Queen Victoria of Brtain (1819-1901) Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France (1769-1821) British Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) Thomas Jefferson of the U.S. (1743-1826) John Marshall of the U.S. (1755-1835) Aaron Burr of the U.S. (1756-1836) Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Joseph Smith (1805-44) Shaka Zulu (1787-1828)

Andrew Jackson of the U.S. (1767-1845) Charles Dickens (1812-70) Henry David Thoreau (1817-62) Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) Frederick Douglass (1818-95) Abraham Lincoln of the U.S. (1809-65) Confed. Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70) Ulysses S. Grant of the U.S. (1822-85) Jefferson Davis of the U.S. (1808-89)

T.L. Winslow's Nineteenth (19th) Century Historyscope 1800-1899 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Louis Pasteur (1822-95) Charles Darwin (1809-82) Santa Anna of Mexico (1794-1876) British Gen. Charles George 'Chinese' Gordon (1833-85) Thomas Edison (1847-1931) Karl Marx (1818-83) Otto von Bismarck of Prussia (1815-98) Giuseppe Garibaldi of Italy (1807-82) Pope Pius IX the Infallible (1792-1878)

Statue of Liberty, 1886 Eiffel Tower, 1889 Mark Twain (1835-1910) Buffalo Bill Cody (1846-1917) and Sitting Bull (1831-90) Richard Wagner (1813-83) Walt Whitman (1819-92) Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) H.G. Wells (1866-1946)

TLW's 1800s (1800-1809) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1800s Historyscope 1800-1809 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809

The Nineteenth (19th) Century C.E. (1800-1899)

The Brain Century? The White Man's Burden Century? A too long century? The Old Order in Europe is on the run as the establishment of Science begins to gain governmental power, while every Tom, Dick and Harry religious, social and political movement afoot tries to steal its name or appearance? Britain's century, ruling an empire where the Sun never sets, while the its stepchild the U.S. is coming on strong, whitening its teeth yearly and sending out Lewis and Clark to find more lebensraum, putting their president in a charred black house for a while? The Protestant Century in the U.S., where preachers become celebs as they lead the flock to Darwinism but not Nazism? The Franz-naming mania in Central Europe continues, stronger than ever?

The First Decade of the 19th Century (18-Zeds) (1800-1809 C.E.)

The O for Joy Heroic Napoleon Bonaparte Horati Nelson Trafalgar Decade, with hearing-challenged Ludwig van Beethoven king of the music world, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe of the literary world, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel of the philosophic world, and Napoleon Bonaparte emperor of half of Europe, kicking butt and pulling apart the bones of Chicken Marengo, while everybody else settles for potatoes but gains enough weight to breed like cattle? The decade starts out with the shocking discovery of voltaic piles, and not only physics and chemistry but math, astronomy, biology, and geology make breakthroughs? A good decade for founding military academies, and for thirds? Goya goes both ways with Majas? Schiller eats shoots and leaves?

Country Leader From To
United States of America John Adams (1735-1826) Mar. 4, 1797 Mar. 4, 1801 John Adams of the U.S. (1735-1826)
Britain George III (1738-1820) Oct. 25, 1760 Jan. 29, 1820 George III of Britain (1738-1820)
France Emperor Napoleon I (1769-1821) May 18, 1804 Apr. 6, 1814 Napoleon I of France (1769-1821)
Spain Charles IV (1748-1819) Dec. 14, 1788 Mar. 19, 1808 Charles IV of Spain (1748-1819)
Austria HRE Francis II (1768-1835) Mar. 1, 1792 Aug. 6, 1806 HRE Francis II (1768-1835)
Russia Tsar Paul I (1754-1801) Nov. 17, 1796 Mar. 12, 1801 Tsar Paul I of Russia (1754-1801)
Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770-1840) Nov. 16, 1797 June 7, 1840 Frederick William III of Prussia (1770-1840)
Papacy Pope Pius VII (1740-1823) Mar. 14, 1800 July 20, 1823 Pope Pius VII (1740-1823)
Turkey Sultan Selim III (1761-1808) Apr. 7, 1789 July 29, 1808 Sultan Selim III of Turkey (1761-1808)

1800 - The Napoleon Bonaparte Gets Jets Year?

'Napoleon I (1769-1821) on Marengo (1793-1831)', by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), 1801 Joachim Murat of Naples (1767-1815) Carolina Bonaparte Marat of Naples (1782-1839) Pope Pius VII (1740-1823) French Gen. Jean Victor Moreau (1763-1813) Archduke John of Austria (1782-1859) Austrian Gen. Paul Kray von Krajowa (1735-1804) Austrian Field Marshal Michael Friedrich Benedikt, Baron von Melas (1729-1806) French Marshal Louis Charles Antoine Desaix (1768-1800) French Gen. Claude Jacques Lecourbe (1759-1815) British Gen. Sir Ralph Abercrombie (1734-1801) Mahmud Shah Durrani of Afghanistan (1769-1829) British Princess Sophia (1777-1848) Samuel Dexter of the U.S. (1761-1816) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Johann Friedrich Christoph von Schiller (1759-1805) Gabriel Prosser (1776-1800) Robert Owen (1771-1858) Robert Fulton (1765-1815) Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (1753-1816) Luke Howard (1772-1864) William Playfair (1759-1823) William Smith (1769-1839) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822) Bernard de Marigny (1785-1868) Clemens Brentano (1778-1842) Thomas Campbell (1777-1844) Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849) Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816) Jean Paul (1763-1825) Novalis (1772-1801) Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet (1685-1749) Lieven Bauwens (1769-1822) Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842) Bill Richmond (1763-1829) Vincenzo Monti (1754-1828) Thomas Morton (1764-1838) Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) Johann Spurzheim (1776-1832) James Gregory (1753-1821) John Bell (1763-1820) Henry Maudslay (1771-1831) Daniel Steibelt (1765-1823) Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847) 'Johnny Appleseed' John Chapman (1774-1845) Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) 'Parson Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825) and the story of Washington Chopping Down the Cherry Tree', Grant Wood (1891-1942), 1939 'Parson Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825) and the story of Washington Chopping Down the Cherry Tree', Grant Wood (1891-1942), 1939 Guillotine Grunge fashions, 1800 Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin (1766-1841) The Elgin Marbles 'Napoleon as Liberator of Italy', by Francesco Alberi (1765-1836), 1800 'The Naked Maja' by Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), 1800 'The Clothed Maja' by Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), 1803 Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard (1743-1809) 'Nightmare', by Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard (1743-1809), 1800 Japanese Shunga

1800 Jan. 1, 1800 falls on Wednesday, so this is a Mercury (Woden) Century. World pop. exceeds 1B (one billion) for the 1st time; India: 200M, China: 275M (460M in 1960), Russia (minus Finland): 31M, France (boundaries of 1819-46): 27.8M, Germany: 27M, Italy (boundaries of 1910): 16.9M, Spain: 10.5M, Britain: 10.4M (U.K.: 15M), Prussia (boundaries of 1846): 8.9M; Belgium: 2.96M, Holland: 1.8M, Sweden: 2.3M, Norway: 1.0M; Africa: 107M. Pop. of cities: Beijing: 1M; London: 860K, Paris: 550K, Vienna: 230K, Berlin: 180K, Washington D.C.: 2,464 free plus 623 slave (8K total in the immediate area); there is only one city with a pop. of 1M+, which grows to ? by 2010. The Second (2nd) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 5,308,483 (35.1% increase) (6.1 per sq. mi.); whites 81.1%; blacks 1,002,037 (18.9%); pop. of New York City: 30K-60K, beginning to double in size every 10 years; 85% of the U.S. labor force works in agriculture; blacks are now completely locked into the American institutional slavery system, their skin color being a badge of inferiority; life expectancy in W Europe is 40 years, and the potato-fed pop. has increased in all its nations from 50%-100% since 1730, with the boom in premarital sexual intercourse since 1780 making a big prick. World Economic Growth jumps from 0% to 2% per annum for the first time in known history, making the modern world possible? This year forests cover 96% of Ohio; by 1900 it's only 25%. By the end of this decade the British cotton industry employs 90K factory workers and 184K handloom weavers. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) establishes himself as First Consul in the Tuileries, and appoints a commission of jurors to combine all French civil laws into the patriarchial Code Napoleon (1804-10), to go into effect on Mar. 21, 1804, with Jean Jacques Regis, duc de Cambaceres, author of the Projet de Code Civil as 2nd consul; women have no political rights, and divorce with alimony is reserved to worn-out bitches, er, wives over 45 who have been married at least 20 years; the tradition of impartible inheritance is ended, contributing to low birthrates as families seek to pass land on intact; Chateau de Malmaison 7 mi. W of Paris on the Seine River, home of Napoleon and Josephine since 1799 becomes with the Tuileries the HQ of the French govt. (until 1802); Nappy allegedly orders people to drive on the right side of the road - if he can do that, he can get away with anything? On Jan. 20 Napoleon's sister Maria Annunziata Carolina Bonaparte (1782-1839) marries natty dresser Joachim Murat (1767-1815), making him Nappy's brother-in-law - well la-di-da? On Jan. 24 the Convention of al-Arish provides for safe return of French troops from Egypt, with the Ottomans paying for their redeployment, while remaining in control of the Ionian Islands; too bad, British Mediterranean CIC adm. Lord Keith doesn't accept the convention. In Jan. French economist Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817), his two sons Victor Marie du Pont (1767-1827) (a diplomat) and Eleuthere Irenee (Eleuthère Irénée) du Pont (1771-1834) (a gunpowder manufacturer) and their families arrive in Newport, R.I. from France - a better gift than the Statue of Liberty? In Jan. Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin (1766-1841) establishes his British embassy in Constantinople, where he is ambassador to Turkey from 1799-1802; in July he sends a team to Athens to see if they can carry away the Elgin Marbles (marble sculptures by Phidias) from the Parthenon to avoid probable destruction by the Turks; by July 6 the Sultan of Constantinople at Lord Elgin's request issues written orders to his officers in Athens for cooperation with Giovanni Lusieri in removing sculptures from the "pagan" Parthenon; in 1806 they are shipped to England, then acquired by the British Museum in 1816, where they become a thorn in Britain's side to the present day. On Feb. 17 the Law of 28 Pluviose centralizes the French admin., with local govt. in the hands of centrally-appointed prefects and subprefects. On Mar. 14 Jesuit-friendly Luigi Barnab a Chiaramonte is elected Pope (#251) Pius VII (1740-1823) (until Aug. 20, 1823). On Mar. 20 the 10K French under Gen. Kleber win a crushing V over the 40K-man Ottoman army in a surprise dawn attack in the Battle of Heliopolis (NE of Cairo); meanwhile the Egyptians revolt, causing Kleber to siege Cairo, taking it on Aug. 21; on June 14 after recognizing Murad Bey as ruler of Upper Egypt, Kleber (b. 1753) is assassinated, and is succeeded by French gen. Jacques-Francois de Menou (until Aug. 30, 1801), who tries to establish a permanent French occupation of Egypt, starting with tax reforms. On Apr. 21 New Hanover County, N.C.-born 4'5" Alfred Moore (1755-1810) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #12 (until Jan. 26, 1804) to replace James Iredell (1790-99) (who died suddenly in office), becoming the 2nd justice from N.C. and the shortest justice (until ?); too bad, he suffers from poor health and doesn't do much except render an opinion that France is an enemy of the U.S. On Apr. 24 the U.S. Congress passes a bill transfering the seat of the U.S. federal govt. from Philly to the new capital city of Washington, D.C., and establishing the Library of Congress, funded by a $5K appropriation to order 740 books and three maps from London which are initially housed in a boarding house, then the U.S. Capitol. On Apr. 27 Napoleon grants a gen. amnesty to all but 1K of the 150K French who emigrated during the French Rev., allowing English exile Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand to return in May, becoming ed. of the Mercure de France. On May 3 the Second Battle of Stockach (Battle of Stockach and Engen) is a V for the French under gen. Claude Jacques Lecourbe (1759-1815) over the Austrians under Prince Joseph of Lorraine-Vaudemont (1759-1812). On May 7 the W part of the Northwest Territory (Illinois) becomes a part of Indiana Territory, with Gen. William Henry Harrison as its first gov., and capital at Vincennes (until 1813); Territorial Hall is built, becoming the first capitol, and in 1804 the William Henry Harrison Mansion is built. On May 13 Mass. Federalist Sen. (since 1799) Samuel Dexter (1761-1816), who wrote the memorial eulogy to George Washington last year becomes U.S. war secy. #4 (until Jan. 31, 1801), going on to urge Congress to appoint and compensate more field officers for gen. staff duty. In May Napoleon begins his incredible March Across the Alps, crossing St. Bernard Pass with 40K men to attack the Austrian flank and recapture Milan - where's the doggies? On May 23 a British fleet with 20K troops under Lt. Gen. Sir Ralph Abercrombie (Abercromby) (1734-1801) attacks Monaco. In May a Federalist congressional caucus nominates John Adams for pres. and XYZ-Affair man Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of S.C. for vice-pres.; in Oct. Alexander Hamilton declares that Adams is temperamentally unfit to be pres., accusing him of being a "gross hypocrite" for his abuses of power with the Alien and Sedition Acts, and an "egregious fool"; in May the Repub. caucus selects Thomas Jefferson for pres. and Aaron Burr for vice-pres.; Burr has just managed the election of a Repub. majority to the New York legislature, wrapping up all of that state's electoral votes; the first true U.S. pres. campaign, birthing the 2-party system; too bad, the election gets nastier (the nastiest pres. election ever?) when Jefferson is called an atheist and a Jacobin; Adams dismisses the three disloyal (pro-Hamilton) members of his cabinet; the election is so momentous that Jefferson dubs it "America's second revolution"; the beginning of America's 24-Year Itch Cycle, when populists arise and shake the system up, incl. Andrew Jackson (1824), the Whigs (1852), Samuel Tilden (1876), William Jennings Bryan (1896), Warren G. Harding (1920), GOP takeover of Congress (1946), George Wallace (1968), Ross Perot (1992), and Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders (2016). On June 4 Genoa surrenders to Austria after experiencing a horrible famine - tella me whena? On June 14 Napoleon's army defeats Austria and its allies under Transylvanian-born Austrian field marshal (of Greek descent) Michael Friedrich Benedikt, Baron von Melas (1729-1806) at the Battle of Marengo near Alessandria in the Piedmont (NW Italy S of Turin); it seems lost for the French until Marshal Louis Charles Antoine Desaix (b. 1768) risks his marengos to save the day with a charge, and is KIA; Napoleon names his short (14.1 hand) gray Arabian warhorse Marengo (1793-1831) after the battle; Napoleon's chef Dunand invents yummy Chicken Marengo (chicken, garlic, tomatoes, white wine and cognac with crayfish and fried eggs on the side) after the battle, and Napoleon orders it served henceforth after every battle, going on to conquer Italy. On June 19 the French army of the Rhine under gen. Jean Victor Marie Moreau (1761-1813) defeats the Austrians under Paul (Pal) Kray von Krajowa (1735-1804) at the Second Battle of Hochstadt (Höchstädt) (an der Donau) (first 1703) on the N bank of the Danube River NE of Ulm. In the summer George III's unwed (thanks to his insanity scaring off suitors) 5th daughter Princess Sophia (1777-1848) is the butt of rumors that she gave birth to an illegitimate child by Thomas Garth, an equerry of the king, or that she was raped by her unpopular elder brother the duke of Cum, er, Cumberland. On July 2 after British PM William Pitt the Younger spreads the money and patronage around, the Acts of Union, sponsored by ruction-crushing Viscount Castlereagh are enacted, uniting Great Britain with Ireland as the United Kingdom (U.K.), effective next Jan. 1. In July Pope Pius VII enters Rome after Napoleon makes an agreement with the Spanish monarchy that ensures the survival of the Bourbons in Naples and the pope in Rome; Puccini's Jan. 14, 1900 opera Tosca is set on noon June 17 and dawn of June 18 of this year; meanwhile Lord Nelson is created duke of Bronte (Bronté) by the king of Naples, and returns to England, getting in trouble with his wife Frances Nisbet for his affair with Lady Hamilton, ending in separation next year. In July the French army of the Rhine under Gen. Jean Victor Moreau takes Munich. In July a Danish convoy led by the frigate Freya refuses to allow British warships to search a convoy; the British force the Danish to surrender and to give up their armed convoy policy by later sending a large fleet to the Copenhagen Roads; Denmark joins the League of Armed Neutrality (Russia, Sweden, Netherlands, Prussia); Tsar Paul I orders all British ships in Russian harbors seized. In July the Am. privateer Mary, captained by Gamaliel Bradford (1768-1824) routs four French privateers at Gibraltar, although Bradford loses a leg. On Aug. 21 the U.S. Marine Band (founded 1798) gives its first concert near the future site of the Lincoln Memorial. In Aug. the French offer Britain a naval armistice, causing the Brits to think about it and then decide to expel the French from Egypt. On Sept. 5 the British capture Valetta and occupy Malta, ending French occupation, then unsuccessfully siege Cadiz, after which they begin planning an assault on Egypt in conjunction with the Ottomans and a British force from India. On Sept. 30 the Treaty of Mortefontaine (Convention of 1800) is signed by Napoleon's new govt. and the U.S., influenced by George Washington's Farewell Address, with France agreeing to cancel the vexatious treaties in exchange for the U.S. dropping its bothersome financial claims and paying the claims to its own citizens arising out of the undeclared naval war with France, ending the undeclared Quasi-War (begun 1798) along with the formal treaty of alliance between the two countries and all alliances with foreign countries for the next cent., although news doesn't reach the U.S. until after the election in which Adams goes down; George Washington sleeps soundly in his grave now that the U.S. is pulling out of foreign entanglements permanently?; "I desire no other inscription over my gravestone than: Here lies John Adams, who upon himself took sole responsibility of the peace with France in the year 1800" (John Adams). In Sept. the sloop USS George Washington, commanded by William Bainbridge (1774-1833) becomes the first U.S. Navy ship to enter the Mediterranean after being ordered to bring $500K worth of tribute (jizya) to the dey of Algiers. On Oct. 1 under pressure from Napoleon, Spain cedes Louisiana (La.) (held since 1669) to France by the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777, 1796), with France to take control in Nov. 1803, and Spain gaining Tuscany; the treaty also settles territorial disputes between Portugal and Spain over the Rio de Plata region; too bad, it doesn't specify the boundaries of La., causing difficulties during the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. On Oct. 7 Va. slave revolt leader and Richmond blacksmith Gabriel Prosser (b. 1776) is hanged after he and his preacher brother Martin are prevented by a storm from using assembled slaves for an attack on Richmond with the intent to kill all whites except Quakers and Methodists. On Nov. 1 as the U.S. federal govt. moves to Washington, D.C. from Philly, Pres. John Adams and First Lady Abigail Adams move into the 132-room 14-acre Georgian mansion President's House (White House), where fires have to be constantly set to heat the cold rooms, and White House hostess #1 Abigail Adams uses one of the rooms for laundry; on Nov. 2 John writes to her, "I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and on all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof" - will he settle for one out of two? On Nov. 17 after 10 years in Philly the Sixth U.S. Congress (Mar. 4, 1799-Mar. 4, 1801) convenes for the first time in Washington, D.C. in the partially completed U.S. Capitol bldg. On Dec. 3 the Battle of Hohenlinden in Bavaria 20 mi. from Munich is a decisive V for the French under Gen. Jean Victor Moreau over the Austrians under 18-y.-o. Archduke John (1782-1859) (who had replaced Archduke Charles), causing the collapse of the Second Coalition. On Dec. 12 Washington, D.C. is officially established as the capital of the U.S.; its pop. is 14,093 incl. 10,066 whites and 4,027 blacks (783 free, 3,244 slave). On Dec. 28 after trying in vain to get Russia to protect it, E Georgian king George XII (b. 1746) dies, and the kingdom of Georgia is absorbed by Russia, and the royal family deported. On Dec. 31 after a mean press campaign which falsely accuses him of setting fire to the State Dept. bldg., Oliver Wolcott Jr. resigns. In Dec. in Va. Martha Washington sets all her slaves free, except for some co-owned by relatives. U.S. secy. of state (since 1795) Timothy Pickering is fired by Pres. Adams for opposing his views, and returns to Mass., where he becomes a leader of the ultra-Federalists; John Marshall is appointed U.S. secy. of state (until 1801). The British annex the Indian Carnatic State in Madras between the Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, ruled by the nawab of Arcot. The U.S. Harrison Land Act of 1800 provides for sale of lands in the territory NW of the Ohio River above the mouth of the Kentucky River; it keeps the price of federal govt. land at $2 per acre, but gives four years to pay, so that one can get a 320-acre farm for a down payment of $160. Chongjo dies, and his 10-y.-o. son Sunjo (1790-1834) becomes Yi king of Joseon (Korea) #23 (until 1834), with his mother as queen regent, immediately issuing an edict declaring adherence to the "evil learning" of Christianity to be tantamount to treason. With British backing, Zaman Shah is captured and blinded by his brother Mahmud Shah Durrani (1769-1829), who becomes ruler of Afghanistan next year (until 1803, then 1809-18), facing family civil war, while vizier Fateh Khan Barakzai (-1818), eldest son of Barakzay clan head Sardar Payinda (Payenda) Khan and grandson of Jamil Khan Barakzay directs state affairs. About this time Gatlinburg, Tenn. 39 mi. SE of Knoxville at the border of the modern-day Great Smoky Mts. Nat. Park is founded by William Ogle (1751-1803) of Edgefield, S.C., who dies of malaria; in 1856 after a U.S. post office is established in his store, the town is named for Ratford Gatlin (1798-1880), who sides with the Confederates and is forced to leave in 1859. French immigrant Martin Fugate settles in Troublesome Creek, Ky., giving his descendants the rare blood condition methemoglobinemia, which turns their skin blue; by 1960 six generations of inbreeding spreads to the entire pop. The Church of the United Brethren in Christ is founded in Huntington, Ind. by Martin Boehm (1725-1812) and Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813) from United Brethren churches, becoming the first Am. denomination not transplanted from Europe, becoming a forerunner of the United Methodist Church. Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, pioneer trader and founder of the village that became Chicago sells his holdings and moves to a Missouri farm. The city of Johnstown, Penn. (modern-day pop. 21K/140K) on the Conemaugh River at its confluence with Stony Creek 75 mi. SE of Pittsburgh is founded as Schantzstadt by Swiss German settler Joseph Schantz Johns (Jahns) Sr. (1749-1813), becoming a coal and iron ore mining center for Tunkers (Germ. "tunken" = to dip), located at the head of the W branch of the Penn. Main Line Canal; not to be confused with Johnstown, N.Y. - johnson jokes here? The fortifications of pesky Cuneo in the Piedmont of N Italy 55 mi. S of Turin are demolished by the French. The British secure an area from the sultan of Kedah in the Malay Peninsula and name it Wellesley Province. Early in this cent. non-rhotic speech (pronouncing hard like hahd) takes off in S England among the upper and upper-middle classes, spreading throughout England becoming the Received (BBC) Pronunciation while infecting SE U.S. port cities with close trading ties incl. Boston, Charleston, Richmond, and Savannah. Early in this cent. the town of Gravesend in Brooklyn, N.Y builds the Shell Road to Coney Island, a sand bar on the S shore of Long Island, separated by Coney Island Creek. Extreme Makeover, Industrial Edition? British industrialist Robert Owen (1771-1858) takes over the mills in New Lanark, Scotland (below the falls of the Clyde River in S Scotland, 1 mi. S of the Lanarkshire county seat of Lanark), and sets up a utopian socialist community. Swedenborgian missionary John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed) (1774-1845) begins planting orchards across W Penn., Ind., and Ohio from seed - bon appetit indeed? Lieven Bauwens (1769-1822) steals a spinning "mule jenny" machine from Britain and smuggles it to Ghent, Belgium, which becomes the Manchester of the Continent; meanwhile pissed-off Britain sentences him to death. By now New Orleans, La. boasts the wealthiest and most prominent free black pop. in the U.S. The Icelandic Althing is abolished by the Danish king (reestablished 1843) - is it suffering from Althinger's Disease? Middlebury College in Vt. is founded; it goes coed in 1883. In Sweden eccentric Count Balthazar Von Platen builds the Gut Canal. In this decade yellow fever kills tens of thousands in S Spain. In this decade chiefdoms arise in the SE African coast among the Nguni-speakers, which eventually coalesce into the Zulu state. Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) founds the Royal Institution of Great Britain to diffuse technical and scientific knowledge, becoming the oldest independent research body to survive to modern times. Downing College at Cambridge U. is founded after a long legal battle with the widow of Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet (1685-1749), becoming the first college added since 1596 (next in 1869); "the oldest of the new colleges and newest of the old"; alumni incl. John Hopkins, John Cleese, and Trevor Nunn. In this cent. European immigrants to Argentina, Uruguay, and the Rio Grande do Sul region of S Brazil begin raising cattle and sheep, developing the horseback cowboy Gaucho Culture of "4-hoofed vegetarians" - churrasco, rodizio, mate, chimarrao - all pack a punch, buddy? About this time French aristocrats begin their Guillotine Grudge Fashion Fad, dressing up in ripped corsets and blood red chokers to suggest rushing to avoid arrest, while cropping and tangling their locks in guillotine haircuts to suggest a severed head; after Napoleon crowns himself emperor in 1804, the fad ends in an explosion of French nationalism. In this cent. wigs go out, and men in Europe and the U.S. usually wear their hair short; beards come back into style in Europe for men until WWI; in the first part of the cent. women wear their hair in ringlets falling to the sides of the head then gathered around the back of the head with a ribbon, but by mid-cent. the chignon style becomes popular. Grossglockner in the Austrian Alps is first successfully scaled. A letter post is introduced in Berlin. The Royal College of Surgeons of England in London is founded from the Co. of Surgeons (founded 1745); meanwhile Scottish surgeon James Gregory (1753-1821) attacks the system excluding younger fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh from the rotation at the Royal Infirmary, causing Scottish surgeon John Bell (1763-1820) to pub. Answer for the Junior Members, and in 1809 Gregory is kicked out of the college for pub. its private proceedings. About this time European academies of art led by the Academie des Beaux-Arts in France began trying to synthesize the line of Neoclassicism with the color of Romanticism, founding Academicism. Popular and vain German composer-pianist Daniel Steibelt (1765-1823) arrives in Vienna on tour, and challenges Ludwig von Beethoven to a play-off at the house of the Count von Fries, where Big Beet humiliates him by improvising from a music sheet placed upside down on the rack, after which he quits his tour and ends up in Russia in 1808 where they haven't heard the story? - take the great outdoors, add the passion of an outdoor cycle? The name "pumpernickel" is coined about this time by Napoleon's troops from "Pain pour Nicoll", his favorite horse, who always gets bread even when the troops are starving. Shunga (Jap. "images of spring"), erotic color woodcut prints begin to be made in Japan, becoming popular - somewhere in the night I'll shine a light on you? Globe Town E of Bethnal Green, London is established for the growing pop. of weavers, which triples by 1831, with 20K looms operated in homes; too bad, in 1824 restrictions on importation of French silks are relaxed, causing half of the looms to become idle, and workers to switch to boot, furniture, and clothing manufacture. In this cent. Erlangen, Germany (Bavaria) becomes the HQ of the Erlangen Theologians, followers of Friedrich von Schelling and Friedrich Schleiermacher, also the home of philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte - I'd rather see a Can-Can? Italian poet Vincenzo Monti (1754-1828), who started out with the poem La Musogonia calling on the Austrians to take up arms against the French, then wrote Canzona upon the Congress of Udine as a salute to Napoleon, which causes him to have to leave Italy for France when the Austrians invade this year, triumphantly returns to Italy after the Battle of Marengo, going on to compose yet another poem, Bella Italia, Amate Sponde (pub. 1802) - back when poets had mojo? In this cent. the Whippet breed of sight-hunting hound is created in England from the English and Italian greyhounds and various terrier breeds, becoming the 2nd fastest domestic animal after the Weimaraner, with speeds of 35 mph - whippet how? The Rodrigues Solitaire (relative of the Dodo) becomes extinct. Early in this cent. the soybean is first grown in Philadelphia, Penn. Sports: Black ex-slave Bill Richmond (1763-1829) becomes a popular boxer - everybody should own one? Early in this cent. Soccer (Football) ("footie") becomes popular in England, spreading throughout the British Empire by the end of the cent. In this decade the frontier sport of gouging an opponent's eyes out with the thumbnail reaches its peak of popularity in the Ohio Valley. Early in this cent. the Romantic period in ballet begins; women begin to dance on their toes to suggest going into a supernatural world. Architecture: On June 4 the White House in Washington, D.C. is completed; in Nov. the U.S. Senate relocates from Philly to Washington, D.C., holding sessions in the North Wing of the U.S. Capitol (begun 1793), which is completed in early 1805, housing both houses of Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Library of Congress. The Rijksmuseum (State Museum) is founded in The Hague, Netherlands, moving to Amsterdam in 1808; a new bldg. designed by Pierre Cuypers opens in 1885; on Apr. 13, 2013 after a 10-year renovation it is reopened by Queen Beatrix as one of her last acts before abdicating, becoming the most-visited museum in the Netherlands (2M+ visitors/year). The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in New York City is dedicated on Sept. 7. Early in this cent. the English Parliament finances the construction of the largest system of enclosed docks in the world to relieve the congestion in the port of London, resulting in the construction of the Surrey Commercial Docks, the London Dock, and the West and East India Docks. The 41-mi. Simplon Road over the Alps from Brig, Switzerland to Domodossola, Italy is begun (finished 1807), requiring 611 bridges. Inventions: About this time the term "bogus" is coined for a counterfeiting machine, evolving to mean the counterfeit money itself, then anything phony. Am. inventor Robert Fulton (1765-1815) builds the steam-powered metal-clad submarine Nautilus, and tests a 20-ft. model of it on the Seine at Brest, making two 20-min. dives himself, becoming the first practical submarine. About this year Henry Maudslay (1771-1831) of England, apprentice of Joseph Braham invents the slide rest for the metal lathe to manufacture std. screw thread sizes, allowing interchangeable parts and mass production, becoming known as "the Father of Machine Tool Technology". Spoiled 15-y.-o. French creole New Orleans nobleman Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville (1785-1868), who was sent to England by his father to straighten him out returns even more spoiled on his daddy's death, bringing the dice game of Craps (Fr. "Crapaud" = toad, what the players look like as they squat over the dice) to New Orleans after seeing the variation called Hazard played in England; the nickname for a Creole is "Johnny Crapaud". English Liberal statesman-scientist Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (1753-1816) of England develops the first all-iron printing press. On Feb. 22 the first light-pressure steam engine railway locomotive, built by Cornwall-born Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) is test-driven in Wales; in 1801 he builds the first high-pressure road locomotive. In this cent. the Mouldboard plough is introduced in Europe, allowing soil to be turned to bring nutrients to the surface in less fertile land. Science: About this time French surgeon Bernard Peyrilhe (1737-1804) becomes the first to experimentally transmit cancer to an animal by injecting breast cancer cells, claiming that breast cancer is spread via the lymphatics, and advocating total mastetctomy incl. the auxiliary lymph nodes the pectoralis major muscle. Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847) coins the term "biology". German physician Franz Joseph (Josef) Gall (1758-1828) develops cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull, which is later renamed Phrenology by his student Johann Spurzheim (1776-1832), who also demonstrates the fibrous structure of the brain; too bad, phrenologists go to far and claim to know all about a person from the bumps on their noggin. German-born English astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers Infrared Light (beyond the red end of the spectrum) using prisms and thermometers on solar rays; he also discovers a connection between 11-year sunspot cycles and wheat prices, becoming the first theory of economic cycles. About this time Napleon's field surgeon Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847) notices that soldiers who are thrown from their horse and get their foot caught in the stirrup often have to have their forefoot amputated at a specific joint which becomes known as the Lisfranc Joint. In the first decade of the 19th cent. Science makes great leaps in the concepts of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphing, and Data Visualization; coordinate paper is first used in pub. research (graph of barometric variations) by English industrial chemist Luke Howard (1772-1864), who makes comprehensive recordings of London weather in 1801-41; in 1801 the first Pie Chart and Circle Graph are pub. in London in "Statistical Breviary" by Scottish engineer-economist William Playfair (1759-1823), who in 1786 pub. "The Commercial and Political Atlas" in London, containing the first Bar Chart; in 1801 William "Strata" Smith (1769-1839) of England pub. "the map that changed the world", the first Geological Map (of England), founding the science of Stratigraphic Geology (Stratigraphy); too bad, the establishment ignores him, his work is plagiarized, and he ends up in debtors' prison. German (Prussian) geographer-explorer Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) after launching an exploration of South Am. in 1799 (ends 1804) proposes that South Am. had once been joined with Africa, becoming the first person to describe anthropogenic climate change - just look how Brazil fits into the Gulf of Guinea? Nonfiction: Edmund Burke (1729-97), Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, Originally Presented to the Right Hon. William Pitt, in the month of November, 1795 (posth.); written in opposition to a proposed bill to provide a min. wage for agricultural workers, claiming that private charity rather than the state should alleviate the suffering of the poor, and that laws of commerce were the laws of God, with the exceptions being "That the State ought to confine itself to what regards the State, or the creatures of the State, namely, the exterior establishment of its religion; its magistracy; its revenue; its military force by sea and land; the corporations that owe their existence to its fiat; in a word, to every thing that is truly and properly public, to the public peace, to the public safety, to the public order, to the public prosperity." Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Mémoires sur les espèces d'éléphants vivants et fossiles; his paper first presnted in Apr. 1796 at the Nat. Inst., comparing skeletons of Indian and African elephants, and mastodons ("the Ohio animal"), which he concludes are all different species, the latter extinct; in 1806 he coins the name "mastodon". Humphry Davy (1778-1829), Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, Concerning Nitrous Oxide. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), Der Geschlossene Handelsstaat. Arnold Heeren (1760-1842), European Political Systems. Friedrich von Schelling (1775-1854), System des Transzendentalen Idealismus (System of Transcendental Idealism) - every stranger, every rival, every lover, everyone we touch, everything is connected? Madame de Stael (1766-1817), On Literature Considered in its Relationship to Social Institutions. Parson Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825), The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington; by a traveling Episcopalian minister and bookseller who lived since 1795 in Dumfries, Va. near Pohick Church in Truro Parish,Lorton, Va., which GW and his father attended in pre-Am. Rev. days, claiming to preach at it after GW's 1799 death; a bestseller, turning GW into "Washington, the hero, and the Demigod", "the friend and benefactor of men", "the Jupiter, Conservator of the Empire", a paragon of moral virtues who liked to pray during the winter at Valley Forge, and who as a 6-y.-o. boy chops down (actually, barks it without killing it) a cherry tree at his father Augustin's Ferry Farm then utters the immortal soundbyte to him: "I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet"; the cherry tree story doesn't appear until the 1806 5th ed., and Weems claimed he heard it from a female cousin of Washington 20 years earlier; the 9th ed. (1809) contains all the anecdotes; goes through 29 eds. by the time he dies in 1825, getting picked up by the popular "McGuffey Reader" used by schoolchildren, after which Washington's Feb. 22 birthday is celebrated with cherry dishes after the cherry is claimed to be a favorite of his; in 1896 Woodrow Wilson's "George Washington: A Profile" calls it a fabrication, after which almost all Am. historians follow suit; too bad, an old cherry tree is found growing in Ferry Farm in 1926, which is claimed to be the one, and further research indicates that the story might be true. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Symphony No. 1 in C major, Op. 21 (1799-1800) (Vienna) (Apr. 2). Francois-Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834), Le Calife de Bagdad (comic opera) (Paris). Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842), Les Deux Journees, ou Le Porteur d'Eau (The Two Days, or The Water Carrier) (Jan. 16) (Theatre Feydeau, Paris); libretto by Jean-Nicolas Bouilly; his greatest hit; the score is kept at his desk by Beethoven while composing "Fidelio"; too bad, Napoleon thinks he's too complex (smelling a rat when the action is set in 1647 but smells like the French Rev.), allowing younger composers such as Francois-Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834) to begin passing him up. Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826), Waldmadchen (opera) (Freiburg) (Nov. 24). Art: Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard (1743-1809), Nightmare; nude version of Henry Fuseli's "The Nightmare" (1781). Francesco Alberi (1765-1836), Napoleon as Liberator of Italy. Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), Madame Recamier. Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), The Naked Maja; followed in 1803 by The Clothed Maja; allegedly posed by his dream girl the Duchess of Alba, becoming the 2nd time a famous Spanish painter dares to paint an indentifiable woman in the nude; when Spain puts it on postage stamps, the U.S. govt. forbids its entry for obscenity until 1930; he hides the nude one behind the clothed one in his home, with a pulley mechanism. John Hoppner (1758-1810), Miss Mary Linwood. Johann Christian Reinhart (1761-1847), The History Painter, Caricature. Plays: Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle (1748-1825), The Stepmother (tragedy). Thomas Morton (1764-1838), Speed the Plow (comedy); introduces Mrs. Grundy. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), Maria Stuart (Mannheim). Poetry: Thomas Campbell (1777-1844), Hohenlinden; "Few, few, shall part where many meet/ The snow shall be their winding-sheet/ And every turf beneath their feet/ Shall be a soldier's sepulcher". James Hogg (1770-1835), Donald M'Donald (debut); pub. anon. Louis-Jean Nepomucene Lemercier (1771-1840), The Pinto; the 1640 Portuguese Rev.; turns his friend Napoleon against him, causing his career to tank. Novalis (1772-1801), Hymns to the Night (Hymnen an die Nacht); about his dead love babe. Samuel Woodworth (1784-1842), New-Haven William Wordsworth (1770-1850), The Brothers; Michael; the house called Evening Store. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Lyrical Ballads (2nd ed.) (1st ed. in 1798); contains a Preface by Wordsworth defending his conception of poetry as needing to be based on everyday life and people instead of pure intellect, pissing-off the critics. Novels: Clemens Brentano (1778-1842), Satiren und Poetische Spiele. Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849), Castle Rackrent (first novel) (Gothic); the first historical novel, the first regional novel in England, the first Anglo-Irishnovel, the first Big House novel, the first saga novel, and the first to use the device of an unreliable narrator. Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816), Memoirs of Modern Philosophers; satirical novel. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Titan (1800-3); his masterpiece? Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813), Aristipp und Einige Seiner Zeitgenossen (1800-2). Births: Am. Unitarian-Universalist writer-ed. Thomas Whittemore (d. 1861) on Jan. 1 in Boston, Mass. U.S. Whig pres. #13 (1853-7) and vice-pres. #12 (1849-53) Millard Fillmore (OE "very famous") (d. 1874) on Jan. 7 in Summerhill (Locke), Cayuga County, N.Y.; 2nd U.S. pres. to not be elected; first U.S. pres. born in the 1800s (next is Pierce in 1804); born in poverty in a log cabin, he starts out a boy farm worker, then a clothmaker's apprentice at age 15, then a school teacher before becoming an atty. and entering politics. Hungarian dynamo and electric motor inventor Anyos Jedlik (d. 1895) on Jan. 11 in Szimo. Am. Dem.-Repub./Whig politician and U.S. atty. gen. #24 (1853-7) Caleb Cushing (d. 1879) on Jan. 17 in Salisbury, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. English social reformer (Britain's first public health reformer) Edwin Chadwick (OE "fighter's settlement") (d. 1890) on Jan. 24 in Longsight, Manchester; knighted in 1889. German Neues Museum Prussian architect Friedrich August Stueler (Stüler) (d 1865) on Jan. 28 in Muehlhausen; student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Brian Houghton Hodgson (d. 1894) on Feb. 1 (1801?) in Presbury, Cheshire. Austrian Nazarene painter Joseph (Josef Ritter) von Fuhrich (Führich) (d. 1876) on Feb. 9 in Kratzau, Bohemia. Am. Mormon leader Hyrum Smith (d. 1844) on Feb. 9 in Turnbridge, Vt.; elder brother of Joseph Smith Jr. (1805-44); educated at Dartmouth College. English photography pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot (d. 1877) (AKA Henry F. Talbot) on Feb. 11 in Melbury, Dorset; educated at Harrow School, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. inventor James Bogardus (d. 1874) on Mar. 14 in Catskill, N.Y.; pioneer in cast-iron architecture. Japanese emperor #120 (1817-46) Ninko (Ayahito) (d. 1846) on Mar. 16; 6th son of Kokau (1771-1840). English polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross (d. 1862) on Apr. 15 in London; nephew of Sir John Ross (1777-1856). British field marshal (Light Brigade cmdr.) George Charles Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan (d. 1888) on Apr. 16 in London; eldest son of the 2nd earl of Lucan; educated at Westminster School. Scottish publisher-politician William Chambers of Glenormiston (d. 1883) on Apr. 16 in Peebles, Peeblesshire; brother of Robert Chambers (1802-71); both are born with six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot. Scottish Reformed minister-theologian (co-founder of the Campbellites) John McLeod Campbell (d. 1872) on May 4 in Kilninver, Argyllshire; educated at the U. of Glasgow. Am. surprise ending abolitionist John Brown (d. 1859) on May 9 in Torrington, Conn.; erroneously claims to be a descendant of Mayflower settler Peter Browne (1594-1633). Am. "Fruits of Philosophy" atheist physician (birth control advocate) Charles Knowlton (d. 1850) on May 10 in Templeton, Mass. Anglo-Irish astronomer and telescope builder William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (d. 1867) on June 17 in York, Yorkshire; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U. French organic chemist Jean Baptiste Andre Dumas (d. 1884) on July 14 in Ales. English "Bradshaw's Guides" cartographer-publisher (Quaker) George Bradshaw (d. 1853) on July 29 in Pendleton, Salford, Lancashire. German #1 chemist ("Father of Modern Organic Chemistry") Friedrich Wohler (Wöhler) (d. 1882) on July 31 in Escherscheim (near Frankfurt-am-Main); one of the top chemists of the 19th cent. Belgian PM (1847-52, 1857-68) Charles Latour Rogier (d. 1885) on Aug. 17 in Saint-Quentin, France. Am. surgeon Willard Parker (d. 1884) on Sept. 2 in Lendeborough, N.H.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "A Treatise on Domestic Economy" educator (kindergarten advocate) Catherine Esther Beecher (d. 1878) on Sept. 6 in East Hampton, N.Y; daughter of Lyman Beecher (1775-1863); sister of Edward Beecher (1803-95), Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-96), Henry Ward Beecher (1813-87), and Charles Beecher (1815-1900). Am. Civil War Confed. adm. Franklin Buchanan (d. 1874) on Sept. 13 in Baltimore, Md. English patent medicine king Thomas Holloway (d. 1883) on Sept. 22 in Devonport, Plymouth, Devon. Am. McGuffey Readers writer-educator William Holmes McGuffey (d. 1873) on Sept. 23 near Claysville, Washington County, Penn.; grows up in Tuscarawas County, Ohio; educated at Washington College, Penn. English "London Zoo", "Royal Botanic Gardens", "Kew Gardens" architect Decimus Burton (d. 1881) on Sept. 30 in Lancashire; 10th child, duh? Austrian PM (1848-52) Felix Ludwig Johann, Prince of Schwarzenberg (d. 1852) on Oct. 2 in Bohmisch-Krumau (Cesky Krumlov); nephew of Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg (1771-1819); brother-in-law of Alfred I, prince of Windisch-Gratz (1787-1862) Am. slave rebel leader (black) Nat Turner (d. 1831) on Oct. 2 in Southampton County, Va.; learns to read the Bible at a young age. Am. Navy secy. #17 (1845-6) and diplomat-historian-educator ("Father of American History") George Bancroft (d. 1891) on Oct. 3 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U., Hedelberg U., Gottingen U., and Berlin U. Colombian statesman gen. Pedro Alcantara Herran Martínez de Zaldua (Pedro Alcántara Herrán Martínez de Zaldúa) (d. 1872) on Oct. 18 in Bogota. English Whig war secy. (1839-41), paymaster-gen. (1946-8) abolitionist historian-statesman-essayist Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay of Rothley (d. 1859) on Oct. 25 in Rothley Temple, Leicestershire; created baron in 1857; maternal uncle of Sir George Trevelyan (1838-1928). Prussian field marshal Count Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke the Elder (d. 1891) on Oct. 26; uncle of Prussian gen. Count Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke (1848-1916). Am. abolitionist Spencer Method penmanship teacher (first public teetotaller in the U.S. in 1832?) Platt Rogers Spencer (d. 1864) on Nov. 7 in East Fishkill, N.Y.; founder of the flat, er, rounded, well-formed Spencerian penmanship cursive handwriting style. Anglo-Irish Plymouth Brethren evangelist ("Founder of Modern Dispensationalism") John Nelson Darby (d. 1882) on Nov. 18 in Westminster, London; educated at Westminster School, and Trinity College, Dublin. Hungarian poet-dramatist Mihaly Vorosmarty (Mihály Vörösmarty) (d. 1855) on Dec. 1 in Puszta-Nyek (Kapolnasnyek). U.S. Dem. gov. of Ill. #8 (1842-6) Thomas Ford (d. 1846) on Dec. 5 in Uniontown, Penn. Am. inventor Charles Goodyear (d. 1860) on Dec. 29 in New Haven, Conn.; descendant of New Haven co-founder Stephen Goodyear; father Amasa Goodyear invents the steel pitchfork. French financier (Jewish) (rival of the Rothschilds) Emile Pereire (Émile Péreire) (d. 1875); of Portuguese Sephardic descent; grandson of Jacob Rodrigues Pereira (1715-80); brother of Isaac Pereire (1806-80). Irish telescope maker Thomas Grubb (d. 1878). English Anglican Oxford Movement leader Edward Bouverie Pusey (d. 1882). Welsh political writer Samuel Roberts (d. 1885). Deaths: Scottish rhetorician Hugh Blair (b. 1718) on Dec. 27. English Blue Stockings Society founder Elizabeth Montagu (b. 1718) on Aug. 25 in London. English writer Charles Johnstone (b. 1719). French salonist Madame Helvetius (b. 1722) on Aug. 12. Courland duke (1769-95) Peter von Biron (b. 1724) on Jan. 13 in Jeleniow. Am. Rev. War gen. Artemas Ward (b. 1727) on Oct. 28 in Shrewsbury, Mass. Italian composer Nicola Piccini (b. 1728) on May 7 in Passy (near Paris). Russian field marshal Count Alexander Visilievich Suvorov (b. 1729) on May 18 in St. Petersburg; Tsar Alexander I erects a monument to him in 1801. English Romantic poet William Cowper (b. 1731) on Apr. 25; dies of natural causes after repeatedly (1763, 1773, 1783) trying to take his own life, leaving poetry known for its cheerfulness: "Variety is the very spice of life." U.S. Supreme Court justice #5 (1789-95) John Blair Jr. (b. 1732) on Aug. 31 in Williamsburg, Va. British politician Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney (b. 1732) on June 30. British adm. John MacBride (b. 1735) on Feb. 17 in London (seizure at the Spring Garden Coffeehouse). English instrument maker Jesse Ramsden (b. 1735) on Nov. 5. English writer George Steevens (b. 1736) on Jan. 22 in Hampstead. Am. U.S. Supreme Court justice #2 (1790-1) and chief justice #2 (1795) John Rutledge (b. 1739) on July 23 in Charleston, S.C. English writer-engraver Samuel Ireland (b. 1744) in July. Am. Penn. gov. #1 (1790-9) Thomas Mifflin (b. 1744) on Jan. 20 in Lancaster, Penn. Am. choral composer William Billings (b. 1746) on Sept. 26. Georgeian king (1798-1800) George XII (b. 1746) on Dec. 28 in Tbilisi. Am. Dem. Repub. politician William Blount (b. 1749) on Mar. 21 in Knoxville, Tenn. Am. DOI signer Edward Rutledge (b. 1749) on Jan. 23 in Charleston, S.C. French gen. Jean Baptiste Kleber (b. 1753) on June 14 in Cairo; assassinated by Syrian student Soluman el-Halaby with a knife in the heart; el-Halaby has his right arm burned off, then he is slowly impaled in a public square in Cairo, and his skull shipped to France to teach phrenology (prominent crime and fanatic bumps). French gen. Jean Etienne Championnet (b. 1762) on Jan. 9 in Antibes. French gen. Louis Charles Antoine Desaix (b. 1768) on June 14 in Marengo, Italy (KIA).

1801 - Ireland loses its independence as Tee Jay settles into the White House in brand-spanking new Illuminati town Washington, D.C., while German math giant Carl Friedrich Gauss founds the pure mathematical science of number theory, used later to encrypt data on the Illuminati-inspired Internet?

George III of Britain (1738-1820) Charlotte of Mecklenburg (1744-1818) William Pitt the Younger of Britain (1759-1806) Henry Addington of Britain (1757-1844) Thomas Jefferson of the U.S. (1743-1826) John Marshall of the U.S. (1755-1835) Aaron Burr of the U.S. (1756-1836) Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph of the U.S. (1772-1836) Charles Pinckney of the U.S. (1757-1824) Henry Dearborn of the U.S. (1751-1829) Tsar Alexander I of Russia (1777-1825) Vladimir Putin of Russia (1952-) Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria (1773-1859) Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture of Haiti (1744-1803) French Marshal Etienne MacDonald (1765-1840) Albert Gallatin of the U.S. (1761-1849) William Marbury of the U.S. (1762-1835) John Milledge of the U.S. (1757-1818) Cardinal Joseph Fesch (1763-1839) British Adm. Sir Hyde Parker (1739-1807) British Gen. Sir John Moore (1761-1809) Robert R. Livingston of the U.S. (1746-1813) Edward Livingston of the U.S. (1764-1836) Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) William Somverville (1771-1860) Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832) Carl (Karl) Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826) Xavier Marie-Francois Bichat (1771-1802) Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1810) William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) William Symington (1764-1831) Charles Didelot (1767-1837) Rene Just Haüy (1743-1822) Franz Karl Achard (1753-1821) Robert Brown (1773-1858) Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848) Alexander Hamilton of the U.S. (1755-1804) New-York Evening Post, 1801 Philip Hamilton (1782-1801) Dr. David Hosack (1769-1835) Charles Hatchett (1765-1847) Joseph Jerome Lalande (1732-1807) Manuel Jose Quintana (1772-1857) Barton Warren Stone (1772-1844) Matthew Vassar (1792-1868) Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) Robert Southey (1774-1843) St. Madeleine Sophie Barat (1779-1865) Giulietta Guicciardi (1782-1856) Ludwig Rellstab (1799-1860) Joseph Marie Charles Jacquard (1752-1834) Cathedral of St. Stanislaus in Vilnius, 1801 'Mastodon' by Charles Willson Peale, 1801 Antonio Canova (1757-1822) 'Perseus with the Head of Medusa' by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), 1801 British Gen. John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766-1812) John Wyatt (1746-1813) Royal Military College, Sandhurst, 1812 James Finley's Bridge, 1801 Charlotte Dundas, 1801

1801 On Jan. 1 the 1800 Acts of Union with Ireland come into effect, dissolving the Irish Parliament, giving it 32 peers in the British House of Lords and 100 members of the House of Commons, with the new U.K. Parliament meeting on Jan. 22; English king (since Oct. 25, 1760) George III (1738-1820) becomes king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (until Jan. 29, 1829), officially giving up Edward III's claim to the throne of France; his wife (since Sept. 8, 1761) Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744-1818) becomes queen, adding the title to electress of Hanover of the HRE until her hubby is promoted to king of Hanover on Oct. 12, 1814, allowing the Christmas tree to be introduced to England; William Pitt the Younger becomes PM #1 (until Mar. 14); the Union Jack as the official flag; Ireland's parliament is dissolved, and the Irish are forced to elect reps. to the British Parliament; Ireland begins to be all about nationalist movements springing up to get it repealed and regain home rule, lasting well into the 20th cent. On Jan. 1 the U.S. Marine Band makes its debut at the White House, which is actually painted gray until 1813. On Jan. 1 war secy. (since 1800) Samuel Dexter becomes treasury secy. #3, becoming the lucky guy who administers the oath of office to chief justice John Marshall before resigning on May 13 and heading back to Boston. On Jan. 31 Pres. Adams appoints his secy. of state John Marshall (1755-1835) as the 4th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and 13th justice (until July 6, 1835) to replace Oliver Ellsworth (1796-1800) in a Supreme Court regarded as ineffectual, and he is sworn in on Feb. 4, serving simultaneously as secy. of state until Mar. 4; both Marshall and Thomas Jefferson are descended from William Randolph - so the nation is in good hands with Allstate? In Jan. French gen. Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald (1765-1840) (of Scottish descent) leads the French army of Italy into Austria from the S over the difficult Splugen Pass, causing the Austrian emperor to seek peace; in Jan. extreme conservative Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich (1773-1859) (who witnessed revolutionary excesses as a student in Strasbourg, souring him against them for life) begins his career as Austrian envoy to the elector of Saxony at the court of Dresden, where he develops all kinds of connections with the Poles and Russians, and goes on to maneuver Austria through the dangerous Napoleon era and land it on top, getting a promotion to prince along the way (1813) - with this new job I know I can get financing? On Feb. 9 after having the Hohenlinden knocked out of them, the Austrians sign the Treaty (Peace) of Luneville (Lunéville) (pr. lu-nay-VEEL) with Napoleon, and HRE Francis II again cedes the left bank of the Rhine to France (which is nice, since that's where the original Germanic Franks started out?), and concedes the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, with all cessions made under Campo Formio reaffirmed; the Batavian, Helvetian, Cisalpine and Ligurian Repubs. are recognized, and the Louisiana territory is ceded by Spain to France; the grand duchy of Tuscany becomes the duchy of Etruria, given to the son of the duke of Parma; with Austria out of the war, Britain and France begin peace negotiations; on Feb. 9 the Armistice of Foligno stops the war between France and Naples. Like sausage, it's better if you don't see it made? On Feb. 10 knowing of his defeat before the electoral votes are formally counted on Feb. 11, U.S. Pres. Adams closes his admin. with his controversial U.S. Midnight Judges Act (Appointments) (Judiciary Act of 1801), which is passed on Feb. 27 by the outgoing Federalist-controlled U.S. Congress, repealing the 1789 act and reducing the Supreme Court from six justices to five, while raising the number of circuits from three to six and establishing five new judicial districts, for a total of 18, creating 16 circuit courts that Adams appoints Federalist officers to, incl. William Marbury (1762-1835) to the office of justice of the peace in the District of Columbia; the incoming Jefferson admin. views the act as a Federalist trick to keep a Repub. from being appointed to the court, and gets it repealed next year. On Feb. 11 the 1800 U.S. Pres. Election of Oct. 31-Dec. 3 is finally counted; Repubs. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie with 73 electoral votes each (Adams 65, Pinckney 64, New York Federalist John Jay 1); when Burr refuses to withdraw in favor of Jefferson (did this system suck or what?), the election is then moved to the House of Reps. for the 1st time ever, which has a Federalist majority that was largely elected in 1798 and is now a lame duck; instead of conceding, Burr decides to use the Duck House to pick him, but Alexander Hamilton urges Federalists to vote for Jefferson as the lesser of two evils, and on Feb. 17 on the 36th ballot Vt. and Md. switch their votes to Jefferson, but since Federalist reps of four states cast blank ballots, Jeffybaby wins with only 10 out of the 16 states, while Burr wins four states and becomes vice-pres. (and becomes bitter about his whole also-ran life?); meanwhile John Adams' standing up to war pressure has borne fruit in a treaty with France, but news arrives too late to save his reelection - I ain't gonna work for Maggie's brother no more? On Feb. 27 the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 is passed by the U.S. Congress, placing the District of Columbia under their control incl. Washington County to the N and E of the Potomac River, Alexandria County to the W and S of the Potomac River, and leaving the charters of Georgetown and Alexandria untouched; next year the city of Washington, D.C. is incorporated, a mayor-city council govt. established, and a jail built. On Mar. 4 6 ft. 2.5 in. Va.-born Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), AKA "the Red Fox", "the Scribe (Pen) of the Revolution", "the Father of the Declaration of Independence", "the Sage of Monticello", "the Moonshine Philosopher of Monticello", "the Man of the People", "Long Tom", "Mad Tom", "the Negro President" (owes his V to the Three-Fifths Compromise) becomes the 3rd U.S. pres. (until Mar. 4, 1809) in the 4th U.S. Pres. Inauguration, becoming the first pres. to be inaugurated at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., which he helped to design, and where he goes every Sunday for religious services in the House of Reps.; after he gets dissatisfied with the music at the Sunday services, and knowing that outgoing Pres. Adams invited them to perform at the Pres. Mansion earlier in the year, Jefferson gets the U.S. Marine Band (established on July 11, 1798) to play there, becoming a tradition; Jefferson names the music The President's Own, becoming the nickname for the band; the inauguration is tense and on the break of violence because Jefferson's view of govt. is 180 deg. out of step with Washington's and Adams', but it goes peacefully, setting a precedent until 2021?; Jefferson's First Inaugural Address calls America "the world's best hope", spurring Dr. Joseph Priestly in Mar. to write: "We can no longer say there is nothing new under the sun. For this whole chapter in the history of man is new. The great extent of our republic is new"; Aaron Burr (1756-1836) becomes the 3rd U.S. vice-president; 32-y.-o. snuff-loving becoming the first pres. to be inaugurated at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., which he helped to design, and where he goes every Sunday for religious services in the House of Reps.; the U.S. Marine Band plays for his inaguration, and he names the music The President's Own, which becomes a tradition; after he gets dissatisfied with the music at the Sunday services, he gets the U.S. Marine Band to play there; Jefferson's First Inaugural Address calls America "the world's best hope", spurring Dr. Joseph Priestly in Mar. to write "We can no longer say there is nothing new under the sun. For this whole chapter in the history of man is new. The great extent of our republic is new"; Aaron Burr (1756-1836) becomes the 3rd U.S. vice-president; 32-y.-o. snuff-loving Dolley Madison becomes his hostess, while his intellectual daughter Martha Washington Jefferson "Patsy" Randolph (1772-1836) becomes First Lady since he's a widower; next year Jefferson turns the State of the Union address from a speech into a written report sent to Congress, which is not changed for 112 years (until Pres. Wilson); the whole business is historic since Creation, becoming the first time a govt. changes hands between bitter political foes without violence, as ex-pres. Adams packs his bags and goes home to Quincy?; on Mar. 5 he appoints Am. Rev. War gen. Henry Dearborn (1751-1829) as U.S. war secy. #5 (until Mar, 4, 1809), and former S.C. gov. (1789-92) Charles Pinckney (1757-1824) as U.S. minister to Spain (until 1805), with the Mission: Impossible of getting Fla. from Spain and Spanish acquiescence in the transfer of La. from France. On Mar. 8 the Second Battle of Aboukir sees the British Expeditionary Corps begins a siege of Alexandria, establishing a beachhead against 4K French troops under Gen. Menou after an assault under Scottish-born Col. (later Lt.-Gen. Sir John Moore (1761-1809), followed on Mar. 21 by the Battle of Alexandria (Canope), where the British disprove the myth of French invincibility, although Lord Ambercrombie (b. 1734) is fatally wounded. On Mar. 12 Russian tsar (since 1796) Paul I (b. 1754) (always paranoid about suspected assassins) is assassinated by revolutionaries (those *!*? serfs and peasants?) in his bedroom in Mikhailovsky Palace in St. Petersburg, and on Sept. 5 despite announcing his wish to abdicate, his poetic, bookish son (Catherine II the Great's grandson) (handsome-pretty, with curly chestnut hair and blue-gray eyes like his grandmother) Alexander I (1777-1825) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Russian pres. Vladimir Putin (1952-)?) is crowned tsar of Russia (until Dec. 1, 1825). On Mar. 14 after paying $83K in the last 3.5 years, Pres. Jefferson decides to quit paying their Muslim jizya, the dey of Tripoli orders the U.S. consular flagstaff to be cut down as a declaration of war, and Jefferson dispatches four warships sans Congressional action, later adding two more. On Mar. 14 British PM (since Dec. 19, 1783) William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806) resigns along with Viscount Castlereagh when George III rejects his plans for linking the Act of Union with Ireland with the emancipation of Irish Catholics, and approaches anti-emancipationist Henry Addington (1757-1844) about replacing him as PM, becoming British PM on Mar. 17 (until May 10, 1804). On Mar. 28 the Treaty of Florence between France and Naples cedes Naples' possessions in C Italy and the island of Elba, accepts French garrisons in several Italian towns, and closes harbors to British and Ottoman ships. On Mar. 31 the Danish colonies in the Virgin Islands surrender to the British; on Apr. 2 the British under adm. Sir Hyde Parker (1739-1807), aided by newly-promoted vice-adm. Lord Nelson (who accepts service under Parker despite rank) destroy most of the Danish fleet in the Battle of Copenhagen Roads (Harbor), during which Nelson ends up taking charge, and ignores a signal from Parker to withdraw by putting a telescope up to his blind right eye and declaring he can't see any signal; the Danish fleet is almost destroyed, but they hurt the British enough to sign a peace treaty on Oct. 23, allowing Denmark to quit the leaderless League of Armed Neutrality and flourish again, playing all sides; Nelson is created viscount for his big V - give me a box of Dutch Masters? In Apr. after being instigated by Napoleon, the Prussians march into Hanover and occupy it without resistance (until June, 1803). In late Apr. a combined British-Ottoman army advances on Cairo, and reaches it on June 21, taking the 13K-man French garrison on June 27. On May 2 Dem.-Repub. Party co-founder (with Pres. Jefferson) James Madison becomes U.S. secy. of state #5 (until Mar. 3, 1809), going on to supervise the Louisiana Purchase. On May 10 after a $225K bribe is refused by the Jefferson admin., the pasha (eyalet) of Tripoli declares war on the U.S., starting the First Barbary (Barbary Coast) (Tripolitan) War (ends June 10, 1805) (2nd in 1815) between the U.S. and Sweden vs. Tripolitania and Morocco; on July 17 the U.S. fleet arrives in Tripoli with the schooners USS Enterprise and USS Constitution (AKA Old Ironsides) to do battle with the Quran-thumping Muslim Barbary pirates, who claim the Quran gives them the right to make war on any nation not submitting to Sharia and take prisoners and booty - an early episode of Star Trek, and it's between the Stars and Strips and Islam? On May 14 Swiss-born Repub. financial expert Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), who was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1793 then ousted for not having been a U.S. citizen for the required nine years, then elected to the U.S. House of Reps. in 1795-1801, where he founded the House Ways and Means Committee (originally the Finance Committee) is appointed U.S. treasury secy. #4 by Pres. Jefferson (until Feb. 8, 1814), going on to create a treasury surplus by 1807 despite the Louisiana Purchase. In early June a British force lands on the Red Sea coast, and begins crossing the desert on June 19, scaring France's new Mamluk allies into dropping support. On May 20-June 9 the War of the Oranges sees Spain declare war on Portugal after it refuses the demand of Spanish minister Manuel de Godoy to enter into an alliance with France against its ally (since 1343) Britain as well as cede most of its territory; in Apr. French troops invade, and on May 20 they are joined by Spanish troops, taking the town of Olivenza (Olivenca) near the border, after which Godoy picks oranges at nearby Elvas and sends them to the queen of Spain with a message that he will now head toward Lisbon, after which Portugal folds, signing the Treaty of Badajoz on June 6, ceding Olivenza, Almeida and other border fortresses to Spain, and closing all ports to the British; on Sept. 29 John VI of Portugal also signs the 1801 Treaty of Madrid, agreeing to pay France a 20M franc indemnity and cede half of Guyana in N South Am., which becomes French Guiana. On July 4 the first public 4th of July reception is held at the White House, er, Executive Mansion in Washington, D.C. I'm walking on sunshine, whoa-oh? On July 15 the Concordat of 1801 (announced on Easter Sunday, 1802), signed in Paris by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII reconciles the French Consulate with the Roman Catholic Church, and reestablishes and governs the relations of the French Church with Rome for the next cent., esp. by recognizing Protestantism (both Lutheran and Calvinistic), Judaism, and Roman Catholicism as established religions entitled to state support and subject to state control; the consul appoints bishops, subject to confirmation by the pope, and the bishops choose their own clergy, paid by the govt.; the pope continues to control the Papal States, except Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna; priests in Belgium and other outlying regions form the Petite Eglise (Little Church) outside Courlay in Deux-Sevres to oppose it, functioning without a priest; Joseph Fesch (1763-1839), half-uncle of Napoleon I is made archbishop of Lyons for helping bring the concordat about, and cardinal next year. On July 21 (5th anniv. of his death) the first Burns Supper is held in memoriam of Scottish poet Robert Burns by his friends in the Burns Club in Greenock, mostly merchants born in Ayrshire who knew him personally; next year they hold it on Jan. 29, then discover that his birthday is Jan. 25, making it an annual tradition; dinners incl. haggis, Scotch whisky, and recitation of his poetry, with plenty of bagpipes. On July 25 U.S. Rep. (Dem.-Repub., Ga.) (1795-1802) John Milledge (1757-1818) founds the city of Athens, Ga. (modern-day pop. 115K/192K) on the Oconee River as a site for the U. of Ga. (incorporated Jan. 27, 1785); on Nov. 4, 1802 he becomes Ga. gov. #26 (until Sept. 23, 1806), founding a land lottery for fair distribution of former Creek lands, reorganizing the state militia, and building a road to Tenn. through Cherokee lands; in 1804 he founds the city of Milledgeville, Ga. on the Oconee River in C Ga. NE of Macon (modern-day pop. 18.9K) as the Ga. state capital (until 1868); on June 19, 1806 he becomes U.S. Sen. from Ga., resigning on Nov. 14, 1809. On July 29 Robert Fulton demonstrates his submarine in France in an attempt to sell it to Napoleon - they are called frogs, right? In July British Col. Sir William Henry Clinton (1769-1846) leads a force of 3.5K men to the Portuguese island of Madeira SW or Portugal to forestall any French or Spanish attack; they are withdrawn next mar. after the signing of the Treaty of Amiens. On Aug. 9 the British under Gen. Hutchinson siege the French under Gen. Menou in Alexandria, and they surrender on Aug. 30; two weeks later the French embark for France, ending the Egyptian Occupation (begun 1798); on Oct. 9 peace preliminaries are signed; Egypt is recovered by the Turks, but anarchy and civil war soon reign, the Brits refuse to leave, and Egypt remains open to European intervention. On Oct. 1 the Peace (Treaty) of London is signed by Britain and France, with the French agreeing to evacuate Egypt, the news that they have already been expelled not reaching them yet. On Nov. 16 after getting pissed-off at the election of Dem.-Repub. Party leader Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the tabloid newspaper New York Post (originally New-York Evening Post) is founded in New York City by Founding Father Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) and other Federalists with $10K "to inculcate just principles in religion, morals and politics", becoming the oldest daily newspaper in the U.S. to survive to modern times, with a modern-day circ. of 500K. In Nov. Tenn. becomes the first U.S. state to criminalize dueling - too bad about New Jersey? On Dec. 24 Md.-born Renaissance man Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) displays the skeleton of a mastodon which he had had dug up in his nat. history museum in Philly. Edward Livingston (1764-1836), younger brother of Robert R. Livingston of La. Purchase fame becomes Dem.-Repub. mayor #46 of New York City (until 1803) as well as U.S. atty. for N.Y., showing heroism in fighting the yellow fever in summer 1803 until he contracts the fever himself, recovering only to find that one of his clerks mismanaged funds, causing him to resign and move to New Orleans, La. to practice law, repaying the debt with interest by 1826 while becoming friends with Andrew Jackson, becoming a U.S. rep. in 1823-9, U.S. sen. in 1829-31, U.S. secy. of state #111 in 1831-3, and U.S. minister to France in 1833-5. The Janissaries in Serbia kill vizier Hadzi-Mustafa in Belgrade and seize power, ruling Serbia independently under dahias while grinding the Serbs down, bringing them to the breaking point. Pope Pius VII begins unsuppressing the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), starting in Russia. Haitian blacks under self-educated freed slave Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture (the Opening) (1744-1803) (who fought under the banner of Spain before deciding to fight against all white foreigners, and was willing to settle for better treatment of slaves before switching to full abolition) conquer the Dominican Repub., developing a rep for "bloodless victories", after which L'Ouverture sends Napoleon a proposed constitution permitting the island's three racial groups to live in peace, but since Haiti is the richest colony in the New World, Napoleon orders 15K troops to oust him, planning to use it as a base to conquer the U.S. The East India Co. occupies the Gorakpur district, starting a conflict with the Gurkhas of Nepal. The N Indian village of Kanpur (in Uttar Pradesh on the Ganges) (modern pop. 2M) is ceded to the British, becoming a frontier station. The pork trade begins between Tahiti and the British convict colony of New South Wales. The Korean govt. frees its slaves, but private slavery continues until 1894; the govt. begins persecuting Catholics for its subversive idea that all men and women are equal in the eyes of a supreme deity - she's the size of an elephant, oh really? Robert R. "the Chancellor" Livingston (1746-1813), one of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence (with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Roger Sherman) becomes minister to France (until 1804) just in time for the big purchase of I'm-so-happy-my-eyes-are-jellin' La. Dutch East India Co. explorer Sir (Petrus Johannes)(Pieter Jan) Truter (1747-1825) of the Cape judicial bench and British army physician Dr. William Somerville (1771-1860) begin an expedition; next year they explore Bechuanaland to buy cattle. The harbor town of Ashtabula on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Ashtabula River (55 mi. E of Cleveland, Ohio) is founded. The Royal Military College (RMC) is founded in Great Marlow and High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, England by British CIC (1795-1809) Prince Frederick, Duke of York, with cavalry cmdr. Col. John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766-1812) as lt.-gov. #1, who produces able staff officers called Wycombites and introduces the idea that officers should be formally trained rather than learn on the job, introducing prof. merit-based training for future officers; in Oct. 1812 the college moves to specially-built bldgs. in Sandhurst in Berkshire, designed by English architect James Wyatt (1746-1813); in 1947 it is combined with the Royal Military Academy ("the Shop") in Woolwich (founded 1741) as the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. The Cane Ridge Revival in Cane Ridge (near Paris), Bourbon County, Ky. (named by Daniel Boone after seeing bamboo growing there) in the Camp Ridge Meeting House (built 1791) (largest 1-room log cabin in North Am.) and attended by 20K is led by 18 Presbyterian ministers and several Methodist and Baptist preachers, esp. Port Tobacco, Md.-born Barton Warren Stone (1772-1844), who in 1804 leaves the Presbyterian Church and founds the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (New Lights) (Stoneites) back-to-the-1st-century movement, growing to 12K members by 1830 and forming the backbone of the Am. Restoration Movement, a form of Christian Primitivism (Restorationism) that has roots going back to Martin Luther. Johnny Appleseed arrives in Licking County, Ohio - sounds like a candy apple? Aaron Burr's daughter and her hubby start a fashion by honeymooning at Niagara Falls. French libertine Donatien Alphonse Francois, Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) is arrested on the orders of Napoleon I for writing the anon. porno books "Justine" and "Juliette", and imprisoned without trial; after being accused of seducing prisoners at Saint-Pelagie prison, he is tranferred to the harsher Bicetre Fortress, is declared insane in 1803 after his family intervenes, and ends up back in the insane asylum in Charenton where he spent 1789-90; after his wife Marie-Constance Quesnet is allowed to live with him there, the dir. Abbe Francois Simonet de Coulmier (1741-1818) lets him stage several of his plays for the public with inmates as actors, but this raises eyebrows, causing de Sade to be put in solitary confinement in 1809, while the plays are shut down in 1813; meanwhile in 1810 after being let out of solitary, the old lecher de Sade begins an affair with 13-y.-o. Madeleine Leclerc, daughter of an asylum employee, and continues training her to be his horsey until his 1814 death. (St.) Madeleine Sophie Barat (1779-1865) founds the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in France for women, receiving papal approval in 1826 and founding 105 houses in several countries. Charles Lamb writes a Letter to Thomas Manning in which he issues the soundbyte "Logic is nothing more than a knowledge of words." The Bank of France is founded by a group of Parisian banks as a discount bank with a local monopoly on note issue. Pres. Jefferson asks Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours to prepare a nat. education plan, which is later incorporated into the French education code but not adopted in the U.S. The Society for the Encouragement of Nat. Industry is founded in France by chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), going on to organize industrial expositions in France, causing Napoleon to create him count of the empire in 1808, and count of Chanteloup in 1810. A Freemasonic Lodge is chartered in Charleston, S.C. by a British branch that backed England during the Am. Rev., and goes on to foment and back the U.S. Civil War?; it incl. many wealthy Jews prominent in the slave trade. German philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling begin pub. The Critical Journal of Philosophy. Charles Didelot (1767-1837), inventor of flesh-colored tights moves to St. Petersburg to direct the ballet - eventually it takes its toll on your feet, legs, hip and back, but hey, we're serfs and can take it? Cornish artist Henry Bone (1755-1834) is appointed enamel painter to George III of England, going on to make many fine minatures. The first iron trolley tracks are built betwen Croydon and Wandsworth in England. Charles Nodier (1780-1844) succeeds Maximilian de Lorraine as grandmaster of the Priory of Sion (until 1844) :). The New Testament is translated into Bengali. English immigrant James Vassar founds a brewery in Dutchess County, N.Y., moving to Poughkeepsie, N.Y. in 1801 and capturing most of the customers in the river towns from Hudson to Newburgh; in 1810 his son, East Dereham, Norfolk, England-born Matthew Vassar (1792-1868) joins the family brewing business on Vassar St. in Poughkeepsie; in 1811 it burns down, and he takes over the mgt.; in 1814 after fighting in the War of 1812 he opens M. Vassar & Co. on Vassar St., becoming the largest brewery in the U.S.; in 1836 he builds a larger facility on the waterfront, with a cap. of 60K barrels/year, complete with its own fleet of sloops; in 1861 he founds Vassar College, becoming one of the first women's colleges in the U.S. Architecture: The neo-classical style Cathedral of St. Stanislas is built in Vilnyus (Vilnius), Lithuania as the 4th in a series dating from 1387. The 10-bedroom Frogmore Cottage (originally Double Garden Cottage) is built in Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire, England; built for Queen Charlotte; renamed Frogmore after Queen Victoria has breakfast there on June 28, 1875 and finds the "immense number of frogs" to be "quite disgusting"; in spring 209 Prince Harry and Meghan Markle (the Duke and Duchess of Sussex) move there from Nottingham Cottage. Inventions: English chemist Humphry Davy (1778-1829) invents the Arc Lamp, using charcoal sticks hooked to a 2K volt battery, creating an arc across a 4-in. gap, and calling it an arch lamp. The Jacquard punch-card controlled drawloom for figured fabrics is invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834); too bad, his exhibit loom in Lyons is destroyed by Luddites; in 1840 (six years after his death) a statue of him is erected on the site. German chemist Franz Karl Achard (1753-1821) opens the first sugar beet refinery in Gut Kernern near Steinau, Silesia, which is burned down during the Napoleonic Wars in 1806; afer Napoleon bans sugar imports in 1813, a sugar beet industry booms. Judge James Finley (1762-1828) builds the first iron chain suspension bridge at Jacob's Creek, Penn., and it catches on. The first commercial steamship, the Charlotte Dundas is built by Scottish engineer William Symington (1764-1831), who patents a horizontal steam engine directly linked to a crank, and on Jan. 4, 1803 it begins operating in the Forth and Clyde Canal. On Dec. 24 Richard Trevithick tests a high pressure (60 psi) engine, despite James Watt complaining that he should be hanged for it (Watt's engines run at 7 psi); on Dec. 27 a second test is made, and when it breaks down the travelers refresh themselves at an inn, returning to find the carriage a smoldering ruin. Shape notes are invented to facilitate congregational and community singing; in 1844 The Sacred Harp is pub., becoming a hit with Protestants in the Am. South. Science: Scottish botanist Robert Brown (1773-1858) arrives in Western Australia in Dec. aboard the Investigator, captained by Matthew Flinders (1774-1814), and spends 3.5 years collecting 3.4K species, 2K of them new; too bad, the Porpoise wrecks on his return voyage in 1805, and he loses much of his collection, but still saves 1.2K new ones, pub. them in 1810. Charles Hatchett (1765-1847) of the British Museum in London discovers the element Niobium (Nb) (#41) in columbine from North Am., and initially calls it columbite. panish physician Francisco Romero peforms the first open pericardiostomy to drain a pleural effusion, becoming the first cardiac surgeon. The giant water lily Victoria Regia ("Queen of the Night") is discovered in Amazon Territory. French mineralogist Rene Just Hauy (Haüy) (1743-1822) pub. the Law of Rational Indices for crystals. Joseph Jerome Lalande (1732-1807) pub. a catalog of 47,390 stars. On Jan. 1 Italian Theatine monk-astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) discovers the first asteroid, Ceres, and German rising star mathematician Carl (Karl) Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) computes its orbit using his new Least-Squares Method, which allows it to be found even after it goes invisible and emerges among a multitude of stars, causing him to be appointed dir. of the Gottingen Observatory for life in 1807, going on to become the greatest mathematician since antiquity - while juggling sausages? German chemist Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1810) and English chemist-physicist William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) independently discover Ultraviolet Light beyond the violet - now the nightclubs will rock? William Wollaston shows that electricity producted by friction is identical to that produced by voltaic piles. The Pie Chart and Circle Graph are first used by William Playfair in England. William Smith of England draws "the map that changed the world", the first Geological Map (of England), founding the science of Stratigraphic Geology. Nonfiction: Hannah Adams (1755-1831), Evidences of Christianity. Sandy Addison, The Sugar House Book; contains a recipe for tomato-based ketchup. Xavier Marie-Francois Bichat (1771-1802), Anatomie General; introduces the term "tissues" (textures of the body with unique vital properties), and describes 21 types, founding the field of Histology. Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826), Uranographia; a catalog of 17,240 stars, beating the previous charts by 12K stars, with elaborate artistic representations of the constellations, which go out of fashion with astronomers after this. Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), The Art of Making, Growing and Perfecting Wine (L'Art de Faire, de Gouverner et de Perfectioner les Vins). Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), Disquisitiones Arithmeticae; founds the mathematical field of Number Theory, incl. the theory of congruences, quadratic forms, and quadratic residues. Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816), Letters on the Elementary Principles of Education. Rene Just Hauy (1743-1822), Traite de Mineralogie (5 vols.); describes the Law of Rational Indices. August von Kotzebue (1761-1819), Das Merkwurdigste Jahr Meines Leens. Joseph Jerome Lalande (1732-1807), Histoire Celeste Francaise; contains a huge star catalog with many faint nearby stars. Alexander Mackenzie, Voyages. Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832), Saggio di Osservazioni e d'Esperienze Sulle Principali Malattie degli Occhi (Treatise on the Principal Diseases of the Eyes); classic text in ophthalmology. Jean Charles Leonard de Sismondi (1773-1842), De la Richesse Commerciale; backs Adam Smith. Helen Maria Williams (1761-1827), Sketches on the State of Manners and Opinions in the French Republic. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Die Geschopfe des Prometheus (ballet) (Vienna); Moonlight Sonata (Quasi una Fantasia) (Piano Sonata no. 14, Op. 27 no. 2 in C#-minor); not a lot of notes but each is so very perfect and important?; dedicated to his pupil and main squeeze Countess Julie "Giulietta" Guicciardi (1782-1856) ("the most beautiful woman in the whole world"), to whom he proposes, but her parents reject his suit for lack of sufficient social standing, the father saying "That chap Beethoven will never amount to anything"; the sonata receives the popular name in 1836 from poet and music critic Heinrich Friedrich Ludwig Rellstab (1799-1860), who is thinking of Lake Lucerne. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), The Seasons (oratorio). Antonio Canova (1757-1822), Perseus with the Head of Medusa (sculpture). Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), Napoleon au Grand Saint-Bernard. Plays: Jean-Francois Ducis (1733-1816), Phedor et Vladimir, ou la Famille de Siberie; unlike his desert Arab play of 1795, this one is a flop, causing him to retire. Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), Adrastea: Events and Characters of the 18th Century (6 vols.) (1801-3). August von Kotzebue (1761-1819), Die Deutschen Kleinstadter (comedy). Manuel Jose Quintana (1772-1857), El Duque de Viseo; based on M.G. Lewis' "Castle Spectre". Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), The Maid of Orleans (Die Jungfrau von Orleans) (Leipzig). Poetry: Thomas Campbell (1777-1844), Ye Mariners of England; The Soldier's Dream; The Battle of the Baltic. Hannah Cowley (1743-1809), The Siege of Acre: An Epic Poem. James Hogg (1770-1835), Scottish Pastorals. Louis-Jean Nepomucene Lemercier (1771-1840), Homere, Alexandre. Thomas Moore (1779-1852), The Poetical Works of the Late Thomas Little, Esq.; juvenile poems; pub. anon. Robert Southey (1774-1843), Thalaba the Destroyer. Novels: Clemens Brentano (1778-1837), Godwi oder Das Steineme Bild der Mutter. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Atala, ou Les Amours de Deux Sauvages dans le Desert (Apr. 2); filled with exotic adventures by Native Ams. in the Deep South incl. Miss., La., and Fla., becoming a hit. Births: French botanist ("the Father of Paleobotany") Adolphe-Theodore (Adolphe-Théodore) Brongniart (d. 1876) on Jan. 14; son of Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847); grandson of Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart (1739-1813). Scottish celeb letter-writer Jane Welsh Carlyle (nee Jane Baillie Welsh) (d. 1866) on Jan. 14 in Haddington; wife (1826-66) of Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881); known for a pseudo-lesbian relationship with novelist Geraldine Jewsbury, who hooks up with Walter Mantell in 1857; Virginia Woolf later writes an article for the Times Lit. Supplement on Geraldine's letters to Jane. Am. painter (father of the Hudson River School) Thomas Cole (d. 1848) on Feb. 1 in Bolton, Lancashire, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1818. English Roman Catholic theologian-cardinal (1879-) John Henry Newman (d. 1890) on Feb. 21 in London; educated at Trinity College, Oxford U.; starts out an evangelical Calvinist who preaches that the pope is the Antichrist, then becomes an Anglican priest on May 29, 1825, then goes Roman Catholic in 1845, becoming a priest on May 30, 1847, followed by cardinal on May 12, 1879. Am. "Man and Nature" diplomat-philologist ("America's First Environmentalist") George Perkins Marsh (d. 1882) on Mar. 15 in Woodstock, Vt.; educated at Phillips Academy, and Dartmouth College. Am. rotary lathe inventor Immanuel Nobel the Younger (d. 1872) on Mar. 24; father of Alfred Nobel (1833-96). Am. navy capt. William Francis Lynch (d. 1865) on Apr. 1 in Norfolk, Va. French philologist Eugene Burnouf (d. 1852) on Apr. 8 in Paris; son of Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844); first to decipher ancient Persian cuneiform. Am. atty. (alcoholic) George Washington Adams (d. 1829) on Apr. 12 in Berlin; son of J.Q. Adams (1767-1848); educated at Harvard U. Austrian Viennese "Butterflies Waltz", "Schonbrunner Waltz" waltz composer ("the Mozart of Dance Music") Josef Franz Karl Lanner (d. 1843) on Apr. 12 in St. Ulrich, Vienna; father of August Lanner (1835-55); friend-rival of Johann Strauss I (1804-49). French paleontologist-geologist Edouard (Édouard) Lartet (d. 1871) on Apr. 15 in Castelnau-Barbarens, Gers; educated at the U. of Auch, and U. of Toulouse; father of Louis Lartet (1840-99). German physicist-psychologist (founder of modern experimental psychology) Gustav Theodor Fechner (d. 1887) on Apr. 19 in Gross-Sarchen (near Muskau), Lower Lusatia; educated at the U. of Leipzig. British Zionist Tory politician and social reformer for the poor and insane Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (d. 1885) on Apr. 28 in London; educated at Harrow School, and Christ Church, Oxford U. Mexican gov. of Alta Calif. (last) (1832, 1845-6) Pio de Jesus Pico (d. 1894) on May 5 in Mission San Gabriel Arcangel; brother of Andres Pico (1810-76). U.S. secy. of state #24 (1861-9), U.S. Senator (R-N.Y.) (1849-61) and N.Y. gov. #12 (1839-42) William Henry Seward Sr. (d. 1872) on May 16 in Florida, Orange County, N.Y.; father of Frederick William Seward (1830-1915) and William Henry Seward Jr. (1839-1920).; educated at Union College. Am. Mormon pres. #2 (1847-77) (Freemason) ("the American Moses") Brigham (OE "bridge hamlet") Young (d. 1877) on June 1 in Whitingham, Vt.; son of John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe; brother of Lorenzo Dow Young, Phineas Young (1799-1879), Joseph Young (1797-1881), and John Young; marries 55 wives, only 21 of whom had never been married before. Italian republican patriot-philosopher Carlo Cattaneo (d. 1869) on June 15 in Castagnola (Milan?). German mathematician-physicist Julius Plucker (Plücker) (d. 1868) on June 16 in Elberfeld (Wuppertal); educated at the U. of Bonn, U. of Heidelberg, and U. of Berlin. French "Parable of the Broken Window" political economist Claude Frederic Bastiat (d. 1850) on June 30 in Bayonne. U.S. ("Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead") adm. David Glasgow Farragut (d. 1870) on July 5 in Campbell's Station, Tenn.; first U.S. rear adm., vice-adm., and full adm. German physiologist Johannes Peter Muller (d. 1858) on July 14 in Koblenz. U.S. treasury secy. #18 (1845-9) Robert John Walker (d. 1869) on July 23 in Northumberland, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn. English astronomer royal (1835-81) Sir George Biddell Airy (d. 1892) on July 27 in Alnwick; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. French mathematician-economist Antoine Augustin Cournot (d. 1877) on Aug. 28 Gray, Haute-Saone. German pterodactyl paleontologist Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (d. 1869) on Sept. 3 in Frankfurt am Main. English Orientalist and Arabic scholar Edward William Lane (d. 1876) on Sept. 17 in Hereford. German inventor (in Russia) (Jewish) Moritz Hermann (Boris Semyonovich) von Jacobi (d. 1874) on Sept. 21 in Potsdam. Russian mathematician-physicist Mikhail Vasilyevich Ostrogradski (Ostrogradskiy) (d. 1862) on Sept. 24 in Pashenivka (modern-day Poltava Oblast, Ukraine); of Ukrainian descent; educated at the U. of Kharkiv. French statesman Lazare (Lazar) Hippolyte Carnot (d. 1888) on Oct. 6 in Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais; 2nd son of French Rev. engineer Lazare Carnot (1753-1823); brother of Sadi Carnot (1796-1832). Am. portraitist Henry Inman (d. 1846) on Oct. 10 in Utica, N.Y.; student of John Wesley Jarvis; paints Martin Van Buren and John Marshall. German physicist-astronomer-engineer-inventor Carl August von Steinheil (d. 1870) on Oct. 12 in Ribeauville, Alsace; educated at the U. of Erlangen, U. of Gottingen, and U. of Konigsberg. Belgian phenakistiscope physicist Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (d. 1883) on Oct. 14 in Brussels; educated at the U. of Liege. Argentine gen.-politician Justo Jose (José) Urquiza y Garcia (d. 1870) on Oct. 18 in Arroyo de la China, Entre Rios. German Spieloper opera composer Gustav Albert Lortzing (d. 1851) on Oct. 23 in Berlin. Am. scholar (pres. #10 of Yale College in 1846-71) Theodore Dwight Woolsey (d. 1889) on Oct. 31 in New York City; educated at Yale U., and Princeton U. German travel guide publisher Karl Ludwig Johannes Baedeker (d. 1859) on Nov. 3 in Essen, Prussia. Italian (Sicilian) "Norma", "La Sonnambula" bel canto opera composer Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (d. 1835) on Nov. 3 in Catania, Sicily. Am. abolitionist legislator-diplomat (Spiritualist) Robert Dale Owen (d. 1877) on Nov. 7 in Glasgow, Scotland; son of Robert Owen (1771-1858); emigrates to the U.S. in 1825. Am. evaporated milk inventor Gail Borden Jr. (d. 1874) on Nov. 9 in Norwich, N.Y.; grows up in Kennedy's Ferry (Covington), Ky. and New London, Ind. Am. abolitionist physician (founder of Perkins Inst. for the Blind and Mass. School for Idiotic Children) Samuel Gridley "Chev" Howe (d. 1876) on Nov. 10 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Brown U., and Harvard U.; husband (1843-) of Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910); father of Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards (1850-1943) and Maud Howe Elliott (1854-1948). Austrian dramatist-comedian Johann Nepomuk Eduard Ambrosius Nestroy (d. 1862) on Dec. 7 in Vienna. Am. Procter & Gamble co-founder William Procter (d. 1884) on Dec. 7 in Herefordshire, England; father of William Alexander Procter; grandfather of William Cooper Procter (1862-1934) and Henry Procter. German dramatist-journalist ("the Drunken Shakespeare") Christian Dietrich Grabbe (d. 1836) on Dec. 11 in Detmold. German Prussian banker-statesman Hermann von Beckerath (d. 1870) on Dec. 13 in Krefield, Rhenish Prussia. Am. politician-gen. Joseph Lane (d. 1881) on Dec. 14 in Bunscombe Count, N.C. Deaths: Irish-born Spanish viceroy of Peru (1795-1801) Don Ambrosio O'Higgins (b. 1720) on Mar. 18 in Lima. German-Polish painter Daniel Chodowiecki (b. 1726) on Feb. 7 in Berlin. Am.-born Canadian soldier-judge Joshua Winslow (b. 1726) in June in Quebec City, Quebec. English writer Hester Chapone (b. 1727) on Dec. 25 in Hadley, Middlesex: "Though men's ways are unequal, the way of God are equal, and with him even women shall find justice." Chilean priest Manuel De Lacunza (b. 1731) on June 18 in Imola, Cisalpine Repub. (found dead beside the road after a walk). Am. Rev. turncoat gen. (the original "I shot the sheriff"?) Benedict Arnold (b. 1741) on June 14 in London - he just had to die on the 26th anniv. of the founding of the U.S. Army, AKA Flag Day? Scottish-born British lt. gen. Sir Ralph Abercrombie (b. 1734) on Mar. 28 in Alexandria, Egypt (KIA); dies aboard HMS Foudroyant seven days after the Battle of Alexandria. Swiss phrenology founder Johann Kaspar Lavater (b. 1741) on Jan. 2 in Zurich (shot in 1799 by a French grenadier). Am. theologian Jonathan Edwards Jr. (b. 1745) on Aug. 1 in Schenectady, N.Y. Bohemian violinist-composer Carl Stamitz (b. 1745) on Nov. 9. Italian composer Domenico Cimarosa (b. 1749)on Jan. 11 in Venice (intestinitis); dies while preparing to return to St. Petersburg, leaving 60+ operas; an inquest finds no evidence of poisoning. Russian tsar Paul I (b. 1754) on Mar. 12 in St. Petersburg (assassinated). German margrave Charles Louis, hereditary prince of Baden (b. 1755) on Dec. 16 in Arboga. Austrian archduke Maximilian Francis (b. 1756) on July 21 in Hetzendorf Palace, Vienna; dies before Beethoven can dedicate his First Symphony to him. German Romantic poet Novalis (Baron Friedrich von Hardenberg) (b. 1772) on Mar. 25 in Weissenfels. Am. celeb Philip Hamilton (b. 1782) on Nov. 23 (Mon. eve.) in Weehawken, N.J. (killed in a duel with George I. Eacker); son of Alexander Hamilton, who is overcome with grief, and is later killed in the same spot with the same set of dueling pistols, and attended by the same physician Dr. David Hosack (1769-1835).

