Alfred Wallenstein (d. 1983) on Oct. 7 in Chicago, Ill.; descendant of Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634). French Gen. Marie-Pierre Koenig (d. 1970) on Oct. 10 in Caen, Normandy. Am. set designer (Jewish) Boris Aronson (d. 1980) on Oct. 15 in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. U.S. Supreme Court justice #80 (1939-75, 36 years 209 days, the longest) William Orville Douglas (d. 1975) on Oct. 16 in Maine Township, Minn.; Scottish immigrant father; grows up in Yakima, Wash.; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Suzuki Method" music teacher Shinichi Suzuki (d. 1998) on Oct. 17 in Nagoya; lives in Germany under the guardianship of Albert Einstein. Austrian "Jenny in The Threepenny Opera", "Rosa Klebb in From Russia with Love" singer-actress Lotte Lenya (Karoline Wilhelmine Chalotte Blamauer) (d. 1981) on Oct. 18 in Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1935; wife (1926-33, 1937-50) of Kurt Weill (1900-50) and (1962-9) Russell Detwiler. English "The Quest of the Overself" guru Paul Brunton (Hurst) (d. 1981) on Oct. 21 in London. Chinese Communist gen. Peng Dehuai (d. 1974) on Oct. 24 in Xiangtan, Hunan; begins working in coal mines at age 13. Am. aviator and aircraft designer Lloyd Carlton Steadman (d. 1975) on Oct. 26 in Wellsville, Kan. Am. actress Marie Prevost (Marie Bickford Dunn) (d. 1937) on Nov. 8 in Sarnia, Ont., Canada. Am. MKULTRA psychologist-educator Leonard Carmichael (d. 1973) on Nov. 9 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Tufts U. and Harvard U. French "A Nous la Liberte" film dir. Rene Clair (Rene-Lucien Chomette) (d. 1981) on Nov. 11 in Paris. Am. hall-of-fame jockey Earl Sande (d. 1968) on Nov. 13 in Groton, S.D. Belgian Surrealist artist Rene (René) Francois Ghislain Magritte (d. 1967) on Nov. 21 in Lessines; moves to Chatelet at age 12; mother commits suicide in 1912 by drowning herself in a river in her nightgown, which freaks him out and makes his art so good? Am. pilot Wiley Hardeman Post (d. 1935) on Nov. 22 in Grand Saline, Van Zandt County, Tex.; first to fly solo around the world. English economist Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins on Nov. 22 in Sipson, Middlesex; educated at Univ. College London, and London School of Economics. Am. Nystatin microbiologist Rachel Fuller Brown (d. 1980) on Nov. 23 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Soviet field marshal (1944-) (Jewish) Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (d. 1967) on Nov. 23 in Odessa, Ukraine; descendant of Crimean Karaite Jews. Chinese pres. (1959-68) Liu Shaoqi (d. 1969) on Nov. 24 in Huaguangtang, Nantang, Changsha, Hunan. German polymer chemist Karl (Carl) Waldemar Ziegler (d. 1973) on Nov. 26 in Helsa (near Kassel); educated at the U. of Marburg. British "The Chronicles of Narnia", "The Screwtape Letters" novelist-writer and Christian apologist (Cambridge prof.) Clive Staples "Jack" Lewis (d. 1963) on Nov. 29 in Belfast, Northern Ireland; grandfather is rector of St. Mark's Church in Belfast; educated at Univ. College, Oxford U.; becomes an atheist at age 15, then is converted at age 31 by his Roman Catholic Oxford friend J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and joins the Inklings group of Christian teachers and writers at Oxford. Am. "Life" mag. photographer (1936-74) (Jewish) Alfred Eisenstaedt (d. 1995) on Dec. 6 in Dirschau (Tczew), West Prussia; starts out taking photos for the Nazis, then emigrates to the U.S. in 1935. Swedish sociologist-economist Gunnar Myrdal (d. 1987) on Dec. 6 in Gustaf Parish, Darlarna; takes the name Myrdal after the family farm of Myr in Dalama; educated at Stockholm U.; husband of Alva Myrdal (1902-86). Am. "Grand