|United States of America||William Howard Taft (1857-1930)||Mar. 4, 1909||Mar. 4, 1913|
|United Kingdom||Herbert Henry Asquith (1852-1928)||Apr. 5, 1908||Dec. 5, 1916|
|United Kingdom||Edward VII (1841-1910)||Jan. 22, 1901||May 6, 1910|
|Canada||Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919)||July 11, 1896||Oct. 5, 1911|
|France||Aristide Briand (1862-1932)||July 24, 1909||Mar. 2, 1911|
|Germany||Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941)||June 15, 1888||Nov. 9, 1918|
|Austria||Emperor Franz Josef I (1830-1916)||Dec. 2, 1848||Nov. 21, 1916|
|Italy||Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947)||July 29, 1900||May 9, 1946|
|Spain||Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)||May 17, 1886||Apr. 14, 1931|
|Belgium||Albert I (1875-1934)||Dec. 23, 1909||Feb. 17, 1934|
|Japan||Emperor Meiji (1852-1912)||Feb. 3, 1867||July 30, 1912|
|Mexico||Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915)||Nov. 29, 1876||May 25, 1911|
|Russia||Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918)||Nov. 1, 1894||Mar. 1, 1917|
|Serbia||Peter I (1844-1921)||June 11, 1903||Aug. 16, 1921|
|Romania||Carol I (1839-1914)||1866||Oct. 10, 1914|
|Bulgaria||Tsar Ferdinand I (1861-1948)||Oct. 5, 1900||Oct. 3, 1918â™¦|
|Turkey||Sultan Mehmed V (1844-1918)||Apr. 27, 1909||July 3, 1918|
|China||Emperor Puyi (1906-67)||Dec. 2, 1908||1912|
|Papacy||Pope Pius X (1835-1914)||Aug. 4, 1903||Aug. 20, 1914|
1910 Chinese Year: Dog. Speaking of dogs, China finally abolishes slavery this year. Pop. of Mexico: 15.15M; Honduras: 382K; the 1910 Mexican Rev. causes large numbers of The Thirteenth (13th) (1910) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 91,972,266 in a land area of 2,969,565 sq. mi. (31.0 per sq. mi.) (first time the U.S. land area goes down from a previous census). Beginning about this year the Great Migration of Southern Blacks (ends 1970) begins as they move en masse to Northern cities incl. New York City, Detroit, and Chicago looking for economic opportunity, 500K by 1920 and 1.5M-2M by 1930; 200+ towns and counties in Indiana become all-white Sundown Towns (until 1940); the black pop. of Goshen, Ind. drops from 21 this year to 2 in 1910; on Mar. 17, 2015 the city council passes a resolution apologizing for its past. After the tsar orders the Russian fleet, which was sunk in 1904 by the Japanese replaced, the 1910 Russian Armaments Deal ("Arms Deal of the Cent.") sees the British, Germans, and Americans vie to build them a new navy, with baksheesh flowing in St. Petersburg like champagne; British "Ace of Spies" Lt. Sidney George Reilly (Sigmund Georgevich Rosenblum) (1874-1925) steers a German co. to win so he can send all the plans of the new battleships to London? On Jan. 1 honest former N.Y. supreme court justice (1893-9) William Jay Gaynor (1849-1913) (who started out a devout Roman Catholic then left the Church after reading Benjamin Franklin's autobiography) becomes New York City mayor #94 (until Sept. 10, 1913), becoming known for refusing to take orders from Tammany Hall boss Charles Francis Murphy, with his reforms causing an assassination attempt on Aug. 9 by fired dock night watchman James J. Gallagher (-1913) aboard the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse while docked in Hoboken, N.Y., with New York World photographer William Warnecke taking a photo of the moment when he shoots a bullet through his neck, becoming the only New York City to be hit by a bullet during an assassination attempt; the bullet lodges in his neck, leading to his early death. On Jan. 13 Enrico Caruso (1873-1921) sings in the first experimental Radio Broadcast by vacuum tube inventor Lee De Forest in New York City. On Jan. 21 the 1910 Great Flood of Paris sees the Seine River rise 24 ft. by Jan. 28, causing 400M francs damage but no deaths. In Jan. the Ballinger-Pinchot Affair sees Pres. Taft fire Gifford Pinchot, chief (since 1898) of the U.S. Forest Service for insubordination for criticizing his interior secy. (1909-11) Richard Achilles Ballinger (1858-1922) for selling U.S. land to business interests and abandoning the conservation policies of Teddy Roosevelt. On Feb. 8 after he took a business trip to London in 1909, got lost in the fog and was shown the way by a boy who refused a tip (because he's a you know what), the Boy Scouts of Am. are incorporated in the U.S. by newspaper pub. William Dickson Boyce (1858-1929), then chartered by Congress in 1916 "to promote the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in scout craft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues"; the Scout Oath is to keep "physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight"; the Scout Law requires trustworthiness, loyalty, helpfulness, friendliness, courtesy, kindness, obedience, cheerfulness, thrift, bravey, cleanliness and reverence; of course every scout must do a good deed every day - always swallow and never spit? On Feb. 9 Liberal Party head Jose Canalejas y Mendez (1854-1912) becomes PM of Spain (until Nov. 12, 1912), going on to work to turn Spain into a true democracy, curbing the power of independent political bosses, weakening the excess of the Roman Catholic clergy, and wooing the working class. On Feb. 21 Egyptian Coptic Christian PM (since 1908) Butros Ghali (b. 1847) is assassinated. In Feb. the Dreadnought Hoax sees English super-hoaxer William Horace de Vere Cole (1881-1936) get the British to officially greet a group of Abyssinian princes accompanied by high-ranking Foreign Office rep. Herbert Cholmondeley (pr. CHUM-lee) with a good part of the British fleet in Weymouth Bay in Dorsetshire, incl. HMS Dreadnought, and to have crowds see off their train as they return to London; later it is revealed that the princes, who like to say "Bunga-bunga", are phonies in makeup applied by Sarah Bernhardt's makeup man Willy Clarkson, incl. writer Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), artist Duncan Grant (1885-1978), cricketer Anthony Buxton, judge's son Guy Ridley, and Virginia's brother Adrian Stephen (the "interpreter"), also that Cholmondeley is Cole. On Mar. 1 two trains are swept into a canyon by an avalanche in Wellington, Wash., killing 96. On Mar. 8 Baroness Elise Raymonde de Laroche (Deroche) (1882-1919) of France receives ticket #36, becoming the first licensed female pilot on Earth. On Mar. 17 the Camp Fire Girls are founded by Mrs. Charles Farnsworth of Thetford, Vt. et al., and formally presented to the public exactly two years later as the sister org. to the Boy Scouts of Am.; slogan: "Wohelo" (work, health, love); code: "Worship God, seek beauty, give service, pursue knowledge, be trustworthy, hold on to health, glorify work, be happy"; age limits: Blue Bird (7-10), Camp Fire Girls (10-15), Horizon Club Girls (15-18); in 1975 it becomes Camp Fire Boys and Girls, followed by Camp Fire USA in 2001, and Camp Fire in 2012. On Mar. 19 Repubs. begin a move to strip the House Speaker of power by electing a Rules Committee from which he is excluded; next year they deprive him of the right to appoint other House standing committees. On Mar. 19 only 1 mo. after the unrest begins, the Libyan Transitional Nat. Council announces the creation of the Libyan Oil Co. as the supervisory authority for oil production and prices, with the Central Bank of Benghazi as the authority for monetary policies, causing Robert Wenzel of the Economic Policy Journal to utter the soundbyte: "I have never before heard of a central bank being created in just a matter of weeks out of a popular uprising"; proof that the internat. banking cartel is working behind the scenes to stop Gaddafi from establishing a state-run central bank and trading oil in non-dollar currencies? In the spring hoaxer William Horace De Vere Cole wins several thousand English pounds on a bet that he could lie on his back for 30 min. in the busiest street in Paris during rush hour; he accomplishes it by staging a truck breakdown and going under it for repairs. On Mar. 23 the 54-acre Sitka Nat. Monument on Sitka Bay in SE Alaska is established. On Mar. 31 Liberal Luigi Luzzatti (1841-1927), author of "God in Freedom" advocating religious tolerance becomes PM #31 of Italy (until Mar. 30, 1911), becoming the first Jewish Italian PM. On May 2 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules 5-2 in Weems v. U.S. that a penalty of 12 years in irons at hard and painful labor fo the crime of falsifying public records is cruel in its excessiveness and unusual in its disproportionality, extending the Eighth Amendment; dissenting Justice Edward D. White writes the soundbyte: "The clause against cruel punishments, which was intended to prohibit inhumane and barbarous bodily punishments, is so construed as to limit the discretion of the lawmaking power in determining the mere severity with which punishments not of the prohibited character may be prescribed"; dissenting Justices White and Holmes do not object to extending the Eighth Amendment so as to ban newly devised bodily punishments that are inhumane and barbarous, but argue that "the prohibition against the infliction of cruel bodily torture cannot be extended so as to limit legislative discretion in prescribing punishment for crime by modes and methods which are not embraced within the prohibition against cruel bodily punishment"; Justice Joseph McKenna writes the soundbyte: "Legislation, both statutory and constitutional, is enacted, it is true, from an experience of evils but its general language should not, therefore, be necessarily confined to the form that evil had theretofore taken. Time works changes, brings into existence new conditions and purposes. Therefore a principle to be vital must be capable of wider application than the mischief which gave it birth. This is peculiarly true of Constitutions. They are not ephemeral enactments, designed to meet passing occasions. They are, to use the words of Chief Justice Marshall, 'designed to approach immortality as nearly as human institutions can approach it'." On May 6 king (since 1901) Edward VII (b. 1841) dies in Buckingham Palace after the date is allegedly forecast by U.S.-born astrologer Evangeline Smith Adams (1859-1933) (who unsuccessfully tries to get astrology legalized in Britain), and on May 6 his 2nd son (illiterate?) George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (1865-1936) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat, which he might be able to read if he has help?) is crowned king of Great Britain (Britain's 57th monarch) (until Jan. 20, 1936), continuing the rule of the House of Saxe-Coburg, and living an austere lifestyle, always going to bed at 11:10 p.m.; Victoria Mary "May" of Teck (1867-1953) from Wurttemberg, Germany is his consort; Edward VII's funeral on May 20 is later seen as symbolic by Barbara Tuchman (1912-89), who writes: "The muffled tongue of Big Ben tolled nine by the clock as the cortege left the palace, but on history's clock it was sunset, and the sun of the old world was setting in a dying blaze of splendor never to be seen again" - just say no to dough? On May 11 1M acre Glacier Nat. Park in Mont. is established bordering Alberta and British Columbia. The Simpsons get some family shock therapy? On May 18 Halley's Comet returns, coming within 13M mi. of Earth and exhibiting five tails, and thousands take to their roofs expecting the end of the world with a bad case of MF (Millennium Fever); the first time Halley's Comet is observed photographically. On May 31 the Union of South Africa is established as a dominion within the British Empire, with Louis Botha (1862-1919) as PM; Botha and James Barry Munnik Hertzog (1866-1942) found the South African Party; Starr Jameson founds the English-speaking Unionist Party, which folds in a few years after Botha adopts a policy of attempting to curb anti-British feelings by the Boers - megamouth, supertaster, flavorfiend, or hypertongue? The end of the Choson People of Far East Asia? In May Japanese Gen. Terauchi Masatake (1852-1919) is appointed resident-gen. of Korea, and sets plans in motion for annexing it; on Aug. 22 Japan formally annexes Korea (until 1945) and names it Chosen (Choson), ending the Yi (Choson) Dynasty that ruled since 1392. In May Good Housekeeping mag. (50:665-6) reviews manual vacuum cleaners, asking "Do vacuum cleaners clean?", the answer being a qualified yes, warning that operating a pump vacuum requires two persons and is hard work; in 1912 the dir. of the Good Housekeeping Inst. observes that a "hand cleaner" weighing 15-25 lbs. with either pump or wheel is "not for a delicate woman" and not preferable to a carpet sweeper, although she did not test the lighter (5 lbs.) piston type; in 1917 the mag. again considers vacuum cleaners, electric models only; in 1921 the question originally posed in 1910 receives a yes answer after 554 readers return a questionnaire, all of them voting yes. On June 10 Rolls-Royce co-founder Charles Stewart Rolls (b. 1877) flies his French-built Wright airplane round-trip between Dover, England and Sangatte, France; too bad, on July 12 he is killed in a flying accident on the 2nd day of an air show in Southbourne, Bournemouth, England in which he is the star when the tail of his Wright Flyer breaks off, becoming the first Briton to be killed in a flying accident. On June 19 (3rd Sunday in June) the 2nd Father's Day is held in Spokane, Wash. under the influence of Sonora Smart Dodd (1882-1978), whose sound, smart dad was born on June 6, but ministers couldn't get their sermons ready in time, so she settles for the 3rd Sun.; the first observance was in W. Va. in 1908 but they didn't official register it. On June 24 Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is founded in Milan, Italy by Alexandre Darracq et al. to build sports cars, starting with the A.L.F.A. 24 HP. On June 25 the U.S. Postal Savings program is established, and begins service next Jan. 3 at 48 2nd-class post offices, with deposits reaching $11M in 11 mo., the money being distributed among 2,710 nat. and state banks; the cost of a first-class stamp in the U.S. is 2 cents. On June 25 the U.S. Federal Corrupt Practices Act is passed, setting campaign spending limits for political parties in House gen. elections, becoming the first federal law to require public disclosure of spending by political parties, but not individual candidates; too bad, it is weak and rarely enforced, except for political gain by House members? Should be called the No White Women for Black Man Act? On June 25 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Mann (White-Slave Traffic) Act, named after U.S. Rep. James Robert Mann (1846-1922), prohibiting the interstate transportation of women for immoral purposes (white slavery); meant to prosecute pimps, it is so vaguely written that just about anybody crossing a state line accompanying a female can be slammed into a federal prison to protect the country from them, and it is soon being used to prosecute women rather than men, unless they're a black man hooking up with white women; prostitution has never been banned in the U.S., and is done for the first time in Mass. in 1917, after which when women get the vote they get federal laws passed; the law causes red-light districts in Tex. to be closed, starting with Dallas, Austin, and Amarillo in 1914, followed by El Paso and Houston in 1917, causing gambling venues to go underground; San Antonio, Tex. and Galveston, Tex. keep their vice districts open through WWI. On July 1 the first fully-automated bread plant is opened in Chicago, Ill. by the Ward Baking Co. On July 2 the Vitagraph Studios Bldg. in Flatbush, Brooklyn, N.Y. burns down, along with most of its film negatives, causing them to rebuild, and found a 2nd studio in Calif.; meanwhile new stars Norma Talmadage (1893-1957) and Anita Stewart (1895-1961) join the studio straight from Erasmus H.S. in Flatbush, followed by Wallace "Wally" Reid (1891-1923) is founded, Fred Thomson (1890-1928) and Clara Kimball Young (1890-1960) in 1912, Jane Novak (1896-1990) in 1913, Antonio Moreno (1887-1967) in 1914, and Alice Joyce (1890-1955) in 1916; Jean the Vitagraph Dog also becomes a star. On July 13 Women's Wear Daily, founded in New York City by Edmund Fairchild begins pub., becoming known as "the Bible of Fashion". On Aug. 20-21 the Great Fire (Big Blowup) of 1910, a giant forest fire in W Mont., N Idaho, and NE Wash. burns 3M acres in two days, killing 87 (mostly firefighters) becming the deadliest forest fire in U.S. history (until ?), making firefighters into heroes and permanently changing the focus of the U.S. Forest Service to fire prevention. On Aug. 28 the postage-stamp-sized (pop. 500K) former principality (since 1851) of Montenegro is proclaimed a kingdom under king Nicholas I (1841-1921) (until Nov. 26, 1918), who is made a field marshal in the Russian army, the first foreigner since the Duke of Wellington; the 50K-man armed forces have no cavalry, uniforms, or medical personnel, while the 700 officers wear tsarist Russian army uniforms and have no training academy. In Aug. Conservative Juan Jose Estrada Morales (1872-1967) becomes provisional pres. of a U.S. puppet regime in Nicaragua (until May 9, 1911) after the collapse of the Zelaya regime, with Gen. Adolfo Diaz (1875-1964) as the real strongman (until 1912); too bad that the country's finances are going down the drain? On Sept. 1 Pres. Roosevelt gives a speech in Ossawatomie, Kan., enunciating his doctrine of the New Nationalism, which promotes a strong federal govt. to protect human welfare and property rights, but holds the former higher than the latter. On Sept. 12 5'0" Alice Stebbins Wells (1873-1957) becomes the first Am.-born policewoman in the U.S. after she is sworn-into the all-male 350-member Los Angeles Police Dept.; she sews her own uniform, a floor-length dress and jacket, later issuing the soundbyte "It was a man's world". On Oct. 1 the Los Angeles Times Bldg. in Los Angeles, Calif. is dynamited, starting a fire that kills 21 nonunion workers and injures 100 more., causing the newspaper to call it "the crime of the century"; right-wing anti-union owner Harrison Gray Otis (1837-1917), whose L.A. home the Bivouac was also targeted claims a labor conspiracy; brothers J.B. McNamara and John J. (J.J.) McNamara are tried for it, with Clarence Darrow as their atty.; too bad, they confess to escape execution, giving the labor movement a serious setback. On Oct. 1 the world's first mid-air collision in Milan, Italy sees Rene (René ) Thomas (1886-1975) of France in his Antoinette monopolane fall onto and ram the Farman biplane of Capt. Bertram Dickson (1873-1913) of Britain, who dies of his injuries in 1913; Thomas moves to the U.S. and switches to auto racing. in Portugal, with the French-style First Portuguese Repub. (ends 1926) proclaimed at 9:00 a.m. from the balcony of the Pacos de Concelho in Lisbon; the monarchy is ended, and king (since Feb. 1, 1908) Manuel II flees to Gibraltar, then goes into exile in England, becoming the last king of Portugal, where he lives with his uncle the Duke of Orleans and plots to return until Portugual enters WWI on the side of the Allies, then lives in England until his death (1932); intellectual-poet Joaquim Teofilo (Teófilo) Fernandes Braga (1843-1924) becomes provisional pres. (until 1911); too bad, the bad economy combined with plots on the left and right keep this new repub. rocking, and it goes through 10 presidents in 16 years. On Oct. 10 after being nominated by Pres. Taft on Apr. 25 and confirmed by the Senate on May 2, Glens Falls, N.Y.-born conservative gov. #36 of N.Y. (since Jan. 1, 1907) Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948), becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #62 (until June 10, 1916) to fill the vacancy left by David Josiah Brewer (1889-1910), going on to use the Commerce Clause to weaken lassez-faire capitalism and expand the regulatory powers of state and federal govts. until he resigns to become the Repub. candidate for U.S. pres. against Woodrow Wilson, becoming the last justice to resign to run for elected office (until ?). On Oct. 10 Tau Epsilon Phi (TEP) fraternity is founded at Columbia U. by 10 Jewish men, admitting Jews only until the 1950s. On Oct. 17-23 the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (mgr. Connie Mack) defeat the Chicago Cubs (NL) (mgr. Frank Chance) 4-1 to win the Seventh (7th) World Series; Athletics 2nd baseman Edward Trowbridge "Crazy Eddie" Collins Sr. (1887-1951) wins his first of four WS. On Oct. 23 Anna Leonowens' pupil Rama V Chulalongkorn (b. 1853) dies, and is succeeded by his Oxford-educated son Rama VI Vaijiravudh (1881-1925), who becomes Chakri king #6 of Siam (until 1925), going on to become the father of Thai nationalism, found Vajiravudh College (Thailand's first public school), abolish polygamy (except for the royal family), and continue his daddy's modernization program despite famine and plague, while living a luxurious Western lifestyle and writing novels, short stories, and plays to reinvent himself? On Oct. 29 Degania Alef is founded by 12 Jewish Zionist pioneers (10 men, 2 women), becoming Palestine's first kibbutz; starting out socialist, it goes capitalist in 2007. On Nov. 5 Thomas Woodrow Wilson leaves Princeton U., and is elected gov. of N.J. as a Dem.; Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected to the N.Y. State Senate as a Dem. (reelected 1912). On Nov. 5 (Guy Fawkes' Day) English Bloomsbury Group art critic Roger Eliot Fry (1866-1934) stages a Post-Impressionist Exhibition at the Grafton Galleries in London, featuring Cezanne, Van Gogh, and Matisse. On Nov. 20 after suffering from severe rheumatism and last sitting on the bench on May 7, and Pres. Taft talking him into it after getting Congress to pass a special act to give him retirement benefits without reaching age 70 or 10 years of service, U.S. Supreme Court justice (since Dec. 12, 1906) William Henry Moody retires. On Nov. 23 after declining the post of British ambassador to the U.S., newly-created Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858-1944), an admirer of Mohandas Gandhi is appointed as viceroy and gov.-gen. of India (until Apr. 4, 1916), presiding over the move of the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1912, and going on to deploy nearly all British troops in India as well as many native Indian troops outside India in WWI. The Ted Bundy of England? On Nov. 23 Coldwater, Mich.-born "wife poisoner" dentist and homeopathic quack doctor Hawley Harvey Crippen (b. 1862) is hanged in Pentonville Prison in London, England for murdering his flamoyant spendthrift mediocre theatrical singer wife Belle Ellmore (Cora Henrietta Crippen) (-1910) with hyoscine (scopolamine) in order to run off with his secy. Ethel Le Neve (1883-1967), then dismantling and burying her body in his cellar; after Belle disappears and the lovebirds begin living together openly they draw the suspicions of chief inspector Walter Dew (1863-1947) (known for hunting Jack the Ripper), then not knowing that he buys their story they suddenly flee to Brussels and Antwerp, then board the SS Montrose en route to Canada, with her dressed as a boy, drawing suspicions by the captain, who radios London, causing the house to be searched and a piece of skin with an identifying scar to be found under the basement floor (he carefully disposed of her body in acid and fire, and left just enough to incriminate himself?); after being foiled by the newfangled Marconi radio apparatus recently installed, they arrive in Quebec to find Dew waiting for them on July 31, becoming the first criminals to be captured with the aid of wireless communication; Ethel is acquitted after being defended by Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl Birkenhead (1872-1930) in his first big case; DNA tests made in 2007 by David Foran of Michigan State U. reveal that the body parts found were from a man. On Nov. 14 Navy Lt. Eugene B. Ely (1886-1911) lands in Norfolk, Va. after taking off from the deck of the cruiser USS Birmingham at Hampton Roads, Va.; next Jan. 18 he reverses the process, landing on the USS Pennsylvania in his Curtis biplane, becoming the first airplane takeoff and landing from a ship. On Nov. 20 after challenging Gen. Porfirio Diaz in the pres. elections and being jailed to get him out of the way so that Diaz can be reeelected, wealthy U.S.-educated haciendado Francisco Ignacio Madero (1873-1913) flees to Texas and issues the Plan of San Luis de Potosi, a manifesto calling for an uprising, beginning the Mexican Rev. of 1910 (ends May 21, 1920), which causes masses of Mexicans to begin immigrating to the U.S., along with renegade polygamous Romney, er, Mormons - bring down the hacienda? In late Nov. to prevent another Panic of 1907, U.S. Sen. Nelson W. Aldrich, Asst. Treasury Secy. A. Platt Andrew, and five bankers incl. J.P. Morgan, Henry P. Davison, Benjamin Strong, Paul Warburg, and Frank Arthur Vanderlip Sr. (1864-1937) (protege of John D. Rockefeller) meet in Jekyll Island, Ga., and hold a secret meeting that comes up with the idea of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. In Nov. the NAACP in New York City begins pub. The Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races at $1 a year. On Dec. 3-19 after winning the Jan. gen. election and pledging to reform the House of Lords and end its veto power, and a budget crisis last year was exacerbated by the House of Lords blocking the budget of chancellor of the exchequer David Lloyd George (1863-1945, the 1910 British Gen. Election (first held over several days) (last prior to WWI) sees the Conservatives led by Lord Arthur Balfour allied with the Liberal Unionists win 271 seats, and the Liberal Party win 272 seats, supported by the Irish Nationalists, becoming the last election in which the Liberals win the highest number of seats in the Commons (until ?); after the Liberals threaten to recommend to the king that he create hundreds of new Liberal peers, causing them to work to abolish the age-old veto of the Lords over the Commons next year with the Parliament Act of 1911, opening the way to Irish Home Rule. British novelist writes the soundbyte about the advent of modernist art: "On or about December 1910, human character changed. I am not saying that one went out, as one might into a garden, and there saw that a rose had flowered, or that a hen had laid an egg. The change was not sudden and definite like that. But a change there was, nevertheless." Poisoned by a bad can of tomatoes? As the 1910s decade begins, five U.S. Supreme Court justices retire or die in a 2-year period, most this year, incl. Rufus Wheeler Peckham (Oct. 24, 1909), David Josiah Brewer (Mar. 28, 1910), Melville Fuller (July 4, 1910), William Henry Moody (retires Nov. 20, 1910), and John Marshall Harlan (Oct. 14, 1911); on Dec. 16 Marion, Ind.-born Willis Van Devanter (1859-1941) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #63 (until June 2, 1937); on Dec. 17 Ga.-born Joseph Rucker Lamar (1857-1916) (cousin of justice Lucius Lamar II) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #64 (until Jan. 2, 1916), filling the vacancies left by Edgar Douglass White (1894-1910) and William Henry Moody (1906-10); on Dec. 19 justice #55 (since Mar. 12, 1894) (Roman Catholic) Edward Douglass White (1845-1921) becomes U.S. Chief Justice #9 of the very white and very right U.S. Supreme Court (until May 19, 1921) to fill the vacancy left by tomato man Melville Fuller (b. 1883) (1888-1910), who died on July 4, with Pres. Taft appointing him because he knew that the fat old fart didn't have long left and he wanted to become his successor?; White becomes known for the Rule of Reason standard in antitrust law, and for his dissent in the case Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Co. (1895) declaring the nat. income tax unconstitutional. Eleutherios Venizelos (1864-1936) becomes PM of Crete, but the Military League of Greece lures him to Athens to help their constitutional reform movement. Andrew Fisher becomes PM of Australia again (#8) (until 1913). A revolt begins in Albania. Ramon Barros Luco (1835-1919) becomes pres. of Chile (until 1915). U.S. Pres. Taft's secy. of state Philander Chase Knox (1853-1921) negotiates arbitration treaties with Britain and France that are ratified next year by the Senate after 18 mos. of opposition led by U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1893-1924) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924). The Flexner Report, written by nonphysician Abraham Flexner (1866-1959), working for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (founded 1905) and the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA) describes every medical school in the U.S. and Canada, denouncing many of them as inadequate while praising Johns Hopkins U. (founded 1893) as a model, resulting in many school closings and more expensive lab training and in-hospital training. The Internat. Psychoanalytical Assoc. (IPA) is founded by Sigmund Freud, with Carl Jung as pres. #1, and Otto Rank as secy. #1; the Am. Psychoanalytic Assoc. (APsaA) is founded. Hull House resident member Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) (sister of Edith Hamilton) founds the field of occupational medicine, being appointed to the Occupational Diseases Commission of Ill. (first such investigative body in the U.S.), relying on "shoe leather epidemiology" and toxicology to influence legislative reforms to improve worker health; in 1919 she becomes the first woman faculty member of Harvard U., with the New York Tribune carrying the headline "A Woman on Harvard Faculty - The Last Citadel Has Fallen - The Sex Has Come Into Its Own". George Archer-Shee (1895-1914), a 15-y.-o. naval cadet at the Isle of Wight's Osbourne Naval College is sacked for allegedly stealing a five shilling postal order; his father ruins his health making it a cause celebre in England, and the boy is finally cleared after a trial, but dies in WWI. An avalanche in Hnifsdalur (Knife's Valley) in Finland kills 20, becoming the deadliest in the 20th cent. "Fighting Liberal" George William Norris (1861-1944), a U.S. Rep. since 1902 leads a group who change the House rules to end the abitrary rule (since 1903) of Quaker House Speaker Joseph Gurney "Uncle Joe" Cannon (1836-1926) (R-Ill.), stripping him of some of his powers such as heading the House Rules Committee; he is defeated in 1912 but returns in 1914-22, becoming a leading war and Wilson critic, then turning Methodist after leaving Congress. Wash. becomes the 4th U.S. state to give women the vote. A garrison and proving ground are established in Zossen, Germany in Brandenburg 20 mi. S of Berlin, which in WWI houses several POW camps incl. the Crescent (Halfmoon) Camp (Halbmondslager) (Wunsdorf) for Muslim POWs of the Triple Entente, site of the first mosque (wooden) in Germany (July 13, 1915), and Weinberg Camp for Indian POWs; a total of 15K POWs are held there incl. Russian and French (almost no Brits, who are held at Doberitz), all well-fed to facilitate conversion attempts. Sleepy Hollywood is annexed by Los Angeles to secure the reliable water supply, allowing movie theaters, which had been banned to open; there are at least 10 movie cos. operating in LA; by 1921 80%+ of the world's film industry is concentrated in LA. The colony of French Equatorial Africa, consisting of the French Congo, Gabon, and Ubangi-Shari is established. Elisabethville (Elizabethville), capital of the Belgian Congo is founded in Katanka province. Canada forms its own small navy. Ukrainian-born Am. psychiatrist Boris Sidis (1867-1923) opens the Sidis Psychotherapeutic Inst. in Portsmouth, N.H. Arthur Evans completes his excavation of Cnossus, Crete. French daredevil Henri Farman (1874-1958) flies 463 km (300 mi.) in 8.25 hours. The construction co. Brown and Root is founded in Tex. by George R. Brown and Herman Brown with funds from their brother-in-law Daniel Root; in 1947 they build one of the world's first offshore oil platforms; in 1998 they merge with M.W. Kellogg to form KBR Inc. After her stage career tanks, never-marrying always-romancing Saumur-born French fashion designer Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (1883-1971) (Fr. "cocotte" = kept woman) opens the Chanel Modes boutique in Paris, selling hats, making a fan of popular actress Gabrielle Dorziat, allowing her in 1913 to expand to Deauville, followed in 1915 by Biarritz, selling deluxe casual clothes made of traditional men's fabrics incl. jersey and tricot, going on to start a women's fashion rev. with tailored suits, chain-belted jerseys, quilted handbags, and the "little black dress", ending the age of the corset and replacing it with the sporty look, bringing back suntans for women; in spring 1920 she becomes friends with Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, backing his productions; on May 5, 1921 she introduces Chanel No. 5 perfume, and in 1921 opens the first-ever fashion boutique in Paris, accepting a $1M deal with Samuel Goldwyn to come to Hollywood and design costumes for MGM stars incl. Gloria Swanson, Ina Claire, making fans of Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich before abndoning Hollyweird for France, ending up employing 4K people by 1935 and becoming rivals with Elsa Schiaparelli; in 1929 she introduces the Chanel Bag, with a thin chain (chatelaine) shoulder strap and burgundy lining, based on her time in an orphanage and convent; in 1933 she adopts the camellia as her logo, going on to become the #1 fashion designer of all time; too bad, a rabid anti-Semite, in WWII she collaborates with the Germans, and is later revealed to be a Nazi spy. In this decade large-scale coffee growing begins in Kenya. In this decade large-scale pineapple growing is established in Hawaii. In this decade the Caribbean banana industry peaks, causing labor troubles in Costa Rica and other countries. The wild blueberry is domesticated in the U.S. There are 122K telephones in use in Great Britain. The first labour exchanges open in Britain. In 1910 the Mediterranean fruit fly is discovered in Hawaii, which is full of yummy bananas. The "weekend" becomes popular in the U.S. for grand relaxation. In this decade beards begin to become rare on male faces in the West (until 1960). Kent State U. is founded in Kent, Ohio as a teacher training school, holding its first classes in 1912; in the 1960s-1970s it becomes known for student activism against the Vietnam War. Prince Albert I of Monaco founds the Inst. for Oceanography. The $10M Carnegie Endowment for Internat. Peace is established after Columbia U. pres. Nicholas Murray Butler talks old man Andrew Carnegie into it; the goal is the abolition of internat. war - judging by the news, he must not have given enough moolah yet? The U.S. Esch Act places a punitive tax on white phosphorus matches, killing the industry. Angel Island is opened as an official U.S. immigration station in San Francisco Bay, Calif. (until 1940), becoming more of a detention center than welcoming gateway as Asian immigrants have to prove their fathers are U.S. citizens or that they were born in the U.S., and are often held for long periods for processing. The Chicago Outfit (Mafia) AKA the Org. is founded in South Side, Chicago, Ill., becoming the largest and most powerful criminal org. in the Midwest. Hotels in America and England begin to host afternoon tea dances where working girls can meet men in a city far from their homes while enjoying dance crazes incl. the Tango (danced in 2/4 or 4/4 time) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, brought to the U.S. in 1912 by Vernon and Irene Castle. Vadodara, Gujarat-born Indian Sufi musician Inayat Khan (1882-1927) comes to the West, marrying Ora Ray Baker from N.M. and settling in Suresnes near Paris, founding the Sufi Order of the West in London in 1914; in 1923 he founds the Internat. Sufi Movement. Belgian attys. Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943) found the Mundaneum to gather and classify all the world's knowledge using their Universal Decimal Classification based on the Dewey Decimal Classification System, which later leads to the Internet. The Los Angeles County Museum of Art in Los Angeles, Calif. is founded. The Poetry Society of Am. is founded in Manhattan, N.Y. by Witter Bynner et al. as a salon, attracting poets Amy Lowell, Ezra Pound, W.B. Yeats et al. to its meetings, later Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Marianne Moore, and Wallace Stevens; in 1917 it becomes instrumental in the establishment of a Pulitzer Prize for poetry; in 1930 it establishes the Frost Medal for lifetime achievement in Am. poetry, with the first award going to Jessie Rittenhouse, and the Shelley Memorial Award for living Am. poets, with the first award going to Conrad Aiken; in 1992 it launches Poetry in Motion in the New York City subway system, expanding to 20+ cities. The German Police Dog Assoc. accepts the Rottweiler as the 4th breed for police work after German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers, and Airedale Terriers, saving the former herding breed from extinction. British art critic Roger Fry coins the term "Postimpresionism" for the various styles of painting flourishing in France since 1880, incl. Cezanne, Gaugin, Seurat, van Gogh, etc. Salomon Brothers money brokerage firm in New York City is founded by Arthur, Herbert, and Percy Salomon, expanding to underwriting in 1915 and the govt. bond market in 1917 after passage of the 1917 Liberty Loan Act. There are now 10K nickelodeon theaters for moving pictures in the U.S. The monopoly of the Abe Erlanger and Marc Klaw Theatrical Syndicate (founded 1896) begins to be broken by the Shubert family, who finish breaking them by 1919 and go on to develop Broadway as the #1 theater district. David City, Neb.-born Joyce Clyde Hall (1891-1982) founds Hallmark Card Co. in Kansas City, Mo., starting by quitting high school in Norfolk, Neb. and going store-to-store in Kansas City, Mo. with two shoe boxes full of greeting cards, expanding to Valentine's Day and Christmas Cards in 1915, and inventing wrapping paper in 1917, going on to become an Am. success story and become friends with Eisenhower, Churchill, and Truman. French journalist Paul Desjardins (1859-1940) begins holding his annual 10-day Decades of Pontigny for the intellectual elite of Europe incl. Simone de Beauvoir, Nikolai Berdyaev, T.S. Eliot, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Antoine de Saint-Exuperty (ends 1914); in 1922-39 he reinstitutes them as a conference on the future of Europe, with guests incl. Charles du Bos, Andre Gide, Roger Martin du Gard, Paul Langevin, Francois Mauriac, Jacques Riviere, Alice Voinescu et al. Young Ohio girl Lillian Gish (1893-1993), elder sister of actress Dorothy Gish (1898-1968) lands a dancing role in the New York show of Paris-born Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923); Divine Sarah likes to stroke the girls' delicate curls and mutter to them in French before sending them out after the curtain opens - all the goodness of a Smucker's PB&J without the crust? Plain Jane Yiddish-accented Fanny Brice (1892-1951) lands a $75 a week contract with Florenz Ziegfeld Jr., who also signs light-skinned Egbert Austin "Bert" Williams (1875-1922), who becomes the first black entertainer in an all-white show. Moravian soprano Maria Jeritza (1887-1982) debuts as Elsa in Wagner's Lohengrin at Olomouc, Moravia, and Emperor Franz Josef hears her and gets her a contract at the Imperial Hofoper in Vienna; she debuts with the Metropolitan Opera on Nov. 19, 1921. Protestant Irish dramatist Esme (Esmé) Lennox Stuart Robinson (1886-1958) becomes mgr. of the Abbey Theatre in Dublin (1910-14, 1919-23). English-born Am. stage actress Julia Marlowe (1866-1950) begins appearing with her Am. hubby Edward Hugh Sothern (1859-1933) in a series of Shakespeare plays (until 1914), becoming known as a top Shakespearean duo. The Wykeham Professorship of Ancient History at New College, Oxford U. is established for ancient Greek historians; holders incl. Sir John Linton Myres (1869-1954) (1910-39), Henry Theodore Wade-Gery (1888-1972) (1939-53), Antony Andrewes (1910-90) (1953-77), William George Grieve Forrest (1925-97) (1977-92), and Robert C.T. Parker (1996-). The Journal of Genetics is founded in England by Reginald Crundall Punnett (1875-1967) and William Bateson (1861-1926). The Jantzen Swimwear Co. (originally Portland Knitting Co.) is founded in Portland, Ore., going on produce virgin wool swimwear in 1913, followed by a lightweight rib-stitch model in 1915; their "Red Diving Girl" logo becomes world famous. Young Londoner William Pratt, who bucked his parents who want him to become a diplomat and went to Canada, ending up a farmhand responds to an ad placed by a theatrical agent named Kelly in Billboard, goes to Hollywood, and adopts the screen name Boris Karloff (1887-1969). Thomas Beecham (1879-1961) opens his first opera season at Covent Garden in London. Isolated America is invaded by Modernist artists from the Continent? The 291 Gallery of photographer Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) in New York City starts the decade right by exhibiting Modernist works by French-born Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935), John Marin (1870-1953), Italian-born Joseph Stella (1877-1946) ("America's First Futurist"), Polish-born Abraham Walkowitz (1878-1965) ("America's First Cubist"), Polish-born Max Weber (1881-1961), Lithuanian-born William Zorach (1887-1966) et al. - how's this for an appetizer? Potato chips (invented 1853) become popular worldwide in this decade - the reasons most diets don't work? Blackhawk, Colo.-born Bible-thumper Jesse Shwayder (1882-1970) founds Samsonite in Denver, Colo. on Mar. 10 to manufacture "strong enough to stand on" luggage, introducing a tapered vulcanized fiber suitcase in 1939, and trademarking the name Samsonite in 1941 after the Bible strongman, going on to name his son King David and require all co. execs to carry the Golden Rule engraved on a gold band; originally called Schwayder Trunk Manufacturing Co., he changes the name in 1965 to you know what; in 1961-72 it manufactures Lego toys under license from the Danish parent co.; in 1973 it is acquired by Beatrice Foods. Sunbeam Products of Chicago, Ill., founded in 1890 by J.K. Stewart and Thomas Clark as Chicago Flexible Shaft Co. to produce animal shearing and trimming machines begins producing electric home appliances, incl. the Ironmaster electric iron, Mixmaster mixer (1930), Shavemaster electric razor (1937), Sunbeam CG waffle iron (1939), Coffeemaster (1938-64), and the T20 no-levers toaster (known for legendary longevity), all developed by Swedish-born engineer Ivar Jepson (1903-65), the "father of the modern consumer appliance industry". The Fisker and Nielsen Co. in Denmark, founded by Peder Andersen Fisker (1875-1975) and Hans Marius Nielsen (1870-1954) becomes the first to sell vacuum cleaners in Europe; models weigh 17.5kg and can be operated by a single person; after Fisker patents it and buys out Nielsen, sales reach 1M by 1954; in 1994 it is renamed Nilfisk, and in 1998 it is renamed Nilfisk-Advance. Czech.-born car dealer (former cabbie) John Daniel Hertz Sr. (Sandor Herz) (1879-1961) founds the Yellow Cab Co. in Chicago, Ill., painting his used cars yellow and building his fleet to 2.7K cabs by 1925, becoming the world's largest taxi fleet; in 1924 he founds Hertz Drive-Ur-Self Co., which he sells to Gen. Motors in 1926, later becoming Hertz Rent-A-Car. Cologne, Germany-born Gustav Otto (1883-1926), son of internal combustion engine inventor Nikolaus August Otto founds Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik (originally Aeroplanbau Otto-Alberti) in Puchheim to manufacture powered aircraft made of wood, wire, and canvas, moving to Munich is founded before being taken over by the Bavarian govt. and reorganized as the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG on Mar. 7, 1916; German WWII ace Ernst Udet graduates from their flight school. Sports: On Feb. 28-Mar. 5 Thomas Haley of Detroit, Mich. wins the single competition at the ABC nat. tournament in Detroit with a score of 705, becoming the first 700 series. On Apr. 14 (opening day) after gaining 100+ lbs. in office and having to be pried out of his bathtub, the Seventh-Inning Stretch tradition is given official pres. approval when 6'2" 350-lb. Pres. William Howard Taft has to stretch his at a game between the Washington Senators and Philadelphia Athletics. On Oct. 13 despite condemnation from the Negro press as "sinful", the New York All-Stars, the first all-black pay-for-play basketball team is formed by former St. Christopher Club mgr. Major Aloysius Hart, with the soundbyte: "That this game has taken a firm hold of our people has been demonstrated beyond a doubt"; the team attracts top players from the New York City area incl. the St. Christopher Club. All-black Howard U. founds its first varsity basketball team by Edwin Henderson after his 12th St. Colored YMCA wins the Colored Basketball World's Championship earlier in the year, going on to win the 1911 championship with a team mainly recruited from the 12th St. team, incl. capt. Henry Nixon, former Amherst Walter Camp All-Am. Amherst U. football halfback Edward B. Gray, star center Charles Gilmore, brothers Maurice Curtis and Arthur Curtis, and former Jersey City and Smart Set star (best African-Am. basketball player in 1910) Hudson "Huddy" Oliver (-1955). The 1910 Stanley Cup is won by the Montreal Wanderers. Austrian chess master Carl Schlecter (1874-1918) draws world champ Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) at the world chess championships, becoming the first person in 16 years to come close to beating him; if he had won the last game, he would have taken the title; Canadian hockey star Lester Patrick and his entire family incl. father Joseph and sisters Cynda, Dora, and Myrtle found the British Columbia Ladies Hockey Club, with Lester as coach and Dora as capt. Architecture: On Jan. 10 the Globe Theatre at 205 West 46th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1,509) opens with a production of the musical "The Old Town", featuring a rollback ceiling and seats individually cooled by ice and heated by hot air vents; in 1930s it becomes a movie theater; in 1957 it is acquired by Playhouses, Inc., which renames it the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, reopening on May 5, 1958 with Friedrich Durrenmatt's The Visit, starring Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne. On July 1 Comiskey Park (originally White Sox Baseball Park) in Chicago, Ill. opens, built by team owner Charles Comiskey (1859-1931). On Sept. 8 Pennsylvania Station in New York City opens for Long Island Rail Road trains via the new tunnel under the East River; on Nov. 27 Penn. Railroad trains begin using it, eventually replacing the old New York City area terminal across the Hudson River at Exchange Place in Jersey City, N.J. On Dec. 26 the London Palladium on Argyll St. off Oxford St. in Westminster, London opens, going on to become Britain's most famous theater. After passing Guthrie in pop., Oklahoma City becomes the state capital of Okla., causing the Okla. State Capitol to be built in 1914-17, becoming the only one in the U.S. with active oil rigs; the dome isn't completed until 2002 - everybody talks about how tough their truck is? The early modern AEG Turbine Factory in Moabit, Berlin is designed by architect Peter Behrens (1868-1940). Frank Lloyd Wright moves to Spring, Wisc. and begins Taliesin (East) (Spring Green) (Gael. "shining brow") in Spring Green, Iowa County, Wisc., a combo home, studio, and farm; it burns down in 1914, and he builds Taliesin II, which burns down in 1925, then he builds Taliesen III in 1925-59 using his last dime? The St. Petersburg Mosque in Russia is begun for the 8K Muslims in St. Petersburg (finished in 1913), becoming the largest mosque in Europe outside Turkey, with a cap. of 5K; by 2010 there are 700K trying to crowd in. Fire Station No. 23 in downtown Los Angeles, Calif. is built as the L.A. Fire Dept. HQ (unti 1920), becoming known as the Taj Mahal of firehouses for its expensive ornate interior; it closes in 1960, and is used for scenery shooting, incl. the "Ghostbusters" movies. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Bureau Internat. Permanent de la Paix (Internat. Peace Bureau) (founded 1891) (Switzerland); Lit.: Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (1830-1914) (Germany); Physics: Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923) (Netherlands); Chem.: Otto Wallach (1847-1931) (Germany) [aromatic compounds]; Medicine: Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927) (Germany) [discovery of adenine and thymine in nucleic acid]. Inventions: In Dec. Romanian inventor Henri Marie Coanda (1886-1972) makes his first and last flight in his experimental Coanda 1910 sesquiplane with a ducted fan driven by a piston engine and no propeller, crashing soon after takeoff; in 1965 he claims it had fuel combustion in the air stream and that he invented the jet airplane, causing Romania to celebrate the centennial of jet aircraft in 2010. The modern Bra is invented by New York City socialite Mary Phelps "Polly" Jacob (Caresse Crosby) (1891-1970), who receives a U.S. patent for the Backless Brassiere in Nov. 1914, which becomes a hit; she goes on to leave her alcoholic Boston blue blood 1st hubby Richard R. Peaboody for 2nd hubby Harry Crosby in 1920, who receives $12K/year from a trust fund and live a bohemian lifestyle complete with open marriage and numerous affairs, wild parties, drug use, and long trips abroad, and found Black Sun Press, which promotes Am. expatriate authors Ernest Hemingway, Archibald MacLeish, Hart Crane et al.; her whippet is named Clytoris. After being wowed by Louis Bleriot's 1909 English Channel flight and ordering the construction of an airplane from the Society de Construction d'Appareils Aeriens (Société de Construction d'Appareils Aériens) that was exhibited in the windows of the Bon Marche store in Paris, SPAD (Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés) (originally Societe de Production des Aeroplanes Deperdussin) is founded in Laon, France by silk broker Armand Deperdussin (1860-1924), who hires Louis Bechereau (Béchereau) (1880-1970) as his chief engineer, then declares bankruptcy in Aug. 1913 and sells it to Bleriot Aeronautique in 1914; too bad, in 1913 Deperdussin is accused of bank fraud and forgery, is jailed in 1917-22, and commits suicide in 1924; meanwhile Jules Charles Toussaint Vedrines (Védrines) (1881-1919) wins the 1912 Gordon Bennett Tropy in Clearing, Ill. in a Deperdussin Monocoque with a speed of 105.4 mph (169.7 km/h) (first flight over 100 mph), and Lucien Maurice Prevost (Prévost) (1887-1948) wins the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy in Reims in a Deperdussin Monoque with a speed of 124.8 mph (200.8 km/h). On Nov. 15 Herman G. Kotten of Englewood, N.J. receives U.S. Patent #975,435 for the Kotten Vacuum Cleaner, which requires the operator to stand on a platform and "rock from side to side like a teeter-totter, activating two bellows." The Star Vacuum Cleaner is patented in Britain (#18,899), consisting of a concertina-like drum that is pushed up and down the handle to suck dust through the cleaning head on top; too bad, it leaks a lot; the initial price is 54 shillings; it is discontinued in 1938. Am. chemist William David Coolidge (1873-1975) of G.E. invents the tungsten coil filament light bulb; in 1913 he patents the Coolidge Tube for medical X-rays. Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents the Kinetophone, making talking movies possible. Adams Farwell of Dubuque, Iowa invents fuel injection, which is first used only on diesel engines; gasoline injection takes until 1925. Robert von Lieben (1878-1913) of Austria invents the Triode vacuum tube, the key to radio and TV. Am. roller-coaster designer John A. Miller (1872-1941) invents the Safety Chain Dog (Ratchet), which prevents cars from rolling backwards on the lift hill if the pull chain breaks, causing the clacking sound on wooden coasters; in 1919 he patents the Miller Under Friction Wheel (AKA Upstop Wheel), consisting of a wheel running under the track to keep roller-coaster cars from flying off, making exciting drops and turns possible. The Croque-Monsieur (Mr. Crunch) hot ham and cheese sandwich first appears on the menu of a Parisian cafe; add an egg on top and you get a croque-madame (croque-cheval). Science: Am. naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960) begins exploring the East Indies on the USS Albatross, going on to become the first real-life Indiana Jones, visiting the Arctic, China, and Mongolia, and coining the term "Outer Mongolia" for any place that's hard to reach. Am. physician Nathan Edwin Brill (1860-1925) pub. the first description of Brill's (Brill-Zinsser) Disease, a mild recurrent typhus caused by the same louse or flea, usually in Euro immigrants. Howard Crosby Butler (1872-1922) of Princeton U. excavates the ruins of ancient Sardis near Smyrna in W Asia Minor, home of rich king Croesus, which had been destroyed by Tamerlane in 1402, and finds many gold, silver, and bronze objects he missed. German biochemist Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) introduces Salvarsan (Arsphenamine) as a specific remedy for pesky syphilis - save our sanity, this will sound like a bad joke, but if only more Germans went into science instead of the Wehrmacht? Michigan City, Ind.-born psychologist Grace Helen Kent (1875-1973) pub. the Kent-Rosanoff Free Association Test, one of the first with objective scoring and norms; male colleague J. Rosanoff is just along for the ride? Sir John Murray (1841-1914) of Canada and Johan Hjort (1869-1948) of Norway undertake the first Deep-Sea Oceanographic Research Expedition in the Michael Sars. About this time French chemist Paul Sabatier (1854-1941) discovers the Sabatier Process (Reaction), the reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide at high temps (300C-400C) and high pressure in the presence of a nickel catalyst to produce methane and water, winning him the 1912 Nobel Chem. Prize. Hungarian-born Austrian Jewish pediatrician Bela Schick (1877-1967) develops the Schick Test for susceptibility to diphtheria. German paleontologist Ernst Stromer (1870-1952) discovers the first dinosaurs in Egypt, incl. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, the largest known predatory dinosaur; too bad, his fossil collection is destroyed in 1944 when the RAF bombs a museum in Munich. J.J. Thomson deflects "positive rays" (alpha particles) in a magnetic field. Lt. Van Hensbroeck discovers the Komodo Dragon on Komodo Island in Indonesia. In this decade scientists (except Havelock Ellis?) begin categorizing Homosexuality as a deviant and socially threatening disorder - take a look at my girlfriend, she's the only one I got, heads and asses don't mix, but we've got a secret handshake? Movies: Sidney Olcott's The Deacon's Daughter (Jan. 7) (Kalem Studios) is the film debut of "the Madonna of the Screen" Alice Joyce (1890-1955). George D. Baker's Davy Jones and Captain Bragg (July 22) (Vitagraph) stars William Shea, John Bunny, and Flora Finch, and is the film debut of Brooklyn, N.Y.-born fat comedic actor Hughie Mack (1884-1927), who appears in 195 films by 1928. Harry MacRae Webster's A Fortunate Misfortune (Nov. 1) (Essanay Studios) is the dir. debut of Harry McRae Webster, husband (1905-) of St. Louis, Mo.-born stage actress Lottie Briscoe (1883-1950), who joined Essanay Studios with him in 1909, and stars in 94+ films with Arthur V. Johnson; too bad, he is sued in the early 1920s for unauthorized use of nude models; Briscoe's career also ends in the early 1920s when she becomes homebound. J. Searle Dawley's Frankenstein (Mar. 18) by Edison Studios debuts, becoming the first film version of the 1818 Mary Shelley novel, starring Augustus Phillips as Dr. Frankenstein, Mary Claire Fuller (1888-1973) as his fiancee, and Charles Ogle as the monster; Fuller goes on to become a top film star, but in 1916 starts to tank, and by 1917 is kaput, ending up having two nervous breakdowns and living in a hospital for the last 25 years of her life. D.W. Griffith's In Old California (Mar. 10) (Biograph) debuts, about the Mexican era of Calif. is the first movie filmed in Hollywood, Calif.; too bad, it is lost, causing Cecil B. DeMille's "The Squaw Man" (1914) to get credit, but on May 6, 2004 after it is rediscovered a monument is erected to it at 1713 Vine St. at Hollywood Blvd. James Young Deer's Ridin' Romance (Pathe) is the film debut of Kingfisher Creek, Okla.-born rodeo star John Hartford "Jack" Hoxie (1885-1965) under the stage name Hart Hoxie, which he discards in 1919 after 35 films, marrying his co-star Marin Sais in 1920-7, causing her to become known as "the Queen of the B-Movie Oaters"; in 1920 he helps his Nez Perce, Idaho-born half-brother Al Hoxie (Alton J. Stone) (1901-82) get into the movies as his double. Eugene Mullin's and Charles Kent's Twelfth Night (Feb. 5) (Vitagraph), based on the Shakespeare play stars Julia Swayne Gordon as Olivia, Charles Kent as Malvolio, Edith Storey as Sebastian, Tefft Johnson as Orsino, and Florence Turner as Viola, becoming the film debut of San Rafael, Calif.-born Marin Sais (1890-1971) as Maria. Edison Studios' A Trip to Mars (Feb. 18) is 5 min. long, becoming the first look at a moving Martian. D.W. Griffith's Wilful Peggy (Aug. 25) (Biograph), written by Frank E. Woods stars Mary Pickford as Peggy, Clara T. Bracy as her mother, and Henry B. Walthall as the Lord, who vies with his nephew for her. Nonfiction: Lyman Abbott (1835-1922), The Spirit of Democracy. Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930), British Interests and Activities in Texas, 1838-1846. Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918), A Letter to American Teachers of History; questions current methods of historians, proposing a "theory of history' based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the principle of entropy. Franklin Pierce Adams (1881-1960), Tobogganing on Parnassus; Baseball's Sad Lexicon; contains the soundbyte "These are the saddest of possible words: Tinkers to Evers to Chance", referring to the Chicago Cubs infield (since 1902) of Joe Tinker (SS), Johnny Evers (2B), and Frank Chance (1B). Jane Addams (1869-1935), Twenty Years at Hull House (founded 1889). Edward Arber (ed.), Travels and Works of Captain John Smith (2 vols). Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer (1841-1917), Ancient and Modern Imperialism; the British vs. the ancient Roman Empires. Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), Marie Antoinette; On Something. Andrei Bely (Boris Bugaev) (1880-1934), Theory of Symbolism; founds the Symbolist movement in Russian lit. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), How to Live on 24 Hours a Day. Borden Parker Bowne (1847-1910), The Essence of Religion (posth.). Oscar Browning (1837-1923), Memories of Sixty Years at Eton, Cambridge and Elsewhere. Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), Substance and Function (first book); covers late 19th-cent. developments in physics incl. the foundations of mathematics and Relativity Theory. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), What's Wrong with the World. Hugh Chisholm (1866-1924) (ed.), The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed. (29 vols.) (1910-11); best ed. ever?; "One leaps from one subject to another, fascinated as much by the play of mind and the idiosyncrasies of their authors as by the facts and dates. It must be the last encyclopedia in the tradition of Diderot which assumes that information can be made memorable only when it is slightly coloured by prejudice" (Sir Kenneth Clark); Am. businessman Amos Urban Shirk (1890-1956) becomes a celeb for reading the whole thing in 4.5 years, later calling the 14th ed. a "big improvement"; the article on Palestine by Irish Biblical archeologist Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister (1870-1950) claims a pop. of 650K and 22 different ethnicities living there; "With regard to errors in general, whether falling under the denomination of mental, typographical or accidental, we are conscious of being able to point out a greater number than any critic whatever. Men who are acquainted with the innumerable difficulties of attending the execution of a work of such an extensive nature will make proper allowances. To these we appeal, and shall rest satisfied with the judgment they pronounce." Marie Curie (1867-1934), Treatise on Radioactivity; comprehensive treatment. John Dewey (1859-1952), How We Think; we can be taught to "think well". Sir Edward Durning-Lawrence (1837-1914), Bacon is Shake-Speare; converted after reading Ignatius Donnelly's "The Great Cryptogram" (1888); "England is now declining any longer to dishonour and defame the greatest Genius of all time by continuing to identify him with the mean, drunken, ignorant, and absolutely unlettered, rustic of Stratford who never in his life wrote so much as his own name and in all probability was totally unable to read one single line of print." Charles William Eliot, The Durable Satisfactions of Life. Charles William Eliot (1834-1926) (ed.), The Harvard Classics (20 vols.); "Dr. Eliot's Five-Foot Shelf of Books", works by 30 authors from seven countries, based on his statement that reading such a length of properly selected books will supply a liberal education. Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), Sex in Relation to Society; vol. 6 of 6 in "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" (1897-1910). Jean Henri Fabre (1823-1915), La Vie des Insectes (The Life of Insects); wasps sting prey in their nerve centers, proving they can reason and learn, therefore insect habits are not fixed, and the Darwinian Theory of Evolution is invalid? Irving Fisher (1867-1947), National Vitality. Baron Colmar von der Goltz (1843-1916), Kriegsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19ten Jahurhundert (2 vols.) (1910-14). Emma Goldman (1869-1940), Anarchism and Other Essays; incl. Patriotism, a Menace to Liberty. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Regeneration: An Account of the Social Work of the Salvation Army. Rudolf Hilferding (1877-1941), Das Finanzkapital (Finance Capital); claims that the dog-eat-dog "buccaneering" capitalism of the earlier liberal era has been superseded by monopolistic finance capitalism, which seeks a "centralized privilege-dispensing state"; "The policy of finance capital is bound to lead towards war, and hence to the unleashing of revolutionary storms." Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Paper on Paranoia; introduces the biographical method of study of patients. Karl Johann Kautsky (1854-1938), The Social Revolution. Rodolfo Lanciani (1845-1929), The Roman Forum: A Photographic Description of Its Monuments. Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The World of Homer. Arthur Morrow Lewis, Ten Blind Leaders of the Blind. Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939), How Natives Think (Les Fonctions Mentales dans les Societes Inferieures); the primitive mind vs. the Western mind. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The Gospel and the Modern Man; The Social Teaching of Jesus. Charles Howard McIlwain (1871-1968), The High Court of Parliament and Its Supremacy (first book). John G. Neihardt (1881-1973), The River and I. Frederic Logan Paxson (1877-1948), The Last American Frontier. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Essays on Modern Novelists. Henri Pirenne (1862-1935), Belgian Democracy, Its Early History (2nd ed. 1915). Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), The New Nationalism; how Repubs. can support federal intervention for social justice and to help the underprivileged; African and European Addresses; ed. by Lawrence Fraser Abbott. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) and Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), Principia Mathematica (3 vols.) (1910-13); attempts to reduce arithmetic to logic, founding the calculus of propositions and modern symbolic logic, becoming king locomotive of the county until Godel's Theorem derails them? Johannes Stark (1874-1957), Prinzipien der Atomdynamik (3 vols.) (1910-15). Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), An Outline of Esoteric Science; alternative to materialist cosmologies and Darwinian evolution. W.M. Thayer, Log-Cabin to White House; bio. of Ohio-born U.S. pres. #20 James Garfield (d. 1881). Wallace Delois Wattles (1860-1911), The Science of Getting Rich; New Thought book about "the Certain Way of Thinking"; stays in print for decades, and later inspires Rhonda Byrne (1951-). Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832-1914), Studies of Shakespeare. William Allen White (1868-1944), The Old Order Changeth: A View of American Democracy. Philip Henry Wicksteed (1844-1927), The Common Sense of Political Economy, including a Study of the Human Basis of Economic Law (2 vols.); the universal applicability of decision-making on the margin; "The master-theme is that economic theory is merely a clear working-out of the 'common-sense' of the administration of resources, and particularly that the same principle governs the organization of production and consumption" (Frank Knight); "Thus the same law holds in intellectual, moral, or spiritual as in material matters. Caesar tells how when surprised by the Nervii he had barely time to harangue his soldiers, obviously implying that the harangue was shorter than usual. He felt that a few moments, even at such a crisis, were well devoted to words of exhortation to his troops; but their value declined at the margin, and the price in delaying the onslaught rapidly rose; so the moment was soon reached when the time could be better spent than in prolonging a moving discourse"; makes a fan of Henry Hazlitt, who utters the soundbyte: "Much have I traveled in the realms of gold, etc./ Yet never did I breathe its pure serene./ Till I heard Wicksteed speak out loud and bold." Lyddleton Forbes Winslow (1844-1913), Recollections of Forty Years (autobio.). Art: Georges Braque (1882-1963), Violin and Pitcher; Violin and Candlestick; Bottle and Fishes; Le Sacre-Coeur; Woman With a Mandolin; first Cubist work with oval format; The Glass of Absinthe (1910-11). Marc Chagall (1887-1985), I and the Village; Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers. E.S. Curtis, Two Moons, Northern War Chief (photo). Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Dancer Looking at the Sole of Her Foot (sculpture); based on a plaster cast made by Adrien Hebrard; one of four made through 1920. Robert Delaunay (1885-1941), The Eiffel Tower. Sir George Frampton (1860-1928), Peter Pan (sculpture) (Kensington Gardens, London); commissioned by J.M. Barrie; makes seven casts. William Glackens (1870-1938), Bathing at Bellport, Long Island. Erich Heckel (1883-1970), Girl with Doll. Russians are always good at the abstract? Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Compositions (1910-), Impressions (1910-), and Improvisations (1910-); Improvisation XIV (1910) is the first modern abstract art painting? Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980), Portrait of the Duchess of Rohan-Montesquieu. Fernand Leger (1881-1955), Nues Dans le Foret. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), The Dance II (Fauvist); 102.4" x 153.9"; five red dancing nudes on a simplified green landscape; becomes associated with "Dance of the Young Girls" from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"; the pinnacle of his career?; Music; Les Capucines (Nasturtiums with The Dance II) (1910-12). Richard E. Miller (1875-1943), A Breezy Day in France. Amadeo Modigliani (1884-1920), The Cellist. Edvard Munch (1863-1944), The Murderer. Max Pechstein (1881-1955), Indian and Woman. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Essay on Modern Novelists. Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924), Central Park. Odilon Redon (1840-1916), Birth of Venus. Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Apres le Bain (After the Bath). Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), The Dream. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), The Race Track. Egon Schiele (1890-1918), Black-Haired Standing Girl, Self-Portrait Drawing a Nude. Everett Shinn (1876-1953), Dancer in White Before the Footlights. Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, Wife and Daughters in the Garden. Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955), The Church of Saint-Severin; a White Period work. Music: Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Enchanted Summer. Alban Berg (1885-1935), String Quartet, Op. 3. Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Macbeth (opera). Harry Champion (1865-1942), I'm Henery the Eighth I Am; written by Fred Murray and R.P. Weston. Carrie Jacobs-Bond (1862-1946), A Perfect Day; "And we find at the end of a perfect day,/ The soul of a friend we've made". Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), Fantasia Contrapuntistica. Frederick Shepherd Converse (1874-1940), The Pipe of Desire (opera) (Metropolitan Opera, New York) (Mar. 18) (3 perf.); first U.S. opera performed at the Metropolitan Opera; Young elf Iolan uses a magic pipe owned by the Old One wrongly, causing the death of his lover Naioia and himself Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Preludes for Piano (2 vols.) (1910-13); draws comparisons to Chopin. Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Concerto for Violin in B minor, Op. 61 (London). Michel Fokine (1880-1942), Scheherezade (ballet). Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868-1928), Comedy Overture on Negro Themes; his first major hit. Jean Gilbert, Die Keusche Susanne (operetta). Victor Herbert (1859-1924) and Rida Johnson Young (1875-1926), Naughty Marietta (operetta) (Syracuse) (Oct. 24) (New York Theatre, New York) (Nov. 7) (136 perf.); set in 1780 New Orleans, La., Capt. Richard Warrington (Orville Harold) and his lt. Sir Harry Blake (Raymond Bloomer) attempts to unmask and capture French pirate Bras Pique, gaining the aid of runaway Contessa Marietta D'Altena (Emma Trentini); Herbert's greatest success; features the songs Italian Street Song, Ah! Sweet Mystery of Life, and I'm Falling in Love With Someone; filmed in 1935 starring Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald. Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Her Soldier Boy (Az Obsitos) (Der Gute Kamerad) (operetta) (Budapest). John Lomax (1867-1948), Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads; gives Western music a nat. audience; incl. Streets of Laredo; in 1919 he follows it with Songs of the Cattle Trail and Cow Camp. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 8 in E-flat major ("Symphony of a Thousand") (Munich) (Sept. 12); last of Mahler's works premiered during his lifetime; a big hit. Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Don Quixote (Quichotte) (opera) (Monte Carlo); title role sung by Feodor Chaliapin. Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), On ne Badine pas Avec L'Amour (opera). Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), La Fanciulla del West (The Girl of the Golden West) (opera) (New York) (Dec. 10); libretto by Guelfo Civinini and Carlo Zangarini; based on the 1905 play by David Belasco about the 1849 Calif. Gold Rush, Polka Saloon Owner Minnie, and her beau Dick Johnson; 1st world premiere for the Metropolitan Opera House; inspiration for Andrew Lloyd Webber's "Phantom of the Opera"?; Puccini is so impressed with the Milan debut of tenor Giovanni Martinelli (1885-1969) earlier this year that he snags him for this gig, and after his London debut in 1912 in "Tosca" and New York City debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in "La Boheme" in 1913, he has a 3-decade career. Deodat de Severac (1872-1921), Heliogabale (opera). Robert Stolz (1880-1975), Das Glucksmadel (operetta). Oscar Straus (1870-1954), My Son John (Mein Junger Herr). Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), The Firebird (L'Oiseau de Feu) (ballet) (Paris); first of three ballets commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev and performed by his Ballets Russes; stars Tamara Platonovna Karsavina (1885-1978) after Anna Pavlova can't hack the score. Tell Taylor (1876-1937), Down by the Old Mill Stream; bestseller (4M copies); written in 1908 by the Blanchard River in NW Ohio. Beth Slater Whitson and Leo Friedman, Let Me Call You Sweetheart (song). Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), A Sea Symphony. Movies: Urban Gad's Afgrunden (The Abyss) (Sept. 12) is the film debut of Danish actress Asta Nielsen (1881-1972), who marries Gad and moves to Germany, where producer Paul Davidson offers a record $80K a year, making her the first internat. movie star D.W. Griffith's A Child of the Ghetto (June 6) starts Dorothy West as Ruth, who takes a job as a seamstress after the death of her mother Kate Bruce, and delivers shirts to factory owner Dell Henderson and hooks up with his son Charles West. William G.B. Barker's Hamlet is filmed in London and produced in Denmark. The Jeffries-Johnson World's Championship Boxing Contest, a record of the July 4 Jack Johnson-James J. Jeffries heavyweight title fight offends American feelings about race, and the U.S. Congress bans its exhibition, pretending that it's the violence not the sight of a black man kicking a white man's butt, and goes on to ban interstate distribution of all prize fight films, which isn't repealed until the 1940s. Ugo Falena's Lucrezia Borgia is produced in Italy and stars Vittoria Lepanto. Henri Andreani's Messaline is produced in France. Mario Caserini's Messalina is produced in Italy. Vasili Goncharov and Kai Hansen's Peter the Great (Pyotr Velikiy) (Jan. 6) is produced in Russia, and stars Pyotr Voinov as Peter and Yekaterina Trubetskaya as Yekaterina. Francis W. Boggs' Pride of the Range stars Tom Mix, and is the film debut of Western actor Edmund Richard "Hoot" Gibson (1892-1962). Francis W. Boggs' Ranch Life in the Great Southwest (July 31) stars Tom Mix. Plays: Jean-Jacques Bernard (1888-1972), La Joie du Sacrifice (The Joy of Sacrifice). Padraic Colum (1881-1972), Thomas Muskerry. Cicely Hamilton (1872-1952), A Pageant of Great Women. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), The Dynasts: A Drama of the Napoleonic Wars (1903-8); the Immanent Will Iz? Avery Hopwood (1882-1928), Nobody's Widow; stars Blanche Bates. Nikos Kazantzakis (1883-1957), The Master Builder (tragedy). William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), The Last Man In (Mar. 10) (Royalty Theatre, Glasgow). William Babington Maxwell and George Paston (Emily Morse Symonds), The Naked Truth (Apr.) (Wyndham's Theatre, London). Ferenc Molnar (1878-1952), The Guardsman (Budapest); actor-actress couple Nandor and Ilona are married on Xmas, and 6 mo. later she's already trying to leave him, causing him to disguise himself as an imperial guardsman and seduce her, which he considers a test of his acting ability. Edmond Rostand (1868-1918), Chantecler (Feb. 7) (Paris); how modernity sucks. Carl Sternheim (1878-1942), Die Hose (The Underpants). Frank Wedekind (1864-1918), Schloss Wetterstein (Castle Wetterstein); Franziska; a young girl sells her soul to the Devil in order to know what it's like to be a man. Poetry: Alexander Blok (1880-1921), Vozmezdie (1910-21). Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), Les Paques a (Pâques à) New York (Easter in New York); written on a visit; influences Guillaume Apollinaire's poem "Zone". Paul Claudel (1868-1955), Cinq Grandes Odes. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Selon Ma Loi. Eugene Field (1850-95), Collected Poems (posth.). James Elroy Flecker (1884-1915), Thirty-Six Poems. Gordon Bottomley (1874-1948), A Vision of Giorgione: Three Variations on Venetian Themes. Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937), Saint Gaudens: An Ode. Frederick Lonsdale (1881-1954), The Balkan Princess. Frederic Manning (1882-1935), Poems. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Songs and Sonnets. Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914), Einkehr; grateful for having discovered you know what?; Palmstrom (Palmström); satire of the mere physical world? Kostes Palamas (1859-1943), Phloyera tou Vasilia (The Flute of the King). Charles Peguy (1873-1914), Le Mystere de la Charite de Jeanne d'Arc. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), The Town Down the River; dedicated to Pres. Theodore Roosevelt; "Said the Watcher by the way/ To the young and the unladen,/ To the boy and to the maiden,/ 'God be with you both to-day'"; Miniver Cheevy; about a man who think he was born too late. Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), Impressions d'Afrique (Impressions of Africa). Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Poems and Balads. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Rythmes Souverain; Les Villes a Pignons. Charles Vildrac (1882-1971), Livre d'Amour. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Green Helmet Novels: Leonid Nikolaevich Andreyev (1871-1919), A Dilemma; Silence and Other Stories (short stories). Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), O Mensch. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), The Silver Dove. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Clayhanger; Helen with a High Hand (The Miser's Niece). Ivan Bunin (1870-1953), The Village. Thornton Burgess (1874-1965), Old Mother West Wind (first book); illustrated by Harrison Cady (1877-1970); first in a series; introduces Old Mother West Wind and her Merry Little Breezes, Peter Rabbit (Cottontail), Jimmy Skunk, Sammy Jay, Bobby Raccoon, Little Joe Otter, Grandfather Frog, Billy Mink, Jerry Muskrat, and Spotty the Turtle. Alexander Corkey, The Victory of Allen Rutledge: A Tale of the Middle West; a young pastor reforms the church and remains in the ministry; a counter to Harold Bell Wright's 1909 "The Calling of Dan Matthews". E.M. Forster (1879-1970), Howards End; the Bohemian intellectual Schlegel sisters and their relationship to the thoughtless plutocrat Wilcox family and struggling lower-middle Basts in repressed Edwardian England. Zane Grey (1872-1939), Heritage of the Desert. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Queen Sheba's Ring; Morning Star; dedicated to E.A. Wallis Budge. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The Fool in Christ; Emanuel Quint. O. Henry (1862-1910), Whirligigs (short stories). Bernhard Kellermann (1879-1951), Das Meer (The Sea). Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), Rewards and Fairies; sequel to "Puck of Pook's Hill". Andrew Lang (1844-1912), The Lilac Fairy Book. Gaston Leroux (1868-1927), The Phantom of the Opera (Le Fantome de l'Opera); Erik falls in love with younger Swedish singer Christian Daae (based on Christina Nilsson?) at the Opera Garnier, and gets her a debut when Carlotta becomes ill, after which she has to decide between him and childhood beau Viscount Raoul de Chagny. William John Locke (1863-1930), A Christmas Mystery: The Story of Three Wise Men; Somon the Jester; Viviette. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Le Chateau de la Belle au Bois Dormant. Charles Major (1856-1913), The Little King: A Story of the Childhood of King Louis XIV. Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), The Return. John Masefield (1868-1967), A Book of Discoveries (children's novel). A.E.W. Mason (1865-1948), At the Villa Rose; introduces Inspector Hanaud, used by Agatha Christie as a model for Hercule Poirot. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), The Rest Cure. Karl May (1842-1912), Winnetou. Nellie McClung (1873-1951), The Second Chance. Karin Michaelis (1872-1950), The Dangerous Age: Letters and Fragments from a Woman's Diary; big hit in Denmark and Germany about female equality, selling 1M copies. Miriam Michelson, In the Bishop's Carriage. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), The Day's Play. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Illustrious Prince; Passers By; The Lost Ambassador (The Missing Delora). Aldo Palazzeschi (1885-1974), L'Incendario (first novel). Henry Handel Richardson (1870-1946), The Getting of Wisdom. Jacob August Riis (1849-1914), Hero Tales of the Far North. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Window at the White Cat. Sax Rohmer (1883-1959), Pause! (first novel); pub. anon. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), Mistress (Anthony) Wilding. Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), The Gate; Spring Miscellany; And Then. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Drums of War; The Cruise of the King Fisher: A Tale of Deep-Sea Adventure. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Young Idea. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), The Tattooer (first novel). Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), Maradick at Forty. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Canadian Born. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The History of Mr. Polly; English shopkeeper Alfred Polly faces bankruptcy, and burns down his house and escapes his horrible wife to enjoy a life of freedom along with his uncles Pentstemon and Jim. Grace Miller White (1868-1957), The Shadows of the Sheltering Pines. Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), The Uncrowned King. Births: Am. "Mr. Green Jeans in Captain Kangaroo" actor Hugh "Lumpy" Brannum (d. 1987) on Jan. 5 in Sandwich, Ill.; educated at the U. of Redlands. Am. "The Field of Vision", "Love Among the Cannibals" novelist-photographer Wright Marion Morris (d. 1998) on Jan. 6 in Central City, Neb. Am. "The Lives of a Bengal Lancer" actor Richard "Dick" Cromwell (LeRoy Melvin Radabaugh) (d. 1960) on Jan. 8 in Long Beach, Calif.; son of Ralph R. Radabaugh (-1918), inventor of the Monoflyer amusement park swing ride. Russian ballerina Galina Sergeyevna Ulanova (d. 1998) on Jan. 8 (Dec. 26, 1909 Old Style) in St. Petersburg. Am. 5'5" blonde-blue actress Claudia Dell Smith (d. 1977) on Jan. 10 in San Antonio, Tex.; her image "was used as Columbia Pictures' signature for years." (Bette Davis) French conductor-composer Jean Martinon (d. 1976) on Jan. 10 in Lyon. Am. "Red Ryder" actor Donald "Red" Barry de Acosta (Milton Poimboeuf) (d. 1980) on Jan. 11 in Houston, Tex.; husband (1940-4) of Peggy Stewart (1923-). Am. "Emily the Maid in Topper Returns" "Lara-Louise McBirney in Rosemary's Baby" actress (lesbian) Bridget Sarah Veronica Rose "Patsy" Kelly (d. 1981) on Jan. 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Irish immigrant parents; lover of Tallulah Bankhead. German "Anna Held in The Great Ziegfeld" actress Luise Rainer on Jan. 12 in Dusseldorf; wife (1937) of Clifford Odets (1906-63). Am. "1934 Gashouse Gang" baseball hall-of-fame pitcher Jerome Hanna "Dizzy" Dean (d. 1974) on Jan. 16 in Lucas, Ark. Italian poet-novelist-psychiatrist Mario Tobino (d. 1991) on Jan. 16 in Viareggio, Tuscani. Am. "There is a Spirit" activist economist (Quaker) (co-founder of Gen. Systems Theory) Kenneth Ewart Boulding (d. 1993) on Jan. 18 in Liverpool, England; educated at Oxford U.; becomes U.S. citizen in 1948; husband of Elise Boulding (1920-2010). Czech "Born Free" wildlife conservationist Joy Adamson (nee Friedericke Victoria Gessner) (b. 1980) on Jan. 20 in Troppau, Silesia (Opava, Czech Repub.); wife of George Adamson (1906-89); they raise orphaned lioness cub Elsa in 1956. Belgian Sinto Gypsy jazz guitarist Jean "Django" Reinhardt (d. 1953) on Jan. 23 in Liberchies, Pont-a-Celles. Austrian 280 lb. "Sgt. Hans Schultz in Hogan's Heroes" actor (Jewish) John Banner (d. 1973) on Jan. 28 in Vienna; does time in a Nazi concentration camp, then flees in 1938. Chinese economist ("Father of Taiwan's Economic Miracle") Li Kwoh-Ting (d. 2001) on Jan. 28 in Nanjing; educated at Cambridge U. Indian politician ("Father of the Green Revolution") Chidambaram Subramaniam (d. 2000) on Jan. 30 in Pollachi, Tamil Nadu. Am. "Woman of the Year", "Teacher's Pet" screenwriter-dir.-producer Michael Kanin (d. 1993) on Feb. 1 in Rochester, N.Y.; brother of Garson Kanin (1912-99); husband (1940-) of Fay Mitchell (1917-2013). Am. "Finian's Rainbow", "On a Clear Day You Can See Forever" composer-lyricist (Jewish) Burton Lane (Levy) (d. 1997) on Feb. 2 in New York City. Am. conductor (Jewish) Erich Leinsdorf (Landauer) (d. 1993) on Feb. 4 in Vienna, Austria; becomes U.S. citizen in 1942. Am. mob boss Carlos Marcello (Calogero Minacore) (d. 1993) on Feb. 6 in Tunis; emigrates to the U.S. is founded. French biologist Jacques Lucien Monod (d. 1976) on Feb. 9 in Paris. English "I'm Going to See You Today" actress-comedian-singer-songwriter (Christian Scientist) Joyce Irene Grenfell (nee Phipps) (d. 1979) on Feb. 10 in London; daughter of Nora Langhorne (1889-1955), sister of Nancy Astor (1879-1964). Belgian Dominican monk Dominique (Georges Charles Clement Ghislain) Pire (d. 1969) on Feb. 10 in Dinant. Zanzibar sultan #10 (1960-3) (black) Sir Abdullah bin Khalifa Al-Said (d. 1963) on Feb. 12; father of Jamshid bin Abdullah (1929-). Am. physicist and white supremacy champion (transistor co-inventor) William Bradford Shockley Jr. (d. 1989) on Feb. 13 in London, England; raised in Palo Alto, Calif.; educated at Caltech, and MIT. British "How to Be An Alien" writer (Jewish) George Mikes (d. 1987) (pr. MIK-esh) on Feb. 15 in Sikos, Hungary; emigrates to England in 1938. Am. "Brother Rat", "Strike Up the Band", "Meet Me in St. Louis" writer-producer Fred Franklin Finklehoffe (d. 1977) on Feb. 16 in Springfield, Mass.; collaborator of John Cherry Monks Jr. (1910-2004). Am. "Cavalcade of Stars" actor-comedian Jerry Lester (d. 1995) on Feb. 16 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Zeb Calloway in The Big Sky", "Grizzly Tatum in Lassie", "Hyder Simpson in The Twilight Zone episode The Hunt" actor Arthur Hunnicutt (d. 1979) on Feb. 17 in Gravelly, Ark. Am. "Lefty Kyler in The Man Who Talked Too Much" pockmarked actor (Jewish) Marc C. Lawrence (AKA F.A. Foss) (d. 2005) on Feb. 17 in Bronx, N.Y.; Russian Jewish father, Polish Jewish mother; educated at CCNY; father of Toni Lawrence. Am. "You Make Me Feel So Young", "You Do" composer Josef Myrow (d. 1987) on Feb. 18 in Russia. Am. Unimate inventor George Charles Devol Jr. (d. 2011) on Feb. 20 in Louisville, Ky. British RAF group capt. (double amputee) Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader (d. 1982) on Feb. 21 in St. John's Wood, London; created knight in 1976. Am. mob boss Carmine "Cigar" Galante (d. 1979) on Feb. 21 in East Harlem, N.Y.; Sicilian immigrant parents; father of James Galante (1953-); uncle of Anthony Galante (1990-). Am. "The Secret Storm", "Love of Life" radio-TV announcer (Jewish) Ken Roberts (Saul Trochman) (d. 2009) on Feb. 22 in Manhattan, N.Y.; Latvian Jewish immigrant father, Ukrainian Jewish immigrant mother; father of Tony Roberts (1939-). Am. "Brother Rat", "Strike Up the Band", "Knock On Any Door" actor-writer-dir. John Cherry Monks Jr. (d. 2004) on Feb. 24 in Pleasantville, N.Y.; collaborator of Fred Finklehoffe (1910-77). U.S. Rep. (R-N.J.) (1975-83) Millicent Vernon Hammond Fenwick (d. 1992) on Feb. 25 in New York City; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Lullaby of Broadway", "Lady in Red" singer-actress-dancer Wini Shaw (Winifred Lei Momi) (d. 1982) on Feb. 25 in San Francisco, Calif.; of Hawaiian descent; youngest of 13 children. Am. "Elizabeth Collins Stoddard in Dark Shadows" actress Joan Geraldine Bennett (d. 1990) on Feb. 27 in Palisades Park, N.J.; daughter of Richard Bennett (1873-1944); sister of Constance Bennett (1904-65) and Barbara Bennett (1906-58); maternal granddaughter of Lewis Morrison (1845-1906); wife of (1932-7) Gene Markey and (1940-65) Walter Wanger. Am. "The Blood of the Lamb" writer Peter De Vries (d. 1993) on Feb. 27 in Chicago, Ill.; Dutch immigrant parents. Am. aircraft designer Clarence Leonard "Kelly" Johnson (d. 1990) on Feb. 27 in Ispeming, Mich.; Swedish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Mich.; head of Lockheed's Skunk Works; designs 40+ aircraft incl. the P-38, U-2, A-12, and SR-71. English biochemist Archer John Porter Martin on Mar. 1 in London; educated at Cambridge U.; co-discoverer of chromatography with Richard Laurence Millington Synge. English "Phileas Fogg in Around the World in Eighty Days" actor James David Graham Niven (d. 1983) on Mar. 1 in London. Australian psychiatrist Ainslie Dixon Meares (d. 1986) on Mar. 3 in Malvern, Victoria. Japanese Ramen inventor Momofuku Ando (d. 2007) on Mar. 5 in Chiayi, Taiwan. Am. country musician (harmonica) Floyd "Salty" Holmes (d. 1970) (Mattie and Salty) on Mar. 6 in Glasgow, Ky.; of Cherokee descent; husband (1947-56) of Jean Chapel (1925-95). Am. "Adagio for Strings" composer (gay) Samuel Osborne Barber II (d. 1981) on Mar. 9 in West Chester, Penn.; lover of Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007). USAF Lt. Gen. (Roman Catholic) Joseph Francis Carroll (d. 1991) on Mar. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Loyola U.; father of James P. Carroll (1943-). German SS Col. Helmut Knochen (d. 2003) on Mar. 10 in Magdeburg. Am. "Harbor Lights" jazz bandleader ("Swing and Sway with Sammy Kaye") Sammy Kaye (Samuel Zarnocay Jr.) (d. 1987) on Mar. 13 in Lakewood (near Cleveland), Ohio; educated at Ohio U. Am. "Ben Andrews in Manhunt" actor Patrick "Pat" McVey (McVeigh) (d. 1973) on Mar. 17 in Fort Wayne, Ind. Am. entertainment exec. and New York Jets co-owner (Jewish) David Abraham "Sonny" Werblin (d. 1991) on Mar. 17 in Flatbush, Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Rutgers U. Am. "The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet" cardiologist (Jewish) Herman Tarnower (d. 1980) on Mar. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Syracuse U. Irish "Steptoe and Son", "Paul McCartney's grandfather in A Hard Day's Nights" actor (gay) (alcoholic) Wilfrid Brambell (d. 1985) on Mar. 22 in Dublin. Canadian-Am. minimalist painter Agnes Martin (d. 2004) on Mar. 22 in Macklin, Sask.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1931; educated at Columbia U. English "The Cruel Sea" novelist lt cmdr. (pacifist) Nicholas John Turney Monsarrat (d. 1979) on Mar. 22 in Liverpool; educated at Winchester College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. "Eve Arden's husband in The Mothers-in-Law" actor Herbert Rudley (d. 2006) on Mar. 22 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Temple U. Japanese "Rashomon" film dir. Akira Kurosawa on Mar. 23 in Ota, Tokyo. French "Belle Dee in The Devil and Daniel Webster" actress Simone Therese Fernande Simon (d. 2005) on Mar. 23 in Marseille. Am. "Bambi's mother", "Peg Riley in The Life of Riley", "Greta Gravel in The Flintstones" actress Paula Winslowe (Winslow) (d. 1996) on Mar. 23 in Grafton, N.D.; wife ()1939-) of John Sutherland (1910-2001). Am. "Don Barzini in The Godfather" actor Richard (Nicholas) Conte (d. 1975) on Mar. 24 in Jersey City, N.J. German spy Erich Gimpel (d. 2010) on Mar. 25. Am. Mormon apologist Hugh Winder Nibley (d. 2005) on Mar. 27 in Portland, Ore.; educated at UCLA. Am. "Mickey Mouse Club MC" James Wesley "Jimmie" Dodd (d. 1964) on Mar. 28 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Danish queen consort (1947-72) Ingrid Victoria Sofia Louise Margareta of Sweden (d. 2000) on Mar. 28; 3rd child of Gustav VI Adolf (1882-1973) and 1st wife Princess Margaret of Connaught (1882-1920); great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria of England; wife of Frederick IX (1899-1972); mother of Margrethe II (1940-). Am. "The Ugly American" novelist William Julius Lederer Jr. (d. 2009) on Mar. 31 in New York City; collaborator of Eugene Burdick (1918-65). Am. jazz saxophonist (black) Harry Howell Carney (d. 1974) (Duke Ellington Band) on Apr. 1 in Boston, Mass. Am. actress (stand-in for Maureen O'Hara) Lucille House (d. 2008) on Apr. 3 in Ohio. Am. novelist Harriet Huntington Doerr (d. 2002) on Apr. 8 in Pasadena, Calif.; educated at Smith College, and Stanford U. English-Canadian "The Third Eye" New Age writer Tuesday Lobsang Rampa (Cyril Henry Hoskin) (d. 1981) on Apr. 8 in Plympton, Devon. Am. Conn. gov. #80 (1955-61) and U.S. Sen. (D-Conn.) (1963-81) (Jewish) Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (d. 1998) on Apr. 9 in New Britain, Conn.; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; educated at NYU, and U. of Chicago. Am. "Forgotten First Citizen, John Bigelow" writer-educator (pres. of Wellesley College in 1949-66) Margaret Antoinette Clapp (d. 1974) on Apr. 10 in East Orange, N.J.; educated at Wellesley College, and Columbia U. Am. "Monopoly Capital" Marxist economist Paul Marlor Sweezy (d. 2004) on Apr. 10 in New York City; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, Harvard U., and the London School of Economics. Am. Dem. mayor #40 of Denver, Colo. (1986-83) (Roman Catholic) William Henry "Bill" McNichols Jr. (d. 1997) on Apr. 11 in Denver, Colo.; son of Denver city auditor (1931-55) William Henry McNichols Sr.; brother of Stephen McNichols (1914-97); educated at the U. of Colo. Boulder, and U. of Ala. Portuguese pres. (1974) marshal Antonio Sebastiao Ribeiro Spinola (d. 1996) on Apr. 11 in Estremoz, Santo Andre; son of Antonio Sebastiao Spinola (1875-1956). Am. "We Shall Overcome", "Keep You Eyes on the Prize" musician-activist Zilphia Horton (d. 1956) on Apr. 14 in Spadra, Ark. Am. Dem. New York City mayor #102 (1954-65) Robert Ferdinand Wagner Jr. (II) (d. 1991) on Apr. 20 in New York City; son of U.S. Sen. Robert Ferdinand Wagner Sr. (1877-1953); educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). Irish MP Robert George Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster (d. 1979) on Apr. 24. Chinese PM of Taiwan (1972-8) and pres. of Taiwan (1978-88) Chiang Ching-kuo (d. 1988) on Apr. 27 in Fenghua, Zhejiang; son of Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) and 1st wife Mao Fumei (1882-1939). Am. "Pat Caverley in Girls Will Be Boys" actress Dorothy Clara Louise "Dolly" Haas (d. 1994) on Apr. 29 in Hamburg; emigrates to the U.S. in ?; wife ((1937-41) of John Brahm (1892-1982) and (1943-94) of Al Hirschfeld (1903-2003); mother of Nina Hirschfeld (1945-). Irish dog trainer Barbara Woodhouse (Blackburn) (b. 1988) on May 9 in Rathfarnham. Am. jazz composer-pianist (black) ("first great female instrumentalist in jazz") Mary Lou Williams (Mary Elfrieda Scruggs) (d. 1981) on May 8 in Atlanta, Ga.; grows up in East Liberty, Pittsburgh, Penn. Canadian "Games People Play" psychiatrist (Jewish) (founder of transactional analysis) Eric Berne (Eric Lennard Bernstein) (d. 1970) on May 10 in Montreal; no relation to conductor Leonard Bernstein; educated at McGill U. Am. "I'm Eddie Charles, and I'm mad as hell", "I'm mad too, Eddie!" oil tycoon and Texas Rangers owner (1980-9) Harrell Edmonds "Eddie" Chiles (d. 1993) on May 11 in Itasca, Tex.; educated at the U. of Okla. English biochemist (discoverer of X-ray crystallography) Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (nee Dorothy Mary Crowfoot) (d. 1994) on May 12 in Cairo, Egypt; educated at Somerville College, Oxford U., and Cambridge U. Polish resistance fighter (Jewish) Irena Sendler (Sendlerowa) (nee Krzyzanowska) (d. 2008) (AKA Jolanta) on May 12 in Otwock. Am. "My Foolish Heart" composer-pianist Gordon Hill Jenkins (d. 1984) on May 12 in Webster Groves, Mo. British actress Constance Cummings (Halverstadt) (d. 2005) on May 15 in Seattle, Wash.; wife (1933-73) of Benn W. Levy (1900-73). Am. dir.-writer-novelist-producer (Jewish) Richard Brooks (Ruben Sax) (d. 1992) on May 18 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Temple U.; husband (1960-77) of Jean Simmons. South African anti-apartheid leader (black) Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (d. 2003) on May 18 in Engcobo, Transkei. Am. "Goodnight Moon", "The Runaway Bunny" children's writer (bi) Margaret Wise Brown (d. 1952) on May 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; lover of Michael Strange (Blanche Oelrichs) (1890-1950). Am. abstract expressionist (action) painter Franz Kline (d. 1962) on May 23 in Wilkes-Barre, Penn.; develops his own style after Willem de Kooning in 1948 tells him to project his sketches with a Bell Opticon opaque projector. Am. "Begin the Beguine" jazz clarinetist-bandleader (Jewish) Artie Shaw (Arthur Jacob Arshawsky) (d. 2004) on May 23 in New York City. Am. financier-conservationist Laurance Spelman Rockefeller (d. 2004) on May 26 in New York City; 4th child of John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1874-1960); educated at Princeton U. and Harvard U. Am. bluesman (black) ("Father of Electric Blues") Aaron Thibeaux "T-Bone" Walker (d. 1975) on May 26 in Linden, Tex.; of African and Cherokee descent. English actress Rachel Kempson, Lady Redgrave (d. 2003) on May 28 in Dartmouth, Devon; wife (1935-) of Sir Michael Redgrave (1908-85); mother of Vanessa Redgrave (1937-), Corin Redgrave (1939-), and Lynn Redgrave (1943-2010); grandmother of Natasha Richardson (1963-), Joely Richardson (1965-), Jemma Redgrave (1965-), and Carlo Nero (1969-). Am. Dem. athlete-politician (black) Ralph Harold Metcalfe (d. 1978) on May 29 in Atlanta, Ga.; grows up in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Marquette U. Canadian jockey George Monroe "Iceman" Woolf (d. 1946) on May 31 in Cardston, Alberta. Am. "Lt. Joan O'Doulin So Proudly We Hail!", "Hannah in The Great Dictator" actress (Jewish?) Paulette Goddard (d. 1990) on June 3 in Queens, N.Y.; wife (1936-42) of Charlie Chaplin, (1944-49) Burgess Meredith, and (1958-70) Erich Maria Remarque. English hovercraft inventor Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (d. 1999) on June 4 in Cambridge; educated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge U. Am. Teflon inventor (1938) Roy J. Plunkett (d. 1994) on June 6 in New Carlisle, Ohio; educated at Ohio State U. Am. mountaineer-cartographer (founder of the Boston Museum of Science) Henry Bradford Washburn Jr. (d. 2007) on June 7 in Cambridge, Mass.; descendant of Mayflower passenger William Brewster; educated at Harvard U. Am. 6'1" sci-fi pioneer (ed. of Astounding Science Fiction, 1937-71) John Wood Campbell Jr. (d. 1971) on June 8 in Newark, N.J.; educated at MIT, and Duke U.; known for always clamping a cigarette holder in his teeth; helps launch the careers of Isaac Asimov, L. Ron Hubbard et al. Am. "The Bob Cummings Show", "Parris Mitchell in Kings Row", "Mark Halliday in Dial M for Murder" actor Charles Clarence Robert Orville "Bob" Cummings (d. 1990) (AKA Blade Stanhope Conway) on June 9 in Joplin, Mo.; godson of Orville Wright, who gives him flying lessons in h.s., soloing on Mar. 3, 1927, aand receiving U.S. flight instructor certificate No. 1; educated at Carnegie Inst. of Techn. Am. 636" "Smokestack Lightnin'", "Back Door Man", "Spoonful" blue musician (black) Chester Arthur "Howlin' Wolf" Burnett (d. 1976) on June 10 in White Station, Miss.; named after U.S. Pres. Chester A. Arthur. French oceanographer-explorer-author Jacques-Yves Cousteau (d. 1997) on June 11 in St. Andre-de-Cubzac - sexy skindivers go down at how many miles per hour? English historian Antony Andrewes (d. 1990) on June 12 in Tavistock, Devon; educated at Winchester College, and New College, Oxford U. English Christian morals campaigner Mary Whitehouse (nee Constance Mary Hutcheson) (d. 2001) on June 13 in Nuneaton, Warwickshire. German conductor Rudolf Kempe (d. 1976) on June 14 in Dresden. Am. "The Stripper" composer-songwriter-bandleader David Rose (d. 1990) on June 15 in London; husband (1941-44) of Judy Garland (1922-69). Peruvian pres. (1968-75) gen. Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (d. 1977) on June 16 in Piura. Am. "Peace in the Valley", "One by One" country singer Clyde Julian "Red" Foley (d. 1968) on June 17 in Blue Lick, Ky. Am. "Lawrence Preston in The Defenders", "Juror #4 in 12 Angry Men" actor E.G. Marshall (Everett Eugene Grunz) (d. 1998) (not Edda Gunnar Marshall?) on June 18 in Owatonna, Minn.; German paternal grandparents; educated at Carleton College, and U. of Minn; claims E.G. means Everybody's Guess, refusing to divulge his real given name, even to the Social Security Admin. Am. "Shot Heard 'Round the World" hall-of-fame sportscaster (New York/San Francisco Giants) Russell Patrick "Russ" Hodges (d. 1971) on June 18 in Dayton, Tenn. Am. polymer chemist Paul John Flory (d. 1985) on June 19 in Sterling, Ill.; educated at Ohio State U. U.S. liberal Supreme Court justice #96 (1965-9) (Jewish) Abraham "Abe" Fortas (d. 1982) on June 19 in Memphis, Tenn.; English father; educated at Yale U. British 1953 Mt. Everest Expedition leader Brig. Gen. Henry Cecil John Hunt, Baron Hunt (d. 1998) on June 22 in Simla, India. French dramatist-screenwriter Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (d. 1987) on June 23 in Cerisole (near Bordeaux). Am. Mormon Church pres. #15 (1995-2008) Gordon Bitner Hinckley (d. 2008) on June 23 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. golf player William Lawson Little Jr. (d. 1968) on June 23 in Newport, R.I. English fashion designer (gay) Cuthbert Collingwood "Ted" Tinling (d. 1990) on June 23 in Eastbourne. English bridge player (first woman grandmaster, 1974) (Jewish) Rixi Markus (Erika Scharfstein) (d. 1992) on June 27 in Gura Humora (Humorului), Romania; emigrates to Britain in 1938. Am. "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition", "Guys and Dolls" songwriter Frank Henry Loesser (d. 1969) on June 29 in New York City; collaborator of William Howard Schuman (1910-92). Am. "Joe Hill", "Black and White", "Ballad for Americans" folk singer-songwriter (Communist) Earl Hawley Robinson (d. 1991) in Seattle, Wash.; father of Perry Robinson (1938-); educated at the U. of Wash. English "In Summer Season" novelist Elizabeth Taylor (nee Coles) (d. 1975) on July 3 in Reading, Berkshire; not to be confused with actress Elizabeth Taylor (1932-2011) or Canadian athlete Elizabeth Taylor (1916-77). Am. Law of Unintended Consequences sociologist ("Father of the Sociology of Science") Robert King Merton (Meyer Robert Schkolnick) (d. 2003) on July 4 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Harvard U., and Temple U.; coiner of the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy". Am. "The Invisible Man", "100-year-old Rose Dawson Calvert DeWitt Bukater in Titanic" actress Gloria Frances Stuart (Stewart) (d. 2010) on July 4 in Santa Monica, Calif. English children's writer Diana Patience Beverly Ross (d. 2000) on July 8 in Valletta, Malta; relative of Robert Baldwin Ross (1869-1918). Am. "Hanna-Barbera" cartoonist William Denby "Bill" Hanna (d. 2001) on July 14 in Melrose, N.M.; collaborator of Joe Barbera (1911-2006). Am. "The Lieutenant in The Plainclothesman" actor Kenneth E. "Ken" Lynch (d. 1990) on July 10 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "The Story of Alexander Graham Bell" actress (Roman Catholic) Sally Blane (Elizabeth Jane Young) (d. 1997) on July 11 in Salida, Colo.; wife (1935-76) of Norman Foster (1903-76); sister of Polly Ann Young (1908-97) and Loretta Young (1913-2000); half-sister of Georgiana Young (1924-2007); Am. "When That Hell Bomb Falls". country-Western singer-songwriter Frederick Austin "Fred" Kirby (d. 1996) on July 19 in Charlotte, N.C. English historian Dame Cicely Veronica Wedgwood (d. 1997) on July 20 in Northumberland; educated at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford U. Australian "The White Nile", "The Blue Nile", "Gallipoli" writer Alan McCrae Moorehead (d. 1983) on July 22 in Melbourne, Victoria; educated at Melbourne U.; moves to England in 1937. English tenor (gay) Sir Peter Neville Luard Pears (d. 1986) on July 22 in Farnham, Hampshire; educated at Keble College, Oxford U.; partner of Benjamin Britten (1913-76). Russian Orthodox patriarch #14 (1971-90) Pimen I (Sergey Mikhailovich Izvekov) (d. 1990) on July 23 in Kobylina, Kaluga. Am. jazz trumpeter (black) Charles Melvin "Cootie" Williams (d. 1985) on July 24 in Mobile, Ala. French "The Opposing Shore" Surrealist novelist-poet-dramatist Julien Gracq (Poirier) (d. 2007) on July 27 in Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Maine-et-Loire. Swiss coulda-woulda Eduard Einstein (d. 1965) on July 28 in Zurich, Switzerland; 2nd son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Einstein; diagnosed with schizophrenia at age 20, lives with his mother until her death in 1948, then spends the rest of his life in a psychiatric institution. English "Scenes from Provincial Life" novelist William Cooper (Harry Summerfield Hoff) (d. 2002) on Aug. 4 in Crewe; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U. Am. "A Free Song", "The Mighty Casey" composer (Jewish) William Howard "Bill" Schuman (d. 1992) on Aug. 4 in Bronx, N.Y.; named after Pres. William Howard Taft; collaborator of Frank Loesser (1910-69); pres. of Julliard School of Music in 1945-62; 1st pres. of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in 1962-9. English "Dawn of the Gods" archeologist Jacquetta Hawkes (jee Jessie Jacquetta Hopkins) on Aug. 5 in Cambridge; daughter of Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947); wife (1933-) of Christopher Hawkes (1905-22) and (1953-) J.B. Priestley (1894-1984); educated at Newnham College, Oxford U. (first woman student of archeology and anthropology). Am. "Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams", "Aunt Marion in Damien: Omen II" actress (Jewish) Sylvia Sidney (Sophia Kosow) (d. 1999) on Aug. 8 in Bronx, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant father, Romanian Jewish immigrant mother; wife (1938-47) of Luther Adler (1903-84). Austrian Christian Conservative chancellor (1964-70) Josef Klaus (d. 2001) on Aug. 10 in Kotschach-Mauthen, Carinthia. German combat photographer (Jewish) Gerda Taro (nee Pohorylle) (d 1937) on Aug. ? in Stuttgart, Wurttemberg; partner of Robert Capa (1913-54). Am. architect-designer Eliot Fette Noyes (d. 1977) on Aug. 12 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. St. Louis U. pres. (1949-74) (Roman Catholic Jesuit) Paul Clare Reinert (d. 2001) on Aug. 12 in Boulder, Colo; educated at the U. of Chicago. English art historian Quentin Claudian Stephen Bell (d. 1996) on Aug. 19 in London; brother of Julian Heward Bell (1908-37). Am. St. Louis Gateway Arch architect (inventor of the Grasshopper, Womb, and Tulip chairs) (eerie sounding?) Eero Saarinen (d. 1961) on Aug. 20 in Kirkkonummi, Finland; son of Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950) (same birthday); emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. Am. Grand Ole Opry country comedian (alcoholic) Rodney Leon "Rod" Brasfield (d. 1958) on Aug. 22 in Smithville, Miss. brother of Laurence Lemarr "Boob" Brasfield (1898-1966); his ventriloquist dummy is named Bocephus, causing Hank Williams to nickname his baby son Hank Williams Jr. after him. Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun-missionary (St.) (Mother) Teresa of Calcutta (Anjeze Gonxhe Bojaxhiu) (d. 1997) on Aug. 26 in Skopje. Am. mathematician-economist Tjalling Charles Koopmans (d. 1985) on Aug. 28 in 's-Graveland, Netherlands; emigrates to the U.S. in 1940. Italian celeb Edda Ciano (nee Mussolini), Countess of Cortellazzo and Buccari (d. 1995) on Sept. 1 in Forli, Romagna; eldest child of Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) and Rachele Guidi; wife (1930-) of Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (1903-44), son of Fascist Party founding member Adm. Count Costanzo Ciano. English Vegan Society founder (coiner of the term "vegan") Donald Watson (d. 2005) on Sept. 2 in Mexborough, Yorkshire. Am. "To Tell the Truth" panelist and actress-singer (Jewish) Kitty Carlisle (Hart) (Catherine Conn) (d. 2007) on Sept. 3 in New Orleans, La. French Paris police chief (1958-) Maurice Papon (d. 2007) on Sept. 3 in Gretz-Armainvilliers, Seine-et-Marne. Am. cardiac surgeon Charles Philamore Bailey (d. 1993) on Sept. 8; educated at Rutgers U., and U. of Penn. French "Jean-Gaspard Deburau in Les Enfants du Paradis" dir.-mime Jean-Louis Barrault (d. 1994) on Sept. 8 in Le Vesinet, Yvelines. Austrian Nazi psychiatrist-butcher 1st Lt. Dr. Irmfried Eberl (d. 1948) on Sept. 8 in Bregenz. Am. auto racer Lee Wallard (d. 1963) on Sept. 10 in Schenectady, N.Y. Am. "Destination Earth" animated film producer John Sutherland (d. 2001) on Sept. 11 in Williston, N.D.; husband (1939-96) of Paula Winslow (1910-96). English "Gen. Edmund Allenby in Lawrence of Arabia", "Ben-Hur's Roman father Quintus Arrius", "Rev. Otto Witt in Zulu" actor John Edward "Jack" Hawkins (d. 1973) on Sept. 14 in Wood Green, Middlesex; husband (1932-40) of Jessica Tandy (1909-94). Swiss composer Rolf Liebermann (d. 1999) on Sept. 14 in Zurich. Am. "Tom Mix" country singer-actor Joe "Curley" Bradley (George Bradford) (d. 1985) on Sept. 18 in Coalgate, Okla. Philippine pres. #9 (1961-5) Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (d. 1997) on Sept. 28; educated at the U. of the Philippines, and U. of Santo Tomas; father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1947-). Am. "Under the Double Eagle" country-Western singer William Lemuel "Bill Boyd" (d. 1977) (Rhythm Aces, Cowboy Ramblers) on Sept. 29 in Fannin County, Tex. South Vietnamese politician (Roman Catholic) Ngo Dinh Nhu (d. 1963) on Oct. 7 in Phu Cam, Annam, French Indochina; brother of Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-63). Am. Communist Party leader Arvo Gustav "Gus" Hall (d. 2000) on Oct. 8 in Cherry Township, Minn.; Finnish parents; leaves school at age 15, joins the CPUSA at age 17, and spends 1931-3 at the Lenin Inst. in Moscow. Am. Dem. Tex. gov. #38 (1957-63) Marion Price Daniel III (d. 1988) on Oct. 10 in Dayton, Tex.; educated at Baylor U. Am. outlaw Bonnie Parker (d. 1934) on Oct. 10 in Rowena, Tex.; partner of Clyde Barrow (1909-34). Am. journalist (bi) Joseph Wright Alsop V (d. 1989) on Oct. 11 in Avon, Conn.; great-nephew of Theodore Roosevelt; related to James Monroe; brother of Stewart Alsop (1910-74); educated at Groton School, and Harvard U. Am. poet-critic and U.S. poet laureate #29 (1984-5) Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (d. 1985) on Oct. 12 in Springfield, Ill.; educated at Harvard U., and Bates College; known for his translations of Homer, Sophocles, Euripedes, Virgil et al. Am. "O'Neill, Son and Artist" biographer and press agent Louis Sheaffer (Slung) (d. 1993) on Oct. 12 in Louisville, Ky.; educated at U. of N.C.; renames himself for the Sheaffer pen co. Indian guru Sri Hariwansh Lal Poonja (d. 1997) (AKA Papaji, Poonjaji) on Oct. 13 in Punjab. Am. basketball coach (UCLA, 1948-75) ("the Wizard of Westwood") John Wooden (d. 2010) on Oct. 14 in Hall, Ind.; educated at Purdue U. Am. scholar-diplomat (on Japan) Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (d. 1990) on Oct. 15 in Tokyo, Japan; educated at Oberlin College, and Harvard U. Am. astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (AKA Chandra) (d. 1995) (Sans. "holder of the Moon") on Oct. 19 in Lahore, Punjab, British India; paternal nephew of C.V. Raman (1888-1970); educated at Cambridge U.; becomes U.S. citizen in 1953. Am. New York Yankees announcer (1951-2007) Robert Leo "Bob" Sheppard (d. 2010) on Oct. 20 in Richmond Hill, Queens, N.Y. Am. historian Henry Steele Commager (d. 1998) on Oct. 2 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Canadian 6'2" "Matt Libby in A Star is Born" actor John Elmer "Jack" Carson (d. 1963) on Oct. 27 in Carman, Manitoba; grows up in Milwaukee, Wisc. English "Language, Truth and Logic" philosopher (Jewish) (atheist) Sir Alfred Jules "A.J." "Freddie" Ayer (d. 1989) on Oct. 29 in London; knighted at Christ Church, Oxford U. Australian writer-artist Ray Parkin (d. 2005) on Nov. 6 in Collingwood (near Melbourne). Am. historian Carroll Quigley (d. 1977) on Nov. 9 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Israeli Zionist leader (Jewish) Israel Eldad (d. 1996) on Nov. 11 in Pidvolochysk, Galicia; educated at the U. of Vienna; emigrates to Israel in 1939; father of Aryeh Eldad (1950-). Am. "The Americanization of Emily" novelist-journalist William Bradford "Bill" Huie (d. 1986) on Nov. 13 in Harselle, Ala. Am. "Nellie Cohan in Yankee Doodle Dandy", "Sabu's mother in Jungle Book", "Peg Riley in The Life of Riley", "Margaret MacDonald in The Bob Cummings Show" actress Rosemary DeCamp (d. 2001) on Nov. 14 in Prescott, Ariz. German SS Col. Martin Franz Erwin Rudolf Lange (d. 1945) on Nov. 18 in Weisswasser, Prussian Silesia; educated at the U. of Jena. Am. black feminist Episcopal priest (lesbian) (co-founder of NOW) Anna Pauline "Pauli" Murray (d. 1985) on Nov. 20; first black female Episcopal priest. Hungarian "The Hebrew Goddess" anthropologist (Jewish) Raphael (Ervin Gyorgy) Patai (d. 1996) on Nov. 22 in Budapest. Am. choreographer Alwin Nikolais (d. 1993) on Nov. 25 in Southington, Conn. British Singer-Prebisch Thesis global development economist Sir Hans Wolfgang Singer (d. 2006) on Nov. 29 in Elberfeld, Germany; emigrates to Britain in 1933; educated at Cambridge U.; student of John Maynard Keynes; knighted in 1994. English ballerina (Jewish) Dame Alicia Markova (Lilian Alice Marks) (d. 2004) on Dec. 1 in Finsbury Park, London; pupil of Tamara Karsavina (1885-1978); first British dancer to become the princial dancer of a ballet co.; created dame in 1963. Japanese "The Ballad of Narayama" dir. Keisuke Knoshita (d. 1998) on Dec. 5 in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka. Am. Civil War historian David Morris Potter (d. 1971) on Dec. 6 in Augusta, Ga.; educated at Emory U., Yale U., and Oxford U.; student of Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (1877-1934). Am. "Harry Joe Murdock in Burke's Law" 6'4" actor Rod Cameron (Nathan Roderick Cox) (d. 1983) on Dec. 7 in Calgary, Alberta. Am. conductor (Jewish) Richard Franko Goldman (d. 1980) on Dec. 7 in New York City; son of Edwin Goldman (1878-1956); educated at Columbia U. Am. "King Louie in The Jungle Book", "That Old Black Magic" trumpeter-singer-songwriter-actor ("King of the Swingers") Louis Prima (d. 1978) on Dec. 7 in New Orleans, La.; Sicilian immigrant parents; singing partner of 4th wife (1953-61) Keely Smith (1932-), who become the model for Sonny & Cher. Am. "Johnny Eager", "The Strange Love of Martha Ivers", "Shane" actor Emmett Evan "Van" Heflin Jr. (d. 1971) on Dec. 13 in Walters, Okla.; of Irish and French descent; brother of Frances Heflin (1920-94); educated at the U. of Okla. Am. "Animal Crackers" actress-singer (Jewish) (alcoholic) Lillian Roth (Rutstein) (d. 1980) on Dec. 13 in Boston, Mass. Am. historian (Jewish) Jack Donald Foner (d. 1999) on Dec. 14 in Lower East Side, New York City; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; twin brother of Philip Sheldon Foner (1910-94); father of Eric Foner (1943-); educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Am. Marxist labor historian (Jewish) Philip Sheldon Foner (d. 1994) on Dec. 14 in Lower East Side, New York City; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Jack D. Foner (1910-99); educated at CCNY, and Columbia U. Am. record producer and civil rights activist John Henry Hammond II (d. 1987) on Dec. 15 in New York City; educated at Yale U.; discoverer of Billie Holiday, Count Basie, Teddy Wilson, Big Joe Turner, Benny Goodman, Harry James, Charlie Christian, Pete Seeger, Aretha Franklin, Freedie Green, Leonard Cohen, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Stevie Ray Vaughan et al.; reviver of the music of Robert Johnson. Am. musician ("King of Western Swing") Donnell Clyde "Spade" Cooley (d. 1969) on Dec. 17 in Pack Saddle Creek, Okla.; part Cherokee; after accusing her of hooking up with Roy Rogers, he murders his wife Ella May Cooley on Apr. 3, 1961, and is sentenced to life in prison, earning a parole on Feb. 22, 1970; too bad, he suffers a fatal heart attack in the Oakland Auditorium while being let out to play a benefit concert for the Deputy Sheriffs Assoc. Am. "T'aint What You Do (It's the Way That You Do It)", "For Dancers Only" jazz trumpeter-bandleader-arranger (black) Melvin James "Sy" Oliver (d. 1988) on Dec. 17 in Battle Creek, Mich. Am. "Guys and Dolls", "Cactus Flower" humorist playwright-dir. (Jewish) Abe Burrows (Abram Solman Borowitz) (d. 1985) on Dec. 18 in New York City. French "The Thief's Journal" novelist-dramatist-activist Jean Genet (d. 1986) on Dec. 19 in Paris; ho mother puts him up for adoption, after which he becomes a petty crime king. German Waffen SS Brig. Gen. Kurt "Panzermeyer" Meyer (d. 1961) on Dec. 23 in Jerxheim, Lower Saxony. Am. modernist 6'8" "The Maximus Poems" poet Charles Olson (d. 1970) on Dec. 27 in Worceser, Mass.; educated at Wesleyan U., and Harvard U. Am. economist Ronald Harry Coase (d. 2013) on Dec. 29 in Willesden, London; educated at the London School of Economics; 1991 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. "The Sheltering Sky" novelist-composer Paul Frederic Bowles (d. 1999) on Dec. 30 in Jamaica, Queens, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Va.; moves to Tangier, Morocco in 1947. Am. economist (Jewish) Rose Director Friedman (d. 2009) on Dec. ? in Staryi Chortoryisk, Ukraine; wife of Milton Friedman (1912-2006); sister of Aaron Director (1901-2004); educated at Reed College, and the U. of Chicago; mother of David Director Friedman (1945-). Dem. Repub. of Congo pres. #1 (1960-5) Joseph Kasavubu (Kasa-Vubu) (d. 1969) in Tshela. Irish-Am. mobster Joseph Vincent "Newsboy" Moriarty (d. 1979); runs the numbers racket starting at age 13. Syrian philosopher (Orthodox Christian) (founder of the Baath Party) Michel Aflaq (d. 1989) on ? in Damascus. Am. "Wo Fat in Hawaii Five-O", "Dr. Yen Lo in The Manchurian Candidate" actor (Taoist) Khigh Alx Dhiegh (Kenneth Dickerson) (d. 1991) (rhymes with eye day) on ? in Spring Lake, N.J.; of N African (Egyptian and Sudanese) ancestry. Am. "I'm OK, You're Ok" psychiatrist Thomas A. Harris (d. 1995) on ? in ?; not to be confused with Thomas Harris (1940-). Am. entomologist Edward F. Knipling (d. 2000) on ? in ?. Am. Columbia U. law prof. (creator of the Model Penal Code) Herbert Wechsler (d. 2000) on ? in ?. Am. pilot-trainer Evelyn Bryan "Mama Bird" Johnson (d. ?) on ? in Morristown, Tenn.; takes up flying in 1944, begins giving flying lessons in 1947, and logs a record 60K flight hours. Deaths: German Neptune-peeping astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle (b. 1812) on July 10 in Potsdam. German actress Christine Enghaus (b. 1815) on June 29 in Vienna. French ballet master Marius Petipa (b. 1818) on July 14 (July 1 Old Style) in Gurzuf, Ukraine. Am. "Battle Hymn of the Republic" poet Julia Ward Howe (b. 1819) on Oct. 17 in Portsmouth, R.I. (pneumonia). French photographer Nadar (b. 1820) on Mar. 21 in Paris. Italian-born English original head nurse Florence Nightingale (b. 1820) on Aug. 13 in Park Lane, London. Am. Christian Science founder Mary Baker Eddy (b. 1821) (doesn't really die?) on Dec. 3: "Disease... is fear made manifest." Spanish soprano-composer Pauline Garcia-Viardot (b. 1821) on May 18 in Paris. English shorthand teacher Benn Pitman (b. 1822). British-Canadian historian Goldwin Smith (b. 1823) on June 7 in Toronto: "Above all nations is humanity." Am. philanthropist Horace Silliman (b. 1825) on May 4 in Cohoes, N.Y. Am. Spiritualist Andrew Jackson Davis (b. 1826) on Jan. 13. English artist Sir William Huggins (b. 1824) on May 12. Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro (b. 1826) on May 10. French historian Leopold Victor Delisle (b. 1826) on July 21. Iraqi Assyriologist Hormuzd Rassam (b. 1826) on Sept. 16. English painter William Holman Hunt (b. 1827) on Sept. 7 in Kensington, London. Swiss humanitarian (Red Cross founder) Jean Henri Dunant (b. 1828) on Oct. 31 in Heiden; born rich, dies in a hospice in debt; 1901 Nobel Peace Prize. Russian "War and Peace" novelist Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Tolstoi) (b. 1828) on Nov. 20 (Nov. 7 Old Style) in Astapovo; dies in a railroad station of pneumonia contracted after fleeing his wife Sofia two weeks earlier with daughter Alexandra to live out his dream; the Russian senate allows his wife Sofia to keep his copyrights over the protest of the Tolstoyians; "History would be an excellent thing if only it were true"; "The only absolute knowledge attainable by man is that life is meaningless"; "There is only one that that is important: now. It is the most important time because it is the only time that we have any power"; "True life is lived when tiny changes occur"; "To get rid of an enemy one must love him"; "Truth, like gold, is obtained not by its growth but by washing away from it all that is not gold." Am. atty.-writer Josiah Phillips Quincy (b. 1829). Am. sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward (b. 1830) on May 1 in New York City. Am. novelist Rebecca Harding Davis (b. 1831) on Sept. 29 in Mount Kisco, N.Y. German novelist Wilhelm Raabe (b. 1831) on Nov. 15; leaves La Nigra Galero (pub. 1922). Norwegian poet-dramatist Bjornstjerne Bjornson (b. 1832) on Apr. 26 in Paris; 1903 Nobel Lit. Prize. Scottish painter Sir William Quiller Orchardson (b. 1832) on Apr. 13 in London. French electrical engineer Hippolyte Fontaine (b. 1833) on Feb. 17 in Hyeres. U.S. chief justice (1888-1910) Melville W. Fuller (b. 1833). French economist Marie-Esprit Leon Walras (b. 1834) on Jan. 5 in Clarens (near Montreux, Switzerland). Swiss-born Am. naturalist Alexander Agassiz (b. 1835) on Mar. 27 aboard the SS Adriatic. Am. Confed. gen. Edward Porter Alexander (b. 1835) on Apr. 28 in Savannah, Ga.; leaves his memoirs, which are pub. in 1989 as Fighting for the Confederacy. Am. "Tom Sawyer", "Huckleberry Finn" novelist Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) (b. 1835) on Apr. 21 near Redding, Conn.; dies in his Italianate villa Stormfield; he had been reading Roman biographer Suetonius; Halley's Comet is visible in the sky, as it had been on the day of his birth; leaves Mark Twain's Autobiography, with instructions to wait 100 years to pub. it (2010): "Why is it that we rejoice at a birth and grieve at a funeral? It is because we are not the person involved"; "Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; truth isn't"; "The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice"; "I do not fear death. I had been dead for billions and billions of years before I was born, and had not suffered the slightest inconvenience from it"; "Religion was invented when the first con man met the first fool"; "Politicians and diapers must be changed often, and for the same reason"; "Never argue with an idiot. They will drag you down to their level and beat you with experience"; "It is easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled"; "History doesn't repeat itself, but sometimes it rhymes"; "If the statistics are right, the Jews constitute but one quarter of one percent of the human race. It suggests a nebulous puff of star dust lost in the blaze of the Milky Way. Properly, the Jew ought hardly to be heard of, but he is heard of, has always been heard of. He is as prominent on the planet as any other people, and his importance is extravagantly out of proportion to the smallness of his bulk. His contributions to the world's list of great names in literature, science, art, music, finance, medicine and abstruse learning are also very out of proportion to the weakness of his numbers. He has made a marvelous fight in this world in all ages; and has done it with his hands tied behind him. He could be vain of himself and be excused for it. The Egyptians, the Babylonians and the Persians rose, filled the planet with sound and splendor, then faded to dream-stuff and passed away; the Greeks and Romans followed and made a vast noise, and they were gone; other people have sprung up and held their torch high for a time but it burned out, and they sit in twilight now, and have vanished. The Jew saw them all, survived them all, and is now what he always was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmoties of age, no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dulling of his alert but aggressive mind. All things are mortal but the Jews; all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?" (Sept. 1897) Am. artist John LaFarge Sr. (b. 1835) on Nov. 14 in New York City; another double Halley man. Am. Civil War Confed. col. William Calvin Oates (b. 1835) on Sept. 9 in Montgomery, Ala. Italian astronomet Giovanni Schiaparelli (b. 1835); another double Halley man. English social reformer Miranda Hill (b. 1836). Am. artist Winslow Homer (b. 1836) on Sept. 29 in Prout's Neck, Maine. Am. Wichita, Kan. co-founder James R. Mead (b. 1836) on Mar. 31. Russian composer Mili Balakirev (b. 1837) on May 29 in St. Petersburg. Am. physicist-inventor Amos Emerson Dolbear (b. 1837) on Feb. 23. Scottish economist Robert Giffen (b. 1837) on Apr. 12. British lt. gen. Sir William Francis Butler (b. 1838) on June 7 in Bansha, County Tipperary: "The nation that will insist upon drawing a broad line of demarcation between the fighting man and the thinking man is liable to find its fighting done by fools and its thinking by cowards." Am. politician William Everett (b. 1839) on Feb. 16 in Quincy, Mass. English writer-swordsman Capt. Alfred Hutton (b. 1839) on Dec. 18 in London. German Johne's Disease physician Albert Johne (b. 1839). German musicologist Franz Xaver Haberl (b. 1840) on Sept. 5 in Ratisbon. German physicist Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch (b. 1840) on Jan. 17 in Marburg. Am. sociologist William Graham Sumner (b. 1840) on Apr. 12: "All history is one long story to this effect: men have struggled for power over their fellow men in order that they might win the joys of Earth at the expense of others, might shift the burdens of life from their own shoulders upon those of others"; "There are two chief things with which government has to deal. They are the property of men and the honor of women"; "The great foe of democracy now and in the near future is plutocracy"; "My patriotism is of the kind which is outraged by the notion that the United States never was a great nation until in a petty three months' campaign it knocked to pieces a poor, decrepit, bankrupt old state like Spain." English king (1901-10) Edward VII (b. 1841) on May 6 in Buckingham Palace, London. English actress Henrietta Hodson (b. 1841) on Oct. 20 in Florence, Italy. Am. Dem. politician John Warwick Daniel (b. 1842) on June 29 in Lynchburg, Va. Am. psychologist William James (b. 1842) on Aug. 26 in Chocorua, N.H.: "The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook." German physician-bacteriologist Robert Koch (b. 1843); 1905 Nobel Med. Prize. Russian gen. Mikhail ZaSulich (b. 1843). French painter Henri Rousseau (b. 1844) on Sept. 2 in Paris. English cartoonist Edward Linley Sambourne (b. 1844) on Aug. 3. Am. Johnson & Johnson founder Robert Wood Johnson I (b. 1845) on Feb. 7 in New Brunswick, N.J. Belgian biologist Edouard Van Beneden (b. 1846) on Apr. 28 in Liege. Am. Pierce-Arrow Motor Co. founder George N. Pierce (b. 1846) on Mar. 23 in Buffalo, N.Y. French novelist Louis Henri Boussenard (b. 1847) on Sept. 11 in Orleans. Am. Personalist philosopher Borden Parker Bowne (b. 1847) on Apr. 1 in Boston, Mass. Hungarian novelist Kalman Mikszath (b. 1847) on May 28 in Budapest. German sci-fi author Kurd Lasswitz (b. 1848) on Oct. 17; a crater on Mars and an asteroid, plus a sci-fi writing prize (1981) are named in his honor. Am. archeologist John Henry Haynes (b. 1849) on June 29 in North Adams, Mass. Russian chemist Constantin Fahlberg (b. 1850) on Aug. 15 in Nassau, Germany. Italian Socialist leader Andrea Costa (b. 1851). Siamese king (1868-1910) Rama V Chulalongkorn (b. 1853) on Oct. 23; his country is the only one in the region to retain its sovereignty throughout the period of European colonial expansionism; his birthday becomes a nat. holiday. Russian spy Pyotr Rachkovsky (b. 1853). Greek-born French Ecole Romane poet Jean Moreas (b. 1856) on Apr. 30. Russian painter Mikhail Vrubel (b. 1856) on Apr. 14 in St. Petersburg. Austrian actor Joseph Kainz (b. 1858) on Sept. 20 in Vienna. Am. writer O. Henry (William Sydney Porter) (b. 1862) on June 5 in New York City (cirrhosis of the liver): "Inject a few raisins of conversation into the tasteless dough of existence." English Peter Pan boys mother Sylvia Llewelyn Davies (b. 1866) on Aug. 27 in Devon. Am. poet-playwright William Vaughan Moody (b. 1869) on Oct. 17 in Colorado Springs, Colo. English automaker Charles Stewart Rolls (b. 1877) on July 12 in Southbourne (near Bournemouth) (flying accident). Italian automotive pioneer Carlo Maserati (b. 1881) (TB) - the good die young?
