TLW's 1900s Historyscope 1900-1909 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Edward VII of England (1841-1910) William McKinley of the U.S. (1843-1901) Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt of the U.S. (1858-1919) William Howard Taft of the U.S. (1857-1930) Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859-1941) Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (1894-1917) Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869-1947) Sultan Mehmed V of Turkey (1844-1918) Arthur Griffith of Ireland (1872-1978) Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838-1917) Arthur James Balfour of Britain (1848-1930) Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia (1880-1953) Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941) Mustafa Kemal Ataturk of Turkey (1881-1938) Herbert Henry Asquith of Britain (1852-1928) Max Planck (1858-1947) Walter Reed (1851-1902) Wright Bros. Airplane, 1903 Henry Ford (1863-1947) Model T Ford ('Tin Lizzie'), 1908 Harvey Firestone (1868-1938) Harley-Davidson Motorcycle, 1903 Ty Cobb (1886-1961) Evelyn Nesbit (1884-1967) Carrie Nation (1846-1911) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) Typhoid Mary Mallon (1869-1938) Butch Cassidy (1866-1908) and the Sundance Kid (1867-1908) W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1930) Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) Jack London (1876-1916) Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. (1867-1932) Mary Pickford (1892-1979) Vaslav Nijinsky (1889-1950) Broncho Billy Anderson (1881-1971) 'A Trip to the Moon' by Georges Melies, 1902 Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941) HMS Dreadnought, 1906 Flatiron Building, 1902 Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) 'Les Demoiselles d'Avignon' by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1907

1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909

The Twentieth (20th) Century C.E. (1900-1999)

---------------------The Dead Pool Marker-------------------------
Study the dead to really live? Study the dead to really live? You are alive and they are dead, but they're still living in your head, so study the dead to really live, hurrah? This decade divides the living from the dead in this edition of the Great Track of Time?

The Kick It Up a Notch Squared "American Century" (Henry Robinson Luce)? "An age of warring states and collapsing empires" (Lisle A. Rose)? The First Modern Century? The Muslim-Free Century? The Who Can Deny That the Twentieth Century Was Mine All Mine Century?

The Earth starts shrinking ever faster as last century's easy-to-handle iron horse, telegraph, dynamite, gatling gun, and manufactured soap are eclipsed by the automobile, airplane, radio, television, telephone, teletype, cheap electricity, dreadnoughts, aircraft carriers, jets, nuclear power, computers, robots, Internet, antibiotics, plastic surgery, genetic engineering, and looming takeover of the Universe by artificial intelligence? Meanwhile the deep thinkers worshipping the holy trinity of Marx, Freud, and Darwin put the Church into a last ditch defense while turning the Earth into a dangerous planet?

The net result, which would be funny if it weren't so tragic, is a century starting out with widespread predictions of a coming Golden Age, based on faith that man is basically good and can be elevated morally with humanism, then after 70 million killed by world wars, 135 million by Communism in peacetime, and tens of millions more from preventable disease and the Earth being nearly ruined, it ends with pure AT&T Your World Delivered, i.e., Secularism, meaning living for the day or for science fiction in plausible denial while trying to avoid looking to eternity because that would mean a return to the past?

The Take the Punches and Roll With Them Century? The mass consumer market is off to a galloping start with hot potato factory automation, mechanization of agriculture, the information explosion in science, worldwide mass communications, mass transit, mass entertainment, mass merchandising and easy credit, fifteen minutes of fame, and increasing secularization of society, start your diet with a Special K challenge?

The Jewish Century? The Jews start out persecuted, face mass extermination, then get miraculously rescued and their ancient homeland restored while taking over the Western World intellectually, complete with their own world saint Albert Einstein?

The Does the Big Bad A-bomb Go Boom Century? Look at you, have you seen yourself yet? The greatest explosion of all, the fiction explosion compensates for the widespread chucking of the Bible, although the Bible thumpers continue to control the high ground in the free sex and porno revolution?

The Shouldn't Your Baby Be A Gerber Baby Century? White-skinned male domination of the world becomes overwhelming, then self-destructs in Europe in WWI and WWII, then weakens but never breaks because the new Big Kid on the Block U.S. serves as a white reservoir and experimental melting pot, while all the way through the possibility of a reactionary reversal is ever-present? All through the century coal mine explosions killing hundreds happen with sickening regularity?

The Rearrange the House Oh the Pain the Pain Put the Holy Water on It Half-Century? The first half-century sees the cozy arrangement of world monarchies headed by Victorian Britain and its worldwide sea-based Empire Where the Sun Never Sets self-destruct violently as the new god the State begins its strut on the catwalk? The Wall Street Begins To Run Everything Half-Century?

The First Decade of the 20th Century (19-Zeds) (1900-1909)

Country Leader From To
United States of America William McKinley (1843-1901) Mar. 4, 1897 Sept. 14, 1901 William McKinley of the U.S. (1843-1901)
United Kingdom Queen Victoria (1819-1901) June 20, 1837 Jan. 22, 1901 Queen Victoria of the U.K. (1819-1901)
United Kingdom Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) June 25, 1895 July 11, 1902 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury (1830-1903)
Russia Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) Nov. 1, 1894 Mar. 1, 1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (1894-1917)
China Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) Aug. 22, 1861 Nov. 15, 1908 Empress Dowager of China (1835-1908)
Canada Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919) July 11, 1896 Oct. 6, 1911 Sir Wilfrid Laurier of Britain (1841-1919)
France Emile Loubet (1838-1929) Feb. 18, 1899 Feb. 18, 1906 Emile Loubet of France (1838-1929)
Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) June 15, 1888 Nov. 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859-1941)
Serbia Alexander I (1876-1903) Mar. 6, 1889 June 11, 1903 Alexander I of Serbia (1876-1903)
Italy Umberto I (1844-1900) Jan. 9, 1878 July 29, 1900 Umberto I of Italy (1844-1900)
Spain Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) May 17, 1886 Apr. 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941)
Japan Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) Nov. 3, 1867 July 29, 1912 Emperor Meiji of Japan (1852-1912)
Mexico Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) Nov. 29, 1876 May 25, 1911 Porfirio Diaz of Mexico (1830-1915)
Papacy Leo XIII (1810-1903) Feb. 20, 1878 July 20, 1903 Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903)
Turkey Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918) Aug. 31, 1861 Apr. 13, 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey (1842-1918)

The American 20th Century starts right off with the full dinner pail, the Big Stick, hamburgers, Pepto-Bismol, Casey Jones, Fauvism, Zeppelins, Quantum Theory, Psychoanalysis, Jazz, the Boer Rebellion, the Boxer Rebellion, Muckraking, and Ping-Pong, while the Bible Set campaigns atchet-in-hand against obscenity, saloons, and Demon Rum? A good decade for Pittsburgh, the Devil, and vacuum cleaners? The Great Galveston Hurricane shakes whitey up? Meanwhile the weakness in Whitey in ever being at each other's throats even when they are the Boss sets them up for WWI (White Wipeout I)? The last decade the U.S. can safely enjoy its splendid isolation?

1900 - The Galveston Flood Carrie Nation Frederick Sleigh Roberts Sanford Ballard Dole Max Planck Casey Jones Honus Wagner Year?

Galveston Flood, Sept. 8, 1900 Carrie Nation (1846-1911) South African Gen. Piet Joubert (1834-1900 British Gen. Sir Redvers Henry Buller (1839-1908) British Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh, 1st Earl Roberts (1832-1914) British Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) South African Gen. Piet Cronje (1836-1911) South African Gen. Louis Botha (1862-1919) Roger C. Carmel (1932-) Unberto I of Italy (1844-1900) Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869-1947) Gaetano Bresci (1869-1901) German Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn (1861-1922) Count Vladimir Lamsdorf (1845-1907) of Russia Russian Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov (1845-1900) Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927) Sanford Ballard Dole of Hawaii (1844-1926) James Drummond Dole (1877-1958) James Ramsay MacDonald of Britain (1866-1937) Prince Bernhard von Bülow of Germany (1849-1929) Sir Frederick Lugard of Britain (1858-1945) Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) King George II Tupou of Tonga (1874-1918) Benjamin Franklin Tilley of the U.S. (1848-1907) William Justus Goebel of the U.S. (1856-1900) John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun (1860-1908) Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) Paul von Hatzfeldt of Germany (1831-1901) Queen Mother Yaa Asantewaa of Ghana (1840-1921)) King Prempeh I of Ghana (1870-1931) Keir Hardie of Britain (1856-1915) John Luther 'Casey' Jones (1863-1900) Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838-1917) Arthur Griffith of Ireland (1872-1922) Edward Martyn of Ireland (1859-1923) Emily Hobhouse (1860-1926) Walter Reed (1851-1902) Dr. William Crawford Gorgas (1854-1920) James Carroll (1854-1907) Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) George Cadbury (1839-1922) Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch (1863-1944) Ralph Montgomery Easley (1856-1939) Dwight Filley Davis (1879-1945) Honus Wagner (1874-1955) James Gordon Bennett Jr. (1841-1918) Fernand Charron (1866-1928) Wilfred Rhodes (1877-1973) W.G. Grace (1848-1915) Hélène de Pourtalès (1868-1945) Charlotte Reinagle Cooper (1870-1966) Raymond Clarence Ewry (1874-1937) John Walter Tewksbury of the U.S. (1876-1968) William Muldoon (1852-1933) Queen Olga of Greece (1851-1926) Rabih az-Subayr of Sudan (1842-1900) Amédée-François Lamy of France (1858-1900) Émile Gentil of France (1866-1914) Louis Bachelier (1870-1946) Emile Coué (1857-1926) Edward Treacher Collins (1862-1932) Dr. Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) Sir Arthur Evans (1851-1941) David Hilbert (1862-1943) Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) Henri Lebesgue (1875-1941) Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) Max Planck (1858-1947) Paul Ulrich Villard (1860-1934) Hugo De Vries (1848-1935) Karl Erich Correns (1864-1933) Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg (1871-1962) William Bateson (1861-1926) Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) Leonid Nikolaevich Andreyev (1871-1919) Lyman Frank Baum (1856-1919) Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) William Wallace Denslow (1856-1915) Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) Johan Bojer (1872-1959) Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Joseph Deniker (1852-1918) Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) Victor Grignard (1871-1935) Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) Jacob August Riis (1849-1914) Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921) Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950) Frank Chapman (1864-1945) Harriet Hemenway (1858-1960) John Fletcher Lacey of the U.S. (1841-1913) Mary Garden (1874-1967) Isabella Stewart Gardner (1840-1924) Laurence Housman (1865-1959) Mary Johnston (1870-1936) Ellen Key (1849-1926) Henri Matisse (1869-1954) Frank Norris (1870-1902) Helen Miller Shepard (1868-1938) Luisa Tetrazzini (1871-1941) Mary Emma Woolley (1863-1947) Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951) Edward Franklin Albee II (1857-1930) Benjamin Franklin Keith (1846-1914) Samuel S. Shubert (1878-1905) Lee Shubert (1871-1953) Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953) Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) August Strindberg (1849-1912) Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (1875-1912) 'The Enchanted Drawing' 1900 James Stuart Blackton (1875-1941) Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe (1846-1919) E.L. Cord (1894-1974) Ralph Austin Bard of the U.S. (1884-1975) Cord L-29, 1929 Cord 810/812, 1936 Gordon Buehrig (1904-90) Auburn Boattail Speedster, 1936 Horace Elgin Dodge Sr. (1868-1920) John Francis Dodge (1864-1920) Dodge Logo National Cars Logo Joshua Lionel Cowen (1887-1965) Lionel Trains, 1900 Brownie Camera, 1900 Corinne Dufour's vacuum cleaner, 1900 Louis Lassen Shirtwaists Hall of Fame for Great Americans, 1900 'Queen Guinevere's Maying' by John Collier (1850-1934), 1900 Walter Sickert (1860-1942) 'Camden Town Nudes' by Walter Sickert Milton Snavely Hershey (1857-1945) Hershey Bar, 1900 Pacifico Beer, 1900

1900 Jan. 1, 1900 falls on Monday, so this is a Moon Century. Chinese Year: Rat - just the Year, or the Century of the Rat? As "America's Century" starts, world pop. is 1.6B, a gain of 600M in 1 cent.; Spanish-speaking America: 44M; Brazil: 18M; Russia: 150M; world pop. in 2000: 6B. The Twelfth (12th) (1900) U.S. Census reports a total pop. of 75,994,775 in a land area of 2,969,834 sq. mi. (25.6 per sq. mi.); the Amerindian pop. is down to a low point of 250K, and doesn't start rebounding for 20 years; pop. of New York City: 1.840M, of which 70% live in tenements; pop. of San Francisco: 350K; pop. of Washington, D.C. is 278,718 incl. 191,532 white and 86,702 black; 25% of the pop. of Chicago are 1st or 2nd gen. German immigrants; London 4.5M, Paris 2.7M, Berlin 2M, Tokyo 1.9M, Vienna 1.3M. Life expectancy: W Europe: 50 years; U.S.: 46.3 males, 48.3 females. 60% of the U.S. pop. lives in rural areas sans electricity, which doesn't stop those who have it from wanting the newfangled vacuum cleaner devices, with 200+ manufacturers springing up by 1920. There are 4K breweries in the U.S. In 1900-14 Germany triples its spending on warships to become the 2nd strongest naval power, while Russia almost doubles its spending on the army. The Modern Maximum of solar activity esp. sunspots begins, ramping up in the 1940s and reaching the highest level since the warm Boreal Period in 7K B.C.E. during the late 1950s, reaching a double peak in the 1950s and another in the 1990s, with the highest level of solar magnetic activity for most of the past 11.4K years. Buckminster Fuller's Knowledge Doubling Curve begins this year, with the amount of info. humans have access to going from doubling every cent. to an exponential halved rate: 1900-50, 1950-75, 1975-88, 1988-94, 1994-7, 1997-9, 1999-2000, etc. New York City, Chicago, and Boston have a total of 2,370 automobiles, 1,170 powered by steam, 800 by electricity, and 400 by gasoline. This cent. goes in with a lion (Pope Leo XIII) and goes out with a lamb (Pope John Paul II)? At the start of the 20th cent. there are 13 kingdoms in Africa (Burundi, CAR, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Libya, Morocco, Rhodesia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tunisia, Zanzibar); by the end of the cent. there are only three left (Lesotho, Morocco, Swaziland), not counting the kingdom of Spain (which owns the Canary Islands), and subnat. monarchies (Ankole, Ashanti, Barotseland, Buganda, Bunyoro, Busoga, Dagbon, Toro, Zululand); meanwhile HIV (AIDS virus) first arises in W Africa from the butchering of sooty mangabey monkeys, after which the rise of African cities and increased sexual contact leads to its incubation and mutation, causing samples to be later taken in 1959 and 1960 in Kinshasa, Congo. It takes until the year 1950 for the human technical knowledge in this year to double, according to French economist Georges Anderla (1921-2005); last in 1750. At the start of the cent. 12M in E Europe and the U.S. still speak Yiddish. Between this year and 1925 the number of theaters on Broadway zooms from 20 to 80. In the U.S. wildfires consume 20M-50M acres a year; by 1960 this is down to 2M-9M acres a year; too bad, by the 21st cent. conservation er, backfires, causing superfires? The first professional economists split from academia and get involved with public policy. On Jan. 5 (night) the Battle of Platrand (Wagon Hill) S of Ladysmith in Natal sees the Boers led by Gen. Petrus Jacobus "Piet" Joubert (1834-1900) unsuccessfuly attempt to end the siege of Ladysmith by taking it by surprise, until a big afternoon rainstorm stops them, losing 52 Boers KIA vs. 175 Brits KIA and 249 wounded; too bad, Joubert dies in Pretoria of peritonitis on Mar. 28. On Jan. 8 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules 6-3 in Paquete Habana v. U.S. that U.S. law will respect internat. law, in this case a law made by English King Henry IV in 1403 exempting fishing vessels from prize capture in times of war. On Jan. 20 the Great Honolulu Chinatown Fire sees winds spread the fire out of control, burning for 17 days and destroying 38 acres, which doesn't stop the building-burning campaign, which sets another 31 fires, leaving 7K homeless, who are housed in quarantine camps until Apr. 30; a total of 40 die of the plague; despite Chinatown being rebuilt in 1902, many Chinese move to the suburbs, causing Chinatown to fall into disrepair, ending up a red-light district by 1946; meanwhile Korean laborers arrive in 1903, followed by Filipino laborers in 1906. On Jan. 31 Carbondale, Penn.-born Dem. William (Wilhelm) Justus "Boss Bill" "William the Conqueror" Goebel (b. 1856) is sworn-in as gov. #34 of Ky. after being mortally wounded by an assassin on the grounds of the state capitol, and dies on Feb. 3, becoming the first U.S. state gov. to be assassinated in office. In Jan. winter storms in the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mts. result in mudslides; meanwhile San Francisco, Calif.experiences the highest tides in memory. In Jan. Utah Rep. Robert Brigham is tried by the U.S. House for polygamy, and is impeached by a 268-50 vote. On Feb. 27 the center-left Labour Party is founded in London, England as an alliance of Social Dems., Dem. Socialists, and trade unionists to emphasize increased state intervention, social justice, and workers' rights, with Scottish trade unionist James Keir Hardie (1856-1915) as its first leader on Jan. 17, 1906-Jan. 22, 1908. While white may seem to be right throughout the Anglo-American empire, one little sordid case of white against white and nobody's a lady stains the quilt in the black continent? On Feb. 27-28 after the 4-mo. (118-day) Boer Siege of Ladysmith in Natal (begun Nov. 2, 1899), the British under new British cmdr. (since Jan. 10) Field Marshal (since 1895) Baron Frederick Sleigh "Bobs" Roberts (1832-1914) (who relieved Gen. Sir Redvers Henry Buller (1839-1908) after Black Week) relieve Ladysmith from Brit. Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White (1935-1912) (who becomes known as "the defender of Ladysmith"), then on Feb. 11-Mar. 13 stage the Great Flank March to Bloemfontein, forcing the surrender of Gen. Piet Arnoldus Cronje (1836-1911) and his 4K commandos on Feb. 27 to Roberts in Paardeberg, after which he is imprisoned on St. Helena Island until the war ends (1902); Mohandas Gandhi and Winston Churchill participate in the Siege of Ladysmith; in Mar. Louis Botha (1862-1919) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Roger C. Carmel (1932-)?) becomes CIC of the Boer army; meanwhile in May British Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) relieves Mafeking, becoming "the hero of Mafeking", the successful British stand against the Boers there causing a big celebration, and the verb "maffick" to be coined; Britain annexes the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, causing the Boers to resort to guerrilla warfare; Roberts is created 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar, Pretoria, and Waterford, and CIC of the British army, urging Britain to pump up its army size. On Feb. 28-Mar. 3 after his policy of transferring the focus of Russian foreign policy from Europe to the Far East results in the Boxer Rebellion, straining his relations with the tsar, Russian envoy Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov (Marviev) (1845-1900) suggests a joint Russian, German, and French initiative to bring peace to South Africa, but Germany nixes it, as if Russia isn't milking the Boer War to advance its interests in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, while France milks it to play around in Morocco?; too bad, Muravyov dies suddenly on June 21 after a meeting with Alexei Kuropatkin and Sergei Witte, who blames him for the crisis in China. On Mar. 1 Samoa is split between the U.S. and Germany, with Germany raising its flag in Apia; on Apr. 17 the chiefs of Tutuila and Aunu'u cede their islands to the U.S. per the Treaty of Berlin, which is ratified by the U.S. next Feb. 16; on Feb. 17 Benjamin Franklin Tilley (1848-1907) becomes the first naval gov. of Am. Samoa (until Nov. 27, 1901). On Mar. 14 the U.S. passes the U.S. Gold Standard Act, sponsored by U.S. treasury secy. #42 (1897-1902) Lyman Judson Gage (1836-1927), reestablishing a currency backed solely by gold; too bad, this limits the amount in circulation, causing the treasury secy. to put the treasury surplus into circulation until 1912 and remain at the mercy of the market, pissing-off the U.S. govt. and leading to the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. On Mar. 18 Russia sends a squadron to Chemulpo (Inchon) to attempt to secure a concession for a naval base at Masan on the S coast of Korea, but Japan opposes it, and the two countries keep moving toward a collision; meanwhile a railway is completed from Chemulpo to Seoul. On Mar. 20 the Open Door Policy on China, announced in a circular letter last Sept. 6 by U.S. secy. of state (1898-1905) John Milton Hay (1838-1905) is officially promulgated by the U.S. - tell that to the Mexicans? On Mar. 25 the War of the Golden Stool (Third Ashanti Expedition) (Fifth British-Ashanti War) (Fifth Anglo-Ashanti War) (Yaa Asantewaa War) starts when inept British Gold Coast gov. (since May 29, 1898) Sir Frederick Mitchell Hodgson (1851-1925) insists on sitting on the royal throne, pissing-off the Ashanti, who attack, causing the British to hole-up in their small fort until reinforcements arrive in June, helping those not too sick to travel to escape to the Gold Coast; on July 14-15 a second relief force of 1K men equipped with Maxim guns defeat the 12K-man Ashanti army led by queen mother Yaa Asantewaa (1840-1921), with 1,007 British vs. 2K Ashanti KIA; on Aug. 29 Hodgson is removed, and becomes gov. of Barbados; king #13 (1888-1931) Prempeh I of Ashanti (Ghana) (1870-1931) and his family are exiled by the British to the Seychelles, and on Jan. 1, 1902 Ashanti is annexed to the Gold Coast Colony on the condition that the Golden Stool not be violated again; after it is hidden, it is discovered by road workers in 1920; Prempeh I returns from exile in Dec. 1924. On Apr. 2 the U.S. Foraker (Organic) Act confirms Puerto Rico as an unconsolidated territory of the U.S. with a civilian govt. On Apr. 3 Queen Victoria makes her 2nd visit to Ireland, landing in Kingstown and visiting Dublin, where she is greeted by enthusiastic crowds (while a botched attempt is made to assassinate her son Prince Edward of Wales in Belgium), staying until Apr. 26. On Apr. 14-Nov. 12 the 1900 Paris World Exhibition (Exposition Universelle) is held in the Paris Metro bldg., with 76K exhibitors and 51M visitors; Campbell's Soup is awarded a gold medal; Art Nouveau is pushed as the new thing for the 20th cent.; Rudolph Diesel's new diesel engine (which runs on peanut oil) takes the grand prize; the Palace of Electricity features a dazzling display of electric lights. On Apr. 22 the forces W of Lake Chad of Sudanese rebel Rabih az-Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah (Fadlallah) (b. 1842) are defeated by 700 French riflemen under Amedee-Francois (Amédée-François) Lamy (1858-1900), plus 900 Baguirimians in Kousseri (modern-day Cameroon), and he is killed fleeing across the Chari River, his head hoisted on a bayonet as a trophy; Borno ends up in British hands, and the remainder of his kingdom in French hands; Lamy is KIA, causing French gov. Emile (Émile) Gentil (1866-1914) to name the new capital of the French Territory of Chad on the Chari River near its confluence with the Logone River Fort Lamy, which is renamed N'Djamena in 1973. On Apr. 30 Hawaii joins Alaska, Okla., N.M., and Ariz. as a U.S. territory, with Sanford Ballard Dole (1844-1926) as gov. #1 on June 14 (until Nov. 23, 1903); on June 14 Congress passes a law granting citizenship to all people who had been citizens of the Repub. of Hawaii at the time of annexation; unlike Puerto Rico, Hawaii pays tariff dues and income tax to the federal govt.; large-scale immigration of Asian (Japanese) labor begins, and by 1910 Hawaii's pop. is 192K, of whom only 26K are natives, 12.5K part-natives, 21.5K Chinese, and 80K Japanese; meanwhile his cousin James Drummond Dole (1877-1958) graduates from Harvard U. and moves into Honolulu, using his $16,240 savings to purchase land in the C plains of Oahu, building a cannery in Wahiawa and founding the Hawaiian Pineapple Co. next year to distribute canned pineapple after stealing Cayenne pineapples from French Guiana, growing it into an empire with a breakthrough peeling-coring machine invented by Henry G. Ginaca (1876-1918) and a new 200K-acre plantation on Lanai in 1922, becoming known as "the Pineapple King", eventually escorting young Shirley Temple through his Honolulu corporate offices for a photo op.; in 1991 it is renamed the Dole Food Co.; too bad, the Big Five of Hawaii, incl. Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co., Amfac, and Theo H. Davies & Co. create an oligarchy, with Hawaii atty. gen. Edmund Pearson Dole uttering the 1903 soundbyte: "There is a govenment in this Territory which is centralized to an extent unknown in the United States, and probably almost as centralized as it was in France under Louis XIV." On Apr. 30 the Dem. Party of Hawaii is formed by supporters of Queen Liliuokalani, holding its first convention on May 16 attended by 500; too bad, the white-run Repub. Party controls Hawaii until the end of WWII. On Apr. 30 locomotive engineer John Luther "Casey" Jones (b. 1863) dies in a wreck in Vaughan, Miss. with one hand on the brake lever and the other on the whistle cord when his Illinois Central "Cannonball" Express hits a freight train; seeing the inevitability of the collision, he tells his fireman to jump, and his actions save many lives, making him a U.S. hero. In Apr. Paris-born French oil magnate ("the Oil King of Europe") Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe (1846-1919) establishes the 100K-franc Deutsch de la Meurthe Prize for the first flying machine that makes a round-trip from Parc Saint-Cloud to the Eiffel Tower in Paris (6.8 mi.) (11km) in less than 30 min. while maintaining an avg. ground speed of 14 mph (22 km/h) at any time between May 1, 1900 to Oct. 1, 1903. In 1904 along with Ernest Archdeacon he creates the 50K-franc Grand Prix d'Aviation (Deutsch-Archdeacon Prize) for the first heavier-than-air flight in a circular 1km course, which is won on Jan. 13, 1908 by Henri Farman in a Voisin biplane in Issy-es-Moulineaux in 1 min. 28 sec.; on May 21, 1911 Deutsch makes his first airplane flight, which crashes, injuring him along with French war minister Maurice Berteaux at the start of the 1911 Paris-Madrid Air Race; in 1912-36 the annual 20K-franc Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe speed race is held. On May 1 an explosion of blasting powder in a coal mine in Scofield, Utah kills 200+. On May 14-Oct. 28 the Second (2nd) (II) Summer Olympic Games, held in Paris, France as part of the World Fair feature 1K+ athletes competing in 19 sports, with women competing for the 1st time; too bad, they are marred by a scrap after the French refuse to hold the finals on Bastille Day (Sat.), followed by half a dozen Americans withdrawing because they won't run on Sunday; tennis player Charlotte Reinagle Cooper (1870-1966) wins the first-ever U.S. women's gold; Raymond Clarence "RaY" Ewry (1874-1937) overcomes child polio to win eight golds for the U.S.; John Walter Beardsley Tewksbury (1876-1968) wins five medals incl. two golds then goes on to become a dentist. On May 25 the U.S. Lacy Act is signed by Pres. McKinley, regulating interstate transporation of dead game birds and animals to discourage commercial hunting. In May the Vaudeville Managers Assoc. is founded in New York City, dominated by Benjamin Franklin Keith (1846-1914) and Edward Franklin Albee II (1857-1930) of Boston, Mass.; soon after the Wesern Vaudeville Managers Assoc. is formed in Chicago, dominated by the Orpheum Circuit; the all-male performers' union is called the White Rats of Am., which is chartered by the Am. Federation of Labor in 1910; by 1913 Albee controls both; in 1927 the Keith-Albee and Orpheum chains merges, becoming RKO Pictures in 1928. Machine? Machine? Whoo? On June 6 after hearing a divine voice on June 5 saying "Go to Kiowa", 6-ft. 180-lb. hatchet-wielding WCTU member Carrie (Carry) Amelia Nation (1846-1911) begins her public bar-smashing assault on saloons and "Devil Rum" at Dobson's Saloon in Kiowa, Kan., followed by the Eaton (Carey) Hotel in Wichita, Kan. on Dec. 27, and Kansas City, Mo. in Apr. 1901, moving to Guthrie, Okla. in 1902-6, officially changing her name to Carry in 1903, with the slogan "Carry A Nation for Prohibition" and getting arrested 30x+, founding the mag. The Hatchet; the Oct. 1907 issue warns that Coca-Cola is made with cocaine and caffeine, causing it to be reformulated to drop the cocaine. On June 2 the German Reichstag passes the Second Fleet Act (1898, 1900, 1908, 1912) as part of the Tirpitz Plan, with the goal of matching the Royal Navy by building 36 battleships, 2 flagships, 11 large cruisers, and 34 small cruisers by 1917. On June 6 (6-6-06) the Millennium Feverists are disappointed when the world doesn't end? On June 13 the postal system of Hawaii merges with the U.S. Postal Service. On June 19-21 the 1900 Repub. Nat. Convention in Philadelphia, Penn. renominates Pres. William McKinley, with war hero Theodore Roosevelt (gov. of New York) for vice-pres.; they run on the slogan "The Full Dinner Pail"; Roosevelt later says that McKinley has "as much backbone as a chocolate eclair". The Hanoverian Dynasty in Britain is embarrassed by its Boers, while the Manchu Dynasty in China is embarrassed by its Boxers? On June 13 the Boxer Rebellion (Uprising) (Yihetuan Movement), led by the Kung Fu-fighting I-ho Chu'an (Society of Righteous Harmonious Fists) (Righteous Harmony Band) begins in earnest, killing foreign devils (whites) and Christian Chinese indiscriminately, culiminating with the June 20 assassination of a German minister, which causes 200 foreigners to hole-up in the British Legation, beginning the Siege of the Peking (Beijing) Legations, causing Russia, Japan, Britain, France, and the U.S. to assemble a relief force at Taku, and Russia to station 100K troops in Manchuria; on July 9 the Taiyuan Massacre sees the gov. of Shanxi order the execution of 45 Christian missionaries; when Euro troops arrive and find the charred bones of missionaries they get pissed-off and start to destroy the city, until a missionary begs them to spare it; on July 3 the U.S. secy. of state uses this incident to reaffirm the Open Door Policy via another circular letter, resulting in the Oct. 16 Anglo-German Yangtze Agreement, signed by British foreign minister (June 29, 1895-Nov. 12, 1900) Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) and German ambassador to London (1885-1901) Paul von Hatzfeld zu Trachenberg (1831-1901); on Aug. 14 the sieged legation is relieved and the city occupied by the relief force until a peace treaty is signed on Sept. 7, requiring the Chinese to pay 450M Haikwan taels ($740M in gold) over 40 years, convert ad valorem into specific duties, fortify and guard the foreign legation district of Peking, and other humiliations; Russia keeps occupying Manchuria after the rebellion ends; German Col. (later gen.) Erich von Falkenhayn (1861-1922) becomes known for ruthlessness during the internat. expedition to crush the Boxer Rebellion, causing Kaiser Wilhelm II to utter the soundbyte: "Just as the Huns a thousand years ago under the leadership of Attila gained a reputation by virtue of which they live in the historical tradition, so may the name of Germany become known in such a manner in China that no Chinese will ever dare again look askance at a German", which is later used by Germany's enemies to call them Huns. In the summer Emily Hobhouse (1860-1926), sister of British Liberal politician Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse learns that hundreds of Boer women with children are being left impoverished and homeless by the Second Boer War, and sails to South Africa in Dec., finding 34 concentration camps, organizing assistance and working to publicize the appalling conditions. On July 4-6 the 1900 Dem. Nat. Convention in Kansas City, Mo. nominates William Jennings Bryan for pres. and Adlai Stevenson of Ill. for vice-pres.; the campaign is similar to the 1896 one, but now born-loser Bryan condemns U.S. imperialism in the Philippines, causing the Am. Anti-Imperialist League (founded 1898) to endorse him, pissing-off founding member Oswald Garrison Villard (1872-1949), new owner (1900-32) of The Nation and the New York Evening Post, who is for the gold standard, and forms the Nat. Party, which nominates La. Sen. Donelson Caffery (1835-1906) for pres., who soon drops out; Dem. candidate Bryan blurs traditional party platforms by advocating the expansion of federal power to ensure social justice rather than just railroads, state univs., and Western settlement, preparing the way for he total switchover with FDR and his New Deal. On July 9 the Commonwealth of Australia is created by the British Parliament, and is authorized to form a federal govt. with features of both the British and U.S., with Queensland colony as a state, for a total of seven; the first capital is in the whites-only gold boomtown of Melbourne; on July 13 former gov. of Victoria (1889-95) John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun (1860-1908) is appointed by Queen Victoria as British gov.-gen. of Australia #1 (until 1902). On July 29, 1900 Italian king (since 1878) Humbert (Umberto) I (b. 1844) is assassinated in a restaurant in Monza (9 mi. NNE of Milan) by anarchist Gaetano Bresci (1869-1901), and his only son Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947) becomes the 3rd and last king of Italy (until May 6, 1946); one of history's strange coincidences sees Humberto I have dinner in a restaurant where the owner's name is Umberto and looks like his clone and has the same birthday, and guess what, he is shot dead right before him, and he gets it while asking about it - woo woo woo? Galveston, oh Galvesto-o-n? On Sept. 8 "the Wall Street of the West" Galveston, Tex., the #2 wealthiest city in the U.S. after New York City is struck by the Category 4 (145 mph) 1900 (Great) Galveston Hurricane (Aug. 27-Sept. 17), killing 6K-12K and almost wiping the city off the map, throwing smug Americans who thought they ruled the world into denial, becoming the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history (until ?); the authorities failed to order evacuation, thinking they were immune from Mother Nature? On Oct. 16 chancellor-PM (since Oct. 29, 1894) Prince Hohenloe resigns, and foreign affairs secy. (since 1897) Count (prince in 1905) Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bulow (Bülow) (1849-1929) becomes chancellor and PM of Germany (until July 13, 1909), immediately giving a masterly defense of imperialism in China in the Reichstag, going on to cover for Kaiser Wilhelm II's many blunders - by giving him a bulow job? On Oct. 19 Prince Ito Hirobumi becomes PM #10 of Japan (until May 10, 1901), his 4th and last time. On Nov. 3 the first automobile show in the U.S., sponsored by the Automobile Club of Am. opens at Madison Square Garden in New York City - look who's a closet metrosexual? On Nov. 6 (Tues.) the 1900 U.S. Pres. Election sees William McKinley defeat William Jennings Bryan again, and with a handier margin, receiving 7.2M popular and 292 electoral votes to Bryan's 6.4M popular and 155 electoral votes; newcomer Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs receives 96,116 votes, going on to run again in 1904, 1908, and 1912. In Nov. due to a pathetic 6.2% voter turnout (9,589 votes cast), elections in Hawaii are an overwhelming V for the pro-monarchy nativist Hawaiian Independent Party (founded on Nov. 11 by Robert Wilcos) (later the Independent Home Rule Party) over the white-run Repub. Party (formerly the Reform Party); Maui-born Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox (1855-1903) AKA the Iron Duke of Hawaii is elected the first Hawaiian territorial delegate to Congress. On Dec. 14 a Franco-Italian Agreement gives France a free hand in Spanish Morocco in return for a free hand for Italy in Tripoli. On Dec. 16 the Tombstone Epitaph of Tombstone, Ariz. carries a quote from an Englishman about his henpecking wife: "The strength of Sampson, the genius of Homer, the prudence of Augustine, the skill of Pyrrhus, the patience of Job, the philosophy of Socrates, the subtlety of Hannibal, the vigilance of Hermogenes, would not suffice to subdue the perversity of her character." On Dec. 24 after a legal battle to perform in New York City causes her to utter the soundbyte: "I will sing in San Francisco if I have to sing there in the streets, for I know the streets of San Francisco are free", Beefy Italian soprano Luisa Tetrazzini (1871-1941) gives a free performance to 200K-300K near Lotta's Fountain at the corner of Market and Kearney Sts. in San Francisco, Calif., making her a star, and causing Ernest Arbogast, chef at the Palace Hotel to invent Tetrazzini (diced white meat with mushrooms served over spaghetti with a butter-cream sauce). On Dec. 25 getting shocked at how many feathered hats were worn by women in Manhattan in 1886, and joining with Boston socialite Harriet Lawrence Hemenway (1858-1960) (Mrs. Augustus Hemenway), who started a boycott of bird hats in 1896 and founds the Mass. Audubon Society, leading to more in other states, the passage on May 25 of the U.S. Lacy Act, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (R-Iowa) (1889-91, 1893-1907) John Fletcher Lacey (1841-1913), protecting plants and wildlife incl. birds, prohobiting interstate shipment of animals killed in violation of local laws, N.J.-born ornithologist (Audubon Society member) Frank Michier Chapman (1864-1945) organizes the first Christmas Bird Count, with 27 groups counting birds at Christmas time, traversing the countryside from New England to Calif.; in 1905 the Nat. Assoc. of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals is founded to fight for conservation and protection of birds, shortening its name in 1940, adding pesticide bans in the 1960s, and growing to 2K groups by the end of the cent. On Dec. 31 Thomas Hardy writes "The land's sharp features seemed to be the Century's corpse" in the poem The Darkling Thrush AKA The Century's Deathbed; actually it is pub. on Dec. 19 and just dated Dec. 31. Abd al-Rahman, having failed to regain Nejd abdicates his rights to the throne of Nejd, Arabia to his son Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud (b. 1880), who secures control over most of it by 1905. Speaking of low hos and blows? Gay bud Count Vladimir Nikolayevich Lamsdorf (1845-1907) becomes Russian foreign minister (until 1906), working to tame Russia's ambitions in E Asia while keeping equidistant from Germany and England, considering Russia as "a rich bride which none wanted to see fall into the arms of another". Kaiser Wilhelm II proclaims his intention to build up the German navy so that "the German Empire may also be in a position to win the place it has not yet attained"; meanwhile after two decades of modernization, the U.S. Navy rises from 12th to 3rd ranking among world navies. Sir George Goldie's Royal Niger Co. sells out to the British govt. for £865K, and the Niger Coast Protectorate's name is changed to the Protectorate of South Nigeria (until 1914), while the Protectorate of North Nigeria is formed, with Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard (1858-1945) as high commissioner (until 1919). King (since 1893) George II Tupou (1874-1918) of Tonga signs a treaty of friendship with Britain, and the country becomes a British protectorate (revised in 1959); Niue becomes a British possession. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) succeeds Susan B. Anthony as pres. of the Nat. Woman Suffrage Assoc. (until ?). Irish journalist Arthur Griffith (1872-1922) and playwright Edward Martyn (1859-1923) found the Sinn Fein (Féin) (Gael. "We Ourselves") political movement in Dublin, pushing for Irish independence from the (sirreverence?) stinkin' British; Martyn becomes pres. #1. Lenin emigrates to Switzerland, beginning a 5-year exile from Russia (until 1905), and pub. Iskra (Rus. "The Spark") out of Leipzig, Germany starting on Dec. 1 (11?) for underground distribution in Russia. The mescal-loving uto-Aztecan-speaking Yaqui Tribe in the Rio Yaqui Velley of Sonora, Mexico revolts from the Mexican govt., and is brutally suppressed, with 124 men massacred and 234 women and children deported to yukky Yucatan. James Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) is appointed secy. of the British Labour Party. Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (1874-1965) returns as a hero to England after escaping from the Boers in Africa, and is elected to Parliament for the 1st time as a Conservative before switching to Liberal in 1904. A railroad connection is established between Seoul and Inchon in Korea. The U.S. does what the Spanish didn't and fortifies Corregidor Island guarding Manila Bay. The Japanese govt. voluntarily agrees to limit the emigration of laborers to the U.S., but they sneak in anyway through Mexico and Hawaii. The Second Philippine (Taft) Commission, chaired by William Howard Taft to organize a civilian govt. in the Philippines backs the oligarchies in a policy of tutelary colonialism; the Partido Federal (Federal Party) is formed by the ilustrados with U.S. backing to persuade rebel leaders to surrender; meanwhile the rebels prove no match for U.S. forces, and the ilustrados begin to seek compromise. Kaffeeklatsch (afternoon coffee) becomes popular in Germany. In this decade the Social Gospel movement becomes prominent among U.S. and Canadian Protestants, with the goal of creating the Kingdom of God on Earth; too bad, the shock of WWI causes it to disintegrate. Early in this decade Sicilian Mafia members begin emigrating to the U.S. (esp. New York City and Buffalo), bringing their Old World code with them and ending up being called Musatache Petes by the Young Turks incl. Vito Genovese and Lucky Luciano after getting pissed-off at their refusal to allow non-Sicilians incl. Italians, Jews, and Irish into the mob, and their refusal to expand their victims to the non-Italian pop. Early in this decade American modernism emerges, which stresses the power of human beings to reshape the environment with science and technology, with its core period in the years between WWI and WWII. Early in this decade work projects for U.S. farm youth, later (1913) called the 4-H (head, heart, health, and hands) are organized to use bright farm kids to teach their parents how the "college boys" do it in order to introduce innovations to U.S. farmers; the motto is: "Practicing healthful living, protecting the well-being of self and others, and making constructive use of leisure time". The German Civil Law Code comes into force in an effort to unify the laws in the various German territories; it incl. elements of Germanic tribal and Roman law. The Nat. Civic Federation (NCF) is founded in the U.S. by journalist Ralph Montgomery Easley (1856-1939), with Cleveland business tycoon Mark Hanna pres. #1, allying with Samuel Gompers and other moderate labor leaders, and urging businesses to bargain with unions and offer voluntary benefits to workers to keep them from radicalism. The feud (shooting war) between the Hatfields of W. Va. and McCoys of Ky. that began in 1882 and left 12 dead, cementing the public image of inbred gun-happy Appalachian hicks finally ends; the descendants take until June, 2000 to stage a nonviolent reunion. Annie Edith Landau (1873-1945) of London travels to Palestine to become headmistress of the Evelina de Rothschild School for Girls in Jerusalem (founded 1854), and when the Turkish officials find out she is Jewish she becomes the first British woman arrested in Palestine, and is released after a special firman is issued by the sultan; in 1903 she gives the pop. of Jerusalem as 40K Jews, 1.4K Muslims, and 6K Christians. Monte Verita (Verità) (Hill of Truth) in Ascona, Switzerland is founded as a cooperative vegetarian communist colony, which later gets into the New Age Movement. After winning the Methodenstreit (Ger. "strife over method") with the Austrian School of Economics (began 1890), the German Historical School of Economics dominates European and U.S. academia, advocating a welfare state; members incl. Karl Wilhelm Bucher (Bücher) (1847-1930), Bruno Hildebrand (1812-78), Georg Friedrich Knapp (1842-1926), Karl Gustav Adolf Knies (1821-98), Ernst Louis Etienne Laspeyres (1834-1913), Gustav von Schmoller (1838-1917), Werner Sombart (1863-1941), and Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (1864-1920). In this decade the German Youth Movement, revolving around hiking clubs is founded; meanwhile the German nudist movement AKA Freikörperkultur (Free Body Culture) gets going in this decade, with the Freilichtpark (Free Light Park) founded in Lubeck in 1903. Early in the cent. the Technocracy Movement begins in the U.S., claiming to be non-political and non-partisan, with the aim of applying the principles of science to society and distributing goods and services in a new way not based on money - all they need is the Internet and they're cooking? About this time the First Folk Revival begins, an academic effort to transcribe and record British and Am. folk songs. The original Willy Wonka, Liberal Quaker George Cadbury (1839-1922) founds the Bourneville Village Trust to administer the park-filled village he set up for his chocolate co. employees. Willie Mokalapa founds the Basutoland Ethiopian Church in South Africa. The Ottoman Imperial (Istanbul) U., the first state U. in the Ottoman Empire is reopened in Constantinople on Aug. 12 after having been open previously only in 1870-1 and 1874-81. Booker T. Washington founds the Nat. Negro Business League. Brown-educated feminist lesbian Mary Emma Woolley (1863-1947) becomes pres. of Mount Holyoke College for woolley women (until 1937). The Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Tex. is founded. In this decade German-born English Impressionist artist Walter Sick, er, Walter Sickert (1860-1942), who claims he lived in Jack the Ripper's bedroom paints the 20+ Camden Town Nudes, causing some to claim that he is the real Jack the Ripper. About this time the Cake (Chalk Line) Walk becomes the most fashionable dance in the U.S. About this time the terms "comics" and "comic book" come into common use in the U.S. Workers in Mexico installing a sewer at St. Teresa and Escalerillas (later Guatemala) Streets unearth portions of the Aztec Great Temple. The Paris Metro subway becomes operational. The electric bus debuts on New York's Fifth Ave. (fare 5 cents). Gold production reaches its peak in the Klondike; Pres. McKinley assigns U.S. gen. George Morton Randall (1845-1918) of the 8th U.S. Infantry to command an army div. there to maintain law and order. The Internat. Ladies Garment Workers Union in New York City is formed. Am. sociologist Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951) is forced to resign from Leland Stanford U. by pres. David Starr Jordan for criticizing the use of migrant Chinese labor in the building of Leland Stanford's Union Pacific Railroad, followed by fellow prof. George Elliott Howard, causing several more faculty members to resign in protest and triggering a nat. debate on academic freedom and a movement to protect it. Scottish-born Am. soprano Mary Garden (1874-1967-) makes her debut in the Opera-Comique in Paris in the first perf. of Gustave Charpentier's Louise after the lead singer becomes ill during the perf., rocketing her to fame. The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (AKA Fenway Court) in Boston, Mass. is founded by Isabella Stewart Gardner (1840-1924), as a private collection, opening to the public in 1903. The Hall of Fame for Great Americans, funded by Am. philanthropist Helen Miller Shepard (1868-1938) is erected on the campus of New York U. in Bronx, N.Y., designed to house 150 bronze busts and tablets of Americans chosen by a 100-member committee. The Chicago American newspaper, owned by William Randolph Hearst begins pub. on July 4 in Chicago, Ill. (until 1974), becoming the last full flowering of aggressive journalism, as depicted in the 1928 play "The Front page" by Ben Hecht and Charles macArthur. The Daily Express newspaper begins pub. in London on Apr. 24. The Nome Nugget, the first newspaper in Alaska begins pub. The wild turkey pop. in North Am. is down to 30K; by the end of the cent. it makes a comeback to 7M - don't even ask about domesticated turkeys, which can't fly? The zebra-like quagga (Equus quagga) of South Africa becomes extinct. The first quadrennial Internat. Exhibition of Culinary Art (originally the International Verband Koche Deutschland) is held in Frankfurt, Germany, with four nations participating; during WWII Adolf Hitler bans it; in 1996 it moves to Berlin, followed in 2000 by Erfurt; the 2008 event has 54 nations and 1.6K chefs participating, with Normany coming in first, Germany 2nd, and Switzerland 3rd. In this decade palm trees are imported to Los Angeles, Calif. from Latin Am. and other exotic locales; within a cent. they begin dying of old age and fungal disease, and are replacd with native species such as oaks and sycamores. The slang word "nut" for a wacky person comes into vogue in the U.S. early in this cent., evolving from the mid-19th cent. use of the word for a person's head, then "out of one's head" evolving into "out of one's nut". In this cent. the amount of atmospheric dust on Earth doubles. Les Apaches (Société des Apaches) is founded in Paris by a group of French writers, artists, and musicians incl. Edouard Benedictus, Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi, Maurice Delage, Manuel de Falla, Leon-Paul Fargue, Lucien Garban, Pierre Haour, Desire-Emile Inghelbrecht, Tristan Klingsor, Maurice Ravel, Florent Schmitt, Paul Sordes, Igor Stravinsky, Richardo, Vines, Emile Vuillermoz, and imaginary member Gomez de Riquet, named after a newspaper seller crying "Attention les apaches [hooligans]", meeting each Sat. in Sordes' or Klingsor's home, later rallying around Claude Debussy's controversial 1902 opera "Pelleas et Melisande", causing him to dedicate his piano work "Miroirs" (1904-5) to them. Anton Dvorak makes his last appearance as a conductor leading the Czech Philharmonic in Prague. Russian writer Maxim Gorky boosts the career of short story writer (failed lawyer) Leonid Nikolaevich Andreyev (1871-1919) with rave reviews. In this decade Am. homemaker Mrs. Amanda Smith begins marketing her dandy apple pies; it's just a coincidence that Granny Smith apples are named for somebody named Maria Smith? Am. publisher Frank Nelson Doubleday (1862-1934) dissolves his relationship with Samuel S. McClure, and partners with "Atlantic Monthly" ed. Walter Hines Page to create Doubleday, Page & Co.. The Shubert Org. (Family), founded by brothers Samuel S. "Sam" Shubert (1878-1905), Levi "Lee" Shubert (1875-1953), and Jacob J. Shubert (1879-1963) of Syracuse, N.Y. moves into New York City, leasing the Herald Square Theatre at the corner of Broadway and 35th Street in Manhattan, putting on shows in rented circus tents to get around the monopolistic Theatrical Syndicate (founded 1886) of Abe Erlanger and Marc Klaw; in 1910 they form the Independent Nat. Theatre Owner's Assoc. to break their monopoly, and finish breaking them in 1922, developing Broadway as the #1 theater district while controlling 1K theaters nationwide, becoming the largest theater empire of the 20th cent., incl. the Winter Garden Theatre and Shubert Theatre. Auburn Automobile Co. is founded in Auburn, Ind. from Eckhart Carriage Co. (founded 1874) by founder Charles Eckhart's sons Frank and Morris Eckhart; in 1904 they produce a $1K 1-cylinder 10 hp 2-speed touring car with a tonneau; after WWI forces them into bankruptcy, they sell out to a group of Chicago investors led by Ralph Austin Bard (1884-1975), who later becomes asst. Navy secy. under Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt; in 1924 after it doesn't prove profitable they sell it to Errett Lobban "E.L." Cord (1894-1974), who in 1926 acquires Duesenberg Motor Corp. to produce high-priced luxury vehicles incl. the Cord L-29 in 1929, the first front-wheel drive automobile manufactured in the U.S.; in 1933 they produce the Cord Speedster, followed in 1935 by the Auburn 851 Speedster, followed in 1936 by the Cord 810/812, the first U.S.-designed and built front drive car with independent suspension, and the first to offer hidden headlights; in 1936 they produce the Auburn Boattail Speedster, designed by Packard-GM-Stutz-Duesenberg designer Gordon Miller Buehrig (1904-90), with 4.6L straight-8 and supercharger option that can do 100 mph; the co. folds in 1937. Niles, Mich.-born brothers Horace Elgin Dodge Sr. (1868-1920) (the mechanic) and John Francis Dodge (1864-1920) (the salesman) found the Dodge Brothers Co. to supply parts and assemblies for Detroit automakers incl. Ford, producing complete automobiles with all-steel bodies with baked-on enamel in 1915; after both brothers die of influenza in 1920, the co. is sold by their widows for $146M to Dillon, Read & Co. in 1925, who sell it to Chrysler in 1928. National Motor Vehicle Co. is founded in Indianapolis, Ind. to manufacture electric vehicles, starting with Style A in 1900, with tiller steering; in 1903 they produce 2-cylinder and 4-cylinder internal combustion cars, with engines by Rutenber; in 1904 they introduce the $2K 9 hp 4-speed electric National Tonneau; in 1906 they introduce a 6-cylinder car with circular radiator; in 1906 they make their last electric cars, and in 1907 begin building their own engines; in 1912 Joe Dawson wins the Indy 500 in a National; in 1915 production peaks at 1.8K; in 1916 they introduce the 12-cylinder National Highway Twelve, but WWI inflation kills business, and in 1922 it is merged into Associated Motor Industries; in 1924 it becomes defunct. Edwin S. Porter leaves Edison Studios and founds Rex Motion Picture Co., along with a co. to manufacture Simplex movie projectors; in 1912 he sells out and becomes chief dir. of the new Famous Players Film Co. The Michelin Brothers Andre and Edouard pub. the first Michelin Guide for French Motorists to promote tourism by car and sell more tires. After selling his Lancaster Caramel Co. for $1M to switch to chocolate manufacturing, with the soundbyte "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing", Milton Snavely Hershey (1857-1945) of Derry Church, Penn. begins cranking out the ever-popular 5-cent Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar (Hershey Bar), "the Great American Chocolate Bar", based on the Hershey Process (1899) that makes use of fresh milk before it can spoil; the package features gold and red lettering on a white background, with the legend "A Nutritious Confection", and comes with a free postcard depicting Lancaster, Penn.; a variety with almonds is introduced in 1908. The historic Comedie Francaise next to the Palais Royal in Paris is partially destroyed by fire, and later rebuilt with improvements. Am. Machine and Foundry (AMF) is founded in Brooklyn, N.Y. by Rufus L. Patterson to manufacture cigarette, baking, and stiching machines, expanding into automated bowling equipment after WWII, and bicycles in 1950. Early in this decade candy cigarettes are introduced, allowing kids to play-act and get a sweet treat at the same time; too bad, they end up getting banned by several countries. Drake's Cakes (originally Drake Bros.) is founded in Brooklyn, N.Y. by Charles Drake and Newman E. Drake, producing all-kosher products incl. Drake's Devil Dogs, Drake's Coffee Cake, Drake's Ring Dings (1961), and Drake's Yodels (1965); in 1946 it is acquired by Borden, becoming Drake Bakeries; in 1969 it moves to Wayne, N.J.; in 1986 it is sold to Ralston Purina's Continental Baking Co., which is sued under anti-trust laws and sells it in July 1987 to Rock Capital Partners; in Dec. 1991 it is acquired by Culinar; in June 1998 it is acquired by Interstate Bakeries Corp. (makers of Hostess and Wonder Bread), which files for bankruptcy in Nov. 2012; on Jan. 28, 2013 it is acquired by McKee Foods (makers of Little Debbie snack cakes), becoming Drake's Cakes. Cerveza Pacifico Clara AKA Pacifico brand beer is introduced by Cerverceria del Pacifico in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, founded on Mar. 14 by three German immigrants; the logo features Cerro del Creston, the city's lighthouse hill; in 1954 it is acquired by Grupo Modelo. Architecture: Ft. Bajakhana is built near Kabul on the highway to the Khyber Pass by Abdul Rahman Khan. Sports: On Jan. 6-Mar. 10 the 1900 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season sees the Montreal Shamrocks win with a 7-1 record; on Feb. 12-16 the Montreal Shamrocks defeat the Winnipeg Victorias 2-1 to win the Stanley Cup. On June 14 the first Gordon Bennett Cup internat. auto race from Paris to Lyons, France , sponsored by New York Herald publisher James Gordon Bennett Jr. (1841-1918) is won by Fernand Charron (1866-1928) in a Panhard, who starts at 3:00 a.m. and arrives at 12:23 p.m.; on the recommendation of Count Eliot Zobrowski, each nation's cars are assigned a unique color: France: blue (Bleu de France), Belgium: yellow, Germany: white, Italy: red (Rosso Corsa) (1907), U.S.: white with blue stripes, or vice-versa; since auto racing is still illegal in England, the 1903 race is held in Ireland, spawning British Racing Green (supposed to be shamrock green); the last race takes place on July 5, 1905 near the Michelin tire factory in Clermont-Ferrand; the first four places go to cars with you know what kind of tires. Dwight Filley Davis (1879-1945), tennis-playing son of a wealthy St. Louis, Mo. businessman presents the first internat. lawn tennis cup, the Davis Cup. William Muldoon (1852-1933) becomes the first prof. wrestling champ. The Dead Ball Era in U.S. ML baseball begins (ends 1919), characterized by low-scoring games caused by using balls so long that they get scuffed or deliberately tampered with, making home runs harder to get. Johannes Peter "Honus" Wagner (1874-1955) "the Flying Dutchman" joins the ML baseball Pittsburgh Pirates as a shortstop, batting .381 and leading the league in doubles (45), triples (22), and slugging percentage (.573); he goes on to win a record eight batting titles. W.G. (William Gilbert) Grace (1848-1915) retires from cricket with 54K runs. English cricketer Wilfred Rhodes (1877-1973) of Yorkshire becomes a star, going on to complete more doubles than any other player in history, scoring 1K runs 21x, capturing 100 wickets 23x, and setting a life record of 4,187 wickets taken, appearing in 58 test matches. Inventions: In Feb. the $1 coardboard Kodak Brownie box camera is introduced by Eastman Kodak, featuring a simple meniscus lens that takes 2.25 in. square pictures ("snapshots") on 117 roll film, becoming a giant hit and introducing cheap photography to the masses; "You push the button, we do the rest"; named after the Palmer Cox cartoons. On July 2 Konstanz, Baden-born German Count Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin (1838-1917) flies his first successful rigid-frame dirigible (Zeppelin) a distance of 3.5 mi. at 18 mph before its steering gear fails. On Nov. 5 the Jalousie (Louvre) Window is patented (#687,705) by Joseph W. Walker of Malden, Mass. The first Browning semi-automatic pistols are manufactured. In Sept. Joshua Lionel Cowen (Cohen) (1877-1965) and Harry C. Grant found Lionel Corp. in New York City to manufacture electrical novelties, switching to toy trains in 1902; in 1969 it is acquired by Gen. Mills; it becomes defunct in 1993. Delco invents the first electrical distributor for automobile engines. On Dec. 18 Corinne Dufour of the Savannah, Ga. patents (#664,135) the first "electric carpet sweeper and dust gatherer", which uses wet sponges and a suction fan. Thomas Patton receives a patent for the Cotton Candy (spun sugar) machine, which is first used at the Ringling Bros. Circus; in 1899 William Morrison and John C. Wharton patent another machine; meanwhile the city of New Orleans, La. claims that dentist Josef Delarose Lascaux invented it; none of the machines work well until Gold Medal Products introduces a spring base model in 1949. The Sanitary Can is invented, replacing the hole and cap can, whose lid is soldered on by hand. Australian chemist Charles Potter invents the Froth Flotation Process, increasing the efficiency of metal extraction from rocks, making mining more profitable. Mulligan Stew is invented about this time by America's numerous rail-hopping hobos, who call new young bums "pipsqueaks" from their high voices - leftover hamburgers from garbage cans? The game of Ping-Pong (Whiff-Whaff, Flim-Flam) is patented in England, becoming a nat. hit in China - Balls of Fury? Science: There about 1K physicists in the world, of which 25% are in the U.S. (the most). A reliable record of Atlantic hurricane landfalls is started. On Mar. 29, 1900 French mathematician Louis Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Bachelier (1870-1946) (student of Henri Poincare) successfully defends his dissertation The Theory of Speculation at the Sorbonne, pioneering the study of Brownian Motion and applying it to random walks of market prices, nearly coming up with the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, and pioneering the study of stochastic processes. Russian neurologist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhtereve (Bechterev) (1857-1927) discovers the role the hippocampus plays in memory. Swiss metallurgist J.A. Brinell (1849-1925) proposes the Brinell Hardness Test, pressing a small chromium steel ball into a specimen and measuring the diam. of the indentation. About this year Am. surgeon Charles H. Cargile (1853-1930) begins using the sterile Cargile Membrane, made from the peritoneum of the ox. French psychologist Emile Coue (Coué) (1857-1926) begins studying hypnotism, soon coming up with a new technique he calls Conscious Autosuggestion, where the patient keeps repeating the soundbyte "Every day in every way I am getting better and better" (Tous les jours a tous points de vue je vais de mieux en mieux) - I pledge to watch football only 6 days a week? French chemist Francois Auguste Victor Grignard (1871-1935) pub. the Grignard Reaction, using magnesium-containing Grignard reagants to add a carbonyl group to an aldehyde or ketone, forming carbon-carbon bonds, winning him the 1912 Nobel Chem. Prize. In 1900-1 Austrian-born Jewish-Am. scientist Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) discovers A-B-AB-O blood grouping based on the presence of agglutinins, winning him the 1930 Nobel Med. Prize. English surgeon-opthalmologist Edward Treacher Collins (1862-1932) first describes Treacher Collins Syndrome, characterized by deformities of the face and head. In this decade Am. neurosurgeon Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939) develops basic modern brain surgery techniques. British archeologist Sir Arthur John Evans (1851-1941) begins his excavations in Euro-occupied Crete (until 1910), discovering the extinct Minoan culture in 1908. It might be bigger than bam, let's ask America? German mathematician David Hilbert (1862-1943) poses Hilbert's 23 Unsolved Problems of Mathematics at the Internat. Congress of Mathematicians, which take the rest of the cent. to assimilate; meanwhile fellow German mathematician Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) disputes his whole approach, based on his 1884 book The Foundations of Arithmetic (Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik), which makes fans of Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein - Math is a Battlefield? French mathematician Henri Leon Lebesgue (1875-1941) formulates the Mathematical Theory of Measure, followed by the Lebesgue Integral (1902-4). German chemist Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) discovers the Ostwald-Brauer Process (patented in 1902) for oxidizing ammonia to prepare nitric acid for explosives, which Germany uses in WWI to beat the Allied blockade of nitrates. In 1900 English physicist John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) pub. the Rayleigh-Jeans Law (improved by Sir James Jeans in 1905), claiming that the spectral radiance (emission at a single frequency) of a "black body" (perfect absorber of radiation, radiating an amount equal to that which it is absorbing) is proportional to the frequency to the fourth power, which heads toward infinity as the frequency approaches infinity, causing the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the prediction that a black body emits radiation with infinite power; on Oct. 19 after ruminating not on that but on why Wien's 1896 Displacement Law breaks down at low frequencies, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) announces to the Berlin Physical Society his revolutionary Planck's Radiation Law, proposing the (Old) Quantum Theory to account for the radiation from a black body, explaining that it is emitted in discrete quanta, each being of an energy value equal to Planck's constant h times the frequency, and violating the ancient maxim "Natura non facit saltum" (Nature doesn't make jumps); as he can't explain the meaning of his new constant, he delves into atomic theory to try and find a clue; meanwhile herr Wilhelm Wien proposes the formula E = (3/4) * M * C^2 for the relation between electromagnetic mass and electromagnetic energy - don't complain about the wienie in your neighbor's eye when you have a planck in your own? U.S physician Walter Reed (1851-1902) of the Army Medical College in Washington, D.C. heads a commission sent to Cuba to investigate the cause and transmission of yellow fever, and discovers that it is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, just like old Carlos Finlay had claimed back in 1881, allowing William Crawford Gorgas (1854-1920) to virtually eliminate the disease from Havana within 3 mo.; meanwhile four people, incl. U.S. physician James Carroll (1854-1907) allow themselves to be infected to help research treatment; the idea that insects cause disease still finds little public acceptance? French physicist Paul Ulrich Villard (1860-1934) discovers Gamma Rays (energies above 100KeV). It's a breeze to correct the botanists who laid an egg? European botanists Hugo Marie De Vries (1848-1935) of Holland, Karl (Carl) Erich Correns (1864-1933) of Germany, and Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg (von Tschermak-Seysenegg) (1871-1962) of Austria discover and confirm Mendel's 1865 research reports concerning pea plants and how inherited traits are determined by two "hereditary units", leading them to connect the new chromosomes discovered this year in cell nuclei to his work; English botanist William Bateson (1861-1926) becomes the main popularizer, coining the term "genetics" in 1905; Erich's brother Armin Eduard Gustav Tschermak von Sysenegg (1870-1952) also contributes, but doesn't take credit? - this morning my hair was straight, then Greg called? Early in the cent. Australian aborigines are viewed as subhuman animals, and requests come in to kill some and boil their skulls and send them back to Europe for scientific study and exhibits? Nonfiction: Am. Bible Society, Am. Standard Version of the Bible; a rev. of the 1611 King James Version; returns to using the name Jehovah instead of Lord; revised again in 1946-52, flip-flopping on that; copyrighted allegedly to protect the interest of the U.S. public, and in 1928 the copyright is transferred to the Internat. Council of Religious Education; the whole trans. pisses-off some Bible fundamentalists? Edward White Benson (1829-96), The Apocalypse (posth.). James Theodore Bent (1852-97), Southern Arabia, Soudan and Sakotra (posth.); claims that the ruins in Mashonaland are Semitic. Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Le Rire: Essai sur la Signification du Comique. George Sewall Boutwell (1818-1905), The Crisis of the Republic. John Burroughs (1837-1921), The Light of Day: Religious Discussions and Criticisms from the Naturalist's Point of View. Samuel Butler (1835-1902) (tr.), Homer's Iliad. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth; "The problem of our age is the administration of wealth, so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship." Edward Clodd, Grant Allen: A Memoir; recently departed atheist evolutionist writer Grant Allen (1848-99) leaves a pile of writings setting the stage for the 20th cent.? Robert William Cole, The Struggle for Empire: A Story of the Year 2236. Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), The Book of Shadows. Joseph Deniker (1852-1918), The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography (Races et peuples de la terre); one-ups William Z. Ripley by claiming that the peoples of Europe fall into six primary ethnic groups (not races) incl. Nordic (Germanic), Littoral (Atlanto-Mediterranean), Oriental (Eastern) (Slavic), Adriatic (Dinaric), Ibero-Insular, and Occidental (Cevneole) (Lapponoid), plus four secondary ethnic groups incl. Sub-Nordic, North-Occidental, Vistulian, and Sub-Adriatic; "In 1860, Isid. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire admitted four principal races or 'types,' and thirteen secondary ones. In 1870, Huxley proposed five principal races or types, and fourteen secondary ones or 'modifications.' Finally, in 1878, Topinard enumerated sixteen races, and increased this number in 1885 to nineteen. In mixed classifications, based on both somatic and ethnic characters, a very much greater number of sub-divisions is found, but the reason of that is that 'ethnic groups' are included. "Putting these aside, we see in the most complete mixed classifications only four or five principal races, and twelve to eighteen secondary races. Thus Haeckel and Fr. Mueller admit four principal races (called 'tribes' by Haeckel, 'sub-divisions' by Mueller), and twelve secondary races (called 'species' and sub-divided into thirty-four 'races' by Haeckel, called 'races' and sub-divided into numerous 'peoples' by Fr. Mueller). On the other hand, De Quatrefages sub-divides his five 'trunks' into eighteen 'branches,' each containing several ethnic groups, which he distinguishes under the names of 'minor branches' and 'families.' Some years ago I proposed a classification of the human races, based solely on physical characters. Taking into account all the new data of anthropological science, I endeavoured, as do the botanists, to f orm natural groups by combining the different characters (colour of the skin, nature of the hair, stature, form of the head, of the nose, etc.), and I thus managed to separate mankind into thirteen races. Continuing the analysis further, I was able to give a detailed description of the thirty sub-divisions of these races, which I called types, and which it would have been better to call secondary races, or briefly 'races.' A mass of new material,[Pg 285] and my own researches, have compelled me since then to modify this classification - too bad, the more they try to grab the goldfish in the bowl, the more they slip through their fingers, no wonder the whole concept gets laughed off? Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911), The Rise of Hermeneutics; traces hermenutics back to Hellenistic Greece. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Monopolies and Trusts. John Fiske (1842-1901), The Beginnings of New England, or the Puritan Theocracy in Its Relations to Civil and Religious Liberty. Josiah Flynt (1869-1907), Notes of an Itinerant Policeman; True Stories of the Underworld; first-person accounts. Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Noa Noa; a report on his travels in Tahiti; "Here I enter into truth, become one with Nature." Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915), La Culture des Idees. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The New South Africa. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Shadowings; Japanese Lyrics. Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Logical Investigations (2 vols.) (1900-1) (2nd ed. in 1913, 1921); founds Philosophical Phenomenology, the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness, dissing psychologism, the doctrine that logical entities incl. numbers, propositions, and universals can be reduced to mental states or activities, which becomes a major part of 20th cent. Continental Philosophy. Leonard Huxley (1860-1933), Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley; his daddy Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95). Ellen Key (1849-1926), Century of the Child; bestseller proposing that the world's children should be the central work of society in the 20th cent.; launches the careers of Jean Piaget and Philippe Aries. Johan Rudolf Kjellen (1864-1922), Introduction to Swedish Geography; first book on the newfangled field of geopolitics. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), Prince Charles Edward; History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation to the Suppression of the Last Jacobite Rising (4 vols.) (1900-7). W.E.H. Lecky (1838-1903), The Map of Life; ethical problems. Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941), Absolute Differential Calculus; popularises tensor calculus. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), Croquet Up to Date: Containing the Ideas and Teachings of the Leading Players and Champions. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), A Country Without Strikes. Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), Inorganic Evolution as Studied by Spectrum Analysis. Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Histoires de Masques. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The French Revolution. Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916), Grundzuge der Psychologie. Alexander Stuart Murray (1841-1904), Excavations in Cyprus. Queen Olga of Greece (1851-1926), Modern Greek Trans. of the Bible; refused official permission by the Greek Orthodox Church, which doesn't stop her. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), A Ten Years' War: An Account of the Battle with the Slum in New York. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), Life of Oliver Cromwell. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. George Saintsbury (1845-1933), A History of Criticism (3 vols.) (1900-4). Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), The English Utilitarians. Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914), Die Haager Friedenskonferens, Tagebuch-Blatter (Tagebuch-Blätter). Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929), The Preconceptions of Economic Science; contrasts the U.S. school of Alfred Marshall, which prefers mathematical analysis to the Austrian School of Economics, which prefers deductive logic. David Ames Wells (1828-98), The Theory and Practice of Taxation (posth.). Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), Comparative Psychology. Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823-1901), A Story of Mission Work in China. Movies: J. Stuart Blackton's The Enchanted Drawing (Nov. 16) is the first animated film recorded on std. picture film, causing James Stuart Blackton (1875-1941) to become known as "the Father of American Animation". William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (1860-1935) and Walter Pfeffer Dando, The Temptation of St. Anthony; produced by the Am. Mutoscope and Biograph Co.; features a nude woman; Sherlock Holmes Baffled; first film featuring the Arthur Conan Doyle char. ?'s Cyrano de Bergerac stars French actor Benoit-Constant Conqulin. Music: Eugen d'Albert (1864-1932), Kain (opera). Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Thalaba, the Destroyer. Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Fantasia for Two Pianos. Henri Busser (1872-1973), Blanc et Noir (opera). Gustave Charpentier (1860-1956), Louise (opera) (Opera-Comique, Paris). Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (1875-1912), Hiawatha; incl. Hiawatha's Wedding Feast; causes him to become known as the Black Mahler. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), A Village Romeo and Juliet (1900-1); based on an 1856 short story by Gottfried Keller of Switzerland. Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), The Dream of Gerontius (oratorio) (Birmingham); text from the 1865 poem by Cardinal John Henry newman. Gabriel Faure (1845-1924), Promethee (Prometheus) (opera). Alexandre von Fielitz (1860-1930), Das Stille Dorf (opera). Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), Zuluki (Cleveland); revisionof "Nada". Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Tosca (opera) (Teatro Costanzi, Rome) (Jan. 14); set during the republican troubles in Rome with Napoleon in 1798-9; brown-eyed singer Floria Tosca's painter beau Mario Cavaradossi is tortured to reveal the location of his escaped friend Cesare Angelotti (former consul of the Roman Repub., wanted on political charges), but he won't talk so she reveals his location (Mario's well), but the dope kills himself to avoid arrest, and now Cavaradossi is scheduled to be shot, but evil police chief Baron Scarpia promises her that his men will use blanks if she will put out for him, and she at first agrees, then stabs him before he can do her, uttering the soundbyte "This is Tosca's kiss", then waits for Mario to play dead so they can escape together; too bad, they use real bullets, and she is found out by spoilsport policeman Spoletta, after which she throws herself from the castle and dies; receives a mixed reception; later, in a perf. in Chicago they use a trampoline instead of a mattress, causing a "bouncing Tosca" at the end; in another perf. in San Francisco, the firing squad are last-minute hires, who shoot Tosca instead of Mario; incl. the hit song E Lucevan le Stelle (And the Stars Were Shining). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), The Tale of Tsar Saltan (Nov. 3) (Oct. 21 Old Style) (Solodovnikov Theatre, Moscow); features the orchestral interlude Flight of the Bumblebee to close Act 3 Tableau 1, which is jazzed-up by Am. trumpet player Al Hirt for the 1966-7 TV series The Green Hornet. Deodat de Severac (1872-1921), La Chant de la Terre. Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937), Symphony No. 10 for Organ ("Romane"). Art: ?, Equestrian Statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I (bronze) (Potsdam); unveiled by Wilhelm II; features the Roman goddess of victory seated in front of the pedestal, and reliefs of Wilhelm I in 1814 in Bar-sur-Aube fighting Napoleon, and the triumphal 1871 German entry into Paris. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912), Gold Fish. David Young Cameron (1865-1945), The London Set (etchings). John Collier (1850-1934), Queen Guinevere's Maying. Winslow Homer (1836-1910), West Point, Prout's Neck, Maine; On a Lee Shore. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Le Moulin de la Galette. Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Nude in the Sun. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), The Sitwell Family. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), La Modiste. Poetry: G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Wild Knight and Other Poems (debut). Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944) (ed.), The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250-1900; becomes std. work. William Vaughan Moody (1869-1910), The Masque of Judgment. Sir Lewis Morris (1833-1907), Harvest Tide. Moira O'Neill (real name Agnes Skrine), Songs from the Glens of Antrim. Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87), Hermione and Other Poems (posth.). Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Wienerinnen. David Belasco (1853-1931), Madame Butterfly (Herald Square Theatre, New York) (Mar. 5); based on the 1898 short story by John Luther Long (1861-1927), set in Nagasaki; U.S. Navy Lt. B.F. Pinkerton of the USS Abraham Lincoln marries 15-y.-o. geisha Cio-Cio San (Madame Butterfly) (played by Blanche Bates, followed by Valerie Bergere, and Clara Blandick), then leaves for the states, promising to return "when the robins nest again", but after three years, during which time she has borne his half-breed son, she learns that he has married a white woman, after which she gives her boy a small U.S. flag and a doll, then commits hara-kiri, uttering the soundbyte "To die with honor, when you can no longer live with honor"; incl. "Un Bel Di" (One Fine Day). Johan Bojer (1872-1959), Moder Lea (The Power of a Lie); the new industrial morality. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), La Robe Rouge (The Red Robe); legal system injustices. Horton Foote (1916-), The Last of the Thortons. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Op Hoop van Zegen (The Good Hope) (Theatre Antoine, Paris). Henry Arthur Jones (1851-1929), Mrs. Dane's Defense. Edmond Rostand (1868-1918), L'Aiglon; the duke of Reichstadt, son of Napoleon and Marie Louise. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Captain Brassbound's Conversion. August Strindberg (1849-1912), The Dance of Death; ever-fighting marrieds Capt. Edgar and Alice, and her cousin Kurt in a granite fortress on a desolate island; Easter. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Shadowy Waters (verse play); marks a change to a more serious style. Novels: Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863-1938), Il Fuoco (The Flame of Life). Lyman Frank Baum (1856-1919), The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; illustrations by William Wallace Denslow (1856-1915); named after Baum's file drawer labeled "O-Z"; based on a cyclone he witnessed in 1890 in Aberdeen, S.D.; "Dorothy [Gale] lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies" with Uncle Henry, Aunt Em, and her dog Toto ("He was not gray; he was a little black dog with silky hair"), meets Prof. Marvel (Wizard) and Miss Gulch (Wicked Witch), then is swept up in a tornado into the Land of Oz, killing the Wicked Witch of the East Locasta with her house in Munchkinland, after which she meets the Good Witch of the North Glinda, hooks up with Scarecrow (Hunk), Cowardly Lion (Zeke), and Tin Woodman Niccolo Chopper (Hickory), visits the Emerald City via the Yellow Brick Road, has all kinds of adventures, and returns via the silver (not ruby) slippers; Ch. 8: "The Deadly Poppy Field"; "The road to the city of emeralds is paved with yellow brick"; actually, it's only the 1939 film starring Judy Garland that makes the people in Kansas turn into the chars. in Oz, but who cares, it's the greatest fantasy flick of all time?; filmed in 1939. Walter Besant (1836-1901), The Fourth Generation; why do the innocent suffer for the sins of their forefathers? Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), The Infidel. Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), Goops, and How to Be Them. Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932), The House Behind the Cedars. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Savrola (first and only novel). Colette (1873-1954), Claudine a l'Ecole (Claudine at School) (first novel); followed by "Claudine a Paris" (1901), "Claudine en Menage" (Claudine Married) (1902), and "Claudine s'en va"(Claudine is Leaving) (1903). Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Lord Jim. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), The Master Christian. Louis Couperus (1863-1923), De Stille Kracht (The Hidden Force). Grazia Deledda (1871-1936), Il Vecchio della Montagna. Theodore Dreiser (1874-1945), Sister Carrie; Caroline Meeber; first ed. sells only 500 copies. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), The Strength of Gideon. Frederik Willem van Eeden (1860-1932), Van de Koele Meren des Doods. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), L'Inconnu et les Problemes Psychiques; psychic investigations. Josiah Flynt (1869-1907) and Francis Walton, The Powers That Prey. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), The Heart's Highway. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Der Dorfapostel. Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Three People. Henry Harland (1861-1905), The Cardinal's Snuff-Box; his first hit. Frank Harris (1856-1931), Montes the Matador (short stories). J.C. Heer, Konig der Bernina. Laurence Housman (1865-1959), An Englishwoman's Love Letters. William Dean Howells (1837-1920), A Hazard of New Fortunes. Douglas Hyde (1860-1949), Ubhla den Chraoibh. Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950), Kongens Fald (The Fall of the King); Christian II and his failures to act; #1 Danish novel of the cent.? Mary Johnston (1870-1936), To Have and To Hold; colonial times in Va.; #1 U.S. bestseller of 1900; turned into a play in 1901 by E.F. Boddington, starring Isabel Irving as Lady Jocelyn, and Robert Loraine as Capt. Ralph Percy; filmed in 1916 starring Wallace Reid and Mae Murray; refilmed in 1922. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Grey Fairy Book. William John Locke (1863-1930), White Dove. Jack London (1876-1916), The Son of the Wolf (short stories) (first book). John Luther Long (1861-1927), The Fox-Woman. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), A Strange Marriage. Frank Norris (1870-1902), Blix; semi-autobio. love story; A Man's Woman; tale of arctic exploration. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The World's Great Snare; A Millionare of Yesterday. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Lane That Had No Turning. Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), La Seine (versenovel); Chiquenaude. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Catherina II (posth.). Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Daughters of the Rich. Vladimir Solovyov (1853-1900), A Story of Anti-Christ; the conquest of Asia and Europe by Japan is followed by the rise of the you know what. William Sharp (1855-1905), The Divine Adventure; pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod; Iona; pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod; Lyrica Celtica: An Anthology of Representative Celtic Poetry. Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87), The Prose of Edward Rowland Sill (posth.). Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), Voices in the Night; The Hosts of the Lord. Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921), Assessor Karlchen. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), The Living Corpse. Jules Verne (1828-1905), The Castaways of the Flag (Seconde Patrie) (Second Fatherland) (2 vols.); sequel to "The Swiss Family Robinson" (1812) by Johann David Wyss. Mrs. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Eleanor. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Die Geschichte der Jungen Renate Fuchs. Births: Spanish-Am. "Perfidia", "Chiquita Banana", "Babalu" bandleader-violinist-cartoonist ("King of Rumba") Francesc d'Asis Xavier Cugat Mingall de Bru i Deulofeu (d. 1990) on Jan. 1 in Girona, Catalonia, Spain; brother of Francis Cugat; emigrates to Cuba in 1905, and the U.S. in 1915; husband (1918-20) of Rita Montaner (1900-58), (1929-48) Carmen Castillo, (1947-52) Lorraine Allen, (1952-63) Abbe Lane (1932-), and (1966-78) Charo (1951-); likes to hold a Chihuahua with one arm and a baton with the other. Am. journalist Herbert Lionel Matthews (d. 1977) on Jan. 1 in New York City; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Alias Jimmy Valentine" actor (gay) Charles William "Billy" Haines (d. 1973) on Jan. 2 in Staunton, Va.; partner (1926-) of Jimmie Shields. Am. Surrealist painter Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (d. 1955) on Jan. 5 in Paris, France; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. French journalist-politician Emmanuel d'Astier de La Vigerie (d. 1969) on Jan. 9 in Paris. English philosopher Richard Bevan Braithwaite (d. 1990) on Jan. 15 in Banbury, Oxfordshire; educated at Cambridge U. Am. "E.M. Frimbo, World's Greatest Railroad Buff" New Yorker writer Rogers Ernest Malcolm "E.M." Whitaker (d. 1981) on Jan. 15. Am. Preparation H and Aspercreme inventor George Speri Sperti (d. 1991) on Jan. 17 in Covington, Ky.; inventor of Preparation H, one of the most shoplifted items in drugstores. Am. anthropologist Leslie Alvin White (d. 1975) on Jan. 19 in Salida, Colo.; educated at Columbia U., and U. of Chicago. English 5'11" "It's alive! It's alive!" "Dr. Henry Frankenstein in Frankenstein" actor Colin Clive (Colin Gleen Clive-Greig) (d. 1937) on Jan. 20 in St. Malo, France; descendant of Baron Robert Clive (1724-75). Am. evolutionist anthropologist (devout Orthodox Christian) Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (d. 1975) on Jan. 25 in Nemyriv, Ukraine; educated at the U. of Kiev; emigrates to the U.S. in 1927. Am. old-time country musician Clayton McMichen (d. 1970) (Gid Tanner and the Skillet Lickers) on Jan. 26 in Allatoona, Ga. U.S. Adm. (Jewish) ("Father of the Nuclear Navy") Hyman George Rickover (d. 1986) on Jan. 27 in Makow Mazowiecki, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1905; longest-serving U.S. Naval officer (63 years). Am. portraitist Alice Neel (d. 1984) on Jan. 28 in Colwyn, Penn. English "One-Upmanship" humorist Stephen Potter (d. 1969) on Feb. 1; educated at Westminster School and Merton College, Oxford U. Am. Dem. mayor #101 of New York City (1950-3) (Roman Catholic) Vincent (Vincenzo) Richard Impellitteri (d. 1987) on Feb. 4 in Isnello, Sicily; emigrates to the U.S. in 1901; educated at Fordham U. French "Les Enfants du Paradis" poet-playwright Jacques Prevert (Prévert) (d. 1977) on Feb. 4 in Neuilly-sur-Seine; grows up in Paris. Am. Dem. politician-statesman (Ill. gov. #31, 1949-53) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (d. 1965) on Feb. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif.; grandson of Adlai E. Stevenson Sr. (1835-1914). German "Truth and Method" philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer (d. 2002) on Feb. 11 in Marburg, Hesse. British Conservative MP (1924-58) (bi) Robert John Graham "Bob" Boothby, Baron Boothby (d. 1986) on Feb. 12 in Edinburgh, Scotland; educated at Eton College, and Magdalen College, Oxford U; created baron in 1958; known as the Palladium at Oxford for his twice nightly gay affairs; friend of Michael Llewelyn Davies (1900-21). Am. auto racer Floyd Marion Roberts (d. 1939) on Feb. 12 in Jamestown, S.D. English Harrod-Domar Model economist Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (d. 1978) on Feb. 13 in London; educated at New College, Oxford U., and King's College, Cambridge U. Am. 1-armed jazz trumpeter-bandleader Joseph Matthews "Wingy" Manone (d. 1982) on Feb. 13 in New Orleans, La.; loses an arm in a streetcar accident, then uses a prosthesis. Am. altimeter inventor Paul Kollsman (d. 1982) on Feb. 22 in Freudenstadt, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Spanish "L'Age d'Or" dir.-producer-writer Luis Bunuel Portoles (Luis Buñuel Portolés) (d. 1980) on Feb. 22 in Calanda, Teruel, Aragon. Am. "Our Town", "The Crucible", "The Traitor" theatrical producer (Jewish) Jed Harris (Jacob Hirsch Horowitz) (d. 1979) on Feb. 25 in Lviv, Austria-Hungary; widely hated by George S. Kaufman, Laurence Olivier et al. English "You're Dancing on My Heart" dancer-composer-bandleader Victor Marlborough Silvester (d. 1978) (Silver Strings) (Ballroom Orchestra) on Feb. 25 in Wembley, Middlesex. English "Briggflatts" Modernist Objectivist poet (Quaker) Basil Cheesman Bunting (d. 1985) on Mar. 1 in Scotswood-on-Tyne, Northumberland; educated at the London School of Economics. German-Am. "The Threepenny Opera" composer (Jewish) Kurt Julian Weill (d. 1950) on Mar. 2 in Dessau (East Germany); husband (1926-33, 1941-50) of Lotte Lenya (1898-1981); emigrates to France in 1933 and the U.S. in 1935. English "The Man Who Knew Too Much" actress Edna Best (d. 1974) on Mar. 3 in Hove; wife (1928-40) of Herbert Marshall (1890-1966). Am. "Salt of the Earth" Hollywood Ten dir.-writer (Jewish) Herbert J. Biberman (d. 1971) on Mar. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn; husband (1930-71) of Gale Sondergaard (1899-1985). Am. baseball hall-of-fame pitcher (lefty) (Philadelphia Athletics, 1925-33) (Boston Red Sox, 1934-41) Robert Moses "Lefty" Grove (d. 1975) on Mar. 6 in Lonaconing, Md. Am. FBI mystery man William Guy Banister (d. 1964) on Mar. 7 in Monroe, La.; present at the 1934 FBI killing of John Dillinger. British "The Jealous God", "Blithe Spirit" playwright and Labour MP (Jewish) Benn W. Levy (d. 1973) on Mar. 7; educated at Univ. College, Oxford U.; husband (1933-73) of Constance Cummings (1910-2005). Am. Christian evangelist ("the Jayhawk Nazi") Gerald Burton Winrod (d. 1957) on Mar. 7 in Wichita, Kan.; father of Gordon Winrod (1926-). Am. computer pioneer Howard Hathaway Aiken (d. 1973) on Mar. 8 in Hoboken, N.J.; educated at the U. of Wisc., and Harvard U. French nuclear physicist Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie (Joliot) (d. 1958) on Mar. 9 in Paris; husband (1926-) of Irene Curie (1897-1956) (daughter of Madame Curie), both changing their surnames to Joliot-Curie. Am. "Somebody Loves You", "Deep Purple", "Wagon Wheels" jazz-pop composer Peter DeRose (d. 1953) on Mar. 10 in New York City. Colombian gen.-dictator (1953-7) Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (d. 1975) on Mar. 12 in Tunja, Boyaca. Greek poet-diplomat Giorgos (George) Seferis (Seferiades) (d. 1971) on Mar. 13 (Feb. 29 Old Style) in Urla (near Smyrna), Turkey. Tonga 6'3" queen (1918-65) Salote Mafile'o Pilolevu Tupou III (d. 1965) on Mar. 13; daughter of George Tupou II (1874-1918). Am. "The Greatest Story Ever Told", "How the West Was Won" film composer-conductor (child piano prodigy) Alfred Newman (d. 1970) on Mar. 17 in New Haven, Conn. Canadian heavyweight boxer (alcoholic) Jack Delaney (Oliva Chapdelane) (d. 1948) on Mar. 18 in Quebec. Polish conductor-composer (Jewish) Paul Kletzki (Pawel Klecki) (d. 1973) on Mar. 21 in Lodz; emigrates to Switzerland in 1936. Egyptian adobe architect Hassan Fathy (d. 1989) on Mar. 23 in Alexandria. German "Escape from Freedom", "The Humanist Manifesto" psychoanalyst (Jewish) Erich Seligmann (Pinchas) Fromm (d. 1980) on Mar. 23 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Australian Country Party PM #18 (1967-8) Sir John "Black Jack" McEwen (d. 1980) on Mar. 19 in Chiltern, Victoria. Am. sabermetrics pioneer Earnshaw Cook (d. 1987) on Mar. 28 in Reisterstown, Md.; educated at Princeton U. Czech (Slavonic) Communist poet-playwright Jiri Wolker (d. 1924) on Mar. 29 in Prostejov. English pharmacologist Sir John Henry Gaddum (d. 1965) on Mar. 30; educated at Rugby School, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Lebanese pres. (1952-8) (Marionite Christian) Camille Nimr Chamoun (d. 1990) on Apr. 3 in Deir al-Qamar; educated at St. Joseph U. Am. "Boys Town", "Inherit the Wind", "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" actor Spencer Bonaventure Tracy (d. 1967) on Apr. 5 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; Roman Catholic Irish father, Protestant-turned-Christian Scientist mother; educated at Ripon College, and Marquette Academy. Am. "The Red Falcon" actress-novelist Ilka Chase (d. 1978) on Apr. 8 in New York City. English "A High Wind in Jamaica" poet-novelist-playwright Richard Arthur Warren Hughes (d. 1976) on Apr. 19 in Weybridge, Surrey; Welsh parents; educated at Charterhouse School, and Oriel College, Oxford U. Canadian gov.-gen. #20 (1967-74) (Anglican) Daniel Roland Michener (d. 1991) on Apr. 19 in Lacombe, Alberta; educated at the U. of Alberta, and Hertford College, Oxford U.; friend of Lester B. Pearson. Am. fashion designer (Jewish) Norman Norell (Norman David Levinson) (d. 1972) on Apr. 20 in Noblesville, Ind.; starts out designing clothes for Gloria Swanson at Paramount Pictures, followed by costumes for the Ziegfeld Follies and the Cotton Club. Am. oil magnate (co-founder of the Civil Air Patrol) David Harold "Dry Hole" Byrd (d. 1986) on Apr. 24 in Detroit, Tex.; cousin of Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957) and Harry F. Byrd (1887-1966); educated at Trinity U., and U. of Tex.; namesake of the Harold Byrd Mts. in Antarctica; drills 56 dry holes in a row before hitting two gushers on May 28, 1928. Austrian exclusion principle physicist (Jewish) Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (d. 1958) on Apr. 25 in Vienna; middle name is for godfather Ernst Mach; Jewish father Wolf Pascheles converts to Roman Catholicism then quits; not to be confused with German physicist Wolfgang Paul (1913-93). Am. philosopher Richard McKeon (d. 1985) on Apr. 26 in Union Hill, N.J.; educated at Columbia U.; teacher of Robert Pirsig (1928-), Susan Sontag (1933-2004) et al. Am. Richter Scale seismologist Charles Francis Richter (d. 1985) on Apr. 26 in Hamilton, Ohio; educated at Caltech Am. "Magnificent Obsession", "Imitation of Life" film dir. Douglas Sirk (Hans Detlef Sierck) (d. 1987) on Apr. 26 in Hamburg, Germany; Danish parents; raised in Denmark; emigrates to the U.S. in 1937. German SS Gen. Heinrich "Gestapo" Muller (Müller) (d. 1945) on Apr. 28 in Munich. Dutch Oort Cloud astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort (d. 1992) on Apr. 28 in Franeker, Friesland. Polish futurist writer-poet (Communist) (Jew-turned-atheist-turned Roman Catholic)Aleksander Wat (Chwat) (d. 1967) on May 12 in Warsaw; educated at Warsaw U. Am. auto racer Charles Raymond "Ray" Keech (d. 1929) on May 1 in Coatesville, Penn. Italian "Fontamara", "Bread and Wine" novelist Ignazio (Secondo Tranquilli) Silone (d. 1978) on May 1 in Pescina del Marsi, Aquila Province. Kiwi plastic surgeon Sir Archibald Hector McIndoe (d. 1960) on May 4 in Dunedin; educated at the U. of Otago; knighted in 1947. Am. historian Garrett Mattingly (d. 1962) on May 6 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Harvard U. German Ising Model physicist Ernst Ising (d. 1998) on May 10 in cologne; educated at the U. of Gottingen, U. of Hamburg. Swiss astrologer Karl Ernst Krafft (d. 1945) on May 10. Thai PM (1946) Pridi Banomyong (Phanomyong) (d. 1983) on May 11 in Ayutthaya. German actress-dir. Helene Weigel (d. 1971) on May 12 in Vienna, Austria; 2nd wife (1930-56) of Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956). German SS Gen. Karl Friedrich Otto "Karele" Wolff (d. 1984) on May 13 in Darmstadt. German Polish Nazi gov.-gen. (1934-45) Hans Michael Frank (d. 1946) on May 23 in Karlsruhe, Baden. German leftist political scientist (Jewish) Franz Leopold Neumann (d. 1954) on May 23 in Kattowitz, Silesia; father of Michael Neumann (1946-); emigrates to Britain in 1933; educated at the London School of Economics. Canadian Quebecer poet Alain Grandbois (d. 1975) on May 25 in Saint-Casimir, Quebec. Czech Poetism poet-writer Vitezslav Nezval (d. 1958) on May 26 in Biskoupky. Am. violinist-chemist (co-inventor of Kodachrome film) (Jewish) Leopold Godowsky Jr. (d. 1983) on May 27; son of Leopold Godowsky Sr. (1870-1938); brother of Dagmar Godowsky (1897-1975); husband of Frances Gershwin (sister of George and Ira Gershwin); father of Leopold Godowsky III; educated at UCLA; collaborator of Leopold Mannes (1899-1964). British conservative politician David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (d. 1967) on May 29 in Edinburgh; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. "Devil's Elbow" Agrarianist novelist Brainard Bartwell Cheney (d. 1990) on June 3 in Fitzgerald, Ga.; educated at Vanderbilt U. Austrian "Queequeq in Moby Dick" actor Count Friedrich Anton Maria Hubertus Bonifacius von Ledebur-Wicheln (d. 1986) on June 3 in Linz. Hungarian physicist (Jewish) (inventor of holography) Dennis Gabor (d. 1979) on June 5 in Budapest; emigrates to Britain in 1933. Austrian-Am. psychiatrist (Jewish) Manfred Joshua Sakel (d. 1957) on June 6 in Nadworna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1936; educated at the U. of Vienna. Am. sociologist Samuel Andrew Stouffer (d. 1960) on June 6 in Sac City, Iowa; educated at Harvard U., and U. of Chicago. Am. engineer ("Father of Silicon Valley") Frederick Emmons Terman (d. 1982) on June 7 in English, Ind.; son of Lewis Terman (1877-1956); educated at Stanford U. Am. avant-garde composer-pianist-inventor George (Georg Carl Johann) Antheil (d. 1959) on June 8 in Trenton, N.J.; German Lutheran immigrant parents. Am. bandleader ("the man who taught America to sing") Frederick Malcolm "Fred" Waring (d. 1984) on June 9; creator of the Waring Blender. Am. "Meet the Press" host-producer (1947-75) Lawrence Edmund Spivak (d. 1994) on June 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U.; known for bowtie and heavy-rimmed glasses. Cuban Afrocubanismo composer-violinist Amadeo Roldan (Roldán) y Gardes (d. 1939) on June 12 in Paris. British celeb (model for Peter Pan) Michael Llewelyn Davies (d. 1921) on June 16 in London; one of the four Darling Brothers; 1st cousin of Daphne du Maurier (1907-89). Am. actress Margaret Shelby (d. 1939) (AKA Alma M. Fillmore) on June 16 in San Antonio, Tex.; daughter of Charlotte Shelby (1877-1957); sister of Mary Miles Minter (1902-84). Am. "Gentleman's Agreement" novelist (Jewish) Laura Z. Hobson (Laura Kean Zametkin) (d. 1986) on June 19 in New York City; Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Cornell U.; wife (1930-7) of Francis Thayer Hobson (1897-1967). Polish genocide activist (coiner of the term genocide) (Jewish) Raphael (Rafal) Lemkin (d. 1959) on June 24 in Bezwodne, Russia (Belarus). Am. opera mezzo-soprano (Jewish) Jennie Tourel (Davidovich) (d. 1973) on ? in Russia; picks her name after her French voice teacher Anne El-Tour; becomes U.S. citizen in 1946. Am. tenor Richard Crooks (d. 1972) on June 26 in Trenton, N.J. French "The Little Prince" aviator-writer-poet Antoine de Saint-Exupery (Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, Comte de Saint Exupéry) (d. 1944) on June 29 in Lyons; 3rd of 5 children of Count Jean de Saint Expuery (1863-1904) and Countess Marie de Fonscolombe. Am. "Ballad of Irving", "Lights Out" TV host (Jewish) Frank Gallop (d. 1988) on June 30 in New York City. Am. "Bottom Dogs" novelist-writer-critic (Jewish) Edward Dahlberg (d. 1977) on July 22 in Boston, Mass.; educated at UCB, and Columbia U. Austrian "The Road to Mecca" writer (Jewish-to-Muslim convert in 1926) Muhammad (Mohammad) Asad (Leopold Weiss) (d. 1992) on July 2 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (Lviv, Ukraine). Anglo-Irish writer-dir.-producer (founder of the Stratford Festival of Canada and the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis) Sir William Tyrone Guthrie (d. 1971) on July 2 in Tunbridge Wells, Kent; great-grandson of Tyrone Power (1795-1841); cousin of Tyrone Power Jr. (1914-58); educated at Oxford U.; knighted in 1961. Am. writer-critic John Mason Brown (d. 1969) on July 3 in Louisville, Ky.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Old Farmer's Almanac" and "Yankee" mag. publisher Robb Hansell Sagendorph (d. 1970) on July 4. Am. "Whispering", "Star Dust", "Deep Purple", "Stars Fell on Alabama", "Sophisticated Lady" lyricist (Jewish) Mitchell Parish (Michael Hyman Pashelinsky) (d. 1993) on July 10 in Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1901. Am. "Hazel Hardesty in Rimrock Jones" 5'6-1/2" silent film actress Edna Mae Cooper (d. 1986) on July 19 in Baltimore, Md. Soviet marshal Filipp Ivanovich Golikov (d. 1980) on July 30. Am. jazz clarinetist (black) George Lewis (George Louis Francois Zenon) (d. 1969) on July 31 in New Orleans, La. Am. microbiologist (developer of the first influenza vaccine) Thomas Francis Jr. (d. 1969) on July 15 in Gas City, Ind.; educated at Yale U. French "Tropismes" novelist (Jewish) Nathalie Sarraute (d. 1999) on July 18 in Ivanovo, Russia; emigrates to France in 1909; educated at the Sorbonne. German "Die Partei" Nazi sculptor Arno Breker (d. 1991) on July 19 in Elberfeld (Wuppertal). Am. novelist (alcoholic) (schizophrenic) ("the first American flapper") Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald (d. 1948) on July 24 in Montgomery, Ala.; wife (1920-) of F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940). Czech ruralist novelist-poet-critic Josef Knap on July 28 in Podulsi by Jicin. Swedish novelist Eyvind Johnson (d. 1976) on July 29 in Svartbjornsbyn (near Boden). Am. jazz saxophonist-composer-bandleader (black) Donald Matthew "Don" Redman (d. 1964) on July 29 in Piedmont, W. Va. Am. pollster Elmo Burns Roper Jr. (d. 1971) on July 31 in Hebron, Neb. Am. Tenn. Monkey Trial witchy woman John Thomas Scopes (d. 1970) on Aug. 3 in Paducah, Ky. English queen mother ("mum") Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (d. 2002) on Aug. 4 in St. Paul's Waldenbury, Hitchin, Hertfordshire; wife (1923-) of George VI (1895-1952); first British-born queen consort since Tudor times, and last empress of India. Am. geophysicist (Texas Instruments co-founder) Cecil Howard Green (d. 2003) on Aug. 6 in Whitefield, England; knighted in 1991. Am. "Phantom Lady", "The Killers", "Son of Dracula" dir. (Jewish) Robert Siodmak (d. 1973) on Aug. 8 in Dresden, Germany. French surrealist novelist (bi) (morphine addict) Rene (René) Crevel (d. 1935) on Aug. 10 in Paris. Am. "Happy McMann in Martin Kane, Private Eye" actor Walter Kinsella (d. 1975) on Aug. 16 in New York City. Am. New Age leader (co-founder of the Unarius Academy of Science) Ruth E. Norman (nee Nields) (d. 1993) on Aug. 18 in Calif.; wife of Ernest L. Norman (1904-71). English "The Concept of Mind" philosopher Gilbert Ryle (d. 1976) on Aug. 19 in Brighton; educated at Brighton College, and Queen's College, Oxford U.; coiner of the phrase "the ghost in the machine". Cuban "The Peanut Vendor", "Siboney" singer-pianist-actress Rita Aurelia Fulcida Montaner y Facenda (Rita de Cuba) (d. 1958) on Aug. 20 in Guanabacoa; wife (1918-20) of Xavier Cugat (1900-90). U.S. Rep. (D-Ind.) (1935-69) Charles Abraham Halleck (d. 1986) on Aug. 22 near De Motte, Ind. Am. "Johnny Strikes It Up" composer (Roman Catholic) Ernst Krenek (d. 1991) on Aug. 23 in Vienna, Austria; of Czech descent; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "Little Boxes", "Morningtown Ride" folk singer-songwriter (Jewish) Malvina Reynolds (nee Milder) (d. 1978) on Aug. 23 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at UCB. Am. "Doctor X" actor-singer Preston S. Foster (d. 1970) on Aug. 24 in Pitman, N.J.; husband (1926-45) of Gertrude Warren, and (1946-70) Sheila Darcy. English biochemist (Jewish) Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (d. 1981) on Aug. 25 in Hildesheim, Germany; educated at the U. of Gottingen, U. of Freiberg, and U. of Hamburg; emigrates to England in 1933; knighted in 1958; discoverer of the urea cycle, and the citric (tricarboxylic) acid Krebs Cycle. German U-boat designer Hellmuth Walter (d. 1980) on Aug. 26 in Wedel (near Hamburg). Dutch conductor Eduard van Beinum (d. 1959) on Sept. 3 in Arnhem. Canadian British Columbia PM (1952-72) (Freemason) William Andrew "Wacky" "Cece" Cecil Bennett (d. 1979) on Sept. 6 in Hastings, N.B.; father of William Richards Bennett (1932-). Am. "Dynasty of Death" novelist Janet Miriam Holland Taylor Caldwell (d. 1985) (AKA Marcus Holland, Max Reiner, J. Miriam Reback) on Sept. 7 in Preswich, Manchester, England; of Scottish MacGregor descent; emigrates to the U.S. in 1907. Am. pres. assassin wannabe Giuseppe Zangara (d. 1933) on Sept. 7 in Ferruzzano, Calabria, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Am. Dem. politician Claude Denson Pepper (d. 1989) on Sept. 8 in Dudleyville, Ala. English "Lost Horizon", "Goodbye Mr. Chips" novelist James Hilton (d. 1954) on Sept. 9 in Leigh, Lancashire; educated at Leys School. Am. sociologist-journalist (creator of the modern hedge fund) Alfred Winslow Jones (d. 1989) on Sept. 9 in Melbourne, Australia; emigrates to the U.S. at age 4; educated at Harvard U. Am. auto racer George Souders (d. 1976) on Sept. 11 in Lafayette, Ind. Am. Marriott Corp. founder (Mormon) John Willard Marriott (d. 1985) on Sept. 17 near Ogden, Utah; father of John Willard Marriott Jr. (1932-). Canadian-Am. "Wild Geese" novelist-screenwriter Martha Ostenso (pr. like "Austin so") on Sept. 17 in Haukeland (near Bergen), Norway; emigrates to the U.S. in 1902. Mauritius PM (1968-82) ("Father of Mauritius") Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (d. 1985) on Sept. 18 in Kewal Nagar. German Gen. Walther Wenck (d. 1982) on Sept. 18 in Wittenberg. Dutch theologian (secy. gen. #1 of the World Council of Churches, 1948-66) William Adolph Visser't Hooft (d. 1985) on Sept. 20 in Haarlem; educated at the U. of Leiden. Am. fashion designer-socialite Ruth Elizabeth Harkness (d. 1947) on Sept. 21 in Titusville, Penn. Am. "Joe Palooka" comic strip writer Hammond Edward "Ham" Fisher (d. 1955) on Sept. 24 in Wiles-Barre, Penn. Mexican pres. (1946-52) Miguel Aleman Valdes (Alemán Valdés) (d. 1983) on Sept. 29 in Sayula, Veracruz. Am. "Look Homeward, Angel" writer-poet Thomas Clayton Wolfe (d. 1938) on Oct. 3 in Asheville, N.C.; educated at N.C. State U. (Pulpit Hill), and Harvard U.; father is a drunkard stonecutter Northerner, mother is a Scarlett O'Hara wannabe who runs a boarding house and lusts for real estate; likes to write standing up; not to be confused with Tom Wolfe (1930-2018). English "The Whig Interpretation of History", "Origins of Modern Science" historian (Methodist) Sir Herbert Butterfield (d. 1979) on Oct. 7 in Oxenhope, Yorkshire; educated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge U.; student of Harold Temperley (1879-1939); knighted in 1968. German Nazi SS and SS Gestapo head and chicken farmer (Roman Catholic) Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (d. 1945) on Oct. 7 in Munich. English #1 landscape architect Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe (d. 1996) on Oct. 8 in Chelsea, London. Scottish "Ebenezer Scrooge in Scrooge" actor Alastair George Bell Sim (d. 1976) on Oct. 9 in Edinburgh. Am. jazz banjo player (black) Elmer Snowden (d. 1973) (Washingtonians) on Oct. 9 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Popoff in Too Hot to Handle", "Creature with the Atom Brain", actor Gregory Gaye (de Gay) (d. 1993) on Oct. 10 in St. Petersburg, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918; uncle of George Gaynes (1917-). Am. "Anastasia" actress ("First Lady of the Theater") (Roman Catholic) (Repub.) Helen Hayes (Brown) (d. 1993) on Oct. 10 in Washington, D.C.; wife (1928-56) of Charles MacArthur (1895-1956); foster mother of James MacArthur (1937-) - 10-10-00 is kinda cool? Am. QA consultant ("Father of the Quality Management Movement") William Edwards Deming (d. 1993) on Oct. 14 in Sioux City, Iowa; educated at the U. of Wyo., U. of Colo., and Yale U. English children's writer-illustrator Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone (d. 1979) on Oct. 16 in Haiphong, Tonkin, Vietnam; Algerian-born Italian descent father.; grows up in Suffolk. Am. "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "You Can't Take It With You", "Shane" screwball comedy actress Jean Arthur (Gladys Georgianna Greene) (d. 1991) on Oct. 17 in Plattsburgh, N.Y.; names herself after Joan of Arc and King Arthur. Am. poet-critic Arthur Yvor Winters (d. 1968) on Oct. 17 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago, and U. of Colo.; husband (1926-) of Janet Lewis (1899-1998); mentor of Thom Gunn (1929-2004). English "Catherine Parr in The Private Life of Henry VIII" actress Everley Gregg (d. 1959) on Oct. 26 in Bishop Stroke. Finnish scientist Ragnar Arthur Granit (d. 1991) on Oct. 30 in Helsinki; educated at the U. of Helsinki. German Adidas founder Adolf "Adi" Dassler (d. 1978) on Nov. 3 in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria; brother of Puma founder Rudolf Dassler (1898-1974). German Marxist sociologist (Jewish) Leo Loewenthal (Löwenthal) (d. 1993) on Nov. 3 in Frankfurt. Am. Dem. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1931-45) (HUAC co-founder) Martin Dies Jr. (d. 1972) on Nov. 5 in Colorado City, Tex.; son of Martin Dies Sr. (1870-1922). Am. "Lovey Howell in Gilligan's Island" actress (Jewish) Natalie Schafer (d. 1991) on Nov. 5 in Red Bank, N.J. Am. "Gone With the Wind" novelist Margaret Mitchell (d. 1949) on Nov. 8 in Atlanta, Ga. Indian Divine Light Mission founder (1960) guru Hans Ji Maharaj (Hans Ram Singh Rawat) (Shri Hans Ji Maharaj) (d. 1966) on Nov. 8 in Gadh-ki-Sedhia; father of Guru Maharaj Ji (1956-). Am. Repub. politician ("the social conscience of the Republican Party") James Paul Mitchell (d. 1964) on Nov. 12 in Elizabeth, N.J. Am. "The Pawnbroker" TV producer Worthington Miner (d. 1982) on Nov. 13 in Buffalo, N.Y. Am. M1 Carbine inventor David Marshall "Carbine" Williams (d. 1975) on Nov. 13 in Cumberland County, N.C. Am. "Appalachian Spring" composer (Jewish) Aaron Copland (Kaplan) (d. 1990) on Nov. 14 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Lithuanian Jewish descent; defends the Communist Party USA in the 1936 pres. election, getting him blacklisted, even though he never joins it. Am. chemist (Pres. Eisenhower's science advisor) George Bogdan Kistiakowsky (Kistiakowski) (d. 1982) on Nov. 18 in Kiev, Ukraine; educated at the U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1926. German "Die Gefahrten", "The Seventh Cross" novelist (Jewish) Anna Seghers (Netty Reiling) (d. 1983) on Nov. 19 in Mainz. Am. "Dick Tracy" cartoonist Chester Gould (d. 1985) on Nov. 20 in Pawnee, Okla. Am. politician-actress (Roman Catholic) Helen Gahagan Douglas (d. 1980) on Nov. 25 in Boonton, N.J.; of Scottish and Irish descent; educated at Barnard College; wife (1931-) of Melvyn Douglas (1901-81); step-grandmother of Illeana Douglas (1965-). Am. "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn", "They're Either Too Young or Too Old" composer-songwriter-producer (Jewish) Arthur Schwartz 9d. 1984) on Nov. 25 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at NYU, and Columbia U. German SS Maj. Bernard Kruger (Krüger) (d. 1989) on Nov. 26 Riesa, Saxony. Richard Kuhn (d. 1967) on Dec. 3 in Vienna; educated at the U. of Munich. German Paris occupation intel chief Maj. Hans Josef Kieffer (d. 1947) on Dec. 4. Am. "Endora in Bewitched" actress Agnes Robertson Moorehead (d. 1974) on Dec. 6 in Clinton, Mass. Am. electron spin physicist George Eugene Uhlenbeck (d. 1988) on Dec. 6 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. English "Science and Civilisation in China" Sinologist-historian-embryologist Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (d. 1995) (AKA Li Yuese) on Dec. 9 in London; educated at Cambridge U. Am. vaudeville entertainer (black) Sammy Davis Sr. (d. 1988) on Dec. 12 in Wilmington, N.C.; husband of Elvera Sanchez Davis (1905-2000); father of Sammy Davis Jr. (1925-90); partner of Will Mastin (Maston) (1903-75). English "A Cab at the Door", "Midnight Oil" writer-critic Sir Victor Sawdon Pritchett (d. 1997) on Dec. 16 in Ipswich, Suffolk; starts out as a leather tanner; knighted in 1975. Greek "Pilar in For Whom the Bell Tolls" actress Katina Paxinou (Aikaterini Konstantopoulou) (d. 1973) on Dec. 17 in Piraeus. Am. "The Little King" cartoonist Otto Soglow (d. 1975) on Dec. 23 in New York City. Canadian Newfoundland PM #1 (1949-72) Joseph Roberts "Joey" Smallwood (d. 1991) on Dec. 24 in Gambo, Newfoundland. Am. contralto Gladys Swarthout (d. 1969) on Dec. 25 in Deepwater, Mo. Am. FDR pres. advisor Thomas Gardiner Corcoran (d. 1981) on Dec. 29 in Pawtucket, R.I.; educated at Brown U., and Harvard U. Scottish theologian-bishop Stephen Charles Neill (d. 1984) on Dec. 31 in Edinburgh; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. aircraft manufacturer Gerard Freebain "Jerry" Vultee (d. 1938). Soviet NKVD defector (highest-ranking) Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov (d. 1945) in Odessa. German-Am. "Treasure of the Sierra Madre" novelist B. Traven (d. 1969). Am. "Information Please Almanac" writer Dan Golenpaul (d. 1974) in New York City. British Lord Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten (Battenberg), 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (d. 1979); great-grandson of Queen Victoria; last viceroy and gov.-gen. of India. French "La Petite Chocolatiere" actor-writer Jean Nohain (d. 1981) on ? in Paris; brother of Claude Dauphin (1903-78). Am. paleontologist Carrol Lane Fenton near Parkersburg, Iowa. Deaths: Am. Shoshone chief Washakie (b. 1798) on Feb. 20 in Wind River Reservation, Wyo. Danish composer Johan Hartmann (b. 1805). Am. Unitarian divine James Martineau (b. 1805). English industrialist Sir William George Armstrong (b. 1810) on Dec. 27 in Rothbury, Northumberland. Am. Civil War Union gen. John McClernand (b. 1812) on Sept. 20 in Springfield, Ill. English Gothic Revival architect William Butterfield (b. 1814) on Feb. 23 in London. Am. landscape architect Horace William Shaler Cleveland (b. 1814) on Dec. 5 in Hinsdale, Ill. Am. canning magnate Gilbert C. Van Camp (b. 1814) on Apr. 4. Am. Pony Express co-founder Alexander Majors (b. 1814) on Jan. 13 in Chicago, Ill. Russian artist Ivan Aivazovsky (b. 1815) on May 5 in Feodosiya, Crimea; leaves 6K+ works, becoming the most forged Armenian painter. Am. Presbyterian minister Charles Beecher (b. 1815) on Apr. 21 in Georgetown, Mass. Italian minister Count Vincent Benedetti (b. 1817) on Mar. 28 in Paris. Am. Campbell's Soup co-founder Joseph Albert Campbell (b. 1817) on Mar. 27 in Riverton, N.J. English writer-reformer John Ruskin (b. 1819) on Jan. 20 in Brentwood, Lancashire: "The highest reward for a man's toil is not what he gets out of it but what he becomes by it." Am. pharmaceuticals king E.R. Squibb (b. 1819) on Oct. 25 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Bohemian-born Am. Reform rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise (b. 1819) on Mar. 26 in Cincinnati, Ohio. English music critic Sir George Grove (b. 1820) on May 28 in London. Am. photographer Schuyler C. Baldwin (b. 1822) on Aug. 11. French mathematician Joseph Louis Francois Bertrand (b. 1822) on Apr. 5 in Paris. Belgian internal combustion engine inventor Etienne Lenoir (b. 1822) on Aug. 4 in La Varenne-Sainte-Hilaire, France. Am. diplomat Edward John Phelps (b. 1822) on Mar. 9: "The man who makes no mistakes does not usually make anything." English lit. scholar Thomas Arnold II (b. 1823) on Nov. 12 in Dublin, Ireland. German-born English orientologist-philologist Friedrich Max Mueller (b. 1823) on Oct. 28: "To think is to speak low. To speak is to think aloud"; "Language forms an impassable barrier between man and beast"; "If there is one thing which a comparative study of religions places in the clearest light, it is the inevitable decay to which every religion is exposed"; "An ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar... the blackest Hindus represent an earlier stage of Aryan speech and thought than the fairest Scandinavians." Am. statesman John Sherman (b. 1823) on Oct. 22 in Washington, D.C. French engineer Ferdinand Carre (b. 1824) on Jan. 11 in Pommeuse, Seine-et-Marne. Am. mountain man John "Liver-Eater" Johnson (b. 1824) on Jan. 21 in Santa Monica, Calif.; his body is moved to Cody, Wyo. in 1974. English "Lorna Doone" novelist Richard Doddridge Blackmore (b. 1825) on Jan. 20 in Teddington, Middlesex. Am. scholar William Henry Green (b. 1825) on Feb. 10. U.S. Civil War Union gen. Robert Kingston Scott (b. 1826) on Aug. 12 in Napoleon, Ohio. U.S. Army surgeon gen. #11 (1862-4) William Alexander Hamilton (b. 1828) on Jan. 5 in Washington, D.C. Am. politician-publisher Col. William Smith King (b. 1828) on Feb. 24 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. FDR's father James Roosevelt Sr. (b. 1828) on Dec. 8 in New York City. Am. novelist-essayist Charles Dudley Warner (b. 1829) on Oct. 20 in Hartford, Conn.: "Everybody complains about the weather, but nobody does anything about it." Am. painter Francis Bicknell Carpenter (b. 1830) on May 23 in New York City. English orator Joseph Cowan II (b. 1831). French artist Jean Alexandre Joseph Falguiere (b. 1831). British-born Am. inventor David Edward Hughes (b. 1831) on Jan. 22. Am. Civil War Union gen. William Woods Averell (b. 1832) on Feb. 3 in Bath, N.Y. U.S. Sen. (R-Colo.) (1879-85) Nathaniel Peter Hill (b. 1832) on May 22 in Denver, Colo. Turkish statesman Field Marshal Osman Pasha (b. 1837) on Apr. 5 in Istanbul. German-born Am. newspaper-railroad tycoon Henry Villard (b. 1835) on Nov. 12 in Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Austrian-born Am. world chess champ #1 (1886-94) Wilhelm Steinitz (b. 1836) on Aug. 12 in New York City. German physiologist Wilhelm Friedrich Kuhne (b. 1837) on Oct. 6 in Heidelberg. English moral philosopher Henry Sidgwick (b. 1838) on Aug. 28. Am. publisher John Clark Ridpath (b. 1840) on July 31. English "The Mikado" composer Sir Arthur Sullivan (b. 1842) on Nov. 22 in London (heart failure); Gilbert goes is founded. German painter Wilhelm Leibl (b. 1844) on Dec. 4 in Wurzburg. Hungarian painter Mihaly von Munkacsy (b. 1844) on May 1 in Endenlich, Germany. German "Thus Spake Zarathustra" philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (b. 1844) on Aug. 25 in Weimar, Saxony (syphilis) (brain cancer?); without him there would have been no Sigmund Freud?; leaves Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (pub. in 1908) (signed "Dionysus versus the Crucified"), Composition for Piano and Cello: "What does not destroy me, makes me stronger"; "The lie is a condition of life"; "I am not a man, I am dynamite"; "I teach you the Superman. Man is something to be surpassed"; "[Christianity] the immortal blemish of mankind, the one great curse, the one enormous and innermost perversion... for which no means are too venomous, too underhanded, too underground and too petty"; "God remains dead. How shall we, the murderers of all murderers, comfort ourselves? Must not we ourselves become gods simply to seem worthy of it?"; "What is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil"; "Faith means not wanting to know what is true"; "The Christian faith from the beginning, is sacrifice: the sacrifice of all freedom, all pride, all self-confidence of spirit. It is at the same time subjection, a self-derision and self-mutilation"; "All religions bear traces of the fact that they arose during the intellectual immaturity of the human race – before it had learned the obligations to speak the truth. Not one of them makes it the duty of its God to be truthful and understandable in his communications"; "There is no Devil and no Hell. Thy soul will be dead even sooner than thy body: fear therefore nothing any more"; "God created woman, and boredom did indeed cease from that moment"; "The Jews are beyond all doubt the strongest, toughest, and purest race now living in Europe"; "In the Jew all the repellent qualities of man are present to an exceptional degree"; "The stock exchange Jew is the most repulsive specimen of the entire human race"; "They (Jews) are so sure in their intellectual suppleness and shrewdness that they never, even in the worst straits, need to earn their bread by physical labor"; "The command to love your enemies had to be invented by the Jews, the best haters there have ever been"; "The Jews are the most evil of enemies, because they are the most powerless. From their powerlessness, their hate grows among them into something huge and terrifying, to the most spiritual and most poisonous manifestations"; "The Jews claim all the virtues for themselves without further ado, and count the rest of the world their opposites: a profound sign of a vulgar soul"; "The Jews performed the miracle of the inversion of values. In this the significance of the Jews is to be found; it is with them that the slave insurrection in morals commences"; "The Jews knew how to get final satisfaction from their enemies and conquerors through a radical transformation of their values, that is, through an act of the most spiritual revenge." Scottish boxing patron (foe of Oscar Wilde) John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (b. 1844) on Jan. 31 in London; leaves a poem starting "When I am dead cremate me", and stipulates in his will that he wants to be buried upright, and instead they bury him upside down? Portuguese novelist Jose Maria Eca de Queiroz (b. 1845) on Aug. 16. Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller (b. 1849) on Mar. 3 in Bern (pneumonia). Czech composer Zdenek Fibich (b. 1850) on Oct. 15 in Prague; composed 600+ works - no fibiching? Irish-born Am. heavyweight boxing champ (1880-2) Paddy Ryan (b. 1851) on Dec. 14 in Green Island, N.Y. German scientist Richard Altmann (b. 1852) on Dec. 8. Russian neuropsychiatrist Sergei Korsakoff (b. 1853) on May 1 in Moscow. Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyov (b. 1853) on Aug. 13 in Uzkoye, Moscow; dies penniless. Grab the southwest by the bottle, or, Hey, back, back, back it up, now stop, or, I feel pretty and witty and gay? Irish "The Picture of Dorian Gray" poet-playwright-novelist Oscar Wilde (b. 1854) on Nov. 30 in Paris; dies of an ear infection at rundown hotel Rue des Beaux Arts (now the upscale L'Hotel); last words: "I am dying as I have lived, beyond my means", and "My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death - one of us has to go"; buried in Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris under a Jacob Epstein sculpture in the company of famous Frenchies Balzac, Chopin, Colette, Sarah Bernhardt et al.; a passage from "The Ballad of Reading Gaol" (1898) is used as his epitaph: "And alien tears will fill for him,/ Pity's long-broken urn,/ For his mourners will be outcast men,/ And outcasts always mourn"; "A man cannot be too careful in the choice of his enemies"; "A true friend stabs you in the heart" (from the rear?); "Work is the curse of the drinking classes"; "The crude commercialism of America, its materializing spirit are entirely due to the country having adopted for its natural hero a man who could not tell a lie"; "The brotherhood of man is not a mere poet's dream; it is a most depressing and humiliating reality." Sierra Leonean physician John Farrell Easmon (b. 1856) on June 9 in Cape Coast, Ghana (pneumonia). Am. politician William Goebel (b. 1856) on Feb. 3 in Frankfort, Ky. (assassinated). French explorer Amedee-Francois Lamy (b. 1858) on Apr. 22 in Kousseri, Chad (KIA); namesake of Fort Lama AKA N'Djamena. Am. dramatist Charles Hale Hoyt (b. 1859) on Nov. 20 in Charlestown, N.H.; dies 4 mo. after the 1898 death of his 2nd wife Caroline Miskel causes him to be committed to an insane asylum for a brief time. English explorer-writer Mary Kingsley (b. 1862) on June 3 in Simon's Town, South Africa (typhoid): "A black man is no more an undeveloped white man than a rabbit is an undeveloped hare"; "The native form [is not] 'low' or 'inferior'... but [is] a form of mind of a different sort to white men's, a very good form of mind too, in its way." Am. railroad engineer-hero Casey Jones (b. 1863) on Apr. 30 in Vaughan, Miss. (KIA). Norwegian poet Sigbjorn Obstfelder (b. 1866). English Decadent poet Ernest Dowson (b. 1867) on Feb. 23. Am. "The Red Badge of Courage" novelist-poet Stephen Crane (b. 1871) on June 5 in Badenweiler, Germany - the good die young?