Hotel", "The Little Foxes", "The Children's Hour" producer-dir. (Jewish) Herman E. Shumlin (d. 1979) on Dec. 6 in Atwood, Colo.; known for producing the plays of Lillian Hellman (1905-84). Am. "Weary Willie" circus clown Emmett Leo Kelly (d. 1979) on Dec. 9 in Sedan, Kan. Am. "Strange Fruit" novelist and anti-segregation social critic Lillian Smith (d. 1966) on Dec. 12 in Jasper, Fla. Am. publisher John Cowles Sr. (d. 1983) on Dec. 14 in Algona, Iowa; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Harvard U.; son of Gardner Cowles Sr.; father of John Cowles Jr. (1929-). Am. "Tropic Death" Harlem Renaissance novelist (black) Eric Derwent Walrond (b. 1966) on Dec. 18 in Georgetown, Guyana. Am. "Penny Serenade", "Theodora Goes Wild", "We Were So Young" actress-singer Irene Marie Dunne (d. 1990) on Dec. 20 in Louisville, Ky. Soviet quantum physicist Vladimir Aleksandrovich Foch (d. 1974) on Dec. 22 in St. Petersburg. English Mayan archeologist Sir John Eric Sidney Thompson (d. 1975) on Dec. 31 in London; educated at Cambridge U.; knighted in 1975. British Pvt. John Parr (d. 1914) in Church End. Persian shah Ahmad Mirza Shah Kajar (Qajar) (d. 1930) on ? in ?. German Bayer Co. chemist Josef Klarer (d. 1953) on ? in ?. South African Zulu ANC pres. (black) Albert John "Mvumbi" Luthuli (Lutuli) (d. 1967) on ? near Bulawayo. Am. "The Anatomy of Revolution" historian Clarence Crane Brinton (d. 1968) on ? in Winsted, Conn.; educated at Harvard U. and Oxford U. Algerian nationalist politician Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj (d. 1974) on ? in ?. English economist Sir Arnold Plant (d. 1978) on ? in Hoxton, London; educated at the London School of Economics; knighted 1947. Indian Yoga scholar (Theosophist) (vegetarian) Iqbal Kishen Taimni (d. 1978) in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Deaths: Am. Mormon pres. #4 (1889-98) Wilford Woodruff (b. 1807) on Sept. 2 in San Francisco, Calif. English Liberal 4-time PM (1868-74, 1880-5, 1886, 1892-4) ("Grand Old Man of England") William Ewart Gladstone (b. 1809) on May 19 in Hawarden Castle (cancer): "All the world over, I will back the masses against the classes." Am. legislator Justin Smith Morrill (b. 1810). English educator Henry Liddell (b. 1811) on Jan. 18. English inventor Sir Henry Bessemer (b. 1813) on Mar. 15 in Denmark Hill, London. British piano maker John Brinsmead (b. 1814). German chancellor #1 (1871-90) Otto von Bismarck (b. 1815) on July 30 in Friedrichsruh (near Hamburg): "Anyone who has ever looked into the glazed eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will think hard before starting a war"; "The statesman can only wait and listen until he hears the footsteps of God resounding through events; then he must jump up and grasp the hem of His coat, that is all"; "I have seen three emperors in their nakedness, and the sight was not inspiring"; "History is simply a piece of paper covered with print; the main thing is still to make history, not to write it" - how about to read it, not to feed it? to read it, not to need it? to study it, not to muddy it? to compare it, not to dare it? to memorize it, not to aggrandize or balkanize or supersize it? to heed it, not to repeat it? to like it, not to love it? English railway engineer Sir John Fowler (b. 1817) on Nov. 10 in Bournemouth, Dorset. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. John Stuart Williams (b. 1818) on July 17 in Mount Sterling, Ky. German novelist-poet Theodor Fontane (b. 1819) on Sept. 20 in Berlin. Am. Civil War Union Gen. William Starke Rosencrans (b. 1819) on Mar. 11 in Redondo, Calif. Scottish theologian John Caird (b. 1820) on July 30. German economist Karl Knies (b. 1821) on Aug. 3 in Heidelberg. Zionism founder Rabbi Samuel Mohilever (b. 1824). Am. jurist Thomas McIntyre Cooley (b. 1824). French mural painter Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (b. 1824) on Oct. 24 in Paris. Am. Mich. chief justice (1864-85) Thomas McIntyre Cooley (b. 1824) on Sept. 12 in Ann Arbor, Mich.; in 1972 the Thomas M. Cooley Law School in Lansing, Mich. is founded, becoming the largest in the U.S. English Plimsoll mark advocate Samuel Plimsoll (b. 1824). Swiss Balmer Series physicist Johann Jakob Balmer (b. 1825) on Mar. 12 in Basel. French painter Louis Eugene Boudin (b. 1825) on Aug. 3. French painter Adolphe William Bouguereau (b. 1825). French architect Jean Louis Charles Garnier (b. 1825). Swiss writer Conrad Ferdinand Meyer (b. 1825) on Nov. 28. Am. activist Matilda Joslyn Gage (b. 1826) in Chicago, Ill. French Symbolist painter Gustave Moreau (b. 1826) on Apr. 18 in Paris. Am. Dem. politician-diplomat Thomas Francis Bayard (b. 1828) on Sept. 29 in Dedham, Mass. German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn (b. 1828). English writer George Augustus Sala (b. 1828). Am. economist David Ames Wells (b. 1828) on Nov. 5 in Norwich, Conn. Hungarian violinist Ede Remenyi (b. 1828) on May 15 in New York City. Russian vodka king Pyotr Smirnov (b. 1898). English "Alice in Wonderland" mathematician-writer Lewis Carroll (b. 1832) on Jan. 14 in Guildford, Surrey; inventor of the word "chortle" (chuckle + snort): "If you limit your actions in life to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do much." English artist Sir Edward Burne-Jones (b. 1833) on June 17; the Prince of Wales gives him a memorial service at Westminster Abbey, a first for an artist. Belgian artist Felicien Rops (b. 1839) on Aug. 23. English Tichborne estates claimant Arthur Orton (b. 1834) on Apr. 1. German novelist and Egyptologist Georg Ebers (b. 1837) on Aug. 7 in Tutzing, Bavaria. English chemist John Newlands (b. 1837) on July 29. Cuban rev. leader Calixto Garcia Iniguez (b. 1839) on Dec. 11 in New York City (pneumonia); dies on a diplomatic mission. Am. temperance leader Frances Willard (b. 1839) on Feb. 17 in New York City (influenza); "The noblest woman of her age" (John Greenleaf Whittier). Scottish novelist William Black (b. 1841) on Dec. 10 in Brighton, England. U.S. Sen. (1875-81) Blanche Kelso Bruce (b. 1841) on Mar. 17 in Washington D.C. French "Afternoon of a Faun" symbolist poet Stephane Mallarme (b. 1842) on Sept. 9 in Valvins, Vulaines-sur-Seine. Am. "David Harum" novelist Edward Noyes Westcott (b. 1846). Am. "Looking Backward" writer Edward Bellamy (b. 1850) on May 22 in Chicopee Falls, Mass. French auto racer Emile Mayade (b. 1853) on Sept. 18 in Chevanceaux, Charente-Maritime (runs his car into a runaway horse and cart). Am. inventor William Seward Burroughs (b. 1855) on Sept. 14. English celeb (wife of Oscar Wilde) Constance Wilde (b. 1858) on Apr. 7 in Genoa, Italy. Chinese reformist leader Tan Sitong (b. 1865) on Sept. 28 (executed). English illustrator Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (b. 1872) on Mar. 16 in Menton, France (TB); "So extravagantly foppish, so precious in his speech and so languid in his posturings that Oscar Wilde claimed him for his own invention" (Stanley Weintraub) - the good die young?



1899 - The 1st time that Millennium Fever seems outright dumb to millions, who see a great future ahead, beginning at The Hague - the dopes? The Brits sense the end of their Empire Where the Sun Never Sets with the built-in White Man's Burden? Meanwhile for the melting pot U.S. the Millennium is just Opening Night for the Pshrink? Master race white man has still not reached either of the poles, but he does have a World Court?