1802 - The Separation of Church and State Year? A Rare Year of Peace in Europe? Wouldn't you know it, some pesky geologists rock Bible Creationism to its foundations?

Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia (1751-1824) Henri Christophe of Haiti (1767-1820) John Randolph of the U.S. (1773-1833) Jean-Etienne Marie Portalis of France (1746-1807) Matthew Flinders (1774-1814) Gia Long of Vietnam (1762-1820) Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond (1764-1819) William Cobbett (1763-1835) Sally Hemings (1773-1835) Thomas Young (1773-1829) Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de Nemours (1771-1834) Benjamin Henri Constant de Rebecque (1767-1830) Thomas Telford (1757-1834) James Hutton (1726-97) John Playfair (1748-1819) Lord Francis Jeffrey (1773-1850) William Paley (1743-1805) Bernard Nieuwentyt (1654-1718) Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Sydney Smith (1771-1845) Luke Howard (1772-1864) Christian Leopold von Buch (1774-1853) Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838) Madame de Staël (1766-1817) Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813) Robert Milligan (1746-1809) Georg Friedrich Grotefend (1775-1853) Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837) Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758-1840) John Leland (1754-1841) Sarah Trimmer (1741-1810) Mary Wordsworth (1770-?) William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Thomas John Dibdin (1771-1841) William Reeve (1757-1815) 'Family Quarrels', 1802 John Constable (1776-1837) 'Dedham Vale' by John Constable (1776-1837), 1802

1802 On Jan. 1 Thomas Jefferson writes a letter to the Danbury Baptist Assoc. in Conn., using Roger Williams' phrase "wall of separation between church and state"; "Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof', thus building a wall of separation between Church & State. Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties"; the same week he attends a church service in the U.S. Capitol, where the sermon is by Baptist minister John Leland (1754-1841), who arrived on Jan. 1 with a giant cheese from the people of Cheshire, Mass., causing him to become known as the Mammoth Priest, and who writes the immortal soundbyte "To read in the New Testament, that the Lord has ordained that those that preach the gospel shall live by its institutions and precepts, sounds very harmonical; but to read in a state constitution, that the legislature shall require men to maintain teachers of piety, religion and morality, sounds very discordant"; too bad, after the issue seems settled, Here Comes Marx, and by the late 20th cent. the ACLU (Anti-Christian Litigation Union?) is running a systematic campaign to twist Jefferson from the Saint of Church-State Separation into the Saint of Secularism, citing his letter as if it were part of the U.S. Constitution in a master plan to pressure judges into creating a new Bill of Rights that incl. "freedom from religion", seeking to remove all religious references from public life by force Commie-style, even the expression of individual opinion in public institutions? - I forgot the italics this time bahbahbahbah dadangdang? On Jan. 26 Congress passes an act calling for a library to be established in the U.S. Capitol. On Jan. 26 the Italian (formerly Cisalpine) Repub. is created in Lyons, with Napoleon as pres. #1 (ends 1805). In Jan. after his first newspaper The Porcupine fails in 1801, crusading pamphleteer William Cobbett (1763-1835) founds Cobbett's Weekly Political Register, which is so radical that in 1815 the govt. attempts to er, stamp it out by imposing a 4d stamp duty on all newspapers, which he counters in Nov. 1816 by pub. a cheap (2d) pamphlet ed. sans news, becoming known as "tuppenny trash", reaching a circ. of 40K; he also pub. Parliamentary Debates, an exact record of Parliamentary debates, which is illegal but doesn't stop him, selling it to T.C. Hansard in 1812; the Political Register is pub. weekly until the the year after his death. On Feb. 2 Othello Pollard exhibits the first leopard in the U.S. in Boston (admission 25 cents). On Feb. 6 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Act for Protection of Commerce and Seamen of the United States Against Tripolitan Corsairs, a declaration of war against the Muslim pirate nations of N Africa - Pres. Obama missed this in his history classes? On Mar. 6 Princeton U.'s Nassau Hall burns down. On Mar. 16 the U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, N.Y. is authorized by Congress; it officially opens on July 4; later, when they can't find dark material for uniforms they end up using gray, causing the "plebes" (1st-year students) to become known as the Long Gray Line; it originates the tradition of class rings. You got to change your evil ways, baby? On Mar. 27 Britain makes peace with France, Spain, and the Batavian Repub. in the Treaty (Peace) of Amiens (negotiated by Charles, Lord Cornwallis), ending the War of the Second Coalition, officially recognizing the French Repub. (first and only time Napoleon's France is at peace), and surrendering all conquests to France except Trinidad (taken from the Brits in 1797) and Ceylon (which goes to the French puppet Batavian Repub. in the Low Countries, which also gets the Cape of Good Hope Colony); France agrees to evacuate Egypt, Naples and the Papal States, and recognizes the Repub. of the Seven Ionian Islands (Septinsular Repub.) (1800-15); Malta is restored by Britain to the Knights of St. John (Malta); France regains its possessions in Africa; Holland's West Indian possessions (Malacca et al.) are restored, except for Guiana; Holland loses the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon but regains the East Indian possessions; Europe is finally at peace, but only until 1803 after the treaty provisions are reneged on; meanwhile Nappy turns his attention to internal affairs, and Lord Nelson lives peaceably in England until 1803. On Apr. 8 the Organic Articles for Protestants, written by French religion minister Jean-Etienne Marie Portalis (1746-1807) at Napoleon's direction divides the French Calvinist community into 6K-person congregations led by a pastor and elders chosen from the taxpayers; Lutheran churches are governed by directories, the majority of which are selected by the consul, which has the power to veto clerical appointments and changes in church doctrine; by 1804 Protestant pastors get govt. salaries; a Calvinist revival begins in Napoleonic France; meanwhile "Jews should participate as equals, like all other religions as permitted by our laws" (Portalis). On Apr. 19 Spain reopens New Orleans to Yankee Americans. In Apr. after Wahhabi (Sunni) king Abd al-Aziz sends his son Sa'ud (Saud) with a 12K-man army, they occupy Karbala (Kerbalah), Iraq, home of the #1 shrine of the Shiites to al-Husayn (al-Husain), destroy the jewel-encrusted dome covering it, kill the priests along with 4K inhabitants, and bring back a super booty - the Muslim MO? On May 1 Napoleon replaces the secondary schools with lycees, emphasizing technical and practical skills, and aimed at producing govt. officials, with scholarships for their children; women are barred from French lycees and univs. by understanding Papa Nappy. On May 1 Ecole Speciale (École Spéciale) Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM) (Special Military School of Saint-Cyr) is founded in Fontainebleu, France by Napoleon in the Maison Royale de Saint-Louis school for impoverished daughters of noblemen (founded in 1685 by Louis XIV); in 1808 they move to Saint-Cyr (W of Paris), becoming the #1 military academy in France, with the motto "Lis s'instruisent pour vaincre" (They study to vanquish). On May 3 the city of Washington, D.C. is incorporated, with a mayor appointed by the U.S. pres. and the city council elected by property owners. On May 19 Napoleon creates the Nat. Order of the Legion of Honor. On June 1 (Tue.) a Day of Thanksgiving in England to celebrate the Treaty of Amiens is the occasion of a sermon titled Reflections on War in Cambridge by Baptist minister Robert Hall (1764-1831); his statue is later erected in De Montfort Square in Leicester. On June 2 the British Factory (Health and Morals of Apprentices) Act improves factory working conditions in Britain from squalid to cruddy. On June 4 Sardinian king (since 1796) Charles Emmanuel IV abdicates after his French wife Marie Clotilde dies on Mar. 7, and his brother Victor Emmanuel I (1759-1824) becomes king of Sardinia (until Mar. 12, 1821). In June Sarah Trimmer (1741-1810) begins pub. The Guardian of Education (until Sept. 1806), becoming the first successful periodical dedicated to reviewing children's lit. in Britain. On July 19 after returning briefly to France to get plans and models of machinery and obtain financial support, Paris-born industrial chemist Eleuthere Irenee (Éleuthère Irénée) du Pont de Nemours (1771-1834) founds the Brandywine Powder Mills in Wilmington, Del. to manufacture black gunpowder, becoming the largest of its kind in the U.S., and Du Pont's only product until 1880. On Aug. 2 Napoleon becomes consul for life with the right to appoint his successor under a new 1802 French Constitution (of the Year X) approved by plebiscite (3.5M votes), which enlarges the powers of the Senate (ruled by the consul) and diminishes other legislative bodies; Swiss-born tribune Benjamin Constant (Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque) (1767-1830) is removed from office and exiled next year, moving in with hot French writer Madame de Stael in Copulate, er, Coppet, Switzerland, which becomes a center of anti-Napoleon activity; too bad, after Napoleon abdicates in 1814, he returns to Paris, then flops and becomes his council of state during the Hundred Days, and gets exiled again by Louis XVIII, finally getting it right and supporting Louis Philippe in 1830 and becoming pres. of the council of state before croaking the same year - constant? On Oct. 3 William Wordsworth marries childhood friend Mary Hutchinson (1770-?), and writes the sonnet She Was a Phantom of Delight about her; "And now I see with eye serene/ The very pulse of the machine" - a clitoral erection? On Oct. 10 after a short stint in 1755-6, the pro-Whig pro-Romanticism Edinburgh Review, founded by literary critics Lord Francis Jeffrey (1773-1850) of Scotland, English clergyman Sydney Smith (1771-1845) et al. begins pub. (until 1929); Jeffrey becomes famous for his trenchant caustic treatment of poets Wordsworth, Keats, Shelly et al. On Oct. 17 the U.S. signs the Treaty of Fort Confederation (Tombecbe) with the Choctaw tribe, ceding 10K acres of land incl. the site of the fort, permitting Great White Father to redraw their old boundary line with the Brits for a consideration of a box of trinkets, er, $1. In Oct. Ludwig van Beethoven (d. 1827), who is suffering from intestinal troubles and failing eyesight, and grieving over the loss of his babe writes the Heiligenstadt Testament, asking doctors to use his remains to "explain the causes of my malady so that the world may be reconciled to me". In Oct. after the Jefferson V, Penn. begins to be called "the keystone in the federal union", and next year is called "the keystone in the democratic arch", causing it to become known as the Keystone State. In Oct. the city of Ashburn, Va. (modern-day pop. 43K) (originally Old Farmwell Station) 30 mi. NW of Washington, D.C. starts out as a 1,236-acre plantation owned by George Lee III; in 1841 Quaker atty. John Janney purchases a 580-acre tract W of Ashburn Road, calling it Ashburn Farm; it goes on to host campuses of George Washington U., Strayer U., and George Mason U., and become a hub for 70% of the world's Internet traffic. On Nov. 29 Ohio adopts a constitution; it is not called the Buckeye State until 1840 even though the state is full of buckeye trees, whose nuts have markings resembling the eyes of a buck. On Dec. 31 after his excesses cause a revolt which makes him flee from Puna to Bengal, Baji Rao II of Martha in C India signs the Treaty of Bassein with the East India Co., reinstating him in return for permitting British troops and accepting a British resident; too bad, his enemies don't accept the British presence, and they start another war next year. Ferdinando dies, and Parma and Piacenza are annexed to France, along with Piedmont. The French attack Cape Haiti, which is ably defended by giant-of-a-man Henri Christophe (1767-1820; the French set back the Haitian slave rebellion by capturing leader Toussaint L'Overture through treachery and imprisoning him in a cell on the France-Swiss border - giving him his choice of thin crust or Old Chicago style buttery crust? Nominal Whig John Quincy Adams of Mass. is elected to the U.S. Senate. Gabriel Duvall (1752-1844) of Md. is appointed by Pres. Jefferson as the first comptroller of the U.S. Treasury (until 1811). Russia obtains a voice in the appointment of hospodars in Moldavia and Wallachia. The town of Waterbury, Ct. (founded 1674) begins manufacturing brass products, becoming the "Brass Center of the World" until after WWII. The state of N.Y. bans horseracing (until 1821). Erfurt in Saxony comes under Prussian control. Georgia cedes its Western lands to federal authority, causing Pres. Jefferson to seek a compromise settlement of the Yazoo land claims, but states rights' champeen House Speaker John Randolph (1773-1833) of Roanoke, Va. (a skinny, beardless, impotent soprano always wearing tails, stovepipe hat, boots, and carrying a whip) blocks passage of the legislation and gets removed as speaker. English explorer Capt. Matthew Flinders (1774-1814) circumnavigates Australia, discovering cool pink Lake Hillier on Middle Island in Western Australia. Portuguese explorers cross Africa. Nguyen Phuc Anh ends the Tay Son Dynasty (founded 1789), and founds the orthodox Confucian Nguyen Dynasty in Vietnam (its last) (ends 1945) under the name of Emperor Gia Long (1762-1820), going on to subdue the Trinh Lords, unify the country, and move the capital S from Hanoi to Hue; meanwhile he plays the eager-to-Catholicize French off for military expertise by letting their Roman Catholic missionaries in. Scottish-born Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres wins a 4-year scholarship in Rome, and when it runs out he scrapes a living together by sketching portraits of French aristocrats on holiday, and ends up staying in Italy for 18 years (until 1824)? Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours returns with a wave of French Rev. refugees to France, where he participates in negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase, which he thought of to keep French troops from landing in New Orleans. James Monroe is sent by his buddy Thomas Jefferson to France as a plenipotentiary to aid Robert R. Livingston and Charles C. Pinckney. Thomas Paine returns to the U.S. in a ship placed at his service by Pres. Jefferson, where he is treated like manure for his Deist books, and hounded and harassed for the rest of his life by people trying to "save his soul"? The U.S. Congress establishes a local govt. for Washington, D.C., incl. a mayor and city council, with the local pop. allowed to elect council members only; in 1820 they are allowed to elect the mayor too; they are not allowed to vote for members of Congress or U.S. pres. Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello moves to Paris (until 1804), dir. the music for Napoleon's chapel; he then returns to Naples and keeps cranking out the operas. The Shakers of Enfield, Conn. sell the first seeds in packages. Francis Burney and her hubby Gen. Alexandere d'Arblay are imprisoned in France by Napoleon until his downfall in 1812, when they return to England - who loves you pretty baby, who's gonna help you through the night? Scottish born journalist James Thompson Callendar (1758-1803) pub. articles alleging that Pres. Jefferson "keeps and for many years has kept as his concubine one of his slaves. Her name is Sally. The name of her eldest son is Tom"; the first mention of Thomas Jefferson's alleged slave-bed tigress Sally Hemings (1773-1835). The Classicist Empire Period in Art begins. The Philolexian Society, based on a 1770s lit. society founded by Alexander Hamilton is founded at Columbia U. "to improve its members in Oratory, Composition and Forensic Discussion"; motto: Surgam (Lat. "I shall rise"); it later becomes the rival of the Peithologian Society (founded 1806 for freshmen; motto: Vitam Impendere Vero = Lat. "To devote one's life to truth"); the school colors later become Philolexian Blue and Peithologian White. Architecture: On Aug. 27 the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs in London, England, built by Robert Milligan (1746-1809) open, becoming London's first enclosed docks, specializing in goods from the West Indies (rum, molasses, sugar). Sports: Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond (1764-1819) introduces horseracing at his ancestral home Goodwood House in Westhampnett, West Sussex, england. Inventions: Scottish engineer Thomas Telford (1757-1834) improves road-building technology. English chemist Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805), son of Josiah Wedgwood makes the first photograph using paper coated with silver nitrate, causing his acquaintance Humphry Davy to pub. a paper on it, after which the search for a fixing agent begins - send us your pictures? Science: The scarce hard acid-resistant bluish metallic element Tantalum (Ta) (#73) (named for Tantalus, who was eternally tantalized by the gods) is discovered by Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf (Gustav) Ekeberg (1767-1813); until 1844 it is confused with niobium. Blind epileptic Kendal, Westmorland, England-born Quaker naturalist John Gough (pr. like gof) (Gow) (1757-1825), who touches plants to his lip and tongue to identify them pub. "An investigation of the method whereby men judge by the ear of the position of sonorous bodies relative to their own persons", describing echolocation; in 1804 he first pub. the elastocaloric effect after quickly stretching a piece of natural rubber (Caoutchouc) and feeling its sudden warmth on his lip, making a fan of James Joule, who undertakes more experiments, discovering that stretched rubber contracts when heated, causing the Gough-Joule Effect to be named; he goes on to discover hydrosere sucession whereby freshwater lakes dry out and become land, and to describe seed banks in soils. German epigraphist Georg Friedrich Grotefend (1775-1853) first deciphers Babylonian cuneiform writing. Sir William Herschel discovers binary stars, and in 1803-4 pub. observations on six cases, becoming the first changes observed taking place under gravity beyond the Solar System. English chemist Luke Howard (1772-1864) first scientifically defines the types of clouds, becoming the father of the science of Meteorology. Alexander von Humboldt discovers and explores the cold sluggish Humboldt Current, running along the Pacific coast of South Am. (500M cu. ft. per sec); he also makes a record-settling climb of Mt. Chimborazo in Ecuador, and doesn't reach the top but correctly traces his altitude sickness to lack of oxygen. German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus Olbers (1758-1840) discovers the asteroid Pallas, (2nd ever discovered) on Mar. 28; at this time he thinks of them as planets. French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829) pub. Hydrogeologie, coining the term "biology", and claiming that continents march steadily westward; he also pub. Recherches sur l'Organisation des Corps Vivans, proposing the theory of evolution, but without describing a mechanism; meanwhile German naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837) pub. Biologie: Oder die Philosophie der Lebenden Natur, independently coining the term "biology", and proposing the transmutation of species - God holds it remarkably up his anus? Jean d'Aubuisson de Voisins (1762-1841) and Christian Leopold von Buch (1774-1853), students of German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) reject their teacher's Neptunism (oceanic origin of rocks) in favor of the volcanic origin of basalt - you can't always give your kids what they love, but with Werner you can? The silver-white hydrogen-absorbing metallic element Palladium (Pd) (#46) (which is later alloyed with gold to make white gold) is discovered by English chemist-physicist William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828), followed in 1804 by the the metallic element Rhodium (Rh) (#45), useful in strengthening platinum. William Hyde Wollaston observes black lines in the solar spectrum - how can a heavenly body have black in it when white is right? English physicist Thomas Young (1773-1829) proposes the Wave Theory of Light in his Royal Society paper On the Theory of Light and Colours. Nonfiction: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), Civil and Penal Legislation. Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838), The New American Practical Navigator; becomes a standard text for sea navigation. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Genie du Christianisme (The Genius of Christianity); a defense of the Roman Catholic faith written during his exile in England in the 1790s, where he threw off the atheist atmosphere of the French Rev. and reconverted; launches a Catholic revival through its aesthetic value, inspiring the Romantic movement; Napoleon becomes a fan, using it to win support from French Catholics until he turns on him and sends him into internal exile in 1807. John Debrett (1753-1822), Peerage (London). Timothy Dexter (1747-1806), A Pickle for the Knowing Ones; or Plain Truths in Homespun Dress (May); eccentric English merchant prince pub. a 24-page autobio. work containing no punctuation; to please critics, he adds a page of nothing but punctuation, writing, "They may peper and solt it as they plese". J.N. Forkel (1749-1818), Life of Johann Sebastian Bach. George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), System of Ethical Life; his slow start after getting a position at the U. of Jena in 1801. Luke Howard (1772-1864), Essay on the Modification of Clouds; defines cumulus (puffy popcorn), stratus (formless), and cirrus (ice crystal) cloud types, plus modifications incl. cirrostratus, stratocumulus, and cumulonimbus. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829), Hydrogeologie; coins the term "biology", and claims that continents march steadily westward; Recherches sur l'Organisation des Corps Vivans; proposes the theory of evolution, but without describing a mechanism. Louis Le Clerk Milfort (1752-1820), Mémoires, ou coup-d'oeil rapide sur mes voyages en Louisiane, et mon séjour dans la nation Creeke; attempts to interest France in the lands of the Creek Indians. William Moultrie (1730-1805), Memoirs of the Revolution As Far As It Related to the States of North and South Carolina. William Paley (1743-1805), Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity; based on The Religious Philosopher: or, The RIght Use of the Contemplation of the World, for the Conviction of Atheists and infidels (2 vols.) (1715), by Dutch theologian Bernard Nieuwentyt (Nieuwentijdt) (Nieuwentjit) (1654-1718), introducing the watchmaker analogy of God. John Playfair (1748-1819), Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth; popularizes and wins acceptance of the uniformitarianism of his mentor James Hutton (1726-97) as the basis of modern evolutionist geology. Friedrich von Schelling (1775-1854), Bruno; or On the Natural and Divine Principle of Things. Henry Thornton (1760-1815), An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain; an analysis of the 1797 British banking currency crisis, denying that the increase in paper credit caused it, opposing the Real Bills Doctrine, making him into the "Father of the Modern Central Bank", with fans incl. Knut Wicksell, Friedrich von Hayek, and John Maynard Keynes. Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837), Biologie: Oder die Philosophie der Lebenden Natur; coins the term "biology", and proposes the transmutation of species. Daniel Webster (1782-1852), The Rights of Neutral Nations in Time of War. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Symphony No. 2 in D-major, Op. 36. Art: John Constable (1776-1837), Dedham Vale; his best painting is of his own locality, "I should paint my own places best. Painting is but another word for feeling." Francois Gerard (1770-1837), Portrait of Madame Recamier. Benjamin West (1738-1820), Death on a Pale Horse. George Colman the Younger (1762-1836), The Poor Gentleman. Poetry: Rhijnvis Feith (1753-1824), Old Age. Vincenzo Monti (1754-1828), Bella Italia, Amate Sponde. Robert Southey (1774-1843), The Inchcape Rock, about 14th cent. Abbot Aberbrothock of Arbroath, who installs a warning bell on a dangerous sandstone reef 11 mi. off the E coast of Scotland, only to have it stolen by a pirate, who later is killed on the reef in bad weather. William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Composed Upon Westminster Bridge (Sept. 3); "Earth has not anything to show more fair." Novels: John Boydell (1719-1804), Boydell's Shakespeare; an ed. of Shakespeare illustrated by the best artists in England, launching a movement to reform publishing; now artists have more to paint than portraits of rich patrons. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Rene; about young Frenchman Rene, who seeks refuge with the Natchez people of La., Madame de Genlis (1746-1830), Mademoiselle de Clermont. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (first novel). Madame Germaine de Stael (1766-1817), Delphine; semi-autobio. novel; introduces the femme incomprise to French lit. Births: French historian-dramatist (Jewish) Leon Halevy (Léon Halévy) (d. 1883) on Jan. 14 in Paris; son of Elie Halevy (1760-1826); brother of Jacques Fromental Halevy (1799-1862); father of Ludovic Halevy (1834-1908). Am. Gothic Revial architect Richard Upjohn (d. 1878) on Jan. 22 in Shaftesbury, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1829. Am. "Evidences of Christianity" Congregationalist theologian-educator Mark Hopkins (d. 1887) on Feb. 4 in Stockbridge, Mass.; nephew of Samuel Hopkins (1721-1803); educated at Williams College and Berkshire Medical School; pres. of Williams College (1836-72). English physicist (developer of the Wheatstone Bridge) Sir Charles Wheatstone (d. 1875) on Feb. 6 in Gloucester; knighted in 1868. Scottish "Father of the Australian Wine Industry" and British resident of New Zealand #1 (1832-40) James Busby (d. 1871) on Feb. 7 in Scotland; emigrates to Australia in 1824. Am. "Over the River and Through the Woods" abolitionist activist-writer Lydia Maria Child (d. 1880) on Feb. 11 in Medford, Mass. Am. spiritualist Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (d. 1866) on Feb. 16 in Lebanon, N.Y.; teacher of Mary Baker Eddy. Belgian violinist-composer Charles Auguste de Beriot (Bériot) (d. 1870) on Feb. 20 in Leuven. French #1 Romantic "Les Miserables", "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" novelist-poet-playwright and politician (child prodigy) (Rosicrucian) Victor Marie Hugo (d. 1885) on Feb. 26 in Besancon (Besançon), Doubs; family is of aristocratic descent from Lorraine; father is a gen. in Napoleon's army who gets involved in plots against him with his wife's lover, who moves in; learns Gothic architecture from Charles Nodier; starts out a royalist then mellows into a suporter of republicanism, becoming a friend of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans (1773-1850); writes in the nude so he can't be tempted to leave home? British Conservative MP (1828-48) Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck (d. 1848) on Feb 27 in Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire; son of William Bentinck, 4th duke of Portland (1768-1854). French tenor-composer Adolphe Nourrit (d. 1839) on Mar. 3 in Montpelier. English animal painter-sculptor Sir Edwin Henry Landseer (d. 1873) on Mar. 7 in London; knighted in 1850. Dutch historical novelist-poet Jacob van Lennep (d. 1868) on Mar. 24 in Amsterdam; son of David Jacob van Lennep (1774-1853). Am. mental health (civil rights) reformer Dorothea Lynde Dix (d. 1887) on Apr. 4 in Hampden, Maine; not to be confused with Dorothy Dix (1861-1951). Finnish philologist-physician Elias Lonnrot (Lönnrot) (d. 1884) on Apr. 9 in Sammatti, Nylandia. Am. Congregationalist theologian Horace Bushnell (d. 1876) on Apr. 14 in Litchfield, Conn; educated at Yale U. English statesman-writer George William Frederick Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle (d. 1864) (Viscount Morpeth) on Apr. 18 in London; educated at Eton College, and Christ Church, Oxford U.; son of the 6th Earl of Carlisle (-1848). Am. abolitionist Unitarian clergyman William Henry Furness (d. 1896) on Apr. 20 in Boston, Mass.; father of Shakespearean scholar Henry Horace Furness (1833-1912). Am. fur trader Ceran de Hault de Lassus de St. Brain (d. 1870) on May 5 in St. Louis, La. Territory; partner of William Bent (1809-69). English feminist abolitionist writer-philosopher Harriet Martineau (d. 1876) on June 12 in Norwich; sister of James Martineau (1805-1900). U.S. Rep. (D-Ill.) (1843-9, 1857-9) Robert Smith (d. 1867) on June 12 in Peterborough, N.H.; founder of General Mills (1856). French journalist-politician Emile de Girardin (d. 1881) on June 22 in Paris. Scottish evolutionary geologist-writer Robert Chambers (d. 1871) on July 10 in Peebles, Peeblesshire; brother of William Chambers (1800-83). Am. Civil War Union maj. gen. David "Black Dave" Hunter (d. 1886) on July 21 in Troy, N.Y. French "The Three Musketeers", "The Count of Monte Cristo" novelist-playwright Alexandre Dumas pere (Dumas Devy de la Pailleterie) (d. 1870) on July 24 in Villers-Cotterets, Aisne; son of Saint-Domingue, Haiti-born mulatto French gen. Thomas Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie (1762-1806), a republican not well liked by Napoleon, causing his family to be left in poor financial condition on his death; grandson of the Marquis de la Pailleterie and black Santo Domingan slave Marie Cessette Dumas; his father takes the name Dumas when joining the French army; father of Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-95) - do I look like I've got the word Dumas stamped on my forehead, yes? Mexican pres. (1851-3) Gen. Mariano Arista (d. 1855) on July 26 in San Luis Potosi. English "Araminta", "The Vicar" light-satirical poet and MP Winthrop Mackworth Praed (d. 1839) on July 28 in London; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (d. 1829) on Aug. 5 in Nedstrand. Swiss-Russian Hess' Law chemist Germain Henri Hess (d. 1850) on Aug. 7 (July 26 Old Style) in Geneva; educated at the U. of Dorpat. Am. chocolateur (Quaker) John Cadbury (d. 1889) on Aug. 12 in Birmingham; father of John Cadbury (1834-66), Richard Cadbury (1835-99), Maria Cadbury (1838-1908), George Cadbury (1839-1922), Joseph Cadbury (1841), Edward Cadbury (1843-66), and Henry Cadbury (1845-75). Hungarian poet Nikolaus Lenau (Nikolaus Franz Niembsch Edler von Strehlenau) (d. 1850) on Aug. 25 in Schadat (near Temesvar) (modern-day Lenauheim, Romania); educated at the U. of Vienna. Am. Oregon missionary-physician Marcus Whitman (d. 1847) on Sept. 4 in Federal Hollow, N.Y.; husband of Narcissa Prentiss Whitman (1808-47). Am. businessman (Freemason) (founder of Purdue U.) John Purdue (d. 1876) on Oct. 31 in Huntingdon County, Penn. Hungarian patriot statesman and freedom fighter Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva) (d. 1894) on Sept. 19 in Monok; educated at the U. of Budapest. Am. physician-inventor ("Father of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning") John Gorrie (d. 1855) on Oct. 3 on Nevis Island; Scottish parents; grows up in S.C. Portuguese pretender Dom Miguel de Braganca (Bragança) (d. 1866) on Oct. 26 in Lisbon; 3rd son of Joao IV and Carlota Joaquina. French engineer (inventor of the water turbine) Benoit Fourneyron (d. 1867) on Oct. 31 in Saint-Etienne, Loire. Welsh Big Ben civil engineer Sir Benjamin Hall, 1st Baron Llanover (d. 187) on Nov. 8 in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire. German philologist (pioneer in linguistics) August Friedrich Pott (d. 1887) on Nov. 14 in Nettlerede, Hanover. German poet-novelist Wilhelm Hauff (d. 1827) on Nov. 29 in Stuttgart. French archaeologist Paul-Emile (Paul-Émile) Botta (d. 1870) on Dec. 6 in Turin, Italy; son of historian Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta (1766-1837). Hungarian mathematician (co-founder of non-Euclidean geometry) Janos (Johann) Bolyai (d. 1860) on Dec. 15 in Kolozsvar, Transylvania (modern-day Cluj-Napoca, Romania); son of Farkas Bolyai (1775-1856). English "Phantasmion" poet Sara Coleridge (d. 1852) on Dec. 23 in Greta Hall, Keswick, Cumbria; 4th child and only daughter of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834); mother of Herbert Coleridge (1830-61). German Young Germany journalist-critic Christian Ludolf Weinbarg (d. 1872) on Dec. 25 in Altona; educated at Marburg U. English "Orion" poet-critic Richard Hengist (Henry) Horne (d. 1884) on Dec. 31 in Edmonton, London. English "The Mountain Sylph" composer John Barnett (d. 1890) in Bedford; Prussian immigrant father. English statesman Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey (d. 1894) (AKA Viscount Howick from 1807-45) on Dec. 28; son of the 2nd earl Grey (1764-1845); uncle of the 4th earl Grey (1851-1917). English Romantic painter Richard Parkes Bonington (d. 1828) in Arnold (near Nottingham); pupil of Antoine Jean Gros; brings the technique of English landscape painter John Constable to France. German Bavarian Neoclassicist sculptor Ludwig von Schwanthaler (d. 1848). Am. politician Josiah Quincy IV (Jr.) (d. 1882) in Boston, Mass.; son of Josiah Quincy III (1772-1864); father of Josiah Phillips Quincy (1829-1910); grandfather of Josiah Quincy (1859-1919); mayor of Boston (1846-8). Welsh poet Eben Fardd (Vardd) (d. 1863). Am. "Woodman, Spare that Tree" journalist-poet George Pope Morris (d. 1864) in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. Southern Baptist missionary (in China) Issachar Jacox Roberts (d. 1871) in Sumner County, Tenn.; educated at Furman U. Am. violinist-conductor (founder of the New York Philharmonic Society) Ureli Corelli Hill (d. 1875) in New York City. Am. writer-playwright (creator of Mrs. Santa Claus) James Rees (d. 1885) in Norristown, Penn. Deaths: Italian fencing master Domenico Angelo (b. 1717) in Eton, England. Am. naval commodore Esek (Essex) Hopkins (b. 1718) on Feb. 26 in Providence, R.I. French astronomer Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix (b. 1718) on Jan. 18 in Toulouse. English actor Roger Kemble (b. 1721). British Col. Isaac Barre (b. 1726) on July 20; namesake of Wilkes-Barre, Penn. Am. playwright John Leacock (b. 1729). Scottish novelist-physician John Moore (b. 1729) on Jan. 21 in London, England; father of Gen. Sir John Moore (1761-1809). Italian composer Giuseppe Sarti (b. 1729) on July 28 in Berlin. English physician-poet Erasmus Darwin (b. 1731). U.S. First Lady #1 (1789-1897) Martha Washington (b. 1731) on May 22 in Mount Vernon, Va. English portraitist George Romney (b. 1734) on Nov. 15 in Kendal. Am. Rev. War soldier Daniel Morgan (b. 1736). Portuguese architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa (b. 1738). English composer-organist Samuel Arnold (b. 1740) on Oct. 22 in Westminster, London; buried in Westminster Abbey. Am. jurist John Lowell (b. 1743) on May 6 in Roxbury, Mass. Dutch painter Jens Juel (b. 1745) on Dec. 27 in Copenhagen. Am. Rev. War soldier Salem Poor (b. 1747). Spanish duke of Parma (1765-1802) Ferdinand (b. 1751) on Oct. 9 in Fontevivo, Italy. Am. educator Samuel Phillips Jr. (b 1752) in Essex County, Mass. Russian sculptor Mikhail Kozlovsky (b. 1753) on Sept. 18 in St. Petersburg. French histologist Xavier Marie-Francois Bichat (b. 1772) on July 22; dies after falling down some steps in his lab - tripped on some tissue?

1803 - Deaf Mice or Moose? The Marbury v. Madison and Peter Piper Pickering a Peck of Pickled Dalton Atoms Year?

John Marshall of the U.S. (1755-1835) Jean Jacques Dessalines of Haiti (1758-1806) Jean Pierre Boyer of Haiti (1776-1850) French Adm. Pierre Charles de Villeneuve (1763-1806) German Field Marshal Count Friedrich von der Decken (1769-1840) Shoja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan (1785-1842) Robert Emmet of Ireland (1778-1803) British Gen. Henry Edward Fox (1755-1811) Thomas Paliser Russell (1767-1803) Michael Dwyer of Ireland (1772-1825) U.S. Commodore William Bainbridge (1774-1883) DeWitt Clinton of the U.S. (1769-1828) Fabian Gottlieb von Bellinghausen (1778-1852) William II of Hesse-Cassel (1787-1867) Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820) John Dalton (1766-1844) George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866) Jean Lafitte (1776-1854) British Lt. Gen. Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842) Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Charles Brockden Brown (1771-1810) Lazare Carnot (1753-1823) Friedrich Carl von Savigny (1779-1861) Johann Peter Hebel (1760-1826) Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811) Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826) Thomas Campbell (1777-1844) Francois-Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834) Jane Porter (1776-1850) Thomas Telford (1757-1834) William Cowper (1731-1800 Karl von Eckartshausen (1752-1803) William Henry (1774-1836) Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764-1820) Smithson Tennant (1761-1815) Mary Unwin (1724-96) 'The Angel of the Revelation' by William Blake (1757-1827), 1803-5 'The Macnab' by Sir Henry Raeburn (1756-1823),

1803 After the Haitian Rev. and civil war damages Haiti's exports, S.C. reopens its slave trade, importing 40K Africans by 1807. By this year 40% of Calif.'s aborigine pop. has embraced Roman Catholicism thanks to the chain of Franciscan missions; European diseases reduce the pop. by two-thirds by 1833; Boston, Mass. Puritan merchant ship Lielya Byrd visits Calif., spending two weeks and making friends with Roman Catholic mission fathers, inaugurating a half-cent. of friendly relations. On Jan. 18 Thomas Jefferson sends a letter to Congress asking for $2.5K to pay for an expedition to the Pacific Ocean, which is later approved. On Feb. 19 Napoleon introduces the Act of Mediation to turn Switzerland into a federation of 19 cantons with a federal diet subservient to France; Grissons becomes a canton. On Feb. 19 Congress votes to accept Ohio's borders and constitution, and on Mar. 1 "Buckeye State" Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state (free); there are now 8 free and 9 slave states, but N.J. is practically in the free camp; Xenia, Ohio (Gr. "xenia" = hospitality) in SW Ohio near Dayton is founded in an area known to the Shawnee as "place of the devil wind", and it is later hit by several severe tornadoes, incl. in 1974. Big day in U.S. history as the judiciary claims its turf? On Feb. 24 after Pres. Jefferson takes advantage of the failure of former secy. of state John Marshall (now U.S. chief justice) to deliver the commission to Federalist William Marbury to become justice of the peace in the District of Columbia, and orders his secy. of state James Madison not to deliver it, causing Marbury to appeal to guess what under the Judiciary Act of 1789 for a writ of mandamus compelling Madison to do so, the U.S. Supreme Court under clever John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison denies Marbury his commission, declaring that the act was unconstitutional, and that as chief justice he can't issue writs of mandamus, but at the same time he defuses the conflict between the admin. and the Federalist judiciary, while claiming the much greater new power of judicial review; the Supreme Court is now the supreme arbiter of the Constitution itself, and can declare acts of the Congress and U.S. pres. "unconstitutional"; "It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is"; since "the constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature", "an act of the legislature, repugnant to the constitution, is void". On Mar. 3 the first impeachment trial of a U.S. judge John Pickering (1737-1805) begins; he is found guilty on Mar. 12, 1804 of decisions contrary to law and drunkeness, becoming the first U.S. federal official to be removed by impeachment. On Mar. 25 the Haputschluss (Final Recess) of the Reichsdeputations-Hauptschluss idemnifies the German princes who lost territory on the left bank of the Rhine River in 1801, elminating most of the ecclesiastical estates in Germany. In Mar. after stalling, the British evacuate Alexandria and give Egypt to the Turks, who install a viceroy. You know what I want, and I got what you need? Black slaves rock the whites' world in Haiti? On Apr. 7 Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture (b. 1744) dies in a French dungeon; the Haitian flag is created by tearing the white stripe from the French tricolor (get it?); on Nov. 18 after Haitian-born mulatto Jean-Pierre Boyer (1776-1850), who arrived with the French military in 1802 to put down the revolt switches sides when he learns they intend to reestablish slavery, the Haitians under pure African Gen. Jean Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) defeat Napoleon's army at the Battle of Vertieres (Vertières) outside Cap-Haitien, securing the V of the former black slaves in Haiti over the French, who are suffering from yellow fever; 20K French troops are killed, and thousands of white colonists are massacred and the rest expelled; frustrated Napoleon now decides to sell French Louisiana; hence the slaves of Haiti save the U.S. from French takeover? On Apr. 12 France passes labor legislation outlawing unions while preventing employer combinations that act "unjustly or abusively" to lower wages and hours; workers (except agricultural and some unskilled) are required to carry a livret (passbook) that must be surrendered to the employer and validated. Might as well face it you're addicted to land? On Apr. 30 (Sat.) after the English refuse it, the 100M acre (828K sq. mi.) (2.14M sq. km.), 68M francs ($15M) Louisiana Purchase, negotiated for U.S. Pres. Thomas Jefferson by U.S. minister to France Robert R. Livingston, and surveyed by British-born Am. geologist George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866) is signed, reaching Washington, D.C. on July 4, doubling the size of the U.S. for less than 3 cents/acre by adding the La. Territory that stretches from the Gulf of Mexico in the S to Rupert's Land in the N, and from the Mississippi River in the E to the crest of the Rocky Mts. in the W, and prepares it for further expansion to the Pacific; it incl. the future states of Ark., Mo., Iowa, Okla., Kan., Neb., most of N.D. and S.D., Minn. W of the Mississippi River, NE N.M., N.Tex., Mont., Wyo., Colo. E of the Continental Divide, La. W of the Mississippi River (incl. New Orleans), and small portions of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada; on Oct. 20 the U.S. Senate ratifies it, and on Dec. 20 ownership of the territory is formally transferred from France to the U.S. in ceremonies held in Jackson Square in New Orleans (originally Plaza d'Armas); the largest state to be purchased (4th largest of the 50 states) is Montana; French privateer Jean Lafitte (1776-1854) (d. 1823?) establishes his own Kingdom of Baritaria in the swamps and bayous around New Orleans, claiming to command 3K men; too bad, aborigines aren't told they have to register ownership of their lands, allowing the federal govt. to claim them, incl. the La. Bayou, where oil cos. later make billions. On May 13 Mannheim is ceded to grand duke Karl Friedrich of Baden, and its fortifications demolished; the Palatinate cedes Heidelberg to him, and he becomes the patron of the U. of Heidelberg, restoring its prominence, founding the Grand Duchy of Baden on the E bank of the Rhine River in SW Germany in 1806 (until 1918). On May 13 the Second Anglo-Maratha (Mahratta) War (ends 1805) begins in C India between the British and the cool-dressing turbined bearded Hindu Mahrattas (Marathas) (cavalrymen) of C-W India (pop. 12M) and Sindhia of Gwalior; on Sept. 23 Sir Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) wins a decisive V at the Battle of Assaye, becoming his first major V, which he later calls his finest battlefield accomplishment. Not even fourteen months of peace in Europe and the dunderheads are at it again? On May 16 after the Maltese object to the Treaty of Amiens, and the British fail to evacuate, Britain declares war on France again, and the resulting Napoleonic Wars between France and various Allied coalitions last 11 years (until 1815); Adm. Horatio is appointed cmdr. of the British Mediterranean fleet, and blockades Toulon to stop a large French fleet under vice-adm. Pierre Charles Jean Baptiste Silvestre de Villeneuve (1763-1806) from invading England (until 1805). On May 22 the first public library in the U.S. opens in Salisbury, Conn. In May the slave ship Wanderer carrying Igbo and other tribesmen from Nigeria lands in Savannah, Ga.; too bad, as they are being transported to plantations on St. Simons Island on the York, 75 Igbo slaves rebel, kill the crew, then land in Dunbar Creek, after which they march singing into the water and commit mass suicide. On June 3 the Convention of Sulingen is signed with Prussia, requiring Hanoverian troops to withdraw over the Elbe River into Lauenberg; the Prussian minister, who tried to talk the king out of it resigns next year; on July 5 the Convention of Artlenburg, forced by Napoleon causes the army of the electorate of Hanover to be disbanded, after which 30K French occupy Hanover, pissing off George III of England, who on July 28 orders Lt. Col. Count Friedrich von der Decken (1769-1840), adjutant to Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge to recruit the Hanoverian soldiers for the British army, causing them to emigrate to Lymngton, England, after which on Dec. 19 the King's German Legion is formed. On June 21 the West Indian island of St. Lucia, noted for the twin Pitons (Gros and Petit) comes under British rule. On July 23 the Society of United Irishmen, led by "the Irish Patriot" Robert Emmet (1778-1803) stage the disastrous poorly-planned Irish Insurrection (Rebellion) of 1803 in Dublin, which is suppressed by English CIC in Ireland gen. Henry Edward Fox (1755-1811) (son of Baron Henry Fox, who got rich as paymaster gen. in the Seven Years' War); on Oct. 21 United Irishmen leader Thomas Paliser Russell (1767-1803) is hanged and beheaded in Downpatrick Gaol; on Sept. 20 after telling his judges "Let no man write my epitaph", Emmett is hanged, drawn, and quartered in front of St. Catherine's Church on Thomas St. in Dublin after being held in the new Kilmainham Gaol (built 1796) in Dublin, which becomes infamous for maltreatment of prisoners, with men, women, and children not segregated and forced to live most of the time in the dark; more Irish are transported from Spike Island Prison in beautiful Cork harbor to Botany Bay to face cruel Gov. Captain William Bligh of "Mutiny on the Bounty" fame, incl. Michael Dwyer (1772-1825) of County Wicklow and his comrades Hugh Byrne, Martin Bourke and Arthur Devlin; at least the first Roman Catholic masses are permitted there by the "No Popery" Brits on the site of the future (1844) Church of St. Patrick in Sydney. On Aug. 17 Ft. Dearborn in Chicago, Ill. is built, named after U.S. war secy. (1801-9) Henry Dearborn. On Sept. 23 former gov. #1 (1796-1801) John "Nolichucky Jack" Sevier (1745-1815) is sworn in as gov. #3 of Tenn. (until Sept. 20, 1809); too bad, after losing a vote to become maj.-gen. of volunteer forces for Tenn. to Andrew Jackson, he insults his wife (since 1791) Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson with the soundbyte: "I know of no services you have rendered to this country other than taking a trip to Natchez with another man's wife", and after meeting outside Kingston, Tenn. on Oct. 1 and calling each other names, they call the duel off. On Oct. 31 the warship USS Philadelphia (launched Nov. 28, 1799), captained by William Bainbridge (1774-1833) founders on a reef near Tripoli, and is forced to surrender along with all 307 sailors; Tripoli adds the ship to their Muslim pirate navy. In Nov. after his counties of Winneburg and Beilstein (received by his family from the archbishop of Trier in 1637) are confiscated, Klemens von Metternich is sent to Berlin as Austrian ambassador, and he is granted the title of prince of the Austrian Empire, along with the lands of the abbey of Ochsenhausen as compensation; after Wirttemberg absorbs (mediatizes) his principality in 1806, he is allowed to retain his precious title and pass it on to his descendants - the aristocratic Borgs have completely assimilated him? On Dec. 12 the XII (12th) (Separate Election of President and Vice-President) amendment to the U.S. Constitution is sent by the Eighth Congress to the states for ratification (ratified 1804). Oxford, Ohio in the SW part of the state is set aside as the future side of educational institutions. Salisbury, Conn. opens a free library for children. Federal aid is sent to fire victims in Portsmouth, N.H. this year, setting a precedent later used to justify the creation of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1979; the N.H. Fire and Marine Insurance Co. is also founded to cover all bases. The landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel, famous for furnishing Hessian troops to help the Brits during the Am. Rev. War becomes an electorate under William II of Hesse-Cassel (1787-1867) (until 1867). Wahhabi leader Abd al-Aziz captures Mecca, and plunders Khazinat an-Nabawiyya (Prophetic Treasure) and other monuments to Muslim saints, covering the Kaaba with two sheets of black cloth called Qailan so that it won't be considered idolatry?); he is then is murdered in Deriye by a Shiite in revenge for the destruction of the shrine of al-Husayn in Karbala, and his son Sa'ud (Saud) ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Mohammed ibn Saud (Saud al-Kabeer) (-1814) becomes emir of Deriye (until 1814), capturing Medina. Mahmud Shah is ousted by his brother Shoja (Shuja) Shah Durrani (1785-1842), who becomes ruler of Afghanistan (until 1809). Little Britain, N.Y.-born DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828), nephew of U.S. vice pres. (since 1805) and N.Y. gov. #1 (1777-95, 1801-4) George Clinton becomes Dem.-Repub. mayor #47 of New York City (until 1810, then 1811-15); in 1811-13 he also becomes N.Y. lt. gov., followed by N.Y. gov. #6 in 1817-22 and 1825-8, going on to become known as "the Father of the Erie Canal". The first Russian expedition, led by naval officer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellinghausen (1778-1852) circumnavigates the globe. Fur trapper mountain man John Colter (OE "colt-herd") (1774-1813) becomes the first white man to enter Wyoming (Wyo.), later becoming a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Van Diemen's Land is taken over by Britain, and used as a penal settlement (until 1853). After the news of Alexander Mackenzie's explorations turns on Scottish philanthropist Lord Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820) to the Lake Winnipeg and Red River area as a place to help the poor start a new life, he sends 900 poor Scottish farmers to settle Prince Edward Island and Upper Canada this year and next. Bird-watcher John James Audubon (b. 1785 in Haiti) is sent to the U.S. by his father to avoid being drafted into Napoleon's army, to family estate in Penn.; he later marries neighbor Lucy Bakewell. The College of William and Mary in Va. (founded 1693) founds the first school of modern history in the U.S. Chemistry is first offered as a subject by Am. colleges; Princeton U. had a prof. of chemistry in 1796. Ludwig van Beethoven enters his Heroic Period (ends 1812), featuring his most ppular works. After two big years (1800-1) of writing patriotic poems such as "Hohenlinden", Scottish poet Thomas Campbell (1777-1844) moves from Scotland to London, where he remains until the last year of his life, when he moves to Boulogne for his health. Robert Southey joins his friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge at Keswick in the Lake District of England, moving into Greta Hall for life. After becoming the first prof. architect in the U.S. Leeds, England-born Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe (1764-1820) is hired by his friend Pres. Jefferson to supervise construction of the U.S. Capitol, going on to supervise numerous projects in the Washington, D.C. area incl. the Washington Canal, Washington Navy Yard, Decatur House, St. John's Episcopal Church, and the porticos of the White House. The Technical College of Prague is founded. August von Kotzebue et al. found the Berlin periodical Der Freimutige (1803-7), which attacks the Romantic movement and Napoleon. French comic opera composer Francois Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834) becomes chapel master to the Russian court at St. Petersburg (until 1812). After 4+ cents. of Bierzwang (Ger. "beer coercion"), where local authorities exclude beers brewed outside their walls, the Bierfreiheit (Ger. "beer freedom") is established in Germany under the influence of the Napoleonic conquest. After arriving in New York City last year and writing to Pres. Jefferson about needing to be naturalized to patent an invention, Irish-born (Roman Catholic) brewer Joseph Coppinger (-1825) founds Point Brewery in Pittsburgh, Penn. on the site of old Fort Pitt; in 1805 he enters a partnership to found a brewery in Jessamine County, Ky., resulting in a lawsuit that is settled by Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin, the first Roman Catholic priest ordained in the U.S.; in 1810 after moving to New York City he writes a letter to Pres. James Madison, proposing the establishment of a nat. brewery in Washington, D.C.; in 1815 he pub. The American Practical Brewer and Tanner, describing a method of malting Indian corn; on Apr. 6, 1815 after Jefferson saw an 1813 advertisement and wrote him expressing a desire to buy it, he writes a letter to ex-U.S. pres. Thomas Jefferson, proposing a subscription brewery in Washington, D.C.; Jefferson writes back, with the soundbyte: "In my family brewing I have used wheat as we do not raise barley." Architecture: The 60-mi. 4-lock Caledonian Canal, running between Moray Firth on the North Sea and Loch Linnhe on the Irish Sea, designed by James Watt in 1773 is begun by British engineer Thomas Telford (1757-1834) (opens 1823). San Souci Hotel is built in Ballston Spa, N.Y. (founded 1771) by real estate developer Nicholas Low (1739-1826), becoming the largest hotel in the U.S., attracting top politicians and the wealthy. Inventions: Henry Fourdrinier and Sealy Fourdrinier invent the Fourdrinier Screen for Robert's papermaking machine. Am. inventor Robert Fulton (1765-1815) invents the Side-Paddle Steamboat. The Shrapnel Shell, invented by British royal artillery lt. (later lt.-gen.) Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842) of England is adopted by the British army - when the fog rolls I keep seeing terrible things happening? Alan de Vilbiss invents the spray gun for delivering aerosol medication. Science: On Jan. 1 English chemist William Henry (1774-1835) pub. the paper Experiments on the Quantity of Gases Absorbed by Water, at Different Temperatures, and under Different Pressures, proposing Henry's Law, which states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase, with the soundbyte: "Water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c., the volume absorbed under the common pressure of the atmosphere." Jons (Jöns) Jacob Berzelius (1779-1848) of Sweden discovers the metallic element Cerium (Ce) (#58), the most abundant of the rare-earth group, named after the asteroid Ceres; the cerium metal group incl. #57 to #63 (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium). The biggest scientific advance since ancient Greek times, and it takes a colorblind weather watcher? Colorblind English scientist John Dalton (1766-1844) proposes the modern Quantitative Atomic Theory of Matter, that it is composed of atoms of different weights that combine according to regular laws - it's like magic, good night Snow White? German scientist E.A. Inglefield puts two and two together with the recent discovery of infrared beyond the red, and proposes the existence of ultraviolet rays beyond the violet to explain Karl Wilhelm Scheele's 1777 experiment with silver chloride; too bad, he's too late. English chemist Smithson Tennant (1761-1815) discovers the rare (#61) metallic elements Osmium (Os) (#76) and Oridium (Ir) (#77) in platinum ores; the specific gravity of Ir (22.4) is exceeded only by Os (24), which is the most dense known substance; they are later used in the alloy osmiridium to strengthen platinum. Nonfiction: Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860), Versuch einer Geschichte der Leibeigenschaft in Pommern und Rugen; helps end serfdom in Sweden. Claude Berthollet (1748-1822), Essai de Statique Chimique (2 vols.); disputes the doctrine of elective affinities with his Law of Mass Action. Joseph Black (1728-99), Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry (2 vols.) (posth.). Pieter Camper (1722-89), Oeuvres Qui Ont pour Objet l'Histoire Naturelle, la Physiologie et l'Anatomie Comparee (3 vols.) (Paris) (posth.). Lazare Carnot (1753-1823), Principes Fondamentaux de l'Equilibre et du Mouvement; first points out the energy of position in a gravitational field (potential energy) as separate from energy of motion (kinetic energy). Adamantios Coraes (1748-1833), Present Conditions of Civilization in Greece. J.N. Forkel (1749-1818), Life of Johann Sebastian Bach. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), Reinhold, Fichte und Schelling. Rene Just Hauy (1743-1822), Traite Elementaire de Physique; proposes that crystals are made up of tiny cubes or polyhedra. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829), Recherches sur l'Organisation des Corps Vivants. Joseph Lancaster, Improvements in Education as It Respects the Industrious Classes. Friedrich Carl von Savigny (1779-1861), Das Recht das Besitzes: Eine Civilistische Abhandlung (The Law of Property); argues that in Roman law possession always refers to "usucapion" (interdicts), and does not incl. a right to continued possession but only to immunity from interference, because posstssion is based on the consciousness of unlimited power; ends the old uncritical study of Roman law, making him a star of the German historical school of jurists. Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832), A Treatise on Political Economy (Traite d'Economie Politique); proposes Say's Law of Markets, that there can never be a gen. deficiency of demand or gen. glut of commodities in the whole economy, with the soundbytes "Products are exchanged for products", and "A glut can take place only when there are too many means of production applied to one kind of product and not enough to another"; makes converts to economic liberalism but pisses off Napoleon, who forces his retirement from the Committee of Finance. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Sonata for Violin and Piano, Op. 47 ("Kreutzer"). Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826), Peter Schmoll and His Neighbors (opera) (Augsburg); a success, getting him the job of dir. of the Breslau Opera in 1806; too bad, his attempts at reform are resisted, and he quits in 1807, then gets charged with embezzlement in 1810 and banished from Wurttemberg, allowing him to bounce around to Prague, Berlin, and Dresden. Art: William Blake (1757-1827), The Angel of the Revelation (1803-5). John Sell Cotman (1782-1842), Ruins of Rievaulx Abbey. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), Robert Fulton (sculpture) (1803-4). Joseph Anton Koch (1768-1839), Landscape with Noah. Sir Henry Raeburn (1756-1823), The Macnab; becomes the logo for John Deward and Sons Ltd. of London. J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Calais Pier. Benjamin West (1738-1820), Christ Healing the Sick. Plays: George Colman the Younger (1762-1836), John Bull; or, An Englishman's Fireside (comedy); his biggest hit. Thomas Dibdin (1771-1841), and William Reeve (1757-1815), Family Quarrels; or, The Jew and the Gentle (comic opera) (Covent Garden Theatre, London) (Dec. 18); stars comedian John Fawcett as Proteus, John Braham as Charles Supplejack, and Charles Incledon as Foxglove. James Kenney, Raising the Wind; about Jeremy Diddler, a real diddler (swindler). Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811), Die Familie Schroffenstein (Ghonorez) (tragedy) (debut). William Reeve (1757-1815), The Caravan (comic opera) (Drury Lane, London); features an onstage water tank into which Carlos the Wonder Dog leaps to rescue a drowning child, becoming such a big hit that Sadler's Wells Theatre installs a 3-ft.-deep 8K gal. water tank beneath the stage, and after becoming co-owner and dir. of music, Reeve writes and produces about 80 musicals with librettos by Dibdin. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), Die Braut von Messina (tragedy) (Mannheim). Poetry: William Cowper (1731-1800), The Castaway; his spiritual torment; On the Loss of the Royal George; To Mary (posth.); his friend Mary Unwin (1724-96). Willem Leevend and Rhyijnvis Feith (1753-1824), De Ouderdom. Johann Peter Hebel (1760-1826), Alemannische Gedichte; "Bucolicize the whole world in the most attractive manner" (Goethe); Schatzkästlein des Rheinischen Hausfreundes (Treasure Chest of the Family Friend by the Rhine); giant hit in Germany. Thomas Moore (1779-1852), Odes and Epistles. Novels: Charles Brockden Brown (1771-1810), Memoirs of Carwin the Biloquist (1803-5). Ellis Wynn o Lasynys (1671-1734), Visions of the Sleeping Bard (Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc); satire on worldly follies; greatest Welsh prose work of modern times? Charles Nodier (1780-1844), Le Peintre de Salzbourg, Journal des Emotions d'un Tour Souffrant, suivi des Meditations du Cloitre; miserable Charles wants the monasteries to be restored. Jane Porter (1776-1850), Thaddeus of Warsaw; the 1790s Polish independence struggle; praised by Thaddeus Kosciusko. Births: British "Black-Eyed Susan" writer-dramatist ("the little Shakespeare in a camlet cloak") Douglas William Jerrold (d. 1857) on Jan. 3 near Cranbrook, Kent; grows up in Sheerness. English gen. Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet (d. 1863) on Jan. 29 in Butterley, Devonshire. Am. Civil War Confed. gen. Albert Sidney Johnston (d. 1862) on Feb. 2 in Washington, Ky.; serves in the U.S. army from 1826-34; in 1838 becomes secy. of war of the Repub. of Tex.; returns to the U.S. Army in 1849, then resigns in 1861 to join the Confeds., becoming their top gen. until Robert E. Lee. German poetic naturalist Karl Friedrich Schimper (d. 1867) on Feb. 15 in Mannheim. Am. Sutter's Fort founder John Augustus Sutter (Johan August Suter) Sr. (d. 1880) on Feb. 20 in Kandern, Baden, Germany; grows up in Neuchatel, Switzerland; father of John Augustus Sutter Jr. (1826-97). French "Night Patrol at Smyrna", "Monkey Connoisseurs" Romantic painter Alexandre Gabriel Decamps (d. 1860) on Mar. 3 in Paris; studies with Abel de Pujol; #1 French colorist; known for Oriental and Biblical subjects, and satires of Charles X. Irish-Am. Procter & Gamble co-founder James Gamble (d. 1891) on Apr. 3 in Enniskillen; son William Gamble marries Fanny (Franzeska) Wilhelmina Nast, daughter of Methodist preacher William Nast, and she becomes the first female grad. of German Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. English adventurer Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak (d. 1868) on Apr. 29 in Bandei, Hooghly, British India. German chemist ("the Father of Aricultural Chemistry/Fertilizer Industry") ("the Farmer's Chemist") Justus von Liebig (d. 1873) on May 12 in Darmstadt, Hesse; father owns a dye shop; educated at the U. of Erlangen; develops the Oxo beef bouillon cube. Mexican pres. (1863-4) Gen. Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (d. 1869) on May 15 in Nocupetaro, Caracuaro, Michoacan; alleged son of Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815) and pure aborigine Brigida Almonte. English "Jorrocks' Jaunts and Jollities" sporting novelist Robert Smith Surtees (d. 1864) on May 17 in Durham. English "Pelham" novelist-playwright-politician (Rosicrucian) Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (d. 1873) on May 25 in London; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; coins the phrases "the great unwashed", "the pen is mightier than the sword", "dweller on the threshold", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", and "It was a dark and stormy night." New England Unitarian Transcendentalist leader Ralph Waldo Emerson (d. 1882) on May 25 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. English linguist-writer George Henry Borrow (d. 1881) on July 5 in East Dereham, Norfolk. Canadian rev. leader Thomas Storrow Brown (d. 1888) on July 7 in St. Andrews, N.B. Am. brand-challenged Texas cattleman (San Antonio, Tex. mayor #4, 1839-40) Samuel Augustus Maverick (d. 1870) on July 23 near Pendleton, S.C.; grandfather of Maury Maverick Sr. (1895-1954); educated at Yale U.; namesake of the term "maverick"; not to be confused with Mass. colonist Samuel Maverick (1602-70). French "Giselle", "Le Corsaire", "O Holy Night" composer-critic Adolphe Charles Adam (d. 1856) on July 24 in Paris; son of Louis Adam (1758-1848); teacher of Leo Delibes. Am. naval engineer and inventor John Ericsson (d. 1889) on July 31 in Langbanshyttan, Sweden; emigrates to the U.S. in 1848; inventor of the screw propeller, and builder of the "Monitor". English Crystal Palace architect Sir Joseph Paxton (d. 1865) on Aug. 3 in Milton Bryan, Bedfordshire. British Paulet Affair Adm. Lord George Paulet (d. 1879) on Aug. 12. Am. statesman-diplomat and U.S. Supreme Court justice #34 (1858-81) Nathan Clifford (d. 1881) on Aug. 18 in Rumney, N.H.; of old Yankee stock; great-great-grandmother Anna Smith was the accuser of Goody Cole. Belgian "Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830" Romantic painter Egide Charles Gustave, Baron Wappers (d. 1874) on Aug. 23 in Antwerp; teacher of Ford Madox Brown. Am. Presbyterian theologian Edward Beecher (d. 1895) on Aug. 27 in East Hampton, N.Y.; son of Lyman Beecher (1775-1863); educated at Yale U. U.S First Lady #11 (1845-89) Sarah Childress Polk (d. 1891) on Sept. 4 near Murfreesboro, Tenn.; wife (1824-) of James Knox Polk. Am. activist-preacher (Calvinist-to-Universalist-to-Roman Catholic convert) Orestes Augustus Brownson (d. 1876) on Sept. 16 in Stockbridge, Vt. English textile manufacturer Sir Titus Salt, 1st Baronet (d. 1876) on Sept. 20; created baronet in 1869. U.S. adm. Samuel Francis du Pont (d. 1865) on Sept. 27 in Bergen Point (Bayonne), N.J.; son of Victor Marie du Pont de Nemours (1767-1827). French "Carmen" Romantic writer-dramatist-archeologist-historian (novella pioneer) Prosper Merimee (Mérimée) (d. 1870) on Sept. 28 in Paris; educated at the Lycee Naoleon (Henry IV); known for trans. Russian lit. into French. French Sturm-Liouville Theory mathematician Jacques Charles Francois Sturm (d. 1855) on Sept. 29 in Geneva, Switzerland; of German descent. German physicist-meteorologist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (d. 1879) on Oct. 6 in Liegnitz. English architect-inventor (of the Hansom Cab) (Roman Catholic) Joseph Aloysius Hansom (d. 1882) on Oct. 26 in York. Russian adm. Yevfimy Vasilyevich Putyatin (d. 1883) on Nov. 8. Am. "American Slavery As It Is" abolitionist leader Theodore Dwight Weld (d. 1895) on Nov. 23 in Hampton, Conn.; husband (1838-) of Angelina Grimke (1805-79). Austrian Doppler Effect mathematician-physicist Christian Andreas Doppler (d. 1853) on Nov. 29 in Salzburg. Canadian brewer John Kinder Labatt (d. 1866) in Queen's County, Ireland; emigrates to Canada in the 1830s. German architect Gottfried Semper (d. 1879) on Nov. 29 in Altona. Am. Tex. secy. of war #1 (1836-7)_ and U.S. Tex. sen. (1846-57) Thomas Jefferson Rusk (d. 1857) on Dec. 5 in Pendleton, S.C. French "Symphonie Fantastique" Romantic composer Hector Berlioz (d. 1869) on Dec. 11 in La Cote-Saint-Andre (near Grenoble); atheist father, Roman Catholic mother; likes to conduct concerts with 1K musicians. Irish novelist-dramatist Gerald Griffin (d. 1840) on Dec. 12 in Limerick. Am. Tex. Supreme Court chief justice and U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1959-61) John Hemphill (d. 1862) on Dec. 18 in Chester District, S.C.; Northern Ireland immigrant father, Scots-Irish descent mother; educated at Jefferson College; known for living with his black Slave Sabina for over a decade and having two daughters by her. U.S. "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" Dem. Ohio gov. #31 (1874-6) and U.S. Sen. (1837-49) William Allen (d. 1879) on Dec. 18/27 in Edonton, N.C. English screwy mechanical engineer Sir Joseph Whitworth (d. 1887) on Dec. 21 in Stockport. Estonian writer ("Father of Estonian Nat. Lit.") Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (d. 1882) on Dec. 26 (Dec. 14 Old Style) in Kadrina. English comedian Charles James Mathews (d. 1878) on Dec. 26 in Liverpool; son of Charles Mathews (1776-1835). Korean sirhak scholar Ch'oe Han-gi (d. 1875). Canadian writer Susanna Moodie (d. 1885) in Suffolk, England. Deaths: Am. DOI signer Francis Lewis (b. 1713) on Dec. 30. German poet Johann Wilhelm Gleim (b. 1719) on Feb. 18 in Halberstadt. Italian painter Domenico Corvi (b. 1721) in Rome. Am. theologian Samuel Hopkins (b. 1721) on Dec. 20. Am. Rev. leader Edmund Pendleton (b. 1721) on Oct. 23; "Taken in all he was the ablest man in debate I ever met" (Thomas Jefferson). Am. Rev. leader and Boston lager brewer Samuel Adams (b. 1722). English sculptor Joseph Wilton (b. 1722) in London; dies broke after squandering daddy's fortune and giving up sculpting. German poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (b. 1724) on Mar. 14 in Hamburg. Swiss (Genevan) physicist Georges-Louis Le Sage (b. 1724) on Nov. 9 in Geneva, France. Am. journalist Benjamin Edes (b. 1732) on Dec. 11 in Boston, Mass. Italian mathematician Gregorio Fontana (b. 1735) on Aug. 24 in Milan. French playwright Jean-Francois de La Harpe (b. 1739) on Feb. 11 in Paris. French novelist-gen. Pierre Ambroise Francois Choderlos de Laclos (b. 1741) on Sept. 5 in St. Francis of Assisi Convent, Taranto, Italy. French mystical philosopher Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (b. 1743) on Oct. 23 in Aunay (near Paris). German poet-philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder (b. 1744) on Dec. 18 in Weimar; leaves the unfinished Outline of a Philosophy of the History of Man, which founds the philosophical school of historical thought, stressing that "one must go into the age, into the religion, into the whole history, and feel one's way into everything" to become the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, treating history as a science and an "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit"; "Compare England with Germany: the English are Germans, and even in the latest times the Germans have led the way for the English in the greatest things"; "National glory is a deceiving seducer. When it reaches a certain height, it clasps the head with an iron band. The enclosed sees nothing in the mist but his own picture; he is susceptible to no foreign impressions"; "Notwithstanding the varieties of the human form, there is but one and the same species of man throughout the whole earth"; "A human soul is an individual in the realm of minds: it senses in accordance with an individual formation, and thinks in accordance with the strength of its mental organs... My long allegory has succeeded if it achieves the representation of the mind of a human being as an individual phenomenon, as a rarity which deserves to occupy our eyes." Irish-born Am. "Father of the U.S. Navy" Commodore John Barry (d. 1745) on Sept. 13 in Philadelphia, Penn. Dutch writer Hieronymus van Alphen (b. 1746) on Apr. 2 in The Hague. Italian dramatist Vittorio Alfieri (b. 1749) on Oct. 8 in Florence; last words: "Clasp my hand, dear friend, I'm dying." French painter Adelaide Labille-Guiard (b. 1749) on Apr. 24. German writer Wilhelm Heinse (b. 1749) on June 22 in Aschaffenburg. Swiss Argand lamp chemist Aime Argand (b. 1750) on Oct. 14 in Geneva (Malaria). German mystic Karl von Eckartshausen (b. 1752) on May 12 in Munich; leaves The Cloud upon the Sanctuary (Die Wolke uber dem Heiligtum), calling for the creation of the secret Council of Light, a body of living and dead mystics, which becomes a hit with occultists incl. the Order of the Golden Dawn. Austrian composer Franz Xaver Sussmayer (b. 1766) on Sept. 17 in Vienna; completed Mozart's "Requiem". Irish rebel leader Thomas Paliser Russell (b. 1767) on Oct. 21 in Downpatrick Gaol (hanged and beheaded). British surgeon-explorer George Bass (b. 1771) in Feb. Irish rebel leader Robert Emmet (b. 1778) on Sept. 20 in Dublin (hanged and beheaded).

1804 - The Tough Sore Hero Anti-Hero Emperor Lewis and Clark Burry Good Burr-Hamilton Duel End of Sore Rears Year?

Napoleon I of France (1769-1821 Napoleon I of France (1769-1821 Crowning of Napoleon by Pope Pius VII, 1804 Prince Karl August von Hardenberg of Prussia (1750-1822) Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagn of Britain (1769-1822) Alexander Hamilton of the U.S. (1757-1804 Alexander Hamilton of the U.S. (1757-1804) Aaron Burr of the U.S. (1756-1836) Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) Meriwether Lewis of the U.S. (1774-1809) William Clark of the U.S. (1770-1838) Sacagawea (1790-1812) Emperor Francis I of Austria (1768-1835) HRE Francis II (1768-1835) Samuel Chase of the U.S. (1741-1811) William Johnson of the U.S. (1771-1834) Stephen Decatur Jr. of the U.S. (1779-1820) Rufus King of the U.S. (1755-1827) French Marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte (1763-1840) Nicolas-Francois, Count Mollien of France (1758-1850) Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire (1760-1816) Karadorde Petrovic of Serbia (1768-1817) Count Carlo Andrea Pozzo di Borgo (1764-1842) Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) French Gen. Jean Charles Pichegru (1761-1804) Georges Cadoudal of France (1771-1804) Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Conde, Duke of Enghien (1772-1804) Pierre Jean de Béranger (1780-1857) Louis Spohr (1784-1859) Johann Friedrich Rochlitz (1769-1842) Black Hawk (1767-1838) Marie-Antoine Carême (1784-1833) Chateau de Valencay Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837) Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840) Bernard Germain de Lacépède (1756-1825) Sophie Blanchard (1778-1819) Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832) Thomas Taylor (1758-1835) Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781-1832) 'Napoleon at Malmaison' by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1804)