1901 - The Greatest Generation Starts Off With A Bang and Smoke Year? The Victorian Age goes up in a cloud of cigar smoke in Edward VII's Britain, while the Teddy Roosevelt Age in the U.S. begins in a cloud of gunsmoke? The Nobel Prize Age, based on the fortune made from the invention of dynamite begins conveniently, with set #01 awarded in year 1901? The century of steam is replaced by the century of electricity? Meanwhile oil discoveries are made and the modern petroleum age smokes up the whole civilized world?

Edward VII of England (1841-1910) William McKinley of the U.S. (1843-1901) Leon Czolgosz (1873-1901) Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt of the U.S. (1858-1919) Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (1861-1948) Philander Chase Knox of the U.S. (1853-1921) Sir William John Lyne of Australia (1844-1913) Sir Edmund Barton of Australia (1849-1920) Habibullah Khan of Afghanistan (1872-1919) Germán Riesco Errázuiz of Chile (1854-1916) Princess Beatrice of Britain (1857-1944) Benjamin Barr Lindsey of the U.S. (1869-1943) Seth Low of the U.S. (1850-1916) Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) Sir Alfred Milner of Britain (1854-1925) Julian Pauncefote of Britain (1828-1902) Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) Robert M. La Follette Sr. of the U.S. (1855-1925) U.S. Army Gen. Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (1840-1924) Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) William Monroe Trotter (1872-1934) Otto Nordenskjöld (1869-1928) Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936) Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837-1913) Elbert Henry Gary (1846-1927) Jonathan Ogden Armour (1863-1927) Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847-1919) Butch Cassidy (1866-1908) and the Sundance Kid (1867-1908) Joseph Fielding Smith Sr. (1838-1918) Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) Maurice Farman (1877-1964) Maurice Farman (1877-1964) Henry Ford (1863-1947) Paul de Vivie (1853-1930) Charles Michael Schwab (1862-1939) Connie Mack (1862-1956) Bill Bergen (1878-1943) Enrique Granados (1867-1916) Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) Thomas Corwin Mendenhall (1841-1924) Anthony Francis Lucas (1855-1921) Alexander Winton (1860-1932) Henry Ford (1863-1947) Ford Logo Wilhelm Maybach (1846-1929) Mercedes-Benz Logo George N. Pierce (1846-1910) Pierce-Arrow Car Ad Pierce-Arrow Logo George Singer (1847-1909) Singer 10, 1911 Singer Motors Logo Nobel Medal, 1901- Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) Josiah Flynt (1869-1907) Frederic Passy (1822-1912) Rene Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907) Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (1854-1923) Jacobus H. van't Hoff (1852-1911) Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) Erik Lindberg (1873-1966)  Élie Halévy (1870-1937) Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922) Annie Edson Taylor (1839-1921) Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921) David Warfield (1866-1951) George Douglas Brown (1869-1902) Grace Mann Brown (1859-1925) Charles Waddell Chesnutt (1858-1932) George Barr McCutcheon (1866-1928) Alice Hegan Rice (1870-1942) Ellen Dougherty (1844-1919) Thomas Burberry (1835-1926) Burberry Trench Coat, 1901 Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861-1921) Adolf Miethe (1862-1927) Carrie Jacobs-Bond (1862-1946) Sir James Outram (1864-1925) Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947) Matthew Phipps Shiel (1865-1947) Georg Kelling (1866-1945) Hans Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937) Emmy Destinn (1876-1930) Miles Franklin (1879-1954) Mahmud Tarzi (-1933) Leo Slezak (1873-1946) Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) William Speirs Bruce (1867-1921) Ernst von Wolzogen (1855-1934) Richard Bucke (1837-1902) Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) Arthur Christopher Benson (1862-1925) George Enescu (1881-1955) Eleanor Jourdain (1863-1924) and Charlotte Anne Moberly (1846-1937) Jean Lorrain (1855-1906) Josef Svatopluk Machar (1854-1942) Harold MacGrath (1871-1932) William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938) John Francis Queeny (1859-1933) Riccardo Stracciari (1875-1955) Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) John Considine (1868-1943) Alexander Pantages (1867-1936) Horace Silliman (1825-1910) Gustave Whitehead (1874-1927) Charles Rudolph Walgreen Sr. (1873-1939) Walgreens, 1901 Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955) Byron Bancroft 'Ban' Johnson (1864-1931) Billy Evans (1884-1956) 1901 ABC Tournament Frank Brill (1864-1944) Nico Broekhuysen (1877-1958) Korfball, 1901 'Terrible Teddy, the Grizzly King', 1901 George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925) 'Boxing' by George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), 1901 Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) 'The Old Guitarist' by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1901 'Leaning Harlequin' by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1901 Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924) 'Central Park' by Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924), 1901 Anders Leonard Zorn (1860-1920) 'Freja' by Anders Leonard Zorn (1860-1920), 1901 Hubert Cecil Booth (1871-1955) Hubert Cecil Booth Vacuum Cleaner, 1901 Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932) Santo-Dumont 14-bis King Camp Gillette (1855-1932) Gillette Safety Razor, 1901 Gillette Logo Pepto-Bismol, 1901 Charles Rudolph Walgreen Sr. (1873-1939) Walgreens, 1901 William Matson (1849-1917) Sir Hamo Thornycroft (1850-1925) 'Alfred the Great', by Sir Hamo Thornycroft (1850-1925), 1901 Gaetano Trenanove (1858-1937) 'Statue of Brig. Gen. Albert Pike', by Gaetano Trentanove (1858-1937), 1901 U.S. Sen. James McMillan (1838-1902) U.S. National Mall, 1901