Spanish Survivors of the Siege of Baler, June 2, 1899 Jacob Gould Schurman of the U.S. (1854-1942) Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) British Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White (1835-1912) Sereno Elisha Payne of the U.S. (1843-1914) Émile Loubet of France (1838-1929) Marguerite Jeanne 'Meg' Steinheil (1869-1954) Lord Walter Runciman (1870-1949) Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Mad Mullah) of Somalia (1856-1920) Boer Gen. Piet Joubert (1834-1900) Boer Gen. Piet Cronje (1836-1911) Terencio Sierra of Honduras (1839-1907) Carlos I of Portugal (1863-1908) Sobhuza II of Swaziland (1899-1982) Sir George Nathaniel Curzon of England (1859-1925) Willard Duncan Vandiver of the U.S. (1854-1932) James Jackson 'Jim' Jeffries (1875-1953) Bob Fitzsimmons (1863-1917) Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875-1966) Harry Houdini (1874-1926) Harry Houdini (1874-1926) Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913) Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) Scott Joplin (1868-1917) Charles Waddell Chesnutt (1858-1932) Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925) Max Dessoir (1867-1947) Isadora Duncan (1877-1927) Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923) Josiah Flynt (1869-1907) Georg Alexander Pick (1859-1942) William Henry Pickering (1858-1938) William King Gillette (1855-1932) Herman Heijermans (1864-1924) Karl Kraus (1874-1936) Andre Louis Debierne (1874-1949) Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934) Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942) Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (1875-1912) Johan Rudolf Kjellen (1864-1922) Geza Gardonyi (1863-1922) Isaac Hecker (1819-82) Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) Kristian Olaf Birkeland (1867-1917) S.S. Kresge (1867-1966) Robert Bowie Owens (1870-1940) Henry Hale Bliss (1830-99) Josef Kainz (1858-1910) Telegraphone, 1899 David Dunbar Buick (1854-1929) Williami Crapo Durant (1861-1947) James H. Whiting (1842-1919) Buick Logo Giovanni Agnelli (1866-1945) Fiat Logo Louis Renault (1877-1944) Marcel Renault (1872-1903) Renault Logo John Brisben Walker (1847-1931) Francis Edgar Stanley (1849-1918) Freelan Oscar Stanley (1849-1940) Amzi Lorenzo Barber (1843-1909) Locomobile Locomobile Logo Little Black Sambo, 1899 Mrs. Minnie Madern Fiske (1865-1932) Helen Bannerman (1861-1946) 'Little Black Sambo' by helen Bannerman (1861-1946), 1899 Margaret Deland (1857-1924) Charles Godfrey Leland (1824-1903) Max Liebermann (1847-1935) Chauncey Olcott (1858-1932) Henri Pirenne (1862-1935) Edward Noyes Westcott (1846-98) 'Das Haus' by Walter Leistikow, 1899 'Water Lillies' by Claude Monet (1840-1926), 1899- Sir George Frampton (1860-1928) 'Lamia' by Sir George Frampton, 1899-1900 Smith & Wesson Model 10, 1899 'Cows Crossing the Lys' by Emile Claus, 1899 Francis Barraud (1856-1924) 'His Master's Voice' by Francis Barraud, 1899 William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (1860-1935) 'King John', 1899 'The Land Baby' by John Collier (1850-1934), 1899 'Splash of Sunshine and Rain' by Maurice Prendergast, 1899 'San Toy', 1899 Park Row Building, 1899

1899 The 6th Cholera Pandemic of the 19th Cent. begins (ends 1923), spreading out of Russia across the Mediterranean to S France, but otherwise not affecting Europe much. New York City still has no sewage system or running water; diarrhea claims 75% of all children under age five; the 3M+ pop. is bunched below 57th St. or along the border of Brooklyn; the 30-story Park Row Bldg. becomes the world's tallest bldg. (until ?); the Bronx Zoo and Brooklyn Children's Museum open; the Boulevard becomes Broadway above 59th St.; the city has 43 newspapers, 23 in English; 100K-200K horses live in the city, with a lifespan of 2.5 years, and when they drop dead they must be allowed to decompose before they can be carted away in hunks - the whole city stinks like what? On Jan. 1 Trinidad and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela are united as a British colony. On Jan. 21 the Philippine Repub. is declared under Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo, with its own Malolos Constitution, drawn up by the ilustrados on the U.S. model, incl. separation of powers and separation of church and state; the U.S. refuses to recognize it, and annexation forces in Congress win by a narrow margin after a fierce debate; on Feb. 4 U.S. sentry William Grayson kills a Filipino soldier, starting