1804 Hey don't get mad, don't be mean, but I see you with my t-shirt on my head? On Jan. 1 after a 2-year war the Repub. of Haiti is declared by Gen. Jean Jacques Dessalines, who declares himself emperor Jacques I (gov.-gen. for life), becoming the first repub. on Earth to be led by a man of African descent; France doesn't recognize Haiti until 1838. On Jan. 26 justice (since Apr. 21, 1800) Alfred Moore resigns, and on May 7 after Pres. Johnson nominates him on Mar. 22, Charleston, S.C.-born William Johnson (1771-1834) becomes U.S. Supreme Cout justice #14 (until Aug. 4, 1834), becoming the first non-Federalist, known for frequent articulate dissents from the Federalist majority. At long last, a victory for the oppressed Christians against the Muslim Ottoman Empire? On Feb. 14 the Massacre of the Serbian Knights (Seca Knezova) (Knezes) in the C square of Valjevo, Serbia on Jan. 23-29 by the Janissary dahias triggers the First Serbian Uprising against four cents. of Ottoman rule, led by Grand Leader (Veliki Vozd) Karadorde (Djordje) "Black George" Petrovic (1768-1817) (ends Oct. 7, 1813). On Feb. 15 N.J. becomes the last Northern U.S. state to abolish slavery, joining R.I., Penn., Mass., N.H., Conn., Vt., N.Y., and Ohio; there are now 9 free and 8 slave states. At long last, a victory for the oppressed Christians against the Muslim Ottoman Empire is degraded by the secular U.S. into a non-event? On Feb. 16 U.S. Navy Lt. Stephen Decatur Jr. (1779-1820) leads a successful raid into Tripoli Harbor to burn the captured anchored U.S. Navy frigate USS Philadelphia, earning him the praise of British adm. Horatio Nelson, who calls it "the most bold and daring act of the age", along with a promotion to capt.; Pope Pius VII credits the U.S. with doing "more for the cause of Christianity than the most powerful nations of Christendom have done for ages", causing James Madison and Thomas Jefferson to rebuff him, claiming that they exhibit "universal toleration in matters of religion" and it was only about national interest - the fatal blindness of the fledgling U.S. would make Osama bin Laden laugh? On Feb. 21 the Fulani War (Jihad) in modern-day Nigeria and Cameroon begins when Suni Maliki Muslim teacher Usman dan Fodio (Usuman bii Foduye) (1754-1817) (Qadiri Sufi) is exiled from Gobir by his former student King (since 1801) Yunfa, pissing him off and causing him to assemble a Fulani army to wage jihad against the Hausa kingdoms of N Nigeria, losing the Battle of Tsuntua in Dec., losing 2K KIA incl. 200 hafiz, then capturing Kebbi and Gwandu in 1805, making Gwandu into their base, then capturing the Gobir capital of Aikalawa in Oct. 1808 and executing Yunfa, establishing the Sokoto Caliphate in 1809 (ends 1903), which becomes one of the largest states in Africa this cent., inspiring other jihads in W Africa. On Feb. 25 a Repub. congressional caucus nominates Thomas Jefferson again for pres., and dumps "the Great American Rascal", "the Napoleon of the West" Aaron Burr for George Clinton of New York for vice-pres.; the Federalist party is in disarray, and ends up supporting Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of S.C. for pres.. and Rufus King (1755-1827) of N.Y. for vice-pres. On Feb. 27 the U.S. Supreme (Marshall) Court unanimously rules in Little v. Barreme that the U.S. pres. doesn't have "inherent authority" or "inherent powers" to ignore a law passed by the U.S. Congress. In Feb. a conspiracy against Napoleon centered around "Club Moreau" is discovered in Paris, causing Gen. Jean Victor Moreau to flee to the U.S., settling in Trenton, N.J. until 1812; Moreau could have done it, but he wanted no part of a plot to restore the monarchy, as did his Brech, Brittany-born co-conspirator Georges Cadoudal (b. 1771), who is guillotined at Vincennes on June 25; gen. Jean Charles Pichegru (b. 1761) dies mysteriously in prison on Apr. 5, found strangled; on Mar. 21 he goes too far when he has Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Conde, Duc d'Enghien (b. 1772), a relative of the French Bourbon monarchs (and therefore a threat?) executed for a trumped-up plot against him, making the aristocrats of Europe equate him with the French Rev. era and lose their hero worship of him, after which Joseph Fouche (Antoine Boulay de la Meurthe?) (Talleyrand?) utters the soundbyte "It is more than a crime; it is a political mistake"; Leo Tolstoy covers the incident in the opening book of his "War and Peace". On Mar. 21 the French civil Code Napoleon (Napoleonic Code) (Code Civil des Francais) is proclaimed by Napoleon I, giving religious freedom to the 480K Calvinists and 200K Lutherans in France, with the state paying the salaries of the pastors. On Mar. 26 the U.S. Land Act of 1804 makes it easier for settlers to purchase western lands by reducing the price per acre to $1.64, and setting the minimum purchase at 160 acres, which becomes the traditional U.S. homestead. On Apr. 25 U.S. consul to Tunis and new U.S. agent to the Barbary States William Eaton starts a military campaign against the Barbary nations sans authorization, hiring mercenaries then demanding the surrender of Derna, 2nd largest port after Tripoli, pissing-off Pres. Jefferson, who sends Tobias Lear to negotiate and orders Eaton to withdraw. On May 3 and May 25 Prussia and Russia mutually pledge to take up arms only in the event of a French attack upon Prussia or further aggression in N Germany; in Aug. after the Prussian cabinet won't go for more vigorous action against Nappy (esp. demanding that French troops leave Hanover), Christian von Haugwitz is replaced as Prussian foreign minister by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-1822), who sets a policy of rapprochement with France, causing Haugwitz to kibbutz from the sidelines hoping that Nappy will make a mistake. On May 10 after an assult on his war policies by the Genvillies, Foxites, and Pittites, British PM (since Mar. 17, 1801) Henry Addington resigns, and former PM (1783-1801) William Pitt the Younger becomes PM of England again (until Jan. 23, 1806), and his Protestant Irish friend Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereigh (1769-1822) becomes secy. of state for war and the colonies (until 1806); next Jan. after Pitt arranges it, Addington becomes lord pres. of the council, with the peerage of Viscount Sidmouth to prevent him from sitting in the House of Commons. Let us drink to Ricardo Montalban as Khan, er, Napoleon as Emperor? On May 18 the French Senate and Tribunate proclaim Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor Napoleon I, and a plebiscite ratifies it by 3,572,329 to 2,569; the Marquis de Lafayette opposes it; on Dec. 2 after being persuaded by his uncle Cardinal Joseph Fesch (appointed French ambassador to Rome this year, while Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand is appointed secy. of the legation to the Holy See by Napoleon, accompanying Fesch to Rome, only to quarrel, getting reappointed as minister to Valais, Switzerland), Pope Pius VII assists in his coronation in Paris, but Nappy insists on a magic moment, placing the crown on his own head; Nappy revives absolute monarchy while modernizing it, basing it on achievement rather than birth, except when it comes to his succession, which goes to his male heir (incl. adopted children of his brothers), and then to his brothers; he makes "Code Napoleon" man Jean Jacques Regis, duc de Cambaceres high chancellor of the empire, and resurrects pre-French Rev. finance minister Nicolas-Francois Mollien (1758-1850), making him a count in 1808; this all causes Beethoven to lose his respect for his hero, tear up the title page, and change the name of his newly-created E-flat Third (3rd) Symphony, Op. 55 from Bonaparte Symphony (New Groves) to Eroica (Heroic) in May, allowing the published ms. to carry the inscription "Composed to celebrate the memory of a great man", but not Napoleon, whom he calls a "tyrant"; it is dedicated to Lobkowitz, and first performed privately in Aug.; on Nov. 13 the Shroud of Christ is shown privately to Pope Pius VII at Turin en route from Rome to Paris to crown Napoleon. The first 7-11 in New Jersey, and the clerk gets shot? The thought that the Louisiana Purchase could lead to loss of relative importance of New England leads Mass. Sen. Thomas Pickering to form the Essex Junto, a group of men from Essec County, Mass. who prefers secession from the Union to this fate; members incl. Fisher Ames, Mass. sen. George Cabot, Judge John Lowell and his son John "the Rebel" Lowell, former U.S. state secy. Timothy Pickering, merchant Stephen Higginson, Mass. Supreme Court justice Tapping Reeve, and Theophilus Parsons, most of them the same people who run Harvard U., who get secret intel from the British East India Co.?; they enlist vice-pres. Aaron Burr into their scheme to link New York with New England, which depends on him winning the governorship of N.Y., but former U.S. treasury secy. Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) contributes to Burr's defeat in the N.Y. gov. race in Apr. by the Repub. candidate, calling Burr "a dangerous man, and one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government"; this leads them to engage in a pistol duel on July 11 (7-11) at dawn in Weehawken, N.J. on a grassy ledge above the Hudson River (at the end of the modern-day Lincoln Tunnel); (after standing back-to-back and then taking 10 paces?) Hamilton fires wild (over his head?) and is shot through the heart and killed by Burr, shouting "This is a mortal wound" (did he give away the shot, or was he shot first and couldn't aim?); Burr calmly goes home and has breakfast with a friend, not even mentioning the duel, and is later charged with two counts of murder, but continues to preside over the Senate and is never brought to trial for it; in 1806 Long Island, N.Y. Presbyterian minister Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) gives a famous sermon The Remedy for Dueling, lambasting dueling's code of honor, which is widely distributed around the U.S.; after black slaves also begin demanding their rights to duel to protect their honor around 1816, dueling among whites begins to slack off? - it suddenly looks so savage? The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or, The Original Mild-Mannered Forensic Anthropologist, or, White Devils Visit the Unsuspecting Indians? On May 14 Virginians Capt. Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) (the ugly one) and 2nd Lt. William Clark (1770-1838) (the handsome one), leading the 45-man Lewis and Clark (Corps of Discovery) Expedition (ends Sept. 1806) (named by carpenter Louis Glass) ($2.5K in expense money allotted by Congress) push their three boats carrying 30 tons of supplies into the Missouri River from Camp Wood near St. Louis, say goodbye to the cheering French village of St. Charles, and set out to explore the Am. West, looking for a water route to the Pacific; Clark is accompanied by his black slave York (1770-1831), and Lewis by his 150-lb. Newfoundland dog Seaman (purchased for $20 in Pittsburgh, Penn.); they carry a 22-shot rifle; on July 7 they leave St. Joseph, Mo. along the Missouri River; when one of their boats proves too big to cross a certain point in the river, they send it back with 7 men; in Nov. after portaging the Great Falls, they stop and spend the winter in North Dakota at the Hidatsa-Mandan village winter camp (who are friendly even though suffering from white man's smallpox?) on the banks of the frozen Missouri River; they hire Hidatsa (Lemhi Shohone?) Indian interpreters Sacagawea (Sacajawea) (Sakakawea) (1788-1812) (pr. suh-KAH-guh/juh-WEE-uh) (Hidatsa "bird woman") (Shoshone "boat launcher or puller") and her fur trader husband Toussaint Charbonneau (1717-1843); her child Pompy (Jean Baptiste) goes along; they name the Nez Pierce ("pierced nose") Indians from you know what; the Arikaras try to bring bear spirits to life from clay models and call on the grizzlies to stop the white devils from destroying their way of life? On July 27 after the bad experiences with Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Twelfth (12th) (XII) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, requiring separate votes for pres. and vice-pres., starting with this year's election. On Aug. 11 HRE Francis II proclaims himself Austrian emperor Francis I (Franz) (1768-1835) in anticipation of giving up his title of HRE, and the Austrian Empire begins (ends 1867). On Sept. 21 (St. Matthew's Day) the San Mateo II Hurricane devastates Puerto Rico (first was in 1575). On Sept. 27 after five failed attempts and a reward offered by Archduke John of Austria (1782-1859) to equal the ascent of the Grossglockner in his brother HRE Francis II's domain, 12,812 ft. (3,905m) Mount Ortler, highest mountain in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range is first climbed by a party led by Josef Pichler (1765-1854). In Oct. after massacring settlers in Ft. Archangel, Gabriel in 1802, the Tlingit Indians of Baranof Island, Alaska make their last major stand against the Russians at the Battle of Sitka, becoming the last major armed conflict between Euros and Alaska natives - stick this totem pole where? On Nov. 2-Dec. 5 Thomas Jefferson wins the 1804 U.S. Pres. Election in a landslide, receiving 162 electoral votes to Clinton's 12; the Federalists make up only 25% of the new Congress. On Nov. 3 Napoleon I marches three French corps through Ansbach, pissing-off Prussian king Frederick William, who signs an ultimatum with tsar Alexander I and reinstates Christian von Haugwitz as foreign minister; too bad, he dilly-dallies over fear of possible separate negoations between Nappy and Austria, waiting for the duke of Brunswick to mobilize his army, and arrives in Vienna with the ultimatum too late, after the Battle of Austerlitz (Dec. 2, 1815), causing Karl von Hardenberg to get his job back. On Nov. 20 Sultan ibn Ahmad dies, and his sons Salim I ibn Sultan (1789-1821) and Sa'id II ibn Sultan (1791-1856) become co-sultans of Muscat, Oman and Zanzibar (until Sept. 14, 1806). On Nov. 30 U.S. Supreme Court justice (since Jan. 27, 1796) Samuel Chase (1741-1811) goes on trial, accused of political bias against Repubs. while serving as a trial judge in lower circuit courts; on Mar. 1, 1805 he is acquitted by the Senate, bolstering the principle of judicial independence as long as judges avoid the appearance of political partisanship. On Dec. 1 Napoleon marries Josephine for a 2nd time - this isn't a dollar it's a ten spot? On Dec. 12 Spain declares war on Great Britain after British cruisers intercept a Spanish treasure fleet. On Dec. 27 in order to stave off bankruptcy, Sophie Blanchard (1778-1819), wife of Pierre-Joseph Blanchard makes her first ascent with him in Marseilles, becoming the first woman to pilot a balloon and make it her career; too bad, she tries to save money by filling her balloon with hydrogen, while attaching fireworks to her basket, and it eventually catches up with her? In Dec. German violinist-composer Louis (Ludwig) Spohr (1784-1859) gives a concert in Leipzig that wows music critic Johann Friedrich Rochlitz (1769-1842) (ed. of the Leipziger Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung since 1798), turning him into an instant celeb. Jean Baptiste Bernadotte (1763-1840) becomes marshal of France. Corsican-born Carlo Andrea Pozzo di Borgo (1764-1842), a big hater of Napoleon becomes a Russian diplomat, playing cat and mouse with Nappy until he croaks; meanwhile the First Russo-Persian War begins in a land dispute in Azerbaijan and the Transcaucasus (ends 1813). The East India Co. defeats the army of Jaswant Rao Holkar of Indore (1798-1811); Charles, Lord Cornwallis is reappointed gov.-gen. of India (1st time 1786-93). William Wilberforce finally gets his slavery abolition bill passed in the Commons by 124-49 votes, but the House of Lords gets it adjourned till next year, when the Commons flops, rejecting it by seven votes. Napoleon awards the first Legion of Honor, with the soundbyte "With baubles men are led", and restores the gabelle (salt tax) to pay for foreign wars (not repealed again until 1945). Famous Italian anatomist Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832) is forced to step down for his political opinions and becomes Napoleon's personal surgeon, after which Nappy gets him reinstated next year after becoming king of Italy, after which he grows wealthy; too bad, Scarpa turns into a vengeful meany, causing his tombstones to be defaced by his enemies - life's a beach with Nappy's game? Jean Baptiste LaLande (1778-1821) is sent by William Morrison from St. Louis to open trade with the Spanish in Santa Fe; he likes it so much he decides to stay. The Sac and Fox Indians agree to sell their lands E of the Mississippi River for a paltry $1K annuity, and when he finds out how white man speaks with forked tongue, chief Black Hawk (1767-1838) repudiates the agreement in vain. Kamehameha I the Great moves his royal court from Hawaii Island to Waikiki in Oahu, then to Honolulu in 1809, and Kailua-Kona in Hawaii Island in 1812. After Canada grants 675K acresin 1784 to the League of Six Nations for help during the Am. Rev., and they turn around and sell 93K acres by 1798, the city of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada 60 mi. W of Toronto (modern-day pop. 104K/523K) is first settled by Mennonites from Penn., and in 1816 it is named after the 1815 Battle of Waterloo, attracting German settlers, who found the twin city of Kitchener (Berlin unti 1916) in 1830 to the SE (modern-day pop. 233K/523K);; Waterloo is incorporated on May 27, 1857; in 1873 the city of Cambridge S of Kitchener at the confluence of the Grand and Speed Rivers (modern-day pop. 128K) is formed by the merger of Galt, Peston, Hespeler, and Blair. The New York Historical Society is founded in New York City, becoming the first museum in New York City. Hebron Academy in Hebron, Maine is founded as a college prep boarding school. Capt. John Chester brings the first bananas to the U.S (New York City) aboard the schooner Reynard - are they really parthenocarpic? Cool-smelling sandalwood (used by Buddhists for joss sticks) is discovered in Fiji, causing a rush by U.S. and European traders in 1807-10, followed by a short-lived rush in Hawaii in 1811 - the wood just walks away? Russian explorer ? Lisyanskii explores the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Alaska. The city of Hobart (originally Hobart Town) (modern-day pop. 222K) is founded as a British colony in Sullivans Cove in Van Diemen's Land (later Tasmania), named after British secy. of state for war and the colonies (1801-4) Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire (1760-1816), becoming the capital in 1856 when the colony is granted its own govt. Rhode Island U. changes its name to Brown U. Fur tycoon John Jacob Astor takes advantage of Aaron Burr's troubles to purchase his 99-year lease on land in Manhattan, N.Y. (which ends on May 1, 1806) for $62.5K, subdividing it into 250 lots, which he subleases for 21 years and makes mucho money from. Benjamin Constant coins the phrase "l'art pour l'art" (art for art's sake). The private Roman Catholic College Stanislas de Paris is founded on Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Montparnasse, going on to become the alma mater of Anatole France, Charles de Gaulle, Edmond Rostand, Christian Dior, and Alfonso XII of Spain. The British and Foreign Bible Society is founded on Mar. 7 by William Wilberforce, Thomas Charles et al., later shortening its name to Bible Society. The Royal Water Colour Society in England is founded as the Society of Painters in Water Colours. Poverty-stricken Parisian poet Pierre Jean de Beranger (Béranger) (1780-1857) gains the notice of Lucien Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I for his republican chansons (songs), causing him to support him for several years then get him a job at the Imperial U. Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837) succeeds Franz Joseph Haydn as Kappellmeister to Prince Esterhazy in Eisenstadt (until 1811), followed by Stuttgart and Weimar, where he becomes friends with Goethe and Schiller and turns Weimar into a Euro musical capital. Italian violin phenom Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840), who made his debut at age 13, left home at age 15, and retired at age 19 (to get laid?) resumes public performances, and next year becomes court musician at Lucca, from time to time touring lucky Italy, one time playing an entire piece on one string - let me guess how he practiced for that? The first sizeable citrus orchard in Calif. is established at Mission San Gabriel Arcangel (founded 1771). The first dahlias are brought to France from South and Central Am. by Alexander Humboldt, after which they send seeds to Lady Holland in Britain. Architecture: Napoleon gives money to Talleyrand to purchase the super-beautiful Chateau de Valencay outside Paris as a diplomatic gathering place; he brings Parisian patissier chef Marie-Antoine (Antonin) Careme (Carême) (1784-1833), known for his elaborate pieces montees, who goes on to invent Haute (Grande) Cuisine, along with the chef's hat (toque blanche), becoming known as "King of Chefs and Chef of Kings"; in 1833-4 he posth. pub. L'Art de la Cuisine Francaise (5 vols.). Pere-Lachaise (Père Lachaise) Cemetery in the 20th Arrondissement of E Paris opens, becoming the first garden cemetery, and first municipal cemetery. Inventions: English coachmaker Obadiah Elliott of Lambeth patents an Elliptical Spring Suspension for 4-wheeled carriages, doing away with the heavy pole and are-ya-having-any-fun sore butts, and initiating modern carriage design, incl. the Phaeton (an open 4-wheeled carriage that is the first status symbol, coming in Highflyer and low styles); the closed Brougham, named after lord chancellor Lord Brougham, projecting a moralistic mood; the Cabriolet (a 2-wheeled 2-seat sports car preferred by bachelors); the low, elegant roomy open Victoria (popular with Victorian ladies); the "sociable" Landau, which seats four passengers facing each other; the Barouche, a landau with a folding hood for the wealthy; the 1-horse Gig, a favorite with country doctors, carrying 1-2 passengers directly over its two wheels (the VW of the Victorian era); the closed Post Chaise (flying chariot) (used as limos, painted yellow with an elderly postboy dressed in a yellow jacket and beaver hat); the Omnibus; the Dog Cart, with a fold-up footboard doubling as a seat, allowing four passengers to sit back to back; the Wagonette, with bench seats (called char-a-banc in France); the 2-wheeled 1-horse very handsome Hansom Cab ("the gondola of London") (patented in 1834), where the driver rides behind the passenger compartment standing up, used as taxis. Joseph Marie Charles Jacquard invents a Fishnet-Making Loom. Science: Swiss scientist Nicolas Theodore de Saussure (1767-1845) explains photosynthesis in terms of the new chemistry of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94). Nonfiction: Thomas Bewick (1753-1828), History of British Birds. Thomas Brown, Inquiry into the Relation of Cause and Effect. Sir Astley Cooper (1786-1841), Anatomy and Surgical Treatment of Hernia (2 vols.) (1804-7); makes him a medical star in England. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), Philosophie als Evidente Wissenschaft. August von Kotzebue (1761-1819), Erinnerungen aus Paris. Michael Krafft, The American Distiller, or, the Theory and Practice of Distilling, According to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements, Including the Most Improved Methods of Constructing Stills, and of Rectification (Philadelphia, Penn.) Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781-1832), Entwurf des Systems der Philosophie. Bernard Germain de Lacepede (1756-1825), Histoire des Cetaces (Natural History of Whales); mentioned in Herman Melville's "Moby-Dick", ch. 32. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Introduction to Aesthetics. Thomas Taylor (1758-1835) (tr.), Complete Works of Plato; first in English. Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), Diogenes' Lamp (Die Leuchte des Diogenes). Art: Washington Allston (1779-1843), Storm Rising at Sea. Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), Napoleon Visiting the Plague House at Jaffa. J.A.D. Ingres (1780-1867), Self-Portrait at Age 24. Jean-Baptiste Isabey (1767-1855), Napoleon at Malmaison (etching); his best likeness? Poetry: William Blake (1757-1827), Milton: A Poem (1804-10); disses Greek and Roman culture in favor of "the sublime of the Bible"; incl. the soundbyte "... when the New Age is at leisure to pronounce, all will be set right", and the poem And Did Those Feet in Ancient Time, which is turned into the hymn "Jerusalem" in 1916 by Sir Hubert Parry; "And did those feet in ancient time/ Walk upon England's mountains green?/ And was the Holy Lamb of God/ On England's pleasant pastures seen?"; Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion (1804-20). Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1834), Dramatische Spiele von Pellegrin (first book). Charles Nodier (1780-1844), The Napoleone (London); seditious tract, which is ignored by the authorities until he goes out of his way to get arrested for it by writing a personal letter to Napoleon. Jean Paul (1763-1825), The Awkward Age (Flegeljahre) (1804-5); his masterpiece? Births: Am. Repub. politician and Pacific Union Railroad co-founder Oakes Ames (d. 1873) on Jan. 10 in Easton, Mass.; son of blacksmith Oliver Ames, "the king of spades"; brother of Oliver Ames Jr. (1807-77); father of Oakes Angier Ames (1829-99) and Oliver Ames (1831-95). French "The Wandering Jew", "The Mysteries of Paris" novelist-dandy Joseph Marie Eugene Sue (d. 1857) on Jan. 20 in Paris. Austrian Romantic painter (last?) Mortiz von Schwind (d. 1871) on Jan. 21 in Vienna. Finnish "Vartland" poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg (d. 1877) on Feb. 5 in Jakobstad, Sweden. German carnallite mineralogist Rudolf von Carnall (d. 1874) on Feb. 8 in Glatz, Silesia. Am. abolitionist mathematician ("the Father of Life Insurance and Insurance Regulation") (Presbyterian) Elizur Wright (d. 1885) on Feb. 12 in South Canaan, Conn.; educated at Yale U. English actor-theater mgr. Samuel Phelps (d. 1878) on Feb. 13 in Plymouth Dock (Devonport), Plymouth, Devon. Am. telescope maker Alvan Clark (d. 1887) on Mar. 8 in Ashfield, Mass.; father of George Bassett Clark (1827-91) and Alvan Graham Clark (1832-97). Am. explorer ("Daniel Boone of the Rockies") James "Jim" Bridger (d. 1881) on Mar. 17 in Richmond, Va.; discoverer of Great Salt Lake (1825) and Yellowstone; founder of Ft. Bridge, Wyo. (1843), and discovers Birdger's Pass (1856). Austrian Viennese "Radetzky March", "Lorelei Rheinklange" waltz composer Johann Strauss I (d. 1849) on Mar. 14 in Vienna; Jewish-turned-Catholic father; father of Johann Strauss II (1825-99), Josef Strauss (1827-70), and Eduard Strauss (1835-1916); rival of Josef Lanner (1801-43). Am. Civil War Union brig. gen. (Quaker) ("the Napoleon of Temperance") ("the Father of Prohibition") Neal S. Dow (d. 1897) on Mar. 20 in Portland, Maine. Am. anthropologist-surgeon (slaveowner) Josiah Clark Nott (d. 1873) on Mar. 31 in S.C.; educated at the U. of Penn. French economist-engineer Jules Dupuit (d. 1866) on May 18 in Fossano, Italy; emigrates to France in 1814. Russian "A Life for the Tsar", "Ruslan and Lyudmila" opera composer ("Father of Russian Music") Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (d. 1857) on June 1 (May 20 Old Style) in Novospasskoye. British Liberal-Radical statesman Richard Cobden (d. 1865) on June 3 in Dunford Farmhouse, Heyshott (near Midhurst), Sussex; founder of Cobdenism (anti-protectionist laissez-faire). British diplomat-explorer (of Guayana) Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk (d. 1865) on June 5 in Freiburg, Saxony; Protestant minister father; brother of Moritz Richard Schomburgk (1811-91). Japanese scholar Takano Choei (toto Kyosai) (d. 1850) on June 12 in Mizusawa, Mutsu Province (modern-day Iwate Prefecture). German industrialist Johann Friedrich August Borsig (d. 1854) on June 23 in Breslau (Wroclaw). Am. Mormon leader and physician Willard Richards (d. 1854) on June 24 in Hopkinton, Mass.; cousin of Joseph Smith Jr. and Brigham Young. French novelist George Sand (Amandine or Amantine Lucile Aurore, Baroness Dupine-Dudevant) (d. 1876) on July 1 in Paris; father is French officer Maurice Dupin, grandson of Marshal Saxe (1696-1750), illegitimate son of King Augustus II of Poland; takes her pen name after writing "Rose et Blanche" with Jules Sandeau (1811-83), who uses the name "Jules Sand"; hooks up with Frederic Chopin (1810-49) in 1837-47, and Alfred de Musset (1810-57) in 1833-5. Am. "Scarlet Letter" novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne (d. 1864) on July 4 in Salem, Mass. (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to the Wizard of Oz in the 1939 film?); educated at Bowdoin College, with classmates Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Franklin Pierce, and Horatio Bridge; marries artist Sophia Peabody, one of the three brainy Peabody Sisters (Elizabeth, Mary). Am. Joseph Smith Jr.'s first wife (1827-44) Emma Hale Smith Bidamon (d. 1879) on July 10 in Harmony Township, Penn.; wife (1827-44) of Joseph Smith Jr. (1805-44) and (1847-79) Lewis Crum Bidamon (1806-91). English zoologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist Sir Richard Owen (d. 1892) on July 20 in Lancaster; of French Huguenot descent. German "The Essence of Christianity" Young Hegelian materialist philosopher Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (d. 1872) on July 28 in Landshut, Bavaria; 4th son of Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach (1775-1833); educated at the U. of Berlin; pupil of Hegel. Am. physician and Mormon leader John Cook Bennett (d. 1867) on Aug. 3 in Fairhaven, Mass. Am. U.S. Capitol architect Thomas Ustick Walter (d. 1887) on Sept. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn. German Romantic poet Eduard Friedrich Morike (d. 1875) on Sept. 8 in Ludwigsburg. Irish physician (cardiac-pulmonary disease pioneer) William Stokes (d. 1878) on Oct. 1 in Dublin. U.S. Rep. (Whig-Ohio) (1853-7) John Scott Harrison (d. 1878) on Oct. 4 in Vincennes, Ind.; son of William Henry Harrison (1773-1841); grandson of Benjamin Harrison V (1726-91). Am. Parrott rifle inventor Robert Parker Parrott (d. 1877) on Oct. 5 in Lee, N.H.; #3 in 1824 West Point class; supt. of the West Point Foundry 1836-77. Am. diplomat Townsend Harris (d. 1878) on Oct. 3 in Sandy Hill (Hudson Falls), N.Y. French teacher (Spiritism founder) Allan Kardec (Hippolyte Leon Denizard Rivail) (d. 1869) on Oct. 3 in Lyon. Thai Chakri king #4 (1851-68) Rama IV (Mongkut) (Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Mongkut Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua) (d. 1868) on Oct. 18; son of Rama II and queen consort Srisuriyendra; brother of Rama III (1788-1851). French photographer Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (d. 1892) on Oct. 21. German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (d. 1891) on Oct. 24 in Wittenberg, Saxony. Am. Civil War Union maj. gen. (U.S. Army adjutant gen. from 1861-9) Lorenzo Thomas (d. 1875) on Oct. 26 in New Castle, Del. French mathematician Pierre Francois Verhulst (d. 1849) on Oct. 28 in Brussels. Austrian physicist (inventor of the duplex telegraph) Julius Wilhelm Gintl (d. 1883) on Nov. 12 in Prague. Italian PM #6 (1864-6) Gen. Alfonso Ferrero, Cavaliere La Marmora (d. 1878) on Nov. 18 in Turin. U.S. Doughface Dem. pres. #14 (1853-7) and Mexican War brig. gen. ("New Hampshire's Frontier Son") Franklin Pierce (d. 1869) on Nov. 23 in Hillsboro, N.H.; son of N.H. gov. and Am. Rev. vet Benjamin Pierce; descendent of Gunpower Plot conspirator Thomas Percy (1558-1605); husband of Jane Means Appleton Pierce (1806-63); Pres. George H.W. Bush's wife Barbara Bush (nee Pierce) (1925-) is his great-great-grandniece. Italian historian-novelist Cesare Cantu (d. 1895) on Dec. 5 in Brivio, Lombardy. Am. geologist-physicist (founder of MIT) William Barton Rogers (d. 1882) on Dec. 7 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn. U.S. Supreme Court justice #34 (1862-81) Noah Haynes Swayne (d. 1884) on Dec. 7 in Frederick County, Va. German mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (d. 1851) on Dec. 10. Canadian politician-orator-writer Joseph Howe (d. 1873) on Dec. 13 in Halifax, N.S. Am. luminist Hudson River School painter Fitz Hugh (Fitz Henry) (Nathaniel Rogers) Lane (d. 1865) on Dec. 19 in Gloucester, Mass. English Conservative PM (1874-80) (Jewish-turned-Anglican) Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (d. 1881) on Dec. 21 in London; baptized in the Anglican Church at age 13; husband (1839-72) of Mary Anne Disraeli (nee Evans), 1st Viscountess Beaconsfield (1792-1872); likes to write standing up. French lit. critic and historian Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (d. 1869) on Dec. 23 in Boulogne-sur-Mer; educated at College Charlemagne, Paris. Am. Texian Army Col. James Walker Fannin Jr. (d. 1836) in Ga. Am. Seminole Indian chief Osceola (d. 1838) near the Chattahoochee River, Ga.; father is an English trader, mother is the daughter of a Creek, who takes him as a boy to N Fla., where he becomes a chief of the Seminoles. Am. abolitionist Isaac Knapp (d. 1843); partner of William Lloyd Garrison. German biologist Matthias Schleiden (d. 1881). Lebanese Muslim scholar (convert from Marionite and Protestant) Ahmad Faris Shidyaq (Fares Al Chidiac) (d. 1887) in Ashqout. Deaths: French marshal Victor Francois de Broglie, 2nd duc de Broglie (b. 1718) on Mar. 30 in Munster, Germany. English novelist-playwright Charlotte Ramsay Lennox (b. 1720) on Jan. 4. English artist Rev. William Gilpin (b. 1724). German philosopher Immanuel Kant (b. 1724) on Feb. 12 in Konigsberg, Prussia: "Happiness is not an ideal of reason but of imagination"; "Science is organized knowledge; wisdom is organized life"; "Freedom is the precondition for acquiring the maturity for freedom, not a gift to be granted when such maturity is achieved." French automobile inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (b. 1725) on Oct. 2 in Paris. English astronomer Nathaniel Pigott (b. 1725). French chemist Antoine Baumé (Baume) (b. 1728) on Oct. 15 in Paris. French publisher Francois Ambroise Didot (b. 1730). Swiss-born French statesman-financier-economist Jacques Necker (b. 1732) on Apr. 2 in Coppet. English scientist Joseph Priestley (b. 1733) on Feb. 6 - the father of modern chemistry breathes his last oxygen? Am. Rev. War gen. Philip Schuyler (b. 1733) on Nov. 18 in Albany, N.Y. English horticulturist William Forsyth (b. 1737). French surgeon Bernard Peyrilhe (b. 1737). English gen.-statesman Charles, Lord Cornwallis (b. 1738) on Oct. 5 in Ghazipur, Benares Province, India; dies en route to assume command of the British army in the upper provinces. Dutch writer Betje Wolff (b. 1738) on Nov. 5 in The Hague. Dutch writer Aagje Deken (b. 1741) on Nov. 14 in The Hague. Am. Rev. leader (DOI signer) George Walton (b. 1741) on Feb. 2 in Augusta, Ga. French naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin (b. 1748) on Nov. 1 in Gottingen. Am. founding father Alexander Hamilton (b. 1757) on July 12 in Weehawken, N.J. (killed in duel by Aaron Burr). French gen. Charles Pichegru (b. 1761) on Apr. 5 in Paris (strangled in prison). English painter George Morland (b. 1763). Am. surveyor Israel Ludlow (b. 1765) in Jan. in Cincinnati, Ohio. French royalist politician Georges Cadoudal (b. 1771) on June 10 in Vincennes (guillotined). French noble Louis-Antone-Henri de Bourbon-conde, duc d'Enghien (b. 1772) on Mar. 21 in Paris (executed); last descendant of the House of Conde; his execution disgusts Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, causing him to resign his post as minister to Valais, forcing him to rely on his iffy lit. income, only to get an unexpected large gift of money from Russian tsarina Elizabeth Alexeyevna for his defense of Christianity, allowing him to visit Greece, Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, and Spain in 1806, which he draws on to write "Les Martyrs" et al.

1805 - The Trafalgar Austerlitz Derna Tripoli Year?

George Clinton of the U.S. (1739-1812) 'The Assault on Derna, Tripoli, Apr. 27, 1805' by Charles H. Waterhouse Tobias Lear of the U.S. (1762-1816) U.S. Gen. William Eaton (1764-1811) USMC First Lt. Presley O'Bannon (1776-1850) Mehmet Ali of Egypt (1769-1849) French Adm. Pierre Charles de Villeneuve (1763-1806) British Adm. Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) British Adm. Cuthbert Collingwood (1748-1810) William Nelson, 1st Earl Nelson (1757-1835) French Gen. Count Philippe Paul de Ségur (1780-1873) Mungo Park (1771-1806) U.S. Gen. James Wilkinson (1757-1825) Josiah Quincy III of the U.S. (1772-1864) Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841) George Rapp (1757-1847) Vasiliy Karazin (1773-1842) Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) Simon Fraser (1776-1862) Antoine-Augustin Parmentier (1737-1813) Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1826) Louis Pierre Anquetil (1723-1808) Beacon Rock, Columbia River Gorge 'The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the Sun', by William Blake (1757-1827), 1805 'Greta Bridge' by John Sell Cotman (1782-1842), 1805

1805 The total state expenditure of Great Britain this year is a whopping £62.8M. On Jan. 11 Michigan Territory is created by an act of Congress. On Feb. 15 George (Johann George) Rapp (1757-1847) and his Rappists (Rappites) (Harmonists) (Harmonites) of Iptingen, Germany found the Harmony Society in Butler County, Penn., which soon grows to a pop. of 800 and becomes highly profitable, allowing them to sell it at a 10x profit in 1814 when they move to Indiana - lame white rapper jokes here? On Mar. 1 the pop. of Saint-Constant S of Montreal in Quebec send a petition to Napoleon asking them to help them rejoin France and "regain the glorious name of Frenchmen"; he doesn't do anything after his big D at Trafalgar. On Mar. 4 U.S. pres. #3 Thomas Jefferson is inaugurated for a 2nd term in the 5th U.S. pres. inauguration; former N.Y. gov. George Clinton (1739-1812) becomes the 4th U.S. vice-pres.; in his Second Inaugural Address, Jefferson issues the famous last words soundbyte: "The suppression of unnecessary offices, of useless establishments and expenses, enabled us to discontinue our internal taxes... What farmer, what mechanic, what laborer ever sees a tax-gatherer of the United States?" From the dern shores of tripping Monty Hall? On Mar. 6 a force of 500 Arab and Greek mercenaries and 54 U.S. Marines and soldiers led by Gen. William Eaton (1764-1811) and USMC First Lt. Presley Neville O'Bannon (1776-1850) leave Alexandria, Egypt on a 600-mi. trek to Cyrenaica (Libya), experiencing mutinies by the Muslim mercenaries before reaching the port city of Bomba, Libya, meeting the USS Nautilus under Oliver Hazard Perry, the USS Hornet under Samuel Evans, and the USS Argus under Isaac Hull, who pay the mercenaries and resupply them; on Apr. 27-May they capture the city of Derna (Derne) in NE Libya on "the shores of Tripoli" in the first overseas land combat by U.S. troops, ending the First Barbary War (begun 1801); after negotiations by U.S. envoy (Pres. Washington's personal secy. in 1784-99) Tobias Lear (1762-1816), it is returned to Ottoman control, and Derna is turned into a slave port; Eaton becomes a U.S. nat. hero; on Dec. 8 O'Bannon is presented with a Mameluke sword by the Ottoman viceroy, and later awarded a clone by his home state of Va., causing the USMC to begin issuing Mameluke swords to all commissioned officers for their dress uniforms in 1825; the U.S Marine Corps Hymn later celebrates the big V: "From the halls of Montezuma, to the shores of Tripoli,/ we fight our country's battles in the air, on land and sea"; they have to wait for the 1848 Mexican War to capture the halls of Montezuma too; verse 3: "If the Army and the Navy/ Ever look on Heaven's scenes/ they will find the streets are guarded/ By United States Marines." On Mar. 14 Albanian former tobacco vendor and Ottoman army lt. Mehmet (Muhammad) Ali (1769-1849) becomes gov. of Egypt, and pasha 2 mo. later on May 17 (until 1848); modern Egypt is born. On Mar. 15 the Repub. of Italy is scrapped, and the short-lived Kingdom of Italy is established (ends 1814) at Paris. On Mar. 28 the Bureaus of Charity (Bureaux de Bienfaisance) are centralized in France, and the ban on private and religious charitable foundations is lifted. On Mar. 29 Congress approves the construction of the Great Nat. Pike (Road), AKA the Nat. Road, AKA the Cumberland Road (begun in 1815, finished 1850), becoming the first federally-funded road system - what was that about farmers and mechanics never seeing a tax collector? On Apr. 11 Britain and Russia sign the Treaty of St. Petersburg, later joined by Austria and Sweden, forming the Third Coalition against France, which has been at war with Britain since May 16, 1803, causing Napoleon to abandon his planned invasion of Britain from four new French harbors (Ambleteuse, Wimereux, Boulogne, Etaples) and march his troops to Austria to kick their butts first. On May 20 Haiti adopts its (2nd) 1805 Haiti Constitution. On May 26 Napoleon is crowned king of Italy in Milan Cathedral. In the summer Aaron Burr sails to La. Territory from Pittsburgh in a lavish flatboat to meet with tainted Am. Rev. War hero Gen. James Wilkinson (1757-1825), who had been appointed as gov., and hatches the Burr Conspiracy to secede the territory W of the Alleghenies, incl. Tenn., Ky., Miss., and La., and form an independent repub. in the Mississippi Valley with British support. On July 4 the U.S. signs a treaty with the Wyandot; with the Sioux on Sept. 23. The pissed-off Serbs recapture Valjevo, Pozarevac and siege Belgrade, then chase the Janissary dahias to the island of Ada Kaleh on the Danube River and kill them, but when the Ottoman sultan attempts to negotiate with them they blow him off, causing him to send troops against them; on Aug. 18 the Battle of Ivankovac near Cuprija on the Great Moldava River sees 15K Turks under Hafiz Pasha outwitted and defeated by 2.5K Serbs under Karadorde Petrovic, forcing them to retreat to Nis, signalling the beginning of their downward slide in the Balkans. On Sept. 26 Napoleon's army crosses the Rhine River, executing "the greatest change of front ever known" (Philippe de Segur), aligning themselves on Oct. 6 facing S to reconquer Munich and Augsburg, and separate Archduke Ferdinand and Mack from the Russians and Austria. In Sept. at the urging of William Wilberforce (1759-1833), PM William Pitt (b. 1759) finally issues a formal document in favor of the slavery abolition bill, 4 mo. before his death Jan. 23. On Sept. 26 Rama Varma IX (b. 1751) dies, and his cousin Rama Varma X (Vellarapaliyil Thepetta Thampuran) (-1809) becomes ruler of Cochin (until 1809). On Oct. 15-20 Napoleon's French army wins a big V against the Austrian army under Karl Freiher Mack von Leibeich in the Battle of Ulm, trapping it and forcing it to surrender. Hands across the water, hands across the sky, or, Bloody Trick or Treat, What What? England gets its world-class naval hero? On Oct. 21 (Mon.) after the French fleet under vice-adm. Pierre Charles Jean Baptiste Silvestre de Villeneuve (1763-1806) breaks out of Toulon and eludes the British fleet under vice-adm. Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronte (b. 1758), then takes refuge in Cadiz and receives reinforcements from the Spanish navy, bringing them up to 33 ships (vs. 27 for the British), and slowpoke Nelson catches up and blockades it, the French break out of the harbor again, beginning the naval Battle of (Cape) Trafalgar (Britain's greatest sea battle?) between Gibraltar and Cape Roche outside Cadiz, resulting in a decisive V for the British, dashing Napoleon's hopes of invading England, and establishing British sea supremacy the next 150 years; Adm. Nelson, aboard his flagship HMS Victory leads the charge that breaks through the center of the French line between Bucentaure and Redoubtable, capturing 10 French and 11 Spanish ships, with no British ships lost, and a total of 1,666 British casualties (458 KIA and 1,208 wounded) vs. 13,781 French-Spanish casualties, incl. 3K POWs drowned in a storm after the battle; Victory suffers 57 KIA and 102 wounded, with Redoutable attempting to board her but suffering a devastating broadside from the 98-gun HMS Temeraire, commanded by Adm. Sir Eliab Harvey (1758-1830), known for recklessly gambling his family fortune in London, who also forces the surrender of the Fougueux, causing him to create the family motto "Redoubtable and Fougueux"; Nelson signals the famous message "England expects that every man will do his duty", and is wounded several times by French sharpshooters before meeting his death as the battle ends from a musket ball from Redoubtable that enters his left shoulder and lodges in his spine, dying at 4:30 p.m. and giving a last order to anchor the fleet, which is countermanded by his 2nd in command vice-adm. of the blue Cuthbert Collingwood (1748-1810), who succeeds Nelson as CIC, transferring his flag from the damaged Royal Sovereign to the Euryalus, attempting to tow damaged vessels until a storm wrecks many prizes incl. Redoubtable on the rocky shore while others are destroyed to prevent capture, getting Collingwood a promotion on Nov. 9 to vice-adm. of the red along with a peerage as Baron Collingwood of Northumberland, along with a £2K/year pension and his 3rd gold medal from Parliament (joining Nelson and Sir Edward Berry); Victory is towed by HMS Neptune to Gibraltar for repairs, then flies a black sail on its return voyage to England; Villenueve is captured by the English, and returned to France next year; in Nov. Adm. Horatio Nelson's elder brother William Nelson (1757-1835) is created 1st Earl Nelson of Trafalgar; Portugal restores relations with its old ally Britain, causing France to declare the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz canceled, leading to the 1807-10 Peninsular War. On Nov. 7 William Clark writes the soundbyte: "Great joy in camp! We are in view of the ocean, this great Pacific Ocean, which we have been so long anxious to see." You say goodbye and I say hello? On Nov. 15 after sighting 850-ft. Beacon Rock on the Columbia River, the Lewis and Clark Expedition sights the Pacific Ocean, bringing a closure to the exploration of the continent begun by Columbus 313 years earlier, Clark writing "I landed and formed a camp on the highest spot I could find, from this I could plainly see the extent of our journey in full view of the ocean... Ocean in view! O! The Joy!"; they first see the Calif. condor, describing it as probably the biggest bird in Am.; they then spend a miserable winter near the mouth of the Columbia River, discovering abundant wildlife and rich soil in modern-day Yakima Valley, Wash., which in the 20th cent. becomes known as "the Fruitbowl of the Nation"; they encounter Umatillas using sign language that they interpret as meaning they think the whites are from heaven, but actually they were complaining that the pale morons had shot a flying crane for no good reason? On Nov. 30 after the USS Constitution captured Tunisian vessels attempting to run the American blockade of Tripoli, causing the bey of Tunis to threaten war and send Tunisian envoy Sidi Soliman Mellimelli to negotiate full restitution and barter for tribute, he and his 11 attendants are greeted at the Washington Navy Yard with full military honors, becoming the first Muslim envoy to the U.S.; Mellimelli requests that concubines be supplied as part of his accomodations at a Washington hotel; after seeing a delegation of Native Ams. and finding that they didn't follow Moses, Christ, or Muhammad, he called them "vile heretics", guess what Islam would have done to the entire continent if it had discovered it first; on Dec. 9 Pres. Jefferson invites him to the White House for a Ramadan iftar dinner at sunset instead of the usual 3:30 p.m. to accomodate him; after Jefferson refuses to pay tribute, Mellimelli claimesthat he will be beheaded for failure, after which the Yanks agree to send gifts with him of equivalent value to the four horses and other gifts he brought; on Aug. 13, 2010 Pres. Obama refers to the event as the first iftar celebration in the White House, as if it were a custom, when they were barely able to tolerate the hideous barbaric extortionist at all, and Jefferson's study of the Quran made him reject any idea of paying jizya in favor of military attack on the Muslim pirates. On Dec. 2 Napoleon I wins a big V against the Russo-Austrian army at the Battle of Three Emperors (Austerlitz) (Napoleon I, Francis I, Alexander I), outclassing his opponents in terms of sheer skill (actually pretty close?); the Legend of the Grande Armee (Armée) begins, later becoming the inspiration for Hitler's blitzkrieg; too bad, Napoleon receives news of the big D at Trafalgar at Austerlitz; Napoleon's aide-de-camp gen. Count Philippe Paul de Segur (Ségur) (1780-1873) writes a Memoir, 1800-1812, mentioning Napoleon telling a weeping captured enemy artillery officer: "Calm yourself, young man, and remember this: there can be no shame in being conquered by a Frenchman"; Austrian gen. Karl Mack von Leiberich, who escaped imprisonment in Paris in 1801 in order to command again, only to get his butt kicked, is court-martialed in 1806-7, stripped of rank and command, and imprisoned for two years, becoming known as "the Unfortunate Mack", finally winning restoration in the army in 1819 after Nappy is long gone. On Dec. 15 France and Prussia sign a treaty of alliance, and on Dec. 26 Napoleon I and HRE Francis II meet and sign the Peace (Treaty) of Pressburg (Bratislava); the Third Coalition is dissolved; Austria yields the Tirol (Tyrol), causing it to be divided between Bavaria and France, energizing the Tyrolean resistance of Andreas Hofer and spawning a reactionary French secret police; Austria yields Italian possessions, incl. the former possessions of the Venetian Repub. to the French-controlled kingdom of Italy (until 1814); Bavaria and Wurttemberg (Württemberg) become kingdoms; Baden becomes a grand duchy; the treaty leds to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine; the Holy Roman Empire is kaput - Charlemagne rolls over in his grave? In Dec. France enters a severe financial crisis (ends Jan.), after which Nicolas-Francois Mollien is made minister of the treasury. The Second Anglo-Maratha War (begun 1803) ends with a British V, but the speed of the expansion of British control of India by the East India Co. alarms PM William Pitt, who recalls Arthur Wellesley as gov.-gen. of India; the policy of intervention is officially ended - but that doesn't stop the Brits from lapsing from time to time? Napoleon takes Lucca (#2 city-state commune in Italy after Venice), and creates the kingdom of Etruria (Tuscany), united with France, with his younger sister Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy (1777-1820) as the "queen of Etruria" and grand duchess of Tuscany (until 1814); Leo Tolstoy later refers to her in the opening sentence of "War and Peace": "Well, Prince, so Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Bonapartes". Aaron Burr gives a popular Farewell Address to the U.S. Senate. Josiah Quincy (III) (1772-1864) son of Am. Rev. leader Josiah Quincy becomes a U.S. rep. from Mass. (until 1812), becoming known as an orator opposed to Jefferson and Madison, and an opponent of slavery. Tenskwatawa (1775-1836) "the Wabash Prophet", brother of Tecumseh starts his own religion for Amerindians in the Ohio Valley. French health inspector-gen. Antoine-Augustin Parmentier (1737-1813) (known for successfully promoting consumption of the long-banned potato, pioneering the extraction of sugar from beets, and founding a school of breadmaking) establishes the first mandatory smallpox vaccination campaign. The annual Trooping the Colour ceremony begins to be held on the British sovereign's birthday; during the reign of George VI (1936-52) it is moved to a Sat. in June. The Public School Society of New York builds a model system of free schools in New York City, although until 1830 no state has an official school system; it receives state aid starting in 1815. Dominica Island in the Caribbean becomes a British colony (until 1978). The city of Canton, Ohio on Nimishillen Creek 24 mi. S of Akron and 60 mi. S of Cleveland (named after Canton, China) (modern-day pop. 73K) is founded by surveyor Bezaleel Wells, incorporated as a village in 1822, and as a city in 1838, becoming the home of the Nat. Football League in 1920 and NFL Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. "Crescent City" New Orleans, La. is incorporated; highest altitude is 15 ft. (much of it 10-20 ft. below sea level); map of Orleans territory - who will give it shelter from the storm? Zebulon Montgomery Pike explores Minnesota, searching for the headwaters of the Mississippi River and stopping on Dec. 25 in Ojibwe territory at the site of the future city of Brainerd, Minn. (founded 1870, incorporated 1873) (modern-day pop. 13K), becoming the site of Ft. Ripley in 1849-77; he negotiates a treaty with the Sioux (Dakota) ceding 100K acres, incl. most of Mineapolis and St. Paul at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers. Montpelier, Vt. (founded 1787) on the Winooski River 40 mi. ESE of Burlington (pop. 1,2K0 (modern pop. 8K) becomes the capital of Vermont, becoming the only state capital whose first four letters are the same as the last four letters of the state's name; it is incorporated as a village in 1818, and as a city in 1895. Hoosick, N.Y.-born explorer Simon Fraser (1776-1862) explores Canada west of the Rocky Mts., charting the future Canadian province of British Columbia and building the first Euro settlement there, helping establish the Canadian border at the 49th parallel; in 1808 he explores the Fraser River. Scottish explorer Mungo Park (1771-1806) begins his 2nd expedition to the Niger River, paddling up it to find its confluence with the Congo River, and passing Timbuktu, whose Muslim pop. won't let him visit, then passing it, where he is drowned along with three companions at Bussa next year by African villagers; the source of the Niger isn't discovered until 1885 - I just met Lady Luck and she's delicious, now send some more of them tasty lean white meats? Lt. Zebulon Montgomery Pike is sent out to find the source of the Mississippi River, but mistakenly follows a tributary to Leech Lake, although he contributes to knowledge of the upper Mississippi Valley. There is a land lottery in Ga. this year. Kharkov U. is founded in the Ukraine in Nov. by Vasiliy Nazarovych Karazin (1773-1842). The Penn. Academy of theFine Arts is founded in Philly. The Pestalozzi School is founded in Yverdun, Switzerland by Zurich-born Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1826), teaching children by guiding rather than regimenting them - easy As? The Berlin-Prussian Bible Society is founded. Christian lit. is banned in China. Sir William Congreve's rockets are reintroduced into the British army. Inventions: Jean Chancel of Paris, France invents the first Match, tipped with sugar, sulfur, rubber, and potassium chlorate, which ignites after being dipped in a bottle of concentrated sulfuric acid. Oliver Evans (1755-1819) invents the steam-powered dredge called the Oruktor Amphibolos (Amphibious Digger), becoming the first amphibious vehicle; he also designs a vapor-driven refrigeration machine, which he never builds. Joseph Marie Charles Jacquard invents a mechanical silk loom. Science: County Meath, Ireland-born hydrographer and British rear adm. Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) devises the Blowfart, er, Beaufort Wind Scale (0-12) for gauging wind force at sea: 0:0-1 mph (calm), 1:2-3 (light air), 2:4-7 (slight breeze), 3:8-12 (gentle breeze), 4:13-18 (moderate breeze), 5:19-24 (fresh breeze), 6:25-31 (strong breeze), 7:32-38 (moderate gale), 8:39-46 (fresh gale), 9:47-54 (strong gale), 10:55-63 (whole gale), 11:64-72 (storm), 12:73-82 (hurricane). English surgeon Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841) pioneers ligation of arteries. Thomas Young first describes Surface Tension as a hypothetical membrane of infinitesimal thickness stretched over the surface. Nonfiction: Louis Pierre Anquetil (1723-1808), Histoire de France (14 vols.); written at the request of Napoleon I; it sucks but becomes popular for its second-hand anecdotes? Hosea Ballou, A Treatise on Atonement. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840), Handbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), Wissen, Glaube und Ahnung. Charles Hall (1740-1825), The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States; based on his observation of food shortages in England in 1795-1801, which disses capitalism for letting the wealthy control the labor of others to determine what is produced, making it unable to provide for the poor, advocating the sure cures of progressive taxation and a luxury tax, making Karl Marx and Henry George into fans; "Wealth consists not in things but in power over the labour of others." William Henry Ireland (1775-1835), The Confessions of William Henry Ireland; an attempt to make moolah by confessing to being a criminal? August von Kotzebue (1761-1819), Erinnerungen von Meiner Reise aus Liefland nach Rom und Neapel. Hannah More (1745-1833), Character of a Young Princess. Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (1770-1828), Treatise on the Coins of the Realm. Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814), History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution (3 vols.); how the virtuous Am. Rev. spirit has turned into speculative frenzy and a lust for aristocratic titles; creates a Jeffersonian anti-Federalist interpretation of the Am. Rev.; no surprise, Jefferson orders copies for himself and his cabinet with "anticipation of her truthful account of the last thirty years that will furnish a more instructive lesson to mankind than any equal period in history"; she disses John Adams, her pre-Am. Rev. mentor, causing a breach with his family until 1812 - it's already the good old days? Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Fidelio, Op. 72 (his only opera) (Vienna); about Floristan and Leonore, who disguises herself as boy Fidelio; contains brief sections of "Ode to Joy"; Third (3rd) (Eroica) Symphony (Vienna, Theater an der Wien); debuts to mixed reviews, inaugurating the era of heroic music (driving rhythms, drastic dynamic changes, martial instruments); incl. Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 3. Henri Montan Berton (1767-1844), La Romance (opera); gets him a job as dir. of the Paris Italien Opera in 1806. Art: William Blake (1757-1827), The Great Red Dragon Paintings (1805-10); based on Rev. 12:3-4. John Sell Cotman (1782-1842), Greta Bridge. Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), Portrait of Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal. Joseph Anton Koch (1768-1839), Heroic Landscape with Rainbow. Pierre-Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823), Portrait of Josephine de Beauharnais; the flattering portrait proves he's in love with her? Philipp Otto Runge (1777-1810), The Morning. J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Shipwreck. Parson Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825), The Life of General Francis Marion; turns the Swamp Fox into a demigod a la Washington. Benjamin West (1738-1820), Franklin Drawing Electricity from the Sky; depicts the 46-y.-o. Benjamin Franklin in 1752 as a wrinkled old wizard. Plays: Clemens Brentano, Ponce de Leon. Leandro Fernandez de Moratin (1760-1828), El Si de las Ninas (The Maidens' Consent); denounced by the Inquisition after Ferdinand VII regains the throne, forcing him into exile in France. Manuel Jose Quintana (1772-1857), Pelayo. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), Wilhelm Tell (William Tell) (Weimar). Ludwick Tieck (1773-1853), Kaiser Oktavianus (comedy). Poetry: William Lisle Bowles (1762-1850), The Spirit of Discovery; ridiculed by Lord Byron (1788-1824) . Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1843), Romanzen vom Tal Ronceval (Romance of Knight Ronceval). Robert Southey (1774-1843), Madoc; about a 12th cent. Welsh prince who sailed to America. Novels: Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Rene; novella originally pub. as part of "Genie du Christianism" along with the novella "Atala"; Rene of Brittany loses his family inheritance to his brother and decides to travel to Greece and Rome, finding "The ancient world had no certainty, the modern world had no beauty", and returns to commit suicide, which is stopped by his sister, whose secret love for him causes her to run off to a nunnery, after which he runs away to join the Natchez Indians of La.; a big hit, doing for him what "The Sorrows of Young Werther" did for Goethe, helping launch the Romantic movement in France; claims to have been granted an interview by his hero George Washington and to have lived with Native Ams. before writing the novel. Sophie Cottin, Mathilde; Richard the Lionheart's sister falls in love with Saladin's brother Malek-Adel. Denis Diderot (1713-84), Rameau's Nephew. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), The Lay of the Last Minstrel (Romantic verse novel); "The way was long, the wind was cold,/ The Minstrel was infirm and old"; "To the vile dust from whence he sprung/ Unwept, unhonored, and unsung" (Canto VI). Births: Am. Mormon leader David Whitmer (d 1888) on Jan. 7 in Harrisburg, Penn. Am. New York City mayor #74 (1858-60) Daniel Fawcett Tiemann (d. 1899) on Jan. 9; nephew-in-law of Peter Cooper (1791-1883). Italian sculptor Baron Carlo Marochetti (d. 1867) on Jan. 14 in Turin; raised in Paris. English Romantic landscape painter-etcher-writer Samuel Palmer (d. 1881) on Jan. 27 in Newington, London.; friend of William Blake. English politician-historian Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, Viscount Mahon (d. 1875) on Jan. 30 in Walmer, Kent; son of Philip Stanhope, 4th earl Stanhope (1781-1855); educated at Christ Church, Oxford U.; father of Edward Stanhope (1840-93) and Philip Stanhope, baron Weardale (1847-1923). English novelist William Harrison Ainsworth (d. 1882) on Feb. 4. French Communist rev. leader Louis Auguste Blanqui (d. 1881) on Feb. 8 in Puget-Theniers; brother of economist Jerome Adolphe Blanqui (1798-1854); originator of the theory of the dictatorship of the proletariat, and Blanquism, the idea that commie revolutions should be run by a small group of secret conspirators who plan on staging a big putsch. German mathematician ("Father of Analytic Number Theory") Johann Peter Gustav Leujeune Dirichlet (d. 1859) on Feb. 13 in Duren, France (Prussia). Am. Field Code civil law reformer David Dudley Field Jr. (d. 1894) on Feb. 13 in Haddam, Conn.; son of minister David Dudley Field; brother of Cyrus West Field (1819-92) and Stephen Johnson Field (1816-99). Swiss politician Jonas Furrer (d. 1861) on Mar. 3 in Winterthur. Spanish barotine singer and music educator (laryngoscope inventor) Manuel Patricio Rodriguez Garcia II (d. 1906) on Mar. 17 in Madrid (Zafra?). English Shakespearean comic actor Henry Compton (Charles Mackenzie) (d. 1877) on Mar. 22 in Huntington; grandfather of Fay Compton (1894-1978) and Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972). Danish "The Little Mermaid", "The Emperor's New Clothes" fairy tale writer (bi?) Hans Christian Andersen (d. 1875) on Apr. 2 in Odense; son of a poor shoemaker; sets out to become a singer and actor, then switches to children's stories about 1835 (he loves to do everything in years ending with the numeral 5?). French "The Liturgical Year" Benedictine monk Dom Prosper Louis Pascal Gueranger (Dom Guéranger) (d. 1875) on Apr. 4 in Sable-sur-Sarthe. Am. statesman-diplomat Francis Wilkinson Pickens (d. 1869) on Apr. 7 in Togadoo, St. Paul's Parish, S.C.; grandson of Am. Rev. War gen. Andrew Pickens; gov. of S.C. (1860-2) during the Ft. Sumter episode. German botanist Hugo von Mohl (d. 1872) on Apr. 8 in Stuttgart. Am. Christadelphians founder John Thomas (d. 1871) on Apr. 12 in Hackney, London; of French Huguenot descent; emigrates to the U.S. in 1832. English philosopher and Unitarian divine James Martineau (d. 1900) on Apr. 21 in Norwich; brother of Harriet Martineau (1802-76). French Romantic painter Eugene Francois Marie Joseph Deveria (Devéria) (d. 1865) on Apr. 22 in Paris. French landscape painter-lithographer Henri Pierre Leon Pharamond Blanchard (d. 1873) in La Guillotiere, Lyon; student of Antoine-Jean Gros. Danish composer Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (d. 1900) on May 14 in Copenhagen; son of August Wilhelm Hartmann (1775-1850); of German descent. French chef Adolphe Duglere (Dugléré) (d. 1884) on June 3 in Bordeaux; pupil of Marie-Antoine Careme (1784-1833). Scottish economist-politician (founder of The Economist) (Quaker) James Wilson (d. 1860) on June 3 in Hawick, the Borders. Am. Civil War Union col. (maj.) (Union cmdr. at Ft. Sumter in 1861) Robert Anderson (d. 1871) on June 14 in Louisville, Ky. Am. Roman Catholic archbishop #1 of Milwaukee, Wisc. (1843-81) Father John Martin Henni (d. 1881) on June 15 in Obersaxen, Graubunden, Switzerland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1829. Am. Chicago mayor #1 (1837-8) William Butler Ogden (d. 1877) on June 15 in Walton, N.Y.; educated at NYU. German musical instrument maker Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann (d. 1864) on June 17 in Friedrichroda, Thuringia. Am. physician-scientist Charles Thomas Jackson (d. 1880) on June 21 in Plymouth, Mass; brother-in-law of Ralph Waldo Emerson; educated at Harvard U. Italian rev. leader ("the Soul of Italian Unification") Giuseppe (Joseph) Mazzini (d. 1872) on June 22 in Genoa. Am. abolitionist journalist-politician Henry Brewster Stanton (d. 1887) on June 27 in Preston, Conn.; husband of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902). British meteorologist vice-adm. Robert Fitzroy (d. 1865) on July 5 in Ampton, Suffolk; son of Gen. Lord Charles FitzRoy (1764-1829) and Lady Frances Stewart (daughter of the 1st marquess of Londonderry, and half-sister of Viscount Castlereagh, who slit his throat in 1822); brother of Sir Charles FitzRoy (1796-1858); paternal grandson of Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd duke of Grafton (1735-1811); 4th great-grandson of Charles II; educated at Royal Naval College, Portsmouth; coiner of the term "forecast". Am. surgeon ("the Nestor of Am. Surgery") Samuel D. Gross (d. 1884) on July 8 in Easton, Penn.; educated at Jefferson Medical College; subject of Thomas Eakin's 1875 painting "The Gross Clinic". U.S. Sen. (R-Mich.) (1862-71) Jacob Merritt Howard (d. 1871) on July 10 in Shaftsbury, Vt.; educated at Williams College. German geologist and radical activist Carl Ferdinand Julius Froebel (Fröbel) (d. 1893) on July 16 in Griesham, Thuringia; nephew of kindergarten man Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852). Am. aviation pioneer Frederick Marriott (d. 1884) on July 16 in England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1849. Am. "The Apotheosis of Washington" historical painter Constantino Brumidi (d. 1880) on July 26 in Rome, Italy; Greek father, Italian mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1849. Am. "The Greek Slave" sculptor Hiram Powers (d. 1873) on July 29 near Woodstock, Vt.; grows up near Cincinnati, Ohio; goes to Florence, Italy in 1837; friend of Horatio Greenough. French "Democracy in America" writer-statesman and Am. tourist Alexis Charles Henri Maurice Clerel (Clérel) de Tocqueville (d. 1859) on July 29 in Verneuil-sur-Seine, Ile-de-France. Irish mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton (d. 1865) on Aug. 4 in Dublin; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; inventor of quaternions. German Socialist economist Johann Karl Rodbertus (Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow) (d. 1875) on Aug. 12 in Greifswald, Swedish Pomerania; introducer of French ideas into Germany. English theologian (founder of Christian Socialism) John Frederick Denison Maurice (d. 1872) on Aug. 29 in Normanston, Suffolk; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U., and Exeter College, Oxford U. Am. "George Washington" sculptor Horatio Greenough (d. 1852) on Sept. 6 in Boston; educated at Harvard U. English Anglican bishop Samuel "Soapy Sam" Wilberforce (d. 1873) on Sept. 7 in Clapham Common, London; 3rd son of William Wilberforce (1759-1833); educated at Oriel College, Oxford U. Swiss-German "Encyclopedia of Protestant Theology" Protestant theologian Johann Jakob Herzog (d. 1882) on Sept. 12 in Basel. U.S. naval cmdr. James Harmon Ward (d. 1861) on Sept. 25 in Hartford, Conn. German rev. leader Gustav (von) Struve (d. 1870) on Oct. 11 in Munich. Austrian realist novelist-poet Adalbert Stifter (d. 1868) on Oct. 23 in Oberplan, Bohemia; known for vivid descriptions of natural landscapes. Dutch surgeon Antonius Mathijsen (Mathysen) (d. 1878) on Nov. 4 in Budel. Am. politician Thomas Wilson Dorr (d. 1854) on Nov. 5 in Providence, R.I. French diplomat-politician and Suez Canal builder Ferdinand Marie, Count de Lesseps (b. 1894) on Nov. 19 in Versailles. British-Jamaican nursing pioneer Mary Jane Seacole (nee Grant) (d. 1881) on Nov. 23 in Kingston, Jamaica; Scottish father, Jamaican mother known as The Doctoress, who teachs her folk medicine incl. proper hygiene. Am. explorer-diplomat John Lloyd Stephens (d. 1852) on Nov. 28 in Shrewbury, N.J.; educated t Columbia U. Am. abolitionist, suffragist, and tobacco prohibitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison (d. 1879) on Dec. 12 in Newburyport, Mass. - who cares about your mother, you do? German astronomer-physicist Johann von Lamont (d. 1879) on Dec. 15 in Braemer (near Balmoral Castle), Scotland; emigrates to Germany in 1816. French zoologist (coiner of the term "ethology") Isidore Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire (d. 1861) on Dec. 16 in Paris; son of Etienne Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844). Scottish chemist (co-founder of colloid chemistry) Thomas Graham (d. 1869) on Dec. 21 in Glasgow; educated at the U. of Edinburgh; discoverer of dialysis. Am. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormonism) founder Joseph Smith Jr. (d. 1844) on Dec. 23 in Sharon, Vt. (15 mi. N of White River junction along the Vt.-N.H. state line); son of Joseph Smith Sr. (1771-1840) and Lucy Mack (1775-1856); 5th of 11 children; in 1816 the family moves to Palmyra, N.Y., where he begins having piston-pumping visions at age 14. U.S. Rep. (D-Penn.) (1853-7) and railroad magnate Asa Packer (d. 1879) on Dec. 29 in Mystic, Conn.; founder of Lehigh U. French writer Marie d'Agoult (Marie Catherine Sophie de Flavigny, Comtesse D'Agoult) (d. 1876) (AKA Daniel Stern) on Dec. 31 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany; marries Comte d'Agoult in 1827, then hooks up with Franz Liszt, giving him three daughters, incl. Cosima Liszt (1837-1930), who marries German composers Hans von Bulow and Richard Wagner. Scottish explorer Capt. Alexander Burnes (d. 1841) in Montrose. Am. merchant-trader (co-founder of Galveston, Tex.) Michel Branamour Menard (d. 1856) in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada. English portraitist Franz Xavier Winterhalter (d. 1873). Am. 6' Chiricahua Apache chief Cochise (Cheis) ("the strength of oak") (A-da-tli-chi) (d. 1874) in Chiricahua country, Ariz.; son-in-law of Mangas Coloradas. English artist John Frederick Lewis (d. 1876). Am. abolitionist-suffragist Angelina Emily Grimke (Grimké) (d. 1879) in Charleston, S.C.; daughter of a plantation owner; sister of Sarah Moore Grimke (1792-1873); wife (1838-) of Theodore Dwight Weld (1803-95). Deaths: Am. black poet Jupiter Hammon (b. 1711) in Lloyd Harbor, N.Y. Am. Rev. War gen. Christopher Gadsden (b. 1724) on Sept. 15 in Charleston, S.C. (accidental fall). French painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze (b. 1725) on Mar. 4 in Louvre, Paris. Serbian priest-scientist Franz Xaver von Wulfen (b. 1728) on Mar. 17 in Klagenfurt. Italian naturalist Felice Fontana (b. 1730) on Mar. 10 in Florence. Am. Rev. War gen. William Moultrie (b. 1730) on Sept. 27. French Orientalist Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (b. 1731) on Jan. 17 in Paris. English lord chancellor (1793-1801) Alexander Wedderburn, 1st earl of Rosslyn (b. 1733) on Jan. 2 in Baylis (near Salt Hill), Windsor: "A fortune in circulation, even if spent in luxuries, waste, and dissipation, did more good to the public, and afforded more emulation to industry, and better encouragement to arts and manufactures, than any useless accumulation of money could do." English sculptor Thomas Banks (b. 1735) on Feb. 2 in London. Irish statesman John Beresford (b. 1738) on Nov. 5. Scottish physicist John Robison (b. 1739) on Jan. 30. Italian composer Luigi Boccherini (b. 1743) on May 28 in Madrid, Spain; leaves 366 instrumental works, mainly trios, quartets, and quintets for strings, which feature the violoncello. English divine William Paley (b. 1743) on May 25 in Bishopwearmouth. Indian Cochin maharja (1769-1805) Rama Varma IX (b. 1751) on Sept. 26. Danish regend (1772-84) Frederick, hereditary prince of Denmark (b. 1753) on Dec. 7 in Amalienborg Palace, Copenhagen. French graphite pencil inventor Nicolas Jacques Conte (b. 1755) on Dec. 6 in Paris. He beat 10-2-1 odds then it hit the fan fan? English ever-seasick naval hero Adm. Horatio, Viscount Nelson (b. 1758) on Oct. 21 outside Cadiz, Spain (KIA at the Battle of Trafalgar in the cockpit of his flagship Victory); as he lays dying he looks around and asks, "Are there any of them still left?" and/or, "Kismet, Hardy" and/or "God bless you, Hardy", then "Thank God I have done my duty", then his immortal words: "Drink, drink, fan, fan, rub, rub"; buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, London; Nelson's Column is erected in Trafalgar Square, London in his memory in 1849. German playwright Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (b. 1759) on May 9 (TB): "Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht" (The history of the world is the verdict of the world); "A beautiful soul has no other merit than its own existence." Welsh hymn writer Anne Griffiths (b. 1776).

1806 - Doves Itch? My kingdom for an answer, or, emperors everywhere, and not a cent for tribute? The Holy Roman Joke Empire dissolves in a Europe full of a square dance of wars and shifting partners? Meanwhile white Euro transplants looking to get as far away from Europe as possible sight Pikes Peak?

'Napoleon on His Imperial Throne' by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), 1806 Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (1756-1925) Maximilian Josef Garnerin, count von Montgelas of Bavaria (1759-1838) William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville of Britain (1759-1834) Charles James Fox of Britain (1749-1806) Duke Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick-Luneburg (1735-1806) French Marshal Louis Nicolas d'Avout (1770-1823) Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1779-1846) Hortense de Beauharnais (1783-1837) Russian Gen. Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (1741-1820) Karl von Dalberg (1744-1817) Henry Brockholst Livingston of the U.S. (1757-1823) Tecumseh (1768-1813) Tenskwatawa (1775-1836) John R. Coffee of the U.S. (1772-1833) Ottoman Sultan Selim III (1761-1808) Haitian Gen. Alexandre Sabès Pétion (1770-1818) British Gen. Charles Grey (1729-1807) Gen. Francisco de Miranda of Venezuela (1756-1816) Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776-1831) Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach (1775-1833) Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) William Hazlitt (1778-1830) Richard Porson (1759-1808) William Scoresby Sr. (1760-1829) William Scoresby Jr. (1789-1857) Benjamin Hawkins of the U.S. (1754-1816) Nathaniel Macon of the U.S. (1767-1835) Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner (1783-1841) Claude Michel (Clodion) (1738-1814) Jean Chalgrin (1739-1811) Jean-Nicholas Huyot (1780-1840) Arc de Triomphe, 1836 Dartmoor Prison, 1806 William Colgate (1783-1857) Colgate, 1806 Colgate Toothpaste Vaux Breweries British Lt. Col. Ernest Vaux (1865-1925) Pikes Peak Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864)

1806 On Jan. 1 after increasing its size via annexation of Church lands, free towns, and small lordships, Bavaria (an electorate since 1507) becomes a kingdom under elector (since Feb. 16, 1799) Maximilian I Joseph (1756-1825), who becomes king of Bavaria (until Oct. 13, 1825), who favors French Enlightenment ideas incl. secularization and centralization, appointing Count Maximilian Josef von Montgelas (1759-1838) as his minister (until 1817) (known for speaking French better than German, and working for previous elector Karl Theodor in 1799 to censor books until he is discovered to belong to the Illuminati and fired), who considers France as necessary to Bavaria despite appearing as a traitor to fellow Germans, becoming the most successful German politician of the early 19th cent.; jurist Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach (1775-1833) leads a commission to create a new reformed Bavarian Criminal (Penal) Code (finished 1813), and abolishes torture this year. On Jan. 1 Emperor Napoleon I abolishes the French Rev. Calendar and returns to the Gregorian Calendar. On Jan. 7 the U.S. concludes a treaty with the Cherokees, who give up a large tract of land N of the Tennessee River. On Jan. 17 James Madison Randolph (1806-34), grandson of Thomas Jefferson becomes the first child born in the White House, to his daughter Martha, on the centennial of Ben Franklin's birth. On Jan. 20 Princeton-educated Henry Brockholst Livingston (1757-1823), from the long line of N.Y. Livingstons, cousin of DOI signer Robert R. Livingston and brother-in-law of John Jay (with whom he went on a diplomatic mission to Spain) is appointed as U.S. Supreme Court justice #15, and confirmed on Nov. 10 (until Mar. 18, 1823), giving it six members (William Cushing, Samuel Chase, Bushrod Washington, John Marshall, William Johnson). On Jan. 23 PM (since May 10, 1804) William Pitt the Younger (b. 1759) dies of a stroke (unsaved, according to William Wilberforce), and on Feb. 11 his Whig cousin William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (1759-1834) becomes British PM (until Mar. 25, 1807), forming the Ministry of All the Talents, with George III's least favorite guy (a William Wilberforce supporter) Honourable Charles James Fox (1749-1806) as foreign minister as a loss leader; Pitt followers, led by George Canning refuse to join; strong abolitionists Grenville and Fox decide to introduce William Wilberforce's slavery abolition bill in the House of Lords first, and do so next Jan; meanwhile they try to end the war with France in vain. On Mar. 1 after pub. derogatory statements about his lifelong friend Andrew Jackson, Prince Edward County, Va.-born merchant John R. Coffee (1772-1833) (their wives were related) duels Nathaneiel A. McNairy; on May 30, 1806 the same weapons are used in a duel near Adairville, Ky. between Jackson and famous duelist Charles Dickinson (b. 1780), who is killed after putting a bullet in Jackson's chest that is too near to his heart to operate, causing him to carry it for life; in the War of 1812 Coffee leads the 2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen; on Sept. 4, 1813 Thomas Benton and his brother attempt to assassinate Jackson, but miss, after which Coffee knocks him down some stairs. On Mar. 9 French-educated mulatto Gen. Alexandre Sabes Petion (Sabès Pétion) (1770-1818) is elected pres. of Haiti (until 1818); on Oct. 17 he and black Brig. Gen. Henri Christophe assassinate emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines (b. 1758) in Pont Lanarge (Pont Rouge) (N of Port-au-Prince), after which they get into a black vs. mulatto pissing contest, splitting the country, with Christophe taking the N and Petion the S. On Mar. 12 Venezuelan soldier Francisco de Miranda (1756-1816), who fought in the Am. Rev. and French Rev. and got his name on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, then turned against the French Rev. and got condemned by the Directory and fled to England in Jan. 1798, where he unsuccessfully tried to get William Pitt to aid his fight for Venezuelan independence, then went to New York City in Nov. 1805, where he raised 200 volunteers and three ships (the Leander, Bee, and Bacchus) with the help of merchant Samuel G. Ogden (1746-1810), then sailed for Venezuela looking for a rumble, with an idea of uniting the entire South Am. continent from the Mississippi River to Cape Horn under the name Colombia (for Christopher Columbus), with a hereditary emperor called the Inca, raises the first Venezuelan flag in Jacmel; too bad, the Spanish navy defeats them on Apr. 28 off the coast, sinking two ships and taking 60 POWs, later sentencing 10 to death; Miranda escapes on the Leander and regroups on Barbados and Trinidad, then lands on Aug. 3 in La Vela de Coro and captures the fort, raising his new flag for the 1st time on Venezuelan soil, then occupies Coro; after finding no local support, they set sail on Aug. 13 and spend all next year in the Caribbean waiting for reinforcements, which never arrive, then return to Britain, finally getting support and assembling a large force under the command of Arthur Wellesley in 1808; too bad, Napoleon's invasion of Spain turns Spain into an ally, causing the force to go to Spain instead. On Mar. 15 Napoleon installs his brother-in-law Joachim Murat (1767-1815) as gov. of the Rhineland (grand duke of Berg and Cleves) (until Aug. 1, 1808), and he decides to outlaw all trade and prof. assocs. incl. brewer guilds, allowing people to choose their own trade or profession (known as the Gewerbefreiheit); Bavaria already did it in 1800. On Mar. 23 explorers Lewis and Clark begin their return journey. On Mar. 25 Venezuelan liberator Francisco Miranda is defeated in Ocumare with the loss of a large part of his force, then takes Coro, finds no popular support and leaves for Europe to work with Simon Bolivar to find more aid, returning in 1810. On Apr. 22 French adm. Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (b. 1763), loser of the Battle of Trafalgar is returned to France by the English, and then strangled by one of Napoleon's Mamlukes with a horse bridle at an inn in Rennes. On May 10 a French law enunciates the principle of the univ. system, but Nappy doesn't degree with them until Mar. 17, 1808. On May 24 the Batavian Repub. reverts back to the name Holland as a monarchy under Nappy's younger brother Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1779-1846) and his wife Hortense Eugenie Cecile de Beauharnais (1783-1837), Nappy's adopted daughter (mother of Napoleon III); they rule until 1810, but never amount to more than governors of Holland subject to Nappy's will. On May 25 William Scoresby Sr. (1760-1829) and his son William Scoresby Jr. (1789-1857) of England reach a record 81 deg. 30 min. N lat. (19 deg. E long.) (until 1827) in the whaler Resolution, and return to write Account of the Arctic Regions. On May 30 Napoleon I issues a decree calling for an Assembly of Jewish Notables, and on July 23 the first meeting of the Sanhedrin since the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. is held in Paris at the City Hall, consisting of 111 Jewish reps. from all the depts. of France and N Italy, which pisses-off Third Coalition partners Russia, Austria, Prussia, and England, causing Napoleon on Nov. 29 after his V at Jena to give a speech in Posen making Judaism the official fifth column, er, third religion of France, proclaiming the long-disputed loyalty of the 40K Jews in France (1K in Paris) and making them into French citizens, but also depriving some Jews of their economic freedom; the anti-Semitic pressure on him only intensifies; the French appoint Mainz archbishop-elector (since 1802) Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg (1744-1817) as grand duke of Frankfurt on Main, and he orders the Jews to be given equal rights and abolishes the old law forbidding them from walking on the Anlagen main ring road, which doesn't stop the town council from issuing new regs in 1807 attempting to reestablish the ghetto, causing Dalberg to issue his "highest regulation for the equality of civil rights of the Jewish muncipality" in 1811, abolishing the requirement for Jews to live in the ghetto or pay special taxes, after the Jewish community pays a lump sum of 440K guilders; thanks to Napoleon, Portugal gives Jews their freedom in 1811, followed by Prussia in 1812, Holland in 1830, Sweden in 1834, and Switzerland in 1838; after Nappy's fall in 1815, Prussia reneges, along with France, until 1830, when it restores Nappy's laws - friends are friends but rules are rules? In May HRE (since 1792) Francis II of Austria sends Klemens von Metternich to Paris as ambassador, and he arrives in Paris in Aug. On June 12 after Napoleon's V over Russia and Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz, most of the German states (16 at first, then 35, with a total pop. of 15M) secede and form the Confederation of the Rhine (ends 1813), placing all of Germany (except Austria, Prussia, Brunswick, and Hesse) under French protection, with Hesse-Darmstadt becoming a grand duchy (until 1918) under landgrave Louis X, who becomes Duke Louis I; the garrisoning of French troops on German soil finally causes Frederick William III of Prussia to declare war, and Prussia, Britain, Russia, and Sweden to form the Fourth Coalition against France; elector Frederick Augustus IIII of Saxony later joins. On June 16 Tenskwatawa (1775-1836) ("the Prophet") ("Open Door"), formerly Lalawethika ("Loud Voice"), who has been stirring up the Indian tribes E of the Mississippi to throw off whitey, successfully predicts a solar eclipse, increasing his influence and making his white rival, Indiana territory gov. Gen. William H. Harrison lose face; by 1808 his brother Tecumseh (1768-1813) becomes the leader of the Tecumseh Confederacy of Native Ams, which grows to several thousand warriors (ends 1813). In the summer Aaron Burr goes to Lexington, Ky. to recruit adventurers for his secession plot, but Gen. James Wilkinson gets cold feet and in Nov. sends a letter to Pres. Jefferson warning of a "deep, dark, wicked, and wide-spread conspiracy", trying to frame Burr as being the lone gunman - where does Burr meet with Daniel Boone and Mingo? On July 12 the tiny country of Liechtenstein in C Europe on a Washington, D.C.-sized patch of land on the upper Rhine River (E side) between Austria and Switzerland becomes a sovereign state - one good side effect of the HRE breakup? On July 15 N.J.-born Lt. Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) leaves St. Louis to explore New Mexico looking for the sources of the Arkansas River; on Nov. 15 he sights 14,109 ft. (4,267m) pink granite Pikes Peak (El Capitan to the Spanish, which he calls Highest Peak because it's higher thany any peak in the U.S. to the E) in S Colo. (64 mi. S of Denver), but fails in an attempt to climb it, declaring that it will never be climbed (the Utes probably did it all the time to get eagle feathers?), then makes a roundabout return by way of Santa Fe after Spanish soldiers capture his party; his accounts are pub. before those of Lewis and Clark, creating the myth that the Am. West is a "Great American Desert" unfit for human habitation (and hence the place to banish Indian tribes to); in summer 1820 Vt.-born botanist Edwin P. James (1797-1861) becomes the first to climb it while working for explorer Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864) on his expedition "from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains", discovering the health benefits of the mineral waters in Manitou Springs, Colo., and making the first ascent of 13,3K ft. (4,054m) James Peak. What are you doing, getting out? My eyes, my beautiful eyes? On Aug. 6 (8-6-1806) (Wed.) after either Napoleon I orders it abolished, or he believes the rumors that Nappy wants to take over the HRE title, or news of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine scares him into it, HRE (since July 5, 1792) Francis II (1768-1835) declares the Holy Roman Empire and the Third Reich (Reich 1 founded in 800, Reich 2 in 962, or First Reich since 800) dissolved, and abdicates as HRE, after previously declaring himself emperor of Austria alone as Francis I on Aug. 11, 1804 (until Mar. 2, 1835); next Reich in 1871; Carinthia is incorporated in the Austrian Empire's Kingdom of Illyria, which succeeds Napoleon's Illyrian Provinces (until 1849). On Aug. 12-15 6K-8K ensconced Serbs defeat an Ottoman army of 50K-80K from Bosnia in the Battle of Misar, then in Dec. defeat another Ottoman army from the SE in the Battle of Deligrad, then siege Belgrade in Dec. (until 1807); meanwhile they organize their own parliament. On Aug. 15 Thomas Paine writes a Letter to Andrew Dean delineating his anti-Bible-thumping Rationalist beliefs: "I consider the scene I have passed through as an experiment on dying, and I find that death has no terrors for me. As to the people called Christians, they have no evidence that their religion is true. There is no more proof that the Bible is the Word of God, than that the Koran of Mahomet is the Word of God. It is education makes all the difference. Man, before he begins to think for himself, is as much the child of habits in Creeds as he is in plowing and sowing. Yet creeds, like opinions, prove nothing." On Sept. 14 Salim I ibn Sultan dies, and Sa'id II ibn Sultan becomes sole sultan of Oman, Zanzibar and Muscat (until Oct. 19, 1856). In Sept. the Lewis and Clark Expedition (begun May 1804) ends after going 8K mi. and visiting 58 Indian tribes; Clark frees his slave York, who was allowed to carry a gun and whose black skin was a curiosity to every Indian tribe they met (the first black to cross the North Am. continent N of Mexico?); Sgt. Charles Floyd, the only casualty in the party dies of a burst appendix near Sioux City; Pres. Jefferson is presented with two bears, which he houses in cages in the White House; always thinking, Pres. Jefferson envisions an independent nation in NW North Am. called the Repub. of the Pacific, which survives to modern times as a proposal for the Repub. of Cascadia, consisting of British Columbia, Ore. and Wash., plus maybe parts of Idaho, N Calif., the Yukon and Alaska; in 1941-2 the State of Jefferson exists for about 10 mo. until Pearl Harbor kills it. On Oct. 10 the Battle of Saalfeld sees 7K Prussians under Prince Louis Ferdinand (who is KIA) defeated by the French, with 400 casualties and 1K POWs taken. What happened, fellers, you Prussians can't handle soft Frenchies? On Oct. 14 28K French (a single corps) under "Iron Marshal" Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (Davout) (Davoust), Prince d'Eckmuhl (d'Eckmühl) (1770-1823) (France's youngest marshal since 1804) rout the main Prussian army of 63K in the Battle (Disaster) of Jena (Iena) (Iéna) in SW E Germany W of the Saal River, and the twin Battle of Auerstadt, causing the Prussian army, despite aid from the Russians to collapse and withdraw from the Fourth Coalition; Duke Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick-Luneburg (b. 1835) dies of wounds received; d'Avout goes on to remain undefeated throughout the Napoleonic Wars, and is left to guard Paris while Nappy goes off to Waterloo in one of the big What Ifs; Frederick William III of Prussia and his family (along with kaput foreign minister Christian von Haugwitz) flee to Memel in E Prussia, where they are at the mercy of Tsar Alexander I, who has the hots for his wife Queen Louise; Copenhagen-born German diplomat Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776-1831) accompanies the fugitive govt. to Konigsberg, becoming tax commissioner then Prussian minister to the Netherlands, trying without success to secure a loan before retiring from public life to become royal historiographer and prof. at the U. of Berlin, going on to become the #1 German historian of ancient Rome. On Oct. 27 Napoleon I occupies Berlin, followed by Hamburg, and on Nov. 21 after the British blockade the French coast he issues the Berlin Decree, initiating the Continental System (Blockade), which blockades Britain and closes Continental ports to British vessels, causing the British to occupy the Cape of Good Hope; too bad, the system backfires as E and C European countries who can no longer trade with England now can't afford to pay for French exports, and the cost of textiles rises, hurting artisans. Napoleon I conquers the Kingdom of Naples, tosses the Bourbons out, and gets his elder brother Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte (1768-1844) crowned as king of Naples (until 1808), forcing King Ferdinand IV and his scheming wife Marie Caroline to flee to Sicily - bring on the bling? The Turks under Ottoman sultan (1789-1808) Selim III (1761-1808) depose the Russophile govs. of Moldavia and Wallachia, leading to the Eighth Russo-Turkish War (ends 1812); Russian gen. Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (1741-1820) is named CIC in the Caucasus, invading the Caspian Sea area and overrunning the khanates of Derbent, Sheka, and Baku. The British occupy Curacao (Curaçao) again (1st time 1798) (until 1814). Ang Chan becomes king of Cambodia (until 1834). Andrew Jackson kills 26-kill sharpshooter Nashville atty. Charles Dickinson (b. 1780) in a duel in Harrison's Mill, Ky. after being shot in the chest, a bullet lodging near his heart for life; he had worn a loose frock coat to throw Dickinson's aim off, and not wanting the dying sucker to know he'd come close, he tells his second, Gen. Thomas Overton in his presence, "I believe he has pinked me a little", then sends him a bottle of wine before he croaks; from now on Jackson is labelled as a murderer. France abolishes the salt tax (gabelle), and raises postal rates 50% to pay for warfare and welfare, but taxes remain moderate until 1810 because of the money paid by occupied territories. Pres. Jefferson seeks a $2M appropriation for a thinly disguised bribe to win French influence in persuading Spain to give up Florida, which causes "honest man" "Old Republican" John Randolph to break with him and talk about starting a third party, the "Tertium Quid" (third something). The city of Macon, Ga. in C Ga. on the fall line E of the Ocmulgee River (modern-day pop. 153K/231K) on the Ocmulgee Oil Fields at the most inland point of navigation from the S.C. Low Country starts out as Ft. Benjamin Hawkins, named for N.C.-born U.S. Supt. of Indian Affairs (1796-1816) Benjamin Hawkins (1754-1816), founded after Pres. Jefferson forced the Creeks to cede their lands E of the river, going on to be used during the War of 1812 and 1813 Creek War until being decommissioned in 1828, after which European immigrants (esp. from N.C.) rename it Newtown, becoming the county sea of the new (1822) Bibb County in 1823 and named in honor of N.C. politician Nathaniel Macon (1757-1837), becoming known for its 250-acre Central City Park and ordinances requiring shade trees to be planted in front yards, becoming known as "the Heart of Georgia", home of Mercer U. (1833), oldest private univ. in Ga., and music stars incl. Little Richard, the Allman Brothers, Jason Aldean et al. The English peerage title Earl Grey is created for Gen. Charles "No Flint" Grey, 1st Baron Grey (1729-1807), who is alsot created Viscount Howick in the County of Northumberland. Sultan Sayyid Sa'id founds an empire with capital in Zanzibar (until 1856), sending slaves to S Arabia and Persia. Father N. Duran founds San Jose, Calif. - do you know the way? Halleybury boys' public school near Hertford, England is founded by the East India Co. to train future employees (cadets). The annual Newdigate Prize for English verse by Oxford undergraduates is founded. Beethoven gets pissed-off and walks out when asked to play for French officers. Prophet Hen of Leeds in England begins laying eggs with the inscription "Christ is coming"; they are later proved to be a hoax. Le Beau Monde (Literary and Fashionable Mag.) begins monthly pub. in Britain. The Political Inst. is founded in Zurich, Switzerland as a law school, but within 10 years it becomes a hotbed of liberalism and constitutionalist rabble-rousers. The London Inst. is founded in the Old Jewry, London, with classical scholar Richard Porson (1759-1808) as dir.; too bad, he suffers a stroke in the street in 1808 and croaks at the tender age of 49. Henry Deringer (1786-1868) founds a firearms factory in Philadelphia, Penn., producing rifles for the U.S. Army, followed by dueling pistols in 1825 and the pocket pistol in 1852. William Colgate & Co. in New York City is founded by English immigrant soapmaker (devout Baptist) William Colgate (1783-1857); his son (also a devout Baptist) Samuel Colgate (1822-97) continues after his death, introducing Cashmere Boquet soap in 1872, and its first toothpaste ("dental cream") in 1873, packaged in jars; in 1896 they sell their first Colgate Toothpaste in a tube, Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream; in 1928 they are acquired by Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet, dropping the Peet in 1953; in ? they introduce Gardol (sodium lauroyl sarcosinate) (AKA Advance White) to their toothpaste; in 1999 they become the world's best-selling toothpaste; by 2010 they sell $17B a year. Vaux Breweries in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England is founded by Cuthbert Vaux Sr. (1779-1850), producing Bitter, Mild, Pale Ale, Maxim, Double Maxim, Sampson, Sunderland, and other brands; Cuthbert's son Cuthbert Vaux Jr. (1813-78) takes over, followed by Cuthbert Jr.'s son John Storey Vaux (1834-81), and John's son Cuthbert Vaux III (1862-1927); John's other son Ernest Vaux (1865-1925) founds the first Boy Scout troop in the world with Robert Baden-Powell, going on to become a popular lt.-col. in the British army in WWI; in 1972 the co. is acquired by Wards Brewing Co. of Sheffield, England, which in 1981 acquires Fred Koch Brewery in Dunkirk, N.Y.; it closes in 2000. Architecture: Bellefonte Academy in Bellefonte, Penn. is built, going on to graduate many Penn. leaders. On Aug. 15 French Rococo sculptor Claude Michel (Clodion) (1738-1814) and neoclassical architect Jean Francois Therese Chalgrin (1739-1811) begin the 164-ft. Arc de Triomphe in Paris to trumpet Napoleon's overarching you know whats; in 1811 French architect Jean-Nicolas Huyot (1780-1840) takes over for Chalgrin; it is interrupted during the Bourbon Restoration of 1814-30, and finally inaugurated on July 29, 1836. Dartmoor Prison in England is begun to house POWs that are being kept on derelect prison hulks (finished 1809); in 1812 U.S. POWs join French ones, reaching a pop. of 6K, and in 1815 they are repatriated, closing the prison down until 1850, after which it becomes down as a gruesome place for housing the most godforsaken convicts. Sports: The first Gentlemen vs. Players cricket match is held. Inventions: Ralph Wedgwood invents carbon paper, calling it "stylographic paper". Science: German scientist Freiherr Christian Johann Dietrich Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) pub. the Grotthuss Mechanism, the first theory of electrolysis, to the effect that an "excess" proton can diffuse through the hydrogen bond network of water molecules, with the oxygen atoms passing them in a "bucket line". Napoleon offers 100K francs to anyone who can make sugar from a native plant, and Russian chemist K.S. Kirchhof wins for a sulfuric acid treatment of potato starch. German pharmacist Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner (Sertürner) (1783-1841) isolates the bitter white crystalline alkaloid Morphine (the first known alkaloid, and first plant drug to be isolated), the active ingredient in opium from the poppy, and tries it on himself, later writing, "Lying down, I got into a dreamy state"; it is initially marketed as a cure for opium addiction? French chemists Nicolas Louis Vaquelin and Pierre-Jean Robiquet (1780-1840) determine the chemical structure of asparagine (derived from asparagus), becoming the first amino acid to be analyzed. Nonfiction: J.C. Adelung, Mithridates, a History of Languages and Dialects. Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), La Chimie Appliquee aux Arts; describes the Chaptalization process of adding sugar to increase final alcohol content, revolutionizing winemaking in France. Charles Francois Dupuis (1742-1809), Memoire Explicatif du Zodiaque, Chronologique et Mythologique. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1761-1814), Bericht Uber die Wissenshaftslehre. William Godwin (1756-1836), The Pantheon, or Ancient History of the Gods of Greece and Rome. Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816), Letters Addressed to the Daughter of a Nobleman on the Formation of Religious and Moral Principle. William Hazlitt (1778-1830), Free Thoughts on Public Affairs; attack on William Pitt's foreign policy. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), Hauptpunkte der Metaphysik; Allegemeine Padagogik (Pädagogik); preaches modern education based on psychology and ethics - change your body in one easy workout a week? P.A. Latreille, Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752-1833), The Path of Comets; first pub. of the Least-Squares Method, developed by Carl Gauss. James Madison (1751-1836), An Examination of the British Doctrine which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not Open in Time of Peace. Thomas Taylor (tr.), Works of Aristotle (1806-12); first in English. Noah Webster, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language; enlargement of Entick's 1765 "Spelling Dictionary" with supplementary encyclopedic material on Am. life; in 1807 he begins "An American Dictionary of the English Language", pub. in 1828. Music: Arnim and Brentano, Des Knaben Wunderhorn (folk songs). Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Fourth Symphony in B-flat major, Op. 60 (Vienna) (Mar.); Violin Concerto, Op. 61. Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842), Faniska (opera comique) (Feb. 25) (Theater am Karntnertor); German libretto by Joseph Sonnleithner based on "Les Mines de Pologne" by Rene Charles Guilbert de Pixerecourt, about Rava mayor Rasinski and his wife Faniska and daughter Hedwig; composed after being invited to Vienna in June 1905; his last hit; praised by Haydn, whom he met personally, and of course Beethoven. Johann Ludwig Dussek (1760-1812), Elegie Harmonique, Op. 61; composed in memory of his buddy Prince Louis Ferdinand, who was KIA in the Battle of Saalfeld. Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), Demetrio a Polibio (first opera) (Rome). Art: Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), The Battle of Aboukir. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), Napoleon Bonaparte (sculpture); Moliere (sculpture). Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), Napoleon on His Imperial Throne. Bertel Thorvaldsen, Hebe (sculpture). David Wilkie (1785-1841), Village Politicians. Poetry: Willem Bilderdijk, Ode van Napoleon. William Lisle Bowles (ed.), The Works of Alexander Pope; incl. an essay defining canons of poetry, with images drawn from Nature considered finer than those drawn from art, and themes of passions of the gen. or elemental kind higher than transient manners of society, which is dissed by Lord Byron , Thomas Campbell et al., and defended by William Hazlitt. Lord Byron (1788-1824), Fugitive Pieces (debut) (Sept.-Oct.); the bad reviews cause him to respond with English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809), calling the Lake Poets "Wordswords and Co.". Jane Taylor and Ann Taylor, Rhymes for the Nursery. Births: French utilitarian free market liberal philosopher-statesman Michel Chevalier (d. 1879) on Jan. 13 in Limoges. Am. naval cmdr. and oceanographer-hydrographer ("Pathfinder/Scientist of the Seas") ("Father of Modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology") Matthew Fontaine Maury (d. 1873) on Jan. 14 near Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania County, Va.; of French Huguenot descent; grows up in Franklin, Tenn. Am. Ill. militia lt. col. Lewis Crum Bidamon (d. 1891) on Jan. 16 in Smithfield, Va.; grows up in Highland County, Ohio; husand (1847-) of Emma Smith (1804-79), 1st wife of Joseph Smith Jr. (1805-44). Am. Mormon leader William Earl McLellin (d. 1883) on Jan. 18 in Smith County, Tenn. Am. Knickerbocker Group writer-poet-ed. Charles Fenno Hoffman (d. 1884) on Feb. 7 in New York City; son of N.Y. atty. gen. Josiah Ogden Hoffman (1766-1837). English "South Bank Lion" sculptor-painter William Frederick Woodington (d. 1893) on Feb. 10 in Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire; father of William Frederick Woodington Jr. (1830-1922). Italian patriot gen. Manfredo Fanti (d. 1865) on Feb. 26 in Carpi, Emilio Romagna; superior officer of Giuseppe Garibaldi. English "Sonnets from the Portuguese", "Aurora Leigh" poet (abolitionist) (opium addict) Elizabeth Barrett Browning (d. 1861) on Mar. 6 in Kelloe, Durham; daughter of Mr. Barrett of Wimple St.; wife (1846-) of Robert Browning (1806-61); mother of Robert Barrett "Pen" Browning (1849-1912). Am. Astor Place Riot stage actor Edwin Forrest (d. 1872) on Mar. 9 in Philadelphia, Penn.; of Scottish-German descent; known for blackface performances. U.S. First Lady (1853-7) Jane Means Appleton Pierce (d. 1863) on Mar. 12 in Hampton, N.H.; daughter of Congregationalist minister Jesse Appleton (1772-1819) (pres. of Bowdoin College); grows up in Amherst, N.H.; wife (1834-63) of pres. Franklin Pierce (1804-69); mother of Benny Pierce (1841-53). Am. inventor (black) Norbert Rillieux (d. 1894) on Mar. 17 in New Orleans, La.; cousin of Edgar Degas (1834-1917). Mexican pres. (1858-72) ("Benemerito de la Americas") (Freemason) Benito Pablo Juarez (Juárez) Garcia (d. 1872) on Mar. 21 in San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca; Indian parents; speaks only Zapoteco for most of his childhood. Am. "Mary Had a Little Lamb" lamb owner Mary Elizabeth Sawyer (d. 1889) on Mar. 22 in Sterling, Mass.; the lamb is born in Mar. 1815 (dies 1819); the poem is actually written by John Roulstone (1805-22), nephew of Rev. Lemuel Capen of Sterling, who watches the famous incident at school and hands her the 12-line poem the next day; in 1830 Sara Josepha Hale adds the final 12 lines, confusing it more; on Aug. 12, 2007 Mary Sawyer's birthplace is burned down by John Rousseau and Michael Dreslinski. Am. Dem. politician John Parker Hale (d. 1873) on Mar. 31 in Rochester, N.H.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Bowdoin College. Am. Confed. Mo. gov. (1861-2) Claiborne Fox Jackson (d. 1862) on Apr. 4 in Fleming County, Ky. English mechanical-civil engineer Isambard (Ger. "iron-bright") Kingdom Brunel (d. 1859) on Apr. 9 in Portsea, Portsmouth, Hampshire; son of Marc Isambard Brunel (1769-1849) and Sophia Kingdom (1775-1855); educated at the U. of Caen, and Lycee Henry-IV. French engineer-economist-sociologist (atheist-to-Roman Catholic convert) Pierre Guillaume Frederic le Play (d. 1882) on Apr. 11 in La Riviere-Saint-Sauveur (near Honfleur); educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, and Ecole des Mines. Dutch-Belgian Romantic painter ("Monsieur Chandelle") Petrus van Schendel (d. 1870) on Apr. 21 in Terheijden, Netherlands; known for lamplit and candle-lit night scenes. English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke (d. 1879) on May 4 in Ealing, Middlesex; educated at the U. of Edinburgh. Am. dentistry school founder Chapin Aaron Harris (d. 1860) on May 6 in Pompey, N.Y. English utilitarian philosopher-economist John Stuart Mill (d. 1873) on May 20 in London; eldest son of James Mill (1773-1836); disciple and friend of Jeremy Bentham; husband (1851-8) of Harriet Taylor Mill (1807-58) pushed by his father, he begins studying Greek at age three, and by age 14 masters Latin, math, logic, classical lit., history, and political economy; too bad, by age 20 his daddy's tyranny causes his brain to freeze, making him unable to absorb any new ideas, but he does develop daddy's ideas beautifully? Am. Brooklyn Bridge civil engineer John (Johann) Augustus Roebling (Röbling) (d. 1869) on June 12 in Muhlhause, Prussia, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1831. English mathematician (atheist) (Spiritualist) Augustus De Morgan (d. 1871) on June 27 in Madras, British India; father of William De Morgan (1839-1917); educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; coiner of the term "mathematical induction". Am. Houston, Tex. co-founder Augustus Chapman Allen (d. 1864) on July 4 in Canaseraga Village (modern-day Sullivan), N.Y.; brother of John Kirby Allen (1810-38). Scottish "Arthur Coningsby" novelist-poet-dramatist John Sterling (d. 1844) on July 20 in Kames Castle, Isle of Bute; educated at the U. of Glasgow and Trinity College, Cambridge U.; father of maj. gen. John Barton Sterling (1840-1926), cmdr. of the Coldstream Guards. Am. educator (founder of Marshall College) Frederick (Friedrich) Augustus Rauch (d. 1841) on July 27 in Hesse-Darmstadt; emigrates to the U.S. in 1831. Irish "The Confessions of Harry Lorrequer" novelist Charles James Lever (d. 1872) on Aug. 31 in Dublin; of English descent; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Dutch "Castle Loevenstein" historical novelist Jan Frederik Oltmans (Jan van der Hage) (d. 1854) on Sept. 1 in The Hague. French gen. Christophe Leon Louis Juchault de Lamoriciere (Lamoricière) (d. 1865) on Sept. 5 in Nantes. U.S. rear adm. Andrew Hull Foote (d. 1863) on Sept. 12 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at West Point Academy. German dramatist-novelist Heinrich Laube (d. 1884) on Sept. 18 in Sprottau, Prussian Silesia. Am. soapmaker (co-founder of Anheuser-Busch) Eberhard Anheuser (d. 1880) on Sept. 27 in Kreuznache (Nahe), German Palatinate; emigrates to the U.S. in 1842; father-in-law of Adolphus Busch (1839-1913). Am. Mormon Church co-founder Oliver H.P. (Hervy Pliny?) Cowdery (d. 1850) on Oct. 3 in Wells, Vt.; grows up in Poultney, Vt.; son of William Cowdery; 3rd cousin of Joseph Smith Jr.'s mother Lucy Mack Smith. Serbian prince (1842-58) Aleksandar (Alexander) Karadordevic (d. 1885) on Oct. 11 in Topola. German "The Ego and Its Own" Young Hegelian philosopher Max Stirner (Ger. "highbrow") (Johann Kaspar Schmidt) (d. 1856) on Oct. 25 in Bayreuth, Bavaria. French casino entrepreneur ("the Magician of Homburg and Monte Carlo") Francois Blanc (d. 1877) on Dec. 12 in Courthezon; has twin brother Louis. Spanish Carlist Gen. Ramon Cabrera y Grino (Ramón Cabrera y Griñó) (d. 1877) on Dec. 27 in Tortosa, Tarragona. Russian artist Alexander Ivanov (d. 1858). Am. "The Swamp Fox", "The Genassee", "The Wigwam and the Cabin" poet William Gilmore Simms (d. 1870) in Charleston, S.C. French financier (Jewish) (rival of the Rothschilds) Isac Pereire (Émile Péreire) (d. 1880); of Portuguese Sephardic descent; grandson of Jacob Rodrigues Pereira (1715-80); brother of Emile Pereire (1800-75). Southern slavery advocate George Fitzhugh (OG "son of intelligence") (d. 1881). Indian Baloch Muslim saint (female) Hazrat Gulrukh ("like a rose") Babajan (d. 1931) in Balochistan (Pakistan); born a Pathan princess, goes guru at age 18; original master of Meher Baba. Deaths: Scottish deaf-mute teacher Thomas Braidwood (b. 1715). English Bluestocking writer Elizabeth Carter (b. 1717). Am. Rev. leader (DOI signer) James Smith (b. 1719) on July 11 in Penn. Am. Baptist preacher Isaac Backus (b. 1724) on Nov. 20. English painter George Stubbs (b. 1724) on July 10 in London. Scottish-born Am. Rev. War gen. Lachlan McIntosh (b. 1725) on Feb. 20 in Savannah, Ga. Am. Rev. patriot-jurist (DOI signer) George Wythe (b. 1726) on June 8 in Williamsburg, Va.; poisoned by his great-nephew George Wythe Sweeney after he goes abolitionist, frees his slaves, and leaves his slave concubine Lydia Broadnax and their mulatto son Michael Brown in his will, and Sweeney tries to poison the slaves with arsenic, but gets Wythe by accident, although he lives long enough to cut him out of the will; Sweeney is acquitted of murder because blacks are forbidden from giving testimony, and is convicted of forgery, but gets that oveturned and is later put in priz for stealing a horse in Tenn. Scottish-born British gen. John Campbell of Strachur (b. 1727) on Aug. 28 in Argyll, Scotland. English-born Am. Rev. Gen. Horatio Gates (b. 1727) on Apr. 10 in New York City. Austrian field marshal Michael von Melas (b. 1729) on May 31 in Tynec nad Labem, Bohemia. African-Am. mathematician-astronomer Benjamin Banneker (b. 1731). British Capt. Sir Richard Pearson (b. 1731). French painter Jean-Honore Fragonard (b. 1732) on Aug. 22 in Paris; dies in poverty. French physician Paul Joseph Barthez (b. 1734) on Oct. 15 in Paris. Am. Rev. patriot-financier Robert Morris (b. 1734) on May 7 in Philadelphia, Penn.; dies broke after losing his fortune in speculation and spending three years in debtor's prison. French novelist Nicolas Edme Restif (b. 1734) on Feb. 3 in Paris; dies before he can take a job as a job in Napoleon's ministry of police. French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (b. 1736). German Prussian margrave (1757-91) Charles Alexander of Brandenburg-Ansbach (b. 1736) on Jan. 5 in Benham Park, Speen (near Newbury), West Berkshire, England (lung disease). Austrian composer Michael Haydn (b. 1737) on Aug. 10; brother of Franz Joseph Haydn. Irish painter James Barry (b. 1741) on Feb. 22 in London; expelled from the Royal Academy of Arts in 1799, first time ever until Brendan Neiland (1941-) in 2004. French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (b. 1742). English architect Henry Holland (b. 1745) on June 17. U.S. Supreme Court justice #1 (1793-1806) William Paterson (b. 1745) on Sept. 9 in Evendale, Penn. Scottish surgeon Benjamin Bell (b. 1749) on Apr. 5. English Whig statesman-orator Charles James Fox (b. 1749) on Sept. 13 in Chiswick. Am. Rev. War gen. Henry Knox (b. 1750) on Oct. 25 near Thomaston, Mass. English cabinetmaker Thomas Sheraton (b. 1751) on Oct. 22. British Gen. John Graves Simcoe (b. 1752) on Oct. 26 in Exeter; namesake of Simcoe Day in Toronto. Japanese painter Kitagawa Utamaro (b. 1753). Am. surveyor Moses Cleaveland (b. 1754) on Nov. 16 in Canterbury, Conn. Spanish composer Vicente Martin y Soler (b. 1754) on Jan. 30 in St. Petersburg, Russia. Am. explorer Robert Gray (b. 1755). Haitian leader Jean Jacques Dessalines (b. 1758) on Oct. 17 in Pont Lanarge (Pont Rouge) (assassinated). British PM William Pitt the Younger (b. 1759) on Jan. 23. French gen. Thomas-Alexandre Dumas (b. 1762) on Feb. 26 in Villers-Cotterets, Aisne (stomach cancer); half-poisoned with arsenic by the Sicilians after being captured in 1799 and imprisoned for two years. French adm. Pierre Charles Villeneuve (b. 1763) on Apr. 22 in Rennes (suicide) (murdered on orders of Napoleon?). Scottish explorer Mungo Park (b. 1771) in Bussa, Africa (drowned).