1911 Chinese Year: Pig. On Jan. 3 Sacramento, Calif.-born Progressive isolationist populist Repub. Hiram Warren Johnson (1866-1945) becomes Calif. gov. #23 (until Mar. 15, 1917), going on to add initiative, referendum, and recall to the state govt. to give it an unmatched degree of direct democracy, establish a railroad commission to regulate the Southern Pacific Railroad, and support the Calif. Alien Land Law of 1913 preventing Asians from owning land in Calif; in 1912 he helps found the Progressive Party, which nominates him to their pres. ticket along with former Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, carrying Calif. by 0.2% of the votes; in 1914 he is reelected with almost double his opponent's vote total. On Jan. 13 a disgruntled fired navy cook named Sigrist slashes Rembrandt's 12'x14' 1642 painting The Night Watch with a knife at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam; next attack Sept. 14, 1975. On Jan. 18 after taking off from Camp Selfridge in a Curtiss airplane, the first airplane ship landing takes place in San Francisco Harbor by Navy Lt. Eugene B. Ely (1886-1911) on the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania, later renamed USS Pittsburgh; too bad, his plane crashes on Oct. 19 near Macon, Ga., killing him. On Jan. 26 the U.S. and Canada announce the U.S.-Canadian Reciprocity Treaty, removing tariff barriers on both sides of the border; on July 22 it is ratified by the U.S. Senate despite opposition from wheat farmers and industrialists; too bad, Pres. Taft and others put their feet in their mouths by letting others suggest that annexation of Canada is next, causing Canadians to reject the treaty and defeat the Liberals on Sept. 21; on Oct. 10 Conservative opposition leader Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937) of Novia Scotia becomes PM #8 of Canada (until July 10, 1920); meanwhile on Oct. 13 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1850-1942), son of Victoria and Albert becomes the first member of the British royal family to become gov.-gen. (#10) of Canada (until Nov. 11, 1916); his sister Luise had been the wife of gov.-gen. Lord Lorne. On Feb. 1 a jury in Chicago, Ill. convicts burglar Thomas Jennings of murder on the basis of fingerprint evidence, becoming the first U.S. conviction based on fingerprints; he loses his appeal to the Ill. Supreme Court. On Feb. 2 steamship Abenton sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 70. On Mar. 1 the U.S. Weeks Act, authored by U.S. Rep. (R-Mass.) (1905-13) John Wingate Weeks (1860-1926) is signed by Pres. Taft, buying spare land in E and S U.S. at $3.43 an acre to set up nat. forest preserves. On Mar. 7 the U.S. sends 20K troops to the Mexican border as a precaution after Francisco Madero organizes an army led by orphan-turned-bandit Francisco "Pancho" Villa (1878-1923) and invades Mexico, capturing Juarez on May 9; pres. (since 1877) Porfirio Diaz resigns on May 25, and an armistice ends the Mexican Rev. of 1910, giving generous terms to the defeated forces; on Nov. 6 Francisco Ignacio Madero (1873-1913) is elected pres. of Mexico (until 1913), permitting the Congress and army officers of the Diaz regime to remain in office (big mistake?); too bad he's from a wealthy landed family and tells the radical supporters of the peasants to eat cake, causing Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919) to begin planning to overthrow him. On Mar. 25 (Sat.) just before closing time the Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire on the top three floors of the 10-story Asch Bldg. in New York City at Washington Pl. and Greene St. (1 block E of Washington Square) kills 146 out of 500 $6-$8 per week female workers (daughters of Jewish and Italian immigrant families who had struck unsuccessfully against working conditions a year earlier, some as young as 13-y.-o.) in an overcrowded sweatshop with blocked fire exits; it starts on the 8th floor, causing half of the workers working on the 9th floor to be trapped, and 54 to leap to their deaths while 92 more perish in the fire after a fire escape collapses, fire ladders only reach to the 6th floor, and water from firehoses to the 7th floor; in June after a resolution introduced by Henry Moskowitz, the N.Y. legislature appoints a 9-member Factory Investigation Commission headed by Alfred E. Smith and Robert F. Wagner Sr., which investigates for four years and issues extensive recommendations for legislation, shocking the U.S. into enacting workplace safety regulations. On Mar. 28 after an uprising against Pres. Manual Davila in Honduras causes the U.S. to intervene, Francisco Bertrand (1866-1926) is chosen as provisional pres., calling for free elections in 1912, which he wins, staying in office until 1919, when the U.S. forces him into exile. On Apr. 2 steamship Koombuna sinks in ?, killing 150. On Apr. 4 Lawrenceburg, Ky.-born U.S. Rep. (D-Mo.) (1893-1895, 1897-1921) James Beauchamp "Champ" Clark (1850-1921) becomes U.S. House Speaker #36 (until Mar. 4, 1919). On Apr. 23 steamship SS Asia (originally SS Doric) en route from Hong Kong to San Francisco strikes Finger Rock at the Taichow (Taizhou) Islands in Wenzhou, S China 200 mi. S of Shanghai and runs around, with no casualties, after which locals loot and burn it. On Apr. 30 women gain the right to vote in Portugal. On May 15 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Standard Oil Co. of N.J. v. U.S. to find John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co. guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry, and orders it broken up into 33 corps. (5 major plus 28 smaller corps.), along with the Am. Tobacco Co. for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act; at the same time the court weakens the act by adopting the "rule of reason", finding that only "unreasonable" restraint of trade is forbidden - IOW, we are open to bribes as long as it's not too obvious? On May 22 Henry Lewis Stimson (1867-1950) becomes U.S. secy. of war #45 (until Mar. 4, 1913), continuing the reorg. of the Army begun by Elihu Root. In May a revolt in Nicaragua brings gen. Adolfo Diaz (1875-1964) to power (until 1917); on June 6 he signs the Knox-Castrillo Convention, giving the U.S. permission to intervene in Nicaragua to protect its interests. In May Ernest Whitworth "E.W." Marland (1874-1941), who became an oil millionaire in Penn. in 1907 then lost it in the Panic of 1907 strikes oil in his property in Okla., giving him a new fortune of $85M by 1920, when he founds Marland Oil Co., which eventually controls 10% of world oil production; in 1935-9 he serves as Dem. gov. #10 of Okla., backing FDR with his own Little Deal while busting the image of Okla. cowboys by engaging in English fox hunting. On June 8 Hammondsport, N.Y.-born Glenn Hammond Curtiss (1878-1930) is awarded pilot's license #1 from the Aero Club of Am.; since they are awarded alphabetically, Orville Wright gets #5. On June 11 the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. is renamed Internat. Business Machines Co. (IBM); in 1914 after being fired from the Nat. Cash Register Co. (NCR), Thomas John Watson Sr. (1874-1956) becomes pres. (until 1956), revolutionizing its sales force with sales incentives, pep talks, and an insistence on being well-groomed, wearing a dark suit with white shirt and tie, creating the slogan "THINK"; in 1943 he shows what that means with the soundbyte: "I think that there is a world market for maybe five computers" - complete with hanging chads? On June 22 George V is crowned at Westminster Abbey; mining engineer John Hays Hammond (1855-1936), who worked for Cecil Rhodes, was captured and sentenced to death by the Boers in 1896 then released is the U.S. special rep. at the coronation; in Dec. King George V and Queen Mary are crowned at a durbar (big hoedown) in Delhi as the emperor and empress of India, the king's crown containing 6,170 diamonds, plus more bling for him and his babe. On June 27 Joseph Caillaux (1863-1944) becomes PM #75 of France (until Jan. 21, 1912), favoring a policy of conciliation with Germany because of mistrust of the British who rule half the world, but not wanting Germany to build a larger navy lest they get any big ideas about having an overseas empire like perfidious Albion; on June 27 minister of colonies (since Mar. 2) Adolphe Marie Messimy (1869-1935) becomes French war minister (until Jan. 14). On June 30 William Williams, federal commissioner of immigration for the Port of New York issues an annual report lamenting the influx from S and E Europe, calling them "backward races with customs and institutions widely different from ours and without the capacity of assimilating with our people as did the early immigrants", lamenting that they come to the U.S. with "filthy habits, and are of an ignorance which passes belief", and that they "often herd together, forming in effect foreign colonies in which the English language is almost unknown." On June 30 two women aboard a steamer from New York City arrive in Trieste, Austria infected with cholera, exposing a cholera epidemic in New York City which authorities had been trying to cover up, becoming their last (until ?). On July 1 the Second Moroccan (Agadir) Crisis between France and Germany begins when the German gunboat Panther arrives in Agadir (Berber "fortified granary") 120 mi. SW of Marrakech and issues a dispatch claiming that German firms in the country requested protection, then starts a press campaign to grant Germany formal concessions there; David Lloyd George delivers a speech warning Germany that Britain now supports France, threatening hostilities, causing Germany to back down to avert a likely war; on Nov. 4 a convention is signed granting Germany territorial rights in the Congo while keeping Morocco in French hands; meanwhile on Aug. 9 German Social Dem. leader August Bebel tells the Reichstag that a European war will lead to revolution, causing laughter, with one MP shouting "After every war things are better" - Europe has Bette Davis eyes for war? On July 14-17 88 in. of rain falls in Baguio, Philippines, incl. 45 in. in one day. On July 26-29 the First Universal Races Congress, organized by Felix Adler, Jewish head of the Society for Ethical Culture in New York City and attended by 2K is held at the Univ. of London to address the "problem of the contact of Europeans with other developed types of civilizations", incl. "relations subsisting between the peoples of the West and those of the East, between so-called white and so-called coloured peoples", with the goal of "a fuller understanding, the most friendly feelings, and a heartier cooperation". On July 28 Gen. Joseph Jacques Cesaire (Césaire) "Papa" Joffre (1852-1931) becomes chief of staff of the French Army, becoming known for regrouping the retreating Allied armies to win the First Battle of the Marne in Sept. 1914. In early July-Sept. 11 the 1911 U.K. Heat Wave sets high temperature records throughout England, with a max of 36.7C (98.1F), which isn't broken until 1990. On Aug. 8 after a nationwide strike of transport workers is called by Labour Party leader Keir Hardie, riots in Liverpool are quashed by troops, who fire on demonstrators, killing two; meanwhile 50K troops are rushed to London as famine looms; just at the worse time, on Aug. 9 the temp. in London reaches a record 98. 1 deg F. On Aug. 11 the Parliament Act of 1911 ends the power struggle between the Houses of Commons and Lords with a V for the House of Commons, ending the right of the House of Lords to veto money bills, and giving them a 2-year veto over other public bills, reducing the max term of a MP from seven to five years. On Aug. 20 (Sun.) after a hot summer, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is stolen from the Louvre's Salon Carre ("salle impenetrable") (hanging between Titian's "Allegory of Alfonso d'Avalos" and Correggio's "Mystical Marriage") over the weekend by Louvre guard Vincenzo Perugia (Peruggia) (1881-1925), who wishes to return it to its rightful home in Italy; it takes two days to notice its absence since the Louvre is closed on Mondays, and Salon Carre guard Maximilien Paupardin left on Sun. evening; on Sept. 7 after reading his manifesto that says "burn down the Louvre", and finding out that he had once sheltered a man who had stolen items from the Louvre, the police arrest poet Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918), and release him a week later after he implicates his friend Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), whose apt. is found to contain two small stolen sculptures from the Louvre, and who is also exonerated; a man shot himself to death in front of the painting a year earlier; it is recovered 27 mo. later on Dec. 10, 1913 when he tries to sell it to an art dealer in Florence, who tips off the police, and they find it hidden in the false bottom of a trunk in his Florence hotel room, after whih it is displayed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and given a short tour of Italy before being returned; Apollinaire wishes to prove his patriotism by enlisting in the French army in WWII, getting wounded in the head by shrapnel in 1916 and dying in 1918; the whole episode makes the painting far more famous? On Aug. 24 atty. gen. #1 (since Nov. 17, 1910) Manuel Jose (José) de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue (1840-1917) of the Repub. Party becomes pres. #1 of the First Portuguese Repub. (until May 29, 1915), which promulgates a new liberal 1911 Portuguese Constitution with a bicameral Cortes Gerais (until 1933) - and with a name like that, the ballots must've cost a fortune? On Aug. 29 Ishi (1860-1916), the lone survivor of the Yahi tribe of the Yana is discovered hiding in a corral near Oroville, Calif., becoming his first contact with white people; the real Last of the Mohicans? On Sept. 5 steamship Tuscapel sinks in ?, killing 81. On Sept. 14 (Sept. 1 Old Style) conservative reformer and Russian PM (since 1906) Peter Stolypin is assassinated during a performance of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's 1900 opera "The Tale of Tsar Saltan" in the Kirov Theater in Kiev in the presence of the tsar and his family by a Socialist revolutionary, and dies on Sept. 16; he is succeeded by moderate financier Vladimir Kokovstov (1853-1943) (until 1914). On Sept. 30 famed Italian explorer and mountain climber Prince Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco, Prince of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of the Abruzzi (1873-1933) commands the first squadron that bombards Preveza in Tripoli on the Ambracian Gulf in NW Greece (S of the ancient ruins of Nikopolis), becoming the first action of the Turkish-Italian War (ends 1912), and the first offensive use of aircraft in war; Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica and decisively wins the war; a small Jewish community is formed in Preveza after Solomon Danon arrives from Paris this year. On Oct. 1 the city of Dublin, Ireland unveils the Charles Stewart (Stuart) Parnell Monument on O'Connell Square, later followed by his own square, complete with a garden of remembrance for those who lost their lives fighting for Irish independence. On Oct. 1 Charles Gates Sr. founds the Gates Rubber Co. on the banks of the South Platte River in Denver, Colo. via the acquisition of Colo. Tire and Leather Co. for $3,500; in 1917 Charles' brother John Gates invents the V-belt, helping it expand to Canada in 1954, Mexico in 1958, and Belgium in 1963; in 1980 it acquires Uniroyal Power Transmission Co., becoming the world's largest synchronous/timing belt manufacturer; in 1996 it is acquired by Tomkins Plc of Britain, changing its name in 2003 to the Gates Corp. On Oct. 2 steamship Hatfield collides and sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 207. On Oct. 10, 1911 the 1911 Xinhai (Hsin-hai) (Chinese) Rev. (Rev. of the Young Chinese) against the Manchu Dynasty begins when the rev. HQ of the Wuchang org. is discovered plotting against the central railway admin. of Sheng Xuanhuai (1844-1916), and spreads rapidly and bloodily through the W and S; in early Oct. Dr. Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) (1866-1925) visits the U.S. to raise money from Chinese immigrants; on Oct. 10 he checks into Denver, Colo.'s Brown Palace Hotel, Rm. 321 (later the Coronet Room), raising $500; he returns to China the next day after reading newspaper headlines saying "Chinese Revolt is Menace to Manchu Dynasty" (Rocky Mt. News), and "Foreigners Throughout Empire in Deadly Peril" (Denver Post); ever after Chinese tourists stop by to see his signature in the guest register; the provinces begin seceding from the Qing Dynasty and join the rev., incl. Jiangsu on Nov. 3, Sichuan on Nov. 22, and Shandong on Dec. 12; on Oct. 14 former Korean resident Yuan Shikai (Shih-K'ai) (1859-1916) is recalled to military command by the Manchu court, and on Nov. 8 is elected PM of the provisional nat. assembly; on Dec. 4 he signs a truce with rebel gen. Li Yuanhong (1864-1928), and sends Tang Shaoyi (1862-1938) as his rep. to negotiations in Shanghai; on Dec. 30 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, back from the U.S. and Europe is elected provisional pres. of the new Repub. of China (1912-49) by delegates from 16 provinces meeting in Nanking (Nanjing); the Manchu (Great Qing) Dynasty in China (in power since 1644) abdicates; Sun Yat-Sen appoints Gen. Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) as his military adviser, with "Dragon Lady" Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Mayling Soong) (1897-2003) waiting in the wings; the calendar is reformed, pigtails are abolished, and (a little late, after 4.5B women's feet are ruined?) foot binding (the golden lotus) is finally outlawed; polygamy begins to decline as marriages for love become common - come all you young maidens and listen to me, never place your affections on a green willow tree? On Oct. 14-26 the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (mgr. Connie Mack) defeat the New York Giants (NL) (mgr. John McGraw) 4-2 to win the Eighth (8th) World Series (2nd in a row for the Athletics); six consecutive days of rain between Games 3-4 causes the longest delay in WS history until the 1989 Series, which features the same two franchies on the West Coast. From fear to confidence, from hesitation to passion? On Oct. 25 Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) succeeds Reginald McKenna as First Lord of the British Admiralty (until May 1915), just in time for a naval race with Germany, emphasizing modernization, replacing coal power with oil power, and advocating the use of aircraft in combat. On Oct. 26 after moving from Bayonne, N.J. to flee Edison's process servers, Centaur Film Co. founders David Horsley (1873-1933), William Horsley (1870-1956), and Alfred Ernest "Al" Christie (1881-1951) shoot their first (unnamed) film in the orchards of H.J. Whitley's estate in Hollywood; on Oct. 27 Hollywood pioneer film dir. Francis W. Boggs (b. 1870) is killed by a berserk employee on the lot of Edendale; the same day the Horsleys and Christie found Nestor Studios in the Blondeau Tavern Bldg. at Gower Gulch (corner of Sunset Blvd. and Gower St.) (rent: $30/mo.), becoming the first movie studio and first film stage in Hollywood, merging next May 20 with other small studios to form Universal Studios while its employees flee from Edison's process servers and the mgt. makes its stand; they finance their move from the success of their weekly (since early July) 1-reel Mutt and Jeff comedies based on the 1907 comic strip by Bud Fisher, starring Lincoln clone Sam D. Drane as A. Mutt, and Gus "Shorty" Alexander as Jeff, becoming popular enough to finance their move to Hollywood; in fall they quit intercutting titles and pictures, and pioneer the use of subtitles, advertising them as "talking pictures"; in 1912 after Bud Duncan replaces Alexander for two films, the serial ends, and in 1916 Fisher licenses Barre Studio to produce an animated series, that lasts for 300 episodes until 1927, distributed by Fox Film Corp.; Nestor Studios is demolished in 1936 to build the CBS Columbia Square bldg. at 6121 Sunset Blvd., home of CBS in 1938-2007. On Oct. 29 Hungarian-born Am. newspaper king Joseph Pulitzer (b. 1847) dies, and his son Ralph Pulitzer (1879-1939) becomes dir. of the New York World (until 1930); old man Pulitzer leaves money for the establishment of the Pulitzer Prizes, to be presented annually by Columbia U. on recommendation of the advisory board of the Pulitzer School of Journalism for outstanding achievements in letters ($500 award) and journalism ($1K award); the first awards are made in 1917 in 18 categories, plus a gold medal for the public service category; a newspaper photography ($1K) award is added in 1942, and a musical composition award ($500) in 1943; the awards are raised to $10K in 2017, and $15K in 2018 - I'm king of the world? In Oct. the interracial League of Urban Conditions is founded in New York City to improve the economic situation of U.S. blacks; in 1919 it becomes the Nat. Urban League, helping blacks migrating from the South to find jobs and housing, and expanding to other cities. On Nov. 3 Swiss-born Buick race car driver Louis Joseph Chevrolet (1878-1941) and ex-GM head William Crapo "Billy" Durant (1861-1947) found the Chevrolet (Chevy) Motor Co. (with a bowtie logo modified from the Swiss cross?), which sets up a plant at 57th St. and 11th Ave. in New York City in 1913; their first production model is the $2.5K 1912 Classic Six, followed by the $750 194 Royal Mail Roadster, the $875-$1,475 1914 Baby Grand Touring Car, and the $490 1916 Chevrolet Four-Ninety; commercial success allows Durant to buy control of GM on Sept. 16, 1915; in 1916 the Chevrolet brothers Louis, Gaston Chevrolet (1892-1920) and Arthur Chevrolet (1884-1946) found the Frontenac Motor Co. to make racing parts for Ford Model Ts, becoming known for their Fronty-Ford racers; Louis competes in the Indianapolis 500 4x, finishing 7th in 1919; Arthur competes 2x, and Gaston wins in 1920, also winning the 1920 AAA Nat. Championship. On Nov. 11 a coup attempt against new Siamese king Rama VI is quashed, but the king's luxurious Western lifestyle keeps the threat brewing. In Nov. Hungarian-born Jewish-Am. Victor Louis Berger (1860-1929) becomes the first Socialist elected to the U.S. Congress (House of Reps. from Wisc.) (until 1928); too bad, the wunnerful, wunnerful U.S. govt. trumps up Espionage Act charges and gets him convicted next year, and he is twice denied his seat although elected repeatedly. On Nov. 28 Mexican rev. leader Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919) issues the Plan de Ayala, proclaiming that all property seized by the hacendados due to "tyranny and venal justice" will be returned by his rev. govt; he then begins the good ole days of "Viva Zapata". In Nov. to prevent another Panic of 1907, U.S. Sen. Nelson W. Aldrich, Asst. Treasury Secy. A. Platt Andrew, and five bankers incl. J.P. Morgan, Henry P. Davison, Benjamin Strong, Paul Warburg, and Frank Arthur Vanderlip Sr. (1864-1937) (protege of John D. Rockefeller) meet in Jekyll Island, Ga., and hold a secret meeting that comes up with the idea of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. In Nov. Le Journal of Paris runs the headline "A Story of Love, Mme. Curie and Professor Langevin", exposing letters suggesting a love affair between the widowed 44-y.-o. Marie Curie (b. 1867) and 39-y.-o. married-with-children physicist Paul Langevin (1872-1946) (Paul Long What?); as derisive crowds throng outside her apt. shouting at her, she receives news of her 2nd Nobel Prize. On Dec. 14 Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) of Norway becomes the first man to reach the South Pole, beating the Terra Nova (British Antarctic) Expedition led by Plymouth, Devon, England-born Capt. Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912), and placing a Norwegian flag on it; Amundsen takes a NW-SE route to-from Little America over Axel Heiberg Glacier, while Scott takes a NE-SW route to-from Ross Island over Beardmore Glacier, and never makes it all the way back - talk about a topsy-turvy world? In Dec. the Water Power Vacuum Cleaner Co. in Buffalo, N.Y. is granted use of the trademark "WA-PO-VAC". Japan signs commercial treaties with the U.S. and Britain. Count Karl von Sturgkh (1859-1916) becomes PM of Austria (until 1916). Former Colorado pres. (1899, 1903-7) Jose Battle y Ordonez becomes pres. of Uruguay again (until 1915), turning the country into the most progressive nation in South Am.; the Blancos turn into the conservative party of the rurals and clergy, while the Colorados dominate the cities. British chancellor of the exchequer David Lloyd George introduces the Nat. Health Insurance Bill in Parliament. The British Official Secrets Act of 1911 goes into effect, making it a felony to tell the British people what the govt. doesn't want them to know; more acts passed in 1920, 1939, and 1989 - duh? Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magon (1874-1922) leads the Magonista Revolt, setting up communes in Baja Calif., and ends up railroaded to a 20-year sentence in the U.S. in 1980 for "obstructing the war effort", then dies in Leavenworth in 1922 under suspicious circumstances, becoming an anarchist martyr. Kaiser Wilhelm II gives a speech in Hamburg asserting Germany's "place in the Sun". Swiss army cmdrs. issue a proclamation supporting Swiss neutrality. The leaders of the organized criminal Camorristi in Naples are brought to trial in Viterbo, ending the Camorra (founded 1820). The Covenanter meets the Politician, or, Is There a Doctor, Er, Colonel in the House? Houston, Tex.-born "Colonel" (honorific title from Tex. Gov. Jim Hogg) Edward Mandell House (1858-1938) meets Woodrow Wilson at his suite at the Gotham Hotel on Fifth Ave. and 56th St. in New York City and convinces him that he can help him win the White House for the Dems. for the first time since 1892 (Cleveland), causing Wilson to call him the "Sphinx in a soft felt hat"; House goes on to coach him and make him look less arrogant, secure campaign funds, and persuade William Jennings Bryan to endorse him, even though Wilson had been a Bourbon Dem. and Bryan was their leading opponent, which later backfires when Bryan demands a payback of becoming secy. of state, then pursues a neutral non-interventionist policy, causing Wilson to make House his unofficial secy. of state, sending him abroad to assure Entente members. Canadian PM Sir Wilfrid Laurier and his Liberal Party are ousted in elections because of their advocacy of trade reciprocity with the U.S. William Ralph Inge (1860-1954) (pr. EENG) is appointed by PM Herbert Henry Asquith as dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, where he becomes known as the "Gloomy Dean" - wouldn't you? is founded Turkey establishes gun control, leaving Armenians unable to defend themselves against ethnic cleansing. Denmark abolishes corporal punishment. Sweden establishes old age pensions, founding their elaborate structure of welfare legislation which is imitated by many large nations. The Swiss federal govt. passes a law providing subsidized health insurance and mandatory accident insurance. Calif. becomes the 5th U.S. state to give women the vote. Mo. becomes the first state to provide public aid to mothers of dependent children; 17 more states follow suit by 1913, although the stringent requirements lock most needy mothers out. The Soc. Dem. Federation (founded 1881) changes its name to the British Socialist Party. Britain promises France six army divs. in the event of war with Germany. Awni Abd al-Hadi (1889-1970) and Muhammad Rafiq al-Tamimi (1889-1957) found the underground Al-Fatat (Young Arab Society), devoted to Arab unity and independence from the Ottomans a la the Young Turks. After Armour Co. and nine other meatpackers are sued by the U.S. govt. for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Jonathan Ogden Armour convinces the other owners to let the case go to the jury without presenting a defense, and they are all acquitted - just taste my sausage and you'll see the light? Fla. adopts a statute making it unlawful to pub. info. identifying a sexual offense victim; not ruled unconstitutional until 1991. The Sullivan Act is passed in N.Y. state, backed by corrupt Tammany Hall boss Timothy Daniel "Dry Dollar" "Big Feller" "Big Tim" Sullivan (1862-1913), making it a felony to carry concealed weapons small enough to be concealed incl. a "dangerous knife", while allowing police the discretion to issue concealed carry licenses, turning N.Y. into a police state; the law was sponsored by Sullivan to make sure that his mobsters wouldn't be stopped by armed law-abiding citizens, and the first person arrested is mobster Giuseppe Costabile; license holders later incl. actors Robert DeNiro, Harvey Keitel, and Joan Rivers, shock jock Howard Stern, real estate mogul Donald Trump, and conservative thinker William F. Buckley Jr., with only 8K licenses in the hands of non-police by 2010 out of 8M citizens. Tobacco growing is permitted in England for the first time in 2.5 cents. Fatima (pr. fa-TEE-ma) brand from Liggett & Myers becomes the first cigarette brand to be sold in 20-unit packs (15 cents); in the 1940s the brand sponsors the "Dragnet" radio series; it is discontinued in 1980 - wasn't that Muhammad's babe? Mag. writer Harriet Quimby (1875-1912) receives ticket #37, becoming the first female pilot in the U.S. In Portugal the monetary unit and gold coin milreis (a thousand reis) is superseded by the escudo. In London three men, Green, Berry, and Hill are hanged for the murder of Sir Edmund Berry at Greenberry Hill. 15-y.-o. David Windsor (later Edward VIII) becomes the duke of Cornwall with an income of £90K, developing into a playboy favoring checked suits with two-tone shoes and his name brand Windsor knot ties, and Fair Isle sweaters, partying hearty to the displeasure of his ultra-faithful prude daddy George VI, and eventually preferring married mistresses, which gets him into the clutches of Wallis Simpson? The jinxed 45-carat Hope Diamond is bought for $154K from Pierre Cartier by Denver, Colo.-born gold mining heiress Evalyn Walsh McLean (1886-1947), wife of Washington Post heir Edward Beale "Ned" McLean (1889-1941); in 1909 she bought the 94-carat pear-shaped Star of the East diamond for $120K; the Hope Diamond curse works on them both, and Edward is ruined financially by the 1929 Wall St. Crash and dies in a mental hospital, the pair getting a verse in Cole Porter's 1934 song "Anything Goes" ("When Missus Ned McLean, God bless her, can get Russian Reds to yes her, then I suppose, anything goes"); the diamond is eventually bought by Am. jeweller Henry Winston (1896-1978), who gives it to the Smithsonian in 1958. Painted center lines begin appearing on U.S. highways. 21-y.-o. Ho Chi Minh (b. 1890) travels from Vietnam to Europe. The Indian state of Benares in Uttar Pradesh is formed from the family domains of the maharjah of Benares. The Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo anarchist-syndicalist labor union is founded in Spain, soon rivaling the Socialist Union Gen. de Trabajadores (founded 1882). The Kaiser Wilhelm (later Max Planck) Society for the Advancement of Science is established at a founding session in Berlin after Kaiser Wilhelm II donates land in Dahlem (West Berlin); its first pres. is theologian Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930); for the first time scientists can pursue research without having to teach, and begin churning out Nobel Prizes? Loyola Marymount U. in Los Angeles, Calif. starts out as Los Angeles College, successor to St. Vincent's College (founded in 1865), which becomes Loyola College of Los Angeles in 1918, and Loyola U. of Los Angeles in 1930; in 1973 it merges with Marymount Junior College (founded in 1932). Andrew Carnegie founds the Carnegie Corp. of New York with an endowment of $135M, plus another $10M left in his will, with the charter of promoting the advancement of knowledge and understanding among the people of the U.S., British Dominions and colonies; it ends up only giving grants to other institutions and agencies, usually in amounts of $10K up, gaining him the name "Star-Spangled Scotsman". Am. pilot Glenn Luther Martin (1886-1955), who founded one of the first aircraft factories in the U.S. in 1909 founds the Glenn L. Martin Co. in Calif., which goes on to make planes for the U.S. Army. After he buys the Wright Model B biplane from his friend Orville Wright (which is loaned to the U.S. Army for use as a scouting plane along the Rio Grande River border of U.S.-Mexico), the first Collier Trophy, created by Collier's Weekly publisher Robert Joseph Collier (1876-1918), pres. of the Aero Club of Am. for "the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of whic has been thoroughly demonstrated by actual use during the preceding year" is presented to Glenn H. Curtiss, with his name inscribed on the 525 lb. trophy. Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) issues the soundbyte "Feminism is a movement that seems to me to be self-condemned in its very name. It is a feminine idea in the bad sense of the word. Men have their own problems too, but they didn't invent the term 'masculinism'" - they invented the term jerk-off? After getting fed-up with women's ignorance about sexuality and birth control when she sees "Sadie" die of a self-induced abortion, Corning, N.Y.-born nurse-activist Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) pub. the pamphlet "What Every Mother Should Know", followed in 1914 by the monthly mag. "The Woman Rebel", with the slogan "No Gods, No Master". The Camden Town Group of post-Impressionist British artists (ends 1913) is founded by members of the New English Art Club (1886), meeting at the studio of Walter Sickert in Camden Town, London, becoming associated with the Slade School. The Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) art movement in Munich is launched (until 1914) by a group of avant-garde artists led by Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (1866-1944) of Russia and Paul Klee (1879-1940) of Switzerland, becoming a forerunner of modern art; Kandinsky switches from rhythmic lines and exotic color to precise geometric lines which at the same time have no objective content - voila, pure abstract art? Am. coronet player Edwin Franko Goldman (1878-1956) forms the all-wind Goldman Band, becoming one of the most popular symphonic bands in the U.S., and giving free annual concerts in Central Park in New York City from 1918 and Prospect Park in Brooklyn from 1934; in 1937 his son Richard Franko Goldman (1910-80) takes over. Boys' Life mag. begins to be pub. by the Boy Scouts. The Searchlight, a Braille mag. for children begins pub., ed. by Helen H. Day (1890-1971). Emile Jaques-Dalcroze founds the Eurhythmics Inst. in Hellerau, Germany. Robert Edmond Jones (1887-1954) moves to New York City and begins wowing the theater crowd with poetic moody stage sets. Francis Xavier Bushman (1883-1966) makes his film debut with Vitagraph, going on to star in almost 200 films in the silent era, culminating in the role of Messala in "Ben-Hur" (1925), where he proves he can drive a chariot. Movie cowboy Tom Mix (1880-1940) and his trusty steed Tony the Wonder Horse (1899-1942) shoot about 40 films in Canon (Cañon) City, Colo. with the Selig Polyscope Co. this year and next. South African-born English Shakespearean actor Basil Rathbone (1892-1967) makes his stage debut on Apr. 22 at the Theatre Royal in Ipswich as Hortenso in Shakespeare's "The Taming of the Shrew", followed by New York City next year, and London in 1914, his favorite role being Romeo; his film career doesn't begin until 1925. The Am. Economic Review (AER) begins pub. by the Am. Economic Assoc. The biweekly Persian-Pashto language periodical Torch of the News (Seraj-al-Akhbar) begins pub. in Oct. in Kabul, Afghanistan (until Jan. 1919), ed. by Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933) ("Father of Afghan Journalism"), using Middle Eastern rather than Indian journalistic style and promoting modernism and Afghan nationalism a la Kemal Ataturk of Turkey. The Czarist Russian govt. forces the Habima Theater to suspend performances, and they don't resume until the Czarist collapse in 1917. Eric Rowland Gill (1882-1940), a graduate of the Chichester Art School holds an exhibition of his stone carvings. Enoch Lewis "Nucky" Johnson (1883-1968) becomes Repub.-run machine boss of Atlantic City, N.J. (until 1941), running gambling, prostitution, and bootlegging during Prohibition, making it into a Prohibition-free city billing itself as "the World's Play Ground"; in July 1941 he is convicted of income tax evasion and given 10 years in federal prison, getting paroled on Aug. 15, 1945. Fort Lewis College is founded in Durango, Colo in an old military fort to educate Native Am. students, going to award 16% of all bachelor degrees earned by Native Am. students. 3-y.-o. hip-conjoined twins Daisy and Violet Hilton (1908-69) begin touring Europe, Australia and the U.S., later forming a Vaudeville act that incl. Bob Hope in 1926 as the Dancemedians. The Original Creole Ragtime Band is founded in Los Angeles, Calif. by New Orleans, La.-born bassist William Manuel "Bill" Johnson (1872-1972) (father of the slap style of double bass playing), incl. Freddie (Freddy) Keppard (1889-1933) (cornet), who becomes the star, touring the U.S. from San Francisco to Chicago to New York City, introducing audiences to jazz sans the label; in 1915 Keppard turns down a chance from Victor Talking Machine Co. to record the first jazz record; in 1917 after succeeding Buddy Bolden as the king of the New Orleans jazz scene, Keppard settles in Chicago, and the band breaks up in 1918. The Dymock Poets, who live near the English village of Dymock in Gloucestershire (home of the royal champion since 1377, known for its yellow spring daffodils) begin pub. the quarterly "New Numbers" (until 1914); members incl. Robert Frost (1874-1963), Lascelles Abercrombie (1881-1938), Rupert Chawner (Chaucer) Brooke (1887-1915), Philip Edward Thomas (1878-1917), Wilfrid Wilson Gibson (1878-1962), and John Drinkwater (1882-1937); the bad, the Great War shuts them down and kills or messes them all up? The Winter Garden Theatre at 1634 Broadway in Manhattan, N.Y. opens on Mar. 10 with the Jerome Kern musical "La Belle Paree", going on to host "Cats" for 7,485 perf. starting in 1982. After being fired by dowager empress Marie Feodorovna from the Mariinsky Theatre for appearing on stage with tights and no trunks, Vaslav Nijinsky (1889-1950) makes a magnificent exit leap in Fokine's "Le Spectre de la Rose" in Paris, achieving instant star status. Queensland U. is founded in Brisbane, Australia. Babelsberg Studio is founded in Potsdam-Babelsberg (near Berlin), becoming the oldest large-scale film studio on Earth, and Europe's largest by modern times; its first production is "The Dance of the Dead" (1912); in 1920 it becomes Decla Bioscop; in 1921 it merges with Universum Film AG (UFA); in 1926 it builds Marlene Dietrich Halle for production of Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" (1927); in 1929 the Tonkreuz, the first German sound stage is built; in 1933-45 it cranks out 1K feature films, incl. hundreds dir. by Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels, incl. "Triumph of the Will" (1935) and "The Jew Suss" (1940). Florenz Ziegfield Jr. signs Hungarian-born twin cabaret act Rosie Dolly (1892-1970) (Rozsika Deutsch) and Jenny Dolly (Janka Deutsch) (1892-1941) (AKA the Dolly Sisters), who go their separate ways in 1913, and make their film debuts in 1915, appearing in their only film together in "The Million Dollar Dollies" in 1918. French writer Jean de La Hire (Comte Adolphe d'Espie) (1878-1956) creates the comic book superhero char. Leo Saint-Clair, AKA the Nyctalope, which becomes the model for Am. superhero comics; in 1921 he introduces the villain Baron Glo von Warteck AKA Lucifer, known for his Teledynamo. Edwin S. Porter founds Rex Motion Picture Co.; his first film is A Heroine of '76 (Feb. 16, 1911), starring Lois Weber, Phillips Smalley, and Gordon Sackville; in 1912 he sells out and becomes chief dir. of the new Famous Players Film Co.; Rex folds in 1917 after 554 films. After one of its cars places 11th in the first Indianapolis 500, earning it the slogan "The car that made good in a day", the Stutz Motor Co. (originally Ideal Motor Car Co.) is founded in Indianapolis, Ind. by ex-Ohio farmboy Harry C. Stutz (1876-1930), producing hi-performance roadsters incl. the 4-cylinder T-head Stutz Bearcat in 1912-23; in 1919 Stutz sells the co. to Allen Ryan, who goes bankrupt in 1922, and is bought out by Charles M. Schwab et al., who repurpose the co. as a manufacturer of safety cars with safety glass, low center of gravity, and Noback hill-holding transmission; in 1927 a Stutz sets the world speed record, averaging 68 mph for 24 hours; in 1928 a Stutz finishes 2nd at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, losing to a Bentley, becoming the best result for a U.S. car until 1966; in 1928 a Stutz sets a land speed record of 106.53 mph at Daytona Beach, Fla.; in 1931 they produce the DV32 DOHC 32-valve inline 8 engine; in 1929-31 the Stutz Blackhawk is produced; production ends in 1935 after 35K are produced; in 1968 New York banker James O'Donnell founds Stutz Motor Car of Am., producing the Blackhawk in 1971-87, featuring GM running gear, which becomes a favorite of Lucille Ball; despite billing itself as "the world's most expensive car" ($115K-$285K), it sells 617 units by 1995. The first print ad for underwear is run in the Saturday Evening Post for full-body Kenosha Klosed Krotch, with two overlapping flaps. Ideal Film Co. is founded in Soho, London, England by brothers Harry Moses (1875-1951) and Simon Rowson (Rosenbaum) (1877-1950), sons of a Polish Jewish immigrant butcher, starting out as a film distributor then producing films in 1916, acquiring Elstree Studios in Borehamwood from the Neptune Film Co. in 1917, merging in 1927 with Gaumont British and distributing films under its own name until 1934, distributing 400 films and producing 80, incl. its biggest hit The Life Story of David Lloyd George (1918), which actually isn't a hit since it's bought by the real David Lloyd George for £20K and locked up until 1996. Photoplay silent film fan mag. is founded in Chicago, Ill., reaching 204K circ. by 1918; in 1934 it is acquired by Mcfadden Pubs. Frederick O. Popenoe of Altadena, Calif. obtains the Fuerte (Sp. "vigorous") Avocado Plant from Atlixco, Mexico, which proves its hardiness by surviving the great freeze of 1913, founding the Calif. avocado industry. Crisco (Crystalized Cottonseed Oil) is introduced by Procter and Gamble, becoming the first commerically marketed trans fat; the ad campaign demonizes lard, and features a 615-recipe cookbook. Dutch Masters brand machine-rolled cigas with natural wrappers are introduced by G.H. Johnson Cigar Co., which merges in 1921 with the Consolidated Cigar Corp.; logo is Rembrandt's 1662 painting "The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild (De Staalmeesters"; in the 1950s-1960s comedian Ernie Kovacs becomes the spokesman; in the early 1990s their wrappers are rerolled with marijuana, becoming known as "Dutches". Mars Inc. (originally Mars Candy factory) is founded by Hannock, Minn.-born Franklin Clarence Mars (1882-1934) and his 2nd wife Ethel V. Mars in Tacoma, Wash. Mazola brand corn oil, featuring a corn cob and an Indian girl on the label begins to be marketed. Sports: In May white jockeys begin to replace black jockeys at the Kentucky Derby; the last black one rides in 1921 - the last white man's non-winter sport? Gentlemen, start your engines? A year before the Titanic, Euros and Americans use lethal hi tech to create a modern version of the Roman gladiator spectacle? On May 30 (Tues.) (Decoration Day) after the Speedway is opened for free practice on May 1, and each car is given three attempts to qualify at a quarter-mile in 12 sec. (75 mph), and 40 of 46 entrants qualify (max engine size 600 cu. in., min. weight 2,300 lb.), retired Marmon Motor Car Co. engineer Ray Harroun (1879-1968) wins the first 200-lap 1911 (1st) Indianapolis 500 auto race in the pink Indianapolis Motor Speedway "Brickyard" with an avg. speed over 500 mi. of 74.59 mph; starting position is determined by date of entry; cars line up five to a row, except the first (pole position) and last; Speedway pres. ("the Hoosier Barnum") Carl Graham Fisher (1874-1939) (who convinced the other investors to install 3.2M bricks on the Speedway) leads in a Stoddard-Dayton pace car, becoming the first known mass-rolling start of an auto race; defending AAA nat. champ Harroun is the first driver to compete without a riding mechanic, and the first to use a rear-view mirror on his self-designed 6-cylinder Marmon Wasp (with a sharp-pointed tail); after the red ("clear course ahead") flag, Johnny Aitken (1885-1918) takes the lead in his National from the 4th starting spot on the extreme outside of the first row, and holds it until lap 5, when Spencer Wishart (1889-1914) passes in his Mercedes Benz, soon to be overtaken by David Loney Bruce-Brown (1887-1912) in his Fiat, who dominates the first half, after which Harroun takes the lead, only to be overtaken by Cyrus Patschke (1889-1951) for 35 laps; midway through the 2nd half, Harroun battles Lozier driver Ralph Kirkman Mulford (1884-1973), with Harroun holding a small lead near the 340 mi. mark when one of his solid tires lets go, forcing him to pit, putting Mulford in the lead, but he soon pits to get new tires and/or is given a checkered flag and takes 3 safety laps only to find Harroun in the winner's circle, and Harroun ends up winning, after which Mulford files a protest, which is denied; 14 cars fail to finish, and riding mechanic Sam Dickson is the only fatality, killed when driver Arthur Greiner (1884-1916) hits the wall in lap 12, becoming the first to finish the race last; Harroun wins $10K, then re-retires (sic). On June 13 Topena, Kan. Ford dealer Ralph "Pappy" Hankinson invents the sport of Auto Polo to help sell Ford Model Ts, becoming a hit; it requires two drivers plus a mallet-swinger and a giant rubber ball; too bad, in the 1920s its popularity wanes due to the high cost of replacing cars. On Sept. 4 Am. world champion wrestler Frank Alvin Gotch defeats George Hackenschmidt in a rematch of their 1908 bout in Comiskey Park; Gotch wins in 30 min. using his toe hold. The 1911 Stanley Cup is won by the Ottawa Hockey Club. The Gordon-Bennett Internat. Aviation Cup is awarded for the first time. 9-y.-o. Robert Tyre "Bobby" Jones Jr. (1902-71) of Atlanta, Ga. wins his first golf title, the Junior Championship of Atlanta. Nat. Hockey Assoc. (NHA) players strike for increased pay, led by 5'11" Montreal Wanderers defenceman Arthur Howey "Art" Ross (1886-1964), who goes on to become the first head coach of the Boston Bruins in 1924-45, then remain as gen. mgr. until his 1954 retirement, inventing the official NHL puck with bevelled edges. The Pacific Coast Hockey Assoc. (PCHA) is organized by wealthy Canadian lumberman Joseph "Joe" Patrick (1857-1941) and his sons Curtis Lester "Les" "the Silver Fox" Patrick (1883-1960) and Francis Alexis "Frank" Patrick (1885-1960) for pro hockey players in W Canada incl. Seattle, Wash., becoming rivals with the NH and NHL, building the first artificial ice rinks in Vancouver, B.C. and Victoria, B.C.; Joe invents the idea of putting numbers on player uniforms; Lester invents 22 new rules incl. the blue line, forward pass, playoff system (soon adopted by other sports leagues), penalty shot, the rule allowing the puck to be kicked everywhere but into the net, a rule allowing goaltenders to fall to the ice to make a save, and the policy of crediting assists, causing him to be called "the Brains of Modern Hockey"; in 1924 it merges with the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHA). After the Edmonton Hockey Club folds, the Edmonton Eskimos Canadian amateur ice hockey team is founded; after going pro, it folds in 1927. The Philadelphia Athletics baseball team fields the "$100,000 infield" this season, managed by Connie Mack (1862-1956), consisting of John Phelan "Stuffy" McInnis (1B), Edward Towbridge Collins (2B), John Joseph Barry (SS), and John Franklin "Home Run" Baker (3B) (ends 1914). Laurel Park Racecourse outside Laurel, Md. opens on Oct. 2 for horseracing (until ?). Architecture: On Mar. 10 the Winter Garden Theatre at 1634 Broadway in Manhattan, N.Y. between 50th and 51st Sts. (cap. 1,526) (built in 1896 as the Am. Horse Exchange), founded by the Shubert brothers opens with the Jerome Kern musical La Belle Paree, launching the career of Al Jolson. On Apr. 27 the Fulton Theatre (originally the Folies-Bergere until Oct. 20) at 210 West 46th Street in Manhattan, N.Y. opens; on Sept. 22, 1911 Mae West makes her Broadway debut, and is discovered by The New York Times; in 1955 it is renamed the Helen Hayes Theatre; it is demolished in 1982, and the Little Theatre at 240 West 44th Street (opened Mar. 12, 1912) is renamed in Hayes' honor. On May 23 the $8M Renaissance-style New York Public Library bldg. at Fifth Ave. and W. 42nd St. in New York City opens, complete with two stone lions flanking the front steps; the architectural firm of John Merven Carrere (1858-1911) and Thomas Hastings (1860-1929) Berlin, Germany-born architect Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (1883-1969) designs the early modern glass Fagus Factory in Alfeld on the Leine in Lower Saxony (finished 1913), based on the AEG Turbine Factory of Peter Behrens. won a nat. competition to build it. Grosvenor Atterbury and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. design the Forest Hill Gardens modern middle-class suburb in N.Y. The Nat. Library of Wales in Aberystwyth, Cardiganshire is founded. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913) (Netherlands) [Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague] and Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) (Austria) [League of Nations idea]; Lit.: Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (1862-1949) (Belgium); Physics: Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (1864-1928) (Germany) [Wien's Displacement Law]; Chem.: Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) (France); Med.: Allvar Gullstrand (1862-1930) (Sweden) [refraction of light in the eye]; Marie Curie wins for her isolation of the elements polonium and radium, becoming the first to win two Nobel Prizes (Physics in 1903); in the fall she attends the solve-away-brush-it-off First Solvay Physics Conference in Brussels, and is the only woman among 24 eminent world scientists, incl. Albert Einstein (youngest), taking up the merits of the classical vs. quantum approach; she and her hubby Pierre refused to patent radium because it "was not in the scientific spirit", letting others make millions instead - and proving what about the Stanford-Binet IQ Test? Inventions: In the Feb. issue of Cosmopolitan, Thomas Edison boasts that he could make a 40K-page book 2 in. thick weighing 1 lb. by printing the pages on thin pieces of nickel metal. Am. physicist Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) of Clark U. in the U.S. patents the first vacuum tube able to amplify a signal. German chemists Fritz Haber (1868-1934) and Carl Bosch (1874-1940) develop the Haber-Bosch Process for synthesizing ammonia on an industrial scale from hydrogen and air, freeing the production of fertilizer and explosives from natural ammonia deposits such as sodium nitrate (calich) (which is monopolized by Chile), and averting global famine, winning Haber the 1918 Nobel Chem. Prize; too bad, brainy Jew Haber, who coulda been a contender stinks himself up by plunging into poison gas research, finding a way to turn science from good to bad - break out my quills I'm going to wax poetic? The Electric Self-Starter for the automobile is invented by GM engineer Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958) in Dayton, Ohio (home of the Wright Brothers and other inventors), based on his design of a mechanism for opening cash register drawers; the first is installed on Feb. 17, and he sells 8K of them to Cadillac, "the standard of the world"; within a few years they are standard equipment on all cars, and the days of the dangerous hand crank are over. Arthur Constantin Krebs of France invents elastomeric flexible coupling, AKA the Flector Joint, which is used in the power transmission for his Tracteur Chatillon-Panhard, a 4-wheel drive 4-wheel steering all-terrain truck, used as artillery tractors in WWI. Nissan Motor Co. in Yokohama, Japan is founded as the Kwaishinsha Motor Car Works (named after founding families Kenjiro Den, Rokuro Aoyama, and Meitaro Takeuchi), producing the DAT car in 1914; in 1928 the Nihon Sangyo (Japan Industries) holding co. is founded, growing to 74 cos. by WWII; in 1934 the Nissan Motor Co. is spun off, producing Austin Sevens under license; in 1966 it merges with Prince Motor Co., producing the R380 race car; in 1960 the U.S. subsidiary Nissan Motor Corp. USA is formed, producing the 411 series, the Datsun 510, and Datsun 240Z, growing to become the 6th largest automaker in the world, and 2nd in Japan behind Toyota. The first parachute jump from an airplane is made by Grant Morton and/or Capt. Albert Berry; Italian inventor Pino invents the pilot or drogue chute, improving on Leonardo da Vinci's original 1495 design. On Dec. 26 Charles Boyer of Marengo, Ill. receives U.S. Patent #1,012,800 for a plunger-type canister "vacuum-cleaning machine", which is manufactured by the Hugro Manufacturing Co. of Warsaw, Ind. under the name Golden Rod Vacuum Cleaner. Science: In 1911-12 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is established on Uwekahuna Bluff on the rim of Kilauea Caldera on the Big Island of Hawaii to monitor four active Hawaiian volcanoes incl. Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, and Haleakala. The original Planet of the Apes without claiming copyright? Piltdown Man, the "missing link" between humans and apes is finally discovered by amateur anthropologist Charles Dawson (1864-1916) in the 50K-y.-o. 10-ft. Piltdown Quarry in Lewes (near Uckfield), East Sussex, England, and dated to the Pliocene and labelled as "Eoranthropus", dated to 500K B.C.E.; oops, after 40+ years it is proved to be a hoax (jawbone of an ape no more than 50K y.o.) in 1953 after ending up in the Farmer's Museum in Cooperstown, N.Y. in 1948; meanwhile desperate anthropologists look to save face (see 1921). On July 24 the Incan city of Machu Picchu is discovered by Hawaiian-born Hiram Bingham III (1875-1956) of Yale U.; too bad, he loots it of artifacts in 1912-15, causing a cent.-long dispute that is finally settled with their return in 2011. Ejnar Hertzsprung (1873-1967) and Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957) play around with the discovery of Am. astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt about Cepheid variables, along with the double stars in the Pleiades, and devise the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, which groups stars by absolute magnitude and spectral type, along with a theory of stellar evolution (1911-3) - skinny pants, you can shove it up your butt? Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) ditches Freudian psychoanalysis in favor of organic causes of mental illness, coining the term "schizophrenia" for Gr. "schizein" + "phren" = "split mind" to replace dementia praecox. Polish chemist Casimir (Kazimierz) Funk (1884-1967) coins the term "vitamine" (changed to vitamin in 1920) after reading an article by Dutch physician Christiaan Eijkman (1858-1930) claiming that people who eat brown rice are less vulnerable to beriberi than those who eat white race, er, rice, causing him to isolate vitamin B1, which has an amine group, cogito ero sum; meanwhile English biochemist call-me-sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947) goes on to conduct experiments which discover other vitamins, gaining him and Eijkman the 1929 Nobel Med. Prize. Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) discovers Superconductivity. After studying the fruit fly Drosophila, Am. biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) (Doubting Thomas Hunts for More Gain?) of Columbia U. announces his theory of Genes (a word he coined in 1904), and how they are linearly arranged on the chromosome and can be mapped, winning him the 1933 Nobel Med. Prize. Francis Peyton Rous (1879-1970) of the U.S. discovers a viral cause of cancer. English physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) ditches J.J. Thomson's Plum Pudding Model and proposes the Planetary Nuclear Model of the Atom, a small positively-charged nucleus containing most of the mass and orbited by electrons, like the Sun and planets; too bad, classical physics makes its existence impossible, since it would radiate electromagnetic energy until it runs down and the electrons spiral down to the center; John Nicholson of Cambridge U. applies Rutherford's model of the atom to spectra and suggests that quantum jumps take place between definite states corresponding to Walther Ritz's 1908 term values - can you spot what's wrong with this picture, God repeats himself? Scottish physicist Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) builds the first Cloud Chamber, which is capable of showing the path of a single ionizing particle (alpha particle, etc.), winning the 1927 Nobel Physics Prize. Nonfiction: Henry Adams (1838-1918), ife of George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909). John P. Arnold, Origin and History of Beer and Brewing from Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology; first comprehensive history of beer brewing; becomes a std. work. Alfred Austin (1835-1913), Autobiography. Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914), The Devil's Dictionary; "Bigot, n. One who is obstinately and zealously attached to an opinion that you do not entertain"; "Koran, n. A book which the Mohammedans foolishly believe to have been written by divine inspiration, but which Christians know to be a wicked imposture, contradictory to the Holy Scriptures"; "Russian, n. A person with a Caucasian body and a Mongolian soul. A Tartar Emetic"; "History, n. An account, mostly false, of events, mostly unimportant, which are brought about by rulers, mostly knaves, and soldiers, mostly fools." Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), Dementia Praecox or Schizophrenia; coins the term "schizophrenia" to replace dementia praecox (early dementia), and explains it as a split between the emotional life and reasoning faculty that doesn't necessarily strike early in life. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), Gordon of Khartoum. Franz Boas (1858-1942), Handbook of American Indian Languages; The Mind of Primitive Man; a German Jew shocks the racism out of U.S. anthropologists; rev. ed. pub. in 1938; "There is no fundamental difference in the ways of thinking of primitive and civilized man. A close connection between race and personality has never been established. The concept of racial type as commonly used even in scientific literature is misleading and requires a logical as well as biological definition." Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923), Value and Destiny of the Individual (1911-2). John Glentworth Butler (1821-1916), Modern-day Conservatism and Liberalism. Cambridge U. Press (H.M. Gwatkin and J.P. Whitney, eds.), The Cambridge Medieval History (8 vols.) (1911-36); planned by J.B. Bury. Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (1854-1922), Some Principles of Maritime Strategy; becomes a classic, advocating effective use of sea lines for communications, and regarding naval strategy as only a means to an end defined by nat. strategy; "At first sight nothing can appear more unpractical, less promising ofuseful result, than to approach the study of war with a theory. There seemsindeed to be something essentially antagonistic between the habit of mind that seeks theoretical guidance and that which makes for the successfulconduct of war. The conduct of war is so much a question of personality, of character, of common-sense, of rapid decision upon complex and ever-shifting factors, and those factors themselves are so varied, so intangible, so dependent upon unstable moral and physical conditions, that it seems incapable of being reduced to anything like true scientific analysis. At the bare idea of a theory or 'science' of war the mind recurs uneasily to well-known cases where highly 'scientific' officers failed as leaders. Yet, on the other hand, no one will deny that since the great theorists of the early nineteenth century attempted to produce a reasoned theory of war, its planning and conduct have acquired a method, a precision, and a certainty of grasp which were unknown before. Still less will any one deny the value which the shrewdest and most successful leaders in war have placed upon the work of the classical strategical writers. The truth is that the mistrust of theory arises from a misconception of what it is that theory claims to do. It does not pretend to give the powerof conduct in the field; it claims no more than to increase the effective power of conduct. Its main practical value is that it can assist a capableman to acquire a broad outlook whereby he may be the surer his plan shall cover all the ground, and whereby he may with greater rapidity and certainty seize all the factors of a sudden situation. The greatest of the theorists himself puts the matter quite frankly. Of theoretical study he says, 'It should educate the mind of the man who is to lead in war, or rather guide him to self-education, but it should not accompany him on the field of battle'; "The last thing that an explorer arrives at is a complete map that will cover the whole ground he has travelled, but for those who come after him and would profit by and extend his knowledge his map is the first thing with which they will begin." Kenyon Cox (1856-1919), The Classic Point of View: Six Lectures on Painting. David Brion Davis (1927-), In the Image of God: Religion, Moral Values, and Our Heritage of Slavery. Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926), Industrial Unionism. William Edward Dodd (1869-1940), Statesmen of the Old South; or, From Radicalism to Conservative Revolt; Thomas Jefferson's reliance on a political alliance of the South with the West to gain the presidency, after which power shifted from Va. and its Jeffersonian liberalism to S.C. and its political capitalism and cotton capitalism. Norman Douglas (1868-1953), Siren Land; travel book; a hit, causing him to write several more. Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), The World of Dreams. Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), Can We Still Be Christians? Lucien Febvre (1878-1956), Philip II and the Franche-Comte; his thesis; pioneers histoire totale (histoire tout court), describing everything possible about Franche-Comte incl. its geography and industry in an attempt to show that the French govt. had a negative influence, becoming the paradigm for the Annales School. Irving Fisher (1867-1947), The Purchasing Power of Money; proposes the Quantity Theory of Money, launching the Monetarist School; 2nd ed. 1922. Daniel Frohman (1851-1940), Memories of a Manager. Eduard Fueter Sr. (1876-1928), History of the New Historiography (Geschichte der Neueren Historiographie) (Munich) (1911); becomes a std. work, making him a Euro history star. Friedrich Fundolf, Shakespeare und der Deutsche Geist. Vincent van Gogh (1853-90), Letters to Brother Theo (posth.). Sir Wilfred Grenfell (1865-1940), Down North on the Labrador. Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947), Palestine and Its Transformation; about his 1909 Yale Expedition to Palestin to determine "step by step the process by which geological structure, topographic form, and the present and past nature of the climate have shaped man's progress, moulded his history; and thus played an incalculable part in the development of a system of thought which could scarcely have arisen under any other physical circumstances." Henry Mayers Hyndman (1842-1921), The Record of an Adventurous Life (autobio.). Clyde Lyndon King, The History of the Government of Denver with Special Reference to its Relations with Public Service Corporations (Denver). Sir John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury (1834-1913), Marriage, Totemism, and Religion: An Answer to the Critics. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), Scientific Management in Churches. William McDougall (1871-1938), Body and Mind: A History and Defence of Animism; founder of Hormic (Gr. "horme" = impulse) Psychology, which claims that behavior is goal-oriented and purposive, he claims that all matter has a mental aspect and that the mind (which is distinct from the brain) guides evolution; he also claims that telepathy has been scientifically proven, becoming pres. of the Society for Psychical Research in 1920, and the Am. Society for Psychical Research in 1921, helping J.B. Rhine establish the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke U. in 1927. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947) and Claude Halstead Van Tyne (1869-1930), A History of the United States for Schools. George Moore (1852-1933), Hail and Farewell (3 vols.) (autobio.) (1911-4). John Myres (1869-1954), The Dawn of History. P.D. Ouspensky (1878-1947), Tertium Organum: A New Model of the Universe; alleged sequel to Sir Francis Bacon's 1620 "Novum Organum"; claims that time is 3-dimensional; "Three-dimensionality is a function of our senses. Time is the boundary of our senses. Six-dimensional space is reality, the world as it is"; "We are one-dimensional in relation to time: Before - Now - After, and we call time our fourth dimension without really understanding that there must be a line of the fifth dimension perpendicular to the line of time, the line of eternity... Eternity can be an infinite number of finite 'times'." Mary White Ovington (1865-1951), Half a Man: The Status of the Negro in New York; study of black Manhattan. Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), Robert E. Lee, Man and Soldier. George Herbert Palmer (1842-1933), The Problem of Freedom. Frederic Logan Paxson (1877-1948), The Civil War; portrays it as a war of civilizations. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Essays on Russian Novelists. Otto Rank (1884-1939), The Lohengrin Saga. Thomas William Rolleston, Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race. Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951), Manual of Harmony. Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), Women and Labor. Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle; expounds the theory of business cycles, with a circular flow leading to a stationary state until a heroic entrepreneur upsets it. Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, The Income Tax. Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931), Religionsproblemet. Werner Sombart (1863-1941), The Jews and Modern Capitalism; reverses the anti-Semitic characterization of Communism as Jewish by tracing how the Jews broke out of the medieval guild system by creating capitalism, and even venturing that capitalism created Judaism; doesn't mention that capitalist Jews had to break out of religion too? Carl Stumpf (1848-1936), The Origins of Music; founds Comparative Musicology (Ethnomusicology). William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), War and Other Essays (posth.). Frank William Taussig (1859-1940), Principles of Economics. Fred Manville Taylor (1855-1932), Principles of Economics; 9th ed. 1925. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), The Principles of Scientific Management; founds the Efficiency Movement in the U.S., developing "scientific management" and "rationalized production" techniques, which concentrate on time-motion studies. Hans Vaihinger (1852-1933), The Philosophy of As If (Philosophie des Als Ob); we can never know the underlying reality of the world, forcing us to behave as if it matches our puny models - I thought everybody knew that? Richard Wagner (1813-83), Mein Leben (autobio.) (posth.). Arthur Edward Waite (1857-1942), The Book of Ceremonial Magic. Movies: Tom Ricketts' The Best Man Wins (Dec. 25) stars Harold Lockwood, Dorothy and Alice Davenport, Russell Bassett, Gordon Sackville, and Victoria Forde (1896-1964), future wife of Tom Mix, becoming the first movie produced in Hollywood. Colin Campbell's Brown of Harvard (Dec. 21) (Selig), based on the play by Rida Johnson Young stars Edgar W. Wynn as Tom Brown, Charles Clary as Gerald Thorne, and George L. Cox as Wilfred Kenyon; the film debut of Monterey County, Calif.-born Edgar Livingston Kennedy (1890-1948) (as Claxton Madden), who becomes known as "King of the Slow Burn"; refilmed in 1926. Franklyn Barrett's The Christian (Mar. 16) (West's Pictures in Australia), based on the Hall Caine novel stars Bert Bailey, Rutland Beckett, Lily Bryer, Max Clifton, Marie D'Alton, Fred Kehoe, Edmund Duggan, and Eugenie Duggan; the film debut of English actor George Ellsworthy "Roy" Redgrave (1873-1922) (descendant of Rob Roy?), who founds the 4-generation Redgrave acting dynasty; father of Sir Michael Redgrave (1908-85), who is the father of Vanessa Redgrave (1937-), Lynn Redgrave (1943-), and Corin Redgrave (1939-2010); grandfather (via Vanessa) of Joely Richardson (1965-) and Natasha Richardson (1963-2009); grandfather (via Corin) of Jemma Redgrave (1965-). Theodore Marston's David Copperfield (Oct. 17) (Thanhouser Film Corp.), based on the 1850 Charles Dickens novel stars Flora Foster and Ed Genung as David Copperfield, Anna Seer as David's mother, and Marie Eline and Florence La Badie as Em'ly; the film debut of Memphis, Tenn.-born stage actress Maude Fealy (Maude Mary Hawk) (1883-1971), who makes 17 more films for Thanhouser by 1917, then retires from films, running an acting school with her actor mother Margaret Fealy (1865-1955) until 1931, then appearing in minor roles until 1958. Abel Gance's La Digue is the debut of French dir. Abel Gance (1889-1981); it is never released. ?'s Divided Interests (Sept. 11) (Lubin) stars Arthur V. Johnson, Jennie Nelson, and Leslie Nelson, and is the film debut of Buffalo, N.Y.-born Florence Hackett (nee Hart) (1882-1954), who goes on to star in numerous films with Johnson until his 1916 death, some of which feature her sons Albert Hackett and Raymond Hackett; an allegation that she got Johnson to leave Maude Vaughan (nee Webb) to marry her is never documented. Vitagraph's Doctor Cupid (Jan. 10) stars popular fat stage comedian John Bunny (1863-1915) and tall thin Flora Finch (1867-1940), who become the first big comedy movie stars. D.W. Griffith's Fighting Blood (June 29) (Biograph) stars George Nichols, Kate Bruce, Robert Harron, Francis J. Grandon, and Florence La Badie, and is the film debut of Philly-born stage actor Lionel Barrymore (Lionel Herbert Blythe) (1878-1954), elder brother of Ethel Barrymore and John Barrymore; too bad, by the late 1920s he develops arthritis (caused by syphilis?), causing him to become a morphine addict, and breaks his hip, which never heals, putting him in a wheelchair. D.W. Griffith's The Guerrilla (Nov. 13) debuts, starring Arthur V. Johnson and Dorothy West, becoming the film debut of Harry C. "Harry" Meyers (1882-1938). William George Barker's and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree's Henry VIII, produced by Barker Motion Photography Co. based on the Shakespeare play stars Arthur Bourchier as Henry VIII, Violet Vanbrugh as Catherine of Aragon, Laura Cowie as Anne Boleyn, and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Cardinal Wolsey, and features a coronation scene with music written by English composer Sir Edward German (German Edward Jones) (1862-1936), who becomes the first composer to write music for a British film. R.E. Baker's His Friend's Wife (June 6) (Gen. Film Co.) stars Lottie Briscoe and Dorothy Phillips, and is the film debut of Francis Xavier Bushman (1883-1966). William F. Haddock's The Immortal Alamo, starring Francis Ford and Edith Storey launches the white is right myth of the 1836 Battle of the Alamo; the film debut of Fanny Midgley (1879-1932); too bad, all prints are later lost. Francesco Bertolini's, Adolfo Padovan's, and Giuseppe De Liguoro's 2 hr 45 min. L'Inferno (Mar. 10) (Helios), based on the engravings for Dante's "Divine Comedy" by Gustave Dore debuts, becoming the first full-length Italian feature film, first screened in Teatro Mercadante in Naples, Italy, becoming an internat. hit, making $2M in the U.S. (first feature film screened in the U.S.) on a 100K lira budget, the length allowing theater operators to charge extra. Milton J. Fahrney's The Law of the Range (Dec. 13) stars Harold Lockwood as a white man who befriends a half-breed. ?'s Marianne, ein Weib aus dem Volke stars German actress Adele Sandrock (1863-1937) in her silent film debut, who goes on to act in 140+ films. Gerolamo Lo Savio's Il Mercante di Venezia (The Merchant of Venice) (Feb.) is based on the Shakespeare play. William J. Humphrey's The Military Air-Scout (Dec. 12) (Vitagraph Co. of Am.) stars Earle Williams as Lt. Wentworth, Edith Storey as Marie Arthur, and Alec B. Francis as Marie's father Cmdr. Arthur; on Sept. 30 U.S. Army Signal Corps. pilot Lt. Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) becomes the first movie stuntman in his Army biplane. Sidney Olcott's Molly Pitcher (Dec. 11) is the film debut of Swedish-born blonde-blue model Anna Quirentia Nilsson (1888-1974), 1907's "most beautiful woman in America", being named Hollywood's most popular woman in 1926 and getting a record 30K fan letters a month in 1928, becoming the first Swedish-born actress to get a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; too bad, after Joseph P. Kennedy hires her to work at RKO Radio Pictures in 1928, she is paralyzed for a year after being thrown by a horse in 1929, and her thick accent dooms her when sound films arrive. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo shows a man making a cartoon. Joseph A. Golden's The Reporter (Nov. 18) (Pathe Freres) stars Pearl White and Gwendolyn Pates, and is the film debut of Irish-born Am. stage actor Jack W. Johnston (1876-1946), who goes from leading man with Mabel Taliaferro and Norma Talmadge to supporting actor to unbilled bit part actor by the talkie era, working to the end. Alexander Khanzhonkov's The Siege of Sevastopol (Dec. 9), sponsored by Tsar Nicholas II (who attends the debut) is the first full-length feature film produced in Russia, and the first film shot by two cameras, starring actual veterans of the 1854-5 war and actual locations, plus troops of the Russian army and navy. William J. Humphrey's A Tale of Two Cities (Feb. 21) (Gen. Film Co.), based on the 1859 novel by Charles Dickens stars Maurice Costello, Florence Turner, John Bunny, Norma Talmadge, William J. Humphrey, and Mabel Normand; the film debut of Australian-born (at sea) vaudeville star Lydia Yeamans Titus (1857-1929), who was once presented with a gold bar pin by Edward VII with the opening notes of her signature song Sally in Our Alley etched in diamonds; she goes on to appear in 130+ films by 1930. Edwin Thanhouser's The Tempest (Nov. 28), based on the Shakespeare play stars Ed Genung as Ferdinand, and Florence La Badie (1888-1917) as Miranda. D.W. Griffith's Three Sisters (Feb. 2) (Biograph) stars Mary Pickford, Marion Sunshine, and Vivian Prescott as Mary, Florence, and Adele; Kate Bruce plays their mother. Allan Dwan's The Yiddisher Cowboy (June 19) (Am. Film Manufacturing Co.) stars J. Warren Kerrigan as Jewish salesman Ikey Rosenthal, who is offered a job punching cows in Wyo., using his paycheck to set up a pawn shop and acquiring all the other cowboys' guns; also stars Pauline Bush. Music: Nathaniel Davis Ayer (1887-1952), King Chanticleer. Nathaniel Davis Ayer (1887-1952) and Seymour Brown, Oh, You Beautiful Doll; "Oh, you beautiful doll,/ You great big beautiful doll/ Let me put my arms about you,/ I could never live without you." Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Tamara (unorchestrated ballet); Festival Overture. Irving Berlin (Israel Isidore Baline) (1888-1989), Alexander's Ragtime Band; sells 1M copies of sheet music the first year, plus 500K copies in the U.K. in 1913; the first ragtime hit, making ragtime respectable on Broadway. Harry Champion (1865-1942), Any Old Iron; written by Charles Collins, Fred E. Terry, and E.A. Sheppard. Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Symphony No. 2 in E-flat, Op. 63. Michel Fokine (1880-1942), Petrouchka (ballet). Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), The Prophecy (opera); not performed until ?. Victor Herbert (1859-1924), Natoma (opera) (Feb. 25) (Philadelphia) (Feb. 28) (New York City); libretto by Joseph D. Redding; set in Santa Barbara, Calif. in 1830; stars Mary Garden as Natoma and John McCormack as Am. seaman Paul; 2nd U.S. opera performed at the Metropolitan Opera; "probably the biggest flop of all time" (Meredith Willson). The Enchantress (musical comedy) (Oct. 19); book by Fred De Gresac and Harry B. Smith; lyrics by Harry B. Smith; stars Kitty Gordon. Franz Lehar (1870-1948), Eva (operetta) (Nov. 24) (Vienna); book and lyrics by Alfred Maria Willner and Robert Bodanzky; Eva, 20-y.-o. foster child of Brussels glass factory foreman Bernard Larousse falls for the factory owner's son Octave Flaubert; incl. Eva Waltz, Nur das Eine Wort Sprich es Aus. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) (symphony) (Munich) (Sept.) (posth.); uses Chinese motifs; his 8-1/2th symphony? Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Valses Nobles et Sentimentales (for piano); L'Heure Espagnole (opera) (Paris). Lou Reed (1942-), Good Night, Ladies (song). Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Symphony No. 4 in A minor. Ethel Mary Smyth (1858-1944), The March of the Women; becomes the anthem of the women's suffrage movement. Byron D. Stokes and F. Dudleigh Vernor, The Sweetheart of Sigma Chi; becomes one of the most popular college fraternity songs. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) and Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Der Rosenkavalier (The Night of the Rose) (opera) (Dresden) (Jan. 26); first German opera since Humperinck's "Hansel und Gretel"; incl. Rosenkavalier Overture. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Petrouchka (ballet) (Paris); a puppet man represents humanity in the automation age; incl. Danse Russe. Sophie Tucker (1884-1966), Some of These Days; written by Shelton Brooks; becomes her theme song. Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), Five Mystical Songs (for chorus). Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876-1948), I Guoielli della Madonna (opera) (Berlin). Art: George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), New York. Georges Braque (1882-1963), Man with a Guitar; The Emigrant. Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), The Sleeping Muse (sculpture). Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944), Menotomy Indian Hunter (sculpture). Robert Delaunay (1885-1941), Champs de Mars: La Tour Rouge; let the orphic fun begin? Paul Klee (1879-1940), Self-Portrait. Auguste Macke (1887-1914), Vegetable Fields. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), The Red Studio; painted at his studio (with white walls) in Issy outside Paris; there is no red wall, because it exists only his mind; in the 1940s it captures the imagination of New York artists hankering to go abstract. Edvard Munch, Murals at the U. of Oslo, Aula (1911-14). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Pierrot (cubist); Still Life with Chair Caning (cubist) (1911-12). Odilon Redon (1840-1916), Le Silence. Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1840-1919), Gabrielle with a Rose. Egon Schiele (1890-1918), Madchen (Mädchen) (Girls); Self-Portrait, 1911; The Self-Seers II (Death and Man). Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Die Kinder (The Children). George A. Birmingham (1865-1950), Eleanor's Enterprise (Independent Theatre). Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Michel Michael (comedy). Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), La Lumiere. Romulo Gallegos (1884-1969), El Milagro del Ano (debut). Cicely Hamilton (1872-1952), Just to Get Married. Elmer Blaney Harris (1878-1966), Thy Neighbor's Wife. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Jedermann (verse drama); adapted from the 15th cent. English play "Everyman"; incidental music by Jean Sibelius; big hit in Salzburg. Percy Mackaye (1875-1956), The Scarecrow. Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), The Passionate Elopement. Gregorio Martinez Sierra (1881-1947), Cancion de Cuna (Cradle Song). Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921), Married By Degrees (debut). Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (1863-1923), Mrs. Louis Comfort Tiffany. Carl Sternheim (1878-1942), Die Hose (comedy). Howard Talbot (1865-1928), The Mousme (Mousmé) (comedy). Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), The Living Corpse (Buried Alive) (Redemption) (Reparation) (posth.); Fedor (Fedya) Protasov thinks his wife Liza wants Victor Karenin instead of him, so he runs away and hooks up with Gypsy babe Masha, during which time Liza thinks he's dead and marries Victor, and when he returns she is tried for bigamy, causing Fedor to shoot himself, finding out too late it's he whom she always loved, woo woo; Albanian-born German actor Alexander Moissi (1879-1935) becomes a big hit playing Fedor, going on to make 1.4K perf. seen by 1.5M. Hugh Walpole (1884-1941), Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill. Poetry: Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918), Le Bestiaire ou Cortege d'Orphee; illustrations by Raoul Dufy (1877-1953). G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Ballad of the White Horse (epic poem, dedicated to his wife); "Before the gods that made the gods/ Had seen their sunrise pass,/ The White Horse of the White Horse Vale/ Was cut out of the grass/... For the White Horse knew England/ When there was none to know;/ He saw the first oar break or bend,/ He saw heaven fall and the world end,/ O God, how long ago"; Lepanto. Victor Daley (1858-1905), Wine and Roses (posth.). Lord Dunsany (1878-1957), The Gods of the Mountain. James Elroy Flecker (1884-1915), Forty-Two Poems. Joyce Kilmer (1886-1918), Summer of Love; dedicated to Aline Kilmer. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), What Dane-Geld Means; or, paying tribute for peace sucks; later used to diss Britain's appeasement of Hitler; "We never pay any-one Dane-geld,/ No matter how trifling the cost;/ For the end of that game is oppression and shame,/ And the nation that pays it is lost!"; The Female of the Species; "And Man knows it! Knows, moreover, that the Woman that God gave him/ Must command but may not govern - shall enthral but not enslave him./ And She knows, because She warns him, and Her instincts never fail,/ That the Female of Her Species is more deadly than the Male." Else Lasker-Schuler (1869-1945), Meine Wunder; establishes her rep. George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909), Poems and Dramas (2 vols.) (posth.); intro. by Theodore Roosevelt; incl. A Song of the Wave, Essex, Trumbull Stickney. John Masefield (1878-1967), The Everlasting Mercy; "I did not think, I did not strive,/ The deep peace burnt my me alive;/ The bolted door had broken in,/ I knew that I had done with sin./ I knew that Christ had given me birth/ To brother all the souls on earth,/ And every bird and every beast/ Should share the crumbs broke at the feast." Francois Mauriac (1885-1970), Adieu a l'Adolescente; a devout Roman Catholic and his !?!*? pagan worldly gonads? Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914), Ich und Du; hot love poems. James Oppenheim (1882-1932), Bread and Roses; "Hearts starve as well as bodies: Give us Bread, but give us Roses!"; theme of the 1912 Lawrence, Mass. garment workers' strike, based on a statement by Polish Jewish immigrant labor leader Rose Schneiderman (1882-1972): "The worker must have bread, but she must have roses too. Help, you women of privilege, give her the ballot to fight with." Aldo Palazzeschi (1885-1974), I Cavalli Bianchi (The White Horses). Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Canzoni; sets the style for the Imagist Movement in the U.S. and England (founded summer 1912), which uses melodic free verse and haiku and demands precise imagery, attempting to isolate a single image to reveal its essence; members incl. British poet Richard (Edward Godfree) Aldington (1892-1962) and his bi Am. wife (1913-38) Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961). Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), Rosario de Sonetos Liricos. Louis Untermeyer (1885-1977), The Younger Quire. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Heures du Soir; Les Plaines. Novels: Alexander Amfiteatrov (1862-1938), Devyatidesyatniki (The 90-Niks) (1911-13); the Russian intelligentsia of the 1890s. Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), Zuleika Dobson; or, An Oxford Love Story. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Hilda Lessways. George A. Birmingham (1865-1950), Lalage's Lovers. Paul Bourget (1852-1935), L'Envers du Decor. Frances Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924), The Secret Garden; 10-y.-o. Mary Lennox is born in India to uncaring wealthy British parents, who have her brought up by servants until they die of cholera, causing her to be sent to Yorkshire to be brought up by her uncle Archibald Craven, where she discovers a secret locked walled you know what; Martha Sowerby the maid, Ben Weatherstaff the gardener, friendly Robin Redbreast; her cousin Colin, who she finds locked in a hidden bedroom because he has a spinal problem, causing her to nurse him until he can walk, after which they surprise Mr. Craven when he returns to the manor; filmed in 1919 starring Lila Lee, in 1949 starring Margaret O'Brien, and in 1993 starring Kate Maberly; "What was this under her hands which was square and made of iron and which her finger found a hole in? It was the lock of the door which had been closed ten years and she put her hand in her pocket, drew out the key and found it fitted the keyhole. She put the key in and turned it. It took two hands to turn it, but it did turn. And then she took a long breath and looked behind her up the long walk to see if anyone was coming. No one was coming. No one ever did it seemed, and she took another long breath, because she could not help it, and she held back the swinging curtain of ivy and pushed back the door that opened slowly - slowly. Then she slipped through it, and shut it behind her, and stood with her back against it, looking about her and breathing quite fast with excitement, and wonder, and delight. She was standing inside the secret garden." Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Common Law. Edna Ferber (1885-1968), Dawn O'Hara: The Girl Who Laughed (first novel); "Being an old maid was a great deal like death by drowning - a really delightful sensation when you ceased struggling." E.M. Forster (1879-1970), The Celestial Omnibus (short stories). J.E. Casely-Hayford, Ethiopia Unbound; the first West African novel? G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Innocence of Father Brown; first of a series; "The miracle book of 1911" - Saturday Evening Post. Ivy Compton-Burnett (1884-1969), Dolores (first novel). Marie Corelli (1855-1924), The Life Everlasting: A Reality of Romance. Theodore Dreiser (1874-1945), Jennie Gerhardt. Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967), Ralph 124C41+; pub. in Modern Electrics mag.; coins the term "science fiction" (sci-fi). H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Red Eve; The Mahatma and the Hare. O. Henry (1862-1910), Sixes and Sevens (short stories) (posth.). Jean de La Hire (1878-1956), The Mystery of the XV; Oxus attempts to conquer Mars. William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943), Ship's Company (short stories). M.R. James (1862-1936), More Ghost Stories. Mary Johnston (1870-1936), The Long Roll; Confed. artillery officer Richard Cleave and Gen. Stonewall Jackson kick Yankee butt from Manassas to Sharpsburg. Vaughan Kester (1869-1911), The Prodigal Judge. Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938), The Garnet Bracelet (short stories). Valery Larbaud (1881-1957), Fermina Marquez (Márquez) (first novel); hot young Fermina Marquez arrives from Colombia at Saint Augustine's Roman Catholic boys school near Paris along with her younger brother Little Marquez, turning the student body on sexually; becomes a minor classic of French lit. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), The White Peacock (first novel); a man marries the wrong woman. Stephen Leacock (1869-1944), The Nonsense Novels. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Glory of Clementina Wing; Idols. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), The Valley Captives. Charles Major (1856-1913), Sweet Alyssum. Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923), In a German Pension (short stories). William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), Mrs. Thompson. Kathleen Norris (1880-1966), Mother (first novel); a woman sets out to find a career in the big city then decides that the greatest woman she's ever known is guess who, and longs to be a you know what; big hit with you guessed it, keeping them from having careers in the big cities? Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Golden Web; pub. under alias Anthony Partridge; The Moving Finger (A Falling Star); Havoc. James Oppenheim (1882-1932), The Nine-Tenths. Aldo Palazzeschi (1885-1974), Il Codice di Perela (Man of Smoke); Futurist experimental anti-novel. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Lion's Skin. Saki (1870-1916), The Chronicles of Clovis (short stories); Clovis Sangrail. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Ship of Coral: A Tropical Romance. Gene Stratton-Porter (1863-1924), The Harvester. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Casement. Ludwig Thoma (1867-1921), Der Wittiber. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), The Case of Richard Meynell. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), Mr. Perrin and Mr. Trail. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The New Machiavelli; satirizes Beatrice Webb and Sidney Webb as the Baileys, along with their Fabian Society. Edith Wharton (1862-1937), Ethan Frome; written originally in French; farmer falls in love with his wife Zeena's cousin Mattie Silver in Starkfield, Mass., and they decide to commit mutual suicide but botch it, ending up as invalids taken care of by Zeena. Grace Miller White (1868-1957), From the Valley of the Missing. Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), The Winning of Barbara Worth; bestseller about the reclamation of the desert in Imperial County, Calif. (E part of San Diego County). Births: Am. 6'4" 210 lb. baseball 1B player (Detroit Tigers) (Jewish) (first Jewish superstar in U.S. prof. sports) Henry Benjamin "Hammerin' Hank" Greenberg (d. 1986) on Jan. 1 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" comedian-actor-singer-dancer (Jewish) (bi) Danny Kaye (David Daniel Kaminski) (d. 1987) on Jan. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; gets his start in Catskill Mt. summer resorts; has a 10-year affair with Laurence Oliver in the 1950s, causing Olivier's wife Vivien Leigh to have a gone-with-the-wind breakdown? Am. "Bright Ambush" poet Audrey Wurdemann (d. 1960) on Jan. 11 in Seattle, Wash.; wife of Joseph Auslander (1897-1970). Am. comedian Joey Adams (d. 1999) on Jan. 6 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Sissy in Gone With the Wind" actress (black) Butterfly McQueen (Thelma Lincoln) (d. 1995) on Jan. 7 in Tampa, Fla.; names herself after the Butterfly Dance in Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream". Am. economist George Joseph Stigler (d. 1991) on Jan. 17 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at the U. of Chicago. French "Hot Discography" jazz expert (co-founder of the Hot Club de France) Charles Delaunay (d. 1988) on Jan. 18 in Vineuil-Saint-Firmin; son of Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) and Sonia Delaunay (1885-1979). Austrian Socialist chancellor (1970-83) (Jewish) Bruno Kreisky (d. 1990) on Jan. 22 in Vienna. German-Am. physicist Polykarp Kusch (d. 1993) on Jan. 26 in Blankenburg. Am. "Annie Get Your Gun" singer-dancer-actress Benay Venuta (d. 1995) on Jan. 27 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. jazz trumpet player (black) David Roy "Little Jazz" Eldridge (d. 1989) on? in Pittsburgh, Penn.; influence on Dizzy Gillespie. Am. Repub. Colo. gov. #33 (1951-5) Daniel Isaac J. "Dan" Thornton (d. 1976) on Jan. 31 in Hall County, Tex.; educated at Texas Tech. U, and UCLA; known for wearing a Stetson hat and cowboy boots, and smoking a pipe. Australian Liberal Queensland PM (1968) Jack Charles Allan Pizzey (d. 1968) on Feb. 2. Am. golfer Thomas Daniel "Tom" Creavy (d. 1979) on Feb. 3 in Tuckahoe, N.Y. Swedish tenor Johan Jonatan "Jussi" Bjoerling (Björling) (d. 1960) on Feb. 5 in Stora Tuna (Borlange). U.S. Repub. pres. #40 (1981-9) and Hollywood actor (lefty) (Freemason) (aviophobe) ("the Errol Flynn of B-Movies") Ronald Wilson Reagan (d. 2004) on Feb. 6 in Tampico, Ill.; first divorced U.S. pres.; husband (1940-9) of Jane Wyman (1917-2007) and (1952-2004) Nancy Davis (1921-2016); 2nd son of John Edward Jr. and Nelle Wilson Reagan; ancestors come from Ballyporeen, Ireland in South West Tipperary, Ireland, who lived in the Doolis (Gael. "dark fairy place") bogland; ancestors incl. Riagan, nephew of Irish high king Brian Boru (d. 1014); his great-grandfather Michael O'Regan was born in 1829 in Ballyporeen to laborer Thomas O'Regan and Margaret Murphy (married 1817), emigrated to South London, England during the Great Irish Famine, had his name misspelled by the English because he could only speak Irish, became a soapmaker, married Catherine Mulcahy in 1852, had son John Reagan Sr. in 1854, then emigrated with his family to Ill. via Canada in 1858; in ? John Sr. married a woman of Irish descent, and in ? had John Edward Reagan Jr., youngest of three children. Am. "North and South" poet (lesbian) Elizabeth Bishop (d. 1979) on Feb. 8 in Worcester, Mass.; educated at Vassar College; disciple of Marianne Moore; friends with Robert Lowell and Randall Jarrell; lover of Lota de Macedo Soares (1910-67) and (1971-9) Alice Methfessel. Am. "Stage Door Canteen" stripper-actress Gypsy Rose Lee (Rose Louise Hovick) (d. 1970) on Feb. 9 in Seattle, Wash.; sister of actress June Havoc (1912-2010). Irish pres. #5 (1974-6) Cearbhall O Dalaigh (Ó Dálaigh) (d. 1978) on Feb. 12 in Bray; educated at Univ. College, Dublin. Am. RCA Victor record co. exec Stephen H. Sholes (d. 1968) on Feb. 12 in Washington, D.C.; starts out in country in 1947, then signs Elvis Presley in 1955. Am. Miss America 1927 Lois Eleanor Delander (d. 1985) on Feb. 14 in Joliet, Ill. Dutch physician ("Father of Artificial Organs") Willem Johan "Pim" Kolff (d. 2009) on Feb. 14 in Leiden; educated at Leiden U. Am. UAW pres. (1970-7) Leonard Freel Woodcock (d. 2001) on Feb. 15 in Providence, R.I. Soviet diplomat Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov (d. 1992) on Feb. 16 in Kirsanov Uyezd, Tambov Governorate. Am. bandleader Orrin Tucker on Feb. 17. British "Cathy in Wuthering Heights", "George Sand in A Song to Remember" actress Merle Oberon (Estelle Merle O'Brien Thompson) (d. 1979) on Feb. 19 in Bombay, India; of Sri Lankan descent; tries to it cover-up, calling her mother her maid, and claiming her birthplace as St. Helens, Tasmania. Am. "Barney Blake, Police Reporter" actor Orville Eugene "Gene" O'Donnell (d. 1992) on Feb. 28 in Iowa. German U-boat Capt. Engelbert Endrass (d. 1941) on Mar. 2 in Bamberg. Am. "Hell's Angels", "Dinner at Eight", "Reckless" "platinum blond" actress Jean Harlow (Harlean Harlow Carpenter) (d. 1937) on Mar. 3 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "The FBI Nobody Knows" journalist Fred James Cook (d. 2003) on Mar. 8 in Point Pleasant, N.J.; educated at Rutgers U. Am. composer Alan Hovhaness (Alan Vaness Chakmakjian) (d. 2000) on Mar. 11 in Somerville, Mass.; Armenian father, Scottish descent Am. mother. Scottish diplomat-adventurer-writer ("the real James Bond 007") Maj. Gen. Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Dunconnel, 1st Baronet (d. 1996) on Mar. 11 in Egypt; educated at Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge U.; created baronet in 1957; one of two men to rise from pvt. to brig. gen. in WWII along with Enoch Powell. Mexican pres. (1964-70) Gustavo Diaz Ordaz Bolanos (Bolaños) (d. 1979) on Mar. 12 in Ciudad Serdan, Puebla. Am. "Why I Hate My Uncle" celeb William Patrick "Willy" Stuart-Houston (nee Hitler) (d. 1987) on Mar. 12 in Liverpool, England; son of Adolf Hitler's brother Alois Hitler Jr. and 1st wife Bridget Dowling. Am. "Dianetics", "Battlefield Earth" sci-fi writer (Scientology founder) Lafayette Ronald "L. Ron" Hubbard (d. 1986) (AKA LRH) on Mar. 13 in Tilden, Neb.; nephew of Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915); grows up in Helena, Mont., where he becomes the protege of Blackfoot medicine man Old Tom; husband of (1933-47) Mary Louise "Polly" Grubb (1907-63), (1946-51) Sara Northrup Hollister (1924-97), and (1952-86) Mary Sue Hubbard (1931-2002); father of Lafayette Ronald Hubbard Jr. (Ronald DeWolf) (1934-91), Katherine May Hubbard, Alexis Hubbard, and Quentin Hubbard (-1976). German SS Gen. Wilhelm Mohnke (d. 2001) on Mar. 15 in Lubeck. German Nazi physician ("the Angel of Death") Josef Mengele (d. 1979) on Mar. 16 in Gunzburg, Bavaria; educated at the U. of Munich. Am. baseball pitcher John Alton "Al" Benton (d. 1968) on Mar. 18 in Noble, Okla.; only pitcher to pitch to Babe Ruth (1934) and Mickey Mantle (1952). Am. "Frog Millhouse" country singer-songwriter and Western actor (sidekick of Gene Autry) Lester Alvin "Smiley" Burnette (d. 1967) on Mar. 18 in Summum, Ill.; plays 100+ musical instruments. Mexican diplomat-politician Alfonso Garcia Robles (d. 1991) on Mar. 20 in Zamora, Michocacan. Am. amateur golfer Richard D. "Dick" Chapman (d. 1978) on Mar. 23 in Greenwich, Conn. Am. Hanna-Barbera co-founder Joseph Roland "Joe" Barbera (d. 2006) on Mar. 24 in New York City; partner of Bill Hanna (1910-2001); starts out as a banker and can't stop doodling, then teams up with Hanna while working at MGM in the 1930s, becoming the better artist of the two. Am. "The Glass Menagerie", "A Streetcar Named Desire", "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" playwright Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams (d. 1983) on Mar. 26 in Columbus, Miss. English "The Turn of the Screw" librettist Myfanwy Piper (Mary Myfanwy Evans) (d. 1997) (pr. MAH-van-wee) on Mar. 28 in London; educated at St. Hugh's College, Oxford U.; wife of John Piper (1903-92); mother of Edward Piper (1938-90). Mexican urbanist architect Mario Pani Darqui (d. 1993) on Mar. 29 in Mexico City. Am. tap dancer (black) Charles "Honi" Coles (d. 1992) on Apr. 2 in Philadelphia, Penn. English organ transplant surgeon Sir Michael Francis Addison Woodruff (d. 2001) on Apr. 3 in London; knighted in 1969. French Maj.-Gen. Comte Albert-Marie Edmond (Guerisse) Guérisse (d. 1989) (AKA Patrick Albert "Pat" O'Leary) on Apr. 5 in Brussels. Am. Columbia Records pres. (1956-71, 1973-5) Goddard Lieberson (d. 1977) on Apr. 5. German biochemist Feodor (Fyodor) Felix Konrad Lynen on Apr. 6 in Munich; pioneer with Konrad Bloch (1912-2000) of research in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. English chemist Kenneth Page Oakley (d. 1981) on Apr. 7 in Amersham, Buckinghamshire. Am. Calvin Cycle chemist (Jewish) Melvin Ellis Calvin (d. 1997) on Apr. 8 in St. Paul, Minn.; Lithuanian father, Georgian mother; collaborator of Andrew Benson and James A. Bassham (1922-). Romanian philosopher Emil Cioran (d. 1995) on Apr. 8 in Rasinari, Austria-Hungary. Am. physicist Joseph Harold Rush (d. 2006) on Apr. 17 in Mt. Calm, Tex.; works on the Manhattan Project, joins the Federation of Am. Scientists, becomes dir of the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), then gets into parapsychology - that oughta give it some credibility? Am. "Miracle on 34th Street" dir.-producer-writer George Seaton (Stenius) (d. 1979) on Apr. 17 in South Bend, Ind.; inventor of the cry "Hi-yo Silver" when playing the Lone Ranger in Jan. 1933. Am. baritone (Jewish) Leonard Warren (Warenoff) (d. 1960) on Apr. 21 in New York City: Russian immigrant parents. Am. dancer-choreographer ("Father of Theatrical Jazz Dance") Jack Cole (John Ewing Richter) (d. 1974) on Apr. 27 in New Brunswick, N.J. German Gelfond-Scheider Theorem mathematician Theodor Schneider (d. 1988) on May 7 in Frankfurt am Main. Am. "Why Johnny Can't Read" educator Rudolf Franz Flesch (d. 1986) on May 8 in Vienna, Austria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Sweet Home Chicago" blues guitarist-songwriter (black) ("King of the Delta Blues") Robert Leroy Johnson (d. 1938) on May 8 in Hazelhurst, Miss.; claims that the Devil teaches him to play the guitar. French economist Maurice Felix Charles Allais on May 11 in Paris; 1988 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. actor-comedian (Jewish) Phil Silvers (Philip Silversmith) (d. 1985) on May 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian immigrant parents. Am. "Crier Tuck in Batman" actor-comedian-musician Winstead Sheffield Glenndenning Dixon "Doodles" Weaver (d. 1983) on May 11 in Los Angeles, Calif.; brother of pat Weaver (1908-2002); uncle of sigourney Weaver (1949-); nicknamed Doodlebug by his mother for his big ears and freckles; educated at Stanford U. Swiss "Wilderness of Mirrors" architect-novelist-playwright Max Frisch (d. 1991) on May 15 in Zurich. Irish "Emeralda in The Hunchback of Notre Dame" actress Maureen O'Sullivan (d. 1998) on May 17 in Boyle, County Roscommon. Am. "Shake, Rattle and Roll" 6'2" 300 lb. blues singer (black) ("The Boss of the Blues") ("The Grandfather of Rock and Roll") Joseph Vernon "Big Joe" Turner Jr. (d. 1985) on May 18 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "Wheeler & Woolsey" actress-comedian Dorothy Lee (Marjorie Elizabeth Millsap) (d. 1999) on May 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. U.S. Dem. vice-pres. #38 (1965-9) and U.S. Sen. (D-Minn.) (1949-64, 1971-78) Hubert Horatio Humphrey (d. 1978) on May 27 in Wallace, S.D.; Norwegian mother; grows up on Doland, S.D.; educated at the U. of Minn. German Lt. Col. Fritz Knoechlein (Knöchlein) (d. 1949) on May 11 in Munich. > Am. "The Raven", "The Pit and the Pendulum" 6'4" actor Vincent Leonard Price Jr. (d. 1993) on May 27 in St. Louis, Mo. English Conservative MP (1940-5) journalist-biographer Maj. Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer-Churchill (d. 1968) on May 28 in London; only son of Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Clementine Churchill (1885-1977); educated at Eton College, and Christ Church, Oxford U.; husband (-1945) of Pamela Digby Harriman (1920-97); father of Winston Churchill-Spencer (1940-2010). Am. "dir. Roscoe Dexter in Singing in the Rain" actor Douglas Fowley (d. 1998) on May 30 in Bronx, N.Y.; father of Kim Fowley (1939-). Am. Affect Theory psychologist (Jewish) Silvan Solomon Tomkins (d. 1991) on June 4 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; grows up in Camden, N.J.; educated at the U. of Penn. Am. "Grandma Esther Walton in The Waltons" actress Ellen Corby (nee Hansen) (d. 1999) on June 3 in Racine, Wisc.; Danish parents. Canadian "Pride of St. Louis", "Gentleman's Agreement" dir.-ed. Harmon Clifford Jones (d. 1972) on June 3 in Regina, Sask.; father of Robert C. Jones (1937-); grandfather of Leslie Jones. Am. automotive designer Clifford Brooks Stevens (d. 1995) on June 7 in Milwaukee, Ohio; coins the term "planned obsolescence". Am. baseball player Van Lingo Mungo (d. 1985) on June 8 in Pageland, S.C. Am. geneticist Maclyn McCarty (d. 2005) on June 9 in South Bend, Ind.; educated at Stanford U. and Johns Hopkins U. English "The Winslow Boy", "Separate Tables" playwright (gay) Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan (d. 1977) on June 10 in South Kensington, London; educated at Harrow School, and Trinity College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1971 (3rd 20th cent. palywright after Sir Arthur Wing Pinero in 1909 and Sir Noel Coward in 1970). Pakistani prince Ali Solomone "Aly" Aga Khan (d. 1960) on June 13 in Turin, Italy; son of Aga Khan III (1875-1957); husband (1948-53) of Rita Hayworth; father of Aga Khan IV (1936-) and Yasmin Aga Khan (1949-). Am. physicist Luis Alvarez (d. 1988) on June 13 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. mob boss Thomas (Tommaso) "Tommy Ryan" Eboli (d. 1972) on June 13 in Eboli, Italy. German field ion microscope physicist Erwin Wilhelm Muller (d. 1977) on June 13 in Berlin. English "Thomas the Tank Engine" children's writer Rev. Wilbert Vere Awdry (d. 1997) on June 15 in Ampfield (near Romsey), Hampshire; educated at St. Peter's Hall and Wycliffe Hall, Oxford U. English journalist Mark James Walter Cameron (d. 1985) on June 17 in Battersea, London; Scottish parents. English Allard Motor Co. founder ("Father of British Drag Racing") Sydney Herbert Allard (d. 1966) on June 19 in London; educated at Ardingly College. English advertising exec ("the Father of Advertising") David Mackenzie Ogilvy (d. 1999) on June 23 in West Horsley, Surrey; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U. Am. biochemist William Howard Stein (d. 1980) on June 25 in New York City. Am. athlete ("most versatile female athlete of the 20th cent.") Mildred Ella "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias (d. 1956) on June 26 in Port Arthur, Tex.; Norwegian immigrant parents; wife (1938-56) of George Zaharias (1909-84). Dutch prince consort (1948-80) Bernhard Leopold Frederik Everhard Julius Coert Karel Godfried Pieter of Lippe-Biesterfeld (d. 2004) on June 29 in Jena, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach; husband (1937-) of Queen Juliana; father of Queen Beatrix (1938-). Am. "Psycho", "North by Northwest", "Vertigo" film composer Bernard Herrmann (d. 1975) on June 29 in New York City; educated at NYU, and Juilliard School. Polish-Am. "The Issa Valley" writer Czeslaw Milosz (d. 2004) on June 30 in Seteniai (near Kedainiai), Lithuania; emigrates to the U.S. in 1960. English actor-comedian Terry-Thomas (Thomas Terry Hoar Stevens) (d. 1990) on July 10 in Finchley, North London; known for his gapped-tooth smile. Am. "Sing Along With Mitch" conductor (inventor of karaoke?) Mitchell William "Mitch" Miller (d. 2010) on July 4 in Rochester, N.Y. Am. anti-global-warming scientist Frederick Seitz (d. 2008) on July 4 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Princeton U.; "Over a long time, things that people learn purely out of curiosity can have a revolutionary effect on human affairs." Am. singer LaVerne Sophie Andrews (d. 1967) (Andrews Sisters) on July 6 in Minneapolis, Minn.; Greek immigrant father, Norwegian-Am. mother; sister of Maxene Andrews (1916-95) and Patty Andrews (1918-). Am. actress-model Ruth Ford (d. 2009) on July 7 in Hazlehurst, Miss.; sister of Charles Henri Ford (1913-2002); wife (1940-?) of Peter Van Eyck and (1952-65) Zachary Scott (1914-65). Italian-Am. "Amahl and the Night Visitors" composer (gay) Gian Carlo Menotti (d. 2007) on July 7 in Cadegliano, Italy; BMOC in the 1930s-50s; defends lightweight opera as mass entertainment, causing him to be regarded as old-fashioned when the avant-garde era takes over in the 1960s; educated at the Curtis Inst. of Music in Philadelphia; lover of Samuel Barber (1910-81). Am. "In the Heat of the Night" novelist (nudist) John Dudley Ball (d. 1988) on July 8 in Schenectady, N.Y.; grows up in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at Carroll College. Am. "Gormenghast" modernist writer-artist Mervyn Laurence Peake (d. 1968) on July 9 in Lushan, Jianxi, China. Am. physicist John Archibald Wheeler (d. 2008) on July 9 in Jacksonville, Fla.; oldest child in a family of librarians; earns a Ph.D. in physics from Johns Hopkins U. at age 21, and becomes prof. of physics at Princeton U. from 1938-1976, becoming a friend and disciple of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), and continuing his elusive quest for the Unified Field Theory; coins the physics terms "black hole", "quantum foam", "wormhole", "law without law", "it from bit". Soviet Gen. Alexei Ivanovich Radzievsky (d. 1978) on July 11 in Uman, Cherkasy, Ukraine. Am. 6'2" football QB (Boston/Washington Redskins, 1936-8) Riley Henry Smith (d. 1999) on July 14 in Carrollton, Miss.; educated at the U. of Ala. Am. cardiologist (cardiac pacemaker inventor) (Jewish) Paul Maurice Zoll (d. 1999) on July 15. Am. Googie architect John Edward Lautner (d. 1994) on July 16 in Marquette, Mich.; of Austrian-Irish descent; educated at Northern Mich. U. Am. "Kitty Foyle" (dance partner of Fred Astaire) actress Ginger Rogers (Virginia Katherine McMath) (d. 1995) on July 16 in Independence, Mo.; Scottish father, Welsh descent mother; wife (1934-40) of Lew Ayres, (1953-7) Jacques Bergerac (1927-2014), and (1961-9) William Marshall. Am. "Tom Mackenzie in The Seven Year Itch" 6'4" blonde-blue actor (alcoholic) Bowen Charlton "Sonny" Tufts III (d. 1970) on July 16 in Boston, Mass.; born into prominent banking family related to Tufts U. founder Charles Tufts (1781-1876); educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Yale U.; husband (1938-53) of Barbara Dare; becomes a Hollywood bad boy then a standing joke? Canadian "Lifeboat", "Cocoon" actor Hume Blake Cronyn (d. 2003) on July 18 in London, Ont.; husband (1942-94) of Jessica Tandy (1909-94). Canadian "the medium is the message/massage", "global village" mass media expert Herbert Marshall McLuhan (d. 1980) on July 21 in Edmonton, Alberta. Am. Universal Life Church founder ("the Modesto Messiah") Kirby James Hensley (d. 1999) on July 23 in Lowgap, N.C.; starts out Baptist, then Pentecostal; runs for U.S. pres. for the Universal Party in 1964 and 1968; declares himself King of Aqualandia in 1986. Am. "Linda", "Baby, It's Cold Outside", "Love Somebody" singer (Jewish) Buddy Clark (Samuel Goldberg) (d. 1949) on July 26 in Dorcester, Mass. Am. "Paul Marino in The Corruptors"actor (Roman Catholic) Horace Vincent "Stephen" McNally (d. 1994) on July 29 in New York City; educated at Fordham U.; starts out as an atty. Am. "Paul Muni's sister in Scarface", "Vivian in Three on a Match" actress Ann Dvorak (McKim) (d. 1979) (pr. VOR-shack) on Aug. 2 in New York City. Am. Denver, Colo. mayor #36 (1947-55) James Quigg Newton Jr. (d. 2003) on Au. 3 in Denver, Colo.; educated at Yale U. Am. "Camille", "Sgt. Bill Dane in Bataan", "Marcus Vinicius in Quo Vadis" actor Robert Taylor (Spangler Arlington Brugh) (d. 1969) on Aug. 5 in Filley, Neb. Am. "I Love Lucy" actress-comedian ("Queen of the Bs") (Baptist) Lucille Desiree (Désirée) Ball (d. 1989) (AKA Diane Belmont) on Aug. 6 in Celoron (near Jamestown), N.Y.; wife (1940-60) of Desi Arnaz Sr. (1917-86) and (1961-89) Gary Morton (1924-99); mother of Desi Arnaz Jr. (1953-). Am. "Rebel Without a Cause" dir. (bi) (alcoholic) Nicholas Ray (Raymond Nicholas Kienzle) (d. 1979) on Aug. 7 in Galesville, Wisc.; husband (1948-52) of Gloria Grahame (1923-81). Am. astrophysicist William Alfred "Willie" Fowler (d. 1996) on Aug. 9 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Caltech; not to be confused with astronomer Alfred Fowler (1868-1940). Am. "My Sister Eileen", "A Talent for Murder" playwright-librettist (Jewish) Jerome Chodorov (d. 2004) on Aug. 10 in New York City; brother of Edward Chodorov (1904-88); collaborator of Joseph Albert Fields (1895-1966). Am. advertising exec William "Bill" Bernbach (d. 1982) on Aug. 13 in New York City; educated at NYU. Am. physicist (Creationist) Thomas G. Barnes (d. 2001) on Aug. 14; educated at Brown U. English "Small is Beautiful", "Buddhist Economics" economist Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher (d. 1977) on Aug. 16 in Bonn, Germany; educated at New College, Oxford U., and Columbia U.; emigrates to Britain in 1939. Mexican actor-comedian ("the Charlie Chaplin of Mexico") Cantinflas (Fortino Mario Alfonso Moreno Reyes) (d. 1993) on Aug. 12 in Mexico City. Soviet world chess champ #6 (1948-57, 1958-60, 1961-3) Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (d. 1995) on Aug. 17 (Aug. 4 Old Style) in Kuokkala, Finland; ties for 5th in the Soviet Union chess tournament at age 16. English historian Sir John Harold "Jack" Plumb (d. 2001) on Aug. 20 in Leicester; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U.; first (only?) doctoral student of G.M. Trevelyan. Vietnamese gen. Vo Nguyen Giap (d. 2013) on Aug. 25 in Quang Bingh Province. English orthopedic surgeon (hip replacement pioneer) Sir John Charnley (d. 1982) on Aug. 29 in Bury, Lancashire; educated at Victoria U. of Manchester; knighted in 1977. Am. artist-writer (black) Romare Bearden (d. 1988) on Sept. 2 in Charlotte, N.C.; educated at NYU. Am. country musician ("the Dixie Yodeler") Zeke Clements (d. 1994) on Sept. 6 near Empire, Ala. German Auschwitz I Camp cmdr. (1944-5) Richard Bauer (d. 1963) on Sept. 9 in Floss, Bavaria; starts out as a confectioner. Am. "Growing Up Absurd" sociologist-poet (bi) (co-founder of Gestalt Therapy) Paul Goodman (d. 1972) on Sept. 9 in New York City; educated at CCNY, and U. of Chicago. Am. journalist Karl Henry von Wiegand (d. 1961) on Sept. 11 in Hesse, Germany. Am. "My Little Georgia Rose", "Roanoke" bluegrass musician William Smith "Bill" Monroe (d. 1996) (Blue Grass Boys) on Sept. 13 in Rosine, Ky. Am. "Sounder" children's writer William H. Armstrong (d. 1999) on Sept. 14 near Lexington, Va. Am. mob boss Frank J. Valenti (d. 2008) on Sept. 14 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; brother of Stanley Valenti (1926-2001). U.S. surgeon gen. #9 (1961-5) Luther Leonidas Terry (d. 1985) on Sept. 15 in Red Level, Ala.; educated at U. of Ala. and Tulane U. Australian "At the Barricades" journalist (Communist) Wilfred Graham Burchett (d. 1983) on Sept. 16 in Melbourne. Am. "The Beverly Hillbillies", "Green Acres", "Petticoat Junction" writer-producer Paul William Henning (d. 2005) on Sept. 16 in Independence, Mo. English "Lord of the Flies" novelist William Golding (d. 1993) on Sept. 19 in Newquay, Cornwall; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford U. German SS Maj. ("the Man Who Started WWII") Alfred Helmut Naujocks (d. 1966) on Sept. 20 in Kiel; educated at the U. of Kiel. Soviet Communist gen. secy. (1984-5) Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (d. 1985) on Sept. 24 in Bolshaya Tes, Krasnoyarsk. Am. "Bob Blake the Bronze Buckaroo" actor-singer Herbert "Herb" Jeffries on Sept. 24 in Detroit, Mich.; of Ethiopian, French-Canadian, and Italian-Irish descent. Am. 6'2" tennis player Henry Ellsworth Vines Jr. (d. 1994) on Sept. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Seven Days in May" novelist Fletcher Knebel (d. 1993) on Oct. 1 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at Miami U. English "Sir Thomas Boleyn in Anne of a Thousand Days" actor Sir Michael Murray Hordern (d. 1995) on Oct. 4 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire; educated at Brighton College; knighted in 1983. Irish "The Third Policeman" novelist Brian O'Nolan (AKA Flann O'Brien) (d. 1966) on Oct. 5 in Strabane, County Tyrone. Belgian Triffin's Dilemma economist Robert Triffin (d. 1993) in Flobecq, Belgium; educated at Harvard U.; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1942-77. Am. jazz drummer (black) Jonathan David Samuel "Papa Jo" Jones (d. 1985) (Count Basie Orchestra) on Oct. 7 in Chicago, Ill.; not to be confused with Philly Joe Jones (1923-85). Am. "Racing with the Moon", "Let it Snow, Let it Snow, Let it Snow", "Ghost Riders in the Sky", "Hank Myers the Singing Cowboy in Bonanza" trumpeter-baritone-bandleader-actor ("old leather tonsils") Vaughn Wilton Monroe (d. 1973) on Oct. 7 in Akron, Ohio. Am. "Marines on Iwo Jima" photographer (Jewish-turned-Roman Catholic) Joseph John "Joe" Rosenthal (d. 2006) on Oct. 9 in Washington, D.C.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of San Francisco. Am. "hillbilly songwriter" and radio DJ Zeke Manners (d. 2000) on Oct. 10 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. "Near the Trails End" actress Marian Shockley (d. 1981) on Oct. 10 in Kansas City, Mo.; wife of Bud Collyer. Vietnamese gen.-diplomat-politician Le Duc Tho (Phan Dinh Khai) (d. 1990) on Oct. 14 in Nam Ha Province. Am. "Lawrence Welk" conductor-songwriter George Cates (d. 2002) on Oct. 19 in New York City; educated at NYU. Am. Christian fundamentalist leader Robert Reynolds "Bob" Jones Jr. (d. 1997) on Oct. 19 in Montgomery, Ala.; son of Bob Jones Sr. (1883-1968). Am. Tang, Cool Whip, Pop Rocks food chemist William A. "Bill" Mitchell (d. 2004) on Oct. 21 in Raymond, Minn.; educated at the U. of Neb. Am. Piedmont blues-folk musician (black) (blind) Sonny Terry (Saunders Terrell) (d. 1986) (Jook House Rockers, Buckshot Five) on Oct. 24 in Greensboro, Ga.; collaborator of Blind Boy Fuller and Brownie McGhee (1915-96). Am. gospel singer (black) ("Queen of Gospel Music") Mahalia "Halie" Jackson (d. 1972) on Oct. 26 in New Orleans, La. Am. "Big John Cannon in High Chaparral" actor Leif Erickson (William Wycliffe Anderson) (d. 1986) on Oct. 27 in Alameda, Calif.; husband (1936-42) of Frances Farmer (1913-70). Greek Romantic modernist poet Odysseas (Odysseus) Elytis (d. 1996) on Nov. 2 in Heraklion, Crete; family comes from Lesbos - they're bragging? French Resistance leader Yolande Beekman (Yolande Elsa Maria Unternahrer) (d. 1944) on Nov. 11 in Paris; Swiss parents; grows up in London. Am. bowler Edward P. "Ned" Day (d. 1971) on Nov. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. Chilean abstract expressionist/surrealist painter (in France) Roberto Antonio Sebastian (Sebastián) Matta Echaurren (d. 2002) on Nov. 11 in Santiago. Am. Betatron physicist Donald William Kerst (d. 1993) on Nov. 11 in Galena, Ill.; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. actor-singer (Freemason) ("King of the Cowboys") Roy Rogers (Leonard Franklin Slye) (d. 1998) on Nov. 5 in Cincinnati, Ohio; starts out under the name Dick Weston; husband (1936-46) of Grace Wilkins and (1947-98) of Dale Evans (1912-2001). Am. theatrical producer Lee Sabinson (d. 1991) on Nov. 11 in New York City. Austrian-Am. cybnernetics physicist-philosopher Heinz von Foerster (d. 2002) on Nov. 13 in Vienna, Austria; educated at the U. of Breslau. Am. "Sky King", "Corporal Rod Webb" actor Kirby Grant (Kirby Grant Hoon Jr.) (d. 1985) on Nov. 24 in Butte, Mont. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player (LF) Joseph Michael "Joe" "Ducky" Medwick (d. 1975) on Nov. 24 in Carteret, N.J. Am. primatologist Sherwood Larned "Sherry" Washburn (d. 2000) on Nov. 26 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "The White Cliffs of Dover", "I'll Be Home for Christmas" composer (Jewish) Walter Kent (Walter Maurice Kaufman) (d. 1994) on Nov. 29 in New York City; collaborator of Nat Burton. Am. baseball hall-of-fame mgr. (Dodgers) (1954-76) tWalter Emmons "Smokey" Alston (d. 1984) on Dec. 1 in Venice, Ohio; plays in only 1 ML game on Sept. 27, 1936 with the St. Louis Cardinals, and strikes out. Am. Minn. Twins owner (1955-84) Calvin Robertson Griffith (d. 1999) on Dec. 1 in Montreal, Canada; nephew of Clark Griffith (1869-1955), who adopts him. Italian "The Godfather" movie composer Nino Rota (d. 1979) on Dec. 3 in Milan. Polish "The Pianist" pianist-composer (Jewish) Wladyslaw "Wladek" Szpilman (d. 2000) on Dec. 5 in Sosnowiec. Danish WWII double-agent spy Wulf Dietrich Christian Schmidt (d. 1992) on Dec. 7. Am. "Twelve Angry Men" actor (Jewish) Lee J. Cobb (Leo Jacoby) (d. 1976) on Dec. 9 in New York City; of Russian and Romanian Jewish descent; grows up in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at NYU; son of Cornon de Cobb? Am. "Willie Stark in All the King's Men", "Chief Dan Mathews in Highway Patrol" actor William Broderick (ON "brother") Crawford (d. 1986) on Dec. 9 in Philadelphia, Penn.; vaudeville performer parents. Am. "Huntley-Brinkley Report" TV journalist Chester Robert "Chet" Huntley (d. 1974) on Dec. 10 in Cardwell, Mont.; educated at the U. of Wash. German Auschwitz Camp adjutant 1st Lt. Karl-Friedrich Hocker (Höcker) (d. 2000) on Dec. 11 in Engershausen. German U-9 ("Das Boot") Capt. Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock (d. 1986) on Dec. 11 in Bremen. Egyptian "Cairo Trilogy" novelist Naguib Mahfouz (d. 2006) on Dec. 11 in Cairo. Norwegian economist Trygve Magnus Haavelmo (d. 1999) on Dec. 13 in Skedsmo; educated at the U. of Oslo; student of Ragnar Frisch (1895-1973). Am. "Before the Brave" pacifist poet-novelist Kenneth Patchen (d. 1972) on Dec. 13 in Niles, Ohio. Am. bandleader Lindley Armstrong "Spike" Jones (d. 1965) (City Slickers) on Dec. 14 in Long Beach, Calif. German jet airplane developer Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (d. 1998) on Dec. 14 in Dessau. Am. "And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine" jazz pianist-composer-bandleader (white) Stanley "Stan" Newcomb Kenton (d. 1979) on Dec. 15 in Wichita, Kan.; grows up in Colo. and Calif. Am. "The Last Trolley Ride", "The Bobby-Soxer" novelist Hortense Calisher (d. 2009) (AKA Jack Fenno) on Dec. 20 in New York City; German immigrant mother, Southern Am. father; educated at Barnard College. Swiss "Oh My Papa" composer Paul Burkhard (d. 1977) on Dec. 21 in Zurich. Am. radio astronomy pioneer Grote Reber (d. 2002) on Dec. 22 in Wheaton, Ill. Am. "Sen. John Iselin in The Manchurian Candidate", "Gen. Ursis in Beneath the Planet of the Apes", "Inspector Frank Luger in Barney Miller", "Dr. Tristan Adams in Star Trek: TOS" actor James Gregory (d. 2002) on Dec. 23 in Bronx, N.Y.; grows up in New Rochelle, N.Y. Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne (d. 1994) on Dec. 23 in London, England; Danish parents. French "Maman" sculptor-writer Louise Josephine Bourgeois (d. 2010) on Dec. 25 in Paris; known for giant spider sculptures. Am. "Sex and the Single Child" humorist (Jewish) Samuel "Sam" Levenson (d. 1980) on Dec. 28 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Brooklyn College; starts out as a Spanish teacher. German physicist-spy Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs (d. 1988) on Dec. 29 in Russelsheim; emigrates to England in 1933; educated at the U. of Bristol. Am. children's writer (Communist) Irwin Shapiro (d. 1981) in Pittsburgh, Pnn.; Hungarian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Alma in The Golden Girls" actress Jeanette Nolan (d. 1998) on Dec. 30 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. Oswald assassin Jack Ruby (d. 1967). Am. ski instructor Norman Johann "Hans" Hauser (d. 1974); husband of Virginia Hill (1916-66). Scottish economist John Marcus Fleming (d. 1976). English "Contributions from a Potential Corpse" New Age artist-writer Eugene Halliday (d. 1987). Swedish electrical engineer Anton Christian Jacobaeus (d. 1988) in Stockholm; son of Hans Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937). Am. USS Arizona Memorial designer Alfred Preis (d. 1993) in Austria. Am. "The Ballad of Jed Clampett" country singer Jerry Scoggins (d. 2004) in Mount Pleasant, Tex. Deaths: Am. atty.-statesman John Bigelow (b. 1817) on Dec. 19 in New York City; on Aug. 8, 2011 NYC mayor Rudolph Giuliani dedicates John Bigelow Plaza at the intersection of 41st St. and 5th Ave. in Manhattan, directly in front of the main branch of the New York Public Library. English botanist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (b. 1817) on Dec. 10 in Sunningdale, Berkshire. English-born Am. physician William Worrall Mayo (b. 1819) on Mar. 6 in Rochester, Minn. English scientist Sir Francis Galton (b. 1822) on Jan 17. Am. clergyman-activist Thomas Wentworth Higginson (b. 1823): "To be really cosmopolitan, a man must be at home even in his own country." Danish painter Jozef Israels (b. 1824) on Aug. 12 in Scheveningen. Am. writer Frances Harper (b. 1825) on Feb. 22. Am. Kan. gov. #9 (1883-5) George Washington Glick (b. 1827) n Jan. 12 in Atchison, Kan.; in 1914 the state of Kan. donates his statue to the U.S. Capitol Nat. Statutary Hall along with Kan. Sen. John J. Ingalls, replacing it in 2003 with one of Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower. German sculptor Reinhold Begas (b. 1831) on Aug. 3. English writer Edward Dicey (b. 1832) in London. Am. Dem. politician Roger Quarles Mills (b. 1832) on Sept. 2 in Corsicana, Tex.; namesake of Roger Mills County, Okla. English children's author Hesba Stretton (b. 1832) in Oct. German historian-philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey (b. 1833) on Oct. 1 in Seis am Schlern, Austria-Hungary; leaves the essay The Eighteenth Century and the Historical World, which shows the significant contributions of the Enlightenment to the rise of historical consciousness. U.S. Supreme Court justice #44 (1877-1911) John Marshall Harlan (b. 1833) on Oct. 14 in Washington, D.C.; 361 dissenting opinions incl. "Plessy v. Ferguson" (1896); "He could lead but he could not follow" (Chief Justice Edward D. White). Egyptian statesman Riaz Pasha (b. 1835). South African Boer gen. Piet Cronje (b. 1836) on Feb. 4. English "Gilbert and Sullivan" librettist-satirist Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (b. 1836) on May 29 in Grim's Dyke (heart attack); dies while attempting to rescue a woman he was giving a swimming lesson to. French painter Jules Joseph Lefebvre (b. 1836) on Feb. 24 in Paris. Scottish surgeon Joseph Bell (b. 1837) on Oct. 4 in Edinburgh. Swiss chemist Marc Delafontaine (b. 1837). English art teacher John Lockwood Kipling (b. 1837) on Jan. 26 in Tisbury, Wiltshire. French-English painter-etcher Alphonse Legros (b. 1837) on Dec. 8 in Watford, Hertfordshire. Am. Moffat Tunnel financier David Halliday Moffat (b. 1839) on Mar. 18. Am. rear adm. Winfield Scott Schley (b. 1839) on Oct. 2 in New York City. German archeologist Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz (b. 1839) on Mar. 23. French photographer Antoine Lumiere (b. 1840) on Apr. 16. English mountaineer Edward Whymper (b. 1840) on Sept. 16. Egyptian rev. leader Col. Ahmed Orabi (b. 1841) on Sept. 21; Orabi Square in Alexandria is later named in his honor. French statesman Maurice Rouvier (b. 1842) on June 7 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Am. home economics founder Ellen Henrietta Swallow (b. 1842) on Mar. 30 in Jamaica Plain, Mass. (angina). German-born Am. brewer August Uihlein (b. 1842) on Oct. 11 in Germany. English politician Sir Charles Dilke (b. 1843) on Jan. 26. Am. New Age teacher Levi H. Dowling (b. 1844) on Aug. 13. Am. hatchet-carrying temperance enforcer Carrie A. Nation (b. 1846) on June 9 in Leavenworth, Kan.; her tombstone in Belton, Mo. reads: "Faithful to the Cause of Prohibition, She Hath Done What She Could". Am. publisher Joseph Pulitzer (b. 1847) on Oct. 29 in Charleston, S.C. French historian Henri Houssaye (b. 1848) on Sept. 23 in Paris. Mexican historian Justo Sierra (b. 1848) on Sept. 13 in Madrid, Spain. German painter Fritz von Uhde (b. 1848) on Feb. 25 in Munich. Am. whiskey distiller Jack Daniel (b. 1849) on Oct. 10 in Lynchburg, Tenn. Dutch physical chemist J.H. van't Hoff (b. 1852) on Mar. 1 in Steglitz, Berlin, Germany; 1901 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. artist-writer Howard Pyle (b. 1853) on Nov. 9 in Florence, Italy. Argentine paleontologist Florentino Ameghino (b. 1854) on Aug. 6 in Buenos Aires. Am. "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" composer James Alan Bland (b. 1854) on May 5 in Philadelphia, Penn. (TB). Am. politician Tom Loftin Johnson (b. 1854) on Apr. 10. Japanese statesman Marquis Jutaro Komura (b. 1855) on Nov. 26 in Tokyo. French IQ-testing psychologist Alfred Binet (b. 1857) on Oct. 18. German E. coli bacteriologist Theodor Escherich (b. 1857) on Feb. 15 in Vienna, Austria. Am. jurist Edward Baldwin Whitney (b. 1857) on Jan. 5. Am. architect John Merven Carrere (b. 1858) on Feb. 12 in New York City (auto accident); designer of the New York Public Library and the U.S. Senate Office Bldg. Austrian opera composer-conductor Gustav Mahler (b. 1860) on May 18 (bacterial endocarditis caused by lack of Vitamin D and sunshine?); composed 10 symphonies. Am. New Thought writer Wallace Delois Wattles (b. 1860) on Feb. 7 in Ruskin, Tenn. Russian PM (1906-11) Peter Stolypin (b. 1862) on Sept. 18 (Sept. 5 Old Style) in Kiev (assassinated). Am. journalist David Graham Phillips (b. 1867) on Jan. 24. Am. novelist Vaughan Kester (b. 1869) on July 4 in Fairfax County, Va. Am. film dir. Francis W. Boggs (b. 1870) on Oct. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif.; killed by berserk Japanese janitor Frank Minematsu; studio owner William Selig is wounded trying to take the gun away from him.
1912 Chinese Year: Rat - as in drowned like a rat? Germany claims 30K millionaires - together they can buy one loaf of bread? In the U.S. approx. 5M people visit cinema daily. By this year over 2K muckraking articles have been pub. in the U.S. in McClure's, Pearson's, Hampton's, Collier's, Cosmopolitan and Ladies' Home Journal, with a combined peak cir. of 3M copies a mo. in a country with 13M-15M voters. Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers lists 50+ manufacturers of vacuum cleaners; in 1914 it lists 18 U.S. cos. offering hand-operated vacuum cleaners, vs eight in 1916; in 1914 it lists five U.S. cos. offering water-powered vacuum cleaners, vs. two in 1916. On Jan. 1 a new Mass. law shortening the work week from 56 to 54 hours for women and children causes employers in Lawrence, Mass. to lower the pay of cotton mill workers to make it come out even, robbing them of three loaves of bread per week; on Jan. 11 the Lawrence Bread and Roses (Strike for Three Loaves) Textile Strike in Mass. by immigrant female workers begins, spreading to 20K workers within a week, backed by the IWW Wobblies, and lasting 2 mo., with a V for the workers after govt. misconduct, incl. the murder of striker Anna LoPizzo, and the clubbing of children, causes Congress to intervene and force them to pay higher wages; the poem Bread and Roses by James Oppenheim (1882-1932) becomes its theme; too bad, next year the union collapses and most of the gains evaporate as the mean cos. chisel them away; Mass. becomes the first U.S. state to enact minimum wage legislation, followed by eight more states next year; the catch is that the laws apply only to women and minors, because male-dominated labor unions fear the lessening of incentives to join. On Jan. 5-7 the Prague Party Conference of the Russian Social Dem. Labor Party sees Vladimir Lenin's 18 Bolsheviks break off and form their own Bolshevik Party; the Okhrana spies on it. On Jan. 6 New Mexico (N.M.) becomes the 47th U.S. state; meanwhile rumors of a new film called The Gentleman from New Mexico circulate. On Jan. 8 the South African Native Nat. Congress (SANNC) (later the African Nat. Congress) is founded in Bloemfontein, South Africa to work for the rights of South African blacks. On Jan. 12 French PM (since June 27) Joseph Caillaux and his cabinet are forced to resign after it was revealed that he had secretly negotiated with Germany during the Second Moroccan Crisis without the knowledge of Pres. (1906-13) Armand Fallieres. On Jan. 17 British explorer Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) and his pity party reach the South Pole, find that Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen has beaten them by five weeks, and perish on the return journey, dying at their find that Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen has already been there, and perish on the return journey, dying at their Last Stop on Mar. 29 after making it onto the Ross Ice Shelf; on Mar. 18 Scott writes in his diary "My right foot has gone, nearly all the toes"; on Mar. 17 Petty Officer Edgar Evans dies first, then Capt. Lawrence Oates goes nuts from severe frostbite and takes off into a storm after saying "I am just going outside and may be some time"; Scott, Lt. Henry Bowers and Dr. Edward Wilson are the last to go, after Scott writes a Letter to Wife Kathleen, saying for her not to feel sorry for him because "How much better it has been than lounging in comfort at home." On Jan. 21 conservative atty. and public instruction minister Raymond (Raimond) Poincare (Poincaré) (1860-1934) (who successfully defended sci-fi writer Jules Verne over his mad scientist novel in the late 1890s) becomes PM of France (until 1913); Alexandre Millerand (1859-1943) becomes minister of war, reorganizing the army. On Feb. 3 Western progressive leader and Repub. pres. candidate Sen. Robert Marion La Follette of Wisc. stinks himself up with a rambling, drunken speech running past midnight at a banquet of the Periodical Publishers' Assoc. in Philly, causing newspapers to accuse him of a nervous breakdown, evaporating his support; on Feb. 21 Teddy Roosevelt reverses himself and announces that his "hat was in the ring". On Feb. 12 emperor (since 1908) and Forbidden City inmate Henry Pu Yi (1906-67) abdicates, becoming the last emperor of China; on Feb. 13 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen resigns in order to unify the country, and on Feb. 15 Yuan Shikai is elected provisional pres. of the Chinese Repub. by the nat. assembly. On Feb. 14 "Grand Canyon State" Arizona ("little spring place" in Pima, or "silver-bearing" in Aztec) is admitted as the 48th U.S. state, the last on the mainland, closing the Am. Frontier - that spells Arizona Tea in two ways? On Feb. 16 Bavarian Col. Gen. Baron Paul Otto Felix Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1850-1929) becomes German war minister (until Dec. 7, 1916). On Mar. 5 Spanish steamer Principe de Asturias sinks off Sebastien Point NE of Spain, killing 500. On Mar. 6 Oreo brand chocolate sandwich cookies are introduced by Nabisco Co., manufactured at its Chelsea Factory in New York City; they originally come in cream and lemon meringue filling; in 1952 William A. Turnier develops the embossed design; the world is split between those who eat them whole and those who split them apart and eat the cream filling first. On Mar. 10 a provisional 1912 Chinese Constitution is completed in Nanking, giving supreme power to the bicameral assembly, causing Pres. Yuan Shikai to begin a power struggle, using the new Jinbudang (Progressive) Party of Liang Qichao, which is opposed by Sun Yat-Sen's new Kuomintang (Guomindang) (Nationalist) Party, a descendant of the Rev. Alliance, which champions parliamentary govt. On Mar. 12 Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low (1860-1927) starts the first Girl Scout troop, the Girl Guides (based on the British Girl Guides), with 18 girls in Savannah, Ga.; the Girl Scout promise is "On my honor, I will try to do my duty to God and my country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Girl Scout laws"; by the end of the cent. they are the world's largest org. for girls, with 3M Cun, er, Scouts ages 7-18 worldwide, selling 200M boxes of cookies a year, incl. Thin Mints, Carmel deLites and Tagalongs; the first guides get tips on camping, housekeeping, first aid, stopping runaway horses, and tying up burglars. On Mar. 13 Morristown, N.J.-born, Princeton-educated Mahlon Pitney (1858-1924) of N.J. (great-grandfather of "Superman" actor Christopher Reeve) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #65 (until Dec. 31, 1922) to fill the vacancy left by John M. Harlan (1877-1911), bringing the number of justices back to nine; Pitney becomes the only Supreme Court justice nominated by Pres. Taft who also serves during his tenure as chief justice; too bad, the recent tendency to appoint old farts keeps the boat rocking? On Mar. 15 despite not studying at Staff College and having no staff experience, Gen. Sir John Denton Pinkstone French (1852-1925) becomes chief of the British imperial gen. staff, drawing up the list of key officers for the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) on Nov. 8; next June 3 he is unexpectedly promoted to field marshal. On Mar. 30 Morocco sultan (since 1908) Moulay Abd al-Hafid signs the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate, ending the Agadir Crisis of July 1, 1911; Spain keeps its coastal protectorate, and assumes protection over the N and S Saharan zones; Germany receives territories in the Middle Congo, becoming known as Neukameron (which is captured by the Allies in WWI), giving them in return a small area SE of Fort Lamy in modern-day Chad; too bad, the treaty sparks the Fez Riots (Mutiny) (Uprising) (Bloody Days) (Triti), causing Abd al-Hafid to flee to Rabat and abdicate in favor of his son Moulay Youssef ben Hassan (1881-1927), who becomes sultan of Morocco (until Nov. 17, 1927); too bad, on Apr. 17 (a.m.) the 5K Moroccan askars (infantrymen) in Fez mutiny against the remaining 1.5K French troops, spilling into the Euro and Jewish quarters, surrendering on Apr. 19 after killing 66 Euros, 42 Jews, and 600 Moroccans; on Apr. 28 French gen. (later marshal) Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey (1854-1934) becomes French resident-gen. of Morocco (until Aug. 25), becoming known as "the Maker of Morocco" and "the French Empire-Builder". It's judgment time as Man and the Icy Abyss of High Tech come face to face with corporate disregard of public safety in the quest for profits, shattering the faith in golden progress of the Gilded Age? On Apr. 10 (Wed.) (noon) after a christening in Belfast, Ireland before a crowd of 100K on Apr. 2, "unsinkable" 46.3K-ton 852.5 ft. (4 city blocks) (world's largest ship, built for comfort and luxury not speed) RMS Titanic ("the Millionaires' Special") (call letters MGY) of the White Star Line (part of a trio with Olympic and never-built Gigantic), built by the Belfast shipbuilding firm of Harland and Wolff, and captained by veteran (highest-paid ship captain in the world) (last voyage before retirement) Capt. Edward John Smith (b. 1850) (who captained the maiden voyage of the Olympic, and freezes up during the sinking, failing to give vital orders and allowing the passengers and crew to feel no sense of emergency) leaves Southampton, England on its maiden voyage for New York City with 2,223 crew and passengers (collectively worth $500M) (771 3rd class or steerage passengers, mainly immigrants, who are treated like cattle, but are delighted with the accommodations, incl. newfangled toilets); the ship carries only 20 68-person lifeboats, incl. 4 collapsible ones, all of which could have been safely overloaded in the calm seas; 2nd class tickets cost as much as 1st class ones on other ships; Shipbuilder mag. calls it "practically unsinkable"; the South Western Hotel in Southampton is booked by the richer passengers to wait for departure; J.P. Morgan books passage but cancels at the last minute; as it departs Southampton, its suction causes the New York to break free from its mooring, almost colliding with it; a fire breaks out in a bunker, which is still burning when it sinks on the calm moonless night of Apr. 14-15 (Sun.-Mon.); on Apr. 10 (eve.) it docks in Cherbourg, France to pick up more passengers; on Apr. 11 it docks in Queenstown, Ireland, where the last photos of life aboard the ship that survive are taken; on Apr. 12 a warning is received from the French liner La Turenne about an approaching ice field; on Apr. 14 Sun. services are held, and a spectacular sunset is enjoyed, along with the best food of the voyage for dinner; on Apr. 14 at 9:00 p.m. Capt. Smith visits the bridge to discuss arrangements for spotting icebergs, asking them to let him know if anything appears; on Apr. 14 at 10:00 p.m. the watch on the bridge is changed, with binoculars forgotten; too bad, the captain orders the crew to beat the Olympic's speed record and get into New York City on Tues. night before it is scheduled to arrive, at the urging of White Star Line pres. (a passenger) J. Bruce Ismay, who according to passenger Emily Ryerson hands the captain an iceberg warning from the Baltic, telling him to speed up to avoid it; the ship received 8+ telegraph warnings about icebergs, incl. that they were already inside a large ice field; as it goes down, the band on deck plays the hymn Abide with Me; of course Ismay has no trouble getting on a lifeboat, making coded arrangements to sail out of the U.S. fast in a patent attempt to avoid prosecution, only to be tagged when the Carpathian docks in New York City and handed a subpoena to the Smith Committee investigation of the disaster, chaired by U.S. Sen. (Mich.) William Smith, testifying that he was just another passenger who did nothing to influence the conveniently dead captain; on Apr. 14 at 10:21 p.m. the Californian, captained by Capt. Stanley Lord reaches the same ice field as the Titanic, and stops for the night, radioing Titanic about it, receiving the rebuke "Shut up, shut up, I am busy" at 10:40 p.m., causing the Californian radio operator to turn in for the night at ? p.m.; on Apr. 14 at 11:40 p.m. as Titanic cruises at 21-22 knots, lookout Fredrick Fleet (b. 1887) utters the immortal soundbyte "Iceberg, right ahead!", and after the engines are unwisely reversed, making the slow-responding ship (rudder too small) unable to turn sufficiently (they could have saved themselves by ordering full steam ahead to give the rudder the needed torque to turn?), it scrapes a black (blue) (virtually invisible) iceberg on its starboard side, creating a tear along one-third the length of the ship (the first six watertight compartments, more than it was designed to survive), and sinks 400 mi. SE of Cape Race, Newfoundland in 12.5K ft. of salty ice water at 2:20 a.m. on Apr. 15; passenger Henry Sleeper Harper (1864-1944) sees the iceberg scraping the ship out of his window; there is no public announcement system to alert passengers, and the 3rd class passengers are a motley polyglot group, with no ship translators; radio messages give the location as 41 deg 46 min N, 50 deg 14 min W; the distress signal sent is CQD, followed by the new signal SOS; at 12:27 a.m. the last radio signals are transmitted; at 12:30 a.m. the ship lists noticeably as the watertight compartments lack watertight tops, turning the ship into a gigantic ice cube tray; at 12:45 a.m. after spotting a ship off the port bow 5 mi. away, Titanic begins shooting off distress rockets, causing the complacent passengers to wake up to their peril; the Californian 10 mi. away sees the rockets and wakes Capt. Stanley Lord, and after failing to get a response to a Morse lamp and seeing no more rockets, figures that it steamed away; at 1:00 a.m. the ship's string Band That Played On begins playing on deck; only women and children are permitted on the lifeboats (except crewmen, who row), many of which are launched at less than full capacity, esp. the first ones because people didn't believe there was any danger, becoming the last use of the Birkenhead Drill of 1852; the ship's builder Thomas Andrews Jr. (b. 1873) (who initially estimates that the ship will sink in 1-2 hours) is among those who go down with the Titanic, incl. millionaire John Jacob Astor IV (b. 1864) (richest person on board) (cousin of William Waldorf Astor, and great-grandson of John Jacob Astor), whose 19-y.-o. 5-mo.-pregnant cradle-robber wife Madeleine Talmage Force Astor (1893-1940), maid Rosalie Bidois, and nurse Caroline Endres are rescued, while he, his pet airedale Kitty, and his valet Victor Robbins aren't, with cigarette-puffing tough-meets-classy-stylish-ridgeline Astor telling Madeline after she boards the lifeboat: "The sea is calm. You're in good hands. I'll see you in the morning"; millionaire playboy Benjamin Guggenheim (b. 1865) and his French singer mistress Leontine Pauline Aubart (1887-1964); celebs Isidor Straus (b. 1845) (co-owner since 1896 of Macy's dept. store in New York City) (and his wife, who refuses to leave him), William Thomas Stead (b. 1849) (English #1 journalist), U.S. maj. Archibald Willingham Butt (b. 1865) (White House chief military advisor, whose disappearance causes Pres. Taft to send U.S. Navy cruisers Chester and Salem to the scene), Francis Davis Millet (b. 1848) (artist), and Jacques Futrelle (b. 1875) (Am. detective story writer); ENglish Roman Catholic father Thomas Roussel Davids Byles (1870-1912) forgoes a lifeboat to minister to the other passengers, and is fast-tracked for sainthood?; a total of 1517 are killed, incl. 832 passengers and 685 crew, incl. the boiler room workers, who work to keep the generators and lights going until all lifeboats are gone; Guggenheim issues the immortal soundbyte "We are dressed in our best, and are prepared to go down like gentlemen"; survivor Molly Brown (1867-1932), a suffragette who founds the Denver Woman's Club in Colo. steals the epithet "Unsinkable" from the sunken ship, becoming a celeb; future Nat. Broadcasting Co. (NBC) founder David Sarnoff (1891-1971), working for the Marconi Wireless Co. gains fame by narrating news of the disaster; the SS California, only 8 mi. away stinks itself up by failing to have an officer on duty and missing the distress signal; the RMS Carpathia 70 mi. away is the first to answer the SOS, picking up 706 survivors in 19 lifeboats; its own wreck is discovered in 1999 120 mi. off the English coast; 7-y.-o. novelist Graham Greene (1904-91) later claims in his 1971 autobio. A Sort of Life that he dreamt about the ship sinking the night it was lost; Am. passenger (feminist writer) Helen Churchill Candee (1858-1949) gives a locket to friend Edward Austin Kent (b. 1854) after the ship hits the iceberg, and it is found in his jacket pocket when his body is recovered, while Candee survives and writes a 36-page Description of the Sinking of the Titanic, which fetches $85K in a London auction on Apr. 29, 2006, plus $100K for the locket; the wooden lifeboats are recycled by the White Star Line, and eventually all rot; although 61 children are killed, 2-y.-o. Lorraine Allison is the only child from 1st or 2nd class to die after her parents keep her aboard to look for her brother; in 1940 Helen Kramer (-1992) claims to be her, but in Jan. 2014 the claim is debunked with a DNA test; London-born Elizabeth Gladys "Millvina" Dean (1912-2009), the youngest passenger on board (9 weeks old), who becomes the last survivor and never marries dies in her sleep on May 31, 2009 at age 97 of pneumonia, on the 98th anniv. of the Titanic's launch in a nursing home in Ashurst, Hampshire; in 2010 it is revealed by the family of 2nd officer Charles Herbert Lightoller (1874-1952) (highest ranking officer to survive) that the Titanic sunk because the helmsman panicked and turned the ship the wrong way, and after it struck the iceberg the ship wouldn't have sunk if it hadn't moved off; the Titanic was really the RMS Olympic, whose keel had been badly bent in its Sept. 1911 collision with the HMS Hawke, and J.P. Morgan wanted to crash and sink it on an iceberg to collect insurance to pay the £800K owed, which is why the Titanic had special longitudinal bulkheads to brace the keel?; the real reason that the Titanic sunk is a 1K F fire that had been buning for three weeks and weakened the metal?; the White Star Line begins a coverup, initially claiming that the ship didn't sink and that all the passengers were rescued on lifeboats, sending a special train to Halifax, N.S. to pick them up; the New York Times gets a hunch from the lack of communications to pub. a scoop that the Titanic sunk, rocketing the newspaper's rep to the top; the coverup story is initially that the Titanic sunk intact, despite witnesses to the contrary, and after the wreck is discovered broken into two pieces in 1985, the story is changed to claim that the Titanic's stern rose high into the air before the ship broke in two and sunk, when later investigations prove that it broke at the aft expansion joint at a shallow angle of 11-12 deg., which meets or exceeds the design reqts. for withstanding large waves, making a coverup unnecessary; on May 12 the British Board of Trade Investigation begins in London, whitewashing and exonerating the White Star Line because they were responsible for its oversight. On Apr. 17 the Lena Gold Field Massacre in Russia sees 200 striking workers shot by the tsarist army, sparking a wave of strikes - how about these Schmackos, made with real bacon? On Apr. 30 German-born Jewish-Am. film producer Carl Laemmle (1867-1939) et al. found Universal Studios (originally Universal Film Manufacturing Co.). in New York City; on Aug. 15 they lease the Providencia Ranch in the San Fernando Valley; in Mar. 14 they spend $165K to buy a 230-acre ranch in N Hollywood, Calif. across the road from where Mexican Gen. Andre Pico and U.S. Col. John Fremont signed the 1847 Treaty of Cahuenga, which becomes known as Universal City, world's largest movie studio, "the entertainment center of the world", which officially opens on Mar. 15, 1915 at a ceremony attended by 15K; the initial pop. has 500 residents incl. 75 Indians living in tepees on the backlot; the first film completed is "Damon and Pythias" (1914) starring William Worthington and Herbert Rowlinson. In Apr. the British govt. of Herbert Henry Asquith introduces the Third Irish Home Rule Bill, sponsored by Irish Roman Catholic MP (1900-18) John Edward Redmond (1856-1918) to give Ireland self-govt.; the House of Lords, egged on by Irish Unionists in Ulster tries in vain to block it for the next two years, but can't veto it anymore. In Apr. former U.S. pres. Theodore Roosevelt utters the soundbyte: "Somebody asked me why I did not get an agreement with Colombia. They might just as well ask me why I do not nail cranberry jelly to the wall. It would not be my fault or the fault of the nail, it would be the fault of the jelly." On May 5 (Apr. 22 Old Style) (anniv. of Karl Marx's 1818 birth) after Vladimir Lenin links up with Joseph Stalin, the Russian broadsheet newspaper Pravda (Russ. "truth") begins pub. in Moscow as the official organ of the Central Committee of the CPSU (until 1991), reaching a circ. of 11M; it really was founded in Moscow in 1903 by wealthy railway engineer V.A. Kozhevnikov and was non-political until the 1905 Russian Rev., becoming a football between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks until 1908, when Leon Trotsky becomes ed. and moves it to Vienna until the Mensheviks are officially expelled from the CPSU in Jan. 1912 and Lenin decides to make it their official organ; the first issue costs 2 kopeks and has four pages; by 1914 it has 42 different eds., who are really stooges to go to jail as patsies, while sitting members of the Duma are set up as publishers because they enjoy parliamentary immunity; after reaching a circ. of 40K-60K, the govt. shuts it down in July 1914, and it doesn't reopen until the 1917 Feb. Rev., moving to Moscow on Mar. 3, 1918, with Nikolai Bukharin as ed. in 1918-29. On May 5-July 22 the V Summer (5th) Olympic Games in Stockholm, Sweden are dominated by All-American James Francis "Jim" Thorpe (1888-1953), a Sac and Fox Indian with some Irish descent who wins the pentathlon (4 firsts) and the decathlon (8412.96 out of a possible 10K pts.), then responds to the compliment "You, sir, are the greatest athlete in the world" by Swedish king Gustavus V with the immortal soundbyte "Thanks, king!"; West Point grad. George Smith Patton Jr. (1885-1945) places 5th in the pentathlon; swimming champ ("Father of American Surfing") Duke Kahanamoku (1890-1968) of Hawaii appears in a sleek swimsuit with bikini-like underdrawers, shocking Anglo-Saxons plagued by sex guilt, and revolutionizing sprint swimming by replacing the scissors kick with the flutter kick, winning a gold medal in the 100m freestyle and a silver medal in the men's 4x200m freestyle relay; on July 15 Portuguese marathon runner (first ever) Francisco Lazaro (Lázaro) (b. 1891) becomes the first Olympic athlete to die in competition (next 1960) after he waxes his body to prevent sunburn, interfering with perspiration; Charles Lyndhurst Winslow (1888-1963) of South Africa wins gold in men's singles and doubles tennis; Giovanni Pellegrini wins the first gold medal in painting; until 1948 medals are awarded to sculptors, architects, writers, and musicins. On May 8 well-fixed Hungarian-born Jewish former fur trader Adolph Zukor (1873-1976) in partnership with the Frohman brothers founds Famous Players Film Co. on 26th St. in New York City as the U.S. distribution co. for the French film "Les Amours de la Reine Elisabeth" starring Sarah Bernhardt, going on to attract Mary Pickford, who starts with a filmed version of her Broadway play "A Good Little Devil" at $500 a week, which is a bomb, although she becomes hotter than ever with fans; next year Zukor gets financial backing from New York City impresarios the Frohman Brothers, and starts his rise; in 1915 they establish Famous Players Fiction Studios at 5300 Melrose Ave. in Hollywood, their first film starring Mary Pickford; on June 28, 1916 Zukor partners with Jesse L. Lasky, changing the name to Famous Players-Lasky Corp.; in 1919-22 Cecil B. DeMille becomes dir.; in 1920-1 they build the 5-acre Kaufman Astoria Studios in Astoria, New York City close to the Broadway Theatre district; on Dec. 3, 2013 it opens as New York City's only studio backlot (34.8K sq. ft.). On May 12 Frederik VIII (b. 1843) dies, and on May 14 his eldest son Christian X (1870-1947) becomes king of Denmark (until Apr. 20, 1947), going on to survive both world wars. On May 16 after a "race rider clause" is defeated that would have hamstrung Congress in attempting to override state laws preventing blacks from voting in senatorial elections, the XVII (17th) Amendment (Direct Election of Senators) to the U.S. Constitution is sent by the 62nd Congress to the states for ratification; on Apr. 8, 1913 Conn. becomes the 36th state to ratify it, and it is certified by U.S. secy. of state William Jennings Bryan on May 31. On May 23-24 after Conservative Istvan Tisza becomes speaker, the Social Dems. start the 1912 Budapest Riots. On May 27 the Am. Socialist Party nominates ordinary-looking hair-challenged Eugene V. Debs for pres. for the 4th time. In May the Royal Flying Corps is established as part of the British army. On June 5 the U.S. Marines are sent to Cuba to protect business interests by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries in what becomes known as Dollar Diplomacy. On June 6-8 Mount Katmai in Novarupta, Alaska (Lat. "newly erupted") erupts violently, forming the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (named by Robert F. Griggs), and becoming the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th cent. In June New York Motion Picture Co. (founded 1909) signs a merger deal with Universal, then later the same year backs out for a deal with Mutual Film Corp., releasing their last 101-Bison film on Oct. 25 after settling a lawsuit by relinquishing their trademarks on Bison and 101-Bison to Universal, then moving from Edendale to Santa Monica, Calif. after turning the studio over to Keystone, cranking out Broncho films weekly under dir. Francis Ford, along with Kay-Bee films. On June 22 despite candidate Theodore Roosevelt blasting him as having a brain equal to three guinea-pig power, once making him cry, William H. Taft runs for renomination despite not liking the job just to get even, and the Old Guard who likes his conservativism rolls over the progressive minority and renominates him for pres. and James S. Sherman for vice-pres., causing Roosevelt to lead his supporters off the floor of the 1912 Repub. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill., forming the Progressive (Bull Moose Party, with Chicago atty.-journalist Harold Le Claire Ickes (1874-1952), Kan. journalist William Allen White (1868-1944) et al., which in Aug. nominates Roosevelt for pres., and progressive isolationist Calif. gov. #23 (1911-17) Hiram Warren Johnson (1866-1945) for vice-pres., thereby splitting the Repub. Party and insuring the demise of both? On June 24 Pres. Taft issues an Executive Order fixing the dimensions of the U.S. flag, with the ratio of hoist to fly (width to length) set at 1:1.9, the blue field to extend to the bottom of the 7th stripe, and the diameter of each star at one-sixteenth of the hoist. On June 25-July 2 the 1912 Dem. Nat. Convention meets in Baltimore, Md., and after House Speaker #41 (1911-1919) James Beauchamp "Champ" Clark (1850-1921) comes in with a majority pledged to him then fails to receive the necessary two-thirds, it nominates N.J. gov. Thomas Woodrow Wilson for pres. on the 46th ballot after lost cause William Jennings Bryan throws his influence behind him; Thomas R. Marshall of Ind. is nominated for vice-pres.; Clark, who had used his speakership to block Taft's legislation now uses it to pass Wilson's, then splits with Wilson over the decision to bring the U.S. into WWI. In June meteoric riser Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess Reading (1860-1935), a Liberal Jewish MP from Reading from 1904-10, and solicitor gen. and atty.-gen. in 1910 receives a seat in the British cabinet, becoming the first atty.-gen. to be so honored. In June the Sopwith Aviation Co. is founded in Brooklands, England by Sir Thomas "Tommy" Octave Murdoch Sopwith (1888-1989), moving to Kingston upon Thames in Dec. after making their first military sale, going on to manufacture 18K aircraft with 5K employees during WWI incl. the Sopwith Bat Boat, Dolphin, Pup, Salamander, Snipe, and 5,747 Sopwith Camels, moving in early 1918 to Ham; the 230 hp single-seat biplane Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe (first flight Oct. 1917) is the best fighter of WWI, being introduced a few weeks before the war's end then becoming the RAF std. single-seat fighter after the war, with 497 built by 1926; too bad, the Excess War Profits Duty causes his firm to go bankrupt, and in 1920 he founds Hawker Aircraft (H.G. Hawker Engineering) with test pilot Harry George Hawker (1889-1921), going on to manufacture the Hart and Demon. The stars have all gone dry tonight? On July 4 Congress authorizes a new U.S. flag with two new stars, bringing the total to 48 (design #25), incl. dry dry dry un-Titanic New Mexico and Arizona; no more for 47 years. On July 4 Keystone Studios in Edendale, Calif. is founded by Canadian-born Irish Roman Catholic Biograph actor-dir. (failed opera singer) ("the King of Comedy") Mack Sennett (Mikall Sinnott) (1880-1960) (who plays Sherlock Holmes 11x is founded-13), with $2.5K backing from Charles O. Baumann (1874-1931) and Adam Kessel (Jr.) (1866-1946) of the New York Motion Picture Co. (founded 1909), producing silent comedies starring the Keystone Kops (Cops) until 1917, starring Oxford Street, er, Ford Sterling (George Ford Stich Jr.) (1883-1939) as Chief Teeheezel, "Slow Burn" Edward Kennedy, and Russian-born Hank Mann (David William Lieberman) (1888-1971), originator of the idea; its films are distributed by Mutual Film Corp. until 1915, when it merges with Triangle Film Corp. of Thomas Harper Ince, D.W. Griffith, and Mack Sennett, whose studios go on to form those of Sony Pictures; in 1915 the Sennett Bathing Beauties are founded; in 1917 Sennett quits and forms his own co.; Ince builds a new studio that later becomes the site of Culver Studios; Keystone goes defunct in 1935. In July French painter Francis Picabia (1879-1953) drinks all night in Paris with composer Claude Debussy and poet Guillaume Apollinaire, then they take a boat to England, where Picabia allegedly invents Abstract Art, asking "Are blue and red unintelligible? Are not the circle and the triangle, volumes and colors, as intelligible as this table?", soon painting La Source (The Spring) (1912) and Danses a la Source (1912). On July 30 emperor (since 1867) Meiji (b. 1852) dies, and is succeeded as Japanese Yamato emperor #123 (until Dec. 25, 1926) by his son Yoshihito, who assumes the name Taisho (Tai-Sho) (1879-1926); constantly ill, he plays little part in the ruling of the nation; the Taisho Period ("period of great righteousness") begins (ends 1926), known for the Taisho democracy, an opening to liberal Western trends. On Aug. 5 the 1912 Progressive Party "Bull Moose" Convention in Chicago, Ill. convenes, with 2K delegates incl. several women and blacks, although Roosevelt excepts blacks from the South, while later alienating white Southern supporters by publicly dining with some blacks at a hotel in R.I.; on Aug. 7 Theodore Roosevelt accepts the pres. nomination, with Jane Addams giving the seconding speech, ending his acceptance speech with: "We stand at Armageddon, and we battle for the Lord!", later uttering the soundbyte: "Behind the visible government there is an invisible government upon the throne that owes the people no loyalty and recognizes no responsibility. To destroy this invisible government, to undo the ungodly union between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the task of a statesman"; keynote speaker, former Ind. Repub. Sen. (1899-1911) Albert Jeremiah Beveridge (1862-1927) utters the soundbyte: "This party comes from the grass roots. It has grown from the soil of the people's hard necessities" - TR must have been reading some Watch Tower Society lit.? In Sept. the Fourth Russian Duma is elected, with a super-conservative composition of landowners, clergy, retired military officers, etc., that accomplishes nothing (ends 1917). In the fall the 1,051-mi. Trans-Australian Railway from Port Augusta, South Australia to Kalgoorlie, Western Australia is begun (finished Oct. 1917); the central part features the world's longest stretch of straight track (297 mi.), running across the Nullarbor Plain; passenger services are known as the Great Western Express. On Oct. 8-16 the Boston Red Sox (AL) (mgr. Jake Stahl) defeat the New York Giants (NL) (mgr. John McGraw) 4-3-1 to win the Ninth (9th) World Series, becoming the first to be decided in a sudden death (1960, 2001), and the first where a team within one inning of losing comes back to win (next in Game 6 of the 1985 WS); Henry "Heinie" "the Great Zim" Zimmerman (1887-1969) of the Giants becomes the 2nd player and first NL player to win baseball's triple crown (#1 is Ty Cobb in 1909); first of five titles for Boston by 1918; Boston fans become known as the Royal Rooters. The bull that makes Milwaulkee famous? On Oct. 14 Theodore Roosevelt is shot by anarchist John Schrank in Milwaukee, Wisc. while entering a hotel to give a speech; the folded-up speech manuscript stops the bullet and he gives the speech anyway, telling reporters, "You see, it takes more than that to kill a bull moose." On Oct. 18 Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, and Bulgaria join in an alliance against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the First Balkan War (ends May 30, 1913), resulting in Turkey asking the Allied Powers for intervention; on Dec. 3 an armistice ending the First Balkan War is signed, and a peace conference is held in London on Dec. 16; Serbia gains Turkish territory in Europe, becoming a hit with the Russkies, but pissing-off the Germans; Montenegro doubles its territory; the Dalmatian dog breed is named from the way Croatians in Dalmatia use them during the war as coach dogs. On Oct. 26 (Nov. 8 Old Style) (feast day of patron saint Demetrios) Salonica (Saloniki) (Thessalonica) (Thessaloniki) in Macedonia (held since 1430) is liberated from the Ottomans by Greece. In Oct. the city of Torrance, Calif. on the Pacific Ocean in SW Los Angeles County (modern-day pop. 147K) is founded by real estate developers led by Gowanda, N.Y.-born Jared Sidney Torrance (1853-1921), who hire landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., and incorporate on May 12, 1921, becoming known for great climate and beaches, 30 city parks, 90K street trees, and the highest percentage of Japanese-descent residents in Calif. (9%). On Nov. 3 Russia and Outer Mongolia sign a treaty recognizing Outer Mongolia's autonomy. On Nov. 28 the principality of Albania ("land of the eagle") proclaims its independence. In Oct. Repub. vice-pres. James S. Sherman (b. 1855) dies, and is replaced by pacifist Columbia U. pres. Nicholas Murray Butler as the vice-pres. candidate. On Nov. 5 (Tues.) after the number of reps. in the U.S. Congress is fixed at 435 (200K pop. per rep., rising to 700K by the end of the cent., compared to 30K in 1789), Dem. Woodrow Wilson easily wins the 1912 U.S. Pres. Election against a split Repub. Party (435 electoral votes vs. 88 for Roosevelt and 8 for Taft, who becomes the last sitting U.S. pres. to run for reelection and come in 3rd until ?; 6.3M popular votes vs. 4.1M for Roosevelt and 3.5M for Taft); the Dems. gain control of both houses of Congress; the 2nd time that a third party polls more than 10% of the vote in a U.S. Pres. Election (1892, 1924, 1968) - the whole thing was a setup after Teddy's successor Taft wouldn't sell out to the Rockefeller slash Illuminati conspiracy like Teddy did? On Nov. 7 George W. Norris is elected to the U.S. Sen. in Neb. as a Repub. (until 1942), going on to successfully lobby the state to institute a unicameral legislature (the lt. gov. acts as the speaker) on the theory that two houses seems too much like the English Lords and Commons; he also joins the Middle Western isolationist block opposed to U.S. entry into WWI and the Versailles Treaty. On Nov. 7 the London Times begins a publicity (sainthod?) campaign for Albert Einstein, heralding him as a "genius" - a Zionist plot? On Nov. 12 Spanish PM (since Feb. 9, 1910) Jose Canalejas (b. 1854) is assassinated by anarchist Manuel Pardinas while window-shopping a bookstore in Madrid, depriving Alfonso XIII of his top statesman, and starting the slide to the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s? On Nov. 29 German soprano Lotte Lehmann (1888-1976) debuts as Elsa in "Lohengrin", becoming a star, and going on to debut in Vienna on Oct. 30, 1914 as Eva in "Die Meistersinger", in London on May 21, 1924, in Chicago on Oct. 28, 1930, and at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on Jan. 11, 1934 after fighting off rival Maria Jeritza; too bad, when the Nazis arrive she doesn't get along with Hermann Goering, and has Jewish stepchildren, causing her to flee to the U.S. in 1938. In Nov. destitute Adolf Hitler arrives in Liverpool, England, staying until Apr. of next year after failing to learn English or get a job, then returning to Munich. On Dec. 8 Kaiser Wilhelm II tells a meeting of military chiefs: "Austria has to act vigorously against the foreign Slavs [Serbs], because she would otherwise lose her power over the Serbs in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. If Russia were to support the Serbs, war would be inevitable for us"; he adds that in a war the German fleet "would have to face war against Britain"; chief of staff Gen. Helmuth von Moltke tells the meeting: "The popularity of a war against Russia, as outlined by the Kaiser, should be better prepared", and naval chief of staff Adm. von Muller tells chancellor (1909-17) (not of Jewish descent) Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann Hollweg (Bethmann-Hollweg) (1856-1921): "The people must not be in the position of asking themselves only at the outbreak of a great European war, what are the interests that Germany would be fighting for. The people ought rather to be accustomed to the idea of such a war beforehand." On Dec. 12 the New York Times pub. the article Museum Walls Proclaim Fraud of Mormon Prophet, claiming that Joseph Smith couldn't really translate hierglyphics but just made translations up out of his imagination; "Within three months the only one of these sacred writings in which the test of scholarship could be applied has been submitted to such a test and its authenticity has been destroyed completely." On Dec. 14 after Count Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal dies on Feb. 17 and he is reappointed in early Dec., Austrian chief of staff Baron Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad von Hoetzendorf (Hötzendorf) (1852-1925) writes a letter to Austrian heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand, with the soundbyte: "The unification of the South Slav race is one of the most powerful national movements which can neither be ignored nor kept down. The question can only be whether that unification will take place within the boundaries of the monarchy, that is, at the expense of Serbia's independence, or under Serbia's leadership at the expense of the monarchy", adding that if Serbia leads Slav unification, the Austrian empire will lose almost its entire 300-mi. Adriatic coastline, and "relegate the monarchy to the status of a small power." On Dec. 23 British viceroy of India (1910-16) Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858-1944) is wounded by a terrorist bomb in Delhi. In Dec. the first Chinese nat. elections in Chinese history are held, and the results are announced next Jan. - I voted for Chang, Chang, Chang, and Chang, how about you? Cretan reps. sit in the Greek legislature for the first time. Manuel Bonilla (d. 1913) is reelected pres. of Honduras. Liberals and dissident conservatives in Nicaragua form an army under liberal gen. Benjamin Francisco Zeledon (Zeledón) Rodriguez (b. 1879) to fight the U.S. puppet regime of Gen. Adolfo Diaz, but U.S. Marines are sent in under the cover of protecting U.S. lives and property, defeating and killing Zeledon, and beginning 20 years of U.S. occupation of coffeeland (ends 1933), and 13 years of ruling through puppet dictators (until 1925). Gen. John Denton Pinkstone French (1852-1925) becomes chief of the British imperial gen. staff, and is promoted to field marshal next year. Former Ohio gov. (1904-6) Myron Timothy Herrick (1854-1929) is appointed U.S. ambassador to France by Pres. Taft (until Dec. 1914). Despite all the bad prognostications about what royalty does to ambition, Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg (1854-1921) becomes first sea lord of the British Royal Navy; too bad, anti-German feeling forces him to resign in 1914 at the start of WWI. Former Liberal MP (1885) Richard Burdon Haldane, now 1st viscount Haldane (since 1911) becomes British lord chancellor; too bad, he is forced to resign in 1915 after being accused of being pro-German. A large Hindu immigrant pop. is expelled from the U.S. West Coast by anti-Indian racial rioters. England is rocked by a coal strike, a London dock strike, and a transport workers' strike. The French capture Marrakesh, and introduce Morocco to the 20th cent., forcing it to sign a protectorate treaty, creating French Morocco (until 1956), which incl. most of Morocco (154K of 172K sq. mi.) except Spanish Morocco (18K sq. mi.) and Tangier. The world shrinks to where one side sneezes and the other side catches a cold? Turkey closes the Dardanelles to shipping, cutting Europe off from Russian grain and increasing demand for U.S. wheat; after the U.S. enters WWI, the govt. guarantees a price of $2 a bushel (double the 1910 price), causing the Great Am. Prairie to be overplanted, so that after the war prices drop to 40 cents a bushel by 1930, causing tractors to be used to plow up 50K acres of grassland a day to pump up volume, helped by wet weather in the 1920s, setting things up for the Great Am. Dust Bowl of the 1930s? Simultaneous revolts against Mexican pres. (since 1911) Francisco Madero break out in N and S Mexico. Black Cuban rebels in E Cuba are harshly repressed. You cannot lose what you never had? Germany passes their 4th naval law in 12 years, adding 15K officers and men to the German navy, causing Winston Churchill to call for a mutual pause in naval expansion, arguing that a large fleet is a "necessity" for Britain but a "luxury" for Germany, making them more determined; meanwhile Germany increases its standing army to 544K men, and in spring 1913 they up it to 661K, and in Oct. 1913 German chancellor (1909-17) (of Jewish descent) Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1856-1921) announces the increases with the soundbyte: "One thing remains beyond doubt, if it should ever come to a European conflagration which sets Slaventum against Germanentum, it is then for us a disadvantage that the position in the balance of forces which was hitherto occupied by European Turkey is now filled in part by Slav states"; meanwhile up-and-coming Col. Erich Ludendorff (1865-1937) drafts the mobilization plans for the German Army Bill, which the Reichstag passes next spring, preparing for a possible offensive war. Austria passes an Islam Bill permitting Muslims to practice their religion; amended in 2015. After leaving the Dem. Party, Luis Emilio Recabarren Serrano (1876-1924) founds the Partido Obrero Socialista (Socialist Worker Party) in Iquique, Chile on June 4; it is dissolved on Jan. 2, 1922. Kan., Ore., and Ariz. become the 6th-8th U.S. states to give women the vote; in Ore. suffragist Abigail Jane Scott Duniway (1834-1915) writes the equal suffrage proclamation, and is asked by Gov. Oswald West to sign it. In response to the Titanic disaster, the U.S. Radio Act of 1912 is passed, requiring all radio transmitters to be licensed, and mandating that seagoing vessels continuously monitor distress frequencies. N.Y. passes a law prohibiting the sales of oysters outside the "R" months (May 15 to Aug. 31), based on the English oyster (Ostrea edulis), which keeps its young within its mantle cavity during these months, but doesn't apply to the Am. oyster (Crassostrea virginica); it takes until 1971 to figure it out and repeal the law; too bad, by then the U.S. oyster harvest has shrunk from 150M to 50M lbs. a year. The 25K-acre Nat. Elk Refuge near Jackson, Wyo. is established, becoming the first U.S. big game refuge. The city of Miami Beach, Fla. is created by automobile pioneer Carl Graham Fisher (1874-1939) from a swampy bug-infested stretch of land connected to the mainland via Collins Bridge, which opens next June 12; the city is incorporated on Mar. 26, 1915; he goes on to dredge Biscayne Bay and build the luxury Flamingo Hotel. The Nat. Federation of Catholic Workers' Syndicates is founded in Spain. Henrietta Szold (1860-1945) et al. found Hadassah for Am. Jewish women to organize health care in Palestine for the Yishuv (Jewish community). After being asked by reporters "What is a man to do who is out of work and starving?", Pres. Taft replies "God knows, I don't", causing him to become known as "Godknows Taft". Vilhjalmur Stefansson (1879-1962) of Canada leaves on a 5-year voyage to N of the Arctic Circle (ends 1917), discovering the blonde Eskimos, who had never before seen a white man - he zigged when he should have zagged? Sir Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) of Australia goes to the coast of Antarctica (until 1916), meeting an annual avg. wind speed of 100+ mph; his single-prop Vickers plane crashes in Oct. during a demo flight, and is discovered at Cape Denison in 2009. The G.P.O. takes over British telephone systems. The Social Service Council of Canada is founded by Presbyterian social gospel advocate J.G. Shearer. The Panama Canal project creates 1.5-mi.