the Philippine-Am. War (ends 1902), in which atrocities are committed by both sides; in Mar. the U.S. sends the 5-man First Philippine (Schurman) Commission, headed by Jacob Gould Schurman (1854-1942), promising self-govt. under U.S. authority; at the same time the Moro Rebellion by separatist Muslims in S Philippines begins (end 1913). On Jan. 22 Pope Leo XIII issues the bull Testem Benevolentiae Nostrae, condemning the "Americanism" of U.S. priest Isaac Thomas Hecker (1819-88), 1858 founder of the Paulist Fathers, who was raised a Methodist; actually, it never mentions him by name, only condemns certain doctrines he might be holding, after which they clear him and he straightens up and flies right, and might end up a saint? In Jan. Sereno Elisha Payne (1843-1914) (R-N.Y.) becomes the first U.S. House majority leader (until 1911). On Feb. 1 typographer Terencio Sierra (1839-1907) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 1, 1903). On Feb. 6 the U.S. Senate ratifies the peace treaty with Spain. On Feb. 7 Gen. Dynamics is founded in Elizabethport, N.J. by John Philip Holland to sell the submarine USS Holland; on Feb. 7 he sells it to Isaac Leopold Rice, who renames it the Electric Boat Co., which gets into a scandal in 1904-5 by selling submarines to Japan; in 1946 it purchases Canadair; on Apr. 24, 1952 it is renamed Gen. Dynamics; in Mar. 1953 it purchases Convair, makers of the Atlas ICBM, becoming the #4 defense contractor on Earth by 2010. On Feb. 16 Felix Faure (b. 1841) dies in his office of apoplexy while getting a beejay by 30-y.-o. ho Marguerite Jeanne "Meg" Steinheil (1869-1954), and on Feb. 18 Left Republican Emile (Émile) Loubet (1838-1929) (pres. of the French senate since 1896) becomes pres. #8 of the French Repub. (until Feb. 18, 1906), working to weaken the Monarchist Party vis a vis the Repubs. On Feb. 25 Edwin Sewell and Maj. Richer are thrown from their automobile on Harrow on the Hill in Middlesex, London, becoming the first driver-passenger automobile fatalities. On Feb. 25 Renault S.A. (originally Societe Renault Freres) is founded in France by brothers Louis Renault (1877-1944), Marcel Renault (1872-1903), and Fernand Renault (1865-1909), growing to a top French automobile manufacturer, producing the Renault FT tank in WWI; Marcel Renault dies on May 25, 1903 of injuries in a Paris-Madrid auto race; too bad, Louis Renault is accused of collaborating with the Germans in WWII, and the co. is nationalized. In Feb. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) pub. the poem The White Man's Burden in McClure's Mag., creating a big reaction, either hero worship or backlash; he wrote it to tell the Yanks what they were up against for taking over the Philippines?; "Take up the White Man's burden/ Send forth the best ye breed... Your new-caught, sullen peoples,/ Half-devil and half-child" - what a way to start the 20th century? On Mar. 2 Congress establishes 241K-acre Mount Rainier Nat. Park in WC Wash., known for 26 active glaciers - the park where it's always rainier? On Mar. 15 U.S. and British warships shell the city of Apia in Western Samoa to intimidate the reigning king, who is allied with the Germans; after failing to pacify the interior all sides agree to cease fighting on May 13, and the monarchy is abolished; on Nov. 7 (Dec. 2) Germany, Britain and the U.S. sign the Treaty of Berlin, dividing Samoa between them; the U.S. receives rights extending over all islands of the Samoa group E of long. 171 deg. W. (incl. Tutuila), and gives Germany the other islands (Western Samoa, Savaii, Upolu); the British withdraw in return for rights to Tonga and parts of the Solomons. On Mar. 21 as a solution to the Fashoda Incident, France and Britain sign the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Convention, making Sudan an Anglo-Egyptian condominium and establishing the Nile and the Congo Rivers as the boundaries of French and British spheres of influence in N Africa. They only gave them Civil War darkies 40 acres and a mule, and reneged on that? On Apr. 22 (Sat.) the Oklahoma Land Rush begins as people lined up on the Ark. and Tex. borders race in to claim 640 acres (1 sq. mi.) each; "sooners" (people lawfully therefore before now) are prohibited from filing claims, but that doesn't stop them - how much goes to non-whites, don't ask? In Apr. Mohammad bin Abdullah Hassan (AKA Mad Mullah) (1856-1920) begins a war against the British in British Somaliland (ends 1905), with the motto "Christian