1807 - The Year of Burr and Good Intentions Over Slaves, or, Their Ears Go Pop Pop Pop? The William Wilberforce Chesapeake Bay Retriever Year?

William Wilberforce of Britain (1759-1833) Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein of Germany (1757-1831) Prussian Gen. Gerhard von Scharnhorst (1755-1813) William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland of Britain (1738-1809) British Adm. Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1747-1817) Russian Adm. Dmitri Senyavin (1763-1831) Ottoman Sultan Mustafa IV (1779-1808) U.S. Commodore James Barron (1768-1851) Thomas Todd of the U.S. (1765-1826) Hannah Hoes Van Buren of the U.S. (1783-1819) Caesar Augustus Rodney of the U.S. (1772-1824) Aaron Burr of the U.S. (1756-1836) Theodosia Burr Alston (1783-1813) U.S. Gen. James Wilkinson (1757-1825) William Wirt of the U.S. (1772-1834) Joseph Alston of the U.S. (1779-1816) Jerome Bonaparte (1784-1860) and Catharina Frederica of Württemberg (1783-1835) French Adm. Jean Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny, 1st Duc de Cadore (1756-1834) French Marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre, 1st Duc de Dantzig (1755-1820) French Gen. Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes (1771-1813) Joachim Nettelbeck (1738-1824) Grand Duchess Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi of Tuscany (1777-1820) Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) George Gordon, 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) Daniel D. Tompkins of the U.S. (1774-1825) Ivan Krylov (1769-1844) Jacob Albright (1759-1808) Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce (1765-1833) Charles Robert Maturin (1782-1824) Washington Irving (1783-1859) Gaspard Monge (1746-1818) James Kirke Paulding (1778-1860) Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de Sismondi (1773-1842) 20 Franc Napoleon, 1807-15 Chesapeake Bay Retriever Joseph Grimaldi (1778-1837) 'Helen of Troy' by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), 1807 John Rubens Smith (1775-1849) John Rubens Smith (1775-1849) James Wyatt (1746-1813) Fonthill Abbey, 1807 Pears Soap, 1807

1807 On Feb. 4 (Wed.) after a month-long fight, the English House of Lords passes the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act of 1807 of William Wilberforce (1759-1833), followed by the Commons on Feb. 22 by 283-16 (as Wilberforce sits in his chair weeping?), which is given royal assent on Mar. 25, but the law has no teeth, and the light fines and nonexistent jail prospects make scofflaws out of ship captains, who often chuck slaves overboard to avoid paying; Wilberforce spends the next 18 years of his career in the House of Commons fighting for the total emancipation of existing slaves; meanwhile the U.S. Congress bans the importation of slaves beginning Jan. 1, 1808; the U.S. now supplies 60% of Britain's cotton - you can't flag the king, or, illegal use of a hand truck? On Jan. 20 Wilmington, Del.-born Caesar Augustus Rodney (1772-1824), known for preparing the articles of impeachment against John Pickering in 1804 becomes U.S. atty. gen. #6 (until Dec. 5, 1811). On Jan. 31 the Jewish Sanhedrin convenes for the 2nd time in France (until Mar.), and codifies the law making the Jewish religion equal to Christianity in France, along with the relationship of rabbis to the state, pissing-off Napoleon's uncle Cardinal Joseph Fesh, who asks him: "So you wish the end of the world to come with your actions to give the Jews equality with Catholics?" In Jan. former U.S. vice-pres. #3 (1801-5) Aaron Burr Jr. (1756-1836) learns that Gen. James Wilkinson (1757-1825) (gov.. #1 of La. Territory since 1805) has betrayed him as he nears Natchez, Miss., and makes a run for Pensacola, Fla., but on Feb. 19 he is arrested in Ala. and taken to Richmond, Va., and indicted on June 24 for treason for plotting with Wilkinson, Jonathan Dayton et al. to create an empire encompassing the Mississippi Valley, Mexico, and the Am. West; he claims he only wanted to farm 40K acres in Tex. leased to him by Spain; he is tried starting on Aug. 3 in Richmond, Va., presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall, with new U.S. atty. gen. Caesar Augustus Rodney and Md.-born atty. William Wirt (1772-1834) (U.S. atty. gen. #9 in 1817-29) as prosecutors, but is acquitted on Sept. 1 for lack of evidence since he had committed no overt treasonable acts and there weren't two witnesses; after his 1825 death, Wilkinson is found to have been a paid agent for the Spanish crown, causing U.S. pres. Theodore Roosevelt to utter the soundbyte: "In all our history, there is no more despicable character"; during the proceedings Marshall attends a dinner given by Burr and his chief defense counsel, and Jefferson refuses a subpoena to appear in court and produce papers, citing executive privilege; Burr has even more charges pending, but skips bail and flees to France to cool his heels, returning to New York in July 1812 to practice law; meanwhile his beloved daughter Theodosia Burr Alston (1783-1813), wife (since 1801) of S.C. gov. #44 (1812-14) Joseph Alston (1779-1816) (first newlywed couple to honeymoon in Niagara Falls) raises money for him and writes letters to Treasury secy. Albert Gallatin and First Lady Dolley Madison pleading his cause, but never sees him again, sailing to New York from Georgetown, S.C. on Dec. 31, 1812 to meet him and mysteriously disappearing, spawning numerous legends - fly away, I'll see you again? In Jan. the Orthodox Catholic Serbs liberate Belgrade from the Muslim Turks. On Feb. 7-8 the French and Russo-Prussian armies fight the indecisive Battle of Eylau; on June 14 the French kick their butts totally in the Battle of Friedland; Karl vom Stein is recalled, and on July 7-9 after Austrian wheeler-dealer Prince Klemens von Metternich unsuccessfully tries to break the Franco-Russian alliance and flops over to share the spoils, the Treaty (Treaties) of Tilsit (Tilset), signed in a pavilion on a raft in the Neman River by Alexander I of Austria, Napoleon I of France, and Frederick William III of Prussia partitions the Ottoman Empire and divides Europe between France and Russia, recognizing the Confederation of the Rhine and ceding all territories W of the Elbe (incl. Saxony), which become the Kingdom of Westphalia, with Napoleon I's youngest brother Jerome Bonaparte (1784-1860) as king (until 1813), and his wife Catharina Frederica von Wurttemberg (Württemberg) (1783-1835) as queen, with capital in Cassel (Kassel), which they intend to set up as the model for the other German states; Prussia loses Poland and all territory W of the Elbe, and along with Russia is forced to recognize the new state of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw carved out of Poland; Prussia loses approx. half of its territory, closes its ports to the British, limits its standing army to 42K, and pays a 120M franc (mark?) indemnity (raised to 140M in 1808), all despite dick-teaser Queen Louise of Prussia having a "personal interview" with Nappy first?; Prussia's once top-drawer military hits rock bottom, and while the king seems resigned to it, PM Karl vom Stein has other ideas, and begins military reforms, encouraged by the queen, led by new chief of staff maj.-gen. Gehard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (1755-1813), who turns it into a nat. army incl. a Landwehr (army reserve) based on universal service with a simplified admin. and promotions based on merit, with foreign recruits prohibited, and corporal punishments limited to flagrant insubordination, schooling his student Karl von Klausewitz, er, Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831); Russian adm. Dmitri Senavin sheds tears when he gets the news of the treaty on Aug. 12, and now that Nappy is considered Russia's ally and Britain its foe, he has to forfeit all his conquests and return to Sevastopol, evacuating Tenedos on Aug. 25 and sailing from Corfu on Sept. 19, officially leaving the Mediterranean; Frederick Augustus III, who turned his electorate of Saxony into a kingdom in 1805 before the dissolution of the HRE in 1806 begins to reign as duke of Warsaw, becoming an ally of Napoleon; the French shut down the U. of Halle, forcing scholar Friedrich August Wolf to move to Berlin. On Mar. 3 after Congress changes the number of justices on the U.S. Supreme Court to seven, and Pres. Jefferson nominates him on Feb. 28, Thomas Todd (1765-1826) of Va. becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #16 (until Feb. 7, 1826), going on to issue only one dissenting opinion in Finley v. Lynn and establish the rule in Riggs v. Taylor that if an original document can't be introduced into evidence for reasons out of one's control, secondary evidence can be used. On Mar. 19-May 24 (78 days) 27K French troops under French marshal (since 1804) Francois Joseph Lefebvre (1755-1820) siege and capture approachable-only-from-the-west Danzig (Gdansk) from 11K Prussian and Russian troops under Prussian gen. Count Friedrich Adolf Kalckreuth (1737-1818), which Napoleon establishes on Sept. 9 as an independent free city (until 1814), gaining Lefebvre the title of 1st Duc de Dantzig (Danzig), and Kalckreuth a promotion to field marshal. On Mar. 25 after William Greenville's Ministry of All the Talents collapses over the failure to make peace with France or accomplish Catholic emancipation, British PM (since Feb. 11, 1806) William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville resigns, and on Mar. 31 former PM (Apr. 2-Dec. 18, 1783) William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738-1809) (a former conservative Whig turned Pittite Tory after the French Rev.) becomes British PM (until Oct. 4, 1809). On Mar. 31 after Britain declares war on Turkey to protect their route to India and invades Egypt, Mehmet Ali, with the support of the Mamluks defeats the British at the Battle of Rosetta (Rasheed), and the British agree to withdraw from Egypt incl. Alexandria on Sept. 19; meanwhile on Feb. 19 the British fleet under adm. Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1747-1817) forces the defenses of the Dardanelles and anchors off Constantinople for the first time in history despite the Turks firing the 1464 Great Turkish Bombard (Dardanelles Gun), which kills 28; on Feb. 24 the Russian navy under adm. Dmitri Nikolayevich Senyavin (1763-1831) reaches the Dardanelles and captures the island of Tenedos in Mar., blockading the straits and cutting off supplies to Constantinople; too bad, Duckworth loses 600 men to shore battery fire, and refuses to join with Senyavin's fleet on an expedition to Alexandria, which turns out bad; meanwhile the blockade causes the Janissaries to revolt against reformer sultan (since 1789) Selim III (b. 1761), and imprison and despose him in favor of his nephew Mustafa IV (1779-1808) (son of Abdul Hamid I), who becomes Ottoman sultan #29 (until July 28, 1808), and orders the blockade broken by his navy, causing the naval Battle of the Dardanelles on May 11, and the naval Battle of Mount Athos (Monte Sancto) (Lemnos) on June 19-22, which are both Russian Vs, the Turks losing a third of their fleet. In Apr.-July the Prussian fortress town of Kolberg resists a siege by the French; mayor Joachim Nettelbeck (1738-1824) later tells about it in his autobio. On May 4 the Treaty of Finckenstein is signed in Finckenstein Palace in East Prussia by France and Persia, guaranteeing the integrity of Persia and its possessions in Georgia and E Transcaucasia in return for Persia declaring war on Britain, expelling all Brits, and agreeing to a joint Franco-Persian-Afghan invasion of India; too bad, the Brits have a different mind and make sure that the treaty is never realized until they sign a treaty on Mar. 12, 1809 with Persia forcing the French out; Napoleon's favorite dragoman (multilingual translator) Pierre Amedee (Amédée) Emilien Probe Jaubert (1779-1847) accompanies Persian envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza Qazvini to meet with Napeoleon at Finckenstein Palace on Apr. 27. On June 18 the Battle of Arpachai on the Akhurian River in Armenia sees a 7K-man Russian force under Gen. Count Ivan Gudovich defeat and repel a 24K-man Ottoman force under Yusuf Pasha, earning Gudovich a promotion to field marshal; too bad, he loses an eye in the battle, and after failing to take Erivan next yer, retreating with his soldiers to Georgia, he resigns, retiring three years later to his enormous estates in Podolia in SW Ukraine. On July 1 after defeating incumbent Morgan Lewis by 35,074 to 30,989 votes, Scarsdale, N.Y.-born Dem.-Repub. politician Daniel D. (Decius?) Tompkins (1774-1825) becomes N.Y. gov. #4 (until Feb. 24, 1817), going on to defeat Jonas Plat in 1810 by 43,094 to 36,484 votes, and Stephen Van Rensselaer in 1813 by 43,324 to 39,718 votes, and Rufus King in 1816 by 45,412 to 38,647 votes before coming in 2nd in the 1816 U.S. pres. election and becoming U.S. vice-pres. #6 on Mar. 4, 1817-Mar. 4, 1825; in the War of 1812 he reorganizes the N.Y. state militia after raising 40K soldiers using his personal fortune as security for equipment, and institutes conscription to create a standing army, declining an appt. as U.S. secy. of state by U.S. Pres. James Madison in 1814 in favor of appointment as cmdr. of the federal military district that incl. New York City. On Aug. 16 Napoleon suppresses the Tribunate, solidifying his dictatorship, and replaces Talleyrand as foreign affairs minister with adm. Jean Baptiste de Nompere (Nompère) de Champagny, 1st Duc de Cadore (1756-1834) (until Apr. 11) - with Pam, food sticks to nothing? On Aug. 17-21 Robert Fulton sails his twin-paddle North River steam boat Clermont ("Fulton's Folly") on the Hudson River from New York City to Albany and back, and receives a U.S. patent for its construction. On Aug. 29 the Battle of Koge (Køge) sees 6K British troops with 1,376 cavalry sieging Copenhagen defeat 7K Danish militiamen from Sjaelland, causing them to throw away their wooden clogs to flee. In Sept. France asks Denmark to join the Continental System; in Oct. before they can decide, hearing that the French might use it to invade them, the English bombard Copenhagen and capture and carry off the entire Danish fleet, causing pissed-off Denmark to swiftly ally with France. On Oct. 12 the Erfurt Convention is signed, refinforcing Napoleon's alliance with Russia and allowing him to proceed to Spain - to give it his magical touch? On Oct. 27 the Peninsular War (ends Apr. 17, 1814) begins after France gets pissed-off at Portugal for not joining the Continental Blockade, and in early Nov. it occupies Portugal, causing King Joao VI (prince regent) to flee on Nov. 29 with mad screaming Maria I and the entire Braganza royal family incl. its 15K hangers-on in advance of French armies and transfer the Portuguese Braganza Court next Jan. to Salvador da Bahia, bowing to pressure and signing a commercial law opening commerce between Brazil and friendly nations esp. Britain; meanwhile in Sept. the Russian fleet under adm. Dmitri Nikolayevich Senyavin (1763-1831) leaves, arriving in Lisbon on Oct. 30, and the British navy moves in and blockades Lisbon, starting the Anglo-Russian War (ends July 18, 1812); after French forces under gen. Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes (1771-1813) overrun Lisbon, Senyavin's fleet is caught in the middle, causing Senyavin to turn diplomat in an effort to save it, starting with ignoring orders from Napoleon via the Russian embassy in Paris to replace British officers on some of his ships with French ones; Nappy's ultimate plan for Portugal is to split it into three sections, with N Portugal from the Douro to the Minho becoming the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, headed by Carlo Lodovico II of Etruria (1799-1883), the Alentejo Province and Kingdom of the Algarve merged into the Principality of the Algarves, headed by Spanish PM Manuel de Godoy, and the remaining portion directly ruled by France. On Dec. 17 the Milan Decree reiterates the French blockade of bad boy Britain, and on paper Napoleon I has now closed the entire European coastline to them, although Pope Pius VII refuses to join. On Dec. 22 after the Chesapeake Incident between the U.S. and Britain, where U.S. commodore James Barron (1768-1851) surrenders the U.S. frigate Chespeake to a British ship (and is later court-martialed), Pres. Jefferson signs the retarted U.S. Embargo Act, prohibiting all internat. trade with U.S. ports, which almost causes a home revolt, although it hurts Britain, which is already suffering from the French Continental System; the Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog breed is developed about this year from two puppies rescued from a shipwreck off the coast of Md. Henri Christophe is appointed pres. of Haiti, and a civil war begins with Gen. Alexandre Sabes Petion (until 1811) when the former expresses the need to be king - are you mocking me? The Twi-speaking Ashanti (Asante) (Ashantee) people N of Ghana federate into a kingdom, and begin attempting to conquer the Fanti tribes of the coast, tangling with the British (until 1826). Sierra Leone and Gambia become British crown colonies. Prussian Baron Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein (1757-1831) convinces Prussian King Frederick William III to abolish personal serfdom and the estate system and issue the Edict of 1807, freeing the peasants on St. Martin's Day in 1810; the govt. and military is modernized, and universal military service is introduced. Bootmakers and shoemakers in Philadelphia go on strike, and a court finds them guity of a "combination to raise their wages"; it takes until 1842 for the trade unions to get protection in the courts. Richmond, Va. establishes a police force. William Cobbett coins the term "red herring" for strong smelling smoked kippers used to lay a false trail for hunting dogs. The Mutiny on the Bounty was no fluke? New South Wales Gov. Capt. William Bligh arrests Irish leader Michael Dwyer and his comrades on trumped-up charges of insurrection, then splits them up and sends them to other settlements; he is later deposed, and Dwyer and his comrades allowed to return to Sydney and given land grants by the new gov. The fortress island of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea is seized from Denmark by Britain (until 1890). The U.S. Coast Survey is established on Feb. 10 by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, becoming the first U.S. scientific agency, changing to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878; in 1870 the U.S. Nat. Weather Bureau is formed, followed on May 22, 1917 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps (NOAA Corps); on Oct. 3, 1970 the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) is formed. The Geological Society of London is founded by London physician James Parkinson (1755-1824) et al. The Shaker town of Watervliet in Albany County, N.Y. at the navigation head of the Hudson River opposite Troy (5 mi. N of Albany) is selected as the site of the first U.S. arsenal, manufacturing cannon. The U.S. Evangelical Assoc. (Albright Brethen) of Am. Protestants of German descent, founded by Jacob Albright (Jakob Albrecht) (1759-1808) holds its first convention; after a schism in 1894 it ends up joining the United Methodist Church in 1968. The city of Nashville, Tenn. (modern pop. 500K) (founded 1779), named after brig. gen. Francis Nash (1720-77) on the Cumberland River in Davidson County is incorporated. Fur trapper John Colter explores the Yellowstone area. Whig leader Lord Palmerston begins his political career as a Tory in the English ministry. N.Y. atty. Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) marries his maternal cousin Hannah Hoes (1783-1819); they have 4 sons and no daughters; too bad, she dies of TB 17 years before he is elected U.S. pres. Napoleon I, seeing himself as the reincarnation of Julius Caesar begins minting 20-franc Gold Napoleons, depicting him wearing a crown of laurel leaves (ends 1815); their size and quality makes them a model for other Euro nations. Pears brand transparent perfumed soap is first sold by Cornwall-born barber Andrew Pears (1770-1845) of London, England; in Aug. 1890 the co. buys the 1886 painting Bubbles by Sir John Everett Millais, using it as an ad. J.G. Pleyel founds a pianoforte factory in Paris. Sports: The Ascot Gold Cup horserace in Ascot, England is first run, and witnessed by George III and Queen Charlotte; the first winner is Master Jackey, who wins 100 guineas. Architecture: New Palace in Stuttgart, Germany (begun 1746) finishes construction. A 120-ft. lighthouse is begun on Inchcape (Bell) Rock in the North Sea 12 mi. SE of Arbroath, Scotland (finished 1810), known for its treacherous reef, immortalized in the 1820 Robert Southey poem Inchape Rock - no more need for that bell? (see 1178) The Simplon Road in the Alps (begun 1800) is completed. The Gothic revival Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire, England begun 1795) is built by architect James Wyatt (1746-1813) to house the library of historian Edward Gibbon, purchased and donated by eccentric rich bi guy William Thomas Beckford, plus Beckford's art collection. Inventions: On July 20 French inventor (Joseph) Nicephore Niepce (Nicéphore Niépce) (1765-1833) (later of photography fame) and his older brother Claude receive a patent from Napoleon for the world's first internal combustion engine, which powers a boat upstream on the Saone River. Swiss inventor Francois Isaac de Rivez receives a patent for a gas-driven automobile. Townsend Speakman of Philadelphia, Penn. invents soda water, later adding fruit juices for palatability. Science: Charles Bell discovers the sensory-motor nerve system. Humphry Davy uses a voltaic battery to isolate the metallic elements potassium (#19) (chemical symbol K for German Kalium) and sodium (#11) (chemical symbol Na for Latin Natrium) from caustic potash. German astronomer Heinrich Olbers discovers the asteroid Vesta (only one known to have light and dark areas) on Mar. 29, and lets Carl Friedrich Gauss name it; Olbers goes on to propose that the asteroid belt is proof of a blown-up planet. Thomas Young coins the term "energy", from Gr. "work within". Nonfiction: Charles Bell, System of Comparative Surgery. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), The Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind) (Phanomenologie des Geistes); his first major work, which gets him a job as dir. of the gymnasium of Nuremberg in 1808-16; proposes the Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis dialectic according to which knowledge pushes forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world, making fans of Marx, Nietzsche et al. George Chalmers (1742-1825), Caledonia (4 vols.); the history of Scotland from 80-1306 C.E.; too bad, he dies before finishing it, with vol. #2 appearing in 1810 and #3 in 1824. Gottlieb Hufeland, New Foundations of Political Economy. Alexander von Humboldt and Bonpland, Voyage aux Regions Equinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, 1799-1804 (vol. 1 of 30); about Spanish America. Gaspard Monge (1746-1818), Application de l'analyse à la géométrie, à l'usage de l'Ecole impériale polytechnique; causes him to become known as "the Father of Differential Geometry". Thomas Paine (1737-1809), The Age of Reason, Pt. 3. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Levana, or Pedagogy. David Ramsay (1749-1815), The Life of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States of America, Throughout the War which Established their Independence, and First President of the United States. Jean Charles Leonard de Sismondi (1773-1842), History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages (Histoire des Republiques Italiennes du Moyen Age) (16 vols.) (1807-18); inspires Italian nationalists. William Smith (1756-1835), A Letter to William Wilberforce; summarizes the abolitionist side. Thomas Thornton (1762-1814), The Present State of Turkey; 2nd ed. 1809; disses William Eton's "Survey of the Turkish Empire" (1798). Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Leonora Overture, No. 3. Johann Ludwig Dussek (1760-1812), The Return to Paris (sonata); written after returning to the employ of Talleyrand, from the POV of Marie Antoinette, whose ghost returns. Etienne Nicolas Mehul, Joseph (opera) (Paris). Thomas Moore (1779-1852), Irish Melodies (10 vols.) (1807-34); music by John Stevenson. Gasparo Spontini, La Vestale (opera) (Paris). Art: Antonio Canova (1757-1822), Paolina Bonaparte as Reclining Venus (sculpture); Helen of Troy (sculpture). Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), Coronation of Napoleon. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), La Source (1807-58). John Flaxman (1755-1826), Sir Joshua Reynolds (sculpture) (St. Paul's Cathedral, London). J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Sun Rising in a Mist. Plays: Thomas Dibdin (1771-1841), Harlequin and Mother Goose; or, The Golden Egg: A Comic Pantomime (Theater Royal, Covent Garden); big hit for English clown Joseph Grimaldi (1778-1837). Poetry: Joel Barlow (1754-1812), The Columbiad; rev. ed. of "Vision of Columbus". Lord Byron (1788-1824), Hours of Idleness; first vol. of poetry. George Crabbe (1754-1832), The Parish Register. Friedrich de la Motte Fouque, Historie vom edlen Ritter Galmy. James Hogg (1770-1835), The Mountain Bard; written after a visit by Sir Walter Scott to his hometown of Ettrick in 1802. William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Poems, in Two Volumes; incl. Ode to Duty (1805) ("Nor know we anything so fair/ As is the smile upon thy face"), Ode: Intimations of Immortality ("To me the meanest flower that blows can give/ Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears"), Miscellaneous Sonnets; Mr. W[ordsworth] ceases to please... clothing [his ideas] in language not simple, but puerile" (Lord Byron); Sonnets Dedicated to Liberty, incl. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud, To a Highland Girl, The Solitary Reaper, Character of the Happy Warrior, The World Is Too Much With Us; The White Doe of Rylstone; or The Fate of the Nortons; after the publisher rejects it, he doesn't pub. it until 1815. Novels: Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827), Dei Sepolcri (From the Sepulchres); his masterpiece, about the mighty dead being summoned from their tombs to fight for their country. Ivan Krylov (1769-1844), Fox and Crow and Other Fables; 23 fables; makes him a star in Russia. Charles Robert Maturin (1782-1824), The Fatal Revenge; or The Family of Montorio (first novel); Gothic romance pub. under the alias Dennis Jasper Murphy. Lady Sydney Morgan, The Wild Irish Girl. Washington Irving (1783-1859), William Irving, and James Paulding (1778-1860), Salmagundi; Or, The Whimwhams and Opinions of Launcelot Langstaff; gives the name Gotham to New York City. Robert Southey (1747-1843), Letters from England: By Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella; observations of a fictitious Spaniard. Madame de Stael (1766-1817), Corinne, ou L'Italie; first to use the word "salon" instead of bureau d'esprit; "Tout comprendre rend très-indulgent" ("To know all is to forgive all") (Book 18, Ch. 5). Charles Lamb (1775-1834) and Mary Lamb (1764-1847), Tales from Shakespeare. Births: Slovak mathematician-physicist (inventor of opera glasses, the Petzval portrait lens, and the Laplace transform) Joseph Petzval (d. 1891) on Jan. 6 in Spisska Bela (Szepesbela), Austria-Hungaria. Am. Confederate Gen. Robert Edward Lee (d. 1870) on Jan. 19 in Statford, Westmoreland County, Va.; son of Henry "Light-horse Harry" Lee (1756-1818) and Ann Hill Carter Lee (1773-1829); descendant of Sir Thomas More and Robert II of Scotland; graduates #2 from West Point in 1846. Irish explorer (Arctic) rear adm. Sir Robert John le Mesurier McClure (d. 1873) on Jan. 28 in Wexford. Am. Civil War Confed. gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnson (d. 1891) on Feb. 3 near Farmville, Va.; grandnephew of Patrick Henry; graduates from West Point in 1829; the highest ranking officer to resign from the U.S. Army in Apr. 1861 to join the Confeds. Am. "Hiawatha", "Paul Revere's Ride", "Evangeline" poet ("the Children's Poet") Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (d. 1882) on Feb. 27 in Portland, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College in Brunswick; one of the five Fireside Poets; first American to translate Dante's "The Divine Comedy"; coins the phrases "the patter of little feet", "ships that pass in the night", "I shot an arrow into the air". Am. Mormon pres. #4 (1889-98) Wilford Woodruff Sr. (d. 1898) on Mar. 1 in Farmington, Conn.; first fly fisherman in the Rocky Mts.? English civil servant Sir Charles Edward Trevelyan, 1st Baronet (d. 1886) on Apr. 2 in Taunton, Somerset; educateed at Charterhouse School; ancestor of Laura Trevelyan (1968-). Am. novelist-scholar Henry William Herbert (d. 1858) (AKA Frank Forester) on Apr. 7 in London, England; son of William Herbert (1778-1847); grandson of Henry Herbert, 10th earl of Pembroke (1734-94); educated at Eton College and Caius College, Cambridge U.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1831. Am. Mormon leader ("the Apostle Paul of Mormonism") Parley Parker Pratt Sr. (d. 1857) on Apr. 12 in Burlington, N.Y.; great-great-grandfather of Mitt Romney (1947-); great-great-great-grandfather of Jon Huntsman Jr. (1960-) French celeb Francoise "Fanny", Duchess de Choiseul-Praslin (nee Francoise Altarice Rosalba Sebastiani) (d. 1847) on Apr. 14 in Constantinople; daughter of Horace Sebastiani (1771-1851) and Antoinette Jeanne Sebastiani (nee Franquetot) (1778-1807). Am. Fla. gov. #5 (1861-5) John Milton (d. 1865) on Apr. 20 near Louisville, Ga.; descendant of poet John Milton. Am. Civil War Confed. gen. "Prince" John Bankhead Magruder (d. 1871) on May 1 in Port Royal, Va; educated at the U. of Va., where he dines with Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), followed by the U.S. Military Academy. Anglo-Irish architect Thomas Henry Wyatt (d. 1880) on May 9 in County Roscommon, Ireland; brother of Matthew Digby Wyatt (1820-77). Swiss-Am. biologist-geologist Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (d. 1873) on May 28 in Motier (Haut-Vully), Friborg, Switzerland; educated at Erlangen U., and Munich U.; husband (1850-) of Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz (1822-1907). German poet and art philosopher Friedrich Theodor Vischer (d. 1887) on June 30 in Ludwigsburg. Am. statesman-politician (founder of Clemson U.) Thomas Green Clemson (d. 1888) on July 1 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Quaker father, Episcopalian mother; educated at Norwich U. Italian freedom fighter ("the Great Liberator") Giuseppe Garibaldi (d. 1882) on July 4 in Nice. Mexican Gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (d. 1890) on July 4 in Monterey, Calif. Am. stage actor (black) Ira Aldridge (d. 1867) on July 24 in New York City; emigrates to England in 1824. U.S. Sen. (D-Mo.) (1843-55) David Rice Atchison (d. 1886) on Aug. 11 in Lexington, Ky.; educated at Transylvania U. French statesman-atty. and pres. #3 of the French Repub. (1879-87) Francois Paul Jules Grevy (Grévy) (d. 1891) on Aug. 15 in Mont-sous-Vaudrey (near Dole), Jura; avid billiards player; namesake of Grevy's zebra; perfect rep. of the bourgeois? U.S. Rep. (R-Mass.) (1859-61) and ambassador to the U.K. (1861-8) Charles Francis Adams (d. 1886) on Aug. 18 in Boston, Mass.; son of U.S. pres. John Quincy Adams (1767-1848); grandson of U.S. pres. John Adams (1735-1826); brother of George Washington Adams (1801-29) and John Adams II (1803-34); husband (1828-) Mary Catherine Hellen (his cousin); father of historian Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918); educated at Boston Latin School, and Harvard U.; studies law with Daniel Webster. Kiwi PM #1 (1856) Henry Sewell (d. 1879) on Sept. 7 in Newport, Isle of Wight, England. English chemist Robert Warington (d. 1867) on Sept. 7 in Sheerness, Kent; educated at Univ. College London; inventor of the aquarium principle. English "The Enfranchisement of Women" feminist brain woman Harriet Taylor Mill (nee Hardy) (d. 1858) on Oct. 8 in Walworth (near Durham); wife (1851-8) of John Stuart Mill (1806-73); co-author of his most important works? Am. Dem. Calif gov. #1 (1849-51) Peter Hardeman Burnett (d. 1895) on Nov. 15 in Nashville, Tenn. Icelandic Romantic poet Jonas Hallgrimsson (d. 1844) on Nov. 16 in Steinsstadir; educated at the U. of Copenhagen. Am. realist painter William Sidney Mount (d. 1868) on Nov. 26 in Setauket, Long Island, N.Y. Am. "Barbara Frietchie" abolitionist poet-essayist (Quaker) John Greenleaf Whittier (d. 1892) on Dec. 17 in Haverhill, Mass. Norwegian Romantic poet-critic Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven (d. 1873) on Dec. 22 in Bergen. Persian chancellor (1848-51) (Twelver Shiite) Amir Kabir (Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani) (d. 1851) in Hazaveh, Farahan. Scottish "The Two Babylons" Free Church of Scotland minister-writer Alexander Hislop (d. 1865) in Duns, Berwickshire. Korean silhak scholar Park Gyu-su (Pak Kyu-su) (d. 1876) in Seoul. English reform school advocate Mary Carpenter (d. 1877) in Exeter. French chef Jules Gouffe (Gouffé) (d. 1877) in Paris. Germon physiologist-embryologist Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm Bischoff (d. 1882) in Hanover; demonstrates the presence of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Deaths: English architect John Carr (b. 1723) on Feb. 22 in Ashkam Richard (near York). British field marshal George Townshend, 1st marquess Townshend (b. 1724) on Sept. 14. Italian cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart (b. 1725) on July 13 in Frascati; last of the Stuart line; leaves his Crown Jewels to the Church, in charge of Monsignor Angelo Caesarini, who sends some to prince regent George of Wales (George IV). English "Amazing Grace" abolitionist divine John Newton (b. 1725). Corsican patriot leader Pasquale de Paoli (b. 1725) on Apr. 6 in England; a bust is placed in Westminster Abbey. French marshal Comte de Rochambeau (b. 1725) on May 10 in Thore-la-Rochette. English novelist Clara Reeve (b. 1729) on Dec. 3 in Ipswich. English industrialist John "Iron-Mad" Wilkinson (b. 1728). French astronomer Joseph Jerome Lalande (b. 1732) on Apr. 4. English actor-lexicographer John Walker (b. 1732) on Aug. 1 in London. Am. Black Freemasonry founder Prince Hall (b. 1735) on Dec. 4. Estonian-born Russian gen. Ivan Ivanovich Michelson (b. 1740) on Aug. 17 in Bucharest, Romania. Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffmann (b. 1741) on Nov. 5 in Rome. Mohawk Indian Chief Joseph Brant (b. 1742) in Ontario, Canada; dies on land along the Grand River granted by the British for his war services; first to translate the Bible (New Testament) into Mohawk - the last of the Mohicans? Am. engineer-soldier Loammi Baldwin (b. 1744) on Oct. 20 in Woburn, Mass. U.S. chief justice #3 (1796-99) Oliver Ellsworth (b. 1745) on Nov. 26 in Windsor, Conn.; appointed chief justice of Conn., but dies before taking office. British painter John Opie (b. 1761) on Apr. 6. Am. portraitist Edward Greene Malbone (b. 1777) on May 7 in Savannah, Ga.

1808 - The Joseph Bonaparte John Jacob Astor Year?

Manuel de Godoy of Spain (1767-1851) Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784-1833) Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Joachim Murat of Naples (1767-1815) Frederick VI of Denmark (1768-1839) Sir Charles Cotton, 5th Baronet (1753-1812) French Marshal Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult (1769-1851) French Marshal francois Joseph Lefebvre, 1st Duke of Dantzig (1755-1820) French Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin, 1st Duke of Belluno (1764-1841) French Marshal Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, 1st Duc de Conegliano (1754-1842) French Gen. Pierre Dupont de l'Étang (1765-1840) French Gen. Louis Henri Loison (1771-1816) Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (1735-1839) Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (1735-1839) of Turkey in European Dress Sir Samuel Romilly (1757-1818) Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832) Sir George Scovell (1774-1861) Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867) John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) Edmund Ignatius Rice (1762-1844) Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) Louis Jacques Thénard (1777-1857) Joseph-Louis Proust (1754-1826) Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) Johann Christian Reil (1759-1813) Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (1772-1829) Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) Charles Mathews (1776-1835) Francois Marie Charles Fourier (1772-1837) 'The Colossus' by Goya, 1808-10 'Napoleon I as Mars' by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), 1808 'Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime' by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823), 1808

1808 In Jan. after Pres. Jefferson follows Washington's precedent and does not seek a 3rd term, a Repub. congressional caucus nominates secy. of state James Madison for pres., and N.Y. gov. (1777-95, 1801-4) George Clinton for vice-pres. In early Mar. France invades Spain with 100K troops under the pretext of guarding its coasts against the British, and takes Barcelona and Madrid, causing a palace rev. in Aranjez and forcing the dismissal of chief minister Manuel de Godoy (1767-1851) and on Mar. 19 Spanish Bourbon king #4 (since 1788) Charles IV (1748-1819) abdicates in Aranjuez in favor of his son Prince Ferdinand, who is proclaimed Ferdinand VII "the Desired" "the Felon King" (1784-1833), Bourbon king of Spain #5, who turns to Napoleon for support and abdicates on May 6, and is kept under guard in Chateau de Valencay (owned by Talleyrand) by Napoleon (until 1813), while Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte (1768-18445) is made king Jose I of Spain (until Dec. 11, 1813), sparking uprisings and leading to the Peninsular War; Godoy is captured by a mob, rescued by the French, and lives the rest of his life in exile in Paris. On Mar. 13 king (since Jan. 14, 1766) Christian VII (b. 1749) dies, and his son Frederick VI (1768-1839), who has been serving as crown prince regent during his father's mental illness since 1784 becomes king of Denmark (until Dec. 3, 1839); he is not coronated until July 31, 1815; he chooses the motto "Gud og den Retfaerdige Sag" (God and the Just Cause), which is adopted by all succeeding monarchs. On Mar. 17 after criticism by Cardinal Joseph Fesch, Tsar Alexander I, Chateaubriand (who compares him to Nero and Tacitus, causing Nappy to threaten to run him through on the steps of the Tulieries Palace but ends up banishing from Paris) et al., Napoleon I issues a Restrictive Decree limiting the freedoms he had granted to the Jews, then after holding private audiences with Jews, turns around and lifts the restrictions in 13 (half) of the depts. of France, the rest following by 1811 - John Jacob Jingleheimer Schmidt, his name is my name too? On Apr. 6 German-born John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) charters the animal-slaughtering Am. Fur Co. to compete with the British fur monopoly in Canada, with the aim of setting up trading posts along the Missouri and Columbia Rivers, founding Ft. Astoria in 1811 in Oregon Territory as a terminal station at the mouth of the Columbia River; after the War of 1812 kills his fur biz for awhile, he expands his shipping activities to China and other countries, then leaves the fur biz in the 1830s to speculate on Manhattan real estate and govt. securities, becoming America's first millionaire by 1834, croaking in 1848 with a $30M fortune after donating a measly 13% of it ($400K) to found the Astor Library, leaving the rest to his son - he has a warm heart after how many animals and people were hurt to get rich? On Apr. 13 the first temperance society in the U.S. is formed by the members of the Congregational church in Moreau, Saratoga County, N.Y. On Apr. 14 the Battle of Bayonne is a D for new Spanish king Joseph Bonaparte, elder brother of Napoleon, who is transferred from Naples to be crowned on June 6, while Napoleon's fashionplate brother-in-law Joachim Murat (1767-1815) becomes king of Naples (until 1815); Ferdinand VIII is imprisoned in France; on Sept. 25 an opposition govt. is formed in Cadiz, which recognizes Ferdinand VIII as true king; in Dec. Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy by decree, after which it keeps popping up again until 1834; the Spanish revolt and the British come to their aid, joining the Peninsular War. On Apr. 17 the Bayonne Decree of Napoleon I orders seizure of U.S. ships on the pretext that they are in violation of the 1807 U.S. Embargo Act, resulting in $10M worth of seizures. On May 24 18K French troops under Gen. Pierre-Antoine Dupont de l'Etang (l'Étang) (1765-1840) leave Toledo for Cadiz, harried by Spanish guerrillas; on June 7 the First Battle of Alcolea Bridge (next in 1868) at a bridge over the Guadalquivir River in Alcolea (6 mi. from Cordoba) is a V for 18K French troops under Gen. Pierre Dupont over 3K Spanish troops under Gen. Pedro Echavarri, after which the French invade Cordoba the same afternoon and sack the city for four days; Gen. Dupont leaves 70 troops to protect the bridge, which are massacred by guerrillas led by Montoro mayor Juan de la Torre. On June 21 ex-Janissary Pasha Mustafa Alemdar (Bayrakdar) (1765-1808) of Rustchuk (Ruscuk) (Rousse) (Russe) (in Bulgaria on the Danube River 120 mi. from the Black Sea) arrives in Constantinople with an army of 15K to take on 40K Albanian and Bosnian rebels, after which sultan (since 1789) Selim III (b. 1761) is strangled in his seraglio while playing his flute by his chief black eunuch on orders of his nephew Mustafa IV (b. 1779), and thrown into the inner courtyard of the palace to show the rebels, who raise him to the throne, only to be killed along with the rebels by Alemdar; meanwhile after escaping assassination by being hidden by his mother in the furnace of a bath, leaving him the sole remaining member of the royal line of Osman, Selim III's younger brother Mahmud (Mahmut) II (1785-1839) is crowned Ottoman sultan #30 (until July 1, 1839), with Bayrakdar as grand vizier, who then makes the mistake of trying to continue the reforms, and on Nov. 15 1K Janissaries attack him in his house in the Porte, causing him to blow up his powder magazine in the cellar and commit suicide, taking 400 Janissaries with him; the Russian blockade of Constantinople is unbroken; Mustafa IV doesn't attempt any reforms for a good long time, needing to get rid of the pesky Janissaries first (1826), but goes on to attempt to modernize Turkey with Euro-style culture in 1839, setting the example by dressing in Euro military dress. On June 26-28 the First Battle of Valencia is a Spanish V over the French under Marshal Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, 1st Duc de Conegliano (1754-1842), who give up on taking the city and retreat to Madrid, abandoning E Spain. On July 5 departmental depots de mendicite are established to control begging in France. On July 12 British Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) leaves Cork, Ireland with 9K men for the Iberian Peninsula to fight in the Peninsular War, rendezvousing with 5K troops from Gibraltar. On July 29 the Battle of Evora (Évora) sees an outnumbered Portuguese-Spanish force of 2.5K incl. peasants trying to defend the town routed by a French-Spanish div. under Gen. Louis Henri "One-Hand" (Maneta) Loison (1771-1816), who then sack the town, indiscriminately slaughtering 8K, while losing only 290. On Aug. 15 Klemens von Metternich has an important audience with Napoleon, in which Nappy denounces Count Stadion's strengthening of Austrian armaments, tipping off Metternich to Nappy's new plans to turn on Austria, causing him to return to Vienna in Nov. and urge the emperor to declare war first, bolstered by exaggerated reports of French reverses in Spain. On Aug. 16 after the Spanish revolt and the British come to their aid, joining the Peninsular War, the French begin losing and retreating, starting with the Battle of Rolica, followed by the Battle of Cadaval Aug. 17, and the Battle of Vimeiro on Aug. 21, which are all Vs for the Anglo-Portuguese army under Gen. Athur Wellesley over the French under Gen. Jean-Andoche Junot; too bad, on Aug. 30 the Convention of Cintra, signed in the Palace of Queluz allows the the French to evacuate Portugal, leaving the trapped Russian fleet of adm. Dmitry Senyavin to face a larger British force plus coastal artillery, which Senyavin answers by threatening to blow up his ships and fire Lisbon if attacked, resulting in British adm. Sir Charles Cotton, 5th Baronet (1753-1812) signing a makeshift convention allowing them to leave under British escort for Portsmouth, England on Aug. 31, with Senyavin given supreme command of the "joint Anglo-Russian fleet", but when they arrive on Sept. 27 the British Admiralty and the lord mayor of London get pissed-off at seeing their flags, causing them to be detained until winter so they can't return to the Baltic, after which the half-starved fleet slinks off to Riga next Aug. 5, arriving on Sept. 9, after which Senyavin is forced into retirement (until 1825); meanwhile Sir George Scovell (1774-1861) of the British Army breaks the Grand (Great) Cipher of Napoleon, helping tilt the odds against the French; the London Times sends German-educated Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867) to Spain to cover the war, becoming the first war correspondent and keeping a cool diary. Metter-nich, Metter-nich, go Klemmy go? On Sept. 17 after the1808 Russo-Swedish War begins over control of Finland, the Treaty of Fredrikshamm (Hamina) is signed by Sweden and Russia, giving Russia control of Finland as far as the Tornea River and the Aaland Islands; Finland becomes an autonomous grand duchy of the Russian Empire (until Dec. 6, 1917); another treaty mediated by Russia and signed in Paris incl. Sweden in Napoleon's Continental System; on Sept. 20 Napoleon holds a meeting with Klemens von Metternich of Austria in which he declares that war with Russia is inevitable; meanwhile the Austrian govt. is torn between the pro-French and pro-Russian parties, causing Metternich to make his smoothest move ever of counseling the emperor for a middle course of "armed abstention", reasoning that an alliance with Russia isn't worth crap and it would be better to hold the tsar for ransom as he fights France, while an alliance with France is suicidal since France is "a power whose exclusive object is the destruction of the old order of things which Austria is the defender of", and it would be cooler for Austria to be the one free player left in the Euro power game; testing his hand, Metternich tells Russian Count Shuvalov that it is Austria's #1 interest to maintain the integrity of Turkey, so they better not mess with it. In Sept. the dejected Federalists renominate their 1804 ticket of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for pres. and Rufus King for vice-pres.; Sen. James Monroe and George Clinton now chime in and express their desire to be pres., causing a newspaper war, all aiming to discredit Madison, accusing him of bias against England and subservience to France; Pres. Jefferson saves him by releasing diplomatic correspondence of 1804-8 which clears him; John Randolph's Quids back James Monroe against Madison, but fail to create a third party, and Monroe fizzles. In the fall Britain suffers a poor harvest. On Oct. 31 after a 23K-man Spanish (Galician) army under Irish-born gen. Joachim (Joaquin) Blake y Joyes (1759-1827) advance E of Bilbao to cut the French lines of communication back to Bayonne, the Battle of Zornoza (Pancorbo) is a V for the 22K-man French army under Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin, 1st Duke of Belluno (1764-1841), and Marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre, 1st Duke of Dantzig (1755-182) with 1.2K French vs. 3K Spanish casualties, after which Blake leads his army in a heroic retreat W through the mountains, chased all the way by Marshal Soult, arriving in Leon on Nov. 23 with only 10K left, pissing off Napoleon I. In Oct. 11-y.-o. Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) becomes a choirboy in the imperial chapel in Vienna, and enters the Kaiserlich-Konigliches Stadtkonvikt (Imperial and Royal City College) (main musical school of Vienna) until his voice cracks on July 26, 1812 and he leaves in Oct. 1813, getting introduced to the music of Mozart and making a bunch of lifelong friends, incl. Italian I-coulda-had-a-V8 composer Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), who takes him on as his pupil. On Nov. 10-11 the Battle of Espinosa de los Monteros in the Cantabrian Mts. is another V for the French under Marshal Lefebvre over the Spanish under gen. Joachim Blake. On Nov. 23 the Battle of Tudela is a V for Napoleon over the Spanish armies on the Ebro River. On Dec. 13 Madrid capitulates to Napoleon I, who forces the British advancing from Portugal under gen. Sir John Moore to retreat; Napoleon then leaves marshal (since 1804) Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult (1769-1851) AKA "the Hand of Iron" in command as he heads for Rome. On Dec. 20 after resisting a first siege on June 15-Aug. 13, with irregular troops defeating regular army troops in street fighting, then using Napolon's slowness after Tudela to fortify the city and attract 60K volunteers, the Second Siege of Saragossa by the French begins (ends Feb. 20), led by Aragon capt. gen. Joseph Palafox (Jose de Palafox y Melzi), becoming an epic resistance that turns into a Pyrrhic V for the French? The people of the Dominican Repub. begin a revolt against their Haitian conquerors (ends 1809). In Prussia Baron Karl vom Stein gives the ability to control municipal affairs over to local elected officials (muncipal councils), is dismissed again under pressure of Napoleon I, and goes into exile in Russia. Napoleon I makes his high chancellor Jean Jacques Regis, duc de Cambaceres the duke of Parma. Pres. Jefferson utters the soundbyte "We consider their interest and ours as the same, and that the object of both must be to exclude all European influence in this hemisphere." The St. Lawrence Seaway is proposed (finished 1959). Ellis Island passes to New York State, and they sell it to the U.S. govt. for $10K for use as an arsenal (until 1892). Concord (founded 1727) becomes the capital of N.H. Ft. Madison is founded in modern-day Ohio as one of three U.S. Army posts established to establish control over the La. Purchase territory, becoming the first permanent U.S. military fort on the Upper Mississippi River; Ft. Belle Fontaine near St. Louis is also founded to control the mouth of the Missouri River, and Ft. Osage (Clark) (Sibley) near modern-day Kansas City is founded to control trade with western tribes. The source of the Ganges River is discovered by the British, despite turning back at Mana Pass. Excavations of ancient Pompeii begin (end 1815). British atty. Sir Samuel Romilly (1757-1818) begins a crusade against the 200-odd petty offenses still punishable by death, such as stealing fish, picking pockets, and appearing in the road in blackface; when he dies, Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832) carries on for him (ends 1823). The Philadelphia Bible Society is founded. Bishop John Carroll is made archbishop of the new Roman Catholic archdiocese of Baltimore, Md. Roman Catholic layman Edmund Ignatius Rice (1762-1844) founds the Presentation Brothers in Waterford, Ireland, becoming the first congregation of men founded in Ireland; in the 1820s it grows so much it splits off the Christian Brothers, with Job 1:21 as their motto ("The Lord has given, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord forever"). The Napleonic Wars in the Iberian Peninsula force up the price of horses in Britain, spurring the development of locomotives. Pigtails disappear from men's hair in Europe. Napoleon organizes the U. of France, with the Sorbonne resurrected as its seat. The original Dances with Wolves? The U. of Belgrade is founded by the Serbs as the Great School. The Theatre de la Rue St. Philippe opens in New Orleans on Jan. 30, featuring quadroon balls. 15-y.-o. Sam Houston runs away from his farm in Tenn. and lives with a band of 300 Cherokees for three years; Chief Oolooteka adopts him as his son and gives him the title Coloneh (raven) (war party leader). Napier and Son is founded in Lloyds Court, St. Giles, London, England by Scottish-born engineer David Napier (1785-1873) to produce 2-sided-paper steam-powered printing presses for Hansard, official publisher for Parliament, along with coin-weighing machines for the Bank of England. Inventions: British Navy Capt. Samuel Brown (1776-1852) and blacksmith Robert Flinn of Bell St. North Shields, England patent improved iron anchor chains for ships, spurring development and manufacturing efforts, so that by 1836 underwriters quit charging higher insurance rates for vessels using them, and by 1853 Lloyds requires them. The first soda fountain is set up in New Haven, Conn. by ? Sherman under the direction of Yale prof. Benjamin Silliman. Science: Humphry Davy uses electrolysis to isolate chemical elements Barium (#56) (Ba) (as an amalgam only - the pure metal is not isolated until 1901) and Strontium (#38) (Sr). French Sorbonne prof. of physics (1808-32) Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) and Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard (Thénard) (1777-1857) isolate hard nonmetallic element Boron (#5) (B); Gay-Lussac measures the relative volume of gases involved in chemical reactions, and next year formulates Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes, that the ratios of the volumes of reacting gases are small whole numbers; it is independently discovered by Jacques Charles - also true for gay-lez ass gasses? French chemist Joseph-Louis Proust (1754-1826) proves that relative quantities of any pure chemical compound's constituent elements remain constant regardless of source. German physician Johann Christian Reil (1759-1813) coins the term "psychiatry" (Gr. "psyche" + "iatros" = mind/soul + healer). Am. physician John Stearns develops analgesics for labor pains. Nonfiction: Richard Cumberland (1732-1811), Memoirs (1806-7). John Dalton (1766-1844), New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808-27); gives the atomic weights of elements relative to the weight of hydrogen, forming the basis of the modern periodic table - Democritus struts on the catwalk? K.F. Eichhorn, Geschichte des Deutschen Rechts. Charles Simon Favart (1710-92), Memoires et Correspondance Litteraire, Dramatique et Anecdotique de C.S. Favart (posth.); his correspondence with Count Durazzo of Vienna about French theater. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1761-18); Addresses to the German Nation; pub. after Napoleon occupies Germany and crushes the Prussian army at Jena in 1806, causing him to freak out and go nationalist, whipping-up nationalist feeling and guiding the uprising against him, helping found German nationalism. Francois Marie Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Theorie des Quartre Movements et des Destinees Generales; introduces socialistic Fourierism, the theory that universal harmony trumps throwing rice away because of low prices, therefore people should be forced into phalanxes of 1.6K people so that nobody goes without? Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), New Critique of Reason. Arnold Heeren (1760-1842), Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzzuge fur Europa. John Lempriere (1765-1824), Universal Biography of Eminent Persons in All Ages and Countries. Christoph Meiners (1747-1810), History of the Female Sex. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Peace Sermon (Friedenspredigt). Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (1772-1829), On the Speech and Wisdom of the Indians (Von der Sprache und Weisheit der Inder) (Heidelberg); backs up Sir William Jones (1786) on the etymological connection between Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, turning on Greek academics to the study of Sanskrit, incl. Franz Bopp. Robert Southey (1774-1843) (tr.), Chronicle of the Cid, from the Spanish. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Fifth Symphony, Op. 67 ("the most sublime noise that has ever penetrated into the ear of man" - E.M. Forste); Carl Czerny later claims that Beethoven got the first four notes from the call of the Yellowhammer bird; Sixth (Pastoral) Symphony, Op. 68 (featuring trombones); #5 and #6 debut simultaneously in Vienna on Dec. 22 in a 4-hour concert which also incl. Piano Concerto No. 4, the concert aria Ah, Perfido, and two movements from the Mass in C, with the grand finale being the Choral Fantasy (with a theme similar to 1824's "Ode of Joy"); too bad, it breaks down halfway through because the best musicians are at a benefit concert featuring Haydn, so he has to hire 2nd rate ones; Beethoven's last stage appearance as a pianist. Art: Antonio Canova (1757-1822), Napoleon I as Mars (sculpture); ends up being given by Louis XVIII to the Brits, who give it to the Duke of Wellington. Kaspar Friedrich, The Cross on the Mountains. Henry Fuseli (1741-1825), Death of Cardinal Beaufort in 1447; based on Shakespeare's "Henry VI, Pt. II". Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), Execution of the Citizens of Madrid; The Colossus (Panic) (1808-10). Baron A.J. Bros, The Battle of Eylau. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), La Grande Baigneuse. Pierre-Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823), Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime; nets him a Legion of Honor. Plays: George Colman the Younger (1762-1836), The Heir at Law; Dr. Pangloss. Richard Cumberland (1731-1811), Hint to Husbands (blank verse). Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1834), Sigurd der Schlangentodter, ein Heldenspiel in Sechs Abentheuren (first of trilogy) (ends 1810); first modern German dramatization of the Nibelung legend, later built on by Friedrich Hebbel and Richard Wagner. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), Faust, Pt. 1 (Pt. 2 in 1832); meet classic Mephistopheles in Romantic hell? Franz Grillparzer (1791-1872), Blanca von Castilien (1807-9) (verse tragedy). Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811), Das Katchen von Heilbronn. Charles Mathews (1776-1835), At Home (Lyceum Theatre, London); a 1-man show, the first monopolylogue? Adam Oehlenschlager (1779-1850), Hakon Jarl (tragedy). Vittorio Raineri, Ancient Gauls Sacrificing a Cow. Poetry: Thomas Moore (1779-1852), Irish Melodies; eulogizes Robert Emmet, "Oh, breathe not his name!" Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field; Lochinvar carries off fair maiden Ellen at her wedding feast; "They'll have fleet steeds that follow"; "Oh what a tangled web we weave when first we practice to deceive." Novels: Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Les Aventures du Dernier Abencerage (pub. 1826). Joseph von Eichendorff (1788-1857), Die Zauberei im Herbst; Obserschlesische Marchen und Sagen (Upper Silesian Fairy Tales and Sagas) (1808-10). Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816), The Cottagers of Glenburnie. Charles Robert Maturin (1782-1824), The Wild Irish Boy; Gothic romance; pub. under alias Dennis Jasper Murphy. Births: U.S. treasury secy. #25 (1861-4) and chief justice #6 (1864-73) Salmon Portland Chase (d. 1873) on Jan. 13 in Cornish, N.H.; educated at the U. of Cincinnati, and Dartmouth College; the fishy face on the U.S. $10K bill; coiner of the slogan "Free soil, free labor, free men"; his sister Hannah later dies of a heart attack during dinner, and he goes on to outlive three wives, his parents, and a child, and says "What a vale of misery this world is. Death has pursued me incessantly ever since I was twenty-five." Am. anarchist abolitionist writer Lysander Spooner (d. 1887) on Jan. 19 in Athol, Mass. German "The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined" Rationalist liberal Protestant theologian David Friedrich Strauss (d. 1874) on Jan. 27 in Ludwigsburg (near Stuttgart); educated at the U. of Tubingen; husband (184-) of Agnese Schebest (1813-69). Czech dramatist-writer-actor Josef Kajetan (Kajetán) Tyl (d. 1856) on Feb. 4 in Kutna Hora; author of the Czech nat. anthem "Where Is My Home". German "The Poor Poet" Romantic Biedermeier painter-poet Karl (Carl) Spitzweg (d. 1885) on Feb. 5 in Unterpfaffenhofen (near Munich), Bavaria. French painter-lithographer-caricaturist Honore (Honoré) Victorin Daumier (d. 1879) on Feb. 26 in Marseilles. Am. brewer David Gottlieb Jungling (Jüngling) (Yuengling) (d. 1877) on Mar. 2 in Aldingen, Wurttemberg, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1828. Swiss jurist-politician-educator Johann Kaspar Bluntschli (d. 1881) on Mar. 7 in Zurich. German anthropologist-physician Franz Ignaz Pruner (d. 1882) on Mar. 8; educated at the U. of Munich. Am. naval commodore William David Porter (d. 1864) on Mar. 10 in New Orleans, La.; son of David Porter (1780-1843); brother of David Dixon Porter (1813-91); foster brother of David Farragut (1801-70). British water cure doctor James Manby Gully (d. 1883) on Mar. 14 in Kingston, Jamaica; educated at the U. of Edinburgh. Am. Oregon Protestant missionary Narcissa Prentiss Whitman (d. 1847) on Mar. 14 in Prattsburgh, N.Y.; wife of Marcus Whitman (1802-47). French-Spanish soprano Maria Malibran (Maria Felicia Garcia Sitches) (d. 1836) on Mar. 24 in Paris; daughter of Manuel Garcia (1775-1832). Spanish Romantic poet Jose (José) Javier Oriol Encarnacion (Encarnación) Espronceda y Delgado (d. 1842) on Mar. 25 in Almendralejo, Badajoz. Am. Episcopal bishop Mark Antony De Wolfe (DeWolfe) Howe Sr. (d. 1895) on Apr. 5 in Bristol, R.I.;great-grandson of Mark Antony Dewolf; educated at Phillips Academy, and Middlebury College; father of Mark Antony De Wolfe Jr. (1864-1960). French painter Eugene-Emmanuel Amaury Pineux Duval (d. 1885) on Apr. 16 in Montrouge; son of Amaury Duval (1760-1838); nephew of Alexandre Pineux Duval (1767-1842); student of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867). U.S. Rep. (Whig-Ind.) (1843-9) and U.S. interior secy. #6 (1861-3) Caleb Blood Smith (d. 1864) on Apr. 16 in Boston, Mass.; grows up in Ohio; educated at Miami U, and U. of Cincinnati. French pres. and emperor (1852-70) Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) (d. 1873) on Apr. 20 in Paris; nephew of Napoleon I (1769-1821). English pianist (Unitarian) Emma Darwin (nee Wedgwood) (d. 1896) on May 2 in Maer Hall, Maer, Staffordshire; granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood (1730-95); first cousin of hubby (1839-) Charles Darwin (1809-92) through Josiah Wedgwood and his wife Sarah; pupil of Frederic Chopin. U.S. Supreme Court justice #40 (1870-80) William Strong (d. 1895) on May 6 in Somers, Conn.; grows up in Penn.; educated at Yale U. Irish "The Bohemian Girl" operatic composer-singer Michael William Balfe (d. 1870) on May 15 in Dublin. Am. Confed. pres. (1862-5), U.S. war secy. #23 (1853-57), and U.S. Sen. (D-Miss.) (1857-61) Jefferson Finis Davis (d. 1889) on June 3 in Christian County (near Favirview, Todd County), Ky.; youngest of 10 children of Philly-born Samuel Emory Davis (1756-1824), who served in the Continental Army during the Am. Rev. War, and Ky.-born Jane Cook (1759-1845); husband (1845-) of Varina Howell Davis (1826-1906) - his middle name is what? Norwegian radical anti-Danish poet-dramatist-ed. ("the Walt Whitman of Norway") Henrik Arnold Thaulow Wergeland (d. 1845) on June 17 in Kristiansand. Dutch writer-poet Everhardus Johannes Potgieter (d. 1875) on June 27 in Zwolle, Overijssel. German historian Johann Gustav Droysen (d. 1884) on July 6 in Treptow, Pomerania; son of army chaplain Johann Christian Droysen; father of historians Gustav Droysen and Hans Droysen. Burmese king (1853-78) Mindon Min (Maung Lwin) (d. 1878) on July 8 in Amarapura; half-brother of Pagan Min (-1853). Am. "Twelve Years a Slave" abolitionist writer (black) Solomon Northup (d. 1863) on July 10 in Minerva, N.Y. French Third Repub. pres. #1 (1873-5, 1875-9) and field marshal Comte Marie Edme (Edmé) Patrice Maurice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta (d. 1893) on July 13 in Chateau de Sully, Saone-et-Loire. English Roman Catholic Cardinal (1875-) Henry Edward Manning (d. 1892) on July 15 in Totteridge, Hertfordshire; switches from Anglican to Roman Catholic in 1851. German mathematician Johann Benedict Listing (d. 1882) on July 25 in Frankfurt; coiner of the term "topology". English evangelical preacher ("the Pilgrim's Companion") Octavius Winslow (d. 1878) on Aug. 1 in Pentonville. U.S. Repub. state secy. #26 (1869-77) and N.Y. gov. #16 (1849-50) Hamilton Fish (d. 1893) on Aug. 3 in Greenwich Village, N.Y.; of Dutch descent; son of Nicholas Fish (1758-1833); father of Hamilton Fish II (1849-1936); grandfather of Hamilton Fish III (1888-1991); great-grandfather of Hamilton Fish IV (1926-96); great-great-grandfather of Hamilton Fish V (1952-); educated at Columbia U. - that name's too good to die? Am. businessman-politician (in Hawaii) Samuel Northrup (Northrop) Castle (d. 1894) on Aug. 12 in Cazenovia, N.Y. Scottish steam hammer inventor James Hall Nasmyth (d. 1890) on Aug. 19 in Edinburgh; son of Alexander Nasmyth (1758-1840); son of Patrick Nasmyth (1787-1831); not to be confused with basketball man James Naismith (1861-1939). Algerian Sufi Muslim emir ("the Modern Jugurtha") Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine al-Hasani (El Djezairi) (d. 1883) on Sept. 6 in Guetna (near oran), Algiers. German Young Germany critic-novelist Theodor Mundt (d. 181) on Sept. 19 in Potsdam. German "Gospel of Poor Sinners" Socialist writer (founder of German Communism) Wilhelm Christian Weitling (d. 1871) on Oct. 5 in Magdeburg, Prussia; starts out as a tailor, goes Commie, has his fun then emigrates to the U.S. in 1846. Danish Oldenburg king (1848-63) (last absolute monarch) Frederick VII (d. 1863) on Oct. 8 in Copenhagen; son of Christian VIII (1786-1848) and Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwering. Am. Smith & Wesson co-founder Horace Smith (d. 1893) on Oct. 28 in Cheshire, Mass.; not to be confused with poet Horace Smith (1779-1849). Am. Mormon pres. #3 (1880-7) John Taylor (d. 1887) on Nov. 1 in Milnthorpe, Cumbria, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1838. French "Les Diaboliques" decadent realist novelist (atheist-turned-Roman Catholic) Jules-Amedee Barbey d'Aurevilly (Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly) (d. 1889) on Nov. 2 in Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, Normandy; educated at College Stanislas de Paris; known for his dandyism. English travel agent Thomas Cook (d. 1892) on Nov. 22 in Melbourne, Derbyshire; becomes Baptist minister in 1828. British banker-politician (first Jewish MP) (Jewish) Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (d. 1879) on Nov. 22; son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836), son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812); father of Leonora Rotschild (1837-1911), Evelina Rothschild (1839-66), Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1840-1915), Alfred Charles Rothschild (1842-1918), and Leopold Rothschild (1845-1917). U.S. Repub. pres. #17 (1865-9) and vice-pres. #16 (1865) ("the Tennessee Tailor") Andrew Johnson (d. 1875) on Dec. 29 in Raleigh, N.C.; his father dies at age 3, is apprenticed at age 10, becomes a tailor at age 13, and runs away to Tenn. at age 15, where his wife Eliza McCardle teaches him how to write by age 17 - is that what that says, "Trojan"? Deaths: Swedish naval architect vice-adm. Fredrik Henrik af Chapman (b. 1721 on Aug. 19. German-born Am. Moravian missionary David Zeisberger (b. 1721) on Nov. 17 near Gnaudenhutten, Ohio. French historian Louis Pierre Anquetil (b. 1723) on Sept. 6. Irish-born British army officer Sir Guy Carleton, 1st baron Dorchester (b. 1724) on Nov. 10 in Stubbings, Maidenhead, Berkshire. Am. Rev. leader James Warren (b. 1726) on Nov. 28 in Plymouth, Mass. German Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's mother Katharina Elisabeth Goethe (b. 1731) on Sept. 13 in Frankfurt am Main. Am. founding father John Dickinson (b. 1732) on Feb. 14 in Wilmington, Del. Prussian architect Carl Langhans (b. 1732) on Oct. 1 in Grueneiche (near Breslau). French painter Hubert Robert (b. 1733) on Apr. 15 (stroke). Russian adm. Count Alexei Orlov (b. 1737). Am. Mass. gov. #7 (since May 29, 1807) James Sullivan (b. 1744) on Dec. 10 in Boston, Mass. Danish entomology pioneer Johan Christian Fabricius (b. 1745) on Mar. 3. Danish king Christian VII (b. 1749) on Mar. 13 in Rendsburg. Am. Christian leader Jacob Albright (b. 1759) on May 17 in Kleinfeltersville, Penn. (TB). English classical scholar Richard Porson (b. 1759) on Sept. 25. Ottoman sultan (1789-1807) Selim III (b. 1761) on July 28/29 in Constantinople (assassinated on orders of Mustafa IV). Turkish sultan (1807-8) Mustafa IV (b. 1779) on Nov. 15 in Constantinople (executed on orders of Mahmud II).

1809 - The Madison Era begins in the U.S. as Europe stays mired in wars, featuring Napoleon kicking Hapsburg butt on the Danube?

James Madison of the U.S. (1751-1836) Dolley Madison of the U.S. (1768-1849) French Marshal Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montbello (1769-1809) Prussian Maj. Ferdinand Baptista von Schill (1776-1809) Eugene Rose de Beauharnais (1781-1824) French Gen. Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil (1776-1832) Spanish Gen. Joaquín Blake y Joyes (1759-1827) Spanish Gen. Marin Garcia-Loygorri (1759-1824) Spencer Perceval of Britain (1762-1812) Charles XIII of Sweden (1748-1818) Spanish Adm. Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros (1756-1829) Argentine Gen. Juan Antonio Álvarez de Arenales (1770-1831) French Gen. François Étienne de Kellermann (1770-1835) Spanish Gen. Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque (1755-1824) French Gen. Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta (1771-1851) Spanish Gen. Francisco Javier Venegas (1754-1838) French Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin, 1st Duke of Belluno (1764-1841) Mary Anne Clark (1776-1852) Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland (1773-1840) Elizabeth Vassall Fox (1770-1845) Mountstuart Elphinstone of Britain (1779-1859) Rama II of Siam (1767-1824) Sequoya (1770-1843) Rev. Thomas Campbell (1763-1854) Mary Dixon Kies Michael Linning (1774-1838) Etienne Malus (1775-1812) Washington Irving (1783-1859) St. Elizabeth Seton (1774-1821) Robert Adrain (1775-1843) Samuel Thomas von Sömmering (1755-1830) Seth Boyden (1788-1870) Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827) Alexander Baranov (1747-1819) Ft. Ross, Calif. 1812