1901 Chinese Year: Ox. The Greatest Generation consists of people born in 1901-24, who grow up to defeat the Axis in WWII and save the world from Fascism. 3.5B cigarettes and 6B cigars are sold in the U.S. this year; 4 out of 5 U.S. men smoke at least one cigar a day. The Great Plow-Up begins in the vast prairies in the U.S., depleted of bison and Indians and now replaced by white homesteaders running cattle and planting wheat (ends 1930). On Jan. 1 the first Mummers Parade is held in Philadelphia, Penn. On Jan. 7 log cabin-born Primrose, Wisc.-born "Fighting Bob" Robert Marion La Follette Sr. (1855-1925) becomes Repub. gov. #20 of Wisc. (until Jan. 1, 1906), followed by U.S. Sen. (R-Wisc.) on Jan. 4, 1906-June 18, 1925, fighting for reforms in workers compensation, railroad rates, min. wage, open primaries, direct election of U.S. senators, women's suffrage, non-partisan elections, and progressive taxation, turning Wisc. into a "laboratory for democracy with the Wisconsin Idea, launching the Progressive Era; too bad, he opposes U.S. entry into WWII, getting himself labeled as a traitor. On Jan. 1 after the 7th earl of Hopetoun commits "the Hopetoun blunder" and asks Tasmanian-born New South Wales PM Sir William John Lyne (1844-1913), a strong anti-federationist to form a govt., which doesn't float, Sydney-born strong federationist Sir Edmund Barton (1849-1920) becomes PM #1 of the Commonwealth of Australia (until 1903), uttering the famous soundbytes: "For the first time we have a nation for a continent and a continent for a nation" and "I do not think that the doctrine of the equality of man was really ever intended to include racial equality"; Lyne becomes minister for home affairs - guess what color he is? On Jan. 4 Sir Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (1854-1925) becomes British admin. of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony (until June 23, 1902), followed by gov. #1 (until Apr. 1, 1905). On Jan. 6 Philip Danforth Armour (b. 1832) dies, and his son Jonathan Ogden Armour (1863-1927) becomes pres. of meatpacking giant Armour Co., building sales from $200M to $1B; too bad, after a WWI boom, his co. collapses, and he dies almost broke. On Jan. 10 the Spindletop oilfield S of Beaumont, Tex. is brought in by Croatian-born mining engineer Anthony Francis Lucas (Antun Lucic) (1855-1921), spewing a plume 200 ft. (60m) high for nine days before a crowd of 50K before being clamped down, going on to produce 100K barrels/day, causing the pop. of Beaumont to zoom from 8K to 60K in one year, marking the birth of the petroleum industry; by 1902 285 oil wells are being operated on Spindletop Hill by 600 cos., causing Houston, Tex. to become the nat. center of the U.S. oil industry, which passes Russia as #1 in the world. On Jan. 22 Queen (since June 20, 1837) Victoria (b. 1819) dies on the Isle of Wight after a record 63 years 7 mo. as British monarch (longest female reign in history until ?), ending the Victorian Age, and next Aug. 9 her Francophile eldest son Albert Edward (uncle of Kaiser Wilhelm II) is crowned Edward VII (1841-1910) (the 56th English monarch), not only king of Britain but caesar of India (Kaisar-i-Hind) (imperial durbar on Jan. 1, 1903) (until May 6, 1910), launching the Edwardian Era (Period), which sees the titanic, er, advent of steam turbine propulsion, and the rise of Socialism; his son George becomes prince of Wales; the ruling family changes from Hanover to Saxe-Coburg; being too rotund, he leaves the bottom button of his waistcoat undone, starting a fashion; ending the Queen's no-smoking years, he enters a drawing room in Buckingham Palace with a lit cigar and announces "Gentlemen, you may smoke", beginning a rush to lay a trip down memory lane with great cigar quotes, incl. "A woman is only a woman, but a good cigar is a Smoke" (Rudyard Kipling, Departmental Ditties, 1886), and "Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar" (Sigmund Freud); Edward VII's dog is wire fox terrier Caesar (1898-1914), who attends his 1910 funeral, walking at the head of the procession ahead of nine kings and other heads of state; Princess Beatrice (1857-1944) destroys two-thirds of her mom Queen Victoria's diaries, esp. anything related to John Brown, whom she detests, taking until 1931 to finish. In Jan. British Gen. Herbert Kitchener begins a scorched earth policy to counter the new Boer tactic of guerrilla warfare, and ends up confining 20K women and children in concentration camps, where 20K die; in July after the repots from Emily Hobhouse come in, the Fawcett Commission, led by Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) is appointed to investigate the conditions. On Feb. 7 21-y.-o. babe Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands marries Prince Hendrik "Henry" of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1876-1934), who has to walk one step behind her, and leads a loveless existence while she has all the power and becomes the world's richest woman; their first child, Juliana isn't born until Apr. 30, 1909 - ration your Dutch chocolates so you don't go overboard? On Feb. 25 Hartford, Conn.-born John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837-1913) and Elbert Henry Gary (1846-1927) (of Gary, Ind. fame) incorporate the U.S. Steel Co., becoming the world's first $1B corp. after Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) sells him his steel interests then retires to become a philanthropist, giving away $130M in 1912 alone, leaving himself with a mere $25M after giving the rest to his Carnegie Corp. of New York (founded in New York City in 1911); Morgan chooses Penn.-born Charles Michael Schwab (1862-1939) as pres. #1 of U.S. Steel, who soon acquires control of Bethlehem Steel and gets rich during WWI; too bad, he lives like Croesus and spends most of it before the 1929 Stock Market Crash, then suffers through his last decade flat broke? - now I know what it feels like to lose what you love? On Mar. 2 the Platt Amendment (Cuba Convention) makes Cuba a U.S. protectorate, and gives the U.S. the right to intervene in it affairs; the U.S. withdraws its troops from Cuba after it accepts the convention. On Mar. 3 the U.S. Nat. Bureau of Standards (NBS) is founded. On Mar. 4 Ohio-born U.S. pres. #25 William McKinley ("the Idol of Ohio") ("the Napoleon of Protection") ("the Stocking-Footed Orator") ("the Liberator of Cuba") ("Wobbly Willie") ("the Major") is inaugurated for a 2nd term (until Sept. 14) in the 33rd U.S. Pres. Inauguration; Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (1858-1919) becomes the 25th U.S. vice-pres. (until Sept. 14); Geronimo marches in the inaugural parade; Philander Chase Knox (1853-1921) of Penn., former atty. for the Carnegie Steel Corp. becomes U.S. atty.-gen. (until 1904), later being criticized for lax enforcement of anti-trust laws, which he silences with his successful breakup of the Northern Securities co. (after McKinley's death); Roosevelt goes on to ban Muslim immigration by banning anybody associated with polygamy; Roman Catholic Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley, aunt is St. Elizabeth Seton is Roosevelt's cousin; Roosevelt's neighbor in Oyster Bay, N.Y. is wealthy Methodist missionary Charles Jones "Charlie" Jones Soong (Soong Yao-ju) (1863-1918) (Han Jiaozhun), father of Madame Sun Yat-sen and Madame Chiang-kai-shek. On Mar. 8 after being inspired by the City Beautiful Movement of the 1890s, the U.S. Senate forms the Senate Park Commission, with members incl. architect Daniel Burnham, landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., architect Charles F. McKim, and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and U.S. Sen. (R-Mich.) (1889-1902) James McMillan (1838-1902) as chmn., which leaves for Europe on June 13 to view likely candidates for imitation; on Jan. 15, 1902 it releases the McMillan Plan and hosts an exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, attended by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, proposing the U.S. Nat. Mall, anchored on the E by the U.S. Capitol, on the W by West Potomac Park, on the N by the White House, and on the S by East Potomac Park, with the Washington Monument in the center. On Mar. 23 Filipino rebel leader Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo is captured, and in Apr. agrees to swear allegiance to the U.S. and retires to private life; on July 4 Pres. McKinley appoints William H. Taft as gov.-gen. of the Philippines; guerrilla resistance continues until 1902. On Apr. 25 N.Y. Gov. Benjamin Barker Odell Jr. signs an automobile registration law which imposes a 15 mph speed limit on highways. On May 13 3 mo. after becoming an MP (Feb. 19), 26-y.-o. Winston Churchill (1874-1965) delivers a Speech on Army Reform, with the soundbyte: "I have frequently been astonished to hear with what composure and how gibly members, and even ministers, talk of a European war", pointing out that while past wars were fought "by small regular armies of professional soldiers", future wars will see "mighty populations impelled on each other", ending " in the ruin of the vanquished and the scarcely less fatal commercial dislocation and exhaustion of the conquerors", adding that democracy will be "more vindictive" than aristocratic govts. ever were, with the soundbyte: "The wars of peoples will be more terrible than those of kings." On May 17 Zionist leader Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) meets with Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in Constantinople and proposes the establishment of an autonomous Jewish region in Palestine, but he rejects it - I'll be baack? In mid-June-early Aug. the 1901 Eastern U.S. Heat Wave sees Philly experience 12 straight days above 90F starting June 25, with several institutionalized individuals in New York City committing suicide in 95F heat, and dead horses becoming a source of contamination; July becomes the hottest month in the contiguous U.S. until the Julys of 1931, 1934, 1936, and 2012; a drought in the Upper Midwest and Ohio Valley gives Ill. its driest year until ?; a total of 9.5K are killed. On June 25 (Tue.) disgruntled former Seattle, Wash. police chief William L. Meredith (b. 1869) stalks saloon owner John Considine (1868-1943) (known for catering to the Alaska Gold Rush crowd with lewd acts incl. Little Egypt from the 1893 Chicago's World Fair) and shoots him with a shotgun, after which John's brother Tom Considine (1857-1933) helps him overpower and kill Meredith; in Nov. John is acquitted of murder on the defense argument of "continuous struggle", after which he decides to get out of the lewd biz and run a chain of vaudeville theaters in Seattle, becoming rivals with Greek-born Alexander Pantages (1867-1936), who eventually puts him out of business and dominates the movie theater biz W of the Mississippi River. On July 3 Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) (1866-1908) and the Sundance Kid (Harry Longabaugh) (1867-1908) and their Wild Bunch gang rob the Great Northern Coast Flyer near Wagner, Mont., split up the $65K take, then head for Argentina - I'd like to fly like Superman? On July 4 the "largest pyrotechnical display ever to occur on the Fourth of July" is detonated from the top of Pikes Peak in Colo., as 15 barrels of oil donated by a Denver oil co. are rolled down the hill into a pile of burning embers, creating a 500-ft.-tall fireball visible from Cheyenne, Wyo.; on July 3 12 people fly 6-ft.-wide kites to pull a huge U.S. flag into the air, which is visible 50 mi. away. On July 12 pres. (since 1896) Federico Errazuriz Echaurren dies of cerebral thrombosis, and on Sept. 18 his cousin and brother-in-law German (Germán) Riesco Errazuiz (Errázuiz) (1854-1916) becomes pres. of Chile (until Sept. 18, 1906), backing the landowners against the unions and anarchists, and getting protectionist taxes passed that push prices up, fomenting revolt. In July-Aug. after the 1900 announcement by Germany of its intention to build a strong battle fleet helps deteriorate Anglo-German relations, Britain and Japan begin negotiations in London for an alliance, marking the end of Britain's vaunted "splendid isolation". On Aug. 10 the Moberly-Jourdain Incident sees English academics Eleanor Frances Jourdain (1863-1924) and Charlotte Anne Elizabeth Moberly (1846-1937) visit the Petit Trianon at the Palace of Versailles (near Paris), France, allegedly slipping back in time and seeing the ghosts of Marie Antoinette et al., making them into anon. celebs after they pub. the story in 1911 anon.; the story is later debunked. On Sept. 2 vice-pres. Teddy Roosevelt gives his Big Stick Speech at the Minn. State Fair containing the immortal soundbyte: "I have always been fond of the West African proverb, 'Speak softly and carry a big stick'." On Sept. 6 the secret Black Hand (Unification or Death) military society is founded by elements of the Serbian army, with the goal of unification of all territories with a majority Serb (S Slavic) pop. not yet ruled by Serbia or Montenegro. On the next all-new episode of Madman? On Sept. 6 after a war with Edward H. Harriman (owner of the Union Pacific Railroad) over control of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad (which would give their railroads the Great Northern and North Pacific access to Chicago) almost ruins them all, J.P. Morgan and James Jerome Hill unite with him to form the Northern Securities Co., a nasty monopoly, causing a public outcry; too bad for them, look-the-other-way McKinley is shot the same day, allowing trustbuster Teddy Roosevelt to become pres., and next Feb. 19 the U.S Dept. of Justice starts moving to bust it up, originally wanting to settle out of court until Morgan makes the mistake of trying to treat Teddy as a "big rival operator" instead of the people's champion, after which the heat is turned up and the co. busted up via the 1904 U.S. Supreme Court 5-4 ruling in Northern Securities Co. v. U.S., setting a big precedent for using the U.S. Sherman Antitrust Act. On Sept. 6 (Fri.) after traveling to Buffalo, N.Y. to open the Pan-Am. Exposition, and giving away his "lucky flower", the red carnation he wore in his label since his first first election V in Ohio for a seat in Congress, U.S. Pres. William McKinley (b. 1843) is shot at the Pan-Am. Exhibition at a receiving line in the Temple of Music by Alpena, Mich.-born anarchist (Jesuit agent?) Leon Frank Czolgosz (1873-1901), who conceals his .32 cal. Iver Johnson Safty-Automatic revolver in a handkerchief, firing 2x and hitting the pres. in a coat button and the abdomen; McKinley tells his guards "Go easy on him, boyd", and has two operations performed (after a gynecologist initially sews him up with a sewing needle), and seems to be recovering, but relapses on Sept. 12 and dies on Sept. 14 (Sat.), becoming the 4th straight victim of the Zero-Year Pres. Curse (after W.H. Harrison, Lincoln and Garfield); despite Czolgosz denying her involvement, the police arrest and give the third degree for two weeks to Russian anarchist Emma Goldman - an Illuminati plot to put their Teddy Boy in power, plowing the road for the Federal Reserve Bank, Income Tax, and Great Depression? On Sept. 7 the Boxer Rebellion (begun 1898) ends with the Peace of Peking. On Sept. 14 New York City-born former North Dakota cowboy ("the Rough Rider") ("Hero of San Juan Hill") ("the Cyclone Assemblyman") ("the Lion") ("Old Four Eyes") ("Theodore the Meddler") ("the Big Stick") Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (1858-1919) (a Progressive Repub. into conservation of the wilderness) (a J.P. Morgan man, compared to McKinley, who was a John D. Rockefeller man) (the Morgans are allied with Britain and France, while the Rockefellers back Germany, helping lead to WWI?) becomes the 26th U.S. pres. (until Mar. 4, 1909) in the 34th U.S. Pres. Inauguration at the Ansley Wilcox House in Buffalo, N.Y. following the death of Pres. William McKinley earlier that day, going on to become the first modern pres., using the media to build an image and advance his agenda, the first imperial president, the youngest U.S. pres. at 42 years, 10 mo., 18 days, and the first in the 20th cent. to become pres. after being vice-pres. less than a year (Truman, Ford); first U.S. pres. to fly in an airplane, own an automobile, and dive in a submarine; First Lady is Teddy's 2nd wife Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (1861-1948), who becomes the first to employ a full-time secy., leading to the creation of an official staff, while her formal dinners and ceremonial processesions elevate the position of First Lady; Abraham Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln witnesses McKinley's shooting, and was also present for the deaths of Garfield and his daddy, making him the "presidential angel of death" (Sarah Vowell); on Oct. 29 Czolgosz is electrocuted despite evidence of mental illness; on ? Booker T. (Taliaferro) Washington (1856-1915) visits Pres. Roosevelt, becoming the first African-Am. to dine with a U.S. pres. at the White House, pissing-off the white establishment; on Oct. 12 Teddy officially names the Executive Mansion the White House. On Sept. 12 New Zealand passes the Nurses Registration Act, requiring nurses to complete three years of training and pass a state-administered exam, making New Zealand the first country to regulate nurses; on Jan. 10, 1902 Ellen Dougherty (1844-1919) becomes the first registered nurse on Earth; in 1919 the U.K. begins registration of nurses; this year the U.S. Army Nurse Corps is founded, eventually employing registered nurses only; in 1908 the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps is founded, admitting males in 1965; in 1909 the Am. Red Cross Nursing Service is founded as the reserve of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps. On Oct. 1 Abdul Rahman Khan (b. 1840) dies, and his Tashkent-born pro-British eldest son Habibullah Khan (1872-1919) becomes emir of Afghanistan (until 1919), with brothers Muhammad Umar and Nasrullah waiting in the wings, going on to institute progressive reforms, modernize the country and bring in Western technology and medicine; he grants amnesty to exiled Afghan intellectuals from India and the Middle East, who form the Young Afghans, a pro-Turk anti-British modernist Pan-Islamic movement, led by Damascus-born Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933) ("Father of Afghan Journalism") et al.; meanwhile other exiled Afghans return to help promote pro-British secular modernization; too bad, wonderful Islam only lets him go so far, and next year one of his chief advisors Abdul Lateef is sentenced to stoning for apostasy. On Oct. 10 pres. (since Sept. 13, 1898) Lorenzo Snow (b. 1814) dies, and on Oct. 17 Joseph Fielding Smith Sr. (1838-1918) (nephew of Joseph Smith Jr.) becomes Mormon (LDS) pres. #6 (until Nov. 19, 1918), becoming the last pres. who personally knew founder Joseph Smith Jr. On Oct. 14 Marcellus E. Foster founds the Houston Chronicle, which sells for 2 cents, undercutting the rivals' 5 cent price, growing to 4,378 circ. in 1 mo., and 75K in 1926; in 1995 it buys-out the rival Houston Post, becoming the 3rd largest Sun. circ. in the U.S. after the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. On Oct. 24 63-y.-o. desperate broke 61-y.-o. widowed Mich. schoolteacher Anna "Annie" Edson Taylor (1839-1921) becomes the first person to survive going over Niagara (Horseshoe) Falls (158 ft.) in a barrel, a 4.5-ft.-long 3-ft.-diam. wooden keg filled with cushions and a harness, and pressurized with a bicycle pump; she lucks out and survives, even though she can't swim; thinking the stunt will solve her financial woes, she sells memorabilia as "the Heroine of Horseshow Falls", but it only works for awhile and she dies broke; the first of 15 barrel attempts by 2018. On Nov. 5-8 the 1901 Athens Student Gospel Riots in Greece begins over the pub. by the Athenian newspaper The Acropolis of a modern Greek trans. of the Gospel of Matthew by Alexandros Pallis (1851-1935), and the govt. topples under ultra-conservative Greek Orthodox Christian religious pressure, launching a long period of hostility between the Church and the demoticist movement. On Nov. 27 the U.S. Army War College is founded in Washington Barracks (modern-day Ft. Lesley J. McNair) in Washington, D.C. by U.S. war secy. Elihu Root and Pres. Theodore Roosevelt; on Feb. 21, 1903 Roosevelt attends the Masonic cornerstone laying ceremony in Roosevelt Hall; pres. #1 is in July 1902 Maj. Gen. Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (1840-1924) becomes pres. #1 until 1903, when he becomes U.S. Army chief of staff #1 (until 1904); on Feb. 21, 1903 the cornerstone is laid; classes open in 1904; in 1916 after Montgomery M. Macomb becomes pres. Pres. Woodrow Wilson accuses his staff and students of preparing for offensive war, threatening the U.S. neutrality stance; it closes during WWII and reopens in 1950 in Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., moving in 1951 to Carlisle, Penn.; alumni incl. Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Gen. Omar Bradley, Gen. Jonathan Wainwright, Gen. Matthew Ridgway, Gen. Alexander Haig, and Gen. Tommy Franks. On Nov. 30 Monsanto Co. ("sacred mountain") is founded in St. Louis, Mo. by Chicago, Ill.-born John Francis Queeny (1859-1933) with $5K to produce saccharin, discovered in 1879; Teddy Roosevelt becomes an avid saccharin fan, influencing the USDA to declare it safe in 1909, althought they already ruled that foods containing it are adulterated and cannot be produced; in 1972 the FDA removes it from their list of safe substances; it takes until 2001 to finally declare it safe for human consumption. In Nov. 1901 the Anglo-Aro War in SE Nigeria (ends Mar. 1902) begins after the Royal Niger Co. of Britain gets pissed-off at the economic dominance and alleged human sacrifices of the Aro Confederacy (founded 1690), sacking Obegu then capturing the capital of Arochukwu on Dec. 28 after a 4-day battle, arresting and hanging leaders incl. Okoro Toti, ending the Aro Confederacy, after which many Aros keep resisting for years. On Dec. 12 Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) receives the first trans-Atlantic wireless radio message in St. John's, Newfoundland from Cornwall, England: the letter "S" (dot dot dot). On Dec. 26-31 the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland establishes the Jewish Nat. Fund to develop and purchase land in Palestine for Jewish settlement; by 2007 it owns 13% of the total land in Israel, has developed 250K acres, established 1K+ parks, built 180 dams and reservoirs, and planted 240M trees; ultimately all Israeli citizens incl. Arabs are eligible to lease the land. The Caste War of Yucatan (begun 1847) ends with the occupation of the Mayan capital of Chan Santa Cruz by the Mexican army, although villages continue resistance until 1915. The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, negotiated by U.S. secy. of state John Hay and British ambassador Julian Pauncefote, 1st Baron Pauncefote of Preston (1828-1902) authorizes the U.S. to construct and manage the Panama Canal as long as it is open to all nations and has fair and equal rates. Prince Ito of Japan goes to St. Petersburg to seek concessions in Korea, but fails to reach an agreement. After Mark Twain campaigns for him, anti-Tammany Hall Repub. Colombia U. pres. #11 (since 1890) (Teddy Roosevelt lookalike?) Seth Low (1850-1916) is elected New York City mayor #92, taking office on Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1903) on the Fusion Party reform ticket, going on to establish a merit-based civil service system, reduce police graft, improve public education, and lower taxes, which doesn't stop the Tammany Hall machine from plotting to replace him with their puppet; Columbia-educated philosophy prof. Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) becomes pres. #12 of Columbia U. (until 1945), steering it away from vocational training while becoming a leading peacenik and trying in vain to limit Jewish admissions. Am. atty. Benjamin Barr Lindsey (1869-1943) becomes the first judge of a juvenile court in the U.S. after getting an act passed in Denver, Colo. with the help of Molly Brown, starting a nat. movement. Tasmania is federated as a state of the Australian Commonwealth. The 93-sq.-mi. Cook Islands are turned over to New Zealand for admin., with 100-sq.-mi. Niue ("the Rock of Polynesia") (capital Alofi) placed under separate New Zealand admin. Ocean Island is added to the British protectorate of Gilbert and Ellice Islands. The Trans-Siberian Railroad reaches Port Arthur. The Social Rev. Party is founded in Russia by students. After toying with it in New Brunswick in 1856 and the Northwest Territories in 1874-91, Prohibition begins in Canada starting in Prince Edward Island (until 1948), followed by Alberta in 1916-23, Ontario in 1916-27, Manitoba in 1916-21, British Columbia in 1917-21, Newfoundland in 1917-24, New Brunswick in 1917-27, Saskatchewan in 1917-25, the Yukon in 1918-20, and Quebec in 1919, most in time to make big bucks servicing U.S. bootleggers. Oil drilling begins in Persia. Oil is discovered near the Creek Indian village of Tulsey Town AKA Tulsa, Okla., and named Sue Bland No. 1, followed in 1905 by the larger Glenn Pool 15 mi. to the S in modern-day Glenpool, causing a rush of prospectors, who ignore the fact that the mineral rights are owned by the Osage Nation, causing Tulsa's pop. to swell to 180K in 1909 and 140K in 1930 as it becomes known as "the Oil Capital of the World", helping it survive the Great Depression; most of the oil prospectors come from the East Coast, incl. Roman Catholics and Jews, making the pop. more ethnic than the rest of Okla. The British Nat. Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition (ends 1904) becomes the first official British Antarctic exploration voyage since James Clark Ross in 1839, launching the careers of Antarctic explorers Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) (leader), Ernest Shackleton, Edward Wilson, Frank Wild, Tom Crean, and William Lashly, reaching the farthest south mark of 82 deg 17 sec; meanwhile next year the Scottish Nat. Antarctic Expedition (SNAE) to the South Orkney Islands and the Weddell Sea (ends 1904) is launched by Scottish explorer William Speirs Bruce (1867-1921). British clergyman Sir James Outram (1864-1925), who ascended 9,836-ft. Cascade Mt. last year becomes the first to ascend 11,870-ft. Mt. Assiniboine in Canada, "the Matterhorn of the Rockies", and goes on to ascend Mt. Bryce, Mt. Columbia, Mt. Forbes and Mt. Wilson next year. The Swedish-Antarctic Expedition, led by Otto Nordenskjold (Nordenskjöld) (1869-1928) begins (ends 1904) in the ship Antarctic, exploring the Palmer Archipelago, the Joinville Island group, and the E coast of Graham Land. ProhibIn 1901 African-Am. Harvard Phi Beta Kappa grad William Monroe Trotter (1872-1934) and Amherst U. grad George Forbes found the Boston Guardian in the same bldg. that once housed William Lloyd Garrison's "Liberator", going on to support the anti-Booker T. Washington Niagara Movement; Trotter later forms the Nat. Equal Rights League, which leads to the 1909 formation of the NAACP. Abolitionists win a big V, getting alcohol sales banned at U.S. Army bases. Carnegie Technical Schools are founded in Pittsburgh, Penn. by Fife, Scotland-born philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) with a $10M donation, with the motto "My heart is in the work", changing the name in 1912 to Carnegie Inst. of Technology (CIT); in 1967 it merges with the Mellon Inst. of Industrial Research (founded 1913) to become Carnegie Mellon U.; in 1973 it goes coed. Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) founds the Santiniketan School 100 mi. N of Calcutta in West Bengal, India, which eventually becomes Visva-Bharati U., becoming known as a mixing pot for East and West. Silliman U. (originally Silliman Inst. for Boys) is founded in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, named after philanthropist Horace Brinsmade Silliman (1825-1910), becoming the first Am. and Protestant univ. in the Philippines, and first Am. univ. in Asia, becoming a college in 1910, and a univ. in 1938; the first Filipino pres. is appointed in 1952. Sweet Briar College is founded in Sweet Briar, Va. for women, becoming known for riding to hounds in the Blue Ridge Mts. Austrian philosopher, lit. man and technical univ. grad Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), fresh from an experience with catatonic Friedrich Nietzsche in Naumburg, who decided that 19th cent. materialism sucks and went public in 1899 founds spiritualism-friendly Anthroposophy, believing he can use his math and science ed. to firm up this very gauzy pseudo-science, going on to pub. 6K of his lectures - the original unlimited free long distance, just do the math and save? Austrian-Czech tenor Leo Slezak (1873-1946) joins the Vienna Opera - whiskey tenor or some other kind? Italian baritone Riccardo Stracciari (1875-1955) debuts in Lisbon, going on to vie with Titta Ruffo (1877-1953) for #1 ranking. Cabaret Uberbrettl (Überbrettl) (a play on Friedrich Nietzsche's "Ubermensch") in Berlin opens in Jan., founded by Ernst von Wolzogen (1855-1934), becoming the first lit. cabaret in Germany, known for gallows humor. Am. painter Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847-1919) is confined for insanity brought about by lack of acceptance of his cool paintings of Am. Indian life and forest scenes (ends 1916), and after it is too late they become popular. Antonin Dvorak becomes dir. of the Prague Conservatory. Pablo Picasso, working in the post-Impressionist movement (until 1906) enters his Blue Period (ends 1904), with pathetic blue-colored subjects. Spanish pianist-composer Enrique Granados (1867-1916) founds and directs the Academia Granados. Czech soprano Emmy Destinn (1876-1930) becomes a star singing the part of Senta in "Der Fliegende Hollander" in Bayreuth, going on to debut in London in 1904 and becoming known for her Carmen; too bad, her career ends when she is imprisoned during WWI for links to the Czech resistance. David Warfield (1866-1951) becomes a U.S. stage star in David Belasco's The Auctioneer, going on to give 1.4K performances. Hopkinsville, Ky.-born Disciples of Christ member Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) begins going into a hypnotic trance to answer questions from sick people, becoming popular and launching the New Age Movement in the U.S., with fans incl. Irving Berlin, Thomas Edison, George Gershwin, and Woodrow Wilson. 9-y.-o. Vito Andolini (1891-1955) flees from Corleone, Sicily to New York City after his parents and older brother are killed by Mafia boss Don Ciccio, going on to make it big in organized crime under the name Don Vito Corleone and make a quick trip back in 1925 to get revenge - Mario Puzo's The Godfather (1969) :) The Chicago Tribune hires Am. humorist Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921) to run his own column called "A Line o' Type or Two", which he continues until his death. Anheuser-Busch tops 1M barrels of beer brewed this year, becoming the largest brewer in the U.S. Gustav Stickley founds Craftsman Furniture to produce Mission Style furniture: medieval, square-shaped, solid oaken designs free of Victorian frills. John Wesley Hanes (1850-1903) founds Shamrock Mills in Winston Salem, N.C. to manufacture men's socks; in 1914 the name is changed to Hanes Hosiery Mills. Morris Kellogg founds the M.W. Kellogg Co. in New York City, moving to Jersey City, N.J. in 1905 and building power plants, then branching into thermal cracking of petroleum in the 1920s with Texaco and Standard Oil of Ind.; in 1930 it forms the British subsidiary M.W. Kellogg Ltd.; in 1970 it moves to Houston, Tex. and becomes the first U.S. contractor to receive contracts from Red China; in 1998 it merges with Brown and Root (founded 1910) to form KBR Inc. Victor Talking Machine Co. is founded in Camden, N.J. by Eldridge Reeves Johnson (1867-1945), with Emile Berliner as a probable shadow partner as a strategy to defeat patent-stealer Zonophone; the 1899 Francis Barraud painting of the dog Little Nipper (1884-95) listening to "His Master's Voice" on a Victrola becomes their trademark; Nipper first appears on a record label on July 1, 1902, then becomes the RCA Victor dog in 1929, going on to become the most famous dog in the world. The Cleveland Cap Screw Co. is founded in Cleveland, Ohio by David Kurtz et al. to produce electrically-welded bolts, expanding to automobile engine valves in 1904, becoming the #1 valve manufacturer in the U.S. in 1915; in 1926 it is renamed Thompson Products after gen. mgr. Charles Thompson, producing sodium-cooled valves used by Charles Lindbergh in his transatlantic flight in 1927; in Oct. 1958 it merges with ICBM systems contractor Ramo-Wooldridge to form TRW (Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge) Inc. Charles Rudolph Walgreen Sr. (1873-1939) of Chicago, Ill. founds Walgreen drug store, growing to 20 stores by 1919, benefitting from Prohibition (1920-33) by selling prescription whiskey stocked under the counter, growing to 44 stores by 1925 with $1.2M yearly sales, expanding into Minn., Mo., and Wisc.; by 1930 they have 397 stores doing $4M yearly, growing to 601 stores in 30 states by 1934; in Oct. 2007 they open their 6,000th store in New Orleans, La. After the Duryea brothers quarrel and split, Charles Edgar Duryea (1861-1938) founds the Duryea Power Co. to produce 3-cylinder cars, retiring in 1914; in 1904 Frank James Duryea (1869-1967) founds the Stevens-Duryea Co.. "King of Constructors" Wilhelm Maybach (1846-1929), tech. dir. of the Daimler auto works builds the first Mercedes automobile, named after Daimler's niece; the motto is "The best or nothing at all"; in 1926 it merges with the cos. of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler to become Mercedes-Benz. The Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Co. (originally the George N. Pierce Co.) is founded in Buffalo, N.Y. by George N. Pierce (1846-1910) to produce expensive luxury cars, along with trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and bicycles, introducing the Motorette at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition; in 1904 they produce the Great Arrow, becoming their most successful product, winning the 1905 Glidden Trophy, causing them to officially change their name to Pierce-Arrow in 1907; in 1909 Pres. Taft orders two Pierce-Arrows and two White Model M Tourers, becoming the first official cars of the White House; in 1914 they set a trend by moving the headlights from the sides of the radiator to the front fenders; an open-body Pierce-Arrow carries Pres. Wilson and Pres. Harding to Harding's 1921 inauguration; the cars become popular with movie stars and royalty, becoming one of "the three Ps of Motordom" along with Peerless and Packard; too bad, they fail to produce a low-priced line in the Depression years, going bankrupt in 1938. Singer Motors Ltd. is founded in Coventry, England by bicycle manufacturer George Singer (1847-1909), becoming the first to produce a practical small economy car, the 4-cylinder 10 hp Singer 10, with their own 1,100cc engine, introduced is founded; in 1956 the co. sells out to the Rootes Group; the brand goes defunct in 1970. Speedometers begin to be used on automobiles. The first motor-driven bicycles are produced. Idaho Candy Co. is founded in Boise, Idaho by Thomas Ovard "T.O." Smith (1876-1954) in his garage, selling door-to-door until he can open a factory in 1909, going on to make the Idaho Spud Bar (1918) ("the Candy Bar That Makes Idaho Famous"), Old Faithful Bar (1925), Cherry Cocktail Bar (1926), Owyhee Butter Toffee et al.; in 1991 it is acquired by John Wagers, whose son Dave Wagers takes over in 1991. Nobel Prizes: On Dec. 10 (St. Lucia's Day) (5th anniv. of Alfred Nobel's death) (4:30 p.m.) the first Nobel Prizes are awarded in the Stockholm Concert Hall after a rehearsal; Red Cross founder Jean Henri (Henry) Dunant (1828-1910) of Switzerland and Frederic Passy (1822-1912) of France win the first Nobel Peace Prize (done that, it's passe?); Rene Francois Armand Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907) of France wins for Literature for his "poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"; 6 of the first 9 lit. winners wear beards (Giosue Carducci's is the most bristly and pointy); Wilhelm Konrad (Conrad) Roentgen (Röntgen) (1845-1923) of Germany wins for Physics [X-rays]; Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff (1852-1911) of the Netherlands wins for Chemistry [stereochemistry], and Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) of Germany wins for Medicine and Physiology [antitoxins]; the first Nobel Prize Medals (23-carat, 2.5 in. diam., .25 kg), designed by Swedish artist Erik Lindberg (1873-1966) are minted next year, with a bas-relief of Alfred Nobel on the obverse, and Isis and the genius of Science (lifting a veil from her face) on the reverse; women only get 34 of the first 800? The original formulation of pink-colored over-the-counter cure-all Pepto-Bismol is first marketed by a physician in New York City as a remedy for infant diarrhea; it goes nat. in 1918 under the name Bismosal: Mixture Cholera Infantum, marketed by Norwich Pharmacal Co., who changes it to the current name in 1919 - headache, indigestion, upset stomach, diarrhea, that's Pepto-Bismol? Architecture: On Mar. 11 the Moana (Hawaiian "open sea, ocean") Hotel in Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii opens, becoming the first hotel in Waikiki, launching the tourist industry with the help of the Matson Navigation Co., founded in 1882 by Swedish-born William Matson (Wilhelm Mattson) (1849-1917) (financed by his friend Claus Spreckels), whose fleet of steamships grows to 14 by 1917. Andrew Carnegie donates $5.2M to build the 65-branch New York City Neighborhood Library System. Wigmore Hall in London opens, becoming the British nat. concert hall for chamber music and song. Am. glass manufacturer Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) founds the Toledo Museum of Art in Toledo, Ohio, which features the Glass Pavilion. Miss. State Penitentiary, AKA Parchman Farm is founded in Sunflower County in the Miss. Delta region, becoming known for the Trusty System, which replaces convict leasing for inmate control, using designated inmates to punish other inmates; Leadbelly's song Midnight Special is about the night train that carries the prisoners' wives and girlfriends for weekend conjugal visits, supposedly shining a flashlight if they're coming with papers to free them; in 1974 a federal court rules in Gates v. Collier that it violates the 8th Amendment. Siegesallee (Ger. "victory avenue"), a blvd. in the Tiergarten in Berlin displays 32 marble statues of members of the House of Hohenzollern - wax up your mustaches and shine up your spats? Biarritz Casino in SW France opens. Sports: On Jan. 5-Mar. 5 the 1901 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season sees the Ottawa Hockey Club win with a record of 7-0-1; on Jan. 29-31 the WInnipeg Victorias defeat the Montreal Shamrocks 2-0 to win the Stanley Cup. On Jan. 8-10, 1901 the first Am. Bowling Congress (ABC) Nat. Tournament in Chicago, Ill. sees 115 singles bowlers, 78 doubles teams, and 41 5-man teams from 17 cities compete for a purse of $1,592; former ML baseball player Francis Hasbrouck "Frank" Brill (Briell) (1864-1944) wins the singles and all-events titles with a score of 648; tournaments are held every year except 1943-5. Boxing is recognized as a legal sport in England. The first Prof. Golfers' Assoc. is founded in Britain. Dutch teacher Nico Broekhuysen (1877-1958) of Amsterdam invents Korfball (Dutch "korf" = basket), which requires each team to consist of four men and four women. French cyclist Maurice Alain Farman (1877-1964) wins the Grand Prix de Pau (Grand Prix du Sud-Ouest), the first-ever grand prix in his 24 hp Panhard automobile. Detroit mechanic Henry Ford (1863-1947) defeats rival Scottish-born auto builder Alexander Winton (1860-1932) in an auto race (his only race) in Grosse Pointe, Mich., and uses the winnings to finance the Ford Motor Co. and roll his first iron horse off his Dearborn assembly line; after telling him that he would get killed using his clumsy steering assembly, Winton gives him one of his complete working mechanisms; the defeat causes Winton to produce the 1902 Winton Bullet, which sets a land speed record of 70 mph in Cleveland, but is defeated by Barney Oldfield in a Ford. After pitcher Clark Calvin Griffith (1869-1955) persuades 39 players to sign on, the 8-team Am. League of Prof. Baseball Clubs (AL) is founded 25 years after the NL out of the disbanded minor Western League, which was called the junior circuit to its senior circuit; Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson (1864-1931) becomes pres. #1 (until 1927), going on to clean up its rough image by recruiting good umps incl. "Boy Umpire" William George "Billy" Evans (1884-1956). Former catcher and Pittsburgh mgr. Cornelius Alexander "Connie" Mack (McGillicuddy) (1862-1956) becomes mgr. of the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (until 1950), going on to win nine AL titles and five World Series. The New York Yankees are founded as the Baltimore Orioles in Md., moving to New York City in 1913 and changing their name. William Aloysius "Bill" Bergen (1878-1943) debuts on May 6 for the Cincinnati Reds, finishing on Sept. 20, 1911 with the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming a top defensive catcher, catching a record six St. Louis Cardinals runners stealing in a single game on Aug. 23, 1909, despite being the worst hitter of all time (.170 for 3,228 at-bats). The Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League (EIBL) is founded for men's college basketball by Columbia U., Cornell U., Harvard U., Princeton U., and Yale U., growing to eight Ivy League members incl. the U. of Penn. (1903), Dartmouth College (1911), and Brown U. (1953); in 1901 Yale U. goes 10-4 to win the first nat. college championship; in 1902 the U. of Minn. goes 11-0 to become the first undefeated team in basketball; in 1955 the EIBL merges with the new Ivy League. The Ill.-Ind.-Iowa (Three-I) League for minor league baseball is founded (until 1961). Inventions: The General Electric Co. begins selling prewired "Christmas tree lamps" to the public (nine white bulbs per string) at a cost of an avg. person's weekly wages; it takes until the 1920s for holiday lights to become affordable to the gen. public. On Feb. 18 and Aug. 30 after English inventor Hubert Cecil Booth (1871-1955) reverses the design of a railway car cleaner he saw demonstrated at St. Pancras Station in London, forming the British Vacuum Cleaner Co., he patents the first modern cylinder vacuum cleaner (the Puffing Billy) that sucks rather than blows, using a cloth filter and electrical pumps, first used in Feb. 1902; it is so huge it has to be drawn by a horse and stand in the road while cleaning houses, while the "noisy serpent" spooks passing horses, with employees wearing bright red uniforms, signing up shops and theaters; in 1902 he is given royal approval to use it to clean the carpets in Westminster Abbey before Edward VII's coronation, which "so impress the crowned heads of Europe that they all wanted a similar machine", after which it is adopted by the Royal Navy for use in barracks; the co. goes on to supply ever-larger models to factories and warehouses, changing its name to British Vacuum Co., attemping to market the Goblin model to homes but losing out to Hoover; it is later acquired by Quirepace Ltd. On Sept. 28 after spending seven years inventing the $5 Gillette Safety Razor, with disposable wafer-thin stamped slivers of cheap steel held in a safety clamp, Crown bottle cap salesman King Camp Gillette (1855-1932) founds Am. Safety Razor Co., changing it next July to Gillette Safety Razor Co.; his first sale (1903) is 51 straight razors and 168 blades; in 1904 sales zoom to 90K razors and 1.24M blades. On Oct. 19 after failing on Aug. 8 with Santos-Dumont No. 5, which gets hung-up on the Trocadero Hotel, Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932) makes the first successful flight in a dirigible in his Santos-Dumont No. 5, rounding the Eiffel Tower in Paris and winning the Henri Deutch de la Meurthe Prize, making him a celeb.; on Oct. 23, 1906 he makes his first flight in his canard biplane Santo-Dumont14-bis at Bagatelle Field in Paris, France, becoming the first heavier-than-air machine takeoff and flight with official witnesses. English inventor Thomas Burberry (1835-1926), 1880 inventor of gabardine designs the belted khaki Burberry Trench Coat as the official raincoat for British Army officers; by the 1930s it is a fashion accessory for Hollywood types - wear it with your khaki trousers, not your khaki pants? German scientist Richard Fiedler invents the modern Flamethrower (Flammenwerfer) for the German army. Am. engineer Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861-1921) invents the Mercury Vapor Lamp. Satori Kato of Chicago, Ill. invents instant coffee. German scientist Adolf Miethe (1862-1927) invents Panchromatic Film for a 3-color camera he designs, which is built in 1903 by Wilhelm Bermpohl. On Aug. 14 Bavarian-born Gustave Albin Whitehead (Gustav Albin Weisskopf) (1874-1927) makes the first powered flight in his No. 21 aircraft in Fairfield, Conn., flying 0.5 mi. and reaching 50 ft. alt.; historians later dispute it and give the credit to the Wright Brothers; on June 5, 2013 the Conn. Senate passes a bill officially recognizing him as the first to fly. Science: Bavarian-born German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) of Frankfurt discovers Alzheimer's Disease after patient Auguste Deter (1850-1906) tells him "I have lost myself" - old timer's disease? German surgeon Georg Kelling (1866-1945) of Dresden performs the first Laparoscopic surgery on dogs; the first laparoscopic surgery on humans is performed in 1910 by Hans Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937) of Sweden. The amino acid Tryptophan (found in turkey meat) is discovered by English biochemist Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947). French chemists Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) and Paul Marie Alfred Lebeau (1868-1959) discover SF6. Am. physician Duncan "Om" MacDougall (1866-1920) of Haverhill, Mass. weighs six dying people and concludes that the soul weighs 21g. After failing to get a match with Sir Francis Bacon, self-taught Ohio State U. physicist Thomas Corwin Mendenhall (1841-1924), pioneer of stylometry measures word-length frequency in the works of William Shakespeare and finds that it is very close that of Christopher Marlowe, with the soundbyte: "In the characteristic curve of his plays Christopher Marlowe agrees with Shakespeare about as well as Shakespeare agrees with himself." Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) develops the concept of the conditioned reflex using his salivating dogs. The hormone Adrenalin is first isolated and patented by Japanese-born "samurai chemist" Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922) of the U.S., becoming the first purified animal gland hormone. French bicyclist Paul de Vivie (1853-1930) AKA Velocio begins perfecting the Derailleur (which may have already existed in Britain?), causing him to become known as the Father of Bicycle Touring. Nonfiction: Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), Robespierre. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Fame and Fiction - this is how we do it? Pierre Berthelot, Recherches Experimentales. Jan Bloch (1836-1902), Comparison of the Material and Moral Levels in the Western Great Russian and Polish Regions; attempts to prove that Jews are a boon to the Russian economy; too bad, the Russian govt. bans the work and burns all copies they can get. Grace Mann Brown (1859-1925), Studies in Spiritual Harmony (1901-3). Oscar Browning (1837-1923), History of Europe 1814-1843. James Bryce (1838-1922), Studies in History and Jurisprudence. Richard Bucke (1837-1902), Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind; his personal experience in 1872 in London, expanding to a gen. theory "that the universe is so built and ordered that without any peradventure all things work together for the good of each and all, that the foundation principle of the world is what we call love and that the happiness of every one is in the long run absolutely certain." Timothy Cole (1852-1931), Dutch and Family Masters. Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), The Truth of Religion. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life; "When a member of my family complains that he or she has bitten his tongue... instead of the expected sympathy I put the question, 'Why did you do that?'" Elie Halevy (1870-1937), The Formation of English Philosophical Radicalism (3 vols.) (1901-4) (first work). Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), A Japanese Miscellany. Mrs. Simon Kander, The Settlement Cookbook, or The Way To A Man's Heart; pub, for charities in Milwaukee, Wisc. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly (1857-1923) (ed.), The Complete Works of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1901-). Rodolfo Lanciani (1846-1919), New Tales of Old Rome. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), History of Egypt in the Middle Ages. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Mystery of Mary Stuart; rehabiliates her and reverses the charges on her accusers; Magic and Religion. Daniel De Leon (1852-1914), Socialism versus Anarchism. Frederick William Maitland (1850-1906), English Law and the Renaissance. Alexander McClure, Abe Lincoln's Yarns and Stories. John Bach McMaster (1852-1932), A Primary History of the United States. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), The Life of the Bee. Max Mueller (1823-1900), My Autobiography: A Fragment. John Muir (1838-1914), Our National Parks; "Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees." Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916), American Traits from the Point of View of a German. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917), Poverty and Un-British Rule in India. Max Planck (1858-1947), On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum; pub. in "Annalen der Physik", vol. 4, pg. 553. Dr. Walter Reed (1851-1902), The Prevention of Yellow Fever. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), The Fireside Sphinx. H.S. Rich & Co., One Hundred Years of Brewing: A Complete History of the Progress Made in the Art, Science and Industry of Brewing in the World, Particularly During the Last Century. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), The Making of an American (autobio.); censors a chapter by his wife "Elisabeth Tells Her Story", adding "It is not good for a woman to allow her to say too much". Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree (1871-1954), Poverty: a Study of Town Life. Horace Elisha Scudder (1838-1902), James Russell Lowell (2 vols.). Harry Govier Seeley (1839-1909), Dragons of the Air; draws parallels between birds and pterosaurs, and calls the latter warm-blooded. John Lawson Stoddard (1850-1931), Gibraltar; bestseller. Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927), Experimental Psychology (1901-5). Mark Twain (1835-1910), The United States of Lyncherdom; writes it after being pissed-off by a newspaper account of a lynching in Mo., and it isn't pub. until 1923 by his lit. executor, who censors it, and is finally pub. uncensored in 2000; "And so Missouri has fallen, that great state! Certain of her children have joined the lynchers, and the smirch is upon the rest of us. That handful of her children have given us a character and labelled us with a name, and to the dwellers in the four quarters of the earth we are 'lynchers', now, and ever shall be"; white people, however, are to be cut some slack for "... man's commonest weakness, his aversion to being unplesantly conspicuous, pointed at, shunned, as being on the unpopular side. Its other name is Moral Cowardice, and is the commanding feature of the make-up of 9,999 men in the 10,000"; proposes recruiting Christian missionaries from China to convert them, because "almost every [Chinese] convert runs a risk of catching our civilization... We ought to think twice before we encourage a risk like that; for, once civilized, China can never be uncivilized again... O compasionate missionary, leave China! come home and convert these Christians". Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), Up From Slavery: An Autobiography. Walter Weyl (1873-1919), The Passenger Traffic of Railways (first book). Wilhelm Wrede (1859-1906), The Messianic Secret; backs Bruno Bauer's Messianic Secret theory; used by Albert Schweitzer as the end of the Quest for the Historical Jesus. Movies: ?'s The Little Doctor. Edwin S. Porter's Terrible Teddy, the Grizzly King (Feb. 23) (Edison Studios) is a satire about U.S. vice-pres. Teddy Roosevelt. Music: Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Dante and Beatrice; Orchestral Drama: Fifine at the Fair; based on Robert Browning's 1841 "Pippa Passes". Paul Dukas (1865-1935), Sonata in E-flat Minor. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Rusalka (opera) (Mar. 31) (Prague); libretto by Jaroslav Kvapil (1868-1950); about a water sprite; incl. "Song to the Moon". Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Cockaigne, Op. 40 (overture). George Enescu (1881-1955), Two Romanian Rhapsodies (1901-2). Carrie Jacobs-Bond (1862-1946), I Love You Truly; first woman to sell 1M copies of a song. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 5 in c sharp minor (1901-2); features a funereal trumpet solo at the beginning, and a popular Adagietto. Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin (1862-1901), Mighty Lak' a Rose. Ignace Jan Paderewski (1860-1941), Manru (opera). Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), La Fille de Tabarin (opera). Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18 (Oct. 27) (Moscow); not as hot as No. 3, but still pretty cool. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Jeux d'Dau. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Symphony No. 2 in D major. Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924), Much Ado About Nothing (opera) (London). Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Feuersnot (opera) (Dresden). Art: John Collier (1850-1934), Tannhauser in the Venusberg. Feradin and Holder, Spring. Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), The Gold in Their Bodies. Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), Judith with the Head of Holofernes. Jules Joseph Lefebvre (1836-1911), Yvonne; Alexander Agassiz. Max Liebermann (1847-1935), Self-Portrait. Aristide Maillol (1861-1944), The Mediterranean. Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Girls on the Bridge. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Embrace; The Burial of Casagemas; Woman Drinking Absinthe; The Old Guitarist; Leaning Harlequin. Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924), Central Park. Paul Signac (1863-1935), The Port of Saint-Tropez. Hamo Thornycroft (1850-1925), Alfred the Great (statue) (Winchester). Gaetano Trentanove (1858-1937), Confed. Brig. Gen. Albert Pike (1809-91) (statue); dedicated at 3rd and D Sts., NW in the Judiciary Square neighborhood of Washington, D.C. on Oct. 23 (2:00 p.m.) by Masons to commemorate his work for them, accompanied by a parade of thousands of Masons, becoming the first Confed. officer with a statue in Washington, D.C. (until ?), and one of 18 Civil War monuments in Washington, D.C. Plays: J.M. Barrie (1860-1937), Quality Street. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Les Avaries; the censors force him to do a private reading at the Theatre Antoine. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), The Three Sisters; the Prozoroff sisters Olga, Masha, and Irina cope after their army post cmdr. daddy dies. Michael Field (Edith Emma Cooper) (1862-1913), The Race of Leaves. Horton Foote (1916-), The Carpetbagger's Children (Houston, Tex.). Andre Gide (1869-1951), Le Roi Candaule (verse drama). Owen Hall and Leslie Stuart, The Silver Slipper (musical). Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Het Pantser; Ora et Labora. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Der Tod des Tizian (verse drama). Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), Iris. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Three Plays for Puritans; incl. a preface coining the term "Bardolatry". August Strindberg (1849-1912), Engelbrekt. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Kitty Grey (musical); features the song Mademoiselle Pirouette. Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921), Die Medaille (The Medal). Anders Leonard Zorn (1860-1920), Freja; Delecarlian Girl Knitting. Poetry: Chaim Nachman Bialik (1873-1934), Songs of Wrath; protests against Jewish pogroms. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Hands. Laurence Hope (1865-1904), Garden of Kama (India's Love Lyrics); claims them as translations of Indian poets, until she is found out to be Mrs. Violet Nicolson, wife of an Indian Army gen. 20 years her senior (d. 1904), who adopted the Indian dress and lifestyle, causing a small scandal that increases sales; the lyrics are used in the 1903 British hit "Kashmiri Song". Bliss Carman and Richard Hovey, Last Songs from Vagabondia. Gilbert Frankau (1884-1952), Eton Echoes. Josef Svatopluk Machar (1854-1942), The Conscience of the Ages (1901-21); decides that ancient civilization was better than Christian. Wilhelm Meyer-Forster, Alt-Heidelberg. Alice Meynell (1847-1922), Later Poems. George Meredith (1828-1909), Readings of Life. William Vaughan Moody (1869-1910), Poems. Alfred Noyes (1880-1958), The Loom Years (debut). Katharine Tynan (1861-1931), Poems. Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Der Marquis von Keith. Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), Silberne Saiten. Novels: Minna Thomas Antrim (1856-1950), Naked Truth and Veiled Allusions. Arthur Christopher Benson (1862-1925), The House of Quiet. George Douglas Brown (1869-1902), The House with the Green Shutters; pub. under alias George Douglas. Louis Henri Boussenard (1847-1910), Les Étrangleurs du Bengale; Le Capitaine Casse-Cou; set at the time of the Boer War; his biggest hit. Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), Burgess Nonsense Book; incl. Purple Cow (1895). Samuel Butler (1835-1902), Erewhon Revisited Twenty Years Later, Both by the Original Discoverer of the Country and by His Son ; sequel to "Erewhon" (1872); Higgs return to find that he is worshiped as "Sunchild", and is whisked out again when he tries to debunk the new religion. Hall Caine (1853-1931), The Eternal City. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), Cardigan. Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932), The Marrow of Tradition; the Wilmington Race Riot; pisses-off his mainly white readers with its preaching about racism, not knowing that he doesn't consider himself white? Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) and Ford Madox Ford (1873-1939), The Inheritors. Louis Couperus (1863-1923), Babel; De Boeken der Kleine Zielen (The Books of the Small Souls) (1901-02). Josiah Flynt (1869-1907), The World of Graft (short stories). Miles Franklin (1879-1954), My Brilliant Career; self-pub.; rural N.S.W. Australian girl Sybylla Melvyn; becomes so popular in Australia that she withdraws it from pub. to protect her friends' privacy until her death; filmed in 1979 by Gillian Armstrong starring Judy Davis; followed by sequel "My Career Goes Bung" (1946). Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), My Fellow traveller (short stories); Twenty-Six Men and a Girl (short stories). H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), A Winter Pilgrimage; Lysbeth. Henry Harland (1861-1905), The Lady Paramount. Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Heliga Birgittas Pilgrimsfard (Pilgrimsfärd). William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Light Freights (short stories). Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Kim (Oct.); the orphaned son of an Irish soldier in India after the Second Afghan War of 1878-80; the curator of the Lahore Museum is based on Kipling's father, who held the post. Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940), Jerusalem. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Violet Fairy Book. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), A Garden Diary; dedicated to her love Lady Sarah Spencer. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Usurper. Jack London (1876-1916), The God of His Fathers (short stories about the Klondike). Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), Monsieur de Phocas. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Les Derniers Jours de Pekin. Pierre Louys (1870-1925), The Adventures of King Pausolus. Harold MacGrath (1871-1932), The Puppet Crown. Charles Major (1856-1913), The Bears of Blue River. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Buddenbrooks (2 vols.) (Oct.); 2nd. ed. 1901; big hit, leading to his 1929 Nobel Lit. Prize; realist novel in the tradition of Stendhal's "Le Rouge et la Noir", following the decline of a wealthy North German Hanseatic merchant family in 1835-77, based on the history of his own family; brothers Johann and Gotthold and the conflict of an artist with a middle class environment. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), The Countess of Maybury. George Barr McCutcheon (1866-1928), Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind the Throne; bestseller about an 800 sq. mi. mountainous principality in the Carpathian Mts. of E Europe, S of Axphain (enemy) and N of Dawsbergen, capital Edelweiss, with gavvo as the unit of currency, where Princess Yetive, daughter of Prince Ganlook tries to marry Prince Lorenz of Axphain to get better terms for payment of a large indemnity contracted after the last war, but he is murdered, and her real beau, Grenfall Lorry of the U.S. is framed, until Prince Gabriel of Dawsbergen is found out. Kalman Mikszath (1847-1910), The Women of Szelistye. George Moore (1852-1933), Sister Teresa. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus: A Story of California; wheat farmers in the San Joaquin Valley are preyed on by the Pacific and Southwestern Railroad; first in an uncompleted trilogy. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Survivor; Enoch Strone (A Master of Men). Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Right of Way. Charles Louis Philippe, Bubu de Montparnasse. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), L'Esclusa. Jose Maria Eca de Queiroz (1845-1900), The City and the Mountains (posth.). Alice Hegan Rice (1870-1942), Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch; optimistic mission aide in a Louisville, Ky. slum; turned into a play in 1904 by Anne Crawford Flexner; filmed in 1914, 1919, and 1934. Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo) (1860-1913), Chronicles of the House of Borgia; Tarcissus the Boy Martyr of Rome. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Afrikas Semiramis (posth.). William Sharp (1855-1905), From the Hills of Dream, Threnodies, Songs and Later Poems; pub. under alias Fiona MacLeod. Matthew Phipps Shiel (1865-1947), The Purple Cloud; about Adam Jeffson, who goes on an expedition to the North Pole aboard the Boreal to win a $175K prize for being the first person to stand on it, encountering a death-dealing moving you know what that goes on to kill everybody on Earth but him, causing him to go mad and declare himself the king of Earth and glory in being the last member of the human race until he meets a girl in Constantinople, and turns Adam to her Eve; which is filmed in 1959 as "The World, the Flesh and the Devil". Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Bourgeois. August Strindberg (1849-1912), Dance of Death. Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Der Marquis von Keith. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The First Men on the Moon; British scientist Dr. Cavor and British businessman Mr. Bedford discover the Selenites; filmed in 1964. Births: South Vietnamese pres. #1 (1955-63) (Roman Catholic) Ngo Dinh Diem (pr. ziem) (d. 1963) on Jan. 3 in Quang Binh, French Indochina; brother of Ngo Dinh Nhu (1910-63). German-Am. "The New Science of Politics", "Order and History" political philosopher Eric Voegelin (Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin) (d. 1985) on Jan. 3 in Cologne; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; friend of F.A. Hayek. Trinidadian historian (black) Cyril Lionel Robert James (d. 1989) on Jan. 4. German jurist (July 20th Plotter) Klaus Bonhoeffer (d. 1945) on Jan. 5 in Breslau (Wroclaw, Poland); brother of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1904-45). English silent film actor Patrick De Lacy "Pat" Aherne (d. 1970) on Jan. 6 in King's Norton, Worcestershire; brother of Brian Aherne (1902-86). Am. "Blondie" cartoonist Murat Bernard "Chic" Young (d. 1973) on Jan. 9 in Chicago, Ill.; nicknamed Chicken in h.s.; creator of the Dagwood (Bumstead) sandwich via cartoon; father of Dean Wayne Young (1938-). German July 20 Plotter Maj. Gen. Herrmann Karl Robert "Henning" von Tresckow (d. 1944) on Jan. 10 in Magdeburg. Am. "The Big Sky", "The Way West", "Shane" novelist Alfred Bertram "A.B." "Bud" Guthrie Jr. (d. 1991) on Jan. 13 in Bedford, Ind.; moves to Choteau, Mont. at age 6 mo. so his father can be the first principal of the first h.s. in Montana Territory. Am. "Rio Rita" actress-singer-writer-producer Phyllis "Bebe" Daniels (d. 1971) on Jan. 14 in Dallas, Tex.; begins acting at age 4; wife (1930-71) of Ben Lyon (1901-79). Cuban dictator (1933-58) Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (Zaldívar) (d. 1973) on Jan. 16 in Banes, Holguin; of African, Spanish, and Chinese descent. Am. poet-writer-novelist-critic (Jewish) Laura Riding Jackson (nee Reichhenthal) (d. 1991) (AKA Laura Riding Gottschalk) on Jan. 16 in New York City; educated at Cornell U.; wife (-1925) of Louis Gottschalk (1899-1975); partner (1929-36) of Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985); wife (1941-) of Schuyler B. Jackson (-1968). Am. inventor Frank Joseph Zamboni Jr. (d. 1988) on Jan. 16 in Eureka, Utah; Italian immigrant parents; grows up in Lava Hot Springs (near Pocatello), Idaho. Am. actress Mary Philips (d. 1975) on Jan. 23 in New London, Conn.; wife (1928-38) of Humphrey Bogart (1899-1957) and (1938-62) Kenneth MacKenna (1899-1962). Am. Pittsburgh Steelers founder Arthur Joseph "Art" Rooney Sr. (d. 1988) on Jan. 27 in Coulterville, Penn.; father of Dan Rooney (1932-). Am. TV inventor Allen Balcom DuMont (Du Mont) (d. 1965) on Jan. 29 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. Canadian industrialist-financier and thoroughbred breeder Edward Plunket Taylor on Jan. 29 in Ottawa, Ont. German auto racer ("Rainmaster") Otto Wilhelm Rudolf "Karratsch" Caracciola (d. 1959) on Jan. 30 in Remagen. German "The End" novelist Hans Erich Nossack (d. 1977) on Jan. 30 in Hamburg. Am. last WWI vet Cpl. Frank Woodruff (Wood) Buckles (d. 2011) on Feb. 1 in Bethany, Mo. Am. "Rhett Butler in Gone With the Wind" ape-eared actor (bi?) ("the King of Hollywood") William Clark Gable (d. 1960) on Feb. 1 in Cadiz, Ohio; mistakenly listed as a female on his birth certificate; son of wildcat oil driller father William Henry "Bill Gable and Adeline Hershelman, who dies when he is 10 mo. old. Am. violinist #1 (of the 20th cent.?) (Jewish) Jascha Heifetz (d. 1987) on Feb. 2 in Vilna, Lithuania; pupil of Leopold Auer; debuts at age 7 in Kovno; becomes U.S. citizen in 1925. Am. country fiddle-banjo player Gaither Wiley Carlton (d. 1972) on Feb. 3 in Wilkes County, N.C.; father of Rosa Lee Carlton; father-in-law of Doc Watson (1923-2012). English "Dusty Answer" novelist Rosamond Nina Lehmann (d. 1990) on Feb. 3 in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire; daughter of Rudolph Chambers Lehmann (1856-1929); sister of John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87) and Beatrix Lehmann (1903-79); educated at Girton College, Cambridge U. Spanish "La Tesis de Nancy" novelist Ramon Jose Sender Garces (Ramón José Sender Garcés) (d. 1982) on Feb. 3 in Chalamera, Huesca; father of Ramon Sender (1934-). Chinese Cantonese opera singer Lee Hoi-chuen (d. 1965) on Feb. 4 in Shunde, Guangdong; father of Bruce Lee (1940-73) and Robert Lee (1943-). Am. "Hell's Angels", "I Cover the Waterfront" actor and 20th Cent. Fox exec. Ben Lyon (d. 1979) on Feb. 6 in Atlanta, Ga.; husband (1930-71) of Bebe Daniels (1901-71) and (1974-9) Marian Nixon (1904-83). English last veteran of WWI (Women's RAF) Florence Beatrice Green (nee Patterson) (d. 1901) on Feb. 19 in Edmonton, London. Am. "Shadow of the Thin Man" actress-teacher (Jewish) Stella Adler (d. 1992) (AKA Stella Ardler) on Feb. 10 in New York City; daughter of Jacob Adler (1855-1926) and Sara Adler (1858-1953); sister of Luther Adler (1903-84); wife (1940-60) of Harold Clurman (1901-80); teacher of Marlon Brando. Am. sociologist (Jewish) Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (d. 1976) on Feb. 13 in Vienna, Austria; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933; founder of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia U. French Mari archeologist Andre Parrot on Jan. 15. Am. diplomat (in China) Oliver Edmund Clubb (d. 1989) on Feb. 16. Am. "Boston Blackie" Brylcreem-loving actor John Chester Brooks Morris (d. 1970) on Feb. 16 in New York City; son of William Morris. English chemist (Dacron co-inventor) John Richard Whinfield (d. 1966) on Feb. 16 in Sutton, Surrey; educated at Caius College, Cambridge U. French "Think globally, act locally" microbiologist Rene Jules Dubos (d. 1982) on Feb. 20 in Saint-Brice-sous-Foret; educated at Rutgers U. Am. architect (Jewish) Louis Isadore Kahn (Itze-Leib Schmuilkowsky) (d. 1974) on Feb. 20 in Parnu, Livonia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1905, get his architecture degree in 1924, then works in a shabby Philly office for the rest of his life, inventing the "served-servant" space concept, using brick and stone instead of steel and glass. English banker-publisher Cecil Harmsworth King (d. 1987) on Feb. 20; son of Sir Lucas White King and Geraldine Harmsworth King (sister of Alfred and Harold Sidney Harmsworth); educated at Winchester College and Christ Church, Oxford U.; "He believed he was born to rule, an image of himself which never departed" (Colin Hannaford). Egyptian pres. #1 (1953-4) Muhammad Naguib (d. 1985) on Feb. 20 in Khartoum, Sudan; Egyptian father, Sudanese mother. U.S. Supreme Court justice #91 (1957-62) Charles Evans Whittaker (d. 1973) on Feb. 22 in Troy, Kan.; educated at the U. of Mo.; classmate of Pres. Harry S. Truman. Italian historian-politician Federico Chabod (d. 1960) on Feb. 23 in Aosta; educated at the U. of Turin, and U. of Berlin; student of Friedrich Meinecke (1862-1954). Am. aviation pioneer Ruth Rowland Nichols (d. 1960) on Feb. 23 in New York City. Am. comic (Jewish) Herbert Manfred "Zeppo" Marx (d. 1979) on Feb. 25 in New York City; youngest of the Marx Brothers. Italian sculptor Marino Marini (d. 1980) on Feb. 27 in Pistoia; known for his equestrian statues; not to be confused with Italian musician Marino Marini (1924-97). Am. chemist, Nobel Peace Prize winner and Vitamin C junkie Linus Carl Pauling (d. 1994) on Feb. 28 in Lake Oswego (near Portland), Ore.; German descent father, Irish descent mother; educated at Oregon State U. and Caltech. German mathematician-philosopher Grete Hermann (d. 1984) on Mar. 2 in Bremen; educated at the U. of Gottingen; student of Emmy Noether. Australian last WWI veteran Claude Stanley Choules (d. 2011) on Mar. 3 in Pershore, Worcestershire, England; emigrates to Australia in 1926. Am. contract bridge champ (Jewish) Charles Henry Goren (d. 1991) on Mar. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at McGill U. Am. Vt. gov. #67 (1947-50) and U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) (1940-1) Ernest William Gibson Jr. (d. 1969) on Mar. 6 in Brattleboro, Vt.; educated at Norwich U., and George Washington U. Danish-German biologist Joachim August Wilhelm Hammerling (Hämmerling) (d. 1980) on Mar. 9 in Berlin; educated at the U. of Berlin, and U. of Marburg. Am. mobster Joseph "Tough Joey" Rao (pr. "ray-oh") (d. 1962) (AKA Joseph Cangro) on Mar. 12 in New York City. Am. "Marshal Micah Torrance in The Rifleman" actor Paul Fix (d. 1983) on Mar. 13 in Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. Am. theatrical designer (Jewish) Joseph "Jo" Mielziner (d. 1976) on Mar. 19 in Paris, France; son of a Leo Mielziner Sr. (1868-1935) (son of a rabbi) and Ella Lane McKenna Friend (1873-1968); brother of Kenneth MacKenna (1899-1962). German July 20th plotter jurist Josef Wirmer (d. 1944) on Mar. 19 in Paderborn. Am. "Seidman and Son" playwright-novelist Elick Moll (d. 1988) on Mar. 20 in New York City. Am. Disney cartoonist ("Screwy spelled backwards") Ub Iwerks (Ubbe Ert Iwwerks) (d. 1971) on Mar. 24 in Kansas City, Mo.; Frisian father. Am. "Sweet Bird of Youth", "12 Angry Men" actor (Jewish) Edward James "Ed" Begley (d. 1970) on Mar. 25 in Hartford, Conn.; father of Ed Begley Jr. (1949-). Am. "Scrooge McDuck" Disney cartoonist Carl Barks (d. 2000) on Mar. 27 in Merrill, Ore. Am. liberal Dem. politician (gov. and U.S. rep. from Conn.) and ambassador Chester Bliss Bowles (d. 1986) on Apr. 5 in Springfield, Mass.; grandson of Civil War journalist (ed. of "Springfield Republican") Samuel Bowles; studies engineering at Yale U., and gets rich with his own ad agency during the Depression; father of Samuel Bowles (1939-). Am. "Count Leon d'Algout Ninotchka", "Tom Garrison I Never Sang for My Father", "Homer Bannon in Hud" actor Melvyn Douglas (Melvyn Edouard Hesselberg) (d. 1981) on Apr. 5 in Macon, Ga.; Jewish father, Protestant Mayflower descendant mother; husband (1931-) of Helen Gahagan Douglas (1900-80). U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (1937-47) Horace Jeremiah "Jerry" Voorhis (d. 1984) on Apr. 6 in Ottawa, Kan.; educated at Yale U. French psychoanalyst Jacques Marie Emile Lacan (d. 1981) on Apr. 13 in Paris. English billiards player Joseph "Joe" Davis (d. 1978) on Apr. 15 in Whitwell, Derbyshire. Argentine Singer-Prebisch Thesis global development economist Raul Prebisch (d. 1986) on Apr. 17 in San Miguel de Tucuman; German immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Buenos Aires. Am. "Peter Tong in Bachelor Father" actor-comedian Sammee Tong (d. 1964) on Apr. 21 in San Francisco, Calif. Japanese Yamato emperor #124 (1926-89) Showa ("enlightened peace") (Hirohito) (d. 1989) on Apr. 29 in Tokyo; eldest son of Taisho (Yoshihito) (1879-1926) and Teimei (Sadako); father of Showa (Akihito) (1933-). Am. economist (Jewish) Simon Smith Kuznets (d. 1985) on Apr. 30 in Pinsk, Belarus; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922; educated at Columbia U. Japanese world's oldest person Chiyo Miyako (d. 2018) on May 2 in Wakayama, Kansai. Am. "Sgt. Alvin C. York in Sergeant York", "Will Kane in High Noon" actor Frank James "Gary" Cooper (d. 1961) on May 7 in Helena, Mont. British crystallographer (Jewish) John Desmond Bernal (d. 1971) on May 10 in Nenagh, County Tipperary, Ireland; Sephardic Jewish descent father, Am. mother; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Scottish peer Josslyn Victor Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll (d. 1941) on May 11 in Mayfair, England. Polish resistance leader Capt. Witold Pilecki (d. 1948) on May 13 in Olonets, Karelia, Russia. Australian "Poor Fellow My Country" novelist Xavier Herbert (d. 1984) on May 15 in Geraldton, Western Australia; educated at the U. of Melbourne. Am. biochemist Vincent du Vigneaud (d. 1978) on May 18 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill.; synthesizes the first polypeptide hormone, the pituitary hormone oxytocin. Dutch world chess champ #5 (1935-7) Machgielis "Max" Euwe (d. 1981) on May 20 in Watergraafsmeer (near Amsterdam); educated at the U. of Amsterdam. English historian (of France) Alfred Cobban (d. 1968) on May 24 in London; educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge U. Am. jazz pianist Frank Signorelli (d 1975) (The Original Memphis Five) on May 24 in New York City. Am. poet Theodore Huebner Roethke (d. 1963) on May 25 in Saginaw, Mich.; German immigrant father; educated at the U. of Mich., and Harvard U. German "BMV" musicologist Wolfgang Schmieder (d. 1990) on May 29 in Bromberg. Am. "Our Hearts Were Young and Gay" actress-writer (monologist) Cornelia Otis Skinner (d. 1979) on May 30 in Chicago, Ill.; daughter of Otis Skinner (1858-1942); educated at Bryn Mawr College. Am. "Singin' the Blues", "Trumbology" jazz saxophonist Orie Frank "Frankie" Trumbauer (d. 1956) on May 30 in Carbondale, Ill.; of part Cherokee ancestry. English "The Passover Plot" pacifist Bible scholar (Jewish) Hugh J. Schonfield (d. 1988) in May in London. Am. "Young Woodley", "The Voice of the Turtle" playwright-dir. John William Van Druten (d. 1957) on June 1 in London, England; Dutch father, English mother; educated at the U. of London; becomes U.S. citizen in 1944. English "Dr. Zaius in Planet of the Apes" actor Maurice Evans (d. 1989) on June 3 in Dorchester. Am. world's oldest man Salustiano "Shorty" Sanchez Blazquez (d. 2013) on June 8 in El Tejado de Bejar, Spain; emigrates to the U.S. in 1918. Austrian-Am. "Brigadoon", "Camelot", "My Fair Lady" composer (Jewish) (bi) Frederick "Fritz" Loewe (d. 1988) on June 10 in Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1925; collaborator of Alan Jay Lerner (1918-86). English couturier (gay) Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell on June 12 in London; educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1977. Am. basketball player (Chuck Taylor All-Stars) Charles Hollis "Chuck" Taylor (d. 1969) on June 24 in Azalia, Ind. U.S. Air Force Secy. #1 (1947-50) and U.S. Sen. (D-Mo.) (1953-76) William Stuart Symington Jr. (d. 1988) on June 26 in Amherst, Mass.; educated at Yale U. Spanish police officer Jose Castillo (José del Castillo Sáez de Tejada) (d. 1936) on June 29 in Alcala la Real; distant relative of Gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera. Am. "Rose Marie", "Song of the Mounties" baritone singer-actor Nelson Ackerman Eddy (d. 1967) on June 29 in Providence, R.I.; co-stars with soprano Jeanette MacDonald. Am. bank robber William "Slick Willie" "the Actor" "Bill" Sutton (d. 1980) on June 30 in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Irish descent. Am. actress (Jewish) ("Mother of U.S. Soap Operas") Irna Phillips (d. 1973) on July 1 in Chicago, Ill.; German Jewish immigrant parents.; educated at the U. of Ill., and U. of Wisc. Am. modernist composer Ruth Crawford Seeger (Ruth Porter Crawford) (d. 1953) on July 3 in East Liverpool, Ohio.; step-mother of Pete Seeger (1919-2014). Am. "Golden Boy" actress Beatrice Blinn (d. 1979) on July 7 in Forest County, Wisc. English novelist ("Queen of Romance") Dame Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland (d. 2000) on July 9 in Edgbaston, Birmingham; step-grandmother of Princess Diana; father Maj. Bertram Cartland is KIA in the Western Front on May 28, 1918, and two of his sons are KIA in 1940 during the retreat to Dunkirk; sister of Ronald Cartland (1907-40); created dame in 1991. English "A Canterbury Tale" actor (gay) Eric Harrison Portman (d. 1969) on July 13 in Chester Road, Akroydon, Halifax, West Yorkshire. Am. "Abner Kravitz in Bewitched" actor (Jewish) George Tobias (d. 1980) on July 14 in New York City. Am. "Tobacco Road" playwright Jack Kirkland (d. 1969) on July 15 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "In Love with Life", "Whirlpool", "Unholy Love" silent screen actress Lila "Cuddles" Lee (Augusta Wilhelmena Fredericka Appel) d. 1973 on July 25 in Union Hill, N.J.; German immigrant parents. Am. labor leader (Internat. Longshoremen's Assoc.) Alfred Renton "Harry" Bridges (d. 1990) on July 28 in Kensington (near Melbourne), Victoria, Australia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1945. Am. bandleader-singer-sax player-crooner (first 20th cent. media pop star?) Hubert Prior "Rudy" Vallee (Vallée) (d. 1986) on July 28 in Island Pond, Vt. French Art Brut painter-sculptor Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (d. 1985) on July 31 in Le Havre. Am. Mormon organist-hymnodist Alexander Ferdinand Schreiner (d. 1987) on July 31 in Nuremberg, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1912. Am. Atheist-Freethinker writer (white supremacist) (ed. of "The Truth Seeker") James Hervey Johnson (d. 1988) on Aug. 2 in Ore. Am. "Hello, Dolly", "When the Saints Come Marching In" jazz musician (black) Louis "Satchmo" "Pops" Armstrong (d. 1971) on Aug. 4 in New Orleans, La. French "Fric-Frac", "Douce" film dir. Claude Autant-Lara (d. 2000) on Aug. 5 in Luzarches, Val-d'Oise. Am. nuclear physicist (inventor of the cyclotron) Ernest Orlando Lawrence (d. 1958) on Aug. 8 in Canton, S.D.; educated at U. of S.D., U. of Minn., and Yale U.; one of the first U.S. physicists not to be educated in Big Bad Europe. Am. "7th Heaven", "Street Angel", "Lucky Star" actor Charles Farrell (d. 1990) on Aug. 9 in Walpole, Mass.; husband (1931-68) of Virginia Valli. English politician and spelling reformer Sir Isaac James Pitman (d. 1985) on Aug. 14 in London; grandson of Sir Isaac Pitman (1813-97); educated at Eton College, and Christ Church, Oxford U. Am. "When You Wish Upon a Star", "High Noon", "Rawhide" songwriter Ned Washington (d. 1976) on Aug. 15 in Scranton, Penn.; collaborator of Dimitri Tiomkin (1894-1976). British politician-diplomat Malcolm John MacDonald (d. 1981) on Aug. 17 in Lossiemouth, Moray; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. French nuclear physicist Francis Perrin (d. 1992) on Aug. 17 in Paris; son of Jean Perrin (1870-1942). Italian poet-critic Salvatore Quasimodo (d. 1968) on Aug. 20 in Modica, Sicily. Am. jazz singer ("Mr. Five by Five") (black) James Andrew "Jimmy" Rushing (d. 1972) on Aug. 26 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; "five feet tall and five feet wide". Am. gen.-diplomat Maxwell Davenport Taylor (d. 1987) on Aug. 26 in Keytesville, Mo. Am. "Jonah Jones", "Scrambled Eggs" 255 lb. actress-comedian-artist Babe London (Jean Glover) (d. 1980) on Aug. 28 in Des Moines, Iowa; wife of Phil Boutelje. Am. "Inside Europe", "Death Be Not Proud" journalist-novelist John Gunther (d. 1970) on Aug. 30 in Chicago, Ill. Am. jazz trumpeter Phil Napoleon (Filippo Napoli) (d. 1990) (The Original Memphis Five) on Sept. 2 in Boston, Mass. Am. college hall-of-fame basketball coach (U. of Ky., 1930-72) Adolph Frederick Rupp (d. 1977) on Sept. 2 in Halstead, Kan. English Jaguar Cars co-founder William Lyons (d. 1985) on Sept. 4 in Blackpool; partner of William Walmsley (1892-1961). Am. "Queen Isabella in Christopher Columbus" actress Florence Eldridge (nee McKechnie) (d. 1988) on Sept. 5 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; wife (1927-75) of Fredric March (1897-1975). Am. Texas Instruments co-founder John Erik Jonsson (d. 1995) on Sept. 6 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Swedish immigrant parents; educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. South African PM (1958-66) (architect of apartheid) Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (d. 1966) on Sept. 8 in Amsterdam, Netherlands; emigrates to South Africa at age 2. Scottish soccer player Alexander Wilson "Alex" James (d. 1953) on Sept. 14 in Mossend, Lanarkshire; known for baggy shorts to hide his longjohns used to help his rheumatism. English "Gipsy Moth IV" adventurer Sir Francis Chichester (d. 1972) on Sept. 17 in Barnstaple, Devon; educated at Marlborough College. Am. drama critic-dir. (Jewish) Harold Edgar Clurman (d. 1980) on Sept. 18; 2nd husband (1940-60) of Stella Adler (1901-1992). Austian biologist (co-founder of Gen. Systems Theory) Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (d. 1972) on Sept. 19 in Vienna. Am. "Anchors Aweigh", "The Great Caruso" film dir. (Jewish) Joseph Pasternak (d. 1991) on Sept. 19 in Silagy-Somlyo, Austria-Hungary; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934; no relation to Boris Pasternak. Am. surgeon-physiologist Charles Brenton Huggins (3. 1997) on Sept. 21 in Halifax, N.S., Canada; educated at Havard U. British-Trinidadian cricketer Learie Nicholas Constantine, Baron Constantine (d. 1971) on Sept. 21 in Petit Valley, Diego Martin, Trinidad. Czech poet-journalist Jaroslav Seifert (d. 1986) on Sept. 23 in Zizkov, Prague. Am. "Scarface" tough guy actor (Jewish) George Raft (Ranft) (d. 1980) on Sept. 26 in Hell's Kitchen, New York City; German Jewish immigrant mother. friend of Bugsy Siegel, Meyer Lansky, and other Mafiosi; gives Tallulah Bankhead a bad case of gonorrhea, causing her to get a hysterectomy and utter the soundbyte "Don't think this has taught me a lesson." Am. CBS broadcasting exec. (Jewish) William Samuel Paley (d. 1990) on Sept. 28 in Chicago, Ill.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Wharton School; husband (1947) of Barbara "Babe" Paley (1915-78). Am. "really big shoe" TV host ("Old Stone Face") Edward Vincent "Ed" Sullivan (d. 1974) on Sept. 28 in Harlem, N.Y. on E 114th St. in a Jewish-Irish section; of Irish descent; has a twin brother Daniel, who dies young; starts out as a boxer and sportswriter for The New York Evening Graphic. Italian-Am. physicist ("Architect of the Atomic Bomb") Enrico Fermi (d. 1954) on Sept. 29 in Rome; educated at the U. of Pisa; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "Pat the Bunny" children's writer Dorothy Kunhardt (d. 1979). French model-actress-painter ("Queen of Montparnasse") (alcoholic) (drug addict) Alice Ernestine Prin (Kiki de Montparnasse) (d. 1953) on Oct. 2 in Chatillon-sur-Seine, Cote d'Or, Burgundy; lover and favorite 1920s model of Man Ray (1890-1976). Czech poet Frantisek Halas (d. 1949) on Oct. 3 in Brno. Japanese film composer Masao Oki on Oct. 3. Am. silent film Western actor Al Hoxie (Alton J. Stone) (d. 1982) on Oct. 7 in Nez Perce, Idaho; half-brother of Jack Hoxie (1885-1965). Australian nuclear physicist Sir Marcus "Mark" Laurence Elwin Oliphant (d. 2000) on Oct. 8 in Kent Town, Adelaide; uncle of Pat Oliphant (1935-). Swiss painter-sculptor Alberto Giacometti (d. 1966) on Oct. 10 in Borgonovo. Am. hall-of-fame Notre Dame U. QB (1922-4), Villanova U. coach (1925-35), and U. of Wisc. coach (1936-48) Harry Augustus Stuhldreher (d. 1965) on Oct. 14 in Massillon, Ohio. Am. "Daddy Won't You Please Come Home", "That's all" singer ("the Personality Girl") Catherine Annette Hanshaw (d. 1985) on Oct. 18 in New York City. Am. singer-dancer Hilo Hattie (Clarissa "Clara" Halili) (d. 1979) on Oct. 28 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. "Topper", "My Man Godfrey" screenwriter-novelist Eric Hatch (d. 1973) on Oct. 31 in New York City. Am. Tuskegee U. pres. (1935-53) (black) Frederick Douglass Patterson (d. 1988) on Oct. 10 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Iowa State College, and Cornell U. Am. "Col. Hall in Sergeant Bilko", "Mayor George Shinn in The Music Man" actor Paul Ford (Weaver) (d. 1976) on Nov. 2 in Baltimore, Md. French "The Human Condition" novelist-statesman Andre (André) Malraux (d. 1976) on Nov. 3 in Paris. Belgian king (1934-51) Leopold III (d. 1983) on Nov. 3 in Brussels; son of Albert I (1875-1934); brother of Prince Charles, count of Flanders (1903-83); father of Baudouin I (1930-93). Greek archeologist Spyridon Nikolaou Marinatos (d. 1974) on Nov. 4 in Kefalonia. Am. "Bloody Mary in South Pacific", "Auntie Liang in Flower Drum Song" mezzo-soprano singer-actress (black) Juanita Hall (d. 1968) on Nov. 6 in Keyport, N.J. Am. psychologist George Katona (d. 1981) in Budapest, Hungary; educated at the U. of Gottingen. Romanian Communist dictator Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (d. 1965) on Nov. 8 in Barlad. Soviet Zeigarnik Effect pshrink (Jewish) Bluma Wulfovna Zeigarnik (d. 1988) on Nov. 9 in Prienai, Suwalki; educated at the U. of Berlin. Am. "Seeds of Murder" historian-novelist Francis Van Wyck Mason (d. 1978) on Nov. 11 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "The African Queen", "On the Waterfront", "The Bridge on the River Kwai", "Lawrence of Arabia" film producer (Jewish) Samuel P. "Sam" Spiegel (AKA S.P. Eagle) (d. 1985) on Nov. 11 in Jaroslaw, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (Poland); German Jewish father, Polish mother; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1935; speaks 7 languages; known as the Velvet Octopus for his groping of women. Am. tenor ("the Irish Nightingale") Morton Downey (James) (d. 1985) on Nov. 14 in Wallingford, Conn.; husband (1929-41) of Barbara Bennett (1906-58); father of Morton Downey Jr. (1933-2001); lives next door to Joseph J. Kennedy Sr. in Hyannis, Mass (JFK's summer White House). Am. "Hyman Roth in The Godfather II" actor-dir.-teacher (Jewish) ("Father of Am. Method Acting") Lee Strasberg (Israel Strassberg) (d. 1982) on Nov. 17 in Budzanow, Austria-Hungary (Ukraine); emigrates to the U.S. in 1909. Am. statistician-pollster (founder of the Am. Inst. of Public Opinion) George Horace Gallup (d. 1984) on Nov. 18 in Jefferson, Iowa. Am. "March of Time" sportscaster Edward Britt "Ted" Husing (d. 1962) on Nov. 27 in Bronx, N.Y.; German immigrant parents. Am. "No, No Nanette" actress Mildred Harris (d. 1944) on Nov. 29 in Cheyenne, Wyo.; wife (1918-20) of Charles Chaplin (1879-1977). Am. "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck" cartoonist, film producer, and theme park magnate ("the Modern-Day Leonardo da Vinci"?) (Freemason) Walter Elias "Walt" Disney (d. 1966) on Dec. 5 in Chicago, Ill.; Irish Roman Catholic father, German-English descent mother; educated at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts; inventor of the multiplane camera; really born in Mexico as Jose Luis Girao, the illegitimate son of Spaniards, who put him up for adoption and it was covered-up? German Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle nuclear physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg (d. 1976) on Dec. 5 in Wurzburg (Würzburg); educated at the U. of Munich, and U. of Gottingen. Indian dancer-choreographer Uday Shankar (d. 1977) on Dec. 8 in Udaipur, Rajasthan; brother of Ravi Shankar (1920-). French "Four Musketeers" tennis hall-of-fame player Henri Jean Cochet (d. 1987) on Dec. 14 in Villeurbanne (near Lyon), Rhone. Greek king (1947-64) Paul I (d. 1964) on Dec. 14 in Athens; 3rd son of Constantine I and Princess Sophia of Prussia; brother of George II; father of Constantine II (1940-); 1st cousin of Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh. Am. silent film actress Carol Dempster (d. 1991) on Dec. 9 in Duluth, Minn. Am. auto racer Louis F. Schneider (d. 1942) on Dec. 19 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Coming of Age in Samoa" anthropologist (bi?) (Anglican) Margaret Mead (d. 1978) on Dec. 16 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Barnard College, and Columbia U.; sister of Elizabeth Mead (1909-8), Priscilla Mead (1911-59), and Richard Mead; wife (1923-8) of Luther Cressman, (1928-35) Reo Fortune, and (1936-50) Gregory Bateson (1904-80); mother of Mary Catherine Bateson (1939-); aunt of Jeremy Steig (1942-); collaborator-lover of Rhoda Metraux (1914-2003). Soviet Gen. Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin (d. 1944) on Dec. 16 in Chepuhino, Voronezh. Am. "Laughing Boy" novelist-anthropologist Oliver Hazard Perry La Farge (d. 1963) on Dec. 19 in New York City; descendant of Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819); educated at Harvard U. Am. physicist Robert Jemison Van de Graaff (d. 1967) on Dec. 20 in Tuscaloosa, Ala.; educated at the U. of Ala., and Oxford U.; business partner of John George Trump (1907-85); producer of the first 1M volt X-ray generator. Am. MK-ULTRA psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron (d. 1967) on Dec. 24 in Bridge of Allan, Perthshire, Scotland; educated at the U. of Glasgow; emigrates to the U.S. in 1936. A. "Red Ryder" comic strip artist Stephen Slesinger (d. 1953) on Dec. 25 in New York City; of Russian-Hungarian Jewish descent; brother of Tess Slesinger (1905-45); educated at Columbia U. Dutch astronomer Peter (Piet) van de Kamp (d. 1995) on Dec. 26 in Kampen; educated at the U. of Utrecht, and UCB. German "Lola-Lola in The Blue Angel" actress-singer (bi) Marlene Dietrich (Marie Magdalene "Lene" von Losch) (d. 1992) on Dec. 27 in Schoneberg, Berlin. Am. acoustical engineer (electronic sound synthesizer inventor) Harry Ferdinand Olson (d. 1982) on Dec. 28 in Mount Pleasant, Iowa; Swedish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Iowa. Soviet Gen. (alcoholic) Aleksandr Sergueyevich Scherbakov (d. 1945). French-born Am. "painting on light" film artist Andre Girard (d. 1968). Am. choreographer Charles Edward Weidman Jr. (d. 1975) in Lincoln, Neb. Am. journalist Quincy Howe (d. 1977) in Boston, Mass. French historian Fernand Braunel (d. 1985). Am. "Gentleman's Agreement" novelist Laura Z. Hobson (d. 1986). Indonesian Subud founder (Sunni Muslim) Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwijojo (d. 1987) in Java. Am. "In Wilderness" photographer Eliot Porter (d. 1990). Am. physicist (Christian) Henry Margenau (d. 1997) in Bielefeld, Germany; educated at Yale U. Am. constitutional scholar (Jewish) Raoul Berger (d. 2000) in Ukraine; educated at Northwestern U. Am. silent film actress (bi) Blyth (Blythe) Daly (d. ?). Deaths: English photographer John Mayall (b. 1813) on Mar. 6. Italian #1 opera composer Giuseppe Verdi (b. 1813) on Jan. 27 in Milan (stroke in a hotel on Jan. 21). Am. Mormon pres. #5 (1898-1901) Lorenzo Snow (b. 1814) on Oct. 10 in Salt Lake City, Utah. English explorer (of Australia) Edward John Eyre (b. 1815) on Nov. 30 in Whitchurch (near Tavistock), Devon. Am. Civil War nurse Mother Bickerdyke (b. 1817); buried in Galesburg, Ill. Spanish statesman Ramon de Campoamor y Compoosorio (b. 1817) on Feb. 11 in Madrid. Am. Mormon leader Benjamin Winchester (b. 1817) on Jan. 25. Italian sculptor Giosue Argenti (b. 1819) on Nov. 29. French chef Urbain Dubois (b. 1818) on Mar. 14 in Nice. Italian conservative PM Francesco Crispi (b. 1819) on Aug. 12 in Naples. German Prussian chancellor-PM (1894-1900) Prince Chlodwig of Hohenloe (b. 1819) on July 6 in Bad Ragaz, Switzerland. South African Boer leader Marthinus Pretorius (b. 1819) on May 19. British queen (since 1837) Victoria (b. 1819) on Jan. 22 in Osborne House, Isle of Wight; buried in the Presence Chamber of Windsor Castle; in 1903-21 Osborne House becomes a royal naval college, followed by a hospital for officers: "This mad wicked folly of women's rights." Swedish PM (1880-3) Arvid Posse (b. 1820) on Apr. 24 in Stockholm. Am. Jefferson Territory provisional gov. (1859-61) Robert Williamson Steele (b. 1820) on Jan. 7 in Colorado Springs, Colo. Am. Mormon leader Zina D.H. Young (b. 1821) on Aug. 28 in Salt Lake City, Utah. French mathematician Charles Hermite (b. 1822) on Jan. 14 in Paris: "I turn with terror and horror from this lamentable scourge of continuous functions with no derivatives." Am. Confederate spymaster James Dunwoody Bulloch (b. 1823) on Jan. 7 in Liverpool, England (in exile). Chinese diplomat Gen. Li Hung-chang (b. 1823) on Nov. 7 in Beijing. English writer Charlotte Mary Yonge (b. 1823) on May 24; pub. 100+ works. British "Sam Browne belt" Gen. Sir Samuel J. Browne (b. 1824). English historian Bishop William Stubbs (b. 1825) on Apr. 22 in Cuddesdon, Oxfordshire; dies after becoming ill in 1900 and attending the funeral of Queen Victoria on Feb. 2 then preaching a sermon on Feb. 3 before the new king and German kaiser. Am. Colo. gov. #8 (1893-5) Davis Hanson Waite (b. 1825) on Nov. 27 in Aspen, Colo. Belgian electrical engineer Zenobe Theophile Gramme (b. 1826) on Jan. 20 in Bois-Colombes, France. Am. Civil War Union gen. James Scott Negley (b. 1826) on Aug. 7 in Plainfield, N.J. Peruvian pres. (1865-8, 1876-9) Mariano Iagnacio Prado (b. 1826) on May 5 in Paris. Swiss painter Arnold Bocklin (b. 1827) on Jan. 16 in Fiesole (near Florence), Italy. Am. philanthropist Maria Bissell Hotchkiss (b. 1827) in New York City. Am. flour magnate John Sargent Pillsbury (b. 1827) on Oct. 18 in Minneapolis, Minn. Swiss "Heidi" children's writer Johanna Spyri (b. 1827) on July 7 in Zurich. Russian Field Marshal Count Joseph Gourko (b. 1828) on Jan. 29 near Tver. Am. painter James MacDougal Hart (b. 1828). Am. painter Edward Moran (b. 1829) on June 8 in New York City. French chemist Francois Marie Raoult (b. 1830) on Apr. 1. Am. "Atlantis", "Ragnarok" writer-politician Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (b. 1831) on Jan. 1 in Minneapolis, Minn. German ambassador Paul von Hatzfeldt (b. 1831) on Nov. 22 in London, England. Scottish physicist Peter Guthrie Tait (b. 1831) on July 4. Am. meatpacking king Philip Danforth Armour (b. 1832) on Jan. 6 in Chicago, Ill. French-German physicist Rodolphe Koenig (b. 1832). Swedish explorer Baron Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskjold (b. 1832) on Aug. 12 in Dalby, Skane. U.S. Repub. pres. #23 (1889-93) Benjamin Harrison (b. 1833) on Mar. 3 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. telephone inventor Elisha Gray (b. 1835) on Jan. 21 in Newtonville, Mass. English novelist-historian Sir Walter Besant (b. 1836) on June 9. Am. humorist Orpheus C. Kerr (b. 1836) on July 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y. (heat stroke). French archeologist Gaston de Sarzec (b. 1837). English chemist Henry George Madan (b. 1838) on Dec. 22. Am. paywright James A. Herne (b. 1839) on June 2 in Manhattan, N.Y. (pneumonia). English princess Vicky Adelaide (b. 1840). Afghan emir (1880-1901) Abdur Rahman Khan (b. 1840) on Oct. 1. Canadian judge Charles Rouleau (b. 1840) on Aug. 25 in Rouleauville (near Calgary, Alberta), North-West Territories. Scottish poet Robert Williams Buchanan (b. 1841) on June 10 in Streatham (stroke). Czech novelist-dramatist Julius Zeyer (b. 1841) on Jan. 29 in Prague. French composer Edmond Audran (b. 1842) on Aug. 17 in Tierceville, Seine-et-Oise. Am. historian John Fiske (b. 1842). Greek painter Nikolaos Gyzis (b. 1842) on Jan. 4. Russian painter Vasili Vereshchagin (b. 1842). English "A History of the Papacy" historian Bishop Mandell Creighton (b. 1843) on Jan. 14 in London (stomach cancer). U.S. pres. #25 (1897-1901) William McKinley (b. 1843) on Sept. 14 in Buffalo, N.Y. (assassinated); buried in Columbus, Ohio, then moved to the Nat. McKinley Memorial in Canton, Ohio in 1907: "I do not prize the word cheap... Cheap prices make for cheap goods; cheap goods make for cheap men; and cheap men make for a cheap country." English telepathy writer Frederic William Henry Myers (b. 1843) on Jan. 17 in Rome, Italy. German philologist Johannes Schmidt (b. 1843) on July 4. English Giblert and Sullivan opera producer Richard D'Oyly Carte (b. 1844) on Apr. 3 in London (heart failure). English children's book illustrator Kate Greenaway (b. 1846) on Nov. 6. Canadian geologist George Mercer Dawson (b. 1849) on Mar. 2 in Ottawa, Ont.; namesake of Dawson City, Yukon, and Dawson Creek, B.C. Am. historian Herbert Baxter Adams (b. 1850) on July 30. Irish physicist George Francis FitzGerald (b. 1851) on Feb. 21 in Dublin (peforated ulcer). Serbian prince (1868-82) and king (1882-9) Milan I Obrenovic (b. 1854) on Feb. 11 in Vienna. English safety bike inventor John Kemp Starley (b. 1854) (biking accident - just kidding). Am. prospector Joe Ladue (b. 1855) on June 27 in Schuyler Falls, N.Y. (TB). Am. composer Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin (b. 1862) on Feb. 17 in New Haven, Conn. French artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (b. 1864) on Sept. 9 in Chateau Malrome, Saint-Andre-du-Bois; dies in the home of his mother Countess Adele de Toulouse-Lautrec; leaves a cane with a hidden vial for absinthe ("the green fairy"); in 2005 Christie's auctions his "La Blanchisseuse" for a record $22.4M. Am. bad poet J. Gordon Coogler (b. 1865). English cricketer George Lohmann (b. 1865) on Dec. 1 in Worcester, Western Cape, South Africa. English writer Margaret Barber (b. 1869) on Aug. 24 in Henfield, West Sussex. Am. pres. assassin Leon Czolgosz (b. 1873) on Oct. 29 in Auburn, N.Y. (executed).

1902 - The Boering Year in Africa Ibn Saud Year in Arabia Drago Year in Venezuela Philippine Organic Act Rose Bowl T-Rex Gene Year in America? A good year to found a retail business in make-a-move America?

Arthur James Balfour of Britain (1848-1930) Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia (1880-1953) Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941) Gregorio Labayan Aglipay of the Philippines (1860-1940) Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. of the U.S. (1841-1935) Hallam Tennyson of Britain (1852-1928) Luis Maria Drago of Argentina (1859-1921) Padraic Colum (1881-1972) Else Lasker-Schüler (1869-1945) Australian Lt. Breaker Morant (1864-1902) Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (1865-1922) Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927) Sir William Maddock Bayliss (1860-1924) Walter Sutton (1877-1916) Theodor Heinrich Boveri (1862-1915) Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) Henri Edouard Prosper Breuil (1877-1961) Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861-1939) James Allen (1864-1912) Alexander Amfiteatrov (1862-1938) Margaret Barber (1869-1901) William James (1842-1910) John Masefield (1878-1967) Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) Barnum Brown (1873-1963) Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) First Drawing of T-Rex, by Henry F. Osborn (1857-1935), 1905 James Cash Penney (1875-1971 James Cash Penney (1875-1971) Henry Martyn Leland (1843-1932) Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) Oldsmobile Curved Dash, 1901-07 Oldsmobile Logo Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941) Georges Claude (1870-1960) Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934) Theodor Leschetizky (1830-1915) Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922) Babe Ruth (1895-1948) Nig Clarke (1882-1949) Joe Tinker (1880-1948) Johnny Evers (1881-1947) Frank Chance (1877-1924) Frank Selee (1859-1909) William Thomas Stead (1849-1912) John Kinley Tener (1863-1946) Charles Phelps Taft of the U.S. (1843-1929) Sir Edward Maunde Thompson (1840-1929) Rube Waddell (1876-1914) Owen Wister (1860-1938) Martha Berry (1866-1942) Oscar Eckenstein (1859-1921) Jules Jacot-Guillarmod (1868-1925) Helena Rubenstein (1872-1965) Elisabeth Wiese (1853-1905) Smith and Dale Leon Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) A.E.W. Mason (1865-1913) Beatrix Potter (1866-1943) Charles Richet (1850-1935) Hermann Cohen (1842-1918) Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) Charles Albert Gobat (1843-1914) Isabella Augusta Persse, Lady Gregory (1852-1932) Thomas Buckland Jeffery (1845-1910) AAA Logo Charles Jasper Glidden (1857-1927) Glidden Trophy, 1905 Rambler, 1902- Rambler Logo Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944) Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) Hermann Emil Fischer (1852-1919) Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) William John McGee (1853-1912) Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) Hobart Johnstone Whitley (1847-1931) Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942) Poulsen Arc Transmitter, 1902 Bank Leumi Note Hollywood, 1903 'Jack and the Beanstalk', 1902 'Buster Brown', 1902- Georges Méliès (1861-1938) 'A Trip to the Moon' by Georges Méliès, 1902 Siegmund Lubin (1851-1923) Henry C. Myers (1882-1938) Mary Garden (1874-1967) Florence Hackett (1882-1954) Alan Hale Sr. (1892-1950) Oliver Hardy (1892-1957) Arthur V. Johnson (1876-1916) Lottie Briscoe (1883-1950) Florence Lawrence (1883-1938) Ethel Clayton (1882-1966) Gladys Brockwell (1883-1929) Edwin Carewe (1883-1940) Ormi Hawley (1889-1942) Rosemary Theby (1892-1973) Pearl White (1889-1939) Thomas Lincoln Tally (1861-1945) 'Bend in Forest Road' by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), 1902 'Snow in New York' by Robert Henri (1865-1929), 1902 Baker Electric Regina Pneumatic Cleaner Ad Regina Pneumatic Cleaner, 1907 Champagne Velvet Beer Luzianne brand tea Algonquin Hotel, 1902 Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) Flatiron Building, 1902 Thomas Kearns (1862-1918) Utah Governor's Mansion, 1902