overlordship is tantamount to the destruction of his people's faith", calling his followers dervishes, and after some Brits sell him a gun and the vice-consul finds out and demands it back, that gives him his excuse to begin jihad, rounding 1.5K dervishes equipped with 20 modern rifles; his favorite horse is named Hiin-Faniin. In Apr. Thomas A. Watson, ex-asst. of Alexander Graham Bell founds the Fore River Shipbuilding Co. S of Boston, Mass., and begins building destroyers for the U.S. Navy; in 1913 Bethlehem Steel purchases it, and goes on to make it the #1 Navy shipbuilding yard. Millennium Fever causes the Tsar to attempt to head-off Christ? On May 18-July 29 the First Internat. Hague Peace Conference defines the laws of war, prohibiting for five years gas warfare, dum-dum bullets, projectiles dropped from balloons, and mistreatment of POWs, and establishing next year the permanent voluntary Internat. Court of Justice (Hague Tribunal), proposed by Einstein-lookalike Dutch Jewish jurist Tobias Michel Carel Asser (1838-1913), becoming the ancestor of the 1945 U.N. Internat. Court of Justice; the Hague Convention on Chemical Warfare is signed by the Japanese Yamato emperor; disarmament and compulsory arbitration are tabled; former U.S. pres. Benjamin Harrison and his cradle-robber wife Mary Harrison attend. On May 31 the Harriman Expedition (funded by railroad tycoon E.H. Harriman) leaves Seattle for a 2-mo. scientific survey of the Alaskan coast, causing Harriman Fjord in Prince William Sound to be named for him. On June 2 the Siege of Baler (begun last July 1) is ended when a Madrid newspaper announcing the signing of the Treaty of Paris is received, and the insurgents let the Spanish soldiers return to Spain, becoming symbolic of the end of Spanish control of the Philippines; 100 years later the Spanish govt. pays homage to them. On June 2 members of the Wild Bunch gang, Harvey "Kid Curry" Logan, his brother Louis "Lonie" Logan (1871-) and his 1st cousin Bob "Gen. Robert E. Lee" Curry (1865-), "Flat Nose" George Currie et al. rob a Union Pacific train 1 mi. W of Wilcox, Wyo., using too much dynamite on the safe and ending up with only $3.4K in tattered bank notes, although it is reported as $30K, causing a combined $3K reward to be offered by the railroad and the U.S. govt.; on June 5 a posse corners them on the Powder River, but they kill sheriff Josiah "Joe" Hazen and escape; on July 11 members of the Ketchum Gang, Elzy Lay (-1934), Will Carver and Sam Ketchum hold up a Colo. and Southern train near Folsom, N.M., and once again blow up the safe to find little cash; this time the posse, led by deputy U.S. marshal Wilson "Memphis" Elliott does better and corners them in Turkey Creek Canyon near Cimarron, N.M., and after a long gunfight a sheriff and a posseman are killed, and Ketchum is shot in the leg, later dying of blood poisoning, while Lay is wounded and captured; on Aug. 16 Black Jack Ketchum tries to rob another train alone in Folsom, N.M., and is wounded and captured, then hanged on Apr. 26, 1901 in Clayton, N.M., his head coming off; Lay is given life for 2nd degree murder, has his sentenced commuted to 10 years, and is released in 1905; Will Carver gets away. On June 13 the Battle of Zapote River becomes the biggest of the Philippine-Am. War. In the summer the Tenement House Exhibition in New York City spotlights a terrible social problem. On July 1 a group of Protestant U.S. travelling salesmen, after founding Gideons Internat. to place Bibles in hotel rooms and hospitals, place their first Bibles - Millennium Fever again? On July 11 the Fiat Motor Co. (Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torini) is founded in Turin, Italy by a group of investors incl. Giovanni Agnelli (1866-1945), who becomes dir. in 1900, and chmn. in 1920; in 1903 it manufactures 135 cars, growing to 1,149 in 1906, when it goes public on the Milan exchange and founds its first U.S. dealer in Manhattan, N.Y., growing to 3rd largest Italian industrial co. by the end of WWI; in 1968 it acquires Lancia; in 1969 it buys shares in Ferrari; in 1986 it takes control of Alfa Romeo from the Italian govt.; in 1993 it purchases Maserati; by 2013 it becomes the 7th biggest world automaker, and 2nd largest in Europe; on Jan. 29, 2014 it becomes full owner of Chrysler Group LLC, becoming Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV. On Aug. 20 an agreement between the U.S. and Sulu grants the latter religious (Muslim) liberty in return for