1809 On Jan. 4 the electoral ballots are counted, and Madison gets 122 electoral votes to Pinckney's 47 and Clinton's 6. On Jan. 5 after British adm. Sir John Thomas Duckworth fails to provide effective support for the Russian navy, Britain and Turkey sign the Treaty of the Dardanelles (Chanak), and Shoja Shah meets with Scottish-born British rep. Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) in Peshawar to plan a joint defense against a possible combined invasion of India by Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I; the treaty affirms the principle that no warships of any power should enter the Dardanelles Straits and Bosphorus Strait; Mahmud Shah is returned to power (until 1818) with the help of PM Fath Khan, who becomes virtual dictator. On Jan. 8 Alexander Andreyevich Baranov (1747-1819), dir. of the Russian Am. Co. arrives at Bodega Bay, Calif. (80 mi. N of modern-day San Francisco) aboard the Kadiak, erecting temporary bldgs. before returning in 1812, then buys the land from the Kashaya Pomo Indians and erects Ft. Ross (Russ), colonizing it with 95 Russians and 80 Aleuts (finished Sept. 1812), and the Russians man it for the next 30 years despite Spanish protests. On Jan. 16 16K French under Marshal Soult defeat 16K evacuating British under Gen. Sir John Moore at the Battle of Coruna (Coruña) (Corunna), and the French overrun all of Andalusia (incl. El Ferrol) except for Cadiz; Moore is KIA by a cannonball. On Feb. 2 the French occupy Rome, then incorporate the Papal States into France on May 17 by Napoleon I's declaration, causing Pope Pius VII to excommunicate him, but on July 6 (2:00 a.m.) Nappy has the pope kidnapped in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and take him to Savona near Genoa, then to Fontainebleau, returning after five years; Nappy's uncle Cardinal Fesch is pissed-off by this and declines the archbishopric of Paris; France captures the Adriatic seaport of Fiume (Rijeka) from Hungary (until 1813). On Feb. 3 Illinois Territory is created, with capital at Kaskaskia (founded 1703) (until 1820); in Apr. 1881 the town is destroyed by a flood that shifts the Mississippi Rover from W of the town to E, making it one of the only parts of Ill. W of the river - now it's time to swindle them redskins out of their land? On Feb. 20 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the power of the federal govt. is greater than that of any individual state. On Feb. 20 Saragossa finally falls to the French after losing 54K defenders, incl. 20K soldiers and 34K civilians, reducing the pop. from 55.K to 15K, while the French lose 10K men, 4K KIA and the rest dying of illness. In Feb. after tensions with Britain causes the U.S. to reduce its naval presence in the Mediterranean, the dey of Algiers captures the USS Sally and enslaves its 15 crewmembers, ramping up his jizya operation for Allah on the infidels. On Mar. 1 the U.S. Congress replaces the Embargo Act of 1807 with the U.S. Nonintercourse Act, permitting internat. trade with all countries except Britain and France. On Mar 4 Va.-born Princeton-educated 5'4" (shortest U.S. pres.) 100 lb. atty. ("Publius") secy. of state (since 1801) James Madison (1751-1836), AKA "the Father of the Constitution", "the Sage of Montpelier", "Withered Little Apple-John" (Washington Irving), "the Fugitive President", "Little Jemmy", "His Little Majesty" becomes the 4th U.S. pres. (until 1817) in the 6th U.S. Pres. Inauguration, becoming the first pres. to wear trousers rather than knee breeches; George Clinton continues as the 4th vice-pres.; First Lady Dorothea Dandridge Payne Todd "Dolley" Madison (1768-1849) likes to be called "Queen Dolley"; at the inaugural ball a guest breaks windows for air. Secure our supply of port wine first, then get serious? On Mar. 10-12 after getting off to a slow start in Galicia, the French win the Siege of Chaves in Portugal, followed on Mar. 20 by the Battle of Braga, then force a passage on the Ave River on Mar. 25-26, arriving at Oporto with 16K of his original 22K men, finding that 6 mi. of fortifications have been built for its 30K defenders, only 5K of which are experienced soldiers; on Mar. 21-25 the Portuguese retake Chaves; on Mar. 29 the First Battle of Oporto is a V for Marshal Soult; meanwhile in Mar. another French army under Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno (1764-1841) invades Estremadura; too bad, Arthur Wellesley returns in Apr., and on May 12 he and his 25K men defeat Soul and his 20K men at the Second Battle of Oporto (Porto) (the Douro River), causing Soult to retreat N over mountainous terrain, losing several thousand men and most of their transport, after which Wellesley turns S to take care of Marshal Victor on July 27-28 at the bloody inconclusive (tactical Anglo-Spanish V, strategic French V) Battle of Talavera 70 mi. SW of Madrid, protecting Portugal from further invasion; big man Arthur Wellesley is created duke of Wellington, and his brother is created marquis Wellesley and appointed foreign secy. On Mar. 25 after the House of Commons acquits him by 278-196 of receiving bribes for army commissions via his mistress (since 1803) Mary Anne Clarke (nee Thompson) (1776-1852), Prince Frederick, Duke of York resigns as British CIC (since 1795) because of the high number of votes against him; on May 29, 1811 after it is revealed that Clarke had been paid by his chief accuser, he is reinstated, and she is convicted of libel in 1813, serving 9 mo. then heading to exile in France. On Mar. 29 under Russian pressure Swedish king (since 1792) Gustavus IV (1778-1837) is deposed by the military, and the Riksdag gives the crown to his uncle Charles XIII (1748-1818) (until Feb. 5, 1818), restoring the power of the aristocracy; Gustavus' descendants are barred from succession; French Marshal Jean Baptite Bernadotte is elected crown prince of Sweden, and his son Oscar (b. 1799) is made duke of Soderman, later marrying Josephine de Beauharnais (Leuchtenberg) (1807-76), granddaughter of French empress Josephine - I'm DJ Jean B, call me, tell me your story? On Mar. 29 the Finnish Diet formally acknowledges annexation of Finland by Russia in return for guaranteeing religious freedom, traditional rights and privileges, and the Finnish constitution; the Finnish Estates take an oath of allegiance to the Russian tsar, who appoints a gov.-gen. and an imperial senate; on Sept. 17 Sweden and Russia sign the Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) with Russia acknowledging the transfer, ending the Russo-Swedish War (begun 1808); too bad the Russkies renege on their pledge and try to Russianize Finland, and the Finns fight back, with the slogan "We have ceased to be Swedes; we cannot become Russians; we must be Finns", and in a mere 110 years (1919) they set up a Finnish repub. Stow the steer's horns and get out the pitchforks and scythes? On Apr. 6 Archduke Charles of Austria appeals to the whole German volk to embark on a war of liberation from Nappy and the Frogs, and begins an invasion of Bavaria, on Apr. 10 forming the Fifth Coalition against Napoleonic France with Britain (ends Oct. 14); the French place Austrian ambassador Klemens von Metternich under arrest in Paris under the cover story of retaliation for the Austrian govt. arresting two French ambassadors in Hungary; too bad, only Tyrol (Tirol) responds, and stages a peasant revolt led by Andreas Hofer, defeating a Bavarian army at Innsbruck (many peasants armed only with scythes, pitchforks, and sledge hammers), pissing-off Napoleon at the idea of it all, and causing him to hurry back from Spain, getting Francis I of Austria to renege on his promises to Hofer and surrender Tyrol to the French by the Armistice of Znaim on July 12, then send a 40K-man French-Bavarian army under French marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre to Innsbruck, which Hofer also defeats, causing him to be elected gov. of the Tyrol, ruling for 2 mo. under Francis I. On Apr. 19-23 a French army under Marshal Jean Lannes sieges and captures Ratisbon (Regensburg) (modern-day Regensburg) on the Danube River 65 mi. N of Munich, where Napoleon is shot in the foot; Robert Browning later immortalizes the day in his poem Incident of the French Camp. On Apr. 22 the Sir Arthur Wellesley returns to Portugal to command Portuguese forces. On May 5 after seeing his chance to liberate Prussia from Napoleon, Prussian Maj. Ferdinand Baptista von Schill (b. 1776) leads his men out of Berlin under guise of maneuvers, skirmishes with the Magdeburg garrison, then heads N looking for supporters, while the Prussian king issues proclamations against joining them; on May 24 they are surrounded and attacked by 5K Danish and Dutch troops at Wismar, and escape to Stralsund, digging in and attempting to repair the crumbling fortifications; on May 31 the Danish-Dutch army overwhelms and defeats them, killing von Schill, and capturing all his officers, which are handed over to the French and hung or shot; Schill's head is sent to Leiden (until 1837); meanwhile Duke Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick-Luneburg (1735-1806) raises volunteers who fight their way across Germany to the North Sea, where they are evacuated by the British navy. On May 15 Mary Dixon Kies becomes the first woman issued a U.S. patent for a technique for weaving straw with silk or thread to make bonnets; she is praised by Dolly Madison for fitting in with her husband's U.S. industry plans. Is Nappy's cloak of invincibility showing its frayed lining? On May 13 Napoleon captures Vienna, and the fleeing Austrians destroy the bridges across the Danube River, slowing him down, until his engineers find Lobau Island 4 mi. away, and construct a bridge; Klemens von Metternich is conducted from Paris to Vienna under military guard at Napy's orders to eat merde; too bad, on May 20-21 24K men and 60 cannon cross, only to find 95K Austrians and 200 cannon waiting for them, and on May 21-22 the Battle of Aspern-Essling sees Napoleon suffer his first reverse as his men take 21K casualties only to end up retreating back over the bridge, with the loss of Nappy's right hand man Marshal Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montbello, 1st Prince de Siewierz (b. 1769), who is crushed by a cannonball, his left leg amputated, and dies of fever on May 31, causing Nappy and his army to openly weep and vow revenge, after which they recross the Rhine River, join forces with Italian viceroy Eugene Rose de Beauharnais (1781-1824) (able stepson and adopted child of Napoleon), and cross again, scoring a grudge V on July 5-6 at the Battle of Wagram (wanna grab 'em by the what?), which makes a hero out of gen. Alexandre MacDonald after he breaks the Austrian center, causing Napoleon to make him a marshal of France on the spot, followed by duke of Taranto; French Gen. Pierre Yreix Daumesnil (1776-1832) loses a leg, which is replaced by a wooden one, causing him to be given the nickname "Jambe de bois"; before the battle Metternich is exchanged at Komarom for the two French ambassadors he was being held hostage for, and urges Austrian emperor Alexander I on July 7 to sue for peace, causing a power play, after which Count von Stadion resigns on July 8, and Metternich is named minister of state on Aug. 4. On May 23 the Battle of Alcaniz (Alcañiz) W of Teruel, NE Spain is a V for the Spanish under Gen. Joaquin Blake y Joyes (1759-1827) over the French (who lose 2K casualties, vs. 300 for the Spanish) under Maj. Gen. Louis Gabriel Suchet after the artillery of Spanish Gen. Martin Garcia-Loygorri e Ichaso (1759-1824) mauls the close French columns with accurate salvos, getting him promoted to field marshal and becoming the first artillery officer to receive the Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand. On May 25 the Chuquiasca Rev. in Chuqiasca (modern-day Sucre), Bolivia deposes gov. Ramon Garcia de Leon y Pizarro, who is accused of supporting a Portuguese protectorate, and Argentine Col. Juan Antonio Alvarez (Álvarez) de Arenales (1770-1831) becomes military gov. On July 15 after arriving in Montevideo to replace Santiago de Liniers for suspected Bonapartist sympathies, Adm. Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros (1756-1829) becomes viceroy #1 of the Rio de la Plata (until May 25, 1810). On July 31 Am. Rev. War gen. John Stark (1728-1822), hero of the 1777 Battle of Bennington coins the soundbyte: "Live free or die: Death is not the worst of evils" in a letter written to the anniv. of the battle, which he is unable to attend due to poor health; it becomes the N.H. state motto in 1945. On Aug. 10 Ecuador declares independence from Spain. On Aug. 11 the Battle of Almonacid near Toledo, Spain is a V for the 30K-man French IV Corps under Gen. Horace Francois Bastien Sebastiani de La Porta (Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta) (1771-1851) over the 26K-man Spanish Army of La Mancha under Gen. Francisco Javier Venegas de Saavedra y Raminez de Arenzana (1754-1838) after decisive charges by Polish uhlans, with 2.4K French vs. 3.5K Spanish casualties, and 2K Spanish taken POW. On Sept. 7 Rama I (b. 1834) dies, and his son Rama II (Buddha Loetla Nabhalai) (1767-1824) becomes Chakra king #2 of Siam (until 1824), going on to preside over a renaissance of Thai art and culture while fathering 73 children. On Sept. 30 the Treaty of Wayne swindles the Indians of Ohio and Indiana into ceding 2.5M acres of land to the Batman, er, Bruce Wayne, er, the Great White Father of the U.S. On Oct. 4 after British PM (since Mar. 31, 1807) William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (b. 1738) has a stroke, Tory Pittite Spencer Perceval (1762-1812) becomes British PM (until May 11, 1812), issuing the soundbyte "I have nothing to say to the nothing that has been said." Let me run this shiny brown nose past research and development? On Oct. 14 after the French get tired of haggling with one-upping new foreign affairs minister (since Oct. 8) Klemens von Metternich and deal directly with weak-kneed Austrian Hapsburg emperor Alexander I, issuing an ultimatum to force the issue, the exhausted Austrians agree to the Treaty (Peace) of Schonbrunn (Schönbrunn) (Vienna) (signed by Prince Liechtenstein on behalf of the emperor), making Austria a 2nd-rate power, giving up 32K sq. mi. of territory and 3.5M inhabitants to Russia, Bavaria, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the new Illyrian Provinces along the Adriatic coast, with capital at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) (Laibach) (until 1813); Prussia receives Hanover, but has to give up its territories in S Germany and fire foreign minister Karl August von Hardenberg, whom Napoleon dislikes, and whom he humiliated by forcing Prussia to double the amount of territory ceded after he tried to backsass him, plus close the ports of Hanover to British commerce, isolating Prussia; secret articles force Austria to limit its army to 150K men, and dismiss all officers born in the territories of ancient France, Piedmont or the former Venetian Repub.; Russia receives part of East Galicia, putting it in the middle of the Danubian principalities, and causing Austria to be surrounded and isolated, and the Hapsburg monarchy to be hanging by a thread; Meternich stays on as foreign minister for the next 39 years (until 1848), saddling him with the monumental task of saving a doomed leaky ship; French troops again occupy the Tyrol, but the tenacious Tyrolese revolt again, are defeated, and flee to the mountains, and continue to fight until Nov., when Andreas Hofer, who is hiding in a mountain hut is betrayed and captured by the French, then taken to Mantua and shot next year, refusing to be blindfolded or kneel, and shouting "Long live Kaiser Franz, and aim straight!; Tyrol is annexed to the kingdom of Italy. On Nov. 25 Louis Philippe Bourbon (1773-1850) marries Maria Amelia (1782-1866) (daughter of Ferdinand IV of Naples) in Palermo, waiting in the wings until news of Napoleon's abdication arrives, after which he returns to France and is cordially received by Louis XVIII, who restores his vast Orleans estates. On Nov. 26 the Battle of Alba de Tormes in Alba de Tormes, Spain 13 mi. SE of Salamanca is a V for the French under Metz-born Gen. Francois Etienne (François Étienne) de Kellermann (1770-1835)o over the Spanish under Diego de Canas (Cañas) y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque (1755-1824) after the French catch the Spanish crossing the Tormes River and rout them on the bank with cavalry, causing them to take refuge in the mountains over the winter. On Dec. 15 Napoleon I formally divorces Empress Josephine (d. 1814) for not producing any heirs, letting her have Chateau Malmaison and 5M francs a year to scrape by with - the original Neverland? On Dec. 23 after their 1805 treaty causes the Chickasaws to clear out, and their 1806 Treaty of Washington causes the Cherokees to do ditto, the city of Huntsville, Ala. (modern-day pop. 193K/441K) in NW Ala. N of the Tennessee River is founded by Freemason LeRoy Pope (1765-1844) from Madison County, Ala., who names it Twickenham after the home village of his distant relative Alexander Pope, and lays out the streets in a NE-SW dir. parallel to Big Spring; it is incorporated as a town on Dec. 9, 1811, and a city on Feb. 24, 1860. The Ionian Islands go from French to British rule (until 1864). Britain negotiates a friendship treaty with the Sikhs in Amritsar. John Quincy Adams is appointed by Pres. Madison as U.S. minister in St. Petersburg, Russia, and about the same time Jefferson wins him over to his Dem.-Repub. Party. Metternich is named chief minister of Austria. France loses Martinique and Cayenne to the British, who attack Reunion Island and occupy it next year. The native rebellion succeeds, Santo Domingo is captured, and the Dominican Repub. is founded on the E side of the island of Hispaniola. All remaining property of the shrunken Teutonic Order in Germany is confiscated (until 1840). Rama Varma dies, and Kerala Varma III (Virulam Karkidaka Masathil Theepeta Thampuran) (d. 1828) becomes ruler of Cochin in SW India (until 1828). Britain suffers a poor harvest for the 2nd straight year. British Whig (opposition) leader Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland (1773-1840) introduces a bill for the abolition of the death penalty for stealing; meanwhile he and his wife Elizabeth Vassall Fox (1770-1845) preside over a famous salon at Holland House, hosting brilliant parties for the smart and powerful set, while she writes a famous diary. Tel Aviv is founded in Palestine. Thomas Jefferson retires to Monticello again. Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827), new (since 1808) prof. of Italian eloquence at the U. of Pavia gives his opening lecture, urging that literature be studied in relation to nat. life and growth, a dig at Napoleon, which pisses him off so much that he abolishes the chair of nat. eloquence in all Italian univs. Napoleon tells a host of papal reps.: "Take a good look at me. In me you see Charlemagne." Montana is settled. Pall Mall in London is lit by gas. Scottish-born Am. Rev. War vet Thomas Leiper (1745-1825) builds the first railroad in the U.S. on wooden tracks in Crown Creek, Delaware County, Penn. John Stevens III (1749-1838) sails his home-built screw-driven steamboat Phoenix from Hoboken, N.J. to Philly, becoming the first steamship to successfully navigate the open ocean. Friedrich Wilhelm U. (changed in 1949 to Humboldt U.) is founded in Berlin, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) (who was fired from the U. of Jena in 1798, fleeing to Berlin) as rector. Miami U. (named after the Am. Indian tribe) is founded in Oxford, Ohio; the first classes are held in 1824. (St.) Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton (1774-1821) founds the Sisters of Charity in the U.S., becoming the first U.S. congregation of religious sisters, going on to care for wounded soldiers in the U.S. Civil War et al. The German Romantic Nazarene Movement of painters, who reject Neoclassicism and Academic painting and try to bring back the honesty and spirituality of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance is founded in Vienna as the Brotherhood of St. Luke (Lukasbund), moving to the abandoned Monastery of San Isidoro in Rome next year, living like monks; members incl. Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), Franz Pforr (1788-1812), Bernhard Plockhorst (1825-1907), Georg Ludwig Vogel (1788-1879), Johann Konrad Hottinger (1788-1828), Philipp Veit (1793-1877) (reviver of the lost art of fresco painting), Peter von Cornelius (1784-1867), Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow (1789-1862), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Joseph Anton Koch (1768-1839), and Joseph (Josef Ritter) von Fuhrich (Führich) (1800-76); after influencing the Pre-Raphaelite Movement, they disband by 1830. Early in this cent. Santa Claus begins to show up on Christmas, but he often is skinny, stooped, and grim until Washington Irving makes him jolly and stout this year; he doesn't become officially plump and jolly until 1930s U.S. print ads. Sandalwood trees become extinct in Fiji. Newton, Mass.-born whaling ship seaman John Palmer Parker (1790-1868) jumps ship in Hawaii, then befriends King Kamehameha I and marries one of his granddaughters, obtaining a small herd of cattle and pasturing them in Waimea (modern-day pop. 9.2K), founding Hawaii's ranching industry; later his grandson Col. Samuel Parker (-1920) vastly expands the Parker Ranch to 225K acres on the N side of Hawaii island, and Waimea begins to be called Kamuela, the Hawaiian word for Samuel; the first cowboys are imported from Spain and Mexico, becoming known as paniolos (Espanolas). The Quarterly Review lit. criticism mag. is founded in England, with William Gifford as ed. #1, who delights in dissing John Keats. The Heidelberg group of anti-Napoleonic Romantic writers in Germany disbands. The London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (London Jews' Society) is founded by interdenominational Protestants to convert Jews to Christ (until ?). The Internat. Bible Society in New York City is founded. The complete Bible is translated into Bengali. German-born London publisher Rudolph Ackermann (1764-1834), who patented a waterproofing method for cloth and paper in 1801 and built a factory in Chelsea to manufacture it begins pub. the monthly Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashion and Politics (until 1828) for his eclectic interests in his newfangled inventions and ladies' fashions and furniture. The first successful brewery in the village of St. Louis, Mo. (pop. 1K) is founded by John Coons; it closes in 1811; meanwhile in 1810 the Bellefontaine Brewery of Jacques Delassas St. Vrain advertises strong beer for $10/barrel; the brewery burns down in 1812. Sports: The 1-mi. 2000 Guineas Stakes for 3-year-olds is first run at the Newmarket Races in Suffolk on Apr. 18, becoming the first leg of the Triple Crown, followed by the Epsom Derby and St. Leger Stakes. Architecture: On May 20 the Long Street Bridge (originally Long Bridge) over the Potomac River in the District of Columbia opens, becoming the 2nd Potomac bridge after the 1797 one near Little Falls upstream of Georgetown; on Aug. 25, 1814 the British burn the N end, and the Americans burn the S end; it is rebuilt by 1816; it goes on to be washed away in 1831 and 1857 and rebuilt, becoming a favorite of Walt Whitman to use on long hikes outside Washington, D.C. Bristol Harbour in England is built, with lock gates on the Avon River, making it a floating harbor. Inventions: 21-y.-o. Seth Boyden (1788-1870) of Mass. begins a career as an inventor, moving to Newark, N.J. in 1815 and becoming America's first Thomas Edison, starting with a nail-making machine; too bad, he flunks his law aptitude tests and never patents anything, letting others steal him blind while he dies broke? Mighty-white Cherokee leader Sequoyaj (1770-1843) invents the Cherokee Alphabet (Syllabary) (really a syllabary), which is adopted by the Cherokee Nation in 1821. Samuel Thomas von Sommering (Sömmering) (1755-1830) of Germany invents the water voltameter telegraph. Science: Irish-born Robert Adrain (1775-1843) of Princeton U. and Carl (Karl) Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) of Germany independently pub. the Method of Least Squares. Am. surgeon Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830) performs an ovariotomy, becoming the first successful surgery of the abdominal cavity. French scientist Etienne-Louis Malus (1775-1812) pub. his discovery of the polarization of light by reflection; in 1810 he pub. his theory of double refraction of light in crystals. Nonfiction: Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860), Der Geist der Zeit; a series of polemics against Napoleon I, written in exile in Sweden. Carlo Botta (1766-1837), History of the American War of Independence. Eliakim the Scribe, The First Book of Napoleon, the Tyrant of the Earth (London); by "a descendant of a modern branch of the Tribe of Levi; a rabbi dedicated in the Christian schools of the sons of the prophets", "in the 5813th year of the world, and 1809th year of the Christian era", calling Napoleon a tyrant, who proclaimed himself a worshiper of the idol, went into the land of Egypt and threatened Palestine and Jerusalem, then returned, destroyed the first idol, and led the armies of the Gauls to overwhelm and oppress the kings and princes of the earth to punish them for their wicked ways, causing the oppressed to cry for relief; the true source of the Book of Mormon?; the real author is Scottish solicitor Michael Linning (1774-1838). Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium; the least-squares method of computing planetary orbits. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850), The Combination of Gases. Institut d'Egypte, Description de l'Egypte (20 vols.) (1809-28). Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), Systeme des Animaux sans Vertebres; Philosophie Zoologique; proposes the Lamarckian theory of evolution based on inheritance of acquired characteristics - The sons of pizza chefs have bigger hands? The daughters of librarians have built-in book lamarcks? William Maclure (1763-1840), Observations on the Geology of the U.S.. Clement Clarke Moore (1779-1863), Hebrew and Greek Lexicon (2 vols.). Hannah More (1745-1833), Coelebs in Search of a Wife. Lorenz Oken (1779-1815), Antimechanist Treatise; the German Naturphilosophie movement, believing in the archetypal polarities of nature and the untuitively derived concepts. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Twilight for Germany (Dammerungen fur Deutschland). David Ramsay (1749-1815), The History of South Carolina, from its First Settlement in 1607 to the Year 1808 (2 vols.). David Ricardo (1772-1823), The High Price of Bullion, Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes. Comte de Richameau (1725-1807), Memoirs Militaires, Historiques et Politiques (2 vols.) (posth.). Friedrich von Schelling (1775-1854), Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom. August Wilhelm von Schlegel (1767-1845), Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature. William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Convention of Cintra. Heinrich Daniel Zschokke (1771-1848), Stunden der Andacht (1809-16). Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73 ("Emperor"); being too deaf to perform it, Beethoven has it debuted by Friedrich Schneider; a French soldier is so inspired with its grandeur that he shouts "C'est l'empereur!", giving it the nickname, even though Beethoven despises self-crowning Emperor Napoleon; E-flat was also used in the "Eroica Symphony". Gasparo Spontini, Fernand Cortez (opera) (Paris). Art: Washington Allston, Moonlit Landscape. William Blake (1757-1827), The Brahmins; Sir Charles Wilkins working on translating the Bhagavad Gita with Brahmin scholars. John Constable (1776-1837), Malvern Hill. George Dawe, Imogen Discovered in the Cave of Belarius. Kaspar Friedrich, Monch am Meer. Henry Raeburn, Mrs. Spiers. Plays: Friedrich de la Motte Fouque, Sigurs Rache. Franz Grillparzer (1791-1872), Spartacus; Alfred der Grosse. Louis-Jean Nepomucene Lemercier (1771-1840), Christophe Colomb (Christopher Columbus); its innovations cause a riot, killing one. Poetry: Thomas Campbell (1777-1844), Gertrude of Wyoming; first popular English poem set in the U.S. and incl. Native Am. chars. Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (1767-1830), Wallenstein. Novels: Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Les Martyrs; prose epic based on his recent travels in Palestine, Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Spain; set during the Roman persecution of early Christianity. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), Die Wahlverwandtschaften (The Elective Affinities). Washington Irving (1783-1859), Diedrich Knickerbocker's History of New York (A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty); the early Dutch settlers and their descendants, based on Harmen Jansen Knickerbocker (1648-1721); Diedrich dresses in baggy-kneed knickerbocker trousers; Santa Claus is depicted wearing a broad-brimmed hat and smoking a long pipe - Washington goes from being the Father of Our Country to the Myth-Maker of New York City? Ivan Kriloff, Fables (1809-11). Hannah More (1745-1833), Coelebs in Search of a Wife. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Dr. Katzenberger's Trip to the Medicinal Springs (Dr. Katzenbergers Badereise); Army Chaplain Schmelzle's Voyage to Flatz. Births: French Braille inventor Louis Braille (d. 1852) on Jan. 4 in Coupvray (near Paris); becomes blind at age 3 after an accident with daddy's tools; is sent age 9 as a foundling to the Inst. for the Blind in Paris, becoming a famous organist and violoncellist in Paris. Spanish PM (1856) Gen. Don Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1st Duke of Tetuan, 1st Count of Lucena, 1st Viscount of Aliaga, Grandee of Spain (d. 1867) on Jan. 12 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Austrian-German statesman Friedrich Ferdinand Graf von Beust (d. 1886) on Jan. 13 in Dresden; of an old Saxon family. Am. archabbot (Roman Catholic) Boniface (Sebastian) Wimmer (d. 1887) on Jan. 14 in Thalmassing, Bavaria; educated at the U. of Regensburg, and U. of Munich; emigrates to the U.S. in 1846. French Socialist political thinker-polemicist (founder of philosophical anarchism) Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (d. 1865) on Jan. 15 in Besancon; first to call himself an anarchist; justice, equality, and anarchy? Am. "The Raven" #1 horror fiction writer-poet (alcoholic) ("King of Lurid Gothic Suspense") Edgar Allan Poet, er, Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1849) on Jan. 19 [Capricorn] in Boston, Mass.; son of actress Elizabeth Arnold Poe (-1811); expelled from West Point after 6 mo.; known for writing on long scrolls attached with sealing wax; at 27 marries his 13-y.-o. first cousin Virginia Eliza Clemm (1822-47), who dies of TB, launching his downhill slide; lives at 230 N. Amity in Baltimore, Md. Spanish Basque "La Paloma" composer Sebastian de Iradier (Yradier) y Salverri (Salberri) (d. 1865) on Jan. 20 in Lanciego, Alava. Romanian independence leader and Orthodox bishop (St.) Andrei Saguna (d. 1873) on Jan. 20 in Miskolc, Hungary; feast day: Nov. 30. German "A Midsummer Night's Dream", "The Wedding March" Romantic composer-pianist-conductor (Jewish-turned-Protestant) Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (d. 1847) on Feb. 3 in Hamburg; grandson of Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelsson (1729-86), and son of a wealthy Berlin banker; makes his first public appearance as a pianist at age 9; teachers incl. Ignaz Moscheles, and Karl Zelter; takes the name Bartholdy after converting from Judaism to Protestantism. Swiss Barbizon School painter Johann Karl (Carl) (Jean-Charles) Bodmer (d. 1893) on Feb. 6 in Samen; known for paintings of Am. Indians. U.S. Repub. pres. #16 (1861-5) 6'4" Abraham Lincoln (d. 1865) on Feb. 12 [Aquarius] in a log cabin in Hardin (now Larue) County, Ky. ("as unpoetical as any spot on Earth" - himself); son of farmer-carpenter Thomas Lincoln (-1839) (who smacks him around, making him hate slavery, refusing to see him on his deathbed or attend his funeral) and Nancy Lincoln (d. 1818) (who dies from drinking milk from a cow that had eaten a poisonous plant); named after a murdered grandfather; 4th U.S. pres. born in a log cabin (after Jackson, Polk, Buchanan); they move to a home at 8th and Jackson in Springfield, Ill.; goes to school for about a year; his older sister Sarah dies during childbirth in 1828; has to work by law for his father until age 21, splitting rails near Decatur, Ill.; husband (18??-65) of Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-82); father of Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), Willie Lincoln (1850-62), and Tad Lincoln (1853-71); suffers from Marfan's Syndrome or other genetic disorder (Jan. 29, 2007 issue of Journal of Cell Biology) that gives him a lumbering awkward gait?; in 1939 the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace Nat. Historic Site is founded 3 mi. S of Hodgenville, Ky., containing a fake log cabin; a 2005 study finds that about a third of his distant cousins have the hereditary mutation that causes the crippling neurological disorder of ataxia - causing lines on his face? English "The Origin of Species" world-shaking naturalist (evolutionary biologist) (vegetarian) (the man who made atheism intellectually respectable?) Charles Robert Darwin (d. 1882) on Feb. 12 [Aquarius] in Shrewsbury; born within a few hours of Abraham Lincoln; grandson of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) and Josiah Wedgwood (1730-95); studies at Edinburgh U., then takes a B.A. degree at Christ Church College, Cambridge; marries his first cousin - Lincoln and Darwin - the Dark Side of Janus Wins? Italian PM #2 (1866-7) ("the Iron Baron") Bettino Ricasoli, 2nd Baron Ricasoli (d. 1880) on Mar. 9 in Florence. English "The Rubaiyat of Ommar Khayyam" poet-translator Edward FitzGerald (Fitzgerald) (OG "son of the spear-ruler") (Purcell) (d. 1883) on Mar. 31 in Bredfield House, Bredfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk; born to one of the wealthiest families in England; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Liberian pres. #1 (1848-56) and #7 (1872-6) (black) Joseph Jenkins Roberts (d. 1876) on Mar. 15 in Norfolk, Va.; Welsh descent father, mulatto mother. German "Maamme" violinist-composer-conductor (in Finland) ("Father of Finnish Music") Fredrik (Friedrich) Pacius (d. 1891) on Mar. 19 in Hamburg; student of Ludwig Spohr. French atty.-statesman Gabriel Claude Jules Favre (d. 1880) on Mar. 21 in Lyons. Spanish "Macias" Romantic satiric writer-dramatist Mariano Jose de Larra (d. 1837) on Mar. 24 in Madrid. French mathematician Joseph Liouville (d. 1882) on Mar. 24 in Saint-Omer; educated at Ecole Polytechnique. Russian "Taras Bulba", "Dead Souls" natural realist novelist-dramatist Nikolay (Nikolai) Vasilievich Gogol (d. 1852) on Mar. 31 in Sorochyntsi (near Mirgorod), Poltava, Ukraine; Cossack parents; starts out as an incompetent prof. of medieval history at St. Petersburg U.; his portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Johnny Depp (1963-)? Am. mathematician-astronomer ("father of pure math in America") Benjamin Peirce (d. 1880) (pr. like purse) on Apr. 4 in Salem, Mass.; father of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); educated at Harvard U. German mathematician-physicist-linguist (inventor of linear algebra and the vector space) Hermann Gunther Grassmann (d. 1877) on Apr. 15 in Stettin (Szczecin). Am. educator (deaf) (pres. #10 of Columbia U., 1864-89) Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (d. 1889) on May 5 in Sheffield, Mass.; brother of John Gross Barnard (1815-82); educated at Yale U. French instrument maker (1840 inventor of the harmonium) Alexandre-Francois Debain (d. 1877) on July 6. German Loop of Henle physician-pathologist (Jewish) Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (d. 1885) on July 9 in Furth, Bavaria. Canadian "Fifty Years in the Church of Rome" crusading anti-clerical ex-Roman Catholic priest Charles Chiniquy (d. 1899) on July 30 in Kamouraska, Quebec. Am. Alamo commander lt. col. William Barret "Buck" Travis (d. 1836) on Aug. 1 in Saluda County, S.C. English "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Crossing the Bar", "The Lady of Shalott" #1 Victorian poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson) (d. 1892) on Aug. 6 in Somersby, Lincolnshire; father George Clayton Tennyson (1778-1831) is a clergyman, and mother Elizabeth Fytche (1781-1865) is the daughter of one; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (Cambridge Apostles); created baron in 1884; husband (1850-92) of Emily Sarah Tennyson (nee Sellwood) (1813-96); father of Hallam Tennyson (1852-1928) and Lionel Tennyson (1854-86); friend of Arthur Henry Hallam (1811-33). Am. "A Dictionary of Thoughts" theologian Tryon Edwards (d. 1894) on Aug. 7 in Hartford, Conn.; great-great-grandson of Jonathan Edwards. Am. businessman (Skull & Bones co-founder) William Huntington Russell (d. 1885) on Aug. 12 in Middletown, Conn; cousin of Samuel Wadsworth Russell (1789-1862); educated at Yale U. Am. sheepman ("Father of the Tex. Sheep Business") (co-founder of The New Orleans Picayune) George Wilkins Kendall (d. 1867) on Aug. 22 in Mont Vernon, N.H.; Puritan parents; grows up in Amherst, N.H and Burlington, Vt. U.S. Repub. vice-pres. #15 (1861-5) Hannibal Hamlin (d. 1891) on Aug. 27 in Paris, Maine; descended from a family from Hamelin, Lower Saxony of Pied Piper fame, or descended from an Irish family in County Meath? Am. physician-poet-novelist-celeb ("the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table") Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (d. 1894) on Aug. 29 in Cambridge, Mass.; father of Supreme Court assoc. justice Oliver Wendell Homes Jr. (1841-1935); educated at Phillips Andover Academy, and Harvard U. Italian statesman-gen.-mathematician Federico Luigi, Count of Menabrea, Marquis of Valdora (d. 1896) on Sept. 4 in Chambery, Sardinia. Polish Romantic poet Juliusz Slowacki (d. 1849) on Sept. 4 in Kremenets, Volhynia (Ukraine); leaves Poland for France in 1831, is expelled in 1832, and tours Italy, Greece, Egypt and Palestine. German actress Christine Wilhelmine "Minna" Planer (d. 1866) on Sept. 5 in Oederan, Saxony; 1st wife (1836-) of Richard Wagner. German Young Hegelian philosopher-theologian-historian Bruno Bauer (d. 1882) on Sept. 6 in Eisenberg, Saxe-Altenburg. Chilean pres. #6 (1851-61) Manuel Francisco Antonio Julian Montt Torres (d. 1880) on Sept. 8 in Petorca; Catalan immigrant parents. Am. settler (Eugene, Ore. founder) (Freemason) Eugene Franklin Skinner (d. 1864) on Sept. 13 in Essex, N.Y.; grows up in Green County, Wisc. Am. Civil War Confed. Maj. Gen. Sterling "Old Pap" Price (d. 1867) on Sept. 20 near Farmville, Prince Edward County, Va.; educated at Hampden-Sydney College. Am. Civil War Confed. rear adm. Raphael Semmes (d. 1877) on Sept. 27 in Charles County, Md. Am. founder of Denver, Colo. (1858) William H. Larimer Jr. (d. 1875) on Oct. 24 in Circleville, Westmoreland County, Penn.; son of William Larimer Sr.; father of William Larimer III. Irish cannabis physician Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (d. 1889) in Oct. in Limerick; knighted in 1856. U.S. Supreme Court justice #31 (1851-7) Benjamin Robbins Curtis (d. 1874) on Nov. 4 in Watertown, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. Dahlgren Cannon inventor ("Father of U.S. Naval Ordnance") John Adolph Bernard Dahlgren (d. 1870) on Nov. 13 in Philadelphia, Penn. French physician-psychiatrist Benedict Augustin Morel (d. 1873) on Nov. 22 in Vienna, Austria. English abolitionist actress Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (d. 1893) on Nov. 27; daughter of Charles Kemble (1775-1854); niece of English tragedian John Philip Kemble (1757-1823) and actress Sarah Siddons (1755-1831) (mother of Owen Wister Jr.); sister of Adelaide Kemble (1815-79); marries Ga. slaveholder Pierce Butler in 1834, turning her off to slavery and causing her to divorce him in 1849 and become an abolitionist. German-Hungarian composer-conductor Joseph Gungl (Gung'l) (d. 1889) on Dec. 1 in Schambeck (modern-day Zsambek, Hungary). Am. Reform rabbi (Jewish) Samuel Adler (d. 1891) on Dec. 3 in Worms, Germny; father of Felix Adler (1851-1933); emigrates to the U.S. in 1857. Am. "genocidal maniac" frontiersman Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson (OE "son of the marsh-dwellers") (d. 1868) on Dec. 24 in Richmond, Madison County, Ky.; at age 1 moves to Howard County, Mo.; father is killed when he is 7; grows up illiterate but speaks several Indian languages; his first wife is an Arapaho squaw, causing him to live like an Indian in buckskins, which doesn't stop him from enjoying massacring Indians, esp. Navajos to fulfill the U.S. Mission: Impossible of Manifest Destiny? English Liberal PM (1868-74, 1880-5, 1886, 1892-4) and statesman ("the Grand Old Man") ("the People's William") ("God's Only Mistake" - Disraeli) William Ewart Gladstone (d. 1898) on Dec. 29 in Liverpool at 62 Rodney St.; of Scottish descent; educated at Eaton College, and Christ Church, Oxford U.; keeps a selection of whips in his basement with which to chastise himself? - packs a Gladstone bag? Am. Civil War Confed. brig. gen. and atty.-writer (Freemason) Albert Pike (d. 1891) on Dec. 29 in Boston, Mass.; descendant of John Pike (1613-89). Am. rancher-trader William Wells Bent (d. 1869)on May 23 in St. Louis, Mo.; partner of Cerain St. Brain (1802-70); husband (1835-) of Owl Woman (Mistansur) (-1847). Am. Egyptologist George Robbins Giddon (d. 1857) in Devonshire, England; grows up in Alexandria, Egypt. Nigerian Anglican bishop #1 (black) Samuel Adjayi (Adjai) Crowther (d. 1891) in Osoun, Yoruba Country, West Africa (Nigeria); grows up in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Deaths: French painter Joseph-Marie Vien (b. 1716) on Mar. 27 in Paris; first painter buried in the crypt of the Pantheon (until ?). Italian archbishop Antonio Martini (b. 1720) on Dec. 31 in Florence. Russian adm. Vasily Chichagov (b. 1726) on Apr. 4. English engineer Matthew Boulton (b. 1728) on Aug. 18 in Birmingham. Scottish North Am. colonial gov. John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (b. 1730) on Feb. 25. French sculptor Augustin Pajou (b. 1730) on May 8 in Paris. Dutch painter Dirk van der Aa (b. 1731) on Feb. 23. Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn (b. 1732) on May 31; leaves 106 symphonies, 20 operas, 377 arrangements of Scottish and Welsh airs, and a ton of other classical music in his 77 years, incl. 200 works for the baryton; his skull is stolen from his grave, and not restored until 1954. Thai king (1782-1809) Rama I (b. 1734) on Sept. 7. English-born Am. writer and rabble-rouser Thomas Paine (b. 1737) on June 8 in Greenwich Village, N.Y.; dies after refusing ministrations by two priests warning him of everlasting punishment if he dies an unbeliever, and replying "Let me have none of your popish nonsense - good morning": refused burial plot in a cemetery, he ends up getting buried under a walnut tree on his farm in New Rochelle, N.Y., with only five mourners attending the funeral; 10 years after his burial, English radical reformer William Cobbett disinters his bones and plans a heroic reburial in England, but fails, and when he dies the bones are lost; “Thomas Paine had passed the legendary limit of life. One by one most of his old friends and acquaintances had deserted him. Maligned on every side, execrated, shunned and abhorred – his virtues denounced as vices – his services forgotten – his character blackened, he preserved the poise and balance of his soul. He was a victim of the people, but his convictions remained unshaken. He was still a soldier in the army of freedom, and still tried to enlighten and civilize those who were impatiently waiting for his death. Even those who loved their enemies hated him, their friend – the friend of the whole world – with all their hearts. On the 8th of June 1809, death came – Death, almost his only friend. At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, no civic procession, no military display. In a carriage, a woman and her son who had lived on the bounty of the dead – on horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of whose heart dominated the creed of his head – and, following on foot, two negroes filled with gratitude – constituted the funeral cortege of Thomas Paine" (Robert G. Ingersoll): “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph"; "To argue with a man who has renounced the use and authority of reason, and whose philosophy consists in holding humanity in contempt, is like administering medicine to the dead, or endeavoring to convert an atheist by scripture"; "Suspicion is the companion of mean souls, and the bane of all good society"; "Society is produced by our wants, and governments by our wickedness"; "Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one"; "The duty of a true patriot is to protect his country from its government"; "We have it in our power to begin the world over again"; "He that would make his own liberty secure, must guard even his enemy from opposition; for if he violates his duty he establishes a precedent that will reach himself"; "Government... proves its excellence by the small quantity of taxes it requires"; "Any system of religion that has any in it that shocks the mind of a child cannot be a true system"; "All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit"; "Whenever we read the obscure stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and torturous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness, with which more than half the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we called it the word of a demon, than the word of God"; "All power exercised over a nation must have some beginning. It must be either delegated or assumed. There are no other sources. All delegated power is trust, and all assumed power is usurpation." Russian gen. Count Mikhail Kamensky (b. 1738) on Aug. 12; killed by a serf he had mistreated. French hot air balloon pioneer Marquis Francois Laurent le Vieux d'Arlandes (b. 1742) on May 1 in Saleton (near Anneyron) (suicide?). French brain man Charles Francois Dupuis (b. 1742) on Sept. 29. Danish painter Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard (b. 1743) on June 4 in Copenhagen. English dramatist-poet Hannah Cowley (b. 1743) on Mar. 11 in Tiverton (liver failure). English dramatist Thomas Holcroft (b. 1745) on Mar. 23: "History is a guidepost not a hitching post." Am. DOI signer Thomas Heyward Jr. (b. 1746) on Mar. 6. German-Bohemian violinist-composer Johann Anton Stamitz (b. 1750) in Paris. Am. Rev. War loyalist poet Joseph Stansbury (b. 1750). French balloonist Jean-Pierre Blanchard (b. 1753) on Mar. 7 in The Hague, Netherlands (heart attack while ballooning, causing him to fall from his balloon and die several weeks later). Scottish-born British gen. Sir John Moore (b. 1761) on Jan. 16 in Coruna, Spain (KIA in the Battle of Coruna); last words: "Remember me to your sister, [Lady Hester] Stanhope"; he is buried where he died, becoming known as Moore of Corunna, causing Charles Wolfe (1791-1832) to write the poem The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna. French marshall Jean Lannes, 1st duc de Montebello (b. 1769) on May 31 in Ebersdorf, Austria (KIA); "I found him a pygmy and left him a giant." (Napoleon) Am. Lewis and Clark Expedition man Meriwether Lewis (b. 1774) on Oct. 11 on the Natchez Trace (later Meriwether Lewis Park) in Hohenwald (near Nashville), Tenn.; suicide while bunked overnight from alcoholism and depression; suspicions of murder are covered-up quickly, and no autopsy is performed; William Clark enlists Nicholas Biddle to help finish the expedition report.

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TLW's 1810s (1810-1819) Historyscope, by T.L. Winslow (TLW), "The Historyscoper"™

T.L. Winslow's 1810s Historyscope 1810-1819 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819

1810-1819 C.E.

The Waterloo Decade, when Napoleon makes the mistake of messing with Cold Mother Russia and loses his empire to the cold of Russia and the cold steel of Wellington? The Spanish have their Waterloo in America, losing their empire at earthquake speed? Back in the safe, secure U.S. (after beating-off a little threat from the pesky British), the slavery issue sizzles and pops below the surface, but works smoothly on top in a decade in which a number of U.S. Civil War generals are born? The Beethoven-Rossini Decade in Music? The Jane Austen Lord Byron Decade in Literature? A good decade for Danas?

Country Leader From To
United States of America James Madison (1751-1836) Mar. 4, 1809 Mar. 4, 1817 James Madison of the U.S. (1751-1836)
Britain George III (1738-1820) Oct. 25, 1760 Jan. 29, 1820 George III of Britain (1738-1820)
France Emperor Napoleon I (1769-1821) May 18, 1804 Apr. 6, 1814 Napoleon I of France (1769-1821)
Austria Emperor Francis I (1768-1835) Aug. 6, 1806 Mar. 2, 1835 HRE Francis II (1768-1835)
Russia Tsar Alexander I (1777-1825) Mar. 12, 1801 Dec. 1, 1825 Tsar Alexander I of Russia (1777-1825)
Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770-1840) Nov. 16, 1797 June 7, 1840 Frederick William III of Prussia (1770-1840)
Papacy Pope Pius VII (1740-1823) Mar. 14, 1800 July 20, 1823 Pope Pius VII (1740-1823)
Turkey Sultan Mahmud II (1785-1839) 1808 July 1, 1839 Sultan Mahmud II of Turkey (1785-1839)

1810 - The Oktoberfest Year?

British Gen. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) French Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte (1769-1821) French Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte (1769-1821) French Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte (1769-1821) Henry Clay of the U.S. (1777-1852) John Caldwell Calhoun of the U.S. (1782-1850) Nathaniel Macon of the U.S. (1758-1837) French Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet (1770-1826) French Adm. Jean Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny, 1st Duc de Cadore (1756-1834) U.S. Gen. John Armstrong Jr. (1758-1843) French Marshal Andre Massena (1758-1817) French Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult (1769-1851) British Lt. Gen. Andrew Thomas Blayney, 11th Baron Blayney (1770-1834) French Commodore Guy-Victor Duperré (1775-1846) Gen. Simón Bolívar of Venezuela (1783-1830) Gen. Francisco de Miranda of Venezuela (1756-1816) Josepha Ortiz de Dominguez of Mexico (1768-1819) Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico (1753-1811) Jose Miguel Carrera Verdugo of Chile (1785-1821) Andres Bello of Venezuela (1781-1865) Marie Louise of Austria (1791-1847) Radama I of Madagascar (1793-1828) Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786-1868) John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854) Jane Porter (1776-1850) Madame de Stael (1766-1817) Sarah Baartman (1789-1815) Count Johann Philipp von Stadion (1763-1824) Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) François-René de Chateaubriand (1768-1848) William Godwin (1756-1836) Nicolas Francois Appert (1749-1841) Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855) Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872) Allan Cunningham (1784-1842) Rudolph Ackermann (1764-1834) Philipp Otto Runge (1777-1810) Friedrich Gottlob Koenig (1774-1833)) Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831) 'Die Tageszeit' by Philipp Otto Runge, 1810 'Ariadne on the Panther' by Johann Heinroch von Dannecker, 1810-24 Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820) Old Supreme Court Chamber Old Senate Chamber, 1810

1810 The Third (3rd) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 7,239,881 in a land area of 1,681,828 sq. mi. (4.3 per sq. mi.); black 1.378M; free black 186K; New York City: 97K; Mich.: 4,762. In 1810 there are 132 breweries in the U.S. (pop. 7M), producing a total of 185K barrels/year (per capita consumption 1 gal./year), with Penn. #1 at 48 (71,273 barrels/year), N.Y. #2 at 42 (66,896 barrels/year), and Mass. (13) at #3 (22,400 barrels/year); breweries are all small-scale. The economic recession deepens in Europe just as Napoleon I reaches his zenith and closes the North Sea to British Trade; German and Dutch banks fail, causing Parisian bankers to call in their loans; the unemployment rate in Paris soars to 40%. In this decade the Spanish empire in America becomes kaput after revolts in Mexico, led by Father Miguel Hidalgo (1751-1811), Venezuela, and New Granada (Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama), led by Simon Bolivar (Simón Bolívar) (1783-1830) and Francisco de Miranda (1756-1816), and Argentina, Chile, and Peru, led by Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) and Jose Miguel Carrera Verdugo (1785-1821). On Jan. 5 the town of Warrenton, Va. in N Va. E of the Blue Ridge Mts. is incorporated, named for Am. Rev. hero Gen. Joseph Warren, with Richard Henry Lee donating land for the county seat; U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall was born in Germantown (modern-day Midland), Va., 10 mi. to the S. On Jan. 14 the Church Court of Paris annuls the marriage between Napoleon I and Josephine, exempting her from the law setting a maximum age for divorce. On Jan. 19-21 the French army forces the passes of the Sierra Morena and invade Andalusia, Spain. On Jan. 24 Seville revolts against the Junta Supreme Central, and on Jan. 29 a regency council is installed in Cadiz. On Jan. 28 the British invade French-held Guadeloupe Island in the Caribbean Sea, and capture it on Feb. 6. On Jan. 31 70K French troops under marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult (1769-1851) capture Seville, Spain, after which they siege Cadiz in S Spain on Feb. 5 (until Aug. 24, 1812), which is defended by only 2K Spanish troops, who are later reinforced by 10K Spanish, British, and Portuguese troops. On Feb. 8 Napoleon I creates six military govts. in N Spain, stripping his bro' Joseph Bonaparte of much of his authority - mom liked me best? On Feb. 20 Austrian Tyrolean freedom fighter Andreas Hofer (b. 1767) is executed in Mantua. On Mar. 16 the U.S. Supreme (Marshall) Court rules 4-1 in Fletcher v. Peck to overturn the recission by the Ga. legislature of the Yazoo Land Fraud grant, upholding the law of property and contracts from legislative interference, a nd resulting in corporations being shielded from state regulations for the rest of the cent., becoming the first time the U.S. Supreme Court rules a state law unconstitutional, hinting that Native Ams. don't told title to their own lands; in 1814 Congress awards the lucky speculators $4.2M; meanwhile British-born neoclassical architect Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe (1764-1820) builds a 2nd U.S. Senate chamber on top of the first, allowing the U.S. Supreme Court to move into the lower half of the 1st chamber in the North Wing of the U.S. Capitol, called the Old Supreme Court Chamber until 1812-9, when it vacates Washington, D.C. because of the British invasion, then returns until 1860, when it moves to the Old Senate Chamber (until 1935); Latrobe goes on to become U.S. Capitol architect #2 in 1815-17, and design the White House porticos. On Mar. 21 the French siege Astorga, Spain, and capture it on Apr. 22. On Mar. 22 the British siege French-held Santa Maura (Levkas), and capture it on Apr. 16. Napoleon I plays the U.S. off against Britain, not knowing what's going to happen in Mother Russia next year? On Mar. 23 Napoleon I issues the Decree of Rambouillet (retroactive to May 20, 1809), treating all U.S. ships as smugglers, causing the U.S. to back down some, replacing the 1809 Nonintercourse Act on May 1 with Macon's Bill No. 2 (Bill No. 1, which attacked British shipping being defeated), reported by Dem.-Repub. House Speaker #6 (1801-7) Nathaniel Macon (1758-1837) of N.C. (a lifelong foe of a strong federal govt., who chairs the foreign relations committee and is not the author and opposes them but gets the credit as chmn.), which forbids British and French warships from entering U.S. waters, and promises Britain and France that if either quits interdicting U.S. trade, the U.S. will reimpose sanctions against the other; this doesn't stop rumors of a U.S. war against France from circulating in Paris in July, causing the U.S. ambassador in France gen. John Armstrong Jr. (1758-1843) to receive on Aug. 4 the Cadore Letter, a note from French foreign affairs minister (since 1807) Jean Baptiste de Nompere (Nompère) de Champagny, 1st Duc de Cadore (1756-1834) (written by Napoleon) promising to revoke the Berlin and Milan decrees if the U.S. resumes its non-intercourse policy with Britain or if Britain revokes its orders in council, with Nappy uttering the soundbyte "American cannon will talk" if England doesn't give in; despite the U.S. repealing its 1809 Non-Intercourse Act, however, France continues to seize U.S. ships and goods, and on Aug. 5 Napoleon ups the ante, issuing the Trianon Tariff on 21 colonial items (cotton, sugar, coffee, spices et al.), with duty increases of 6x on raw sugar and 15x on raw cotton, keeping the blockade going by economic means; to rub it in, on Oct. 18 the Decree of Fontainebleau imposes harsh new penalties for smugglers, incl. 10-year sentences, branding for offenders, and confiscation and public burning of seized goods, plus sale of seized ships, causing U.S. pres. James Madison (who only wanted France to revoke its restrictions?) to reinstate U.S. restrictions on Britain late in the year, while "War Hawks" Henry Clay and John Caldwell Calhoun press him for war with Britain. On Mar. 29 the French finally occupy Oveido, Spain after being thwarted by guerrillas. Are you having any fun, whatcha gettin' out of living? On Apr. 1 after Austrian foreign minister Prince Klemens von Metternich arranges it in order to forestall Russian plans to marry him to a Russian grand duchess, Emperor Napoleon I (b. 1769) marries Austrian Hapbsburg archduchess Marie Louise (1791-1847), daughter of Emperor Francis (Franz) I of Austria in Paris, and annexes German lands in Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lauenberg and Lubeck, humiliating Austrian emperor Alexander I and his Hapsburg aristocracy, but saving Austria from being sandwiched in a 2-front war with France and Russia via a detente with France; too bad, after failing to talk Pius VII to help him, Metternich fails to use the new detente to get Nappy to annul the terms of the humiliating 1809 Treaty of Schonbrunn, and Nappy only throws him a bone by removing the limitation on Austrian armaments and issuing a lame apology for executing Andreas Hofer, but won't budge on restoring Austrian access to the Adriatic or allow them to exchange the Illyrian provinces for Galicia to get the pesky Russians out of the Danube; by now Nappy Lion has reached the height of his grate powah, having conquered 720K sq. mi., and his empire now incl. France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, and Spain; having a little breathing room, he gets busy and his wife bears a son next Mar. 20. On Apr. 13 the French siege Lerida, Spain, and capture it on May 14. On Apr. 15 the French defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Zalamea. On Apr. 19 a coup in Venezuela achieves de facto independence from Spain, establishing the Supreme Junta of Caracas and deposing Capt. Gen. Vincente Emparan and his colonial administrators, launching the Venezuelan War of Independence (ends 1823); in early June Caracas, Venezuela-born Gen. Simon Bolivar (Simón Bolívar) (Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco) (1783-1830) and Caracas, Venezuela-born big brain Andres de Jesus Maria y Jose Bello Lopez (1781-1865) (#1 intellectual figure of 19th cent. Latin Am.) travel to England to seek recognition and aid, landing in Portsmouth, England in July, and talking Francisco de Miranda (Sebastian Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza) (1750-1816) ("the first Universal Venezuelan") ("the Great Universal American") into returning; meawhile Simon Bolivar's brother Vicente Bolivar Palacias et al. visit the U.S. and obtain token support. On Apr. 22 the Battle of Margalef is a V for the French over a Spanish army attempting to relieve Lerida. On Apr. 26 42K French troops under Marshal Michel Ney siege 5.5K men under Marshal Don Andres Perz de Herrasti in Ciudad Rodrigo, Spain, and capture it on July 9. On May 3 Lord Byron and Lt. Ekenhead of HMS Salsette swim the Hellespont, which Byron later commemorates in canto 2 of Don Juan. On May 15 16K French troops under Gen. Louis Gabriel Suchet siege a 1K-man garrison under Col. Carbon in Mequinenza, Spain in Aragon at the confluence of the Ebro and Segre Rivers 130 mi. W of Barcelona, and capture it on June 8 - your torilla soup smells so good and I do have a sick kid at home? On June 23-24 the First Battle of Shumla (Sumen) is a V for the Turks against the Russians. In June flooding kills large portions of the mulberry leaf crop in France, hurting the silk industry. On July 1 after some of his demands are resisted, Napoleon sends troops to Holland and annexes it to France, suppressing Dutch commerce with Britain and the Americas, causing his brother Louis Bonaparte to resign as king (since 1806) of Holland on July 2 in protest and flee to Bohemia, eventually settling in Rome under the title Comte de Saint-Leu, devoting himself to clit, er, lit.; the annexation is official on July 13 - do you think I'm fool enough to stand there with a fiddle in my hand while the oboe plays the only part? On July 7 the Brits invade French-held Reunion Island, and the garrison surrenders on July 10. On July 20 Colombia declares independence from Spain. On July 21 after Nice, Italy-born French marshal Andre (Andrea) Massena (1758-1817), "the dear child of Victory" (greatest gen. in France after Napoleon) is transferred to Spain (taking his mistress with him dressed as a dragoon), and takes over the 65K-man French army, he invades Portugal - another sock hop? On July 23 the Battle of Kargali Dere between the Russians and Turks is a push. On July 24 the French drive the British rearguard over the Coa River near Almeida, Portugal. On Aug. 8 the Second Battle of Shumla (Sumen) is a revenge V for the Russians over the Turks, after which they capture the fortresses of Rustchuck (Ruse), Nicopolis, and Giurgevo. On Aug. 11 the Battle of Villagarcia is another French V over the Spanish. On Aug. 20-27 the naval Battle of Grand-Port (Ile de la Passe) in Mauritius (Mahebourg) sees a British fleet of four frigates under Capt. Sir Samuel Pym (1778-1855) try to ambush an anchored French fleet of three frigates and two captured Indiamen under Commodore Guy-Victor Duperre (Duperré) (1775-1846) and get their butts kicked, after which Pym is taken POW along with the whole garrison of Ile de la Passe, becoming the first and only D of a British squadron by Napoleonic France; in Dec. the Brits under adm. Sir Albemarle Bertie, 1st Baronet (1755-1824) recapture Ile de la Passe and release Pym, who is court-martialled and later found innocent of being a ninny, going on to be promoted go full adm. in 1851. On Aug. 27 the French under marshal Andre Massena capture the Portuguese fortress of Almeida. On Sept. 13 a plot in Queretaro (Querétaro) (160 mi. NW of Mexico City) by Josepha (Josefa) Ortiz de Dominguez (1768-1829) (AKA La Corregidora) (wife of the corregidor or magistrate of Queretaro) for Mexican independence starting on Dec. 8 is discovered by the Spanish govt., and after they lock her in her room so they can capture the other plotters, she makes a loud noise with her heels to cover the sounds of fellow plotter Don Ignacio Perez as he takes off to ride to San Miguel de Allende to warn the others, launching the revolt early; on Sept. 16 (Mexican Independence Day) (early morning) Roman Catholic Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811), priest since 1779 of Dolores parish in Guanajuato 170 mi. NW of Mexico City, who the year before joined a patriotic society allegedly devoted to Mexican loyalty to the Spanish crown but really the opposite delivers his Grito de Dolores (Cry of Dolores), beginning the multi-ethnic Mexican Revolt (War of Independence) from Spain (ends Sept. 27, 1821), leading hundreds of parishioners in a successful attack on the local prison to free prisoners while carrying a banner of Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico; he then forms an army of 80K and captures Guanajuato and Guadalajara, then marches on Mexico City, winning the first battle, then bogging down after being excommunicated and seeing his troops split, causing him to retreat. On Sept. 14 the Spanish under Henry O'Donnell supported by a British naval squadron under Francis William Fane win a small V at the Battle of La Bisbal. On Sept. 17-18 the French unsuccessfully attempt to invade Sicily. On Sept. 18 the Chilean War of Independence from Spain begins (ends 1821/1826); on Nov. 16 gen. Jose Miguel Carrera Verdugo (1785-1821) becomes pres. #1 of the first Chilean governing council (until Oct. 2, 1814; on July 4, 1812 the Chilean Flag starts out blue-white-yellow, switches on May 26, 1817 to blue-white-red, then settles on Oct. 18, 1817 with white-red with a blue square in the upper left with a white star in it. On Sept. 19 a UFO is sighted over the River Meuse near Brezeau (?), according to the London Times of Oct. 29. On Sept. 24 the Spanish Cortes convenes in Cadiz. On Sept. 25 the 90%-Muslim city of Bandung (Bandoeng) in W Java, Indonesia (founded in 1488) is consolidate (modern-day pop. 2.5M/8.5M). On Sept. 26 after capturing Fort San Carlos in Baton Rouge, La., an uprising of white Yankees against Spanish rule in Fla. results in the proclamation of the Repub. of West Florida, the first lone star repub.; on Oct. 27 Pres. Madison orders its annexation into the Lousiana Territory, after which the U.S. army takes St. Francisville on Dec. 6, and Baton Route on Dec. 10, ending the upstart repub. There's a place called Hidden Valley? Keep Santa smiling and waving? On Sept. 27 after French marshal Andre Massena chases the outnumbered British-Portuguese army (25K of each) led by Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) (later 1st Duke of Wellington) towards Portugal, he is unexpectedly defeated at the Battle of Bussaco (4.5K French vs. 1.25K Anglo-Portuguese casualties) after the Connaught Rangers (Devil's Own) (founded 1793) save the day; after the French regroup, they chase the Brits to a few mi. from Lisbon, where they hide behind the secretly-built (since Nov. 1809) Lines of Torres Vedras (built to defend Lisbon), and the French reach their zenith in Portugal; too bad, they can't breach the lines, and the onset of winter causes them to begin starving. In Sept. Russia devalues its currency. On Oct. 15 the Battle of Fuengirola on the Costa del Sol in Andalusia, S Spain sees a 300-man garrison from the 4th Regiment of the Duchy of Warsaw holed-up in the medieval Moorish fortress of Sohail hold off a 4.5K-man Spanish-British force of the famous British 89th (Princess Victoria's) Regiment of Foot under lt. gen. Andrew Thomas Blayney, 11th Baron Blayney (1770-1834) of County Monaghan in Ireland, cmdr. of the 85th Foot Regiment AKA Blayney's Bloodhounds, who is captured, causing Napoleon to award several of the Polish officers the French Legion of Honor. On Oct. 26 the Battle of Vidin sees the Russians under gen. Count Nikolai Mikhailovich Kamensky (1776-1811) defeat 40K Ottomans under Osman Pasha, with 1.5K Russians vs. 10K Ottomans KIA. In Oct. the 2-week beer-guzzling crowd-pleasing Oktoberfest is invented by Munich brewers as a celebration of the Oct. 12 wedding of young prince (king in 1825-48) Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786-1868) to Therese Charlotte Luise of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854); Ludwig I goes on to become a patron of the arts, turning Munich into the "Athens on the Isar River". On Nov. 4 the French defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Baza. On Nov. 24 after being enticed into signing an agreement, South African-born 4'10" Sara(h) "Sartje" Baartman (1789-1815) is exhibited in London as the "Hottentot Venus", with white men and women closely ogling her gigantic buttocks while pretending to scientifically study her; in Sept. 14 she is sold to animal trainer S. Reaux in Paris, France, who exhibits her for 15 mo. at the Palais Royal; on Dec. 29, 1815 she dies, and her body cast and skeleton are put on display until 1974-6, after which a movement gets her remains repatriated to her homeland on May 6, 2002. On Nov. 29 the British invade Martinique, capturing the French garrison on Dec. 3. In Nov. English king George III's madness increasingly incapacitates him, and he ceases to reign; by next year he goes irrevocably mad, roaming the palace in a purple dressing gown, blind and deaf, with wild Lear-like white hair and beard, playing to himself on his harpsichord and talking to himself continually of people long since dead; meanwhile his ninny sons, "the damnest millstones about the neck of any government that can be imagined" (Duke of Wellington) wait in the wings? Britain seizes the French colonies at Guadeloupe (last French colony in West Indies), Ile de Bourbon, Java, and Ile de France (Mauritius) (500 mi. E of Madagascar); meanwhile King (since 1787) Andrianampoinimerina of Imerina (b. 1745) dies, and his son Radama I (the Great) (1793-1828) becomes king #1 of Malagasy-run Madagascar (until July 27, 1828) (capital Antananarivo) (the C plateau of the island) (known for introducing the spade in rice fields, then declaring "the sea is the boundary of my rice field), then playing the new big boy British and old beaten dog French off against each other, signing a treaty with the Brits in 1817 which gives him support in exchange for ending the slave trade, then going on to conquer the island, modernize it, devise a written form of the Malagasy language, invite British Protestant missionaries in, and marry 12 Great Wives, one of whom, bad news Ranavalona he adopts as his sister. On Dec. 16 the French under marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet, 1st Duke of Albufera (1770-1826) siege Tortosa, Spain. After Napoleon conquers Spain, Argentina sets up its own govt. in the name of the Spanish king under the name United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, with capital at Buenos Aires. The Partido Liberale is formed in Spain to push parliamentarian govt., coining the term "liberal". The Wahhabis under Muhamman ibn Sa'ud desecrate the Grave of Prophet Muhammad in Medina and plunder its treasures, then cut the Qaabah in Mecca to pieces; their fanaticism later causes them to reject seatbelts? A French penal code requires all beggars to be put in poorhouses. France reestablishes its govt. monopoly on tobacco. Miners in Durham, England go on strike. The Pacific Fur Co. of America's first millionaire John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) finances the Astor Expedition (ends 1812) overland to the W from St. Louis, founding Ft. Astoria next Apr. on the Columbia River as a fur trading post, becoming the first white settlement in Ore.; in Nov. 1812 expedition member Robert Stuart discovers the 20-mi.-wide South Pass through the Rocky Mountains, becoming the basis of the Oregon Trail; too bad, the British capture Astor's trading posts during the War of 1812, renaming Ft. Astoria to Ft. George and shutting his fur biz down. U.S. military man Zachary Taylor (b. 1784) (since 1808) marries Margaret Mackall Smith (1788-1852); they have 1 son and 5 daughters. Tristan da Cunha, discovered in 1506 is first settled by a group of Americans, who name it the Isle of Refreshment. Goats are introduced to St. Helena Island, going on to eventually eliminate 22 of the 33 endemic plants. U.S. Sen. Henry Clay gets a bill passed requiring the U.S. Navy to purchase U.S. hemp products rather than imported ones, thus establishing hemp as the foremost cash crop of Kentucky until the Civil War. Count Johann Philipp von Stadion (1763-1824) introduces reforms in Austria, while Archduke Charles reorganizes the army. The summer resort city of Bournemouth in Hampshire, England on Poole Bay (110 mi. SW of London) is founded, complete with a 6-mi. beach. The first Chinese tea plants are introduced in Taiwan. The Romantic Era in Western Music begins (ends 1910). Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855) becomes music dir. at the Covent Garden Theater in London (until 1824). Hey baby, how'd you like to have a little fun? 15-y.-o. Diego de la Vega is sent to live in Barcelona, Spain to receive a European education, and meets his girlfriend Juliana de Romeu while learning to fence from master Manuel Escalante, later joining the La Justicia movement and developing his masked alter-ego of Zorro, named after his spirit guide, a fox. :) Romantic but lame Lord Byron (1788-1824) swims the Dardanelles in honor of Leander and Hero - but my hero ain't a she? Vienna-born choir boy Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) composes the first of 700 lieder (songs). German painter Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) moves to Rome, gets religion, and founds the anti-academic society of Pre-Raphaelite German Roman Catholic painters known as the Nazarene Brotherhood (Nazarenes), incl. Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), who live in an abandoned monastery in Rome, living like monks, studying early Christian art and producing frescoes for Casa Bartholdi (in Rome), Villa Massini et al. (until 1830). The Cumberland Presbytery of Ky. is excluded from the Presbyterian Church for opposing admission into the ministry of men who have not received enough classical theological training; by the 1960s they have 80K members - no likee bourbon as holy water? Joseph Diaz Gergonne (1771-1859) founds Annales de Mathematiques (Gergonne) (until 1832). The Agricultural Museum the first regular farm periodical in the U.S. begins pub. on July 4 in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The first public billiard rooms in England are opened at the Piazza in Covent Garden, London. The Hartford Fire Insurance Co. in Conn. is founded. In this decade fur hats become fashionable in Europe, starting with the Wellington in 1812, the Paris Beau in 1815, the D'Orsay in 1820, the Regent in 1825, and culminating in the fur army hat in 1837. Sports: In Oct. the first official thoroughbred horse race in Australia is held at Hyde Park in Sydney. Inventions: German-born London printer Rudolph Ackermann (1764-1834) invents the Ackermann Steering Geometry for horse-drawn carriages to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of turns needing to trace out circles of different radii. Nicolas Francois Appert (1749-1841) invents techniques for canning food in sealed boiled glass jars, and wins an award from the French govt. - Spam is just around the corner? Abraham Louis Breguet (1747-1823) of France makes the first wristwatch for Queen Caroline Murat of Naples, sister of Napoleon I. Peter Durance of England patents the use of metal containers for food canning. German inventor (in London) Friedrich Gottlob Koenig (1774-1833) patents a high-speed steam-powered printing press that prints on both sides of the paper; on Nov. 29, 184 the London Times begins to be printed on Koenig's steam-operated press, increasing the speed of printing by 5x. The first patent for artificially-carbonated mineral waters is issued in the U.S. Science: Augustin Jean Fresnel discovers the ammonia-soda reaction. French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet (1780-1840) determines the chemical structure of cantharidin. Nonfiction: Robert Brown (1773-1858), Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen; first systematic account of Australian flora. Lazare Carnot (1753-1823), De la Defense des Places Fortes. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Journey from Paris to Jerusalem and Back; bestseller describing Arabs as "civilised man fallen again into a savage state", who "have the air of soldiers without a leader, citizens without legislators, and a family without a father", while Islam preaches "neither hatred of tyranny or love of liberty" and the Quran has "neither a principle for civilization nor a mandate that can elevate character". Gall and Spurzheim, Anatomie et Physiologie du Systeme Nerveux. Samuel Christian Friedrich Hahnemann (1755-1843), Organon of Therapeutics; the quack medical science of homeopathy, which he began developing in 1792, which starts out with the common sense observation that a lot of medicines make you sick, then goes off the deep end with the idea that some of them can still work if they are diluted to nothing first, but not those medicines, his medicines; "That which can produce a set of symptoms in a healthy individual, can treat a sick individual who is manifesting a similar set of symptoms". Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), Deutsches Volksthum. Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, System der Sittenlehre. Joseph de Maistre (1754-1821), Essay on the Generation of Political Constitutions (Essai sur le Principe Generateur des Constitutions Politiques). Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813), Exploratory Travels Through the Western Territories of North America (1805-7); first description of the trans-Mississippi West available to easterners. Robert Southey (1874-1943), History of Brazil (3 vols.) (1810-19). Madame de Stael (1766-1817), De l'Allemagne (On Germany); praises German culture so much that Napoleon orders her exiled from France. Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831), The History of Printing in America, with a Biography of Printers, and an Account of Newspapers (2 vols.) (Aug. 14) (Worcester, Mass.); becomes a std. work; 2nd ed. 1874. George White (1764-), A Brief Account of the Life, Experience, Travels and Gospel Labours of George White, an African; first African-Am. to write the story of his own enslavement? William Wordsworth (1770-1850), A Description of the Scenery of the Lakes in the North of England; enlarged ed. pub. 1822. Music: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Bagatelle No. 25 in A minor ("Für Elise"); not pub. until 1867; becomes one of his most popular piano compositions; Music to Goethe's "Egmont", Op. 84 (June 15) (Vienna); for Goethe's 1787 play about Lamoral, Count of Egmont (1522-68). R.H. Cromek and Allan Cunningham (1784-1842), Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song; modern popular songs by cunning linguist Cunningham palmed-off as ancient Scottish ballads. Alessandro Manzoni (1785-1873), Inni Sacri (Sacred Hymns); Catholic religious lyrics. Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), La Cenerentola (Cinderella) (opera); La Cambiale di Matrimonio (opera) (Venice); Rossini has the corner on the opera market in Italy by now, and excuses his baldness by saying that every composer gets it by age 30? Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Der Vatermorder; Hagars Klage. Art: Johann Heinrich von Dannecker (1758-1841), Ariadne on the Panther (sculpture). Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), Fighting Horses. Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), Disasters of War (Los Desastres de la Guerra) (80 etchings) (1810-20); the Peninsular Wars between French and Spanish (1808-14); 1-47 tell of the guerrilla war; 48-65 are about the 1811-12 Madrid famine; 66-80 are the "Caprichos Enfaticos" (emphatic caprices), spoofing the peace that follows; both French and Spanish are portrayed as aggressors; so honest and brutal that he chooses not to have them printed in Ferdinand VII's Spain, and they aren't printed until 1863 for fear of govt. reprisals. Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), Madrid; Napoleon at the Pyramids. Plays: Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1834), Der Held des Nordens. Zacharias Werner, Der Vierundzwangzigste Februar (the 24th of February (1-act play). Poetry: Willem Bilderdijk (1756-1831), De Ondergang der Eerste Wereld; Afscheid. George Crabbe (1754-1832), The Borough. James Hogg (1770-1835), Forest Minstrel. Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), The Genius of the Thames. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), Zastrozzi. Robert Southey (1774-1843), The Curse of Kehama; his masterpiece?; an evil priest gains demonic powers and tries to become a god, until his son is killed by Ladurlad after trying to rape peasant girl Kailyal, causing him to curse Ladurlad, which only gives him superhuman strength, which he uses to work with Yamen, god of death and other Hindu gods to defeat him. Novels: Jane Porter (1776-1850), The Scottish Chiefs; about Sir William Wallace (1272-1305); banned by Napoleon. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), The Lady of the Lake (Romantic verse novel); AKA Fairy Vivienne, Vivien, or Nemue, who abducted infant Lancelot and kept him on an island. Births: Am. artist Alfred Jacob Miller (d. 1874) on Jan. 2 in Baltimore, Md.; likes to paint scenes in the NW U.S. German Lutheran missionary (in East Africa) Johann Ludwig Krapf (d. 1881) on Jan. 11 in Tubingen; educated at the U. of Tubingen. Sicilian Bourbon king #4 (1830-59) Ferdinand II (d. 1859) on Jan. 12 in Palermo; son of Francis I (1777-1830) and Maria Isabella of Spain (1789-1848); father of Francis II (1836-94). Am. inventor Joseph Rogers Brown (d. 1876) on Jan. 26 in Warren, R.I. German mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer (d. 1893) on Jan. 29. French chef (in England) (first celebrity chef?) Alexis Benoist Soyer (d. 1858) on Feb. 4 in Meaux-en-Brie; emigrates to England in 1830; husband (1837-) of Elizabeth Emma Soyer Jones (1813-42). Scottish Sanskrit scholar John Muir (d. 1882) on Feb. 5 in Glasgow; brother of William Muir (1819-1905). French "Transcendental Magic" writer-magician (not Jewish) Eliphas Levi (Alphonse Louise Constant) (d. 1875) on Feb. 8 in Paris; husband of Marie-Noemi Cadiot (1832-88). French biologist Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Breau (Bréau) (d. 1892) on Feb. 10 in Berhezene, Valleraugue (Gard); educated at the U. of Strasbourg. French #1 "History of France" historian Bon Louis Henri Martin (d. 1883) on Feb. 20 in Saint-Quentin, Aisne. Polish Romantic composer-pianist ("the Poet of the Piano") Frederic Francois (Fryderyk Franciszek) Chopin (d. 1849) on Mar. 1 (Feb. 22?) in Zelazowa Wola (near Warsaw); French father, Polish mother; child prodigy pianist; moves to France in 1831 and becomes French citizen, although he remains a Polish patriot; only grows sideburns on the side facing the audience; has affair with George Sand (1804-76) in 1837-47. Italian pope #256 (1878-1903) ("Pope of the Working Man") ("The Social Pope") Leo XIII (Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci) (d. 1903) on Mar. 2 in Carpieto Romano (near Rome). Irish poet-artist-lawyer Sir Samuel Ferguson (d. 1886) on Mar. 10 in Belfast; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Am. Roman Catholic archbishop of New York City (1864-) John Cardinal McCloskey (d. 1885) on Mar. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Mount St. Mary's College. French historian Comte Charles Forbes Rene de Montalembert (d. 1870) on Mar. 18 in London; founder with Abbe Felicte de Lamennais of the liberal French Roman Catholic movement. German Young Germany satirist-humorist (Protestant) Adolf Glassbrenner (d. 1876) on Mar. 27 in Berlin; husband (1840-) of Adele Peroni (1813-95). English "Omphalos" naturalist (aquarium pioneer) Philip Henry Gosse (d. 1888) on Apr. 6 in Worcester; father of Edmund William Gosse (1849-1928). Am. Repub. legislator Justin Smith Morrill (d. 1898) on Apr. 14 in Strafford, Orange County, Vt. Austrian brewer ("the King of Brewers") Anton Dreher (d. 1863) on May 7 in Schwechat (near Vienna). Am. "Woman in the Nineteenth Century", "The Dial" Transcendentalist feminist journalist-writer-ed. (abolitionist) (most important woman of the 19th cent.?) Sarah Margaret Fuller, Marchioness Ossoli (d. 1850) on May 23 in Cambridgeport, Mass.; daughter of Margaret Crane and 4-term Repub. U.S. rep. Timothy Fuller; first full-time female book reviewer in the U.S.; first woman allowed to use the Harvard College library; first female correspondent for the New York Tribune; inspires the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention. German Jewish reform rabbi-theologian Abraham Geiger (d. 1874) on May 24 in Frankfurt-am-Main. Am. Salt Lake Tabernacle architect (official architect of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Truman Osborn Angell (d. 1887) on June 5 in Providence, R.I.; brother-in-law of Brigham Young. German Romantic composer Robert Alexander Schumann (d. 1856) on June 8 in Zwickau (East Germany); husband (1840-) of Clara Schumann (1819-96). German "Die Lustigen Weiber von Windsor" composer (founder of the Vienna Philharmonic) Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai (d. 1849) on June 9 in Konigsberg, Prussia. U.S. Sen. (D-Fla.) (1845-51, 1851-61) (Jewish) (first Jewish U.S. Sen.) David Levy Yulee (d. 1886) on June 12 in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; son of Moroccan Sephardic lumberman Moses Elias Levy (1st cousin of Philip Benjamin, father of Judah P. Benjamin) and a Sephardic mother. U.S. Supreme Court justice #42 (1872-82) Ward Hunt (d. 1886) on June 14 in Utica, N.Y.; educated at Union College. German Young Germany poet-activist Ferdinand Freiligrath (d. 1876) on June 17 in Detmold, Lippe. Austrian ballerina Fanny Elssler (d. 1884) on June 23 in Vienna. Am. showman-huckster-circus promoter (teetotaler) ("patron saint of promoters" - Life mag.) P.T. (Phineas Taylor) Barnum (d. 1891) on July 5 in Bethel, Conn. English "Proverbial Philosophy" writer-poet Martin Farquhar Tupper (d. 1889) on July 17 in London; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. Russian artist Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (d. 1900) on July 29 in Feodosiya, Crimea; Armenian parents named Aivazian; known for his seascapes. Italian PM #1 (1861) ("architect of a unified Italy") Camillo (Camille) Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (d. 1861) on Aug. 10 in Turin; of the House of Savoy. English psychiatrist Forbes Benignus Winslow (d. 1874) on Aug. 10 in Pentonville; 9th son of Thomas Winslow (172-1815) (descendant of Edward Winslow of Mayflower fame) and Mary Forbes (1774-1854); educated at Univ. College London, and U. of Aberdeen; husband (1841-) of Susannah Holt (1811-83); father of Rev. Forbes Edward Winslow, Lyttleton Stewart Forbes Winslow (1844-1913), Susanna Frances Winslow, and Constance Winslow (1850-1925). Am. Unitarian Transcendentalist Unitarian clergyman-reformer-abolitionist Theodore Parker (d. 1860) on Aug. 24 in Lexington, Mass.; educated at Harvard U; coiner of the phrase "Of all the people, by all the people, for all the people" (1850). German (Prussian) economist Hermann Heinrich Gossen (d. 1858) on Sept. 7 in Duren. French poet-novelist Louise Colet (nee Revoil) (d. 1876) on Sept. 15 in Aix; mistress and close confidante of several famous French men of letters incl. Alfred de Musset and Gustave Flaubert. English Conservative statesman Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea (d. 1861) on Sept. 16; friend of Florence Nightingale. Canadian steamship line magnate Sir Hugh Allan (d. 1882) on Sept. 29 in Salcoats, Scotland; father of Sir Montagu Allan (1860-1951) ; emigrates to Canada in 1831; knighted in 1871. English novelist Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (nee Stevenson) (d. 1865) on Sept. 29 in Chelsea, London; educated at Stratford-upon-Avon; friend of Charles Dickens (1812-70). U.S. First Lady #22 (1865-9) Eliza McCardle Johnson (d. 1876) on Oct. 4 in Greeneville, Tenn.; wife (1827-) of pres. Andrew Johnson; youngest First Lady to marry (16) (until ?). Am. antislavery leader (Repub. Party co-founder) ("the Lion of White Hall) Cassius "Cash" Marcellus Clay (d. 1903) on Oct. 19 in Madison County, Ky.; son of Indian fighter Gen. Green Clay (1757-1828); 2nd cousin of Henry Clay (1777-1852); namesake of boxer Muhammad Ali; educated at Transylvania U., and Yale U. Persian Qajar shah #3 (1834-48) Mohammad Shah Qajar (d. 1848) on Oct. 23 in Tabriz; son of Abbas Mirza (1789-1833); father of Nasser ed-Din (1831-96). U.S. Repub. atty. gen. #35 (1876-7) and war secy. #31 (1876) Alphonso Taft (d. 1891) on Nov. 5 in Townshend, Vt.; father of Charles Phelps Taft (1843-1929) and U.S. pres. William Howard Taft (1857-1930); educated at Yale U (co-founder of Skull & Bones). Hungarian "Himnusz" composer ("Father of Hungarian Grand Opera") Ferenc (Franz) Erkel (d. 1893) on Nov. 7 in Gyula; composes the first opera with a Hungarian text, "Bathory Maria". German Plattdeutsch (Low German) novelist-poet Fritz Reuter (d. 1874) on Nov. 7 in Stavenhagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin; educated at the U. of Rostock, and U. of Jena. French marshal (1856-) Pierre Jean Francois Bosquet (d. 1861) on Nov. 8 in Monte-de-Marsan, Landes. Am. iron manufacturer (builder of the USS Monitor) John Flack Winslow (d. 1892) on Nov. 10 in Bennington, Vt.; descendent of Kenelm Winslow, brother of Edward Winslow of Mayflower fame; pres. #5 of Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. Czech "Maj" Romantic poet Karel Hynek Macha (d. 1836) on Nov. 16 in Prague. Am. #1 botanist Asa Gray (d. 1888) on Nov. 18 in Sauquoit (near Paris), N.Y.; curator of the New York Lyceum of Nat. History (1835-); prof. of natural history at Harvard U. (1842-); early supporter of Darwinian evolution. Mexican gen. Andres (Andrés) Pico (d. 1876) on Nov. 18 in San Diego, Calif.; brother of Pio Pico (1801-94). U.S. Civil War Union gen. Johann August Ernst von Willich (d. 1878) on Nov. 19 in Braunsberg, East Prussia; starts out promoting Marxism in Germany before moving to London in 1849, and the U.S. in 1852. English industrialist (armaments manufacturer) (inventor of modern artillery) Sir William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (d. 1900) on Nov. 26 in Newcastle upon Tyne; knighted in 1859. English Froude Number naval engineer William Froude (d. 1879) on Nov. 28 in Devon; brother of Richard Hurrell Froude (1803-36) and James Anthony Froude (1818-94); educated at Westminster School, and Oriel College, Oxford U. Am. Winchester Repeating Rifle gunmaker Oliver Fisher Winchester (d. 1880) on Nov. 30 in Boston, Mass.; son of Samuel Winchester and Hannah Bates; father of Ann Rebecca Winchester (1835-64), William Wirt Winchester (1837-81), and Hannah Jane Winchester. Am. businessman (in Hawaii) Amos Starr Cooke (d. 1871) on Dec. 1 in Danbury, Conn. German biologist-physiologist (physiologist-histologist) ("Father of Histology") Theodor Schwann (d. 1882) on Dec. 7 in Neuss; originator of the cell theory in biology; discoverer of the digestive enzyme pepsin in animal stomachs - paints his trucks mustard yellow? French "The Confession of a Child of the Century" poet-dramatist-novelist (alcoholic) Alfred de Musset (Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay) (d. 1857) on Dec. 11 in Paris. Am. sculptor Clarke Mills (d. 1883) in Onondaga County, N.Y.; known for equestrian statues of Andrew Jackson and George Washington. Am. "Undine Rising from the Waters" sculptor Chauncy Bradley Ives (d. 1894) on Dec. 13 in Hamden, Conn.; moves to Rome in 1851. Norwegian historian Peter Andreas Munch (d. 1863) in Dec. 15 in Christiania (Oslo); educated at the Royal Frederick U.; extols the virtues of Norway before its union with Denmark. Spanish PM (1868-70) Marshal Don Francisco Serrano Dominiguez Cuenca y Perez de Vargas, 1st Duke of la Torre, Grandee of Spain, Count of San Antonio (d. 1885) on Dec. 17 in Isla de Leon. English zoologist Edward Blyth (d. 1873) on Dec. 23 in London. German (Prussian) archeologist (founder of modern Egyptology) Karl (Carl) Richard Lepsius (d. 1884) on Dec. 23 in Naumburg an der Saale, Saxony; educated at the U. of Leipzig, U. of Gottingen, and U. of Berlin; coiner of the term "Book of the Dead" (Totenbuch). French naturalist Francois Louis Nompar de Caumont La Force (Laporte), Comte de Castelnau (d. 1880) on Dec. 25 in London, England. Am. pirate Billy Bowlegs (Bolek) (Sem. "Halpuda Mikko" = Alligator Chief) (d. 1859) in Cuscowilla (Micanopy, Fla.); son of Secoffee; nephew of Micanopy. Am. atty.-tradesman (Presbyerian) John Neely Bryan (d. 1877) on Dec. 24 in Fayetteville, Tenn.; founder of Dallas, Tex. Am. Houston, Tex. co-founder John Kirby Allen (d. 1838) in Canaseraga Village (modern-day Sullivan), N.Y.; brother of Augustus Chapman Allen (1806-64). Am. Northern Cheyenne chief Dull Knife (Morning Star) (d. 1883). Am. Southern Arapaho chief Little Raven (Crow) (Hosa) (Oh-has-tee) (d. 1889) in Neb. Australian architect (in Perth) Richard Roach Jewell (d. 1891) in Barnstaple, Devon, England; emigrates to Australia in 1852. English archeologist-epigraphist-diplomat ("the Father of Assyriology") Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (d. 1895) in Chadlington, Oxfordshire; brother of George Rawlinson (1812-1902). English music publisher Joseph Alfred Novello (d. 1896) in 1810; son of Vincent Novello (1782-1861). Deaths: French transvestive diplomat Chevalier D'Eon (b. 1728) on May 21 in London; mortuary attendants finally confirm that he has a penis. German statesman-educator Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von Furstenberg (b. 1729) on Sept. 16 in Munster. English scientist Henry Cavendish (b. 1731) on Feb. 24 in London. U.S. Supreme Court justice (1789-1810) William Cushing (b. 1732) on Sept. 13 in Scituate, Mass.; last of the original justices. Am. Rev. War gen. Benjamin Lincoln (b. 1733) on May 9 in Hingham, Mass. German painter Johann Zoffany (b. 1733) on Nov. 11 in Strand-on-the-Green. Austrian field marshal Joseph Alvinczi von Borberek (b. 1735) on Sept. 25 in Buda. French painter Jean-Jacques de Boissieu (b. 1736). French pioneer balloonist Joseph Michel Montgolfier (b. 1740). English children's writer Sarah Trimmer (b. 1741) on Dec. 15 in Brentford. Am. Shawnee chief Blue Jacket (b. 1743); in 1877 a story is circulated that he was really a white man named Marmaduke Van Swearingen. English writer Mary Anne Radcliffe (b. 1746). German philosopher-historian Christoph Meiners (b. 1747) on May 1 in Gottingen; becomes a favorite of the Nazis. British adm. Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (b. 1748) on Mar. 7 off Port Mahon (cancer). U.S. pres. #10 (last under the Articles of Confederation) (1788) Cyrus Griffin (b. 1749) on Dec. 14 in Yorktown, Va. French gen. Jacques-Francois de Menou (b. 1750) on Aug. 13 in Mestre, Veneto, Italy. Am. Rev. War. officer William Washington (b. 1752) on Mar. 6. English antiquarian William Cunnington (b. 1754) on Dec. 31 Swedish soldier-diplomat-statesman Count Axel von Fersen the Younger (b. 1755) on June 20 in Stockholm. U.S. Supreme Court justice #12 (1800-04) Alfred Moore (b. 1755) on Oct. 15 in Bladen County, N.C. English painter John Hoppner (b. 1758) on Jan. 23. Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer (b. 1767) on Feb. 20 in Mantua (executed). Am. "Wieland" novelist Charles Brockden Brown (b. 1771) on Feb. 22. Prussian Queen Louise (b. 1776) ("My beautiful enemy" - Napoleon) on July 17. German chemist Johann Wilhelm Ritter (b. 1776) on Jan. 23 in Munich; killed himself with his experiments? German painter Philipp Otto Runge (b. 1777) on Dec. 2 in Hamburg; leaves the unfinished Die Tageszeiten (The Times of Day), which makes a posth. star. British princess Amelia (b. 1783) on Nov. 2 in Augusta Lodge, Windsor; George III's favorite. Irish horse-whisperer #1 Daniel Sullivan (b. ?); inspires writer William J. Powell (d. 1848).

1811 - The Tough Titties George IV Father Miguel Hidalgo Year?