1902 Chinese Year: Tiger. The original Never On A Sunday? On Jan. 1 (Wed.) the first Rose Bowl (originally the Tournament East-West Football Game) is held; Mich. defeats Stanford by 49-0; the next one isn't held until 1916; it is always held on Jan. 1 unless it's a Sun., when it is held on Mon. Jan. 2; the Stanford Cardinal team was originally organized by Herbert Hoover when he was a freshman. There is a smallpox epidemic in Cleveland, Ohio this year. On Jan. 11 the first issue of Popular Mechanics is pub., featuring an article on the inner workings of a submarine. On Jan. 28 after retiring from business to become a philanthropist, Andrew Carnegie founds the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C. with a $22M endowment, with the first board of trustees incl. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, the pres. of the U.S. Senate, the Speaker of the House, the secy. of the Smithsonian Inst., and the pres. of the Nat. Academy of Sciences; Congress incorporates it in 1903; initial recipients of funding incl. physicist Albert A. Michelson, biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan, botanist Luther Burbank, and rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard; in 1904 funding is given only to research depts. not individuals, resulting in the development of Pyrex brand glass, hybrid corn, radar, and RNA interference science. On Jan. 30 the Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed, recognizing the right of China and Korea to be free from Russian designs, while Japan recognizes Britain's rights in China, and Britain recognizes Japan's in Korea; Japan demands the withdrawal of Russian troops from Manchuria; meanwhile the Russkies milk a 1896 timber concession on the Yalu River in N Korea, and war is just around the corner. In Jan. Liserl Einstein, daughter of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and Mileva Maric in born; she ends up mysteriously, probably adopted when Albert can't raise her and keep his career too; unable to get a professor to recommend him for a univ. post, in July he gets a job as a third class examiner in the Swiss Patent Office in Bern (Berne), where he plays the great amateur, along with fellow physics lover Michel Besso (his best friend?), with whom he gets his "big idea" (relativity) while trying to figure out how long light takes to travel from clock towers. On Feb. 27 the Anglo Palestine Co. in London is founded by Zionists to promote Jewish development of Palestine; it opens its first branch in Jaffa next year; in 1950 it is renamed Bank Leumi Le-Israel (Nat. Bank of Israel); in 1983 it is nationalized. On Feb. 27 Australian army Lt. Harry "Breaker" Harbord Morant (b. 1864) and Lt. Peter Joseph Handcock (b. 1868) are executed by the British army for the murder of nine Boer POWs after being acquitted of the murder of whistleblowing Lutheran minister Daniel Heese; although they are guilty as sin, they claim that the British high command gave standing orders to execute all Boer prisoners, and that they are scapegoats; filmed in 1980; Lt. George Ramsdale Witton (1874-1942) gets his sentence commuted, and serves three years in prison, going on to pub. Scapegoats of the Empire in 1907, refusing to fight for the British in WWI. On Mar. 4 the Am. Automobile Assoc. (AAA) is founded in Chicago, Ill. by nine clubs with 1.5K total members, growing to 51M members by 2010; it founds the AAA Racing (Contest) Board to officiate the Vanderbilt Cup internat. auto race in Long Island, N.Y., and goes on to sanction the Indianapolis 500 in 1905, 1916, 1920-41, and 1946-55; in 1902-13 the Glidden Tours, named after wealthy telephone pioneer (inventor of the telephone exchange, preferring female voices) Charles Jasper Glidden (1857-1927) (who this year became the first to circle the world in an automobile, a British Napoer with his wife Lucy, repeating it in 1908) are organized by the AAA to test "reliability and endurance" in a gruelling road rally through nearly impassible country roads, with drivers making repairs on the fly and helping each other between scaring horses and causing property and personal damage; starting in 1905 Glidden donates a $2K prize and the silver Glidden Trophy. On Mar. 20 France and Russia issue a declaration apparently favoring the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, but reserving the right to safeguard their interests, which is taken as an extension of the Franco-Russian Alliance to the Far East - an exaggeration? In the spring Italian castrato Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922) makes his first phonograph recordings in London, becoming the only castrato recorded before Pope Pius X bans castratos next year. On Apr. 14 Hamilton, Mo.-born James Cash Penney (1875-1971) opens his first Golden Rule store in Kemmerer, Wyo. with $2K, moving to Salt Lake City, Utah in 1909 and growing to 34 stores in the Rocky Mt. area by 1912; in 1913 he consolidates them all under the name J.C. Penney Co., and in 1914 moves the HQ to New York City, growing to 175 stores in 22 states by 1917; in 1922 Big Mac work clothes brand is launched; in 1925 the 500th store opens in guess-where Hamilton, Mo.; in 1928 the 1,000th store opens, with the co. doing $190M/year; in 1940 Sam Walton begins working at a J.C. Penney store in Des Moines, Iowa; by 1941 there are 1.6K stores in 48 states; in 1959 the chain issues its own credit cards; in 1961 the first full-line shopping center department store is opened in Black Horse Pike Center in Audubon, N.J., followed in 1962 by King of Prussia Plaza in Penn.; in 1962 stores open in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, followed in 1966 by Honolulu, Hawaii, and San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1968 (261.5K sq. ft.); in 1962-81 it acquires the Gen. Merchandise Co., which runs discount The Treasury stores; in1971 a 300K sq. ft. store is opened in Woodfield Mall in Chicago, Ill., becoming the largest until one opens in 1998 at Plaza Las Americas in San Juan, Puerto Rico (350K sq. ft.); Old Man Cash dies on Feb. 12, 1971, and the stores all close for half a day, with revenues of $5B for the year, first time the catalog biz makes a profit; in 1973 the chain peaks at 2,053 stores incl. 300 full-line stores; in 1990 it moves to a new HQ in Plano, Tex., becoming the largest U.S. catalog retailer in 1993 after Sears closes its catalog biz; in 1996 it acquires Fay's Drug, Kerr Drug, and the Eckerd chain (sold 2004); in 1998 it launches an Internet store; in 2007 it launches the Ambrielle lingerie brand and Sephora brand cosmetics. On Apr. 16 Tex.-born Thomas Lincoln Tally (1861-1945) opens the Electric Theatre in Los Angeles, Calif., the first movie theater in the town; in 1912 he becomes the first in LA to show a color movie. On May 8 Mt. Pelee (Fr. "bald") on Martinique in the French West Indies erupts, and the island's largest town of St. Pierre in NW Martinique is destroyed, killing 30K-40K; only one man survives, locked up in an underground jail cell; on Aug. 30 it erupts again, wiping out Morne Rouge and other towns, killing 2K; St. Pierre is later rebuilt; the pyroclastic flows glow red in the dark. On May 17 having attained the age of majority, 16-y.-o. Spanish king (since 1886) Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) assumes rule (until Apr. 14, 1931). On May 19 a coal mine explosion in Fraterville, Tenn. kills 216 miners and leaves 150 widows. On May 20 Cuba, administered by the U.S. since 1898 gains full independence from Spain. On May 24 a statue of Comte de Rochambeau (1725-1807) is unveiled in Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C. by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt as part of a demonstration of U.S.-French friendship. Obey your master? In May after realizing that further resistance is futile, Boer CIC Gen. Louis Botha (1862-1919) begins negotiations in Middleburg, and on May 31 the Second Boer War (begun Oct. 11, 1899) ends with a British V and the Treaty (Peace) of Vereeniging; Orange Free State (Transvaal) becomes a British crown colony, with a promise of eventual self-govt., and Britain promises £3M to help rebuild Boer farms; 5,774 British and 4K Boers are killed; Britain has 300K troops in South Africa vs. 60-70K Boers; Pres. Paul Kruger lives in exile in Utrecht, Netherlands; British imperialism has grown sour and is on the way out after their poor showing against fellow whites and their merciless starvation and concentration camp tactics (28K die in camps); Venda in N South Africa comes under South African admin. In May-Oct. the Great Anthracite Coal Strike by the United Mine Workers (UMW) in E Penn. sees 17K workers refuse to join, causing retaliation against the "scabs", incl. one beaten to death; after it threatens a cold winter, Pres. Roosevelt sets up a fact-finding commission that gets them higher pay and less hours, ending the strike. On June 7 anti-clerical leftist Emile (Émile) Justin Louis Combes (1835-1921) becomes PM #69 of France (until Jan. 24, 1905), going on to push complete separation of church and state and use his Freemason connections to spy on army officers, resulting in his demise. On June 12 the Commonwealth Franchise Act is passed in Australia, giving white women the right to vote in federal elections, making them #2 after New Zealand, and also giving them the right to run for Parliament, a first. In June Edward VII is crowned shortly after an emergency appendectomy by his surgeon (1902-10) Sir Frederick Treves (of Elephant Man fame), for which he is given a residence in Richmond Park and takes an early retirement. On June 28 the U.S. Efficiency of Militia (Dirk) Act divides the militia into three distinct separate entities, making the use of the Nat. Guard for offensive warfare outside the borders of the U.S. illegal; too bad, starting with Pres. Wilson they all get away with it by claiming that the army is separate from the militia (until ?). In June the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy (begun 1882) is renewed for another six years; Italy secretly extends a guarantee to France that its actions should not be directed against it, adding to the guarantee already in effect for Britain. On July 1 the U.S. Philippine Philippine Organic (Cooper) Act, sponsored by Henry Allen Cooper (1850-1931) (R-Wisc.) is passed by the U.S. Senate, providing for a bicameral legislature consisting of an appointed upper house and elected lower house, with the U.S. govt. retaining veto powers; on July 4 the Philippine-Am. War (begun 1899) is officially ended by proclamation of Pres. Roosevelt; excommunicated priest Gregorio Labayan Aglipay (1860-1940) founds the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Church), an independent screw-you-popey Filipino nat. church; Taft purchases 410K acres of church-owned friar land for distribution to the tenants, which is never fully accomplished. On July 11 PM (since June 25, 1895) Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (b. 1830), who has been British PM for most of the time since 1885 resigns due to failing health and grief over the death of his wife, and on July 12 Conservative Arthur James Balfour (1848-1930) becomes PM of England (until Dec. 5, 1905). In July after Parliament refuses to pay him enough, the 7th earl of Hopetoun suddenly resigns as gov.-gen. of Australia (since 1889), and South Australia gov. (since 1899) Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson (1852-1928), son of Alfred, Lord Tennyson (like his father an ardent imperialist) becomes gov.-gen. #2 of Australia (until Jan. 21, 1904). On Aug. 2 Vt.-born Henry Martyn LeLand (1843-1932), inventor of electric barber clippers and the Leland-Detroit Monorail toy train founds the Cadillac Motor Co. (named after Detroit founder Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, Sieur de Cadillac) from the Henry Ford Co. to produce a 1-cylinder car originally developed for Oldsmobile, pioneering the use of interchangeable parts; on July 29, 1909 he sells Cadillac to Gen. Motors for $4.5M, remaining as an executive, pushing Charles Kettering to develop an electric self-starter after one of his engineers is hit in the head and killed by a starting crank when an engine backfires. On Aug. 11 Pres. Teddy Roosevelt appoints liberal Mass. chief justice (since Aug. 2, 1899) Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (1841-1935) (lt. col. in the Union army in the U.S. Civil War, son of Boston lit. lion you know who Sr.) (author of the std. reference "The Common Law", 1881) as U.S. Supreme Court justice #58 to fill the vacancy left by Horace Gray (d. 1902); on Dec. 4 he is sworn in, and serves 29 years (until Jan. 12, 1932), issuing concise and pithy opinions and becoming known as "the Great Dissenter". On Aug. 12 (Sun.) the West Side Riot between whites and blacks in the bordello-filled Tenderloin District in West Side, Manhattan, N.Y. starts when black man Arthur Harris kills white policeman Robert J. Thorpe with a razor for trying to arrest his black babe May Eao, after which Thorpe's friends begin taking revenge on random blacks, being joined by the Hell's Kitchen Gang of white hoodlums, who shout "Kill the niggers", after which police chief Devery orders his white pigs to "take no prisoners" and club the black rioters into submission, injuring 60 and stopping it fast, with only 35 arrests. On Aug. 22 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. pres. to ride in an automobile in a procession in Hartford, Conn. In early Sept. after an unusually hot dry season and high winds, forest fires rage in every part of Greece. On Oct. 30 after the Catholic Modernist Movement founded in Saint Sulpice in Paris to fight the German school of Biblical scholarship turns into defectors and budding heretics, Pope Leo XIII issues the apostolic letter Pastoralis Vigilantiae, establishing the Pontifical Biblical Commission to insure that Biblical studies "be shielded not only from every breath of error but even from every rash opinion", and causing "a dark cloud of reactionary conservatism to settle over Roman Catholic biblical scholarship in the first half of the twentieth century" (Oxford Companion to the Bible, 1993, p. 603); in 1907 Pope Pius X issues a formal condemnation of Modernism, and on Sept. 1, 1910 the Church begins requiring clerics to swear an oath against Modernist tendencies, driving Modernism underground, with Modernist Abbe Turnel pub. under 14 different aliases until he is outed in 1929 and excommunicated. In Aug. Lord Rothschild writes a Letter to Theodor Herzl, with the soundbyte that he "should view with horror the establishment of a Jewish colony pure and simple; such a colony would be Imperium Imperio; it would be a Ghetto with the prejudice of the Ghetto; it would be a small petty Jewish state, orthodox and illiberal, excluding the Gentile and the Christian." On Nov. 1 Italy sends a note to France assuring neutrality and bolstering an Italian-French entente, which causes the Triple Alliance to tank and strains Italian-Austrian relations, which are threatened by Irredentist agitation anyway. On Nov. 8 Spain rejects a French offer of a substantial part of N Morocco as a sphere of influence for fear of antagonizing Britain. In Dec. the Committee of Imperial Defence holds its first meeting in London, consisting of the PM, lord pres., first lord of the admiralty, war secy., army CIC, first sea lord, and the heads of naval and military intel. In Dec. the Venezuela Blockade (ends 1903) is imposed by Britain, Germany, and Italy for failure to pay loans; on Dec. 19 Argentine foreign minister Luis Maria Drago (1859-1921) communicates his opinion vis a vis the Venezuelan Boundary Dispute (begun 1895) that a creditor nation doesn't have the right to use force to collect a debt from another sovereign state, known as the Drago Doctrine. Swaziland comes under British rule (until 1968). In Dec. Luzianne brand coffee is introduced by William B. Reilly of Monroe, La., followed in 1903 by Luzianne brand tea; in 1932 a blend formulated specially for iced tea is introduced, becoming their biggest seller; in the 1970s singer-actor Burl Ives stars in commercials. On Jan. 13 Wahhabi leader Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud (1880-1953) seizes control of Riyadh, the capital of Nejd, founding the Third Saudi State (Saudi Arabia), with himself as emir of Nejd (until Nov. 3, 1921), followed by sultan (until Jan. 29, 1927), then king (until Sept. 23, 1932), and finally king #1 of Saudi Arabia on Sept. 23, 1932 (until Nov. 9, 1953). Krishnaraja Wodiyar IV (1884-1940) becomes ruler of Mysore, India, going on to invent modern yoga and try to palm it off as ancient? The leaders of the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek or Muscogee, and Seminole) meet in Eufaula, Okla. (Indian Territory) to form their own state known as Sequoyah, holding a constitutional convention in Muskogee on Aug. 21, 1905, which is ignored by Congress and vetoed by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt. The Colonial Conference meets in London. Portugal declares nat. bankruptcy. Argentine pres. Julio Argentino Roca avoids a war with Chile over a boundary dispute. The U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court begins hearing Kansas v. Colo., with Kansas claiming that Colo. takes too much water from the Arkansas River, reducing the value of its land; it strings along for over a cent., with rulings in 1907, 1943, 1995, 2001, 2004, and 2009. The Royal Victorian Chain is established by King Edward VII as a personal award of the monarch, not to be confused with the Royal Victorian Order; it becomes the top award for Canadians, who are ineligible to receive knighthoods, incl. Vincent Massey and Roland Michener; it must be returned on the recipient's death. Chicken becomes the 2nd town in Alaska to incorporate. The Trans-Pacific telephone cable connects Vancouver, Canada and Brisbane, Australia through Midway, completing a worldwide circuit. Robert F. Scott begins an Antarctic expedition which sets a new record for S latitude (ends 1904). Leon Trotsky escapes from a Siberian prison and settles in London. Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia visits Edward VII of England, expecting to receive the Order of the Garter like his daddy Nasser ed-Din Shah did, but the king refuses, but his secy. makes up a fake one and sends it to his yacht; too bad, he knows it's fake and tosses out the porthole; he finally gets it next year. Moldavian-born Rabbi Solomon Schechter (1847-1915) emigrates to the U.S. and becomes pres. of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City, co-founding the United Synagogue of Am. The U.S. Army begins dressing its soldiers in khakis (from the Urdu word for dusty). A German Spelling Cconference is held in Germany with reps. from N (Low German or Plattdeutch), S Germany (High German), Austria, and Switzerland to work out a uniform spelling for German, although they all retain their own pronunciation - Ich liebe dich - you wanna lick my what? The Pan Am. Health Org. is founded. King Edward VII establishes the Order of Merit, limited to 24 British subjects at any one time; Irish historian W.E.H. Lecky (d. 1903) is one of the lucky ones. Bocconi U. in Milan, Italy is founded, becoming the first Italian univ. to grant a degree in economics. The Am. Anthropological Assoc. (AAA) is founded in Arlington, Va. by 175 people after Franz Boas tried to limit it to 40 prof. anthropologists; pres. #1 (1902-12) is William John McGee (1853-1912); it takes over the journal American Anthropologist (founded 1888); in 2010 the executive board pub. the statement: "The strength of Anthropology lies in its distinctive position at the nexus of the sciences and humanities." The Anglo-Am. Pilgrims Assoc. (Pilgrims Society) is founded by wealthy businessmen in London and New York City to increase ties, and is patronized by the British monarchs. The Rand Daily Mail begins pub. in Johannesburg, South Africa in sept. (until Apr. 30, 1985), becoming known for its stand against apartheid. Sigmund Freud founds the Wednesday (Vienna) Psychological Society, which meets at his home and launches the psychoanalytic movement, with members incl. Vienna-born Alfred Adler (1870-1937) (pres. #1), who breaks with him after is is founded, instead founding Individual Psychology, and coining the term Inferiority Complex, and Swiss-born Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), who also breaks with him after it is founded, coining the terms "autism", "ambivalence", and "schizophrenia", which he believes is not incurable, necessitating early discharge from the hospital to avoid institutionalization. The British Academy is founded in London to support the humanities and social sciences by British Museum dir. (1888-1909) Sir Edward Maunde Thompson (1840-1929) et al., receiving a royal charter this year and going on to become Britain's nat. academy for the humanities and social sciences, with 1K+ leading scholars elected by their peers. The Order of the Coif is founded at the U. of Law for law students ranking in the top 10% of their class. After training in political philosophy and history, Thomas Woodrow Wilson becomes the first layman pres. of Princeton U. (until 1910). Edith Roosevelt becomes the first First Lady to have a private secy. William Jennings Bryan visits Colo. and gives his "Cross of Gold" speech in front of the New Sheridan Hotel in Telluride. French journalist Victor Moris coins the word "apache" (pr. a-POSH) for Parisian thugs to describe how an Apache Indian handles his bitch, er, woman in a brutal, masterly way - I'm not ready to fight with you, my dear, how about a drink instead? After a conviction for performing illegal abortions, Gformer midwife Elisabeth Wiese (1853-1905) of St. Pauli, Hamburg, Germany begins poisoning babies with morphine after working a scam on their adoptive parents, murdering five by the time she is arrested in 1903 and guillotined on Feb. 2, 1905, becoming known as "the Angel-Maker of St. Pauli"; Martha McChesney Berry (1866-1942) founds a log cabin school in the backwoods of Ga., going on to establish the Christian Berry Schools for Mountain Childen in Mount Berry, Ga., followed in 1930 by Berry College in Rome, Ga. - where they pick a lot of berries? Enrico Caruso makes his first gramophone recording. New Orleans, La.-born Jelly Roll Morton (Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe) (1890-1941) claims to invent Jazz this year, but not the term. Olaf Gulbransson (1873-1958) becomes political cartoonist for the "Simplicissimus". The comic strip Buster Brown by Richard Felton Outcault debuts in the New York Herald. Paul Cezanne (d. 1906) builds the Les Lauves studio in Aix-en-Provence, where he spends the last four years of his life painting monumental female nudes, skulls, and his gardener Vallier. Ealing Studios is founded in the White Lodge in Ealing Green, W London, England by William George "Will" Barker (1868-1951), going on to become the oldest continuously-operating film studio on Earth; in 1931 it begins filming talkies; after WWII it releases a series of classic films incl. "Kind Hearts and Coronets" (1949), "Passport to Pimlico" (1949), "The Lavender Hill Mob" (1951), and "The Ladykillers" (1955); in 1955-95 it is acquired by the BBC. The Jewish-Am. comedy team of Smith and Dale (Joe Smith and Charlie Dale) gets started when a local printer gives them a good deal on business cards; their real names are Joe Sultzer and Charlie Marks; they go on to become famous for their routine Doctor Kronkheit and His Only Living Patient. The World's Oldest Smithfield Ham is first cured in Smithfield, Va., and survives until ?, being insured for $1K by Lloyds of London. Franklin Clarence "Frank" Mars (1883-1934) founds the Mars Candy Co. in Tacoma, Wash., which is a bust until he invents the Milky Way candy bar in 1923 using Hershey's chocolate for the coating. The Thomas B. Jeffery Co. is founded in Kenosha, Wisc. by Stoke, Devon, England-born bicycle manufacturer Thomas Buckland Jeffery (1845-1910) (inventor of the clincher rim for tires in 1882), producing the Rambler ("Kenosha Cadillac") ("the car for country roads"), which he first built in 1897, becoming the first car with a spare wheel-tire assembly. After his Olds Motor Works burns to the ground last Mar. 9, Olds creates the first automotive assembly line for the $650 Curved Dash Oldsmobile, increasing production 5x using wooden wheeled platforms to hold the cars as parts are added, becoming the first mass-produced low-priced U.S. motor vehicle, selling 425 in 1901, 2.5K in 1902, and 19K by 1907 when it discontinues production; in 1904 after clashes with co-owner Frederic L. Smith, Olds leaves the co. and forms REO Motor Car Co., which is sold to General Motors in 1908, and discontinues production in 2004 - it's not your father's Oldsmobile? Threatened by competition from the phonograph, music box manufacturer Regina Co. in Jersey City, N.J. (founded 1892) begins making 2-person hand-pumped pneumatic vacuum cleaners (patent #847,947, 1907) (patent #1,016,921, 1912), which sell poorly along with the music boxes, causing the company to go bankrupt in 1922, surviving the 1930s with canister vacuum machines, and introducing their stick model the Eletrik Broom in the 1940s; in 1997 it is acquired by Oreck Co.; in 2000 it is acquired by the Royal Corp., which sells vacuum cleaners under the Home Depot brand. Macy's opens a giant store on New York's 34th St. at Herald Square. Goodwill Industries is founded in the U.S. Barcalounger Co. becomes the first U.S. co. to allow employees coffee breaks. Necco begins marketing Conversation Hearts Valentine's Day candies with cute messages. Champagne Velvet brand beer is introduced by Terra Haute Brewing Co. of Ind., based on a recipe developed by a son of immigrants from Tettnang, Germany requiring their hops, which is insured for $1M, causing the ad slogan "the Beer with the Million Dollar Flavor" to be used, becoming the #1 beer for Hoosiers. 4'10" Krakow-born Jew Helena (Chaja) Rubenstein (1872-1965) emigrates from Poland to Australia, finding herself in a wonderland of 75M merino sheep, from which she obtains lanolin to make her Creme Valaze beauty cream, becoming a success and moving to London, England in 1908 with $100K, then to Paris, France in 1912, where she opens a salon, then to New York City in 1914, where she opens another salon, becoming rivals with Elizabeth Arden; in 1928 she sells-out to the Lehman Brothers for $7.3M, then after the Great Depression arrives she buys it back for less than $1M, expanding to a dozen U.S. cities. Architecture: The 181-room Algonquin Hotel at 59 West 44th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. opens, becoming the home of the Alonquin Round Table in 1919-29. The Denver Museum of Natural History (later Denver Museum of Nature and Science) in Denver, Colo. is founded, later housing the Folsom Point, found in 1908 near Folsom, N.M. lodged between the ribs of a bison known to have been extinct for more than 10K years, proving the existence of humans in North Am. that far back - do I detect a little circular reasoning here? Am. architect Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) designs the triangular Flatiron Bldg. in New York City (at 23rd St., 5th Ave. and Broadway), as well as the Union Station in Washington, D.C. (opened Oct. 27, 1907); the Flatiron Bldg. acts as a wind tunnel, creating updrafts and viewing opportunities for men. The Aswan Dam in Egypt is completed. Bass Rock Lighthouse on Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth outside Edinburgh is built. The Campanile (Bell Tower) of St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice suddenly collapses, and is rebuilt by 1910. The Hollywood Hotel on Highland Ave. and Prospect Ave. in Los Angeles, Calif. opens, owned by Toronto, Canada-born real estate developer Hobart Johnstone "H.J." Whitley (1847-1931) ("the Father of Hollywood"), who incorporates Hollywood next Nov. 14; on Jan. 30, 1904 Hollywood bans liquor except for valid medical purposes; in 1910 it votes for annexation to Los Angeles, renaming Prospect Ave. to Hollywood Blvd. The marble-granite-sandstone Kearns Mansion at 603 E. Brigham (South Temple) St. in Salt Lake City is builty by wealthy Roman Catholic U.S. Sen. (R-Utah) (1901-5) Thomas Kearns (1862-1918) (owner of the Silver King Coalition Mine in Park City, Utah); in 1937 it becomes the official mansion of the gov. of Utah. Lubin Manufacturing Co. is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. by Polish Jewish immigrant optometrist Siegmund "Pop" Lubin (Lubszynski) (1851-1923), who started out in 1897 making films with his Cineograph combo camera/projector, using the open air roof of a bldg. in the business district as a studio; the trademark is the Liberty Bell; in 1910 Lubin builds a modern studio called Lubinville on the corner of Indiana Ave. and 20th St., expanding to Jacksonville, Fla., Los Angeles, Calif., and Coronado, Calif.; his stock co. incl. Harry C. "Henry" Myers (1882-1938), Florence Hackett (nee Hart) (1882-1954), Alan Hale Sr. (1892-1950), Oliver "Ollie" "Babe" (Norvell) Hardy (1892-1957) ($5/a day, 3 days a week guaranteed), Arthur Vaughan Johnson (1876-1916), Lottie Briscoe (1883-1950), Florence Lawrence (Florence Annie Bridgwood) (1883-1938), Ethel Clayton (1882-1966), Gladys Brockwell (Lindeman) (1893-1929), Edwin Carewe (Jay Fox) (1883-1940), Ormetta Grace "Ormi" Hawley (1889-1942), Rosemary Theresa Theby (Thebe) (Rose Masing) (1892-1973), and Pearl White (1889-1939); too bad, a fire at his studio in June 1914 destroys the negatives for new unreleased films, and after a losing copyright battle with the Edison Trust causes him to join it, entering a distribution agreement with Vitagraph, Selig, and Essanay Studios, only to see WWI destroy the foreign market, he declares bankruptcy on Sept. 1, 1916 after producing 1K films, and goes back to being an optometrist; meanwhile he stinks himself up by pirating films by Georges Melies et al. After the W end of the 2nd floor is found too small for his family of six children and staff, causing First Lady Edith Roosevelt to hire the architectural firm of McKim, Mead and White for a renovation, which Congress approves $500K for, the West Wing of the White House is built for $65K on the site of the greenhouses and stables, originally intended as a temporary office structure, with the Office of the Pres. and Cabinet Room on the E; in 1909 Pres. Taft expands the bldg. southward over the old tennis court, with the first Oval Office at the C of the S facade; Pres. Hoover rebuilds the West Wing and digs a partial basement supported with structural steel, which is damaged on Dec. 24, 1929 by an electrical fire, causing Hoover to rebuild it and add air conditioning; in 1932 Pres. FDR hires New York City architect Eric Gugler to redesign it to increase the space inside the same envelope, and he excavates a full basement under the lawn and adds underground offices, adding an unobtrusive penthouse story at the cost of narrow corridors and cramped offices; on the E side he adds a new Cabinet Room, Secy.'s Office, and Oval Office that gives the pres. greater privacy and concealed access to the White House; by the end of the cent. most staff members are moved to the Eisenhower Executive Office Bldg. Sports: On Jan. 5-Mar. 1 the 1902 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season sees the Montreal Hockey Club win with a 6-2 record, going on to defeat the Winnipeg Victorias 2-1 on Mar. 13-17 to win the Stanley Cup. On Mar. 7 Ernest Fosberg of Rockford, Ill. becomes the first to roll a 300 game in ABC-sanctioned league play. On May 31 (Sat.) speed trials in Staten Island, N.Y. before a crowd of 10K sees the 7 hp 3K lb. Baker Electric Car from Baker Motor Vehicle Co. of Cleveland, Ohio come in 2nd at the 1km mark at 36.2 sec. before spinning out of control and crashing into the crowd, causing owner-driver W.C. Baker (b. 1870) and his asst. C.E. Denzer to be arrested, after which on June 3 the Automobile Club of Am. announces that it will no longer sanction automobile speed trials on public highways, and will authorize officials to ban cars they consider dangerous or unsuitable; it ran on 40 lead-zinc Gould batteries. On June 13 7-y.-o. "incorrigible and vicious" George Herman Ruth Jr. (1895-1948) (later known as the Babe, the Bambino, and the Sultan of Swat) is sent to St. Mary's Industrial School in Baltimore, Md., where he lives for the next ? years, getting taught about life and baseball by 6'6" 250 lb. Brother Matthias, whose uppercut swing and pigeon-toed run he copies, after which he becomes a ML baseball player in 1914-35, #1 of all time. On June 15 Ont., Canada-born Adrian, Mich.-raised catcher Jay Justin "Nig" Clarke (1882-1949) of the Corsicana Oil Citys of the Texas League scores a record eight home runs in one game in Ennis, Tex., defeating the Texarkana Casketmakers 51-3; too bad, "The right field fence at Ennis wasn't more than 40 feet [12 m] back of first base. Nig just pulled eight short flies around and over that wall. I'm not taking anything away from old Nig's batting prowess - he was the one of the best hitters I ever saw. But that's the way he hit eight homers that day. Didn't have to send the ball more than 140 feet [43 m] at the most." American baseball creates some defensive superstars out of a poem? On Sept. 2 (Tues.) Baseball's Sad Lexicon of Chicago Cubs shortstop Joseph Bert "Joe" Tinker (1880-1948), 2nd baseman John Joseph "Johnny" Evers (1881-1947) ("the Crab"), and 1st baseman Frank Leroy Chance (1877-1924) first appear in a game together, and turn their first double play on Sept. 3; on Sept. 14, 1905 (Thur.) Tinker and Evers fall out over a cab fare and don't speak to each again until 1938; mgr. Frank Gibson Selee (1859-1909) made Tinker switch from 3B, Evers from SS, and Chance from catcher; in 1910 (their final season) Franklin Pierce Adams writes a poem about them from the viewpoint of the defeated New York Giants, making them into legends; in 1946 all three are voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; Frank Selee retires from illness in 1905, and Chance takes his job as mgr. (until 1912); from 1906-10 3rd base is played by Harry M. Steinfeldt (1877-1914), who is left out of the poem; in 1913 Cubs owner (since 1906) Charles Webb Murphy (1868-1931) fires Evers, who is traded to the Boston Braves and goes on to win the WS and the Chalmers Award, causing NL pres. (1914-18) John Kinley Tener (1863-1946) and Charles Phelps Taft (1843-1929) (brother of baseball fan Pres. William Howard Taft) to drive him out of diamonds-are-a-girl's-best-friend baseball; "E is for Evers, His jaw in advance; Never afraid To Tinker with Chance." (Ogden Nash) Automobile and motorcycle races begin to be held on 4.2-mi.-long Daytona Beach Road Course in Fla., whose hard-packed white sand is ideal for speed trials; closed on Feb. 23, 1958. "London Daily Mail" pub. Alfred Harmsworth (1865-1922), the first person in England to drive a Mercedes-Benz founds the Harmsworth Cup for motorboat racing; in 1905 he is created Baron Northcliffe, then 1st Viscount Northcliffe in 1918; in WWI his anti-German propaganda pisses-off the Huns so much that they send battleships to shell his house; too bad, when the Nazis arrive, his surviving partner-brother Harold Harmsworth, who is created 1st Viscount Rothermere in 1910 pushes an appeasement policy because three of his sons were KIA or went missing in one week in WWI. Lefty pitcher George Edward "Rube" Waddell (1876-1914) joins the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (until 1907), pitching 250 games with a winning percentage of .618 (lifetime .580), incl. a record 349 strikeouts in 1904, which is not matched until 1946 by Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians; the first real baseball star, he is helped by his bizarre behavior incl. leaving games to follow fire trucks, and getting entranced by puppies held up by the audience. In June a team led by English mountaineer Oscar Johannes Ludwig Eckenstein (1859-1921) (inventor of the modern crampon and friend of Aliester Crowley) and Swiss physician Jules Jacot-Guillarmod (1868-1925) reaches the base of K2; they don't summit, but Jacot-Guillarmod's photgraphs make the region famous, causing more attempts; on July 10, 1906 Eckenstein et al. make the first ascent of 4,069m Mont Brouillard (Fr. "mountain of mist") in the Val d'Aosta of Italy on the S ridge of Mont Blanc. 5'4" San Francisco, Calif.-born Jewish-Am. boxer ("the Little Hebrew") Abraham Washington "Abe" Attell (1883-1970) becomes world featherweight boxing champ, dominating the title until 1912, incl. a 6-year consecutive reign in 1906-12; too bad, since he is friends with gangster Abe Rothstein, he is charged with involvement in the 1919 Black Sox Scandal, but the charges are dismissed before trial. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) and Charles Albert Gobat (1843-1914) (Switzerland); Lit.: Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) (Germany); Physics: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) and Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) (Netherlands) [Zeeman Effect]; Chem.: Hermann Emil Louis Fischer (1852-1919) (Germany) [sugar chem.]; Med.: Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) (U.K.) [malaria]. Inventions: On Feb. 15 British inventor Daniel "Dan" Albone (1860-1906) files a patent for the first commercially successful gasoline-powered farm tractor, forming Ivel Agricultural Motors Ltd. and selling them for £300 and building 500; in 1903 Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr begin marketing a 2-cylinder gasoline engine tractor in Charles City, Iowa, dooming the 20M horses and mules on U.S. farms to obsolescence over the next 20 years. Richard Cavill of guess where invents the Australian Crawl swim stroke - the Great White shark doesn't get part of the credit? French chemist-physicist-engineer Georges Claude (1870-1960) invents the Neon Lamp; the first neon sign is made in 1905 (1910?). French inventor Arthur Constantin Krebs (1850-1935) invents the Automatic Diaphragm Carburetor to provide a constant air-fuel ratio during acceleration, causing a dramatic improvement in fuel economy. Frederick W. Lanchester of the U.K. is granted the first patent for hydraulic power steering. Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942) invents the Poulsen Arc Transmitter, which is widely used in radio until the advent of vacuum tubes. Science: A jumping gene year for biology? On Jan. 16 the existence and function of hormones are discovered by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927) of University College, London; Starling and English physiologist Sir William Maddock Bayliss (1860-1924) discover the hormone secretin; Am. geneticist Walter Stanborough Sutton (1877-1916) and German biologist Theodor Heinrich Boveri (1862-1915) independently (via work with sea urchins) propose the Boveri-Sutton Chromosome Theory that chromosomes contain genetic info.; Sutton coins the term "gene"; Boveri theorizes that a cancerous tumor starts with a cell that gets its chromosomes scrambled; also in 1902 Bayliss discovers the Bayliss Effect (Myogenic Response), whereby blood vessels contract or distend based on blood pressure to create an autoregulation mechanism. French meteorologist Leon Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) uses instrumented balloons to discover a point in Earth's atmosphere at about 40K-50K ft. (0.1 bar) where the air stops cooling and begins growing warmer, which he calls the Tropopause, also coining the terms Stratosphere for the layer above and Troposphere for the layer below (down to ground level). Zurich, Switzerland-born Am. psychiatrist Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) becomes dir. of the Pathological (later Psychiatric) Inst. of the N.Y. state hospital system, going on to influence U.S. psychiatry via his "common sense" approach of keeping detailed patient records and by introducing the classification system of Emil Kraepelin and the sexual ideas of Sigmund Freud; in 1906 he calls dementia praecox a "reaction type", a "discordant bundle of maladaptive habits that arose as a response to biopsychosocial stressors"; in 1908 after coining the term "mental hygiene", he helps found the Conn. Society for Mental Hygiene, followed in 1909 by the Nat. Committee for Mental Hygiene. French archeologist Abbe Henri Edouard Prosper Breuil (1877-1961) visits the disputed Altamira Caves in NE Spain (discovered in 1879) and unearths animal bones with engravings identical to the ceiling paintings, causing the find to be declared authentic. The first Tyrannosaurus Rex (T-Rex) skeleton is discovered in Hell Creek, Mont. by Am. paleontologist "Mr. Bones" Barnum Brown (1873-1963), and housed in the Carnegie Museum of Nat. History in Pittsburgh, Penn.; Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) makes the First Drawing of a T-Rex - and his boy was named Sue? English physicist Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) and Am. electrical engineer Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861-1939) independently discover the Kennelly-Heaviside Layer (E-Layer) of the Earth's atmosphere, which conducts radio waves, theorizing that it's caused by ionized gas - from the dog kennel to heaven's side? Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935) discovers Anaphylaxis, winning the 1913 Nobel Med. Prize. Dutch botanist Hugo Marie De Vries (1848-1935) announces his Theory of Mutation, proposing that new species can arise in single jumps; too bad, he uses evidence that has nothing to do with genetic mutation, but afterwards evolutionists stick with him? Barbital (Barbitone) is synthesized by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, becoming the first commercially available barbituate, used as a sleeping aid (hypnotic) until the 1950s; in 1904 Bayer markets it as Veronal, while Schering markets it as Medinal for "insomnia induced by nervous excitability", replacing broidmes as a sleeping aid; too bad, tolerance is easily developed, encouraging lethal ODs. The well-preserved frozen Beresovka Mammoth, complete with buttercups in its mouth is discovered along the Beresovka River after a big thaw, and some of the meat is consumed and found edible; temps below -150 F would be needed to freeze it without forming ice crystals that spoil the meat, yet the food in its mouth shows it was spring-summer - evidence of Noah's Flood? The first plants are methodically bred for disease resistance. After being first visited in 1849-50 by W.K. Loftus, Tell al-Warka in Iraq is excavated by Walter Andrae, followed in 1912-3 by German archeologist Julius Jordan, who discovers a temple of Ishtar dated to 3,000 B.C.E.; he returns in 1928, and is replaced in 1931-9 by Noldeke A. Ernst Heinrich and Heinrich J. Lenzen. Nonfiction: James Allen (1864-1912), As a Man Thinketh; inspired by Proverbs 23:7 ("As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he"); opens with: "Mind is the Master power that moulds and makes,/ And Man is Mind, and evermore he takes/ The tool of Thought, and, shaping what he wills,/ Brings forth a thousand joys, a thousand ills: —/ He thinks in secret, and it comes to pass:/ Environment is but his looking-glass"; incl. the soundbytes: "Men do not attract what they want, but what they are"; "Every action and feeling is preceded by a thought"; "Right thinking begins with the words we say to ourselves"; "Circumstance does not make the man, it reveals him to himself"; "The soul attracts that which it secretly harbors, that which it loves, and also that which it fears. It reaches the height of its cherished aspirations. It falls to the level of its unchastened desires - and circumstances are the means by which the soul receives its own"; "Every man is where he is by the law of his being; the thoughts which he has built into his character have brought him there, and in the arrangement of his life there is no element of chance, but all is the result of a law which cannot err." Honore de Balzac (1799-1850) and Alexander Amfiteatrov (1862-1938), Folk-Tales of Napoleon: The Napoleon of the People and Napoleonder; tr. George Kennan (1845-1924); pub. after a satirical article on the Russian imperial family gets him exiled from Russia to Italy. Margaret Barber (1869-1901), The Roadmender (posth.); pub. under alias Michael Fairless; bestselling book of meditations. William Bateson (1861-1926), Mendel's Principles of Heredity: A Defence. Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), The Path to Rome. Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), The House of Seleucus (2 vols.). George Sewall Boutwell (1818-1905), Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs (autobio.). Malwine Bree, Die Gundlage der Methode Leschetizky; the piano method of Theodor Leschetizky (1830-1915). John Burroughs (1837-1921), Literary Values. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Empire of Business. Hermann Cohen (1842-1918), Logik der Reinen Erkenntnis; followed by Ethik des Reinen Willens (1904), and Asthetic des Reinen Gefuhis ( Ästhetik des reinen Gefühls) (1912), laying out his own systematic philosophy. Timothy Cole (1852-1931), English Masters. Bishop Mandell Creighton (1843-1901), Thoughts on Education: Speeches and Sermons (posth.); The Church and the Nation: Charges and Addresses (posth.). Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), Philosophy of the Spirit. Felix Dahn (1834-1912), Duke Ernst of Swabia. John Dewey (1859-1952), The Child and the Curriculum; takes a middle road between sticking to the curriculum vs. child-centered education; "The child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction." Edward Dicey, The Story of the Khedivate. Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969), The Boer War: A History; written by the 8-y.-o. future dir. of the CIA (1953-61). William Archibald Dunning (1857-1922), History of Political Theories, Ancient and Medieval (3 vols.) (1902-20); incl. "From Luther to Montesquieu" (1905), "From Rousseau to Spencer" (1920). Albert Joseph Edmunds (1857-1941), Buddhist and Christian Gospels (2 vols.); parallel texts; becomes a std. work. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), The Coming City. John Fiske (1842-1901), John Bach McMaster (1852-1932), and John Henry Wright (1852-1908), Modern Development of the New World. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Rural England. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Kotto: Being Japanese Curios, with Sundry Cobwebs. Pauli and Herbig, Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum (1893-1902). Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; John Greenleaf Whittier. J.A. Hobson, Imperialism. Paul Hoensbroich, The Papacy in Its Social and Cultural Influence. William James (1842-1910), The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature; proposes a pragmatist view of religion independent of its origins, and draws a distinction between symbols and reality, taking over the academic mainstream, causing Time mag. in 1963 to print the soundbyte: "In making little allowance for the fact that people can also be converted to vicious creeds, he acquired admirers he would have deplored. Mussolini, for instance, hailed James as a preceptor who had showed him that 'an action should be judged by its result rather than by its doctrinary basis'." Albert Kalthoff (1850-1906), The Life of Jesus: Lectures given to the Protestant Reform Club of Berlin, followed by The Problem of Christ: Principles of a Social Theology. Paul Kruger (1825-1904), Memoirs. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), What Is to Be Done?: Burning Questions of Our Movement; rejects the idea that workers will spontaneously become political, calling on Marxists to form a "vanguard" political party to spread Marxist ideas among the workers to bring about a dictatorship of the proletariat based on sheer terror and elimination of individuality in a total submersion to the will of the party, in which only a few people must understand what is going on; "The only choice is: either the bourgeois or the socialist ideology. There is no middle course (for humanity has not created a 'third' ideology, and, moreover, in a society torn by class antagonisms there can never be a non-class or above-class ideology). Hence to belittle the socialist ideology in any way, to turn away from it in the slightest degree, means to strengthen bourgeois ideology" ; "Every solution that offers a middle path is a deception ... or an expression of the dull-wittedness of the petty-bourgeois democrats" - check out Credit Karma, really free credit scores? Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), The Last Brigand; about Calabrian outlaw Giuseppe Musolino, whom he concludes is halfway between a "born criminal" and a "criminaloid", and holds up as the archetype of the Italian "Southern type race", opposed to the "Northern race" - that's a pretty big deal for a little light bulb? John Bach McMaster (1852-1932), Daniel Webster; History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clarke (3 vols.) (1902-6). James Mooney (1861-1921), Myths of the Cherokee. Max Mueller (1823-1900), Life and Letters (2 vols.) (posth.). Walter Hines Page (1855-1918), The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths. Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (1877-1934), Georgia and State Rights: A Study of the Political History of Georgia from the Revolution to the Civil War, with Particular Regard to Federal Relations (doctoral dissertation) (Justin Winsor Prize). C. Plummer, The Life and Times of Alfred the Great. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), The Battle with the Slum; Childen of the Tenements. James Harvey Robinson (1863-1936), An Introduction to the History of Western Europe. F.C.S. Schiller (1864-1937), Axioms as Postulates. Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman (1861-1939), The Economic Interpretation of History. William Sharp (1855-1905), The Progress of Art in the Nineteenth Century. Goldwin Smith (1823-1910), Commonwealth or Empire?; argues against the U.S. building an empire. Werner Sombart (1863-1941), Modern Capitalism (Der Moderne Kapitalismus: Historisch-Systematische Darstellung des Gesamteuropaischen Wirtschaftslebens von seinen Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart) (3 vols.) (1902-27); Youngest Historical School treatment of the history of economics, claiming that capitalism was made possible by double-entry bookkeeping. William Thomas Stead (1849-1912), The Americanization of the World: The Trend of the Twentieth Century; claims the inevitability of world domination by the U.S., hoping that it will rule the world in partnership with Britain. Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), George Eliot. W. Stubbs, Historical Introductions to the Rolls Series. Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904), La Psychologie Economique (2 vols.) (1902-3); founds Economic Psychology. Adolphus William Ward (1837-1924), Lord John Dalberg-Acton (1834-1902) et al. (eds.), The Cambridge Modern History (12 vols.) (1902-12); covers 1450-1910; incl. "The Renaissance" (1902), "The Reformation: The End of the Middle Ages" (1903), "The Wars of Religion" (1904), "The Thirty Years' War" (1906), "The Age of Louis XIV" (1908), "The Eighteenth Century" (1909), "The United States" (1903), "The French Revolution" (1904), "Napoleon" (1906), "The Restoration" (1907), "The Growth of Nationalities" (1909), "The Latest Age" (1910); "The New Cambridge Modern History" (14 vols.) is pub. in 1957-79, covering 1450-1945. Das Arabische Reich und sein Sturz. Henry Smith Williams (1863-1943) (ed.), The Historians' History of the World (25 vols.); 2nd ed. 1907; 2 more vols. are later pub. covering WWI; Am. businessman Amos Urban Shirk (1890-1956) later becomes a celeb by reading the whole thing in two years, and the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.) in 4.5 years. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), A History of the American People (5 vols.). Movies: Edwin S. Porter's Jack and the Beanstalk (July 15) (Edison Studios) stars Thomas White, featuring a fake waterfall and man-legged cow. Georges Melies' A Trip to the Moon, a state-of-the-art science fiction film dir. by Georges Melies (1861-1938) features a rocket hitting the Man in the Moon square in the eye - that's not a rocket, this is a rocket? Oskar Eduard Messter's Salome. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Der Improvisator (opera). Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Hudibras; The Witch of Atlas; based on a poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley; Lalla Rookh; after Thomas Moore. Leo Blech, Das War Ich (comic opera) (Dresden). Hughie Cannon (1877-1912), Won't You Come Home Bill Bailey (Bill Bailey, Won't You Please Come Home); big hit with Dixieland and Jazz bands. Cilea, Adriana Lecouvreur (opera); about Voltaire's babe Adrienne Lecouvreur (1692-1730) and Maurice de Saxe. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Pelleas et Melisande (Pelléas et Mélisande) (opera) (Opera-Comique, Paris) (Apr. 30); based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck; his only opera; about King Arkel of Allemonde (Felix Vieuille) and his grandson Prince Golaud (Hector-Robert Dufranne), who finds lost Melisane in the forest and marries her, then gets jealous of Golaud's younger half-brother Pelleas (Jean Perier); stars Mary Garden (1874-1967) (her debut) as Melisande, making her an instant celeb, causing Oscar Hammerstein to invite her to join the Manhattan Opera House in 1910, where she becomes "the Sara Bernhardt of Opera"; a controversial premiere makes Debussy an instant celeb, causing him to begin writing mainly for the piano (until 1910), incl. Miroirs (Mirrors) (1904-5), which he dedicates to the French artist-writer-musician group Les Apaches (founded 1900), who rallied around him during the controversy; incl. Mes Longs Cheveux. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Appalachia. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Armida (opera) (1902-3). Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Pomp and Circumstance Marches; title comes from Shakespeare's "Othello", Act 3 Scene 3, "Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war"; first of five marches (1902-30), which he adapts for Edward VII's coronation; Pomp and Circumstance No. 1. Edward German, Merrie England (operetta) (London). Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), L'Etranger (opera). Franz Lahar (1870-1948), Der Rastelbinder (operetta) (Vienna). Paul Lincke (1866-1946), Lysistrata (operetta) (Berlin); incl. the song Gluhwurmchen (Glühwürmchen), which Johnny Mercer tr. into English as Glow Little Glow Worm. Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860-1908), Fireside Tales, Op. 61; New England Idyls, Op. 62. Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame (opera) (Monte Carlo). Andre Messager (1853-1929), Solo de Concours for Clarinet and Piano. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Servilia (opera) (Oct. 14) (Oct. 1 Old Style) (Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg); libretto is based on the drama by Lev Alexandrovich Mey about Nero's reign; Kaschchey the Deathless (opera); about an ugly old wizard who preys on young women. Art: Frank Weston Benson (1862-1951), Eleanor Holding a Shell. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Bend in Forest Road. Paul Gaugin (1848-1903), Riders by the Sea. Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944), The Social Ladder (drawings). Robert Henri (1865-1929), Snow in New York. Max Klinger (1857-1920), Nietzsche (sculpture). Claude Monet (1840-1926), Waterloo Bridge. Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Vampire (lithograph). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Blue House. Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Romeo and Juliet (sculpture). Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926), Assiniboine War Party; Impressionist watercolor. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), Lord Ribblesdale. Max Slevogt (1868-1932), Portrait of Francesco d'Andrade as Don Giovanni. Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Der Krampus. J.M. Barrie (1860-1937), The Admirable Crichton. Paul Tietjens (1877-1943) and Glen MacDonough (1870-1924), The Wizard of Oz (June 16), based on the 1900 L. Frank Baum novel at the Chicago Grand Opera House, moving to the Majestic Theatre in New York on Jan. 21, 1903 (293 perf.); stars Anna Laughlin as Dorothy Gale, Fred Stone as the Scarecrow, David C. Montgomery as the Tin Woodman (Niccolo Chopper) (sans funnel hat, and wearing a Scottish kilt), and Arthur Hill as the Cowardly Lion; incl. Pastoria II, true king of Oz, who ends up as a motorman in Kan. with girlfriend Trixie Tryfle, and Cynthia Cynch, the Lady Lunatic, girlfriend of the Tin Woodman; used as the basis of the 1939 MGM film version. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Petite Amie; a Parisian shop girl. Padraic Colum (1881-1972), The Saxon Shillin'. Cecil Cook, Adrian Ross, Ivan Caryll and Owen Hall (1853-1907), The Girl from Kays (The Belle of Bond Street) (musical) (Apollo Theatre, London) (Nov. 15) (432 perf.); stars Letty Lind; runs for 223 perf. in New York City starting next Nov. 3. Francois de Curel (1854-1928), La Fille Sauvage. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Henry of Aue (verse drama). David Belasco (1853-1931) and John Luther Long (1861-1927), The Darling of the Gods. Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), The Lower Depths; his best known play? Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Monna Vanna (verse drama); Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (Ariadne and Bluebeard). Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), La Carmelite. August Strindberg (1849-1912), A Dream Play; Swan Blood. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), The Girl from Kays (musical). Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), King Nicolo, or Such is Life. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Cathleen ni Houlihan; Irish queen Caitlin (Gael. "pure") ni Houlihan, played by Maude Gonne; more serious still? Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), Ashes; Poland during the Napoleonic Wars. Poetry: Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863-1938), Francesca da Rimini. Jane Barlow, Ghostbereft. Pieter Cornelis Boutens (1870-1943), Praeludien. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), Ballads and Lyrics. Lady Augusta Gregory (1852-1932), Cuchulain of Muirthemme. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Poems of the Past and Present. Henriette Roland Holst (1869-1952), De Nieuwe Geboort. Else Lasker-Schuler (1869-1945), Styx (debut). Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), Songs of Childhood. John Masefield (1878-1967), Salt-Water Ballads (debut). Alfred Noyes (b. 1880), The Loom of Years (debut). Banjo Peterson (1864-1941), Rio Grande's Last Race and Other Verses. Henriette Roland Holst Van der Schalk (1869-1952), De Nieuwe Geboort (The New Birth). Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87), Poems (posth.). Arthur Symons (1865-1945), Poems (2 vols.). Novels: J.M. Barrie (1860-1937),The Little White Bird, or Adventures in Kensington Gardens (Nov.). ; narrated by Captain W; introduces Peter Pan, who starts out 1-week old; "All perambulators lead to Kensington Gardens". Andrei Bely (1880-1934), Second Symphony, the Dramatic. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), The Grand Babylon Hotel; Anna of the Five Towns. Walter Besant (1836-1901), A Five Years' Tryst and Other Stories; No Other Way. Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928), Reeds and Mud (Canas y Barro); the fighting fishing village of Albufera in Valencia. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Typhoon; Capt. MacWhirr vs. a storm; Heart of Darkness; originally pub. in "Blackwood's Mag." in 1899; English narrator Charles Marlow tries to rein in ivory trader Mr. Kurtz in Belgian Africa (Congo Free State); "The horror! The horror!" Marie Corelli (1855-1924), Temporal Power: a Study in Supremacy. Dorothy Dix (1870-1951), Mirandy. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Hound of the Baskervilles; first Sherlock Holmes story since "The Final Problem" (1893); set in the desolate moors of Dartmoor, Devon, about a diabolical bloodhound-mastiff cross called the Yeth Hound, based on the legend of Richard Cabell. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), The Sport of the Gods. Josiah Flynt (1869-1907), The Little Brother. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Das Neue Wesen: Roman aus dem 16 Jahrhundert. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), The Captain of the Gray-Horse Troop. Andre Gide (1869-1951), The Immortalist (L'Immoraliste); conventional morality comes up against one's ethical concepts. Ellen Glasgow (1874-1945), The Battle-Ground. Owen Hall (1853-1907), Hernando. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908), Gabriel Tolliver: A Story of Reconstruction. William Henry Hudson (1841-1922), Tales of the Pampas. William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), The Monkey's Paw (short stories); At Sunwich Port (short stories); The Barge (short stories); Dialstone Lane (short stories); The Lady of the Minge (short stories); incl. The Toll House. Henry James (1843-1916), The Wings of the Dove; Am. heiress Milly Theale is stricken with a serious disease, causing different people to move in on her, incl. poor Kate Croy and her journalist beau Merton Densher, only to have their success in baiting her to him tear them apart; "We shall never be again as we were!" Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Audrey. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Just-So Stories; incl. "How the Camel Got His Hump", "How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin", "The Cat that Walked by Himself", etc. Emily Lawless (1845-1913), With the Wild Geese. Jack London (1876-1916), A Daughter of the Snows. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Les Derniers Jours de Pekin. Charles Major (1856-1913), Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall; bestselling romance set in Elizabethan times. A.E.W. Mason (1865-1948), The Four Feathers; British officer Harry Faversham resigns from the Royal North Surrey Regiment to avoid taking on the Mahdi in Sudan in 1882, causing his men and fiance Ethne Eustace to hand him you know what to signify cowardice, causing him to redeem himself; filmed in 1939. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Mrs. Craddock. Dmitri Merezhkovski (1865-1941), Leonardo da Vinci. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), The Hole in the Wall. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Traitors. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Donovan Pasha. Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), The Tale of Peter Rabbit; bestseller (45M copies); Peter loses his jacket and shoes to Farmer McGregor while his siblings Flopsy, Mopsy, and Cottontail stay safely at home; he escapes and returns home to his mother, who puts him to bed and gives him camomile tea. Jose Maria Eca de Queiroz (1845-1900), Contos (posth.). Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Lovers (Suitors) of Yvonne (first novel). Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), The Fortunes of Oliver Horn. Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914), Marthas Kinder; sequel to "Die Waffen Nieder!" Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Lady-Killer. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Der Moloch. Margery Williams (1881-1944), The Late Returning (first novel). Owen Wister (1860-1938), The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains; bestseller about a cattle ranch in Wyo., becoming the first Western novel; filmed in 1914, 1923, 1929, 1946, 2000, and 2014, and made into a TV series in 1962-71. Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), That Printer of Udell's (first novel). Births: Am. person-centered humanistic psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers (d. 1987) on Jan. 8 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at Columbia U. English opera mgr. (Jewish) Sir Rudolf Franz Joseph Bing (d. 1997) on Jan. 9 in Vienna, Austria; emigrates to Britain in 1934; knighted in 1971; gen. mgr. of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City (1950-72). Am. "Sheriff Roy Coffee in Bonanza" actor Ray Teal (d. 1976) on Jan. 12 in Grand Rapids, Mich. - from tea to coffee? Austrian mathematician (co-founder of Game Theory) Karl (Carl) Menger (d. 1985) on Jan. 13 in Vienna; son of Carl Menger (1840-1921); educated at the U. of Vienna. Am. historian Wilbur Kitchener Jordan (d. 1980) on Jan. 15 in Lynnville, Ind.; pres. of Radcliffe College (1943-60); educated at Harvard U. Scottish Olympic athlete ("the Flying Scotsman") Eric Henry Liddell (d. 1945) on Jan. 16 in Tianjin (Tientsin), China; son of Christian missionaries; educated at Eltham College. Am. "A River Runs Through It" writer Norman Fitzroy Maclean (d. 1990) on Jan. 23 in Clarinda, Iowa; grows up in Missoula, Mont.; educated at Dartmouth College, and U. of Chicago. Austrian economist (Austrian School) (co-founder of Game Theory with John von Neumann) (Jewish) Oskar Morgenstern (d. 1977) on Jan. 24 in Gorlitz, Germany; mother is an illegitimate daughter of German emperor Frederick III (1831-88). German Waffen SS officer (Muslim convert) Johann von Leers (d. 1965) (AKA Omar Amin) on Jan. 25 in Vietlubbe, Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mexican actor-dir.-writer Romney Brent (Romulo Larralde) (d. 1976) on Jan. 26 in Saltillo, Coahuila; husband of Gina Malo. Am. 5'11" basketball player-coach Matthew "Nat" Hickey (d. 1979) on Jan. 30. Am. "Constance Porter in Lifeboat" actress (bi) Tallulah Brockman Bankhead (d. 1968) on Jan. 31 in Huntsville, Ala.; father is Dem. U.S. House Speaker in 1936-40. Swiss diplomat-politician-writer Alva Reimer Myrdal (d. 1986) on Jan. 31 in Uppsala; wife of Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987). Am. anthropologist Julian Haynes Steward (d. 1972) on Jan. 31 in Washington, D.C.; educated at UCB, and Cornell U. Am. "Shakespeare in Harlem" 5'4" poet-novelist-writer (black) (gay) James Mercer Langston Hughes (b. 1967) on Feb. 1 in Joplin, Mo.; educated at Columbia U., and Lincoln U. Am. "Charles Evans Hughes" biographer-journalist (Mormon) Merlo John Pusey (d. 1985) on Feb. 3 in Woodruff, Utah. Am. aviator and America-First Nazi sympathizer ("the Lone Eagle") ("Lucky Lindbergh") Charles Augustus Lindbergh (d. 1974) on Feb. 4 in Detroit, Mich.; son of Charles August Lindbergh (1859-1924); husband (1929-) of Anne Morrow Lindbergh (1906-2001). Am. "Red Ryder" comic strip artist Fred Harman (d. 1982) (AKA Ted Horn) on Feb. 9 in St. Joseph, Mo.; brother of Hugh Harman (1903-82). Gabonese PM #1 (1959-61) and pres. #1 (1961-7) (black) Gabriel Leon Mba M'ba (d. 1967) on Feb. 9 in Libreville. Am. physicist (co-inventor of the transistor) Walter House Brattain (d. 1987) on Feb. 10 in Amoy, China; educated at the U. of Ore. and U. of Minn. German "Beer Barrel Polka" composer-bandleader-accordionist Will Glahe (Glahé) (d. 1989) on Feb. 12 in Elberfeld. Am. actor Ray "Crash" Corrigan (Raymond Benard) (d. 1976) on Feb. 14 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. writer-educator-activist Kay Boyle (d. 1992) on Feb. 19 in St. Paul, Minn.; grows up in Cincinnati, Ohio; lives in Europe in 1922-41. Am. "Buck and Bubbles" dancer-singer (black) John W. Bubbles (John William Sublett) (d. 1986) on Feb. 19 in Louisville, Ky.; partner of Ford L. Buck. Am. musician ("King of the Banjo") ("the Happiness Boy") (white) Capt. Edwin Ellsworth "Little Eddie" Peabody (d. 1970) on Feb. 19 in Reading, Mass. Am. #1 landscape photographer Ansel Easton Adams (d. 1984) on Feb. 20 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. historian William Best Hesseltine (d. 1963) on Feb. 21 in Brucetown, Va.; educated at Ohio State U.; teacher of Kenneth Milton Stampps, Frank Freidel, Richard N. Current, T. Harry Williams, Stephen E. Ambrose, and Roger G. Gunderson. German radiochemist Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (d. 1980) on Feb. 22 in Boppard; educated at the Tech. U of Hanover. English "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness" Protestant missionary (to China) Gladys Aylward (d. 1970) on Feb. 24 in Edmonton, London. Brazilian architect Lucio Marcal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa (d 1998) on Feb. 27 in Toulon, France; Brazilian parents. Am. golfer (inventor of the sand wedge) Gene Sarazen (Eugenio Saraceni) (d. 1999) on Feb. 27 in Harrison, N.Y. Am. "The Grapes of Wrath", "Of Mice and Men" novelist John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. (d. 1968) on Feb. 27 in Salinas, Calif.; husband (1950-68) of Elaine Steinbeck (1914-2003). Am. UFO-nixing nuclear physicist Edward Uhler Condon (d. 1974) on Mar. 2 in Alamogordo, N.M.; educated at UCB. U.S. Sen. (D-W.V.) (1958-85) Jennings Randolph (d. 1998) on Mar. 8 in Salem, W. Va.; named after William Jennings Bryan; descendant of William Randolph (1650-1711). Am. "Grandpa in The Waltons" actor Will Geer (William Auge Ghere) (d. 1978) on Mar. 9 in Frankfort, Ind. Am. architect Edward Durell Stone (d. 1978) on Mar. 9 in Fayetville, Ark.; educated at the U. of Ark., Harvard U., and MIT. English engineer (pulse-code modulation inventor) Alec Harley Reeves (d. 1971) on Mar. 10 in Redhill, Surrey; educated at Imperial College, London. German artist Hans Bellmer (d. 1975) on Mar. 13. Am. amateur golfer ("greatest golfer of all time") Robert Tyre "Bobby" Jones Jr. (d. 1971) on Mar. 17 in Atlanta, Ga; wins his first children's tournament at age 6; educated at Harvard U.; retires in 1930 at age 27 after becoming the first to win the Grand Slam of Golf. Am. fashion designer (Jewish) Mollie (Sara Rosen) Parnis (Livingston) (d. 1992) on Mar. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Austrian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Vivian Vance's 1st hubby Arnold in I Love Lucy" actor Philip "Phil" Ober (d. 1982) on Mar. 23 in Ft. Payne, Ala.; husband (1941-) of Vivian Vance (1909-79). Am. "A Farewall to Arms", "How the West Was Won" cinematographer Charles Bryant Lang Jr. (d. 1998) on Mar. 27 in Bluff, Utah; husband (1942-54) of Hellen Parrish (1924-59). English 5'10" "Elizabeth I in Fire Over England", "Ftatateeta in Caesar and Cleopatra" actress Dame Am. Marxist-socialist philosopher (humanist) Corliss Lamont (d. 1995) on Mar. 28 in Englewood, N.J.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, Harvard U., New College, Oxford U., and Columbia U. Flora McKenzie Robson (d. 1984) on Mar. 28 South Shields, Durham; of Scottish descent; created dame in 1960. Am. Notre Dame U. football player-coach Don "Midnight" Miller (d. 1979) on Mar. 29 in Defiance, Ohio. Am. philanthropist Roberta Brooke Astor (d. 2007) on Mar. 30 in Portmouth, N.H.; father John Henry Russell Jr. (1872-1947) is commandant #16 of the U.S. Marine Corps. Am. N.Y. Repub. gov. #47 (1943-54) (baritone) Thomas Edmund Dewey (d. 1971) on Mar. 24 in Owosso, Mich.; loses 1944 and 1948 U.S. Pres. Elections; educated at the U. of Mich., and Columbia U.; husband (1928-) of Frances Eileen Hutt; father of Thomas Edmund Dewey Jr. (1932-); spends 1939-71 on his Dapplemere Farm near Pawling, N.Y. 65 mi. N of New York City. English "Facade", "Belshazzar's Feast", "Two Pieces for Strings" Neo-Romantic composer Sir William Turner Walton (d. 1983) on Mar. 29 in Oldham; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U.; knighted in 1951. German spymaster Maj. Gen. Reinhard Gehlen (d. 1979) on Apr. 3 in Erfurt. French pacifist naturalist-explorer-humanist scholar Theodore Andre Monod (d. 2000) on Apr. 9 in Rouen. Austrian conductor-violist Josef Alois Krips (d. 1974) on Apr. 8 in Vienna; brother of Henry Joseph Krips (1912-87). English mountaineer Andrew Comyn "Sandy" Irvine (d. 1924) on Apr. 8 in Birkenhead, Cheshire; educated at Merton College, Oxford U. Am. silent film actress Marion Mack (Joey Marion McCreery) (d. 1989) on Apr. 8 in Mammoth, Utah. Am. golfer Jesse W. "Jess" Sweetser (d. 1989) on Apr. 18 in St. Louis, Mo.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Yale U. English actor-theatrical mgr. Sir Donald Wolfit (Woolfitt) (d. 1968) on Apr. 20 in Newark, Nottinghamshire; knighted in 1957. Icelandic "The Fish Can Sing" novelist (Communist) Halldor (Halldór) Kiljan Laxness (born Halldor Gudjonsson) (d. 1998) on Apr. 23 in Reykjavik. German Nazi pshrink Werner Heyde (d. 1964) (AKA Fritz Sawade) on Apr. 25 in Forst (Lausitz). Am. silent film actress Mary Miles Minter (Juliet Reilly) (d. 1984) on Apr. 25 in Shreveport, La.; daughter of Charlotte Shelby (1877-1957); sister of Margaret shelby (1900-39). Am. writer Jonathan Worth Daniels (d. 1981) on Apr. 26 in Raleigh, N.C.; White House press secy. in Mar.-July 1945. English "Titanic", "The Best of Everything", "Simon Templar in The Saint" actor Brian Aherne (William Brian de Lacy Aherne) (d. 1986) on May 2 in King's Norton, Worcestershire; educated at Malvern College; brother of Pat Aherne (1901-70); husband (1939-45) of Joan Fontaine. English actor Sonnie Hale (John Robert Hale-Monroe) (d. 1959) on May 1 in London; son of Robert Hale; brother of Binnie Hale (1899-1985); husband (1931-44) of Jessie Matthews (1907-81). French physicist Alfred Kastler (d. 1984) on May ? in Guebwiller, Alsace. Austrian 6'6" "Clock King in Batman" actor Walter Slezak (d. 1983) on May 3 in Vienna; son of Leo Slezak (1873-1946). French "Liebelei" film dir. (Jewish) Max Ophuls (Ophüls) (Maximillian Oppenheimer) (d. 1957) on May 6 in Saarbrucken; emigrates to France in 1933. French microbiologist Andre (André) Michael Lwoff (d. 1994) on May 8 in Ainay-le-Chateau. Am. "The Snake Pit", "The Night of the Generals" dir.-producer-writer (Jewish) Anatole Litvak (Mikhail Anatol Litwak) (d. 1974) on May 10 in Kiev, Ukraine; husband (1937-9) of Miriam Hopkins (1902-72). Am. "Gone With the Wind", "Dinner at Eight", "A Star is Born", "Rebecca" film producer (Jewish) David O. Selznick (d. 1965) on May 10 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; son of Ukrainian immigrant silent film distributor Lewis J. Selznick (Zeleznik) (1870-1933); the middle initial is his invention to avoid confusion with an uncle; educated at Columbia U.; husband (1949-65) of Jennifer Jones (1919-2009); son-in-law of Louis B. Mayer (1884-1957); father of Mary Jennifer Selznick (1954-76). Brazilian soprano Balduina "Bidu" de Oliveira Sayao (Bidú Sayão) (d. 1999) (pr. bee-DOO sigh-OWN) on May 11 in Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro. Austrian rocket scientist Friedrich Schmiedl (d. 1994) on May 11 in Schwertberg. Am. 4'11" physician Helen Flanders Dunbar (d. 1959) on May 14 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Bryn Mawr College, Union Theological Seminary, Columbia U., and Yale U. Soviet ambassador to the U.S. (1939-43) (Jewish) Konstantin Aleksandrovich Umansky (d. 1945) on May 14 in Mykolaiv; educated at Moscow U. Am. Chicago Dem. mayor #38 (1955-76) ("Last of the Big City Bosses") Richard Joseph Daley (d. 1976) on May 15 in Bridgeport, South Chicago, Ill.; Irish Roman Catholic immigrant parents; educated at DePaul U.; father of Richard M. Daley (1942-). Am. "Road to Survival" ecologist William Vogt (d. 1968) on May 15 in Mineola, N.Y.; educated at Bard College. Am. "The Music Man" composer-conductor-playwright Robert Reiniger Meredith Willson (d. 1984) [two ls] on May 18 in Mason City, Iowa. Am. baseball hall-of-fame CF player (Cleveland Indians) Howard Earl Averill (d. 1983) on May 21 in Snohomish, Wash.; father of Earl Douglas Averill Jr. (1931-). Am. "Wassily Chair" Modernist architect-designer (Jewish) Marcel Lajos Breuer (d. 1981) on May 21 in Pecs, Hungary; emigrates to the U.S. in the 1930s. Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder Aloysius Harry "Bucketfoot Al" Simmons (Szymanski) (d. 1956) on May 22 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. physical chemist Calvin Souther Fuller (d. 1994) on May 25 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "A Man Called Peter" Presbyterian minister Peter Marshall (d. 1949) on May 27 in Coatbridge, North Lanarkshire, Scotland; educated at Columbia U.; not to be confused with TV host Peter Marshall (1927-). Am. jazz saxophonist-bandleader (black) James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford (d. 1947) on June 6 in Fulton, Miss.; grows up in Oklahoma City, Okla. and Denver, Colo.; educated at Fisk U. Am. Delta blues musician (black) Nehemiah Curtis "Skip" James (d. 1969) on June 9 in Bentonia, Miss. Am. gymnast Alfred Jochim (d. 1981) on June 12 in New York City. Austrian "Ministry of Fear", "Jules Verne in From the Earth to the Moon" actor Carl Esmond (Willy Eichberger) (d. 2004) on June 14 in Vienna. Am. "Childhood and Society" "The Eight Ages of Man" Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst (Jewish convert to Christianity) Erik Homburger Erikson (d. 1994) on June 15 in Frankfurt, Germany; Danish father, Jewish mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933; a blonde blue-eyed Aryan raised as a Jew, he goes through an identity crisis, causing him to coin the term?; father of Kai T. Erikson (1931-). Am. maize geneticist Barbara McClintock (d. 1992) on June 16 in Hartford, Conn.; educated at Cornell U. Am. paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson (d. 1984) on June 16. Am. "Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing", "Wagon Train" hall-of-fame songwriter-composer (Jewish) Sammy Fain (Samuel E. Feinberg) (D. 1989) on June 17 in New York City. Canadian-Am. "Auld Lang Syne" bandleader-violinist and hydroplane racer Gaetano Alberto "Guy" Lombardo (d. 1977) (Royal Canadians) on June 19 in London, Ont.; brother of Carmen Lombardo (1903-71), Lebert Lombardo (1905-93), and Victor Lombardo (1911-94); becomes U.S. citizen in 1938. Canadian 5'9" hall-of-fame hockey player ("the Stratford Streak") ("the Mitchell Meteor") Howard William "Howie" Morenz (d. 1937) on June 21 in Mitchell, Ont.; best hockey player of the first half of the 20th cent.? Am. inventer (Lear Jet Corp. founder) William Powell "Bill" Lear (d. 1978) on June 26 in Hannibal, Mo. Am. "Blue Moon", "The Lady is a Tramp", "My Funny Valentine", "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World" composer (Jewish) Richard Charles Rodgers (d. 1979) on June 28 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U; collaborator of Lorenz Hart (1895-1943) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960). Canadian writer-publisher Horatio Henry Lovat Dickson (d. 1987) on June 30 in Victoria, Australia; first Canadian to achieve a top position in British publishing. Am. "Mrs. Miniver", "Ben-Hur", "Roman Holiday", "Funny Girl" dir. (Jewish) William Wyler (Wilhelm Weiller) (d. 1981) on July 1 in Muhlausen, Alsace, Germany (Mulhouse, Haut-Rhin, France); Swiss father, German mother; relative of Cousin Laemmle, founder of Universal Pictures; becomes U.S. citizen in 1928. Am. crime boss (Murder Inc. founder) (Jewish) Meyer Lansky (Maier Suchowlanski) (d. 1983) on July 4 in Grodno, Russia (Hrodna, Belarus); emigrates to the U.S. in 1911. Am. 5'5' basketball hall-of-fame player and Harlem Globetrotters founder (Jewish) Abe M. Saperstein (d. 1966) on July 4 in London, England. U.S. gen. Arthur G. Trudeau (d. 1991) on July 5 in Middlebury, Vt.; head of the Pentagon's files on the Roswell Incident. Italian neorealist film dir.-actor Vittorio De Sica (d. 1974) on July 7 in Sora, Latium (near Rome). German "Diels-Alder Reaction" chemist Kurt Alder (d. 1958) on July 10 in Konigshutte, Upper Silesia; collaborator of Otto P.H. Diels (1876-1954); educated at the U. of Kiel; DDT alternative Aldrin is named after him. Am. physicist Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (d. 1978) on July 11 in The Hague, Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. in 1957. German "The Obsolescence of Humankind" philosopher-journalist-activist (Jewish) Gunther (Günther) Anders (Günther Siegmund Stern) (d. 1992) on July 12 in Breslau; husband (1929-37) of Hannah Arendt (1906-75), (1945-55) Elisabeth Freundlich (1906-2001), and (1957-) Charlotte Lois Zelka (1930-2001); student of Martin Heidegger (1889-1976); emigrates to France in 1933, and the U.S. in 1941. Am. "Gang Busters" radio actor Phillips Haynes Lord (d. 1975) on July 13 in Hartford, Vt.; educated at Bowdoin College. Canadian Anglophile historian Donald Grant Creighton (d. 1979) on July 15 in Toronto, Ont.; educated at the U. of Toronto, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Belgian Liberal politician Jean Rey (d. 1983) on July 15 in Liege. Am. "Good Will Hour" radio personality John J. Anthony (d. 1970) on July 16 in San Francisco, Calif. Soviet Vygotsky Circle neuropsychologist (Jewish) Alexander Romanovich Luria (d. 1977) on July 16 in Kazan. Australian "The Man Who Loved Children" novelist (Marxist) Christina Stead (d. 1983) on July 17 in Sydney; daughter of David George Stead (1877-1957); wife of William J. Blake (Wilhelm Blech) (18941968). Am. "The Friendly Persuasion" novelist (Quaker) Mary Jessamyn West (d. 1984) on July 18 near Mt. Vernon, Ind.; educated at Whittier College; 2nd cousin of Richard Nixon. Am. "voice of Francis the Talking Mule" actor-singer Theodore Childress "Chill" Wills (d. 1978) on July 18 in Seagoville, Tex.; named for being born on the hottest day of the year. English "Red Sails in the Sunset", "South of the Border (Down Mexico Way)" songwriter Jimmy Kennedy (d. 1984) on July 20 in Omagh, County Tyrone, Ulster; collaborator of Michael Carr (1905-68). Am. "Arsenic and Old Lace" playwright Joseph Otto Kesselring (d. 1967) on July 21 in New York City; German immigrant parents; not to be confused with Nazi gen. Albert Kesselring (1885-1960). Am. animal psychologist (army ants) Theodore Christian Schneirla (d. 1968) on July 23. U.S. Repub. Sen. (1937-44, 1947-53), U.S. ambassador to the U.N. (1953-60), U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1965-7), and U.S. ambassador to West Germany (1968-9) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (d. 1985) on July 25 in Nahant, Mass.; son of George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909); grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924); educated at Harvard U. Am. "Fever Pitch" novelist Frank Waters (d. 1995) on July 25 in Colorado Springs, Colo.; educated at Colo. College. German Nazi official Albert Maria Forster (d. 1952) on July 26 in Furth, Bavaria. Am. "The Big Clock" novelist-poet ("chief poet of the American Depression" - Macha Rosenthal) Kenneth Flexner Fearing (d. 1961) on July 28 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and U. of Wisc.; lover (1923-8) of Margery Latimer (1899-1932); husband (1933-43) of Rachel Meltzer, and (1945-52) Nan Lurie (1910-85); father of Bruce Fearing (1935-). British philosopher of science (Jewish) (agnostic) Sir Karl Raimund Popper (d. 1994) on July 28 in Vienna, Austria; converted Jewish Christian parents bring him up Lutheran; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to New Zealand in 1937, and England in 1946; knighted in 1965. Am. gangster (Jewish) Dutch Schultz (Arthur Simon Flegenheimer) (d. 1935) on Aug. 6 in New York City. Am. actress Ann Harding (Dorothy Walton Gatley) (d. 1981) on Aug. 7 in San Antonio, Tex.; educated at Bryn Mawr College; known for waist-length blonde hair; wife (1926-32) of Harry Bannister (1889-1961) and (1937-62) Werner Janssen. English physicist Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (d. 1984) on Aug. 8 in Bristol; educated at the U. of Bristol, and St. John's College, Cambridge U.; Lucasian prof. of math. at Cambridge U. (1932-69). French violinist Rene Charles "Zino" Francescatti (d. 1991) on Aug. 9 in Marseille. Canadian "Jerry Martin in The Divorcee", "Nina Leeds in Strange Interlude" 5'1" actress ("First Lady of MGM") ("Queen Norma") Edith Norma Shearer (d. 1983) on Aug. 10 in Montreal, Quebec; daughter of Edith Shearer (1873-1958); wife (1927-36) of Irving Thalberg (1899-1936) and (1942-) Martin Arrouge; sister of Douglas Shearer (1899-1971) and Athole Shearer (1900-85); known for her cross-eyed stare. Swedish biochemist Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (d. 1971) on Aug. 10 in Stockholm.; educated at the U. of Uppsala. Am. "Det. Michael Shayne", "Dr. Swain in Peyton Place", "Evan in Hannah and Her Sisters" actor Lloyd Benedict Nolan (d. 1985) on Aug. 11 in San Francisco, Calif.; father owns a shoe factory. German Wankel Engine inventor Felix Heinrich Wankel on Aug. 13 in Lahr. Austrian "Jud Suss" actor Ferdinand Marian (Haschkowetz) (d. 1946) on Aug. 14 in Vienna. English "Regency England" romance novelist Georgette Heyer (d. 1974) (AKA Stella Martin) on Aug. 16 in Wimbledon, London. Estonian artist Adamson-Eric (Erich Carl Hugo Adamson) (d. 1968) on Aug. 18 in Tartu. Am. humorous poet Frederic Ogden Nash (d. 1971) on Aug. 19 in Rye, N.Y.; great-grandson of Am. Rev. Gen. Francis Nash, namesake of Nashville, Tenn.; educated at Harvard U. German "Triumph of the Will" filmmaker ("Hitler's filmmaker") (greatest female filmmaker of the 20th cent.?) Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (d. 2003) on Aug. 22 in Berlin; her mother's mother is Jewish, and she covers it up by claiming her mother's stepmother as her grandmother? French #1 historian Fernand Braudel (d. 1985) on Aug. 24 in Lumeville-en-Ornois, Meuse; tries to write history without an event-driven narrative, how dull?; devotes his life to three main studies, "The Mediterranean" (1923-66), "Civilization and Capitalism (1955-79), and "Identity of France" (1970-85). Am. New York Mafia boss Carlo "Don" Carlo Gambino (d. 1976) on Aug. 24 in Caccamo, Palermo, Sicily; first cousin of Paul Castellano (1915-85); emigrates illegally to the U.S. in 1921 on a shipping boat, living on anchovies and wine. Am. avant-garde composer (Jewish) Stefan Wolpe (d. 1972) on Aug. 25 in Berlin; pupil of Franz Schreker and Ferruccio Busoni; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. "Stand Up and Sing" composer-lyricist Philip "Phil" Charig (d. 1960) on Aug. 31. Am. women's apparel manufacturer and New York Jets co-owner (Jewish) Philip H. "Phil" Iselin (d. 1976) on Sept. 1 in Port Washington, Long Island, N.Y. Polish "Kordian" Romantic poet-playwright ("Father of Modern Polish Drama") Juliusz Slowacki (d. 1849) on Sept. 4 in Kremenets. Togolese pres. #1 (1960-3) (black) Sylvanus Epiphanio Olympio (d. 1963) on Sept. 6 in Lome; educated at London School of Economics. Am. Notre Dame U. hall-of-fame football player, Mich. State College coach (1929-32), and Fordham U. coach (1933-41) James Harold "Jim" Crowley (d. 1986) on Sept. 10 in Chicago, Ill. Irish IRA activist Frank Ryan (d. 1944) on Sept. 11 in Bottomstown, County Limerick; educated at Univ. College Dublin. Brazilian pres. (1955-61) Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (d. 1976) on Sept. 12 in Diamantina, Minas Gerais. Am. "Moira Devens in The Blind Goddess", "Mary Gray in The American Venus", "Mrs. Darling in Peter Pan" silent film actress Esther Ralston (nee Worth) (d. 1994) on Sept. 17 in Bar Harbor, Maine; vaudeville performer parents; sister of Howard Ralston (1904-92); aunt of Bob Ralston (1938-); great-grandaunt of Field Cate (1997-); begins performing at age 2. English anthropologist Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard (d. 1973) on Sept. 21 in Sussex; educated at Exeter College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1971. English publisher (founder of Penguin Books) Sir Allen Lane (Williams) (d. 1970) on Sept. 21 in Bristol. Am. "Prof. Charles Kingsfield in The Paper Chase", "Smith Barney commercials" actor John Houseman (Jacques Haussmann) (d. 1988) on Sept. 22 in Bucharest, Romania; Alsatian-born Jewish father, British mother; educated at Clifton College; emigrates to the U.S. in 1943. English poet-novelist-dramatist (Communist) Charles Montagu Slater (d. 19546) on Sept. 23 in Millom, Cumberland. Iranian Shiite Muslim poet and supreme assholah (Muslim Shiite) Ayatollah (Arab. "sign of Allah") Ruhollah (Arab. "spirit of Allah") Mousavi (Musavi) Khomeini (d. 1989) on Sept. 24 in Khomein, Markazi (180 mi. S of Tehran); descendant of #7 of the 12 Imams, Musa al-Kazim. Am. film producer (Jewish) Darryl Francis Zanuck (d. 1979) on Sept. 25 in Wahoo, Neb. Am. Mafia and Murder Inc. boss ("the Mad Hatter") ("Lord High Executioner") Albert Anastasia (Umberto Anastasio) (d. 1957) on Sept. 26 in Parghelia, Calabria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1919. British financier (Jewish) Siegmund George Warburg (d. 1982) on Sept. 30 in Tubingen, Germany; emigrates to Britain in ? Brazilian pres. (1967-9) Marshal Artur da Costa e Silva (d. 1969) on Oct. 3. Am. "Three Stooges" comedic actor (Jewish) Larry Fine (Andrew Louis Feinberg) (d. 1974) on Oct. 5 in Philadelphia, Penn.; father-in-law of Don Lamond. Am. McDonald's Restaurants founder Raymond Albert "Ray" Kroc (d. 1984) on Oct. 5 in Oak park, Ill.; of Czech descent; husband (1922-61) of Ethel Fleming, (1963-8) Jane Dobbins Green (John Wayne's secy.), and (1969-84) Joan Beverly Kroc (1928-2003); lies about his age to become a Red Cross ambulance driver in WWI, ending up in the same unit as dito Walt Disney. Am. heavyweight boxing champ Jack Sharkey (Joseph Paul Cukoschay) (Zukauskas) (d. 1994) on Oct. 6 in Binghamton, N.Y.; of Lithuanian descent; named after Irish boxer "Sailor Tom" Sharkey (1873-1953). Chinese Communist leader Peng Zhen (d. 1997) on Oct. 12. Am. "St. Louis Woman" Harlem Renaissance poet (black) Arna Wendell Bontemps (d. 1973) on Oct. 13 in Alexandria, La.; educated at Pacific Union College. English "King George VI: His Life and Reign" conservative historian Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett (d. 1975) on Oct. 13 in Keston, Kent; educated at Malvern College. English "W.L. Tremayne in The Champions" actor Anthony (Sydney Horace) Nicholls (d. 1977) on Oct. 16 in Windsor, Berkshire. Am. psychologist Ernest Glen Wever (d. 1991) on Oct. 16 in Benton, Ill.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Kitty" novelist-screenwriter Rosamond Marshall Van der Zee (d. 1957) on Oct. 17; grows up in Calif., England, France, Vienna, and Munich. Am. "Granny in The Beverly Hillbillies" actress Irene Ryan (Noblette) (d. 1973) on Oct. 17 in El Paso, Tex. (San Francisco, Calif.?); Am. father, Irish immigrant mother; wife (1922-42) of Tim Ryan (1899-1956). Am. "Old Acquaintance", "Becky Sharp" actress Ellen Miriam Hopkins (d. 1972) on Oct. 18 in Savannah, Ga.; rival of Bette Davis, who has an affair with her 3rd hubby (1937-9) Anatole Litvak (1902-74). German physicist Ernst Pascual Jordan (d. 1980) on Oct. 18 in Hanover; of Spanish descent; joins the Nazi Brownshirts, causing him to be passed over for the 1954 Nobel Physics Prize? Am. advertising exec James Edwin "Ned" Doyle (d. 1989) on Oct. 23. Am. historian and liberal anti-McCarthyism activist Henry Steele Commager (d. 1998) on Oct. 25 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Singin' the Blues" jazz guitarist ("the Father of Jazz Guitar") Eddie Lang (Salvatore Massaro) (d. 1933) on Oct. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. Canadian "Hardy Boys" novelist-screenwriter-journalist-filmmaker Charles Leslie McFarlane (d. 1977) on Oct. 25 in Carleton Place, Ont. Kenyan aviation pioneer (white) Beryl Markham (nee Chatterbuck) (d. 1986) on Oct. 26 in Ashwell, Rutland; emigrates to Kenya at age 4; friend of Karen Blixen. English "The Bride of Frankenstein" actress Elsa Sullivan Lanchester (d. 1986) on Oct. 28 in Lewisham, London; wife (1929-62) of Charles Laughton (1899-1962). Am. "Jethro in The Ten Commandments" actor Eduard Franz (Schmidt) (d. 1983) on Oct. 31 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. auto racer Warren Wilbur Shaw (d. 1954) on Oct. 31 in Shelbyville, Ind. Norwegian novelist-dramatist-poet Johan Nordahl Brun Grieg (d. 1943) on Nov. 1 in Bergen; relative of Edvarg Grieg (1843-1907) and Harald Grieg (1894-197). Russian harmonica player (Jewish) Borrah Minevitch (Minnevitch) (Boruch Minewitz) (d. 1955) (The Harmonica Rascals) on Nov. 5 in Minsk, Belarus. Am. actress Natalie Joyce (d. 1992) on Nov. 6 in Norfolk, Va.; cousin of Olive Borden (1906-47). English "Pygmalion", "The Importance of Being Earnest" film dir. (alcoholic) (gay?) Anthony Asquith (d. 1968) on Nov. 9 in London; son of PM Herbert Henry Asquith (1852-1928) and Margot Asquith (1864-1945); educated at Winchester College, and Balliol College, Oxford U.; friend of Terence Rattigan. Am. Olympic swimmer Pua Kele Kealoha (d. 1989) on Nov. 14 in Waialua. German Nazi official Wilhelm Stuckart (d. 1953) on Nov. 16 in Wiesbaden. Am. physicist-engineer (Jewish) ("the Silent Genius") E.P. (Eugene Paul) Wigner (d. 1995) on Nov. 17 in Budapest, Hungary; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1937; founds the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics, and introduces group theory into it along with Hermann Weyl. Am. economist-historian Joseph John Spengler (d. 1991) on Nov. 19 in Piqua, Ohio; eduated at Ohio Stat U. Am. Yiddish novelist (Jewish) Isaac Bashevis Singer (d. 1991) on Nov. 21 in Leoncin, Congress Poland (Russia); son of a Hasidic rabbi and the daughter of a rabbi; grows up in Warsaw, where he writes in Hebrew, then moves to the U.S. in 1935 and begins working for the Jewish Daily Forward in New York City, switching to writing in Yiddish; brother of writer Israel Joshua Singer (1893-1944). Am. mobster Joe (Joey) Adonis (Giuseppe Antonio Doto) (d. 1971) on Nov. 22 in Montemarano (near Naples), Campania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1915. French marshal Philippe Francois Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque (d. 1947) on Nov. 22 in Belloy-Saint-Leonard. Am. "Jonas Wilkerson in Gone with the Wind", "Injun Joe in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" actor Victor Jory (d. 1982) on Nov. 23 in Dawson City, Yukon, Canada. Canadian 5'11" hockey hall-of-fame player Edward William "Eddie" "the Edmonton Express" Shore (d. 1985) on Nov. 25 in Fort Qu'appelle, Northwest Territories. Italian "Christ Stopped at Eboli" Communist novelist-painter-activist (Jewish) Carlo Levi (d. 1975) on Nov. 29 in Turin; educated at the U. of Turin. Am. 5'11-1/2" heavyweight boxer ("the Phantom of Philly") Thomas Patrick "Tommy" Loughran (d. 1982) on Nov. 29 in Philadelphia, Penn. Japanese-Am. Pearl Harbor attack leader Capt. Mitsuo Fuchida (d. 1976) on Dec. 3 in Nara Prefecture; goes Christian in 1950, and becomes U.S. citizen in 1960. British "49th Parallel", "Black Narcissus", "The Red Shoes" film dir.-writer-producer (Jewish) Emeric (Imre Jozsef Emmerich) Pressburger (d. 1988) on Dec. 5 in Miskolc, Hungary; emigrates to Britain in 1935; collaborator of Michael Powell (1905-90). U.S. Dem.-Dixiecrat-Repub. Sen. (1956-2003) James Strom Thurmond (d. 2003) on Dec. 5 in Edgefield, S.C.; educated at Clemson U.; father of Essie Mae Washington (1925-2013). Am. "Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz", "Maxwell House spokesperson Cora" actress Margaret Brainard Hamilton (d. 1985) on Dec. 9 in Cleveland, Ohio; distant cousin of Neil Hamilton (1899-1984); starts out as a teacher, with pupils incl. William Windom and Jim Backus. Am. "The Structure of Social Action" Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (d. 1979) on Dec. 13 in Colorado Springs, Colo.; educated at Amherst College, London School of Economics, and U. of Heidelberg. Am. "The American Pageant" historian Thomas Andrew Bailey (d. 1983) on Dec. 14 in San Jose, Calif.; educated at Stanford U.; coiner of the term "international gangsterism". Am. "Aunt Bee in The Andy Griffith Show" actress Frances Elizabeth Bavier (d. 1989) on Dec. 14 in New York City; educated at Columbia U. Am. golfer William John "Billy" Burke (Burkowski) (d. 1972) on Dec. 14 in Naugatuck, Conn. Am. Vienna Circle philosopher (Jewish) Herbert Feigl (d. 1988) on Dec. 14 in Reichenberg, Bohemia; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1931. Am. Nudie Suit tailor Nudie Cohn (Nuta Kotlyarenko) (d. 1984) on Dec. 15 in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. as a child. Am. Consumer Reports founder Arthur Kallet (d. 1972) on Dec. 15 in Syracuse, N.Y. Am. "Sam Aldrich in The Aldrich Family" actor House Jameson (d. 1971) on Dec. 17. English "Ulrich of Craggenmoor in Dragonslayer", "6th Earl of Greystoke in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes" actor Sir Ralph David Richardson (d. 1983) on Dec. 19 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire; Quaker father, Roman Catholic mother. English prince (bi) George, 1st Duke of Kent (George Edward Alexander Edmund) (d. 1942) on Dec. 20 in Sandrinham Estate, Norfolk; 4th son of George V and Mary of Teck; christened with "ordinary" water, not the usual water from the Jordan River used for royals; educated at Dartmouth College; husband of Princess Marina of Kent (1906-68); 19-year lover of Noel Coward, also Anthony Blunt and Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. Am. Marxist-turned-conservative pragmatist philosopher (Jewish) (Marcxit-turned-Dem. Socialist) Sidney Hook (d. 1989) on Dec. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Austrian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Am. "The Unfinished Country" columnist (Jewish?) Maxwell Alan "Max" (Mikhail) Lerner on Dec. 20 in Minsk, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1907. German July 20th plotter Count Ulrich-Wilhelm Schwerin von Schwanenfeld (d. 1944) on Dec. 21 in Copenhagen, Denmark; son of diplomat Ulrich Graf von Schwerin (1864-1930) and Freda von Bethmann-Hollweg, cousin of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg; moves to Dresden at age 12. Am. conductor (pioneer of easy listening music) Andre Kostelanetz (d. 1980) on Dec. 22 in St. Petersburg, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922; uncle of Richard Kostelanetz (1940-). English archeologist John Nowell Linton Myres (d. 1989) on Dec. 27; son of Sir John Linton Myres (1869-1954); educated at Winchester College, and New College, Oxford U. Am. philosopher-educator (Jewish) Mortimer Jerome Adler (d. 2001) on Dec. 28 in New York City; Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U., which awards him a Ph.D. sans h.s. diploma, B.A. or M.A.; founder of the Great Books program (443 titles in a 54-vol. set pub. by Encyclopaedia Britannica). German historian Eckhart Kehr (d. 1933) in Brandenburg an der Havel; student of Friedrich Meineke (1862-1954). Am. West painter Frank Mechau (d. 1946) in Wakeeney, Kan.; studies in Paris, then heads the painting dept. of Columbia U. French fashion designer Robert Piguet (d. 1953) in Yverdon; emigrates to France in 1918. German dancer-choreographer Harold Kreutzberg (d. 1968). Saudi Arabian king #2 (1953-64) Ibn Abd el-Aziz ibn Saud (d. 1969); son of Ibn Saud (1880-1953); brother of Faisal (1905-75) and Khalid (1949-82). Czech ruralist novelist Jan Cep (d. 1974). Canadian ballet master ("Father of Canadian Ballet") Boris Volkoff (d. 1974) in Russia; emigrates to Canada in 1929. Am. stage designer Donald Mitchell Oenslager (d. 1975) in Harrisburg, Penn. Am. neurologist H. Houston Merritt (d. 1979). Am. poet Marya Zaturenska (d. 1982) in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910. Spanish Catalan architect and city planner Jose Sert (Josep Lluis Sert) i Lopez (d. 1983) in Barcelona. Am. "Four Horsemen" football player Adam Walsh (d. 1985). Deaths: English historian-Orientalist George Rawlinson (b. 1812) on Oct. 7. French astronomer Herve Faye (b. 1814) on July 4. Am. women's rights leader Elizabeth Cady Stanton (b. 1815) on Oct. 26: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal"; "The Bible and Church have been stumbling blocks in women's emancipation"; "I found nothing grand in the history of the Jews nor in the morals inculcated in the Pentateuch. Surely the writers had a very low idea of the nature of their god. They made him not only anthropomorphic, but of the very lowest type, jealous and revengeful, loving violence rather than mercy. I know of no other books that so fully teach the subjection and degradation of women." Scottish economist Henry Dunning Macleod (b. 1821) on July 16. German surgeon-pathologist Rudolf Virchow (b. 1821) on Sept. 5 in Berlin. Am. explorer-writer Jessie Benton Fremont (b. 1824) on Dec. 27. German-born Am. Civil War Union gen. Franz Sigel (b. 1824) on Aug. 21 in New York City. English diplomat Frederick Temple Blackwood (b. 1826). U.S. First Lady (1869-77) Julia Dent Grant (b. 1826) on Dec. 14; buried in Grant's Tomb: "The light of his glorious fame still reaches out to me, falls upon me, and warms me." English diplomat and travel writer Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood (b. 1826) on Feb. 12. English chemist Sir Frederick Augustus Abel (b. 1827) on Sept. 6. U.S. Supreme court justice #46 (1881-1902) Horace Gray (b. 1828) on Sept. 15 in Nahant, Mass. British ambassador Lord Julian Pauncefote (b. 1828) on May 24. German poet (lover of Richard Wagner) Mathilde Wesendonck (b. 1828) on Aug. 31 in Altmunster, Austria. English historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner (b. 1829) on Feb. 24. German-born Am. physician Maria Elizabeth Zakrzewska (b. 1829) on May 12 in Jamaica Plain, Mass. German-born Am. landscape painter Albert Bierstadt (b. 1830) on Feb. 18 in New York City. Hungarian PM (1875-90) Kalman Tisza (b. 1830) on Mar. 23 in Budapest. Irish-born Am. journalist and "The Nation" founder Edwin Lawrence Godkin (b. 1831) on May 21 in Greenway, Devon, England. Spanish-born Am. pioneer Manuel A. Gonzalez (b. 1932) on Feb. 25 in Fort Myers, Fla. English children's writer George Alfred Henty (b. 1832) on Nov. 16 in Weymouth, Dorset. Am. Mason jar inventor John Landis Mason (b. 1832) on Feb. 26 in New York City; dies in poverty in a tenement house. Am. journalist-politician Julius Sterling Morton (b. 1832) on Apr. 27 in Lake Forest, Ill. German mathematician Lazarus Fuchs (b. 1833) on Apr. 26. English Mormon leader William Samuel Godbe (b. 1833) on Aug. 1 in Brighton, Utah. English historian Lord Acton (b. 1834) on June 19 in Tegernsee, Bavaria; dies before he can complete "The Cambridge Modern History" (1902): "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men"; "History is the arbiter of controversy, the monarch of all she surveys"; "Universal History is... not a burden on the memory but an illumination of the soul"; "The wisdom of divine rule appears not in the perfection but in the improvement of the world... History is the true demonstration of Religion"; "To develop and perfect and arm conscience is the great achievement of history"; "If the past has been an obstacle and a burden, knowledge of the past is the safest and the surest emancipation"; "History is not only a particular branch of knowledge, but a particular mode and method of knowledge in other branches"; "History, to be above evasion or dispute, must stand on documents, not on opinions"; "History provides neither compensation for suffering nor penalties for wrong"; "The science of politics is the one science that is deposited by the streams of history, like the grains of gold in the sand of a river, and the knowledge of the past, the record of truths revealed by experience, is eminently practical, as an instrument of action and a power that goes to making the future"; "Save for the wild force of Nature, nothing moves in this world that is not Greek in its origin"; "Liberty is not the power of doing what we like, but the right of being able to do what we ought." "The Celts are not among the progressive, initiative races, but among those which supply the materials rather than the impulse of history, and are either stationary or retrogressive. The Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Teutons are the only makers of history, the only authors of advancement. Other races possessing a highly developed language, a speculative religion, enjoying luxury and art, attain to a certain pitch of cultivation which they are unable to either communicate or to increase. They are a negative element in the world"; "Subjection to a people of a higher capacity for government is of itself no misfortune; and it is to most countries the condition of their political advancement." Norwegian-Am. brewer William Copeland (b. 1834) on Feb. 11 in Yokohama, Japan. Am. explorer-geologist John Wesley Powell (b. 1834) on Sept. 23 in Brooklin, Maine. Am. humorist writer Frank Richard Stockton (b. 1834) on Apr. 20. English "Erewhon" writer Samuel Butler (b. 1835) on June 18. Polish banker Jan Bloch (b. 1836) on Dec. 25 in Warsaw. Am. writer Bret Harte (b. 1836) on May 6 in London (throat cancer): "The only sure thing about luck is that it will change." French painter James Tissot (b. 1836) on Aug. 8 in Buillon Abbey, Doubs Dept. English-born Canadian psychiatrist Richard Bucke (b. 1837) on Feb. 19 in London, Ont.; slips on some ice in front of his home. Am. writer Edward Eggleston (b. 1837) on Sept. 4 in Owl's Nest, Lake George, N.Y.; his home is declared a nat. historic landmark in 1971. Hungarian dermatologist Moritz Kaposi (b. 1837) on Mar. 6 in Vienna. Hungarian poet Lajos Tolnai (b. 1837) on Mar. 19 in Budapest. French sculptor Aime-Jules Dalou (b. 1838) on Apr. 15 in Paris. Am. zoologist-paleontologist Alpheus Hyatt (b. 1838) on Jan. 15. U.S. Sen. (R-Mich.) James McMillan (b. 1838) on Aug. 10 in Manchester, Mass. Am. "Atlantic Monthly" ed.-writer Horace Elisa Scudder (b. 1838). Am. Repub. legislator Thomas Brackett Reed (b. 1839) on Dec. 7 in Washington, D.C. (heart attack). Am. telephone exchange inventor Almon Brown Strowger (b. 1839) on May 26 in St. Petersburg, Fla. (aneurysm). Austrian-German sexologist Baron Richard von Krafft-Ebing (b. 1840) on Dec. 22. U.S. Spanish-Am. War Adm. William Thomas Sampson (b. 1840) on May 6 in Washington, D.C. German-born Am. political cartoonist Thomas Nast (b. 1840) on Dec. 7; creator of the Democratic donkey and Republican elephant; first to portray Santa Claus as fat fat fat? French novelist Emile Zola (b. 1840) on Sept. 29 in Paris; Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) attends his funeral. Latvian poet Andrejs Pumpurs (b. 1841) on July 6 in Riga. Spanish diplomat-writer Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau (b. 1842) on Sept. 7 in Oloron. Romanian "Waves of the Danube" composer Ion Ivanovici (b. 1845) on Sept. 28 in Bucharest. German-born Am. Dem. politician John Peter Altgeld (b. 1847) on Mar. 12 in Joliet, Ill. Am. prospector-philanthropist Winfield Scott Stratton (b. 1848) on Sept. 14 in Colorado Springs, Colo.; leaves his $10M fortune to the Myron Stratton Home in Colorado Springs for "the aged poor and dependent children", which after his relatives contest his will dwindles to $6M. German bacteriologist Hans Buchner (b. 1850). Austrian novelist Baron Arthur von Suttner (b. 1850). Am. Dow Jones & Co. co-founder (1882) Charles Henry Dow (b. 1851) on Dec. 4 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; in Mar. 1903 "short rotund powerhouse" Am. journalist Clarence W. Barron (1855-1928) purchases the co. for $130K, raising the circulation of The Wall Street Journal from 7K to 50K by his death. Am. medical pioneer Walter Reed (b. 1851) (yellow fever, er, appendicitis). British-born South African financier and diamond magnate Cecil Rhodes (b. 1853) on Mar. 26 in Muizenberg (heart failure); his Cape Town home Groote Schuur becomes the official residence of the South African PM; he leaves $10M to found the 2-3 year Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford U. for British Commonwealth and U.S.; he leaves secret instructions to bring the U.S. back under British rule, resulting in the League of Nations, which is why the U.S. didn't join it?; the scholarships are effectively open to Anglo-Saxons only, whom he believed to be the superior master race. Am. painter John Henry Twachtman (b. 1853) on Aug. 8. German munitions maker Friedrich Alfred Krupp (b. 1854). Am. women's activist Ida Craddock (b. 1857) on Oct. 16 in New York City; commits suicide after Anthony Comstock gets her a 5-year sentence for obscenity for her pub. "The Wedding Night". Indian Swami Vivekananda (b. 1863) on July 4 in Belur Math (near Calcutta). English-born Australian Lt. Breaker Morant (b. 1864) on Feb. 27 in Pretoria, South Africa (executed). Japanese haiku poet Matsaoka Shiki (b. 1867) on Sept. 19 in Tokyo (TB). Australian Lt. Peter Handcock (b. 1868) on Feb. 27 in Pretoria, South Africa (executed). Scottish novelist George Douglas Brown (b. 1869) on Aug. 28 in London (pneumonia). Am. "The Octopus" novelist Frank Norris (b. 1870) on Oct. 25 - the good die young? Greek dramatist Ioannis Kambisis (b. 1872) - the good die young?

1903 - The Tops 'Em Kitty Hawk Teddy Bear Roosevelt Square Deal Call of the Wild Iroquois Theatre Fire Year? A good year to get into mass consumer goods production in America? The last year when horses can upstage people as celebs?

Wright Brothers, 1903 Wright Bros. Airplane, 1903 Charles M. Manley (1876-1927) and Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) Pope Pius X (1835-1914) Peter I of Serbia (1844-1921) Count Istvan Tisza of Hungary (1861-1918) José Batlle y Ordóñez of Uruguay (1856-1929) Albert Alonzo 'Doc' Ames of the U.S. (1841-1911) Joseph Gurney 'Uncle Joe' Cannon of the U.S. (1836-1926) George Cooper Pardee of the U.S. (1857-1941) Iroquois Theatre Fire, Dec. 30, 1903 Tom Horn (1860-1903) Daniel Joseph Tobin (1875-1955) H. Nelson Jackson and Sewell Crocker William Rufus Day of the U.S. (1849-1923) Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) Philippe Jean Bunau-Varilla of Panama (1859-1940) Alfred Deakin of Australia (1856-1919) Tomas Estrada Palma of Cuba (1832-1908) Manuel Bonilla of Honduras (1849-1913) Reuben Swinburne Clymer (1878-1966) Montreal Wanderers Logo James Strachan (1876-1939) Mordecai Brown (1876-1948) Christy Mathewson (1880-1925) Frank Mottershaw (1850-1932) Bill Dahlen (1870-1950) Samuel Earl 'Wahoo Sam' Crawford (1880-1968) Dan Patch (1897-1916) and Marion Willis Savage (1859-1916) George Ade (1866-1944) Hugo Alfvén (1872-1960) Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904) James L. Kraft (1875-1953) W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) Maggie Lena Walker (1867-1934) Chaim Nachman Bialik (1873-1934) Rabbi Judah Leon Magnes (1877-1948) Jacob Schiff (1847-1920) Sir William Randal Cremer (1818-1908) Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) Marie Curie (1867-1934) Pierre Curie (1859-1906) Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (1849-1903) Sergius Nilus (1862-1929) Vladimir Solovyov (1853-1900) Vsevolod Solovyov (1849-1903) Pyotr Rachkovsky (1853-1910) Henry Ford (1863-1947) Patsy Dougherty (1876-1940) Barney Oldfield (1878-1946) Vauxhall A-Type, 1908-14 Vauxhall Roadster, 1913-27 Vauxhall Logo Henri Desgrange (1865-1940) Maurice-Francois Garin (1871-1957) Jules de Goncourt (1830-70) Edmond de Goncourt (1822-96) Jack London (1876-1916) Rachel Crothers (1878-1958) Alexander Blok (1880-1921) Petr Bezruc (1867-1958) Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) William Mathias Scholl (1882-1968) Rene Prosper Blondlot (1849-1930) Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922) Pavel Krushevan (1860-1909) Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) Robert Williams Wood (1868-1955) Pierre Janet (1859-1947) Ludwig Roselius (1874-1943) Kristian Olaf Birkeland (1867-1917) Sam Eyde (1866-1940) Lorado Taft (1860-1936) Georges Urbain (1872-1938) Karl Auer von Welsbach (1858-1929) Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865-1929) Joseph Franz Wagner (1856-1908) Victor Herbert (1859-1924) George Lyman Kittredge (1860-1941) Francis O'Neill (1848-1936) Baroness Emma Orczy (1865-1947) Frederic Logan Paxson (1877-1948) Gene Stratton-Porter (1863-1924) Otto Weininger (1880-1903) Pierre Janet (1859-1947) Mary Hunter Austin (1886-1934) Will Marion Cook (1869-1944) Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) Jesse Allison Shipp Sr. (1864-1934) Sir Edmund Kerchever Chambers (1866-1954) H.G. Wells (1866-1946) Kate Douglas Wiggin (1856-1923) Helen Thompson Woolley (1874-1947) 'Babes in Toyland', 1903 'The County Chairman', 1903 'The School Girl', 1903 Broncho Billy Anderson (1881-1971) 'The Great Train Robbery', 1903 'Life of an American Fireman', 1903 Joseph Delmont (1873-1935) Bert Williams (1875-1922) W.C. Handy (1873-1958) Smetana Hall, 1903-11 Roosevelt Arch, 1903 'Angel Fernandez de Soto', by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1903 Morris Michtom Richard Steiff (1877-1939) Richard Steiff's Teddy Bear, 1903 William Sylvester 'Bill' Harley (1880-1943) Arthur Walter Davidson Sr. (1881-1950) Harley-Davidson Motorcycle, 1903 David T. Kenney (1866-1922) 'Cave of the Storm Nymphs' by Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919), 1903 Everett Shinn (1876-1953) 'Girl in a Bathtub', by Everett Shinn (1876-1953), 1903 Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958) 'Guillaume Apollinaire' by Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), 1903 Hollywood High School Taj Mahal Hotel, 1903 Noel Coward Theatre, 1903 Springfield M1903, 1903 Tsingtao Logo Tsingtao Swastika Logo Werther's Original, 1903