an end to the slave trade and loyalty to the U.S., resulting in eventual semi-incorporation into the Philippines. Opening Night for the Global Policeman of the United States? On Sept. 6 U.S. secy. of state (1898-1905) John Milton Hay sends a circular letter to all the major powers asking them to subscribe to the U.S. Open Door Policy for China, which guarantees Chinese territorial and admin. integrity while preserving free and equal trade with all parts of China by all nations, particularly the U.S.; in other words, gunboat diplomacy cannot be used to carve China up, only to let trade flow to the U.S.; by next year England, France, Germany, Russia, Italy, and Japan agree to it, acknowledging the U.S. as a world power. On Sept. 13 real estate salesman Henry Hale Bliss (b. 1830) becomes the first person in the U.S. to be killed in an automobile accident in the U.S. when he is hit by a cab in New York City after leaving a streetcar at W. 74th St. and Central Park West, and dies the next morning; taxi driver Arthur Smith is tried for manslaughter and acquitted; his passenger Dr. David Edson is the son of former New York City mayor Franklin Edson; on Sept. 13, 1999 a plaque is dedicated on the site. You work it girl, you got the power? After Johannesburg Uitlanders complain to Queen Victoria about the Boers, the Bloemfontein Conference on Transvaal is held; the British decide to annex the Transvaal again, causing Paul Kruger to issue an ultimatum, which leads to the Second Boer War on Oct. 9 (ends 1902); Frederick Sleigh, hero of Kandahar replaces Sir Redvers Henry Buller as CIC of British military forces in South Africa; Kruger, being too old to take the field goes to Europe to attempt to gain support; first war to use smokeless powder in firearms; on Oct. 20 the Boers start out badly with a defeat at the Battle of Glencoe, but on Oct. 30 Boer Gen. Piet (Petrus Jacobus) Joubert (1834-1900) wins the Battle of Nicholson's Nek and on Nov. 2 sieges Ladysmith in Natal (140 mi. NW of Durban), commanded by British Gen. Sir George Stuart White (1835-1912); on Nov. 28 the Battle of Modder River sees the Brits under Lord Metheun force the Boers under Gen. Piet Arnoldus Cronje (1836-1911) out of Kimberley but only after suffering heavy losses of their own after Cronje positions his infantry at the base of the hills instead of the tops to make use of their rifles' flat trajectories; on Dec. 10 Black Week begins as the Brits are defeated by the Boers under Louis Botha at the Battle of Stormberg, followed on Dec. 11 by the Battle of Magersfontein near Kimberley, followed on Dec. 15 by the Battle of Colenso; the stiff-upper-lip Brits bring in Canadian and Australian volunteers for a counterpunch. On Oct. 19 King Luis I of Portugal dies, and is succeeded by his son Carlos I (1863-1908). On Oct. 19 17-y.-o. New England teenie Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945), fresh from reading H.G. Wells' 1895 novel "The War of the Worlds" climbs a cherry tree and gets his big inspiration to "make some device which had even the possibility of ascending to Mars", and devotes his life to making rockets, calling Oct. 19 his "anniversary day" - Millennium Fever works in reverse on a sci-fi fan? On Nov. 2 the French under Fernand Foureau (1850-1914) complete their conquest of the central Sahara by traversing it to the trading post of Zinder between the Niger River and Lake Chad. On Nov. 21 U.S. vice-pres. Garret A. Hobart (b. 1844) dies, and joins the illustrious list of veeps who die in office (George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry, William Rufus King, Henry Wilson, Thomas A. Hendricks). On Dec. 10 12-day-old Sobhuza II (1899-1982) is crowned as king of Swaziland (until Aug. 21, 1982), with his grandmother Labotsibeni Mdluli as regent (until Dec. 22, 1921); he ends up reigning for 82 years 9 mo., the longest monarchical reign since antiquity. Fearing a Turkish takeover, the Sheik of Kuwait and Britain sign a bilateral agreement giving Britain the responsibility for Kuwait's defense and foreign affairs; approval for the Baghdad Railway is stalled long enough for the Deutsche Bank and the German-Anatolian Railway Co. to secure preliminary concessions for the final stage, Konia to Baghdad on Nov. 25; opposition by Britain, France, and Russia hampers construction, and it isn't finished until 1940. Wake Island in the Pacific is annexed by the U.S. The Germans buy the Marianas (Ladrones) (minus Guam) and the Palau Islands from Spain.