-long Gatun Dam and 163-sq.-mi. Gatun Lake in the N Canal Zone. The city of New Delhi, India, designed by British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944) is begun to replace Calcutta as the capital of British India (finished 1929); the city is laid out in a geometrical design based on a central rock, which is then removed; the residence of the PM is 7 Race Course Rd. The Church (Kirk) of Scotland revises its Scottish Book of Common Prayer. Native soldiers in the Indian Army are given the right to receive the Victoria Cross. Tokyo mayor Yukio Ozaki (1858-1954) and Japanese-born Am. chemist Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922) donate Yoshino Cherry trees to the U.S. to plant in West Potomac Park near the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin of Washington, D.C. The Pulitzer School of Journalism at Columbia U. is founded, with Philadelphia Press ed. Talcott Williams (1849-1928) as dir. #1. Jehovah's Witnesses founder Charles Taze Russell founds a congregation in Hamilton, Ont. Canada, causing local Baptist clergyman J.J. Ross to take him on in a pamphlet, for which Russell sues him for libel, but Ross uses the trial to put Russell on trial instead, trying to get him charged with perjury for claiming he knew the Greek language when he only knew the Greek alphabet; Russell then tours Canada next year, holding conventions, causing the Catholics and Protestants to gang up on him, calling him the Antichrist. Austrian Jewish tenor Richard Tauber (1891-1948) debuts, becoming #1 in Germany and Austria, known for his top hat and monacle to cover up a squint in his right eye. The Gibson Girl look, created by artist Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944) is the first purely American style for U.S. women; the original Gibson Girl is his wife Irene Langhorne Gibson (1873-1956), sister of Nancy Witcher Langhorne AKA Lady Astor, introducing girls wearing sneakers while riding newfangled bicycles; shirtwaists are popular among U.S. women "because they can be made to fit any form, and because they are mannish" - and the word "blouse" comes from German for nude (if they wear nothing else)? After founding the Red Door Salon in New York City in 1910, Woodbridge, Ont., Canada-born Elizabeth Arden (Florence Nightingale Graham) (1878-1966) travels to Paris to study at beauty salons, returning with a collection of rouges and tinted powders and introducing modern eye makeup to North Am., going on to found salons worldwide beginning in 1915 (150 by 1929) and create the idea of the "Total Look" and "makeover", fighting rival Helena Rubenstein to become #1 by the 1930s, with celeb clients incl. Marlene Dietrich, Joan Crawford, Wallis Simpson, and later Marilyn Monroe and Jackie Kennedy. For the first time mail is carried by airplane. Lorna Doone brand shortbread cookies begin to be marketed. The Diamond Co. perfects modern Book Matches. Cadillac becomes the first U.S. car with an electric starter. Standard Oil Co. opens its first gas station in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Turkish Petroleum Co. is founded by Britain to explore for oil in Mesopotamia; the Germans initially partner in it but lose out when WWI starts. The Minneapolis Inst. of Arts in Minn. is founded. The Voynich Manuscript, dating back to 1400-1438 C.E. is discovered in Italy, and its intriguing cryptography mystifies the experts (until ?). Poetry: A Magazine of Verse is founded by Harriet Monroe (1860-1936) in Chicago, Ill., going on to pub. Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, William Carlos Williams, and Carl Sandburg; Pound goes on to help launch the careers of James Joyce and T.S. Eliot. The first Chinese translation of the Quran (begun 1909) is completed. Arthur Murray (1895-1991) begins giving ballroom dancing lessons. 39-y.-o. Willa Cather (1873-1947) takes a leave of absence from "White Man's Burden" McClure's mag. to write novels, leaves New York City to visit her childhood home of Red Cloud, Neb., finds it changed, then goes on to visit Winslow, Ariz. and other places in Ariz. and New Mexico, then returns to New York City and moves in with Edith Lewis (1882-1972) at 5 Bank St., staying with her for 35 years. D.H. Lawrence meets and falls in love with Frieda Freiin von Richthofen (Weekley) (1879-1956), sister of German aviator Baron Manfred von Richthofen, and their up-again-down-again relationship forms the underlying theme of much of his work, along with his TB, which causes him to travel as far as Mexico and Australia. Heywood Campbell Broun (1888-1939) launches his liberal independent column "It Seems to Me" in the New York Tribune, moving to the New York World in 1921 and the New York Telegram in 1928, becoming one of the most widely-read newspaper columnists in the U.S. German-born Jewish Macy's dept. store co-owner Nathan Straus (1848-1931), known for funding milk pasteurization to combat infant mortality and giving away meals for 1 cent each visits Palestine, becoming a big fan; when his brother Isidor (the other co-owner) and his wife are killed on the Titanic, he gets religion and devotes two-thirds of his fortune to helping Palestine. After splitting with the Theosophical Society, Austrian philosopher Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (1861-1925) founds the Anthroposophical (Gr. "human wisdom") Society. U.S. banker James Loeb founds the Loeb Eds. of Greek and Latin classics, with an English trans. on the facing pages. Lit. dynamo Adeline Virginia Stephen, known for sexual abuse by half-brothers and nervous breakdowns caused by the deaths of her mother, half-sister Stella, and daddy Sir Leslie Stephen marries London ed. Leonard Sidney Woolf (1880-1969), becoming "Who's Afraid of" Virginia Woolf (1882-1941); together they set up a hand press for pub. limited eds. of modern lit., which develops into Hogarth Press in 1917; they live at 46 Gordon Square in the Bloomsbury section of London (near the British Museum), and set up the Bloomsbury Group, incl. E.M. (Edward Morgan) Forster (1879-1970), John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872-1970), Giles Lytton Strachey (1880-1932), Duncan James Corrow Grant (1885-1978), Arthur Clive Heward Bell (1881-1964), and Saxon Sydney-Turner (1880-1962); the 1910 Dreadnought Hoax was a dress rehearsal?; the members like to engage in homosexuality, lesbianism, and wife-swapping. The word "jazz" is coined in the West Coast of the U.S., but doesn't refer to music. San Francisco, Calif.-born Robert Frost (1874-1963) sails to England and embarks on a lit. career in Beaconsfield, London, making friends with the Dymock Poets incl. Ezra Pound, who becomes the first Am. to write a favorable review of his work. Mary Pickford introduces D.W. Griffith to her friends Dorothy and Lillian Gish, and he signs them up for "An Unseen Enemy"; one or both go on to star in 100+ short films and features. French poet Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) (coiner of the term "Surrealism") coins the term Orphism (Orphic Cubism) to label the lyrical abstract paintings of Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) and his Jewish-French wife Sonia Delaunay (nee Terk) (1885-1979), comparing them to Orpheus, Greek god of the er, lyre. Am. abstract painters Morgan Russell (1886-1953) and Stanton MacDonald-Wright (1890-1973) found the Synchronist art movement, which seeks to create emotion using color. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow opens in May. German art collector Wilhelm Uhde (1874-1947) visits Senlis, France, and discovers that his maid Seraphine (Séraphine) Louis (1864-1942) is a self-taught great artist, going on to make her famous with the first Naive Art Exhibition in Paris in 1928. The Marx Brothers bring their singing act to the Opera House in Nacogdoches, Tex., and are interrupted by a runaway mule, which causes the audience to leave to watch as better entertainment, causing them to switch to insulting the audience, which draws laughs, changing their act permanently to comedy, after which Groucho Marx likes to bring up the town any time anybody mentions Tex. 39-y.-o. Winchester, Va.-born Red Cloud, Neb.-raised Willa (Wilella) Silbert Cather (1873-1947) takes a leave of absence from "White Man's Burden" McClure's mag. to write novels, leaves New York City to visit her childhood home of Red Cloud, Neb., finds it changed, then goes on to visit Winslow, Ariz. and other places in Ariz. and New Mexico, then returns to New York City and moves in with Edith Lewis (1882-1972) at 5 Bank St., staying with her for 35 years. Karl Muck becomes conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra again (until 1918). Black jazz trombonist Edward "Kid" Ory (1886-1973) starts a jazz band in New Orleans, which becomes one of the most popular until 1919, hosting Louis Armstrong, King Oliver, Johnny Dodds, Sidney Bechet, Jimmie Noone et al.; he then moves to the West Coast and plays under the name Kid Ory's Creole Orchestra. London-born Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977) becomes conductor of the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra in Penn. (until 1941), debuting on Oct. 11, and becoming known for his showy style which incl. conducting sans baton, throwing his music on the floor and conducting from memory, growing his hair long like a lion's mane, using spotlights on his head and hands, encouraging "free bowing" and "free breathing" from his musicians, and revising the works of classic composers, pissing-off critics; he becomes the first conductor to adopt the modern orchestral seating plan (1st-2nd violins on left, violas and cellos on the right). English actor Harley Granville-Barker (1877-1946) becomes mgr. of the Savoy Theatre (until 1914), along with his wife Lillah McCarthy (1875-1960), going on to produce several Shakespeare plays, innovating to capture the spirit. Paramount Studios is founded in the U.S., releasing its first movies next year. London has 400 cinemas - one per hundred pedophiles? Hebrew revivalist Elieser Ben-Yehuda and his son Ben Avi found Doar Hayom, the first Palestinian daily. The original Meet the Fokkers? Dutch aircraft designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) et al. found the Fokker Co. in Schwerin, Germany to manufacture aircraft; it moves to Netherlands in 1919, dominating the civil aviation market in the 1920s-1930s; in 1923 Fokker moves to the U.S., founding Fokker Aircraft Corp., which is merged into Gen. Motors Corp. in 1930 as the Gen. Aviation Manufacturing Corp., which in 1948 is divested by GM, merging with North Am. Aviation; on Mar. 15, 1996 it declares bankruptcy. Allan Haines Loughead (Lockheed) (1889-1969) and Malcolm Loughead (Lockheed) (inventor of hydraulic brakes in 1919) found the Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Co. in San Francisco, Calif.; in 1916 it becomes the Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Co. in Santa Barbara, Calif.; in 1918 it debuts the Model F-1 flying boat, which sets a non-stop seaplane record by flying from Santa Barbara, Calif. to San Diego, Calif.; after its $2,500 Model S-1 monocoque aircraft proves too expensive, the co. goes bankrupt in 1921, then reopens in 1926 with new partners Jack Northrop and Kenneth Jay as the Lockheed Aircraft Co. in Hollywood, Calif., relocating in Mar. 1928 to Burbank, Calif., manufacturing the Vega in 1927, which becomes a favorite of Wiley Post and Amelia Earhart, along with the Model 10 Electra twin-engine airplane; in WWII it manufactures the Lockheed Hudson light bomber, and the P-38 Lightning twin-engine twin-boom fighter, which gains a monopoly in the U.S. military, while the secret Lockheed Aircraft Service Co. operates in Northern Ireland under the name Air Base Depot 3 (Langford Lodge); in 1995 it merges with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin. The Piedboeuf Brewery is founded in Jupille-sur-Meuse, Belgium, introducing Jupiler brand in 1966, which becomes the best-selling beer in Belgium; in ? it is acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev. The L.L. Bean mail-order co. is founded in Freeport, Maine by Leon Leonwood Bean (1872-1967) to sell his waterproof Bean Boot (Maine Hunting Shoe) for hunters. Life Savers (originally Crane's Pep-O-Mint Life Savers) brand ring-shaped hard candy, "the candy mint with the hole" (made with a pill-making machine and a hole puncher) begins to be marketed in the U.S. by chocolate manufacturer Clarence A. Crane (1872-1931) of Garrettsville (near Cleveland), Ohio (father of poet Hart Crane) as a summer candy that doesn't melt, with the slogan "For that stormy breath", and a picture on the cardboard tube showing a sailor tossing a young woman a life preserver; in 1913 he sells the rights to Edward John Noble (1882-1958) for $2.9K, who changes to tin-foil wrappers, founding the Life Savers Candy Co. and placing them next to cash registers in stores and restaurants, with the cashiers instructed to always give customers a nickel in change for their dime; the 5-flavor roll is introduced in 1935. Sun-Maid Growers of Calif. (originally Calif. Associated Raisin Co.) is founded in Kingsburg, Calif. as a cooperative of family raisin farmers located within a 100 mi. radius of the plant; in 1915 Kansas City, Mo.-born Lorraine Collett (1892-1983) poses for the portrait of the Sun-Maid Raisin Girl, which begins appearing on packages in 1916. Austrian immigrant Herman Herer invents Turkish Taffy, becoming the first (only?) flat taffy on the market, selling it to M. Schwarz and Sons, which in 1936 is acquired by the Bonomo Co. of Coney Island, N.Y., founded by Turkish Sephardic Jewish immigrant Albert J. Bonomo, who modify the formula to make it more Turkish, a non-Newtonian fluid that must be broken before eaten, with the slogan: "Crack it up - Hold bar in palm of hand - strike against flat surface - let it melt in your mouth", starting out selling it in large sheets to Woolworth's stores, who use a ball-peen hammer to break it up and sell it by the pound before a a 5-cent candy bar size is introduced in the late 1940s; in 1980 it is acquired by Tootsie Roll Industries, who run it into the ground, discontinuing it in 1989; it is reintroduced in 2010. In 1912 J.W. Glenn Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. is inherited from English immigrant candymaker John W. Glenn by his son John Glenn, who goes on to introduce "penny chewing gum novelties" made of food-grade paraffin, incl. wax lips and horse teeth, growing to 100 employees and 18 salesmen by 1923. Whitman's Sampler is introduced by Whitman's Candies of Philly (founded 1842) becoming the first candy box to use cellophane wrapping; in the early 1960s Whitman's is acquired by Pet Inc., which in 1993 sells it to Russell Stover, which in July 2014 is acquired by Lindt & Sprungli; too bad, in 1941 NAACP atty. Thurgood Marshall objects to the use of Pickaninny Peppermints, causing the co. to deny racism but drop them from their line. Sports: On Mar. 11-13 (first season with numbers attached to player jerseys, the LeSeur goal, and the Spalding puck) the 1912 Stanley Cup Finals see the Quebec Bulldogs defeat the Moncton Victorias 2-0. In Mar. the Internat. Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) is founded in Paris by 12 nat. assocs. On June 8 The Illustrated London News pub. a description of the Golfstacle miniature golf course. On July 20 the Levitsky-Marshall Chess Game in Breslau (Wroclaw) between Russian chess champ (1911-12) Stepan Levitsky (Stefan Lewitzki) (1876-1924) and Am. chess champ (1909-36) Frank James Marshall (1877-1944) sees Marshall get ahead by a piece, then unexpectedly put his queen in jeopardy to win, allegedly triggering a shower of gold from spectators. On Nov. 23 the first Neb. U.-Okla. U. football game, played in Lincoln Neb., is won by Neb. 13-9; the longest win streak is 16 by Okla. in 1943-58; the largest victory is Neb. by 69-7 in 1997; the last game is played in Norman, Okla. on Dec. 4, 2010, with Okla. winning by 23-20, leading the series 45-38-3; the next meeting will be in Norman, Okla. on Sept. 18, 2021. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) of West Point injures his knee trying to tackle James Francis "Jim" Thorpe (1888-1953) of Carlisle Indian Industrial School of Carlisle, Penn. in a football game, which Carlisle wins by 27-6; Thorpe's coach from 1907-14 is Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner (1871-1954). Baskets with open-bottom nets come into gen. use in basketball. Baron Pierre de Coubertin designs the Olympic Symbol of five interlocking rings colored blue-yellow-black-green-red on a white background, which covers all the colors in the flags of participating nations so far; it debuts in the 1920 games. Baskets with open-bottom nets come into gen. use in basketball. Architecture: On Aug. 12 the 48th Street Theatre at 157 West 48th Street in Manhattan, N.Y. opens, debuting the play "Just Like John" by George Broadhurst; on Apr. 18, 1926 it stages the prof. debut of Martha Graham; it goes on host "The Squall" by Jean Bart (Nov. 11, 1926), "Puppy Love" starring Spring Byington (1926), "The Pagan Lady" starring Leonore Ulric (1930), and "Unexpected Husband" starring Josephine Hull (1931); in 1937 it is acquired by Sam H. Grisman, who renames it the Windsor Theatre, hosting plays for the Internat. Ladies' Garment Workers' Union; on Sept. 1, 1943 it reverts to its original name, going on to host the play "Harvey" by Mary Coyle Chase on Nov. 1, 1944; too bad, on Aug. 23, 1955 a rooftop water tank falls through the roof, spilling 10K gal. of water and causing the bldg. to be demolished. On Dec. 20 the Cort Theatre at 138 West 48th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1,082) opens, designed by Thomas W. Lamb for John Cort (1861-1929), with a Louis XVI interior, a Pavanozza marble lobby, and a lighted plaster-glass proscenium stage arch, debuting Peg o' My Heart, starring Laurette Taylor (603 perf.); in 1927 it is acquired by the Shubert Org.; in 1969-72 it is used as the studio for "The Merv Griffin Show". The 44th Street Theatre (originally Weber and Fields' Music Hall until 1915) at 216 West 44th St. opens; in 1918 the Roof Garen becomes the Nora Bayes Theatre; in the 1935-9 it presented shows by the Federal Theatre Project, sponsored by the Works Progress Admin.; in 1942 the basement becomes the Stage Door Canteen; in June 1945 it is demolished. Fenway Park in Boston, Mass. opens, becoming the oldest and smallest baseball stadium in the U.S. at the end of the cent. Al-Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo (begun 1869) is completed, becoming the burial place of King Farouk and Reza Pahlavi I and II. The Basilica of Sacre Coeur in Montmartre, Paris (begun 1876) is completed. The 1312 x 206 ft. Wooloomooloo Bay Wharf in Sydney, Australia is completed, with a 5-story, 1150 x 141 ft. bldg. (688,890 sq. ft.), becoming the largest wooden bldg. so far. The 325-ft. D&F Tower is constructed in Denver, Colo, becoming its first skyscraper and the tallest bldg. W of the Mississippi River for two years. The French Gothic Roman Catholic Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Denver, Colo. at Colfax Ave. and Logan St., designed by Leon Coquard is inaugurated on Oct. 27; Molly Brown is a major fundraiser; the dual 210-ft. spires are struck by lightning this year and again in 1997. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Elihu Root (1845-1937) (U.S.); Lit.: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) (Germany); Physics: Nils Gustaf Dalen (1869-1937) (Sweden) [automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys]; Chem.: Francois Auguste Victor Grignard (1871-1935) (France) [Grignard Reaction] and Paul Sabatier (1854-1941) (France) [Sabatier Process]; Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) (France) [blood vessel suturing]. Inventions: U.S. rear adm. Bradley Allen Fiske (1854-1942) patents the idea of aerial torpedo bombing from aircraft. Frederick Gardner Cottrell (1877-1948) of the U.S. Bureau of Mines invents the Cottrell Electrostatic Precipitator for removing suspended matter from gases using 50K-75K volts DC. Jason Christian Ellehammer (1871-1946) of Denmak invents the Ellehammer Helicopter, the first helicopter capable of flight, based on C. Renard's articulated rotor blade of 1904 and G.A. Crocco's cyclic pitch control of 1906. English automobile repairman (ex-bicycle manufacturer) (later Sir) William Richard Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield (1877-1963), owner of Morris Garage (founded 1909) designs the 2-seat Morris Oxford Bullnose automobile, and begins manufacturing it next year (until 1926); in 1919 he founds Morris Motors Ltd. in Cowley, Oxford, going on to become a philanthropist and viscount, turning Oxford into an industrial city; in 1915 the larger 4-seat Morris Cowley is introduced (until 1958); in 1925 Morris overtakes Ford to become the biggest car manufacturer in Britain, with 51% of the market; in 1929 William Morris is created baronet, in 1934 baron of Nuffield in Oxford county, then in 1938 viscount, going on to become a philanthropist. Walter Baker of Cleveland, Ohio purchases the 1890s patent of Justin Entz of Philly and joins with Ralph Owen of New York City to produce the Owen Magnetic automobile in 1915-21, which uses a gasoline generator driven by a 6-cylinder engine to drive an electric motor that powers the wheels, using the same principle as the battleship USS New Mexico, with the slogan "The car of a thousand speeds", becoming a hit with celebs incl. Enrico Caruso. The German govt. patents PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) explosive, the least stable of common military explosives, which lasts longer in storage. German publisher Reclams Universal-Bibliotheck introduces book vending machines in Germany. Franz Reichelt dies after jumping off the first deck (60m) Eiffel Tower in Paris to test his parachute overcoat. Science: Danish chemist Niels Bjerrum (1879-1958) pub. On the Infared Spectra of Gases showing that infared absoption by molecules is caused by uptake of rotational and vibrational energy in definite quanta, becoming the first correct application of quantum theory to interpretation of spectra. German-born Am. anthropologist Franz Uri Boas (1858-1942) reports striking differences in cranial form between U.S.-born children and their Euro-born parents, showing that environment has a large effect on skull shape, shocking the fat-headed racist scientific world. On Dec. 6 German Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt (1864-1938) discovers a polychrome bust of Egyptian queen Nefertiti in Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, smuggling it to Germany. Am. brain surgeon Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939) discovers an endocrinological syndrome caused by malfunction of the pituitary gland, which in 1943 is named Cushing's Syndrome. Dutch physicist Peter Joseph William Debye (1884-1966) of the U. of Zurich pub. the Debye Theory of Specific Heat of Solids, which modifies Einstein's theory to threat vibrations of the atomic lattice as phonons in a box instead of non-interacting quantum harmonic oscillators, becoming one of the first theoretical successes of quantum theory. English physicist William Henry Eccles (1875-1966) proposes that solar radiation is responsible for the difference in night and day radio wave propagation. German biochemist Paul Ehrlich introduces the topical antiseptic Acriflavine. Italian mathematical statistician Corrado Gini (1884-1965) pub. the paper "Variability and Mutability", defining the Gini Coefficient, which is later used as a measure of inequality of income or wealth distribution, as well as biodiversity, with a 0 value indicating a perfectly equal distribution, and a 1 value a perfectly unequal distribution (one individual has it all); too bad, Gini later stinks his name up by claiming to scientifically back up Fascism. Austrian-born Am. physicist Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) discovers Cosmic Rays with a hot air balloon during a near-total eclipse, measuring rising radiation at rising altitudes despite the Moon blocking most of the Sun's visible radiation, winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize; "The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above." German Merck chemist Anton Kollisch (Köllisch) (1888-1916) synthesizes MDMA (Ecstasy) to stop abnormal bleeding; it is patented on May 16, 1914; its potential as a recreational drug is first publicized in 1978 by Russian-Am. chemist Alexander Theodore "Sasha" Shulgin (1925-) of UCB. German physicist Max von Laue (1879-1960) of the U. of Zurich discovers X-ray Diffraction, making it possible to directly observe the atomic structure of crystals, winning him the 1914 Nobel Physics Prize. French chemist Louis Camille Maillard (1878-1936) pub. the Maillard Reaction between the carbonyl group of sugar and the nucleophilic amino group of amino acid at 140C-165C that gives browned food a desirable flavor. Am. pharmacist Wilbur Lincoln Scoville (1865-1942) devises the Scoville Organoleptic Test and associated Scoville Scale to measure the hotness of chili peppers based on the amount of sugar water needed to dilute away the heat. English radiochemist Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) of the U. of Glasgow coins the term "isotope". British archeologists Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (1880-1960) and David George Hogarth (1862-1927) (keeper of the Ashmolean Museum since 1909) begin excavating the ancient Hittite city of Carchemish (Karkemish) (until 1914); future WWI hero T.E. Lawrence works with them; when WWI starts, Hogarth gets Lawrence a job with British intelligence in Cairo, launching his career. South African hunter Stoffel Coetzee discovers the giant Mpaluzi Footprint in Eastern Transvaal near the border with Swaziland, embedded in phenocrystic or porphyritic granite, stirring theories of giants walking the Earth in ancient times; geologists date the rock to 3.1B B.C.E. Nonfiction: Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930), Lord Ashburton and the Treaty of Washington. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), The Nervous Character. Mary Antin (1881-1949), The Promised Land (autobio.); her trip on the boat to Ellis Island, and assimilation into Am. culture. William Archer (1856-1924), The Great Analysis: A Plea for a Rational World-Order; intro. by Gilbert Murray; "What is wrong with the world is its vastness." Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Frauenrecht; Inventur. George Louis Beer (1872-1920), The Old Colonial System, 1660-1754 (2 vols.); British imperial commercial policy, Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), The Servile State; his anti-Capitalist anti-Socialist philosophy of distributism; This and That. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Those (Your) United States. Fredrich von Bernhardi (1849-1930), On Today's War (Vom Heutigen Kriege) (2 vols.); vol. 2 is titled Germany and the Next War (Deutschland und der Nachste Krieg); big bestseller by a retired German cavalry officer (commanding gen. of the German Seventh Army Corps), using the Second Moroccan Crisis to frantically push all-out no-negotiation war for Germany as its Darwinian biological imperative, with the slogan "world power or decline"; by the start of WWI it's up to ed. #9; contains the immortal soundbyte: "War is a biological necessity... the natural law, upon which all the laws of Nature rest, the law of the struggle for existence"; Barbara Tuchman in "The Guns of August" points out that the Germans are reading this on the eve of WWI, while the British are reading Norman Angell's 1909 "The Great Illusion", which argues just the opposite. Annie Besant (1847-1933), Initiation: The Perfecting of Man. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), The Land War in Ireland. Franz Boas (1858-1942), Changes in the Form of Body of the Descendants of Immigrants; "The mixed descendants of European and American Indians are taller and more fertile than the pureblood Indians. They are even taller than either parental race. The mixed blood Dutch and Hottentot of South Africa and the Malay mixed bloods of the Island of Kisar are in type intermediate between the two races, and do not exhibit any traits of degeneracy. The populations of the Sudan, mixtures of Mediterranean and Negro types, have always been characterized by great vigor. There is also little doubt that in eastern Russia a considerable infusion of Asiatic blood has occurred. The biological observations on our North American mulattoes do not convince us that there is any deleterious effect of race mixture so far as it is evident in anatomical form and function." Gamaliel Bradford (1863-1932), Lee, the American. William Henry Bragg (1862-1942), Studies in Radioactivity. James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt: Lectures Delivered on the Morse Foundation at Union Theological Seminary. Oscar Browning (1837-1923), A History of the Modern World, 1815-1910. George Kimball Burgess (1874-1932) and Henri Le Chatelier (1850-1936), The Measurement of High Temperatures. Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), The International Mind: An Argument for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes. Colin Campbell, The Miraculous Birth of King Amen-hotep III, and Other Egyptian Studies. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), Manalive; Christian apologetics. Will Marion Cook (1869-1944), A Collection of Negro Songs. Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), The Essence of Aesthetic; art alone edifies us, hence is more important than science of metaphysics? Maximilian Dauthendey (1867-1918), Der Geist Meines Vaters; his obsession with the number 23. Charles Montagu Doughty (1843-1926), The Clouds. Norman Douglas (1868-1952), Fountains in the Sand; "Rambles amongst the oases of Tunisia." Sir Edward Durning-Lawrence (1837-1914), The Shakespeare Myth. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929), Women's Suffrage: A Short History of a Great Movement. Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957), The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness; now listen while I tell you a story about a man named Martin Kallikak, whose Appalachian descendants get into inbreeding and become "a race of defective degenerates", causing him to call for eugenics programs incl. compulsory sterilization and segregation for the feeble-minded; after translating the Binet IQ test into English in 1908 and distributing 22K copies across the U.S., introducing the terms "moron" (mental age 8-12, IQ 51-70), imbecile (26-50), and idiot (0-25) into psychology, and helping write the first U.S. law is founded requiring blind, deaf, and mentally retarded children to receive special education in public schools, he pub. this bestseller, which spawns a Broadway play and a 1977 NBC sitcom; next year he tests immigrants on Ellis Island to verify his theories, but after his methods are questioned, he drops the whole approach, never mind the damage done. Charles Francis Haanel (1866-1949), The Master Key System; New Thought book; sells 200K copies by 1933; the secret of Bill Gates' success? Paul Haberlin (Häberlin) (1878-1960), Science and Philosophy (Wissenschaft und Philosophie) (2 vols.). Elie Halevy (1870-1937), A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century (6 vols.) (1912-30). Matthew Henson (1866-1955), A Negro Explorer at the South Pole (autobio.). Henri Houssaye (1848-1911), Iena (Iéna) et la Campagne de 1806 (Jena and the Campaign of 1806). James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Psychology of the Unconscious (Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido). Philander Chase Knox (1853-1921), Speeches. Robert Koch (1843-1910), Samtliche Schriften (posth.). Christian Daa Larson (1874-1962), The Ideal Made Real, or Applied Metaphysics for Beginners; becomes a hit with Ernest Holmes, who dumps Mary Baker Eddy's writings for his; this year he develops the Optimist Creed, which is adopted by Optimist Internat. in 1922. Laurence Marcellus Larson (1868-1938), Canute the Great, 995-1035, and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age. James Laurence Laughlin (1850-1933), Banking Reform. Arthur Lillie (1831-?), Rama and Homer: An Argument that in the Indian Epics Homer Found the Them of His Two Great Poems. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), The Mechanistic Conception of Life; animals as chemical machines, and instincts as "whole organism responses" to chemical changes in the environment. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister (1870-1950), A History of Civilization in Palestine; 2nd ed. 1921. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), The Land of Promise. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), The Courts, the Constitution, and Parties: Studies in Constitutional History and Politics. Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), The Theory of Money and Credit; claims that money has its origin in the market, with its value based on its usefulness as an exchange commodity, making him a star. Maria Montessori (1870-1952), The Montessori Method. Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916), Vocation and Learning. Sir John Murray (1841-1914) and Johan Hjort (1869-1948), The Depths of the Ocean; becomes std. textbook on oceanography. F. Oppenheimer, The Social Problem and Socialism. Charles Peguy (1873-1914), Le Mystere des Saints Innocents; "Faith is a great tree, an oak tree rooted deep in the heart of France"; "There will be things that I do that no one will be left to understand." Otto Rank (1884-1939), The Incest Theme in Literature and Legend. James Harvey Robinson (1863-1936), The New History: Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), Realizable Ideals. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Problems of Philosophy. F.C.S. Schiller (1864-1937), Formal Logic. Walter William Skeat (1835-1912), English Dialects from the Eighth Century to the Present Day. Frederick Soddy (1877-1956), Matter and Energy. Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914), Menschheit, Hochgedanken. Ida M. Tarbell (1857-1944), The Business of Being a Woman; despite being a top female journalist, she claims that the woman's place is still in the home - don't want to hear about it, every single womb's got a story to tell? Sir Edward Maunde Thompson (1840-1929), Introduction to Latin and Greek Paleography. J.M. Thompson, Miracles in the New Testament. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), The Tragic Sense of Life; (Del Sentimiento Tragico de la Vida); English trans. 1921; his masterpiece?; placed on the Roman Catholic Prohibited Books Index, making it more popular? William Robert Ware (1832-1915), Architectural Shades and Shadows. Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane); proposes the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift, and the supercontinent Pangaea - Brazil fits neatly into the Gulf of Guinea in W Africa, so post fit ergo propter fit? Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement; helps found Gestalt Psychology. Walter Weyl (1873-1919), The New Democracy: An Essay on Certain Political and Economic Tendencies in the United States; nationalist Progressive thinker wants a strong state to fix weak U.S. nat. institutions, claiming that a "social surplus" of material prosperity gives the U.S. the opportunity to achieve greater social justice incl. regulation of big business; "America to-day is in a somber, soul-questioning mood. We are in a period of clamor, of bewilderment, of an almost tremulous unrest. We are hastily revising all our social conceptions... We are profoundly disenchanted with the fruits of a century of independence." William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Cutting of an Agate. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Die Verschenkte Frau (opera); Liebesketten (opera). Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Dance of Wild Irravel; Four Orchestral Pieces (1912-3). Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Israel (1912-17) (symphony). Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Jeux (ballet) (Paris). Frederick Delius (1862-1934), On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring (tone poem). Paul Dukas (1865-1935), La Peri (Péri) (ballet). Leo Fall (1873-1925), Der Liebe Augustin (Princess Caprice); 3,360 perf. Michel Fokine (1880-1942), Afternoon of a Faun (ballet). Rudolf Friml (1879-1972), The Firefly (first operetta) (Dec. 2) (Lyric Theatre, New York); libretto by Otto Harbach; a young Italian New York street singer disguises herself and serves as a cabin boy on a ship to Bermuda, where she falls in love and becomes a grand opera diva. Charles Tomlinson Griffes (1884-1920), The Pleasure Dome of Kubla Khan; revised 1916; American Impressionism. W.C. (William Christopher) Handy (1873-1958), The Memphis Blues; gains blues (12-measure stanzas of syncopated melody in 2/4 or 4/4 time with strong rhythmic accompaniment) widespread acceptance. W.C. Handy (1873-1958), Memphis Blues (Sept.); a "Southern rag", becoming the first blues song, pioneering the basic 3-chord 12-Bar Blues harmonic structure, gaining blues (12-measure stanzas of syncopated melody in 2/4 or 4/4 time with strong rhythmic accompaniment) wide acceptance, causing him to become known as "the Father of Blues"; sells the rights for $100; originally "Mr. Crump", composed as a campaign tune for 1909 mayoral candidate Edward Crump; inspires the foxtrot dance step by Vernon and Irene Castle of New York City. Victor Herbert (1859-1924), The Lady of the Slipper (operetta); adaptation of "Cinderella". Jack Judge (1872-1938) and Harry Williams, It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary (Jan. 30); becomes a big hit among British troops in WWI. Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Der Zigeunerprimas (operetta) (Vienna); The Blue House (operetta). Chauncey Olcott (1858-1932) and George Graff Jr. (1886-1973), When Irish Eyes Are Smiling; music by Ernest Ball; first performed this year in Olcott's "The Isle O'Dreams"; "When Irish eyes are smiling,/ Sure, 'tis like the morn in spring./ In the lilt of Irish laughter/ You can hear the angels sing./ When Irish hearts are happy,/ All the world seems bright and gay./ And when Irish eyes are smiling,/ Sure, they steal your heart away." Horatio William Parker (1863-1919) and Brian Hooker (1880-1946), Mona (first opera) (Mar. 14) (Metropolitan Opera House, New York); wins a $10K prize but only lasts four perf.. Sir Hubert Parry (1848-1918), Symphony No. 5 (Symphonic Fantasia 1912); Ode on the Nativity. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Daphnis and Chloe (ballet) (Theatre du Chatelet, Paris) (June 8); written for Sergei Diaghilev. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Pierrot Lunaire (Berlin); Five Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 16; introduces atonality to classical music. Franz Schreker (1878-1934), Der ferne Klans (opera) (Frankfurt). Deodat de Severac (1872-1921), En Vacances. Robert Elisabeth Stolz (1880-1975), Servus Du. Oscar Straus (1870-1954), The Brave Cassian (Der Tapfere Cassian) (operetta); The Dancing Viennese. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) and Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Ariadne auf Naxos (opera) (Stuttgart). Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), George Gissing: A Critical Study. Movies: ?'s Apartment No. 13 debuts, becoming the film debut of Russian-born Billy (Billie) West (Roy B. Weissburg) (1892-1975), who goes on to become a Charlie Chaplin imitator ("the Faux Charlot") in 1917 co-starring with Oliver Hardy, becoming a producer in 1922 and creating his own persona with a straw hat and pencil mustache, turning into a dir. in 1924. Colin Campbell's Cinderella (Jan. 1) (Selig Studios), written by Campbell based on the Brothers Grimm story is the film debut of Mabel "Nell" Taliaferro (1887-1979), sister of actress Edith Taliaferro (1894-1958); Mabel goes on to become known as "the Sweetheart of Am. Movies". Urban Gad's Dance of Death (Der Totentanz) (Sept. 7), based on the 1900 August Strindberg play is produced in Denmark, and stars Asta Nielsen and Oskar Fuchs. D.W. Griffith's The Female of the Species (Apr. 15) stars Charles West as a miner, Claire McDowell as his wife, and Mary Pickford as her sister. Alice Guy's A Fool and His Money (Oct. 11) (Solax) stars James Russell as Sam Jones, becoming the first film with an all-African-Am. cast. D.W. Griffith's Friends (Sept. 23) stars Mary Pickford as orphan Dora, who is courted by two miners, Dandy Jack (Henry B. Walthall) and Grizzley Fallon (Lionel Barrymore). Sidney Olcott's From the Manger to the Cross; or, Jesus of Nazareth (Oct.) (Kalem) (London), filmed on location in Palestine is written by Gene Gauntier, who plays Virgin Mary, becoming a hit in the U.K. and U.S., doing $1M+ box office on a $35K budget; too bad, the London Daily Mail pub. the headline "Is nothing sacred to the film maker?", causing the British Board of Film Censors to be founded in London in Dec. by members of the film industry to classify and censor films in the U.K. to stave off govt. intervention, with filmmakers having to pay to have their films reviewed after it begins operation on Jan. 1, 1913; in 1984 it changes its name to British Board of Film Classification, expanding to home videos and video games. ?'s The Honor of the Family (Nov. 7) (Universal) is the film debut of Colorado Springs, Colo.-born "Man of a Thousand Faces" Leonidas Frank "Lon" Chaney Sr. (1883-1930), who abandoned his theater career after his wife Cleva attempted suicide and ruined her singing voice, divorcing him; after failing to get a pay raise, he leaves Universal in 1919. Winsor McKay's How a Mosquito Operates is a B&W cartoon. On Mar. 14, 1912 D.W. Griffith's Iola's Promise (Biograph) debuts, starring Mary Pickford, Alfred Pagent, and Frank Evans, become the film debut of Madrid, Spain-born Antonio "Tony" Moreno (Antonio Garrido Monteagudo) (1887-1967), who goes on to become known as "the Latin Lover" and become the rival of Rudolph Valentino. D.W. Griffith's Just Like a Woman (Apr. 18) stars Mary Pickford. Arthur Hotaling's The Lovers' Signal (Apr. 17) (Lubin) is the film debut of Eldon Raymond McKee (1892-1984) as Jack Dawson in his first of 173 films by 1935. D.W. Griffith's Man's Genesis (July 11) (Biograph) stars W. Crystie Miller as Grandfather, Robert Harron as Weakhands, Wilfred Lucas as Bruteforce, and Mae Marsh as Lillywhite. D.W. Griffith's The Mender of Nets (Feb. 15) stars Mary Pickford. Abel Gance's Le Negre Blanc, produced in France. D.W. Griffith's The New York Hat (Dec. 5) stars $175/week Biograph star Mary Pickford, who decides to return to Broadway, and stars next year in David Belsco's "A Good Little Devil" for $200/week; she then decides that films are funner, and returns to Calif. next year, getting a pay raise to $300/week. Pat Powers' The Nurse (Feb. 6) (Powers Picture Plays) stars Shreveport, La.-born Mary Miles Minter (Juliet Reilly) (1902-84), who goes on to star in 50+ silent films by 1923. H.A. Spanuth's Oliver Twist (May 20) (Gen. Film Co.), based on the 1838 Charles Dickens novel stars Nat C. Goodwin as Fagin, Vinnie Burns as Oliver Twist, Charley Rogers as the Artful Dodger, and Mortimer Martine as Bill Sykes, becoming the first feature-length U.S. film (5 reels); in 1917 H.A. Spanuth forms Commonwealth Pictures Corp., which folds in 1920 after 26 films. Thomas Bentley's Oliver Twist (Sept.) (Hepworth Co.), based on the 1838 Charles Dickens novel is Bentley's dir. debut; he goes on to dir. 68 films by 1941. Alexander Khanzhonkov's Prekrasnaya Lukanida is the world's first cartoon - and it was invented in Russia? Henri Desfontaines' and Louis Mercanton's Queen Elizabeth (Les Amours de la Reine Elisabeth) (Aug.) (Le Film d'Art) stars Sarah Bernhardt as Elizabeth I, and Lou Tellegen as Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. D.W. Griffith's An Unseen Enemy (Sept. 9) (Biograph) is the film debut for the Springfield, Ohio-born Gish sisters Lillian Gish (de Guiche) (1893-1993) and Dorothy Elizabeth Gish (1898-1968), childhood friends of Mary Pickford, who introduced them to Griffith. Charles Brabin's What Happened to Mary? (July 26), written by Horace G. Plympton becomes the first movie serial, consisting of 12 monthly 1-reel episodes starring Mary Fuller as Mary; the dir. debut of English-born Charles Brabin (1882-1957), who goes on to marry silent-screen vamp Theda Bara in 1921, becoming a rare successful Hollywood marriage that lasts until her 1955 death from cancer. Art: Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916), Dynamism of an Automobile. David Bomberg (1890-1957), Vision of Ezekiel. Georges Braque (1882-1963), Quotidien du Midi (Fruit Dish). Marc Chagall (1887-1985), The Cattle Dealer. Lovis Corinth (1858-1925), The Actor Rittner as Florian Geyer. Robert Delaunay (1885-1941), Sun and Moon: Simultaneous Contrasts. Maurice Denis (1870-1943), Annunciation; big V for Les Nabis? Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Nude Descending a Staircase; shown at the 1913 Armory Show. Duncan Grant (1885-1978), The Lemon Gatherers. Juan Gris (1887-1927), Portrait of Picasso. Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), The Vorticist; launches the short-lived English Vorticist art movement, which peaks in 1914-5, and incl. painter David Bomberg (1890-1957). Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935), Taking in the Harvest; Self-Portrait. Franz Marc (1880-1916), Tower of Blue Horses; Deer in the Woods II; The Tiger. John Marin (1870-1953), Brooklyn Bridge. Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), Tete (Tête) (Fr. "Head") (sculpture); 2-ft. African-inspired limestone sculpture, exhibited in the 1912 Salon d'Automne; in 2010 it is auctioned by Christie's in Paris for 43.2M Euros. Emil Nolde (1867-1956), The Prophet (woodcut); Crucifixion. Francis Picabia (1879-1953),Tarentelle; The Procession, Seville; The Dance at the Spring. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Violin; Guitar (1912-3) (sheet metal sculpture). Odilon Redon (1840-1916), La Coquille (The Seashell). Henriette Roland Holst Van der Schalk (1869-1952), De Vrouw in het Woud (The Woman in the Wood). John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), Granada: The Weavers. Egon Schiele (1890-1918), Self-Portrait, 1912; Agony. John Sloan (1871-1951), McSorley's Bar. Plays: Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Das Prinzip (The Prince). Paul Claudel (1868-1955), c'Annonce Faite a Marie. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Dans l'Ombre des Statues. Georg Kaiser (1878-1945), From Morn to Midnight; big German Expressionist hit, about a bank cashier in Weimar who gets turned onto wealth by a rich Italian lady and embezzles 60K marks, heading to Berlin to live it up, only to end up miserable. Jerome Kern (1885-1945), Rida Johnson Young (1875-1926), and Paul West, The Red Petticoat (Western musical-comedy) (Daly's 30th St. Theatre, New York) (Nov. 13) (Broadway Theatre, New York) (61 perf.); tough lady barber Sophie Brush in the rough silver-mining town of Lost River, Nev. gets her man; Kern's first complete score. Sir Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Mind-the-Paint Girl (comedy). Esme Stuart Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), Patriots. Paul A. Rubens, Cecil Raleigh, and Arthur Wimperis, The Sunshine Girl (musical comedy) (Feb. 24) (Gaiety Theatre, London); introduces the Tango to British audiences. Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Professor Bernhardi. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Androcles and the Lion; 1st cent. C.E. slave. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Helene de Sparte. On Jan. 8, 1912 Nevada City, Nev.-born playwright Richard Walton Tully (1877-1945), Bird of Paradise: A Play of a Woman's Soul (Daly's Theater, New York) (Jan. 8) (112 perf.); Hawaiian princess Luana falls for Dr. Paul Wilson, who saves the people from leprosy before sacrificing himself to the volcano god; Hawaiian male singers Kolomoku, Waiwaiole, Kaiawe, Kawala, and Aoka sing "Mauna Kea", "Waialae", and "Ku'u Home" (Old Plantation) while playing the guitar, ukulele, steel guitar, and ipu, introducing Hawaiian music to Americans, along with the Hawaiian words pau (finished), wiki wiki (hurry up), pau (pa'u) hana (work), aloha (greetings), nui (love to you), and pilikea (trouble); after it is featured in the 1915 Panama-Pacific Internat. Exposition in San Francisco, Calif. in 1915, which introduces the Hawaiian steel guitar to country musicians, Hawaiian music outsells all other styles in the U.S. in 1916. Stefan Zeromski (1864-1925), The Faithful River. Poetry: Zoe Akins (1886-1958), Interpretations. Gottfried Benn (1886-1956), Morgue and Other Poems. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Les Compagnons. Adam Lindsay Gordon (1833-70), Selected Poems (posth.); lowbrow sporting poetry becomes a big hit with the Australian gen. public. Henriette Roland Holst (1869-1952), De Vrouw in het Woud. Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962), Flagons and Apples (debut). Pauline Johnson (1861-1913), Flint and Feather. Amy Lowell (1874-1925), A Dome of Many-Colored Glass. Walter De La Mare (b. 1873), The Listeners; "Is there anybody there? said the Traveller,/ Knocking on the moonlit door;/ And his horse in the silence champ'd the grasses/ Of the forest's ferny floor". John Masefield (1878-1967), Dauber; The Widow in the Bye Street; "Man cannot call the brimming instant back;/ Time's an affair of instants spun to days;/ If man must make an instant gold, or black,/ Let him, he may; but Time must go his ways"; The Story of a Round House and Other Poems. Claude McKay (1889-1948), Songs of Jamaica (debut); Constab Ballads. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Renascence: And Other Poems (debut); in 1912 she entered the poem Renascence in The Lyric Year, and it came in 4th even though everybody thought is should have won, leading to wealthy arts patron Caroline B. Dow to pay for her education at Vassar College; incl. "Interim" ("The Room is full of you!"). Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Ripostes (Oct.); helps found Imagism. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), The Vigil of Venus and Other Poems; A Tale of Troy. Amanda McKittrick Ros (1860-1939), Poems of Puncture; "Beneath me here in stinking clumps/ Lies Lawyer Largebones, all in lumps;/ A rotten mass of clockholed clay,/ Which grown more honeycombed each day./ See how the rats have scratched his face?/ Now so unlike the human race;/ I very much regret I can't/ Assist them in their eager bent." Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Gitanjali: Song Offerings. Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916), Les Bles Mouvants. Novels: Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), A Christmas Garland, Woven by Max Beerbohm. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), The Matador of the Five Towns (short stories). Edmund C. Bentley, Trent's Last Case. George A. Birmingham (1865-1950), The Red Hand of Ulster; an Irish-Am. millionaire leads a Protestant rebellion in Ulster; General John Regan; a returning Yankee raises an Irish natonalist monument to a non-existent Irish hero. Ivan Bunin (1870-1953), Dry Valley. Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), Tarzan of the Apes; a boy adopted by African gorillas Kala and Kerchak; "He could spring twenty feet across space at the dizzy heights of the forest top, and grasp with unerring precision, and without apparent jar, a limb waving wildly in the path of an approaching tornado. He could drop twenty feet at a stretch from limb to limb in rapid descent to the ground, or he could gain the utmost pinnacle of the loftiest tropical giant with the ease and swiftness of a squirrel. Though but 10 years old, he was fully as strong as the avg. man of thirty... And day by day his strength was increasing." Willa Cather (1873-1947), Alexander's Bridge (first novel); a flop. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), Blue-Bird Weather; illustrated by Charles Dana Gibson. Mary Cholmondeley (1859-1925), Moth and Rust. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), The Secret Sharer. E.M. Dell, The Way of an Eagle. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), The Lost World; an expediton to the Monte Roraima (Tepuyes) Plateau in Venezuela and Guyana by Prof. Challenger, Lord John Roxton, and journalist Ed Malone finds living dinos, early human hominids, and vicious ape-like creatures - this jararaca's on you? Theodore Dreiser (1874-1945), The Financier. Sui-Sin Far (Edith Maude Eaton) (1865-1914), Mrs. Spring Fragrance. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), Adnams Orchard. Zane Grey (1872-1939), Riders of the Purple Sage - sounds good enough to eat? H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Marie. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Atlantis. Col. Edward Mandell House (1858-1938), Philip Dru, Administrator; a demagogue leads the Wild West against the plutocratic East, becomes dictator of the U.S., imposes the Bull Moose Platform of 1912, then vanishes. Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Cease Firing; sequel to "The Long Roll"; rebel artillery officer Richard Cleve watches the cause go downhill. Vaughan Kester (1869-1911), The Just and the Unjust (posth.). Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940), Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness!; about the legend that the last person to die each year as to drive Death's carriage and collect the souls of everybody who dies the following year; filmed in 1921. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), The Trespasser. William John Locke (1863-1930), The Joyous Adventures of Aristide Pujol. John Luther Long (1861-1927), Baby Grand. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), Le Pelerin d'Angkor. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), Views and Vagabonds. Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), Carnival. Charles Major (1856-1913), The Touchstone of Fortune. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), In Cotton Wool. Nellie McClung (1873-1951), The Black Creek Stopping House and Other Stories. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Court of St. Simon (pub. under alias Anthony Partridge); The Lighted Way; The Tempting of Tavernake; Peter Ruff and the Double-Four (short stories); For the Queen (short stories). James Oppenheim (1882-1932), The Olympian. Louis Pergaud (1882-1915), La Guerre des Boutons (The War of the Buttons); boys of neighboring villages play war, with this KIA having their buttons removed as trophies, becoming more sinister a la The Lord of the Flies. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), When There's a Will; The Cave on Thundercloud; Mind Over Motor. Sax Rohmer (1883-1959), The Mystery of Dr. Fu Manchu; "Imagine a person, tall, lean and feline, high-shouldered, with a brow like Shakespeare and a face like Satan... one giant intellect, with all the resources of science past and present... Imagine that awful being, and you have a mental picture of Dr. Fu Manchu, the yellow peril incarnate in one man"; the good guys are white-is-right Sir Denis Nayland Smith and Dr. Petrie. Frederick Rolfe (1860-1913), The Weird of the Wanderer. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Justice of the Duke. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), The Monster. Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), To the Spring Equinox and Beyond; Kojin (The Wayfarer). Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Order of Release; The Street of the Flute-Player: A Romance. James Stephens, The Crock of Gold; fairy stories. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Happy Family. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Prelude to Adventure. Edith Wharton (1862-1937), The Reef. Grace Miller White (1868-1957), When Tragedy Grins. Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), Their Yesterdays. Births: Big year for U.S. golf greats to be born incl. Byron Nelson, Sam Snead, and Ben Hogan? French Christian anarchist philosopher Jacques Ellul (d. 1994) on Jan. 6 in Bordeaux; educated at the U. of Paris. Am. "The Addams Family" cartoonist Charles Samuel Addams on Jan. 7 in Westfield, N.J. Puerto Rican "Cyrano de Bergerac" actor Jose Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintron (d. 1992) on Jan. 8 in San Juan; educated at Princeton U.; husband (1938-48) of Uta Hagen, (1948-53) Phyllis Hill, (1953-61, 1964-7) Rosemary Clooney, and (1977-92) Stella Magee; father of Miguel Ferrer (1955-). Am. biochemist (Jewish) Konrad Emil Bloch (d. 2000) on Jan. 12 in Neisse (Nysa), Silesia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1936; educated at Columbia U.; pioneer with Feodor Lynen (1911-) of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism research. Am. "Margie" jazz trombonist (black) James "Trummy" Young (d. 1984) on Jan. 12 in ?; grows up in Savannah, Ga. and Richmond, Va. Australian psychiatrist John Frederick Joseph Cade (d. 1980) on Jan. 18 in Murtoa, Victoria. English "A Woman Seldom Found" novelist-writer William Sansom (d. 1976) on Jan. 18 in London. Russian (Soviet) Linear Programming economist-mathematician Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (d. 1986) on Jan. 19 in St. Petersburg. Am. "Flora the Red Menace" playwright-screenwriter Robert Wallace Russell (d. 1992) on Jan. 19. Am. nurse Ann Agnes Bernatitus (d. 2003) on Jan. 21 in Exter, Penn. Am. action (abstract expressionist) artist (alcoholic) ("Jack the Dripper" - Time mag.) Paul Jackson Pollock (d. 1956) on Jan. 28 in Cody, Wyo.; husband (1945-) of Lee Krasner (1908-84) - no chaos, damn it? U.S. Rep. (D-Mich.) (1955-74) (feminist) (first Dem. woman elected to Congress from Mich.) (first woman on the House Ways and Means Committee) Martha Wright Griffiths (d. 2003) on Jan. 29 in Pierce City, Mo.; educated t the U. of Mo., and U. of Mich. Am. "The Guns of August" historian (Jewish) Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (d. 1989) on Jan. 30 in New York City; daughter of Maurice Wertheim (1886-1950) and first wife Alma Morgenthau; first cousin of Robert M. Morgenthau (1919-); niece of Henry Morgenthau Jr. (1891-1967); granddaughter of Henry Morgenthau Sr. (1856-1946); educated at Radcliffe College; creator of Tuchman's Law: "The fact of being reported multiplies the apparent extent of any deplorable development by five to tenfold or any figure the reader would care to supply." Am. actor James Craig (James Henry Meador) (d. 1985) on Feb. 4 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. golfer "Lord" Byron Nelson (d. 2006) on Feb. 4 near Ft. Worth, Tex.; starts as a caddie at Glen Garden Country Club in Ft. Worth in 1922. German Hitler's mistress Eva Anna Paula Braun (d. 1945) on Feb. 6 in Munich; schooled in a convent; meets Hitler at age 17 at a camera shop where she works as an apprentice, and jumps to flee from her controlling father. English Marxist historian (17th cent. England) John Edward Christopher Hill (d. 2003) on Feb. 6 in York; Methodist parents; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. English "The Making of the Middle Ages" historian Sir R.W. (Richard William) Southern (d. 2001) on Feb. 8 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; student of Sir Maurice Powicke (1879-1963) and Vivian Hunter Galbraith (1889-1976); knighted in 1974. English pshrink Max Hamilton (d. 1988) on Feb. 9 in Offenbach am Main, Germany; emigrates to England in 1915; educated at Univ. College, London. German Resistance member (Jewish) (Communist) Herbert Baum (d. 1942) on Feb. 10 in Moschin, Posen; grows up in Berlin. Austrian-Australian conductor-composer Henry Joseph Krips (d. 1987) on Feb. 10 in Vienna; brother of Josef Krips (1902-74). Am. pianist (Jewish) Rudolf Firkusny (d. 1994) on Feb. 11 in Napajedla, Moravia; emigrates to France in 1939, and the U.S. in 1940. English "God is an Englishman" novelist-dramatist Ronald Frederick Delderfield (d. 1972) on Feb. 12 in Bermondsey, London. Estonian Gen. Harald Riipalu (Reibach) (d. 1961) on Feb. 13 in St. Petersburg. Spanish spy Juan (Joan) Pujol Garcia (d. 1988) on Feb. 14 in Barcelona. French "Planet of the Apes" novelist (agnostic) Pierre Francois Marie Louis Boulle (d. 1994) on Feb. 20 in Avignon. U.S. Second Lady (1965-9) Muriel Fay Humphrey Brown (d. 1998) on Feb. 20 in Huron, S.D.; wife of Hubert Humphrey (1911-78). English "The Alexandria Quartet" expatriate novelist-poet Lawrence George Durrell (d. 1990) on Feb. 27 in Jalandhar, India. Am. Dem. Tex. gov. #40 (1969-73) Preston Earnest Smith (d. 2003) on Mar. 7 near Austin, Williamsn County, Tex.; grows up in Lamesa, Tex.; educated at Texas Tech U. Iraqi king (1933-9) Ghazi I bin Faisal (d. 1939) on Mar. 21 in Mecca; only son of Faisal I (1883-1933). Canadian "A Tall Man Executes a Jig" "tell it like it is" poet (Jewish freethinker) Irving Peter Layton (Israel Pincu Lazarovitch) (d. 2006) on Mar. 12 in Targu Neamt, Romania; emigrates to Canada in 1913. Am. "Day by Day", "I Should Care", "Autumn in Rome", "No Other Love" pianist-composer-conductor ("Father of Mood Music") Paul Weston (Wetstein) (d. 1996) on Mar. 12 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at Dartmouth College, and Columbia U.; husband (1952-96) of Jo Stafford (1917-2008). Russian ballet dancer-choreographer Igor Youskevitch (d. 1994) on Mar. 13 in Pyriatin, Ukraine; becomes U.S. citizen in 1944; dance partner of Alicia Alonso (1920-). Am. "Sentimental Journey" bandleader Les Brown Sr. (d. 2001) (Band of Renown) on Mar. 14 in Reinerton, Penn. English The Observer newspaper ed. (1948-75) David (Francis David Langhorne) Astor (d. 2001) on Mar. 5 in London; son of Waldorf Astor (1879-1952) and Nancy Witcher Langhorne (1879-1964); educated at Eton College, and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. country blues guitarist (black) Sam "Lightnin'" Hopkins (d. 1982) on Mar. 15 in Centreville, Tex. U.S. First Lady (1969-74) Thelma Catherine Ryan "Pat" Nixon (d. 1993) on Mar. 16 in Ely, Nevada; wife (1940-) of Pres. Richard Nixon; at age 13 her mother dies, and she takes over running the family for her father and brothers. Am. civil rights activist (black) (gay) Bayard Rustin (d. 1987) on Mar. 17 in West Chester, Penn.; educated at CCNY. Am. "A Little Night Music" playwright-poet Hugh Callingham Wheeler (d. 1987) (AKA Patrick Quentin, Q. Patrick, Jonathan Stagge) on Mar. 19 in Hampstead, North London England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934. Am. "A Streetcar Named Desire", "On the Waterfront", "One-Eyed Jacks" actor Karl Malden (Mladen George Sekulovich) (d. 2009) on Mar. 22 in Chicago, Ill.; Bosnian Serb father, Czech mother; grows up in Gary, Ind.; changes his name at age 22. German Olympic gymnast Karl Alfred Schwarzmann (d. 2000) on Mar. 22 in Furth, Bavaria. German rocket scientist Baron Wernher Magnus Maximilian von Braun (d. 1977) on Mar. 23 in Wirsitz, Posen; educated at the Tech. U. of Berlin; emigrates to the U.S. in 1945. Am. civil rights activist (black) ("Godmother of the Civil Rights Movement") Dorothy Irene Height (d. 2010) on Mar. 24 in Richmond, Va.; educated at NYU. British Labour PM (1976-9) (atheist) (tallest PM) Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff (d. 2005) on Mar. 27 in Portsmouth; of Roman Catholic Irish ancestry; created baron in 1987. French "Pigments" poet-politician (black) Leon-Gontran Damas (d. 1978) (AKA Lionel Georges Andre Cabassou) on Mar. 28 in Cayenne, Guiana. German aviator and glider champ (Hitler's favorite pilot) Hanna Reitsch (d. 1979) on Mar. 29 in Hirschberg, Silesia. German SS officer Alois Brunner on Apr. 8 in Nadkus, Vas (Rohrbrunn, Burgenland), Austria. Norwegian figure skater-actress Sonja Henie (d. 1969) on Apr. 8 in Kristiania (Oslo). Am. "Mike Karr in The Edge of Night" actor John Larkin (d. 1965) on Apr. 11 in Oakland, Calif. Am. sculptor James Lincoln de la Mothe Borglum (d. 1986) on Apr. 12; son of Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941). Ugandan pres. (1979) (black) Yusuf(u) Kironde Lule (d. 1985) on Apr. 10 in Kampala. Am. electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (d. 2007) on Apr. 14 in Newark, N.J.; educated at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. North Korean dictator (1948-94) Kim Il-sung (Il Sung) (Il-song) (Sung-ju) (d. 1994) on Apr. 15 in Taedong County, South Pyongan Province; father of Kim Jong-il (1942-2011). English "The Private Life of Henry VIII" actress Wendy Barrie (Marguerite Wendy Jenkins) (d. 1978) on Apr. 18 in Hong Kong. Am. nuclear chemist Glenn Theodore Seaborg (d. 1999) on Apr. 19 in Ispeming, Mich.; of Swedish descent; discoverer of the transoceanic, er, transuranium elements; educated at UCLA and UCB. Am. photojournalist Eve Arnold (nee Cohen) (d. 2012) on Apr. 21 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; known for photos of Marilyn Monroe. English contralto Kathleen Ferrier (d. 1953) on Apr. 22 in Lancashire. Burundi king (1915-77) Mwambutsa IV Bangiricent (d. 1977) on Apr. 25. Am. "Mackenzie's Raiders", "It Came From Outer Space" actor-dir.-writer Richard Carlson (d. 1977) on Apr. 29 in Albert Lea, Minn. Am. "Our Miss Brooks" actress Eve Arden (Eunice Quedens) on Apr. 30 in Mill Valley, Calif. Am. "Heavy Organ" organist (gay) Virgil Keel Fox (d. 1980) on May 3 in Princeton, Ill. Am. economist Wolfgang Friedrich Stolper (d. 2002) on May 13 in Vienna, Austria; eldest son of Gustav Stolper; emigrates to Germany in 1925, and the U.S. in 1933; educated at Harvard U.; student of Joseph Schumpeter. Canadian anarchist writer George Woodcock (d. 1995) on May 8 in Winnipeg, Man.; grows up in England; not to be confused with English labor George Woodcock (1904-79). Am. "The Three Commandments" actor-comedian Foster Brooks (d. 2001) on May 11 in Louisville, Ky. U.S. FBI intel dir. William Cornelius Sullivan (d. 1977) on May 12 in Bolton, Mass.; educated at Am. U., and George Washington U. Canadian jazz pianist Ian Ernst Gilmore "Gil" Evans (d. 1988) on May 13 in Toronto, Ont. Am. physicist ("the First Lady of Physics") ("the Madame Curie of China") Chien-Shiung Wu (d. 1997) on May 13 in Liuhe (near Shanghai), China; emigrates to the U.S. in 1936; educated at UCB. Am. writer-actor (Jewish) Louis "Studs" Terkel (d. 2008) on May 16 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Chicago; "Take it easy, but take it." Am. "The Brothers Karamazov", "Lord Jim", "The Last Time I Saw Paris" dir.-writer-novelist (Jewish) Richard Brooks (Ruben Sax) (d. 1992) on May 18 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; husband (1965-77) of Jean Simmons. Am. "Catch a Falling Star", "Hoop-De-Doo", "Hot Diggity" singer (Roman Catholic) Pierino Ronald "Perry" Como (d. 2001) on May 18 in Cannonsburg (near Pittsburgh), Penn.; 7th of 13 children; Italian immigrant parents from Palena; known for wearing a cardigan sweater. German automobile manufacturer Georg von Open (d. 1971) on May 18 in Frankfurt am Main. Am. "Never Love a Stranger" novelist (Jewish) Harold Robbins (Rubin) (d. 1997) on May 21 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. chemist (Jewish) Herbert Charles Brown (Brovarnik) (d. 2004) on May 22 in London; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. comedy writer Arnold M. Auerbach (d. 1998) on May 12 in New York City; not to be confused with Arnold J. "Red" Auerbach (1917-2006). French "La Princesse de Cleves" neoclassical composer-pianist Jean Rene Desire Francaix (René Désiré Françaix) (d. 1997) on May 23 in Le Mans; student of Nadia Boulanger. Canadian Mohawk "Tonto in The Lone Ranger" actor Jay Silverheels (Harold J. Smith) (d. 1980) on May 26 in Six Nations Indian Reserve, Brantford, Ont. Am. "Falconer" novelist (bi) John Cheever (d. 1982) on May 27 in Quincy, Mass. Am. golfer ("Slammin' Sammy") Samuel Jackson Snead (d. 2002) on May 27 in Ashwood, Va. Australian "Riders in the Chariot", "The Vivisector" novelist-poet-playwright (gay) Patrick Victor Martindale White (d. 1990) on May 28 in Knightsbridge, London; grows up in Sydney, Australia; educated at Cheltenham College, and King's College, Cambridge U. English "An Error of Judgement" novelist-poet-playwright-critic Pamela Hansford Johnson, Baroness Snow (d. 1981) on May 29 in London; wife (1950-) of C.P. Snow (1905-80); dates Dylan Thomas in 1934-5. Welsh "Sheik Ilderim in Ben-Hur", "Squire Western in Tom Jones" actor (alcoholic) Hugh Emrys Griffith (d. 1980) on May 30 in Marian Glas, Anglesey. Am. "How Puppies Grow", "Don't Throw It, Grow It" children's writer Millicent Ellis Selsam (d. 1996) on May 30 in New York City; educated at Brooklyn College, and Columbia U. U.S. Sen. (D-Wash.) (1941-83) Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (d. 1983) on May 31 in Everett, Wash.; Norwegian immigrant parents named Gresseth; educated at Stanford U., and the U. of Wash. Canadian Quebec PM #19 (1960-6) Jean Lesage (d. 1980) on June 10 in Montreal; grows up in Quebec City; educated at Laval U. Am. Christian psychic-journalist Ruth Shick Montgomery (d. 2001) on June 11; educated at ?Baylor U., and Purdue U. English "Rivers of Blood" Conservative politician-scholar-poet John Enoch Powell (d. 1998) on June 12 in Birmingham; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; appointed full prof. of Greek at Sydney U. at age 25; starts out an atheist, then in 1949 he "heard the bells of St. Peter's Wolverhampton calling him" and becomes an Anglican churchwarden; one of two men to rise from pvt. to brig. gen. in WWII along with Sir Fitzroy Maclean (1911-96). Am. "Pie, Pie Blackbird" actress (black) ("the Black Garbo") Nina Mae McKinney (d. 1967) on June 13 in Lancaster, S.C.; grows up in New York City. Am. "Sabrina Fair", "Vertigo" playwright-screenwriter (Jewish) Samuel A. Taylor (Samuel Albert Tanenbaum) (d. 2000) on June 13 in Chicago, Ill. Am. baseball 1B player (Lou Gehrig's replacement) (first ML baseball player to take a drug test) Ellsworth Tenney "Babe" Dahlgren (d. 1996) on June 15 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. physicist Kenneth Ross MacKenzie (d. 2002) on June 15 in Portland, Ore.; educated at UCB. Am. "Tomas Rienzi in Deadline - USA" actor-dir.-producer (Jewish) Martin Gabel (d. 1986) on June 19 in Philadelphia, Penn.; husband (1946-) of Arlene Francis (1907-2001); father of Peter Gabel (1947-). Am. Jolly Rancher candymaker Bill Harmsen (d. 2002) on June 20 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. "The Group" novelist (atheist) Mary Therese McCarthy (d. 1989) on June 21 in Seattle, Wash.; both parents die in the 1918 Great Influenza Epidemic; educated at Vassar College; wife (1938-46) of Edmund Wilson (1895-1972). English mathematician Alan Mathison Turing (d. 1954) on June 23 in London. German nuclear physicist Baron Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker (Weizsäcker) (d. 2007) on June 28 in Kiel; son of diplomat Ernst von Weizsacker (1882-1951). Am. "The Rising Sun" historian-novelist John Willard Toland (d. 2004) on June 29 in La Crosse, Wisc.; educated at Williams college. Am. environmentalist David Ross Brower (d. 2000) on July 1 in Berkeley, Calif. U.S. Navy Lt. John James Powers (d. 1942) on July 3 in New York City. Am. economist (founder of modern Industrial Org. Economics) Joe Staten Bain (d. 1991) on July 4 in Spokane, Wash.; educated at UCLA, and Harvard U.; student of Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950). Am. "Rosie the Riveter", "There! I've Said It Again" again lyricist Redd Evans (d. 1972) on July 6. Am. feminist leader Mary Alexander "Molly" Yard (d. 2005) on July 6 in Chengdu, Shichuan, China; daughter of Methodist missionaries; educated at Swarthmore College; pres. of NOW (1987-91). Am. "The Peculiar Institution" Civil War historian Kenneth Milton Stampp (d. 2009) on July 12 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; student of Charles A. Beard and William B. Hesseltine. Canadian "Fearful Symmetry", "Anatomy of Criticism" lit. critic Herman Northrop Frye on July 14 in Sherbrooke, Quebec; educated at Victoria U. and Merton College, Oxford U. Am. "This Land is Your Land" folk singer-novelist (Communist?) ("the Dust Bowl Troubador") Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie (d. 1967) on July 14 in Okemah, Okla.; named after U.S. pres. Woodrow Wilson; his guitar carries the legend "This machine kills fascists". Canadian-Am. TV personality Artthur Gordon "Art" Linkletter (Gordon Arthur Kelly) (d. 2010) on July 17 in Moose Jaw, Sask.; abandoned as an infant and raised by an evangelical preacher; grows up in San Diego, Calif.; educated at San Diego State Teachers College; father of Jack Linkletter (1937-2007) and Diane Linkletter (1948-69). Am. "The Mirror and the Lamp" writer (Jewish) Meyer Howard Abrams on July 23 in Long Branch, N.J.; educated at Harvard U.; teacher of Harold Bloom and Thomas Pynchon. English "Salors Three" actor (Jewish) (epileptic) Michael Wilding (d. 1979) on July 23 in Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex; husband (1950-7) of Elizabeth Taylor (1932-2011). Am. "Capitalism and Freedom" monetarist economist (Jewish) Milton Friedman (d. 2006) on July 31 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Rutgers U., and Columbia U.; wife of Rose Director Friedman (1910-11). Am. "Dean Fred Baker in Channing" actor Henry Burk Jones (d. 1999) on Aug. 1 in N.J.; grandson of Henry Burk (1850-1903); grows up in Philly; father of Jocelyn Jones. Am. theatrical producer Donald R. Seawell on Aug. 1 in Jonesboro, N.C.; husband (1941-) of actress Eugenia Rawls (1913-2000); founder of the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. Brazilian "Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands" modernist novelist Jorge Amado de Faria (d. 2001) (pr. ZHAWR-zhay ah-MAH-doh) on Aug. 10 in Itabuna, Bahia. Am. "The Steel Helmet" dir.-writer (Jewish) Samuel Michael Fuller (d. 1997) on Aug. 12 in Worcester, Mass.; Russian Jewish immigrant father named Rabinovitch, Polish Jewish immigrant mother. Am. "Father Knows Best" actress Jane Waddington Wyatt (d. 2006) on Aug. 12 in Campgaw, N.J.; father is a banker, mother is a Van Rensselaer grad.; educated at Miss Chapin's School, and Barnard College. Am. golfer William Ben Hogan (d. 1997) on Aug. 13 in Dublin (Stephenville), Tex. Am. microbiologist Salvador Edward Luria (d. 1991) on Aug. 13 in Turin, Italy. Am. 6'2" "Bon Appetit" French chef-writer Julia Carolyn Child (nee McWilliams) (d. 2004) on Aug. 15 in Pasadena, Calif.; wife (1946-94) of Paul Cushing Child; educated at Smith College. English "Pygmalion", "The Elephant Man" actress Dame Wendy Margaret Hiller (d. 2003) on Aug. 15 in Bramhall, Cheshire; wife (1937-93) of Ronald Gow (1897-1993); created dame in 1975. Italian "La Storia" novelist (Jewish) Elsa Morante (d. 1985) on Aug. 18 in Rome; wife (1941-) of Alberto Moravia (1907-90). German Maj. Otto-Ernst Remer (d. 1917) on Aug. 18 in Neubrandenburg. Canadian 5'10" hockey hall-of-fame player-coach Joseph Hector "Toe" Blake (d. 1995) on Aug. 21 in Victoria Mines, Ont. Am. "PT-109" writer-journalist Robert John Donovan (d. 2003) on Aug. 21 in Buffalo, N.Y.; starts out as a $6-a-week copyboy at the Buffalo Courier Express. Am. "Mute Witness" novelist Robert L. Fish (AKA Robert L. Pike) (d. 1981) on Aug. 21 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "Don Lockwood in Singin' in the Rain", "Jerry Mulligan in An American in Paris" actor-dancer Eugene "Gene" Curran (Gael. "hero") Kelly (d. 1996) on Aug. 23 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; husband (1941-57) of Betsy Blair (1923-2009), (1960-73) Jeanne Coyne (1923-73), and (1990-6) Patricia Ward. Am. "The Garry Moore Show", "Candid Camera" 6'4" TV personality Homer Durward Kirby (d. 2000) on Aug. 24 in Covington, Ky. Am. "Hazel" cartoonist Ted Key (Theodore Keyser) (d. 2008) on Aug. 25 in Fresno, Calif.; Latvian immigrant father; educated at UCB. English film dir. Frederick Penrose "Pen" Tennyson (d. 1941) on Aug. 26 in Chelsea, London; great-grandson of poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson; educated at Eton College; husband (1939-41) of Nova Pilbeam (1919-2015). Am. "Sheriff Pat Garrett in The Tall Man", "Fred in The Bad and the Beautiful" 6'3" "actor Patrick Barry Sullivan (d. 1994) on Aug. 29 in New York City; educated at NYU, and Temple U. Am. physicist Edward Mills Purcell (d. 1997) on Aug. 30 in Taylorville, Ill.; educated at Purdue U., and Harvard U. Australian WWI spy Nancy Grace Augusta Wake on Aug. 30 in Roseneath, Wellington, New Zealand. Am. Breathalyzer inventor Robert Frank Borkenstein (d. 2002) on Aug. 31 in Ft. Wayne, Ind. Am. "Henrietta Lays Some Eggs" children's writer (Jewish) Sydney "Syd" Hoff (d. 2004) on Sept. 4 in New York City. Am. absurd electronic music composer John Milton Cage Jr. (d. 1992) on Sept. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Pomona College - who let him out? Am. folk musician Roscoe Holcomb (Halcomb) (d. 1981) on Sept. 5 in Daisy, Ky.; originator of the high lonesome sound. German actress ("Water Corpse of the Reich") Beata Margareta Kristina Soderbaum (Söderbaum) (d. 2001) on Sept. 5 in Stockholm; wife of Veit Harlan (1899-1964). French fashion designer Jacques Fath (d. 1954) on Sept. 6 in Maisons-Lafitte. Am. electrical engineer (co-founder of Hewlett-Packard Co.) David Packard (d. 1996) on Sept. 7 in Pueblo, Colo.; educated at Stanford U., and U. of Colo.; partner of William Redington Hewlett (1913-2001). Am. Beat poet William "Bill" Everson (d. 1994) (AKA Brother Antoninus "the Beat Friar") on Sept. 10 in Sacramento, Calif.; Christian Scientist parents; educated at CSU Fresno; joins Dominican Order in 1951 under he name Brother Antoninus, then leaves in 1969 to marry a younger woman. Scottish "The Cone Gatherers" novelist John Robin Jenkins (d. 2005) on Sept. 11 in Flemington (near Cambusland), Lanarkshire. U.S. ambassador (Thailand, 1963-7) (South Vietnam, 1973-5) Graham Anderson Martin (d. 1990) on Sept. 22 in Mars Hill, N.C.; educated at Wake Forest College. Am. "Lawrence Welk" singer-violinist Aladdin Ahmed Abdullah Anthony "Laddy" Pallante (d. 1970) on Sept. 20 in New York City. Am. sportsman Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt Jr. (d. 1999) on Sept. 22 in London, England; son of Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt (1877-1915). Am. Minimalist sculptor Tony Smith (d. 1980) on Sept. 23 in South Orange, N.J. Am. "Russell Lawrence in Gidget" actor Donald "Don" Porter (d. 1997) on Sept. 24 in Miami, Okla.; husband (1944-97) of Peggy Converse (1905-2001). Italian "Blow-Up" film dir. Michelangelo Antonioni on Sept. 29 in Ferrara. Am. auto exec Semon E. "Bunkie" Knudsen (d. 1998) on Oct. 2 in Buffalo, N.Y.; son of William "Big Bill" Knudsen (1879-1949). Am. "The Lincoln Nobody Knows" historian ("Dean of Lincoln Scholars") Richard Nelson Current (d. 2012) on Oct. 5 in Colorado City, Colo.; educated at Oberlin College, Tufts U., and U. of Wisc. Peruvian pres. #85 (1963-8) and #88 (1980-5) Fernando Belaunde (Belaúnde) Terry (d. 2002) on Oct. 7 in Lima; educated at UTA. Am. Medicare and Common Cause founder John William Gardner (d. 2002) on Oct. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. Madagascar pres. #1 (1959-72) Philibert Tsiranana (d. 1978) on Oct. 18 in Ambarikorano. British conductor (Jewish) ("the Screaming Skull") Sir Georg Solti (Gyorgy Stern) (d. 1997) on Oct. 21 in Budapest, Hungary. German #1 WWII ace (212Vs) (first pilot with 200 Vs) Col. Hermann Graf (d. 1988) on Oct. 24 in Engen. Canadian sports team owner (Washington Redkins, Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Kings) Jack Kent Cooke (d. 1997) on Oct. 25 in Hamilton, Ont. Am. "Grand Ole Opry", "Hee-Haw" comedian-singer Minnie Pearl (Sarah Ophelia Colley Cannon) (d. 1996) on Oct. 25 in Centerville, Tenn.; trademark is a hat with a dangling "$1.98" price tag. Am. cowgirl star Dale Evans (Lucille Wood Smith) (Frances Octavia Smith) (d. 2001) on Oct. 31 in Uvalde, Tex. Am. actress "Baby June in Gypsy" June Havoc (Ellen Evangeline Hovick) (d. 2010) on Nov. 8 in Vancouver, B.C., Canada; sister of Gypsy Rose Lee (1911-70). Austrian Hapsburg family head crown prince and pretender (1922-) Otto von Hapsburg (Hapsburg-Lothringen) on Nov. 12 in Reichenau an der Rax, Lower Austria; eldest son of Charles I (1887-1922); great-grandnephew of Emperor Franz Joseph. Paraguayan dictator-pres. (1954-89) Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (d. 2006) on Nov. 3 in Encarnacion. Am. "Broadway Melody of 1936" actress-dancer Eleanor Torrey Powell (d. 1982) on Nov. 12 in Springfield, Mass. Am. Woolworth heiress ("Poor Little Rich Girl") Barbara Woolworth Hutton (d. 1979) on Nov. 13 in New York City; daughter of Franklyn Laws Hutton (1877-1940) and Edna Woolworth (1883-1918), daughter of F.W. Woolworth (1852-1929); niece of Edward Francis Hutton (1875-1962); niece of Marjorie Merriweather Post (1887-1973); 1st cousin of Dina Merrill (1925-); wife (1942-5) of Cary Grant: squanders $50M. Am. physicist (Quaker) (co-inventor of the X-ray reflection microscope) Albert Vinicio Baez (d. 2007) on Nov. 15 in Puebla, Mexico; Methodist minister father; emigrates to the U.S. at age 2; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; husband (1936-) of Joan Chandos Bridge, daughter of an Episcopalian minister, who convert to Quaker; father of Joan Baez (1941-) and Mimi Farina (1945-2001); uncle of John Carlos Baez (1961-); educated at Syracuse U., and Stanford U. Am. physiologist George Emil Palade (d. 2008) on Nov. 19 in Iasi, Romania. A. philanthropist-socialite-heiress Doris Duke (d. 1993) on Nov. 22 in New York City; daughter of James Buchanan Duke (1856-1925) and 2nd wife Nanaline Holt Inman. Am. nuclear physicist (Federation of Atomic Scientists co-founder) Lyle Benjamin Borst (d. 2002) on Nov. 24 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Adam's Rib", "Pat and Mike", "Born Yesterday" playwright-dir. Garson Kanin (d. 1999) on Nov. 24 in Rochester, N.Y.; brother of Michael Kanin (1910-93); husband (1942-85) of Ruth Gordon (1896-1985) and (1990-9) Marian Seldes (1928-). Am. abstract expressionist Color Field artist Morris Louis (Bernstein) (d. 1962) on Nov. 24 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "What a Little Moonlight Can Do" jazz pianist-composer (black) ("the Marxist Mozart") Theodore Shaw "Teddy" Wilson (d. 1986) (Benny Goodman Trio) on Nov. 24 in Austin, Tex.; one of the first blacks to appear with white musicians. Am. TV journalist (CBS) (Murrow Boy) Arnold Eric Sevareid (d. 1992) on Nov. 26 in Velva, N.D.; of Norwegian descent; educated at the U. of Minn. Am. stage producer David Merrick (Margulois) (d. 2000) on Nov. 27 in St. Louis, Mo. British stock investor Sir John Marks Templeton (d. 2008) on Nov. 29 in Winchester, Tenn.; educated at Yale U., and Oxford U.; knighted in 1987. British Brig. Gen. Sir Edgar "Bill" Williams (d. 1995) on Nov. 29; educated at Merton College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1973; Rhodes Trustees secy. in 1959-, overseeing Bill Clinton et al. Am. "Shaft" photographer-writer-composer-dir. (black) Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks (d. 2006) on Nov. 30 in Fort Scott, Kan.; first black photographer for Life (1948-68). Am. NYC World Trade Center architect (acrophobic) Minoru Yamasaki (d. 1986) on Dec. 1 in Seattle, Wash.; Japanese immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. WWII Black Sheep Squadron flying ace Gregory "Pappy" Boyington (d. 1988) on Dec. 4 in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Am. pool cue maker George (Grigory) Balabushka (d. 1975) on Dec. 9 in Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924. Am. liberal Dem. politician Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr. (d. 1994) on Dec. 9 in Cambridge, Mass.; nicknamed after baseball player James Edward "Tip" O'Neill (1858-1915). Italian "The Black Orchid", "Heller in Pink Tights" movie producer Carlo Fortunaro Pietro Ponti Sr. (d. 2007) on Dec. 11 in Magenta, Lombardy; meets 15-y.-o. Sophia Loren in 1950, then sends his lawyers to get a divorce from his wife (1946-57) Giuliana Fiatri in Mexico so he can marry her, later facing threats of bigamy charges and excommunication; husband (1957-62, 1965-2007) of Sophia Loren (1934-). Am. industrial designer Ray Bernice Alexandra Kaiser Eames (d. 1988) on Dec. 15 in Sacramento, Calif.; wife (1941-) of Charles Eames (1907-78). Am.USAF gen. (black) Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr. (d. 2002) on Dec. 18 in Washington, D.C.; leader of the WWII Tuskegee Airmen; first African-Am. U.S. Air Force gen.; son of Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. (1877-1970). Am. "Everybody Loves Somebody" songwriter-musician Kermit "Ken" Lane (d. 1996) on Dec. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Dean Martin's pianist on "The Dean Martin Show"; father of Robin Lane (1947-); collaborator of Irving Taylor (1914-83). Am. "Lover Come Back to Me" singer-actor (Jewish) Tony Martin (Alvin Morris) (d. 2012) on Dec. 25 in San Francisco, Calif.; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; husband (1937-40) of Alice Faye (1915-98) and (1948-2012) Cyd Charisse (1922-2008). U.S. First Lady (1963-9) Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Johnson (nee Taylor) (d. 2007) on Dec. 22 in the Brick House, Karnack, Harrison County, Tex.; wife of Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson; of English-Scottish descent; her nursemaid calls her "pretty as a ladybird". Italian singer Natalino Otto (Natale Codognotto) (d. 1969) on Dec. 25 in Cogoleto, Genoa; discoverer of Mina (1940-). British Battle of Arnhem Maj. Gen. John Dutton "Johnny" Frost (d. 1993) on Dec. 31 in Poona, British India; educated at Wellington College. English "Perfect Strangers", "The Rocking Horse Winner", Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg (d. 1947); great-great-grandson of Jewish settler Michael Benedics, who converted to Lutheranism. "The History of Mr. Polly" actor-producer-dir. Harry Anthony Compton Pelissier (d. 1988) in London; son of Harry Pelissier (1874-1913) and Fay Compton (1894-1978); nephew of Compton MacKenzie (1883-972). Am. ed.-publisher Donald Merriam Allen (d. 2004) on ? in Iowa. Am. "Prayer for Protection", "I Am There" poet ("Poet Laureate to the Moon") James Dillet Freeman (d. 2003) on ? in Wilmington, Del.; of Cherokee, Choctaw, English, and Irish descent. Am. "A Tropical Revue" choreographer-dancer (black) Katherine Dunham on ? in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "O'Neill, Son and Playwright" writer Louis Sheaffer (Slung) (d. 1993) on ? in Louisville, Ky.; renames himself after the fountain pen co. Deaths: Am. "angel of the battlefield" Clara Barton (b. 1821) on Apr 12 in Glen Echo, Md. French economist Frederic Passy (b. 1812) on June 12 in Paris; 1901 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. Fruit of the Loom founder Robert Knight (b. 1826) on Nov. 26; largest cotton manufacturer on Earth. French priest Pere Hyacinthe (b. 1827). Am. Union Civil War gen. Edward S. Bragg (b. 1827) on June 20 in Fond du Lac, Wisc. English surgeon Sir Joseph Lister (b. 1827) on Feb. 10 in Walmer, Kent. Scottish historian James Gairdner (b. 1828) on Nov. 4. English judge-mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills (b. 1828) on Aug. 9. Chinese-born Am. educator Yung Wing (b. 1828) on Apr. 21 in Hartford, Conn.; his naturalization is revoked under the 1870 U.S. Naturalization Act. Belgian PM (1884-94) Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert (b. 1829) on Oct. 6 in Lucerne, Switzerland; 1909 Nobel Peace Prize. English Salvation Army founder William Booth (b. 1829) on Aug. 20 in Hadley Wood, London: "The chief danger that confronts the coming century will be religion without the Holy Ghost, Christianity without Christ, forgiveness without repentance, salvation without regeneration, politics without God, heaven without hell." Scottish-born Canadian theologian Rev. William Robinson Clark (b. 1829) in Toronto, Ont. Am. knuckle coupler inventor Eli Hamilton Janney (b. 1831) on June 16 in Alexandria, Va. English Liberal MP Henry Labouchere (b. 1831) on Jan. 15 in Florence, Italy; leaves £2M. U.S. Sen. (R-Minn.) (1889-95) William Drew Washburne (b. 1831) on July 29 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. "Variorum Shakespeare" scholar Horace Howard Furness (b. 1833) on Aug. 13 in Wallingford, Penn. Canadian Liberal statesman Edward Blake (b. 1833) on Mar. 1 in Toronto, Ont. German novelist-historian Felix Dahn (b. 1834) on Jan. 3 in Breslau (Wroclaw). French PM (1885-6, 1898) Henri Brisson (b. 1835) on Apr. 14. English philologist Walter William Skeat (b. 1835). Am. Log Cabin Syrup founder Patrick James Towle (b. 1835) on Sept. 6 in St. Paul, Minn. British Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White (b. 1835) on June 24 in Chelsea, London. Dutch-born British painter Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (b. 1836). German mathematician Paul Albert Gordan (b. 1837) on Dec. 21. French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran (b. 1838) on May 28 in Paris. English housing reformer Octavia Hill (b. 1838) on Aug. 13. Paraguyan pres. (1881-6) Bernardino Caballero (b. 1839) on Feb. 26 in Asuncion. Am. Repub. politician and Civil War Union gen. Henry Harrison Bingham (b. 1841) on Mar. 22 in Penn. Am. geologist Clarence Edward Dutton (b. 1841). Norwegian leprosy researcher Dr. A. Hansen (b. 1841). Am. Rear Adm. George Wallace Melville (b. 1841) on Mar. 17 in Philadelphia, Penn. German Berlin Reichstag architect Paul Wallot (b. 1841) on Aug. 10 in Bad Schwabach. French "Manon" composer Jules Massenet (b. 1842) on Aug. 13 in Paris (cancer). German "Winnetou" novelist Karl May (b. 1842) on Mar. 30 in Radebeul; "My whole adolescence stood under his sign. Indeed, even today, he has been dear to me in many a desperate hour" (Albert Einstein). Am. accountant Charles Ezra Sprague (b. 1842) on Mar. 21. Danish king (1906-12) Frederik VIII (b. 1843) on May 14. Scottish writer Andrew Lang (b. 1844) on July 20 in Banchory, Kincardineshire (heart disease); namesake of the Andrew Lang Lectures at St. Andrews U. German botanist Eduard Strasburger (b. 1844) on May 19 in Bonn. British swimming instructor William Wilson (b. 1844) on June 1 in Glasgow, Scotland. English geologist Sir George Howard Darwin (b. 1845). Am. Lt. Gen. Arthur MacArthur Jr. (b. 1845) on Sept. 5 in Milwaukee, Wisc. (heart attack). Am. architect Daniel Hudson Burnham (b. 1846) on Sept. 4 in Heidelberg, Germany; designed the Union Station in Washington, D.C., the Flatiron Bldg. in New York City, and the Pittsburgh Penn. Railroad Station. English-born Am. dept. store magnate Joseph Lowthian Hudson (b. 1846) on July 5 in Worthing, England (Paris, France?). Am. artist Francis Davis Millet (b. 1846) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. Irish "Dracula" author Bram Stoker (b. 1847) on Apr. 20 in London (sorry, cremated). Canadian Internat. Paper Co. founder Hugh Chisholm (b. 1847). English painter Robert Barrett Browning (b. 1849) on July 8 in Asolo, Italy (heart attack); dies intestate, causing his large collection of memorabilia of his parents to be auctioned, ending up at the Armstrong Browning Library at Baylor U. Japanese Gen. Nogi Maresuke (b. 1849) on Sept. 13 in Tokyo. Japanese empress (1869-1912) Shoken (b. 1849) on Apr. 9 in Numazu, Shizuoka. Swedish playwright-novelist Johan August Strindberg (b. 1849) on May 14 in Stockholm (stomach cancer); wrote 58 plays. English #1 journalist William Thomas Stead (b. 1849) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. Am. gen.-diplomat Frederick Dent Grant (b. 1850) on Apr. 12 on Governors Island, N.Y. (cancer). English RMS Titanic captain Edward John Smith (b. 1850) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. Japanese Yamato emperor Mutsuhito (b. 1852). Am. anthropologist-geologist-inventor William John McGee (b. 1853) on Sept. 12. Czech poet Jaroslav Vrchlicky (b. 1853) on Sept. 9 in Domazlice; leaves 85 vols. of poetry, 35 plays, and 100 vols. of translations. Austrian diplomat Count Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal (b. 1854) on Feb. 17. Spanish PM (1910-12) Jose Canalejas (b. 1854) on Nov. 12 (assassinated). French mathematician (topologist) Jules Henri Poincare (b. 1854) on July 17. U.S. vice-pres. #27 (1909-12) James Schoolcraft Sherman (b. 1855) on Oct. 30 in Utica, N.Y.; his term isn't set to expire until Mar. 3, 1913. Danish novelist Herman Bang (b. 1857) on Jan. 29 in Ogden, Utah. Am. businessman John Jacob Astor IV (b. 1864) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. English writer James Allen (b. 1864) in Ilfracombe. Am. businessman Benjamin Guggenheim (b. 1865) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. Am. flight pioneer Wilbur Wright (b. 1867) (typhoid fever). English explorer Robert Falcon Scott (b. 1868) in Jan. in the Antarctic. English Roman Catholic priest Thomas Byles (b. 1870) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. English shipbuilder Thomas Andrews Jr. (b. 1873) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. English black composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (b. 1875) on Sept. 1 (pneumonia); dies broke, but George V grants his widow a pension. Am. detective writer Jacques Futrelle (b. 1875) on Apr. 15 (drowned); goes down with the Titanic. Am. auto racer David Bruce-Brown (b. 1887) on Oct. 1 in Milwaukee, Wisc. (auto accident). German poet-novelist Georg Heym (b. 1887) on Jan. 16 in Berlin - the good die young?
Chinese Year: Ox - oxtrot?
U.S. federal expenditures: $970M.
By 1913 Britain, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary have doubled
their military spending levels back in 1890; Russia has only increased theirs 19%.
Extensive advertising causes immigration to Canada to reach 400K this year, from 21K in 1897, 67K in 1902, and 125K in 1903.
On Jan. 11-25 the Hudson, the first sedan-type automobile goes on display at the
13th Nat. Automobile Show in New York City.
On Jan. 15 Aston Martin Lagonda Ltd.
(originally Bamford & Martin Ltd.) is founded in Kensington, London, England by Cornish racing enthusiast
Lionel Walker Birch Martin (1878-1945)
and English financier Robert Bamford (1883-1942)
to produce luxury grand touring cars; in 1914 Martin wins a big V at the Aston Hill Climb
in Buckinghamshire in a Singer 10, later used for the co. name; in Mar. 1915 they produce their first
lightweight sports car with a Coventry-Simplex engine on an Isotta Fraschini chassis, but production
is suspended until 1919 because of WWI; in 1920 Bamford drops out, and Martin gets the backing
of Count Louis Zborowski, producing cars to compete in the French Grand Prix which set world speed
and endurance records at Brooklands; in 1924 Zborowski is killed in a racing accident at the
Monza Grand Prix, and the co. is saved from bankruptcy by Lady Charnwood, who renames it to
Aston-Martin Ltd., only to go bankrupt anyway in 1925, causing Martin to leave in 1926, and it is
acquired by Bill Renwick and Augustus "Bert" Bertelli, who move the factory to Feltham, Middlesex; in 1947-72 it is acquired by Sir
David Brown (1904-93);
in 1994 it is acquired by Ford Motor Co., which in 2007 sells it to a consortium of investors
led by David Pender Richards (1952-); in
1963-5 the Aston Martin DB5
(named after David Brown) is produced, becoming famous as James Bond 007's car in the 1964 film "Goldfinger".
On Jan. 16 self-taught Indian mathematician Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan (1887-1920)
writes to English mathematician Godfrey Harold "G.H." Hardy (1877-1947),
wowing him with lists of unknown theorems, "the one romantic incident in my life" (Hardy), deciding that they "must be true, because if they were
not true, no one would have the imagination to invent them", bringing him from Madras to Cambridge in 1914, getting elected a fellow of
Trinity College on Oct. 13, 1918; too bad, he returns to Madras in 1919, and dies of TB (amoebiasis?) on Apr. 26, 1920; in 1911 Hardy begins a
collaboration with English mathematician John Edensor Littlewood (1885-1977)
leading English mathematicians away from applied math a la Isaac Newton to the Continental rigorous theoretical type; on July 10, 1908 Hardy pub.
Mendelian Proportions in a Mixed Population,
announcing the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
that allele and genotype frequencies in a breeding pop. remain constant over generations unless disturbed by evolutionary influences incl.
mate choice, mutation, selection, genetic drift, gene flow and meiotic drive; in 1940 Hardy pub. his autobio.
A Mathematician's Apology,
which laments the passing of his creative powers;
"I believe that mathematical reality lies outside us, that our function is to discover or observe it, and that the theorems which we prove, and which
we describe grandiloquently as our 'creations', are simply the notes of our observations" (Hardy);
"I read in the proof sheets of Hardy on Ramanujan: 'As someone said, each of the positive integers was one of his personal friends.' My reaction
was, 'I Wonder who said that; I wish I had." (Littlewood);
"Before creation, God did just pure mathematics. Then He thought it would be a pleasant change to do some applied." (Littlewood)
On Jan. 27 the Paterson Silk Strike
in Paterson, N.J., led by the IWW (Wobblies) begins, demanding 8-hour workdays and better working conditions, and lasts 5 mo. (until July 28)
before being brutally crushed by the pigs, with 1.85K strikers arrested; Greenwich Village artists stage a play to raise funds - Wobblies wobble but they don't fall down?
On Jan. 23 after the Divan (Turkish Nat. Assembly) agrees to the peace terms of the London Conference, which incl. surrendering Adrianople (Edirne)
to the Bulgarians (until 1922), Enver Pasha leads a coup organized by the Committee of Union and Progress, bringing the
to power in Turkey; on Mar. 28 the Bulgarians, assisted by the Serbs capture Adrianople; a second peace conference convenes in London on May 20.
In Jan. after newspaper headlines announce that he once played pro baseball, U.S. athlete (mixed Amerindian and white)
James Francis "Jim" Thorpe (1888-1953)
is stripped of the two gold medals he won in the 1912 Olympic Games and his amateur status revoked because in 1909-10
he received $2 a game for playing semi-pro baseball in the Eastern Carolina League in Rocky Mount, N.C., but didn't use an alias like other college summer players; his runner-up,
Karl Hugo Wieslander (1899-1976)
of Sweden refuses to accept Thorpe's decathlon medal; when Thorpe's medals are reinstated, he is declared joint winner.
6 score and 17 (1913 - 1776 = 137) years into Project U.S.A., a silent coup by bankers J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Paul Warburg ends the
freedom of Americans with the most insidious attack on individual liberty, which slides in real easy, puts out hooks, and can't be pulled out without
gutting the patient?
On Feb. 3 the Sixteenth (16th) (XVI) Amendment
to the U.S. Constitution, giving Congress the power to levy an individual income tax,
written by U.S. rep. (D-Tenn.) Cordell Hull (1871-1955)
is ratified (not really, but Philander Knox lies to the public to get it in for his banker buddies?), and goes into effect on Feb. 25, along with a
home mortgage deduction; too bad, the big secret that "income" can only constitutionally mean profits from corporate activity and not wages for labor is
not grasped by the masses, and as the decades go by the greedy govt. begins grooming suckers to accept their word games and let them impose income tax
on wages, gambling winnings, etc., then institute automatic tax withholding, finally tricking them into "voluntarily" filing income tax returns without
a law requiring them to do so, then using the laws of perjury to "catch" them in lying, assess them penalties and interest, and file liens and seize
property from helpless people unable to pay lawyers to fight back, thereby enslaving the U.S. pop. in a Communist Manifesto-inspired effort to redistribute
income and set up a New World Order One World Govt.?; the whole idea goes back to the Roman Catholic Church and its 1166 income tax to help take back the
Holy Land?; initially the payment date each year is June 30 - (6 + 30 = 36 = six sixes); 13 16 19 (one 3 one 6 one 9 = one 18 = one 6+6+6?
On Feb. 9 the Mexican military garrison at
rebels against pres. Francisco Madero (b. 1873) and attacks the Nat. Palace in Mexico City; the rebels are driven back to the Citadel, beginning the 10-day
artillery battle (ends Feb. 22), in which many civilians are killed; on
Feb. 18 turncoat Army CIC Gen. Victoriano Huerta (1854-1916),
backed by U.S. ambassador Henry Lane Wilson (1859-1932)
arrests Madero and his vice-pres., and assumes control of the govt., then has Madero and the vice-pres. assassinated by his soldiers while
awaiting trial on treason charges; never fear, Speedy Gonzalez and Slowpoke Rodriguez, er, Pancho Villa and
Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919)
join Coahuila gov. (since 1911) Venustiano Carranza Garza (1859-1920)
(the "first chief" of the rev. Constitutionalists) in the fight against Huerta and his Yankee puppetmasters - arriba, andale, ai, ahaha?
On Feb. 10 German chief of staff Gen. Helmuth von Moltke tells Austrian chief of staff Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorf: "A European war is bound to come sooner or later,
in which the issue will be one of a struggle between Germandom and Slavdom", and that "To prepare themselves for that contingency is the duty of all states
which are the champions of Germanic ideals and culture"; von Moltke adds that such a war "necessitates the readiness of the people to make sacrifices, and popular
enthusiasm"; Hoetzendorf goes on to
permission to attack Serbia 25x this year - this show is about what's gotta be said?
On Feb. 15-Mar. 15 the 1913 Armory Show
in New York City at the 69th Regiment Armory, organized by self-made wealthy Irish-Am. atty.
John Quinn (1870-1924)
(the spokesman, who got the
1909 Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act
repealed that retained the duty on foreign art works less than 20 years old, allowing
Americans to afford modern Euro art),
Arthur Bowen Davies (1862-1928),
Mabel Dodge Luhan (1879-1962),
et al. displays works by
Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924),
Henri Matisse (1869-1954),
John Sloan (1871-1951),
John Marin (1870-1953),
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973),
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), and
Stuart Davis (1894-1964),
introducing the U.S. public to the brave new world of modern art (Symbolism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, and Cubism);
although many diss it, it starts to win supporters before moving on to Chicago and Boston;
Quinn becomes a big patron of the arts, supporting and defending William Butler Yeats (1865-1939),
James Joyce (1882-1941), T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), Ezra Pound (1885-1972) and other struggling tortured misunderstood souls;
when he dies he leaves the single largest collection of modern Euro paintings in the world.
On Feb. 18 PM (since 1912) Raymond (Raimond) Poincare (Poincaré) (1860-1934)
is elected pres. #10 of France (until Feb. 18, 1920), deciding to pursue a hardline anti-German policy, soon visiting
England and restoring ties with Russia; on Mar. 22
Jean Louis Barthou (1862-1934)
becomes PM #78 of France (until Dec. 9);
France increases its army by extending the required military service from two to three years.
On Mar. 1 the U.S. Webb-Kenyon Act
is passed, prohibiting the interstate shipment of alcoholic beverages to dry states.
On Mar. 4 on his last morning in office Pres. Taft signs the Sulzer Law, creating the
U.S. Dept. of Labor.
On Mar. 4 Va.-born "Schoolmaster in Politics" (Ph.D. in govt. - only pres. with a Ph.D. until ?)
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)
becomes the 28th U.S. pres. (until Mar. 4, 1921) in the 37th U.S. Pres. Inauguration
(only pres. to share a surname with a British PM?); Ind. gov. #27 (since 1909)
Thomas Riley Marshall (1854-1925)
becomes the 28th U.S. vice-pres. (until Mar. 4, 1921); the Dem. Party controls both Congress and the White House for the first time in 20 years;
Wilson's First Inaugural Address
(first to be delivered to both houses of Congress in person) promises an end to tariffs, and offers a vision of a progressive nat. govt. that breaks up concentrated financial power
(the New Freedom), causing the progressive Repubs. to back his Dem. Congress in a raft of new legislation; he repudiates Taft's dollar diplomacy in China;
he discontinues the tradition of inaugural balls this year and again in 1917; First Lady is
Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (1860-1914)
(dies Aug. 6, 1914); Taft, saying "I'm glad to be going" returns to Yale U. to teach law; on Mar. 5 Pres. Wilson appoints atty.
(vice-chancellor of N.J. from 1904) Lindley Miller Garrison (1864-1932)
as U.S. war secy. #46 (until Feb. 10, 1916); on Mar. 6 he appoints Calif. conservationist atty.
Franklin Knight Lane (1864-1921)
as U.S. interior secy. #26 (until Mar. 1, 1920) (a
for passing the U.S. Paul Raker Act
this year, creating the Hetch-Hetchy Reservoir
in Yosemite Nat. Park against opposition by the Sierra Club to provide greedy San Francisco with a water supply?),
William Gibbs McAdoo (1863-1941)
(pres. of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Co., which built the first underwater railway tunnels
between Manhattan and N.J. in 1908) as treasury secy. #46 (until Dec. 15, 1918),
David Franklin Houston (1866-1940)
as U.S. agriculture secy. #5 (until Feb. 2, 1920), publisher
Walter Hines Page (1855-1918)
(partner of Frank N. Doubleday) as U.S. ambassador to Britain (until 1918), "Old South" novelist
Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922)
as U.S. ambassador to Italy (until 1919), and German-born Jewish atty.
Henry Morgenthau Sr. (1856-1946)
as U.S. ambassador to Turkey (until 1916), who goes on to unsuccessfully lobby the sultan to stop the Armenian Genocide;
after his cousin Theodore Roosevelt's splitting of the Repubs. paves the way for him, Franklin Delano Roosevelt is given Theodore's
old job of asst. secy. of the Navy (until 1920); during the Great War Wilson grazes sheep on the White House Lawn.
On Mar. 4 Roane County, Tenn.-born, Windom, Tex.-raised Dem. schoolteacher
Samuel Taliaferro "Sam" Rayburn (1882-1961)
becomes U.S. Rep. from the 4th district of Tex. (until Nov. 16, 1961), going on to become House majority leader on Jan. 3, 1937-Sept. 16, 1940,
House dean #37 on Jan. 3, 1953, and House Speaker #43 on Jan. 3, 1955 (until Nov. 16, 1961), becoming the longest-serving House Speaker (until ?).
On Mar. 4 the U.S. Mint discontinues the Liberty Head nickel (begun 1883), and begins issuing the
(until 1938), signaling that the U.S. govt. believes the Indians and buffalo to be extinct?; in 2005 the buffalo nickel is
with the Am. Indian side replaced by Thomas Jefferson.
On Mar. 18 12 days before his 50th anniv. as Greek king (since 1863), George I (b. 1845) is assassinated in Salonika (Thessaloniki) near the
White Tower by Socialist alcoholic bum Alexandros (Alekos) Schinas (b. 187?)
for refusing to give him money (falling to his death six weeks later from the window of the police station after being tortured), and is
succeeded by his son Constantine I (1868-1923)
as king of Greece (until June 11, 1917).
On Mar. 20 Kuomintang stalwart Song Jiaoren (b. 1882)
is gunned down on a railway station platform in Shanghai.
On Mar. 31 John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837) dies in Rome, and his son
John Pierpont "Jack" Morgan Jr. (1867-1943)
inherits his empire, going on to become a major financier of WWII, loaning $12M to Russia, $50M to France, and $500M to the Allies,
making sure the Brits get plenty of arms from the U.S.
On Apr. 1 the first annual Georgia Old-Time Fiddlers' Convention
(last in 1935) in Atlanta, Ga. is won by Fannin County, Ga.-born
Fiddlin' John Carson (1868-1949),
er, he comes in 4th, and J.B. Singley wins, but he wins in 1914, 1923, and 1927, causing Tenn. gov. Robert L. Taylor to give him the nickname Fiddlin' John;
after touring for political campaigns, he makes his radio debut on Sept. 9, 1922 at Atlanta radio station WSB, gaining nat. fame.
On Apr. 8 the newly elected Chinese parliament convenes, and on Apr. 21 Pres. Yuan Shikai obtains a "reorganization loan" of £25M from Britain, France,
Russia and Japan, secured by the salt tax, but this only stirs fears about his intentions, causing a
Second Chinese Rev. on
July 10 in the S provinces, which is soon quashed by Yuan's forces; Nanking is taken on Sept. 1.