1903 Chinese Year: Rabbit. On Jan. 5 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock that Congress has plenary power to unilaterally abrogate treaty obligations made between the U.S. and Native Am. tribes, reversing Cherokee Nation v. Ga. (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), meaning that Great White Father can defraud Indians of land at will. On Jan. 7 San Francisco, Calif.-born Repub. physician George Cooper Pardee (1857-1941) becomes Calif. gov. #21 (until Jan. 9, 1907), becoming the first born in Calif. after statehood and 2nd native-born after Romualdo Pacheco, going on to deal with the bubonic plague outbreak in San Francisco's Chinatown and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake until his bad relationship with the Southern Pacific Railroad keeps him from being renominated. On Jan. 13 the first Korean immigrants to the U.S. arrive in Honolulu. On Jan. 22 the Hay-Herran Treaty between the U.S. and Colombia provides for U.S. acquisition of a 6-mi.-wide canal zone with a renewable 100-year lease for $10M down and $250K/year; on Mar. 14 the U.S. Senate ratifies it; too bad, the Colombian Senate rejects it. On Jan. 20 Midway Island is made into a naval reservation by Pres. Roosevelt, with a radio station operated by the U.S. Navy. The Jan. ed. of McClure's Mag. contains the article The Shame of Minneapolis: The Rescue and Redempton of a City That Was Sold Out, about Repub. mayor Albert Alonzo "Doc" Ames (1842-1911) (a physician), his brother Col. Fred W. Ames (chief of police), and their "big mitt ledger" recording bribes paid by underworld figures, causing Doc to resign and flee the state before being arrested in N.H. in Feb. 1903, then manipulating the system to get off, while Fred is sentenced to several years in state prison. On Feb. 14 the U.S. Dept. of Commerce and Labor is established, based on legislation drafted by atty.-gen. Philander Chase Knox; it is divided into separate depts. of Commerce and Labor in 1913. On Feb. 15 the first Teddy (Teddy's) Bear (named after Pres. Theodore Roosevelt) is designed by Richard Steiff (1877-1939), and introduced in the U.S. by Morris and Rose Michtom, founders of the Ideal Toy Co.; in mid-Feb. the first annual Am. Internat. Toy Fair is held in New York City, with Lionel Trains featured, moving to 200 Fifth Ave. in 1910, which in 1925 is named the Internat. Toy Center; by 2013 it hosts 1.5K cos. from 30 countries in 300K sq. ft. of exhibit space, attended by 9.5K buyers from 5K retail outlets, and 30K other attendees from 92 countries. On Feb. 24 after pro-U.S. candidate gen. Tomas Estrada Palma (1832-1908) (pres. of the Cuban provisional govt. of 1877, who was imprisoned by the Spanish and exiled to the U.S.) is elected as pres. #1 of the Cuban Repub. (until 1906), the Teddy Roosevelt signs the Cuban-Am. Treaty of Relations, acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo ("Gitmo") Bay, becoming the first U.S. military base outside U.S. territory; it is closed in ?. In Feb. Russia and Austria propose a reform program for Macedonia, calling for a Muslim-Christian police force with proportional rep. and foreign officers, and reorg. of the financial system; after it proves inadequate, on Aug. 19 (Feast of the Transfiguration) the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans is ruthlessly crushed; on Oct. 2 the Murzsteg Program is approved by the powers, adding Austrian and Russian inspectors and a foreign general, plus further admin. and judicial reforms - Alexander the Great would roll over in his tomb? On Mar. 2 the Martha Washington Hotel in New York City opens, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women - that's not a brothel or nunnery? On Mar. 5 Germany finally receives a final concession to finish the Baghdad Railway (begun 1899); by 1914 it still has large gaps, and takes until 1940 to finish, connecting Constantinople (Istanbul) to Baghdad and the Persian Gulf - just as air travel makes it antiquated? On Mar. 14 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt establishes Pelican Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge along the C Fla. Atlantic coast, becoming the first unit of the U.S. Nat. Wildlife Refuge System. On Apr. 4 Pres. Roosevelt dedicates the Roosevelt Arch at the N entrance to Yellowstone Park by the new train depot, signaling a new way for visitors to enjoy it. On Apr. 6-7 the Kishinev Pogrom in Bessarabia is instigated by Russian officials, causing Jewish poet Chaim Nachman Bialik (1873-1934) to compose the poem The City of Slaughter, chastising the Jews for not defending themselves, and throwing a monkey wrench in the Zionist movement as it splits over a 1902 offer by the British govt. to create a Jewish homeland in Uganda; after another pogrom in 1905 in Kishinev, the Am. Jewish Committee (AJC), dedicated to the advancement of the interests of U.S. Jewry is formed in 1906 by Am. Reform rabbi Judah Leon Magnes (1877-1948), German-born Am. financier Jacob Henry (Jakob Heinrich) Schiff (1847-1920) et al.; Am. Zionist Methodist minister William Eugene Blackstone (1841-1935) personally contacts Theodor Herzl to send him his personal Bible redlining Biblical references to a Jewish restoration in Palestine, which Herzl keeps on his desk for years. On Apr. 13 liberal-turned-conservative Manuel Bonilla (1849-1913) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Feb. 25, 1907), giving the banana cos. generous concessions. On Apr. 20 the Armstrong Nursing Practice Act of 1903 is passed by the New York state assembly, requiring registration of nurses. On May 23 Vt. doctor H. Nelson Jackson and his mechanic Sewell Crocker begin the first cross-country automobile trip in San Francisco, Calif., ending up in New York City on July 26 (63 days, 19 lost waiting for supplies and auto parts) in a $3K red windshield-less Winton brand motor carriage named Vermont; they take on a goggled bulldog named Bud in Idaho, who adds to the turn-of-the-cent. fame game, and win a $50 bet at a cost of $8K. In May after Colo. voters pass an 8-hour workday amendment for miners on Nov. 4 by 72%, but the Colo. legislature refuses to pass enabling legislation, and Gov. Peabody backs big business, the Colo. Labor Wars (end 1904) between gold-silver mineworkers represented by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and mine owners begin with a strike in Idaho Springs, followed by strikes in Colorado City, Cripple Creek, Telluride, Denver, and Durango, which are met with the state militia, vigilante groups, and the Pinkerton, Baldwin-Felts, and Thiel detective agencies, becoming one of the most violent episodes in U.S. labor history, hardening the WFM, which circulates a poster reading "Is Colorado in America?", helping launch the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (Wobblies" in 1905. On June 11 (a.m.) unpopular king (since 1889) Alexander I Obrenovic (b. 1876) and his wife Queen Draga (b. 1861) are assassinated by the military (Black Hand?), and Peter Karageorgevich, son of prince Alexander Karageorgevich becomes king Peter I Karadordevic (Karageorgevich) "the Liberator" (1844-1921) (until Aug. 16, 1921), Serbia's first constitutional monarch; only Russia (her greatest ally) and Austria (her greatest enemy) send reps to the coronation, with other countries considering Serbia to be a rogue state; On June 12 after splitting with the Armenian Rev. Federation (ARF), the Russian govt. passes an edict bringing all Armenian Church property under govt. control, causing the ARF to send militiamen to guard churches and conduct mass demonstrations. On June 16 Henry Ford (1863-1947) founds the Ford Motor Co., and delivers his first car to a respected Detroit buyer on July 20. On June 20 at the Indiana State Fairgrounds in Indianapolis, Berna Eli "Barney" Oldfield (1878-1946) becomes the first driver to run a 1 mi. track in 1 min. (60 mph); in 1910 he drives a Benz at 133 mph in Daytona Beach, Fla.; the expression "Who do you think you are, Barney Oldfield?" becomes popular. On July 4 the Commercial Pacific Cable Co. opens, connecting San Francisco, Calif., Hawaii, Guam, and Philippines, with Pres. Teddy Roosevelt sending the message "A happy Independence Day to the US, its territories and properties." On July 20 Pope (since 1878) Leo XIII (b. 1810) dies, and on Aug. 4 Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto ("cape maker") is elected Pope (#257) Pius X (1835-1914), abolishing the custom of removing organs from dead popes before embalming. On July 21 Edward VII and Queen Alexandria make their first visit to Ireland, cutting their 5-day trip short because of the news of the death of Pope Leo XIII; on Apr. 26, 1940 they return for an 8-day visit. On July 30-Aug. 23 (July 17-Aug. 10 Old Style) the Russian Social Dem. Labor Party holds its Second Congress in Brussels, moving to London after the police boot them out on Aug. 6, and splitting into the Mensheviks (Russ. "minority group") (led by Plechanoff) and the Bolsheviks (Russ. "majority group") (led by Lenin and Trotsky), with the Bolsheviks wanting only active members admitted, while the Mensheviks want both passive and active members; the only time the Bolsheviks are in the majority is in the final vote which elects party leadership, but the names stick - because the final vote was rigged by the more active members? In July Russian forces cross the Yalu River and occupy a Korean town, causing Japan to go nonlinear. On Aug. 15 the Tsingtao Brewery (originally Germania Brewery) is founded in Qingdao, Shandong, China by the Anglo-German Brewery Co. Ltd., owned by German settlers in the German base of Hong Kong for German sailors and soldiers, continuing in production after the Japanese take over in WWI, going on to become the #1 brewery in China until the advent of Snow Beer (21.7%), with 15% of the market; the logo is a drawing of the Zhan Qiao Pier on the S shore of Qingdao; the original logo was a Swastika. On Sept. 7 Theodore Roosevelt delivers his Square Deal Speech at the New York State Agricultural Assoc., calling for a you know what for each man. On Sept. 12 the Category 2 (100 mph) New Jersey (Vagabond) Hurricane starts NE of Antigua, making landfall near Atlantic City on Sept. 16 with 80 mph winds, then weakening over Penn. and turning into an extratropical cycline in W N.Y. on Sept. 17, killing 57 and causing $8M damage, becoming the first North Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in N.J. since records began in 1851 (until ?). On Sept. 24 Alfred Deakin (1856-1919) becomes PM #2 of white-is-right Australia (until 1904). On Sept. 27 Wreck of the Old 97 sees a Southern Railway crack express mail train racing to keep up with the schedule jump the tracks and plunge into a ravine, killing nine and injuring seven. In Sept. Hollywood High School at 1521 N. Highland Ave. at the intersection with West Sunset Blvd., opens, going on to graduate movie stars incl. Meredith Baxter, Carol Burnett, Diana Canova, Keith Carradine, Robert Carradine, Marge Champion, Lon Chaney Jr., Warren Christopher, Johnny Crawford, Edward Dmytryk, Linda Evans, Nanette Fabray, Mike Farrell, Laurence Fishburne, Judy Garland, James Garner, Alan Hale Jr., Gloria Grahame, Barbara Hershey, John Huston, Swoosie Kurtz, Alan Ladd, Carole Lombard, Joel McCrea, Ann Miller, Yvette Mimieux, David Nelson, Ricky Nelson, Brandy Norwood, Sarah Jessica Parker, Stefanie Powers, John Ritter, Jason Robards, Ann Robinson, Mickey Rooney, Sharon Tate, Lana Turner, and Tuesday Weld; the mascot is the Sheiks, from the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film "The Sheik". On Oct. 1-13 the Boston Americans (Red Sox) of the AL defeat the Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL 5-3 in the best-of-9 First (1st) World Series of ML baseball; the format is then changed to best-of-7; in Game12 Boston outfielder Patrick Henry "Patsy" Dougherty (1876-1940) becomes the first Boston Red Sox player to hit a homer in the WS, also the first player to hit two homers in a single WS game (Game 1), also becoming the first to hit a leadoff inside-the-park WS homer (until 2015) in Game 6. On Oct. 5 (night) the small town (1K pop.) of Van Meter, Iowa is terrorized by a giant bat-like creature from an old abandoned mine; it reappears for two more nights than is never seen again. On Oct. 10 Emmeline Pankhurst (nee Goulden) (1858-1928) et al. found the Nat. Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in Manchester, England, with the slogan "Deeds, not words", going on to stage demonstrations and lobby Parliament until they get what they want, their members becoming the first to be called suffragettes by Charles Hands of the Daily Mail. On Nov. 2 Maggie Lena Walker (1867-1934) opens the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond, Va., becoming the first black woman bank pres., which later becomes the Consolidated Bank and Trust Co., the oldest black-owned bank in the U.S. On Nov. 3 after the U.S. militarily supports an uprising in Panama against Colombian rule so that the new govt. will allow the building of the Panama Canal, Panama declares independence from Colombia, and on Nov. 18 the U.S. signs the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty, gaining permanent control of a 10-mi.-wide Canal Zone from Colombia for a payment of $10M, plus $250K a year starting in 1913, in return for a U.S. guarantee of the independence of the new Repub. of Panama, which is now considered part of Central rather than South Am., with French chief engineer Philippe Jean Bunau-Varilla (1859-1940) as pres. #1. On Nov. 9 U.S. rep. (R-Ill.) Joseph Gurney "Uncle Joe" Cannon (1836-1926) becomes House Speaker (until Mar. 4, 1911), becoming the most dominant speaker ever, calling Pres. Roosevelt a tyrant "with no more respect for the Constitution than a tomcat has for a marriage license." On Nov. 20 42-y.-o. Mo.-born hired gunman and stock dick Tom Horn (b. 1860) is hanged in Cheyenne, Wyo. for the 1901 murder of 14-y.-o. Willie Nickell based on a controversial confession. On Nov. 22 new old Pope Pius X issues the bull, er, bull Tra le Sollecitudini (Amidst the Cares), banning castratos and requiring boys to sing soprano and contraltro parts in the Church, while banning women from singing with men, and reaffirming the Gregorian chant over Renaissance polyphony, also banning the piano and percussion instruments. On Nov. 23 Enrico Caruso makes his U.S. debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, appearing as the Duke of Mantua in "Rigoletto", going on to become the chief attraction and #1 dramatic tenor until his last perf. in 1920. In Nov. Britain and Russia begin conversations over Persia, which break down when Russia refuses to agree to a partition into spheres of influence. On Dec. 9 the Norwegian parliament votes unanimously for female suffrage - guess what they all got that night? Here kitty kitty kitty? 12 sec. 120 feet? On Dec. 17 (10:35 a.m.) the Wright Brothers from Dayton, Ohio, incl. Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) and Orville Wright (1871-1948) make the first powered human flight of 120 ft. in 12 (13?) sec. on 90-ft. Kill Devil Hill near Kitty Hawk, N.C. on the Outer Banks (chosen for sand dunes and high winds) in Wright Flyer I, which is made of muslin, wood, and steel, and weighs 605 lb.; the wingspan of a Boeing 747 jumbo jet is 195.7 ft.; prior to this they achieved a 59-ft. flight in Bird of Prey; Orville won the 50-cent coin toss with heads and got to do the flying, after which they take turns; the pilot must crawl between the wings and fly in a prone position while the other opens the throttle of their homemade 12 hp. engine, and they make four flights at low altitudes, taking until 1905 to master controlled flight; later the same day Wilbur ups the record to 59 sec., covering 852 ft.; they had been coming to Kitty Hawk every year since 1900 testing their gliders; in 1910 the Airplane Waltz is created as a novelty; meanwhile earlier in the year rivals Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) and Charles Manly (1876-1927) fail in two trials with their piloted plane, and run out of funding; later it is discovered that the plane worked, and was given inadequate room for takeoff - how could they sleep after that? On Dec. 30 (3:15 p.m.) a fire at the recently opened Iroquois Theatre in Chicago, Ill. kills 602+ and injures 250, becoming the worst theater fire to date in the U.S. (until ?); the play Mr. Bluebeard is playing that night. In Dec. the Prix Goncourt, an annual prize given to "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year" in France begins to be awarded in honor of Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt (1830-70) after a bequest by his brother Edmond de Goncourt (1822-96); the jury meets at the Drouant Restaurant in Paris to make their decision, and never gives it knowingly to the same author twice, although they goof up in 1975, giving it to Emile Ajar, who turns out to be Romain Gary (1914-80), who already got it in 1956 - I'll take it and run with it? Count Istvan Tisza (1861-1918) becomes PM of Hungary (until 1905). Italian home secy. (since 1901) and former PM (1892-3) Giovanni Giolitti becomes PM, being reelected 3x more through 1921. Former interim pres. (1899) Jose Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordonez (Ordóñez) (1856-1929) of the Colorado Party becomes pres. of Uruguay (until 1907). King Edward VII visits Paris, then French Pres. Emile Loubet visits London, leading to the Entente Cordial next year. Edward VII is crowned king-emperor in Delhi in a Coronation Durbar. The Transkeian Territories in SE South Africa (AKA Kaffraria) are formed; 60K Chinese laborers are imported between this year and 1907 to work in the Rand mines, undercutting African workers, but luckily for them the Chinese balk at the working conditions. The Trans-Siberian Railway reaches the Pacific Ocean. The Alaskan frontier is settled. Bolivia cedes a piece of its rubber-rich Acre province to Brazil. The scattered French possessions in the South Pacific (120 islands, 95 inhabited, incl. the Society Islands, the Marquesas Islands, et al.) are organized into the single colony of French Polynesia. The admins. of Mauritius and the Seychelles are separated. William Rufus Day (1849-1923) (asst. secy. of state in 1897-8 under his buddy McKinley) is appointed on Mar. 2 as the 58th U.S. Supreme Court (until Nov. 13, 1922) to fill the vacancy left by George Shiras Jr. (1892-1903), leaving the court at nine members. The Kitchener Reforms in the Indian Army are enacted new Indian CIC (1902-9) Lord Kitchener, unifying the three armies of the presidencies, the Punjab Frontier Force, the Hyderabad Contingent et al. into the Indian Army, which with the British Army in India comprises the Army of India, with the primary role being defense of the North-West Frontier, and the secondary role being internal security. After mystic Russian priest Sergius (Sergei) Alexandrovich Nilus (1862-1929) allegedly writes and presents it to the tsar, who declares it a fabrication and banishes him from the court, the Black Hundreds newspaper Znamya, owned by far-right anti-Semite Pavel Alekandrovich Krushevan (1860-1909) pub. the anon. Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, detailing an alleged Zionist meeting in Basle in 1897 where plans were made by Jews and Freemasons to subvert and destroy Christendom and rule Da World, starting with the overthrow of the holy Russian govt.; in 1905 it is repub. as an appendix to a book by mystical philosopher Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (1853-1900), and it finally catches on as proved by 600 Okhrana-inspired Jewish pogroms throughout Russia that kill thousands in an effort to divert worker and peasant discontent away from the shaky govt.; although the Protocols are a total fabrication, they become a worldwide bestseller with anti-Semites until ?, and a favorite of Adolf Hitler; in 1921 the London Times claims them to be authentic before recanting; the first Arabic trans. appears in 1925, becoming a bestseller after the 1948 establishment of the State of Israel (until ?); the real author is Paris-based Okhrana agent Matvei (Mathieu) Vasilyevich Golovinski (1865-1920)?; meanwhile the Sixth Zionist Congress declines an offer for Jewish settlement in E Africa, causing Israel Zangwill and his English followers to walk out. Cotopaxi Volcano in Ecuador erupts again. Hans Meyer of Germany climbs and explores 20,565-ft. Mt. Chimborazo, the highest mountain in Ecuador, location of the spot on the Earth' s surface farthest from the center (3,968 mi. or 6,384.4 km). The first climbers attempt 20,320-ft. Mt. McKinley in Alaska, highest mountain in North Am.; by 2005 over 30K climbers have attempted it (95 deaths), incl. 1,340 in 2005, causing a limit of 1.5K a year to be set beginning in 2007. Reuben Swinburne Clymer (1878-1966) founds the Rosicrucian Brotherhood in Quakertown, Penn., going on to become head of the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis (allegedly founded in Germany in 1614) in 1922. The Internat. Brotherhood of Teamsters is organized in Niagara Falls, N.Y., with Daniel Joseph Tobin (1875-1955) as pres. in 1907-52. J.P. (John Pierpont) Morgan (1837-1913) founds the Internat. Mercantile Marine Co., which goes on to control the White Star Line. The Royal Naval College in Dartmouth, Devon, SW England is founded. The Deutsches Museum opens in Munich. The Elihu, secret society, named after founder Elihu Yale is founded at Yale U. Prince Albert I of Monaco founds the Internat. Peace Inst. Douglas MacArthur, son of WWI Medal of Honor winner Arthur MacArthur graduates from West Point with highest honors. Sherlock Holmes retires to the Sussex Downs to keep bees. The first motor car taxis appear in London. The Grand Trunk Railway in Canada from Moncton to Winnipeg to Edmonton, through the Yellowhead Pass to the Pacific is begun. Joseph Pulitzer donates $1M to Columbia U. to found the Pulitzer School of Journalism, which opens in 1912. Chocolate manufacturer Milton Snavely Hershey begins building a plant in his hometown of Derry Church, Penn. (14 mi. E of Harrisburg), which later becomes Hershey, Penn. (AKA Chocolatetown USA), "the Sweetest Place on Earth". Werther's Original (Werthers Echte) caramel-flavored hard candy is introduced by August Storck KG of Werther, Westphalia, Germany; in the 1990s it is marketed as Werther's Original. The first box of Crayola brand crayons hits the stores, costing 5 cents and containing eight different colors. Mark Twain begins endorsing ads for Conklin's Self-Filling Pen, calling it a "profanity saver" because it doesn't roll off his desk. Austrian film dir. Joseph Delmont (Josef Pollak) (1873-1935) begins making short Western films for Vitagraph, returning to Vienna in 1910 and going on to pioneer the use of wild beasts in films. Canadian-born James Lewis Kraft (1875-1953) begins a wholesale cheese business in Chicago, Ill. that grows into Kraft Foods. Britain enacts a 20 mph speed limit for motor cars. Glass windshields begin to appear on automobiles. Dr. Scholl's Foot Easer begins to be marketed by William Mathias Scholl (1882-1968) of Ill. - the future, my boy, is in feet? Spanish painter Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) moves to Paris, and begins his rise to worldwide fame. English brain man Herbert George Wells (1866-1946) joins the Fabian Society (until 1906), remaining a dedicated non-Marxist Socialist reformer until his death in 1946. The first nudist colony er, opens in Germany. The Scripps Inst. of Oceanography is founded in San Diego, Calif. Steeplechase Park on Coney Island, built by George C. Tilyou opens (until 1964), along with Luna Park in Cleveland, Ohio, built by Frederick Thompson and Elmer S. Dundy (closes in 1929), fixing Cony Island's rep as an amusement park. The Metropolitan Water Board is founded in London to govern nine private water cos. supplying the city. The Jewish Consumptive Relief Society is founded in Mile-High Denver, Colo. for TB sufferers. Triscuit brand baked whole wheat snack crackers are introduced by the Shredded Wheat Co. in Niagara Falls, N.Y., with the slogan "Baked by Electricity", the name suggesting that they're baked 3x. The first Harley-Davidson motorcycles are marketed by William Sylvester "Bill" Harley (1880-1943) and Arthur Walter Davidson Sr. (1881-1950) of Milwaukee, Wisc., with 3 hp; only three are produced, followed by 11 in 1905, and 154 in 1908; the original model design calls for quiet operation? Vauxhall Motors Ltd. (Vauxhall Iron Works until 1907) of Luton, Bedfordshire, England (founded 1857 in London to manufacture marine engines) begins manufacturing automobiles, producing 70 5 hp 1-cylinder cars with a tiller, two forward gears and no reverse gear, adding a steering wheel and reverse gear in 1904; in Oct. 1908 after the Y-Type Y1 race car wins the 1908 RAC and Scottish 2000 Mile Reliability Trials, they begin producing the 20 hp Vauxhall A-Type (until 1914), which on Oct. 26, 1910 becomes the first 20 hp car to exceed 100 mph; in 1913-22 they produce the Vauxhall 30-98 4-seat open touring car (until ?), becoming the last of the Edwardians and "the first and perhaps the best British sports car" (Automobile Quarterly); the co. is acquired by GM in 1925. Florence, Ala.-born William Christopher "W.C." Handy (1873-1958) first hears the blues from a raggedy black man in Tutwiler, Miss. Sports: On Jan. 3-Feb. 28 the 1903 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season sees the Ottawa Hockey Club and Montreal Victories tie with 6-2 records, after which Ottawa defeats the Victorias in 2 games by 9-1 on Mar. 7-10 to win their first Stanley Cup, with each team member receiving a silver nugget from team dir. Bob Shillington, launching the Silver Seven Era, with the Ottowa team becoming known as the Silver Seven; on Dec. 30-Jan. 4 a CAHL Stanley Cup challenge series between the Ottawa Silver Seven and the Winnipeg Rowing Club becomes the first with goal lines drawn across the ice from post to post. The early 20th century has its own version of crowd-pleasing Spiderman? In Jan. 16-hand 1.2K lb. harness racing star horse Dan Patch (1897-1916) arrives at Union Depot in Minneapolis, Minn., then parades through downtown in front of 5K spectators, accompanied by new owner Marion Willis Savage (1859-1916), who bought him for $60K last Dec. and houses him in his magnificent Taj Stable; in his 1901 rookie year he won a dozen races with ease, and by the middle of the 1902 season gamblers refused bets on his races; after Star Pointer beats him to the 2:00 mi., he runs 1:59.5 in the fall, then matches the record with 1:59.25 in Reading, Mass. a few weeks later; in 1903 he beats the 2:00 mi. 5x, and sets a record at 1:56.25 in Oct. in Memphis, Tenn.; in 1904 he gets an impacted bowel, gaining nat. headlines, then recovers to run 1:56:0 in Memphis; in 1905 he sets a record of 1:55.25 in Lexington, Ky., which stands until 1938; in 1906 he sets an unofficial record of 1:55:0 at the Minn. State Fair; he retires in 1910 after 56 straight wins, then dies suddenly on July 11, 1916, and Savage dies the next day from a blood clot in the brain after receiving the news in a hospital where he was recovering from minor surgery. On May 31-July 5 after Marquis Jules Albert de Dion (1846-1946) founds the newspaper L'Auto to compete with Pierre Giffard's leading sports newspaper Le Velo (1892-1904) because of a feud over the Dreyfus Affair, and needs to boost circ. with a publicity stunt, the Tour de France cycling race is organized by French cyclist and journalist Henri Desgrange (1865-1940), ed. of L'Auto, who models the maillot jaune after Grenoble; the winner is Maurice-Francois Garin (1871-1957), who finishes the six stages in 93h 33m 14s at an avg. speed of 15.96 mph (25.68 km/h). On July 17 English Thoroughbreds Ard Patrick (1899-1923) (winner of the 1902 Epsom Derby), Sceptre (1899-1926), and Rock Sand (1900-14) have it out at the Epsom Stakes; Ard Patrick edges out Sceptre by a neck. On Sept. 11 the first auto race is held at the Milwaukee Mile in West Allis, Wisc.; William Jones of Chicago wins the 5-lap race, setting a track record of a 72 sec. lap (50 mph); Barney Oldfield sets the track record in 1905, and again in 1910 (70.159 mph) in his Blitzen Benz; is founded Ralph De Palma wins the first Milwaukee Mile Championship Car Race in his Golden Submarine. E.D. Peifer of Chicago, Ill. invents a handicap method of scoring for bowling. 26-y.-o. pitcher Mordecai "Three Fingers" Brown (1876-1948) joins ML baseball, playing for the Chicago Cubs from 1904-12, and becoming one of the top two pitchers in the NL with rival Christopher "Christy" "Matty" Mathewson (1880-1925), "the Christian Gentleman" of the New York Giants (1900-16); Brown's mangled right hand is missing most of the index finger and has a misset middle finger, letting him put unusual spin on the ball. On Dec. 1 the Montreal Wanderers AKA the Redbands amateur ice hockey team is founded in Montreal, Quebec, Canada by James F. Strachan (1876-1939), playing their home games in the Montreal Arena until Nov. 1909. when it is sold to P.J. Doran; it folds in 1918 after the Montreal Arena burns down, resuming operations in 1924 under the name Montreal Maroons (Montreal Prof. Hockey Club), backed by the English-speaking community of Montreal against French-speaking favorite Montreal Canadiens, playing their home games in the new $1.5M Montreal Forum (opened Nov. 29, 1924); they suspend play in 1938, and their franchise is canceled in 1947. On Dec. 5 the Federal Amateur Hockey League (FAHL) is founded in Montreal for teams rejected by the rival Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL), incl. the Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Capitals, Montreal Le National, and Cornwall Hockey Club; in 1904 Montreal Le National jumps to the CAHL, while the CAHL Stanley Cup champion Ottawa Hockey Club jumps to the FAHL, defeating the Montreal Wanderers on Mar. 2 to become FAHL champion; too bad, the on-ice death of Owen "Bud" McCourt (1884-1907) of Cornwall on Mar. 6, 1907 after a brawl causes the 1906-7 season to be suspended, after which the FAHL goes pro in 1908 under the name Federal Hockey League (FHL) , signing the Renfrew Creamery Kings to bring it back to four teams, pissing-off the Ottawa Victorias, who refuse to play them, causing the 1908-9 sea The U. of Ky. Wildcats men's basketball team is founded, with head coach #1 W.W.H. Mustaine; they go 1-2 for their first season after defeating Lexington YMCA and losing to Transylvania U.; they go on to become the winningest NCAA Div. 1 basketball program in NCAA history, with retired jerseys incl. Cliff Hagen (#6), Pat Riley (#42), Dan Issel (#44), and Bill Spivey (#77). A new rule is adopted in basketball prohibiting a player who is dribbling from shooting the ball at a basket; dropped in 1915. Cincinnati Reds slugger (since 1899) Samuel Earl "Wahoo Sam" Crawford (1880-1968) (known for a record 12 inside-the-park homers) signs with the Detroit Tigers (until 1917), going on to become the mentor and later rival of slugger Ty Cobb. The English Bowling Assoc. for lawn bowling is founded by cricketer W.G. Grace, who becomes pres. #1; on Jan. 1, 2008 it merges with the English Women's Bowling Assoc. to become Bowls England. Architecture: On Oct. 12 the Lyric Theatre (cap. 1.3K) at 213 West 42nd St. and 214-26 West 43rd St. opens (complete with two formal entrances), with Richard Mansfield's production of Old Heidelberg, going on to produce several Shakespeare plays; in 1906 Sarah Bernhardt appears there; in 1918 it produces Sigmund Romberg's 1917 musical Maytime; on Dec. 8, 1925 the Marx Brothers' musical The Cocoanuts, with books by George S. Kaufman and lyrics by Irving Berlin debuts there (276 perf.) (filmed in 1929); on Feb. 2, 1927 Florenz Ziegfeld debuts his musical Rio Rita (494 perf.),followed on Mar. 13, 1928 by The Three Musketeers (318 perf.); on Nov. 27, 1929 Cole Porter's musical Fifty Million Frenchmen debuts there (254 perf.); in 1934 it is converted into a movie theater; in 1992 it closes, and in 1996-8 it is combined with the former Apollo Theatre to become the Ford Center for the Performing Arts (cap. 1,938), later the Foxwoods Theatre, the Hilton Theatre, and the Lyric Theatre. Liverpool Cathedral, designed by G.G. Scott is begun. Oscar Hammerstein I builds his second Manhattan Opera House in New York City; the first one was built in 1893. The New Theatre on St. Martin's Lane in Westminster, West End, London (cap. 872) opens, designed by W.G.R. Sprague; in 1973 it is renamed the Albery Theatre; in 1920 Noel Coward appears in his own play "I'll Leave It To You", the first West End production of his play; in 2006 it is renamed the Noel Coward Theatre, opening on June 1 with the London debut of "Avenue Q". The Art Noveau Municipal House in Prague, Czech. is begun (finished 1911), containing Smetana Hall, which becomes the home of the Prague Symphony Orchestra. The Orpheum Theater at 1513 Welton St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens as part of the Orpheum Circuit; in 1930 it is demolished and replaced with a new one, which is remodeled in 1955, closes in 1964, and is demolished in 1967. The Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay (Mumbai), India opens; it was accidentally built backward, with guest rooms facing the harbor, which turns out to be a great idea; only whites are allowed. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Sir William Randal Cremer (1828-1908) (U.K.); Lit.: Bjornstjerne Martinius Bjornson (1832-1910) (Norway); Physics: Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) (France) [radioactivity]; Chem.: Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) (Sweden) [electrochemistry]; Med.: Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904) (Denmark) [phototherapy]; Marie Curie becomes the first female guest at the Nobel banquet at the Stockholm Stadhus, which in 1913-36 always serves turtle soup; she also becomes the first female to be granted a doctorate in France. Inventions: On Mar. 24 the first patent for the tea bag is granted to R.G. Lawson and M. McLaren in the U.S., made of open-mesh woven fabric and cotton thread; in June 1908 coffee-tea importer Thomas Sullivan of New York City begins shipping tea in silk pouches, which customers put directly in hot water, after which he switches to gauze. On June 19 after Pres. Teddy Roosevelt gives the U.S. Army a kick in the pants, the bolt-action M1903 Springfield .306-.06 Rifle is adopted, seeing service in WWI and not replaced until the semi-automatic M1 Garand in 1937, and even then, only partially, and proves so superior that it is used during the Korean War. Mary Anderson patents the first windshield wiper in Nov.; it uses a handle inside the car; it takes until 1916 before they become std. equipment on U.S. cars. French chemist Edouard Benedictus invents Laminated Safety Glass after a glass flask coated with cellulose nitrate is dropped; it is first used in gas masks during WWI, and widespread use in autos comes after the war, using an interlayer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB). After his electromagnetic cannon of 1901 proves a dud, Norwegian physicist Kristian Olaf Birkeland (1867-1917) hooks up with Norwegian engineer Samuel "Sam" Eyde (1866-1940) and uses it as the basis of a machine for producing artificial fertilizer; too bad, he is passed over for a Nobel Prize because the device makes money? Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) of Holland invents the heavy-magnet Electrocardiograph, and takes the first electrocardiogram (ECG) (EKG), winning him the 1924 Nobel Med. Prize; he invents Einthoven's Triangle on the chest as the points to attach the leads, along with the PQRST terminology for the various deflections. The Oxyacetylene torch is invented in France by Edmond Fouche and Charles Picard, revolutionizing welding. David T. Kenney (1866-1922) of New York City receives his first patent for a vacuum cleaner, installing the first one in the Henry Clay Frick Bldg. in Pittsburgh, Penn. in 1902, with steam pipes reaching throughout the structure; in 1906 he claims to have installed electric vacuum cleaning systems in the White House and New York Times Bldg.; he goes on to receive eight more patents by 1913, dominating the vacuum cleaning industry until the 1920s after the Vacuum Cleaner Manufacturers' Assoc. is formed in 1919 by licensees of his patents, esp. the one covering the opening in the nozzle that seals contact with the carpet. A team led by Ludwig Roselius (1847-1943) of Bremen, Germany invents the first commercially successful decaffeination process; in 1905-6 it is introduced in Germany under the name Kaffee HAG (Handeis-Aktien-Gesellschaft) (Coffee Trading Public Co.), and in France under the name Sanka (Fr. "sans caffeine" = without caffeine); in 1909-10 it is introduced to the U.S. under the name Dekafa (Dekofa); after WWI the Allies confiscate the co. and sell it to a U.S. co. along with the trademark rights, after which it is introduced under the Sanka brand name in 1923. The Dolceola zither with a keyboard is introduced by the Toledo Symphony Co. (until 1907), becoming a favorite with Lead Belly. Karl (Carl) Auer von Welsbach (1858-1929) of Germany patents Lighter Flints (Ferrocerium), composed of a 70-30 alloy of cerium and iron that give off sparks when struck, becoming popular for cigarette lighters. Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865-1929) invents the Ultramicroscope for the illumination of smoke particles, fog droplets, etc., winning him the 1925 Nobel Chem. Prize. Science: German physician Carl Joseph Gauss (1875-1957) develops the Freiburg Method of Twilight Sleep using a combo of morphine and scopolamine as a surgical anesthesia to replace chloroform during childbirth. After supervising the rebuilding of the Great Hypostyle Hall in Karnak (which lost 11 columns in 1899 in a chain reaction), and discovering the colossal pink granite statue of Second Intermediate Period Pharaoh Senusret IV Seneferibre in Karnak in 1801, French Egyptologist Georges Albert Legrain (1865-1917) discovers a treasure trove of 800 stone statues and 17K bronzes in the NW courtyard of the Temple of Amun in Karnak, becoming the biggest find (until ?); most end up in the Cairo Museum. Am. horticulturist Hebert John Webber (1865-1946) coins the word "clone" to mean a colony of organisms derived via asexual reproduction from a single progenitor. Blondlots have more fun? French physicist Rene Prosper Blondlot (1849-1930) of the U. of Nancy claims to discover N-Rays, a new form of radiation that causes changes in brightness of electric sparks in spark gaps; by 1905 the idea is rejected by the scientific community after debunking by Am. physicist Robert Williams Wood (1868-1955). Hungarian physicist Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) observes that swift cathode rays can pass through metal sheets, proving that a large portion of the atom consists of empty space, winning him the 1905 Nobel Physics Prize. Barbiturates (derivatives of barbituric acid) are introduced into medicine in Germany. Dr. Moises Santiago Bertoni discovers the Stevia rebaudiana natural sweetener herb in Paraguay. Nonfiction: Thomas Bailey Aldrich (1836-1907), Ponkapog Papers (essays). Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), How to Become an Author. Wilhelm Bolsche, Das Liebesleben in der Natur. Otokar Brezina (1868-1929), Music of the Founts (essays). Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Wars of the Century and the Development of Military Science; Impressions of Indian Travel. Eduard Buchner (1860-1917) and Hans Buchner (1850-1902), Die Zymasegahrung. Sir Edmund Kerchever Chambers (1866-1954), The Mediaevel Stage (2 vols.) Agnes Clerke, Problems in Astrophysics. Bishop Mandell Creighton (1843-1901), University and Other Sermons (posth.). Michael Davitt (1846-1906), Within the Pale: The True Story of Anti-Semitic Persecutions in Russia; based on personal travels. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), The Souls of Black Folk; criticizes Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) for pushing industrial over higher ed. and for not openly striving to achieve civil rights; "For the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line." Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society. Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), The Analysis of the Sexual Impulse, Love and Pain, the Sexual Impulse in Women; vol. 3 of 6 in "Studies in the Psychology of Sex". Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935), Le Guide Culinaire (The Culinary Guide); 5K recipes; codifies, streamlines, and simplifies modern French haute cuisine, incl. the five mother sauces; tr. into English in 1907. Joseph Favre (1849-1903), Dictionnaire Universel de Cuisine Practique: Encyclopédie Illustrée d'Hygiène Alimentaire (posth.). Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942), Grandezza e Decadenze di Roma (The Greatness and Decline of Rome) (6 vols.) (1903-8). Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Weltgeschichte des Krieges. James Anthony Froude (1818-94), My Relations with Carlyle (posth.); written in 1887 and pub. by his daughters; claims that Thomas Carlyle was impotent and never consummated his marriage. Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829-1902), History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1660 (4 vols.) (posth.). Johannes Haller (1865-1947), The Papacy and Church Reform. Gilbert Hanotaux (1853-1944), Histoire de la France Contemporaine, 1871-1900 (1903-8). Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943) (ed.), The American Nation (28 vols.) (1903-18). Pierre Janet (1859-1947), Obsessions and Psychasthenia; develops a grand model of the mind in terms of levels of energy, efficiency, and social competence, and defining the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Alvin Saunders Johnson (1874-), Rent in Modern Economic Theory. David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), The Call of the Twentieth Century. John Joseph Keane (1839-1918), Onward and Upward. Helen Adams Keller (1880-1968), The Story of My Life (autobio.); dedicated to Alexander Graham Bell, who introduced her to Anne Sullivan (1866-1936). George Lyman Kittredge (1860-1941), Chaucer and Some of His Friends; the "marriage group" in the Canterbury Tales; makes the study of Chaucer a std. part of the college English curriculum. Arthur and Gorlagon. Stanley Lane-Poole (1854-1931), Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Valet's Tragedy; Social Origins; of totemism. Daniel De Leon (1852-1914), Two Pages from Roman History. John Bach McMaster (1852-1932), The Acquisition of Political, Social, and Industrial Rights of Man in America. George Edward Moore (1873-1958), Principia Ethica. Frederic Logan Paxson (1877-1948), The Independence of the South American Republics: A Study in Recognition and Foreign Policy (first book). Henri Poincare (1854-1912), Science and Hypothesis. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), The Peril and the Preservation of the Home. George Saintsbury (1845-1933), Loci Critici: Passages Illustrative of Critical Theory and Practice. F.C.S. Schiller (1864-1937), Humanism.; 2nd ed. 1912. Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904), English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century (Ford Lectures). Lorado Taft (1860-1936), The History of American Sculpture; first-ever; the 1925 rev. version becomes a std. reference until Wayne Craven's "Sculpture in America" (1968). J.J. Thomson (1856-1940), The Conduction of Electricity through Gases. Mrs. Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) (ed.), Letters of Horace Walpole (16 vols.) (1903-5). Albert Verwey (1865-1937), Het Leven van Potgieter. Adolphus William Ward (1837-1924), The Electress Sophia and the Hanoverian Succession; 2nd ed. 1909. Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832-1914), The Renascence of Wonder; the Romantic movement. Otto Weininger (1880-1903), Sex and Character (Geschlecht und Charakter) (June); claims that all people have elements of both masculinity and femininity, and there is a deeper psychical realm beyond sexuality and gender which can liberate mankind, er, humanity from original sin; homosexuals are "intermediate sexual forms"; when it doesn't make the big splash he thought it should, he commits suicide, after it which it begins to sell and gains true believers. Walter Weyl (1873-1919), Current Labor Problems. Helen Thompson Woolley (1874-1947), The Mental Traits of Sex: An Experimental Investigation of the Normal Mind in Men and Women; the first dissertation on psychological sex differences, finding that men performed better on most tests of motor ability, while women tended to do better on some of the coordination tasks; men showed more creativity, while women showed more acute senses and better memory performance; she found no evidence that women are influenced by emotion more in life than men, and in general found more similarities than differences. William Butler Yeats (1839-1922), Ideas of Good and Evil; "I believe... that our memories are part of one great memory, the memory of Nature herself". Louis Zangwill (1869-1938), One's Womenkind. Art: Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912), Silver-favorites. Jozef Israels (1824-1911), A Jewish Wedding - under the chuppah? Gusatav Klimt (1862-1918), Philosophy, Medicine and Jurisprudence (painted ceiling at Vienna U.). Maximilien Luce (1858-1941), Une Rue a Paris en Mai 1871 ou La Commune (A Paris Street in the May 1871 Commune) (1903-5). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Mackerel, La Vie, Phallus and Nude (drawings); Portrait of Angel Fernandez de Soto; an artist he shares a studio with, showing his haunting face with a smoke cloud hovering over him. Sir Edward Poynter (1867-1919), Cave of the Storm Nymphs. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), The Flower Clouds. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Maxims for Revolutionists; "He who can, does. He who cannot, teaches." Everett Shinn (1876-1953), Girl in a Bathtub; Revue; Rehearsal of the Ballet. Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (1863-1923), Children on the Seashore. P.W. Steer, Richmond Castle. Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), Portrait of Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918). Movies: Cecil Hepworth's Alice in Wonderland (Oct. 17) is the first film adaptation of the Lewis Carroll book, featuring special effects incl. Alice shrinking in the Hall of Many Doors, getting stuck in the White Rabbit's house, and reaching for help through a window. Frank Mottershaw's A Daring Daylight Burglary (Apr.), followed in Sept. by "The Robbery of the Mail Coach" pioneers the chase movie. Wallace McCutcheon's The Dude and the Burglars (Aug.) (Am. Mutoscope and Biograph) is about a bashful young man who foils two burglars and rescues his lady. A.E. Weed's The Flatiron Building on a Windy Day (Nov. 2) has its premiere, becoming a big hit by Crescent Films; "It is at this [N] corner where one can get a good idea of the prevailing types in hosiery and lingerie." Edwin S. Porter's Life of an American Fireman (Jan.) (Edison Studios) features a continuous narrative over seven scenes in nine shots with dissolves. Edwin S. Porter's 13-min. $150 The Great Train Robbery (Dec. 1) (Edison Studios) (filmed in Dove, N.J.) stars Pine Bluff, Ark.-born Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson (Maxwell Henry Aronson) (1880-1971), becoming the first movie with a plot, and the longest film to date, changing the film industry with the introduction of multiple plot lines, editing and cross-cutting, the chase scene, and the Western, becoming the #1 attraction in the first nickelodeon in 1905. Edison Studio's Subub Surprises the Burglar (Aug. 11) has its premiere, showing a dude in a fold-up Murphy bed being surprised by a burglar, then surprising him when it is revealed to be armored and locked and loaded. Music: A good year for the saxophone? Eugen D'Albert (1864-1932), Tiefland (opera) (Prague); Wie Wir de Natur Erleben, Op. 24. Hugo Alfven (1872-1960), Swedish Rhapsody No. 1 (Midsummer Vigil); his biggest hit, later made famous in the U.S. by Chet Atkins (1957). Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), The Grand Match. Amy Marcy Beach (1867-1944), Scottish Legend, Op. 54. Anton Bruckner (1824-96), Symphony No. 9 in C ("The Great") (posth.) (Vienna). Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), Concerto for Piano and Orchestra Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Le Roi Arthur, Op. 23 (King Arthur) (posth.) (1886-95) (Nov. 30) (La Monnaie, Brussels). Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Estampes; Rhapsody for Saxophone and Orchestra; La Mer: Three Symphonic Sketches for Orchestra (The Sea) (1903-5); composed while on holiday at at the English Channel coast in Eastbourne; debut on Oct. 15, 1905 in Paris. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Sea Drift; based on the poetry of Walt Whitman. Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), The Apostles (oratorio) (Birmingham). Edmund Eysler, Bruder Straubinger (operetta) (Vienna). Harry Lawrence Freeman, An African Kraal (opera). Victor Herbert (1859-1924) and Glen MacDonough (1870-1924), Babes in Toyland (operetta) (Grand Opera House, Chicago) (June 17) (Majestic Theatre, New York) (Oct. 13) (192 perf.); an attempt to cash in on "The Wizard of Oz", incl. playing in the same theater (Majestic); filmed in 1934 starring Laurel and Hardy, in 1939 starring Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney, and in 1961 by Walt Disney, and in 1997 by MGM (animated); incl. Babes in Arms, March of the Toys, Toyland. Juan Manen (1883-1971), Giovanna di Napoli (opera). Francis O'Neill (1848-1936), O'Neill's Music of Ireland; 1,850 compositions collected by an Irish-born Chicago policeman. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 47. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Sinfonia Domestica (New York); uses a quartet of saxophones. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), Ernani (opera); the first one ever recorded. Joseph Franz Wagner (1856-1908), Under the Double Eagle March (Unter dem Doppeladler) (March of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire); becomes official regimental march of the 1st Austrian Artillery Regiment No. 2 - makes you want to go out and kill for the emperor? Amy Woodforde-Finden (1860-1919), Four Indian Love Lyrics from the Garden of Kama; lyrics by Laurence Hope; incl. big hit Kashmiri Song, the first Edwardian hit?; "Pale hands I loved beside the Shalimar, where are you now? Where are you now?" Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876-1948), Le Donne Curiose (opera) (Munich). Plays: George Ade (1866-1944), The County Chairman (comedy) (Wallack's Theatre, New York) (Nov. 24) (222 perf.); produced by Henry W. Savage; stars Maclyn Arbuckle as small-time Antioch County politician Jim Hackler; Anna Buckley plays Chick Elzey; Willis P. Sweatnam plays Sassafras Livingston in blackface; filmed in 1914, and in 1935 starring Stepin Fetchit as Sassafras. Alfred Austin (1835-1913), Flodden Field (His Majesty's Theatre, London). Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), Saturday Night. Johan Bojer (1872-1959), Troens Magi; Theodora. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), La Couvee. Padraic Colum (1881-1972), Broken Sail. Rachel Crothers (1878-1958), Nora (New York); an actress turns playwright and gets a play produced, directing it herself and going on to a great career. Andre Gide (1869-1951), Saul (Saül) (verse drama). Owen Hall and Sidney Jones, The Medal and the Maid. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Rose Bernd (tragedy). Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Elektra (verse drama). Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp) (1855-1905), The House of Usna. Baroness Emma Orczy (1865-1947), The Scarlet Pimpernel (Oct. 15) (Theatre Royal, Nottingham); Englishman poses as a fop to rescue aristocrats during the Reign of Terror in France; "Look at that thing, sink me what a mess"; flops, is rewritten, debuts on Jan. 5, 1905 at the New Theatre in London, and becomes a hit. August Strindberg (1849-1912), Queen Christina. Leslie Stuart (1863-1928), Paul Rubens (1875-1917), Henry Hamilton, Paul M. Potter, and Charles H. Taylor (1859-1907), The School Girl (musical comedy) (Prince of Wales Theatre, West End, London) (May 9) (333 perf.) (Daly's Theatre, New York) (Sept. 1, 1904); produced by George Edwardes and Charles Frohman; stars Edna May, Billie Burke, Pauline Chase, Maude Percival, Marie Studholme, James Blakeley, Reginald Somerville, and G.P. Huntley/George Grossmith Jr.; features the song My Little Canoe. John Millington Synge (1871-1909), In the Shadow of the Glen; "When writing [it], I got more aid than any learning could have given me from a chink in the floor of the old Wicklow house where I was staying, that let me hear what was being said by the servant girls in the kitchen." Howard Talbot (1865-1928), Three Little Maids (musical). Bert Williams (1875-1922) and George Walker, In Dahomey (musical) (New York); first musical written and performed by blacks in a white New York City theater. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Hour Glass; more serious still? Poetry: Petr Bezruc (1867-1958), A Silesian Number (debut); his only vol. of poetry establishes him as #1 in Bohemia for life? Chaim Nachman Bialik (1873-1934), In the City of Slaughter; about the Jewish pogram at Kishinev this year, gaining him, his Hebrew lit. pub. firm in Odessa, and the Zionist cause fame. Alexander Blok (1880-1921), Fabrika. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Seven Golden Odes of Pagan Arabia. Bliss Carman (1861-1929), The Greeen Book of the Bards. His Pipes of Pan, No. 2. Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-61), Poems (posth.), incl. Amours de Voyage, There Is No God. Will Marion Cook (1869-1944), Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), and Jesse Allison Shipp Jr. (1864-1934), In Dahomey: A Musical Comedy (New York Theater, New York City) (Feb. 18) (53 perf.); the first full-length musical written and played by blacks to be performed at a major Broadway house; two Boston con men devise a plan to colonize you know what; ends with a spectacular cakewalk. Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Zwei Menschen: Roman in Romanzen. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Ora et Labora. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Ausgewahlte Gedichte. Laurence Hope, Stars of the Desert. John Masefield (1878-1967), Ballads. H.L. Mencken (1880-1956), Ventures into Verse. George Sterling (1869-1926), The Testimony of the Suns and Other Poems (debut). Novels: Mary Hunter Austin (1868-1934), The Land of Little Rain; the region between the High Sierra and Mojave Desert of Southern Calif. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Misterio. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), The Gates of Wrath; Leonora. Samuel Butler (1835-1902), The Way of All Flesh (posth.); semi-autobio. satire on mid-Victorian family life, about the Pontifex family. Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922), The Riddle of the Sands; thriller by future Irish rebel predicting a German invasion of Britain. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) and Ford Madox Ford (1873-1939), Romance. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), The Wind in the Rose Bush. George Gissing (1857-1903), The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft; semi-autobio. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Pearl Maiden. Henry Harland (1861-1905), My Friend Prospero. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Diamantstad (2 vols.). Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), Alt-Neuland (The Old New Land); title is trans. to "Tel Aviv" in Hebrew, causing the town to be named after it, although it's also in Ezek. 3:15 as "Hill of Spring"? J.K. Huysmans (1848-1907), L'Oblat; becomes a Benedictine oblate and accepts suffering in the world. Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928), La Catedral (The Shadow of the Cathedral). William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Odd Craft (short stories). Henry James (1843-1916), The Ambassadors; The Beast in the Jungle. Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Pioneers of the Old South. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Crimson Fairy Book. William John Locke (1863-1930), Where Love Is. Jack London (1876-1916), The Call of the Wild; 140 lb. St. Bernard and Scottish shepherd Buck goes from tame to savage after Judge Miller's gardener's helper Manuel kidnaps him to pay gambling debts; makes tiny Skagway (Tlingit "windy place with white caps on the water") (founded 1900) in the Alaska Panhandle famous; "Buck did not read the newspapers, or he would have known that trouble was brewing, not alone for himself, but for every tide-water dog, strong of muscle and with warm, long hair, from Puget Sound to San Diego. Because men, groping in the Arctic darkness, had found a yellow metal, and because steamship and transportation companies were booming the find, thousands of men were rushing into the Northland. These men wanted dogs, and the dogs they wanted were heavy dogs, with strong muscles by which to toil, and furry coats to protect them from the frost." Pierre Loti (1850-1923), L'Inde sans les Anglais. Charles K. Lush, The Autocrats; artist Richard Laurenkranz is based on Richard Lorenz (1858-?). Charles Major (1856-1913), A Forest Hearth. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Tonio Kroger. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), Fabulous Fancies. George Moore (1852-1933), The Untilled Field (short stories); written in Ireland, where he lives from 1901-10. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Pit; #2 in the wheat trilogy (#3 is never written). Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Yellow Crayon. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), Purple and Fine Women. Gene Stratton-Porter (1863-1924), The Song of the Cardinal (first novel). Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929), In the Guardianship of God. Mrs. Mary Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Lady Rose's Daughter; bestseller. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Der Niegekusste Mund. Kate Douglas Wiggin (1856-1923), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm; Rebecca Rowena Randall goes to live with her two stern aunts in Riverboro, Maine; filmed in 1917, 1932, and 1938. Owen Wister (1860-1938), Philosophy 4 (autobio.); his college days at Harvard U. Births: British-Canadian Gen. Charles Foulkes (d. 1969) on Jan. 3 in Stockton-on-Tees. German anti-Nazi geographer Albrecht Georg Haushofer (d. 1945) on Jan. 7 in Munich; son of Karl Haushofer (1869-1946) and a half-Jewish mother; educated at Munich U. English 6'6" "Alfred the Butler in Batman", "Earl of Warwick in Joan of Arc" actor Alan Napier (Alan W. Napier-Clavering) (d. 1988) on Jan. 7; educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art; cousin of Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940); great-great-grandson of Charles Dickens (1812-70). Am. Frito's inventor Charles Elmer Doolin (d. 1959) on Jan. 10 in Kansas City, Kan. English "Family of Man" Modernist artist-sculptor Dame Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth (d. 1975) on Jan. 10 in Wakefield, West Riding of Yorkshire; educated at Leeds School of Art; created dame in 1965. South African "Cry, the Beloved Country" anti-apartheid writer Alan Stewart Paton (d. 1988) on Jan. 11 in Pietermaritzburg, Natal. French auto racer and spy William Charles Frederick Grover-Williams (Grover) (d. 1945) on Jan. 16 in Montrouge, Hauts-de-Seine; English father, French mother. Am. "The Spider's Web" actor-TV host John Warren Hull (d. 1974) on Jan. 17 in Gasport, N.Y.: educated at NYU. German composer Boris Blacher (d. 1975) on Jan. 19 (Jan. 6 Old Style) in Niuzhuang, Manchuria; father of Tatjana Blacher (1956-). German physicist Friedrich Georg "Fritz" Houtermans (d. 1966) on Jan. 22 in Zoppot (Sopot) (near Danzig), Poland. British astrologer (Roman Catholic) Louis (Ludwig) de Wohl (d. 1961) on Jan. 24 in Berlin, Germany; Hungarian father, Austrian mother, both of Jewish descent; emigrates to Britain in 1935. Am. "The Metaphysical Needle" poet-dramatist (Roman Catholic) Madeline Gleason (d. 1979) on Jan. 26 in Fargo, N.D.; grows up in Portland, Ore. Australian neurophysiologist Sir John Carew Eccles (d. 1997) on Jan. 27 in Melbourne; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U. Am. mathematician-physicist Howard Percy "Bob" Robertson (d. 1961) on Jan. 27 in Hoquiam, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash., and Caltech. Irish crystallographer (Baptist-turned-Quaker) Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (nee Yardley) (d. 1971) on Jan. 28 in Newbridge, County Kildare; educated at Univ. College London; created dame in 1956. Am. Look mag. publisher Gardner "Mike" Cowles Jr. (d. 1985) on Jan. 31 in Algona, Iowa; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy. Am. baritone (black) (the original Porgy) Robert Todd Duncan (d. 1998) on Feb. 3 in Danville, Ky.; educated at Butler U. and Columbia U. Am. poet-novelist and dance critic Edwin Orr Denby (d. 1983) on Feb. 4 in Tientsin, China. Am. world's oldest man (Jewish) (parapsychologist) Alexander Imich (d. 2014) on Feb. 4 in Czestochowa, Poland; emigrates to the U.S. in 1952. Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau Leon on Feb. 6 in Chillan; gves first concert at age 5. Malaysian PM (1957-70) ("Father of Malaysia") Sir Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (d. 1990) on Feb. 8 in Istana Pelamin, Alor Star, Kedah. Am. explorer rear Adm. George John Dufek on Feb. 10 in Rockford, Ill. Austrian soccer player ("the Mozart of Soccer") Matthias "Paper-Man" Sindelar (d. 1939) on Feb. 10 in Kozlov. Belgian mystery writer (in French) ("Man of 10,000 Women") Georges Joseph Christian Simenon (d. 1989) (AKA G. Sim and Monsier Le Coq) on Feb. 13 in Liege; confesses to a need to have sex 3x a day and pays 8K hos for it. Am. "Joe Palooka in Palooka", "Pigskin Parade" actor Stuart "Stu" Erwin (d. 1967) on Feb. 14 in Squaw Valley, Calif.; husband of June Collyer (1906-68). Am. "Charlie McCarthy", "Mortimer Snerd" ventriloquist Edgar John Bergen (Berggren) (d. 1978) on Feb. 16 in Chicago, Ill.; Swedish immigrant parents; educated at Northwestern U.; father of Candice Bergen (1946-). Am. astral projection writer Sylvan Muldoon (d. 1969) on Feb. 18. Soviet pres. (1965-77) Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (d. 1983) on Feb. 18 (Feb. 5 Old Style) in Karlovka, Ukraine. French erotic novelist-diarist (bi?) Anais (Anaïs) Nin (Angela Anais Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell) (d. 1977) (pr. ah-na-EES) on Feb. 21 in Neuilly, France; Cuban father, Cuban-French-Danish mother. French "Zazie in the Metro", "Oulipo" novelist-poet (founder of Oulipo) Raymond Queneau (d. 1976) on Feb. 21 in Le Havre; husband (1938-72) of Janine Kahn (-1972), sister-in-law of Andre Breton; educated at the U. of Paris, Am. baseball owner (Boston Red Sox) Thomas Austin "Tom" Yawkey (d. 1976) on Feb. 21 in Detroit, Mich. Estonian Nazi leader Ain-Ervin Mere (Ain-Ervin Martson) (d. 1969) on Feb. 22. English Ramsey Problem philosopher-mathematician-economist (atheist) Frank Plumpton Ramsey (d. 1930) on Feb. 22 in Cambridge; son of Arthur Stanley Ramsey (1867-1954); educated at Winchester College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U.; friend of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Am. baritone Robert Weede (Wiedefeld) (d. 1972) on Feb. 22 in Baltimore, Md. German pesticide chemist Gerhard Schrader (d. 1990) in Bortfeld (near Wendenburg); educated at Braunschweig U. of Tech. Italian polymer chemist Giulio Natta (d. 1979) on Feb. 26 in Imperia; educated at Pavia U., U. fo Rome La Sapienza, and Politecnico di Torino. British Chindit deep-penetration campaign Maj. Gen. Orde Charles Wingate (d. 1944) on Feb. 26 in Nainital, modern-day Uttarakhand, India. Am. rabbi (Orthodox Jewish) ("The Rov or Rav") Joseph (Yoshe) Ber Soloveitchik (d. 1993) on Feb. 27 in Pruzhany, Grodno, Russia (Belarus); emigrates to the U.S. in 1932; father-in-law of Isadore Twersky (1930-97). Am. "Meet Me in St. Louis", "An American in Paris", "Gigi" film dir.-producer Lester Anthony "Vincente" Minnelli (d. 1986) on Feb. 28 in Chicago, Ill.; French Canadian descent mother, Sicilian paternal grandfather; husband (1945-51) of Judy Garland (1922-69); father of Liza Minnelli (1946-). Japanese empress consort (1926-89) Kojun ("fragrant purity") (Nuni Nagako) (d. 2000) on Mar. 6 in Tokyo; eldest daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi (1873-1929) and Chikako (1879-1956); wife (1924-) of Hirohito (1901-89); mother of Akihito (1933-). Am. jazz pianist-corner player Leon Bismarck "Bix" Beiderbecke (d. 1931) on Mar. 10 in Davenport, Iowa; first great white jazz musician? Am. New York Post publisher (Jewish) Dorothy Schiff (d. 1989) on Mar. 11 in New York City; granddaughter of Jacob Henry Schiff (1847-1920); educated at Bryn Mawr College. Am. bandleader (Roman Catholic) Lawrence Welk (d. 1992) on Mar. 11 in Strasburg, N.D.; German-speaking immigrant parents from Alsace-Lorraine via Odessa, Ukraine; husband (1931-92) of Fern Veronica Renner; father of Shirley Welk, Donna Welk, and Lawrence "Larry" Welk Jr. Am. jazz promoter Max Gordon (d. 1989) on Mar. 12 in Svir, Vilna (Myadzyel Raion, Belarus); emigrates to the U.S. in 1926; educated at Reed College. Kurdish Dem. Party leader (1946-79) Mullah Mustafa Barzani (d. 1979) on Mar. 14 in Barzan, Iraq; father of Massoud Barzani (1946-). Am. abstract expressionist artist Adolph Gottlieb (d. 1974) on Mar. 14 in New York City. Am. Dem. U.S. Sen. (D-Mont., 1953-77) Michael Joseph "Mik" Mansfield (d. 2001) on Mar. 16 in New York City; Irish Catholic immigrant parents; grows up in Mont. Am. "Mr. Peale's Museum" historian Charles Coleman Sellers (d. 1980) on Mar. 16 in Overbrook, Penn.; great-grandson of Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827); educated at Haverford College, Harvard U., and Temple U. British spy Vera Leigh (nee Glass) (d. 1944) on Mar. 17 in Leeds. Am. "Uncle Joe Carson in Petticoat Junction" William Edgar Buchanan (d. 1979) on Mar. 20 in Humansville, Mo.; grows up in Ore. and Calif. English "Nefertiti Lived Here" archeologist Mary Chubb (d. 2003) on Mar. 22 in London. German sex hormone biochemist Adolf (Adolph) Friedrich Johannes Butenandt (d. 1995) on Mar. 24 in Wesemunde-Lehe (near Bremerhaven); educated at the U. of Marburg, and U. of Gottingen. English journalist, spy and Christian apologist Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (d. 1990) on Mar. 24 in Croydon; educated at Selwyn College, Cambridge U. German ambassador (to Vichy France) Heinrich Otto Abetz (d. 1958) on Mar. 26 in Schwtzingen; friend of Joachim von Ribbentrop. Kiwi "The Wind and the Rain" playwright Merton Emerton Hodge (d. 1958) on Mar. 28 in Taruheru, Povery Bay; educated at Kings College, Auckland, and Edinburgh U. Am. "Durango Kid" actor Charles Starrett (d. 1986) on Mar. 28 in Athol, Mass.; educated at Dartmouth College. Am. Roller Derby creator Leo A. Seltzer (d. 1978) on Apr. 5 in Helena, Mont. Am. baseball hall-of-fame catcher-mgr. Gordon Stanley "Mickey" Cochrane (d. 1962) on Apr. 6 in Bridgewater, Mass.; Scottish immigrant parents; Mickey Mantle is named after him. Am. electrical engineer (stroboscope inventor) Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton (d. 1990) on Apr. 6 in Fremont, Neb.; descendant of Plymouth Gov. William Bradford (1590-1657); grows up in Aurora, Neb.; educated at the U. of Neb., and MIT. Am. auto racer Frank Lockhart (d. 1928) on Apr. 8 in Dayton, Ohio. Am. "Maj. Seth Adams in Wagon Train", "Sgt. Maj. O'Rourke in Fort Apache", "Bert the Cop in It's a Wonderful Life" actor Wardell Edwin "Ward" Bond (d. 1960) on Apr. 9 in Benkelman, Neb.; moves to Denver, Colo. in 1919. Am. biologist (oral contraceptive pioneer) (Jewish) Gregory Goodwin Pincus (d. 1967) on Apr. 9 in Woodbine, N.J.; educated at Cornell U., and Harvard U. Am. conservative Repub. congresswoman-diplomat-playwright (ed. of Vanity Fair 1930-4) Clare Boothe Luce (d. 1987) on Apr. 10 in New York City; wife (1935-) of Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967); becomes a Roman Catholic in 1946 after the 1944 auto accident death of her daughter Ann, and joins the Dames of Malta; in the late 1950s she and her husband Harry experiment with LSD. Dutch Tinbergen Norm economist Jan Tinbergen (d. 1994) on Apr. 12 in The Hague; educated at the U. of Leiden. Am. cellist (Jewish) Gregor "Grisha" Piatigorsky (d. 1976) on Apr. 17 in Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), Ukraine; makes concert debut at age 9; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. Am. "Untouchable" Prohibition agent Eliot Ness (d. 1957) on Apr. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; fan of Sherlock Holmes. Romanian-Am. mathematician (discoverer of splines) (Jewish) Isaac Jacob Schoenberg (d. 1990) on Apr. 21 in Galati. Russian (Soviet) mathematician Andrei (Andrey) Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (d. 1987) on Apr. 25 in Tambov; educated at Moscow State U. British endorphin pharmacologist (Jewish) Hans Walter Kosterlitz (d. 1996) on Apr. 27 in Berlin, Germany; educated at the Humboldt U. of Berlin; emigrates to Scotland in 1934; father of John Kosterlitz (1943-). Am. conservative radio-TV broadcaster Fulton Lewis Jr. (d. 1966) on Apr. 30 in Washington, D.C.; father of Fulton Lewis III (1936-). Am. pediatrician ("the man who raised 50 million kids") Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock (d. 1998) on May 2 in New Haven, Conn.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Yale U. Am. "Father Chuck O'Malley in Going My Way and The Bells of St. Mary" singer-actor Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby (Scan. "by the cross") (d. 1977) on May 3 in Tacoma, Wash.; son of Harry Lowe Crosby; celebrates his birthday on May 4 and claims to have been born in 1904; moves to Spokane, Wash. in 1906 and changes his first name to Bing after the comic strip "The Bingville Bugle"; educated at Gonzaga U. Am. "Voyage of the Damned", "The Man in the Bottle in The Twilight Zone" actor-dir. (Jewish) Luther (Lutha) Adler (d. 1984) on May 4 in New York City; son of Jacob Adler (1855-1926) and Sara Adler (1858-1953); brother of Stella Adler (1901-92); husband (1938-47) of Sylvia Sidney (1910-99). Am. Francophile chef (gay) ("the Dean of American Cuisine" - Julia Child) James Andrew Beard (d. 1985) on May 5 in Portland, Ore.; educated at Reed College. Am. country-blues singer Cliff Carlisle (d. 1983) on May 6 in Taylorsville, Ky.; brother of Bill Carlisle (1908-2003). Am. hall-of-fame bowler (black) J. Elmer Reed (d. 1983) on May 6 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. baseball hall-of-fame 2B player (Detroit Tigers) (1924-42) Charlie Leonard "the Mechanical Man" Gehringer (d. 1993) on May 11 in Fowlerville, Mich. English composer Sir Lennox Randal Francis Berkeley on May 12 in Oxford; educated at Merton College, Oxford U.; student of Nadia Boulanger; knighted in 1974; father of Michael Berkeley (1948-). Am. Objectivist poet Lorine Faith Niedecker (d. 1970) on May 12 in Black Hawk Island near Fort Atkinson, Wisc.; educated at Beloit College. Am. "Gladiator", "When Worlds Collide" novelist Philip Gordon Wylie (d. 1971) (AKA Leatrice Homesley) on May 12 in Beverly, Mass.; educated at Princeton U. Am. "The American Beauty" actress Billie Dove (Bertha/Lillian Bohny) (d. 1997) on May 14 in New York City; Swiss immigrant parents; wife (1923-9) of Irvin Willat (1890-1976), and (1933-70) Robert Alan Kenaston Sr. (-1970); mother of Robert Alan Kenaston Jr. (-1995). German Nazca Lines mathematician ("the Lady of the Lines") Maria Reiche (d. 1998) on May 15 in Dresden; educated at Dresden Technical U.; collaborator of Paul Kosok British Barrett's Esophagus surgeon Norman Rupert "Pasty" Barrett (d. 1979) on May 16 in Adelaide, Australia; emigrates to England at age 10; educated at Eton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Dutch auxin biologist Frits Warmolt Went (d. 1990) on May 18 in Utrecht; son of Friedrich Went (1863-1935). Am. "Henry Adams" biographer-atty. (Jewish) Ernest Samuels (d. 1996) on May 19 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Catherine Howard in The Private Life of Henry VIII" actress (Jewish convert to Roman Catholicism) Gittel Enoyce "Binnie" "Gertrude" "Maude" Barnes (d. 1998) on May 25 in Islington, London, England; Jewish father, Italian mother. French "Hymne a l'Amour", "Irma La Douce" composer-songwriter Marguerite Monnot (d. 1961) on May 28 in Decize, Neivre. Am. "Road to Singapore" actor-comedian-demigod ("Ski-Nose" - Bing Crosby) Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (d. 2003) on May 29 in Greenwich (Eltham), England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1908; husband (1934-2003) of Dolores Hope (1909-2011). Am. "One Way to Heaven" black poet-novelist (black) Countee Cullen (d. 1946) on May 30 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Indian "The Evolutionary Energy in Man" yogi Gopi Krishna (d. 1984) on May 30 in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. Armenian Communist "Sabre Dance" composer Aram Ilyich Khachaturian (d. 1978) on June 6 (May 24 Old Style) in Tiflis, Georgia; Armenian parents. U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1957-71) ("patron saint of Texas liberals") "Smilin'" Ralph Webster Yarboroush (d. 1996) on June 8 in Chandler, Tex.; educated at UTA. French "Memoirs of Hadrian" novelist and animal rights activist (bi) Marguerite Yourcenar (Marguerite Antoinette Jeanne Marie Ghislaine Cleenewerck de Crayencour) on June 8 in Brussels, Belgium; French father, Belgian mother; lover of translator Grace Frick in 1937-79; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939; becomes U.S. citizen in 1947; first woman elected to the Academie Francais (1980). Am. football hall-of-fame player ("the football player without a fault" - Pop Warner) Ernest Alonzo "Ernie" Nevers (d. 1976) on June 11 in Willow River, Minn.; educated at Stanford U. Am. "Rose Marie", "The Merry Widow", "The Love Parade" singer-actress Jeanette Anna MacDonald (d. 1965) on June 18 in Philadelphia, Penn.; sister of Blossom Rock (1895-1978). French "The Devil in the Flesh" novelist-journalist ("Monsieur Bebe") Raymond Radiguet (d. 1923) on June 18 in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (near Paris). Am. baseball hall-of-fame 1st baseman (New York Yankees #4, 1925-39) ("the Iron Horse") Henry Louis (Ludwig Heinrich) "Lou" Gehrig (d. 1941) on June 19 in New York City; bats behind #3 Babe Ruth. Am. New York Times caricaturist (Jewish) ("The Line King") Albert "Al" Hirschfeld (d. 2003) on June 21 in St. Louis, Mo.; husband (1943-94) of Dolly Haas (1910-94); father of Nina Hirschfeld (1945-), whose name NINA he likes to hide in his caricatures, which are made with black ink and a crow's quill. Am. bank robber John Herbert Dillinger (d. 1934) on June 22 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player (lefty) ("the Meal Ticket") (New York Giants) (#11) "King" Carl Owen Hubbell (d. 1988) on June 22 in Carthage, Mo.; first NL player to have his number retired. Am. jazz bandleader-drummer Ben Pollack (d. 1971) on June 22 in Chicago, Ill.; discoverer of Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman. English "1984", "Animal Farm" novelist-writer George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) (d. 1950) on June 25 in Motihari, India; educated at Eton College; picks his pseudonym based on the patron saint of England and the name of a river in Suffolk. Am. broadcaster James Middleton Cox Jr. (d. 1974) on June 27 in Dayton, Ohio; son of James Middleton Cox (1870-1957); educated at Yale U. English aviator Amy Johnson (d. 1941) on July 1 in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire. British Conservative PM (1963-4) Sir Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel and 14th Earl of Home (d. 1995) on July 2; last member of the House of Lords to be appointed PM (until ?); first PM to leave the House of Lords and move to the Commons (until ?); first PM to play first class cricket; first PM born in the 20th cent.; uncle of Charles Douglas-Home (1937-85); educated at Eton College, and Christ Church, Oxford U. Norwegian king (1957-91) Olav V (Alexander Edward Christian Fredrik of Denmark) (d. 1991) on July 2 in Sandringham, Norfolk, England; only son of Prince Carl of Denmark (Hakon VII) (1872-1957) and Princess Maud (1869-1938) (daughter of Edward VII of Britain, and granddaughter of Queen Victoria); father of Harald V (1937-). Canadian 5'10" "hockey hall-of-fame player Irvine Wallace "Ace" Bailey (d. 1992) on July 3 in Bracebridge, Ont. English "A People's History of England" Marxist historian A.L. (Arthur Leslie) Morton (d. 1987) on July 4 in Suffolk; educated at Cambridge U. Swedish scientist Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (d. 1982) on July 6 in Linkoping. English "History of the Crusades" medieval historian Sir James Cochran Stevenson "Steven" Runciman (d. 2000) on July 7 in Northumberland; educated at Eton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U.; student of J.B. Bury; friend of George Orwell. Am. "Woodrow Wilson" historian Arthur Walworth (d. 2005) on July 9 in Newton, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. German Auschwitz deputy commandant Capt. Karl Fritzsch (d. 1945) on July 10 in Nassengrub. English "The Day of the Triffids" sci-fi novelist John Wyndham (John Wyndham Parkes Lucas Beynon Harris) (d. 1969) on July 10 in Knowle, Warwickshire. Soviet spy Rudolf Abel (Vilyam Genrikhovich "Willie" August Fisher) (d. 1971) on July 11 in Benwell, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; German-Russian parents. Am. "Death in the Afternoon" matador (Jewish) Sidney Franklin (Frumkin) (d. 1976) on July 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; drops out of Columbia U. to become the first successful matador from the U.S. Am. writer-critic William Troy (d. 1961) on July 11 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Yale U. and Columbia U. English "Civilisation" art historian-critic Sir Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark (d. 1983) on July 13 in Mayfair, London; educated at Trinity College, Oxford U.; likes to write standing up. Am. "The Agony and the Ecstasy", "Lust for Life" historical novelist (Jewish?) Irving Stone (Tennenbaum) (d. 1989) on July 14 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. "Drums Along the Mohawk" historical novelist Walter Dumaux "Walt" Edmonds (d. 1998) on July 15 in Booneville, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. German-Am. aircraft control engineer (female) Irmgard Flugge-Lotz (Flügge-Lotz) (d. 1974) on July 16 in Hameln; educated at the U. of Hanover; first female engineering prof. at Stanford U. (1961). Canadian saxophonist-singer-songwriter Carmen Lombardo (d. 1971) on July 16 in London, Ont.; brother of Guy Lombardo (1902-77). Am. diplomat Hiram "Harry" Bingham IV (d. 1988) on July 17; son of Hiram Bingham III (1875-1956) and Alfreda Mitchell. Am. shopping mall architect Victor David Gruen (Grünbaum) (d. 1980) on July 18 in Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Am. psychologist Theodore Mead Newcomb (d. 1984) on July 4 in Rock Creek, Ohio; educated at Columbia U. U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) (1949-63) Carey Estes Kefauver (d. 1963) on July 26 in Madisonville, Tenn.; educated at the U. of Tenn., and Yale Law School. Czech novelist-dramatist Frantisek Krelina (d. 1976) on July 26 in Podhradi (near Jicin). Soviet "Alexander Nevsky", "Ivan the Terrible" actor Nikolai Konstantinovich Cherkasov (d. 1966) on July 27 in Leningrad. Am. fashion editor Diana Vreeland (Dalziel) (d. 1989) on July 29 in Paris; British father, Am. mother (descendant of George Washington's brother who was a cousin of Francis Scott Key); emigrates to the U.S. in 1914. Canadian (black sheep?) sports team owner (Toronto Maple Leafs) Harold Ballard on July 30 in Toronto, Ont. Am. movie gossip columnist (1964-77) Dorothy Manners Haskell (d. 1998) on July 30 in Fort Worth, Tex. Am. "Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History" historian-novelist (Roman Catholic) Paul Horgan (d. 1995) on Aug. 1 in Buffalo, N.Y.; grows up in Albuquerque, N.M.; friend of Peter Hurd (1904-84). Am. stunt pilot ("the Honeymoon Pilot") Albert Paul Mantz (d. 1965) on Aug. 2 in Alameda, Calif; flies in the 1927 flick "Wings". Tunisian pres. #1 (1957-87) ("Father of Tunisia") Habib Bourguiba (d. 2000) on Aug. 3 in Monastir (100 mi. S of Tunis); educated at College Sadiki, Lycee Carnot, and U. of Paris. Am. "Looney Tunes", "Merrie Melodies" animator Rudolf Carl "Rudy" Ising (d. 1992) on Aug. 7 in Kansas City, Mo.; collaborator of Hugh Harman (1903-82). British Kenyan anthropologist-archeologist (devout Christian Darwinian) Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (d. 1972) on Aug. 7 in Kabete, British East Africa (Kenya); British Christian missionary parents; husband of Frida Avern Leakey (-1936) and (1936-) Mary Leakey (1913-96); father of Colin Leakey (1933-), Richard Leakey (1944-), and Philip Leakey (1949-). British Kantian philosopher (Jewish-turned-Christian) Heinrich Walter "Heinz" Cassirer (d. 1979) on Aug. 9 in Berlin, Germany; son of Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945); emigrates to Britain in 1933. English Clue game inventor Anthony Ernest Pratt (d. 1994) on Aug. 10 in Birmingham. Am. "Jim Bell in Sky King" actor Charles Randolph "Chubby" Johnson (d. 1974) on Aug. 13 in Terre Haute, Ind.; starts out as a journalist before turning to acting in his 40s. Am. "By Love Possessed" novelist (Episcopalian) James Gould Cozzens (d. 1978) on Aug. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; Am. father, Canadian mother; grows up in Staten Island, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. French "The Madwoman of Chaillot", "Is Paris Burning?" actor Claude Dauphin (d. 1978) on Aug. 19 in Corbeil-Essonnes, Paris; brother of Jean Nohain (1900-81). Am. actress Muriel Kirkland (d. 1971) on Aug. 19 in Yonkers, N.Y. Am. businessman-philanthropist (Jewish) William Rosenwald (d. 1996) on Aug. 19; son of Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932); educated at MIT, Harvard U., and London School of Economics. Am. jazz bandleader and stride pianist Claude Driskett Hopkins (d. 1984) on Aug. 24 in Alexandria, Va. Spanish Falange Espanola fascist leader Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera (d. 1936) on Apr. 24 in Madrid; son of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1870-1930). English artist Graham Vivian Sutherland (d. 1980) on Aug. 24 in Streatham, London; educated at Epsom College, and the U. of London; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1926. Am. "Lamb in His Bosom" novelist Caroline Pafford Miller (d. 1992) on Aug. 26 in Waycross, Ga. Am. child psychologist (Jewish) Bruno Bettelheim (d. 1990) on Aug. 28 in Austria; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1943; believes that autism is caused by bad upbringing by "refrigerator mothers". French poet-writer-jurist Jean Follain (d. 1971) on Aug. 29 in Canisy, La Manche; educated at the U. of Caen. Am. radio-TV personality ("The Old Redhead") Arthur Morton Godfrey (d. 1983) on Aug. 31 in Manhattan, N.Y. Am. "Looney Tunes", "Merrie Melodies" animator Hugh Harman (d. 1982) on Aug. 31 in Pagosa Springs, Calif.; collaborator of Rudy Ising (1903-92). Am. bandleader ("Father of Western Swing") Milton Brown (d. 1936) (Musical Brownies) on Sept. 7 in Stephenville, Tex. English writer-critic Cyril Vernon Connolly (d. 1974) on Sept. 10 in Coventry, Warwickshire; classmate of George Orwell and Sir Cecil Beaton in St. Cyprian's School, Eastbourne; beats Orwell for the Harrow History Prize; educated at Eton College, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Irish novelist-playwright-poet Frank O'Connor (Michael Francis O'Donovan) (d. 1966) on Sept. 17 in Cork; known for his short stories and memoirs. Am. mobster Joseph "Joe Cargo" Valachi (d. 1971) on Sept. 22 in East Harlem, N.Y. Australian seaman-writer Capt. (Mayflower II cmdr.) Allan John Villiers on Sept. 23 in Melbourne, Victoria. Am. "Anna and the King of Siam" novelist (Methodist) Margaret Dorothea Landon (nee Mortenson) (d. 1993) on Sept. 7 in Somers, Wisc.; grows up in Somers, Wisc.; educated at Wheaton College. German "Dialect of Enlightenment" Frankfurt School Marxist philosoper-sociologist-musicologist Theodor W. Adorno (Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund) (d. 1969) on Sept. 11 in Frankfurt; Jewish father, Roman Catholic mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. "Elie Andrews in It Happened One Night" actress Claudette Colbert (Emilie "Lily" Chouchoin) (d. 1996) on Sept. 13 in Saint-Mande, Paris; known for he round apple face; wife (1928-35) of Norman Foster (1903-76). Am. "singing sheriff in O, My Darling Clementine", "Great Speckled Bird" actor-country musician (Freemason) ("King of Country Music") Roy Claxton Acuff (d. 1992) (Smoky Mountain Boys) on Sept. 15 near Maynardville, Tenn. Am. jazz violinist ("Father of Jazz Violin") Giuseppe "Joe" Venuti (d. 1978) on Sept. 16; born on a ship en route from Italy to the U.S.; every Xmas sends 1-armed trumpet player Wingy Manone one cufflink? Am. actress ("Goddess of the Silent Screen") Dolores Costello (d. 1979) on Sept. 17 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; daughter of Maurice Costello (1877-1950) and Mae Costello (1882-1929); sister of Helene Costello (1906-57); wife (1928-35) of John Barrymore (1882-1942); mother of John Drew Barrymore (1932-2004); grandmother of Drew Barrymore (1975-). Am. "March of Time" radio narrator ("the Voice of Doom") ("Time marches on!") Westbrook Van Voorhis (d. 1968) on Sept. 21 in New Milford, Conn. South African Gen. Hendrik Balzazar Klopper (d. 1977) on Sept. 25. Pakistani Sunni Muslim theologian (founder of Jamaat-e-Islami) Abul A'ala Maududi (Maudoodi) (Modudi) (d. 1979) on Sept. 25 in Aurangabad, Hyderabad. Am. abstract Color Field abstract impressionist painter (Jewish) Mark Rothko (Marcus Rothkowitz) (d. 1970) on Sept. 25 in Daugavpila, Latvia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1913. Italian Fascist leader Alessandro Pavolini (d. 1945) on Sept. 27 in Florence. Am. historian (of the Am. West) Ray Allen Billington (d. 1981) on Sept. 28 in Bay city, Mich.; educated at the U. of Mich., U. of Wisc., and Harvard U. British gov. of Kenya (1952-9) Sir Evelyn Baring, 1st Baron Howick of Glendale (d. 1973) on Sept. 29; son of Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer (1841-1917); created baron in 1960. Am. surgeon (heart-lung machine inventor) John Heysham Gibbon Jr. (d. 1973) on Sept. 29 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Princeton U., and Jefferson Medical College. Am. pediatric pathologist (Jewish) ("Father of Modern Chemotherapy") Sidney Farber (d. 1973) on Sept. 30 in Buffalo, N.Y.; brother of Marvin Farber (1901-80); educated at the U. at Buffalo, SUNY. Am. pianist Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (d. 1989) on Oct. 1 in Kiev, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1928. Am. engineer (electronic digital computer inventor) John Vincent Atanasoff (d. 1995) (a-ta-NA-soff) on Oct. 4 in Hamilton, N.Y.; Bulgarian immigrant parents; educated at Iowa State College, and the U. of Wisc. Swiss Daseinalysis psychiatrist Medard Boss (d. 1990) on Oct. 4; friend of Martin Heidegger. Austrian 6'7" SS Gen. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (d. 1946) on Oct. 4 in Ried im Innkreis. Am. Technocracy Movement founder and geoscientist Marion King Hubbert (d. 1989) on Oct. 5 in San Saba, Tex.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Irish physicist Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (d. 1995) on Oct. 6 in Dungarven, County Waterford; father is a Methodist minister; first Irish person to receive a Nobel Prize for science (1951) (until ?). Hungarian PM (1946-7) Ferenc Nagy (d. 1979) on Oct. 8 in Bisse, Austria-Hungary. Am. baseball exec (Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers) Walter O'Malley (d. 1979) on Oct. 9 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Penn. Belgian prince regent (1944-50) Charles, Count of Flanders (d. 1983) on Oct. 10 in Brussels; 2nd son of Albert I and Duchess Elisabeth; brother of Leopold III. Am. "April in Paris", "I Can't Get Started" composer (not Jewish) Vernon Duke (Vladimir Alexandrovich Dukelsky) (d. 1969) on Oct. 10 in Prafianovka, Belarus, Russia; born in a train station as mother is en route to another Russian town. Am. Columbia U. pres. #14 (1953-68) Grayson Louis Kirk (d. 1997) on Oct. 12 in Jeffersonville, Ohio; educated at Miami U. (Phi Kappa Tau), and Clark U. Am. "The Day of the Locust" novelist-screenwriter (Jewish) Nathanael West (Nathaniel von Wallenstein Weinstein) (d. 1940) on Oct. 17 in New York City; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents; changes his name to West on the advice of Horace Greeley?; educated at Brown U. Swedish "Plan 9 from Outer Space", "Bride of the Monster" wrestler-actor ("The Super Swedish Angel") Tor Johnson (Johansson) (d. 1971) on Oct. 19. Am. geneticist (atheist) George Wells Beadle (d. 1989) on Oct. 22 in Wahoo, Neb.; educated at the U. of Neb. , and Cornell U. Am. "Three Stooges", "Woo woo woo", "Nyuk nyuk nyuk" comedic actor (Jewish) Curly Howard (Jerome Lester "Jerry" Horwitz) (d. 1952) on Oct. 22 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Lithuanian Jewish descent; brother of Shemp Howard (1895-1955) and Moe Howard (1897-1975). Am. "The Painter's Eye" painter Maurice Grosser (d. 1986) on Oct. 23 in Huntsville, Ala. Am. FBI agent (1927-35) Melvin Horace "Little Mel" Purvis II (d. 1960) on Oct. 24 in Timmonsville, S.C.; educated at the U. of S.C. British-Am. economist (Jewish) Abba (Abraham) Ptachya Lerner (d. 1982) on Oct. 28 in Bessarabia; emigrates to Britain in 1906, and the U.S. in 1937. English "Brideshead Revisited", "The End of the Battle" novelist-satirist (Anglican-to-Roman Catholic convert) Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh (d. 1966) (pr. EVE-lin) on Oct. 28 in London; brother of Alec Waugh (1898-1981); his first wife is named Evelyn (pr. EV-lin), basis of his 2nd novel "Vile Bodies"; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1930. English "Spread A Little Happiness", "Coronation Scot" musical comedy composer Vivian Ellis (d. 1996) on Oct. 29 in Hampstead, London; grandson of Julia Woolf. Am. "No atheists in foxholes" military chaplain (Maryknoll Roman Catholic) Father William Thomas Cummings (d. 1945) on Oct. 30 in San Francisco, Calif. English post-Keynesian economist Joan Violet Robinson (d. 1983) on Oct. 31 in Surrey; educated at Girton College, Cambridge U.; student of John Maynard Keynes; husband of Austin Robinson (1897-1993); coiner of the term "monopsony". Italian "The Naked Truth" film producer-dir. Mario Zampi (d. 1963) on Nov. 1 in Sora; emigrates to Britain in 1930. Am. inventor Ivar Jepson (d. 1965) on Nov. 2 in Kristianstad, Sweden. Am. "Let Us Now Praise Famous Men" photographer Walker Evans (d. 1975) on Nov. 3 in St. Louis, Mo.; educated at Phillips Academy, and Williams College; known for photos of the Great Depression. Am. Objectivist poet Carl Rakosi (d. 2004) on Nov. 6 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910; educated at the U. of Chicago, and U. of Wisc. Austrian "On Aggression", "King Solomon's Ring", "Man Meets Dog" zoologist Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (d. 1989) on Nov. 7 in Vienna; educated at Columbia U., and the U. of Vienna; student of Oskar Heinroth; collaborator of Nikolaas Tinbergen. Am. "Mrs. Townsend in North by Northwest" actress (bi) Josephine Hutchinson (d. 1998) on Nov. 10 in Seattle, Wash.; lover of Eva Le Gallienne. Am. "Benzino Napaloni in The Great Dictator" actor ("the World's Oldest Freshman") Jack Oakie (Lewis Delaney Offield) (d. 1978) on Nov. 12 in Sedalia, Mo.; grows up in Muskogee, Okla. French fashion designer ("the Fragonard of the Shoe") ("the Faberge of Footwear") (creator of the Stiletto heel) Roger Henri Vivier (d. 1998) on Nov. 13. Am. "Which Bible?" fundamentalist Baptist pastor David Otis Fuller (d. 1988) on Nov. 20. Am. chemist-physicist Lars Onsager (d. 1976) on Nov. 27 in Oslo, Norway; emigrates to the U.S. in 1928. French fashion designer ("the Spinx of Fashion") Madame Alix Gres (Grés) (Germaine Emilie Krebs) (d. 1993) (AKA Alix Barton) on Nov. 30 in Paris. English (Cornish) historian Arthur Leslie "A.L." Rowse (d. 1997) on Dec. 4 in Tregonissey, Cornwall; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. Am. Congressional Quarterly, St. Petersburg Times pub. Nelson Poynter (d. 1978) on Dec. 5 in Sullivan, Ind.; educated at Yale U. Am. "Twelve O'Click High", "Vanishing Point" actor Dean Jeffries Jagger on Nov. 7 in Lima, Ohio. Am. Dem. Washington Post ed. (1947-68) and U.S. U.N. ambassador #8 (1968-9) James Russell Wiggins (d. 2000) on Dec. 4 in Luverne, Minn. Am. "Rear Window" mystery writer ("Father of Noir Fiction") Cornell George Woolrich (Hopley-Woolrich) (AKA William Irish, George Hopley) (d. 1968) on Dec. 4 in New York City; educated at Columbia U. Am. auto racer Cavino Michele "Kelly" Petillo (d. 1970) on Dec. 5 in Philadelphia, Penn. English pion physicist Cecil Frank "C.F." Powell (d. 1969) on Dec. 5 in Tonbridge, Kent; educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge U. Am. country musician Thomas Hubert "Hugh" Farr (d. 1980) (Sons of the Pioneers) on Dec. 6 in Llano, Tex.; brother of Karl Farr (1909-61). Hungarian violinist-composer Zoltan Szekely (Zoltán Székely) (d. 2001) on Dec. 8 in Kocs. English "The Borrowers" children's writer Mary Norton (d. 1992) on Dec. 10 in London. Japanese "Tokyo Story", "Tokyo Twilight" film dir.-writer Yasujiro Ozu (d. 1963) on Dec. 12 in Tokyo. Venezuelan diplomat (creator of OPEC) Juan Pablo Perez (Pérez) Alfonso (d. 1979) on Dec. 13 in Caracas. Am. "Week-End Marriage", "Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation" dir.-actor Noman Foster (John Hoeffer) (d. 1976) on Dec. 13 in Richmond, Ind.; husband (1928-35) of Claudette Colbert (1903-96) and (1935-76) Sally Balne (1910-97). Spanish flamenco guitarist Carlos Montoya (d. 1993) on Dec. 13 in Madrid; son of Ramon Montoya (1880-1949). English artist John Edgerton Christmas Piper (d. 1992) on Dec. 13 in Epsom, Surrey; educated at Epsom College; husband (1937-92) of Mfanwy Piper (1911-97). Am. writer Erskine Preston Caldwell (d. 1987) on Dec. 17 in White Oak (Coweta County), Ga. English "Love on the Dole" novelist-playwright Walter Greenwood (d. 1974) on Dec. 17 in Hankey Park, Salford, Lancashire; self-educated. English "Midnight, the Stars and You" composer-bandleader-actor Ray Noble (d. 1978) (New Mayfair Dance Orchestra) on Dec. 17 in Brighton. Am. geneticist George Davis Snell (d. 1996) on Dec. 19 in Bradford, Mass.; educated at Dartmouth College. Am. physiologist Haldan Keffer Hartline (d. 1983) on Dec. 22 in Bloomsburg, Penn. Am. Surrealist assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (d. 1972) on Dec. 24 in New York City; educated at Phillips Academy. Am. "Hollywood Cavalcade", "Queen of the Amazons" actor (Jewish?) Joseph Edward (J. Edward) "Joe" Bromberg (Josef Bromberger) (d. 1951) on Dec. 25 in Temesvar, Hungary; emigrates to to the U.S. in 1908. Am. "Wilmer in The Maltese Falcon", "Torrey in Shane", "Icepick in Magnum, P.I." actor Elisha Vanslyck Cook Jr. (d. 1995) on Dec. 26 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. jazz pianist (black) Earl Kenneth "Fatha" Hines (d. 1983) on Dec. 28 in Duquesne, Penn. Soviet "The Cranes Are Flying" dir. Mikhail Konstantinovich Kalatozov (Mikheil Kalatozishvili) (d. 1973) on Dec. 28 in Tbilisi. Am. mathematical physicist and digital computer pioneer (co-founder of Game Theory with Oskar Morgenstern) (Jewish) John von Neumann (d. 1957) on Dec. 28 in Budapest, Austria-Hungary; educated at the U. of Budapest; comes to Princeton U. in 1930. Am. abstract expressionist artist (Jewish) Louis Schanker (d. 1981) in New York City; of Romanian descent; husband (1960-) of Libby Holman (1904-71). Israeli scientist-philosopher (Orthodox Jewish) Yeshayahu Leibowitz (d. 1994) in Riga, Latvia; emigrates to Palestine in 1935; brother of Nechama Leibowitz (1905-97). German Bettman Archive founder Otto Bettman (d. 1998) in Leipzig. Ecuadorian poet-diplomat Jorge Carrera Andrade in Quito; educated at the U. of Barcelona, Spain. Deaths: Am. antislavery leader Cassius Marcellus Clay (b. 1810) on July 22 in White Hall, Ky. Italian pope (1878-1903) Leo XIII (b. 1810) on July 20 in Rome. Dutch writer Nikolaas Beets (b. 1814) on Mar. 13 in Utrecht (brain hemorrhage). English painter John Callcott Horsley (b. 1817) on Oct. 18 in London. German "History of Rome" historian Theodor Mommsen (b. 1817) on Nov. 1; pub. 1.5K+ works. Scottish-born Australian explorer John Ross (b. 1817) on Feb. 5 in Norwood, South Australia. Scottish psychologist Alexander Bain (b. 1818) on Sept. 18 in Aberdeen. Am. multi-barrel death merchant R.J. Gatling (b. 1818). Irish physicist Sir George Stokes (b. 1819) on Feb. 1 in Cambridge, England. Canadian statesman Sir Oliver Mowat (b. 1820) on Apr. 19 in Toronto. English philosopher Herbert Spencer (b. 1820) on Dec. 8 in London; "Who now reads Spencer?" (Talcott Parsons, 1837) Am. architect Frederick L. Olmsted (b. 1822) on Aug. 28 in Belmont, Mass. French-born British painter Sophie Anderson (b. 1823) on Mar. 10 in Falmouth, Cornwall. Scottish physician George William Balfour (b. 1823) on Aug. 9 in Colington. Am. writer Charles Godfrey Leland (b. 1824) on Mar. 20. Am. "Law West of the Pecos" judge Roy Bean (b. 1825) on Mar. 16 in Langtry, Tex. German-born Am. brewer Theodore Hamm (b. 1825) on July 31 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. grape juice maker Thomas Branwell Welch (b. 1825) on Dec. 29 in Vineland, N.J. German anatomist Karl Gegenbaur (b. 1826) on June 14. Am. composer Edmond Dede (b. 1827) in Paris. French Impressionist painter Camille Pissarro (b. 1830) on Nov. 12/13 in Eragny-sur-Epte. British "Splendid Isolation" Conservative PM (1885-6, 1886-92, 1895-1902) Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (b. 1830) on Aug. 22 in Hatfield, Hertfordshire; his estate is worth £374M by 2005. Am. Rocky Mountain News founder William Byers (b. 1831) on Mar. 25 in Denver, Colo. French-born Am. explorer Paul du Chaillu (b. 1831) on Apr. 19. English clergyman-writer Frederic William Farrar (b. 1831) on Mar. 22 in Canterbury. German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz (b. 1832) on Oct. 7. English Roman Catholic Cardinal (1893) Herbert Vaughan (b. 1832). English inventor James Wimshurst (b. 1832) on Jan. 3 in Clapham. Am. Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst (b. 1834) on May 4 in Bethesda, Md. Scottish golfer Willie Park Sr. (b. 1834). English novelist John Henry Shorthouse (b. 1834) on Mar. 4. Am. "art for art's sake" artist James Abbott McNeill Whistler (b. 1834) on July 17 in London. Russian mathematician Nikolai Bugaev (b. 1837) on June 11. U.S. Rep. (D-Ga.) (1873-93) James Henderson Blount (b. 1837) on Mar. 8 in Macon, Ga. German Bavarian bureaucrat Alois Hitler (Schicklgruber) (b. 1837) on Jan. 3 in Gasthaus Stiefler, Linz; father of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). English philanthropist Montagu Corry, Lord Rowton (b. 1838) on Nov. 9; dies without heirs. Irish historian W.E.H. Lecky (b. 1838) on Oct. 22. Am. physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs (b. 1839) on Apr. 28 in New Haven, Conn. French philologist Gaston Paris (b. 1839) on Mar. 5 in Cannes. Am. meatpacking king Gustavus Swift (b. 1839) on Mar. 29 in Lake Forest, Ill. French inventor Jean Maurice Emile Baudot (b. 1845) on Mar. 28. Am. writer-journalist Henry Demarest Lloyd (b 1847) on Sept. 28 in Chicago, Ill. (pneumonia). French-Tahitian artist Paul Gaugin (b. 1848) on Oct. 22 in Hiva Oa Island, French Polynesia (Marquesas Islands): "What a stupid existence we have here in Europe!" Swiss chef Joseph Favre (b. 1849) on Feb. 17 in Boulogne-sur-Seine, France. English poet William Ernest Henley (b. 1849) on July 11: "I am the master of my fate; I am the captain of my soul." Syrian Islamic scholar Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (b. 1849) in Cairo (exile); leaves two books calling on Arabs to take over the Muslim caliphate from the corrupt Turks (Ottomans), spurring Arab nationalism. Russian novelist Vsevolod Solovyov (b. 1849) on Nov. 2 (Oct. 20 Old Style). Am. artist Edwin Lord Weeks (b. 1849) in Nov. in Paris, France. Am. Wild West manly frontierswoman Calamity Jane (b. 1852); buried in a white dress holding a gun in each hand alongside Wild Bill Hicock in Mount Moriah Cemetery in Deadwood, S.D. Scottish philosoopher David George Ritchie (b. 1853) on Feb. 3 in St. Andrews. U.S. Rep. (R-Penn.) Henry Burk (b. 1850) on Dec. 5 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. Hawaiian rev. leader Robert William Wilcox (b. 1855) on Oct. 23 in Honolulu, Hawaii; dies after converting to Roman Catholicism in 1900. English novelist George Gissing (b. 1857) on Dec. 28: "That is one of the bitter curses of poverty; it leaves no right to be generous." Am. gunman Tom Horn (b. 1860) on Nov. 20 in Cheyenne, Wyo. (hanged). Austrian composer Hugo Wolf (b. 1860) on Feb. 22; dies in a mental institution; composed 260+ songs. Filipono PM #1 (1899) Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (b. 1864) on May 13 in Manila. English caricaturist Phil May (b. 1864) on Aug. 5. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player Ed Delahanty (b. 1867) on July 2 in Niagara Falls, Ont., Canada; dies after being kicked off a train by a conductor for being drunk and disorderly, after which he jumps or falls off the Internat. Bridge into the falls. Serbian king (1889-1903) Alexander I Obrenovic (b. 1876) on June 11 in Belgrade (assassinated). Australian philosopher Otto Weininger (b. 1880) on Oct. 4 in Vienna (suicide); "There was one good Jew in Germany, and he killed himself... Otto and I are good friends" (Adolf Hitler) - jilted by a cruel babe?