George IV of Britain (1762-1830) Father Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico (1753-1811) Mehmet Ali of Egypt (1769-1849) Francois Charles Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleon II) of France (1811-32) French Gen. Auguste Marmont (1774-1852) William Henry Harrison of the U.S. (1773-1841) Tecumseh (1768-1813) William Pinkney of the U.S. (1764-1822) Gabriel Duvall of the U.S. (1752-1844) Joseph Story of the U.S. (1779-1845) Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway (1768-1839) Gen. Jose Gervasio Artigas of Uruguay (1764-1850) DeWitt Clinton of the U.S. (1769-1828) Beau Brummell (1778-1850) Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856) David Ricardo (1772-1823) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Jane Austen (1775-1817) William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843) Nathaniel Rochester (1752-1831) Friedrich Krupp (1787-1826) Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852) Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué (1777-1843) Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) Josef Jungmann (1773-1847) Daniel Auber (1782-1871) Rev. Thomas Charles (1755-1814) Elias Hicks (1748-1830) Jean-Francois Lesueur (1760-1837) Vincent Novello (1782-1861) Lord Byron (1788-1824) 'Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)' by Alfred Clint (1807-83), 1819 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) David Thompson (1770-1857) New York City Hall, 1811 John Rennie the Elder (1761-1821) Waterloo Bridge, 1817 Palace of Henri Christophe, Haiti George Cruikshank (1792-1878) George Cruikshank Example 'Jupiter and Thetis' by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), 1811 Embree Brewery

1811 On Jan. 19 Napoleon I decrees the creation of tours (towers), revolving doors at foundling hospitals enabling mothers to leave children in them anonymously, where they are supported by the state until age 12. In Jan. the army of Father Miguel Hidalgo (b. 1753) is routed near Guadalajara by a small Spanish army, causing him to flee to the N, where he is captured on Mar. 21, then taken to Chihuahua, defrocked, excommunicated and shot on July 30, his head publicly displayed until the end of the Mexican War of Independence (1821), after which in 1824 he becomes a nat. saint, and his town of Dolores is renamed Dolores Hidalgo (plus the town of Guadalupe Hidalgo), and Sept. 16 becomes Mexican Independence Day. On Feb. 5 his hereditary porphyria getting worse, Parliament declares George III insane, and his chunky, garrulous, often ridiculous fop son George Augustus Frederick (1762-1830), the prince of Wales (future George IV) is installed as prince regent (until 1820), growing so fat he becomes known as the prince of Whales; Welsh Capt. Rees Howell Gronow (1794-1865) of the elite First Foot Guards, who parties every night and often sees the Bag of Royal Blubber, "singularly imbued with petty pride" and his sometime friend Beau Brummell (1778-1840), begins a Journal (until 1830), detailing the preoccupation with social status, dress, and hedonism that the prince brings to English society, incl. how the Duke of Wellington is ejected from social events for wearing trousers of the wrong color. On Feb. 10 the Russians seize Belgrade from the Ottomans. On Mar. 1 at the request of Ottoman sultan Mahmud II, Macedonian-born Albanian-speaking Egyptian pasha (since May 17, 1805) Mehmet (Mohammed) Ali (1769-1849) destroys the greater part of the rebellious Mamluk Beys when he invites 470 of them to a banquet in honor of his son Tusin at the Citadel in Cairo, then massacres them, sending his troops to rout their forces; the Mamlukes (Mamelukes), who have been powerful in Egypt since 1250 are kaput; Mehmet Ali goes on to modernize and Westernize Egypt, nationalize and steal land from peasants, and set up armament factories and a navy, uttering the soundbyte: "I am well aware that the Ottoman Empire is heading by the day toward destruction... On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to the Euphrates and the Tigris." On Mar. 2 the Junta Suprema de Caracas (formed last Apr.) dissolves itself after calling for a congress of the Venezuelan provinces and setting up a triumvirate; on July 5 (after missing the target date of July 4 to show admiration for the Yanks) the rev. govt. proclaims the First Venezuelan Repub. (ends July 25, 1812), modeled after the U.S. by Simon Bolivar, who visited the U.S. in 1809 and became an enthusiastic admirer, followed by a new constitution on Dec. 21, with Miranda's tricolor as the new flag; meanwhile on Aug. 11 Miranda takes Valencia; too bad, the loss of the Spanish market for cocoa exports causes the economy to tank and the pop. to lose enthusiasm. On Mar. 4 the French begin retreating from Santarem for the Spanish frontier; on Mar. 5 the Cadiz breakout Battle of Barrosa (Chiclana) near Cadiz, Spain is a push after a single British div. defeats two French divs. and captures their regimental eagle, causing them to reoccupy their siege lines. On Mar. 14 after calculating their chances should Napoleon conquer Russia and leave them isolated, the Austrians sign a treaty of alliance with France, agreeing to send 30K men to help him via Galicia; a cagey fox, Metternich secretly informs the Russians that his troops will only be used defensively, and only if Russia forces them. An heir at last? On Mar. 20 Marie Louise Bonaparte bears Napoleon I his only son, Napoleon Francois Joseph Charles Bonaparte (Napoleon II), Duc de Reichstadt, L'Aiglon ("the eagle") (1811-32), who later becomes the king of Rome; famous German astronomer Heinrich Olbers is deputed to assist at his baptism; too bad, the punk doesn't live long enough to fulfill all his daddy's aspirations; meanwhile French poet Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843) composes the poem Dithyrambe sur la Naissance du Roi de Rome, getting him a cushy govt. sinecure that allows him to compose some serious poetry. On Mar. 22 after leaving New York City last Sept., rounding Cape Horn on Dec. 25, and reaching Hawaii (Sandwich Islands) on Feb. 12, a 54-man expedition for John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Co. sailing on the 290-ton Tonquin, led by Alexander MacKay arrives in Clayoquot Sound at the mouth of the Columbia River in North Am., running into an Indian ambush which kills 17, incl. MacKay. On Mar. 28 after his term as pres. of Haiti (begun Feb. 17, 1807) expires, Henri Christophe overthrows S Haitian pres. (since Mar. 9, 1806) Alexandre Sabes Petion (Sabès Pétion) (1770-1818), and is proclaimed king Henri I (1767-1820), promulgating the Code Henri in imitation of the Code Napoleon, and building Sans Souci Palace in N Haiti near Cap Haitien; Petion goes into exile, then returns, giving sanctuary to Simon Bolivar in 1815, and proclaiming himself pres. for life on Oct. 9, 1816, suspending the legislature in 1818, going on to seize commercial plantations and redistribute the land to the poor, earning him the nickname Papa Bon-Coeur (good-hearted father); too bad, with no more exports, the economy sinks into bare subsistence. In the spring the economy of France begins to recover, but storms around Paris and a drought in the south leads to a poor harvest. On Apr. 3 the British defeat the starving French at the Battle of Sabugal. On Apr. 7 the Brits under Wellington blockade French-held Almeida, Spain; on Apr. 10 the Spanish seize Figueras, causing the French to siege them there on Apr. 17. On Apr. 6 after becoming gov. #16 of Va. on Jan. 16 and resigning, James Monroe (1758-1831) becomes U.S. secy. of state #7 (until Mar. 4, 1817), successfully promoting legislation in 1815 to foster the development of firearms technology at the federal armories in Springfield, Mass. and Harpers Ferry, Va., causing the Conn. River Valley to become a ceter of mass-produced firearms manufacture. On Apr. 11 Spanish gen. Jose Gervasio Artigas (1764-1850) issues the Mercedes Proclamation, leading a revolt against Spain in Uruguay (ends 1814), joining patriots from Buenos Aires and defeating the Spanish on May 18 in the Battle of Las Piedras, then sieging Montevideo. On Apr. 12 the first U.S. colonists on the Pacific coast arrive at Cape Dissapointment, Washington. On May 3-5 the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro sees the British-Portuguese army under Gen. Arthur Wellesley defeat the French under Gen. Massena, causing the Peninsular War to decisively turn against them, and the French invasion of Portugal to begin turning into a rout; on May 6 Wellesley sieges Badajoz; on May 8 Suchet sieges Tarragona; on May 10 the French garrison breaks out of Badajoz, causing the Brits to raze their siege on May 12; on May 16 the Battle of Albuhera (Albuera) is a V (push?) for the French and their Vistula Uhlan Regiment against the combined forces of Britain, Spain, and Portugal (a sobering lesson to Napoleon about his forces' limitations?), after which Wellesley resumes his siege of Badjoz on May 25, then begins retreating into Portugal on June 27; meanwhile in July French gen. Auguste Marmont (1774-1852) is hastily summoned to replace Gen. Massena in N Spain. On May 14 Paraguay, a country (pop. 120K) of small farmers and ranchers with military skills, mostly Guarani-speaking Indians (plus a tiny minority of whites and creoles) proclaims independence from Spain; Buenos Aires refuses to recognize it; meanwhile Creoles, commoners of Spanish descent who are sick and tired of being kicked around by Spanish aristocrats begin a continent-wide independence movement. On June 23 the Battle of Orbigo River is a V for the Spaniards over the French. On Aug. 3 13,642 ft. (4,158m) Mount Jungfrau ("virgin") in the Bernese Alps is scaled by the Meyer brothers of Arau and two chamois hunters from Valais; in 1865 a more direct route on the N side is opened. On Aug. 4 the British invade Java, and capture it on Sept. 18. On Aug. 10 the Battle of La Vertientes is a V for the French over the Spanish. On Aug. 11 the Brits under Wellington blockade Ciudad Rodrigo. On Aug. 15 Sophie Blanchard makes a balloon ascent in Milan to mark Napleon's 42nd birthday. On Aug. 19 the French capture Figueras. In Aug. after being kicked out of Oxford U. for writing the pamphlet "The Necessity of Atheism", wealthy poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1832) elopes with 16-y.-o. Harriet Westbrook (1795-1816), daughter of a former London coffeehouse owner, but finds her incompatible and abandons her in 1814, becoming a disciple of liberal Romantic movement founder (father of philosophical anarchism) William Godwin (1756-1836), father of Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (1797-1851), who he decides is his real babe, esp. since she edits and promotes his works, and after Harriet commits suicide by drowning in Serpentine Lake in London in 1816, they elope to France, having three children, two of whom die in infancy; in 1816 they become friends with Lord Byron in Geneva. On Sept. 25 the Battle of El Bodon sees 2.5K French cavalry under gen. Montbrun surprise 1K infantry and 500 cavalry under British gen. Thomas Picton, after which they stage a fighting retreat. On Oct. 11 Little Juliana, the first steam-powered ferry boat, built in 1803 by Col. John Stevens III (1749-1838) begins operation between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.; meanwhile he works on steam-powered railroad engines. On Oct. 15 the U. of Berlin is founded in Berlin, Germany by Prussian educator Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (1767-1835) as "the mother of all modern universities", located in the former palace of prince Henry of Prussia, brother of Frederick II on the Unter den Linden Ave.; in 1828 it becomes Friedrich-Wilhelm U. AKA Universitat unter den Linden; in 1949 it becomes Humboldt U. of Berlin. On Oct. 25 the Battle of Sanguntum in Spain a V for the French; too bad, on Oct. 28 the British defeat the French again at the Battle of Arroyos dos Molinos in W Estremadura. On Nov. 7 after Tecumseh's War (Rebellion) begins in Aug. 1810, Indiana territory gov. William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) attacks Prophet's Town in N Ind. at the Battle of Tippecanoe on the Tippecanoe (Algonq. "place of the buffalo fish") River (which flows SW into the Wabash River) with 700 militia, 90 cavalry, and 250 infantry, defeating 500-700 warriors and ending the threat of the Indian Confederation while boosting Harrison's political chances; Shawnee chief Tecumseh ("Shooting Star") ("Crouching Panther") (1768-1813) escapes to Canada along with his brother Tenskwatawa, allying with the British and Canadians and hoping to found the nation of "Amerindia"; Tenskwatawa had used his shine from predicting the June 16, 1806 solar eclipse to hornswaggle his warriors into throwing themselves against the white men's bullets, which he claimed could not hurt them, resulting in 25% being slaughtered. On Nov. 23 Gabriel Duvall (1752-1844) of Md. (until Jan. 14, 1835) and Joseph Story (1779-1845) (a Repub. Mass. rep. who became House Speaker this year) (until Sept. 10, 1845) (youngest until ?) become U.S. Supreme Court justices #17 and #18 to replace William Cushing (1789-1810) and Samuel Chase (1796-1811), keeping the number of members at lucky seven; no more changes for over a decade (1823); Duvall, who replaces fellow Marylander Chase goes on to become the "most insignificant U.S. Supreme Court justice", while Story goes on to a brilliant and storied career. On Dec. 5 Caesar Rodney resigns as U.S. atty. gen. after getting pissed-off for being passed over for a Supreme Court seat, and he is succeeded by Md.-born William Pinkney (1764-1822), who becomes U.S. atty. gen. #7 (until 1814). The Mississippi runs backwards? On Dec. 16 the 7.5-7.9 1811-12 New Madrid Earthquakes in the Mississippi River Valley on the North Am. Plate begin with a 7.2-8.2 earthquake and a 7.4 aftershock; rocking the bootheel region of Mo. centered in New Madrid, Mo., becoming known as the Great Shaking, decimating the region and reversing the course of the Mississippi River for a few hours; two more follow, on Jan. 23 and Feb. 7, the last reaching 8.3 (vs. 7.6 for the 1906 San Francisco quake), felt in one-third of the continental U.S., as far away as New York City and Canada, and becoming the worst in the contiguous U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. (until ?) (the Mar. 27, 1964 Alaskan Good Friday Earthquake is larger); the earthquakes uncover a scandalous murder and affect the War of 1812 after Tecumseh points to them as a sign from the Great Spirit that palefaces are doomed? On Dec. 20 the French siege Tarifa in Cadiz, Andalusia, Spain (ends Jan. 14). In Dec. DOI signer Benjamin Rush, a Philly physician mediates a reconcilation between the two alienated former U.S. presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, and starting on New Year's Day they begin a genial 14-year correspondence consisting of 158 letters; Jefferson plants an acre of hemp (marijuana) at Monticello this year, and writes a pamphlet on hemp cultivation. The British occupy Java after retaking Malacca to use as a base (until 1818). Austria goes bankrupt, and a civil code is introduced. Napoleon I annexes Oldenburg. The Wahhabis hold Damascus for ransom, forcing the territory E of the Jordan to pay tribute, causing Mahmud II to send Egyptian viceroy Mehmet Ali and his son Tusun to restore Turkish authority in Arabia; too bad, they are repulsed, and prepare for a 2nd attack. Mass. Sen. Thomas Pickering is impeached for leaking documents about the Louisiana Purchase. N.J.-born James Scott Lawrence (1781-1883) is made capt. and given command of the USS Hornet, defeating the British vessel HMS Peacock. Ang Em becomes regent of Cambodia (until 1812), followed by Ang Snguon (until 1813). England suffers a severe trade depression, which causes many factories to close (ends 1813); meanwhile, Luddite riots in Nottinghamshire (stocking industry), Yorkshire (woolen industry), Lancashire (cotton industry) et al. in the English Midlands see workers protest loss of jobs by smashing newfangled machinery (shearing frames, power looms) on a large scale this year and next. Napoleon I flip-flops and removes the restrictions on Jews in France and all countries it rules. The charter of the Nat. Bank of Am. runs out, causing Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) (son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild) to tell the U.S. govt. that if the charter isn't renewed, "the U.S. will find itself involved in a most diastrous war", causing him to instigate the War of 1812 in order to put the U.S. into so much war debt that it will be forced to recharter it? The port city of Astoria, Ore. near the Columbia River (modern-day pop. 9.5K) is founded by the Am. Fur Co. of John Jacob Astor as Ft. Astoria, becoming the first permanent U.S. settlement on the Pacific coast, and first to have a U.S. post office W of the Rocky Mts. Westminster, London, England-born Hudson's Bay Co. explorer and mapmaker ("the Stargazer") David Thompson (1770-1857) discovers Athabaska Pass over the Continental Divide in the Canadian Rockies from the Whirlpool River in Alberta to Wood River in British Columbia, which leads to the Columbia River and Pacific Ocean; he goes on to map 1.9M sq. mi. (4.9M sq. km) of North Am., becoming known as "the greatest land geographer who ever lived". Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852) founds the first Turnplatz (open-air athletic field) in Berlin, conducting gymnastics classes to regenerate his compatriots who were down from what the French did to them during the Napoleonic Wars; he joins the Prussian army as a battalion cmdr. in 1813-15. Protestant missionaries from New England arrive in Hawaii and begin to convert the pop. through the chiefs. The Great Schism of Welsh Protestants, led by Rev. Thomas Charles (1755-1814) sees two-thirds leave the Anglican Church, leading to the founding of the Presbyterian (Calvinistic Methodist) Church of Wales in 1823 - God's been good to me? Views expressed at a French ecclesiastical council by Cardinal Fesch cause his nephew Napoleon I to send him back to his diocese of Lyons, then next year Nappy intercepts a letter by him to the pope complaining about him, causing them to become hostile to each other. The future U.S. states Oregon (Ore.) ("birch-bark dish") (native name of the Columbia River) and Washington (Wash.) are settled. Am. Rev. War col. Nathaniel Rochester (1752-1831) founds Rochester, N.Y. for settlers from the coast of Lake Ontario who want to move inland, and after successfully lobbying the state to build the Erie Canal on a route through it, the town booms - widemouth beer sounds better than fatass beer? French Lick in S Ind. is founded as a fortified ranger post and French trading post built near sulfur springs and a salt lick, originally called Salt Spring; the town is founded in 1857, becoming famous as a spa town, and later a casino town attracing Joe Louis, Irving Berlin, Al Capone et al.; it later becomes known for Pluto Water laxative, and as the hometown of NBA star Larry Bird. Napoleon fortifies the strategic seaport of Den Helder in North Holland on the Marsdiep (channel linking the Zuider Zee with the North Sea) 50 mi. NNW from Amsterdam at the terminus of the North Holland Canal, which has a 5-mi. dike that can be used to flood North Holland. A diet fad requires all food to be soaked in vinegar. New N.Y. lt. gov. (until 1813) DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828) goes to Congress to ask for funds for "the ditch" (Erie Canal), going on to become known as "the Father of the Erie Canal" - who can say no to a man with this pedigree? The Krupp Works in Essen, Germany are founded when Friedrich Krupp (1787-1826) establishes a small forge and experiments with cast steel, later adding eight smelting furnaces - is he koruppt? English caricaturist George Cruikshank (1792-1878) begins pub. cartoons in The Scourge, or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly (ends 1816) and other satirical pubs, taking on everybody of all classes. English composer-conductor Vincent Novello (1781-1861) founds a music publishing house to pub. his own first work, a collection of sacred music. Young Edgar Allan Poe (b. 1809) moves in with his godfather John Allan. The U. of Christiania (Royal Frederick U.) in Christiania (modern-day Oslo), Norway is founded by king (1808-39) Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway (1768-1839) as the first univ. in the Danish-Norwegian Union, training high-ranking civil servants; for the first time Norwegian students don't have to attend the U. of Copenhagen; in 1905 the union with Sweden is dissolved; in 1946 it is renamed the U. of Oslo; in 1947-89 the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded yearly in its atrium. The Nat. U. of Nicaragua is founded. The Prague Conservatoire opens on Apr. 24. English-born Quaker Davis Embree founds the first brewery in Cincinnati, Ohio at 75 Water St. at the SE corner of Water and Elm Sts. on the Ohio River, using a horse treadmill to 5K barrels/year. Architecture: John Nash (1752-1835) begins designing elegant curved bldgs. for Regent Street in London. Construction of the Cumberland (Nat.) Road finally begins in Cumberland, Md.; Pres. Jackson later refuses to use federal funds for maintenance and repair, leaving it to the states through which it passes, and it runs out of funds in Vandalia, Ill. in 1839. Scottish engineer John Rennie the Elder (1761-1821) begins the granite Waterloo Bridge in London crossing the Thames River between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge (opens June 18, 1817), becoming known for the finest ground-level views in London; a new bridge is built in 1942-5. The 2-story Federal style New York City Hall is completed, complete with a copper roof. Inventions: On May 31 Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger (1770-1829), "the Flying Tailor of Ulm" in Germany unsuccessfully attempts to cross the Danube River on a semi-rigid hang-glider; after he crashes and is rescued by fishermen, he becomes the first heavier-than-air pilot to survive a water immersion accident. The Paragon, "a whole floating town" becomes Fulton's 3rd steamboat operating on the Hudson River. Alexander von Humboldt of Germany pub. the first subdivided bar graph. Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger (1770-1839), the "Flying Tailor of Ulm" in Germany attempts unsuccessfully to fly with his own hang glider. James Hume of England patents the first floor-sweeping machine, consisting of a box containing a brush that is turned by a pulley. Swiss mountaineer Johann Rudolf Meyer (1739-1813) climbs the Jungfrau, and hires mathematician Jean Henri Weiss (1758-1826) and carpenter Joachim Eugen Muller (1752-1833) to create the first terrain model of the Swiss Alps - get your mind out of the gutter? Nicholas J. Roosevelt (1767-1854) (grand-uncle of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt) builds the first steamboat on U.S. western waters (the Mississippi River), the New Orleans, a 300-ton side-wheeler based on Fulton's design in Pittsburgh, Penn.; The Paragon, "a whole floating town" becomes Fulton's 3rd steamboat operating on the Hudson River. Science: Turin-born Italian scientist Count Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro (1776-1856) proposes Avogadro's Principle (Law), that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (not atoms) at a given temperature and pressure; his ideas are neglected until 1858? After his father is put in debtors' prison in 1805, forcing him to manage his saltpeter business, French chemist Bernard (Barnard) Courtois (1777-1838) courteously discovers the metallic element Iodine (I) (#53) in seaweed ash. English chemist Humphry Davy discovers colorless poisonous heavy gas Phosgene (carbonyl chloride). French chemist-physicist Pierre Louis Dulong (1785-1838) discovers the double decomposition of salts. French astronomer Honore Flaugergues (Pierre-Gilles-Antoine-Honoré Flaugergues) (1755-1835) discovers the Great Comet of 1811 (C/1811 F1) in the constellation Argo Noves, causing wine of vintage 1811 to be called wine of the comet. French mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre discovers and names the Gamma Function. Nonfiction: Charles Bell (1774-1842), New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain; distinguishes sensory from motor nerves. K.A. Bottiger, Kunstmythologie. Maria, Lady Callcott (1785-1842), Journal of a Residence in India. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), Essai sur la Geographie Mineralogique des Environs de Paris; contains a tertiary stratigraphic map. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), System der Logik; new eds. in 1819 and 1837. Elias Hicks (1748-1830), Observations on Slavery. Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, Das Urbild der Menschheit. Louis-Gabriel Michaud (1773-1858) (ed.), Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne : histoire par ordre alphabétique de la vie publique et privée de tous les hommes (85 vols.) (1811-); 2nd. ed (45 vols.) in 1843-. Hannah More (1745-1833), Practical Piety. James Parkinson, Mad-houses; English insane asylums. Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), Traite de Mecanique (1811-33). David Ramsay (1749-1815), A Chronological Table of the Principle Events Which Have Taken Place in the English Colonies, now United States, from 1607 til 1810. J.P.A. Recusat, Essai sur la Langue et la Litterature. David Ricardo (1772-1823), On the High Price of Bullion. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), The Necessity of Atheism; gets "Mad Shelley" expelled from Oxford U. Music: Daniel Auber (1782-1871), Julie (comic opera). Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), The Archduke Trio (Op. 97); in honor of his pupil and benefactor Archduke Rudolph, brother of Emperor Franz I. Jean-Francois Lesueur (1760-1837), Ruth and Naomi (oratorio); Ruth and Boaz (oratorio). C.M. von Weber, Abu Hassan (opera) (Munich). Art: Washington Alliston (1779-1843), Mediterannean Coastal Scene. Henry Bone (1755-1834), Bacchus and Ariadne; after Titian. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), Jupiter and Thetis. Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830), Portrait of Benjamin West. Sally Miller, Memorial. Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844), Procession of Alexander the Great (sculpture). Plays: Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827), Ricciarda; Aiace (tragedy); contains veiled allusions to Napoleon, causing the author to have to leave Padua for Florence, then Switzerland in 1815, and finally to London. Poetry: William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878), Thanatopsis; the first truly great U.S. poem, written by a 17-y.-o. law student and future ed. of the the New York Evening Post; at 13 he had written a well-known satire on Thomas Jefferson; "To him who in the love of Nature holds/ Communion with her visible forms, she speaks/ A various language". Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), Aus Meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From My Life: Poetry and Truth) (autobio.) (4 vols.) (1811-3). Josef Jungmann (1773-1847) (tr.), John Milton's Paradise Lost; a breakthrough for Czech lit., making it too cool for the Austrian-only club of the Hapsburgs to keep down? Novels: Jane Austen (1775-1817), Sense and Sensibility; set in Sussex in 1792-7; sisters Elinor Dashwood (sense) and Marianne Dashwood (sensibility); "The family of Dashwood had long been settled in Sussex." Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1843), Undine; water spirit Undine marries knight Huldebrand to gain a soul; his masterpiece?; inspires operas by E.T.A. Hoffmann (1814), Albert Lortzing (1845) and Alexei Lvov (1846). Xavier de Maistre (1763-1852), The Lepter from Aoste. Births: Am. portraitist William Page (d. 1885) on Jan. 3 in Albany, N.Y.; student of Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872); friend of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. French #1 organ builder Aristide Cavaille-Coll (Cavaillé-Coll) (d. 1899) on Feb. 4 in Montepellier. Am. Roman Catholic bishop of Philadelphia (1852-60) (St.) John Nepomucene Neumann (d. 1860) on Mar. 28 in Prachatice, Bohemia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1836; first male U.S. saint (1977); feast day: Jan. 5. Am. Radical Repub. politician and U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1851-74) Charles Sumner (d. 1874) on Jan. 6 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; known for his big beating in 1856. French writer-poet-jurist (Freemason) Edouard Rene Lefevre (Édouard René Lefèvre) de Laboulaye (d. 1883) on Jan. 18 in Paris; friend of Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904), who gets the idea of the Statue of Liberty from him. English poet Arthur Henry Hallam (d. 1833) on Feb. 1 in London; "Jeune homme fatal of his generation"; son of Henry Hallam (1777-1859); educated at Eton College (where he meets William Gladstone) and Trinity College, Cambridge U. (where he meets Alfred, Lord Tennyson and joins the Cambridge Apostles). Am. Shakespearean scholar Delia Salter Bacon (d. 1859) on Feb. 2 in Tallmadge, Ohio; born in a log cabin. Am. "Go West, young man" New York Tribune journalist-politician Horace Greeley (d. 1872) on Feb. 3 in Amherst, N.H. English "Liddell & Scott Greek-English Lexicon" scholar-educator Henry George Liddell (d. 1898) on Feb. 6; dean of Christ Church (1855-91); father of "Alice in Wonderland" Pleasance Liddell (1852-1934); educated at Charterhouse School, and Christ Church, Oxford U. French marshal (1864-88) Francois Achille Bazaine (d. 1888) on Feb. 13 in Versailles. French novelist Leonard Sylvain Julien "Jules" Sandeau (d. 1883) on Feb. 9 in Aubusson (Creuse); lover (1831) of George Sand. U.S. Sen. (R-Ind.) (1861-7) (abolitionist) Henry Smith Lane (d. 1881) on Feb. 24 near Sharpsburg, Ky. French Neptune-predicting mathematician Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (d. 1877) on Mar. 11 in Saint-Lo; educated at Ecole Polytechnique. Am. Mormon leader William B. Smith (d. 1893) on Mar. 13 in Royalton, Vt.; 8th child of Joseph Smith Sr. (1771-1840) and Lucy Mack Smith (1775-1856); younger brother of Joseph Smith Jr. (1805-44). German "Zopf und Schwert" Young Germany novelist-dramatist Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow (d. 1878) on Mar. 17 in Berlin. French emperor (1814-15) ("L'Aiglon") ("the Eaglet") Francois Joseph Charles Bonaparte (Napoleon II), Duke of Reichstadt, King of Rome (d. 1832) on Mar. 20; son of Emperor Napoleon I (1769-1821) and 2nd wife Marie Louise of Austria (1791-1847). Japanese Western scholar Sakuma Shozan (Zozan) (Kunitada) (d. 1864) on Mar. 22 in Shinsu (modern-day Nagano Prefecture); born to a samurai family; coiner of the phrase "Eastern morality and Western technology". German chemist (spectroscope and bunsen burner inventor) Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (d. 1899) on Mar. 31 in Gottingen; educated at the U. of Gottingen. Am. Scottish School of Common Sense philosopher Princeton U. pres. #11(1868-88) James McCosh (d. 1894) on Apr. 1 in Ayrshire, Scotland; educated at the U. of Glasgow, and U. of Edinburgh; emigrates to the U.S. in 1868. French Barbizon School gloomy-dramatic-tragic landscape painter Jules Dupre (Dupré) (d. 1889) on Apr. 5 in Nantes; his daddy manufacturers porcelain, and he starts out decorating the stuff, but an 1834 trip to England to study John Constable's paintings really fixes his style, which tends to the dramatic and tragic. Am. "History of the Conflict Between Religion and Scientist" chemist-historian-photographer John William Draper (d. 1882) on May 5 in St. Helens, Lancashire, England; educated at Univ. College, London; emigrates to the U.S. in 1832; father of Henry Draper (1837-82). Chinese celebs Chang and Eng Bunker (d. 1874) on May 11 in Siam; the original (xiphopagus) Siamese (Conjoined) Twins; showman Abel Coffin brings them to the U.S. in 1828, and they adopt the Am. name Bunker in 1844. U.S. Civil War Confed. Col. (quartermaster-gen.) (Jewish) Abraham Charles Myers (d. 1889) on May 14 in Georgetown, S.C.; descendant of Rabbi Moses Cohen; namesake of Ft. Myers, Fla. Russian lit. critic ("Father of the Russian Radical Intelligentsia") Vissarion Grigorievich "Furious" Belinski (Belinsky) (d. 1848) on May 30 (June 30 Old Style) in Sveaborg (Helsinki), Finland; educated at the U. of Moscow; collaborator of Nikolai Nekrasov (1821-78); hates Westernizing tendencies. Am. theologian Henry James Sr. (d. 1882) on June 3 in Albany, N.Y.; father of William James (1842-1910), Henry James (1843-1916), and Alice James (1848-92); educated at Princeton U. Scottish physician Sir James Young Simpson (d. 1870) on June 7 in Bathgate, West Lothian; educated at the U. of Edinburgh; first to be knighted for services to medicine. Am. 4'11" "Uncle Tom's Cabin" abolitionist writer ("Crusader in Crinoline") Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (d. 1896) on June 14 in Litchfield, Conn.; daughter of Rev. Lyman Beecher (1775-1863); sister of Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-78), Edward Beecher (1803-95), Henry Ward Beecher (1813-87), and Charles Beecher (1815-1900). Icelandic nationalist leader Jon Sigurdsson (d. 1879) on June 17 in Hrafnseyri; moves to Copenhagen in 1833; his birthday becomes the Icelandic nat. holiday. U.S. Supreme Court justce #33 (1853-61) John Archibald Campbell (d. 1889) on June 24 near Washington, Ga.; not to be confused with soup manufacturer Joseph Albert Campbell (1817-1900). English jurist-inventor Sir William Robert Grove (d. 1896) on July 11 in Swansea, South Wales; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford U.; inventor of the platinum-zinc cell (1839) and the fuel cell (1843). English "Vanity Fair" novelist William Makepeace Thackeray (d. 1863) on July 18 in Calcutta, India; educated at Charterhouse ("Slaughterhouse"), and Trinity College, Cambridge U. English diplomat James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (d. 1863) on July 20 in London; son of the 7th Earl of Elgin (1766-1841). Am. grain elevator inventor Elisha Graves Otis (d. 1861) on Aug. 3 in Halifax, Vt. Italian politician-diplomat gen. Enrico Cialdini, Duke of Gaeta (d. 1892) on Aug. 10 in Castelvetro, Modena; created duke in 1861. French "Mignon", "Hamlet" opera composer Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas (d. 1896) on Aug. 11 in Metz. Am. Confed. statesman-atty. (Jewish) ("Brains of the Confederacy") Judah Philip Benjamin (d. 1884) on Aug. 6 in St. Thomas, West Indies; English Jewish father, Portuguese Jewish mother; grows up in N.C. and S.C.; educated at Yale U.; his face is on the $2 Confederate bill. English historian Sir Henry Halford Vaughan (d. 1885) on Aug. 27 in London; son of Sir John Vaughan (1769-1839). French "Mademoissele de Maupin" Romantic poet-novelist-dramatist-critic -journalist Piere Jules Theophile (Théophile) Gautier (d. 1872) on Aug. 30 in Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrenees; writer of cool travel books; big man in the Parisian lit. set for 40 years, becoming a forerunner of Modernism, Symbolism, Decadence etc. Danish brewer-philanthropist Jacob Christian Jacobsen (d. 1887) on Sept. 2. Am. philosopher Francis Bowen (d. 1890) on Sept. 8 in Charlestown, Mass.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Harvard U. Am. "The Prostrate State" historian (Radical Repub.) James Shepherd Pike (d. 1882) on Sept. 8 in Calais, Maine. Hungarian New German School pianist-composer ("the Napoleon of the Piano") Franciscus (Ferenc) "Franz" Liszt (d. 1886) (Hung. "flour") on Oct. 22 [Libra] in Raiding, Burgenland; Beethoven kissed him on the forehead as a baby? - beet-kissed Liszt? French mathematician (discoverer of abstract algebra) Evariste (Évariste) Galois (d. 1832) on Oct. 25 in Bourg-la-Reine (near Paris). Am. theologian (Lutheran) C.F.W. (Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm) Walther (d. 1887) on Oct. 25 in Langenchursdorf, Saxony; educated at the U. of Leipzig; emigrates to the U.S. in Nov. 1838. Am. New York City police commissioner #1 George Washington Matsell (d. 1877) on Oct. 26 in New York City; English immigrant father from Norfolk. Am. sewing machine inventor (Jewish?) Isaac Merritt Singer (d. 1875) on Oct. 27 in Pittstown, N.Y.; father of Winnaretta Singer (1865-1943). French Socialist historian ("Father of State Socialism") Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (d. 1882) on Oct. 29 in Madrid, Spain; educated in Paris; coins the soundbye "To each according to his needs, from each according to his abilities" - feel that cold all over your body? Czech "The Bouquet" poet-historian Karel Jaromir Erben (d. 1870) on Nov. 7 in Miletin u Jicina. French teacher Francois Delsarte (d. 1871) on Nov. 11 in Solesmes; originator of the Delsarte system of calisthenics combined with singing and dancing. Am. Civil War Confed. brig. gen. Benjamin "Ben" McCulloch (d. 1862) on Nov. 11 in Rutherford County, Tenn. English Radical-Liberal Quaker statesman-economist-orator John Bright (d. 1889) on Nov. 16 in Rochdale, Lancashire. Am. Civil War Union rear adm. John Ancrum Winslow (d. 1873) on Nov. 19 in Wilmington, N.C.; descendant of Mayflower passenger Mary Chilton (1607-79) and John Winslow, brother of Edward Winslow (1595-1655); first cousin of Francis Winslow (1818-62). Bavarian king (1848-64) Maximilian II (d. 1864) on Nov. 28 in Munich; son of Ludwig I (1786-1868) and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854); father of Ludwig II (1845-86). Am. abolitionist orator Wendell Phillips (d. 1884) on Nov. 29 in Boston, Mass.; son of John Phillips (1770-1823) (1st mayor of Boston); educated at Boston Latin School, and Harvard U. Am. Repub. politician (black) Lewis Hayden (d. 1889) on Dec. 2; born into slavery; escapes to freedom in 1844. English opera mgr. (Jewish) Benjamin Lumley (Levy) (d. 1875); son of Jewish merchant Louis Levy (-1875). English Bird's Custard manufacturer-chemist Alfred Bird (d. 1878) in Nympsfield, Gloucestershire. Am. educator and Unitarian minister William Greenleaf Eliot (d. 1887) in New Bedford, Mass.; grandfather of T.S. Eliot (1888-1965); educated at Harvard U.; founder of Washington U. in St. Louis, Mo. Am. businessman-politician (Universalist) (mayor #3 of Pasadena, Calif. in 1888-90) (founder of Caltech) Amos Gager Throop (d. 1894) in Chicago, Ill.; descendant of Col. Adrian Scrope (1601-60). Deaths: British adm. Sir Peter Parker (b. 1721). French explorer (discoverer of Tahiti) Louis de Bougainville (b. 1729) on Aug. 20 in Paris. English bishop-poet Thomas Percy (b. 1729) on Sept. 30. Am. Rev. leader (DOI signer) William Williams (b. 1731) on Aug. 2 in Conn. English dramatist-novelist Richard Cumberland (b. 1732) on May 7 in London. English astronomer royal (1765-1811) Nevill Maskelyne (b. 1732) on Feb. 9 in Greenwich. German writer Christoph Friedrich Nicolai (b. 1733) on Jan. 11 in Berlin. British PM (1768-70) Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd duke of Grafton (b. 1735) on Mar. 14 in Euston Hall, Suffolk. English adm. Sir John Acton, 6th baronet (b. 1736) on Aug. 12 in Palermo, Sicily. English-born U.S. postmaster gen. (1776-82) Richard Bache (b. 1737). French Arc de Trimphe architect Jean Chalgrin (b. 1739) on Jan. 21. U.S. Supreme Court justice #9 (1796-1811) Samuel Chase (b. 1741) on June 19 in Baltimore, Md. German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas (b. 1741) on Sept. 8 in Berlin. Am. statesman-jurist Francis Dana (b. 1743) on Apr. 25 in Cambridge, Mass. Hungarian dramatist-poet Gyorgy Bessenyei (b. 1747) on Feb. 24. Am. pioneer Ebenezer Zane (b. 1747) (jaundice); namesake of Zanesville, Ohio. Am. philanthropist James Bowdoin III (b. 1752) on Oct. 11 in Naushon Island, Buzzards Bay, Mass. Mexican rev. priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (b. 1753) on July 30 in Chihuahua; defrocked, excommunicated and executed by firing squad; his head, along with those of fellow rebels Domingo Narciso de Allende, Juan de Aldama, and Jose Mariano Jimenez are displayed on the four corners of the Alhondiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato until 1821. English gen.-statesman Henry Edward Fox (b. 1755) on July 18. English artist Isaac Cruikshank (b. 1756). French dramatist Marie-Joseph de Chenier (b. 1764) on Jan. 10 in Paris. U.S. Gen. William Eaton (b. 1764) on June 1 in Brimfield, Mass. Am. Unitarian minister William Emerson (b. 1769) on May 12. Russian gen. Nikolai Kamensky (b. 1776) on May 4 in Odessa (fever). German poet Heinrich von Kleist (b. 1777) on Nov. 21 near Potsdam (double suicide with his babe Henriette Vogel); the Kleist Prize for German lit. is founded in 1912 - the good die young?

1812 - A Deaf Tone Brothers Grimm Year of Battles? The War of 1812 occupies Britain and the U.S., while Napoleon blows it in Russia and begins his downhill sleigh ride?

Spencer Perceval (1762-1812) of Britain Shot by John Bellingham, May 11, 1812 John Bellingham (1769-1812) Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool (1770-1828) Elbridge Gerry of the U.S. (1744-1814) Gerrymandering U.S. Gen. Henry Dearborn (1751-1829) U.S. Commodore David Porter (1780-1843) Austrian Field Marshal Prince Karl Philipp of Schwarzenberg (1771-1820) Russian Field Marshal Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818) Russian Gen. Nikolai Raevsky (1771-1829) Russian Gen. Count Alexander Petrovich Tormasov (1752-1819) French Marshal Michel Ney (1769-1815) French Marshal Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio (1767-1848) Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (1745-1813) Russian Gen. Pyotr Ivanovich Bagration (1765-1812) French Gen. Claude Francois de Malet (1754-1812) French Gen. Louis Baraguay d'Hilliers (1764-1813) Prussian Field Marshal Hans David Ludwig, Count Yorck von Wartenburg (1759-1830) Spanish Gen. Joaquín Ibáñez, Baron de Eroles (1784-1825) U.S. Capt. Isaac Hull (1773-1843) U.S. Gen. William Hull (1753-1825) British Gen. Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812) U.S. Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer III (1764-1839) Russian Field Marshal Prince Peter Wittgenstein (1769-1843) French Marshal Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (1764-1830) Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) British Gen. Rowland Hill (1772-1842) French Gen. Nicolas Francois Conroux, Baron de Pépinville (1770-1813) Spanish Gen. Francisco Ballesteros (1770-1832) Spanish Gen. Juan Domingo de Monteverde (1773-1832) Abbas Mirza of Persia (1789-1833) 'Uncle Sam' Wilson (1766-1854) U.S. Capt. Stephen Decatur Jr. (1779-1820) Adm. William Brown of Argentina (1777-1857) William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775-1817) Stephen Girard (1750-1831) John Cartwright (1740-1824) Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820) Johan Carl Ludvig Engel (1778-1840) Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786-1856) Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (1784-1817) Louis-Jean Népomucène Lemercier (1771-1840) Lady Caroline Lamb (1785-1828) Temple of Abu Simbel Bryan Donkin (1768-1855) John James Audubon (1785-1851) Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) Michael Faraday (1791-1867) Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhoff (1764-1833) Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776-1831) Winslow Lewis (1770-1850) Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859) Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859) Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) 'The Dying Hercules' by Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872), 1812 Mälzel Metronome, 1816 Drury Lane Theatre, 1812 'The Charging Chasseur' by Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), 1812

1812 On Jan. 8 the British under Arthur Wellesley siege Ciudad Rodrigo in Spain, capturing it on Jan. 19. On Jan. 9 the French under Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet capture Valencia, Spain. On Jan. 19 the Battle of Villaseca is a V for the Spanish over the French. On Jan. 26 France annexes Catalonia. On Jan. 29 the Battle of Altafulla is a V for 8K French over 4,250 Spanish after Spanish Gen. Joaquin Ibanez (Joaquín Ibáñez), Baron de Eroles (1784-1825), who wiped out a French column on Jan. 18 in Col de Balaguer underestimates the enemy strength in a heavy fog and becomes a big tall fool. In Jan. Pres. Madison appoints Am. Rev. hero and former U.S. war secy. Henry Dearborn (1751-1829) as maj.-gen. in charge of the NE war sector from the Niagara River to the New England coast; too bad, he's turned into an incompetent old fart? On Feb. 2 the French capture Pensicola, Fla. On Feb. 11 Mass. Dem.-Repub. Gov. Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) (pr. with hard G) signs a redistricting law carving Essex County up to favor his party, giving birth to the term "Gerrymandering" (pr. with soft G) after it assumes the shape of a salamander - that's why it's called messy chewits? On Feb. 13 the U.S. Supreme (Marshall) Court rules unanimously (6-0) in U.S. v. Hudson that in order for federal courts to render a criminal conviction for some activity, Congress must first enact a law criminalizing the activity, attach a penalty, then give the courts jurisdiction, barring them from trying and convicting defendants for common law crimes and introducing the principle of Nulla poena sine lege (Lat. "no penalty without a law"); courts retain implied powers to punish litigants for contempt of court and for defying court orders; Justice Bushrod Washington recuses himself. On Feb. 14, 1812 after the Ohio state legislature chooses the name, the city of Columbus, Ohio (after Christopher Columbus) at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers (modern-day pop. 787K/2.4M) is founded as the capital of Ohio after Ohio City is outvoted; it assumes the official functions in 1816. On Feb. 24 Prussia authorizes the French army to traverse its territory and provides them with 20K soldiers, and on Apr. 1 they reach the Oder River. On Feb. 27 Lord Byron addresses the House of Lords for the first time, about the Luddites. On Mar. 3 the U.S. Congress passes its first foreign aid bill. On Mar. 5 the Battle of La Roda in La Mancha, Castile is a V for the Spanish over the French. On Mar. 16 the British under Arthur Wellesley siege Badajoz, capturing it on Apr. 6. Why shaky superstitious South America is a bad place for a revolution? On Mar. 26 (Maundy Thur.) (2nd anniv. of the founding of the Caracas Junta) Caracas, Venezuela suffers a severe earthquake that kills 12K, doing most of the damage in repub. areas, causing the royalists to call it a punishment from God, further weakening the new Venezuelan Repub.; after the superstitious provinces bite bigtime, they switch to the royal side, and on July 4 the royalists stage a successful uprising in Barcelona, causing neighboring Cumana Province to defect. In the spring after the news of Alexander Mackenzie's explorations turns on Scottish philanthropist Lord Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820) to the Lake Winnipeg and Red River area in Manitoba as a place to help the poor start a new life, and he purchases the Selkirk Concession (a 300 sq. km tract in Manitoba, Minn. and N.D.), a party of 100 distressed Scottish crofters led by Capt. Miles Macdonnell arrives and establishes the Red River Colony, appeasing the Hudson's Bay Co. by agreeing not to threaten their monopoly; too bad, the rival North-West Co. stirs up trouble, and in 1815 a group of trappers and Metis drive the settlers out, which only pisses-off Selkirk, causing him to regain control with troops in 1817. In the spring Russia hastily makes peace with the Swedes and British, and breaks with France for fear that Napoleon wants to restore Poland under the grand duchy of Warsaw using his marriage alliance with the Austrians. In the spring retired ex-U.S. pres. Thomas Jefferson begins brewing beer at his Monticello estate in Va.; on May 12 he orders his slaves to bottle it. On Apr. 5 Russia signs a treaty of alliance with Sweden. On Apr. 20 U.S. vice-pres. #4 George Clinton (b. 1739) dies, becoming the first U.S. veep to die in office; his term isn't up until Mar. 3, 1813. On Apr. 30 "Pelican State" Louisiana (La.) is admitted as the 18th U.S. (slave) state, with former teritorial gov. (1804-12) William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775-1817) as gov. #1 (until 1816). On May 8 after Arthur Wellesley enters Madrid, and a nat. assembly is elected in Cadiz, Spain promulgates the new democratic 1812 Constitution; in July Wellesley begins a retreat to Portugal. On May 11 British Tory PM (since Oct. 4, 1809) Sir Spencer Perceval (b. 1762) is assassinated in the House of Commons by Liverpool businessman John Bellingham (b. 1769) (who is hanged on May 18), becoming the first British PM assassinated (next ?), and is succeeded on June 8 by freedom-of-speech stomper Tory Pittite Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Livepool (1770-1828) (until Apr. 9, 1827). On May 14 after a triumphant entry into Caracas on Apr. 26 by Francisco Miranda, where he is appointed CIC of the army, he is defeated by a Spanish force under Juan Domingo de Monteverde y Rivas (1773-1832) (a frigate capt. who formed a large army of volunteers) at the Battle of La Victoria in La Victoria, Venezuela on June 20 and June 29 after treachery by Pedro Ponce, then retreats to Cabrera, decides it's hopeless and signs an armistice with Monteverde in Victoria on July 25 without authorization from the Caracas Junta, after which he attempts to flee on a British ship at La Guaira, and is arrested on July 30 in Laguayra as a traitor by the junta, who decide not to shoot him but hand him over to the Spanish, who sent him next year to Cadiz, where he dies in 1816 in the dungeons of the Spanish Inquisition; in June Monteverde becomes capt.-gen. of Venezuela (until Aug. 8, 1813); Simon Bolivar, who fought at Valencia and used Miranda as a bargaining chip for his own freedom flees to Cartagena, where on Dec. 15 he writes the Cartagena Manifesto, calling for a joint effort by Venezuela and New Granada to gain independence from Spain - attempted liberation is heresy? On May 18 the Battle of Silistria (Silistra) and the Battle of Vidin are Vs for Russia over Turkey despite the presence of Osman Pasha; on May 28 the Seventh Russo-Turkish War (begun 1806) ends with the Treaty of Bucharest; Russia gains the much-coveted province of Bessarabia (until 1917) and a position in the Balkans; Turkish influence in Romania weakens; the Turks are freed to take care of the pesky Serbs. On May 18-19 the Battle of Almaraz in Spain sees an Anglo-Portuguese army under British Lt. Gen. Rowland Hill (1772-1842) destroy a French pontoon bridge over the Tagus River, keeping French forces separated. On May 24 Napoleon I makes his final decision to invade Russia - talk about wishing to have a day back? In May the Repub. congressional caucus renominates Pres. Madison, along with Gov. Elbridge Gerry of Mass. for vice-pres.; 10 days later the Repubs. of N.Y. counter with the nomination of De Witt Clinton, late vice-pres. George Clinton's nephew, jealous that for 20 of the nation's 24 years a Virginian has held the presidency? On May 31 the Battle of Bornos in Bornos, Spain 40 mi. NE of Jerez de la Frontera is a V for the French under Gen. Nicolas Francois Conroux, Baron de Pepinville (Pépinville) (1770-1813) over the Spanish under Gen. Francisco Ballesteros (1770-1832) after they repel a surprise attack. In May price lids on grain are reinstated in France, but local prefects undermine them in competition with each other, and prices actually rise 50%-100%. On June 1 after France fails to close the leaks in their British blockade, causing a boom in British textiles in supplying Nappy's enemies, causing Napoleon to promise to repeal his blockade, followed by the Brits failing to revoke their restrictions on neutral trade with French-held Europe, pissing-off the U.S., Pres. Madison gives a speech, reciting a long list of British injuries (seizure of cargoes, impressment of seamen), which they had only responded to with "remonstrances and expostulations", then claims that there is "on the side of Great Britain a state of war against the United States, and on the side of the United States, a state of peace toward Great Britain"; even though the northeasterners vote against war, the "War Hawks" of the South and West, crying "free trade and seamen's rights", with their eyes on a possible takeover of Canada and pacification of Indian tribes in the NW railroad the U.S. House on June 4 into a war resolution by a 79-49 vote, followed on June 18 by a 19-13 vote in the Senate after Pres. Monroe becomes the first U.S. pres. to ask for a declaration of war, and the War of 1812 (Mr. Madison's War) (Second War of Independence) on Great Britain begins (ends Feb. 17, 1815); too late, on June 16 the British finally lift their restrictions on neutral trade without their knowledge; the U.S. Navy at first consists of only 16 seagoing vessels, vs. 1K+ for the British, and the war is very unpopular in New England, at first being ignored in favor of illegal trading and privateering, but when the fall of Napoleon allows the British to extend their blockade to New England and occupy Maine, it is considered a Southern plot to ruin them as ships rot in North Atlantic ports and goods pile upon the docks of Boston, Salem, and Marblehead; the Kickapoo, Wyandot, Shawnee (Northwest Indians), Sac and Fox, and other tribes fight with the British against the Americans (perhaps their last hurrah?); the Colonial Marines, formed in 1808 by the British from runaway black slaves who are promised their freedom if they fight serve from May 18, 1814-Aug. 20, 1816, mainly stationed at St. Augustine, Fla. and the Negro Fort (Fort Gadsden) on the Apalachicola River in NW Fla., pissing-off white slaveowners, who wait till they are disbanded then destroy their fort in the July 27, 1816 Battle of Negro Fort; Dem.-Repub. N.Y. Gov. (1807-13) Daniel D. Tompkins raises 40K militia using his personal fortune as security for equipment. On June 4 now that La. is a state, the Louisiana Territory is renamed the Missouri Territory. On June 15 the French evacuate Oviedo, Spain. On June 15 the Russians stop the French under Gen. Reynier at the Battle of Kobrin, becoming their first V over Napoleon. On June 16 the City Bank of New York opens; it later changes its name to Citibank. On June 17 the British under Gen. Arthur Wellesley siege Salamanca, Spain; on July 22 after several weeks facing each other off, the Battle of Salamanca (Battle of the Arapiles) is a V for the Brits and Portuguese under Wellesley over the French forces of Marshal Auguste Marmont, who is gravely wounded in the right arm and side and retires to France; meanwhile British Gen. Rowland Hill and his 18-man army protect Badajoz. 600K in, 30K out? On June 21 after raising taxes to pay for it, Napoleon declares war on Russia, and assembles his Grande Armee of 600K dead-men-walking (30K from Austria and 20K from Prussia, forming the right and left wings) (no overcoats) and marches them to Russia, with Prussia granting them free passage, invading Mother Russia on June 23, crossing the Niemen (Neman) River at Kovno 50 mi. NW of Vilna on June 26, then occupying Vilna (Vilnius) 700 mi. W of Moscow on June 28, while the Russians under gen. prince Michael Andreas (Mikhail Bogdanovich) Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818) (of Scottish descent) retreat without giving battle - my life always goes to the edge, my American Express card with me? On July 2 the Spanish siege French-held Astorga, Spain. On July 8 the French occupy Minsk, Russia. On July 20 Sicily proclaims a new 1812 Sicilian Constitution; the Sicilian Mafia is born as Sicily transitions out of feudalism and feudal barons sell their land to private citizens, causing private landowners to zoom from 2K in 1812 to 20K in 1861, recruiting armed guards to protect property rights. On July 21 the First Battle of Castalla is a V for the French over the Spanish. On July 23 the Battle of Saltanova S of Mogilev sees the Russians under gen. Nikolai Nikolaevich Raevsky (1771-1829) (whose 11-y.-o. son Nikolai and 16-y.-o. son Alexander fight with him) defeat the French then cross the Dnieper River to Smolensk, which he holds in a 24-hour battle on Aug. 4. On July 24 the French under Gen. MacDonald siege Riga, Latvia. On July 28 the French occupy Vitebsk, Russia. On July 30-Aug. 1 the Battle of Gorodetschna is a V for 25K Austrians and 13K Saxons over 31K Russians under Gen. Count Alexander Petrovich Tormasov (1752-1819), with 4K Russian casualties vs. 3K Austrian-Saxon casualties, after which the Russians withdraw and allow the Allies to occupy Kobrin on Aug. 3, causing Austrian Emperor Francis I to promote gen. Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg (1771-1820) to field marshal. In July the Yankees fall all over themselves in their rush to invade and take over Canada, starting with a brief incursion into sparsely populated Upper Canada, but the reverses start early, and on Aug. 16 inept Gen. William Hull (1753-1825) surrenders Detroit to the British under Canadian leader Maj. Gen. Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812), and is later court-martialed for it, while Brock becomes known as "the Hero of Upper Canada". On Aug. 7 a British-Sicilian force under Gen. Murray lands at Alicante, Spain; on Aug. 10 Spanish king (since 1808) Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) and his family abandon Madrid and flee to Valencia, where they hook up with Gen. Soult and retake Madrid in Nov., but Napoleon, returned from Russia soon recalls Soult with a large part of his army, allowing Wellesley to cut Joseph off. On Aug. 13 after hosting the banner "Free trade and sailos' rights" on July 2, the USS Essex, commanded by capt. (later commodore) David Porter (1780-1843) captures HMS Alert, becoming the first British warship captured in the War of 1812; too bad, after sailing around Cape Horn next year, on Mar. 28, 1814 Porter is forced to surrender off Valparaiso by the frigate HMS Phoebe and the sloop HMS Cherub. On Aug. 13 the Spanish capture Bilbao, Spain on the Bay of Biscay from the French. On Aug. 15 the Battle (Massacre) of Fort Dearborn in modern-day Chicago, Ill. is a V for the Potawatomi Indians, who burn the fort down and drive off the settlers, who soon return, rebuilding the fort in 1816. On Aug. 16 the 14,022 ft. (4,274m) Finsteraarhorn, highest mountain in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland is climbed by a team led by Aargau merchant Rudolph Meyer, incl. Joseph Bortes and Aloys Volker, who had been on the Jungfrau climb in 1811; Meyer becomes exhausted and stops at Meyer's Peak while the rest reach the summit; in 1913 John Percy Farrar claims that they only reached a shoulder 200m below the summit. On Aug. 16-18 the Battle of Smolensk 300 mi. W of Moscow (first major battle of the French invasion of Russia) sees Napoleon's 175K-man army defeat a 130K-man army under gen. Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, with 4.7K Russians KIA (incl. 5 gens.), 7K-8K wounded, and 2K taken POW, vs. 700 French KIA and 3K wounded; too bad, the French forget to save the food sources when they destroy Smolensk, biting them in the butt later. On Aug. 17-18 the First Battle of Polotsk 200 mi. W of the Polish border (150 mi. NW of Smolensk) is a V for the French under marshals Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio (1767-1848) and Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (1764-1830) ("the Owl") over the Russkies under field marshal prince Peter Christianovich Wittgenstein (1769-1843); before heading for Moscow, Napoleon leaves a contingent of French and German troops in Polosk to guard his N flank against Wittgenstein, which later becomes a major weak point. On Aug. 18 the Spanish capture Astorga in Leon from the French. On Aug. 19 the U.S. frigate USS Constitution ("Old Ironsides") under Capt. Isaac Hull (1773-1843) defeats the British frigate HMS Guerriere E of Nova Scotia, giving the U.S. public something to cheer about, and the arrogant British something to take the starch out of their wigs; in 1823 Hull is promoted to commodore. On Aug. 22 after learning Arabic and posing as a Muslim for safety, Swiss Orientalist and traveler Johann Ludwig (Jean Louis) Burckhardt (1784-1817) discovers the ancient Nabataean city of Petra in Jordan 50 mi. S of the Dead Sea, starting with Al-Khazneh (Arab. "The Treasury), going on to found Biblical Archeology. On Aug. 24 the French raise their siege of Cadiz (begun Feb. 5, 1810) and begin evacuating Andalusia; on Aug. 27 the Spanish storm Seville. On Aug. 31 after an insurrection in his native Nuevo Santander, Mexico was suppressed last year, causing him to travel to the U.S. to seek help for the remaining rebels, blacksmith Jose Bernardo Maximiliano Gutierrez de Lara places an ad in The Herald of Alexandria, La. calling for volunteers for the "Republicans of Nacogdoches", causing U.S. Lt. Augustus William Magee (McGee) (1789-1813) to recruit a force of 130 men in Nachitoches, La. for the Gutierrez-Magee Filibustering Expedition, meeting with La. Gov. William C.C. Clairborne and William Shaler in New Orleans before crossing the border in early Aug. 1812 and capturing Nacogdoches on Aug. 16, recruiting 200 more and taking Trinidad (Santisima Trinidad de Calcedo), Tex. on the E bank of the Trinity River on Sept. 13, followed by Presidio La Bahia in Goliad, where Magee dies of malaria or consumption (poisoned?), causing Am. adventurer Samuel Kemper (-1814) to take over as cmdr.; meanwhile on Dec. 10 de Lara meets with the U.S. House of Reps, who turn him down for fear of jeopardizing relations with Spain. Maybe that monkey figured out something I couldn't understand, who knows? Napleon's long run of hot luck turns not only cold but deadly hypothermic? On Sept. 5-7 after crossing the Viliya River, Napoleon wins the bloody Battle of Borodino 70 mi. WSW of Moscow against Russian field marshal Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (1745-1813) (the replacement for Tolly), who tries to halt Nappy with 121K men behind a line of earthworks across the highway at Borodino, causing Nappy (130K men) to maneuver the Russkies into massing in the center, then bombarding them with artillery, followed by a cavalry attack, breaking their lines and causing them to retreat under cover of darkness, leaving behind 45K KIA and wounded, incl. 22 gens., vs. 32K French KIA, incl. 31 gens., becoming the most bloody battle of the 19th cent.; Russian gen. Pyotr (Petr) Ivanovich Bagration (b. 1765) (who led the Russian left wing) is mortally wounded, and dies on Sept. 24, after which his remains are transferred back to the battlefield and a monument erected by Tsar Nicholas I in his honor; the grave is blown up during WWII. On Sept. 14 Napoleon attacks Moscow, but the retreating Russians burn it, and when he enters it on Sept. 15 he finds it nearly deserted and no place to be caught without supplies, and he finally retreats from Moscow on Oct. 19, his army disintegrating after crossing the Berezina River in Belarus on Nov. 26-28; marshals Oudinot and Michel Ney (1769-1815) lead 8.5K freezing Frogs to force the passage against 25K warm Russkies, and Napoleon leaves Joachim Murat in command of a fierce battle as he sets out for Paris, returning on Dec. 19 while his army is wasted by "General Winter" (the Russian winter) on the return march, only about 100K men straggling across the Niemen River, of which only about 30K return to France; the main reason for the deaths is typhus? - minus loose appendages? On Sept. 19-21 the Brits under Wellington siege Burgos, Spain; on Sept. 22 Wellington is offered command of the Spanish army, causing him to raze the siege on Oct. 21. In Sept. Federalists hold a Nat. Peace Convention in New York City, at which they agree to support DeWitt Clinton, who repays them by agreeing to straddle the war issue and play the crowd he's in front of, causing Pres. Madison to claim that this hampers his conduct of the war. On Oct. 1 Mass. pork packer Samuel Wilson (1766-1854) gives his nickname Uncle Sam to the U.S. govt. by mistaken interpretation of his "US" stamp on pork barrels shipped to feed the army. On Oct. 13 the Battle of Queenston Heights results when 6K Yankees under inexperienced Federalist political apointee Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer III (1764-1839) and Gen. Alexander Smyth try to cross the Niagara River at Queenston Heights 7 mi. below Niagara Falls, and only 900 cross before surrendering, while the 1.5K Brits only lose 50 men, incl. Maj. Gen. Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812), who insists on leading a charge and is picked off by U.S. sharpshooters. On Oct. 18 the French under gen. Murat are defeated by the Russians under Gen. Bennigsen at the Battle of Vinkovo (Tarutino) (Chernishnya) 8 mi. from Tarutino. On Oct. 18-20 the Second Battle of Polotsk (Smoliani) is V for the Russians under gen. Peter Wittgenstein over the French under marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, allowing the Russians to take Polotsk and then dismantle Napoleon's forces in Belarus, then join the other two Russian armies to go for Napoleon. On Oct. 31 the Battle of Aslanduz sees a Persian force of 20K under Prince Abbas Mirza (1789-1833) defeated by a Russian force of 2K-3K under Ukrainian Gen. Pyotr Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky (1782-1852), who go on to take Lenkoran - Persians get too much P to make good fighters? On Oct. 24 the Battle of Maloyaroslavets is a V for Napoleon's 20K troops over 25K Russians under Marshal Kutuzov, but he fails to follow up and march toward Kaluga and goes back to his pathetic retreat along the same road he came in on. On Oct. 25 Capt. Stephen ("Our Country Right or Wrong") Decatur Jr. (1779-1820) commands the U.S. frigate United States to a V over the British frigate Macedonian, earning him a promotion to karma chameleon commodore. On Oct. 29 French gen. Claude Francois de Malet (b. 1754) and several accomplices are executed in Paris for conspiring to install Louis XVIII during Napoleon I's return from Russia, announcing on Oct. 22 that he had died on Oct. 7 then attempting to seize Paris before he being found out and captured. On Oct. 31 the British evacuate Madrid. In Oct. an undisciplined U.S. militia on the Niagara River refuses to advance into Canada, followed by another at Plattsburg on Lake Champlain in Nov. In Oct. Lancaster, Penn. becomes the state capital. On Nov. 3 Napoleon is attacked at the village of Fyodorovskoy in Russia. On Nov. 9 a retreating French div. under gen. Louis Baraguay d'Hilliers (1764-1813) is captured outside Smolensk, and d'Hilliers ends up dying in disgrace next year in Berlin, leaving his 17-y.-o. son Louis-Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers (1795-1878), who ends up losing his left hand next year at Mockern. On Nov. 14-18 the Battle of Krasnoye (Krasny) (Krasnoi) is a pyrrhic V for Napoleon's remaining 42K regulars and 39K stragglers over 60K-80K Russkies under gen. Mikhail Kutuzov after Nappy stages a fake attack to cause Kutuzov to think twice, allowing him to escape destruction, although his Grande Armee suffers heavy losses, losing several individual defeats and abandoning most of its artillery and baggage train, losing 6K-13K French killed and 20K-26K captured vs. 5K Russian casualties; meanwhile the Russkies cut off French gen. Ney's forces, but they escape after a 3-day march, after which on Nov. 22 the Russkies cut the French line of march at the Berezina River, which the do-or-die French break through on Nov. 25-29; on Dec. 5 Napoleon abandons his dying Grand Armee, which retreats across the border into East Prussia on Dec. 14; meanwhile on Dec. 18 MacDonald's French army abandons its siege of Riga and heads back too. On Dec. 29 the U.S. frigate Constitution under Capt. William Bainbridge adds another V to its list over 38-gun the British frigate Java, but the British succeed in blockading most of the U.S. fleet. On Dec. 30 the Convention of Taurroggen (Taurage) declaring Prussia neutral is signed by Prussian field marshal Hans David Ludwig, Count Yorck (York) von Wartenburg (1759-1830) after he is talked into turning against the French (whom he had supported at Riga) in order to stop reprisals by the Russkies, who gain Koenigsberg; when he hears about it, Prussian king (since 1797) Frederick William III declares it void and orders his court-martial, causing Yorck to utter the soundbyte "The army desires war with France, the nation desires it, the king himself desires it, but his will is not free, therefore the army must make his will free", after which the bearer of his removal order is not allowed to pass through his lines, and he is absolved next year with the Treaty of Kalisch, causing Beethoven to name the jackboot-kicking Yorckscher Marsch (Yorck March) in his honor; the magic moment and turning point in Prussian history? In the winter U.S. Navy Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry builds a fleet of small boats on Lake Erie. Ft. Dearborn in Chicago is captured by the British. The Hong Kyong-nae Rebellion breaks out in N Korea, led by a disaffected "fallen" yangban (court official) in reaction to forced labor and oppressive taxation during a famine; they are finally quashed after several mo. The capital of Finland is moved from Turku to Helsinki to be closer to the Russian capital of Sunken Hell St. Petersburg; German architect Johann Carl Ludvig Engel (1778-1840) is hired to design the state bldgs. Kishinev is acquired from Moldavia by Russia. The charter of the Bank of the United States collapses, and Philly businessman Stephen Girard (1750-1831), who invested $1M in its shares in 1810 takes it over and continues it as the Bank of Stephen Girard, going on to become a big financial supporter of the War of 1812 and float 90% of a $5M war loan in 1814. I was framed by Her Majesty's Government? Wheat prices in Britain soar, banks stop payments in gold, and paper money is made legal tender, which in conjunction with a 10% income tax cuts spending power by 25%; starvation looms, and Luddite attacks on mills increase as weavers get nasty; the British Parliament passes the Frame-Breaking Act, making it a capital offense to break a machine (say that again?); after the Sheffield Riots and other Luddite attacks on machines and people, in Dec. Parliament passes an Anti-Luddite Bill mobilizing the Dragoons to assist local militias in capturing and hanging Luddites, soon crushing the movement. Mehmet Ali recaptures the Hejaz, along with the sacred Muslim cities Mecca, Medina and Jidda from the Sunni Arab Wahhabis, who continue a guerrilla war from C Arabia. The Stein-Hardenberg Reforms emancipate the Jews in Prussia. Irish-born British merchant ship capt. William Brown (1777-1857) moves to Buenos Aires, and is offered the command of the navy of the United Provinces, forming the first Argentine navy out of armored merchant ships, with fellow Irishman John Santiago King as his asst., commanding the Belfast et al. Henry Bell's 25-ton steamship Comet begins operation on the Clyde River in Scotland. British vice-adm. Sir William Henry Dillon (1779-1857) visits Algiers in the HMS Leopard, and observes Am. (incl. Jewish) slaves and how they are mistreated by the Muslim slave owners. The 14,026-ft. Finsteraarhorn in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland is scaled for the first time - only place left to escape the draft? North Dakota (N.D.) ("friend or ally" in Sioux) is settled by Scotch-Irish families at Pembina. Victor Marie du Pont (1767-1827) joins the Delaware Volunteers. The Baptist Union of Great Britain is formed. The Sisters of Loretto, named after Loreto in C Italy, where Jesus' house (Santa Casa) was allegedly flown by angels from Nazareth is founded in Loretto, Ky. (8 mi. NW of Lebanon), and goes on to found another house near Dublin in 1822. Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary is founded in Princeton, N.J., becoming known for Bible-thumping Calvinist Princeton Theology; in 1910 they issue a list of five dogmas deemed essential to defend the infallibility of the Bible, incl. inerrancy of scripture, the Virgin Birth of Christ, Christ's atonement for our sins on the cross, Christ's bodily resurrection, and the objective reality of Christ's miracles; the last one is later replaced by the doctrine of premillennialism, that Christ will physically return to Earth in the Second Coming to inaugrate the thousand-year golden age of peace AKA the Millennium; too bad, in 1929 after the theological liberals take over the school, the last Bible-thumping Princeton theologians leave to found Westminster Theological Seminary in Glenside, Penn. The Royal Yacht Squadron in England is formed. Goethe and Beethoven meet in Teplitz. Lady Caroline Lamb (nee Ponsonby) (1785-1828), wife of Whig leader William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne has a public affair with Lord Byron (1788-1824), calling him "mad, bad, and dangerous to know". Hamilton College in Clinton, N.Y. is founded. The Southern Am. college fraternity Kuklos Adelphon (Gr. "kuklos" = circle) (AKA Kappa Alpha, Alpha Society) is founded at the U. of N.C. (until 1866); origin of the name Ku Klux Klan? Mass. printer Isaiah Thomas founds the Am. Antiquarian Society. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in Penn. is founded. The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Musikverein) in Vienna is founded. The Hampden Clubs for extending the franchise (vote) are formed in England by English Radical MP Maj. John Cartwright (1740-1824). The Westminster Gas Light and Coke Co. in London is chartered on Apr. 30 by German-born Frederick Albert Winsor (Winzer) (1763-1830), becoming the first co. to supply London with coal gas, operating Britain's first gas works. The Peugeot Co. is founded in France to make saws; clock springs, corset frames, and umbrella frames (1833); pepper mills (1842); coffee grinders (1879); bicycles (1885); gas-driven cars (1890). J.L. Burckhardt of Switzerland discovers the rock-hewn Great Temple of Abu Simbel in Thebes, Egypt. Robert Stuart first mentions the 400 ft. Courthouse and Jail Rocks (originally McFarlan's Castle, the Lonely Tower, the Castle, the Capitol) S of modern-day Bridgeport in the Neb. Panhandle in W Neb. at the E terminus of the Wildcat Hills overlooking the North Plate River Valley, becoming a landmark for pioneers. Architecture: Drury Lane Theatre in London is finished. San Carlo Opera House in Naples (begun 1810) is finished. Chateau de Meudon 3 mi. SW of Paris becomes the official residence of the king of Rome, Jerome Bonaparte; it burns down in 1871. Benjamin Franklin's grandson tears down a framework of white beams in Franklin Court that he and his wife Deborah had intended to be their dream home but never finished. Inventions: Bryan Donkin (1768-1855) of Northumberland, England, partner in John Hall's Dartford Iron Works opens the first British cannery based on Nicolas Appert's patents, but instead of glass jars he uses iron cans coated with tin; by 1818 he supplies 14 tons of canned meat to the British Admiralty, all of which are opened with a hammer and chisel; by the next decade the process is exported to the U.S., although mass production of tin cans doesn't go bigtime until the beginning of the 20th cent. Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Penn. patents a horse-drawn mowing machine on Dec. 4. Eli Whitney finally perfects his mass production techniques, and turns out 15K guns for the U.S. govt. within two years. The U.S. Congress makes its first broad contract for the maintenance of lighthouses with Winslow Lewis (1770-1850) after purchasing his Reflecting and Magnifying Lantern patent. Cabinet maker William Monroe of Concord, Mass. invents a machine for making lead pencils encased in grooved cedar holders. Matthew Murray (1765-1826) of England builds the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin-cylinder Salamanca. French mechanic Philippe Henri Girard (1745-1845) invents a flax-spinning machine after Napoleon promises 1M francs as a prize, but he never collects. Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel (1780-1826) of Amsterdam, Holland invents the metronome; too bad, he fails to patent it, allowing Johann Nepomuk Malzel (Mälzel) (1772-1838) to steal it and patent the Malzel Metronome in 1816. Science: Am. naturalist John James Audubon (1785-1851) makes his famous breakthrough Drawing of a Whippoorwill in Flight. Jons Jacob Berzelius proposes that all chemical combinations are caused by electrostatic attractions. French mathematician-physicist-astronomer Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786-1856) discovers the rule for matrix multiplication, going on to lay the foundations of matrix algebra. French scientist Pierre Louis Dulong discovers sensitive unstable nitrogen trichloride, losing two fingers and an eye. In 1812 German-born Russian chemist Gottlieb Sigismund Constantin Kirchhoff (1764-1833) obtains glucose (Gr. for "sweet") (AKA corn syrup) by treating starch with sulfuric acid, becoming an early use of a catalyst. The original mad scientists start out as pop stars? English scientist pop star Humphry Davy (1778-1829) (the original Davy Jones?) is knighted and becomes Sir Humphry Davy; he permanently damages his eyes in a nitrogen chloride explosion this year, and his reckless experiments and love of sniffing laughing gas keep him an invalid to his death in 1829; his misfortune is the luck of Michael Faraday (1791-1867) (the original Robin?), as the eye injury causes Davy to hire him as his secy. and lab asst. next year, where he matures into his protege and rival ("his best discovery"), and invents (with William Whewell) the cool new nomenclature for electric junkies, such as electrode, electrolysis, electrolyte, anion (electrode toward which anions move), cation and ion; unfortunately Faraday also injures his eyes in a nitrogen chloride explosion, and goes on to suffer from chronic chemical poisoning. James Parkinson becomes the first physician to recognize perforation of the peritoneum as the cause of death in appendicitis. A German thesis pub. the first medical description of colored hearing (synesthesia), and is later confirmed by Gustav Fechner in 1871 and Francis Galton in the 1880s. Nonfiction: Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842), Memoirs of Military Surgery and Campaigns (3 vols.) (Paris). Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776-1831), The History of Rome (Romische Geschichte) (2 vols.) (English trans. pub. in 1827) (vol. 3 down to the end of the First Punic War pub. posth. in 1832, ed. by Johannes Claussen); the first scientific study of ancient Rome, emphasizing groups and their social traits, tendencies and institutions in preference to individuals, pioneering the writing of history in the absence of original records, founding modern scholarly historiography; a year spent in England and Scotland in 1798 to study agriculture and physics "gave me one important key to Roman history. It is necessary to know civil life by personal observation in order to understand such states as those of antiquity. I never could have understood a number of things in the history of Rome without having observed England." Maria, Lady Callcott , Letters on India. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Recherches sur les Ossements Fossiles de Quadrupedes (Researches on Quadruped Fossil Bones); issues his "rash dictum" that it is unlikely that any large animal remained undiscovered. Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829), Elements of Chemical Philosophy (London); first texbook of physical chemistry? Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842), Dictionary of Hebrew and Chaldaic Language; throws the languages open to scientific study by goyim? Sir Richard Hoare (1758-1838), Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire (1812-19). Isaac D'Israeli (1766-1848), The Calamities and Quarrels of Authors with Some Inquiries Respecting Their Normal Moral and Literary Characters (1812-3). Jove knows that I love, but whom, lips do not move, no man must know? Hegel's dialectic launches Euro philosophers into a tizzy for the rest of the cent., spawning Marxist dialectical materialism and state worship? Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), The Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logic) (Die Objektive Logik) (3 vols.) (1812, 1813, 1816); rev. 1831; how history is a progressive process from Pure Being (China) to the Absolute Idea (Prussia) (pure thought thinking about pure thought), based on the dialectic (thesis + antithesis = synthesis); "This unity is consequently the absolute and all truth, the Idea which thinks itself"; "The history of the world is the discipline of the uncontrolled natural will, bringing it into obedience to a universal principle and conferring subjective freedom. The East knew, and to the present day knows, that 'one' is free; the Greek and Roman world, that 'some' are free; the German world knows that 'all' are free", therefore America is the land of the future, and the Absolute will reveal itself one day, perhaps in a contest between North and South America", with war being necessary, along with class structures and the state; his 1811 marriage makes him get serious, and this work gets him a job as prof. of philosophy at the U. of Heidelberg in 1816, followed by prof. of philosophy at the U. of Berlin in 1818-31. Pierre-Simon de Laplace (1749-1827), Theorie Analytique. John Nichols (1745-1826), Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century (1812-15). Benjamin Rush (1746-1813), Medical Inquiries and Observations upon Diseases of the Mind (4 vols.); first Am. textbook on psychiatry, advocating humane treatment of the mentally ill. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), Declaration of Rights. Music: Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860), Wast Is des Deutschen Vaterland?; composed in exile in Russia. Francois-Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834), Jean de Paris (comic opera) (Paris). James Sanderson (1769-1841), Hail to the Chief; lyrics from Sir Walter Scott's poem "The Lady of the Lake". Art: Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), Emperor Napoleon in His Study; starts the trend of portraying Little Boney with his right hand in his shirt. John Flaxman (1755-1826), Lord Cornwallis (sculpture) (Prince of Wales Island). Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), The Charging Chasseur; an officer of the Hussars charging on horseback; his first major work, exhibited at the Paris Salon. Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), The Duke of Wellington. Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), Francis I; Charles V. Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872), Self-Portrait; The Dying Hercules; 6' x 8'; his masterpiece; a commentary on the War of 1812; "My great picture also has not only been received at the Royal Academy, but has one of the finest places in the rooms. It has been spoken of in the papers, which you must know is considered a great compliment." Poetry: William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878), To a Waterfowl; "There is a Power whose care/ Teaches thy way along that pathless coast,--/ The desert and illimitable air,--/ Lone wandering, but not lost." Lord Byron (1788-1824), Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (4 parts) (1812-18); childe is a medieval term for a candidate for knighthood; his 2-year tour of Europe romanticized; makes him a star; dedicated to Ianthe; criticizes Lord Elgin's actions regarding the Acropolis, "The walls defaced, the moldering shrines removed by British hands", causing Elgin in 1820 to pub. the reply Memorandum on the Subject of the Earl of Elgin's Pursuits in Greece, telling why it's such a great idea; when the Turks destroy Athenian monuments in 1826-7 during the Greek war of independence, the criticism stops. George Colman the Younger (1762-1836), Poetical Vagaries. Jan Frederik Helmers (1767-1813), De Hollandsche Natie (The Dutch Nation); anti-French; big hit. Louis-Jean Nepomucene Lemercier (1771-1840), L'Atlantiade ou la Theogonie Newtonienne. Thomas Moore (1779-1852), The Two-Penny Post-Bag. Christopher North (1785-1854), Isle of Palms. Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), The Philosophy of Melancholy. Births: Austrian architect Eduard van der Null (Nüll) (d. 1868) on Jan. 12 in Vienna; educated at the Vienna Polytechnical Inst. Serbian PM (1861-7) Ilija Garasanin (d. 1874) on Jan. 28 in Garasi. Ukrainian "Dark Eyes", "Little Russian Fables" Romantic writer-poet Yevhen Hrebinka (d. 1848) on Feb. 2 in Ubizhyshche, Poltava Gubernia. French military officer Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthes (d'Anthès) (d. 1895) on Feb. 5 in Colmar; killer of Alexander Pushkin. English "David Copperfield", "Great Expectations" novelist ("Boz") Charles John Huffam Dickens (d. 1870) on Feb. 7 in Portsea, Portsmouth; born poor, works in a dye warehouse at age 11 while his father spends over a year in debtor's prison, then receives a legacy setting daddy free and allowing him to attend school in 1824-6; clerks for two years and learns shorthand; combs his hair hundreds of times a day; dictates his novels to an asst.; writes and sleeps facing north to align with the poles?; known for wife-beating, anti-Semitism, xenophobia, and white supremacy. Am. Confederate vice-pres. (1861-5) Alexander Hamilton "Little Elick" Stephens (d. 1883) on Feb. 11 in Crawfordville, Taliaferro County, Ga.; adds the middle name Hamilton after his benefactor, Presbyterian minister Alexander Hamilton Webster. U.S. Repub. vice-pres. #18 (1873-5) Henry Wilson (Jeremiah Jones Colbath) (d. 1875) on Feb. 16 in Farmington, N.H. Polish Romantic poet Count Zygmunt Napoleon Krasinski (d. 1859) on Feb. 19 in Paris. English Victorian Gothic Revival architect-archeologist Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (d. 1852) on Mar. 1 in London; son of Augustus Charles Pugin (1762-1832); father of Edward Welby Pugin (1834-75) and Peter Paul Pugin (1851-1904); goes Roman Catholic in 1834 after studying ecclesiastical architecture, then fights to push medieval architecture over pagan, restoring many Catholic churches. German "Economics of the Present and Future" economist Bruno Hildebrand (d. 1878) on Mar. 6; father of Adolf von Hildebrand (1847-1921); grandfather of Dietrich von Hildebrand (1889-1977). Mexican pres. (1855-7) Ignacio Gregorio Comonfort de los Rios (d. 1863) on Mar. 12 in Puebla. Russian pro-Western abolitionist writer ("Father of Russian Socialism") Alexander Ivanovich Herzen (Hertzen) (d. 1870) on Apr. 6 (Mar. 25 Old Style) in Moscow. U.S. Army Gen. Randolph Barnes Marcy (d. 1887) on Apr. 9 in Greenwich, Mass. German "Martha" opera composer Friedrich von Flotow (d. 1883) on Apr. 12 in Teutendorf, Mecklenburg. English journalist-historian John Forster (d. 1876) on Apr. 12 in Newcastle; ed. of the London Examiner (1847-55). French Barbizon School landscape painter Pierre Etienne Theodore Rousseau (d. 1867) on Apr. 15 in Paris. British statesman and gov.-gen. of India (1848-1956) James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, Marquis and 10th Earl of Dalhousie (d. 1860) on Apr. 22 in Dalhousie Castle, Midlothian, Scotland; son of the 9th Earl of Dalhousie (1770-1838); educated at Harrow School, and Christ Church, Oxford U. French match inventor Marc Charles Sauria (d. 1895) on Apr. 25 in Poligny, Jura. German munitions magnate ("the Cannon King") Alfred Krupp (d. 1887) on Apr. 26 in Essen; son of Friedrich Krupp (1787-1826). English "The Owl and the Pussycat" artist, musician, and nonsense poet (epileptic) Edward Lear (d. 1888) on May 12 in Highgate, London; a 20th child; raised by his elder sister; his patron is the 13th earl of Derby, causing a rumor that the earl is the real author of the nonsense since lear is an anagram of earl. English "Pippa Passes", "Pied Piper of Hamelin" poet-playwright Robert Browning (d. 1889) on May 7 in Camberwell, London; father is a prosperous bank clerk with a 6K-vol. library, mother is a devout Nonconformist; educated by tutors before attending the U. of London; known for his dramatic monologues; husband (1846-61) of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-61). Am. soldier-physician (black) (Freemason) (abolitionist) (black nationalist?) Maj. Martin Robinson Delany (Delaney) (d. 1885) on May 6 in Charleston, Va.; first black field officer in the U.S. Army; mother takes them to Chambersburg, Penn. when it is discovered she's teaching him to read. Am. Civil War Union brig. gen. John McClernand (d. 1900) on May 12 in Hardingsburg, Ky. English Mormon leader George Darling Watt (d. 1881) on May 12 in Manchester; first Mormon convert in the British Isles (July 30, 1837). German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle (d. 1910) on June 9 in Radis; first to view the planet Neptune (Sept. 23, 1846). U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1841-3, 1863-5, 1867-81) and N.Y. mayor (1855-7, 1860-62) Fernando Wood (d. 1881) on June 14 in Philadelphia, Penn.; named after the Gothic novel "The Three Spaniards" (1800) by George Walker. Russian "Oblomov" novelist Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (d. 1891) on June 18 (June 6 Old Style) in Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk); educated at Moscow U. German Marxist-Socialist writer (Jewish) (founder of Labor Zionism) Moses (Moshe) Hess (d. 1875) on June 21 in Bonn; coiner of the saying "religion is the opiate of the people"? Polish novelist Joseph Ignatius Kraszewski (d. 1887) on July 28 in Warsaw. German prince Carl (Karl) of Solms-Braunfels (d. 1875) on July 12 in Neustrelitz. Am. rear adm. John Rodgers Jr. (d. 1882) on Aug. 8 near Havre de Grace, Md.; son of John Rodgers Sr. (1772-1838). Am. winemaker ("the Father of Calif. Viticulture") Agoston Haraszthy (d. 1869) on Aug. 30 in Pest, Hungary; first Hungarian to settle in the U.S. (1840). Am. Mormon Mountain Meadows Massacre scapegoat John Doyle Lee (d. 1877) on Sept. 6 in Kaskaskia, Ill. Russian celeb Natalia Nikolayevna Pushkina (Pushkina-Lanskaya) (nee Goncharova) (d. 1863) on Sept. 8 in Karian, Tambov; wife (1831-7) of Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) and (1944-63) Maj. Gen. Petr Petrovich Lanskoy (1799-1877). English historian-jurist Edward Shepherd Creasy (d. 1878) on Sept. 12 in Bexley, Kent; educated at Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1860. Am. inventor Richard March Hoe (d. 1886) on Sept. 12 in New York City; son of Robert Hoe (1784-1833); uncle of Robert Hoe (1839-1909); inventor of the rotary press. Italian chemist dAscanio Sobrero (d. 1870) on Oct. 12 in Casale Monferrato; inventor of nitroglycerine (1847); teacher of Alfred Nobel. Chinese Qin Dynasty statesman-gen. Zuo Zongtang (Tsuo Tsung-t'ang) (d. 1885) on Nov. 10 in Wenjialong, Hunan; namesake of Gen. Tso's Chicken. English historian-Orientalist George Rawlinson (d. 1902) on Nov. 23 in Chadlington, Oxfordshire; brother of Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (1810-95); educated at Trinity College, Oxford U. English "London Labour and the London Poor" journalist and reformer (co-founder of Punch) Henry Mayhew (d. 1887) on Nov. 25 in London; one of 17 children; educated at Westminster School. French adm. Pierre-Gustave Roze (d. 1883) on Nov. 26 in Toulon. English Rinso soap inventor (Congregationalist) Robert Spear Hudson (d. 1884) on Dec. 6 in West Bromwich, Staffordshire; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Am. Standard & Poor's co-founder Henry Varnum Poor (d. 1905) on Dec. 8 in Andover, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College. British gov.-gen. #21 of India (1856-62) Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning (d. 1862) on Dec. 14 in Brompton, London; youngest child of George Canning and Joan, Viscountess Canning, daughter of Maj.-Gen. John Scott; educated at Christ Church College, Oxford U.; created earl in May 1859. Scottish self-help book writer Samuel Smiles (d. 1904) on Dec. 23 in Haddington, East Lothian; educated at the U. of Edinburgh. German Marxist leader Karl Schapper (d. 1870) on Dec. 30 in Weinbach. German chemist Ludwig Ferdinand Wilhelmy (d. 1865). Am. realistic portraitist Charles Loring Elliott (d. 1868) in Auburn, N.Y.; pupil of John Trumbull and John Quidor (1801-81). Korean p'ansori opera composer Sin Chae-hyo (d. 1884). Norwegian poet-folklorist Peter Christen Asbjornsen (d. 1885). Dutch Romantic novelist (Protestant) Anna Louise Geertruida Bosboom-Toussaint (d. 1886) in Alkmaar. Dutch novelist Pieter Hasebroeck (AKA Jonathan) (d. 1896). Deaths: Am. pastor Martin Boehm (b. 1725) on Mar. 23. English piano maker John Broadwood (b. 1732) on July 17 in London. Irish playwright-librettist Isaac Bickerstaffe (b. 1733). Am. Rev. War. gen. James Clinton (b. 1733) on Dec. 12 in Little Britain, N.Y. (brother of George Clinton). U.S. vice-pres. #4 (1805-12) George Clinton (b. 1739) on Apr. 20 in Washington, D.C. (brother of James Clinton). German Jewish banking house patriarch Meyer Amschel Rothschild (b. 1744) on Sept. 19 in Frankfurt-am-Main; orders his sons to only marry their first cousins?: "Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes its laws." Dutch surgeon-scholar-trader Isaac Titsingh (b. 1745) on Feb. 2 in Paris. Irish-born Am. printer John Dunlap (b. 1747) on Nov. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn. German painter Johann Friedrich August Tischbein (b. 1750) on June 21 in Heidelberg. Am. diplomat-poet Joel Barlow (b. 1754) on Dec. 24 in Zarnowiec, Poland; dies of exposure while retreating with the French army. French Gen. Claude Francois de Malet (b. 1754) on Oct. 29 in Paris (executed). Bohemian composer Johann Ludwig Dussek (b. 1760) on Mar. 20 in St.-Germain-en-Laye. British PM (1809-12) Sir Spencer Perceval (b. 1762) on May 11 in London (assassinated in the House of Commons); last words: "I am murdered". Russian gen. Prince Pyotr Ivanovich Bagration (b. 1765) on Sept. 24 (Sept. 12 Old Style) in Simi (mortally wounded in the Battle of Borodino on Sept. 7). British maj. gen. John Le Marchant (b. 1766) on July 22 in Salamanca, Spain (KIA in cavalry charge). British maj. gen. Sir Isaac Brock (b. 1769) on Oct. 13 in Queenston, Upper Canada (KIA); last words: "Surgite" (press on). French physicist Etienne-Louis Malus (b. 1775) on Feb. 24. Am. clergyman Joseph Stevens Buckminster (b. 1784). German painter Franz Pforr (b. 1788) on June 16 in Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy (TB). Am. Indian guide Sacagawea (b. 1788) on Dec. 20 in Ft. Lisa, N.D.

1813 - Dive, Dummy? The Don't Give Up the Ship Year? A good year to be a naval officer as Napoleon's empire contracts?