1904 - The Russo-Japanese War James Joyce Bloom Year?

Viacheslav Plehve of Russia (1846-1904) Russian Prince Michael Nikolaevich Sviatopolk-Mirsky (1870-1938) Rafael Reyes of Colombia (1849-1921) Sir Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess Lansdowne of Britain (1845-1927) British Col. Francis Younghusband (1863-1942) British Adm. Charles Cooper Penrose-Fitzgerald (1841-1921) <Nikola P. Pasic of Serbia (1845-1926) Sir John Christian Watson of Australia (1867-1941) Sir George Houstoun Reid of Australia (1845-1918) Russian Adm. Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky (1848-1909) German Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930) Alton Brooks Parker of the U.S. (1852-1926) Henry Gassaway Davis of the U.S. (1823-1916) Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey of Canada (1851-1917) Ismael Montes Gamboa of Bolivia (1861-1933) Sir Roger Casement of Britain (1864-1916) Alexandra Romanov of Russia (1872-1918) Russian Gen. Alexei Kuropatkin (1848-1925) Russian Gen. Mikhail Ivanovich ZaSulich (1843-1910) Russian Gen. Count Feodor Keller (1850-1904) Japanese Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923) Japanese Field Marshal Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) Sisowath of Cambodia (1840-1927) Sisavang Vong of Laos (1885-1959) Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaeyvich Romanov of Russia (1904-18) Samuel Maherero of Namibia (1856-1923) German Gen. Victor Franke (1865-1936) German Gen. Josias von Heeringen (1850-1926) David DuBose Gaillard (1859-1913) Robert Walter Speer of the U.S. (1855-1918) Mattie Silks (1846-1929) Helen Keller (1880-1968) William Kissam Vanderbilt II (1878-1944) George H. Robertson (1884-1955) Cy Young (1867-1955) John Joseph McGraw (1873-1934) Georg Hackenschmit (1877-1968) Henri Cornet (1884-1941) Jim Lightbody of the U.S. (1883-1953) Beals C. Wright (1879-1961) Emil A. Rausch of Germany (1883-1954) Buffalo Germans Marcus Hurley of the U.S. (1883-1941) George B. McClellan Jr. of the U.S. (1865-1940) Thomas J. Hicks of the U.S. (1875-1963) Andarin Carvajal of Cuba (1875-1949) French's Mustard, 1904 Dr Pepper, 1904 Sara Roosevelt (1854-1914) and her son Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) Frederic Mistral (1830-1914) Isabel Gonzalez (1882-1971) Jose Echegaray (1932-1916) John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1841-1919) Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936) Sir John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945) Ludwig Prandtl (1874-1953) Max Weber (1864-1920) Amadeo Peter Giannini (1870-1949) Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909) Sir Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) Walter J. Travis (1862-1927) Carl Duisberg (1861-1935) Levi Zeigler Leiter (1834-1904) Jean Leon Jaures (1859-1914) Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (1852-1917) George A. Birmingham (1865-1950) Francois Coty (1874-1934) Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955) Borden Parker Bowne (1847-1910) O. Henry (1862-1910) J.M. Barrie (1860-1937) Sylvia Llewelyn Davies (1866-1910) Maude Adams (1872-1953) Ronald Firbank (1886-1926) Anne Crawford Flexner (1874-1955) Albert Kalthoff (1850-1906) William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938) Gerald du Maurier (1873-1934) Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche (1846-1935) Herbert Levi Osgood (1855-1918) Wladyslaw Reymont (1868-1925) George M. Cohan (1878-1942) 'Little Johnny Jones', 1904 'The Music Master', 1904 Marcus Loew (1870-1927) Adolph Zukor (1873-1976) Joseph M. Schenck (1878-1961) and Nicholas M. Schenck (1881-1969) Anton Webern (1883-1945) John Whitaker Taylor (1858-1916) Matthias Foss Cowley (1858-1940) Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) George A. Birmingham (1865-1950) Robert Herrick (1868-1938) William Henry Hudson (1841-1922) Henry Edwards Huntington (1850-1927) Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo) (1860-1913) Mischa Elman (1891-1967) Gervase Cary Elwes (1866-1921) August Musger (1868-1929) Ernst Zermelo (1871-1953) Frederick Stanley Kipping (1863-1949) Hantaro Nagaoka (1865-1950) Déodat de Séverac (1872-1921) Pierre Paul Emile Roux (1854-1933) Charles Stewart Rolls (1877-1910) Frederick Henry Royce (1863-1933) Rolls-Royce Logo FIA Logo Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) Julius P.L. Elster (1854-1920) Mikhail Artsybashev (1878-1927) Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851-1935) G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936) Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) Archer Milton Huntington (1870-1955) Anna Hyatt Huntington (1876-1973) M.R. James (1862-1936) Bernhard Kellermann (1879-1951) Walter de la Mare (1873-1956) Arthur Nikisch (1855-1922) Harry Gabriel Pelissier (1874-1913) Louis Joseph Vance (1879-1933) Fay Compton (1894-1978) Emil Julius Brach (1859-1947) 'The Dinky Bird' by Maxfield Parrish, 1904 Carson, Pirie, Scott Bldg., 1904 Christ the Redeemer of the Andes, 1904 Nestle, 1905 Ovaltine, 1904

1904 Chinese Year: Dragon. On Jan. 4 after Puerto Rican activst Isabel Gonzalez (1882-1971) goes all the way to the top, the U.S. Supreme Court rules ?-? in Gonzalez v. Williams that Puerto Ricans are not aliens and can enter the U.S. freely, but stops short of declaring them U.S. citizens, and they become known as "noncitizen nationals" - but illegal aliens can have kids on U.S. soil who automatically become U.S. citizens? On Jan. 12 the Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South West Africa (modern-day Namibia) begins as the Herero people under chief Samuel Maherero (1856-1923) rise against German colonial rule, ending in 1907 with 24K-65K (50%-70%) of the Herero and 10K (50%) of the Nama pop. exterminated, becoming the first genocide of the 20th cent.; German gen. Erich Victor Carl August Franke (1865-1936) becomes known as the "Hero of Omaruru" for a V; in July 2016 German chancellor Angela Merkel apologizes to the govt. of Namibia. On Feb. 1 Pres. Roosevelt appoints Philippines gov. (since 1901) William H. Taft as U.S. secy. of war #42 (until June 30, 1908). On Feb. 7-8 a fire in Baltimore, Md. rages for 30 hours and destroys 1.5K+ bldgs. The first time since the Mongols that an Asian military force totally defeats a European power? On Feb. 8 (10:30 p.m.) "World War Zero", AKA the Russo-Japanese War (ends Sept. 5, 1905) over control of Manchuria and Korea begins with a surprise Japanese attack on the Russian naval squadron at Port Arthur (Lushun) in Liaodung Province (leased to Russia by China), followed by a formal declaration of war by Japan on Feb. 10 (the U.S. doesn't learn a lesson from this?); the Japanese, led by field marshal (since 1898) Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) immediately occupy Seoul, and force Korea to annul all concessions made to Russia. On Feb. 12 Dahomey (Benin) is incorporated into French West Africa, and the 12th and last king (since 1894) Agoli-Agbo flees to exile in Gabon, returning in 1918 as a private citizen - da homey boys been in? On Feb. 13 Panama adopts a constitution, which prohibits fiat money, causing the U.S. to intervene and get the govt. to sign an agreement making the U.S. dollar legal tender (paving the way for drug-dealing presidentes like Manuel Noriega?); meanwhile the Panama Canal is begun (finished 1914), with surgeon Col. William Crawford Gorgas (1854-1920) clearing out yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes for the next two years; U.S. army engineer Col. David DuBose Gaillard (1859-1913) supervises the Gaillard (Culebra) Cut through the Continental Divide in the canal's S section. On Feb. 13 the French organize Senegal as a colony and protectorate. On Apr. 6 the Second Manifesto is issued by LDS Church (Mormon) pres. #6 (since Oct. 10, 1901) Joseph Fielding Smith Sr., reaffirming the 1890 Woodruff Manifesto and providing for excommunication of violators, but keeping the snakelike language that polygamous marriages in violation of a nation's laws are not to be contracted; the 1890 manifesto is later canonized, but not this one; LDS apostles John Whitaker Taylor (1858-1916) (son of LDS Church pres. #3 John Taylor) and Matthias Foss Cowley (1858-1940) dissent and resign from the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1906 (becoming the last until?), causing the Mormon Fundamentalist Movement to arise, pointing out that neither manifesto is claimed as a revelation from Jehovah. On Apr. 8 British foreign secy. (1900-5) Sir Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (1845-1927), having approached France to end past colonial differences last July (and speeded up by the Russo-Japanese War) signs the Anglo-French Entente Cordial, giving Britain a free hand in Egypt while receiving British guarantees regarding the Egyptian debt and the 1888 treaty providing for free navigation of the Suez Canal, and France a free hand in Morocco, which has given them mucho trouble in the past, and is divided into zones of French and Spanish influence in anticipation of a future partition; France gives up ancient rights on the shores of Newfoundland, while retaining fishing rights, and in return receives territory near French Gambia and E of the Niger River; spheres of influence in Siam are defined, and disputes over Madagascar and the New Hebrides are settled - all tidy now? On Apr. 13 the Japanese score a V in the naval Battle of Port Arthur, and invade Manchuria by land. On Apr. 19 (night) the Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroys the lower part of Toronto, Canada, causing $10M in damages. On Apr. 22 Russian Far East cmdr. gen. Alexei Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (1848-1925) (imperial war minister since 1898) sends 25K troops under Lt. Gen. Mikhail Ivanovich ZaSulich (1843-1910) to block the main road from Korea to Manchuria so that refinforcements from the 1-track Trans-Siberia Railway can be given the needed 6 mo. to build up; too bad, on Apr. 30-May 1 the Battle of the Yalu River near Wiju (Uiju), North Korea on the Chinese border, the first major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War is a V for 42K Japanese of the First Army under Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923), after which the Russkies retreat N toward Fenghuangcheng. On Apr. 29 English tenor Gervase Cary Elwes (1866-1921) wows audiences with his perf. of Sir Edward Elgar's "Dream of Gerontius" at Queen's Hall, London, and ends up performing it 118x; too bad, he has a freak accident in a Boston, Mass. railway station in 1921 and dies. On Apr. 27 John Christian Watson (1867-1941) becomes PM #3 of Australia, the first Labour Party PM in history; on Aug. 18 Sir George Houstoun Reid (1845-1918) of the Free Trade Party becomes PM #4 (until July 5, 1905). On Apr. 28 Sisavang Vong (1885-1959) becomes king of Luangprabang (Laos) (until Oct 20, 1959). On Apr. 30-Dec. 1 the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair (Louisiana Purchase Exhibition) is held in commemoration of the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase a year late, and 20M visitors attend it; Cotton candy (Fairy Floss) (invented in 1897 by dentist William James Morrison of Nashville, Tenn.), French's Mustard, and Dr Pepper (not "Dr. Pepper") are introduced; on Apr. 30 Pres. Roosevelt presses a telegraph key at the White House to signal its official start; it costs $31K a day to run, and features the Gateway to the West Arch, designed by Finnish-born Eero Saarinen (1910-61) NOT (wait till 1968); iced tea, invented by plantation owner Richard Blechynden, and peanut butter, provided by C.H. Sumner, along with the Egyptian fan dancer are the hits of the fair; Geronimo appears at the fair; on July 1-Nov. 23 the Third (3rd) (III) (1904) Summer Olympic Games are held as part of the fair (first Olympics held in the U.S.), with 651 athletes (incl. 6 women) from 12 countries competing in 94 events, with the Russo-Japanese War and the remote location keeping most of the top athletes from attending; boxing, weightlifting, freestyle wrestling, and decathlon debut; on Aug. 12-13 "Anthropology Days" are held to pit aborigines from around the world with white men for curious anthropologists; James Davies "Jim" Lightbody (1882-1953) of the U.S. wins golds in the 800m and 1.5km (world record) and steeplechase, and silver in the 4 mi. team event; U.S. gymnast George Eyser (1871-?) wins six medals despite a wooden left leg; Emil A. Rausch (1883-1954) of Germany wins two golds and a bronze in swimming, becoming the last man to win an Olympic gold in sidestroke; the Buffalo Germans (founded at a YMCA in 1895), coached by Dr. Fred Burkhardt win the AAU nat. basketball tournament, which serves as a demonstration sport at the 1904 St. Louis Olympics; in 1907-10 they have a 111-game winning streak; they disband in 1925 with a 792-86 record; Columbia U. basketball star Marcus Latimer Hurley (1883-1941) of the U.S. wins four golds in cycling, and bronze in the 2-mi. race; Beals C. Wright (1879-1961) of the U.S. wins golds in singles and doubles tennis; the marathon is run in dusty hot weather, and is a clown show, with the accompanying vehicles kicking up dust; Frederick "Fred" Lorz (1883-1914) is declared the winner until it is found he only ran 9 mi., got in a car, then got back out with 5 mi. to go, and is banned for 1 year by the AAU, winning the Boston Marathon next year; Cuban postman Felix de la Caridad Carvajal y Soto (Andarin Carvajal) (1875-1949) (who runs in cut-off pants) stops in an orchard and eats rotten apples, causing him to get sick and take a nap, after which he comes in 4th; South African Tswana tribesmen Len Tau (Taunyane) and Yamasani (Jan Mashiani) become the first black Africans to compete in the Olympics, coming in 9th and 12th, although Tau was chased 1 mi. off-course by dogs; the winner is British-born Thomas J. Hicks (1875-1963) of the U.S. (winner of the 1904 Boston Marathon), who is given two doses of 1 mg. of strychnine sulfate mixed with brandy by his trainers to revive him; too bad, only 42 events have athletes not from the U.S., causing the all-U.S. events to be combined with U.S. championships, and most of the real Olympic events are held on Aug. 29-Sept. 3; the whole thing is such a joke that new (intercalated) games are arranged for 1906 in Athens; on July 23 the ice cream cone is allegedly invented by money-money-money Charles E. Menches during the fair when his girlfriend rolls one of the layers of an ice cream sandwich around some flowers; either that, or Syrian zalabia (waffle) seller Earnest A. Hamwi suggests using his product. On May 4 British auto salesman and electric crane manufacturer Charles Stewart Rolls (1877-1910) and British auto engineer Frederick Henry Royce (1863-1933) meet at the Midland Hotel in Manchester, and decide to form a partnership, producing their first 4-cyl. car in Dec., then forming Rolls-Royce Ltd. on Mar. 15, 1906; in 1931 they acquire rival car maker Bentley; in 1933 they change the logo color from red to black because so many customers choose red; in 1971 after the costs of developing the RB211 jet engine cause it to go bankrupt, the co. is nationalized, then privatized again in 1987. In May the Paris Conference is held on the white slave trade, signing an internat. protocol for its suppression on May 18. On June 15 the excursion steamboat General Slocum burns in East River, N.Y. after passing through Hell Gate en route to a Sunday school picnic, killing 1,031 of 1,400 aboard. On June 16 ("Bloomsday") (Thur.) the fictional story about ad salesman Leopold Bloom in Dublin in James Joyce's 1922 novel Ulysses takes place. On June 20 the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) is founded in Paris to represent automobile enthusiasts and orgs., becoming the governing body for many auto racing events incl. Formula One and World Rally Championship races, also certifying land speed records; by modern times it has 213 nat. member orgs. in 125 countries worldwide; the International Olympic Committee (IOC) doesn't grant it full recognition until 2013. On June 21-23 the 1904 Repub. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. nominates Pres. Theodore Roosevelt for pres., and conservative Charles Warren Fairbanks of Ind. for vice-pres.; in July the 1904 Dem. Nat. Convention in St. Louis, Mo., controlled by the Eastern Gold Dems. rebuffs William Jennings Bryan, and nominates conservative 80-y.-o. N.Y. judge Alton Brooks Parker (1852-1926) for pres., and obscure 82-y.-o. W. Va. millionaire financier Henry Gassaway Davis (1823-1916) for vice-pres.; House Speaker Joe Cannon utters the soundbyte that Roosevelt has "no more use for the Constitution than a tomcat has for a marriage license" - the Geritol ticket, only a gas away from the White House? On June 28 deaf-blind student Helen Adams Keller (1880-1968) graduates with honors from Radcliffe College. In June the London Symphony Orchestra gives its first concert, and makes its first tour of the U.S. and Canada in 1912 under the direction of Hungarian conductor Arthur Nikisch (1855-1922). On July 10 the Battle of Motien Pass in Manchuria is a V for the Japanese under Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923) over 25K Russians under Gen. Count Fyoror (Feodor) (Fedor) Keller (b. 1850), allowing the pass to be occupied July 13, blocking the main road between the coast and Liaoyang; Keller dies in a counterattack on July 31. On July 12 the Amalgamated Meat Cutters Strike by 18K union members of the Armour Co. in Chicago, Ill. begins; on Aug. 19 after Jonathan Ogden Armour tries to break the strike by hiring African-Am. scabs, pissing them off, 4K union members and their families riot; too bad, on Sept. 6 the strike collapses, after which Jane Addams personally gives head, er, meets with the head of Armour Co. to help them secure a contract. On July 28 hated Jew and Armenian-persecuting Russian interior minister (since 1902) Viacheslav (Vyacheslav) Plehve (b. 1846) is assassinated by the Socialist Rev. Party, and is replaced by Prince Michael Nikolaevich Sviatopolk-Mirsky (1870-1938) (until Jan. 1905), who relaxes repression and lets the opposition hold the Zemstvo Congress in Nov. in St. Petersburg, which demands a rep. assembly and civil liberties; meanwhile Plehve's actions precipitate war with Japan. On Aug. 1 the Japanese begin the Siege of Port Arthur (ends Jan. 2, 1905); in Aug. Korea is forced to accept Japanese diplomatic and financial advisers; on Aug. 24-Sept. 4 the Russians are defeated by the Japanese First Army under gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto at the Battle of Liaoyang, followed on Oct. 5-17 by the Battle of Sha-ho (Shaho) on the Sha River N of Liaoyang; trenches are first used in this war? On Aug. 3 fearing Russian involvement in Tibetan affairs, the British under Lt. Col. Francis Edward Younghusband (1863-1942), under orders of Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, and supported by king Ugyen Wangchuck of Bhutan invade Tibet, and capture Lhasa after a massacre of Tibetans, forcing Tibetan leaders to sign a treaty on Sept. 7, which the British govt. then repudiates - to arrogant Euros, it's a two-bit country? On Aug. 7 anti-U.S. Rafael Reyes Prieto (1849-1921) becomes dictator-pres. #5 of Colombia (until July 27, 1909). On Aug. 7 a train derails on a bridge during a flash flood in Eden, Colo., killing 96 of 153 passengers. On Aug. 12 Russian tsarina Alexandra Fyodorovna Romanov (1872-1918) bears her only son, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (d. 1918) (a hemophiliac) in Peterhoff. On Aug. 14 Gen. Ismael Montes Gamboa (1861-1933) becomes pres. of Bolivia (until Aug. 12, 1909); the Bolivian-Chilean Treaty confirms Chilean possession of Antofagasta, and Chile establishes diplomatic relations with Peru, causing U.S. cos. to begin investing in Chilean copper production. On Sept. 15 Orville Wright makes the first (should we say right?) turn with an airplane; on Sept. 20 his brother Wilbur makes the first complete circle. On Sept. 26 Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (1851-1917) (nephew of the 3rd earl Grey) is appointed gov.-gen. of Canada (until 1911) - I'll have him for breakfast? In fall after losing his shirt investing in the Dreibus-Heim Candy Co., German immigrant Emil Julius Brach (1859-1947) founds Brach's Confections (E.J. Brach Corp.) (originally Brach's Palace of Sweets) in North Side Chicago, Ill. with $1K, undercutting competitors and moving to West Side Chicago in May 1906, going wholesale-only and growing to 50K lbs./week by 1911, and four factories by 1923 producing 127 different candy varieties at 2.225M lbs/week; in 1948 an electrical spark causes an explosion that kills 11 employees and injures 18, and after it is rebuilt it becomes the largest candy manufacturing plant on Earth (2.2M sq. ft.), with 2.4K workers producing 4M lbs./year ($10M/year); in 1958 they introduce the Pick-A-Mix option at grocery stores; in 1966 it is acquired by Am. Home Products; in 1980 its 3.5K workers produce 250M lbs./year; in 1987 it is acquired by Jacobs Suchard Ltd. of Switzerland for $730M, who drive it into the ground by changing the name and product line; in 1990 Philip Morris acquires Jacobs Suck, er, Suchard for $3.8B, splitting Brach off, which in Sept. 1994 acquires the Brock Candy Co. of Chattanooga, Tenn. for $140M; too bad, in 2003 Brach-Brock is acquired by Barry Callebaut AG, and production is moved to Mexico; in 2007 it is acquired by Farley's & Sathers Candy Co., which in 2012 merges with the Ferrara Pan Candy Co. to form the Ferrara Candy Co., becoming the largest manufacturer of bulk candy in the U.S. On Oct. 17 Amadeo Peter (Pietro) Giannini (1870-1949) founds his little Bank of Italy in San Francisco, Calif.; after the big 1906 earthquake hits, he puts a plank on top of two barrels on the wharf and resumes business, speeding up the rebuilding as his bank is the first to lend money to the avg. worker; the giant Bank of America is the end result. On Oct. 21 (night) the Dogger Bank Episode (Incident) (North Sea Incident) (Russian Outrage) (Incident of Hull) begins when the Russian fleet under Adm. Zinovy Petrovich "Mad Dog" Rozhestvensky (Rodjestvensky) (1848-1909) sails through the North Sea en route to the Far East, and fires on British trawlers, claiming they are Japanese destroyers; after the intervention of France, the dispute is settled by an internat. commission on Feb. 25, 1905. On Oct. 27 the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT), the first rapid transit subway is inaugurated in New York City by new Princeton-educated mayor #93 (Jan. 1, 1904-Dec. 31, 1909) George Brinton McClellan Jr. (1865-1940), son of inept Civil War Union gen. George B. McClellan Sr.; it goes from City Hall to W. 145th St. in 26 min., and tickets cost a nickel (no tokens until 1953). On Oct. 27-Nov. 23 after Britain protests the coaling of the Russian fleet by German cos., Germany and Russia hold negotiations for an alliance; on Oct. 30 a draft treaty provides for mutual aid in case of attack by another Euro power, but the plan falls through when Russia insists on consulting France before signing; on Dec. 12 they settle on an agreement to aid each other in the event of complications arising from the coaling of the fleet. In Oct. the black township of Soweto SW of Johannesburg is founded to house mine laborers. On Nov. 1 German navy minister (June 6, 1897-Mar. 15, 1916) Adm. Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz (1849-1930) demands that foreign policy be subordinated to his naval buildup. On Nov. 8 after an unusual U.S. pres. campaign where neither candidate campaigns, the Dems. relying on heavy financing by Wall Street tycoons Thomas Ryan and August Belmont, while Theodore Roosevelt in Oct. gets "emergency funds" from Union Pacific Railroad pres. Edward Henry Harriman (1848-1909) and U.S. Steel pres. Henry Clay Frick (1849-1919), the 1904 U.S. Pres. Election is easily won by Roosevelt, who receives 7.6M popular and 336 electoral votes to Parker's 5.1M popular and 140 electoral votes, winning every section except the South, becoming the first incumbent U.S. pres. to win an election in his own right after having ascended upon the death of a predecessor (Coolidge, 1924, Truman, 1948, LBJ, 1964), with the largest plurality ever won by a pres. candidate; I am no longer a political accident" (Roosevelt); when he turns around and denounces "malefactors of great wealth", Henry Clay Frick reportedly grumbles "We bought the son of a bitch and then he didn't stay bought!"; "Show Me State" Missouri (where east meets west and North meets South) backs the winning candidate, going on a roll and only backing the loser in 1956 and ? On Dec. 6 Pres. Roosevelt delivers his 4th Annual Message to Congress, adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, making the U.S. a self-declared "international police power" responsible for dealing with instability in the Western Hemisphere, a power exercised continually over the next 20 years; the U.S. now not only prevents European intervention in its own hemisphere, but can intervene at will, starting with the Dominican Repub., which defaulted on its loans to several European countries, causing Pres. Roosevelt to create a U.S. receivership of the Dominican customs to collect the debt. On Dec. 10 Anti-Austrian Serbian nationalist Nikola P. Pasic (Pashitch) (Pachitch) (1845-1926) becomes PM of Serbia (until May 28, 1905), breaking with Austria and openly aligning with Russia, going on to stay in power most of the time until his death. On Dec. 14 a cyclone hits Comoros; anther follows next Dec. 16, killing 30 and injuring 150. On Dec. 27 the Abbey Theatre in Dublin, Ireland, organized by the Irish Nat. Theatre Society opens, becoming the Irish nat. you know what as William Butler Yeats, John Millington Synge et al. write plays for it. On Dec. 31 (midnight) One Times Square (originally Longacre Square), built for The New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs celebrates its opening with New Year's Eve fireworks at the 24-story Times Tower before a crowd of 200K after a giant ball made from wood and iron outfitted with 100 25-watt lightbulbs is lowered from the 70-ft. flagpole at the top, starting a tradition; actually, it opened on Apr. 8, but it took 6 mo. for the subway terminal to open. In Dec. Prussian Gen. Josias von Heeringen (1850-1926), head of the army dept. in the war ministry pub. a report that insists that Germany put "preparedness for war... above all other considerations". In Dec. Harry Gabriel Pelissier (1874-1913) stages his "Pelissier's Follies" before King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra at Sandringham Palace in celebration of her birthday, going on to be a big hit in the U.K.; in 1912 he marries actress Fay Compton (1894-1978), who debuts in his follies; when he kicks off the next year, she goes on to marry again 3x. Hottentot Rebellion (Hottentots and Hereros) against the Germans in SW Africa begins, requiring 20K German troops to quash (ends 1908). Mauritania in NW Africa is organized by the French as a territory. The king and chief of Manu'a cede the Manu'a Group (the islands of Ofu, Olosega, and Tau) to the U.S. The kingdom of Laos (Luangprabang) becomes a French protectorate. Norodom I (b. 1834) dies, and Preah Bat Sisowath (1840-1927) becomes king of Cambodia (until 1927). The Welsh Religious Revival causes policemen to be laid-off for lack of work. The Affaire des Fiches de Delation (Délation) ("Affair of the Cards of Denunciation") sees militantly anticlerical war minister Gen. Louis André exposed using members of the Freemasons to watch all 19K army officers and assembling a huge card index on public officials, detailing which were Romanic Catholic and who attended Mass, with a view to preventing their promotions, bringing down his boss PM (since 1902) Emile Combes. The Casement Report, by Irish-born Protestant British diplomat Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) details abuses in Belgian king Leopold II's Congo Free State, leading to him relinquishing it in 1908 after a Belgian commission verifies it; Casement then goes to South Am. to do similar good work for the Putamayo Indians of Peru; too bad, the experience causes him to rethink being a slave of the stankin' English, and in 1913 he quits, then joins the Irish Volunteers. U.S. atty.-gen. Philander Chase Knox resigns to fill an unexpired term in the U.S. Senate from Penn., then is elected in 1905 to a full term as a Repub. (until 1909). Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt (1854-1941) (descendant of French Huguenots) goes on a cruise with her son Franklin Delano Roosevelt to prevent Eleanor Roosevelt from hooking him - sounds like rich hillbillies? The First Aliyah (begun 1882) ends, and the I-feel-fabulous Second Aliyah begins (ends 1914), settling 33K more Jews into Palestine, incl. David Ben Gurion and other founders of Israel, causing the Yishuv (Jewish pop. of Palestine) to total 75K by 1914 (10%). Dirty Denver gets an Irish Boss Tweed? Mount Union, Penn.-born Dem. politician Robert Walter Speer (1855-1918), who moved from Penn. in 1878 to help his TB becomes the first home-rule mayor (#26) of Denver, Colo. (until 1912, then #30 in 1916-18), becoming boss of a political machine known for extensive public improvements based on the 1893 Centennial Exhibition, incl. E-W town-crossing Speer Blvd. (1908), the City and County Bldg. (1932) and the Civic Center, the Denver Zoo (founded 1896), the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (founded 1900), the 12K-seat Denver City Auditorium (1908) (2nd in size to Madison Square Garden), city parks and 110K free shade trees donated to city residents, 56 mountain parks (14K acres), the world's highest automobile road (to the top of 14,264-ft. Mt. Evans), a public golf course, street lighting and paved residential streets, a welcome arch in front of Union Station with 1,294 lights, and the first city bathing beach (Smith Lake); nude sunbathing and "spooning" (but not forking) in public parks are decriminalized, while Speer backs the city's 400 saloonkeepers against the temperance movement, and is cosy with grandmotherly brothel keeper Mattie Silks (1845-1929); "More sunshine and sons of bitches than any place in the country." The Trans-Siberian Railway (begun in 1891) is completed, joining up with the Russian European system; Russia has 48K mi. of railways. The first railroad tunnel under the North (Hudson) River is built between Manhattan, N.Y. and N.J. Levi Zeigler Leiter (1834-1904) founds the gold-plated town of Zeigler, Ill. in S Ill. around a coal mine, and designs it like Washington, D.C., complete with a game preserve, and since he helped get Pres. Theodore Roosevelt elected with his big bucks, he hoped he could buy, er, convice him into moving the White House there; too bad, the day after the grand opening on June 8 he dies in Washington, D.C. - always a distinct possibility when traveling with my 70-y.-o. grandfather? The U.S. govt. outlaws the Sun Dance among Plain Indians. The Liquor Licensing Act is passed in Britain, for the first time allowing for liquor licenses to be taken away from alehouses who have committed no misconduct provided that compensation is paid out of a fund paid into by the other licensed houses. France establishes a 10-hour work day. Ft. Peabody in SW Colo., the highest military fort in the U.S. (13,365 ft.) is built in the winter to stop labor union sympathizers from entering the mining town of Telluride via Imogene Pass. After the town of Pacific City (formerly Shell Beach, Smeltzer, Gospel Swamp, and Fairview) cedes power to Oneonta, N.Y.-born Pacific Electric Railway magnate Henry Edwards Huntington (1850-1927) to secure access to the lines of the Pacific Electric Red Car from Los Angeles that stopped at Long Beach, the city of Huntington Beach, Calif. (modern-day pop. 200K) in Orange County builds a 1K-long pier on its 9.5-mi.long sandy beach that attracts beachgoers, and is incorporated on Feb. 17, 1909, becoming known for oil wells, sugar beets processed by Holly Sugar, and the defense contractor McDonnell Douglas Astronautics, known for the Apollo and Skylab space programs. Pope Pius X appoints a commission of cardinals to codify Roman Catholic canon law, which has become an unwieldy mess filled with spurious interpolations (ends 1917); meanwhile Zionism founder Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) asks him for Vatican support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine, apparently unaware of the St. Augustine lovely brainwave that Jews are to be kept ever-wandering as proof of what they deserve for rejecting Christ; the pope's reply is the immortal soundbyte: "The Jews who should have been the first to acknowledge Jesus Christ have not done so to this day. And so if you come to Palestine and settle your people there, we will be ready with churches and priests to baptize all of you." The Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) is discovered in chestnut trees imported from Asia in the Bronx, N.Y. Zoo by Hermann W. Merkel, going on to spread to Am. chestnuts, which have no natural resistance, wiping them out, going from 25% of the forests in the E U.S., with 4B trees from Maine to Fla., prized for rot-resistant wood to zippo; in 2006 a stand of a half dozen trees is discovered in Albany, Ga. near FDR's Little White House at Warm Springs; another stand of 6K trees 15 mi. E of La Cross, Wisc. remains blight-free until 1988. Thomas Edison's glassblower Clarence Madison Dally (b. 1865) becomes the first person to die from overexposure to X-rays, which many still believe are harmless. Boston U. prof. Borden Parker Bowne (1847-1910) becomes the first person to be put on trial for heresy in the U.S. Methodist Church for his defense of Biblical higher criticism; he is unanimously acquitted, signaling the arrival of the "liberal Protestant consensus" with other mainline Protestant denominations. The first color photos appear in newspapers. Archer Milton Huntington (1870-1955) founds the Hispanic Society of Am. in New York City on May 18, and has his sculptor wife Anna Hyatt Huntington (1876-1973) adorn it with large sculptures. Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) founds Bethune-Cookman U. (originally Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School until 1941) in Daytona Beach, Fla., becoming the first black college founded by a black woman, with standards comparable to white schools; in 1923 it merges with the Cookman Inst. of Jacksonville, Fla.; in 1924 it affiliates with the Methodist Church. The date palm is introduced to the U.S. The steerage rate for immigrants to the U.S. is cut to $10. The Nat. City Bank of New York introduces traveller's checks. A New York City cop arrests a woman for smoking a cigarette in public. TNT begins to be used by the military for the obvious. The U. of Leeds (originally Yorkshire College of Science) in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England is chartered by Edward VII, affiliated with the federal Victoria U. alongside Owens College and Univ. College Liverpool, incorporating the Leeds School of Medicine (founded 1831). The Wall Street brokerage firm of E.F. Hutton & Co. is founded by Edward Francis Hutton (1875-1962) et al., going on to push the ad slogan "When E.F. Hutton talks, people listen"; after opening an office in San Francisco, Calif., he uses its private telegraph to sell off his San Fran investments before the news of the big earthquake reaches the East Coast. Automobiles are for the rich only? Studebaker introduces a gasoline automobile; Ransom Eli Olds (1864-1950) (only man to have two automobiles named for him) resigns from the Olds Motor Vehicle Co. and forms the REO Motor Car Co. (ends 1936); Cadillac replaces the tiller with a steering wheel. German industrialist Carl Duisberg (1861-1935) founds I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie) AG (Ger. "farben" = paints or dyes), which reorganizes on a larger scale in 1925 and goes on to give the world Zyklon B. British Vice-Adm. (since 1901) Charles Cooper Penrose-Fitzgerald (1841-1921) pub. an article in the Deutsche Review stating that Britain would be better off with a naval war with Germany now when their navy is bigger, whipping-up German support for naval expansion. Pres. Roosevelt writes to the U.S. treasury secy. that "I think our coinage is artistically of atrocious hideousness", recommending that they be redesigned to look like the beautiful ancient Greek tetradrachma, hiring Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who designs the 1907 $20 Double Eagle gold coin. The Marine Biological Assoc. in Plymouth, England begins releasing 1,020 bottles into the North Sea (ends 1906), offering a 1 shilling reward for their return; one found in 2017 becomes the oldest known message in a bottle to be found. French bacteriologist Pierre Paul Emile (Émile) Roux (1853-1933) becomes dir. of the Pasteur Inst. after receiving its $20K Pris Osiris in 1903 - my face is getting clearer, the past is gone? Karlsberg Beer (founded 1878) of Hamburg, Bavaria becomes "purveyors to the Danish royal court". 13-y.-o. Ukrainian-born violinist Mischa Elman (1891-1967), who auditioned for Leopold Auer at age 11 (playing the Wieniawski Concerto No. 2 and 24th Caprice by Paganini) debuts in Berlin, creating a sensation. The Socialist newspaper L'Humanite (Humanity) is founded in Paris by Jean Leon Jaures (1859-1914). The Nat. Tuberculosis Assoc. (Am. Lung Assoc.) is founded in Atlantic City, N.J. on June 6 by Sir William Osler et al. to educate the public about TB AKA white plague, the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. (1.88K deaths per million annually). The Am. Academy of Arts and Letters in New York City is founded by the Nat. Inst. of Arts and Letters as an honorary assoc. with a membership limit of 50 (later 250), granted for noteworthy achievement a la the Academie Francaise; the first seven members incl. writers Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), William Dean Howells, Edmund Clarence Stedman, and John Hay, artists Augustus Saint-Gaudens and John La Farge, and composer Edward Alexander MacDowell; too bad, MacDowell is run over by a Hansom cab, and ends up with brain damage making him childlike until his death in 1908, causing former U.S. pres. Grover Cleveland et al. to raise funds for his care. The Prix Femina French lit. prize is created by the mag. La Vie Heureuse, with an all-female jury, although winners can be male. Da Juze iz here, da Juze is here? Stuyvesant High School in Manhattan, N.Y. opens, becoming one of the top public high schools in the U.S. specializing in math and science, producing Nobel Prize winners Joshua Lederberg, Robert Fogel, Roald Hoffmann, and Richard Axel; Frank McCourt teaches English there. The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) is founded in Haymarket, London, England by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (1852-1917), becoming a leading drama school. The annual Priz Femina lit. prize is established by 22 writers of La Vie Heureuse (later Femina) mag., with prizes decided by an all-female jury but not limited to women; the prize is announced on the first Wed. of Nov.; the first winner is Myrian Harry for "La Conquete de Jerusalem"; in 1920 the Femina-Vie Hereuse Prize is established in Britain by the Hachette Group for English writers (until 1940); in 1920 the Northcliffe Prize is established by Lady Northcliffe, wife of Alfred Harmsworth for French writers (until 1940); in 1985 the Prix Femina Étranger award is established for non-French writers, with the first winner John Maxwell Coetzee for "Michael K, sa Vie, son Temps" (The Life and Times of Michael K.); in 2001 the Prix Femina Essay award is established, with first winner Elivre de Brissac (1939-) for "Ô dix-neuvième!" (2001). Ajaccio, Corsica-born Francois Coty (Joseph Marie Francois Spoturno) (1874-1934) founds a perfume co. in Paris, France, making slow headway until he spills a bottle of his La Rose Jacqueminot on a countertop at the Grands Magasins du Louvre dept. store, causing a customer frenzy that makes him into a player in the perfume world, becoming the first to sell products in attractive bottles; in 1908 he relocates his HQ to Suresnes near Paris, founding La Cite des Parfums, growing to 9K employees producing 100K bottles/day; in 1921 he expands to New York City, amassing a fortune of $34M by 1929; in 1922 he purchases the conservative Parisian newspaper Le Figaro and renames it Figaro, turning far-right and anti-semitic; in 1963 Coty Inc. is acquired by Pfizer, which switches to drugstore distribution; in 1922 they sell Coty to Joh. A. Benckiser GmbH of Germany. Jewywood starts in Jew York long before moving to Hollyweird? New York Jew Marcus Loew (1870-1927) founds the People's Vaudeville Co., a chain of theaters with live vaudeville shows, expanding into 1-reel nickelodeon films; in 1 910 he founds Loew's Consolidated Enterprises along with well-fixed Hungarian-born Jewish former fur trader Adolph Zukor (1873-1976), and Russian-born Jewish brothers Joseph Michael Schenck (1878-1961) and Nicholas M. Schenck (1881-1969), then changes its name to Loew's Inc. in 1919 and purchases Metro Pictures Corp. in 1920; Nicholas Schenck goes on to head United Artists, while Joseph Schenck heads MGM. Picasso's Blue Period (begun 1901) ends, and his Rose Period begins (ends 1905), with dignified impersonal figures in chalky pink, incl. Gertrude Stein. Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955) begins his Montmagny Period (ends 1908), painting townscapes from Pierrefitte-Montmagny N of Paris. A. Piker Clerk, by Clare Briggs (1875-1930) debuts in the Chicago Herald (until 1907), becoming the first panel-style daily comic strip; his later strips coin popular Am. phrases "Ain't It a Grand and Glorious Feeling?", "Danny Dreamer", "When a Feller Needs a Friend", "The Days of Real Sport", "Movie of a Man", "Mrs. and Mrs.", "Real Folks at Home". Warwickshire, England-born Aleister (Edward Alexander) Crowley (1875-1947) is allegedly contacted by his guardian angel Aiwass in Egypt, who gave him The Book of the Law, from which he develops his libertinist philosophy of Thelema, with the motto "Do What Thou Wilt", practicing black magic and becoming known as "the wickedest man in the world". Nestle begins marketing Swiss chocolate; next year Nestle (Nestlé) S.A. (originally Nestle and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co., then Nestle Alimentana SA in 1947-77) is formed from the merger of Nestle with the Anglo-Swiss Milk Co. (founded 1866), introducing Nescafe (Nescafé) brand instant coffee on Apr. 1, 1938, which becomes a hit with the U.S. military in WWII, then acquiring Maggi (1974), Cross & Blackwell (1950), Findus (1963), Libby's (1971), Stouffer's (1973), L'Oreal (1974), Alcon Labs (1977), Carnation (1984), Rowntree Mackintosh (1988), San Pellegrino (1997), and Spillers Petfoods (1998); by the end of the 20th cent. it's the world's largest food co., going on to acquire Ralston Purina (2002), Dreyer's (June 2002), Chef America (Aug. 2002) et al. Ovaltine (originally Ovalmaltine, from L. "ovum" + malt) brand milk flavoring made of powdered malt, milk, and eggs is first manufactured in Berne, Switzerland, changing to the current name when exported to Britiain 1909, followed by the U.S. in 1915; in 2003 Wanger AG acquires the brand from Novartis, after which Nestle acquires the U.S. rights separately; the brand sponsors the U.S. radio series "Little Orphan Annie" (1931-40) and "Captain Midnight" (1938-49), and the U.S. TV series "Captain Midnight" (1954-6); an anagram for "Vital One". Sports: On Jan. 2-Feb. 24 the 1904 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season sees the Ottawa Hockey Club (Silver Seven) resign in Feb., defaulting on four games, giving the Quebec Bulldogs the CAHL championship; Ottawa retains the Stanley Cup despite a protest by Quebec. On May 4 Estonian-born 5'9 219 lb. he-man Georg Hackenschmidt (1877-1968), "the Russian Lion", inventor of the bearhug and the hackenschmidt, er, hack squat defeats Tom Jenkins in New York City, becoming the first recognized world heavyweight wrestling champ (until 1908). On May 5 Denton True "Cy" (Cyclone) Young (1867-1955) pitches the AL's first perfect game as the Boston Red Sox defeat the Philadelphia Athletics 3-0; the ML baseball World Series between the Giants and Boston is called off as a result of a dispute with Giants mgr. (1902-32) John Joseph McGraw (1873-1934) (AKA Little Napoleon and Muggsy). Elwood (jockey F. Prior) wins the Kentucky Derby on ?. On July 2-24 the 1904 Tour de France is won by Henri Cornet (Jardry) (1884-1941) of France, who is only 19 years 350 days old, a record that holds until ?; he actually finishes 5th, but the first four cyclists (Eugene Christopher in the lead) are later disqualified. On Sept. 1 the Federation Internationale de Football Assoc. (FIFA) is founded; soccer breaks from its British roots and goes internat. On Oct. 8 the first Vanderbilt Cup internat. auto race is held on the dirt roads of Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y., becoming the first major U.S. auto race, founds with an enticingly large prize by William Kissam Vanderbilt II (1878-1944) (who earlier this year set a land speed record of 92.30 mph in a Mercedes at Daytona Beach), with large crowds eager to see an American car beat the Euro cars; too bad, it's won by Long Island native George Heath (1862-1943) in a French Panhard in 6 hours 56 min. 45 sec., with an avg. speed of 52.2 mph; it takes until 1908 for George H. Robertson (1884-1955) of Garden City, N.Y. to win in an American car, a Locomobile, becoming the first U.S.-built car to win in internat. competition; is founded it moves to Savannah, Ga., followed in 1912 by Milwaukee, Wisc., and 1914 and 1916 by Santa Monica, and San Francisco, Calif. in 1915; it is canceled in 1917-36. Walter J. Travis (1862-1927) of the U.S. becomes the first man to hold the British and U.S. amateur golf titles at the same time; the U.S. Open is won by Will Anderson. The U.S. Lawn Tennis singles titles are won by Holcombe Ward and May G. Sutton. The Nat. Ski Assoc. of Am. is founded in Ishpeming, Mich. After the U.S. Rubber Co. produces the first rubber-soled shoes in the U.S. in 1892, Spalding Sports Co. markets the first suction-sole shoes, becoming the first Basketball Sneakers in 1907. Architecture: On Mar. 13 the 7m-high Christ the Redeemer of the Andes monument in the Andes Mts. at 12,572 ft. (3,832m) alt. in La Cumbre Pass between Argentina and Chile on the road between Mendoza, Argentina, and Santiago, Chile is unveiled to celebrate the end of their border dispute in May 1902; designed by Mateo Alonso. The Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. Bldg. (begun 1899) (originally the Schlesinger and Meyer Dept. Store) in Chicago, Ill. is finished, becoming a forerunner of Art Nouveau. The Larkin Bldg. in Buffalo, N.Y., the first air-conditioned office, the first to have metal-bound plate glass doors and all-metal office furniture is designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. The Central Mosque on Vypolzovy St. in Moscow is built by Tartar businessman Salikh Yerzhin; it is demolished on Sept. 11, 2001 to make room for a newer bigger mosque to help accomodate the hordes of Muslim immigrants. In 1904-8 the North River Tunnels under the Hudson River are built, connecting Penn. Station in Manhattan, N.Y. with Weehawken, N.J., opening for passenger service in 1910 and carrying 20% of all U.S. commerce by 2020; too bad, they become a ticking time bomb after failing to be renewed? Nobel Prizes: Peace: Inst. de Droit Internat. (Belgium); Lit.: Frederic Mistral (1830-1914) and Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre (1832-1916) (Spain); Physics: John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) (U.K.) [noble gases]; Chem.: Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) (U.K.) [helium]; Med.: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) (Russia) [digestion not salivation] - the prize for the richest collection of surnames? Inventions: Former Am. journalist Nellie Bly patents a 55-gal. steel drum that becomes a std. in the U.S. Using the Hallwachs Effect of 1888, Julius P.L. Elster (1854-1920) of Germany invents the first practical Photoelectric Cell. English engineer Sir John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945) becomes the first to use a thermonic (vacuum) tube to generate radio waves. David Roberts of Grantham, England patents the continuous track for use on tractors; in 1907 Benjamin Holt of Calif. patents the crawler type tread tractor; in 1914 (WWI) they start out being used to transport artillery, and in 1915 British Lt. Col. Ernest Swinton of the Royal Engineers proposes to the War Office that they should be used in an armored track vehicle that can destroy German guns, which is adopted by Winston Churchill, who calls them "land ships". About this time Ford Motor Co. employee Louis Goldenberg of New Brunswick, N.J. invents the electric washing machine. Arthur Korn (1870-1945) of Germany telegraphically transmits the first photographs from Munich to Nuremberg. Lumiere brothers Louis and Auguste develop a 3-color screen process for color photography using dyed starch granules as filters and a photographic emulsion sensitive to the entire visible spectrum. Austrian priest-physicist August Musger (1868-1929) patents the slow-motion effect in films, using a mirrored drum as a synchronization mechanism; he first demonstrates it in Graz - home of Last Action Hero Ahnuld? Thomas Sullivan of New York City invents the tea bag. The first Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp is invented by ?. Science: Child lead poisoning is linked to lead-based paints. Sir James Hopwood Jeans (1877-1946) accounts for the energy of radioactivity by the mutual annihilation of positive and negative charges; Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy postulate a gen. theory of radioactivity. Frederick Stanley Kipping (1863-1949) of the U. of Nottingham in England discovers silicones - the century is safe for Hollywood's big-breasted Maid Marians and Lady Godivas? Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz pub. the Lorentz Transformations, showing how electrodynamic phenomena in different reference frames can be described by identcial equations with well-defined transformation properties, and also discusses time dilation and the increase of inertal mass of rapidly moving objects, all of which is soon adopted by Albert Einstein. Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka (1865-1950) proposes the Saturnian Model of the Atom, modeling the structure on the planet Saturn, replacing the swarm of satellites by negative electrons and the attracting center by a massive positively charged particle - let me get out my astrology book and figure out the implications? German physicist Ludwig Prandtl (1874-1953) pub. the paper "Fluid Flower in Very Little Friction", first describing the theory of the boundary layer. Charles Spearman (1863-1945) advances the "g" Theory of Intelligence. German mathematician Ernst Zermelo (1871-1953) pub. a proof that every set can be well-ordered, opening mathematics to the use of paradoxical Transfinite Methods (Diagonal Method). Nonfiction: Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930), The Influence of Grenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1787-1798. Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918), Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres; how medieval culture was cool, esp. between 1150-1250, because it spiritualized femininity and earthly love (sex) via the Virgin Mary, while its cathedrals expressed "an emotion, the deepest man ever felt — the struggle of his own littleness to grasp the infinite." Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851-1935), Shakespearean Tragedy; makes him #1 among Shakespearean scholars, treating the chars. like they're real people; becomes a std. work, essential for passing exams in English schools, causing the rhyme to circulate: "I dreamt last night that Shakespeare's ghost/ Sat for a civil service post./ The English paper for that year/ had several questions on King Lear/ Which Shakespeare answered very badly/ Because he hadn't read his Bradley"; too bad, by the 1950s he is discredited for his Victorian views, esp. after the 1933 satirical essay "How Many Children Had Lady Macbeth?" by English lit. critic Lionel Charles Knights (1906-97). Sir Francis Burnand (1836-1917), Records and Reminiscences (autobio.). Edward Caird (1835-1908), Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers. Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928), Contribution to the Theory of Glacial Motion. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), The Crossing; bestseller. Moncure D. Conway (1832-1907), Autobiography, Memories and Experiences (2 vols.). Kenyon Cox (1856-1919), Mixed Beasts. Marie Curie (1867-1934), Recherches sur les Substances Radioactives. Daniel De Leon (1852-1914), The Burning Question of Trades Unionism. Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912), Earthquakes in the Light of the New Seismology. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Elementary Principles of Economics: Together with a Short Sketch of Economic History. Eduard Fueter Sr. (1876-1928), Religion and Church in England in the Fifteenth Century (Religion und Kirche in England im fünfzehnten Jahrhundert) (Tubingen). Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864-1929), Democracy and Reaction. Elisabeth Forster-Nietzsche (1846-1935), Das Leben Friedrich Nietzsche (The Life of Friedrich Nietzsche); by his sister. Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861-1938), Les Applications des Aciers au Nickel. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation. Albert Kalthoff (1850-1906), The Rise of Christianity: New Questions about the Christ Problem (English trans. pub. 1907), resurrecting the works of Bruno Baer by reviving his Christ myth theory; "It sometimes happens in the scientific discussion of a problem that we make a considerable advance towards its solution by abandoning some point of view from which we have fruitlessly striven to master it, and confronting it from a fresh position. The experience suggests itself forcibly in the controversy with regard to the historical character of Jesus. Starting from the theory that the evangelical writings of the New Testament must be regarded as sources of evidence for the life-story of an historical individual, liberal theology has lost itself in a labyrinth from which it cannot escape. Even in circles where the dogma of a personal founder of Christianity is till rigorously maintained, people are beginning to see that very little biographical material can be obtained from the Gospels"; "A Son of God, Lord of the World, born of a virgin, and rising again after death, and the son of a small builder with revolutionary notions, are two totally different beings. If one was the historical Jesus, the other certainly was not. The real question of the historicity of Jesus is not merely whether there ever was a Jesus among the numerous claimants of a Messiahship in Judea, but whether we are to recognise the historical character of this Jesus in the Gospels, and whether he is to be regarded as the founder of Christianity." Halford Mackinder (1861-1947), The Geographical Pivot of History; proposes the Heartland Theory, founding the field of Geopolitics; claims that the Eurasian steppe is the most coveted landmass on Earth, which he calls the Pivot Region. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The New Star Chamber and Other Essays. Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp) (1855-1905), The Winged Destiny: Studies in the Spiritual History of the Gael. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), Sketch of Charles Pinckney's Plan for a Constitution, 1787. Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916), Die Amerikaner. Hermann Oncken (1869-1945),Lassalle, Between Marx and Bismarck (first book). Herbert Levi Osgood (1855-1918), The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (3 vols.) (1904-07); dies after finishing The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century (4 vols.) (1924) (posth.). Sir William Osler (1849-1919), Aequanimitas (essays). Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), The Southerner's Problem. George Herbert Palmer (1842-1933), The Nature of Goodness. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Compromises. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), Theodore Roosevelt, the Citizen. George John Romanes (1848-94), Thoughts on Religion (posth.). William Sharp (1855-1905), Literary Geography. Frederick Soddy (1877-1956), Radioactivity. Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities; Minneapolis, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Philly ("the most hopeless"), and New York City. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), Theosophy: An Introduction; a human being has a body, soul and spirit, can undergo reincarnation, and has a unity of the spiritual and sense-perceptible "as two sides of a single coin". Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914), Der Krieg und Seine Bekampfung (Bekämpfung). Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944), The History of the Standard Oil Company (2 vols.); launches the U.S. govt. antitrust action that breaks it up is founded. Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), Our Political Tasks (Aug.); a critique of Vladimir Lenin's "What Is to Be Done?" (1902), pointing out that his idea of a Communist Party will inevitably lead to a bloody Reign of Terror like in the French Rev., and rule by a dictator; "Lenin's organizational scheme befits a party that intends to replace the labor classes and work on their behalf by proxy, in a substitutive way. Lenin's way leads to the party organization supplanting the whole party, then the central committee supplanting the party organization, and finally the dictator supplanting the central committee." Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929), The Theory of Business Enterprise; how the growth of business results in a conflict between businessmen and engineers, resulting in waste and predation. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Kunst der Erzahlung (essays). Max Weber (1864-1920), The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism; claims that the Protestant (Calvinist) work ethic drove the development of capitalism instead of Karl Marx's atheistic historical materialism, giving the capitalist-communist debate a religious dimension, becoming one of the most important sociological works of the 20th cent. Movies: Cecil Hepworth's Rescued by Rover stars a collie, and is a big hit in England. ?'s Le Barbier de Seville and ?'s Le Damnation de Faust are produced in France. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Mittelalterliche Venushymne, Op. 26; An den Genius von Deutschland, Op. 30. Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), A Celtic Song Cycle; To My Homeland. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), L'Ile Joyeuse. Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Koanga (opera) (Elberfeld). Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), The Octoroon (opera). Pauline Garcia-Viardot (1821-1910), Cendrillon (opera) (Paris). Victor Herbert (1859-1924), It Happened in Norland. Leos Janacek (1854-1928), Jenufa (opera) (Brno). Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1857-1919), Der Roland von Berlin (opera) (State Opera, Berlin) (Dec. 13; based on the 1840 novel of Willibald Alexis (1798-1871). Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Madama Butterfly (opera) (Feb. 17) (La Scala, Milan); libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa; based on the 1898 short story by John Luther Long and the 1887 novel "Madame Chrysantheme" by Pierre Loti; flops until it is revised on May 28 to make the 2nd act shorter, becoming a giant hit; incl. Un Bel di Vedremo, Vogliatemi Bene, Tu, Tu Piccolo Iddio, Cio-Cio San; F.B. Pinkerton is really Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, but "B.F." means "bloody fool" to Brits?; changed to Linkerton for Germans because Pinkerton sounds like a German swear word? Sergei Taneyev (1856-1915), String Quintet in G, Op. 14. Anton Webern (1883-1945), Im Sommerwind. Art: Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), Poets Corner. George Henry Boughton (1836-1905), Strome Valley. David Young Cameron (1865-1945), Paris Etchings (etchings). E.S. Curtis, Canon (Cañon) de Chelly - Navaho (photo). Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944), Don Quixote (sculpture). Eugene Field (1850-95), Poems of Childhood; illustrated by Maxfield Parrish, incl. The Dinky Bird. Richard Lorenz (1858-?), The Buffalo Hunt. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Two Sisters. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), The Buddha. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), The Wedding. Deodat de Severac (1872-1921), En Languedoc; Cerdanya (1904-11); his masterpiece?; incl. Tantum Ergo. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Symphony No. 3 in C major (1904-7). Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921), Monadnock in Winter. Plays: George Ade (1866-1944), College Widow; the first play about Am. football, about the rivalry between Atwater College and Bingham College; star halfback Billy forsakes Bingham to play for Atwater to be near his babe Jane, daughter of the pres.; made into the 1917 Broadway musical "Leave It to Jane" by Jerome Kern, Guy Bolton, and P.G. Wodehouse. Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863-1938), La Figlia di Iorio (The Daughter of Iorio). J.M. Barrie (1860-1937), Peter Pan; or, The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (Peter and Wendy) (Dec. 27) (Duke of York's Theatre, London); about Peter Darling, the boy who wouldn't grow up and learned to use his imagination to fly and do other magic, and his adventures in Neverland with the Lost Boys, Tinkerbell the Fairy, Capt. Hook, Smee, and the Crocodile; the Darling kids of Bloomsbury (Peter, Wendy, John, Michael) are inspired by the five boys of Sylvia Jocelyn Llewelyn Davies (1866-1910); Barrie's mother lost her own childhood at age 8?; Peter lost his shadow; the Lost Boys are inspired by real children lost in Kensington Gardens; a kiss is a "thimble"; coins the name "Wendy", which is not related to Gwendolyn, making it popular; Salt Lake City, Utah-born Maude Ewing Adams Kiskadden (1872-1953) plays Peter Pan, which becomes her signature role, causing her to hold out for the movies until color can be perfected to play the part in vain through the 1920s; Sir Gerald Hubert Edward Busson du Maurier (1873-1934) (son of "Trilby" author George du Maurier and father of "Rebecca" author Daphne du Maurier) plays Capt. Hook, making him a star; turned into a 1911 novel, after which in 1929 Barrie gives the copyright to Great Ormond Street Hospital in London. David Belasco (1853-1931) and John Luther Long (1861-1927), Adrea. Johan Bojer (1872-1959), Brutus. Eugene Brieux (1858-1932), Maternite; La Deserteuse (with M. Jean Sigaux). Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), The Cherry Orchard (Moscow Art Theater) (Jan. 17) (his birthday); he dies on July 15 (happy?). George M. Cohan (1878-1942), Little Johnny Jones (first musical) (Parsons Theatre, Hartford, Conn.) (Oct.) (Liberty Theatre, New York) (Nov. 7) (debuts one block from the subway terminal in Times Square a few days after it opens) (52 perf.) (New York Theatre, New York) (1905) (200 perf.); dir. by Cohan; produced by Sam H. Harris; Am. jockey Johnny Jones (inspired by Tod Sloan) goes to ride his horse Yankee Doodle in the English Derby, and falls for San Francisco copper heiress Goldie Gates, who disguises herself as a man to see if he really loves her; filmed in 1924 and 1929; portrayed in the 1942 film "Yankee Doodle Dandy" starring James Cagney; launches Cohan's flag-waving career on his way to becoming "the King of Broadway", and "the Man Who Owns Broadway"; features the songs Give My Regards to Broadway, and The Yankee Doodle Boy. Marcellus Emants (1848-1923), Domheidsmacht. Anne Crawford Flexner (1874-1955), Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch. Max Halbe (1865-1944), Der Strom (The Stream) (Vienna). Gunnar Heiberg (1857-1929), Kjaelighedens Tragedie (The Tragedy of Love); English tr. 1921; his masterpiece? Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), Brand in de Jonge Jan (A Case of Arson); Henri de Vries impersonates all seven witnesses. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Das Gerettete Venedig, nach Thomas Otway (verse drama). Laurence Housman (1865-1959) and Harley Granville-Barker (1877-1946), Prunella; or, Love in a Dutch Garden (Court Theatre, London) (Dec. 23). Charles Klein (1867-1915), The Music Master (comedy-drama) (Belasco Theatre, New York) (124 perf.) (Bijou Theatre, New York) (511 perf.); produced and dir. by David Belasco; stars David Warfield as Anton von Barwig; incidental msuic by William Furst. Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Le Files de l'Etoile; music by Camille Erlanger; about Bar Kochba. Georges de Porto-Riche (1849-1930), Les Malefilatres. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Pan Voyevoda (The Gentleman Provincial Governor) (Oct. 16) (Oct. 3 Old Style) (St. Petersburg). George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), John Bull's Other Island. John Millington Synge (1871-1909), Riders to the Sea. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), The Blue Moon (musical). Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Die Buchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box); 2nd "Lulu" play. Poetry: Andrei Bely (1880-1934), Gold in Azure. Alexander Blok (1880-1921), Verses About a Beautiful Lady; The City (1904-8). Bliss Carman (1861-1929), The Book of Myths. His Pipes of Pan, No. 1; The Kinship of Nature; Sappho: One Hundred Lyrics; Songs from a Northern Garden. Pipes of Pan, No. 4; Songs of the Sea Children. Lady Augusta Gregory (1852-1932), Gods and Fighting Men. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Vers Ispahan. William Vaughan Moody (1869-1910), The Fire-Bringer. Kostes Palamas (1859-1943), Assalephti Zoi (Immutable Life). Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), In Reckless Ecstasy (debut). Novels: Mikhail Artsybashev (1878-1927), Death of Lande. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), The Northern, or First Heroic. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), A Great Man; Teresa of Watling Street. George A. Birmingham (1865-1950), The Seething Pot. Paul Bourget (1852-1935), Un Divorce. Teofilo Braga (1843-1924), Viriato. James Branch Cabell (1879-1958), The Eagle's Shadow. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), In Search of the Unknown. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Napoleon of Notting Hill; set in 1984 London, when the govt. doesn't care. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Nostromo. Ronald Firbank (1886-1926), The Fairies Wood; The Mauve Tower. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Der Hohe Schein; Der Besondere. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Stella Fregelius; Brethren. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), The Dynasts. O. Henry (1862-1910), Cabbages and Kings (short stories) (debut); imprisoned in 1898-1902 for embezzlement as a bank teller in Austin, Tex. before settling in New York City. Robert Herrick (1868-1938), The Common Lot. Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Peter Camenzind (first novel). Laurence Housman (1865-1959), Sabrina Warham. William Henry Hudson (1841-1922), Green Mansions; romance of the South Am. wilderness with bird girl Rima. Henry James (1843-1916), The Golden Bowl (Nov. 10). M.R. James (1862-1936), Ghost Stories of an Antiquary; launches the genre of the antiquarian ghost story. Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Sir Mortimer. Bernhard Kellermann (1879-1951), Yester und Li. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Brown Fairy Book. Maurice Leblanc (1864-1941), Gueule Rouge; Arsene Lupin #1, the French Sherlock Holmes, which becomes a hit, causing him to crank out 21 by 37; 80 Chevaux; Arsene Lupin #2. Jack London (1876-1916), The Sea-Wolf; Capt. Wolf Larsen of The Ghost. Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), La Maison Philibert. Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), Henry Brocken. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), The Ragged Messenger. George Barr McCutcheon (1866-1928), Beverly of Graustark. Arthur Morrison (1863-1945), The Green Eye of Goona (The Green Diamond). Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Betrayal; Anna the Adventuress. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), The Ladder of Swords. Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), The Tale of Benjamin Bunny; Peter returns to Mr. McGregor's garden with his cousin Benjamin to retrieve his lost duds; in 1905 she uses the royalties to buy Hill Top Farm in Near Sawrey, Lancashire near Windermere in the English Lake District, becoming a prize-winning breeder of Herdwick sheep, making big bucks marketing spinoff merchandise. Wladyslaw Reymont (1868-1925), Chlopi (4 vols.) (1904-9); each vol. is one season in the life of Polish peasants. Romain Rolland (1866-1944), Jean-Christophe (10 vols.) (1904-12); roman fleuve about the corruption of France and Germany as seen through the eyes of German musical genius Jean-Christophe Kraft, who makes France his second home, winning him the 1915 Nobel Lit. Prize. Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo) (1860-1913), Hadrian the Seventh; Englishman George Arthur Rose is elected pope and tries to save the world. Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), La Vue, Le Concert, and Le Source. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Tavern Knight. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), The Pomps of Satan. Gregorio Martinez Sierra (1881-1947), Sol de la Tarde. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), Col. Carter's Christmas. Gene Stratton-Porter (1868-1924), Freckles; 19-y.-o. orphan guards timber in the shrinking Limberlost Swamp in NW Ind.; followed by "A Girl of the Limberlost" (1909). Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921), The Well in the Wood; title from the saying "Truth lies at the the bottom of a well"; its 2nd printing in 1922 becomes a children's classic. Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921), Lausbubengeschichten (Rascal Stories). Louis Joseph Vance (1879-1933), Terence O'Rourke (first novel). Jules Verne (1828-1905), Master of the World; a "black novel" filled with the fear of the rise of tyrants incl. villain Robur. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward (1844-1911), Trixy; exposes the evil effect that vivisection has on physicians, becoming a std. work. Margery Williams (1881-1944), The Price of Youth. Births: German quantum physicist Walter Heinrich Heitler (d. 1981) on Jan. 2 in Karlsruhe. Am. neurosurgeon James Winston Watts 9d. 1994) on Jan. 19 in Lynchburg, Va.; educated at VMI, and U. of Va.; collaborator of Walter Freeman (1895-1972). Am. psychic (Roman Catholic) Jeane L. Dixon (Lydia Emma Pinckert) (d. 1997) on Jan. 5 in Medford, Wisc.; German immigrant parents; not to be confused with Am. actress Jean Dixon (1896-1981); likes to gaze into crystal balls; tries to hide her birth year so astrologists can't do a make on her? Am. New Yorker cartoonist (1925-68) Peter Arno (Curtis Arnoux Peters Jr.) (d. 1968) on Jan. 8 in New York City; educated at Yale U. German physician (of Adolf Hitler) Karl Brandt (d. 1948) on Jan. 8 in Mulhouse, Alsace-Lorraine. Am. Dubble Bubble gum inventor (1926) Walter E. Diemer (d. 1998) on Jan. 8 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Love Her with a Feeling", "Let Me Play with Your Poodle" Chicago blues musician (black) ("the Man with the Gold Guitar") ("the Guitar Wizard") Tampa Red (Hudson Woodbridge or Whittaker) (d. 1981) on Jan. 8 in Smithville, Ga. Am. "Cowardly Lion in the Wizard of Oz" actor Ray Wallace Bolger (d. 1987) on Jan. 10 in Dorchester, Mass. English "Warsaw Concerto in Dangerous Moonlight" film-TV-theater composer Richard Addinsell (d. 1977) on Jan. 13; educated at Hertford College, Oxford U. English costume designer-photographer-writer (bi) Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton (d. 1980) on Jan. 14 in London; educated at Harrow School, and St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1972. Am. novelist-anthropologist-activist William D'Arcy McNickle (d. 1977) on Jan. 14 on the Flathead Rez in St. Ignatius, Mont.; Irish father, Cree Metis mother; educated at Oxford U. Am. "Bringing Up Baby", "North by Northwest" 6'1-1/2" actor (bi?) Cary Grant (Gael. "tall, big") (Archibald Alexander Leach) (d. 1986) on Jan. 18 [Capricorn] in Bristol; an only child, dropping out of school at age 14; father Elias is a tailor's presser; mother Elsie is committed to a mental institution in the spring of 1914, and he doesn't see her again until 1940, finding out that she didn't recognize him in the movies; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1942; marries Virginia Cherrill, Barbara Hutton, Betsy Drake, Dyan Cannon, and Barbara Harris, and divorces them all while carrying on with 12-year housemate Randolph Scott et al.?; father of Jennifer Grant (1966-). Am. lit. critic-poet Richard Palmer "R.P." Blackmur (d. 1965) on Jan. 21 in Springfield, Mass.; self-educated. Am. ballet choreographer George Balanchine (Georgi Melitonovitch Balanchivadze) (d. 1983) on Jan. 22 in St. Petersburg, Russia; Georgian parents; defects to the West in 1924; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. historian (black) Benjamin Arthur Quarles (d. 1996) on Jan. 23 in Boston, Mass.; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. "A" Objectivist poet (Jewish) Louis Zukofsky (d. 1978) on Jan. 23 in New York City; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U.; friend of Whittaker Chambers. Am. K-ration and Mediterranean Diet physiologist ("Mr. Cholesterol") Ancel Benjamin Keys (d. 2004) on Jan. 26 in Colorado Springs, Colo.; grows up in Berkeley, Calif.; educated at UCB, UCSD, and Kings College, Cambridge U. Irish politician Sean MacBride (d. 1988) on Jan. 26 in Paris; son of Maj. John MacBride (1865-1916) and Maud Gonne (1866-1953); educated at Univ. College, Dublin. Am. psychologist James Jerome Gibson (d. 1979) on Jan. 27 in McConnelsville, Ohio; educated at Princeton U. Am. "Horse Feathers", "Monkey Business", "Around the World in Eighty Days" humorist writer (Jewish) Sidney Joseph Perelman (d. 1979) on Feb. 1 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; grows up in Providence, R.I.; husband of Laura West (Lorraine Weinstein), sister of Nathanael West (1903-40). Am. "The French Key" detective novelist Frank Gruber (d. 1969) on Feb. 2 in Elmer, Minn.; AKA Stephen Acre, Charles K. Boston, and John K. Vedder. Italian 12-tone atonal composer Luigi Dallapiccola (d. 1975) on Feb. 3 in Pisino d'Istria (Pazin, Croatia). Am. Lucchese crime family mobster ("the Czar of Boxing") Paul John (Paolo Giovanni) "Frankie" Carbo (d. 1976) on Feb. 4 in New York City; Sicilian immigrant parents; engineer of the murder of Bugsy Siegel? Am. bank robber Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd (d. 1934) on Feb. 3 in Adairsville, Ga. Am. "Spirit Lake", "Andersonville" novelist MacKinlay Kantor (d. 1977) on Feb. 4 in Webster City, Iowa. Am. "Wake Island", "Around the World in Eighty Days" film dir.-writer-producer John Farrow (John N.B. Villiers-Farrow) (d. 1963) on Feb. 10 in Sydney, Australia; husband of Maureen O'Sullivan (1911-98); father of Mia Farrow (1945-). Am. "Original Amateur Hour" TV personality Ted Mack (William Edward Maguiness) (d. 1976) on Feb. 12 in Greeley, Colo. Am. "Uncle Remus in Song of the South" actor (black) James Baskett (d. 1948) on Feb. 16 in Indianapolis, Ind. German Wanssee Conference Nazi deputy gov. of Cracow Joseph Buhler (Bühler) (d. 1948) on Feb. 16 in Bad Waldsee. Am. "The Sources of Soviet Conduct", "Russia Leaves the War" diplomat-historian and Cold War political thinker ("Father of Containment") George Frost Kennan (d. 2005) on Feb. 16 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; cousin twice removed of explorer George Kennan (1845-1924) (same birthday); educated at Princeton U. Puerto Rico gov. #3 (1969-73) Luis Alberto Ferre (Ferré) Aguayo (d. 2003) on Feb. 17 in Ponce; educated at MIT. Italian Sephardic rabbi Riccardo Reuven Pacifici (d. 1943) on Feb. 18 in Florence. Soviet PM (1964-80) Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (d. 1980) on Feb. 20 in St. Petersburg; joins the Communist Party in Siberia in 1927. Austrian SS Gen. Franz Kutschera (d. 1944) on Feb. 22 in Oberwaltersdorf. Israeli activist (co-founder of the Etzel movement) (Jewish) Moshe Zvi Segal (d. 1985) on Feb. 23 in Poltava, Ukraine; emigrates to Israel in 1924. Am. Genovese crime family boss (1972-) Alphonse Frank "Funzi" "Old Man" Tieri (d. 1981) on Feb. 22 in Naples, Italy; emigrates to the U.S. in 1911". Am. "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" journalist-historian (Protestant) William Lawrence Shirer (d. 1993) on Feb. 23 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Coe College. Am. "Let's Cook It Right" natural food evangelist Daisie Adelle Davis (d. 1974) on Feb. 25 in Lizton, Ind.; educated at UCB. Am. Hawaiian entrepreneur ("the Chinese Rockefeller) Chinn Ho (d. 1987) on Feb. 26. Am. "Studs Lonigan" novelist James Thomas Farrell (Gael. "hero") (d. 1979) on Feb. 27 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. jazz bandleader-clarinetist-saxophonist James "Jimmy" Dorsey (d. 1957) on Feb. 29 in Shenandoah, Penn.; brother of Tommy Dorsey (1905-56). English "The Perplexed Heart" novelist Angela du Maurier (d. 2002) on Mar. 1 in St. Pancras, London; daughter of Sir Gerald du Maurier and Muriel Beaumont; granddaughter of George du Maurier (1834-96); sister of Daphne du Maurier (1907-89). Am. "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", "Moonlight Serenade", "Elmer's Tune", "Pennsylvania 6-5000" big bandleader-trombonist Alton Glenn Miller (d. 1944) on Mar. 1 in Clarinda, Iowa; grows up in Grant City, Mo., and Fort Morgan, Colo.; educated at the U. of Colo. (Sigma Nu). Am. "Princess and Trimline telephone", "Big Ben alarm clock" industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss (d. 1972) on Mar. 2 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; student of Norman Bel Geddes. Am. "The Cat in the Hat", "Green Eggs and Ham" writer-poet-cartoonist Theodor "Ted" Seuss ("Dr. Seuss") Geisel (d. 1991) (AKA Theophrastus Seuss, Theo LeSieg, Rosetta Stone) on Mar. 2 in Springfield, Mass.; raised near Mulberry St.; educated at Dartmouth College, and Lincoln College, Oxford U. Am. physicist George Gamow (d. 1968) on Mar. 4 in Russia. English "A Girl in a Million" actor Hugh Anthony Glanmore "Tam" Williams (d. 1969) on Mar. 6 in Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex. German Nazi leader ("the Blonde Beast") Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (d. 1942) on Mar. 7 in Halle an der Saale. English "The Later Roman Empire" historian Arnold Hugh Martin Jones (d. 1970) on Mar. 9. English "Rope", "Gas Light" playwright-novelist Anthony Walter Patrick Hamilton (d. 1962) on Mar. 17 in Hassocks (near Brighton), Sussex. Am. Skinner Box radical behaviorist psychologist (atheist) B.F. (Burrhus Frederic) Skinner (d. 1990) on Mar. 20 in Susquehanna, Penn.; educated at Hamilton College, and Harvard U. Am. candy mogul (1940 inventor of M&Ms and Mars bar) Forrest Edward Mars Sr. (d. 1999) on Mar. 21 in Tacoma, Wash.; son of Frank C. Mars (1883-1934). Am. "Mildred Pierce" actress Joan Crawford (Lucille Fay LeSueur) (d. 1977) on Mar. 23 in San Antonio, Tex.; mother of Christina Crawford (1939-); debuts under the name Lucille LeSueur as a dancer on the New York stage in 1924, then as an actress in the film "Sally, Irene, and Mary" in 1925; "Who are three people who've never been in my kitchen?" (Archibald Leach, Bernard Schwartz, and Lucille LeSueur). French Resistance leader Gustave Daniel Alfred (Bieler) Biéler (d. 1944) on Mar. 26 in Buerlay. Am. "The Golden Bough" comparative mytholgoist Joseph John Campbell (d. 1987) on Mar. 26 in White Plains, N.Y.; raised Roman Catholic; educated at Dartmouth College, and Columbia U.; student of Raymond Melbourne Weaver (1888-1948). Am. "The Paleface" actor Iron Eyes Cody (Espera Oscar de Corti) (d. 1999) on Apr. 3 in Kaplan, La.; Italian immigrant father, Sicilian mother; husband (1936-) of Bertha Parker (1907-78). Am. "Bolero" stripper-actress Sally Rand (Harriet Helen Gould Beck) (d. 1979) (AKA Billy Beck) on Apr. 3 in Hickory County, Mo. English "Digby Digger O'Dell in The Life of Riley" actor John H. Brown on Apr. 4 in Hull, Yorkshire; placed on the Hollywood Blacklist in 1952. Am. poet and U.S. poet laureate #13 (1959-61) Richard Ghormley Eberhart (d. 2005) on Apr. 5 in Austin, Minn.; educated at the U. of Minn., Dartmouth College, and Harvard U. German chancellor (1966-9) Kurt Georg Kiesinger (d. 1988) on Apr. 6 in Ebingen; starts out a Nazi. English economist Sir John Richard Hicks (d. 1989) on Apr. 8 in Warwick; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1964. Canadian Maj. Gen. Christopher Vokes (d. 1985) on Apr. 13 in Amagh, Northern Ireland; emigrates to Canada in 1910; brother of Lt.-Col. Frederick Vokes. English "Master of Trinity in Chariots of Fire" actor-singer-dir. (gay) (#1 Shakespearean actor of the 20th cent.?) Sir Arthur John Gielgud (d. 2000) on Apr. 14 in South Kensington, London; Roman Catholic Lithuanian-descent father, Protestant mother; knighted in 1953; partner of Martin Hensler (-1998); "A silver trumpet muffled in silk" (Sir Alec Guinness describing his voice). Am. abstract expressionist painter Arshile Gorky (Vostanik Manoug Adoyan or Adoyan) (d. 1948) on Apr. 15 in Khorkom (near Van), Armenia. Mexican "Gold Hat in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre", "Ramon Guiteras in The Big Country", "We don't need no stinkin' badges" actor Alfonso Bedoya (d. 1957) on Apr. 16 in Vicam, Sonora. U.S. Sen. (D-Alaska) (1959-68) Edward Lewis "Bob" Bartlett (d. 1968) on Apr. 20 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at the U. of Alaska. Am. "Jack Driscoll in King Kong" actor Bruce Cabot (Etienne Pelissier Jacques de Bujac) (d. 1972) on Apr. 20 in Carlsbad, N.M.; French father, Am. mother; loses the role of the Ringo Kid in "Stagecoach" (1939) to his friend John Wayne. Am. physicist ("Father of the Modern Digital Computer") George Robert Stibitz (d. 1995) on Apr. 20 in York, Penn.; educated at Cornell U. German SS officer Odilo Lotario Globocnik (d. 1945) on Apr. 21 in Trieste. Am. nuclear physicist ("Father of the Atomic Bomb") (Jewish) Julius Robert Oppenheimer (d. 1967) on Apr. 22 in New York City; educated at Harvard U., U. of Gottingen, and Caltech. - twisting by the pool? Am. "The Cisco Kid" actor-artist Duncan Renaldo (Renault Renaldo Duncan) (Vasile Dumitru V. Coyanos?) (Basil Couyanos?) (d. 1980)on Apr. 23 in Oancea, Romania; emigrates to the U.S. in the 1920s illegally, is arrested for it in 1934, and pardoned by Pres. FDR. Am. "Woman Series" abstract expressionist painter (alcoholic) Willem de Kooning (d. 1997) on Apr. 24 in Rotterdam; emigrates to the U.S. in 1926. British poet laureate (1968-72) Cecil Day-Lewis (d. 1972) (AKA Nicholas Blake) on Apr. 27 in Ballintubbert, County Laois, Ireland; moves to England at age 2; quits the Communist Party in 1939; father of Tamasin Day-Lewis (1953-) and Daniel Day-Lewis (1957-). Am. King Records founder (Jewish) Sydney "Syd" Nathan (d. 1968) on Apr. 27 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. psychic Dora Van Gelder Kunz (d. 1999) on Apr. 28 in Tjeweng (near Djombang), Dutch East Indies; emigrates to the U.S. in 1927. Am. bandleader-songwriter Russ Morgan (d. 1969) on Apr. 29 in Scranton, Penn.; of Welsh descent. Egyptian #1 singer-songwriter-actress (Muslim) ("the Star of the East") Umm Kulthum Ibrahim (d. 1975) on May 4 in Tamay ez-Zahayra (near El Senbellawein). English jockey Sir Gordon Richards (d. 1988) on May 5 in Donnington Wood, Shropshire; first jockey to be knighted (1954). Am. "Milburn Drysdale in The Beverly Hillbillies" actor Raymond Thomas Bailey (d. 1980) on May 6 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. comedian (Jewish) Harry Einstein (d. 1958) (AKA Harry Parke, Nick Parkyarkus) on May 6 in Boston, Mass.; Jewish immigrant parents; father of Charles Einstein (1926-2007), Bob Einstein (1942-2019), and Albert Brooks (1947-). Israeli Feldenkrais method physicist Moshe Pinchas Feldenkrais (d. 1984) on May 6 in Slavuta, Ukraine. English archeologist Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan (d. 1978) on May 6 in Wandsworth; educated at New College, Oxford U.; husband of Agatha Christie (1890-1976); knighted in 1968. Swedish novelist-poet-sailor Harry Edmund Martinson (d. 1978) on May 6 in Jamshog, Blekinge Province. Russian-Am. novelist-producer-screenwriter (Jew-turned-Christian) VWladimir Ivan "Val" Lewton (Vladimir Ivanovich Hofschndier) (d. 1951) (AKA Carlos Keith) on May 7 in Yalta; nephew of Alla Nazimova (1879-1945); emigrates to the U.S. in 1909; father of Val Lewton (1937-2015). English "Steps to an Ecology of Mind" anthropologist Gregory Bateson (d. 1980) on May 9 in Grantchester, Cambridgeshire; son of William Bateson (1861-1926); husband of Margaret Mead (1901-78); father of Mary Catherine Bateson (1939-); educated at Charterhouse School, and St. John's College, Cambridge U. English entrepreneur Sir David Brown (d. 1993) on May 10 in Huddersfield, Yorkshire. Spanish Surrealist "The Persistence of Memory" "paranoic critical process" artist Salvador Dali (Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dali i Domenech, 1st Marquis of Pubol) (d. 1989) on May 11 in Figueras, Catalonia, Spain; claims Moorish descent; husband (1934-) of Gala Dali (1894-1982); created marquis in 1982; lives in the U.S. from 1940-8; Andre Breton coins the term "avida dollars" for his eagerness to make dollars - if he's so crazy why didn't he marry his first cousin? Canadian "Now is Time" poet Earle Alfred Birney (d. 1995) on May 13 in Calgary, Alberta. English Ziegfeld Follies entertainer Betty (Violet Halling) Compton (d. 1944) on May 13 in Sandown, Isle of Wight; wife (1933-) of Jimmy Walker (1881-1946). Am. hydraulics engineer (U. Calif. Berkeley) (Jewish) Hans Albert Einstein (d. 1973) on May 14 in Switzerland; son of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and Mileva Einstein. Am. writer-ed. Clifton "Kip" Fadiman (d. 1999) on May 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U.; nephew of William James Sidis (1898-1944). French "Pepe le Moko" film actor Jean Gabin (Jean-Alexis Gabin (Moncorgé) (d. 1976) on May 17 in Paris; #1 French film actor of all time?; is greeted by Marlene Dietrich when he marches with the Free French into liberated Paris in 1944. U.S. Sen. (R-N.Y.) (1957-81) (Jewish) Jacob Koppel "Jack" Javits ' (d. 1986) on May 18 in New York City. English "Albert Campion" mystery novelist Margery Louise Allingham (d. 1966) on May 20 in Ealing, London. Am. "Danny in Night Must Fall", "Joe Pendleton in Here Comes Mr. Jordan" actor-dir. and Screen Actors Guild pres. (1935, 1946) Robert Montgomery (Henry Montgomery Jr.) (d. 1981) on May 21 in Fishkill Landing (Beacon), N.Y.; father is pres. of New York Rubber Co., who commits suicide in 1922 by jumping off the Brooklyn Bridge, leaving the family in poverty; father of Elizabeth Montgomery (1933-95) and Robert Montgomery Jr. (1936-2000). Am. "Honeysuckle Rose", "Ain't Misbehavin" Harlem stride jazz pianist-songwriter (black) Thomas Wright "Fats" Waller (d. 1943) on May 21 in New York City. Am. food writer-ed. Avis DeVoto (MacVicar) (d. 1989) on May 22 in Houghton, Mich.; educated at Northwestern U.; wife (1923-) of Bernard DeVoto (1897-1955). Am. stage actress-singer (Jewish) (bi) Elizabeth Lloyd "Libby" Holman (d. 1971) on May 23 in Cincinnati, Ohio.; friend of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) and Coretta Scott King (1927-2006); wife (1960-) of Louis Schanker (1903-81). English"Moanin' Low" singer-comedian (ukelele player) George "Hoy" Formby (Booth) Jr. (d. 1961) on May 26 in Wigan, Lancashire; son of George Formby Sr. (1875-1921). British zoologist (science advisor to PM Churchill et al.) (Jewish) Solly Zuckerman, Baron Zuckerman (d. 1993) on May 30 in Cape Town; created baron in 1971. Am. "The Story of Alexander Graham Bell" actor Dominic Felix "Don" Ameche (Amici) (d. 1993) on May 31 in Kenosha, Wisc.; Italian immigrant father, Irish-German descent mother. Am. "High Hat, Trumpet, and Rhythm" jazz musician (black) ("Little Louis" - Louis Armstrong) Valaida Snow (d. 1956) on June 2 in Chattanooga, Tenn.; wife of Ananias Berry, and Earl Edwards. Am. "Tarzan" actor-swimmer Peter John "Johnny" (Janos) (Johann Peter) Weissmuller (Weißmüller) (d. 1984) on June 2 in Bansag Austria-Hungary (Timisoara, Romania); a Banat Swabian; emigrates to the U.S. at age 7 mo.; grows up in Windber, Penn.; husband (1933-9) of Lupe Velez (1908-44). Am. physician (black) (inventor of Scotch Tape and the Blood Bank) Charles Richard Drew (d. 1950) on June 3 in Washington, D.C. Am. tenor Jan Peerce (Jacob Pincus Perelmuth) (d. 1984) on June 3 in New York City; educated at Columbia U.; father of Larry Peerce (1930-). Am. "Pine Top's Boogie Woogie" blues pianist (black) Clarence "Pinetop" "Pine Top" Smith (d. 1929) on June 11 in Troy, Ala. Am. football hall-of-fame halfback ("the Galloping Ghost") (greatest college football player of all time) (Chicago Bears, 1925, 1929-34) Harold Edward "Red" Grange (d. 1991) on June 13 in Forksville, Penn.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. Life mag. photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White (d. 1971) on June 14 in Bronx, N.Y.; Jewish father, Anglo-Irish mother; educated at Cornell U. Am. "His Girl Friday", "Dan Leeson in The Awful Truth", "Bruce Baldwin in His Girl Friday", "James Morse in Pretty Woman" actor Ralph Rexford Bellamy (d. 1991) on June 17 in Chicago, Ill. Am. automobile designer Gordon Miller buehrig (d. 1990) on June 18 in Mason City, Ill. Chinese "Master Po in Kung Fu" actor Keye Luke (d. 1991) on June 18 in Guangzhou; relative of Wing Luke (1925-65); grows up in Seattle, Wash. Am. "You'll Never Know", "At Last", "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", "I've Got a Gal in Kalamazoo" composer-lyricist (Jewish) Mack Gordon (Morris Gittler) (d. 1959) on June 21 in Warsaw, Poland. Am. "The Origin of Races" physical anthropologist Carleton Stevens Coon (d. 1981) on June 23 in Wakefield, Mass.; of Cornish descent; educated at Phillips Academy, and Harvard U. Am. "Baloo in The Jungle Book" bandleader-singer-songwriter-actor Wonga Phillip "Phil" Harris (d. 1995) on June 24 in Linton, Ind.; Irish descent mother; husband (1941-95) of Alice Faye (1915-98). Austrian-Hungarian "The Maltese Falcon", "Casablanca", "The Raven" 5'5" actor (Jewish) Peter Lorre (Laszlo Loewenstein) (d. 1964) on June 26 in Rosenberg, Czech.; emigrates to England in 1933. French "Four Muskeeters" tennis hall-of-fame player ("the Crocodile") Jean Rene Lacoste (d. 1996) on July 2 in Paris; husband of Simone Thion de la Chaume, first French woman to win the British Open in golf. English "Anthony Blanche in Brideshead Revisited" athlete-scholar (gay) Sir Harold Mario Mitchell Acton (d. 1994) on July 5. near Florence, Italy; son of Arthur Acton (1873-1953) and Hortense Mitchell (1871-1962); educated at Christ Church College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1974. Am. "Systematics and the Origin of Species" evolutionary biologist-ornithologist Ernst Walter Mayr (d. 2004) on July 5 in Kempten, Germany; spots a rare red-billed duck as a teenie, launching his career; defines species as a group that can only breed among themselves, and argues for the existence of human races. French "Mastering the Art of French Cooking" cooking teacher Simone "Simca" Beck (d. 1991) on July 7 in Normandy. Chilean "White Hills" poet Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo del Carman Reyes Basoalto) (d. 1973) on July 12 in Parral. Am. Abe Lincoln's last descendant Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith (d. 1985) on July 19 in Riverside, Ill.; brother of Peggy Beckwith (1898-1975). Am. auto racer Louis Meyer (d. 1995) on July 21 in Manhattan, N.Y; French immigrant parents; grows up in Los Angeles, Calif. Canadian "The Organization of Behavior" psychologist ("Father of Neuropsychology and Neural Networks") Donald Olding Hebb (d. 1985) on July 22 in Chester, N.S.; educated at Dalhouse U., and the U. of Chicago; student of Karl Lashley. Am. writer-composer and record co. exec Jay Richard Kennedy (d. 1991) on July 23 in Chicago, Ill. Am. psychologist Ernest Ropiequet "Jack" Hilgard (d. 2001) on July 25 in Bellevue, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and Yale U. Am. "The Wop in It's A Great Life", "Jimmy Bean in Pollyanna" actor Howard Ralston (d. 1992) on July 25 in Bar Harbor, Maine; brother of Esther Ralston (1902-94); father of Bob Ralston (1938-). Am. "Spencer's Mountain", "Broken Arrow", "3:10 to Yuma" dir.-writer-producer Delmer Daves (d. 1977) on July 27 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Stanford U. English ballet dancer-choreographer (gay) Sir Anton Dolin (Sydney Francis Patrick Healey-Kay) (d. 1983) on July 27 in Slinfold, Sussex; knighted in 1981; lover of John Gilpin (1930-83). Polish market socialist economist Oskar Ryszard Lange (d. 1965) on July 27 in Tomaszow. Am. mob boss (Jewish) Abner "Longie" Zwillman (d. 1959) on July 27 in Newark, N.J. Soviet Cerenkov Radiation physicist Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (Cerenkov) (d. 1990) on July 28 in Voronezh. British Conservative politician John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd (d. 1978) on July 28; educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge U.; created baron in 1976. Am. sci-fi writer Clifford Donald Simak (d. 1988) on Aug. 3 in Millville, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc. Polish "Ferdydurke", "Kosmos" novelist-dramatist Witold Marian Gombrowicz (d. 1969) on Aug. 4 in Maloszyce (near Kielce). Am. "Wings" actor Charles "Buddy" Rogers (d. 1999) on Aug. 13 in Olathe, Kan. Am. biochemist-virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley (d. 1971) on Aug. 16 in Ridgeville, Ind.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. "One O'Clock Jump" jazz musician-bandleader (black) William James "Count" Basie (d. 1984) on Aug. 21 in Red Bank, N.J. Chinese Communist 4'10" PM (1978-92) Deng Xiaoping (d. 1997) on Aug. 22 in Paifang, Xiexing, Guang'an County, Sichuan (Szechwan) Province; educated in France. Scottish viola player William Primrose (d. 1982) on Aug. 23 in Glasgow. Am. actor Harry "Jingles" Keaton (d. 1983) on Aug. 24 in New York City; brother of Buster Keaton (1895-1966). English-Am. "Goodbye to Berlin", "Bhagavad Gita, The Song of God" novelist-playwright (gay) Christopher William Bradshaw Isherwood (d. 1986) on Aug. 26 near Dilsey and High Lane, Cheshire; educated at Repton School, and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge U.; W.H. Auden's lit. mentor; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. German cardiac catheterization physician Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann (d. 1979) on Aug. 29 in Berlin; educated at the U. of Berlin. Am. "Ride 'Em Cowboy" cowboy actor and college football player ("the Dothan Antelope") John "Johnny" Mack Brown (d. 1974) on Sept. 1 in Dothan, Ala.; educated at the U. of Ala. Guatemalan pres. (1945-51) Juan Jose Arevalo (José Arévalo) Bermejo (d. 1990) on Sept. 10 in Taxisco. English "The Falcon" actor Tom Conway (Thomas Charles Sanders) (d. 1967) on Sept. 15 in St. Petersburg, Russia; brother of George Sanders (1906-72). Am. "Who's Yehudi?", "Greetings, Gates" handlebar-mustachioed comedian-singer-songwriter Gerardo Luigi "Jerry" Colonna (d. 1986) on Sept. 17 in Boston, Mass. British dancer-choreographer Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton (d. 1988) on Sept. 17 in Guayaquil, Ecuador; is turned on at age 13 by a performance of Anna Pavlova in Lima, Peru; knighted in 1962. Am. "Dictionary of Quotations" scholar and "The $64,000 Question" TV host Bergen Baldwin Evans (d. 1978) on Sept. 19. Am. art historian-critic (Jewish) (Marxist) Meyer Schapiro (d. 1996) on Sept. 23 in Siauliai (Shavel) in Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1907; educated at Columbia U. Canadian painter William Goodridge Roberts (d. 1974) on Sept. 24 in Barbados, West Indies. British physicist (Jewish) Otto Robert Frisch (d. 1979) on Oct. 1 in Vienna, Austria; nephew of Austrian physicist Lise Meitner (1878-1968); co-designer with Rudolf Peierls (1907-95) of the first A-bomb detonator in 1940; emigrates to Britain in 1933. English "Brighton Rock", "The Power and the Glory", "The Heart of the Matter", "The End of the Affair", "Our Man in Havana", "The Quiet American" #1 novelist (Roman Catholic) Henry Graham Greene (d. 1991) on Oct. 2 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire; parents are 1st cousins; mother is cousin of Robert Louis Stevenson; brother of Raymond Greene (1901-82) and Hugh Greene (1910-87); educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; joins the Communist Pary of Britain n 1922; converts to Roman Catholicism in 1926; joins MI6 in Aug. 1941 for life, using a traveling novelist as a perfect cover? Am. organic chemist Charles John Pedersen (d. 1989) on Oct. 3 in Busan, Korea; Norwegian father, Japanese mother; educated at MIT. Am. jazz clarinetist Jimmy Lytell (James Sarrapede) (d. 1972) (The Original Memphis Five) on Dec. 1. Am. Ritz Brothers comedian Jimmy Ritz (Joachim) (d. 1985) on Oct. 5; Austrian immigrant father; brother of Al Ritz (1901-65) and Harry Ritz (1907-86). Chinese "Miss Sophia's Diary"writer Ding (Ting) Ling (d. 1986) on Oct. 12 in Linli, Hunan. Canadian Socialist politician Thomas Clement "Tommy" Douglas (d. 1986) on Oct. 20 in Falkirk, Scotland; emigrates to Canada in 1910; father of Shirley Douglas (1934); grandfather of Kiefer Sutherland (1966-). Am. "No, No, Nanette", "Nell Gwynn", "The Lady with the Lamp" actress-singer Dame Anna Neagle (Florence Marjorie Robertson) (d. 1986) on Oct. 20 in Forest Gate, London; wife (1943-) of Herbert Wilcox (1892-1977); created dame in 1969. Am. "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm", "Winner Take All" actress Marian Nixon (Nissinen) (d. 1983) on Oct. 20 in Superior, Wisc.; wife (1934-64) of Wiliam A. Seiter (1890-1964) and (1974-9) Ben Lyon (1901-79). Irish poet Patrick Kavanagh (d. 1967) on Oct. 21 in Inniskeen, County Monaghan. Am. "Marian Kerby in Topper" actress Constance Campbell Bennett (d. 1965) on Oct. 22 in New York City; daughter of Richard Bennett (1870-1944) and Adrienne Morrison (1883-1940)); sister of Barbara Bennett (1906-58) and Joan Bennett (1910-90); wife (1941-6) of Gilbert Roland (1905-94). Am. "You Can't Take It With You", "Gentleman's Agreement" playwright-dir. (Jewish) Moss Hart (d. 1961) on Oct. 24 in New York City; collaborator of George S. Kafuman (1889-1961). Am. top Disney animator Vladimir Peter "Bill" Tytla (d. 1968) on Oct. 25 in Yonkers, N.Y.; Ukrainian immigrant parents. English-Am. "The Strange Death of Liberal England", "The Era of Good Feelings" journalist-historian George Bubb Dangerfield (d. 1986) on Oct. 28 in Newbury, Berkshire; educated at Hertford College, Oxford U.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1930. English Hollywood makeup artist Percival Harry "Perc" Westmore (d. 1970) (pr. like purse) on Oct. 29 in Canterbury. Am. "Three Men on a Horse" playwright-actor-dir. John Cecil Holm (d. 1981) on Nov. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn. Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood supreme leader #3 (1972-86) (Sunni Muslim) Umar al-Tilmisani (d. 1986) on Nov. 4 in Cairo. Am. "Ingrid Bergman's mother in Joan of Arc" actress Selena Royle (d. 1983) on Nov. 6 in New York City; daughter of Edwin Milton Royle (1862-1942) and Selena Fetter (1860-1955); sister of Josephine Fetter Royle (1901-92). German SS Col. Viktor Hermann Brack (d. 1948) on Nov. 9 in Haaren. Am. diplomat and hissing target Alger (OE "spear from the elves") Hiss (d. 1996) on Nov. 11 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Out of the Past" dir. Jacques Tourneur (d. 1977) on Nov. 12 in Paris; son of Maurice Tourneur (1873-1961); emigrates to the U.S. in 1914. German jurist Count Peter Yorck von Wartenburg (d. 1944) on Nov. 13 in Klein-Ols (near Ohlau), Silesia. Nigerian pres. #1 (1963-6) black Chief Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (d. 1996) on Nov. 16 in Zungeru. Am. "Philip Marlowe" actor-singer-producer-dir. Richard Ewing "Dick" Powell (d. 1963) on Nov. 14 in Mountain View, Ark. Am. judge (black) William Henry Hastie Jr. (d. 1976) on Nov. 17 in Knoxville, Tenn.; first African-Am. federal judge, federal appellate judge, and U.S. gov. of the U.S. Virgin Islands; educated at Amherst College, and Havard U.; teacher of Thurgood Marshall. Am. sculptor Isamu Noguchi (Sam Gilmour) (d. 1988) on Nov. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; illegitimate son of Japanese poet Yone Noguchi and Irish-Am. teacher Leonie Gilmour; in 1907 mother and son join daddy in Japan, but he splits and marries a Japanese woman; apprentices with Gutzon Borglum, works with Diego Rivera, and designs sets for Martha Graham. Am. murderer-ornithologist (Jewish) (gay) Nathan Freudenthal Leopold Jr. (d. 1971) on Nov. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; collaborator of Richard Albert Loeb (1905-36). Am. jazz tenor saxophonist (black) Coleman Randolph "Hawk" "Bean" Hawkins (d. 1969) on Nov. 21 in St. Joseph, Mo. British psychical researcher Theodore Deodatus Nathaniel Besterman (d. 1976) on Nov. 22 in Lodz, Poland. Mexican artist-ethnologist Jose Miguel Covarrubias (d. 1957) on Nov. 22 in Mexico City. Am. jazz pianist (black) Horace W. Henderson (d. 1988) on Nov. 22 in Cuthberg, Ga.; brother of Fletcher Henderson (1897-1952). French physicist Louis Eugene Felix Neel (d. 2000) on Nov. 22 in Lyon. Italian "The Song of the Mountains" conductor-composer-alpinist Antonio "Toni" Ortelli (d. 2000) on Nov. 25 in Schio, Piedmont. Am. abstract expressionist painter Clyfford Still (d. 1980) on Nov. 30 in Grandin, N.D. Am. drama critic Louis Kronenberger (d. 1980) on Dec. 9; educated at the U. of Cincinnati. English "That's a Good Girl" entertainer Elsie Randolph (d. 1982) on Dec. 9 in London; acting partner of Jack Buchanan (1891-1957). Czech pres. (1957-68) (Communist) Antonin Novotny (d. 1975) on Dec. 10 in Letnany (Prague). French banker (Jewish) (gay) Nicholas "Niki" Louis Alexandre, Baron de Gunzburg (d. 1981) on Dec. 12 in Paris; Russian Jewish descent father, Brazilian mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934. French artist Lucien Coutaud (d. 1977) on Dec. 13 in Meynes, Gard. German art historian William Sebastian Martin Hugo Heckscher (d. 1999) on Dec. 14 in Hamburg; student of Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968). Am. "Death of a Salesman","The Diary of Anne Frank", "Look Homeward, Angel", "The Music Man", "Equus" theatrical producer Kermit Bloomgarden (d. 1976) on Dec. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at NYU.; known for producing plays by Lillian Hellman. Canadian "A Study of Human Understanding" Jesuit priest-philosopher-theologian Bernard Joseph Francis Lonergan (d. 1984) on Dec. 17 in Buckingham, Quebec; educated at Loyola College. Am. "A Place in the Sun", "Shane", "Giant" film dir. George Stevens (d. 1975) on Dec. 18 in Oakland, Calif. Am. wacky-wonderful billionaire aerospace and movie mogul (OCD sufferer) Howard Robard Hughes Jr. (d. 1976) on Dec. 24 (Sept. 24?) in Humble (Houston), Tex. Canadian physical chemist Gerhard Herzberg (d. 1999) on Dec. 25 in Germany; emigrates to Canada in 1935. Am. contralto Gladys Swarthout (d. 1969) on Dec. 25 in Deepwater, Mo. Cuban "The Kingdom of This World" "Reasons of State" magical realist novelist-writer Alejo Carpentier y Valmont (d. 1980) on Dec. 26 in Laussane, Switzerland; grows up in Havana; French father, Russian mother. Am. violinist Nathan Mironovich Milstein (d. 1992) on Dec. 31 in Odessa, Ukraine; becomes U.S. citizen in 1942. Am. auto racer William "Shorty" Cantlon (d. 1947) in Paris, Ill. Am. diplomat (black) Ralph Johnson Bunche (d. 1971) in Detroit, Mich.; grandson of a slave; raised in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at UCLA, and Harvard U. English "Love in a Cold Climate" novelist Nancy Mitford (d. 1973). French immunologist (Jewish) (antihistamine developer) Bernard Halpern (d. 1978) in Tarnoruda, Ukraine; deported with his family to Siberia in 1905; emigrates to France in 1926. Am. Grumman Aircraft founder William T. Schwendler (d. 1978); educated at NYU. Am. Time mag. artist Boris Chaliapin (d. 1979) in Russia; son of Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938); brother of Feodor Chaliapin Jr. (1905-92). English "Big Bad Mouse" playwright Philip "Phil" King (d. 1979) in Yorkshire. English labor leader George Woodcock (d. 1979) in Bamber Bridge, Lancashire; not to be confused with Canadian writer George Woodcock (1912-95). Am. (Colo.) painter Vance Kirkland (d. 1981). Am. Hollywood gossip columnist Sheilah Graham (d. 1988). Am. poet-writer Charles Norman (Bloom) (d. 1996) in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1910; educated at NYU. Am. religious historian Sidney E. Mead (d. 1999). Deaths: Scottish writer Samuel Smiles (b. 1812) on Apr. 16 in Kensington. German Sanskrit scholar Otto von Bohtlingk (b. 1815) on Apr. 1. Am. "Dixie" composer Daniel Decatur Emmett (b. 1815) on June 28 in Mount Vernon, Ohio. Am. physician Nathan Smith Davis (b. 1817) on June 16. English artist George Frederic Watts (b. 1817) on July 1. Am. financier James Boorman Colgate (b. 1818) on Feb. 7; namesake of Colgate, N.D. and Colgate U.; largest landowner in the U.S. (5K acres). German anti-Semitic activist Wilhelm Marr (b. 1819) on July 17; dies after recanting his anti-Semitism and apologizing to the Jews. English impresario Charles Morton (b. 1819) on Oct. 18 in London. Italian-born French princess Mathilde Bonaparte (b. 1820) on Jan. 2 in Paris. Am. Northern Cheyenne chief Little Wolf (b. 1820) in Mont. German-born Am. banker Marcus Goldman (b. 1821) on July 20 in New York City. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. James Longstreet (b. 1821) on Jan. 2 in Gainesville, Ga. English painter Frederick Goodall (b. 1822) on July 29. French artist Jean-Leon Gerome (b. 1824) on Jan. 10 in Paris. Hungarian novelist-statesman Maurus (Mor) Jokai (b. 1825) on May 5 in Budapest. South African pres.-gen. Paul Kruger (b. 1825) on July 14. English painter Frederick Sandys (b. 1829) on June 25 in Kensington, London. Am. entrepreneur George Francis Train (b. 1829) on Jan. 5 in New York City: "Strange times are these, in which we live, forsooth;/ When young and old are taught in Falsehood's school:–/ And the man who dares to tell the truth,/ Is called at once a lunatic and fool." English-born Am. "Horse in Motion" photographer Eadweard Muybridge (b. 1830). Am. politician-orator George Graham Vest (b. 1830) on Aug. 9 in Sweet Springs, Mo.; last living Confed. state senator: "In all revolutions the vanquished are the ones who are guilty of treason, even by the historians, for history is written by the victors and framed according to the prejudices and bias existing on their side." German-born Am. brewer Henry Weinhard (b. 1830) on Sept. 20 in Portland, Ore. English "The Light of Asia" poet Sir Edwin Arnold (b. 1832) on Mar. 24. English educator Thomas Fowler (b. 1832) on Nov. 20. Am. Civil War Confed. Brig. Gen. John Brown Gordon (b. 1832). English philosopher-critic Sir Leslie Stephen (b. 1832). French Statue of Liberty sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (b. 1834) on Oct. 4. French Protestant missionary Francois Coillard (b. 1834) on May 27 in Lealui, Barotseland, Northern Rhodesia (haematuric fever). Am. businessman Levi Zeigler Leiter (b. 1834) on July 8 in Washington, D.C. French painter Ignace Fantin-Latour (b. 1836) on Aug. 25 in Bure, Orne (lyme disease). German portrait painter Franz von Lenbach (b. 1836) on May 6. German-born Am. Pabst Brewing Co. founder Frederick Pabst (b. 1836) on Jan. 1 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. Repub. president-maker Alonzo Mark Hanna (b. 1837) on Feb. 15 in Washington, D.C. Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov (b. 1838) on Feb. 11 in St. Petersburg. English painter Valentine Cameron Prinsep (b. 1838) on Nov. 4 in London. Am. celeb (friend of Wild Bill Hickock) Colorado Charlie Utter (b. 1838); dies of yellow fever while working as a laborer on the Panama Canal?; seen in 1910? German chemist Clemens Alexander Winkler (b. 1838) on Oct. 8 in Dresden. Czech composer Antonin Dvorak (b. 1841) on May 1 in Prague; his funeral is a nat. day of mourning in Bohemia. German historian Hermann Eduard von Holst (b. 1841) on Jan. 20 in Freiburg. Scottish archeologist Alexander Stuart Murray (b. 1841) in Mar. British drama critic Clement Scott (b. 1841). British explorer-journalist Sir Henry Morton Stanley (b. 1841) on May 10 in London; namesake of Mount Stanley, Stanley Falls, Stanley Pool, and Stanleyville. U.S. Navy secy. (1885-9) Williams Collins Whitney (b. 1841) on Feb. 2. Am. Bloomingdale's co-founder Joseph Bernard Bloomingdale (b. 1842) on Nov. 21. French psychologist Gabriel Tarde (b. 1843) on May 13 in Paris. Am. Lakota Sioux chief Kicking Bear (b. 1846). Am.-born English writer Julian Sturgis (b. 1848) on Apr. 13 in Knightsbridge, London. Am. novelist Kate Chopin (b. 1850) on Aug. 22. Greek-born Irish writer Lafcadio Hearn (b. 1850) on Sept. 26 in Tokyo, Japan. Russian gen. Count Feodor Keller (b. 1850) on July 31. English historian Frederick York Powell (b. 1850) on May 8 in Oxford. Swiss physicist-chemist Charles Soret (b. 1854) on Apr. 4 in Geneva (gastrointestinal illness). Am. celeb Edward Capehart O'Kelley (b. 1857) on Jan. 13 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; killed trying to kill policeman Joseph Grant "Joe" Burnett (1867-1917). French Tourette Syndrome physician Georges de la Tourette (b. 1857) on May 26 in Lausanne. Russian playwright Anton Chekhov (b. 1860) on July 15 (July 2 Old Style) in Badenweiler, Germany; last words: "It's been a long time since I've had champagne"; his body is transported to Moscow in a refrigerated oyster railway car; his funeral is confused by thousands with another for Gen. Keller. Danish phototherapy physician Niels Ryberg Finsen (b. 1860) on Sept. 25 in Copenhagen; 1903 Nobel Med. Prize. Austrian Jewish writer and Zionism founder (with a bee beard?) Theodor Herzl (b. 1860) on July 3 - the good die young? English poet Laurence Hope (b. 1865) on Oct. 4 in Madras, India (suicide). Am. celeb "Baby" Ruth Cleveland (b. 1891) on Jan. 7 in Princeton, N.J. (diphtheria).

1905 - The 5-4-3-2-Ein Einstein Miracle Year Berns His Name Into History, not that anybody notices at the time? The Bloody Sunday Battleship Potemkin Year in Russia? The France and Germany Diplomatic War over Morocco Year? The Nickelodeon Upton Sinclair Jungle Year in the U.S.?

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman of Britain (1836-1908) Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane of Britain (1856-1928) Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth of Britain (1849-1909) Sir Edward Grey of Britain (1862-1935) Russian Gen. Baron Anatoly Stessel (1848-1915) Japanese Gen. Count Nogi Maresuke (1849-1912) Father Georgi Gapon (1870-1906) Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925) Konstantin Pobedonostsev of Russia (1827-1907) Pavel Milyukov of Russia (1859-1943) Dmitri Merezhkovsky (1865-1941) Aristide Briand of France (1862-1932) Jutaro Komura of Japan (1855-1911) Oscar II of Sweden (1829-1907) Haakon VII of Norway (1872-1957) Queen Maud of Norway (1869-1938) Théophile Delcassé of France (1852-1923) Friedrich von Holstein of Germany (1837-1909) Maurice Rouvier of France (1842-1911) Eugene Schmitz of the U.S. (1864-1928) Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) Charles Warren Fairbanks of the U.S. (1852-1918) Charles Joseph Bonaparte of the U.S. (1851-1921) Gifford Pinchot of the U.S. (1865-1946) Dr. Sun Yat-Sen of China (1866-1925) Drastamat Kanayan of Armenia (1884-1956) Charles William Eliot (1834-1926) Erich Heckel (1883-1970) Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Albert Verwey (1865-1937) William 'Big Bill' Haywood (1869-1928) Jacob Henry Schiff (1847-1920) Alonzo Herndon (1858-1927) Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1930) Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935) Ty Cobb (1886-1961) Elisabeth Holmes Moore (1876-1959) Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917) Robert Koch (1843-1910) Harvey Firestone (1868-1938) Sir Herbert Austin (1866-1941) Austin Logo George Santayana (1863-1952) Konstantin Stanislavski (1863-1938) Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) Robert von Lieben (1878-1913) Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860-1930) Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe (1872-1931) Gyrocompass, 1905 Franz Lehar (1870-1948) Richard Strauss (1864-1949) Alfred Einhorn (1857-1917) Heinrich Braun (1862-1934) Alfred Binet (1857-1911) Theodore Simon (1873-1961) Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957) James Henry Breasted (1865-1935) Fritz Schaudinn (1871-1906) Erich Hoffmann (1868-1959) Reginald Punnett (1875-1967) Eleanor Robson Belmont (1879-1979) Aldo Castellani (1877-) Abraham Gilbert Mills (1844-1929) Maurice Bloomfield (1855-1928) E.M. Forster (1879-1979) Marvin Hart (1876-1931) Albert Horsley (1866-1954) Augustus D. Juilliard (1836-1919) Annie Rix Militz (1856-1924) Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931) Jean Lafray (1873-1906) Jack Root (1876-1963) Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941) Frances Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924) Hereward Carrington (1880-1958) Charles Jasper Glidden (1857-1927) Francis John Haverfield (1860-1919) William John Locke (1863-1930) Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Mary Lemist Titcomb (1857-1932) Baron Jacques d'Adelsward-Fersen (1880-1923) Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) Richard Hellman Thomas Dixon Jr. (1864-1946) George Washington Plunkitt (1842-1924) Joseph Szigeti (1892-1973) Harry von Tilzer (1872-1946) Edith Wharton (1862-1937) Thomas Aloysius Dorgan (1877-1929) Thomas Aloysius Dorgan Example Harry Mosley Stevens (1855-1934) Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (1880-1960) Elsie de Wolfe (1865-1950) Tanya the Filly, 1905 Rubberband Duckpin Bowling, 1905 British Royal Scepter, 1905 Sime Silverman (1873-1933) Arthur V. Johnson (1876-1916) R.C. Hoiles (1878-1970) Orange County Register, 1905 Max Linder (1883-1925) 'Man and Superman', 1905 'The Spring Chicken', 1905 'The Squaw Man', 1905 Askariya Shrine, 1905 'Hester Street' by George Luks, 1905 'Acrobat and Young Harlequin' by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1905 'Acrobat with Ball' by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), 1905 'Girl with a Doll' by Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), 1905 'The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope' by Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), 1905 Maurice Costello (1877-1950) Florence Turner (1885-1946) Mae Costello (1882-1929) Helene Costello (1906-57) Dolores Costello (1903-79) Winsor McCay (1867-1934) Little Nemo in Slumberland, 1905-14 'The Kleptomaniac', 1905 'The Seven Ages', 1905 'The White Caps', 1905 Walter Griffith's vacuum cleaner, 1905 Invincible Electric Renovator, 1907 Ira Hobart Spencer (1873-1928) Spencer Sugar Scoop Blower 'The Wrestlers' by George Luks (1867-1933), 1905) 'The Green Stripe' by Henri Matisse (1869-1954), 1905 'Woman with a Hat' by Henri Matisse (1869-1954), 1905 'Le Bonheur de Vivre' by Henri Matisse (1869-1954), 1905-6 Nickelodeon, 1905 Nickelodeon, 1905 Novello Theatre, 1905 'John Paul Harris of the U.S. (1871-1926) Arena Cup, 1906 Hellmann's Mayonnaise, 1905 Best Foods Mayonnaise, 1932

1905 Chinese Year: Snake. The Czarist regime in Russia starts to topple when the Japanese kick their butts and it kicks its own citizens' butts? On Jan. 2 (9:00 p.m.) a letter from Russian Gen. Baron Anatoly Mikhaylovich Stessel (Stoessel) (1848-1915) formally surrendering Port Arthur (sieged since Aug. 1, 1904) by Japanese Gen. Count Nogi Maresuke (Kiten, Count Nogi) (1849-1912), and on Jan. 22 (Jan. 9 Old Style) (Sun.) a rev. breaks out in Russia for the first time in St. Petersburg, becoming known as Bloody (Red) Sunday after thousands of peaceful demonstrating Russian workers led by Russian Orthodox priest Father Georgi Apollonovich Gapon (1870-1906) are fired on by imperial army troops as they approach the Winter Palace, killing 70 and wounding 240, starting a bloody spiral that can only end with the tsar's head on a platter?; on Mar. 3 the tsar announces a consultative assembly, an edict of religious toleration, permission to use the Polish language in Polish schools, relief for Jews, and part-cancellation of redemption payments; this doesn't stop his pigs from arresting Polish writer Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), who ends up in exile in France and Austrian Galicia until 1918. On Jan. 17 French PM (since June 7, 1902) Emile Combes resigns after he and the Radical Party of France, citing the Roman Catholic Church's role in framing Christ-killer, er, good Jewish Frenchman Alfred Dreyfus push Church-State Separation Laws, written by Aristide Briand (1862-1932), which are soon passed, recognizing Islam as a religion, tolerating Muslims for the first time; by the end of the cent. Islam becomes the #2 religion in France in number of worshippers - Clovis I and Charles Martel roll over in their graves? On Jan. 19 the 3,106 carat (1-1/3 lb.) Cullinan Diamond is discovered in the Premier Mine in South Africa 20 mi. E of Pretoria (discovered by Sir Thomas Cullinan and opened in 1903), embedded in the wall of the 30-ft.-deep mine pit, and cut out by the mgr. with a penknife, becoming the largest known diamond (until ?); it is brought back to England this year, changes hands several times, is given to King Edward VII on his 66th birthdayat the orders of PM (since May 31, 1910) Louis Botha, and cut into nine large and 96 small gems weighing 1,063 carats total, incl. the 530.2 carat Great Star of Africa (Cullinan I), the largest cut diamond in the world, placed into the British Royal Scepter (made in 1661), which is worn by the monarch during the coronation on the right hand. On Jan. 27 the 1905 U.S. Senate election reelects Ind. Rep. Sen. (since 1899) Albert Jeremiah Beveridge (1862-1927), who turns reformer, backing overseas imperialism, nat. child labor regulation, and the 1906 U.S. Federal Meat Inspection Act, breaking ranks with Pres. Taft over the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; after losing his seat in the 1910 election, he joins the short-lived Progressive "Bull Moose" Party of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912, ruining his career; despite a reform candidate running against him, his popularity with the working man causes corrupt San Francisco, Calif. mayor #26 (since Jan. 8, 1902) Eugene Edward "Handsome Gene" Schmitz (1864-1928), puppet of city boss Abraham "Abe" Ruef (1864-1936) to be reelected (until July 8, 1907), just in time for a big earthquake, which destroys Ruef's real estate empire and leaves them both open to prosecution. On Jan. 30 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Swift & Co. v. U.S. that the Commerce Clause allows the govt. to regulate monopolies if it has a direct effect on commerce, helping Pres. Theodore Roosevelt destroy the Beef Trust, establishing the Stream of Commerce theory, which is superseded by Nat. Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel (1937). On Feb. 18 Belgian Capt. Albert Paulis (1875-1933) and 20 men are captured by the Mangbettu, a 4K sq. mi. nation of cannibals next to the Belgian Congo; instead of being eaten, he hornswaggles Sultan Yembio to release them and give control of his domain to the king of Belgium by pretending to make the Moon disappear (he had learned of an 8:00 p.m. lunar eclipse from his almanac). On Feb. 20 the Japanese, led by Field Marshal Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) begin advancing toward the regional capital of Mukden (Shenyang), defeating the Russians on Mar. 10 in the Battle of Mukden (Shenyang) (first modern battle in history, with 400K Japanese against 350K Russians, and 200K+ casualties); on May 27-29 the Russian Baltic Fleet is destroyed by the Japanese fleet under "Father of the Japanese Imperial Navy" Adm. Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) in the Battle of Tsushima Straits, discrediting the tsar's govt. On Feb. 23 the first Rotary Club service org. is founded in Chicago by Paul P. Harris et al. In Feb. the Armenian-Tatar Massacres begin in Baku when a Tatar (Azeri) schoolboy and shopkeeper are murdered by Armenians, triggering four days of fighting that kills 126 Tatars and 218 Armenians, causing the Armenians to blame the Russians; on May 11 Russian gov.-gen. (since 1904) Mikhail Nakashidze is assassinated by Dashnak( ARF) revolutionary Drastamat "Dro" Kanayan (1884-1956), and the Armenian Rev. Federation (ARF) begins regular massacres of Azerbaijanis, whipping-up and consolidating the Muslims of the Caucasus; by 1907 128 Armenian and 158 Azerbaijani villages are pillaged or destroyed, with 3K-10K killed, mostly Azerbaijanis. On Mar. 4 U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt is inaugurated for a 2nd term (until Mar, 4, 1909) in the 30th U.S. Pres. Inauguration; this time he is sworn-in on the Bible; Ohio-born Charles Warren Fairbanks (1852-1918) becomes the 26th U.S. vice-pres.; after his inauguration slim-for-life-not Teddy goes to Glenwood Springs, Colo., setting up a temporary White House in the Hotel Colorado (built 1893), and begins hunting bears, bagging 10 along with three lynxes, posing on the hotel lawn with a big one to the amusement of his daughter Alice, who suggests the name Teddy Bear; some maids later claim they helped him coin the name; some claim it comes from a cartoon by Clifford Berryman in The Washington Post of Nov. 16, 1902, about his bear hunting trip in Miss.; on July 1 he appoints Charles Joseph Bonaparte (1851-1921) (grand-nephew of Napoleon) as U.S. navy secy. (until 1906), then U.S. atty.-gen. on Dec. 16 of next year (until 1909), who goes on to found the Federal Bureau of Inquisition (precursor of the FBI) in 1908, and the Am. Protective League - secret Jesuit-run agencies to spy on U.S. anti-Catholics for the Vatican, who backed Napoleon Bonaparte? In Feb. the Socialist weekly Appeal to Reason begins pub. a serial novel by Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) of Baltimore, Md. titled The Jungle, which was commissioned after the failed 1904 Chicago stockyard strike, and written after a 7-week visit. On Mar. 17 Harvard grad. Franklin D. Roosevelt (b. 1882) marries Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) (the brains of the two?); they have 5 sons and 1 daughter. On Mar. 31 the First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (ends May 1906) begins after French foreign minister (since 1898) Theophile Delcasse (Théophile Delcassé) (1852-1923) excludes Germany from the Moroccan negotiations, causing Count Bernhard von Bulow and foreign advisor (1890-1906) Friedrich August von Holstein (1837-1909) to decide to make mineral-rich Morocco into a test of the Anglo-French Entente, and German Kaiser Wilhelm II makes his inflammatory Tangier Speech concerning his rivalry with France over Morocco, leading to the fall of Delcasse after the French cabinet rejects his hasty proposal to form an Anglo-French front against Germany without Russia's backing and with only hazy correspondence with the Brits on May 17 and May 25; on Apr. 6 von Bulow falls ill in the Reichstag, causing Lord Fitzmaurice of Britain to compare him to Lord Chatham (a compliment); on June 5 Opportunist Maurice Rouvier (1842-1911) disses Delcasse for imprudence over Morocco, and after a heated discussion Delcasse resigns, and Rouvier succeeds him, attempting to avoid a rupture with Germany; on June 6 (no coincidence) Bulow recovers, and is raised to prince (to become equal to Bismarck) on the occasion of the marriage of the crown prince, while the world is rocked by Germany's humiliation of the French; on July 8 after the U.S. agrees to back them, Rouvier meets with Germany, securing an agreement accepting the internat. conference proposed by the sultan of Morocco on the assurance that Germany will recognize the special nature of the interest of France in maintaining order on the frontier of its Algerian empire; after lengthy discussions a new convention results on Sept. 28 which contains the program of the proposed conference, and in Dec. Rouvier makes a statement of the whole proceedings in the chamber, receiving the assent of all parties, setting a new conference for next Jan., giving the French some time to get their soggy ducks in a row. On Apr. 17 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 5-4 in Lochner v. New York that mandatory limits to working time violate the 14th Amendment due process clause, which contains "the right and liberty of the individual to contract", launching the free market-friendly Lochner Era, in which the Supreme Court invalidates several state and federal statutes attempting to regulate working conditions incl. min. wage, federal child labor laws, and banking, insurance, and transportation regulations, which Robert Bork calls "the symbol, indeed the quintessence, of judicial usurpation of power"; it ends with the New Deal case West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937); "You go to a case like the Lochner case, you can read that opinion today and it's quite clear that they're not interpreting the law, they're making the law." (John Roberts) On May 8 the Russian Union of Unions under Prof. Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov (1859-1943) unites the liberal groups in a demand for parliamentary govt. and universal suffrage, while unrest and disorder spread through Aug. A giant grid with a city on top that shakes all the money out of people's pockets and funnels it to the lucky casino owners down below? On May 15 after 110 dusty acres in the Mojave Desert near the Union Pacific Railroad tracks are auctioned off, the city of Las Vegas, Nev. (Sp. "las vegas" = the meadows) (modern-day pop. 630K/2.4M) is founded; it is incorporated on Mar. 16, 1911; in 1931 Nev. legalizes casino gambling and reduces residency requirements for divorce to 6 weeks; in 1935 nearby Hoover Dam is completed; on Apr. 3, 1941 the Pair-o-Dice Club becomes the first casino built on the Las Vegas Strip (named after the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles), attracting New York City mobsters incl. Bugsy Siegel, who opens The Flamingo in 1946, causing the city to become known as "Sin City", "the City of Lights", and "The Gambling Capital of the World", going on to invite top entertainers incl. Wayne Newton, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., and Elvis Presley to perform, causing it to become known as "the Entertainment Capital of the World", combining it with quickie marriages, making it "the Marriage Capital of the World"; in 1955 the famous Welcome to Las Vegas Sign is located outside the city by Betty Willis; the mobsters later bow to corporate-funded mega-resorts, starting with The Mirage in 1989, making it "The Silver City", and "America's Playground"; in 1959 the Fremont Street Experience opens in a 5-block area of downtown known as Glitter Gulch, featuring 12.5M lights and 500MW shows held each hour from dusk until midnight; the town's ad slogan is: "What happens in Vegas stays in Vegas". On June 12 the Lincoln Nat. Life Insurance Co. is founded in Ft. Wayne, Ind., receiving permission from Abraham Lincoln's only surviving child Robert to use the family name, which causes the co. to take off, after which they set up the Lincoln Historical Research Foundation in 1928, followed by the Lincoln Museum in Ft. Wayne Ind. in 1931, housing the largest private collection of Lincoln artifacts, and the largest public or private collection until 2005. On June 13 the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin kills their cmdr. Capt. Golikov, throws his corpse overboard. and mutinies over conditions on the ship. On June 19 the Nickelodeon (nickel + Odeon, the 18th cent. enclosed theater in Paris, also the Greek word for theater) is opened in a vacant storefront at 433-35 Smithfield St. in Pittsburgh, Penn. by John Paul Harris (1871-1926) (owner of the Harris Comedy and Specialty Co., who showed the first moving picture in Pittsburgh in 1897) and his brother-in-law Harry Harris, becoming the first theater in the world devoted exclusively to moving pictures, open 7 days a week from 8 a.m. to midnight, with customers sitting on folding chairs watching movies shown on a muslin curtain, becoming a big hit, with 450 visitors on day 1 and 1.5K on day 2 lining up to see a 15-min. picture show for 5 cents, launching a nickelodeon boom across the U.S.; by 1907 there are 2.5K nickelodean theaters in the U.S., and 8K in 1908, and by 1910 26M visit them each week, causing all kinds of sex problems with hanky-panky in the darkened theaters. On June 29 The Automobile Assoc. (AA) in London, England is founded. In July 2 Bolshevik printers in St. Petersburg, Russia demand to be paid the same rate for punctuation marks as for letters, forming a trade union, followed by another in Moscow on Oct. 31. On July 5 former (#2) PM Alfred Deakin becomes the PM #5 of Australia (until Nov. 13, 1908). On July 8 Calif. sets a record high avg. temp of 104F (until ?), with more than half the state above 105F and more than a third 110F or above; Orland in N Calif. is 120F; CO2 concentration is 300 ppm. On July 24 after mutual yacht visits, the secret mutual defense accord Bjorko (Björkö) Treaty (Treaty of Koivisto) is signed by the kaiser and the tsar, resurrecting the Oct. 1904 alliance but confined to Europe, and to take effect only after Russian-Japanese peace; it is scuttled in Oct. when Russian statesmen Sergei Witte and Count Vladimir Lamsdorf return from Portsmouth, learn about, it, and argue that it's invalid unless France signs it, pissing-off Kaiser Wilhelm II, who utters the soundbyte: "We joined hands and signed before God, who heard our vows!... What is signed is signed, and God is our testator!"; if Nicholas II hadn't listened to Witte and Lamsdorf "the whole history of Europe and the world could have been different" (Annika Mombauer and Wilhelm Deist). On July 27 the Taft-Katsura Agreement allegedly conceals a secret pact to carve out spheres of influence for Japan and the U.S. and maintain peace in the event of a Japanese V over Russia; the U.S. recognize the Japanese sphere of influence in Korea, while Japan recognizes the U.S. sphere of influence in the Philippines. On Aug. 12 the Anglo-Japanese alliance is renewed for 10 years, and is extended to incl. India, and is modified to provide for mutual support in case of attack by only one other power at a time. I'm giving you peasants your own assembly, Duma, Duma, I'm giving you dumbasses your own assembly, oh Duma day? On Aug. 19 the Russian tsar issues the Duma Manifesto, creating the Duma (imperial assembly), but the limited franchise and lack of powers only fans the rev. fervor. On Aug. 28 French agricultural laborer Jean Lafray (1873-1906) of Commugny, Switzerland gets drunk on hard liquor, wine, and 2 oz. of absinthe, then murders his pregnant wife and two children, causing protests and a petition signed by 82K that causes absinthe to be banned in Vaud; in 1908 it is banned in all Switzerland, followed by most Euro countries, and the U.S. in 1912; in 2007 after it is proved not to contain hallucenogenic chemicals, it is relegalized in the U.S.; it was really a conspiracy by winemakers to get rid of competition? On Aug. 28 hoping to pay off a $1.7K debt, Merritt Memorial Church (founded 1902) at W. 23rd Ave. and Irving St. in Denver, Colo. (1 diagonal block from TLW's future home in 1982-2010 at 22nd. and Hooker St.) hosts a lecture on the bright side of life at Libby Prison during the Civil War. On Sept. 1 the huge Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta (120-109 W long.) (255.3K sq. mi.) (capital Edmonton) and Saskatchewan (109-104 W long., 49-60 N lat.) (251.7K sq. mi.) (capital Regina) enter the Canadian Confederation as the 8th and 9th provinces. They were made for each other, blini and sake? On Sept. 5 defeated Russia signs the Treaty of Portsmouth at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, N.H. (first U.S. city to host the formal conclusion of a foreign war until ?), mediated by Pres. Teddy Roosevelt (who wins the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for it), ending the Russo-Japanese War (begun Feb. 8, 1904), and becoming the first Asian V over a Western power in modern history, giving control of Manchuria to China, and control of Korea to Japan, bringing peace between Japan and Russia for four decades; Japanese foreign minister Jutaro Komura (1855-1911) is chief Japanese rep.; the Anglo-Japanese alliance is renewed for 10 years; Japanese Field Marshal Iwao Oyama becomes a bigger hero than ever, and is given the rank of prince in 1907. On Sept. 12 Japanese pre-dreadnought battleship Mikasa (launched Nov. 8, 1900) explodes and sinks in Sasebo Harbor, killing 599, after which it is salvaged and ends up becoming the last pre-dreadnought battleship on Earth, housed in a museum at Mikasa Park in Yokosuka. On Oct. 4 Orville Wright breaks the half-hour barrier by keeping it (his craft) up for 33 min. 17 sec. Tough meets classy in Russia? On Oct. 6 (Sept. 24 Old Style) the Russian Gen. Strike begins with printers in Moscow, joined by rail workers on Oct. 19, and telegraph workers on Oct. 22, becoming a gen. strike on Oct. 25; on Oct. 26 the First Soviet (Council) of Workers' Deputies in St. Petersburg is formed to direct it, ending it on Nov. 3 after old fart reactionary Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) and other ministers are forced to resign, and Tsar Nicholas II takes the advice of Count Sergei Witte (1849-1915) to promise reforms, and on Oct. 30 issues the October Manifesto, granting Russia a constitution along with an imperial Duma with legislative power, an extended franchise, and civil liberty guarantees, with Witte as PM; meanwhile on Oct. 30 (Oct. 17 Old Style) the St. Petersburg Soviet prints the first issue of the newspaper Izvestia (Russ. "news"); many liberals bite and join the conservative govt. ranks, on Oct. 26 forming the Octobrist Party (Union of October 17), but the holdouts, incl. nobles and scholars form the more radical Constitutional Dem. Party (K.D.) (Cadets), and the more radical Social Dems. reject the whole govt. program, while the yet more radical St. Petersburg Soviet opens branches in new cities and attempts to organize another strike; meanwhile on Oct. 31 Bolshevik activist Nikolai Ernestovich Bauman (b. 1873) is killed in street fighting, triggering a street war between right and left; meanwhile in Oct. the Peasant Union of the Volokolamsk District creates the independent Markovo Repub. 90 mi. from Moscow (crushed in July, 1906); religious Russian poet Dmitri Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (1866-1941) declares the rev. a religious happening, with himself as the prophet. On Oct. 9-14 the New York Giants (NL) (mgr. John McGraw) defeat the Philadelphia Athletics (mgr. Connie Mack) (AL) 4-1 to win the Second (2nd) World Series of baseball; triple crown-winning Giants pitcher Christopher "Christy" "Matty" Mathewson (1880-1925) (known as "the Christian Gentleman" because he never pitches on Sunday) pitches a 4-hit shutout in Game 1, then another in Game 3, followed by a 6-hit shutout in Game 5 (3 complete games pitched without allowing a run), becoming the greatest ML playoff performance until ?; the first WS played as best-of-7, and first consisting entirely of shutouts (Giants team ERA = 0.00); Game 3 sees the first steal of home in the 5th inning by Giants shortstop William Frederick "Bad Bill" Dahlen (1870-1950); the Athletics become the first team to lose a WS game on an unearned run 1-0. On Oct. 22-24 the Meat Riot (Revolt) in Chile caused by inflated prices due to tariffs on cattle imports from Argentina sees protestors storm the pres. palace, with 250 killed; week-long urban labor riots in Santiago, Chile are retaliated against by the govt., which arms landowner youths to massacre hundreds. On Nov. 1 Count Sergei Witte forms a cabinet, offering the Cadets posts, which they refuse; on Nov. 2 the funeral of Bolshevik N.E. Bauman causes yet more demonstrations and street fighting; on Nov. 5-6 the Kronstadt Mutiny, followed on Nov. 9-10 by the Vladivostok Mutiny show that Russia's devilish side is still exposed; on Nov. 19-25 the Peasants Union holds a conference in Moscow demanding a constituent assembly, land distribution, and political union of peasants and urban workers; on Nov. 11 the fascist anti-Semitic Union of Russian People is created by A.I. Dubrovin, funded by govt. officials; on Nov. 27 the Moscow branch of the Peasants Union is arrested by the govt, triggering a telephone/telegraph workers strike on Nov. 29. On Dec. 5 after a landslide, Scottish-born Liberal Sir Henry "CB" Campbell-Bannerman (1836-1908) becomes British PM (until Apr. 5, 1908), becoming the last election in which the Liberals gain a majority in the Commons (until ?); on Dec. 10 the title of Prime Minister (PM) is officially recognized in Britain by Edward VII, replacing the title of first minister (first lord of the treasury); he becomes known as "Britain's first and only radical Prime Minister", appointing Liberal MP (1885-1911) Richard Burdon Sanderson Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane of Cloan (1856-1928) (friend of Herbert Henry Asquith, and uncle of biologist J.B.S. Haldane) as war secy., who begins preparing the British army for a possible Euro war by establishing the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), the Imperial Gen. Staff (1908), the Officer Training Corps (1908), and the Special Reserve (1907); on Dec. 10 Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth (1849-1909) (husband of Lady Fanny Spencer-Churchill, Winston Churchill's aunt) is appointed First Lord of the Admiralty (until Apr. 12, 1908); too bad, in early 1908 he is called on the carpet for private correspondence with Kaiser Wilhelm II on the British naval program, and has to go. On Dec. 6 the tsar introduces Provisional Rules, abolishing some aspects of censorship while introducing harsher penalties for those praising "criminal acts". On Dec. 8 Georgy Stepanovich Khrustalev-Nosar, head of the St. Petersburg Soviet is arrested, causing it on Dec. 9 to elect a triumvirate to replace him that incl. Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), and to appeal to the armed forces to support them. On Dec. 10 Liberal Sir Edward Grey (1862-1933) becomes British foreign secy. (until Dec. 10, 1916), becoming the longest holder of that office until ?; on Dec. 13 he tells Russian ambassador Count Alexander Benckendorff that he supports the idea of an agreement in order to maintain a balance of power, and conducts secret negotiations with the French for ditto. On Dec. 11 Rivadavia, Argentina sets a South Am. record high temp of 120 F (49 C). On Dec. 16 after the Socialist Dems. begin handing out weapons, Russian PM Sergei Witte has the 190 members of the pesky St. Petersburg Soviet arrested, leading on Dec. 23 to the Moscow Worker Insurrection (Uprising), which is bloodily suppressed by Dec. 28 by the loyal Russian army and the far-right monarchist Black Hundred, who stage punitive raids, after which the old police state returns bigtime along with an army sweep across Russia to crush dissent, while on Dec. 24 Russian's urban pop. and workers are thrown a bone with electoral changes giving them the franchise, while Little Nicky II and his son accept honorary membership in the Union of the Russian People; meanwhile Witte arranges a $400M loan from France and Britain to avoid having to beg the Duma for money to run the govt.; many Jews flee to Germany, where they are given refuge. On Dec. 16 weekly entertainment trade mag. Variety begins pub. in New York City by Cortland, N.Y.-born Jew Sime Silverman (1873-1933), going on to coin the term "pix" in 1932; in 1933 Daily Variety begins pub. to cover the motion picture industry in Los Angeles/Hollywood, after which Sime dies of a heart attack on Sept. 23 at the Ambassador Hotel. On Dec. 30 former Idaho gov. (1897-1901) Frank Steunenberg (b. 1861) is killed by a bomb rigged to the gate of his house in Caldwell, Idaho by radical miner Albert Edward Horsley (1866-1954) (AKA Harry Orchard), who tries to implicate radical leaders of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and later claims a religious conversion, and despite a confession is found not guilty by a jury, then changes his plea to guilty in Mar. 1908 and receives a death sentence, which is commuted by Idaho Gov. Gooding to life in prison. Louis Botha and his Het Volk Party protest the govt. in Transvaal and the new constitution. Orthodox Christian Greeks in Crete battle Muslim Turks. Prince Nicholas I of Montenegro decrees the end of autocratic govt., and grants a liberal 1905 Montenegran Constitution with a parliamentary govt. After sitting out the Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Rev., Vladimir Lenin returns to Russia at the end of the year, staying in St. Petersburg (until 1907). William Dudley "Big Bill" Haywood (1869-1928) (Western Federation of Miners), Daniel De Leon (1852-1914) et al. found the Internat. Workers of the World (IWW) (AKA the Wobblies) in the U.S. You go norway, I'll go mine? On June 7 after the Norwegian Parliament decides to end the artificial union between Norway and Sweden established during the Napoleonic Wars, king (since Sept. 18, 1872) Oscar II (1829-1907) becomes king of Sweden alone (until Dec. 8, 1907), and on Nov. 18 Haakon VII (1872-1957) becomes king of Norway (until Sept. 21, 1957), with his stylish-dressing English-born wife Maud of Wales becoming queen consort Maud (1869-1938) (until Nov. 20, 1938), becoming the last coronation of a Scandinavian monarch. King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Siam abolishes slavery. Western-educated brain man Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) founds a union of secret societies to kick the Manchus out of China. Liberal Lord John Morley, Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1838-1923) becomes British secy. of state for India (until 1910). Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) becomes the first dir. of the new U.S. Forest Service (formerly the Forestry Div. of the Dept. of Agriculture) (until 1910), with his motto being "The greatest good for the greatest number in the long run"; he soon begins a war with John Muir over preservation vs. conservation (controlled renewable use), preferring the latter. The Salton Sea, a salty lake in SE Calif. is formed by overflow of water from the Colorado River through a badly-designed irrigation canal near Yuma, Ariz. to the Imperial Valley, submerging 2K sq. mi. before being controlled by Feb. 1907; a 2nd break occurs in 1910 flowing into the Paredones River 15 mi. downstream, threatening Volcano Lake before it is fixed. Israel Zangwill founds the Jewish Territorial Org., which seeks to find new territories for Jews to get them out of the ghettos, but not necessarily Ottoman-controlled Palestine, and begins working with German-born Am. Jewish philantrophist Jacob Henry (Hirsch) Schiff (1847-1920) to find a home in the vast de-Indianized U.S. hinterland; meanwhile Schiff loans Japan $200M to fight Russia to get them for their anti-Semitic Tsarist pogrom regime, and when Japan wins, anti-Semitic forces jump on his case, pointing to him as proof of a worldwide Zionist conspiracy, which is helped by his being invited to a private audience with Edward VII of England in 1904, and being the first foreigner to be awarded the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun by Emperor Meiji in 1907 - the State of New Israel in Arizona or New Mexico would be nice? Northampton, Mass. atty. (Amherst grad.) Calvin Coolidge (b. 1872) marries Grace Anna Goodhue (1879-1957); they have 2 sons and no daughters. Pres. Roosevelt is so impressed with young destitute poet Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935) and his 1890-7 poem The Children of the Night that he gets him a clerkship in the New York Custom House, telling him, "I expect you to think poetry first and customs second"; he keeps the job for four years while launching his successful career. Korean nationalists found the religion of Chundo to counter pro-Japanese sentiments. Edward VII bestows the title of Royal on the Canadian Mounted Police (Mounties). The Inst. of Musical Art, later known as the Julliard School (originally Inst. of Musical Art) is founded in New York City, named after philanthropist Augustus D. Juilliard (1836-1919). The Nat. U of Singapore (originally King Edward VII College of Medicine until Oct. 8 1949, U. of Malaya, Singapire until 1962, and U. of Singapore until 1980) is founded by Tan Jiak Kim. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is founded with a $10M gift from Andrew Carnegie with the mission to "uphold and dignify the profession of the teacher and the cause of higher education within the U.S., Canada and Newfoundland"; the U.S. Congress charters it in Mar. 1906, and Carnegie pumps in another $20M. The Habima Theatre, a Hebrew-language theatrical group is founded in Moscow soon after the Russian revolt by actor-producer Konstantin Stanislavski (1863-1938) et al. The Orange County Register (originally the "Santa Ana Daily Register") daily newspaper is founded in Santa Ana, Calif. by a consortium, which sells it in 1906 to J.P. Baumgartner, who sells it in 1927 to J. Frank Burne, who sells it in 1935 to Alliance, Ohio-born libertarian Raymond Cyrus "R.C." Hoiles (1878-1970), who drops the "Daily" from the title and opposes internment of Japanese-Ams. in WWII, founding Freedom Newspapers Inc. (later Freedom Communications) in 1950, which advocates a U.S. pullout from the U.N., opposes public schools, and finds the views of Repubs. Dwight D. Eisenhower and Robert A. Taft too liberal; in 1952 it drops "Santa Ana" from the title; in 1959 it adds a morning ed.; in 1986 it begins pub. in full color; in 1985 it assumes its modern name after winning its first Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, followed by two more in 1989 and 1996; in 1990 it launches the 24-hour OCN news channel (until 2001); in 1992 it launches Excelsior (Excélsior), a Spanish language weekly, with a circ. of 51K to serve Orange County's Hispanic pop. of 1M; it goes on to continue its libertarian heritage, opposing the Iraq War and laws regulating prostitution, drug use, and gay marriage, reaching a modern-day circ. of 250K daily and 311K Sun. The Atlanta Life Insurance Co. is founded in the Sweet Auburn district of Atlanta, Ga. on Auburn Ave. ("the richest negro street in the world" - Fortune mag., 1956) by black businessman Alonzo Herndon (1858-1927), becoming the largest black-controlled stockholder life insurance co. Nora Stanton Blatch Barney (1883-1971) becomes the first woman in the U.S. to obtain a degree in civil engineering. The Austin Motor Co. is founded in Northfield (near Birmingham), England in the summer by Herbert Austin (1866-1941), starting with a 5-liter 4-cylinder chain drive auto, growing to 22K employees in WWI. The first motor buses begin operation in London, England; next year the Piccadilly and Bakerloo underground (subway) lines begin operation. Cars can now be purchased on the installment plan in the U.S. Harvey Samuel Firestone (1868-1930) obtains a large order for his Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. from Ford Motor Co. to make tires for the Model T, making him one of America's best known industrialists by the 1920s, going on camping trips with Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. Am. cartoonist Thomas Aloysius "Tad" Dorgan (1877-1929), the most prolific coiner of new slang terms in U.S. history uses the term "hot dog" in the cartoon of the same name for what had until then been called dachshund sausages, popularly thought to be made from dog meat (because he can't spell dachsund?), based on observations of English-born vendor "Scorecard Harry" Mosley Stevens (1855-1934) (inventor of the baseball scorecard) at the New York Polo Grounds, home of the Giants; actually the term goes back to at least 1884, and the earliest known cartoon of his with the term is about a bike race at Madison Square Garden on Dec. 12, 1906, but he always gets the credit for new Am. slang, 23-skidoo? Am. X-ray technician Elizabeth Fleischman Ascheim (b. 1859) becomes the 2nd (1st female) fatality from X-ray exposure, contracting skin cancer, which causes one arm to be amputated at the shoulder, followed by death. The U.S. Federal Insect Pest Act prohibits importation of live injurious insects to the U.S. The word "smog" is coined.