William Henry 'Tippecanoe' Harrison of the U.S. (1773-1841) Lewis Cass of the U.S. (1782-1866) U.S. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819) U.S. Capt. James Scott Lawrence (1781-1813) U.S. Gen. James Wilkinson (1757-1825) U.S. Capt. Isaac Chauncey (1779-1840) French Gen. Louis Emmanuel Rey (1768-1846) Don Francisco de Paula Marín (1774-1837) Laura Secord (1775-1868) Robert Southey (1774-1843) Arthur Conolly of Britain (1807-42) Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742-1819) French Gen. Dominique Joseph Rene Vandamme (1770-1830) French Gen. Jean Louis Ebenezer Reynier (1771-1814) Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784-1833) Jose Tomas Rodriguez Boves of Venezuela (1782-1814) Willem Bilderdijk (1756-1831) Peter von Cornelius (1784-1867) Theodosia Burr Alston (1783-1813) Madeleine Chapelle (1782-1849) Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851) James Kirke Paulding (1778-1860) Siméon Denis Poisson (1781-1840) Seth Thomas (1785-1859) Johann David Wyss (1743-1818) James McGill (1744-1813) 'The Wise and Foolish Virgins' by Peter von Cornelius, 1813

1813 On Jan. 2/3 Aaron Burr's beloved daughter Theodosia Burr Alston (b. 1783) mysteriously dies at sea while en route to meet him in New York City, where he had returned last July from Europe, going by the alias Adolphus Arnot; lured onto the Carolina Banks by pirates and murdered?; found on the Gulf Coast at the mouth of the San Bernard River by a Karankawa Indian chief in a wrecked ship chained naked to a bulkhead, giving him a gold locket before dying? On Jan. 18-23 the British under Col. Henry Patrick Procter (Proctor) (1763-1822) defeat a detachment of Am. troops from Ky. under brig. gen. James Winchester (1752-1826) at the Battle of Frenchtown near Frenchtown (modern-day Monroe), Mich., then renege on a pledge of protection, allowing their Indian contingent to slaughter 68 wounded Am. soldiers at the Battle (Massacre) of Raisin River; Winchester is taken POW and released after 1 year, commanding the district of Mobile, Ala.; the Americans don't drive the British from Mich. until Sept. In Jan. the electoral votes are counted, and Madison defeats George Clinton by 128-89; Madison carries all S and W states except Md. and Del.; Clinton carries all New England and Middle Atlantic states except Penn. and Vermont. On Feb. 19 after a 1.5K-man royalist army under Lt. Col. Francisco Ignacio Elizondo Villarreal (1766-1813) pursues them, the Repub. Army of the North under Samuel Kemper, U.S. Col. Henry A. Perry, and Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara retreat to San Antonio de Bexar, and get ambushed on Mar. 29 while searching for food on Rosillo (Salado) Creek in SE Bexar County, Tex., leading on Mar. 29 to the Battle of Rosillo Creek (Rosalis) 9mi. SE of San Anontio de Bexar near the confluence with Salado Creek, with 100-330 royalist troops vs. six repub. troops KIA, and most of the royalists' arms and ammo captured, causing them to retreat to San Antonio and sign a truce on Apr. 1, after which on Apr. 6 de Lara declares Texas independent from Spain, proclaiming its first constitution, with himself as pres. #1 of the First Repub. of Tex.; on June 20 the 2-hour Battle of Alazan Creek in modern-day Bexar County, Tex. W of San Antonio de Bejar sees the 800-man Repub. army under de Lara and Perry surround the 1K-man army of Col. Ignacio Elizondo at dawn and surprise them during breakfast, wiping them out and inviting Indian allies to scalp them, capturing massive supplies incl. 2K horses and mules, 300 guns and muskets, 5K lbs. of gunpowder, and mucho food; too bad, de Lara is replaced by U.S.-backed Gen. Jose Alvarez de Toledo y Dubois (1779-1858), who leads the men to capture San Antonion on aug. 1, but alienates them with racism, causing them to be defeated on Aug. 18 by Jose Joaquin de Arredondo y Miono (José Joaquín de Arredondo y Mioño) (1776-1837) at the Battle of Medina 20 mi. S of San Antonio, losing 1.3K KIA (vs. only 55 royalists), causing Toledo to flee to La., attempt another invasion in 1814, then flop and reconcile with Spain in 1816, becoming an adviser to Fernandi VII; meanwhile the royalists execute all the captured U.S. citizens, ending hope of U.S. aid. On Feb. 28 the Treaty of Kalisch establishes an alliance between Russia and Prussia, and invites Austria and Britain to join them in liberating Europe from Bad Kid Nappy Lion; big hero Count Yorck von Wartenburg makes a triumphal entry into Berlin on Mar. 17, and the same day the king declares war on Napoleon; Yorck's troops later form the nucleus of the army of East Prussia that is inherited by Hitler. On Mar. 4 U.S. pres. #4 James Madison is inaugurated for a second term in the 7th U.S. Pres. Inauguration; Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) becomes the 5th U.S. vice-pres. On Mar. 10 the old Teutonic Order (1219) Iron Cross is founded in Breslau, Germany by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm III as an award for fighting Napoleon. On Mar. 26 a royalist expedition led by Gen. Parja lands in Chile, and Bernardo O'Higgins (1780-1846) joins with pres.-dictator Jose Miguel Carrera in Conception, and are defeated on Oct. 17 at the Battle of El Roble on the Itala River, with O'Higgins saving the army from a total rout; Carrera is deposed, and O'Higgins becomes new pres. On Mar. 27 the Russians and Prussians occupy Dresden, but Nappy isn't done for yet, and he heads to intercept them (May 2). On Mar. 29 (his 23rd birthday) John Tyler (b. 1790) marries Letitia Christian (1790-1842) (good plantation mgr.); they have 3 sons and 4 daughters. On Apr. 13 the Second Battle of Castalla is a V for an Anglo-Spanish force under Lt. Gen. Sir John Murray over a French force under Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet. On Apr. 16 the first mass production factory opens in the U.S., producing pistols. On Apr. 27 after Maj. Gen. Henry Dearborn talks U.S. war secy. John Armstrong out of capturing Kingston on the E end of Lake Ontario, he raids York (later Toronto), capital of Upper Canada at the NW end, protected by the U.S. fleet under Capt. Isaac Chauncey (1779-1840), and sacks it, burning a number of public bldgs., then takes Ft. St. George on May 27, all with heavy losses while allowing the British army to escape and almost capture the U.S. base in Sackett's Harbor on the E end of the lake; luckily Dud Dearborn takes ill, and is replaced as CIC of the NE sector of the war by Gen. Morgan Lewis officially on July 6; too bad, he ends up in New York City presiding over the court-martial of Gen. William Hull for losing Detroit, only to prove it was due to his own incompetence, and he is dishonorably discharged from the army on June 15, 1815, losing an appointment as war secy. - are you ready for another Yankee smack or what? In Apr. U.S. maj. gen. (who was court martialed in 1811 and found not guilty, then promoted?) James Wilkinson (1757-1825) seizes Mot Bay in West Florida in Spanish territory, the small garrison giving up without a fight, then occupies Mobile, Ala. On May 2 Napoleon intercepts the Russians and Prussians at the indecisive Battle of Lutzen, then again on May 20-21 at the indecisive Battle of Bautzen, but with heavy casualties, allowing Metternich (who is waiting in the wings) to mediate a peace while completing Austria's armaments; meanwhile the other allies increase their strength more than the French by the time Austria joins the war against them. In May Simon Bolivar begins a campaign against the royalists in Venezuela, taking earthquake-rocked Caracas (his home town) on Aug. 4, gaining the title of El Libertador, taking dictatorial powers, and on Aug. 7 proclaiming the Second Venezuelan Repub. (ends July 16, 1814); Jose Tomas Rodriguez Boves (1782-1814) starts a guerrilla war on behalf of the Spanish crown, in which atrocities get committed by both sides. On June 1 the 38-gun 3-masted U.S. heavy frigate Chesapeake under Capt. James Lawrence (1781-1813) ventures out of blockaded Boston harbor to accept a British challenge, and is defeated and captured by the British frigate HMS Shannon after mortally-wounded Lawrence issues the immortal soundbyte "Don't give up the ship" while being taken below decks. On June 4 after Metternich talks him into it, the Armistice of Plieswitz (Poischwitz) is signed with the Russians and Prussians by Napoleon, effective until June 26. On June 14-15 the First Treaty of Reichenbach (Dzierzoniow) is signed by Britain, Russia, and Prussia, in which Britain agrees to send subsidies to Prussia and Russia, who agree not to make a separate peace with Napoleon - stick with the home team - this is good? On June 21 82K allies under the Arthur Wellesley, 1st marquess of Wellington decisively defeat 60K French troops under Gen. Jourdan at the naval Battle of Vittoria (Vitoria) in Spain, then on July 7-Sept. 8 9,750 British and Portuguese troops under Thomas Graham siege San Sebastian in N Spain, defended by 3,380 troops under French Gen. Louis Emmanuel Rey (1768-1846), sacking and burning the town before invading S France, causing Joseph Bonaparte to return to his estate in France without resigning; meanwhile French marshal Suchet is driven out of Valencia and Barcelona. On June 22 after learning about a planned Am. attack in the Niagara Peninsula, Canadian loyalist Laura Secord (1775-1868) walks 21 mi. out of Am.-occupied territory to warn British forces under Lt. James FitzGibbon, allowing the British and Mohawks to repel them on June 24 at the Battle of Beaver Dams, capturing 500 POWs incl. the cmdr. On June 26 Metternich meets with Napoleon in Dresden and pulls off a Machiavellian coup when he swindles the "small" man Napoleon, who used to own him but is now caught in a jam, into extending the armistice until Aug. 10 (10 weeks total), while he baits him with favorable terms which he knows he will refuse, and in case he accepts, he knows he can maneuver him into breaching the terms; meanwhile he has the draft of the Second Treaty of Reichenbach (Dzierzoniow) between Austria, Russia, and Prussia in his pocket, which is signed on June 27, with Austria promising to field 50K men if Napoleon rejects their ultimatum, and also not to make a separate peace with the bum, creating the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon; during the power play interview Nappy drops his hat, and Metternich refuses to stoop to pick it up?; after it's over, and Nappy rejects the offer, Bettermach has signal beacons lit telling the Austrian army in Silesia that war is on; German historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr leaves the U. of Berlin to join the German Landwehr after being denied admission into the regular army, going on to edit the patriot journal Prussian Correspondent, becoming ambassador to Rome in 1816, resigning in 1823 and spending the rest of his life in Bonn writing history. On July 5-Aug. 11 the Congress of Prague is a dud when Napoleon declines all terms offered, causing Austria to declare war on France in alliance with Russia, Britain, Prussia, Spain, and Sweden (in return for recognizing their annexation of Norway); the allies adopt a policy of avoiding battles in which Napoleon is personally present; meanwhile Nappy frantically strengthens his army and braces for the counterattack. On July 9 Zig Ziglar, er, Napoleon writes to his gen. Count Yves Lemarois: "You write, 'it is impossible': that is not French." On Aug. 11 Henry James Pye (b. 1744) dies, and Robert Southey (1774-1843) becomes poet laureate of England after Sir Walter Scott declines the position and Southey goes from liberal Republican to staunch Conservative. On Aug. 23 after Napoleon sends a French army under Gens. Nicolas Charles Oudinot and Jean Louis Ebenezer Reynier (1771-1814) to capture Berlin, and they get bogged down in the swamps S of the city, they are defeated by a Prussian-Swedish army under Crown Prince Charles John (former marshal of France Jean Baptiste Bernadotte) (future king Charles XIV of Sweden-Norway in 1818) at the Battle of Grossbeeren. On Aug. 26 the French under Gen. MacDonald are defeated by the Prussians under CIC of the Prussian-Russian Silesian army Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (Blücher) (1742-1819) at the Battle of Wahlstatt (Ger. "battlefield") (Katzbach) (Kaczawa) (Legnickie Pole) on the Katzbach River in Lower Silesia (SW Poland), for which Blucher is made field marshal, followed next year by prince of Wahlstatt. On Aug. 26-27 Napoleon shows that he's still the man as he defeats the allies under marshal Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg at the Battle of Dresden (Nappy's last V on German soil), beginning the the German Campaign of 1813 (Ger. "Befreiungskriege" = Wars of Liberation) to liberate the German states from French control (ends 1814). On Aug. 29-30 the retreating (from Dresden) French under top drawer Gen. Dominique Joseph Rene Vandamme (1770-1830) are defeated at the Battle of Kulm (Chulmec) in N Bohemia, and Vandamme is captured; after being accused of looting by Tsar Alexander I, he utters the soundbyte "At least I have never been accused of killing my father". On Aug. 30 after being put up to it by the British, the Creeks attack Ft. Mims in Ala. and massacre the 265 defenders. On Sept. 4 Andrew Jackson gets into a near-fatal duel with the Benton brothers. On Sept. 6 the French under Marshal Michel Ney are defeated by the Prussians and Russians under Gen. Friedrich von Bulow and Crown Prince Charles John at the Battle of Dennewitz. On Sept. 9 the Treaty of Teplitz pledges unity among Russia, Prussia, and Austria, plus (in secret) the restoration of Prussia and Austria to their 1805 boundaries. On Sept. 10 after blockading the 6-ship British fleet at the W end of Lake Erie with his 9-ship fleet incl. two 20-gun ships and six small 1-2-gun schooners, the U.S. under Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819) wins the naval Battle of Lake Erie (Put-in-Bay) after his flagship USS Lawrence is destroyed and he rows 1/2 mi. through heavy gunfire to transfer command to the USS Niagara while carrying Capt. James Lawrence's battle flag "Don't Give Up the Ship", then uttering the soundbyte: "We have met the enemy and they are ours: two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop"; the V undermines the British position at Detroit, protecting the Ohio Valley while opening Canada to possible invasion, forcing the Brits to hastily retreat into Canada and the U.S. to reoccupy it; Tecumseh and 600 Shawnees are among the British forces pursued by 3K U.S. troops for several days. On Oct. 5 after they stop retreating and make a stand, the Brits under inept inexperienced "by the book" Irish-born Maj. Gen. Henry Patrick Procter (Proctor) (1763-1822) get their clocks cleaned in the Battle of the Thames River (Moraviantown) near Moraviantown on the Thames River in Kent County near Chatham, Ont. by the U.S. Army of the Northwest under Gen. William Henry Harrison (1773-1841); Tecumseh falls in the battle, and dies in Ontario on Oct. 13 after leaving the Zero Year Presidential Curse on U.S. presidents; Tecumseh's confederacy is smashed, ending their alliance with the British, who vacate the NW; Proctor is court-martialed, reprimanded, and suspended; future (1837) vice-pres. Col. Richard M. Johnson allegedly is the lucky plucker who killed Tecumseh, and he goes on to becomes a U.S. Sen. from Ky. from 1819-29, and a U.S. Rep. until 1837. On Oct. 7 the Serbian Uprising of 1804 is brutally crushed by the Ottomans. On Oct. 12 the Paraguayan nat. council names Catholic priest-trained Dr. Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia (José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia) (1766-1840) as the first-ever consul of Paraguay, with absolute power for three years (until Feb. 12, 1814); guess what he does?; you guessed it, he seizes power permanently on June 12, 1814 (untl Sept. 20, 1840); On Oct. 16-19 after the allies combine forces, the climactic 3-day Battle of the Nations (Leipzig) in Leipzig becomes the biggest of the Napoleonic Wars (100K KIA), and the greatest battle until WWI; the Saxon troops of Gen. Jean Louis Reynier switch sides, causing him to get trapped and taken POW, and the French get their butts kicked and retreat across the Rhine with Gen. Blucher leading the Prussians after them, liberating Germany from French rule; the Prussians expel the French from Arnhem. On Oct. 24 the Treaty of Gulstan between Russia and Persia ends the First Russo-Persian War (begun 1804), giving Azerbaijan, Daghestan, and E Georgia to Russia, beginning the Great Game (Tournament of Shadows) between the Russian and British Empires for supremacy in C Asia (ends 1907); the name Great Game is coined by British Indian intel officer Arthur Conolly (1807-42). On Oct. 26 after U.S. gens. James Wilkinson and Wade Hampton lead a 2-pronged attack toward Montreal on Lake Champlain, they are turned back at the Battle of Chateauguay River, followed on Nov. 11 by the Battle of Crysler's Farm (near Montreal), causing them to abandon their Saint Lawrence Campaign, becoming "the Battle that Saved Canada" - is that like when Ford saved Chrysler? On Oct. 29 Battle of the Thames veteran brig gen. Lewis Cass (1782-1866) is appointed gov. of Mich. Territory by Pres. James Madison (until 1831). In Oct. after his voice breaks, 16-y.-o. Franz Schubert (1797-1828) leaves the Stadtkonvikt music school in Vienna (entered in Oct. 1808). On Nov. 10 after 80K British, Portuguese, and Spanish troops (incl. 20K green Spanish troops) under Arthur Wellesley and Sir John Hamilton chase 60K French troops under Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu-Soult from San Sebastian, the Battle of Nivelle on the Nivelle River in France is a V for the Allies under Arthur Wellesley and Sir John Hamilton over the French under Gen. Nicolas Jean de Dieu-Soult, with 2,2450 British vs. 4,351 French casualties. In Nov. the British propose peace negotiations to the Yankee Doodle Americans. In Nov. the remaining members of the Confederation of the Rhine join the allies against Napoleon, and on Nov. 9 the allies offer him a peace, which is declined, causing them on Dec. 1 to adopt a resolution to prosecute the war vigorously and invade France - nothing is the same without you bro'? On Nov. 15 the Dutch rise against the French and expel French officials, permitting Prince William Frederick of Orange to return. On Dec. 5 (a.m.) the Battle of Araure in Venezuela sees 3.5K-5K Spanish royalists under Gen. Domingo de Monteverde defeated by 3K patriotic forces of Simon Bolivar, who gives a speech with the soundbyte: "Your valor has earned yesterday a name for your corps, and through the midst of the fighting, when I saw you succeed, I named you the Victorious Battalion of Araure. You removed the enemy's flags in the moment of your victory. You have earned the famous, invincible call of Numantia." On Dec. 8 Ludwig van Beethoven's Seventh (7th) Symphony in A major, Op. 92 (written in the Bohemian spa town of Teplice and dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries) debuts in Vienna, confirming his status as the world's greatest composer - and Germans as the new master race compared to yesterday's news the French? On Dec. 11 former king (1808) Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) is restored to the throne of Spain (until Sept. 29, 1833), and proves to be a reactionary absolutist, backed by the Persians (conservative deputies), soon double-crossing the liberals and abolishing the liberal constitution on May 4, then arresting the liberal leaders on May 10, all of which increases underground radicalism, incl. Masons; Joseph Bonaparte refuses to abdicate even after his little brother Napoleon I recognizes Ferdinand VII, but finally gives up; Ferdinand VII proves "in many ways the basest king in Spanish history" (Stanley Payne). In Dec. the British cross the Niagara River, burn Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake), and seize Ft. Niagara, then burn Buffalo, allowing their Indian allies to whoop it up and ravage the countryside. British ships ("freedom's swift-winged angels" arrive at Chesapeake Bay, causing hundreds of happy Am. slaves ("an internal enemy") to paddle out and seek protection, going on to become guides, pilots, sailors, and marines, using their knowledge of the countryside to transform the war, helping the British stage onshore attacks, capture Washington, D.C., etc. Blaxland, Wentworth, and Lawson open up the interior of New South Wales in Australia. Its 20-year charter up once again for renewal by Parliament, the East India Co. loses its monopoly of trade with the exception of China. Ang Chan becomes king of Cambodia for the 2nd time (until 1834). Nebraska (Neb.) is settled by fur trader Manuel Lisa. Philly-born Jew Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851) is appointed by Pres. James Madison as U.S. consul to Tunis, rescuing U.S. citizens from Muslim slavery, only to be removed in 1815 by U.S. secy. of state James Monroe for his Jewish religion, pissing him off and causing him to raise a stink about church-state separation, receiving support from Madison, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. U.S. Navy capt. David Porter (1780-1843) builds a fort on Nuka Hiva in the Marquesa Islands to protect three captured British ships, pissing-off the natives, who kill four soldiers over the next year, resulting in enslavement to exploit them economically; too bad, after the Americans stink themselves up, the native pop. shrinks from 100K this year to 4,865 in 1882. The waltz becomes the rage in European ballrooms. James McHenry of Baltimore, Md. circulates a letter to solicit funds for a Bible society in Baltimore, writing "Bibles are strong entrenchments. Where they abound, men cannot pursue wicked courses and at the same time enjoy quiet conscience." William Wordsworth obtains a sinecure as distributor of stamps for Cumberland and Westmorland, and moves with his family and sister to Rydal Mount near Dove Cottage, where he remains for life. The last gold guinea (21 shilling) coins are minted in England. Prince Edward Island mints an ill-fated Holey Dollar. The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship is launched in New York City. The capital of Indiana Territory is moves from Vincennes to Corydon, Ind.; in 1825 it is moved to Indianapolis. Spanish jack-of-all-trades Don Francisco de Paula Marin (Marín) Grassi (1774-1837) (aide to King Kamehameha I, who helped him get Euro military weapons for his V in 1795, and was rewarded with land near modern-day Pearl Harbor, and later acts as the king's royal physician on his deathbed) cultivates Hawaii's first pineapple crop and imports arabica coffee trees to the Hawaiian island of Oahu, planting Hawaii's first grapeyard in 1815 and producing its first wine and brandy, going on to plant the first cotton, mangoes, and oranges, distill sugar cane into rum, and brew beer, also raising some of Hawaii's first horses and cattle; in 1828 coffee plants are transplanted to the 60-mi. Kona District of W Hawaii along Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes. Thomas Lord of Yorkshire moves the White Conduit Club to St. John's Wood in London. The Methodist Missionary Society is founded. The London Philharmonic Society is founded, becoming the first use of the word "philharmonic". Colby College is founded on Mayflower Hill in Waterville, Maine. Montreal, Canada fur trader James McGill (b. 1744) dies, leaving a bequest which results in McGill U. in 1821. Scottish-born brothers David Bruce (1770-1857) and George Bruce (1781-1866) found the Bruce Type Foundry in New York City, going on to become the first to standardize type sizes in the U.S. Seth Thomas (1785-1859) founds the Seth Thomas Co. to mass-produce affordable clocks. J.A. Ingres (b. 1780) meets his first wife, milliner Madeline Chapelle (1782-1849) in Rome and marries her after 3 mo. Sports: The 13,661 ft. (4,164m) Breithorn ("broad horn") in the Pennine Alps on the Swiss-Italian border is first climbed by a party led by Henry Maynard. Inventions: Irish physician W. Reid Clanny (1776-1850) invents the Clanny Coal Miner's Safety Lamp in Sunderland, England, consisting of a candle in a closed metal case fed air via a bellows through water. English chemist Edward Charles Howard (1774-1816) invents a closed kettle method of refining sugar. Swiss inventor Jean-Samuel Pauly invents the gun cartridge - mass extermination on the battlefield can't be far away? British engineer Samuel Clegg (1781-1861) invents a gas meter. Science: Iodine is discovered in seaweed, causing Swiss physician ? Coindet to connect this with the folk treatment of goiter with seaweed and begin giving his goiter patients iodide spirits, noting many succcessful cures by 1821; it takes until 1917-1921 for a large-scale scientific experiment to cause the theory to be accepted. French mathematician Simeon (Siméon) Denis Poisson (1781-1840) pub. Poisson's Equation, a generalization of Laplace's equation. Nonfiction: William Barton, Memoirs of the Life of David Rittenhouse; by his nephew; Pres. Jefferson orders six copies. David Cox, Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in Water Colours. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Essay on the Theory of the Earth; 2nd ed. pub. 1815; 3rd ed. pub. 1817; 4th ed. pub. 1822; 5th ed. pub. 1827; advances the theory of catastrophism in geology, claiming that new species were created after periodic catastrophic floods after establishing the fact of past extinction; names the Pterodactyl and descries the aquatic Mosasauros, becoming one of the first to suggest that the Earth was once dominated by reptiles. Johann Friedrich Herbart, Introduction to Philosophy. Sir John Cam Hobhouse (1786-1869), A Journey through Albania. Thomas Hodgskin (1787-1869), An Essay on Naval Discipline Shewing Part of Its Evil Effects on the Minds of Its Officers, on the Minds of the Men, and on the Community, with an Amended System by Which Pressing May Be Immediately Abolished; blows the whistle after his 1812 court martial. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), The Jefferson Bible; takes scissors to the Gospels and edits them down to a "wee little book" of 46 pages after eliminating miracles and perceived inconsistencies, resulting in "the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man"; "To the corruption of Christanity I am indeed opposed, but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself" (letter to Benjamin Rush). Christoph Meiners (1747-1810), Researches on the Variations in Human Nature (Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen ) (4 vols.) (posth.); claims that blacks are oversexed and unable to control their sex drives, while white Euros have complete control. Hannah More (1745-1833), Christian Morals. Robert Owen (1771-1858), A New View of Society; Or, Essays on the Principle of the Formation of the Human Character, and the Application of the Principle to Practice; new social units where people cooperate in production are needed? Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Uber die Vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom Zureichenden Grunde (thesis). Robert Southey (1774-1843), The Life of Horatio, Lord Viscount Nelson; a big hit. Music: Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855), The Miller and His Men (opera). Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842), Les Abencerages (Abencérages) (opera); the last days of the Moorish kingdom of Granada (1491); a flop, causing him to switch to church music; incl. Suspendez a Ces Murs. Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), L'Italiana in Algeri (opera) (Venice). Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Trio for His Father's Nameday, D80; First Symphony in D, D82. Art: Peter von Cornelius (1784-1867), The Wise and Foolish Virgins. J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Frosty Morning. Plays: Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Remorse (Osorio). Heinrich von Kleist, Der Zerbrochene Krug (comedy). Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824), The Bride of Abydos; The Giaour: A Fragment of a Turkish Tale; the Turkish word for kafir (infidel); Leila, a member of Hassan't harem commits adultery with a you know what and is thrown into the sea wrapped in a sack, causing the giaour to kill him and enter a monastery in penance; big hit, cementing his rep., causing Byron to crank out "The Corsair" (1814), and "Lara" (1814). George Crabbe (1754-1832), Tales in Verse. James Hogg (1770-1835), The Queen's Wake. Alessandro Manzoni (1785-1873), Inni Sacri. Thomas Moore (1779-1852), Intercepted Letters: The Twopenny Post Bag. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), Queen Mab: A Philosophical Poem; revolutionary poem attacking political tyranny and Christianity. Novels: Jane Austen (1775-1817), Pride and Prejudice (original title "First Impressions"); the Bennet sisters Jane, Elizabeth (pride), Mary, Lydia, and Kitty in Meryton (near London), Hertfordshire; status-conscious Mr. Darcy (pride) and his friend Mr. Bingley; Lady Catherine De Bourgh; "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife" (opening line). Willem Bilderdijk (1756-1831), A Short Account of a Remarkable Aerial Voyage and Discovery of a New Planet; pioneering burning-at-the-stake-free science fiction (sci-fi). Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1834), Der Zuberring. Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859), Grimm's Fairy Tales (Children's and Household Tales) (2 vols.) (1812, 1815) (86 stories, 70 stories); 2nd. ed in 1819 and 1822 (170 stories); 7th ed. in 1857 (211 stories); originally for adults, they are watered-down for children in an 1825 "small edition" of 50 stories, which goes through 10 eds. by 1858. Ivan Krylov (1769-1844), Crow and Fowl and Other Fables; pumps it up to 197 fables by Dec. 1843. Charles Robert Maturin (1782-1824), The Milesian Chief; Gothic romance pub. under alias Dennis Jasper Murphy. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Life of Fibel. James Kirke Paulding (1778-1860), The Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan. Johann David Wyss (1743-1818), The Swiss Family Robinson; internat. bestseller inspired by Daniel Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe" (1719), about a Swiss family who get shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia; written as an educational book for children about family values, Christians morals, nature, and husbandry; makes a fan of Jules Verne, even though the flora and fauna on the small island are geographically impossible?; ed. by Johann Rudolf Wyss, author of the Swiss nat. anthem; illustrations by Johann Emmanuel Wyss; English trans. pub. in 1814. Births: English phoneticist (vegetarian) (inventor of Pitman Shorthand and postage stamps) Sir Isaac Pitman (d. 1897) on Jan. 4 in Trowbridge, Wiltshire; brother of Benn Pitman (1822-1910); grandfather of Sir James Pitman (1901-85); knighted in 1894. Am. Abraham Lincoln's fiancee Ann Rutledge (d. 1835) on Jan. 7 near Henderson, Ky. French Roman Catholic archbishop of Paris Georges Darboy (d. 1871) on Jan. 16 in Fayl-Billot, Haute-Marne. English inventor Sir Henry Bessemer (d. 1898) on Jan. 19 in Charlton, Hertfordshire; self-educated; his 1873 meeting with Andrew Carnegie launches the latter's rise to wealth. Am. Repub. politician-explorer-gen. ("The [Great] Pathfinder") John Charles Fremont (OG "protector of freedom") (d. 1890) on Jan. 21 in Savannah, Ga.; illegitimate son of Charles and Anne Fremont; husband (1841-) of Jessie Benton Fremont (1824-1902); first Repub. pres. candidate (1856). Australian poet Charles Harpur (d. 1868) on Jan. 23 in Windsor, N.S.W.; first Australian-born poet of consequence? Am. physician-surgeon (co-founder of gynecology) James Marion Sims (d. 1883) on Jan. 25 in Lancasterville, S.C.; educated at Jefferson Medical College. German Bavarian Neuschwanstein Castle architect Eduard Riedel (d. 1885) on Feb. 1 in Bayreuth. Am. "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl" writer (black) Harriet Ann Jacobs (d. 1897) on Feb. 11 in Edonton, N.C.; born a slave, her white master sexually abuses her, causing her to hide for seven years in her grandmother's house before escaping with her chillun to the North in 1842 - don't be alarmed, when I get nervous I swell up like this? Am. "Manual of Mineralogy" geologist-mineralogist James Dwight Dana (d. 1895) on Feb. 12 in Utica, N.Y.; educated at Yale U. Tahitian queen (1827-77) Pomare IV Aimata ("eye-eater") (d. 1877) on Feb. 13. German "Between Sky and Earth" realist dramatist-novelist-critic Otto Ludwig (d. 1865) on Feb. 11 in Eisfeld, Thuringia. Russian "Russalka", "Baba Yaga", "The Stone Guest", "Dance of the Mummers" realist composer Alexander Sergeevich Dargomyzhski (Dargomijski) (d. 1869) on Feb. 14 in Tula; educated in St. Petersburg; pioneers realism and nationalism in Russian music. English "Enosis" Transcendentalist poet-artist Christopher Pearse Cranch (d. 1892) on Mar. 8 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Harvard U. U.S. Supreme Court justice #41 (1870-92) Joseph Philo Bradley (d. 1892) on Mar. 14 in Berne, N.Y.; educated at Rutgers U. English #1 physician John Snow (d. 1858) on Mar. 16 in York. German "Maria Magdalene" poet-dramatist Christian Friedrich Hebbel (d. 1863) on Mar. 18 in Wesselburen, Ditmarschen, Holstein. Scottish "Stanley, I presume" missionary explorer Dr. David Livingstone (d. 1873) on Mar. 19 in Blantyre Works, Lanarkshire; first Euro to explore the African interior - and not be eaten long enough to tell about it? Am. Mormon leader James Jesse Strang (d. 1856) on Mar. 21 in Scipio, N.Y. Am. Dem. politician-orator ("the Little Giant") Stephen Arnold Douglas (d. 1861) on Apr. 23 in Brandon, Vt.; debates with Lincoln in the 1858 Ill. senatorial campaign. Danish "Fear and Trembling" philosopher-theologian (hunchback) ("Father of Existentialism") Soren (Sören) Aabye Kierkegaard (d. 1855) on May 5 in Copenhagen - sore neck about the churchyard? U.S. Repub. postmaster-gen. #20 (1861-4) Montgomery Blair (d. 1883) on May 10 in Franklin County, Ky.; son of Francis Preston Blair (1791-1876). English "Smith's Bible Dictionary" lexicographer Sir William Smith (d. 1893) on May 20 in Enfield; Nonconformist parents; educated at Univ. College London; knighted in 1892. German "Ring of the Nibelungs" composer Wilhelm Richard Wagner (d. 1883) on May 22 in Leipzig; developer of the leitmotif (leitmotiv) (guiding theme); introducer of the tuba into the orchestra. U.S. navy adm. David Dixon Porter (d. 1891) on June 8 in Chester, Penn.; son of David Porter (1780-1843). Am. liberal Congregationalist clergyman-lecturer Henry Ward Beecher (d. 1887) on June 24 in Litchfield, Conn.; son of Rev. Lyman Beecher (1775-1863); brother of Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-78), Edward Beecher (1803-95), Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-96), and Charles Beecher (1815-1900); educated at Amherst College. Am. Mormon hitman (bodyguard of Joseph Smith Jr. and Brigham Young) ("the Destroying Angel of Mormonism") Orrin Porter "Old Port" Rockwell (d. 1878) on June 28 (June 15, 1815?) in Belchertown, Mass. Egyptian ruler (1848-9) Abbas I Said (d. 1854) on July 1 in Jeddah, Arabia; son of Tusun Pasha (1794-1816); grandson of Muhammad Ali (1769-1849). Am. celeb Emily Sarah Tennyson (nee Sellwood) (d. 1896) on July 9 in Horncastle, Lincolnshire; sister of Sir John Franklin (1786-1847) and Sir Willingham Franklin; wife (1850-) of Alfred, Lord Tennyson; mother of Hallam Tennyson (1852-1928). French physiologist (coiner of the term milieu interieur or homeostasis) Claude Bernard (d. 1878) on July 13 in Saint-Julien (near Villefranche-sur-Saone). Am. sanitation engineer Ellis Sylvester Chesbrough (d. 1886) on July 16 in Baltimore, Md. Am. women's abolitionist-suffragist activist Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (d. 1876) on Aug. 7 in Bloomfield, N.Y. Hawaiian king #3 (1825-54) Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) ("placed in the dark clouds") (d. 1854) on Aug. 11 in Keauhou Bay, Hawaii Island; 2nd son of Kamehameha II and Keopuolani. Am. Mormon bandleader William Hill Pitt (d. 1873) on Aug. 16 in Dymock, England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1842. Bavarian brewer (inventer of Pilsner beer) Josef Groll (d. 1887) on Aug. 21 in Vilshofen an der Donau. Belgian scientist Jean Servais Stas (d. 1891) on Aug. 21 in Leuven; educated at the Ecole Polytechnique. French journalist-banker (Jewish) Moise (Moses) Polydore Millaud (d. 1871) on Aug. 27 in Bordeaux. English "will-less existence" Transcendentalist essayist-poet Jones Very (d. 1880) on Aug. 28 in Salem, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Ralph Waldo Emerson. French "The Three Musketeers", "The Count of Monte Cristo" novelist Auguste Maquet (d. 1888) on Sept. 13 in Paris; collaborator of Alexandre Dumas pere. English photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (Meal) (d. 1901) on Sept. 17 near Oldham, Lancashire; lives in Philadelphia, Penn. (1842-6). Am. steam shovel inventor William Smith Otis (d. 1839) on Sept. 20 in Pelham, Mass.; cousin of Elisa Otis. Am. Colo. gov. #1 (1861-2) (Quaker) William Gilpin (d. 1894) on Oct. 4 near Wilmington, Del.; educated at the U. of Penn., and West Point. Italian "Aida", "Rigoletto" #1 opera composer Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (d. 1901) on Oct. 9 in Le Roncole (near Busseto), Parma. U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.) (1855-73) (co-author of the 13th Amendment) Lyman Trumbull (d. 1896) on Oct. 12 in Colchester, Conn. German "Wozzek" Young Germany dramatist Karl Georg Buchner (Büchner) (d. 1837) on Oct. 17 in Goddelau (near Darmstadt), Hesse-Darmstadt; brother of Ludwig Buchner (1824-99). Am. Pres. Fillmore's 2nd wife (1858-) Caroline Carmichael McIntosh Fillmore (d. 1881) on Oct. 21 in Morristown, N.J. Montenegran (Orthodox Serbian) prince-bishop (1830-51) and poet Peter II Petrovic-Njegos (d. 1851) on Nov. 13 (Nov. 1 Old Style) in Njegusi; nephew of Peter I; first notable writer from Montenegro. Am. "The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors" atheist-freethinker writer-lecturer (abolitionist) Kersey Graves (d. 1883) on Nov. 21 in Brownsville, Penn.; Quaker parents. French poet Louise-Victorine Ackermann (nee Choquet) (d. 1890) on Nov. 30 in Paris. Finnish philologist Matthias Alexander Castren (Castrén) (d. 1852) on Dec. 2 in Tervola. Austrian architect August Sicard von Sicardsburg (d. 1868) on Dec. 6 in Buda; educated at the Vienna U. of Tech.; student of Peter von Nobile; teacher of Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer. Am. banking tycoon (Jewish) ("King of Fifth Avenue") August Belmont (Fr. "beautiful mountain") (Schoenberg) Sr. (d. 1890) (b. 1826?) on Dec. 8 in Alzey, Hesse, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1837, and becomes rep. of the Rothschild banking house in Frankfurt; father of August Belmont Jr. (1851-1924). Am. Dem. gov. of Wisc. #1 (1848-52) Nelson Dewey (d. 1889) on Dec. 19 in Lebanon, Conn. Italian Purist painter Luigi Mussini (d. 1888) on Dec. 19 in Berlin, Germany. Czech journalist Karel Sabina (d. 1877) (AKA Arian Zelinsky, Leo Blass) on Dec. 29. English metallurgist (celluloid inventor) Alexander Parkes (d. 1890) on Dec. 29. Am. blackface performer William M. "Billy" Whitlock (d. 1878) (Virginia Minstrels) in New York City. Norwegian Romantic poet-folklorist-theologian Jorgen Ingebretson Moe (d. 1882). Hungarian composer Stephen Heller (d. 1888). German zoologist Peter Friedrich Ludwig Tischbein (d. 1883). Deaths: Italian engraver Francesco Bartolozzi (b. 1725) in Lisbon. German-born Am. clergyman Philip William Otterbein (b. 1726) on Nov. 7. Am. Rev. War loyalist printer Samuel Loudon (b. 1727). English physician Charles White (b. 1728) on Feb. 20 in Sale. Am. royal N.J. gov. (Ben Franklin's son) William Franklin (b. 1731). German author Christoph Martin Wieland (b. 1733) on Jan. 20. French essayist Jean de Crevecoeur (b. 1735). English abolitionist Granville Sharp (b. 1735) on July 6 in Fulham; memorial erected in Westminster Abbey. Swiss portraitist Anton Graff (b. 1736) on June 22 in Dresden; leaves 2K+ works, incl. portraits of Friedrich Schiller, Christoph Willibald Gluch, Frederick II the Great, and Heinrich von Kleist. Italian-French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange (b. 1736) on Apr. 10 in Paris. French potato pusher Antoine-Augustin Parmentier (b. 1737) on Dec. 13. Italian printer Giambattista Bodoni (b. 1740); leaves The Lord's Prayer in 155 Languages. Belgian-born French composer Andre Gretry (b. 1741) on Sept. 24 in Montmorency; dies in the Hermitage, former residence of Jean Jacques Rousseau; it takes 15 years to get his heart transferred to his birthplace of Liege, after which a bronze statue is erected in 1842. Japanese Yamato emperor #117 (1762-71) Go-Sakuramachi (b. 1740) on Dec. 24. Scottish-born Canadian businessman James McGill (b. 1744) on Dec. 19 in Montreal, Quebec. English poet laureate (1790-1813) Henry James Pye (b. 1744) on Aug. 11 in Pinner, Middlesex. Russian field marshal Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (b. 1745). Am. Rev. leader (DOI signer) Dr. Benjamin Rush (b. 1745) on Apr. 19. Am. statesman (DOI signer) Robert R. Livingston (b. 1746) on Feb. 26 in Clermont, N.Y. Dutch-born Am. composer Johann Friedrich Peter (b. 1746) on July 13 in Bethlehem, Penn. English architect James Wyatt (b. 1746) on Sept. 4 in Marlborough Downs (carriage accident); buried in Westmnster Abbey. Am. Rev. leader and statesman (first U.S. atty. gen.) Edmund Jennings Randolph (b. 1753) on Sept. 12 in Millwood, Va. Prussian gen. Gerhard von Scharnhorst (b. 1755) on June 28 in Prague. German physician Johann Christian Reil (b. 1759) on Nov. 22; dies of typhus contracted while treating wounded in the Battle of Leipzig. English composer-pianist Maria Hester Park (b. 1760) on June 7 in Hampstead. French gen. Jean Victor Moreau (b. 1763) on Sept. 2 in Dresden, Germany (KIA); buried in St. Petersburg, Russia. French gen. Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers (b. 1764) on Jan. 6 in Berlin. Spanish royalist officer Ignacio Elizondo (b. 1766) on Sept 2 in San Marcos, Tex. Scottish-born Am. ornithologist Alexander Wilson (b. 1766). Dutch poet Jan Frederik Helmers (b. 1767) on Feb. 26. Shawnee chief Tecumseh (b. 1768) on Oct. 5 near Chatham-Kent, Ont. (KIA in the Battle of Thames); Richard Mentor Johnson claims credit, helping him get elected as U.S. vice-pres. in 1836. French gen. Nicolas Francois Conroux, baron de Pepinville (b. 1770) on Nov. 11 in Bayonne (KIA in the Battle of Nivelle). French gen. Jean-Andoche Junot (b. 1771) on July 29 in Montbard (suicide) (really flees to New Orleans?). Am. soldier-explorer Gen. Zebulon Montgomery Pike (b. 1779) on Apr. 27 in York (Toronto), Canada; KIA by a magazine explosion. Am. naval capt. James Scott Lawrence (b. 1781) (KIA while not giving up the ship). Am. Aaron Burr's daughter Theodosia Burr Alston (b. 1783) on Jan. 2/3; dies at sea (off Cape Hatteras?) on privateer Patriot en route to New York City; rumors claim that she was captured by pirates; in 1869 her portrait is discovered in Nag's Head, N.C.; a legend that she roams the beaches of Bald Head Island, N.C. arises; subject of Robert Frost's 1953 poem "Kitty Hawk", and the song Dear Theodosia in the 2015 Lin-Manuel Miranda musical Hamilton; namesake of the cryostat in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment. German poet-soldier Theodor Korner (b. 1791) on Aug. 26 in Rosenberg (KIA).

1814 - Napoleon's fall frees the British to finish young upstart America for old King George III, or at least give it a good bitch slapping, until they get to Fort McHenry, where, despite their best efforts, "our flag was still there"?

Napoleon and wife Marie-Louise von Hapsburg Louis XVIII of France (1755-1824) Richard Rush of the U.S. (1780-1859) British Adm. Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet (1772-1853) U.S. Navy Capt. Thomas Macdonough Jr. (1783-1825) Stephen Decatur Jr. (1779-1820) and Thomas Macdonough Jr. (1783-1825) James McHenry of the U.S. (1753-1816) 'By Dawns Early Light', by Edward Moran (1829-1801), 1812 Ft. McHenry British Maj.-Gen. Robert Ross (1766-1814) Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) John Stafford Smith (1750-1836) Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria (1773-1859) Prince Karl August von Hardenberg of Prussia (1750-1822) Austrian Field Marshal Count Heinrich von Bellegarde (1756-1845) Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagn of Britain (1769-1822) British Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) Tsar Alexander I of Russia (1777-1825) Cardinal Ercole Consalvi (1757-1824) Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias Werner (1768-1823) British Maj. Gen. Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (1778-1815) U.S. Capt. Samuel Chester Reid (1783-1861) British Adm. Thomas Alexander Cochrane (1775-1860) Eugene Rose de Beauharnais of France (1781-1824) Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard, Vicomte de Saint-Priest (1776-1814) Austrian Gen. Adam Albert von Neipperg (1775-1829) Spanish Gen. Mariano Osorio (1777-1819) French Gen. Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil (1776-1832) José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia of Paraguay (1766-1840) Harrison Gray Otis (1765-1848) Alexander James Dallas (1759-1817) Jacques Laffitte of France (1767-1844) Charles Dunoyer (1786-1862) John Field (1782-1837) Matthew Flinders (1774-1814) Edmund Kean (1787-1833) Friedrich Carl von Savigny (1779-1861) Gabriel Franchere (1786-1842) Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826) George Stephenson (1781-1848) Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834) E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822) Joanna Southcott (1750-1814) 'Portrait of a Carabiniere' by Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), 1814 'La Grande Odalisque' by Jean-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), 1814 'The Three Graces' by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), 1814-7

1814 On Jan. 6 after a short winter campaign by the allies Denmark, bankrupted by the Napoleonic wars breaks with Napoleon and offers Norway to Sweden in exchange for Western Pomerania and Rugen (Rügen); on Jan. 14 the Treaty of Kiel makes Norway an independent kingdom in union with Sweden; Denmark makes peace with Britain; Christian Frederick of Denmark is elected king of Norway; meanwhile optimistic Napoleon (who lost 500K irreplaceable troops last year and can scrounge up only 120K total now) plans the defense of bankrupt France in St. Cloud, facing the 110K-man Silesian army under Blucher coming in from the N and the 210K-man Bohemian army under Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg coming in from the S, with another 100K-man army under Prince Bernadotte staying in the Netherlands. On Jan. 22 the first Knights Templar Grand Encampment is held in New York City. On Jan. 26 sawed-off Edmund Kean (1787-1833) debuts as Shylock at Drury Lane Theatre in London, becoming an instant hit. On Jan. 29 Napoleon surprises the Russian-Prussian army under Gen. Blucher at the Battle of Brienne, but the allies regroup and defeat him on Feb. 1 at the Battle of La Rothiere; too bad, the allies then split up their combined army into two columns because of supply problems, giving Nappy the chance to divide and conquer them as they head for Paris using his 70K-man army and his chess-playing skills, heading first for the Chateau de Vincennes, an arsenal containing 52K rifles, 100+ field guns plus gunpowder, cannonballs and bullets, deefnded by French Gen. Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil (1776-1832), who since 1809 has been known as "jambe de bois" for his wooden leg, who tells them "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back" (Je rendrai Vincennes quand on me rendra ma jambe), holding off the Coalition troops with 300 men until Louis XVIII orders them to retreat. On Feb. 1 the Mayon Volcano in Luzon Island, Philippines erupts, killing 1.2K. On Feb. 8 the 2nd Battle of the Mincio River (first in 1800) in Italy 8 mi. S of Peschierra sees 34K French-Italian troops led by Eugene Rose de Beauharnais (1781-1824) (son of Nappy's wife Josephine by her hubby Vicomte de Beauharnais) fight 32K Austrians under field marshal Count Heinrich Joseph Johannes von Bellegarde, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia (1756-1845), becoming a push. On Feb. 10 Philly-born Princeton-educated Richard Rush (1780-1859) (son of late DOI signer Benjamin Rush) becomes U.S. atty. gen. #8 (until Nov. 12, 1817). On Feb. 10-15 as the Sixth Coalition closes in on Paris, the Six Days Campaign sees Napoleon win a quick string of Vs, starting at the Battle of Champaubert (E of Paris) (Feb. 10) (Prussian and Russian), then the Battle of Montmirail (Feb. 11) (Prussian and Russian), the Battle of Chateau-Thierry (Feb. 12) (Prussian), and the Battle of Vauchamps (Feb. 14-15) (Prussian and Russian). On Feb. 17 Napoleon defeats the allies at the Battle of Mormant (Feb. 17), the Battle of Nangis (25 mi. SW of Paris) (Feb. 17), the Battle of Montereau (Feb. 18), and the Battle of Mery (Méry) (Feb. 21), causing them to fall back; too bad, he begins to run out of gas, giving them time to regroup, while he makes a mistake of getting too cocky? On Feb. 21 the Great Stock Exchange Fraud (Hoax) of 1814 begins after a bogus colonel appears in England announcing the defeat of Napoleon, causing stocks to soar until the govt. nixes the hoax by the afternoon; Radical MP and rear adm. Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (1775-1860) (AKA the Sea Wolf for his Napoleonic War exploits) et al. are convicted and sentenced to one year, a £1K fine, and public pillorying, and Cochrane is booted from the Royal Navy, protesting his innocence, finally getting a pardon in 1832; his pillorying is skipped for fear that his supporters might riot, and they reelect him to Parliament and pay his fine, considering it all a political dirty trick. On Feb. 27 the Austrians under Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg defeat the French under Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald at the Battle of Bar-sur-Aube. On Mar. 7 37K French under never-say-die Nappy win a V against 90K Prussians under Blucher in the Battle of Craonne on the Chemin des Dammes, causing them to withdraw toward Laon, where they make their stand on a hill with steep slopes giving them a defensive advantage, defeating cocky Nappy on Mar. 9-10 at the Battle of Laon, leaving Nappy knowing his crayons are lying in ruins, and he's shrunk from Emperor to Little Corporal again? On Mar. 9 the Congress of Chatillon, led by Prince Paul Anthony Esterhazy of Galantha (1786-1866) offers Napoleon the French frontier of 1792, but when the prick won't admit defeat it falls through, and on Mar. 9 the allies (Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) sign the Treaty of Chaumont, preventing a separate peace, and promising to fight together to stop France later if it ever gets too powerful again; under the influence of his son and of Marshal Wrede, Bavarian king (since 1806) Maximilian I Joseph turns against France. On Mar. 12 after Joachim Murat deserts his brother-in-law Napoleon and joins the allies, allowing him to invade France from the S, inciting Bourbon sentiment along the way, Wellesley captures Bordeaux. On Mar. 12 a 13.4K-man Prussian-Russian army under French emigre Russian gen. Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard, Vicomte de Saint-Priest (b. 1776) takes Reims, pissing-off Napoleon, who heads E with 20K-25K troops and defeats them on Mar. 13 in the Battle of Reims, killing 2.7K, taking 5K POWs, and mortally wounding Saint-Priest, causing him and his remaining troops to retreat back to Laon, where he dies on Mar. 29. On Mar. 20-21 after the Allies figure out that Nappy's a paper tiger and mount their final push towards Paris, Napoleon and his 20K-28K remaining troops are defeated by 43K-80K Austrians under field marshal Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg at the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, with 3K French casualties, becoming Big N's next-to-last battle before abdication and exile to Elba. On Mar. 25 the Battle of La Fere-Champenoise (Fère-Champenoise) is another D for the French under Gen. Auguste Marmont, and a V for the allies under Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg. On Mar. 26 the Battle of Saint-Dizier sees Napoleon and his 30K-34K remaining troops defeat 10K Russian mostly cavalry troops under Gen. Ferdinand Wintzingerode, becoming Nappy's last V before abdicating. On Mar. 27 U.S. troops under Gen. Andrew Jackson defeat the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in N Ala., causing the Creeks to sue for peace, which is granted only after they surrender more than half of their ancient territory; 6'6" 3rd Lt. Sam Houston (who returned to Maryville, Tenn. in 1812), suffering from a Creek arrow sticking out of his left thigh, leads a charge and gets two bullets in his right shoulder, only one of which is removed by the doctor, who thinks he will die; he recovers with the lead ball in a wound which never heals, and becomes Jackson's lifelong friend; Jackson supervises the mutilation of 800+ Creek corpses, incl. men, women and children, cutting off their noses to count them, and tanning long strips of flesh to make bridle reins? On Mar. 29 the First Battle (Disaster) of Cancha Rayada is a V for the Spanish over the rebels. On Mar. 30 U.S. forces under Maj. Gen. John Wilkinson invade Canada, but are turned back at the Battle of Lacolle Mills. Depression can turn you into a person you don't recognize? On Mar. 30-31 after traitor French marshal Auguste Marmont, Duke of Ragusa abandons the strategic defensive position of Essonne and surrenders his 20K regular troops without a fight, 100K allied troops under Tsar Alexander I, Austrian gen. Karl Philipp, prince of Schwarzenberg, Frederick William III of Prussia, and Russian gen. Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly defeat the last 30K French troops (nat. and imperial guards) under Joseph Bonaparte at the Battle of Paris (for which Tolly is promoted to field marshal, and Marmont to peer of France after the Bourbon restoration), and the Senate, incl. his loyal buddy (pres. of the council of regency) Duc de Cambaceres declares that Napoleon and his family have forfeited the throne, causing Napoleon to issue the soundbyte: "Marmont me porte le dernier coup" (Marmont has given me the fatal blow); as Russian troops march down the Champs Elysees, Nappy tries to summon what's left of his army to relieve Paris, but his marshals balk at assaulting and defacing the cool city just so he can give his infant son the cruddy throne; although Marmont becomes a big man in Bourbon France, the French people forever consider him a traitor, causing the word "raguser" to be coined for traitor; on Mar. 30 the Russians occupy Montmartre Hill in Paris, and open a bistro, starting a fashion. Able was I ere I saw Elba? On Apr. 6 French emperor (since May 18, 1804) Napoleon I abdicates at Fontainebleau, and on Apr. 11 is ordered to exile on the island of Elba (site of ancient Etruscan iron mines) as a sovereign principality with an annual income of 2M francs, with his wife Marie Louise von Hapsburg given the duchies of Parma-Piacenza, and Guastalla in Emilia-Romagna, Italy (until 1847); both retain their imperial titles; on Apr. 20 Nappy gives a hurry-hurry-before-I-lose-control Farewell Speech to the Old Guard, and arrives on Elba on May 4; meanwhile in Aug. Austrian diplomat-gen. Adam Albert von Neipperg (1775-1829) is instructed to escort Marie Louise to Aix-les-Bains to take the waters, but actually to prevent her from joining her hubby Nappy, and after uttering the soundbyte: "In six weeks I will be her best friend and in six months her lover", he accomplishes his mission, and ends up marrying her 4 mo. after Napoleon dies in 1821. On Apr. 10 the Battle of Toulouse sees the French under Marshal Soult dig in and bloodily defend Toulouse, causing Wellington to pull back to reorganize, allowing them to escape, after which Wellington enters the city on Apr. 12 to an open celebration by a fifth column of French royalists; the same afternoon the news of Napoleon's abdication reaches Wellington and Soult, who agree to an armistice on Apr. 17, ending the Peninsular War (begun May 2, 1808) after 5 years, 11 mo., 2 weeks, and 1 day. On Apr 23 Count Charles of Artois signs an armistice with the Allies. On Apr. 26 Louis XVIII lands in Calais from England to take up his hereditary throne; Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817), pres. of the Paris Chamber of Commerce becomes secy. of the provisional govt. preparing for Louis' return, pissing-off Napoleon; Louis Philippe, duc d'Orleans returns from exile, and is restored to the Orleans estates, but his liberal views piss-off the French House of Peers, causing him to return to exile in 1816 - someday when I'm alone, when the world is cold, I will feel the glow just thinking of you and the way you look tonight? On May 3 after a few military Vs, the Treaty of Lircay in Chile is signed by Bernardo O'Higgins; on July 23 Jose Miguel Carrera stages a coup in Santiago, but O'Higgins refuses to recognize him, and they battle on Aug. 26, agreeing to give up and join forces after hearing of a royalist expedition under Gen. Mariano Osorio (1777-1819) (gov. of Chile in 1814-15) on the way. On May 5 the British attack Ft. Ontario in Oswego, N.Y. On May 20 Victor Emmanuel I returns with his royal family to Turin, and the Shroud of Turin (Christ) is publicly shown for the first time since 1775. On May 25-27 the Battle of Ft. George becomes the first U.S. V on the Niagara front. Yet another Treaty of Paris (last in 1812, 1810, July 1806, May 1806, 1802, 1796, 1784, 1783...)? On May 30 the 1814 Treaty of Paris is signed by France and the Sixth Coalition, contracting France to its 1792 boundaries, incl. Avignon, Venaissin, Belgium, and parts of Savoy and Germany; France recognizes the independence of the Netherlands, the German and Italian states, and Switzerland; Britain restores the French colonies except Tobago, St. Lucia, the sugar island of Mauritius, and Malta (along with Cape Province), all of which are formally ceded; the island of Diego Garcia becomes a dependency of Mauritius (until 1965); the Spanish regain title to the Dominican Repub.; the Confederation of the Rhine is kaput; France promises to end its slave trade, and the allies abandon claims to idemnity. In May the Gurkha (Gorkha) (Anglo-Nepalese) War begins (ends Mar. 6, 1816) when 12K Gurkhas in Nepal begin a war with 22K men of the British East India Co. under Warren Hastings, former gov.-gen. of India, introducing Brits to the curved Kukri knife. On June 4 with the assistance of Talleyrand ("a pile of shit in a silk stocking" - Napoleon), Louis XVIII (1755-1824), brother of Louis XVI is restored to the throne of France (until Sept. 16, 1824), and at Talleyrand's urging issues a new Charter in an attempt to convince the people that the work of the French Rev. is not being undone - I thought you were the master of everything? On June 15 Venezuelan royalists under Jose Tomas Boves defeat Simon Bolivar's army in the Battle of Puerto Cabello (a key port city) with 650 total casualties; Boves is KIA but the royalists go on to take Caracas, and Bolivar flees to Tunja, capital of Nueva Granada, where he is put in command of a rev. army, which he leads in the liberation of (Santa Fe de) Bogota. On June 21 the secret Eight Articles of London (London Protocol) creates a unified kingdom of the Netherlands, incl. Holland and Belgium, meant to serve as a butter against France. On July 3 the Americans capture Ft. Erie in Canada, then stop the invading British and Canadians on July 5 at the Battle of Chippewa in Ontario. On July 19 the British capture Prairie du Chen in Wisc., becoming the first U.S. loss of the war. On July 22 Tecumseh's death the year before leads the Northwest (Wyandot) Indians to make peace with the U.S. in the Treaty of Greenville. On July 25 (5 p.m.) the indecisive but most bitterly contested battle of the War of 1812, the Battle of Lundy's Lane (Bridgewater) (Niagara) begins after 1.2K U.S. troops under Gen. Winfield Scott advancing toward Queenston unexpectedly encounter 2.8K British troops at the head of Lundy's Lane in Canada 1 mi. from Niagara Falls, and withstand their fire until another 2.7K U.S. troops under Gen. Jacob Brown arrive from Chippewa 3 mi. away, the battle continuing until midnight, with both U.S. generals wounded; when the Brits finally retire with 86 KIA, 559 wounded, and 42 taken POW, the Americans feel like they won even though they suffer 171 KIA, 571 wounded, and 110 missing, and the Brits soon recapture the field and a captured battery of guns - sounds like the 2003 Iraq War? On Aug. 7 Pope Pius VII, having returned to Napoleon-free Rome and restored the Inquisition, universally reestablishes the Jesuit Order - like they said, "we'll be baaaack"? On Aug. 8 peace negotiations between Britain and the U.S. open in Ghent in East Flanders, Belgium; on Dec. 24 (as Xmas dinner is cooking?) the Treaty of Ghent between Britain and the U.S. (negotiated by John Quincy Adams) is concluded, but does not reach the U.S. until after the Jan. 8, 1815 Battle of New Orleans; it restores the status quo ante, returning all captured territory to the original owner before the war - it came and ghent? On Aug. 13 the Treaty of London-Netherland stops the transportation of slaves. Washington, D.C. is sacked and burned by cocky British brutes? In early Aug. the British fleet attempts to create a diversion for their northern invasion forces by entering Chesapeake Bay, landing 4.5K troops in Benedict, Md. (40 mi. from Washington) on Aug. 19, and on Aug. 24 routing a hastily assembled U.S. force at the Battle of Bladensburg (the first time a U.S. pres. personally leads troops into battle until ?); at night a British force commanded by cocky burner Rear Adm. Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet (1772-1853) marches into undefended Washington, D.C., and some British officers eat a meal prepared for Pres. and Mrs. Madison, who had fled with the 7K soldiers and 400 soldiers to Virginia (Dolley Madison remembers to have the Declaration of Independence packed up and sent to safety, along with the Gilbert Stuart portrait of Pres. George Washington); they then enter and burn every public bldg. in Washington, D.C. (White House, Capitol, Library of Congress, etc.), except the Patent Office, and capture the city on Aug. 25, but a "most tremendous hurricane" (tornado?) arrives suddenly, followed by a thunderstorm, which first compounds the damage then puts out the fires, causing the Brits to withdraw to attack heavily-defended Baltimore after Cockburn orders a newspaper publishing house destroyed, with the immortal soundbyte: "Be sure that all the C's are destroyed so that the rascals cannot any longer abuse my name", Cockburn's portrait standing in front of burning Washington, D.C. is printed weeks later in London; in the fall the U.S. Congress meets in the Patent Office; next Feb. Congress appropriates restoration funds, and the bldgs. are rebuilt by 1819; the burned President's Mansion is painted white, becoming the White House (not called that until the Theodore Roosevelt admin.); the Library of Congress is restocked with 6.5K books from Thomas Jefferson's library. The turning point of the War of 1812 is a V by the infant U.S. Navy over the veteran British Navy? On Sept. 11 U.S. Navy Capt. (Master-Commandant) Thomas Macdonough Jr. (1783-1825) scores a V at the naval Battle of Plattsburg Bay (Lake Champlain) on Lake Champlain after his fleet of four ships and 10 rowing galleys anchored across the mouth of Plattsburg(h) Bay, manned by 5K Yankees and Green Mountain boys defeat four British ships, 12 rowing galleys, and 14K British "myrmidons" and capture their flotilla, denying the British control of the lake and allowing the Americans to turn back their 2nd big invasion force under Gen. Sir George Prevost; Pres. Theodore Roosevelt later calls him "the greatest figure in our naval history down to the time of the Civil War"; in 1937 after urging by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, a 2-cent postage stamp is issued featuring Macdonough and Stephen Decatur. The U.S. gets its national anthem when a battered flag becomes a symbolic star of hope? On Sept. 12 the Battle of North Point is fought near Baltimore as the British attempt to deal a death blow to whimpy America, but instead encounter 13K soldiers fortifying the heights behind the city on an island in Baltimore harbor, incl. 1K men at military prison Ft. McHenry, named after DOI signer and 1796-1800 secy. of war (pres. of the Baltimore Bible Society) James McHenry (1753-1816); on Sept. 12 Irish-born British CIC of North Am. maj. gen. Robert Ross of Bladensburg (b. 1766) (in charge of invading Washington, D.C.) is KIA by snipers; on Sept. 13 Washington atty. Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) visits the British fleet in Chesapeake Bay to secure the release of Dr. William Beanes (1749-1828), who had been captured following the burning of Washington; the release is secured, but Key is detained on the British ship HMS Minden (bearing the flag of truce) overnight during the British bombardment of Ft. McHenry; the next morning (Sept. 14) Key is delighted to see the U.S. flag still flying over the fort, and writes the 4-verse poem The Star-Spangled Banner, AKA Defense of Fort M'Henry, which is pub. on Sept. 21 in The Baltimore American, coining the term "star-spangled banner"; the first verse "Oh, say can you see... the home of the brave" is 80 words long; later it is sung to the English drinking song To Anacreon in Heaven by British composer John Stafford Smith (1750-1836), and in 1931 Congress adopts it as the U.S. nat. anthem; after unsuccessfully bombarding Ft. McHenry on the night of Sept. 13-14, the British fleet abandons its campaign, and in Oct. sails for Jamaica. On Sept. 14 the Filiki Eteria (Friendly Society) is formed is founded in Odessa by three Freemason traders, going on to plan the 1821-9 Greek War of Independence; the HQ is in the house of leader Alexandros Ipsilantis in Chisinau, Moldova. On Sept. 15 the Congress of Vienna of the winning powers opens (ends June 9, 1815), with the four major allied powers calling the shots, Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (1773-1859) (chmn.) for Austria, Prince Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-1822) and Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (1767-1835) for Prussia, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822) and Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) for Britain, and tsar (1801-25) Alexander I (1777-1825) and his advisers for Russia; Cardinal Ercole Consalvi (1757-1824) represents the papacy; Talleyrand tries to gain admission but fails until the issue of Poland and Saxony leads to the brink of war; most of the negotiations are conducted during nightly parties, becoming known as "diplomacy through entertainment"; German Roman Catholic priest Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias Werner (1768-1823), who started out as a Romantic poet then converted in 1811 is ordained as a priest, and stations himself in Vienna, giving fanatical sermons to crowded congregations, using the example of the lavish parties as proof they are sinners. On Sept. 26 the 7-gun 90-man U.S. privateer General Armstrong, captained by Conn.-born Samuel Chester Reid (1783-1861) is attacked at Fayal in the Azores by three British vessels manned by 2K men, and the attack is repulsed with 300 British casualties to two U.S. KIA and seven wounded, but to escape capture he has to scuttle the ship, which prevents the British ships from reaching New Orleans in time to join the British attack against Jackson. On Oct. 1-2 after Jose Miguel Carrera reneges on attacking the enemy in the rear, the Disaster (Battle) of Rancagua (50 mi. S of Santiago) sees Chilean rebel forces trying to block access to Santiago defeated by Spanish royalists under brig. gen. Mariano Osorio on the streets of Rancagua; on Oct. 3 Bernardo O'Higgins gets past the royalist troops and retreats to Santiago with only 300 of 1.9K troops remaining, and the royalists soon take it, causing O'Higgins and other patriot leaders to flee to Argentina, after which the royalists set up a harsh reconquista rule. On Oct. 5 Federalists in the Mass. legislature vote to hold a convention of New England states to plan independent action vis a vis the war, which is cramping their lifestyle. On Oct. 17 a 320K-gal. vat in the Mieux and Co. Brewery of Richard Meux in St. Giles, London, England erupts, killing eight people in the tidal wave "by drowning, injury, poisoning by porter fumes, or drunkenness." In Nov. Andrew Jackson invades Spanish Fla. without authorization and takes Pensacola to end British intrigues there, then returns to erect defenses on the approaches to New Orleans. In Nov a large British fleet carrying 7.5K veteran troops commanded by Maj. Gen. Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (1778-1815) (pr. PAYK-en-ham), replacement for Gen. Robert Ross (b. 1766) (KIA on Sept. 12 by a sniper) as CIC of the British Army of North Am. sails from Jamaica for New Orleans in an attempt to seize control of the Mighty Mississippi River, and on Dec. 15 enters Lake Borgne, E of New Orleans, while Gen. Andrew "Andy" Jackson declares martial law and conscripts a motley army to defend the city, attacking a British advance party on Dec. 23 at the Villere plantation 8 mi. S of New Orleans, then withdrawing 2 mi. N to modern-day Chalmette, establishing a 1-mi.-long defensive line in a dry irrigation canal running from the Mississippi to a cypress swamp; on Dec. 26 the British attack Jackson's 5K men but are turned back by his 12 batteries of artillery. On Dec. 15 the Hartford Convention (ends Jan. 4, 1815), attended by 26 New England Federalist delegates from Mass., R.I., Conn., Vt., and N.H., led by Harrison Gray Otis (1765-1848) of Mass. who are alarmed at the prospect of the U.S. allying with Napoleon against the British and crippling trade, and who are given the name "Blue Light Federalists" for their practice of using signal lamps to warn British ships when U.S. blockade runners are around raises the specter of secession from New Englanders suffering economic ruin from "Mr. Madison's War"; moderates prevail, and instead of secession they propose several constitutional amendments (two-thirds majority in Congress to approve embargoes, war declarations, and admission of new states; single terms for U.S. pres.; repeal of the three-fifths rule for slave states; 60-day limit for commercial embargoes; use of federal taxes collected within a state's boundaries for its own defense; state veto of military conscription), with the threat of secession if they are ignored; too bad, the war ends before their messengers reach Washington, and the Federalist party is now stamped with the stink of disloyalty and provincialism from which it never recovers. On Dec. 26/27 Devon, England-born religious prophetess Joanna Southcott (b. 1750) dies 10 days after announcing to the world that she is a pregnant virgin about to give birth to "Shiloh" (Gen. 49:10), after which the world will end and only her followers will be saved, and being examined by 21 doctors at her home on Winchester St., Marylebone, 17 diagnosing her as preggers; she originally fixed the date as Oct. 19; too bad, Shiloh doesn't show up, but MF has a long half-life, so she leaves a sealed locked box containing her prophecies of the end of the world, and her 100K Southcottians are fair game for new prophetesses such as Helen Exeter (-1914), who announces that Shiloh will come in 1914, but drowns early that year; in 1919 the well-endowed Panacea Society is founded in Bedford, England by Mabel Barltrop, who takes the name Octavia and claims to be the Big S, and recruits 12 female apostles called the Community of the Holy Ghost, but later backs off and claims that Southcott's Box contains the secret date for Shiloh's return, but can only be opened in the presence of all the bishops of England, and after enjoying their income and assets for decades knowing they're safe, in 1997 they place newspaper ads begging them to take their dare (to keep their tax exemption?); one box opened in 1927 in the presence of the Anglican bishop of Grantham contains a lottery ticket and horse pistol, so it is claimed to be the wrong box. Another Indian-Creole revolt in Peru is crushed by the Spanish. The Spanish gov. of Uruguay is driven from Montevideo, and the Banda Oriental (Eastern Shore) del Uruguay is founded; Gen. Jose Gervasio Artigas becomes known as the Father of Uruguayan Independence, although all he wanted was to forge a federation that incl. Big U as the eastern province? Gen. William Henry Harrison presents a silver peace pipe to the Delawares for their help against the British in the war, then resigns from the army to enter an obscure 20-year career in politics and diplomacy, culiminating in the post of country recorder in Ohio in 1834. Pres. Madison appoints James Monroe as U.S. secy. of war (until 1815), remaining secy. of state also; Madison appoints Alexander James Dallas (1759-1817) as U.S. treasury secy. (until 1816). Arthur Wellesley is granted the title of Duke of Wellington. The grand duchy of Tuscany is reinstated, with Ferdinand III (exiled since 1799) back in as grand duke (until 1824). The 1563 English Statute of Apprentices is repealed. The French legislature passes a law prohibiting abortion except "when it is necessary to preserve the life of the mother when that is gravely threatened"; it remains on the books for 162 years (untl 1978). German Village is founded outside Columbus, Ohio. Daniel Boone's claim to his land near St. Louis, Mo. is confirmed by the U.S. Congress in recognition of his services as explorer and settler - and he fought for America to make all Americans free? Gabriel Franchere (1786-1842), a survivor of the 1811 Tonquin massacre crosses Athabaska Pass, causing British fur brigades to begin crossing along the Athabaska Trail twice yearly. Gov. Miles Macdonnell of the Scottish settlement in Canada demands licenses for fur traders, causing the North-West Co. to lure away many of the colonists to Upper Canada, drive the refugees to the shores of Lake Winnipeg, and demolish the settlement. Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) opens Middlebury Female Seminary in Vt., becoming the first in the U.S. where they can go beyond the 8th grade; in 1821 she opens Troy Female Seminary in N.Y., where the male chauvinists are shocked by the teaching of algebra, trig, science, and even higher math to future barefoot-pregnant wives and mothers - Janet Jackson' s "Rhythm Nation 1814" is only 176 years ahead? Monocles become fashionable among the upper classes of Vienna. The Church Missionary Society establishes a station in New Zealand, followed by the Pacific islands. George Washington's whiskey distillery, one of the most successful in the U.S., making 11K gal. a year burns down. St. Margaret's in Westminster, London is the first district to be illuminated by gas, produced in the Great Peters St. works and supplied via 26 mi. of underground mains. German Lutheran separatists found New Harmony, Ind., an experiment in communal living, which they sell in 1825 to Robert Owen and William Maclure, who attract intellectual luminaries to it before its religious-based communism collapses. Greek Christians found the Philike Hetaeria (Gr. "friendly assoc."), a secret society to work for Greek independence, collecting money and arms and stockpiling them in the Balkans and E Mediterranean. The ghastly Head of Oliver Cromwell is bought for £230 by Josiah Henry Wilkinson, still fastened to a pole, with one ear torn off by the bungling executioner, and the famous wart over the left eye intact; the head is finally buried on Mar. 25, 1960 near a chapel in Cambridge, where he was a "fellow commoner" in 1616-7. Charles Dunoyer (1786-1862) and Charles Comte found Le Censeur to promote liberal economic ideas; it folds in 1815, and in 1817-19 they put out "Le Censeur Europeen"; Dunoyer goes on to have a 25-year collaboration with Auguste Comte, while Auguste Comte's relationship with Comte de Saint Simon has its ups and downs? Sandalwood trees become extinct in the Marquesas. The first Hebrew Bible printed in North Am. is pub. by William Fry of Philly. Sports: The 1 mi. 1,000 Guineas Stakes horse race for fillies on the Rowley Mile in Newmarket, England is founded in Apr. Architecture: The Konigsberg (Königsberg) Observatory in Germany is completed, with Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) as dir. #1. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles rediscovers the early 9th cent. Buddhist Borobudur Temple in C Java; the site is cleared in 1835; in 1896 the Dutch govt. gives away eight containers of stones and artificts to the king of Siam; another restoration program in 1973-84 turns it into a destination site for Buddhist pilgrims; an Islamic terrorist causes minor damage with a bomb attack on Jan. 21, 1985. Inventions: Francis Cabot Lowell (1775-1817) of Waltham, Mass. opens the world's first factory capable of converting raw cotton into cloth via power machinery housed within a single bldg., and finances it by floating $1K worth of stock to the public; when 27.5% dividends are paid in 1822, the idea catches on; he also becomes one of the first to employ women. J.N. Maelzel of Vienna invents the metronome. English meteorologist Sir Francis Ronalds invents an electronic semaphore telegraph system; too bad, Viscount Melville, lord of the admiralty turns it down for govt. use, and it fizzles. The copper percussion cap rifle is invented by British immigrant Joshua Shaw (1776-1860) in Philadelphia, Penn. The first practical steam locomotive is built by George Stephenson (1781-1848) at Killingworth Colliery near Newcastle, England. Science: Bavarian optician Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), after deciding that he can make better optical glasses if he can define the colors in light more accurately improves on Isaac Newton's old prism-slit-lens apparatus by adding a theodolite telescope behind the prism, not only confirming William Wollaston's 1802 observation of a dark line spectrum in sunlight, but discovering 700 different weak and strong vertical dark Fraunhofer Lines in the spectrum, launching the science of Spectroscopy; use of the lines provides the first precise measure of dispersion in optical glasses. Nonfiction: Antoine Beauvilliers (1754-1817), L'Art du Cuisinier (2 vols.); 2nd ed. 1821. Asher Benjamin (1773-1845), The Rudiments of Architecture: Being a Treatise on Practical Geometry, on Grecian and Roman Moulding; Also, on the Origin of Building, on the Five Orders of Architecture. Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848), Theory of Chemical Proportions and the Chemical Action of Electricity; a dualistic electrochemical theory to account for electrolysis and chemical combination; suggests using letters as abbreviations for the elements in chemical formulas, e.g., H2O. Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844), Methode pour Etudier la Langue Grecque; boosts classical studies in France. Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834), History of a Cosmopolite; or the Four Volumes of the Rev. Lorenzo Dow's Journal, concentrated in One, containing his Experience and Travels from Childhood to 1814 (autobio.); bestselling book in the U.S. after the Bible; Polemical Works. Charles du Fresne, Sieur du Cange (1610-88), Histoire de l'Etat de la Ville d'Amiens, et de ses Comtes (posth.). Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), De Buonaparte et des Bourbons (Mar. 30); a pamphlet against Napoleon, causing him to have to follow Louis XVIII into exile in Ghent during the Hundred Days of 1815, becoming ambassador to Sweden; Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary During the Years 1806 and 1807. Matthew Flinders (1774-1814), General Cahrt of Terra Australis or Australia; based on his voyages in 1801-1803 in ships Norfolk, Cumberland, and Investigator after circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) in 1798; the first full map of Australia's coastline, incl. first use of the word Australia, causing New South Wales gov. Lachlan Macquarie to propose that the name be formally adopted in 1817, which is agreed to by the British Admiralty in 1824. Washington Irving (1783-1859), Philip of Pokanoket; glorifies Indian chief King Philip (d. 1676). Isaac D'Israeli (1766-1848), Quarrels of Authors. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), Runenblatter. Louis-Gabriel Michaud (1773-1858), Tableau historique et raisonné des premières guerres de Bonaparte (Historical Outline and Rationale of the First Wars of Bonaparte). M.J.B. Orfila, Toxicologie Generale. Jean Paul (1763-1825), Mars and Phoebus Exchange Thrones in the Year 1814. Friedrich Karl von Savigny (1779-1861), The Claim of Our Age on Legislation (Vom Beruf unserer Zeit fur Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft); protests the proposed hasty codification of German laws. Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de Sismondi (1773-1842), The Literature of the South of Europe. Ethan Smith (1762-1849), A Key to the Figurative Language Found in the Sacred Scriptures. Joanna Southcott (1750-1814), The Sacred Writings of Joanna Southcott; incl. "The Book of Wonders", "Prophecies Announcing the Birth of the Prince of Peace". William Wordsworth (1770-1850), The Excursion; laments the effects of industry in England. Music: Arvid August Afzelius (1785-1871) and Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783-1847), Svenska Folksvisor fran Forntiden (3 vols.) (1814-17); Swedish folk songs. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), Fidelio, Op. 72 (opera) (final version) (May 23) (Vienna) (his only opera); Eighth (8th) Symphony, Op. 93 (Feb. 27) (Vienna); he conducts while "the orchestra largely ignored his ungainly gestures and followed the principal violinist instead" - only one more symphony to go? John Field (1782-1837), Nocturnes (for piano); turns Chopin on, and the rest is history? Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Der Taucher (Taücher), D77; String Quartet in B flat major, D112; Des Teufels Lustschloss, D84 (first opera); Mass No. 1 in F major, D105 (Oct. 16) (Liechtental Church) (sung by Therese Grob); Gretchen am Spinnrade, D118; his first masterpiece? Art: Antonio Canova (1757-1822), The Three Graces (sculpture) (1814-7). Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), Portrait of a Carabiniere. Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), The Second of May 1808 (Secundo de Mayo); The Third of May 1808 (Tres de Mayo) - soldiers shooting peasants, oh my? Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), La Grande Odalisque au Bain. Jean-Baptiste Isabey (1767-1855), Louis XVIII. Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830), The Congress of Vienna. Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824), The Corsair (Feb. 1); based on the pirate Jean Lafitte; sells 10K copies the first day; also Lara, A Tale; pub. anon.; a continuation of "The Corsair"., about Count Lara and his enemy Count Otho, who fight it out on the Scottish border. Robert Southey (1774-1843), Roderick, the Last of the Goths (original title: Pelayo, the Restorer of Spain); his masterpiece?; about 8th cent. Spanish Count Rodrigo, who rapes Florinda, daughter of Count Julian, causing him to change his allegiance to the invading Moors; after being wounded in a battle, Rodrerick flees, then changes his mind and returns to rescue Spanish heir Pelayo from the Moors, meeting Florinda, who reveals that Roderick was innocent, after which he allies with Count Pedro and defeats the Moors, while Count Julian is assassinated by his own allies; a satire of Napoleon's invasions of Europe? Samuel Woodworth (1784-1842), The Heroes of the Lake. William Wordsworth (1770-1850), The Excursion; a lame continuation of "The Prelude"? Novels: Jane Austen (1775-1817), Mansfield Park; the different value systems of London and the country; Fanny Price, the Bertram and Crawford families, Aunt Norris. Fanny Burney (1752-1840), The Wanderer, or Female Difficulties. Adelbert von Chamisso (1781-1838), Peter Schlemihls Wunderbare Geschichte; pub. in England in 1823 as "Peter Schlemihl: The Man Who Sold His Shadow", with illustrations by George Cruikshank. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), Julius und Evagoras (first novel); philosophical romance. E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), Phantasiestucke in Callots Manier (vols. 1-4 of Hoffman's Tales) (1814-15); incl. Don Juan, Ritter Gluck, Das Marchen vom Goldenen Topf (The Golden Pot). Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Manga (vol. 1). Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Waverly; his first Romantic historical novel (last 1825); written while living at 39 Castle St. in Edinburgh. Births: Chinese Taiping Rebellion leader Hong Xiuquan (Xichuan) (Hung Hiu-Tsuen) (Hong Huoxiu) (Renkun) (d. 1864) on Jan. 1 in Hua County, Guangdong. Dutch novelist Johannes Kneppelhout (AKA Klikspaan) (d. 1885) on Jan. 8 in Leiden. English "East Lynne" novelist Ellen Price (Mrs. Henry) Wood (d. 1887) on Jan. 17 in Worcester. French Gothic revival architect Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (d. 1879) on Jan. 27 in Paris. Scottish geologist Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay (d. 1891) on Jan. 31 in Glasgow; uncle of Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916). Am. writer-abolitionist Rev. Henry Theodore Cheever (d. 1897) on Feb. 6 in Hallowell, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College. Am. Roman Catholic priest (founder of U. of Notre Dame) Father Edward Frederick Sorin (d. 1893) on Feb. 6 in Ahuille (near Laval), France; emigrates to the U.S. in fall 1841. Am. publisher George Palmer Putnam (d. 1872) on Feb. 7 in Brunswick, Maine; father of George Haven Putnam (1844-1930), John Putnam, Irving Putnam, and Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi; partner of John Wiley. Am. Dem. politician Samuel Jones Tilden (d. 1886) on Feb. 9 in Lebanon, N.Y. German celeb Johanna Bertha Julie "Jenny" Freiin von Westphalen (d. 1881) on Feb. 12 in Salzwedel; wife (1843-) of Karl Marx (1818-83). Am. nitrous oxide showman Gardner Quincy Colton (d. 1898) on Feb. 17 in Georgia, Vt. Am. Colo. gov. #2 (1862-5) and physician (cofounder of Northwestern U.) (Methodist) John Evans (d. 1897) on Mar. 9 near Waynesville, Ohio; educated at Cincinnati College; father-in-law of Samuel Hitt Elbert (1833-99). Ukrainian poet ("Founder of Ukrainian Literature") Taras Shevchenko (d. 1861) on Mar. 9 in Moryntsi. U.S. Sen. (R-N.J.) (1859-65) John Conover Ten Eyck (d. 1879) on Mar. 12 in Freehold, N.J. Am. humorist George Washington Harris (d. 1869) Mar. 20 in in Allegheny County, Penn. Scottish "Cheer, Boys, Cheer" poet-journalist-songwriter Charles Mackay (d. 1889) on Mar. 27 in Perth; father of Marie Corelli (1855-1924). Am. power loom inventor (co-founder of MIT) Erastus Brigham Bigelow (d. 1879) on Apr. 2 in West Boylston, Mass. Am. Mormon pres. #5 (1898-1901) Lorenzo Snow (d. 1901) on Apr. 3 in Mantua, Ohio. Am. historian-diplomat John Lothrop Motley (d. 1877) on Apr. 15 in Dorchester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. English philanthropist Baroness Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts (d. 1906) on Apr. 24; daughter of Sir Francis Burdett (1770-1844); granddaughter of banker Thomas Coutts (1735-1822). Austrian-Bohemian statesman Karl Wilhelm Philipp von Auersperg, 8th Prince of Auersperg (d. 1890) on May 1 in Prague. German physicist Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geissler (d. 1879) on May 26 in Igelshieb, Thuringia, Saxe-Meiningen. Russian rev. anarchist Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (d. 1876) on May 30 (May 18 Old Style) in Pryamukhino; born in a noble family, he goes radical in 1835, travels to Dresden and Paris, where he meets Karl Marx, George Sand, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and is declared an outlaw by the tsar in 1844. English novelist-playwright Charles Reade (d. 1884) on June 8 in Ipsden House, Oxfordshire. Am. "Mrs. Partington" humorist Benjamin Penhallon Shillaber (d. 1890) on July 12 in Portsmouth, N.H. Am. inventor and munitions king Samuel "Sam" Caldwell Colt (d. 1862) on July 19 in Hartford, Conn. Filipino religious leader Apolinaro de la Cruz (Hermano Pule or Puli) (d. 1841) on July 22 in Lucban, Tayabas Province. English naval lt. Henry Gordon Veitch (d. 1863) on July 29; grandfather of Noel Coward (1899-1973). Swiss baby formula inventor Henri (Heinrich) Nestle (Nestlé) (Ger. "small bird's nest") (d. 1890) on Aug. 10 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; emigrates to Switzerland in 1834-9. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. John Clifford Pemberton (d. 1881) on Aug. 10 in Philadelphia, Penn.; his Va.-born wife helps him decide to switch to the rebel side? Am. Southern pro-slavery Fire-Eater secessionist leader ("the Orator of Secession") William Lowndes Yancey (d. 1863) on Aug. 10 in Warren County, Ga. Swedish astronomer-physicist Anders Jonas Angstrom (Ängström) (d. 1874) on Aug. 13 in Logdo (Lögdö), Medelpad; educated at the U. of Uppsala; prover of the existence of hydrogen in the Sun. Am. Roman Catholic archbishop of Baltimore #8 (1872-7) James Roosevelt Bayley (d. 1877) on Aug. 23 in New York City; son of Columbia U. prof. Richard Bayley; nephew of Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton; distant relation of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt and FDR; raised a Protestant; educated at Washington College, and St. John's College; baptised Roman Catholic on Apr. 19, 1842 after conversion by Father John McCloskey. Am. Mormon leader Granville Hedrick (d. 1881) on Sept. 2 in Woodford County, Ill.; father of James A. Hedrick (1866-1926). English mathematician (Jewish) (founder of the Am. Journal of Mathematics) (inventor of the discriminant) (namer of Euler's totient function psi) James Joseph Sylvester (d. 1897) on Sept. 3 in London; educated at the U. of London, St. John's College, Cambridge U., and Trinity College, Dublin; student of Augustus De Morgan (1806-71). Canadian PM (1857-62) ("French-Canadian Father of Confederation") Sir George-Etienne Cartier (d. 1873) on Sept. 6 in St. Antoine, Upper Canada; named for George III. English Gothic Revival architect William Butterfield (d. 1900) on Sept. 7 in London. French historian Abbe Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg (d. 1874) on Sept. 8 in Bourbourg (near Dunkird). Dutch "Camera Obscura" Reformed theologian-writer-poet Nicolaas Beets (AKA Hildebrand) (d. 1903) on Sept. 13 in Haarlem; educated at the U. of Leiden. Prussian diplomat-politician Karl Friedrich von Savigny (d. 1875) on Sept. 19; son of Friedrich Carl von Savigny (1779-1861). French astronomer Herve (Hervé) Auguste Etienne (Étienne) Albans Faye (d. 1902) on Oct. 1 in St.-Benoit-du-Sault (Indre); educated at the Ecole Polytechnique. Am. Pony Express co-founder Alexander Majors (d. 1900) on Oct. 4 in Franklin, Ky.; partners of William Hepburn Russell (1812-72) and William Bradford Waddell (1807-72). French "The Gleaners" Barbizon School realist painter Jean-Francois Millet (d. 1875) on Oct. 4 in Gruchy (near Greville); educated at the Cherbourg Academy of Design; pupil of Paul Delaroche. Am. manufacturer (Jewish) John Moses Brunswick (d. 1886) on Oct. 6 in Bremgarten, Switzerland.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1834. French Roman Catholic archibishop #1 of Santa Fe, N.M. (1875-88) Jean-Baptiste Lamy (d. 1888) on Oct. 11 in Lempdes; subject of Willa Cather's 1927 novel "Death Comes for the Archbishop". Irish Young Ireland leader (Protestant) Thomas Osborne Davis (d. 1845) on Oct. 14 in Mallow, County Cork; Welsh father, Irish mother; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Russian Romantic poet-novelist ("Poet of the Caucasus") Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov (d. 1841) on Oct. 15 (Oct. 3 Old Style) in Moscow; coulda been a 2nd Pushkin if he'd lived long enough? Guatemalan rev. leader (1839-65) and pres. #1 (1844-8) Jose Rafael Carrera Turcios (d. 1865) on Oct. 24 in Guatemala City. English educator Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff (d. 1897) on Nov. 3; collaborator of Maria Georgina Grey (1816-1906). Belgian saxophone inventor (Freemason) Antoine-Joseph "Adolphe" Sax (d. 1894) on Nov. 6 in Dinant, Wallonia. Am. historian Henry Warren Torrey (d. 1893) on Dec. 14 in Roxbury, Mass.; son of John Torrey and Marcia Otis Warren, daughter of Henry Warren (son of James Warren and Mercy Otis Warren, daughter of James Otis of Barnstable) and Mary Winslow, daughter of Joanna White Winslow (-1829) and Maj. Pelham Winslow (son of Gen. John Winslow and descendant of Gov. Edward Winslow); educated at Harvard U. Am. Civil War Union Maj. Gen. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker (d. 1879) on Nov. 13 in Hadley, Mass.; known for supplying "hookers" (whores) (hos) to his men, and for his big D at Chancellorsville. German physician and physicist Julius Robert von Mayer (d. 1878) on Nov. 25 in Heilbronn; son of an apothecary; educated at Tubingen U. Spanish PM #38 (1869-70) Gen. Juan Prim y Prats, 1st Marquis of Los Castillejos, 1st Count of Reus, 1st Viscount of El Bruch (d. 1870) on Dec. 30 in Reus. Am. landscape architect (Unitarian-Universalist) Horace William Shaler Cleveland (d. 1900) on Dec. 16 in Lancaster, Mass.; educated at the Lancaster School, founded by his parents. U.S. secy. of war (1862-8), U.S. atty. gen. (1860-1) and statesman Edwin McMasters Stanton (d. 1869) on Dec. 19 in Steubenville, Ohio; father is a Quaker physician. Am. Van Camp's Pork and Beans canning co. founder Gilbert C. Van Camp (d. 1900) on Dec. 25 in Brookville, Ind. Russian novelist ("the Russian George Sand") Elena Andreyevna Fadeyeva (AKA Zeneida R-va) (d. 1843); mother of Madame Blavatsky (1831-91). English historian Sir John William Kaye (d. 1876); educated at Eton College. French Minie Ball inventor Capt. C.E. Minie (Minié) (d. 1879). English artist Harry Hall (d. 1882). African-Am. writer William Wells Brown (d. 1884). Belgian mathematician Eugene Charles Catalan (d. 1894). British piano maker John Brinsmead (d. 1898). Deaths: English music historian Charles Burney (b. 1726) on Apr. 12 in Chelsea; gets a tablet in Westminster Abbey. Am. writer Mercy Otis Warren (b. 1728) on Oct. 19 in Plymouth, Mass. Brazilian architect-sculptor Antonio Francisco Lisboa (Aleijadinho) (b. 1730). Am. Rev. leader-jurist (DOI signer) Robert Treat Paine (b. 1731) on May 11 in Boston, Mass. Belgian-born "Prince of Europe" Charles Joseph de Ligne (b. 1735) on Dec. 13 in Vienna; leaves Contes Immoraux (Immoral Tales): "I have six or seven fatherlands, the Empire, Flanders, France, Spain, Austria, Poland, Russia, and nearly Hungary"; "One should despair of nothing, dare everything, push down one's hat - the battle is won." Austrian gen. baron Paul Davidovich (b. 1737) on Feb. 18 in Komarom. French guillotine pusher Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin (b. 1738) on Mar. 28; dies a natural death (left shoulder carbuncle), although a Dr. J.M.V. Guillotin of Lyons does get the guillotine. French writer-botanist Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (b. 1737) on Jan. 21 in Eragny, Val-d'Oise. French sulptor Clodion (Claude Michel) (b. 1738) on Mar. 28 in Paris. British adm. Arthur Phillip (b. 1738) on Aug. 31 in Bath. French everhard super-horndog Marquis de Sade (b. 1740) on Dec. 2 in Charenton insane asylum; buried in Malmaison (near Epernon); his skull is later removed for phrenological examination; he orders all his unpub. mss burned incl. the multi-vol. "Les Journees de Florbelle" - the future average world citizen? Am. Cincinnati, Ohio co-founder John Cleves Symmes (b. 1742) on Feb. 26 in Cincinnati, Ohio; namesake of Cleves, Ohio. U.S. vice-pres. Elbridge Gerry (b. 1744); his term isn't up until Mar. 3, 1817; 2nd straight veep to die in office. English singer-composer Charles Dibdin (b. 1745) on July 25 in Camden Town. English MP-spymaster William Eden, 1st baron Auckland (b. 1745) on May 28 in Beckenham, Kent; namesake of the Auckland Islands. English engineer Joseph Bramah (b. 1748) on Dec. 9 in Pimlico. German music teacher Georg "Abbe" Vogler (b. 1749) on May 6 in Darmstadt (apoplexy). Am. Rev. War leader Ira Allen (b. 1751) on Jan. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn. Italian queen of Naples (1768-1806) and Sicily (1768-1814) Maria Carolina (b. 1752) on Sept. 8. Am.-born scientist Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (b. 1753). Welsh Calvinistic Methodist clergyman Thomas Charles (b. 1755) on Oct. 5. German actor-dramatist August Wilhelm Iffland (b. 1759) on Sept. 22 in Berlin. German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (b. 1762) on Jan. 27 in Berlin (typhus): "The living and efficaciously acting moral order is itself God. We require no other God, nor can we grasp any other." French empress Josephine (b. 1763) on May 29. British rear adm. William Brown (b. 1764) on Sept. 20 in Kingston. British gen. Robert Ross (b. 1766) on Sept. 12 in North Point, Baltimore, Md. (KIA). French gen. Jean Louis Ebenezer Reynier (b. 1771) on Feb. 27 in Paris (freed in a POW exchange 2 weeks earlier). English explorer Capt. Matthew Flinders (b. 1774) on July 19. Russian gen. Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard, vicomte de Saint-Priest (b. 1776) on Mar. 29 in Laon (mortlaly wounded in the Battle of Reims).

1815 - The Defeat All Waterloo Year for Napoleon? Learn by doing, Or, Use your tool, use your head, use your hands? Two great battles in the first half of this memorable year alone, then a pirate war with the Americans, and yet nothing kills like Mother Nature, who throws Indonesia a volcanic curveball? Meanwhile, what goes around comes around, it's called bad karma? Despite progress in France, absolutism in Europe scores a Big V, holding back liberal forces for decades to come, giving them a good excuse for retreating into fairy tales?