Speaking of injurious insects and smog? The German (Internat.) Society for Racial Hygiene is founded on June 22 in Berlin by physician Alfred Ploetz to return the Nordic race "to a healthy and blooming, strong and beautiful life" through sterlization and selective breeding, becoming the first white supremacist eugenics society; gains support of the German govt., spawning numerous orgs. in other countries, incl. England (1907) and Nordicland Sweden (1909); honorary members incl. Ernst Haeckel. Mt. Wilson Observatory on 5.7K-ft. Mt. Wilson in the San Gabriel Mts. of Calif., named after Los Angeles, Calif. mayor (1851-2) Benjamin Davis "Don Benito" Wilson (1811-78) (grandfather of U.S. Gen. George S. Patton Jr.) is completed for solar studies, with a 100-in. reflecting telescope, later used to study stars and nebulae. The Aero Club of America is formed by Lowell, Mass.-born Charles Jasper Glidden (1857-1927) et al. to promote U.S. aviation, issuing the first U.S. pilot's licenses; in 1923 it becomes the Nat. Aeronautic Assoc. Jersey-born Am. psychic phenomena investigator Hereward Carrington (Hubert Lavington) (1880-1958) joins the staff of the Am. Society for Psychical Research, going on to spend his life investigating psychics and mediums. Annie Rix Militz (1856-1924) founds the New Thought org. Home of Truth in Calif. After Thomas Edison successfully defends his patent on motion pictures, the Motion Pictures Patents Co. (MPCC) is founded to force patent royalties out of the "Big Ten Studios" incl. Vitagraph, Melies, Pathe, and Selig, causing movie studios to move W to Calif. to make it harder to enforce them, relying on the lax enforcement of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco; in Sept. 10 the Gen. Film Co. is formed by Edison to monopolize U.S. film distribution, becoming known as the Edison Trust; before the fall of the Edison Trust in 1915, films are distributed by two methods, the States Rights Method, where a copy of a film is sold to a salesman at 10 cents a foot, who then makes as much money as he can until it falls apart, and the Road Show Method, where it's featured in a theater with advertising and reserved seating, and the producer collects the gate. Alexander Khanzhonkov (1877-1945) begins producing films in Moscow, becoming the #1 filmmaker in Russia, with 100 films by 1919; too bad, after moving to Yalta on the Crimea in 1917 and producing about 15 films, his studio and land are confiscated by the Communists in 1920. Mary Lemist Titcomb (1857-1932) operates the first bookmobile in Md. 13-y.-o. Hungarian Jewish violinist Joseph Szigeti (1892-1973) makes his debut in Berlin playing Bach's "Chaconne in D minor" et al.; too bad, there are so many musical prodigies that it barely makes the newspapers, and he doesn't make his U.S. debut until 1925 at age 33, and develops arthritis in his hands in the 1950s just when he's getting famous? Paul Fort founds the French symbolist mag. Vers et Prose, which he edits until 1914. French comedian Max Linder (Gabriel-Maximilien Leuvielle) (1883-1925) begins starring in films for Pathe in Louis Gasnier's The Legend of Punching, becoming the first internat. film star with his onscreen persona "Max" in 1909, with fans incl. Tsar Nicholas II and George Bernard Shaw, becoming a dir. of his own films, with a salary of 1M francs a year in 1912, causing Charles Pathe to call him "the Napoleon of the Cinema", giving Maurice Chevalier his start; after serving in WWI in 1914-15 entertaining troops, he is invited to Essanay Studios by George K. Spoor in 1916 at $5K/week to replace Charlie Chaplin (whom he moves in next door to, becoming friends, with Chaplin calling himself his disciple), making three films, all of which bomb, causing the remaining nine to be canceled, throwing him into depression; on Oct. 31, 1925 after bungling a suicide attempt at a hotel in Vienna in early 1924, he commits suicide along with his wife (since 1923) Helene "Jean" Peters (b. 1899) in their room on the 4th floor of the Hotel Baltimore in Paris after watching a theatrical production of "Quo Vadis?", which features a suicide scene by Nero and his servant Acte. William N. Selig sends dir. Francis W. Boggs to Los Angeles to film new titles, and after scouting the area out they settle in Sycamore Grove in Highland Park, Calif. in NE Los Angeles, with actors Charlie Chaplin et al. hanging out at the Mount Washington Hotel; by 1910 they move to Edendale. The Fauvist (Les Fauves) (Fr. "wild beasts") movement in art begins, dedicated to using intense color, led by French artist Henri Matisse (1869-1954), who starts out by painting his wife with a green stripe over her face. German expressionist painter Erich Heckel (1883-1970), an admirer of Edvard Munch founds Die Brucke (The Bridge) artist community in Dresden to bridge between traditional neo-Romantic German art and modern expressionist painting; too bad, in 1937 the Nazis proclaim him "degenerate", and destroy most of his work. Albert Verwey (1865-1937) of the Dutch Eightiers founds De Beweging (The Movement) (until 1919), fostering a new gen. of Dutch lit. rebels. Sir Thomas Beecham (1879-1961) makes his debut as a conductor in London. Failed lesbian actress-turned-interior-decorator Elsie de Wolfe (1865-1950) does Stanford White's Colony Club at 120 Madison Ave. at 30th St., which becomes the #1 women's social club, later becoming the home of the Am. Academy of Dramatic Arts. The comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland debuts in the U.S. (until 1914), by Winsor McCay (1867-1934), who goes on to produce cool animated cartoons of it, plus Gertie the Dinosaur, setting the bar for later animators incl. Walt Disney. P.A. Geier Co. is founded in a garage in Cleveland, Ohio by Philip Geier to market household appliances; in 1937 they introduce the Princess (Royal Prince), "the industry's first hand-held vac"; in WWII they make military parts; in 1953 they go bankrupt and are acquired by Walter E. Scott Org. (owner of the Cincinnati Reds ML baseball team) and renamed Royal Appliance Mfg Co., marketing the first household vacuum with a metal case and patented Cyclone system in 1955, selling 25M units; in the 1980s they begin selling Dirt Devil vacuum cleaners with plastic cases, and finally make it big with the Dirt Devil Hand-Held Vac in 1984, becoming #3 behind Hoover and Eureka until the 1990s. German immigrant Richard C. Hellmann (1876-1971) from Vetschau (near Berlin), Germany opens a deli in New York City, using mayonnaise in many of his salads that becomes popular, building a factory and mass-marketing Hellmann's Blue Ribbon Mayonnaise on Sept. 1, 1912, with the motto "Bring out the best", which is sold on the U.S. East Coast; in 1920 the New York Tribune rates it the best mayonnaise, noting that it has more oil (85%) than the other brands; in Aug. 1927 after reaching $15M/year sales, he sells out to Postum Foods (later Gen. Foods) and retires, and in 1932 after Best Foods of Calif. begins selling a competing version, it sets up a deal where Best Foods is sold W of the Rocky Mts. and Hellman's E of the Rockies; in 1958 Corn Products Refining Co. acquires Best Foods, becoming CPC Internat. in 1969; in 1960 both brands use the blue ribbon logo; in 1997 CPC Internat. splits into Bestfoods and Corn Products Internat.; in 2000 Bestfoods is acquired by Uniliver; by 2007 the two products are nearly identical, with Best Foods using more lemon juice. Wells Fargo and Co. founds the Wells Fargo Nevada Nat. Bank, later becoming the Wells Fargo Bank. The Austin Motor Co. in Longbridge (near Birmingham), England is founded by Sir Herbert Austin, 1st Baron Austin (1866-1941) to produce luxury cars that become hits with British and Russian nobility et al.; they also dabble in racing cars; in 1952 they merge with Morris Motors; the Austin marque is retired in 1987. Sports: On Jan. 2-Mar. 11 the 1905 Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL) Season (7th and last) sees the Montreal Victorias win with a 9-1 record; after a rules dispute, no Stanley Cup game is played; on Jan. 13-16 after the Dawson City Nuggets travel 4K mi. by dogsled to Ottawa, the 1905 Stanley Cup Finals see the Ottawa Senators defeat the Dawson City Nuggets 9-2 and 23-2 (largest margin of victory until ?). In Mar. world boxing champ (since 1899) James J. Jeffries retires undefeated, and names Marvin Hart (1876-1931) ("the Kentucky Plumber") ("the Fightin' Kentuckian") (who defeated Jack Johnson in San Francisco earlier this year) and Bohemian-born Jack Root (Janos Ruthaly) (1876-1963) (who had already beaten him once) as leading contenders, agreeing to referee their title fight in Reno, Nev. on July 3, in which Hart KOs Root in the 12th round, becoming world heavyweight boxing champ #4 (until 1906). On May 8-June 22 the first Transcontinental U.S. Auto Race is run from New York City to the World's Fair in Portland, Ore., crossing the Oregon Trail by Oldsmobile. On July 31 the 1905 Kanchenjunga Expedition, consisting of Swiss physician Jules Jacot-Guillarmod (1868-1925), English occultist Aleister (Edward Alexander) Crowley (1875-1947) et al. sets out with 230 porters and three Kashmiri servants, making camp at Camp V on Sept. 1 at 6,200m, after on Sept. 2 an avalanche kills three porters and Alexis Pache, and the attempt fails, with cruel "Do what thou wilt" Crowley stealing the expedition funds and later claiming in his autobio. that they reached 7,620m, an altitude record not broken until the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition in 1922. On Aug. 30 Narrows, Ga.-born ("the Georgia Peach") Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb (1886-1961), makes his ML batting debut with the Detroit Tigers, hitting a double in his first at-bat in a game against the New York Highlanders using a split grip; the Tigers win 5-3; he goes on to become the greatest player of the Dead Ball Era despite being hated for his meanness incl. sliding into bases feet-first with spikes bared, later becoming the first player elected to the Baseball Hall-of-Fame. On Oct. 9 after Boston, Mass.-born Harvard U. pres. (1869-1909) Charles William Eliot (1834-1926), ed. of the Harvard Classics, known for turning Harvard into an internat. research univ. and giving blacks W.E.B. DuBois et al. opportunities comes out in opposition to college football, calling it "a fight whose strategy and ethics are those of war", where "the weaker man is considered the legitimate prey of the stronger", concluding "no sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory", causing The New York Times, Harper's mag., McClure's mag., and Nation mag. to back him up, calling for reform or outright abolishment of the sport, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt holds a meeting at the White House with Walter Camp, Bill Reid, and Arthur T. Hillebrand representing Yale, Harvard, and Princeton, talking them into saving the sport via rule changes; too bad, on Nov. 25 19-y.-o. Union College halfback Harold Moore is knocked-out in a game against NYU and dies of a cerebral hemorrhage six hours later, causing NYU pres. Henry MacCracken to call for protective headwear for athletes, and the Cincinnati Commercial Tribune to run the cartoon "Grim Reaper Smiles on the Goalposts" on Dec. 3, becoming known as football's first concussion crisis; on Dec. 28 after two White House conferences convened by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt to "encourage reforms" in college football to prevent injuries and deaths, followed by a meeting of 13 U.S. colleges and univs. organized by NYU chancellor Henry MacCracken, a meeting of 62 higher education institutions appoints the Am. Football Rules Committee, which convenes next Jan. 12, banning the flying wedge, creating the neutral zone, and increasing the distance for a first down from 5-10 yards; next Mar. 31 they form the Intercollegiate Athletic Assoc. of the U.S. (IAAUS), which changes its name to the Nat. Collegiate Athletic Assoc. (NCAA) in 1910; in 1921 it conducts the first NCAA nat. championship, the Nat. Collegiate Track and Field Championships; in 1939 it conducts its first basketball championship; meanwhile failing to abolish football, lame retro Eliot goes after baseball, basketball, and hockey, uttering the soundbyte: "I understand that a curve ball is thrown with a deliberate attempt to deceive. Surely this is not an ability we should want to foster at Harvard" - since I got in the loop I can see the future? On Dec. 11 the Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Assoc. (ECAHA) amateur ice hockey league is founded by two teams from the Federal Amateur Hockey League (FAHL) and four from the Canadian Amateur Hockey League (CAHL), going pro for the 1908 season after the amateur Montreal Victorias and Montreal Hockey Club leave in protest for other teams using pro players, changing its name to the Eastern Canada Hockey Assoc., then dissolving in Jan. 1909 after poor game attendance; in 1906 the Arena Cup is donated by the Montreal Arena Co., made from 90 oz. (2.6kg) of sterling silver; in 1908 after winning it for three straight seasons, it is given to the Montreal Wanderers. Beals C. Wright (1879-1961) wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis men's singles title, and Elisabeth Holmes "Bessie" Moore (1876-1959) wins the women's singles. Tanya (1902-?) on ? becomes the 2nd filly to win the Belmont Stakes since Ruthless in its first running in 1867. The Columbia U. Lions men's basketball team is named the first nat. college basketball champions by the Helms Athletic Foundation after defeating Minnesota U. (27-15) and Wisconsin U. (21-15) and finishing with a 19-1 record; 5'9" Harold A. "Harry" Fisher (1882-1967) and team captain (Olympic cyclist) Marcus Latimer Hurley (1883-1941) are named to the first-ever 1905 College Basketball All-Am. Team. Honus Wagner becomes the first player to have his signature branded into a Louisville Slugger bat. The Mills Commission, chaired by Abraham Gilbert Mills (1844-1929) decides that U.S. Civil War Gen. Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839. The Internat. Bowling Board is founded to govern lawn bowling in Europe. The Ebonite, the first rubber bowling ball is created by Stowe Woodward Laboratory. William Wuerthele of Pittsburgh, Penn. invents Rubberband Duckpin Bowling by encircling duckpins with pieces of rubber to increase scoring; in the 1920s the Am. Duckpin Congress is founded, becoming the Am. Rubber Band Duckpin Bowling Congress in 1945; after becoming popular in Quebec, Canada, it becomes almost extinct elsewhere. Architecture: On May 4 Belmont Park in Elmont Hamlet, Hempstead, Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y. opens, becoming the home of the annual Belmont Stakes horserace, the third and final leg of the Triple Crown, held three weeks after the Preakness Stakes and five weeks after the Kentucky Derby. On May 22 the Novello Theatre (originally Waldorf Theatre, Strand Theatre, and Whitney Theatre until 1913) in Aldwych, Westminster, London (cap. 1,105) opens, owned by the Shubert Org. The sneaky-like-a-snake Shiite Askariya (El-Askari) Shrine in Samarra, 60 mi. N of Baghdad (built 836-944) is given a golden dome by Muzaffar al-Din Shah (1896-1907); the dome is blown up in 2006 by Sunnis during the U.S. Iraq War. The 45m-high El Hank Lighthouse is built in Casablanca, Morocco; renovated in 1914-17. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) (Austria) (first woman to win Nobel Peace Prize, 2nd woman to win a Nobel Prize); Lit.: Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) (Poland); Physics: Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (1862-1947) (Germany) [cathode rays]; Chem.: Adolf Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917) (Germany) [synthesis of organic dyes]; Medicine: Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (1843-1910) (Germany) [anthrax]. Inventions: The first recipe for Chocolate Brownies is pub. in the Boston Daily Globe on Apr. 2, attributing their origin to Bangor, Maine. The first commercial Espresso Machine is manufactured in Italy. German chemist Alfred Einhorn (1857-1917) uses Benzocaine to develop non-addictive Procaine, AKA Novocaine (Novocain) (Lat. "new" + caine meaning alkaloid used for an anesthetic); in 1907 German dentist Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Braun (1862-1934) introduces it into dentistry to replace addictive cocaine. The Popsicle is invented by 11-y.-o. Frank W. Epperson (1894-1983) of Calif. after leaving a frozen drink out over night with a stirring stick in it; he waits until the 1920s to go in biz with it, originally calling it Epsicle until his kids start calling it "pop's sicle"; it is patented in 1924. Walter Griffiths of Birmingham, England invents the first portable vacuum cleaner, with a flexible hose and interchangeable nozzles, worked by a single operator who has to compress a bellows to suck dust through the hose; some models have two bellows operated by treading on them alternately by one operator while the second operator works the hose and nozzle - the first Stairmaster? Arthur Constantin Krebs of France invents the Electric Brake Dynamometer for testing hi-perf. engines. Austrian physicist Robert von Lieben (1878-1913) invents the thermionic valve for amplifiers. Rayon yarn is first manufactured through a viscose process. Dr. William Noe of San Francisco, Calif. builds the first portable electric vacuum cleaner, weighing 92 lbs., with a large DC electric motor, a 2-stage 18-in.-diam. turbine fan, and a rigid metal dust container mounted on the handle, with a thick floor nozzle containing a rotary brush, complete with wheels, or mounted on a board; Alonzo E. Chapman and Benjamin J. Skinner of the Skinner Manufacturing Co. in San Francisco begin manufacturing and selling it door-too-door, also offering a cleaning service priced by the square yard; on Oct. 31 Chapman files a patent application for his "pneumatic sweeper and renovator"; too bad, the co. bldg. is destroyed in the Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, and on Jan. 1, 1907 Skinner and Chapman found the Electric Renovator Manufacturing Co. in Pittsburgh, Penn. to produce the Invincible Electric Renovator, facing patent lawsuits for years, finally getting Chapman's patent #1,183,952 granted on May 23, 1916, and Skinner's patent #1,185,354 granted on May 30, 1916. Ira Hobart Spencer (1873-1928) founder of the Organ Power Co. (1892), maker of the Organblow multi-stage turbine blower for organs founds the Spencer Turbine Cleaner Co. in Hartford, Conn. to make the Turbine Vacuum Cleaner, a stationary installed vacuum cleaning system with lightweight hoses that operates on only 5 in. of water suction, with a trademarked "sugar scoop" housing profile. Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860-1930) of the U.S. and Hermann Franz Joseph Hubertus Maria Anschutz-Kaempfe (Anschütz-Kaempfe) (1872-1931) of Germany invent the Gyrocompass; in 1910 Sperry founds the Sperry Gyroscope Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y.; in 1914 Anschutz-Kaempfe sues Sperry for patent infringement and wins. Science: Every time I tried to tell you the words just came out wrong, so I had to tell you in a relativistic song? While working in the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, Austrian-born Jewish physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) has his Miracle Year of 1905, publishing five theoretical physics papers in Annalen der Physik, three of which are key to the development of 20th cent. physics: on the photoelectric effect (going beyond Planck to explain aborption as well as emission of radiation, and deriving the famous equation E = M * C^2, which goes beyond Maxwell and Planck, who showed how energy can be described by Fourier waveforms, and suggests that matter and energy are waveforms that can be mutually transformed), on statistical mechanics, and on the Special Theory of Relativity, which suggests abandoning the idea of absolute time and space by turning the speed (distance of travel divided by elapsed time) of light upside down as the real absolute (which, like Newton's theory, becomes a religious and political lost-shaker-of-salt hot potato because of its revolutionary social implications to some deep thinkers?); he also pub. a theoretical explanation of Brownian motion in terms of atoms, which is experimentally verified by French physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin, ending the dispute over John Dalton's Atomic Theory; he formulates the Relativistic Mirror Gedankenexperiment, claiming that the reflection from a mirror moving close to c would produce bright light pulses in the short wavelength range, which is confirmed in 2013; he incl. his wife Marity's name on the papers and gives her the Nobel Prize money; she really did all the math for him?; for the next five years few read or respond to the articles, until one day the great man himself, Max Planck becomes a groupie and invites him into the club, launching Lazy Eye's meteoric rise through Zurich U., Berlin, his Nobel (for the photoelectric effect, not relativity), and soon I've been everywhere, man, but I still haven't found what I'm looking for, a Unified Field Theory (UFT), AKA the Theory of Everything, a set of five equations attempting to unify electromagnetism and gravity, which he pub. in 1954; Einstein was actually a plagiarist, stealing "E=MC^2" from an 1903 paper by Olinto de Pretto and another 1904 paper by Friedrich Hasenhorf, the special theory of relativity from an 1878 Encyclopedia Britannica article by James Clerk Maxwell, a 1889 paper by George Fitzgerald, and an 1898 paper by Henri Poincare, the quantum theory from a 1900 paper by Max Planck and Wilhelm Wien, the photoelectric effect from an 1888 paper by Heinrich Hertz, the deflection of the light around the Sun by Sir Isaac Newton ca. 1700, Brownian motion from an 1827 paper by Robert Brown, plus more from an 1801 paper by Johann Georg von Soldner? In 1950 he pub. General Field Theory; "Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter"; "Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high." Just upload your catchphrases at The Binet-Simon IQ Test is developed by French psychologists Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Theodore Simon (1873-1961); too bad, to take it you have to speak French, but never fear, in 1908 East Vassalboro, Maine-born God's-gift psychologist Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957), dir. (1906-8) of the Vineland Training School for Feeble-Minded Girls and Boys in Vineland, N.J. trans. it into English and distributes 22K copies, introducing the term "mormon", er, "moron" and promoting not only intelligence testing to weed them out, but proposing IQ labels on May 18, 1910 (moron is actually the top of the food chain, with IQ of 51-70, i.e., mental age of 8-12, followed by imbecile at 26-50 and oh no, dumber-than-a-donut idiot at 0-25), then helping write the first U.S. law requiring special segregated education for them in public schools along with the blind and deaf; in 1912 he pub. The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness; now listen while I tell you a story about a man named Martin, whose Appalachian descendants get into inbreeding and become "a race of defective degenerates", causing him to call for eugenics programs incl. compulsory sterilization and segregation for the feeble-minded; in 1913 he tests IQs of 172 Euro immigrants on Ellis Island, finding that he correctly matches 80% of feeble-minded immigrants with those classed that way before they left; in 1914 he becomes the first U.S. non-moron psychologist to lend his high IQ to testify in court that being a moron should limit criminal responsibility of defendants; he also utters the unmoronly soundbyte: "Democracy means that the people rule by selecting the wisest, most intelligent and most human to tell them what to do to be happy" - what, me worry, here comes another "There are two kinds of people" messiah - not, since now morons ain't even human (you need a toupee with some brains in it, nyuk nyuk?) French surgeon Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) emigrates to the U.S., going on to develop new methods of suturing blood vessels and grafting veins and arteries. Italian physician Aldo Castellani (1877-1971) discovers the cause of the infectious tropical disease Yaws (which causes disfiguring raspberry-like skin lesions) as the spirochete Treponema pertenue, which is closely related to the syphilis spirochete. German zoologist Fritz Schaudinn (1871-1906) and German dermatologist Erich Hoffmann (1868-1959) of Germany isolate Spirochaeta pallida, the organism causing syphilis at the Berlin Charite Clinic - too late for superman Nietzsche? Am. psychologist Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (1874-1949) of Columbia U. pub. the Law of Effect: "Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation." Upper Clapton, London-born Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (1880-1960) becomes asst. at the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and is volunteered next year to assist English archeologist Francis John Haverfield (1860-1919) at a Roman excavation in Corbridge, and goes on, without training, to become one of the top archeologists, making big discoveries in Ur and other locales, getting knighted in 1935. Nonfiction: Augustine Birrell (1850-1933), In the Name of the Bodleian and Other Essays. Maurice Bloomfield (1855-1928), Cerberus, the Dog of Hades: The History of an Idea. James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest; (first book); gets him the first chair in Egyptology and Oriental History in the U.S. at the U. of Chicago. David Josiah Brewer (1837-1910), The United States: A Christian Nation; "But in what sense can it be called a Christian nation? Not in the sense that Christianity is the established religion or that people are in any matter compelled to support it. On the contrary, the Constitution specifically provides that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." Neither is it Christian in the sense that all of its citizens are either in fact or name Christian. On the contrary, all religions have free scope within our borders. Numbers of our people profess other religions, and many reject all. Nor is it Christian in the sense that a profession of Christianity is a condition of holding office or otherwise engaging in public service, or essential to recognition either politically or socially. In fact, the government as a legal organization is independent of all religions. Nevertheless, we constantly speak of this republic as a Christian Nation - in fact, as the leading Christian Nation of the world. This popular use of the term certainly has significance. It is not a mere creation of the imagination. It is not a term of derision but has substantial basis - one which justifies its use." Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Napoleon, the First Phase: Some Chapters on the Boyhood and Youth of Bonaparte, 1769-1793. Oscar Browning (1837-1923) (ed.), Milton's Tractate on Education, A Facsimile Reprint from the ed. of 1673. John Burroughs (1837-1921), Ways of Nature. J.B. Bury (1861-1927), Ireland's Saint: The Essential Biography of St. Patrick; tries to prove that he really lived and is not a myth. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), James Watt. Edward Perkins Channing (1856-1931), A History of the United States (6 vols.) (1905-25); becomes a std. work., stressing the endless progress and ultimate victory of the forces of union over particularism Social Darwinist style, covering the unique contributions of each section to the whole, and breaking with Frederick Jackson Turner and his Frontier Thesis to emphasize the role of urbanization and improvements in transportation; incl. Vol. 1: The Planting of a Nation in the New World, 1000-1660 (1905), with the soundbyte: "Religious enthusiasm, human affection, the pursuit of gain - these three motives account for the peopling of America by men of European stock and Christian faith", Vol. 2: A Century of Colonial History, 1660-1760 (1908), Vol. 3: The American Revolution, 1761-1789 (1912), Vol. 4: Federalists and Republicans, 1789-1815 (1917), Vol. 5: The Period of Transition, 1815-1848 (1921), Vol. 6: The War for Southern Independence, 1849-1865 (1925) (Pulitzer Prize). G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), Heretics. Kenyon Cox (1856-1919), Old Masters and New. John Dewey (1859-1952), The Postulate of Immediate Empiricism. Albert Venn Dicey (1835-1922), Lectures on the Relation Between Law and Public Opinion in England. Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911), Experience and Poetry. William Archibald Dunning (1857-1922), Reconstruction, Political and Economic, 1865-1877; which disses Reconstruction and takes the side of white Southerners with "meticulous and thorough research", founding the Dunning School, which promotes the "Gone With the Wind" Tragic Legend that "condemned Reconstruction as a conspiracy by vindictive radical Republicans to subjugate southern whites at bayonet point, using federal troops to prop up corrupt state regimes led by an unholy trinity of carpetbaggers, scalawags, and freedmen" (Mark L. Bradley), dominating U.S. academia through the 1930s, after which Howard K. Beale, Eric Foner et al. search for cracks in their castle. Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), Sexual Selection in Man, Touch, Smell, Hearing, Vision; vol. 4 of 6 in "Studies in the Psychology of Sex". Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex; links sex to anxiety, and claims that childhood experiences determine sexual orientation - shocks the Victorianism out of readers? James Geikie (1839-1915), Structural and Field Geology; becomes std. textbook. Geronimo (1829-1909), Geronimo: His Own Story (autobio.); as told to S.M. Barrett, supt. of education in Lawton, Okla., then ed. by Frederick Turner; appeals to Pres. Roosevelt to get permission to pub. it; "Since my life as a prisoner has begun I have heard the teachings of the white man's religion, and in many respects believe it to be better than the religion of my fathers... Believing that in a wise way it is good to go to church, and that associating with Christians would improve my character, I have adopted the Christian religion. I believe that the church has helped me much during the short time I have been a member. I am not ashamed to be a Christian, and I am glad to know that the President of the United States is a Christian, for without the help of the Almighty I do not think he could rightly judge in ruling so many people. I have advised all of my people who are not Christians, to study that religion, because it seems to me the best religion in enabling one to live right." Hermann Gollancz (1852-1930), Russia and the Alien Question. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Der Kampf um den Entwickelungsgedanken. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The Poor and the Land. Albert Bushnell Hart, Essentials of American History. Francis John Haverfield (1860-1919), The Romanization of Roman Britain; founds the discipline of Roman-British archeology; first Brit to face the ugly truth? David George Hogarth (1862-1927), The Penetration of Arabia: A Record of Western Knowledge Concerning the Arabian Peninsula. W. Holman Hunt (1827-1910), Pre-Raphaelitism. W. Holman Hunt (1827-1910) and R.L. Poole (eds.), The Political History of England (1906-11). Karl Johann Kautsky (1854-1938), Theories of Surplus Value (4 vols.) (1905-10); based on mss. left by Karl Marx (1818-83) and originally intended as a 4th vol. of Das Kapital. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), John Knox and the Reformation; The Secret of the Totem. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924), Two Tactics Jack London (1876-1916), The War of the Classes; Socialist essays. Max Otto Lorenz (1876-1959), Methods of Measuring the Concentration of Wealth; proposes the Lorenz Curve, a cumulative distribution function of the probability distribution of wealth, measuring social inequality. Emilio T. Marinetti, Futurist Manifesto. Henry Martyn and Henry Morton Dexter (1846-1910), England and Holland of the Pilgrims. John Masefield (1878-1967), Sea Life in Nelson's Time. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The Blood of the Prophets. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The Messianic Hope in the New Testament. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), Confederation and Constitution, 1783-1789. George Moore (1852-1933), Memoirs of My Dead Life (autobio.). Charles Morton (1819-1904), Sixty Years of Stage Service (autobio.) (posth.). Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916), The Eternal Life; The Principles of Art Education. Sir James Outram (1864-1925), In the Heart of the Canadian Rockies. Walter Hines Page (1855-1918), A Publisher's Confession (autobio.). George Washington Plunkitt (1842-1924), Plunkitt of Tammany Hall: A Series of Very Plain Talks on Very Practical Politics; Tammany Hall politician, who almost died from an Oct. 7 operation for retro-peritoneal abscess (because he was so full of shit?) tries to defend Tammany Hall and its graft, with the soundbyte: "Everybody is talkin' these days about Tammany men growin' rich on graft, but nobody thinks of drawin' the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft", explaining that it "does missionary work like a church, it's got big expenses and it's got to be supported by the faithful", praising it for helping families whose houses have burned down because "It's philanthropy, but it's politics, too, mighty good politics. Who can tell how many votes one of these fires brings me? The poor are the most grateful people in the world, and, let me tell you, they have more friends in their neighborhoods than the rich"; "I might sum up the whole thing by sayin' I seen my opportunities and I took 'em." Reginald Punnett (1875-1967), Mendelism; the first textbook on genetics?; introduces the Punnett Square. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), In Our Convent Days. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), On Denoting; pub. in Mind; introduces definite and indefinite descriptions, and formulates descriptivism for proper names, reducing them to disguised and abbreviated definite descriptions, causing Frank P. Ramsey to call it "that paradigm of philosophy", and Peter Ludlow to call it "the paradigm of philosophy"; he goes on to found Analytic Philosophy, which emphasizes modern formal logic and rejects grand sweeping philosophical systems in favor of well-analyzed bits and pieces. Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941), The Greatest Trust in the World; exposes the Am. meatpacking industry, inspiring Upton Sinclair. Wanda von Sacher-Masoch (Aurora von Romelin), Memoirs; wife of masochist Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95) tells all. George Santayana (1863-1952), The Life of Reason: Or, The Phases of Human Progress (5 vols.) (1905-6). Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965), Johann Sebastian Bach (2 vols.) (1905, 1908); advocates the simple undistorted style of performing his works, which gets accepted as std. Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921), The Growth of the Soul. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and Its Attainment; "There slumber in every human being faculties by means of which he can acquire for himself a knowledge of higher worlds. Mystics, Gnostics, Theosophists - all speak of a world of soul and spirit which for them is just as real as the world we see with our physical eyes and touch with our physical hands. At every moment the listener may say to himself: that, of which they speak, I too can learn, if I develop within myself certain powers which today still slumber within me. There remains only one question - how to set to work to develop such faculties. For this purpose, they only can give advice who already possess such powers." William St. Clair Tisdall (1859-1928), The Original Sources of the Qur'an. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Flauto Solo (1-act comedy) (Prague) (Nov. 12); libretto by Hans von Wolzogen. Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), When We Are Lost; From the Uplands to the Sea; Leaves, Shadows and Dreams; In the Silence of the Woods; Green Branches; The Fairies; Golden Guendolen; The Song in the Twilight; Mircath: Viking Battle Song. Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Hiver-Printemps (Winter-Spring) (symphony). Louis A. Coerne, Zenobia (opera) (Bremen); first U.S. opera produced in Europe. Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Images (First Series). Frederick Delius (1862-1934), A Mass of Life. Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Introduction and Allegro for Strings. Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928), Americanesque; based on three minstrel show tunes. Victor Herbert (1859-1924), Miss Dolly Dollars (operetta) (Knickerbocker Theatre, New York) (Sept. 4); Mlle. Modiste (operetta) (Knickerbocker Theatre, New York) (Dec. 25) (202 perf.); incl. Kiss Me Again. Franz Lehar (1870-1948), The Merry Widow (Die Lustige Witwe) (operetta) (Theater an der Wien, Vienna) (Dec. 30); incl. Vilja Song, You'll Find Me at Maxim's, Merry Widow Waltz; after hearing it, Austrian composer Oscar Straus (1870-1954) remarks "Das kann ich auch" ("I can also do that"). Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Cherubin (Chérubin) (opera) (Monte Carlo, Feb. 14); a sequel to "The Marriage of Figaro", written for Mary Garden. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), The Pied Piper of Hamelin. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Salome (opera) (Dresden); his first hit; the lust of Salome for John the Baptist shocks Victorian audiences, causing it to be banned in Boston, Mass., making it more popular?; incl. Dance of the Seven Veils. Harry Von Tilzer (1872-1946) and Andrew B. Sterling (1874-1955), Wait 'Till the Sun Shines, Nellie; sung every Xmas Eve and on the last trading day of each year by floor traders at the NYSE starting in 1934. Anton Webern (1883-1945), Langsamer Satz. Movies: J. Stuart Blackton's Adventures of Sherlock Holmes; or, Held for Ransom (Oct. 7) written by Theodore Liebler Jr. based on "The Sign of the Four" by Arthur Conan Doyle, the first serious Sherlock Holmes film stars Maurice George Costello (1877-1950), who becomes the first matinee idol, becoming a member of the first-ever motion picture stock co., playing opposite "the Vitagraph Girl" Florence Turner (who has her pay raised to $22 a week, supplemented by seamstress work); Maurice discovers Moses Harry "Moe" Horwitz (b. 1897) of Three Stooges fame when he runs errands for the studio at no charge; his wife (1902-27) Mae Costello (1882-1929) also works for Vitagraph, going on to have daughters Helene Costello (1906-57) and Dolores Costello (1903-79) ("Goddess of the Silent Screen"), who in 1928-35 marries John Barrymore, having son John Drew (Blyth) Barrymore (1932-2004), father of Drew Barrymore (1975-). Ren Jingfeng's The Battle of Dingjunshan (Beijing) is the first Chinese film, launching the Golden Age of Chinese Cinema centered in Shanghai (ends 1937). Edwin S. Porter's The Kleptomaniac (Feb. 5) (Edison Studios) stars Aline Boyd as kleptomaniac Mrs. Banker, and Phineas Nairs and Jane Stewart as store detectives. Nonguet's Potemkin is produced in France. Edwin S. Porter's The Seven Ages (Feb. 27) (Edison Studios) follows a couple from childhood through old age, making use of side lighting, closeups, and changing shots within a scene. ?'s Tom, Tom, the Piper's Son (Mar. 9) (Biograph) stars Frank Marion and Wallace McCutcheon. Edwin S. Porter's and Wallace McCutcheon's The White Caps (Sept. 1905) (Edison Studios), about a KKK-like group stars Kate Toncray and John R. Cumpson, and is the film debut of Cincinnati, Ohio-born Arthur Vaughan Johnson (1876-1916), who in 1909 goes to work for Biograph Studios, where he becomes D.W. Griffith's favorite actor, performing with Mary Pickford and Florence Lawrence; is founded after being offered the chance to direct, he moves to Lubin Studios, working with Florence Hackett; too bad, bad health causes him to retire in 1915 after acting in 300+ films and directing 26, and on Jan. 17, 1916 he dies of TB. Art: E.S. Curtis, Geronimo (photo); Red Cloud (photo); Sioux Chiefs (photo). Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944), Our Neighbors (drawings). George Luks (1867-1933), Hester Street; The Wrestlers. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe/Line); his wife Amelie Noellie Matisse-Parayre; his first Fauvist work, exhibited at the Salon d'Automne along with Woman with a Hat (La Femme au Chapeau) (Fauvist); (another of his wife Amelie), earning the label as a slam from critic Louis Vauxcelles on Oct. 17 in Gil Blas ("Donatello chez les fauves"); purchased by Leo and Gertrude Stein in Paris, raising Matisse's spirits; The Open Window; Luxe, Calme et Volupte; Les Toits de Collioure; Landscape at Collioure; Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joys of Life) (69.5" x 94.75") (1905-6); exhibited at the Salon des Independants next year, causing outrage with its huge size, cadium colors, and spatial distortions, turning on Pablo Picasso and causing him to begin work on "Les Demoiselles D'Avignon". Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Harlequin's Family; incl. Acrobat and Young Harlequin, Acrobat with Ball; Woman with Loaves. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), Buddha. Frederic Remington (1861-1909), Evening on a Canadian Lake. Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope; exhibited at the Salon des Independants at the first showing of the Fauves; Girl with a Doll. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), The Marlborough Family; Group with Parasols (A Siesta); Sotheby's auctions it for $23.5M in Dec. 2004. John Sloan (1871-1951), Sunbathers on the Roof. Plays: Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), Verdad. Richard Beer-Hofmann, Der Graf von Charolais (verse drama). David Belasco (1833-1931), The Girl of the Golden West (Pittsburgh); in the 1849 San Francisco Gold Rush, Polka Saloon owner Minnie, her beau Dick Johnson, bandit Ramerrez, and sheriff Jack Rance; made into an opera by Puccini in 1910. Tristan Bernard (1866-1947), Triplepatte (comedy). Frances Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924), A Little Princess: Being the Whole Story of Sara Crew Now Being Told for the First Time; 7-y.-o. India-born Sara Crew is taken by her wealthy father Capt. Crewe to Miss Minchin's Boarding School for Girls in London, leaving her with an elegant wardrobe and the doll Emily, making headmistress Miss Minchin jealous, which she hides until Capt. Crewe dies penniless of jungle fever four years later, causing Miss Minchin to seize her belongings and make her into a beggar-servant who has to live in the attic and endure abuse, while being consoled by friends Ermengarde, Lottie, and Becky, until a baker adopts her, after which Capt. Crewe's partner Tom Carrisford arrives looking for her after their diamond mine strikes it rich, and she is discovered by his servant Ram Dass and his pet monkey. Ivan Caryll (1861-1921), George Grossmith Jr. (1874-1935), Lionel Monckton (1861-1924), Adrian Ross (1859-1933), and Percy Greenbank (1878-1968), The Spring Chicken (musical comedy) (Gaiety Theate, West End, London) (May 30) (401 perf.); produced by George Edwardes; stars Grossmith as atty. Gustav Babori, Harry Grattan as his client Baron Papuche, Edmund Payne as Mr. Girdle, Connie Ross as Mrs. Girdle, and Gertie Millar as Rosalie. Padraic Colum (1881-1972), The Land. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The Blood of the Prophets. Catulle Mendes (1841-1909), Scarron. Jean Richepin (1849-1926), Don Quichotte. Edwin Milton Royle (1862-1942), The Squaw Man (Oct. 23) (Wallack's Theatre, New York) (222 perf.); stars William Faversham as Englishman Capt. James Wynnegate AKA Jim Carson, who goes West and falls in love with an Indian babe, and William S. Hart as bad guy Cash Hawkins; filmed in 1914. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Man and Superman (drama) (Royal Court Theatre, London) (May 23); written in 1903; Mr. Whitefield dies, leaving his daughter Ann (Lilah McCarthy) in the care of old Roebuck Ramsden and young stud John "Jack" Tanner (Harley Granville Barker), author of "The Revolutionist's Handbook and Pocket Companion", who "is prodigiously fluent of speech, restless, excitable (mark the snorting nostril and the restless blue eye, just the thirty-secondth of an inch too wide open), possibly a little mad", who tries unsuccessfully to inculcate his rev. beliefs in her, but ends up getting pussy-whipped and marrying him, beating out suitor Octavius Robinson; incl. the seemingly extraneous 3rd act "Don Juan in Hell", in which Don Juan is the quarry not the hunter, and which is not staged until June 4, 1907. Major Barbara (Royal Court Theatre, London) (Nov. 28) (Playhouse Theatre, New York) (Dec. 9, 1915); Salvation Army Maj. Barbara Undershaft in West Ham, East London finds out that she is the long-separated daughter of wealthy munitions manufacturer Andrew Undershaft, and they agree to visit each other's place of work, finding her engaged to Greek scholar Adolphus Cusins, and tries to impress her by giving money to the Salvation Army, which only turns her off because she believes his wealth is "tainted", but later decides that "They would take money from the Devil himself and be only too glad to get it out of his hands and into God's"; "I stood on the rock I thought eternal; and... it crumbled under me"; filmed in 1941 starring Wendy Hiller and Rex Harrison; written for English actress Eleanor Robson Belmont (1879-1979), who can't perform the role due to contractual obligations, and retires after marrying rich Yankee August Belmont Jr. on Feb. 26, 1910, going on to found the Metropolitan Opera Guild. John Millington Synge (1871-1909), The Well of the Saints. Howard Talbot (1865-1928), The White Chrysanthemum (musical). Poetry: Bliss Carman (1861-1929), Poems; The Poetry of Life. Laurence Hope (1865-1904), Indian Love. Pauline Johnson (1861-1913), Canadian Born. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), New Collected Rhymes. Jean Moreas (1856-1910), Les Stances (6 vols.). Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914), Galgenlieder. Sir Lewis Morris (1833-1907), The New Rambler from Desk to Platform. Alfred Noyes (1880-1958), The Forest of Wild Thyme. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Das Stundenbuch (The Book of Hours). Arthur Symons (1865-1945), A Book of Twenty Songs. John Todhunter, Sounds and Sweet Airs. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Heures d'Apres-Midi. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), De Profundis (posth.). Novels: Jacques d'Adelsward-Fersen (1880-1923), Lord Lyllian; satire of his Oscar Wilde-like scandal of 1903, where he is arrested for having sex with Parisian schoolboys and allegedly holding Black Masses, after which he flees to exile on Capri Island in Italy, building Gloriette House (AKA Villa Lysis) near where Roman emperor Tiberius had his Villa Jovis, living with gay bud Nino Cesarini. Leonid Nikolaevich Andreyev (1871-1919), The Red Laugh. Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921), La Quimera. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), The Return. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Sacred and Profane Love (The Book of Carlotta); Tales of the Five Towns (short stories). Johan Bojer (1872-1959), Helga (first novel). Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Reckoning. Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932), The Colonel's Dream. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Club of Queer Trades (short stories). Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr., (1864-1946) The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan; #2 in the Ku Klux trilogy incl. "The Leopard's Spots" and "The Traitor"; spawns a 1905 play; filmed in 1915 as "The Birth of a Nation", which spawns a revival of the KKK, which Dixon dissociates himself from because he is pro-Jewish and pro-Roman Catholic. Marcellus Emants (1848-1923), Waan. Ronald Firbank (1886-1926), Impression d'Automne; Odette d'Antrevernes; A Study in Temperament. E.M. Forster (1879-1970), Where Angels Fear to Tread (first novel); unusual maturity of style for such a young whippersnapper? Jacques Futrelle (1875-1912), The Problem of Cell 13; introduces Prof. Augustus S.F.X. Van Dusen, "the Thinking Machine". H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Ayesha: The Return of She. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), The Romance of the Milky Way and Other Studies and Stories (posth.). Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Folkungatradet (Folkungaträdet). Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Unterm Rad. William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Captain's All (short stories). Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938), The Duel. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Morals of Marcus Ordeyne. Jack London (1876-1916), Tales of the Fish Patrol (short stories); The Game (prize fighting). Pierre Loti (1850-1923), La Troisieme Jeunesse de Madame Prune. Charles Major (1856-1913), Yolanda. Heinrich Mann (1871-1950), Professor Unrat (The Blue Angel). John Masefield (1878-1967), A Mainsail Haul (first novel). William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), Vivien. George Moore (1852-1933), The Lake. Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), I Am A Cat (1905-7). Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), A Maker of History; The Master Mummer. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Il Fu Mattia Pascal. Walter Herries Pollock (1850-1926) and Guy Cameron Pollock, Hay Fever. Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943), Burgomaster Hoeck and His Wife; husband is jealous of his wife's joie de vivre. Morgan Robertson (1861-1915), The Submarine Destroyer; describes his invention of the periscope, which he sells to the Holland Submarine Co. for $50K. Frederick Rolfe (1860-1913), Don Tarquinio. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), Bardelys the Magnificent. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), The Perfume of Eros: A Fifth Avenue Incident. Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-1915), At Close Range. Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), I Am a Cat; makes him a star; Rondon (Tower of London). Carl Spitteler (1845-1924), Olympic Spring. August Strindberg (1849-1912), Historical Miniatures. Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914), Babis Siebente Liebe. Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921), Andreas Vost. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), The Marriage of William Ashe; bestseller. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Alexander von Babylon. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), Kipps: The Story of a Simple Soul; a draper's asst. inherits a small fortune; made into the 1940 Carol Reed film "Kipps" and the 1967 George Sidney film "Half a Sixpence". Edith Wharton (1862-1937), The House of Mirth. Births: English composer (gay) (Communist) (pacifist) Sir Michael Kemp Tippett (d. 1998) on Jan. 2 in London; English-Cornish descent; educated at the Royal College of Music; knighted in 1966. Am. "The Thief of Bagdad" actress Anna May (Lu Tsong) Wong (d. 1961) on Jan. 3 in Los Angeles, Calif.; first notable Hollywood Chinese-Am. actress. Welsh poet Idris Davies (d. 1953) on Jan. 6. Am. country singer-actor Woodward Maurice "Tex" Ritter (d. 1974) on Jan. 12 in Murvaul, Tex.; father of John Ritter (1948-); grandfather of Jason Ritter (1980-). Am. "Girls About Time", "Trouble in Paradise" 5'9 actress ("Wavishing Kay Fwancis") Kay Francis (Katharine Edwina Gibbs) (d. 1968) on Jan. 13 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; wife of John Meehan, (1931-3) Kenneth MacKenna (1899-1962), and three others. English "Richard Burton's father Sen. Gallio in The Robe", "Sokurah the Magician in The 7th Voyage of Sinbad", "Sir Henry Morgan in Blackbeard the Pirate" actor Torin Thatcher (d. 1981) on Jan. 15 in Bombay, India. Am. jazz saxophonist-bandleader Peggy Gilbert (Margaret F. Knechtges) (d. 2007) on Jan. 17 in Sioux City, Iowa. Am. "Silas Meacham in Fort Apache" actor-producer Granville G. "Grant" Withers (d. 1959) on Jan. 17 in Pueblo, Calif.; marries 5x; friend of John Wayne and John Ford. Am. crime boss Joseph (Giuseppe) "Joe Bananas" Bonanno (d. 2002) on Jan. 18 in Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily; emigrates to the U.S. in 1906; father of Salvatore "Bill" Bonanno (1932-2008). Am. Houston Post chmn. and U.S. HEW secy. #1 (1953-5) Oveta Culp Hobby (d. 1995) on Jan. 19 in Killeen, Tex.; wife (1931-) of William Pettus Hobby (1878-1964). French fashion designer Christian Dior (d. 1957) on Jan. 21 in Granville, Normandy; at age 10 memorizes the Latin names of flowers. Mexican functionalist architect Enrique del Moral Dominguez (d. 1987) on Jan. 21 in Irapuato, Guanajuato. Am. "mean old man in I Love Lucy" actor Charles Lane (Charles Gerstle Levison) (d. 2007) on Jan. 26 in San Francisco, Calif. Austrian singer Baroness Maria Augusta von Trapp (nee Kutschera) (d. 1987) on Jan. 26 in Vienna; wife (1927-) of naval cmdr. Georg von Trapp (1880-1947); mother of Rosmarie von Trapp (1929-), Eleanore von Trapp (1931-) and Johannes von Trapp (1939-). Am. "Floyd Lawson the Barber in The Andy Griffith Show" actor Howard Terbell McNear (d. 1969) on Jn. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. inventor Luther George Simjian (d. 1997) on Jan. 28 in Gaziantep, Turkey; Armenian parents; emigrates to the U.S. in 1920. Am. abstract expressionist painter-sculptor (Jewish) Barnett Newman (d. 1970) on Jan. 29 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at CCNY. Italian physicist (Jewish) Emilio Gino Segre (Segrè) (d. 1989) on Jan. 30 in Tivoli; educated at the U. of Rome; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938. Dutch novelist Anna Blaman (Johanna Petronella Vrugt) (d. 1960) on Jan. 31 in Rotterdam. Am. "Appointment in Samarra", "BUtterfield 8" John Henry O'Hara (d. 1970) on Jan. 31 in Pottsville, Penn. Am. "The Fountainhead", "Atlas Shrugged" Libertarian philosopher-novelist-playwright (Jewish) (atheist) (Objectivism founder) Ayn Rand (Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum) (d. 1982) (pr. like German "ein") on Feb. 2 (Jan. 20 Old Style) in St. Petersburg, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1926. Polish Communist leader Wladyslaw Gomulka (d. 1982) on Feb. 6 in Krosno. British WWII firefighter Cyril Thomas Demarne (d. 2007) on Feb. 7 in Poplar, London. Am. jazz-swing drummer (black) (hunchback) ("the King of Swing") William Henry "Chick" Webb (d. 1939) on Feb. 10 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Over the Rainbow" composer (Jewish) Harold Arlen (Hyman Arluck) (d. 1986) on Feb. 15 in Buffalo, N.Y. Am. trumpteer-bandleader Charlie Spivak (d. 1982) on Feb. 17 in New Haven, Conn. (Ukraine?). Am. New Thought writer Neville Lancelot Goddard (d. 1972) on Feb. 19 in St. Michael, Barbados; emigrates to the U.S. in 1922. Am. millner (hatmaker) Sally Victor (nee Josephs) (d. 1977) on Feb. 23 in Scranton, Penn. Am. "The New England Mind" historian ("the master of American intellectual history" - Alfred Kazin) (atheist) Perry G.E. Miller (d. 1963) on Feb. 25 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Roger Byam in "Mutiny on the Bounty" actor Stanislas Pascal Franchot Tone (d. 1968) on Feb. 27 in Niagara Falls, N.Y.; son of Frank Jerome Tone, pres. of the Carborundum Co.; relative of Wolfe Tone (1763-98); claims to be a descendant of Irish rebel Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-98); educated at Cornell U. Am. "The Cradle Will Rock"pianist-composer (Jewish) (gay) Marc Blitzstein (d. 1964) on Mar. 2 in Philadelphia, Penn.; gives first concert at age 5, composes at 7, and makes his debut as solo pianist with the Philadelphia Orchestra at 15 husband of novelist Eva GoldBeck (1970-), daughter of opera singer Lina Abarbanell. Am. "Ida Red" Western swing bandleader ("King of Western Swing") James Robert "Bob" Wills (d. 1975) (Texas Playboys) on Mar. 6 near Kosse, Tex.; brother of Billy Jack Wills (1926-91) and Johnnie Lee Wills. English biographer-critic Peter Courtney Quennell on Mar. 9 in Bromley, London; educated at Oxford U. English "Caterpillar in Alice in Wonderland" actor Richard Haydn (George Richard Haydon) (d. 1985) on Mar. 10 in Camberwell, London. French "The Opium of the Intellectals" sociologist-journalist (Jewish) Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (d. 19830 on Mar. 14 in Paris; takes first place in 1928 Agregation of philosophy the same year that his friend-opponent Jean-Paul Sartre fails. English "South of the Border (Down Mexico Way)", "Man of Mystery" composer (Jewish) Michael Carr (Maurice Alfred Cohen) (d. 1968) on Mar. 17 in Leeds, West Yorkshire; collaborator of Jimmy Kennedy (1902-84). Am. physicist and UFO researcher Thomas Townsend Brown (d. 1985) on Mar. 18 in Zanesville, Ohio. English "Charles Edward Chipping in Goodbye, Mr. Chips", "Richard Hanny in The 39 Steps" actor Friedrich Robert Donat (d. 1958) on Mar. 18 in Withington, Manchester; husband (1953-8) of Renee Asherson (1915-). German Nazi architect ("Architect of the Third Reich") Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (d. 1981) on Mar. 19 in Mannheim; only senior Nazi figure to say he's sorry? Am. poet and children's writer Phyllis McGinley (d. 1978) on Mar. 21 in Ontario, Ore.; educated at USC and the U. of Utah. German "Lili Marleen" singer-songwriter Lale Anderson (Liese-Lotte Helene Berta Bunnenberg) (d. 1972) (AKA Nicola Wilke) on Mar. 23 in Bremerhaven. Am. bowler Lou "Wrongfoot Louie" Campi (d. 1989) on Mar. 23 in Verona, Italy. English physicist Sir John Turton Randall (d. 1984) on Mar. 23 in Newton-le-Willows, St. Helens, Lancashire; educated at the U. of Manchester. German Col. Albrecht Ritter Mertz von Quirnheim (d. 1944) on Mar. 25 in Munich; son of Capt. Hermann Ritter Mertz von Quirnheim (1866-1947). Austrian "Man's Search for Meaning" psychiatrist (Jewish) Viktor Emil Frankl (d. 1997) on Mar. 26 in Leopoldstadt, Vienna. Am. "Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom" zoologist Richard Marlin Perkins (d. 1986) on Mar. 28 in Carthage, Mo.; educated at the U. of Mo. English painter Edward Burra (d. 1976) on Mar. 29 in East Sussex; educated at the Royal College of Art; known for his depictions of black life in Harlem, N.Y. Am. physicist Gerald L. Pearson (d. 1987) on Mar. 31 in Salem, Ore.; educated at Stanford U. French Algiers Putsch gen. Edmond Jouhaud (d. 1995) on Apr. 2 in Bou-Sfer, Algeria; of Corsican descent. Am. "Fred's wife in Make Room for Daddy" actress Peggy Converse (nee Randall) (d. 2001) on Apr. 3 in Oregon City, Ore.; wife (1944-97) of Don Porter (1912-97). U.S. Fulbright Fellowships Sen. (D-Ark.) (1945-75) James William Fulbright (OG "very bright") (d. 1995) on Apr. 9 in Sumner, Mo.; educated at the U. of Ark., Oxford U., and George Washington U. U.S. Sen. (D-Wash.) (1944-81) Warren Grant "Maggie" Magnuson (d. 1989) on Apr. 12 in Moorhead, Minn.; of Norwegian and Swedish descent; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. chemotherapy physician George Herbert Hitchings (d. 1998) on Apr. 18 in Hoquiam, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash., and Harvard U. Scottish aviator (alcoholic) James Allan "Jim" Mollison (d. 1959) on Apr. 19 in Glasgow. Am. Dem. Calif gov. #32 (1959-67) Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. (d. 1996) on Apr. 21 in San Francisco, Calif.; German Protestant descent family, Irish Roman Catholic descent mother; nicknamed Pat after giving Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech at street corners at age 12 to sell Liberty Bonds; educated at San Francisco Law School; father of Jerry Brown (1938-). Am. "All the King's Men" novelist-poet Robert Penn Warren (d. 1989) on Apr. 24 in Guthrie, Ky.; son of Robert Warren and Anna Penn; descendant of Am. Rev. War Col. Abram Penn (1743-1801); educated at Vanderbilt U., where he joins the Fugitive Group of Southern regional writers, UCB, Yale U, and New College, Oxford U. Am. psychologist (founder of Personal Construct Psychology) George Alexander Kelly (d. 1967) on Apr. 28 in Sumner County, Kan.; not to be confused with playwright George Edward Kelly (1887-1974). Am. "Flower Drum Song", "The Robe", "The Singing Nun", film dir. (Jewish) Henry Koster (Hermann Kosterlitz) (d. 1988) on May 1 in Berlin, Germany; discoverer of Abbott & Costello. Am. "MacDougal Duff" mystery writer (Jewish) Charlotte Armstrong Lewi (d. 1969) (AKA Jo Valentine) on May 2 in Vulcan, Mich. English "The Cruel Sea", "The Captive Heart" composer Alan Rawsthorne (d. 1971) on May 2 in Haslingden, Lancashire. Am. TV-movie producer Philip Ned Krasne (d. 1999) on May 6 in Norfolk, Neb.; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. "Jedediah Leland in Citizen Kane, "Third Man" actor Joseph Cheshire Cotten (d. 1994) on May 15 in Petersburg, Va. English "The Darling Buds of May", "My Uncle Silas" novelist Herbert Ernest Bates (d. 1974) on May 16 in Rushden, Northamptonshire. Am. "Tom Joad in The Grapes of Wrath", "Mister Roberts", "Juror #8 in Twelve Angry Men", "The President in Fail-Safe" 6'1" actor (Christian Scientist-turned-agnostic) Henry Jaynes "Hank" Fonda (d. 1982) on May 16 in Grand Island, Neb.; educated at the U. of Mich.: father of Jane Fonda (1937-) and Peter Fonda (1940-); grandfather of Bridget Fonda (1964-) and Troy Garity (1973-). Am. "The Teahouse of the August Moon" playwright John Patrick (Goggan) (d. 1995) on May 17 in Louisville, Ky. Am. Repub. liberal judge John Minor Wisdom (d. 1999) on May 17 in New Orleans, La.; educated at Washington & Lee U., and Tulane U. Am. historian (of the Renaissance) (Jewish) Felix Gilbert (d. 1991) on May 21 in Baden-Baden; educated at the U. of Berlin; student of Friedrich Meinecke. Russian "Quiet Flows the Don", "Virgin Soil Upturned" novelist Mikhail Alexandrovich Sholokhov (d. 1984) on May 24 (May 11 Old Style) in Veshenskaya. Am. journalist (Christian Science Monitor) Joseph Close Harsch (d. 1998) on May 25 in Toledo, Hio; educated at Williams College. English "Long John Silver in Treasure Island" actor Robert Newton (d. 1956) on June 1 in Shaftesbury, Dorset; originator of the pseudo-Cornish "arrgh" pirate accent used in films. English "Ayleborne in Star Trek" actor John Abbott (Kefford) (d. 1996) on June 5 in London. Am. Congregational minister Harold John Ockenga (d. 1985) on June 6 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Princeton Theological Seminar, Westminster Theological Seminary, and U. of Pittsburgh. Am. world heavyweight boxing champ #14 (1935-7) ("Bulldog of Bergen") ("Cinderella Man") James J. (Walter) "Jim" Braddock (d. 1974) on June 7 in Hell's Kitchen, New York City. Am. murderer (Jewish) (gay) Richard Albert Loeb (d. 1936) on June 11 in Chicago, Ill.; collaborator of Nathan Leopold Jr. (1904-71); Jewish father, Roman Catholic mother. Am. "Kollege of Musical Knowledge" bandleader (Christian Scientist) James Kern "Kay" Kyser (d. 1985) on June 18 in Rocky Mount, N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C.; mother is the first female pharmacist in the U.S., which doesn't stop him from becoming a Christian Scientist about 1945. Am. "Rock Hudson's mother in McMillan and Wife" actress Mildred Natwick (d. 1994) on June 19 in Baltimore, Md.; of Norwegian descent; educated at Bennett College. Am. "The Children's Hour", "The Little Foxes" dramatist (Jewish) (Communist) Lillian Florence "Lilly" Hellman (d. 1984) on June 20 in New Orleans, La.; educated at New York U., and Columbia U.; lover of Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961), who immortalizes her as Nora Charles. French existentialist Marxist philosopher-novelist-essayist-playwright (atheist) (anarchist?) (blind in right eye) Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (d. 1980) on June 21 in Paris; mother is a cousin of Albert Schweitzer. English archdeacon of Hastings (1956-76) Guy Mayfield (d. 1976) on June 23; educated at Lancing College, and Magdalene College, Cambridge U. English artist Reginald John "Rex" Whistler (d. 1944) on June 24 in Eltham, London. Am. "The Race Question" humanist anthropologist (Jewish) Ashley Montagu (Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu) (Israel Ehrenberg) (d. 1999) on June 28 in London; educated at Columbia U., and London School of Economics; becomes U.S. citizen in 1940; husband (1929-75) of Diana Trilling (1905-96). Am. "The Middle of the Journey" writer-critic (Jewish) Lionel Mordechai (Mordecai) Trilling (d. 1975) on July 4 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Nancy Drew" novelist Mildred Augustine Wirt Benson (AKA Carolyn Keene) (d. 2002) on July 10 in Ladora, Iowa. Pakistani PM #4 (1955-6) Chaudhry Mohammad (Muhammad) Ali (d. 1980) on July 15 in Juilunder, Punjab; father of Khalid Anwer (1938-). Am. "Return of the Fly" film dir.-writer Edward Bernds (d. 2000) on July 12 in Chicago, Ill. English royal heir (epileptic) Prince John of the U.K. (d. 1919) on July 12 in York Cottage, Sandringham; diagnosed with epilepsy in 1909 and kept from public view in Sandringham House under the care of governess "Lala" Bill. Am. NYT film critic (1940-67) Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. (d. 1981) on July 13 in Lutherville, Md.; educated at Princeton U. Kiwi RAF Cmdr. Henry Neville Gynes Ramsbottom-Isherwood (d. 1950) on July 13 in Petone, Wellington. Am. "Swing Time", "Redhead" "Sweet Charity", "The Way You Look Tonight", "The Sunny Side of the Street" librettist-lyricist (Jewish) Dorothy Fields (d. 1974) on July 15 in Allenhurst, N.J.; Polish Jewish immigrant father; sister of Joseph Fields (1895-1966) and Herbert Fields (1897-1958); collaborator of Jimmy McHugh (1894-1969). Am. historian Merrill Monroe Jensen (d. 1980) on July 16 in Elk Horn, Iowa; educated at the U. of Wash., and U. of Wisc.; follower of Charles Austin Beard's Progressive School of Am. History. Am. "Martin Kane, Private Eye", "Barrie Craig, Confidential Investigator" actor William Gargan (d. 1979) on July 17 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Edward Gargan (1902-64). Am. writer-critic (Jewish) Diana Trilling (nee Rubin) (d. 1996) on July 21; wife (1929-75) of Lionel Trilling (1905-75). British "Crowds and Power" novelist (Jewish) Elias Canetti (d. 1994) on July 25 in Rousse, Bulgaria; descended from Sephardic Spanish Jews; emigrates to England in 1938. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player-mgr. Leo Ernest "Lippy" "the Lip" Durocher (d. 1991) on July 27 in West Springfield, Mass.; French-Canadian immigrant parents; husband (1948-60) of Laraine Day (1920-2007); joins the New York Yankees as an infielder in 1925 and 1928-9, then the Cincinnati Reds in 1930-3, then 1933-7 as star shortstop for the St. Louis Cardinals, followed by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1938-41, 1943, 1945; mgr. (1939-46, 1948) of the Brooklyn Dodgers, (1948-55) New York Giants, (1966-72) Chicago Cubs, and (1972-3) Houston Astros. Am. "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" creator (Jewish) Robert L. "Bob" May (d. 1976) on July 27 in Rochelle, N.Y.; brother-in-law of Johnny Marks (1909-85). Am. "Mantrap", "Wings" actress ("the It Girl") Clara Gordon Bow (d. 1965) on July 29 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; wife (1931-62) of Rex Bell. Swedish statesman and U.N. secy.-gen. (1953-61) Dag ("daylight") Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (Hammarskjöld) (d. 1961) on July 29 in Jonkoping (Jönköping); educated at Uppsala U., and Stockholm U. Am. poet (Jewish) and U.S. poet laureate #23 (1974-6) and #50 (2000-1) Stanley Jasspon Kunitz (d. 2006) on July 29 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Harvard U.; bankrupt father commits suicide 6 weeks before he is born. Am. "Nora Charles in The Thin Man" actress ("Queen of Hollywood") Myrna Loy (Myrna Adele Williams) (d. 1993) on Aug. 2 near Radersburg (near Helena), Mont.; Pres. Teddy Roosevelt's favorite actress?; Dillinger was watching one of her films at the Biograph Theater on the day of his death. Mexican "Belinha De Rezende in Flying Down to Rio" actress ("Princess of Mexico") Dolores del Rio (Maria de los Dolores Asunsolo y Lopez Negrete) (d. 1983) on Aug. 3 in Durango; 2nd cousin of Ramon Navarro (1899-1968). Am. economist (Jewish) Wassily Wassilyovitch Leontief (d. 1999) on Aug. 5 in Munich, Germany; Jewish mother; educated at the U. of Leningrad, and U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1931. Soviet MiG aircraft designer Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (d. 1970) on Aug. 5 in Sanahin, Elisabethpol; of Armenian descent; brother of Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (1895-1978); collaborator of Mikhail Gurevich (1893-1976). French atonal composer Andre Jolivet (d. 1974) on Aug. 8 in Paris; student of Edgard Varese; dir. of the Comedie Francaise in 1945-59. Am. Buffalino crime family boss Joseph "Joe the Barber" Barbara (d. 1959) on Aug. 9 in Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily; emigrates to the U.S. in 1921. English "Quo Vadis", "Personal Affair" actor Leo John Genn (d. 1978) on Aug. 9 in London; educated at Cambridge U. English Keynesian economist (Jewish) Richard Ferdinand Kahn, Baron Kahn (d. 1989) on Aug. 10 in Hampstead; educated at King's College, Cambridge U.; created baron in 1965. Am. biochemist Erwin Chargaff (d. 2002) on Aug. 11 in Czernowitz, Austria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1935. Welsh journalist Gareth Richard Vaughan Jones (d. 1935) on Aug. 13 in Barry; educated at the U. of Wales, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. Gestalt Therapy psychotherapist (Jewish) Laura Perls (nee Lore Posner) (d. 1990) on Aug. 15 in Pforzheim, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1946; wife (1930-) of Fritz Perls (1893-1970). Polish mathematician (Enigma Machine codebreaker) Marian Adam Rejewski (d. 1980) on Aug. 16 in Bromberg, Germany. Am. 5'1" "first Miss America (1921) Margaret Gorman (Margaret G. Cahill) (d. 1995) on Aug. 18 in Washington, D.C. Am. "Persuasive Percussion" bandleader-violinist Enoch Light (d. 1978) on Aug. 18. Am. "Nancy" cartoonist Ernest Paul "Ernie" Bushmiller Jr. (d. 1982) on Aug. 23 in South Bronx, N.Y.; immigrant parents. English "The Rio grande" composer-conductor Leonard Constant Lambert (d. 1951) on Aug. 23; son of George Lambert (1873-1930); father of Kit Lambert (1935-81); educated at the Royal College of Music. Am. "Panama Hattie" actor-comedian John Lee Morgan Beauregard "Rags" Ragland (d. 1946) on Aug. 23 in Louisville, Ky. Sierra Leone pres. #1 (1971-85) (black) Siaka Probyn Stevens (d. 1988) on Aug. 24 in Moyamba; Limba parents. Am. "The Snake Pit" novelist Mary Jane Ward (d. 1981) on Aug. 27 in Fairmount, Indl. Am. "Lt. Abrams in Shadow of the Thin Man", "Nathan Detroit in Guys and Dolls" actor (Jewish) Samuel "Sam" Levene (d. 1980) on Aug. 28 in Russia. Am. "Boys Town", "Sunrise at Campobello" dir.-writer-producer (Jewish) ("The Anteater") Isidore "Dore" Schary (d. 1980) on Aug. 31 in Newark, N.J. Am. vaudeville dancer Elvera Sanchez Davis (d. 2000) on Sept. 1 in New York City; of Cuban descent; wife of Sammy Davis Sr. (1900-88); mother of Sammy Davis Jr. (1925-90). Am. physicist (discoverer of the positron) Carl David Anderson (d. 1991) on Sept. 3 in New York City; Swedish immigrant parents; educated at Caltech English "The Persian Boy" historical novelist (lesbian) Mary Renault (nee Eileen Mary Challans) (d. 1983) on Sept. 4 in Forest Gate, London, England; educated at St. Hugh's College, Oxford U.; emigrates to South Africa in 1948; known for her novels about ancient Greece. French Algiers Putsch gen. Maurice Challe (d. 1979) on Sept. 5 in Le Pontet, Vaucluse. British "The Sleepwalkers", "Darkness at Noon" writer (Jewish) (atheist) Arthur Koestler (d. 1983) on Sept. 5 in Budapest; German-speaking parents; joins the Communist Party in 1931, flip-flops in 1938, and becomes a British subject in 1945, becoming a leading anti-Communist. German Geiger-Mueller Tube physicist Walther Mueller (Müller) (d. 1979) on Sept. 6 in Hanover; asst. of Hans Geiger. Am. Repub. politician and U.S. treasurer (1953-61) (Mormon) Ivy Baker Priest (d. 1975) on Sept. 7 in Kimberly, Utah; mother of Pat Priest (1936-). Am. movie producer (Jewish) Joseph Edward Levine (d. 1987) on Sept. 9 in Boston, Mass.; the man who brought Godzilla to the U.S. Swedish actress Greta Garbo (Gustaffson) (d. 1990) on Sept. 18 in Stockholm. Am. "Jack Benny's valet Rochester van Jones" comic actor (black) Edmund Lincoln "Eddie" Anderson (d. 1977) on Sept. 18 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "Rodeo", "Oklahoma!" dancer-choreographer Agnes George de Mille (d. 1993) on Sept. 18 in Harlem, N.Y.; daughter of William C. De Mille (1878-1955); niece of Cecil B. De Mille (1881-1959); granddaughter of Henry George (1839-97). Am. labor leader Michael Joseph "Red Mike" Quill (d. 1966) on Sept. 18 in Gortloughera (near Kilgarvan), County Kerry, Ireland. Am. Watergate special prosecutor (1973-4) (Roman Catholic) Leonidas "Leon" Jaworski (d. 1982) on Sept. 19 in Waco, Tex.; Polish immigrant father, Austrian immigrant mother; educated at George Washington U., and Baylor Law School. Austrian physicist and rocket scientist Eugen Sanger (Sänger) (d. 1964) on Sept. 22 in Prebnitz, Bohemia. Am. molecular biologist Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (d. 1993) on Sept. 24 in Luarca, Asturias, Spain; educated at the U. of Madrid; emigrates to the U.S. in 1942; discoverer of an enzyme that can synthesize ribonucleic acid (RNA). Am. sportswriter Walter Wellesley "Red" Smith (d. 1982) on Sept. 25 in Green Bay, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Notre Dame. German heavyweight boxing champ (1903-2) Maximilian Adolph Otto Siegfried "Max" Schmeling (d. 2005) on Sept. 28 in Klein Luckow. English physicist Sir Nevill Francis Mott (d. 1996) on Sept. 30 in Leeds; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1962. English "The Red Shoes" film dir. Michael Latham Powell on Sept. 30 in Bekesbourne, Kent; collaborator of Emeric Pressburger (1902-88). Am. radio-TV host Ruth Lyons (nee Reeves) (d. 1988) on Oct. 4. Am. "Margaret Drysdale in The Beverly Hillbillies" actress Harriet E. MacGibbon (d. 1987) on Oct. 5 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Vassar College. Russian "Jorge de Burgos in The Name of the Rose" actor Feodor Chaliapin Jr. (d. 1992) on Oct. 6 in Moscow; son of Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938); brother of Boris Chaliapin (1904-79). Am. tennis player ("Little Miss Poker Face") Helen Wills Moody (Helen Newington Wills Roark) (d. 1998) on Oct. 6 in Centerville, Calif. Am. "Jingles in Wild Bill Hickock" actor Andrew Vabre "Andy" Devine (d. 1977) (AKA Jeremiah Schwartz) on Oct. 7 in Flagstaff, Ariz.; educated at Northern Arizona U., and Santa Clara U. Am. "Compulsion" novelist (Jewish) ("#1 Jewish-Am. Writer of the 20th Cent.") Meyer Levin (d. 1981) on Oct. 7 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. self-made millioniare real estate developer Frederick Christ (pr. "Krist") "Fred" Trump Jr. (d. 1999) on Oct. 11 in Woodhaven, N.Y.; son of German immigrants Friedrich Drumpf (1869-1918) and Elisabeth Christ (1880-1966); husband (1936-) of Mary Anne MacLeod (1912-2000): father of Donald Trump (1946-), Maryanne Trump, Robert Trump, Elizabeth Trump, and Fred Trump III (-1984); grandfather of Fred Trump IV (1964-). Am. ENIAC mathematician Arthur Walter Burks (d. 2008) on Oct. 13 in Dulith, Minn.; educated at DePauw U., and the U. of Mich. English "The Two Cultures", "Strangers and Brothers" physical chemist-novelist Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow of Leicester (d. 1980) on Oct. 15 in Leicester; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1957; created baron in 1964; husband (1950-) of Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81). Ivory Coast pres. #1 (1960-93) (black) Felix Houphouet-Boigny (Félix Houphouët-Boigny) (d. 1993) on Oct. 18 in Yamoussoukro. Am. "Ellery Queen" novelist (Jewish) Frederic Dannay (Daniel Nathan) (d. 1982) on Oct. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; 1st cousin of Manfred B. Lee (1905-71). Am. radio astronomy pioneer Karl Guthe Jansky (d. 1950) on Oct. 22 in Norman, Okla. Am. physicist Felix Bloch (d. 1983) in on Oct. 23 in Zurich, Switzerland. Chinese Taiwan pres. (1975-8) Yen Chia-kan (d. 1993) on Oct. 23 in Wu County, Suzhou, Jiangsu; educated at Saint John's U. Am. Olympic swimmer ("the Queen of the Waves") Gertrude Caroline "Trudy" "Gertie" Ederle (d. 2003) on Oct. 23 in Manhattan, N.Y. French "Mastering the Art of French Cooking" chef-writer Louisette Bertholle (d. 1999) on Oct. 26. English "Loving" novelist Henry Green (Henry Vincent Yorke) (d. 1973) on Oct. 29 near Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire; educated at Eton College, and Oxford U. Am. psychologist (not Jewish) Harry Frederick Harlow (Harry Israel) (d. 1981) on Oct. 31 in Fairfield, Iowa; educated at Stanford U.; student of Lewis Terman. English novelist-biographer Mary Elizabeth Jenkins (d. 2010) on Oct. 31 in Hitchin, Hertfordshire; educated at Newnham College, Cambridge U. Am. inventor-philosopher (Bell Helicopter designer) Arthur Middleton Young (d. 1995) on Nov. 3 in Paris, France; son of Charles Morris Young (1869-1964) and Eliza Coxe (1875-1960); educated at Princeton U. English composer William Alwyn (Smith) (d. 1985) on Nov. 7 in Northampton. German novelist-actress Erika Julia Hedwig Mann (d. 1969) on Nov. 9 in Munich; eldest daughter of Thomas Mann (1875-1955) and Katia Mann (1881-1980); sister of Klaus Mann (1906-49). Am. "Meet Me in St. Louis", "Easter Parade", "On the Town", Show Boat", "An American in Paris", "Singin' in the Rain" composer (gay) Roger Edens (d. 1970) on Nov. 9 in Hillsboro, Tex.; of Scots-Irish ancestry; partner of Leonard Gershe (1922-2002). Anglo-Italian conductor Annunzio Paolo Mantovani (d. 1980) on Nov. 15 in Venice, Italy; emigrates to Britain in 1912; educated at Trinity College of Music, London. Am. jazz guitarist-bandleader Albert Edwin "Eddie" Condon (d. 1973) on Nov. 16 in Goodland, Ind. Russian "Kolenkov in You Can't Take It With You" actor Mischa Auer (Ounskowsky) (d. 1967) on Nov. 17 in St. Petersburg; grandson of Leopold Auer (1845-1930). Japanese "Mr. Osato in You Only Live Twice" actor Teru Shimada (d. 1988) on Nov. 17. Belgian Bernadotte queen consort (1934-5) Astrid Sofia Lovisa Thyraof Sweden (d. 1935) on Nov. 17 in Stockholm, Sweden; 1st wife of Leopold III; mother of Baudoin of Belgium, and Albert II of Belgium. Italian novelist-journalist-film historian Joseph-Marie Lo Duca (d. 2004) (b. 1910)?) on Nov. 18 in Milan; of Sicilian descent. Am. trombonist-bandleader ("Sentimental Gentleman of Swing") Thomas Francis "Tommy" Dorsey (d. 1956) on Nov. 19 in Mahonoy Plains (Shenandoah), Pa.; younger brother of Jimmy Dorsey (1904-57). Am. "The Managerial Revolution", Suicide of the West" leftist-turned-conservative political philosopher (Roman Catholic-turned-atheist) James Burnham (d. 1987) on Nov. 22 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Princeton U., and Balliol College, Oxford U. Austrian theater-film producer-dir. (Jewish) Irving Allen (Applebaum) (d. 1987) on Nov. 24 in Lemberg, Austria. Welsh "The Corn Is Green", "Night Must Fall" actor-playwright George Emlyn Wiliams (d. 1987) on Nov. 26 in Mostyn (near Prestatyn), Flintshire; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. French Roman Catholic archbishop Marcel Francois Lefebvre (d. 1991) on Nov. 29 in Tourcoing, Nord. Am. "The Circus of Dr. Lao" novelist Charles G. Finney (d. 1984) on Dec. 1 in Sedalia, Mo.; serves with the U.S. Army in China in 1927-9. Am. Folkways Records record exec (Jewish) Moses "Moe" Asch (d. 1986) on Dec. 2 in Warsaw, Poland; son of Sholem Asch (1880-1957); brother of Nathan Asch; emigrates to France in 1912, and the U.S. in 1915. Am. "The Story of Ferdinand" children's writer Munro Leaf (Wilbur Monroe Leaf) (d. 1976) on Dec. 4 in Hamilton, Md.; educated at Harvard U. Brazilian pres. #28 (1969-74) Gen. Emilio Garrastazu Medici (Emílio Garrastazu Médici) (d. 1985 on Dec. 4 in Bage, Rio Grande do Sul; Italian immigrant grandparents; Basque-descent mother. Kashmiri leader (Muslim) ("the Lion of Kashmir") Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah (d. 1982) on Dec. 5 in Soura, Srinagar; father of Farooq Abdullah (1937-). Am. physicist (invent of the Zener Diode) Clarence Melvin Zener (d. 1993) on Dec. 5 in Indianapolis, Ind.; educated at Harvard U. Am. ABC-TV owner Leonard H. Goldenson (d. 1999) on Dec. 7 in Penn. Am. astronomer Gerard Peter (Gerrit Pieter) Kuiper (d. 1973) on Dec. 7 in Harenkarspel (Tuitienhorn), Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. "Johnny Got His Gun", "Spartacus" novelist-screenwriter (Hollywood Ten member) Dalton Trumbo (d. 1976) on Dec. 9 in Montrose, Colo.; educated at the U. of Colo. Irish pres. #4 (1973-4) (Protestant) Erskine Hamilton Childers (d. 1974) on Dec. 11 in London, England; son of Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922) and Mollie Osgood, a descendant of U.S. pres. John Quincy Adams. Mexican "The Cisco Kid", "Hugo in The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima" actor Gilbert Roland (Luis Antonio Damaso de Alonso) on Dec. 11 in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; names himself after John Gilbert and Ruth Roland; husband (1941-6) of Constance Bennett (1904-65). Am. beauty queen (Miss America 1925) Fay Elinora Lanphier (d. 1959) on Dec. 12 in El Dorado, Calif. Am. auto racer Richard William "Billy" Arnold (d. 1976) on Dec. 16 in Chicago, Ill. Am. beauty queen Mary Katherine Campbell (d. 1990) on Dec. 18 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at Ohio State U., and Ohio Wesleyan U. English artist-educator (gay) Charles Robert Owen Medley (d. 1994) on Dec. 19 in London; lover-collaborator of Rupert Doone (1903-66). Am. "Dr. Alexander Thorkel in Dr. Cyclops" actor and Dem. politician Albert (Van) Dekker (Van Ecke) (d. 1968) on Dec. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Bowdoin College. English "A Dance to the Music of Time" novelist ("the English Marcel Proust") Anthony Dymoke Powell (d. 2000) (pr. like pole) on Dec. 21 in Westminster; educated at Eton College, and Balliol College, Oxford U. English "Colossus" engineer Thomas Harold "Tommy" Flowers (d. 1998) on Dec. 22 in Poplar, London; educated at the U. of London. French auto racer Pierre Levegh (Pierre Eugene Alfred Bouillon) (d. 1955) on Dec. 22 in Paris; names himself after his auto racer uncle who died in 1904. Am. "Flower Wreath Hill" San Francisco Renaissance poet Kenneth Charles Marion Rexroth (d. 1982) on Dec. 22 in South Bend, Ind.; educated at the Art Inst. of Chicago; known for reading Chinese lit. Am. Manchester Union Leader publisher (Jewish) William "Bill" Loeb III (d. 1981) on Dec. 26; father William Loeb Jr. (1866-1937) is Teddy Roosevelt's exec secy.; grandfather William Loeb Sr. is a German Jewish immigrant; educated at Williams College. Am. "Charley Weaver, the wild old man from Mount Idy" actor Clifford Arquette (d. 1974) on Dec. 28 in Toledo, Ohio; father of Lewis Arquette (1935-2001); grandfather of Patricia Arquette (1968-), Rosanna Arquette (1959-), Alexis Arquette (1969-), Richmond Arquette (1963-), and David Arquette (1971-). Am. "Weatherbird" jazz pianist (black) Earl Kenneth "Fatha" Hines (d. 1983) on Dec. 28 in Duquesne, Penn. French Socialist PM #145 (1956-7) Guy Mollet (d. 1975) on Dec. 31 in Flers, Orne, Normandy. Am. "Funny Girl", "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes", "Hallelujah, Baby!", "Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!" composer-lyricist (Jewish) Jule Styne (Julius Kerwin Stein) (d. 1994) on Dec. 31 in London; Jewish Ukrainian immigrant parents. Mexican aviator hero ("the Lindbergh of Mexico") Capt. Emilio Carranza Rodriguez (d. 1928); great-nephew of Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920); nephew of Alberto Salinas Carranza. Am. archeologist-ethnologist Wendell Clark Bennett (d. 1953) in Marion, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. French economist Leonard Rist (d. 1982); son of Charles Rist (1874-1955); first chief economist of the World Bank. Am. librarian and book reviewer Margaret Clara Scoggin (d. 1968). Am. "Ellery Queen" novelist (Jewish) Manfred Bennington Lee (Manford Lepofsky) (d. 1971) (AKA Barnaby Ross) in Brooklyn, N.Y.; 1st cousin of Frederic Dannay (1905-82). Russian biochemist Andrei Nikolaevich Belozersky (d. 1972). Am.-English stage actress (lesbian) Margaret Webster (d. 1972) in New York City; daughter of Ben Webster (1864-1947) and Dame May Whitty (1865-1948); lover of Pamela Frankau (1906-67). English novelist Henry Green (d. 1973). English "The Road to Oxiana" travel writer (gay) Robert Byron (d. 1941); educated at Eton College, and Merton College, Oxford U. Russian choreographer Pavel P. Virsky (d. 1975). Am. real estate developer (Jewish) William Zeckendorf Sr. (d. 1976). Am. "The Katzenjammer Kids" cartoonist (Jewish) Joe Musial (d. 1977) in Yonkers, N.Y. Russian choreographer Serge Lifar (d. 1986). Canadian inventor Robert Swanson (d. 1994); invents the 5-6-chime air horn for locomotives. Israeli Orthodox Jewish Biblical scholar Nechama Leibowitz (d. 1997) in Riga, Latvia; emigrates to Palestine in 1932; sister of Yeshayahu Leibowitz (1903-94). Italian leather-goods manufacturer Aldo Gucci (d. 1990); son of Guccio Gucci (1881-1953); brother of Rodolfo Gucci. Irish "Good Behaviour" novelist-playwright Molly Keane (Mary Nesta Skrine) (d. 1996) in Newbridge, County Kildare; hides her lit. life under the alias "M.J. Farrell" so she can continue with "hunting and horses and having a good time". Lebanese PM (1952, 1953, 1960-1, 1970-3) (Sunni Muslim) Saeb Salam (d. 2000); son of Salim Salam. Deaths: Am. Standard & Poor's co-founder Henry Varnun Poor (b. 1812) on Jan. 4 in Brookline, Mass. English-born Am. Mormon leader William Bickerton (b. 1815) on Feb. 17 in St. John, Kan. German realist painter Adolph von Menzel (b. 1815) on Feb. 9 in Berlin. German pathologist Rudolph Albert von Kolliker (b. 1817) on Nov. 2 in Wurzburg, Germany. Am. politician George Sewall Boutwell (b. 1818) on Feb. 27 in Groton, Mass. U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1887-91) John Henninger Reagan (b. 1818) on Mar. 6 in Palestine, Tex. Scottish teacher Alexander Melville Bell (b. 1819) on Aug. 7 in Washington, D.C.; father of Alexander Graham Bell. French economist Clement Juglar (b. 1819) on Feb. 28 in Paris. German painter-writer Rudolf Lehmann (b. 1819) on Oct. 27. Scottish historian Sir William Muir (b. 1819) on July 11. Am. "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations" publisher John Bartlett (b. 1820) on Dec. 3 in Cambridge, Mass.: "I have gathered a posy of other men's flowers and nothing but the thread that binds them is mine own." Am. tobacco magnate George Washington Duke (b. 1820) on May 8 in Durham, N.C. Am. financier Jay Cooke (b. 1821) on Feb. 16 in Ogontz, Penn. English YMCA founder Sir George Williams (b. 1821). Am. physician James Henry Salisbury (b. 1823) on Sept. 23 in Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. English inventor Robert Whithead (b. 1823) on Nov. 14 in Shrivenham, Berkshire. Scottish novelist-poet George MacDonald (b. 1824). French painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau (b. 1825) on Aug. 19 in La Rochelle. German-born Am. architect Adolf Cluss (b. 1825) on July 24 in Washington, D.C. German-born French archeologist Julius Oppert (b. 1825) on Aug. 21 in Paris. Am. Civil War Union gen. Hugh Boyle Ewing (b. 1826) on June 30 in Lancaster, Ohio. British gen. Frederick Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford (b. 1827) on Apr. 9 in Westminster, London. Am. "Ben-Hur" novelist plus plus plus Lew Wallace (b. 1827) on Feb. 15. Swiss-born Am. capitalist Meyer Guggenheim (b. 1828) on Mar. 15. French "From the Earth to the Moon" science-fiction pioneer Jules Verne (b. 1828) on Mar. 24-25 in Amiens: "Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real." Am. stage actor Joseph Jefferson (b. 1829) on Apr. 23. Hungarian playwright Karoly Szasz (b. 1829) in Budapest. French geographer Jean Jacques Elisee Reclus (b. 1830) on July 4 in Torhout, Belgium. English architect Alfred Waterhouse (b. 1830) on Aug. 22 in Yattendon, Berkshire. Am. "Hans Brinker" writer Mary Mapes Dodge (b. 1831) on Aug. 21. Belgian painter-sculptor Constantin Meunier (b. 1831) on Apr. 4 in Brussels (Meunier's disease?). Anglo-Am. painter George Henry Boughton (b. 1833). German aviation pioneer Paul Haenlein (b. 1835) on Jan. 27 in Mainz. Am. Civil War Confed. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (b. 1835) on Apr. 18 in Washington, D.C. German-born Am. conductor Theodore Thomas (b. 1835) on Jan. 4 in Chicago, Ill. (pneumonia); dies three weeks after his new Orchestra Hall in Chicago opens (Dec. 14, 1904) (designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham). Am. Sioux Indian chief Touch the Clouds (b. 1836) on Dec. 26 near the Cheyenne River. French "Carmen" mezzo-soprano Celestine Galli-Marie (b. 1837) on Sept. 22 in Vence (near Nice). Am. financier Charles Tyson Yerkes Jr. (b. 1837) on Dec. 29 in New York City; leaves a $4M estate, with $100K going to found Yerkes Observatory. German-born French Nouveau Art dealer Siegfried Bing (b. 1838). Am. Open Door Policy diplomat John Milton Hay (b. 1838) on July 1 in Newbury, N.H. English stage actor Sir Henry Irving (b. 1838) on Oct. 13 in Bradford (stroke); dies after playing Becket and uttering his dying words "Into thy hands, O Lord, into thy hands", the chair he was sitting in placed in the Garrick Club; cremated and buried in Westminster Abbey; his statue is erected near the Nat. Portrait Gallery in London. German physicist Ernst Karl Abbe (b. 1840) on Jan. 14 in Jena. Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve (b. 1840) on June 18 in Uppsala. English artist Simeon Solomon (b. 1840) on Aug. 14 in St. Giles' Workhouse, London; arrested in 1873 for sodomy in a public urinal. Am. Bloomingdale's co-founder Lyman Gustave Bloomingdale (b. 1841) on Oct. 13 in Elberon, N.J. English dept. store magnate Charles Digby Harrod (b. 1841). Scottish classical scholar Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb (b. 1841) on Dec. 9. Cuban-born French poet Jose-Maria de Heredia (b. 1842) on Oct. 3 in Seine-et-Oise. French Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot (b. 1841) on Mar. 2. Cuban French poet Jose Maria de Heredia (b. 1842) on Oct. 2 in Seine-et-Oise. Am. lawman-shootist Virgil Earp (b. 1843) on Oct. 19 in Goldfield, Nev. French airship pioneer Charles Renard (b. 1847) (suicide). Am. actor Maurice Barrymore (b. 1849) on Mar. 26 in Amityville, N.Y. (syphilis); goes mad during a 1901 Harlem vaudeville show, and spends the rest of his life in Bellevue insane asylum. Egyptian liberal reformer Muhammad Abduh (b. 1849) on July 11 in Alexandria. Austrian mystic Carl Kellner (b. 1851) on June 7. Italian-born French explorer Pietro Savorgnan di Brazza (b. 1852) on Sept. 14 in Dakar, Senegal. German serial murderer Elisabeth Wiese (b. 1853) on Feb. 2 in Hamburg (guillotined). Scottish "The heart is a lonely hunter" writer William Sharp (b. 1855) on Dec. 12 in Castello di Maniace, Sicily. Australian poet Victor Daley (b. 1858) on Dec. 29 in Sydney (TB). Am. celeb atty. Temple Lea Houston (b. 1860) on Aug. 15 Woodward, Okla. (stroke); dies two years before Okla. statehood; flags are flown at half-mast in Okla. and Tex.; dies broke. Am. novelist Henry Harland (b. 1861) on Dec. 20 in San Remo, Italy. Am. Idaho gov. #4 (1897-1901) Frank Steunenberg (b. 1861) on Dec. 30 in Caldwell, Idaho (assassinated). Am. theatrical mgr. Sam Shubert (b. 1878) on May 31 near Harrisburg, Penn. (train wreck).

1906 - The Girl On the Swing Muckraker Great San Francisco Earthquake Year? A good year for sex scandals, uppity women, and muckraking journalism as the Bible-thumping Victorian Age and its taboos start to come unglued? A change in command in several countries at once?

Great San Francisco Earthquake, Apr. 18, 1906 Muck Rake Theodore Roosevelt giving his Muck Rake Speech, Apr. 15, 1906 HMS Dreadnought, 1906 British Adm. Sir Jackie Fisher (1841-1920) Sir Edward Grey of Britain (1862-1933) Armand Fallières of France (1841-1931) James Keir Hardie of Britain (1856-1915) Joao Franco of Portugal (1855-1929) Ivan Goremykin of Russia (1839-1917) Peter Stolypin of Russia (1861-1911) Alexander Izvolsky of Russia (1856-1919) Count Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal of Austria (1854-1912) Pedro Montt y Montt of Chile (1849-1910) Charles Edward Magoon of Cuba (1861-1920) Frederik VIII of Denmark (1843-1912) Oscar Solomon Straus of the U.S. (1850-1926) Charles Evans Hughes Sr. of the U.S. (1862-1948) John 'Honey Fitz' Fitzgerald of the U.S. (1863-1950) Nicholas Longworth IV (1869-1931) and Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth (1884-1930) Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth (1884-1980) William Edgar Borah of the U.S. (1865-1940) Bhambatha of Zululand (1860-1906) Evelyn Nesbit (1884-1967) Stanford White (1853-1906) Harry Kendall Thaw (1871-1947) Maximilian Harden (1861-1927) Alfred Carl Fuller (1885-1973) William Henry Moody of the U.S. (1853-1917) Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) Ricardo Flores Magon (1873-1922) Aaron Aaronsohn (1876-1919) Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953) Maurice Barrès of France (1862-1923) Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (1866-1932) Lee De Forest (1873-1961) Fred Marriott William J. Clothier (1881-1962) William J. Clothier II (1916-2002) Ray Harroun (1879-1968) Ferenc Szisz (1873-1944) Jacob Christian Ellehammer (1871-1946) Chester Ellsworth Gillette (1883-1908) Grace Mae Brown (1886-1906) George Wharton James (1858-1923) Pastor Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) and Maria Frances Russell (1850-1938) William Joseph Seymour (1870-1922) Friedrich Wilhelm Voigt (1849-1922) George Douglas Howard Cole (1889-1959) Franz Xavier Wernz (1842-1914) Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi (1873-1933) Tommy Burns (1881-1955) Jimmy Smith (1885-1948) Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968) Alla Nazimova (1879-1945) Geraldine Farrar (1882-1967) Georges Duhamel (1884-1966) Jules Romains (1885-1972) Werner Sombart (1863-1941) Charles Vildrac (1882-1971) Ferenc Molnár (1878-1952) Bertram Borden Boltwood (1870-1927) Arthur Harden (1865-1940) Karl Muck (1859-1940) Frank Ernest Gannett (1876-1957) William Walker Atkinson (1862-1932) Paul Pelliot (1878-1945) U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Giosue Carducci (1835-1907) Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) Henri Moissan (1852-1907) Karl Frithiof Sundman (1873-1949) Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1930) Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1930) Example Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1930) Example Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1930) Example Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912) Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) Andrei Markov (1856-1922) Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) Home St. Clair Pace (1879-1942) and Charles Ashford Pace (-1940) Clemens von Pirquet (1874-1929) Bela Schick (1877-1967) August von Wassermann (1866-1925) Ernst Alexanderson (1878-1975) Willis Carrier (1876-1950) James B. Kirby (1884-1971) Greenleaf Whittier Pickard (1877-1956) Cat's Whisker Crystal Radio Edgar Lee Hewett (1865-1946) Sir Harry Lauder (1870-1950) Madame C.J. (Sarah Breedlove) Walker (1867-1919) A'Lelia Walker (1885-1931) Rex Beach (1877-1949) Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914) Joe Juneau (1836-99) Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) Edith Nesbit (1858-1924) Natsume Soseki (1867-1916) George Wharton James (1858-1923) Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946) Amelita Galli-Curci (1882-1963) Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Antoinette Perry (1888-1946) Rose Macaulay (1881-1958) Vincenzo Lanzia (1881-1937) Lancia Alpha 12 HP Lancia Logo Amedeo Obici (1876-1947) Mr. Peanut John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943) and Will Keith Kellogg (1860-1951) Kellogg's Corn Flakes, 1906 Emily Post (1872-1960) Paul Poiret (1879-1944) 'Dream of a Rarebit Fiend', 1905 'The Story of the Kelly Gang', 1906 Jean Hersholt (1886-1956) Florence Lawrence (1883-1938) 'Mother Earth', 1906- 'The Turning Road, Lestaque', by Andre Derain (1880-1954), 1906 'Charing Cross Bridge' by Andre Derain (1880-1954), 1906 'Self-Portrait in a Striped T-Shirt' by Henri Matisse (1869-1954), 1906) 'The Circus' by Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), 1906 'The River Seine at Chatou' by Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), 1906 'Landscape with Red Trees' by Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), 1906 Grosvenor Atterbury (1869-1956) Devils Tower Nat. Monument, 1906 Astor Theatre, 1906 Palm Court, Alexandria Hotel Bogenschild Vacuum, 1906 Spangler Candy Co., 1906 Denver Mint, 1906

1906 Chinese Year: Horse. Army sizes: Russia: 13M, Germany: 7.9M, Austria-Hungary: 7.4M, France: 4.8M, Italy: 3M, U.S.: jackshit? On Jan. 1 Ernst Haeckel forms the German Monists League (Deutscher Monistenbund) in Jena, which reaches 6K members by 1912, with the theological wing led by Barmen, Germany-born Protestant theologian Albert Kalthoff (1850-1906), along with Emil Jakob Felden (1874-1959), Oscar Mauritz (1867-1959), Moritz Schwalb (1833-1916), and Friedrich Steudel (1866-1939), none of whom believe in the historicity of Jesus Christ; on Dec. 16, 1933 after dwindling to 3.2K members the league is dissolved by the Nazis. On Jan. 9 the Vladivostok Uprising in Russia begins; on Jan. 24 rebels proclaim the Vladivostok Repub., which is quashed by Feb. 1 by tsarist forces. On Jan. 10 Britain and France begin Military and Naval Conversations (end 1912), which had been unofficially initiated the previous Dec. by foreign secy. Dec. 10, 1905-Dec. 10, 1916) Sir Edward Grey (1862-1933); Britain refuses to promise support to France in case of German attack, but leaves the door open, admitting to a "moral obligation"; the conversations are kept from the British Cabinet as a whole until 1911. On Jan. 12 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes above 100 for the first time. On Jan. 12-Feb. 8 after the Conservatives back preferential tariffs, alienating the working class, who call it "Big Loaf, Little Loaf" the 1906 British Gen. Election sees the Liberals under by PM Henry Campbell-Bannerman win a large majority of 125 seats, while the Conservatives under Sir Arthur Balfour lose more than half of their own seats, incl. Balfour's own; the Labour Representation Committee (founded 1900) is reorganized as the 29-MP center-left British Labour Party, led by James Keir Hardie (1856-1915); the Liberal Welfare Reforms (end 1914) turn Britain into a modern welfare state. On Jan. 16-Apr. 7 after German chancellor Bernhard von Bulow ignores the advice of foreign advisor Friedrich von Holstein to break the French-British entente for fear of war with Britain, causing von Holstein to resign, leaving Germany isolated, the secret Algeciras Conference on Morocco results in the Act of Algeciras, reaffirming the independence and integrity of Morocco while internationalizing it economically, giving France and Spain police control of it while limiting France's privileges; British Liberal PM Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman authorizes staff talks (without commitments) with France, worsening relations with Germany, which is sided with only by Austria. On Jan. 17 Britain and France begin holding secret talks planning for the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) to be sent to France if war breaks out with Germany. On Jan. 21 U.S. temps measured by USHCN stations see almost half over 60F, and 20% over 70F; on Jan. 22 it reaches 80F in Boston, Mass.; on Jan. 26 the Junction City Union of Junction City, Kan. carries the soundbyte: "A warm wave which scores the highest record in temperature since 1890, prevailed Sunday throughout the region between the Mississippi valley and the Atlantic coast. Its crest was in Ohio, where the temperature as reported to the weather bureau ranged from 70 to 74 degrees." On Jan. 27 the first Mozart Festival is held in Salzburg, Austria on the 250th anniv. of his 1756 birth. On Jan. 29 Christian IX (b. 1818) dies, and his eldest son Frederik VIII (1843-1912) becomes king of Denmark (until May 14, 1912). In Jan. the First Russian Duma is elected by universal suffrage, with the radicals boycotting it and the Cadets winning a majority; it first meets on May 10 in the Tauris Palace. On Jan. 29-Feb. 3 the first annual Nat. Western Stock Show is held in the cow town of Denver, Colo. by the new Western Stock Show Assoc., devoted to "unabashed bovine boosterism" (Thomas J. Noel); attendance is 15K; the Grand Champion steer sells for 33 cents/lb. (23 cents over market price); it becomes so important to the city's economy that the elaborate Christmas lights on the Denver City and County Bldg. are left on for it. In Jan. the Valencia sinks off the shore of Washington state, drowning 117, mainly women and children. This one swallowed a coin collection, this one was shot in the face, or, Jackie Fisher who are you dreadnought? The first 20th cent. Peacekeepers? On Feb. 10 the revolutionary 17.9K-ton 21-knot HMS Dreadnought, the first modern all big-gun battleship is launched, designed by British First Sea Lord (Oct. 21, 1904-Jan. 25, 1910) Adm. John Arbuthnot "Jackie" Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher (1841-1920) ("the second Lord Horatio Nelson") (motto: "Fear God and dread nought"), featuring 11-in. armor and 10 12-in. guns; by May the Germans decide to build six of their own dreadnoughts, voting to widen and deepen the Kiel Canal to allow their passage from landlocked Germany to the North Sea. On Feb. 17 Pres. Roosevelt's beautiful rebellious daughter Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980) (eldest child and only child with first wife Alice Hathaway Lee) (known for smoking cigs in public, riding in cars with men, staying out late partying, placing bets with a bookie, and keeping a pet snake named Emily Spinach and a Pekingese named Manchu given her by Chinese empress Cixi in 1902 during a diplomatic visit she went on with 35 congressmen incl. her future hubby, during which she jumped into the ship's pool fully clothed and coaxed the others to join her, and from which she returned with loads of silk from China and a killer string of pearls from Cuba, causing the junket to become known as "Alice in Plunder Land") marries Ohio Repub. Rep. Nicholas Longworth IV (1869-1931) in the East Room, becoming the 4th pres. daughter to be married in the White House (next 1913), and the most spectacular, with 1K guests; priceless gifts are sent by Pope Pius X and govt. heads; she goes to have her only child Paulina with progressive U.S. Sen. (R-Idaho) (1907-40) William Edgar Borah (1865-1940); "I can do one of two things. I can run the country or control Alice. I cannot do both." (Theodore Roosevelt). On Feb. 18 after French pres. (since 1899) Emile Loubet retires (becoming the first Third Repub. pres. to serve out his whole term), former PM (1883) Clement Armand Fallieres (Clément Armand Fallières) (1841-1931) becomes pres. #9 of France (until Feb. 18, 1913), going on to fight against the death penalty, pardoning many death row convicts. On Feb. 19 Kellogg's Cereal Co. (originally Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Co.) is founded in Battle Creek, Mich. by Will Keith Kellogg (1860-1951), who breaks with his older brother Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943) in marketing beyond the Seventh-Day Adventist health food nuts, turning Americans into cold cereal eaters, and later returning some of the giant profits to philanthropic causes; in 1930 it shifts workers from a 40-hour to a 30-hour work week to help hire more workers during the Depression - after enough sugar is added? On Feb. 26 Upton Sinclair's novel "The Jungle" is pub., leading to the quick (4 mo.) passage of the U.S. Pure Food and Drugs (Wiley) Act, signed on June 30 along with the U.S. Meat Inspection Act, prohibiting sale of adulterated foods or drugs, and mandating honest statements of contents on labels; it greatly curbs the use of patent medicines, many of which had been loaded with opium and other addictive drugs; the tobacco lobby keeps nicotine out of the list of regulated drugs; really wanting his book to cause Socialism to happen in the U.S., disappointed Sinclair utters the soundbyte "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach." On Mar. 1 the Cadets condemn the Moscow Uprising, strikes and land seizures, and attempt to pass measures shutting down the rev., incl. new punishments on Mar. 3 for publishing "inaccurate" statements against the govt. On Mar. 5 an imperial ukase (edict) authorizes the Duma as the lower house of parliament, along with an upper house created out of the old Council of the Empire, and declares that no law can be passed without its consent, although in practice it can only ask? On Mar. 10 a coal mine explosion in Courrieres, France in N France 13 mi. SSW of Lille kills 1,099, incl. many children, becoming the largest death toll so far in mine history (until ?). On Mar. 12 after the Philippine Supreme Court forces the Iglesia Filipina Independiente to return Church property it had confiscated, the pro-independence Partido Union Nacionalista is founded, with the goal of "immediate, absolute and complete independence", going on to dominate Philippine politics. On Mar. 17 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt first uses the term "muckrakers" in his Muckraker Speech about overdone investigative journalism to the Gridiron Club in Washington, D.C., saying they are like a man working in a stable who could "look no way but downward with a muckrake in his hand"; the term comes from John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" about "the man who in this life consistently refuses to see aught that is lofty, and fixes his eyes with solemn intentness only on that which is vile and debasing"; on Apr. 14 Roosevelt dedicates the cornerstone of the Beaux-Arts style U.S. House Office Bldg. in Washington, D.C., repeating his muckraking speech; when asked to name names, he mentions his rival, N.Y. Dem. rep. William Randolph Hearst; on Jan. 9, 1908 a ceremony is held to draw marbles from a bag to assign House Chamber desks and the first-ever offices of their own (15'x23'), and the first selected is N.C. Rep. Claude Kitchin, who picks Room 430, which is later named for Ill. Speaker Joseph Cannon. On Mar. 17 new Provisional Rules from Tsar Nicholas II guarantee the right of assembly and association and the right to political parties. In spring the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference in Shanghai sanctions the Chinese Postal Map Romanization System for Romanizing Chinese place names, which eliminates diacritical and accent marks, e.g., Peking, Chungking, Tientsin, Tsinan, Zhenjiang. On Apr. 6 African-Am. minister William Joseph Seymour (1870-1922) leads the Azusa St. Revival in Los Angeles, Calif., launching the modern Pentecostal movement, known for speaking in tongues, ecstatic trances, etc. which spreads like wildfire among African-Ams. and poor whites, reaching hundreds of groups in 50 countries by 1910, with Seymour announcing that racial integration not the gift of tongues is the decisive sign of the Last Days, with the soudnbyte: "If you get angry or speak evil, or backbite, I care not how many tongues you have, you have not the baptism with the Holy Spirit"; ""God sent this latter rain to gather up all the poor and outcast, and make us liove everybody. God is taking the despised things, the base things, and being glorified in them." (D.W. Myland); no surprise, reason-loving Bible-thumping Christian fundamentalists despise them. On Apr. 7 Mt. Vesuvius erupts, devastating Naples and causing the planned 1906 Athens Summer Olympics to be canceled so that the funds can be used to rebuild it, and London is selected for a 1908 Olympics. What in Sam Hill? Millennium Feverists get a godsend in Fawlty Towers California? On Apr. 18 (5:12 a.m.) the 7.8 1-min. 8.25 North Am. Plate 1906 (Great) San Francisco Earthquake in Calif., centered in San Francisco, located on the 600-mi. San Andreas Fault Zone lays 490 city blocks waste, demolishes 25K bldgs., and breaks gas mains and power lines, causing four days of fire and $400M in property damage; 3K-6K are killed and 250K left homeless; the board of supervisors whitewashes it, pegging the official death toll at 478 for decades; Lotta's Fountain (donated in 1875 by dancer Lotta Crabtree) at Market, Geary and Kearny Sts. in downtown is used as a meeting point for survivors trying to locate family and friends; the new (1904) Westin St. Francis Hotel survives, and offers 10 survivors a free room for the night; their breakfast menu is chilled rhubarb, rice griddle cakes, southern hominy, and scrambled eggs; the newly-formed Pentecostal Church sees it as a sign of the End of Times, causing its ranks to swell with don't-let-freezer-burn-happen-to-your-family true believers pretending another quake is coming and rolling around on the floor; Los Angeles overtakes San Fran as the city of choice for Calif. newcomers; as it is rebuild the famously crooked Lombard St. winds down Russian Hill; Pacific Heights becomes home to classic Victorian homes; 710 Ashbury St. at its intersection with Haight St. later becomes home to the Grateful Dead; the S turntable for cable cars is at Market and Powell Sts. On Apr. 26 the U.S. Five Civilized Tribe Act is passed to "Provide for the Final Disposition of the Affairs of the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma." In Apr. in order to counter a planned German railway terminus in Aqaba on the Red Sea, Britain issues an ultimatum forcing Turkey to cede the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, with the E border set between Aqaba and Rafah, allowing the British to rush guns from Egypt to the Bay of Taba to bombard it if necessary. In Apr. Maria Frances Russell (1850-1938), celibate Bible-thumping wife of Watch Tower Society (later Jehovah's Witnesses) pres. Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) sues for legal separation, telling a jury that her husband was ball, er, unfaithful with secy. Rose Ball, but not convincing them; earlier he had charged her with organizing a "female conspiracy" against "the Lord's organization", and being smitten with "the same malady which has smitten others: ambition" - I've never been out of control before? Show me the love? Deal or No Deal? In Apr. Tsar Nicholas appoints Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky (1856-1919) as foreign minister (until Nov. 1910), who goes on to become the architect of Russia's alliance with Britain. In Apr. after pesky Serbia tries to get around the Hapsburgs, importing French munitions in 1904 and establishing a customs union with Bulgaria in 1905, the Pig War begins, with Austria closing its borders to Serbian pork; it ends in Mar. 1908 after Serbia gains help from Russia, France, and Germany, and pressures Bosnia-Herzegovina into giving them a trade outlet on the Adriatic Sea, with the countries becoming openly hostile, and war between Austria and Russia averted only after a 1909 German ultimatum demanding cessation of Russian aid to Serbia, helping lead to WWI. On May 2 Tsar Nicholas II dismisses Sergei Witte as PM, and replaces him with conservative old skool bureaucrat Ivan Goremykin (1839-1917) (until 1906); on May 6 he promulgates the Fundamental Laws of the Empire, laying the ground rules for the 500-member First Russian Duma, which meets on May 10, after the voting is rigged in favor of the 200K Russian landowners, who choose 2,594 electors, vs. 1,168 for the 70M+ peasants (the left boycotts it); meanwhile on May 9 censorship is lifted; in June the tsar appoints kulak champion (conservative but not reactionary yet) Peter (Pyotr) Arkadyevich Stolypin (1862-1911) as interior minister (until 1911), who in Nov. promulgates the Agrarian Reform Act, ending the communal (mir) system of landholding, and letting peasants own private land; workers are allowed to have local but not nat. unions. On May 19 Joao Franco Ferreira Pinto Castelo Branco (1855-1929) becomes PM #48 of Portugal (until Feb. 4, 1908), ruling with an iron hand as the repub. movement gains steam and blows up in his face? On June 8 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt signs the U.S. Antiquities Act, giving the U.S. pres. authority to issue executive orders to protect federal land with antiquities on it, albeit with token punishments; Roosevelt names Devils Tower Nat. Monument, rising 1267 ft. above the Belle Fourche River in NE Wyo. as the first U.S. nat. monument, along with a 1347-acre park; 783-acre Montezuma Castle Nat. Monument on Beaver Creek (Verde River) near Camp Verde, Yavapai County, Ariz. is also proclaimed, containing the well-preserved pre-Columbian 11th cent. 5-story 20-room Indian Montezuma Castle cliff dwelling 110 ft. up on a cliff face overlooking Beaver Creek in Camp Verde; Am. archeologist Edgar Lee Hewett (1865-1946) is instrumental in bringing the Antiquities Act about. On June 13 the Denshawai (Dinshaway) Incident sees five British army officers visiting Denshawai, Egypt to shoot domestic pigeons piss-off villagers, who demonstrate against them, after which they open fire, wounding five and setting fire to their grain, after which the villagers capture but don't harm them; too bad, two officers escape, and one dies of heat stroke trying to get away after which Egyptian gov. (since 1879) Sir Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer sends the British army in, arresting 52 villagers and railroading four of them to death sentences for murdering the sunstroked whitey, crassly hanging them in front of their families while flogging 80 others with 50 lashes each, then imprisoning an Egyptian policeman for telling the truth; "May Allah compensate us well for this world of meanness, for this world of injustice, for this world of cruelty" (hanged man Darweesh's last words); Baring, ahem, steps down next year after Edward VII makes him a member of the British Order of Merit - no wonder Egyptians can't stand the Brits? On June 16 the U.S. (Okla.) Enabling Act of 1906 authorizes people living in Indian Territory and Okla. Territory to elect delegates to a state constitutional convention, doing ditto for the people of New Mexico Territory and Ariz. Territory, with a referendum to determine if they will be made into one state or two. On June 17 French multilingual Sinologist Paul Pelliot (1878-1945) leaves Paris on an expedition to China to find Chinese books; after many cool adventures where his fluency in Chinese gets him out of hot water, he returns on Oct. 24, 1909 with a hoard of priceless mss. that rejuvenate Chinese studies in the West; too bad, jealous colleague Edouard Chavannes (1865-1918) starts a smear campaign, claiming forgery, but Pelliot is vindicated by 1912. On June 18 Italian explorer Prince Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco, Prince of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of the Abruzzi (1873-1933) makes the first ascent of the 16,762-ft. (5,109m) highest peak of the Ruwenzori Mts. (Range) in Africa, a source of the Nile River, causing Mt. Luigi di Savola to be named in his honor; in 1909 he unsuccessfully ascends K2 in Karakorum, reaching 6,250m, causing his route up the East Ridge to be named the Abruzzi Spur in his honor. In June the first iron and steelworkers strike takes place in the Saar region. In June after they become dissatisfied with the muckraking label, The American Magazine is founded by muckraking journalists Ray Stannard Baker, Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell. In the summer the Ottoman Freedom Society is founded by Ottoman army officers and civilian officials in Salonica to oppose the regime of sultan Abdul Hamid II; after establishing branches in Macedonia, it unites next Sept. with the Young Turks of Ahmed Riza under the original (1889) name Committee of Union and Progress - the sultan's ass is grass? The first American sex goddess? On June 25 New York City's #1 Gilded Age architect Stanford White (b. 1853), designer of Washington Arch and Madison Square Garden is shot 3x and murdered at his table in Madison Square Garden by Pittsburgh steel heir Harry Kendall Thaw (1871-1947) in a jealous rage over his showgirl wife, "Floradora girl" model Evelyn Nesbit (1884-1967), AKA "The Girl on the Swing" ("The Eternal Question" Gibson Girl), resulting in the first Trial of the Cent., in which Thaw is found not guilty by reason of insanity based on her unprecedented revealing testimony of how in 1901 White had seduced and raped the 16-y.-o. sweet young thing, and how when she married Thaw in 1902 he er, forced it out of her, causing his insane reaction; the words "brainstorm" and "playboy" are coined to describe him. On June 27 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt issues an executive order placing the U.S. consular service on a full merit basis, requiring competitive exams for all candidates. On July 11 (eve.) Mont.-born Chester Ellsworth Gillette (1883-1908) drowns his pregnant girlfriend Grace Mae Brown (1886-1906) on Big Moose Lake in Herkimer County, N.Y.; did she fall out of the boat and he extended a paddle in vain to save her, or did he push her out and hit her over the head with his tennis racquet, or did she commit suicide by jumping out and refusing help?; either way, he made a quick getaway to Fulton Chain Lakes, checking into a hotel under his real name and acting like nothing happened; he is electrocuted on Mar. 30, 1908, and later immortalized in Theodore Dreiser's 1925 long-but-good novel An American Tragedy, which tries to palm it off as a perfect storm of accident and self-incrimination; filmed in 1931, and in 1951 as "A Place in the Sun". On July 18 Jewish liberal Cadet Duma member Mikhail Yakovlevich Gertsenshtein (b. 1859) is assassinated in Odessa by the Black Hundred, and after the Cadet reps. violently criticize the govt., the tsar dissolves the Duma on July 21 (after 73 days); the Cadets respond by moving to Viborg and issuing the Viborg (Vyborg) Manifesto (Appeal) on July 23, signed by 200 Duma members, calling upon the people to refuse to pay taxes, with little response, showing their lack of popular support, after which those who signed are blacklisted by the govt. from reelection. On July 30-Aug. 2 the leftist Sveaborg Mutiny rocks Russia, followed on Aug. 1-11 by the Kronstadt Mutiny. In July the Western Film Exchange is founded in Milwaukee, Wisc. by John R. Freuler (1872-1958), Harry E. Aitken (1877-1956), and Roy Aitken (1882-1976) to produce and distribute Western films to movie theaters in the midwest U.S.; in fall 1910 after the Motion Picture Patents Co. fails to shut them down, Freuler and Samuel S. Hutchinson found the Am. Film Manufacturing Co. in Chicago, Ill., with the Flying "A" Studios in La Mesa, San Diego County, Calif., run by Allan Dwan, producing 150+ films; in Mar. 1912 Mutual acquires Thanhouser Studios; in July 1912 they found Mutual Film Corp. to combine all their business, which acquires distribution rights for Keystone Studios and Majestic Studios; in Aug. 1912 they establish a branch in Santa Barbara, Calif., becoming one of the largest motion picture studios in the U.S. until shuts down in 1922 after producing 1.2K films. On Aug. 13 (night) the Brownsville Affair sees up to 20 unidentified men shoot up Brownsville, Tex., killing a bartender and severely injuring a policeman, causing Pres. Theodore Roosevelt to come down on nearby Ft. Brown where black Buffalo soldiers of the 25th Infantry are posted, discharging 167 "without honor" sans trial on Nov. 6 (after the nat. elections), pissing-off the NAACP and other African-Am. orgs., who turn on the Repub. Party; in 1972 Repub. Pres. Richard Nixon pardons the men and awards them honorable discharges sans back pay; in 1973 Congress grants a tax-free $25K pension to the last survivor Dorsie Willis. On Aug. 15 the summer home of Russian minister Peter Stolypin is bombed, killing 30+ but missing him, causing him to turn mean and set up special courts martial on Sept. 1 to deal with troublemakers, which end up executing, imprisoning or exiling 60K - I was told there'd be no spandex? On Aug. 20 Spangler Candy Co. in Bryan, Ohio is founded by Arthur G. Spangler (-1945) by the purchase of Gold Leaf Baking Co., producing baking soda and powder; in 1911 it introduces its first candy, the Spangler Cocoanut Ball, followed by hard and stick candy in 1922, going on to introduce Marshmallow Circus Peanuts (1940), Marshmallow Topping (1941) et al. before acquiring Dum Dums lollipops from Akron Candy Co. in 1953, turning Bryan, Ohio into "the Dum Dum Capitol of the World", acquiring A-Z Christmas Candy Cane Co. in 1954, Ohio Confections Fudge (makers of Pecan Divinity) in 1957, Shelby Bubble Gum in 1962, Am. Mint Corp. in 1965, Saf-T-Pops in 1978, Astro Pops in 1987, and Suck an Egg brand in 1995, going on to produce 45% of the candy canes in the U.S. On Aug. 27 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), known for his poor spelling begins a campaign to reform English spelling, issuing a directive to the Govt. Printing Office (GPO) to adopt 300 reformed spellings, such as dropping the "u" from "honour", and changing "centre" to "center"; despite many notable supporters, Congresse overturnes itte. In Aug. John Huddleston discovers diamonds in his farm near Murfreesboro, Ark., becoming the first person outside South Africa to find diamonds at their original source, after which improper mining leaves thousands of small diamonds, causing a boom of amateur diamond hunters, who found the town of Kimberly in 1909; in Mar. 1956 the 15.33 carat Star of Ark. Diamond is found.; in 1972 it becomes Crater of Diamonds State Park. On Sept. 8 Franz Xavier Wernz (1842-1914) is elected superior-gen. #25 of the Jesuit Order, going on to reform its study plan. On Sept. 12 Jacob Christian Ellehammer (1871-1946) of Denmark becomes the first Euro to fly an airplane in Lindholm, going 421m at an alt. of 50 cm; he had done it totally unaware of the Wright brothers. On Sept. 18 Pedro Elias Pablo Montt y Montt (1849-1910) of the Nat. Party is elected pres. #15 of Chile (until Aug. 16, 1910), going on to see his honeymoon end quick and bog down in political corruption, dying in office. On Sept. 22-24 after newspaper stories about the rapes of four white women by black men in s