U.S. Gen. Andrew 'Andy' Jackson (1767-1845) Jean Lafitte (1776-1854) British Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) French Field Marshal Emmanuel Marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847) Friend Field Marshal August Wilhelm von Gneisenau (1760-1831) French Marshal Jean-Baptiste Droute, Comte d'Erlon (1765-1844) French Gen. Pierre Cambronne (1770-1842) French Gen. Louis Emmanuel Rey (1768-1846) William I of the Netherlands (1772-1843) Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Gen. Carlos Maria de Alvear of Argentina (1789-1852) Gen. Jose de San Martin of Argentina (1778-1850) Benjamin Latrobe of the U.S. (1764-1820) British Adm. Sir Henry Hotham (1777-1833) 5th Duke de Richelieu of France (1766-1822) Milos Obrenovic of Serbia (1780-1860) Karl Follen (1796-1840) Luigi Edoardo Pellegrino, Count Rossi (1787-1848) Johann Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862) Noah Worcester (1758-1837) William Ladd (1778-1841) Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) William Prout (1785-1850) George Stephenson (1781-1848) John Loudon McAdam (1756-1836) Augustin Jean Fresnel (1788-1827) Capt. Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846) Thomas Attwood (1783-1856) Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758-1840) Eugene Scribe (1791-1861) Lady Hester Stanhope (1776-1839) Anne Isabella Milbanke (1792-1860) Brighton Pavilion, 1815-23 Sir Richard Westmacott (1775-1856) Waterloo Vase by Sir Richard Westmacott (1775-1856), 1815 'Ulysses Recognized by His Dog Argos' by Etienne-Jules Ramey (1796-1852), 1815 Old Brick Capitol, 1815

1815 Beginning this year large numbers of Irish begin migrating to the U.S. - 102 years to JFK? Jewish immigration to the U.S. from Europe, particularly Germany begins to increase greatly; Cincinnati (later ironically called Porkopolis) and San Francisco start becoming flourishing Jewish centers. The Great Migration of Canada from Britain begins, with 800K immigrating by 1850, incl. English-speaking settlers to Upper Canada, Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots to Nova Scotia, and 35K Irish landing in Toronto in 1847-8. We fired our guns and the British kept a-comin'? On Jan. 1 an artillery duel ends in an American success, then on Jan. 8 (Sun.) the Battle of New Orleans (last major battle of the War of 1812) sees British Maj. Gen. Edward Pakenham (b. 1778) throw his 5.3K elite troops in two columns through the early morning fog; too bad for them, the fog lifts, exposing them to horrendous casualties from concentrated Am. fire; the British reform 2x, but break off the fight after Pakenham is KIA; the Brits suffer 291 KIA, 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing; Am. losses total 13 KIA, 39 wounded, and 19 missing, making Andrew "Andy" Jackson (1767-1845) a nat. hero; French pirate Jean Lafitte (1776-1825) (who learned of a $500 bounty on his head by La. gov. William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775-1817) in 1813 and responded by offering his own $15K bounty on him) assists but doesn't fare as well until the 1958 MGM film The Buccaneer (dir. by Anthony Quinn) comes out?; Pakenham's body is pickled in a barrel of rum like a ham and packed off to his ship to see his wife, who is waiting for good news; the British slink away and sail from Lake Borgne in SE La. on Jan. 25. When it comes to shipping talk is cheap, mistakes aren't? On Jan. 15 after defeating the British ship Endymion, the frigate USS President, commanded by Stephen Decatur Jr. becomes the first-ever heavy U.S. frigate lost to an enemy (until ?) when the British force him to surrender. On Jan. 30 Thomas Jefferson sells 6.5K books from his private library (largest in the U.S.) to the U.S. Congress, becoming the nucleus of the Library of Congress. On Feb. 15 the Treaty of Ghent between Britain and the U.S. is ratified by the U.S. Senate, ending the War of 1812, and Pres. Madison's popularity soars along with U.S. pride; at the same time the U.S. and Britain begin to realize their economic (if not racial) interdependence and respect each other a mite; total U.S. war deaths: 2,260. On Mar. 4 in honor of the Treaty of Ghent, Pres. Madison proclaims a nat. day of Thanksgiving. On Mar. 20-29 the Congress of Vienna (begun 1814) agrees to the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland, and a constitutional convention meets in Switzerland to draw up a new federal pact. On May 5 after Austrian Prince Metternich opens the diet of the German Confederation (ends 1866) in Frankfurt, Grand Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach grants the first German constitution, effective June 8, creating a 38-state confederation from 360 HRE states under the presidency of the emperor of Austria; an edict limits land ownership to those able to furnish a team of animals to work it, forcing many peasants into poverty and cottage industries; the Free City of Frankfurt ie established, with a constitution that restores the old restrictions on the Jews except the requirement to live in the ghetto. I return my flower, a changed bee? Let's get Chef Pierre on the road? It's playtime, let's see your best Karate Krunch? On Mar. 20-July 8 the Hundred Days (War of the Seventh Coalition) (really 111 days) culminates in Emperor Napoleon I (1769-1821) meeting British gen. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) for the last time at Waterloo, which Wellington later claims "was won on the playing fields of Eton"; on Feb. 26 after getting pissed-off at the Bourbon restoration and the machinations of the Congress of Vienna, and seeing his chance with Anglo-Dutch troops under Wellington and Prussian troops under Blucher scattered around the Low Countries, Napoleon eludes British patrol ships and escapes Elba, then lands on Mar. 1 in Cannes, where troops sent to capture him fall prey to his charisma and and rally around him, causing Louis XVIII to flee to Ghent; on Mar. 13 the allies issue a ban against Nappy, but that doesn't stop him from entering Paris and establishing a govt., with the Duc de Cambaceres as pres. of the House of Peers and minister of justice, then organizing an army to reconquer Belgium and Holland, causing Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia to form the Seventh (Final) Coalition against him on Mar. 25, supplying 180K men each and getting all European nations except Sweden to join, resulting in a 1M-man army; Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours takes the cue and returns to the U.S. with his sons; Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds the Brits, while Jacob Rothschild funds the French, allowing them to play both sides and end up owning a large amount of the British Empire, after which they force their five C European banks to be used instead of transferring precious metals from country to country? The U.S. makes short work of its first war against Muslim terrorists? On Mar. 3 the U.S. declares the Second Barbary (Algerian) (Algerine) War (first in 1801-5) on Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis and their Muslim Barbary pirates, who plunder U.S. ships to make up for what they claim is not enough tribute (jizya) as promised by the Quran, and scoff at the nation of shopkeeping Jonathans and Quakers; on May 10 Commodore Stephen Decatur Jr. sails from New York with a flotilla of 10 ships, tells the Algerian adm. "I go where I please", and seizes two Algerian ships in the Mediterranean, then sails into Algiers Harbor, and on June 30 the bey of Algiers capitulates; in July-Aug. Decatur ends the piracy of Tunis and Tripoli, inducing similar treaties; the pirates cease collecting tribute from the U.S. and instead pay indemnities; when hero Decatur returns to the U.S. he attends a banquet where he utters the famous soundbyte: "Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right, but our country, right or wrong!"; meanwhile Pres. Madison sees the light and "federalizes", suddenly wanting a peacetime army and navy as well as a nat. bank, and even increased tariffs and internal improvements; the Federalists and Republicans reverse roles as the former now take up states rights and strict construction, leaving the latter to go abolitionist and win the U.S. Civil War of 1861-5 that ended the U.S. eyesore of Muslim-like slavery, although ironically a lot of Africans taken as slaves were Muslim at the time and were purchased from other African Muslims, then forced to convert to Christianity, although some secretly cling to their Qurans. On Mar. 16 Prince William Frederick (Willem Frederik) of Orange is crowned king William I (1772-1843) of the Netherlands and grand duke of Luxembroug (until Oct. 7, 1840); his son William II commands Dutch troops in the upcoming June 18 Battle of Waterloo. On Mar. 20-29 the Congress of Vienna (begun 1814) agrees to the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland, and a constitutional convention meets in Switzerland to draw up a new federal pact. In Mar. Joachim Murat (b. 1767) declares for Napoleon and tries to regain his throne in Naples, but is defeated by an Austrian force on May 2-3 at the Battle of Tolentino after Corsican adventurer Giuseppe Marco Fieschi (1790-1836) betrays his plans to the Austrians, later giving more info. that helps the Austrians capture him; Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Sicily is restored to the Neapolitan (chocolate, vanilla and strawberry?) throne; Fieschi returns to Corsica next year then ends up getting 10 years for theft and forgery; utilitarian philosopher Luigi Edoardo Pellegrino, Count Rossi (1787-1848), prof. of law in Bologna and a Murat supporter flees to France, then settles in Geneva, being granted naturalization after giving a course in Roman law. On Apr. 6 Pres. Madison appoints Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe (1764-1820) as architect of the U.S. Capitol (until Nov. 20, 1817). On Apr. 10 Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island in Indonesia erupts with a force (VEI-7) 100Kx Mt. St. Helens (most powerful recorded volcanic explosion in history), killing 90K, mostly from starvation after it destroys the crops; its ash affects the weather as far away as England, blackening skies around the globe and blocking sunlight for three years, triggering a blizzard in Upstate New York in June 1816 and killer frosts in New England in July-Aug. 1816, making 1816 "the year without a summer", causing a new genre of Gothic fiction incl. Frankenstein and human vampires to emerge? On Apr. 22-23 the Acte Additionnel aux Constitutions de l'Empire, drafted by Benjamin Constant provides the emperor with limited executive authority and ensures individual rights and freedom of the press - take the next exit and turn right? On Apr. 24 after Karadorde Petrovic and most of the Serbian leaders escape to the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, the Second Serbian Uprising against the Turks (ends July 26, 1817) begins as the Serbian nat. council in Takovo proclaims a revolt under Milos Obrenovich (1780-1860), who utters the soundbyte: "Here I am; here you are; war against the Turks!"; the Serbs go on to conquer the Pashaluk of Belgrade (Sanjak of Smederevo). On May 5 after Austrian Prince Metternich opens the diet of the German Confederation (ends 1866) in Frankfurt, Grand Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach grants the first German constitution, effective June 8, creating a 38-state confederation from 360 HRE states under the presidency of the emperor of Austria; an edict limits land ownership to those able to furnish a team of animals to work it, forcing many peasants into poverty and cottage industries; the Free City of Frankfurt ie established, with a constitution that restores the old restrictions on the Jews except the requirement to live in the ghetto; on May 19 Geneva joins the Swiss Confederation. On May 21 Pope Pius VII stops in Turin on his return to Italy from crowning Napoleon, and personally displays the Shroud of Christ from the balcony of the Palazzo Madama. In May Napoleon issues the liberal constitution Le Champ de Mai. The orchestra is on their feet? The last half of the year is a big gig for the European diplomats, who carve up France's carcass for their royal absolutist masters? On June 9 the Congress of Vienna (begun 1814) closes with the Treaty of Vienna; the result is the concept of the balance of power to preserve internat. equilibrium of the winning powers, with periodic congresses meeting to maintain peace (prevent revolts); France reverts to its 1790 boundaries, but is allowed to keep Avignon, which it took from the papacy; Russia keeps Finland, and the greater part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, which is dissolved, and Poland (Cracow) is repartitioned between Russia, Prussia and Austria, with a kingdom of Poland created under a king and the Russian tsar, with the right to have unspellable Polish as the official language plus their own army (ends 1846); Austria emerges as the dominant power on the continent (ends 1866), receiving new territories in Italy and the Illyrian Provinces; Prussia receives part of the duchy of Warsaw, Danzig, Swedish Pomernia and Rugen, plus new parts of Westphalia and Neuchatel and more than half of Saxony, which becomes a province; on Aug. 24, 1815 the Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands is passed, uniting Belgium and Holland in an uneasy religious-unfriendly alliance in order to create a strong buffer state against France (ends 1830); Luxembourg (founded 963), the 350-year toy of Burgundy, Spain, Austria and France is made a Grand Duchy and given to the Netherlands; Switzerland becomes independent of France, and on Nov. 20 the Swiss Federal Pact is ratified, creating a confederation of 22 contiguous autonomous cantons with a Diet with restricted powers which requires the vote of two-thirds of the cantons to ratify any act; Norway and Sweden are joined in another bad marriage under one ruler; the dynasties in Spain, Sardinia and the Papal States (incl. Bologna) which had been taken over by the Napoleon clan are restored; the Valtellina passes to the new Lombard-Venetian Kingdom held by Austria (until 1848); Piedmont is returned to the kingdom of Sardinia, which is given Genoa and Liguria, making it the #1 independent state in the Italian peninsula; the new Germanic Confederation is formed, consisting of 38 member states (Austria, Liechtenstein, Hamburg et al.) as the replacement for the Holy Roman Empire (ends 1866), with a Diet at Frankfurt-am-Main consisting of two assemblies of diplomats presided over by Austrian reps.; the Ionian Islands of Greece are taken from France and placed under British suzerainty (until 1863); East Friesland is added to Hanover (an electorate since 1692), which is proclaimed a kingdom (until 1886), and restored to the English crown (ends 1837); England gains the nice naval hops of Malta and Helgoland, the Cape of Good Hope, and scattered island possessions taken from the Netherlands and France; Switzerland promises to not allow their famous and feared mercenaries to fight anywhere but at home and the Vatican; brie is declared the king of cheeses; the war to end all wars is over, but the real war is on hotter than ever between the liberal forces seeking to end absolutism in a hedonistic world that delights in pleasure and sin, and the absolutist forces seeking to hold onto their gains and the religious piety of the masses while themselves delighting in, er, pleasure and sin, with round one being conservative top dog Austria vs. liberal-hope challenger Prussia, whose liberal pop. has the problem of the Junkers (large landholders); after a cent. of strife it takes WWI to finally undo the old order completely? Into each life some rain must fall? On June 15-16 Napoleon suddenly crosses the Belgian frontier and attacks Charleroi, taking it from the Prussians; on June 16 he severely defeats field marshal Blucher at the Battle of Ligny (Nappy's last V), forcing him to fall back, while he personally rallies his scattered troops; meanwhile French marshal Michel Ney attacks the British under the Prince of Orange at the Battle of Quatre Bras and is defeated, while French troops under marshal Jean-Baptiste Droute, Count d'Erlon (1765-1844) are given conflicting orders and march back and forth between Ligny and Quatre Bras without engaging; Napoleon orders cavalry cmdr. marshal Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847) to follow and attack Blucher and his Prussians, who are expected to retreat S to Namur, but his orders are delayed for 12 hours, and Grouchy doesn't follow them, blindsiding grouchy Nappy, who joins Ney on June 17 and follows the retreating British on the road to Brussels, having a perfect life until they make a stand at the crossroads of Mt. St. Jean in front of the village of (what's love? that's right?) Waterloo, the last major battle involving all the great powers of Europe until 1914; alas, if only there had not been a bad rainstorm on the 17th, and he had not been suffering from painful hemorrhoids keeping him inside his tent high on opium, Nappy might have taken the unready Brits, but c'est la vie?; on June 18 (Sun.) (midday) (6, 6+6+6, 1815 = 6+6+6 + 1+5=6?) the watershed Battle of Waterloo in Belgium between Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington's 32K troops begins with a French frontal attack on Wellington's troops at the Battle of La Haye Sainte, whose "thin red line" repels the French cavalry charge three, count 'em, three times, giving Blucher's troops (who had not fallen back to Namur, but turned N along a series of farm roads to Wavre, eluding grouchy Grouchy) under new cmdr. August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (1760-1831) (who took charge after aging field marshal Blucher became disabled at Ligny) to surprise know-it-all-Nappy (the original Wrath of Khan vs. Kirk and Spock?), and come into view, though they are slowed by the muddy conditions, and take until 4:30 p.m. to reach the French at Plancenoit (Planchenoit), on Nappy's right flank, getting him into a vise; at 7 p.m. the decision hour arrives, and Nappy the Gambler risks his Old (Imperial) Guard, who fight to the last man in vain until finally the Frogs are routed, with French Gen. Pierre Jacques Etienne Cambronne (1770-1842) allegedly uttering the soundbyte "The Guard knows how to die", or "Merde" when called upon to surrender before being seriously wounded and taken POW by the British; the French propose a truce, which is laughed off, and Gneisenau pursues the Frogs to the gates of Paris, capturing Napoleon's carriage, and beating Wellington; on July 7 Paris is retaken, and on July 8 Louis XVIII "the Desired" (1755-1824) returns to his throney throne throne (until Sept. 16, 1824), backed by large sums of money raised by Jacques Laffitte (1767-1844), who becomes gov. of the Bank of France and pres. of the chamber of commerce, supplying 2M francs from his own pocket to cover the pay of the imperial troops after the Battle of Waterloo (Napoleon I himself deposited 5M francs in gold with him before leaving France for the last time); shortly after his restoration Louis XVIII grants the Charter of 1814, reducing the French monarchy from absolutist to constitutional; the British Army begin wearing bearskin hats after the Battle of Waterloo to mock Napoleon's Imperial Guard; the French D was actually a moral V because they took on Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria et al. all alone?; France turns its back on the British-led Industrial Rev., concentrating on small factories creating clothes, perfumes, and luxury goods, which survive to modern times, while England's factories don't?; "Waterloo was not a battle, it was a change in direction of the universe." (Victor Hugo) On June 20 Napoleon I issues a report on the Battle of Waterloo, claiming that by late afternoon "the army was able to look with satisfaction upon a battle won and the battlefield in our possession", until Gen. Blucher's Prussian troops intervened and routed them. His last days as a Playboy Playmate coming up in minutes, or, Shrek the Third is about to debut? On June 22 (4 days after the Big D at Waterloo) after going with his brother Joseph Bonaparte to Rochefort, planning to sail separately for North Am., and Joseph offering to give up his own hired vessel for him, whereupon he graciously lets him escape instead, Napoleon I surrenders to British Vice-adm. Sir Henry Hotham (1777-1833) (ham jokes here?), then on July 15 formally surrenders aboard the HMS Bellerophon (Capt. Frederick Lewis Maitland) off Rochefort, and abdicates again in favor of his son Napoleon II (1811-32), who never rules; Napoleon is unanimously ordered by the allies to be exiled to St. Helena Island in the butthole of the Atlantic off the W African coast, where he arrives in the Bellerophon in Oct., and remains until his death on May 5, 1821; the Brits set up a garrison on Ascension Island to the NW, calling it stone frigate HMS Ascension, classified as "sloop of war of the smaller class"; after state minister (since 1815) Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand votes for his execution. French marshal Michel Ney (b. 1769) is executed for treason on Dec. 7; Gen. Grouchy, who lives in Chateau de la Villette NW of Paris is exiled to Philadelphia, Penn.; Blucher retires to private life and receives a special Iron Cross from pleased-as-punch Frederick William III; the name Arthur (as in Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington) suddenly becomes fashionable for baby boys; the Waterloo Teeth collected from the dead soldiers (most from young boys) for making dentures are so excellent that they are in great demand; Nappy's uncle Cardinal Joseph Fesch is exiled to Rome, bequeathing many art objects to Lyons; Nappy's brother Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte (1768-1844) flees to Bordentown, N.J. (until 1841), settling down in Point Breeze, N.J. under the title of Comte de Survilliers and going into agriculture - yep, that's me? On June 30-Aug. 12 9K Dutch and Belgian troops siege the fortress of Valenciennes, which is commanded by Napoleon's gen. Louis Emmanuel Rey (1768-1846). In June with British help, Ferdinand the Infanta of Spain, AKA Ferdinand IV of Naples and Ferdinand II of Sicily restores the Bourbon Dynasty in Sicily, abolishing the constitution of 1812. On Aug. 14 afer Louis XVIII institutes the Second White Terror, persecuting anybody associated with the French Rev. or Napoleon, elections in France are won by the ultra-royalists, who win 350 of 402 seats; on Sept. 26 Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septimanie de Vignerot du Plessis, 5th Duc de Richelieu (1766-1822) becomes PM #2 of France (until Dec. 29, 1918); on Oct. 7 the Chambre Introuvable (Unobtainable Chamber) convenes, bent on reestablishing the Ancien Regime, banishing anybody who voted for Louis XVI's execution and establishing military provost-marshal courts to dispense with them. On Aug. 23 HMS Northumberland, carrying Napoleon en route to St. Helena Island anchors at Funchal in Madeira, and British consul Henry Veitch (1782-1857) (great-grandfather of writer Noel Coward) goofs by addressing him as "Your Majesty" instead of "General", causing the foreign secy. to sack him and order him to return to England; after the locals demand his return, he is reinstated by Lord Palmerston, and finally booted out for the final time in Dec. 1835 after stinking himself up with licentious behavior and trying to become gov. On Sept. 22-24 the Great Sept. Gale of 1815, the first to strike New England in 180 years strikes the S shore of Long Island, N.Y. on Sept. 23, splitting Long Beach from the Rockaways, then hits Saybrook, Conn., creating 11-ft. waves that destroy 500 houses and 35 ships, then floods Providence, R.I.; in 1819 John Farrar (1779-1853) of Harvard U. first proposes that a hurricane is a "moving vortex and not the rushing forward of a great body of the atmosphere". On Sept. 26 the Category 3 (135 mph) Holy (Grand) Alliance is formed by Alexander I of Russia, Francis I of Austria, and Frederick William III of Prussia, declaring that all Euro countries are to be governed by Christian (really conservative reactionary) principles; it is ultimately accepted by all European rulers except the British prince regent, the pope, and (obviously?) the Ottoman sultan - and that makes it classy for the kids? On Oct. 13 Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat (b. 1767) is executed in Calabria, S Italy. On Nov. 20 the Second Treaty of Paris contracts France to its 1790 boundaries (the 1789 boundaries plus Venaissin and Avignon), and forces France to pay 700M francs and support 17 allied fortresses on its N and E frontiers for five years; Saarbrucken passes from France to Prussia - no more Peach Elbas? On Nov. 20 the Quadruple Alliance between Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia implements Prince Metternich's Congress System, whereby each member agrees to supply 60K men upon the attempted violation of the Treaty of Paris, and establishes the principle of govt. by conference; it is signed for a 20-year term, then renewed for another 20 years in 1834. On Dec. 7 Michel Ney (b. 1769), one of Napoleon's original 18 marshals of France is arrested and charged with treason by the chamber of peers, then convicted on Dec. 6 and executed by firing squad near the Luxembourg Garden in Paris on Dec. 7, refusing to wear a blindfold and giving the soldiers their order to fire like the macho stud he is; the execution is meant as an example, but divides public opinion; later a legend arises that the whole thing was staged with fake blood packets, and that he had pulled Illuminati Freemason strings to be spirited away to the U.S., where he assumes the identity of mild-mannered school teacher Peter Stuart Ney in the Carolinas, and dies in 1846 after uttering the final words: "Bessieres is dead, the Old Guard is dead, now please let me die"; his gravestone is in Cleveland, N.C. at Third Creek Presbyterian Church? On Dec. 15 Pres. Madison delivers his State of the Union Message to Congress, declaring the Barbary Wars to be over. A colony rules its former mother country? Brazil becomes an independent kingdom equal to Portugal, with Prince Regent Joao (John) VI (Dom John) ruling both countries from Rio de Janeiro, where he was driven into exile by the French during the Napoleonic Wars; on Dec. 16 Mad Maria I is proclaimed queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves; after Nappy is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, Maria I and her family remain in Brazil. Gen. Carlos Maria de Alvear (1789-1852) becomes dictator of the Rio de la Plata based in Buenos Aires; meanwhile Argentine Gen. Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) goes to Mendoza to organize an army to liberate Chile. After federalist troops from the Banda Oriental (Uruguay) threaten the country, Dr. Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia becomes dictator ("El Supremo") of Paraguay, isolating the country and fighting annexation threats by both Brazil and the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata while forcing peasants into slave labor, allegedly to found a dream country a la Rousseau, Robespierre and Napoleon, while he slowly goes mad? The Venezuelan royalists defeat Simon Bolivar at the Battle of Santa Marta, then take Cartagena, causing him to flee Nueva Granada for Jamaica, where he issues his Jamaican Letter, then travel to Haiti and gain support from pres. Alexandre Sabes Petion with his promise to abolish slavery in Venezuela, raising a new army. The British income tax is abolished (until 1842) - hey, we get a piece of them 700 million francs? After more than a year's hostilities, Nepal agrees to let British residents live in the strongly Hindu (no British beef?) capital city of Katmandu. Britain's takeover of the South Am. trade routes almost leads to war among the major powers. Ndvungunye dies, and his son Sobhuza I (Ngwane IV) (Somhlolo = "the Wonder") (1780-1836) becomes king of Swaziland (until 1836). The Sac and Fox tribes are manipulated into new treaties with the U.S. this year and next giving away their ancestral lands on the E side of the Mississipi River, with relocation to the W side accomplished in 1823; as before, chief Black Hawk repudiates the agreements, but white man gets what white man wants, and his red ass is grass and they got the lawnmower? French-Canadian trapper Jaques La Ramie (Ramee) (Ramée) (1784-1821) organizes a free-trapper rendezvous at the junction of the North Platte and Laramie Rivers, going on to explore the Laramie River in 1820 until he mysteriously fails to arrive at a rendezvous in 1821 and is never seen again; in the mid-1860s the town of Laramie, Wyo. is named after him. The first regular steamships begin running between Liverpool and Glasgow. About this time White is Right Britain adopts a paternalistic attitude towards the natives of India, feeling a new responsibility to modernize and Christianize, and of course, to rule them (like whites everywhere, from Alexander's Greeks on?); meanwhile, the East India Co. men in India live like maharajas, complete with native mistresses in their palaces who churn out future Nehrus? - Hindu is a state of mind? The Commercial Convention between the U.S. and Britain patches up war wounds and eliminates discriminatory duties on both sides, except in the West Indies, where Britain still closes the door. The Corn Laws are passed by Parliament, outlawing import of grain until domestic grain reaches the "famine price" of 80 shillings per quarter; this helps the agricultural aristocracy, but disregards both agricultural workers and consumers, raising food prices for the working classes (ends 1827); repealed in 1846. The Apothecaries Act forbids unqualified doctors from practicing in England. Karl Follen (1796-1840) founds the Blacks, one of several secret liberal societies in the German univs. called Burschenschaften, the Blacks being supporters of violence; gymnastics man Friedrich Ludwig Jahn organizes others - I said tough enough? David Low Dodge (1774-1852) organizes the first peace society in history in New York City, followed by Noah Worcester (1758-1837) in Mass., which in 1828 are incorporated into the Am. Peace Sociey by William Ladd (1778-1841) in 1828. John Quincy Adams is appointed U.S. minister to London by Pres. Madison. After the Battle of Waterloo British soldiers are issued a Soldier's Account Book, explaining how to collect their pay, and containing a sample form filled out in the name of Pvt. Thomas Atkins (No. 6 Troop, 6th Dragoons); the name "Tommy" enters the English language for a British soldier, and is adopted by their enemies the Krauts ("The war is over for you, Tommy"). Shropshire-born English banker-economist Thomas Attwood (1783-1856) et al. found the Birmingham School of Economics to advocate underconsumptionist theory and an expansionary monetary policy to achieve full employment, opposing the gold standard and pushing an income-expenditure model with a multiplier effect, becoming the first Keynesians; they are dismissed as "currency cranks" and "crude inflationists". Russian navigator Capt. Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846) discovers many islands in the Pacific. The Technological College of Vienna is founded, later becoming the Vienna U. of Tech. The Protestant German Missionary Society is founded on Sept. 26, later becoming the Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. Lord Byron (1788-1824) marries Anne Isabella Milbanke (1792-1860), but after he proves more in love with himself she divorces him, and in 1816 he goes in disgrace to Italy to live a Byronic life of dissipation, never returning to England. The Biedermeier Period (ends 1848) begins in C Europe, pandering to the growing middle class; the Biedermeier Style in German furniture (a heavy, stolid Bourgeoise variation of French Empire, which invites parody and ridicule?) becomes popular in Germany and Austria (until 1860), featuring a family table with chairs for evening activities. English socialite adventurer-traveler ("Queen of the Desert") Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope (1776-1839) (niece of British PM William Pitt the Younger, who prefers to dress as a Turkish male sans veil) makes an archeological expedition to Ashkelon, becoming the first modern excavation in the Holy Land. Architecture: The red brick Old Brick Capitol on Jenkins Hill (E slope of Capitol Hill) at 1st and A Sts., NE in Washington, D.C. is founded out of Stelle's Hotel (built 1800) as the temporary U.S. Capitol (until 1819); during the U.S. Civil War of 1861-5 it becomes the Old Capitol Prison; in 1865 it houses Lincoln's suspected assassins; in 1867 it is purchased by U.S. sgt.-at-arms George T. Brown, who turns it into three rowhouses called Trumbull's Row; in 1929 it is demolished to make way for U.S. Supreme Court Bldg. John Nash begins rebuilding Royal Brighton Pavilion in pseudo-oriental (Indian) style for prince regent George (later George IV) (finished 1823). Buckingham House in Newark, Ohio is built by Daniel Duncan, becoming a posh place to entertain distinguished guests incl. U.S. presidents Hayes and Garfield. The Washington City Canal in Washington, D.C. opens, connecting the Anacostia River in the E to Tiber Creek, the Potomac River, and later the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal; it closes in the mid-1850s, and is filled in by 1871, with only the Lockkeeper's House (built in 1837) left standing at the SW corner of 17th St., NW and Constitutional Ave., NW near Constitution Gardens. Inventions: Seth Boyden invents a leather-splitting machine. English chemist Humphry Davy (1778-1829) and English engineer George Stephenson (1781-1848) develop the oil-burning Miner's Safety Arc Lamp, using a gauze cylinder. Robert Fulton's 38-ton USS Fulton becomes the first steam-powered warship. British road surveyor John Loudon McAdam (1756-1836) invents a method for improving roads by elevating the roadbed and using small stones to keep it dry - why didn't I think of that? Thomas Jefferson invents a power machine for breaking hemp. English physician Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869) invents the log-log slide rule, good for exponential and root calculations. Daniel Shreve's 80-ft. river steamboat Enterprise begins its Louisville-New Orleans route; it features a high-pressure engine and a 2nd deck, which soon becomes standard - the first starship Enterprise with warp drive and rec room? Science: French physicist Augustin Jean Fresnel (1788-1827) pub. researches on the diffraction of light (Fresnel Lines), interference, polarization, and double refaction, ultimately establishing the Transverse Wave Theory of Light (1815-21). German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus (Matthäus) Olbers (1758-1840) discovers the periodic Olbers Comet (13P/Olbers). English physician-chemist William Prout (1785-1850) anon. pub. the paper "On the Relation Between the Specific Gravities of Bodies in their Gaseous States and the Weights of their Atoms", proposing Prout's Hypothesis, a relation between specific gravity and atomic weight, suggesting that atoms of all elements are aggregates of hydrogen atoms. Nonfiction: Rev. John Dobson (1794-1847), The Elements of Geometry; a book without punctuation, except for a period at the end of each paragraph; publisher Cambridge Press sneaks a colon, semicolon, comma and period onto the title page. Daniel Drake, Picture of Cincinnati. Elizabeth Hamilton (1756-1816), Hints Addressed to the Patrons and Directors of Schools. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829), Histoire Naturelle des Dnimaux (1815-22). Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent. Hannah More (1745-1833), Character of St. Paul. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826), History of Java. David Ricardo (1772-1823), The Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock; introduces the Law of Diminishing Returns? Claudius James Rich (1787-1821), Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811; visits the site of ancient Babylon on the Euphrates River and finds no traces of its original walls. Friedrich Carl von Savigny (1779-1861), History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages (Geschichte des Romischen Rechts im Mittelalter) (6 vols.) (1815-31); covers from the end of the Western Roman Empire until the start of the 12th cent., showing how dead Roman law lived on in local customs, towns, ecclesiastical doctrines, and school teachings until it resurfaced in Bologna and other Italian cities. Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de Sismondi (1773-1842), Political Economy. William Smith (1769-1839), Geological Map of England and Wales; the first proper colored geological map, showing 21 sedimentary layers; claims that specific strata can be identified by their fossil content, and works out the main divisions of the Secondary (Mesozoic) strata. Dugald Stewart, Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy. Music: Anon., Foggy, Foggy Dew. Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Symphony No. 2 in B flat, D125; First Piano Sonata in E major, D157; Mass No. 2 in G, D167; Der Vierjahrige Posten, D190 (1-act operetta) (May 19); 3rd (Rhenische) Symphony in D major, D200 (Fernando); Second Piano Sonata in C major, D279; Freunde von Salamanka, D326; Der Erlkonig (Erlkönig), D328 (based on a Goethe ballad); plus another mass, 144 songs, and two operas. Art: Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), Tauromaquia (etchings); Self Portrait. Etienne-Jules Ramey (fils) (1796-1852), Ulysses Recognized by His Dog Argos (statue). J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Crossing the Brook. Sir Richard Westmacott (Jr.) (1775-1856), Waterloo Vase; 15-ft. (5m) 20-ton white elephant sculpted from a single piece of Carrara marble originally hewn in Tuscany for Napoleon to celebrate his coming V in Russia and presented to the Prince Regent (later George IV) by Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany complete with bas-reliefs of George III on his throne and loser Napoleon unhorsed; ends up in the Nat. Gallery in 1836-1906, followed by the garden of Buckingham Palace. Plays: Clemens Brentano (1778-1842), Die Grundung Prags. J.S. Knowles, Caius Gracchus (tragedy). Eugene Scribe (1791-1861) and Delestre Poirson, Night of the National Guard (Une Nuit de la Garde Nationale); Scribe's first hit. Poetry: The first printed ed. of the anon. Anglo-Saxon poem Beowolf is pub. Pierre Jean de Beranger (1780-1857), Chansons I; makes him a hero with French republicans; incl. Le Roi d'Yvetot, a satire of Napoleon, which becomes a hit with Louis XVIII, who utters the soundbyte: "We must pardon many things to the author of 'Le Roi d'Yvetot'". William Lisle Bowles, The Missionary of the Andes. Lord Byron (1788-1824), Hebrew Melodies (Apr.); music by Isaac Nathan; bestseller (10K copies); incl. My Soul is Dark, The Destruction of Sennacherib, and She Walks in Beauty, written in 1813 after meeting his mourning cousin Mrs. John Wilmot at a ball wearing a black dress with spangles. Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843), Messiniennes; incl. Waterloo, Devastation du Mise, Sur le Besoin de s'Unir Apres le Depart des Etrangers; big hit, selling 25K copies and getting him a better sinecure. James Hogg (1770-1835), Pilgrims of the Sun. Johann Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862), Vaterlandische Gedichte; makes him a star. Johan Olof Wallin (1779-1839), The Educator (Uppfostraren). William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Laodamia. Novels: Joseph von Eichendorff (1788-1857), Ahnung und Gegenwart. Friedrich de la Motte Fouque (1777-1834), Die Fahrten Thiodolfs des Islanders. E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), Die Elixiere des Teufels. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Guy Mannering; or, The Astrologer; pub. anon.; big hit about the supernatural; Dandie Dinmont has six Dandie Dinmont terriers (a breed dating back to the 17th cent.). Births: Canadian PM #1 (1867-73, 1878-91) Sir John Alexander Macdonald (d. 1891) on Jan. 11 in Glasgow, Scotland. Am. Mormon leader William Bickerton (d. 1905) on Jan. 15 in Alnwick, Northumberland, England; starts out as a Methodist until he is converted by Sidney Rigdon in 1845. British astronomical photography pioneer Warren De La Rue (d. 1889) on Jan. 15 in Guernsey. Am. Civil War Union gen. Henry Wager "Old Brains" Halleck (d. 1872) on Jan. 16 in Oneida County, N.Y. German Biblical scholar Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf (d. 1874) on Jan. 18 in Lengenfield (near Plauen), Saxony; educated at the U. of Leipzig. Am. anesthesia pioneer Dr. Horace Wells (d. 1848) on Jan. 21 in Hartford, Vt. German actress Christine Enghaus (Johanne Louise Christine Engehausen) (d. 1910) on Feb. 9 in Brauhschweig; wife (1846-) of Friedrich Hebbel (1813-63). Am. blackface performer Richard Ward "Dick" Pelham (Pell) (d. 1876) (Virginia Minstrels) on Feb. 13 in New York City. French Classicist painter-sculptor Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (d. 1891) on Feb. 21 in Lyon; moves to Paris at an early age; teacher of Edouard Detaille; known for his depictions of Napoleon and his armies and for microscopic "miniatures in oil". Am. Chicago Repub. mayor #21 (1860-1) and U.S. Rep. (D-Ill., 1853-5) "Long" John Wentworth (d. 1888) on Mar. 5 in Sandwich, N.H. U.S. Supreme Court justice #37 (1862-77) and U.S. Sen. (R-Ill.) (1877-83) David Davis (b. 1886) on Mar. 9 in Cecil County, Md.; educated at Kenyon College, and Yale U. French novelist-poet (dir. of the Comedie Francaise) Arsene (Arsène) Houssaye (Housset) (d. 1896) on Mar. 28 in Bruyeres (Bruyères); father of Henri Houssaye (1848-1911); father of Henry Houssaye (1848-1911). Irish surgeon Sir William Robert Wills Wilde (d. 1876) in Mar. near Castlerea, County Roscommon; husband of Lady Jane Wilde (1821-96); father of Oscar Wilde (1854-1900); knighted in 1864. German Prussian PM (1862-71) and chancellor #1 (1871-90) ("the Iron Chancellor") Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schonhausen, Duke of Lauenburg, Prince of Bismarck (d. 1898) on Apr. 1 in Schonhausen (Schönhausen), Prussia (East Germany); likes to do business with cigar in hand? German composer Friedrich Robert Volkmann (d. 1883) on Apr. 6 in Lommatzsch, Saxony. Am. brewer Georg August Krug (d. 1856) on Apr. 15 in Miltenberg, Bavaria, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1848. Am. frontiersman (Mormon) William Adams "Wild Bill" Hickman (d. 1883) on Apr. 16. British Liberal politician (home secy. in 1868-73) Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare (d. 1895) on Apr. 16 in Duffryn, Aberdare, Glamorganshire, Wales. English "Chronicles of Barsetshire" novelist Anthony Trollope (d. 1882) on Apr. 24 in London; son of Frances Milton Trollope (1780-1863); brother of Thomas Adolphus Trollope (1810-92); educated at Winchester College; designer of England's red mailboxes. English churchman (dean of St. Paul's in 1871-90) Richard Christopher Church (d. 1890) on Apr. 15 in Newport; educated at Wadham College, Oxford U. Am. Civil War Union brig. gen. John Gross Barnard (d. 1882) on May 19 in Sheffield, Mass.; brother of Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (1808-89). Am. Texas Ranger Capt. John Salmon "Rip" Ford (d. 1897) on May 26 in Greenville District, S.C. German Indologist and Sanskrit scholar Otto von Bohtlingk (d. 1904) on May 30 in St. Petersburg, Russia. Am. Civil War Union gen. (deaf) Philip Kearny Jr. (d. 1862) on June 2 in New York City; wealthy parents; educated at Columbia U.; namesake of Kearny in NE N.J. Dutch painter (in Canada) Cornelius David Krieghoff (d. 1872) on June 19 in Amsterdam; emigrates to Canada in 1846. German composer Robert Franz (d. 1892) on June 28 in Halle. Irish physician-journalist-politician Sir John Gray (Grey) (d. 1875) on July 13 in Claremorris, County Mayo; educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Am. "Two Years Before the Mast" writer-lawyer Richard Henry Dana Jr. (d. 1882) on Aug. 1 in Cambridge, Mass.; private school student of Ralph Waldo Emerson; educated at Harvard U., where he contracts measles, weakening his eyes and causing him to go on a sea voyage. German physician Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich (d. 1877) on Aur. 4 in Sulz am Necker; educated at the U. of Tubingen. English explorer (of Australia) and gov. of Jamaica (1`862-5) Edward John Eyre (d. 1901) on Aug. 5 in Whipsnade, Bedfordshire; grows up in Hornsea, Yorkshire; French botanist Charles Victor Naudin (d. 1899) on Aug. 14 in Autun. Am. Dem. politician and Civil War Confed gen. Thomas Howell Cobb (d. 1868) on Sept. 7 in Jefferson County, Ga; of Welsh descent; grother of Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb (1823-62); grows up in Athens, Ga.; educated at the U. of Ga.; 1st pres. of the Confederacy before Jefferson Davis. Australian explorer (Freemason) John McDouall Stuart (d. 1866) on Sept. 7 in Dysart, Fife, Scotland; emigrates to Australia in 1838. Norwegian composer Halfdan Kjerulf (d. 1868) on Sept. 15 in Christiania (Oslo). Am. Presbyterian-Congregationalist abolitionit minister-hymnodist-writer Charles Beecher (d. 1900) on Oct. 1 in Litchfield, Conn.; son of Rev. Lyman Beecher (1775-1863); brother of Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-78), Edward Beecher (1803-95), Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-96), and Henry Ward Beecher (1813-87); educated at Boston latin School, Bowdoin College, and Lane Theological Seminary. Am. Civil War Confed. Brig. Gen. William Joseph "Old Reliable" Hardee (d. 1873) on Oct. 12 in Camden County, Ga.; writes the most popular military textbook used by both sides during the war. German poet-playwright Emanuel von Geibel (d. 1884) on Oct. 17 in Lubeck. Am. "Dixie" entertainer-composer (founder of the first blackface minstrel troupe)Daniel Decatur "Dan" Emmett (d. 1904) on Oct. 29 in Mount Vernon, Ohio. German mathematician ("Father of Modern Analysis") Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (d. 1897) on Oct. 31 in Ostenfelde, Westphalia, Prussia; educated at the U. of Bonn. Am. Civil War Confed Gen. Douglas Hancock Cooper (d. 1879) on Nov. 1 in Amite County, Miss.; educated at the U. of Va.; classmate of Lafayette McLaws, John B. Magruder, and Carnot Posey. Am. physician-pharmacist (ether anesthesia pioneer) Crawford Williamson Long (d. 1878) on Nov. 1 in Danielsville, Ga. English mathematician-logician (inventor of Boolean algebra) George Boole (d. 1864) Nov. 2 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire; prof. of math at Queen's College in Cork, Ireland (1849-); Irish Young Ireland leader, atty.-journalist hn Mitchel (Sean Misteil) (d. 1875) on Nov. 3 in Camnish (near Dungiven), County Londonderry, Ireland; Presbyterian minister father. Am. "general of the women's rights movement" Elizabeth Cady Stanton (d. 1902) on Nov. 12 in Johnstown, N.Y.; wife (1840-) of Henry Brewster Stanton. Am. "Christy Minstrels" singer-actor-producer-composer Edwin Pearce Christy (d. 1862) on Nov. 28 in Philadelphia, Penn. German realist painter Adolph (Adolf) Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel (d. 1905) on Dec. 8 in Breslau (Wroclaw), Poland. English world's first computer programmer Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (d. 1852) on Dec. 10 in London; first legitimate child of Lord Byron (1788-1824) and 1st wife (Jan. 2) Anne Isabella "Annabella" Milbanke (1792-1860); named after Byron's half-sister Augusta Leigh (1783-1851); considering him insane for hooking up with Augusta et al., mother leaves Byron on Jan. 16, 1816, the scandal forcing him to leave England forever in Apr. 1816, escaping to Switzerland; wife (1835-) of William King-Noel, 1st Earl of Lovelace (1805-93). French "Romans in the Decadence of the Empire" painter Thomas Couture (d. 1879) on Dec. 21 in Senlis, Oise; teacher of Edouard Manet and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. Am. Civil War Union Gen. George Gordon Meade (d. 1872) on Dec. 31 in Cadiz, Spain. Scottish golfer Allan Robertson (d. 1859) in St. Andrews; first of the great golfers. Deaths: Scottish philosopher-historian Adam Ferguson (b. 1723) on Feb. 22 in St. Andrews. Am. Rev. War brig. gen. John Nixon (b. 1727) on Mar. 24 in in Middlebury, Vt. German traveller Carsten Niebuhr (b. 1733) on Apr. 26 in Meldorf. German-born hypnotist physician Franz Anton Mesmer (b. 1734) on Mar. 5 in Meersburg, Baden. Am. Roman Catholic archbishop (of Baltimore) John Carroll (b. 1735) on Dec. 3 in Baltimore, Md. English actress Fanny Abington (b. 1737) on Mar. 4. Am. portrait painter (in England after 1775) John Singleton Copley (b. 1738). German poet Matthias Claudius (b. 1740) on Jan. 21 in Hamburg. British-born Universalist clergyman John Murray (b. 1741) on Oct. 19 in Boston, Mass. Am. Rev. War col. Charles McDowell (b. 1743) on Mar. 31 near Morganton, Va. Am. politician John Sevier (b. 1745) on Sept. 25 in Ga.; dies while surveying the Ga. border with the Creek Nation in Ala.; a monument to him is erected in Knoxville, Tenn. Am. politician-historian David Ramsay (b. 1749) on May 8 in Charleston, S.C. Dutch patriotic leader Cornelis de Gijselaar (b. 1751) on May 29 in Leiden. French marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier (b. 1753) on June 1 in Bamberg (suicide or murder?). English steam engine developer Jonathan Carter Hornblower (b. 1753) in Mar. Am. Rev. War surgeon John Warren (b. 1753) on Apr. 4 in Boston, Mass. English caricaturist James Gillray (b. 1757) on June 1. French gen. Claude Jacques Lecourbe (b. 1759) on Oct. 22 in Belfort. English banker-economist Henry Thornton (b. 1760) on Jan. 16 in London. English chemist Smithson Tennant (b. 1761) on Feb. 22 near Boulogne-sur-Mer, France; killed in a bridge collapse. Am. steamboat inventor Robert Fulton (b. 1765) on Feb. 24 in New York City. English Lord Nelson's mistress Lady Emma Hamilton (b. 1765). French marshal and king of Naples-Sicily (1808-15) Joachim Murat (b. 1767) on Oct. 15 in Calabria, Italy (executed). French marshal Michel Ney (b. 1769) on Dec. 7 in Paris (executed for treason); last words: "Soldiers, when I give you the command to fire, aim straight for my heart. Wait for my order, it will be my last to you. I protest my condemnation. I have fought a hundred battles for France, and none one against her. Soldiers: Fire!" British gen. Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (b. 1778) on Jan. 8 in Chalmette, La. (KIA); last words: "Lost for the lack of courage." South African circus exhibit Sarah Baartman (b. 1789) on Dec. 29 in France; her remains are put on exhibit until 1974, and she is finally laid to rest in her birthplace of Hankey in 2002.

1816 - The Year Without a Summer but a Fall with a Kindergarten?

Joao (John) VI of Portugal (1767-1826) William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst of Britain (1773-1857) Juan Martin de Pueyrredón y O'Dogan of Argentina (1776-1850) Sir Eyre Coote of Britain (1760-1823) British Adm. Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth (1757-1833) Albert Gallatin of the U.S. (1761-1849) Shaka Zulu (1785-1828) Louis-Michel Aury (1788-1821) Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (1769-1849) Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843) Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) Franz Bopp (1791-1867) Sir David Brewster (1781-1868) John Galt (1779-1839) John Keats (1795-1821) Leigh Hunt (1784-1859) Rene Theophile Laennec (1781-1826) Richard Allen (1760-1831) Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837) Eliphalet Remington Jr. (1793-1861) George Gordon, 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) Anne Isabella Byron, Baroness Byron (1792-1860) Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (1815-52) Robert Stirling (1790-1878) Nikolai Karamzin (1766-1826) Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) 'Self-Portrait' by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), 1817 William Cobbett (1763-1835) Munich Glyptothek (1816-30) Millbank Prison, 1816 Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820) St. John's Episcopal Church, Washington, D.C., 1816 Polk Home, 1816 'Portrait of Don Francisco de Borja Tellez Girón' by Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), 1816

1816 The Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7; Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. in his Old Farmer's Almanac (founded 1792) mistakenly forecasts snow in July and Aug., but before he can send out replacements it actually does snow in the summer, making him into a genius and boosting his almanac's popularity? On Jan. 9 Thomas Jefferson writes a Letter to Charles Thompson revealing his religious beliefs, or lack thereof, and describing how he has cut-up the Gospels to make his own book which he calls "The Philosophy of Jesus". On Mar. 4 the Sugauli (Sugowlee) (Seggulee) Treaty (signed Dec. 2) is ratified, ending the Gurkha War of 1814, ceding one-third of Nepal to the British Raj in India incl. Kumaon, Garhwal, and parts of Sikkim, establishing a British rep in Katmandu, and committing Gurkhas for British military service; Nepal is prohibited from employing foreigners in military service; three decades of "peace without cordiality" with Nepal. On Mar. 16 after the Repub. congressional caucus balks at nominating yet another Virginian for the presidency, until their choice, war secy. William H. Crawford declines to oppose him, they nominate James Monroe of Va. for pres. and Daniel D. Tompkins of New York for vice-pres. On Mar. 18 the city of Pittsburgh, Penn. at the confluence of the Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers (where they form the Ohio River) is chartered (modern-day pop. 250K/5M); the level peninsula formed by the confluence becomes known as the Golden Triangle; the pop. grows from 7K to 21K in 1820-40. On Mar. 20 bananas queen (1777-1815) Maria I the Mad (b. 1734) dies, and her son Joao (John) VI (the Clement) (1767-1826) (regent since 1792) becomes king of Portugal (until Sept. 7, 1822), going on to see Spain, France, and Britain intervene in Portugal's affairs, his wife Carlota Joaquina of Spain conspire against him repeatedly, his son Dom Pedro take Brazil independent, and his other son Dom Miguel lead a rebellion seeking to depose him; his whale-like obesity does nothing to garner respect? On Mar. 20 the U.S. Supreme (Marshall) Court rules unanimously in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee that they have ultimate authority over state courts in civil matters of federal law to provide for a uniform interpretation of federal law throughout the states; Justice John Marshall recuses himself. On Apr. 13 after the insistence of U.S. treasury secy. Alexander James Dallas, the Second Bank of the U.S. is chartered for 20 years by Congress to pay off the debt from the War of 1812, and Stephen Girard becomes a principal stockholder. On May 25 Argentina begins its revolt against Spain, and proclaims independence on July 9. On May 31 the Paraguayan Congress makes Dr. Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia dictator ("El Supremo") for life and dissolves itself. In May high unemployment leads to riots in Littleport and Ely. In May Fort Armstrong is built by the U.S. Army to deal with the hostile garbage, er, Indians of Ill; it is abandoned in 1836. On June 19 after a new band of Scottish settlers revives the settlement in Canada, and the pissed-off North-West Co. assembles a band of Metis (mixed Am. aborigines and French), they defeat the Scottish settlers at the Seven Oaks Massacre (Battle), killing 21, incl. Gov. Semple, and unfurl the flag of the Metis nation; Lord Selkirk hires Swiss mercenary War of 1812 vets to reestablish the settlement again, and fails to get anybody punished for the massacre, instead getting fined himself, then gives up, retires to England and dies in 1820 bankrupt; the Metis later claim him as the spark that created their identity. On July 9 the Congress of Tucuman (Tucumán) declares the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (Argentina), with Juan Martin Pueyrredon (Pueyrredón) O'Dogan (1776-1850) as supreme dir. (until 1819). In July the "indecent foreign dance", the Waltz makes its appearance in English ballrooms in a ball given in London by the Prince Regent. On Aug. 24 the U.S. signs a treaty with the Potawatomi, and another with the Chickasaw on Sept. 20, and another with the Cherokee on Oct. 4. In Aug. Portuguese soldiers from Brazil led by Capt. Federico Locor, under the guise of restoring order invade Uruguay (ends 1820) after sensing the Spanish have softened it up and this is their chance? On Sept. 5 after Louis XVIII, confronted with rising discontent in French society follows the counsels of PM Duc de Richelieu, the Duke of Wellington, and Russian ambassador Pozzo di Borgo, he dissolves the Chambre Introuvable, with new elections resulting in the ultra-royalists being temporarily replaced by the more liberal Doctrinaires, who try reconcile the French Rev.'s legacy with the monarchy; after Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand criticizes Louis XVIII for this move, he is fired as state minister, causing him to join the ultra-royalists in their support of future king Charles X, becoming a main writer of its mag. Le Conservateur. In Sept. French pirate Louis-Michel Aury (1788-1821) establishes a base on Galveston Island, Tex. to help the fledgling Repub. of Mexico fight the Spanish, with a commission as gov. of Texas. On Oct. 21 George Crowninshield Jr. of Salem, Mass. launches the $100K 192-ton 83-ft. private yacht Cleopatra's Barge, which becomes the first to cross the Atlantic, after which King Kamehameha II of Hawaii adopts it as his royal yacht Ha'aheo o Hawai'i (Pride of Hawaii) until it is wrecked in 1924. On Nov. 1-Dec. 4 the 1816 U.S. Pres. Election sees 59-y.-o. James Monroe of the Repub. Party easily defeat N.Y. Sen. Rufus King of the Federalist Party by 183-34 electoral votes. On Dec. 2 the first savings bank in the U.S. opens in Philadelphia. On Dec. 8 Bourbon Napoleon-hating Ferdinand IV of Naples) (Ferdinand III of Sicily), King of Leon and Infanta of Spain reunites the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and on Dec. 12 changes his title to Ferdinand I (1751-1825), going on to rule with an iron hand (until Jan. 4, 1825), becoming known as "Re Nasone" (King Big Nose). On Dec. 11 "Hoosier State" Indiana is admitted as the 19th U.S. (free) state, adopting an Ind. Constitution (2nd in 1851); it has a 41-mi. coastline on Lake Michigan, the smallest; within a year two commercial breweries open, followed by 350+ more by modern times. A combined British-Dutch force under British adm. Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth (1757-1833) destroys the Algerian fleet, finally putting an end to the pesky Moorish Corsairs after 300 years; on Dec. 22-23 the U.S. signs a Treaty with the Barbary Pirates in Algiers. Venezuelan royalists take Bogota, and execute many patriot leaders, subjecting peasants to forced labor and turning Nueva Granada into a royalist supply center; Jose Antonio Paez (1790-1873), a llanero chief in Apuri begins a revolt against the Spanish royalists, going on to a long career as pres. of Venezuela starting in 1830. With support from Northern states, the U.S. Congress passes the first-ever (mildly) protectionist U.S. Tariff Act of 1816, designed by treasury sec. Alexander James Dallas, who leaves office with the U.S. treasury going from bankrupt two years earlier to a $20M surplus. The 1816 Polish Constitution makes Russian Tsar Alexander I king of Poland, but gives Poland complete control of its own budget and army, freedom of the press, and religious tolerance - congratulations, you're going to be a blackjack dealer? The Kingdom of Illyria (ends 1849) is established within the Austrian Empire, consisting of parts of Slovenia, Croatia, Italy, and Austria conquered from the French, with capital at Lyublyana. The U.S. Senate creates its first committees, the Foreign Relations Committee and the Finance Committe, and Judiciary Committee. U.S. forces clash with a group of escaped slaves who took over a British fort on the Appalachicola River in Spanish Fla. The first Europeans reach Venda, an isolated area in NE South Africa dominated by 27 tribes. British ambassador William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773-1857) is snubbed by Chinese emperor (since 1796) Qin Jia Qing when he refuses to kowtow like Lord Macartney did in 1793 - by 2008 the Chinese will be giving out free tickets to the Beatles? Java is restored to the Netherlands. Senzangakona dies, and after overthrowing and killing his younger half-brother Singujana (-1816) while bathing in a river, Shaka Zulu (1785-1828) becomes king of the Zulus (until 1828), with a total of 1.5K tribesmen, revolutionizing warfare in S Africa with the Cow's Horns crescent formation, and a short stabbing spear for hand-to-hand combat, going on to conquer most of KwaZulu-Natal; by 1820 he rules most of SW Africa and Natal - he has a cute assegai? The Dutch take Aruba back from the British. Former U.S. treasury secy. Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) becomes U.S. minister to France (until 1923); former U.S. atty. gen. (1811-12) William Pinkney becomes U.S. minister to Russia, and special minister to Naples to negotiate compensation for losses to U.S. commerce during the Murat regime. Jean Jacques Regis, duc de Cambaceres is exiled from France as a regicide until 1818, after which he leaves public life. Chatellerault (Châtellerault) in NE Poitou Province in WC France, long known for its cutlery and swordmaking industry becomes a center for govt. arms manufacture; on July 14, 1819 the Manufacture d'armes de Chatellerault (Châtellerault) (MAC) is established by royal decree, becoming one of four main state-owned arms manufacturers, supplying the French army and navy with most of their small arms until 1968; in 1886 it becomes producing the Lebel Model 1886 rifle, which becomes the main French infantry weapon used in WWI; in 1891 it produces 500K Mosin-Nagant rifles for the Russian govt. Tuscaloosa ("Black Warrior"), Ala. is founded on the Black River 55 mi. SW of Birmingham by Thomas York, and named for the Choctaw chief who fought Hernando de Soto in 1540. The Am. Bible Society is founded in New York City. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is formed by Richard Allen (1760-1831), who becomes its first bishop. The Am. Colonization Society, a "benevolent anti-slavery" org. is founded by prominent Southern whites and presided over by Henry Clay to give blacks the chance to "start anew in the land of their fathers" - the original segregated Survivor, without racism for ratings? The Society of Mary (Marist Fathers), a badda bing, badda boom congregation of missionary priests is founded. Gen. Sir Eyre Coote (1760-1823), former gov. of Jamaica and ancestor of U.S. Gen. Colin Powell is ejected from the Order of Bath for alleged indiscretions with schoolboys - excuse me while I laugh, ha? After studying with Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in Yverdon, Switzerland from 1808-10 and serving in the Prussian army from 1813-15, self-educated educator Friedrich Froebel (Fröbel) (1782-1852) founds the Universal German Educational Inst. in Griesheim, Germany, then moves to Keilhau, Thuringia near Rudolstadt in 1817, turning it into the first kindergarten (he coins the term), for children ages 3-7. E.T.A. Hoffmann becomes councilor of the Berlin court of appeals. One stormy night on the shores of Lake Geneva, Lord Byron (1788-1824) challenges his friends Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (later Shelley), her stepsister Claire Claremont, and his physician John William Polidori to write a Gothic ghost story, resulting in Shelley's Frankenstein, about a golem brought to life with the power of electricity, and Polidori's The Vampyre, featuring a sexual predator vamp modeled on Byron; all but one of the guests suffer untimely deaths within a few years of the 1818 pub. of "Frankenstein"? Indian socioreligious reformer Ram Mohan (Mohun) Roy (1772-1833), known for advocating Western-style education and crusading against the practice of satee (widow burning) introduces the word "Hinduism" (Hindooism) into the English language. The U. of Erfurt in Germany (founded 1379) is abolished after political upheavals. After the Polish partition separates Warsaw from the Cracow, the U. of Warsaw in Poland is founded as a royal univ. on Nov. 19 by Alexander I, opening in 1818 and growing to the largest univ. in Poland in the 1930s; it is closed during the 1830 November Uprising, reopened in 1857 as the Warsaw Academy of Medicine, closed during the 1869 January Uprising, reopened during WWI, closed during WWII, and reopened in 1945. The Academie (Académie) des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) in France is founded via the merger of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture (founded 1648), Academy of Music (founded 1669), and Academy of Architecture (founded 1671), becoming one of the give academies of the Institut de France (founded 1795); the Beaux-Arts style of neoclassical architecture dominates France until 1968, the rest of Europe until 1860, and the U.S. in 1880-1920. The Weekly Political Register, the first cheap periodical is pub. by William Cobbett (1763-1835) - the Internet is on the distant horizon? Blackwood's Edinburgh Mag. is founded in Edinburgh by William Blackwood (1776-1834) as a Tory response to the Whig-influenced Edinburgh Review (ends 1980). N.Y. blacksmith Eliphalet Remington Jr. (1793-1861) sets up a sporting rifle factory in Herkimer County, N.Y., in the Mohawk Valley in the path of the future Erie Canal and the Northwest Territory, later becoming E. Remington and Sons (later Remington Arms Co.). The Elgin (Parthenon) Marbles are bought for the British Museum in London; meanwhile Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (1757-1822), who visited London last year to see London painter Benjamin Haydon (1785-1846), who championed the marbles in the face of critics supervises the transmission from Paris to Rome of the works of art stolen by Napoleon I. Sports: Jacob Hyer becomes the first U.S. boxing champ. Architecture: Leo von Klenze founds the Munich Glyptothek Museum (finished 1830). Millbank Prison in Millbank, Pimlico, London, England opens as the British Nat. Penitentiary, used to hold prisoners slated for transportation to Australia, becoming the first modern prison; by the end of 1817 it houses 103 men and 109 women, growing to 452 and 326 women by 1822; prisoners considered likely to reform are offered 5-10 years there instead of transportation; it closes in 1890. Samuel Polk, father of future U.S. pres. James Knox Polk builds the Polk Home in Columbia, Tenn. The Greek Revival Episcopal St. John's Episcopal Church at Sixteenth St. and H St., NW in Washington, D.C. across Lafayette Square from the White House is built, designed by Benjamin Latrobe, going on to be attended at least once by every sitting U.S. pres. starting with James Madison; starting with FDR, every U.S. pres. except Pres. Richard Nixon attends spiritual services, many at St. John's. Inventions: Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (1769-1849) patents the Tricoteur, a circular stocking knitting frame, which improves Jedediah Strutt's 1758 ribbing apparatus. Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster (1781-1868) invents the Kaleidoscope. Parisian pharmacist Jean Francois Derosne invents the Phosphorus Match. French physician Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) (with help from wife Hyacinthe Laennec) invents the Stethoscope to protect the modesty of his female patients - he likes to wear it around his laennec? Imagine the way they did it before? Scottish minister Robert Stirling (1790-1878) patents the Stirling Steam Engine, using a "gas spring" system to control the phase relationship between the movements of the displacer and piston. Auguste Taveau of Paris develops the first dental amalgam from silver coins mixed with mercury. Capt. Henry Hall of Dennis, Mass. becomes the first person to cultivate cranberries (used to prevent scurvy among sailors) after noticing that they grow better when sand is spread over their bogs. Nonfiction: Franz Bopp (1791-1867), About the System of Conjugations of the Sanskrit Language in Comparison with Greek, Latin, Persian and Germanic; links Sanksrit with Greek, Latin, Old Persian, and Teutonic languages via verb inflections, founding the science of Comparative Philology; the expansive myth of the white-is-right Aryans is born. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Recollections of Italy, England and America, with Essays on Various Subjects of Morals and Literature (Philly). Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), On the Danger Posed by the Jews to German Well-Being and Character; calls for Judaism to be "extirpated root and branch" from German society, dissing them for making money so important in society, encouraging their emigration and dressing distinctly until they leave; Von Deutschem Bund und Deutshcer Staatsverfassung; dedicated to "the youth of Germany", adding to the student agitation that results in the 1819 Carlsbad Decrees, after which a letter he wrote to his pupil Karl Sand telling him not to participate in secret societies is twisted by the Mainz Commission, causing him to lose his professorship of philosophy until 1838. John Galt (1779-1839), The Life and Studies of Benjamin West; first full-length bio. Karl Ludwig von Haller (1768-1854), Restauration der Staatswissenschaften (6 vols.) (1816-26); one of the last attempts to diss 18th cent. liberal political theory in favor of tried and true absolutism and paternalism, although it also opposes nationalism; burnt during the 1817 Wartburg Festival. Johann Friedrich Herbart, Lehrbuch zur Psychologie. Nikolai Karamzin (1766-1826), History of the Russian State (12 vols.) (1816-26); the first attempt at a complete history; too bad, he goes for the Sir Walter Scott romantic thang. Van der Palm (1763-1841), Geschied-en-Redekunstig Gedenkschrift van Nederlands Herstelling. Timothy Pitkin (1766-1847), A Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States of America; helps make the study of Am. history a serious subject. David Ramsay (1749-1815), History of the United States, from Their First Settlement as English Colonies in 1607 to the Year 1808 (3 vols.) (1816-7) (posth.); goes from a liberal to a conservative old fart in 20 years? Thomas Taylor (1758-1835), Theoretic Arithmetic. James Wilkinson (1757-1825), Memoirs of My Own Times. Music: Sir Henry Rowley Bishop, Guy Mannering (opera). Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842), Requiem in C minor; commemorates the 20th anniv. of the beheading of Louis XVI; a hit, drawing praise from Beethoven, Brahms and Schumann, putting him back in biz. E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), Undine (opera); libretto by Baron Friedrich Heinrich Karl de La Motte-Fouque. Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), The Barber of Seville (Il Barbiere di Siviglia) (opera) (Rome) (Feb. 20); the hostile audience is won over by the end of the first act, which features Largo al Factotum; "Make way for the factotum,/ with all them Figaros./ Make way for the factotum of the city/ Rushing to his shop now that it's dawn./ Ah, isn't life good! How pleasant it is/ for a barber of class." Franz Schubert (1797-1828), 4th (Tragic) Symphony in C minor, D417; Prometheus, D451 (cantata) (June 17); his first paid commission (40 gulden); Mass No. 4 in C major, D452; 5th Symphony in B flat, D485; plus an opera and 100 more songs. Louis Spohr (1784-1859), Faust (opera) (Prague) (conducted by C.M. von Weber). Art: John Constable (1776-1837), Maria Bicknell; his wife, whom he met in 1800 when he was 24 and she was 12; Weymouth Bay. Henri Johns, James Smithson (1765-1829). Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824), Fare Thee Well, about his separation from educated religious wife (since 1815) Anne Isabella "Annabella" Milbanke (1792-1860) before leaving her and England forever because of incest with his half-sister Augusta Leigh (1783-1851), along with their daughter Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (nee Byron) (1815-52), who works for Analytical Engine inventor Charles Babbage, becoming the world's first computer programmer; The Siege of Corinth, set during the Seventh Ottoman-Venetian Wars of 1714-18, where the Ottomans are about to finish off Acrocorinth, and Lanciotto, who had fled the Venetian Empire after false accusations and joined the Turks under the name Alp gets second thoughts when his old flame Francesca begs him not to stage the final assault; Parisina (Feb. 13), about Parisina Malatesta, 2nd wife of Duke Niccolo III d'Este of Ferrara, who has an incestuous relationship with his bastard son Ugo; The Prisoner of Chillon: A Fable (Dec. 5), written after a June 22 tour of the Chateau de Chillon on Lake Geneva, about Geneva monk Francois Bonivard in 1532-6; The Dream, inspired by the Misk Hills near his family home in Newstead, Nottinghamshire, Prometheus; Darkness, about 1816, the Year Without a Summer. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Kubla Khan; or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment (written in 1797); "Kubla Khan did in Xanadu a stately pleasure dome decree"; writes it after having an opium-influenced dream about the Mongol ruler's summer palace, but is interrupted and loses his dream, causing the work to remain unfinished; the sacred river Alph is based on Alphaeus River in the Peloponnesus? James Hogg (1770-1835), The Poetic Mirror. Leigh Hunt (1784-1859), Story of Rimini. John Keats (1795-1821), Isabella; or, The Pot of Basil (from a story by Boccaccio about a maiden from Florence); Oh, Solitude If I With Thee Must Dwell; On First Looking into Chapman's Homer (says that Cortez not Balboa discovered the Pacific); both pub. in Leigh Hunt's Examiner, turning Hunt on and causing him to introduce him to the British lit. set, incl. Percy Bysshe Shelley. Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837), Appressamento alla Morte; Le Rimembranze; Inno a Nettuno (Hymn to Neptune). Wilhelm Mueller (1794-1827), Bundesbluten (debut). Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), Mont Blanc; Hymn to Intellectual Beauty; how he has devoted his life to the pursuit of ideals; Alastor; or, The Spirit of Solitude; "Nature's vast frame, the web of human things,/ Birth and the grave, they are not as they were." Novels: Jane Austen (1775-1817), Emma; comic novel about "handsome, clever and rich" Emma Woodhouse, who turns matchmaker with 17-y.-o. Harriet Smith ("a heroine whom no one but myself will much like") and Frank Churchill; her last novel pub. during her life; "Half the world cannot understand the pleasures of the other." Leigh Hunt (1784-1859), The Story of Rimini; 13th cent. adulteress Francesca da Rimini. Lady Caroline Lamb (1785-1828), Glenarvon; describes her former lover Lord Byron (1788-1824), getting her blackballed from Almack's. Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), Headlong Hall. Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (1767-1830), Adolphe; young Adolphe hooks up with older woman Ellenore. Births: Am. Hudson River School painter John Frederick Kensett (d. 1872) on Mar. 22 in Cheshire, Conn. Am. Mormon leader Don Carlos Smith (d. 1841) on Mar 25 in Norwich, Vt.; 7th son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith; husband of Agnes Moulton Coolbrith (1805-44); father of Ina Coolbrith (1841-1928). U.S. Supreme Court justice #36 (1862-90) Samuel Freeman Miller (d. 1890) on Apr. 5 in Richmond, Ky.; educated at Transylvania U. French astronomer Charles-Eugene Delaunay (d. 1872) on Apr. 9 in Lusigny-sur-Barse; educated at the Sorbonne. English composer Sir William Sterndale Bennett (d. 1875) on Apr. 13 in Sheffield, Yorkshire; admitted to the Royal Academy of Music at age 10; knighted in 1871. Australian inventor-journalist-politician James Harrison (d. 1893) on Apr. 17 in Renton Dunbartonshire, Scotland; emigrates to Australia in 1837. English "Jane Eyre" author and eldest (of three) literary Bronte sisters (with Anne and Emily) Charlotte Bronte (Brontë) (d. 1855) (Mrs. Arthur Bell Nichols) (AKA Currer Bell) on Apr. 21 in Thornton (near Bradford), Yorkshire; daughter of Irish clergyman Patrick Brunty, who changes his name to Bronte; 3rd daughter after Maria and Elizabeth, who die of TB in 1825; brother Patrick Branwell (d. 1848) is born in 1817, sister Emily (d. 1848) in 1818, and sister Anne (d. 1849) in 1820; in 1821 the family moves to a parsonage in Haworth, overlooking a graveyard and backed by bleak moors; the mother then dies, causing daddy to shut himself in his study and mother's sister Miss Elizabeth Branwell to move in and take charge; in 1824 the four eldest girls are sent to the miserable Cowan's Bridge boarding school, breaking the health of Maria and Elizabeth, who both die of TB in 1825, and is later turned into Lowood School in "Jane Eyre"; in 1831-3 Charlotte attends Roe Head School. English painter Augustus Leopold Egg (d. 1863) on May 2 in London. U.S. Army quartermaster gen. (1861-82) (physician) Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (d. 1892) on May 3 in Augusta, Ga.; educated at the U. of Penn. German novelist-writer Friedrich Gerstacker (Gerstäcker) (d. 1872) on May 10 in Hamburg; travels to the U.S. in 1837-43. German "Washington Crossing the Delaware" historical painter (Jewish) Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (d. 1868) on May 24 in Gmund, Wurttemberg; grows up in Philly and Fredericksburg, Va. Am. "The Blind Men and the Elephant" poet John Godfrey Saxe (d. 1887) on June 2 in Highgate, Vt. Swiss Wolf Number astronomer-mathematician Johann Rudolf Wolf (d. 1893) on July 7 in Fallanden (near Zurich); educated at the U. of Zurich, U. of Vienna, and U. of Berlin. German "Die Journalisten" novelist-dramatist Gustav Freytag (d. 1895) on July 13 in Kreuzburg (Kluczbork), Upper Silesia. French Aryan master racist novelist-historian ("the Father of Modern Racial Demography") Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (d. 1882) on July 14 in Ville-d'Avray, Hauts-de-Seine. English painter Edward Matthew Ward (d. 1879) on July 14 in Pimlico, London; husband of Henrietta Ward (1832-1924); father of Leslie Ward (1851-1922). British journalist (Reuter News Agency founder) (Jewish) Paul Julius, Baron von Reuter (Israel Beer Josaphat) (d. 1899) on July 21 in Kassel; emigrates to England in 1851. Am. philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley (d. 1908) on July 31 in Vevay, Ind. Am. Civil War Union Gen. ("Rock of Chickamauga") ("Sledge of Nashville") George Henry "Slow Trot" Thomas (d. 1870) on July 31 in Newsom's Depot, Va. French bacteriologist-surgeon Alphonse Francois Marie Guerin (Guérin) (d. 1895) on Aug. 9 in Ploermel (Ploërmel); co-developer of the BCG TB vaccine with Albert Leon Calmette (1863-1933). French chemist Charles Frederic (Frédéric) Gerhardt (d. 1856) on Aug. 21 in Strasbourg; student of Otto Linne Erdmann. Am. Boston City Hall architect Gridley James Fox Bryant (d. 1899) on Aug. 29; son of Gridley Bryant (1799-1867). German microscope maker Carl Zeiss (d. 1888) on Sept. 11 in Weimar. English archeologist Sir Charles Thomas Newton (d. 1894) on Sept. 16 in Bredwardine, Herefordshire; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U.; knighted in 1887. U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1853-69) ("Watchdog of the Treasury") Elihu Benjamin Washburne (OG "from the flooding brook") (d. 1887) on Sept. 23 in Livermore, Maine; brother of Israel Washburn Sr. (1813-83), Cadwallader Washburn (1818-82), William Drew Washburn (1831-1912), and Charles Grenfill Washburn (1857-1928); educated at Harvard U.; adds the "e" to his name in imitation of his English ancestors before heading to boomtown Galena, Ill. Am. Civil War Confed. Lt. Gen. Jubal Anderson Early (d. 1894) on Nov. 3 in Franklin County, Va. U.S. Supreme Court justice #38 (1863-97) Stephen Johnson Field (d. 1899) on Nov. 4 in Haddam, Conn.; brother of David Dudley Field (Jr.) (1805-94) and Cyrus W. Field (1819-92). U.S. Repub. chief justice #7 and assoc. justice #43 (1874-88) Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (d. 1888) on Nov. 29 in Lyme, Conn.; educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones). German inventor (co-founder of the Siemens Co.) Ernst Werner von Siemens (d. 1892) on Dec. 13 in Lenthe, Hanover; brother of Sir Charles William Siemens (1823-83) and Carl Heinrich von Siemens (1829-1906). Afghan prince and emir (1842-5) Mohammad (Wazir) Akbar Khan (d. 1845). Deaths: French dramatist Jean Francois Ducis (b. 1733). Am. Rev. War loyalist minister Charles Inglis (d. 1734) on Feb. 24 in Nova Scotia, Canada. French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (b. 1737) on Jan. 2 in Paris. Welsh philosopher-minister David Williams (b. 1738) on June 29 in London. Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello (b. 1740) on June 5 in Naples; composed 94 operas, 12 symphonies, 6 piano concertos, and a ton of other charming music. French dancer Marie-Madeleine Guimard (b. 1743). English-born Am. Methodist bishop Francis Asbury (b. 1745) on Mar. 31 in Spotsylvania, Va. Irish musical antiquarian Robert FitzWilliam, 7th viscount FitzWilliam (b. 1745) on Feb. 4; leaves The FitzWilliam Virginal Book of 16th-17th cent. music (1619) to Cambridge U. French painter Francois-Andre Vincent (b. 1746) on Aug. 4 in Paris. Scottish-born Am. lawyer-jurist Hugh Henry Brackenridge (b. 1748) on June 25 in Carlisle, Penn. Am. Rev. War soldier Peter Salem (b. 1750) on Aug. 16 in Framingham, Mass.; dies in a poorhouse. Irish "The School for Scandal", "The Rivals" dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan (b. 1751) on July 7 in London, England; buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Am. statesman-diplomat Gouverneur Morris (b. 1752) on Nov. 6 in Morrisania Estate, Bronx, N.Y.: "One great object of the Executive is to control the Legislature. The Legislature will continually seek to aggrandize & perpetuate themselves; and will seize those critical moments produced by war, invasion or convulsion for that purpose." U.S. war secy. #3 (1796-1800) James McHenry (b. 1753) on May 3 in Baltimore, Md. English statesman-scientist Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (b. 1753) on Dec. 15. Am. politician Benjamin Hawkins (b. 1754) on June 6 in Crawford County, Ga. Am. politician William Stephens Smith (b. 1755) on June 10 in Lebanon, N.Y. Scottish writer Elizabeth Hamilton (b. 1756) in Harrogate, England. Venezuelan liberator Francisco Miranda (b. 1756) on July 14 in Cadiz, Spain; dies in prison. British Tory politician Robert Hobart, 4th earl of Buckinghamshire (b. 1760) on Feb. 4 in Hamilton Place, London; namesake of Hobart, Tasmania. Am. Federalist politician Samuel Dexter (b. 1761) on May 4 in Boston, Mass. English actress Dorothy Jordan (b. 1761) on July 5; has 10+ illegitimate children with William IV. Am. minister Solomon Spalding (b. 1761) on Oct. 20 in Amity, Penn. Am. Pres. Washington's secy. (1784-99) Tobias Lear (b. 1762) on Oct. 11 in Washington, D.C. Am. dentist Josiah Flagg (b. 1763). French gen. Louis Henri Loison (b. 1771) on Dec. 30 in Chokier (near Liege), Belgium. Am. gov. #44 of S.C. (1812-14) Joseph Alston (b. 1779) on Sept. 19 in Charleston, S.C.

1817 - The Daffy Duck Shit Happens Year, with the British Navy spreading cholera all the way from India to your local water supply? The Era of Good Feelings Year in the U.S. as James Monroe (1758-1831), last of the Virginia Old Guard takes charge, spreading his good white-is-right feelings westward while claiming the entire New World as his private backyard? Meanwhile Spain is in a spin and Britain and Russia struggle to horn in? A big year for Simon Bolivar?

James Monroe of the U.S. (1758-1831) Elizabeth Kortright Monroe of the U.S. (1768-1830) Daniel D. Tompkins of the U.S. (1774-1825) William Wirt of the U.S. (1772-1834) Gen. Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile (1778-1842) Gen. Jose San Martin of Argentina (1778-1850) Emperor Ninko of Japan (1800-46) Milos Obrenovic of Serbia (1780-1860) Karl Ludwig Sand (1785-1820) Pierre Joseph Pelletier (1788-1842) Thomas Young (1773-1829) Franz Grillparzer (1791-1872) Stendhal (1783-1842) Karl Ludwig von Haller (1768-1854) Karl Ritter (1779-1859) Rev. John Williams (1796-1839) Pomare II of Tahiti (1782-1821) Christopher North (John Wilson) (1785-1854) Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert (1796-1870) Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851) James Hogg (1770-1835) Thomas Moore (1779-1852) Thomas Say (1787-1834) Isaac Disraeli (1766-1848) Baron Pierre Charles Francois Dupin (1784-1873) Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861) James Parkinson (1755-1824) James Riley (1777-1840) Coowescoowe (John Ross) (1790-1866) Juan Antonio Llorente (1756-1823) Junius Brutus Booth (1796-1852) Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) Jeremiah Day (1773-1867) John William Draper (1811-82) Karl von Drais (1785-1851) Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778-1823) Bernhard Bolzano (1781-1848) Thomas Rickman (1776-1841) Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog', by Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), 1818) J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) 'Raby Castle', by J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), 1817 John Trumbull (1756-1843) 'The Declaration of Independence' by John Trumbull (1756-1843), 1817

1817 Shit happens, worldwide edition? The big plans of white-is-right Britain to rule Da World with godlike superiority are foiled by a pesky bug that lives in all human shit, especially theirs? The First Cholera Pandemic of the 19th Cent. (ends 1824) (first of six by 1899, plus a 7th in 1961) begins in the Ganges River Delta of India, reaching Calcutta in Sept. and Bombay next year; until now, cholera never left overcrowded shit-filled India, but this time the white-is-right British Navy spreads it to Siam, Bangkok (killing 30K) and Manila in May 1820, Java, Oman, and Anhai, China in 1821, Japan, the Persian Gulf, Baghdad, and the Transcaucasus in 1822, and Astrakhan, Zanzibar, and Mauritius in 1823; luckily, the cold winter of 1823-4 finally stops it. On Jan. 1 Simon Bolivar lands in Barcelona, Venezuela (Orinoco region) with a small force of refugee insurgents from Haiti in an attempt to liberate it from Spain, promising to free the slaves and give confiscated properties to his victorious troops, and on Feb. 16 he scores a quick V against a Spanish royalist army at the Battle of Barcelona, establishes a rev. govt. at Angostura (founded 1764) (renamed Ciudad Bolivar in 1846), then wins a number of military Vs during the year; in 1824 Angostura Bitters are first made by pro-Bolivar German-born military surgeon Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert (1796-1870) to help his patients; meanwhile Chile becomes independent from Spain after a successful revolt led by Argentinian gen. Jose San Martin (1778-1850) and Chilean gen. Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842), whose Army of the Andes, equipped with 10K pack mules crosses the Andes from Mendoza, Argentina and on Feb. 12 defeats the Spanish under Rafael Maroto at the Battle of Chacabuco near Santiago, followed on ? at the Battle of Chalchuapa, allowing them to capture Santiago; next year O'Higgins becomes the first pres. (supreme dir.) of the new Repub. of Chile (until 1823), and founds its navy under ex-Royal Navy rear adm. Thomas "Sea Wolf" Cochrane, whose flagship is the O'Higgins; O'Higgins goes on to abolish titles of nobility, support religious toleration, and impose new taxes, pissing-off merchants with protectionist measures. On Jan. 11 Timothy Dwight IV (b. 1752) dies, and Congregationalist minister Jeremiah Day (1773-1867) succeeds him as pres. #9 of Yale College (until 1846). On Jan. 16 the city of Baton Rouge, La. (Fr. "red stick") (founded in 1699 and settled in 1721) (modern-day pop. 229K/830K) on the E bank of the Mississippi River is incorporated, becoming the first U.S. state capital with a 2-word French name (next is Des Moines, Iowa). On Jan. 20 the Portuguese occupy Montevideo, Uruguay. In Jan. Dem.-Repub. candidates Monroe and Tompkins receive 183 electoral votes; the Federals, who don't nominate a candidate get 34 Federalist electoral votes for Rufus King of New York from Mass., Conn., and Delaware (the last Federalist candidate for pres.); "Monroe had the zealous support of nobody, and he was exempt from the hostility of everybody" (Rufus King). In Jan. after a rock is thrown through the glass window of the Prince Regent's coach on the way to the opening of Parliament, it passes the Gagging Acts suspending habeus corpus (until Mar. 1818); in Mar. after the economic depression in England worsens, the March of the Blanketeers from Manchester to London is halted at Stockport; meanwhile the Derbyshire Rising against low wages sees protesters armed with guns and pikes march on Notthingham until the army appears and they flee, after which the leaders are caught and beheaded; Luddite activity soon ceases - I know where you can find one, er, no I don't? On Mar. 4 Westmoreland Count, Va.-born Dem.-Repub. U.S. senator (1790-4), U.S. minister to France (1794-6), Va. gov. #16 (1811), U.S. secy. of war (1814-15), and U.S. secy. of state #7 (since Apr. 6, 1811) James Monroe (1758-1831), AKA "James the Second" (1st = Madison), "James the Lesser", "Last of the Cocked Hats" (still wears a tricorne), "the Era of Good Feelings President" becomes the 5th U.S. pres. (until Mar. 4, 1825) in the 8th U.S. Pres. Inauguration (last of the Va. dynasty, and the last Am. Rev. leader to become pres.), ushering in the Era of Good Feelings, where the Repubs. virtually absorb the Federalist program of nationalism and centralism, and the Federalists become kaput, leaving a 1-party system until Andrew Jackson's actions cause the creation of the Whig Party; Monroe becomes the first to commission official presidential china; on Mar. 4 former N.Y. gov. #4 (1807-17) Daniel D. (Decius?) Tompkins (1774-1825) becomes the 6th U.S. vice-pres. (until Mar. 4, 1825) after delivering his last message to the N.Y. legislature in Jan., causing it to pass a law setting all slaves free on July 4, 1827; Monroe becomes the only 2-term 19th cent. pres. with the same vice-pres. in both terms; First Lady is Elizabeth Kortright Monroe (1768-1830); on Nov. 13 Bladensburg, Md.-born William Wirt (1772-1834) becomes U.S. atty. gen. #9 (until Mar. 4, 1829), going on to last through the admin. of J.Q. Adams and become the first to turn the job into a position of influence. On Apr. 15 the Am. School for the Deaf (originally the Conn. Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons) is founded by Mason Cogswell, Laurent Clerc, and Philly-born Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), son of Peter Wallace Gallaudet, George Washington's personal secy. in Philly, who becomes its first principal, becoming the oldest school for the deaf in the U.S. to survive to modern times; his son Edward Miner Gallaudet goes on to found Gallaudet U. in 1864. On Apr. 28-29 the Rush-Bagot Treaty, negotiated by acting secy. of state Richard Rush and British minister Charles Bagot limits the number of U.S. battleships (revenue cutters) on the Great Lakes to a total of eight; the tradition of an unfortified border (longest in the world) begins. On May 10 English Romantic poet John Keats (1795-1821) writes a letter to Benjamin Robert Haydon telling about how he keeps a bust of Shakespeare beside him while writing, with the soundbyte: "I remember your saying that you had notions of a good Genius presiding over you. I have of late had the same thought - for things which I do half at Random are afterwards confirmed by my judgment in a dozen features of Propriety. Is it too daring to fancy Shakespeare this Presider?" On May 16 the first commercial steamboat service begins; the first showboat leaves Nashville on Oct. 20. On July 12 Pres. Monroe visits Portsmouth, N.H., one-upping Washington's visit of Oct. 31, 1789; meanwhile on July 12 the Columbian Centinel of Boston, Mass. first pub. the phrase "Era of Good Feeling", coined by journalist Benjamin Russell (1761-1845) for the Monroe admin. following his visit there. On July 26 the Ottoman sultan recognizes the new independent principality of Serbia, with capital at Belgrade, and the Second Serbian Uprising (begun 1815) ends with a V and partial autonomy for the Serbs, although they must pay a yearly infidel jizya tax to the sultan, who keeps a garrison in Belgrade until 1867; on Nov. 6 Milos Obrenovic I (1780-1860) is elected prince #1 of Serbia (until June 25, 1839); the Balkans begin breaking out of Muslim rule; too bad, Serbs are mainly Orthodox Catholic, leading to a split with the Roman Catholic Austrians, compounded by the German-Slav thang. In Aug.-Sept. Nizhni Novgorod Fair (transferred from Makaryev after a fire last year) becomes the first held for barter trade with the Orient through Siberia and Turkistan, and it continues to be held at irregular intervals until 1914. On Sept. 29 the Potawatomi Tribe signs a treaty ceding land in Ohio. On Oct. 18 liberal German students hold the Wartburg Festival, burning papers of reactionary leaders and writers, incl. Karl Ludwig von Haller (1768-1854) and August von Kotzebue (1761-1819). On Oct. 31 emperor (since 1780) Kokaku (d. 1840) abdicates in favor of his son Ninko (1800-46) (personal name Ayahito), who becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #120 (until Feb. 21, 1846), bowing to his daddy's wishes to be identified as "tenno", which becomes a custom. After Pindari horsemen begin raiding British territory, and Lord Hasting's troops take them on, the Third Anglo-Maratha (Mahratta) (Pindari) War begins in C India (ends 1818); on Nov. 5 (Diwali or Festival of Lights) the British resident in Pune attacks Baji Rao II, causing the Battle of Khadki, from which the whimp flees, getting captured next Apr. On Dec. 10 "Magnolia State" Mississippi (Miss.) is admitted as the 20th U.S. (slave) state after adopting the Miss. Constitution on Aug. 15; the legislature intially opens in Washington, but moves to Natchez, often meeting in the privately-owned Texada house. King Ferdinand's Organic Laws of 1817 end all special privileges of the Sicilians. The Caucasian War AKA the Russian Conquest of the Caucasus begins (ends 1864). The U.S. Navigation Act of 1817 restricts importation of West Indian produce to U.S. vessels or those belonging to West Indies merchants. Coowescoowe (Cooweescoowee) ("large white bird") (John Ross) (1790-1866), son of a Scottish immigrant and his three-fourths Cherokee wife is elected to the nat. committee of the Cherokee Council, and chosen to reply to the Great White Father of the U.S. commissioners, telling them that they flatly decline to sell Cherokee lands. Rev. John Williams (1796-1839) arrives in Tahiti to spearhead the drive of the London Missionary Society in the Pacific islands, fighting their gods Oro and Ta'aroa, their institution of "foul corpse" slaves that are used as hos and human sacrifices, their weird taboos such as no bananas for women, etc.; Pomare II (1782-1821) of Tahiti becomes a Christian and writes letters praising the white man's god (obviously powerful from the sight of those ships) Jehovah. Seminoles ("runaway" Creek refugees) attack white border settlements in Fla., causing an American counterattack which kills four and disperses the rest across the border into Fla.; Washington is called on to send the army to pursue the offenders into Spanish territory. John Quincy Adams is appointed Secy. of State by Pres. Madison. Louis Philippe returns to France, positioning himself as the future citizen king by putting his children in public schools, ingratiating himself with the middle classes, and gathering bourgeois leaders at his Palais Royal residence in Paris. The French establish dominance in Senegal and begin colonizing it. The British sailing ship HMS Diana sinks in the Malacca Strait as it heads for India carrying a large cargo of Chinese porcelain; it is found in Dec. 1993. Long Island, N.Y. Quaker investor Isaac Wright (1760-1832), Yorkshire, England-born Quaker merchant Jeremiah Thompson (1784-1835) et al. found the Black Ball Line, running four packet ships once a month between New York City and Liverpool, England, becoming the