On May 10 10K women suffragists dressed in long white dresses, plus 500 men parade down Fifth Ave. in New York City before 500K onlookers
(mainly men)carrying signs reminding them of their victories in various states - don't mess with us?
On May 26 the Actors' Equity Assoc. (AEA)
labor union is organized by 12 theater actors in New York City, with actor-playwright
Francis Wilson (1854-1935) as pres. #1,
working along with the Am. Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA) (founded 1939) and the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) (founded 1912).
On May 30 the Canadian Senate defeats a bill to provide three dreadnoughts to the British imperial navy.
On May 30 after the Bulgarians take Adrianople, causing Turkey to sign an armistice with them, the
Treaty of London
between Turkey and the Balkan states ends the First Balkan War (begun Oct. 18, 1912),
but Bulgaria still wants to control Macedonia, and on June 16 it attacks Serbia and Greece, starting the
Second Balkan War,
causing Russia to declare war on Bulgaria, and Enver Pasha to gain renown by
seizing Adrianople from Bulgaria on July 22; on Aug. 10 the Bulgarians sign the
Treaty of Bucharest,
agreeing to a Bulgarian-Turkish frontier in Thrace, giving Bulgaria an outlet on
the Aegean Sea with access to the Mediterranean; Romania obtains the 3K-sq.-mi.
Southern Drobuja region, making it the largest Balkan power;
Greece (whose king is married to the Kaiser's sister) annexes the coastal region of
Thrace from Turkey, denying Serbia access to the Aegean Sea.
In May the Syracuse Herald first pub.
the phrase "straight from the horse's mouth".
On June 2 Alfred Austin (b. 1835) dies, and PM Herbert Asquith appoints deeply Christian physician-poet
Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930) as poet laureate of England (until Apr. 21, 1930).
On June 7 British-born Episcopal priest Hudson Stuck (1863-1920)
(archdeacon of the Yukon and the Arctic since 1904), Am. climbing guide
Henry Peters "Harry" Karstens (1878-1955),
Alaskan native guide Walter Harper (1893-1918), and
Am. Episcopal preist Robert George Tatum (1891-1964),
become the first to reach the summit of 20.5K-ft. Mt. McKinley AKA Mt. Denali (Athabascan "the great one") in Alaska,
going by the South Summit; in 1951 Am. mountaineer Henry Bradford Washburn Jr. (1910-2007)
(founder of the Boston Museum of Science) summits via the West Buttress route, which becomes the most popular - don't get stuck?
On June 10 Count Istvan Tisza de Borosjeno et Szeged (1861-1918)
becomes PM of Hungary again (until June 15, 1917) (first time 1903-5), becoming a major behind-the-scenes player in the diplomatic action leading to the Great War.
On June 19 the Native (Black) Land Act
reserves the Transkeian Territories in South Africa for black occupation.
On June 18-23 after anger caused by Jewish immigration, the First Arab Congress
is held in Paris to discuss the granting of more autonomy to Arabs by the crumbling Ottomans, launching Arab nationalism; in Aug. 1922 the Fifth Arab Congress is held
in Nablus, followed in June 1923 by the Sixth Arab Congress in Jaffa, followed in June 1928 by the Seventh Arab Congress in Beisan.
On June 21 5'0" 85 lb. Oxford, N.C.-born "Doll Girl" Georgia Ann Thompson "Tiny" Broadwick (1893-1978)
becomes the first woman to parachute from an airplane over Los Angeles, Calif., piloted by Glenn L. Martin, going on to become the first woman to parachute into water,
and the first to jump free-fall, retiring in 1922 after making 1.1K jumps.
On June 24 Sir Joseph Cook (1860-1947) becomes PM #9 of Australia (until Sept. 17, 1914).
In June German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg tells a friend: "It is high time that the great nations calmed down again and occupied
themselves with peaceful pursuits, or there will be an explosion which no one desires and which will be to the detriment of all"; meanwhile
Winston Churchill privately tells German London naval attache Capt. E. von Muller (Müller)
that he still desires a pause in naval expansion by both Britain and Germany; too bad, British-hating Muller tells German Adm.
Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz (1849-1930) that Churchill just wants to keep Germany from naval superiority,
prejudicing the Kaiser against the idea of a pause, causing German foreign secy. (1913-16)
Gottlieb von Jagow (1863-1935) in June 1914 to complain to the German London ambassador: "This everlasting
baiting and calumniation of English policy is extraordinarily disturbing, especially since it is always used in high places [the Kaiser] in argument
against me"; he later blames the war on the "damned system of alliances".
On July 1 the U.S. Standards Bureau becomes the
Nat. Bureau of Standards
under the Dept. of Commerce; in Dec. it receives the U.S. Curie Standard
of radium, prepared is founded by Marie Curie - that way the feds can devise more social engineering laws to get around the limitation of powers
of the U.S. Constitution under the guise of laws regulating interstate commerce, and develop their own nukes on the side?
The original Patsy Ramsey?
On July 8 Pearl Lenore Curran (1883-1937) (Mrs. J.H. Curran) of St. Louis, Mo. attends a seance,
and her hand on the Ouija Board traces out the name Patience Worth,
who tells of her birth in Dorset, England in the late 17th cent., followed by emigration to America and eventual death at the hands of an Indian
war party; she follows the act with a series of historical novels, sometimes writing two simultaneously with different hands, incl.
The Sorry Tale (about Christ),
Hope Trueblood (19th cent. Victorian tale), and her big hit
Telka: An Idyl of Medieval England, a play written in medieval English.
On July 10 after a record hot summer Death Valley, Calif.
reaches a high air temp of 134 F (56.7 C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth), followed by the record highest ground surface temp on Earth of 201F (93.9C) on July 15, 1917.
On Aug. 13 Italian PM (since Mar. 30, 1911) Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928)
receives a telegram
from Austria-Hungary, informing him of their intention of invading Serbia and hoping for support from Italy and Germany.
On Aug. 13 German Social Dem. leader August Bebel (b. 1840) dies, and is succeeded by
Friedrich "Fritz" Ebert Sr. (1871-1925).
On Aug. 13 Britain and Germany begin secret negotiations to create potential spheres of influence in Portugal's African possessions; they are finalized on Oct. 20.
On Aug. 21 Francis Burton Harrison (1873-1957)
is appointed gov. of the Philippines (until 1921), replacing William Howard Taft, going on to work for Philippine independence and increases the number of Filipinos in the govt.
On Sept. 9 Russian army pilot Pyotr Nikolayevich Nesterov (1887-1914)
flies the first air loop in a 70 hp Nieuport IV monoplane, followed on Sept. 21 by French army pilot
Adolphe Celestin Pegoud Adolphe (Célestin Pégoud) (1889-1915) in a Bleriot Model XI monopolane,
who also becomes the first pilot to make a parachute jump from an airplane; Nesterov goes on to found aerial aerobatics and become the first WWI fighter ace,
ending up getting too brave and getting killed trying to ram an Austrian plane in WWI.
On Sept. 23 the Colo. Coalfield War begins (ends Dec. 1914)
in S Colo., becoming the deadliest strike in U.S. history (until ?).
In Sept. Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
meets for the last time with his mentor Sigmund Freud in Munich, after which they split and go their separate ways, with Jung citing Freud's refusal
to acknowledge religion and spirituality, going on to found Analytical (Jungian) Psychology;
Jung allegedly has a vision of a "monstrous flood" engulfing Europe - The original I'm a Ford truck man, or, No three comfort zones, no three rows of seats?
On Oct. 3 after Pres. Woodrow Wilson summons a special session of Congress in Apr. to consider the tariff question, the
U.S. Underwood-Simmons Tariff (Revenue) Act of 1913,
sponsored by U.S. Rep. (D-Ala, 1897-1915) (chmn. of the House Ways and Means Committee)
Oscar Wilder Underwood (1862-1929) (anti-KKK) and
U.S. Sen. (D-N.C.) (1901-31) Furnifold McLendel Simmons (1854-1940) (pro-KKK)
reimposes the federal income tax, lowers basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, and removes restrictions on importation of Philippine goods into the U.S.
On Oct. 3-4 2K soldiers and sailors rebel, resulting on Oct. 5 in the naval
Oct. 5 Rev.
On Oct. 4 Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919)
goes on an expedition to Brazil, saying "it was my last chance to be a boy"; he arrives on Oct. 18, hooks up with his engineer son Kermit Roosevelt at
the insistence of mother Edith, and abandons his tame planned itinerary for one that is more dangerous, saying "I have had my full share, and if it is
necessary for me to leave my bones in South America, I am quite ready to do so"; accompanied by his son and Brazilian Col.
Candido Randon (1865-1958),
he enters the jungle on Dec. 25, reaching the Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt) and trying to chart it while fighting the Cinta Larga cannibal tribe and
poisonous animals, incl. the transparent parasitic candiru catfish; he returns on May 19, 1914, having lost 60 lbs. and developed a bad right leg which kills him
in less than five years; the river is renamed Rio Roosevelt.
On Oct. 6 Yuan Shikai is elected pres. of China, with Gen. Li Yuanhong as vice-pres., and the new constitution is adopted; on Oct. 7 Yuan
recognizes the independence of Tibet, and Britain diplomatically recognizes the Repub. of China; on Nov. 4 Yuan purges the parliament
of Kuomintang members, and outlaws it, causing Sun Yat-Sen to flee to Japan by the end of Nov.
On Oct. 7-11 the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (mgr. Connie Mack) defeat the New York Giants (NL) (mgr. John McGraw) 4-1 to win the
Tenth (10th) World Series;
3rd straight WS loss for the Giants (first time Detroit Tigers in 1907-9) (next ?).
On Oct. 27 A Coruna, Galicia-born Eduardo Dato e Iradier (1856-1921)
becomes PM of Spain (until Dec. 9, 1915, then June 11, 1917-Nov. 3, 1917, then Apr. 28, 1920-Mar. 8, 1921), serving as pres. of the
Spanish Congress of Deputiex 4x; too bad, he becomes a symbol of the establishment, making him a target for anarchists.
In Oct. German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and German chief of staff Gen. Helmuth von Moltke warn Austria not to make war with Serbia over the issue; on
Oct. 16 the 100th anniv. of Napoleon's defeat in Leipzig by Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden in the Battle of the Nations is presided over by Kaiser Wilhelm II,
who tells Austrian chief of staff Conrad von Hoetzendorf that he supports an Austrian military action to force Serbia out of Albania, with the soundbyte:
"I am with you there... Within a few days you must be in Belgrade. I was always a partisan of peace, but this has its limits. I have read much
about war and know what it means, but finally a situation arises in which a great power can no longer just look on, but must draw the sword"; on
Oct. 18 the Austrian govt. sends Serbia the Albanian Ultimatum
(causing the Kaiser to send a congratulatory telegram to Austrian emperor Franz Josef
and his heir apparent nephew Franz Ferdinand), giving it eight days to evacuate, causing
the Serbs to back down and comply on Oct. 26 after Russia sits it out, causing
Leipzig-born British diplomat Sir
Eyre Alexander Barby Wisbart Crowe (1864-1925)
to utter the soundbyte "Austria has broken loose from the concert of
powers in order to seek a solution single-handed of a question hitherto
treated as concerning all powers", followed on Oct. 27 by German acting
foreign minister Alfred Zimmerman
(1864-1940) telling British Berlin ambassador Sir Edward Goschen that
"He had been surprised that the emperor of Austria endorses a policy
which, under certain circumstances, might lead to serious consequences,
but he had done so, and that made it clearer still that restraining
advice at Vienna on the part of Germany was out of the question"; on
Oct. 31 Sir Eyre Crowe comments that the German approval of Austria's ultimatum
"confirms the impression that Germany, pretending to us that she altogether
disapproved and regretted the Austrian attitude, has throughout encouraged
her ally"; on Nov. 11 another
is signed by Turkey and Greece, with Turkey under Austrian pressure agreeing
to the creation of an independent Albania to cut Serbia off from the Adriatic Sea.
On Oct. 22 a coal mine explosion in the
Stag Canyon No. 2 Mine
in Dawson, N.M. kills 253 of 286 miners and two rescuers.
On Oct. 22 the Theatre du Vieux-Colombier
of producer-dir. Jacques Copeau (1879-1949)
opens in Paris, with the agenda of returning theater from crass commercial entertainment to true art; too bad, WWI shuts it down, and he gives a lecture tour
in the U.S. in 1917, where he is billed as the "arch-rebel of the French theater", gaining acclaim and bringing his troupe in Nov., staying through 1919, and
reopening his theater on Feb. 9, 1920, performing in France throughout the decade with his nephew, actor-dir.
Michel Saint-Denis (1897-1971).
On Oct. 28 the Zabern (Saverne) Affair
(ends 1914) in Alsace-Lorraine endangers Franco-German relations after Prussian 2nd lt.
Gunter Freiherr von Forstner
(1893-1915) insults the local Alsatian pop. with the soundbyte "If you are attacked,
use your weapon; if you stab a Wackes ("square head") (Alsatian) then I'll give you 10 marks",
after which the newspapers sensationalize it and on Nov. 28 an angry mob at the military barracks
causes the Prussians to strike back, arresting a bunch of them, incl. leading politicians and
judges; on Dec. 2 Forstner hits a heckling shoemaker with his saber and is given 43 days by a
military court, which is reversed on appeal; on Dec. 4 the Reichstag returns its first vote of
no-confidence in the govt. in history (293-4-53), triggering rallies in 17 German cities on
Dec. 7 protesting the despotic rule of the Prussians and bringing up all the old sayings
("Prussia was hatched from a cannon ball" - Napoleon) ("War is the national industry of Prussia" - Mirabeau),
which Kaiser Wilhelm II responds to by moving the Saverne units on Dec. 5, ordering a govt. whitewash,
and issuing a new regulation prohibiting military force against civilians next Mar. 19
(abolished by the Nazis in 1936), after which the affair cools down, although the Wackes
never trust the Prussians again?;
in 1915 Forstner goes down in history a 2nd time when he claims to sight a 60-ft.
from his U-boat U-28 while sinking British ship SS Iberian.
On Nov. 5 the Chinese Repub. recognizes the autonomy of Outer Mongolia along with its
treaty with Russia of 1912.
On Nov. 5 after Prince Luitpold dies in 1912 and his son Prince Ludwig becomes insane
king Otto I's regent, causing cries that it's time to get glad, the constitution is changed,
permitting conservative Roman Catholic "Rerum Novarum" thumping Wittelsbach
(1845-1921) (father of Crown Prince Rupprecht) to become the last king of Bavaria (until Nov. 13, 1918).
On Nov. 9-11 the
Great Lakes Hurricane
ravages the Great Lakes.
On Nov. 25 Pres. Wilson's daughter Jessie Wilson (1887-1933)
marries Francis Bowes Sayre in the White House East Room in a large and elegant wedding, after which the House of Reps. sends her a diamond necklace, while
the Senate sends her a 14-piece silver service; the fifth daughter of a pres. to be married in the White House (next 1914).
On Dec. 1-4 the Colo. Blizzard of 1913
dumps 4-6 ft. of snow along the Colo. Front Range incl. Denver, becoming the worst snowstorm (until ?).
On Dec. 2 Pres. Wilson gives his First Annual Message to Congress,
becoming the first pres. since John Adams in 1801 to deliver it in person, preferring not to just submit a written report.
On Dec. 2 High Mass is celebrated in Vienna to celebrate the 65th anniv. of the succession
of Austrian emperor Franz Josef, the longest-reigning European monarch so far.
On Dec. 9 Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (1861-1937)
becomes French PM #79 (until June 9, 1914).
On Dec. 12 Ethiopian (Abyssinian) emperor (since 1889) Menelik II (b. 1844) has a stroke and dies after eating the entire Book of Kings torn from an Egyptian ed. of the Bible
(he had been eating Bible pages all his life for cures); he is succeeded by his son Lij Yasu (1891-1917),
who makes the mistake of converting to Islam and having communications with the Mad Mullah Sayyid Muhamma, pissing-off the Ethiopian
Christian Church - this time he picked the wrong chapter?
On Dec. 21 the first Crossword Puzzle
("word cross"), by Liverpool, England-born Arthur Wynne (1862-1945)
is pub. in the Sunday supplement to the New York World, becoming a regular feature and attracting contributors
who get frequent mention in "The Conning Tower" column by
Franklin Pierce Adams (1881-1960);
the first clue is "What bargain hunters enjoy" (sales); after the short spaces get filled too many times with stock words, Winston Churchill
quips: "I should think that ninety percent of the people believe that there was but one Roman Emperor and that his name was Nero."
On Dec. 23 taking advantage of Christmas vacation, the depleted U.S. Congress (bribed by the 16th Amendment banking group?) passes the
U.S. Federal Reserve Act
(a fraud because it requires a constitutional amendment?), based on the work of political economist
James Laurence Laughlin (1850-1933)
of the U. of Chicago, and Jewish German-Am. banker
Paul Moritz Warburg (1868-1932);
the Federal Reserve System (Fed)
is created, with Warburg one of its initial members, with Congress handing it its power to coin money and regulate the value thereof, and
turning itself into a customer borrowing money from it at interest, lowering the living standard of the people so that the bankers can make
more profits; Wilson, who signs it, later utters the soundbyte: "I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country.
A great industrial nation is now controlled by its system of credit. We are no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government
by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men";
U.S. Dem. House Speaker (1911-9) Champ Clark unsuccessfully opposes it, after which it's no coincidence that his home state of Mo. becomes
the home of two Federal Reserve Banks (Kansas City, St. Louis) - (a private corporation owned by banks that poses as a govt. agency and
issues money out of thin air in order to dilute its value, steal homes and other real property, and turn the people into serfs, causing
Thomas Jefferson to roll over in his grave?)
On Dec. ? Denver, Colo. is buried under 47 in. of snow.
In Dec. Protestant Ulster in North Ireland revolts.
In Dec. Walroth, London-born vaudeville actor Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin (1889-1977)
arrives at Keystone Studios in Los Angeles suburb Edendale, and begins his amazing film career with a $150/week contract.
Suffragette demonstrations are staged in London.
France absorbs the three kingdoms of Chad into French Equatorial Africa as part of Ubangi-Shari (modern-day Central African Repub.).
After the founding of Sarekat (Dagang) Islam,
a Javanese batik traders cooperative in 1912, which promotes Islamic modernism,
the Aceh War
(begun 1873) in Dutch Indonesia ends after 50K-100K are killed and 1M wounded.
Dinuzulu dies, and his son
Solomon ka Cetshwayo
(1891-1933) becomes king of Zululand (until 1933), going on to found the
Inkatha Freedom Party in the 1928.
Mario Garcia Menocal
(1866-1941) is elected pres. of Cuba (until 1921), defeating pres. (since 1908)
Jose Miguel Gomez, who claims that the election is fraudulent.
The imam of Yemen is granted autonomy by Turkey.
Ismael Montes becomes pres. of Bolivia again (until 1917).
is elected pres. of the Chinese Repub.
Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes Wilson's asst. secy. of the U.S. Navy (until 1920).
The Moro Rebellion
in the Philippines (begun 1899) ends after U.S. Gen.
John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (1860-1948)
allegedly (probably fiction) executes and buries Islamic rebels with
pig parts, making them fear they
won't achieve paradise and scaring them out of starting another rebellion for 50 years; his
soldiers definitely did
bury Muslims with pigs or pig blood, and Pershing brought a pig's head to a ceasefire negotiation;
is founded after .38 cal. bullets don't stop fanatical Moro warriors, the U.S. Army
using .45 cal. semiautomatic guns.
Ion Bratianu becomes PM of Romania again (until 1918).
Sheik Abdullah bin Jassim Al-Thani (1876-1957)
becomes ruler of Qatar (until Aug. 20, 1948), going on to declare independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1915 and become a
British protectorate in 1916 (until 1971).
Women gain the right to vote in Norway and Iceland.
The first woman magistrate in England is sworn in.
Alaska and Ill. become the 9th-10th U.S. states to give women the vote.
Wilson's secy. of state Williams Jennings Bryan negotiates 24 treaties in which the signatories pledge to observe a cooling-off period of 12 mo. after all other means of
ending a dispute had been exhausted before resorting to the expedient of warry war war.
The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation"; Mongolia and Tibet recognize each other in a
treaty signed in Urga.
The Ghadar ("Mutiny") Party is founded in San Francisco, Calif. by expatriate Indian Sikhs and Hindu Pujabis in the U.S. and Canada
to secure India's independence from British rule by military means; after WWI it splits into Communist and anti-Communist factions before being dissolved in 1948.
Borax king Stephen Tyng Mather (1867-1930)
sends a letter to U.S. interior secy. Franklin Knight Lane, calling for nat. parks to be better protected, causing Lane to lobby for a new govt.
bureaucracy, which is created by Congress on Aug. 25, 1916 as the
U.S. Nat. Park Service,
with Mather as dir. #1 (until 1929).
The Leo Frank Case
shows the extent of anti-Jewish prejudice in the Am. South, and leads directly
to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL)
of B'nai B'rith in Oct. after 29-y.-o. Jewish pencil factory manager
Leo Max Frank (1884-1915)
is framed for the rape-murder of a 13-y.-o. girl who worked in his Atlanta, Ga. factory, railroaded by Ga. politician and KKK man
Thomas Edward "Tom" Watson (1856-1922)
and sentenced to hang; after the sentence is commuted to life imprisonment by the gov., on Aug. 17, 1915 a mob of 40 middle-class whites
called the Knights of Mary Phagan speeds his life up by taking him from the state pen at Milledgeville to the town of Marietta and lynching him;
future U.S. pres. Lyndon Baines Johnson
sees his grandfather Big Sam Johnson and his father Little Sam Johnson work for clemency for Leo Frank, causing the KKK to threaten their lives,
and turning LBJ into a lifelong enemy of the KKK and anti-Semitism.
Aging U.S. postal censor Anthony Comstock (d. 1915) brags to the New York lvening World that in his 40-year career he has destroyed
160 tons of obscene material and convicted "enough persons to fill a passenger train of sixty-one coaches, sixty coaches containing sixty passengers
each and the sixty-first almost full" - that's at least 2,500?
Jewish Liberal MP and atty.-gen. Rufus Isaacs, Lord Reading of Earley (1860-1935)
becomes British lord chief justice (until 1921), and is elevated to the peerage next year, going on to become marquess in 1927, the highest rank
reached by a Jew in British history (until ?) - and it had to be for reading?
Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928),
AKA "Mrs. Pankhurst" is sentenced for inciting persons to place an explosive in David Lloyd George's house.
French Gen. Joseph Jacques Cesaire (Césaire) Joffre (1852-1931)
and his chief of staff Gen. Henri Mathias Berthelot (1861-1931),
guided by Gen. Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929)
draw up Plan 17 (XVII),
a defense plan in case of German invasion, which totally ignores a possible advance through
Belgium, and counts on the Russians sending 800K men (on the 18th day) and the British 150K.
The Beilis Affair
sees Ukrainian Jew Menahem Mendel Beilis (Beiliss) (1874-1934)
accused of ritual murder, causing an internat. uproar that makes the Russian govt. back down.
Am. Va. Military Inst. grad. 2nd lt. George C. Marshall (b. 1880) wows the U.S. army chief of staff during maneuvers, who calls him
"the greatest military genius since Stonewall Jackson".
Erasmus U. Rotterdam (EUR)
(originally the Netherlands School of Commerce until 1939, then Netherland School of Economics) is founded in Rotterdam, Netherlands,
named after 15th cent. humanist Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, going on to become one of the top-10 business schools in Europe.
The Short Creek Community
is founded in the Ariz. Strip by polygamous Mormon fundamentalists, who found the
Apostolic United Brethren (AUB) AKA The Work, The Group, and The Priesthood.
The Moorish Science Temple of Am.,
claming to be a Muslim sect of "indigenous Moors", aboriginal Negroid paleo-Americans that existed prior to the transatlantic slave trade is
founded in Newark, N.J. by Timothy Drew (1886-1929)
of N.C., after which the sect disintegrates. later moving to Chicago, Ill.
in the Tonga Islands 2K mi. E of Australia disappears under the sea, and resurfaces in 1926, then disappears again in 1949.
The London Group
of British artists breaks off from the New English Art Club (1886), going for Cezanne, Gaugin, and Van Gogh, and offering exhibiting opportunities
outside the Royal Academy of Arts; members incl. Wyndham Lewis, Sickert, Epstein, and most of the Camden Town Group (1911).
French child prodigy composer Marie-Juliette Olga "Lili" Boulanger (1893-1918),
sister and student of composer Juliette Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979)
becomes the first woman to win the Prix de Rome scholarship for Faust et Helene.
Calcutta-born Bengali poet Sir Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
becomes the first Asian to win a Nobel Prize (Lit.), going on to become a strong supporter of Mahatma Gandhi.
Beautiful brainy women's libber Scots-Irish writer
Rebecca West (1892-1983) ("woman of the century"?) hooks up with married writer
H.G. (Herbert George) Wells (1866-1946),
and their affair lasts 10 years, during which they bear writer son
Anthony Panther West (1914-87),
after which she hooks up with Charlie Chaplin and Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook before finally settling down with banker
Henry Maxwell Andrews (1894-1968) in 1930.
The Golden Rule store chain changes its name to the
J.C. Penney Co.
The Anti-Saloon League
on the occasion of its 20th anniv. announces its campaign to achieve nat. alcohol prohibition through a constitutional amendment - as likely as snow in July?
The 52.1K-ton German turbine passenger liner Imperator begins service.
Diesel-electric railway engines are first used in Sweden.
French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918)
makes the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea from Frejus in S France to Bizerte, Tunisia.
The Naval Air Station Pensacola is founded in Pensacola, Fla. at the W end of the Fla. Panhandle,
becoming the first in the U.S., giving the city the nickname "Cradle of Naval Aviation".
John D. Rockefeller founds the Rockefeller Inst.
with a $100M grant, forcing him to live on his remaining $900M - he cleaned out under his bed?
After greedy developers from Los Angeles pose as immigrants to Owens Valley, Calif.,
buy up land and build the Los Angeles Aqueduct,
the Owens Valley farmers fight back in vain until their giant lake is drained and the aqueduct is reduced to a trickle.
The modern cigarette industry is born with the introduction of the Camel
brand by Va.-born tobacconist Richard Joshua "R.J." Reynolds (1850-1918)
of Winston-Salem, N.C. (known for adding saccharin to chewing tobacco), becoming the first packaged pre-rolled
cigarette brand, using Turkish paper and the "American blend" of several types of tobacco, undercutting
competitors and using a unique "teaser" ad campaign to become the first nationally-popular cigarette in the U.S.,
selling 425M packs in the first year, making him the wealthiest man in N.C.; the front features a 1-humped
Dromedary camel, two pyramids, and three palm trees; in 1987
Joe Camel (a phallic symbol?)
becomes the mascot for Camel cigarettes, getting into trouble with the Am. Medical Assoc., which claims
that it appeals too much to children, spurring lawsuits that cause the ads to be pulled on July 12, 1997;
meanwhile the Am. Society for the Control of Cancer, later renamed the
Am. Cancer Society is founded - an
amazing coincidence in timing, which turns into a cent.-long duel with the Devil?
Calif. amends its 1907 Poison Act to outlaw marijuana, amending it again in 1915 to make is stronger.
Ivar Kreuger (1880-1932) founds the
United Swedish Match Factories Co.,
going on to get Euro govts. to give him a monopoly, and becoming known as "the Match King" and
"Prince of the first global finance state", with a fortune of 30B Swedish kronor ($100B), then
getting caught swindling investors out of $400M and becoming known as "the world's greatest swindler"
after the 1929 Stock Market Crash before he commits suicide.
After finishing his course of medicine and surgery (begun 1905) at the U. of Strasbourg is founded, and marrying Helen Bresslau in June 1912, Franco-German "Reverence for Life" brain man
Albert Schweitzer 1875-1965)
opens a hospital in Lambarene (Lambaréné), French Congo (Equatorial Africa)
on the Ogooue River in modern-day Gabon (until 1917), caring for 2K patients the first year;
the French imprison him as a German national during WWI in 1917-8, and he returns in 1924 sans wife,
expanding his hospital and benefitting from new drugs, returning to Europe in 1927, and back to Africa in
1929-32, 1935, and 1937-48, becoming world famous and winning the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize.
The City of Hope NE of Los Angeles, Calif. is founded.
The Children's Museum in Boston, Mass. is founded.
The Am. College of Surgeons is founded, with
Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) as its only black member.
in Dornach (near Basel), Switzerland is founded by Anthroposophists.
The Atwood Sphere,
the predecessor of the modern planetarium is built.
in Scotland opens; Norway presents it with its first king penguin.
Swiss clown Grock the Clown (Charles Adrien Wettach) (1880-1959) becomes a hit in Europe and England, playing a buffoon
who holds his fiddle upside down; in reality he can play 24 instruments and speak several languages.
American Progressivist Herbert David Croly (1869-1930),
who vaulted to prominence with his 1909 book "The Promise of American Life" founds
The New Repub. mag. on Nov. 7
with Walter Lippmann (1889-1974) and
Walter Weyl (1873-1919);
it goes on to "invent the modern usage of the term liberal" (ed. Franklin Foer),
pushing liberals into advocating more govt. interventionism, foreign and domestic; in 1974
Harvard U. New Left lecturer Martin Peretz acquires it for $380K, promoting U.S. support for
Israel and hawkish foreign policy, endorsing independent John B. Anderson over Jimmy Carter for the 1980 U.S. pres. nomination.
Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield (1859-1947) and
Martha Beatrice Webb (1858-1943)
found the leftist New Statesman mag. in London;
Basil Kingsley Martin (1897-1969) becomes ed. in 1930-60.
Bruno Walter (1876-1962)
becomes dir. of the Munich Opera (until 1922).
The MIT-Harvard School of Public Health
is founded by bacteriologist
William Thomas Sedgwick (1855-1921)
et al.; in 1915 Sedgwick becomes pres. of the Am. Public Health Assoc.
S.C.-born psychologist John Broadus Watson (1878-1958)
gives the address Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it
at Columbia U., causing a rev., and coining the word "Behaviorism", the rejection of the concept of mind and consciousness - no wonder it's like a party in here?
Workers in Mexico City unearth the SW corner of the Aztec Great Temple.
Quaker State Oil Co.
is founded in Oil City, Penn. by Chicago stockbroker
The Cleveland Museum of Art
Am. dancing couple Irene Castle (1893-1969) and
Vernon Castle (1887-1918)
debut in The Sunshine Girl in New York City.
English ballerina Lydia Sokolova (Hilda Munnings)
(1896-1974) joins Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russia, becoming its first English ballerina until it disbands in 1929.
The Sam S. Shubert Theatre
at 225 W. 44th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. opens on Oct. 13 with a series of Shakespeare plays, going on to host "The Chorus Line"
for 6,137 perf. starting in 1974; meanwhile the
at 222 W. 45th St. in Manhattan, N.Y., back-to-back with the Shubert Theatre, named after Edwin Booth, brother of
John Wilkes Booth opens on Oct. 16 with Arnold Bennett's "The Great Adventure".
4'10" Ann Pennington (1893-1971)
debuts in the Ziegfield Follies, going on to become one of their top attractions, later getting the
Black Bottom dance written for her by Ray Henderson.
Russian silent film dir. Evgeni Bauer (1865-1917)
begins making films with producer
Alexander Khanzhonkov (1877-1945),
cranking out 70 before croaking of pneumonia in 1917.
Here cum da Jooz to take over Hollywood?
San Francisco, Calif.-born
Jesse Louis Lasky (1880-1958)
(known for his rimless glasses),
Arthur S. Friend (atty.),
Cecil Blount DeMille (1881-1959),
and his brother-in-law Samuel Goldwyn (Goldfish) (Szmuel Gelbfisz) (1879-1974)
found Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Co. with $26.5K, which on June 28, 1916 becomes Famous Players-Lasky Corp.
Stockton-on-Tees, England-born stage dir.
Maurice Elvey (1887-1967)
switches to films, starting with "The Great Gold Robbery" (1913), followed by "The Suicide Club" (1914), "Love in a Wood" (1916),
"The Man Who Saved the Empire" (1918), "The Hound of the Baskervilles" (1921), going on to mentor dirs. Carol Reed, David Lean,
and Ronald Neame and discover singer Petula Clark in 1944 at the Royal Albert Hall, giving her a part in "Medal for the General" (1944);
he goes on to dir. almost 200 films by 1957 and produce 50+ films, becoming the most prolific film dir. in British history (until ?).
The Rootes Group
is founded in Hawkhurst, Kent, England by
William Edward "Billy" Rootes, 1st Baron Rootes (1894-1964)
to sell cars, becoming the largest car and truck distributor in Britain, going on to
use the profits to acquire the Thrupp & Maberly (1926), Commer, Hillman (1929), Humber (1929),
Commer (1929), Karrier (1934), Clement (1935), Talbot (1935), Sunbeam (1935), and Singer (1956) brands;
a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 driven by Stirling Moss wins the 1955 Monte Carlo Rally;
after being taken over in stages by Chrysler, it goes defunct in 1971.
brand name is first used on sewing machines, expanding to washing machines in 1927, vacuum cleaners in 1932, ranges in 1946, dishwashers in 1951, washer-dryer combos in 1957,
microwave ovens in 1971, and continuous-cleaning ceramic cooktop ranges in 1973.
On Mar. 8-10 the 1913 Stanley Cup Finals
see Quebec Bulldogs defeat the Sydney Millionaires 2-0, becoming a 2-peat.
On Mar. 10 William J. Knox
of Philly bowls the first perfect 300 game in an ABC tournament in Toledo, Ohio, which is won by Frank Peterson with a 3-game score of
693 vs. 672 for him; Knox also rolls a record 17 straight strikes, which is not equalled until 1967.
On Apr. 16 the first Schneider Trophy (Prize)
(Coupe d'Aviation Maritime Jacques Schneider) for seaplanes in Monaco is won by
Lucien Maurice Prevost (Prévost) (1887-1952)
in a Duperdussin Coupe Schneider at an avg. speed of 45.71 mph (73.56 km/h); after the British win in 1919 in a Sopwith Tabloid at 86.83 mph (139.74 km/h), it is suspended until 1919;
the last race is held in 1931 in Calshot Split, England before 500K spectators, and is won by a Supermarine S.6B at 340.08 mph (547.31 km/h); since this is their 3-peat, the U.K. keeps the trophy.
On May 13 black world heavyweight boxing champ John Arthur "Jack" Johnson (1878-1946)
is railroaded through an all-white federal jury in Chicago, Ill. on trumped-up U.S. Mann (White Slave Traffic) Act charges for supposedly
paying white ho and longtime lover Belle Schreiber
to come meet him while he traveled from Atlantic City to Philadelphia, thus transporting a woman across state lines for an immoral purpose;
after an all-white jury convicts him, he is sentenced to one year and one day in priz in the courtroom of white supremacist judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis despite the alleged offense
taking place before passage of the Mann Act, causing him to flee to Canada then Europe, returning in 1920 to serve his sentence in Leavenworth, Kan.
On May 30 the 1913 (3rd) Indianapolis 500
sees six entrants from Europe vying for the $20K purse, with Jules Goux (1885-1965)
of France winning by a 13-min. margin, becoming the first non-Am. winner, in a car with a 4-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine, which is widely emulated; Goux allegedly drinks
six bottles of champagne during the race; Charlie Merz drives the final lap with his car on fire to get his prize money.
On May 30 Russian-born 5'3" Jewish-Am. boxer Abraham "Abe the Newsboy" Hollandersky (1887-1966)
defeats Jack Ortega in nine rounds in Panama City to become the first U.S. boxer to win the Panamanian heavyweight title; in 1918 he retires after 1,039 fights since 1905.
On Nov. 1 Notre Dame stuns Army 35-13 at West Point as QB Gus Dorais debuts the forward pass
to running back Knute Rockne, beginning a rivalry with the Army to add to the rivalry with Mich. State U.
On Nov. 8 the monthly Bowlers Journal
is founded by David A. "Dave" Luby (1857-1925) of Chicago, Ill. (until ?).
The Internat. Assoc. of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is founded, and sports are now globalized.
The U.S. wins the Davis Cup of tennis 3-2.
16-y.-o. U.S. amateur Francis DeSales Ouimet (1893-1967) (with a 10-y.-o. caddy)
meets veteran British champ Harry Vardon (1870-1937)
in the greatest U.S. Open golf championship until ?; subject of the 2005 Bill Paxton film
The Greatest Game Ever Played.
Former catcher Wilbert Robinson (1863-1934)
becomes mgr. of the Brooklyn Dodgers (NL) (until 1931), winning league titles in 1916 and 1920.
On Mar. 24 the Palace Theatre
at 1564 Broadway (at West 47th St.) in New York City (cap. 1,743) opens, becoming the home of vaudeville and the #1 booking stage in the U.S.
until 1929 after tyrannical owner Edward Franklin Albee II (1857-1930)
teams with Joseph P. Kennedy to found the Keith-Albee Orpheum Corp. on Jan. 28, 1928,
which is acquired in May by RCA and turned into RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum) Pictures, turning their vaudeville circuit into a movie theater chain.
On Apr. 24 the 792-ft. 57-story Woolworth Bldg. ("the Cathedral of Commerce")
(begun 1910) at 233 Broadway in New York City (in a Gothic style complete with gargoyles) opens, designed by
Cass Gilbert (1859-1934), becoming the world's tallest bldg. (until 1930).
On June 5 the Ambassadors Theatre
on West St. and Charing Cross Rd. near Cambridge Circus (cap. 444) opens, becoming one of the smallest West End theatres,
seating 195 in the Dress Circle and 251 in the Stalls, located across from the renowned restaurant The Ivy, frequented by theatrical elite.
On Aug. 23 the 4.1' (1.25m) 385 lb. Statue of the Little Mermaid
(begun 1919), mounted on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark, based on the
Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale is unveiled, sculpted by Edvard Eriksen (1876-1959),
whose wife (since 1900) Eline Vilhelmine Eriksen (nee Moeller) (1881-1963)
is used as the body model, with ballerina
Ellen Price (Ellen Juliette Collin Price de Plane) (1878-1968) modeling for the head,
becoming the nat. symbol; on Apr. 24, 1964 vandals steal the head, followed by many more episodes; every time somebody steals something,
they replace it using a copy made with the original mold.
On Oct. 2 the Shubert Theatre
at 225 West 44th Street in Manhattan, N.Y. next to the Booth Theatre (connected by the private Shubert Alley) (cap. 1,460) opens with Shakespeare's "Hamlet"
starring Sir John Forbes-Robertson, followed on Oct. 21 by George Bernard Shaw's "Caesar and Cleopatra", going on to host many Tony Awards;
the top floors house the offices of the Shubert Org; in 1975-90 it hosts "A Chorus Line" for a record 6,137 perf.
On Dec. 13 Edmonton Gardens
(originally the Edmonton Stock Pavilion) AKA the Cow Barn in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (cap. 5.2K) opens as their first indoor hockey arena, becoming home to the
Edmonton Oil Kings, Edmonton Eskimos, Edmonton Flyers, and Edmonton Oilers; in 1966 after the fire dept. condemns it, it is renovated; it is demolished in Feb. 1982
by a wrecking ball after two failed attempts with dynamite.
The Apollo Theater
at 253 W. 125th St. in Harlem, N.Y. opens for African-Am. performers.
The Neo-Gothic Episcopal Church of the Intercession
in New York City at 155th St. and Broadway on Sugar Hill between Harlem and Washington Heights, designed by
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924)
is built, becoming the unofficial HQ for visiting African prelates incl. Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa.
Kykuit (Dutch "lookout") in Pocantico Hills near Tarrytown and Sleepy Holly
overlooking the Hudson River at Tappan Zee, with a view of the New York City skyline 25 mi. to the S is build for richest man
on Earth John D. Rockefeller, becoming the family home for four gens. incl. John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Nelson Rockefeller;
later Bill and Hillary Clinton move to Chappaqua near it on the N.
The pink marble Fireman's Memorial
at 100th and Riverside Dr. in New York City, designed by Italian-born Attilio Piccirilli is erected, modeled by Audrey Munson.
New York City's landmark Grand Central Terminal (Station)
(begun 1903) at 42nd St. and Park Ave. in Manhattan, N.Y., named for the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, designed by
Whitney Warren (1864-1943) et al. opens, featuring 44 platforms (most in the world).
Automobile magnate Carl Graham Fisher (1874-1939)
organizes and obtains funding to build the $10M Lincoln Highway
from New York City to San Francisco, Calif. (3.4K mi.), becoming the first road across the U.S.; Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and
Thomas Edison back it financially, but Henry Ford opposes it; in 1919 the U.S. Army sends a motor convoy along it which incl.
Lt. Col. Dwight David Eisenhower, who later credits it for his support of the Interstate Highway System.
The Scheepvaarthuis (Dutch "Shipping House") on the Prins Hendrikkade near Amsterdam harbor on the W tip of the
Waalseiland where Cornelis Houtman began his first trip to the East Indies in 1595 is begun (finished 1916, 2nd part 1926-8), becoming the first example of the Expressionist
Peace: Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943) (Belgium);
Lit.: Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) (India);
Physics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) (Netherlands) [superconductivity];
Chem.: Alfred Werner (1866-1919) (Switzerland) [octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes];
Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935) (France) [anaphylaxis].
("bright", "shining") steel wool soap pads are patented to clean aluminum pots and pans, which blacken easily over coal fires.
The $900 Domelre
("domestic electric refrigerator"), the first electric refrigerator, invented by
is marketed in Chicago, Ill.; too bad, it's so inefficient that buyers place it on top of their iceboxes, and it only sells 40 units in two years;
it is mainly used to refrigerate blood for transfusion?
The first Stainless (Chrome) Steel
is created on Aug. 13 by Harry Brearley (1871-1948)
in Sheffield, England.
Sir George Alfred Julius (1873-1946)
of Australia invents the Tote Board (Automatic Totalisator)
for Parimutuel Betting
at horseraces; the first installed at Ellerslie Racecourse in Auckland, New Zealand;
it is introduced into the U.S. in 1929 at Hialeah Park in Fla., turning the failing industry around.
On May 3 banker Archibald Taft, coal merchant Edward Hughes, bookkeeper Charles Husband,
atty. Rufus Myers, and miner William Hussey devise the formula for household bleach, and
chip in $100 each to found the
Clorox Co. (chlorine + sodium hydroxide)
(originally Electro-Alkaline Co.), the first commecial liquid bleach factory in the U.S. in Oakland, Calif.;
the logo is diamond-shaped; sales are slow until they dilute the formula in 1915 and begin giving
away 15-oz. sample bottles; in 1957 it is acquired by Procter & Gamble, which is forced by the
FDA to divest it on Jan. 1, 1969, allowing it to expand, with products incl. Formula 409,
Liquid-Plumr, Kingsford Charcoal, Hidden Valley Ranch Dressing, Brita Water Filters (1988),
Pine-Sol (1990), and First Brands (1999), makers of Glad, Handi-Whipes et al.; in 2008 it becomes
the first U.S. co. to launch a green cleaning line, Green Works; in 2010 it sells the Armor All
and STP brands to Avista Capital Partners; in 2015 it reaches sales of $5.655B.
In 1913 german physicist Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Geiger (1882-1945)
of Germany invents the cool-sounding Geiger Counter for alpha rays; in
1928 Geiger and his asst. Walther Mueller (Müller) (1905-79)
of Germany invent the Geiger-Mueller Tube
for measuring ionizing radiation (beta particles and gamma rays).
Salem, Ore.-born Olympic pole vaulter Alfred Carlton Gilbert (1884-1962)
introduces the Mysto Erector Structural Steel Builder, AKA the Erector Set.
Kiev, Ukraine-born aviator
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (1889-1972)
designs Le Grand, the first 4-engine (multiengine) airplane, going on to make Clippers for Pan Am whiile tinkering with helis.
Swedish-born engineer Otto Frederick Gideon Sundback (1880-1954)
of Hoboken, N.J. in Dec. invents the modern Zipper,
which he calls the "separable fastener", and is later called "zipper" by B.F. Goodrich; he receives a patent in 1917; it is initially only used
for boots and tobacco pouches, and doesn't officially beat the button for men's trousers until 1937 - millions of penises and scrotums are waiting to
Am. chemist T.L. Winslow (1953-), er, Tom Lyle "T.L." Williams (1896-)
lash darkener for his older sister Mabel by combining Vaseline with coal dust in a successful effort to help her win her boyfriend Chet back; in
1915 he founds the Maybelline
cosmetic line, with the slogan "Maybe she's born with it; maybe it's Maybelline".
Techniques for welding steel pipe sections are developed, making large scale pipelines possible.
German chemist Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius (1884-1949),
student of Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch develops the Bergius Process,
which hydrogenates lignite coal to produce oil for use as synthetic fuel, winning him the 1931 Nobel Chem. Prize; he later
develops a process for converting wood into sugar.
German physical chemist Max Ernst August Bodenstein (1871-1942)
formulates the concept of the chemical chain reaction - that is what makes this country dynamic?
Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885-1962),
who came to England to study under J.J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford uses quantum theory to modify Rutherford's planetary model of the atom
in which electrons orbit the nucleus, requiring that the atom only exist in a discrete set of stationary states; it contradicts classical
electromagnetic theory but predicts the spectrum of hydrogen, winning him the 1922 Nobel Physics Prize - so I'm loving it?
French mathematician Emile Borel proposes the Infinite Monkey Theorem.
After the spectrum of radiation from the Sun is found to be blocked 97%-99% at 200nm-315nm in the ultraviolet end,
French physicists Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and
Henri Buisson (1873-1944) discover the Earth's
Ozone Layer, located at 12-19 mi. (20-30km) above the surface, containing 10 ppm of ozone (O3),
compared to 0.3 ppm for the rest of the atmosphere.
Boskop Man, a hominid with a brain 30% larger than modern humans is discovered in South Africa by
Frederick William FitzSimons (1870-1951),
reversing the theory of evolution by showing apparent devolution of human IQ over the last 10K-30K years.
Bucharest-born psychatrist Jacob Levy Moreno (Iacob Levy) (1889-1974)
pioneers Group Psychotherapy (Therapy)
in Vienna, which evolves into Psychodrama and
Sociometry; in 1921 he conducts the first large scale public Psychodrama session
in the Komedienhaus in Vienna, moving to New York City in 1925; he later tells about a 1912 encounter with Freud:
"I attended one of Freud's lectures. He had just finished an analysis of a telepathic dream. As the students filed out, he singled me out
from the crowd and asked me what I was doing. I responded, 'Well, Dr. Freud, I start where you leave off. You meet people in the artificial
setting of your office. I meet them on the street and in their homes, in their natural surroundings. You analyze their dreams. I give them the
courage to dream again. You analyze and tear them apart. I let them act out their conflicting roles and help them to put the parts back together again.'"
Yale U. biochemists Thomas Burr Osborne (1859-1929) and
Lafayette Benedict Mendel (1872-1935)
isolate fat-soluble Vitamin A
in butterfat and water-soluble Vitamin B in milk;
discovered independently by U. of Wisc. biochemists
Marguerite Davis (1887-1967) and
Elmer Verner McCollum (1879-1967)
(known for establishing the first colony of white lab rats in the U.S.), who gives them the letter names and refuses to their
being called vitamins (vitamines) because they're not any more vital than other nutrients and are not true amines;
he later refuses to take vitamin supplements; in 1922 he discovers Vitamin D.
Boyish-looking English physicist Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (1887-1915)
discovers Moseley's Law,
a relationship between X-ray spectra and atomic number, convincing the last skeptics of the atomic theory; too bad, he ends up KIA in Gallipoli in 1915,
costing him a Nobel Prize and causing the British and other govt. to quit allowing their precious scientists to enlist for combat duty.
Am. geneticist Alfred Henry Sturtevant (1891-1970)
constructs the first genetic map of a chromosome after determining that they are arranged in a linear fashion like beads on a necklace, with
each gene in a fixed location (locus).
German organic chemist Richard Willstatter (Willstäter) (1872-1942)
uses chromatography to discover the composition of chlorophyll.
The dense silver-gray radioactive metallic element Protactinium (Pa) (#91) (protoactinium until 1949)
(naturally occurring in pitchblende) is discovered at the lab of Ernest Rutherford in Manchester, England by Polish chemist
Kasimir (Kazimierz) Fajans (1887-1975) and German chemist
Oswald Helmuth Goehring (Göhring) (1889-1915),
who call it brevium because of its short half-life; in 1917 German physicists Otto Hahn (1879-1968) and
Lise Meitner (1878-1968)
discover a more stable isotope, and give it the name proto-actinium, which is changed to protoactinium in 1949 by IUPAC, meaning parent of actinium; it becomes
a product of nuclear reactors, but has no known uses; in 1915 Scottish chemist John Arnold Cranston (1891-1972)
discovered the most stable isotope, but delayed announcement after being called into military service for WWI.
Anon., The Division of Germany - Our Goal for Tomorrow (Paris);
shows a map with Germany replaced by a reduced Thuringia, with Denmark, France, and Austria
gobbling up the rest, pissing-off Germans and giving them an excuse for all-out war?
Ephraim Douglass Adams (1865-1930),
The Power of Ideals in American History.
Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918),
The Cubist Painters.
Elias el-Ayoubi (1874-1927),
Voice of Freedom: In Defense of the Jewish Nation;
an Arab Zionist?
George Aaron Barton (1859-1942),
The Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing;
288 cuneiform pictographs used in early inscriptions, tracing their
development from pictographs of animals, human body parts, household objects,
and other familiar pictures.
Ernest Belfort Bax (1854-1926),
The Fraud of Feminism;
their anti-man crusade and fake injured innocence.
Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948)
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States;
how it it was all about economics and material self-interest not philosophical principles,
with the class struggle being between agrarians and businessmen, making a fan of leftist
historians despite denunciations by politicians and academics, founding the
Progressive School of Am. Historiography;
on Oct. 8, 1917 he resigns from Columbia U. for having trustees who are "reactionary and
visionless in politics, narrow and medieval in religion", claiming to support "the just war
on the German Empire";
too bad, the Red Scare of 1919 causes him to be blacklisted from academia, but he goes on to
live nicely on royalties from his books while running a dairy farm in rural Conn. with his
like-minded historian wife Mary that becomes a Mecca to academics.
Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943),
Indian Nationalism: An Independent Estimate;
Stoics and Skeptics.
Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848-1936),
Mural Painting in America.
Hector St. John Breakhart,
A Whirlwind Tour of Mevlevistan.
Oscar Browning (1837-1923),
A General History of the World.
John Burroughs (1837-1921),
The Summit of the Years
Hereward Carrington (1880-1959),
Side-Show and Animal Tricks.
Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913),
Die Entstehung des Dieselmotors.
Theodore Dreiser (1874-1945),
A traveller at Forty;
his Euro travels.
Sir Edward Durning-Lawrence (1837-1914),
Macbeth Proves Bacon is Shakespeare.
Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926),
Present Day Ethics in their Relation to the Spiritual Life;
Deem Lectures at NYU.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939),
Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics - crikey?
Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Unter den Unstraflichen Aethiopen.
Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), The Village of a Thousand Souls;
his hometown of Alma, Wisc. analyzed and found dysgenic.
Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), My Childhood (autobio.).
Elie Halevy (1870-1937),
History of the English People in the 19th Cent.
(Histoire du People Anglais au XIXe Siecle) (7 vols.) (1913-46), incl.
England in 1815 (L'Angleterre en 1815) (1913),
Du Lendemain de Waterloo a la Veille du Reform Bill (1923),
De la Crise du Reform Bill a l'Avenement de Sir Robert Peel: 1830-1841 (1923),
Epilogue 1: Les Imperialists au Pouvoir: 1895-1914 (1926),
Epilogue 2: Vers la Democratie Sociale et Vers la Guerre: 1895-1914 (1932),
L'Ere des Tyrannies (1938) (posth),
Le Milieu du Siecle: 1841-1852 (1946) (posth.);
a 6-vol. English trans. is pub. in 1949-52; proposes the Halevy Thesis, that a revival of Puritanism in the form of Methodism kept a French-style Rev. away;
"If economic facts explain the course taken by the human race, the England of the nineteenth century was surely, above all other countries, destined to revolution,
both politically and religiously"; "Methodism was the antidote to Jacobinism."
Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942),
The Fitness of the Environment: An Inquiry into the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter;
"An inquiry into the biological significance of the properties of matter", becoming the first major book to develop the concept of fine tuning in the Universe;
"The properties of matter and the course of cosmic evolution are now seen to be intimately related to the structure of the living being and to its activities; they become therefore,
far more important in biology than has been previously suspected. For the whole evolutionary process, both cosmic and organic, is one, and the biologist may now rightly regard the
universe in its very essence as biocentric";
"One of the remarkable physical properties of carbon dioxide is its degree of solubility in water. This quality varies enormously in different substances. For example, at
ordinary pressures and temperatures, water can absorb only about 5 per cent of its own volume of oxygen, while it can take up about 1300 times its own volume of ammonia.
Now for carbon dioxide, unlike most gases, the volume that can be absorbed by water is nearly the same as the volume of the water. The volumes vary, however, according to temperature,
being absolutely the same at a temperature of about 15ºC. or 59ºF., which is close to the ideal temperature for man's physical health and practically the same as the mean temperature
of the earth's surface when all seasons are averaged together";
"Hence, when water is in contact with air, and equilibrium has been established, the amount of free carbonic acid in a given volume of water is almost exactly equal to the amount in
the adjacent air. Unlike oxyzen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, carbonic acid enters water freely; unlike sulphurous oxide and ammonia, it escapes freely from water. Thus the waters can
never wash carbonic acid completely out of the air, nor can the air keep it from the waters. It is the one substance which thus, in considerable quantities relative to its total amount,
everywhere accompanies water. In earth, air, fire, and water alike, these two substances are always associated";
"Accordingly, if water be the first primary constituent of the environment, carbonic acid is inevitably the second, - because of its solubility possessing an equal mobility with water,
because of the reservoir of the atmosphere never to be depleted by chemical action in the oceans, lakes, and streams. In truth, so close is the association between these two substances
that it is scarcely correct logically to separate them at all; together they make up the real environment and they never part company."
Francis John Haverfield (1860-1919), Ancient Town Planning.
Octavia Hill (1838-1912), Letters (posth.).
Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Phenomenology;
breaks with Positivism to found the school of Phenomenology that treats experience as the source of all knowledge but uses phenomenological reduction to directly know an essence.
Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gen. Psychopathology
(Allgemeine Psychopathologie) (2 vols.); becomes a classic,
setting the model for modern diagnostic criteria; he states that many
symptoms of mental illness, esp. delusions are "un-understandable",
probably a sign of an underlying primary disorder; he and
(1887-1967) go on to found the
Heidelberg School of Psychiatry.
Franz Kafka (1883-1924), Betrachtung.
Helen Keller (1880-1968), Out of the Dark.
Clara Louise Kellogg (1842-1916), Memoirs of an American Primadonna.
Edgar Stillman Kelley (1857-1944), Chopin, the Composer.
Charles August Lindbergh (1859-1924),
Banking, Currency, and the Money Trust;
by a Repub. U.S. rep. from Minn. (1907-17) (father of pilot Charles Augustus Lindbergh), slamming the
Federal Reserve Board; in 1917 he brings articles of impeachment against members Paul Warburg,
William Proctor Gould Harding et al. for "a conspiracy to violate the Constitution and laws
of the United States";
"This Act establishes the most gigantic trust on Earth. When the President signs this bill,
the invisible government by the Monetary Power will be legalized, the people may not know it
immediately but the day of reckoning is only a few years removed... The worst legislative crime
of the ages is perpetrated by this banking bill."; in 1917 he pub. the pamphlet
"Why Is Your Country at War?", which pisses-off Pres. Wilson, who orders all copies confiscated
and the printing plates melted, making him oppose sending his son to fight in WWI.
Jack London (1876-1916), John Barleycorn (memoir); his struggle with alcoholism; causes a sensation;
The People of the Abyss; London's East End.
H.J. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas.
Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937), The Spirit of Russia.
A. Mawer, The Vikings.
W.C. Mitchell, Business Cycles.
Alfred Mitchell-Innes (1864-1950), What is Money?;
reviewed favorably by John Maynard Keynes; followed in Dec. 1914 by
The Credit Theory of Money,
advocating the Credit Theory of Money;
"The Credit Theory is this: that a sale and purchase is the exchange of a commodity for credit. From this main theory springs the sub-theory that the value of credit
or money does not depend on the value of any metal or metals, but on the right which the creditor acquires to 'payment', that is to say, to satisfaction for
the credit, and on the obligation of the debtor to 'pay' his debt and conversely on the right of the debtor to release himself from his debt by the tender of an
equivalent debt owed by the creditor, and the obligation of the creditor to accept this tender in satisfaction of his credit";
"The best pair of articles on the nature of money written in the twentieth century." (L. Randall Wray)
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945), Heredity and Sex.
George Foot Moore (1851-1931), History of Religions (2 vols.) (1913, 1919).
Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), The Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis, Federalist, 1765-1848
(2 vols.); his Harvard dissertation, launching his career as a top Am. historian.
Mohammed Mossadegh (1882-1967), Iran and
the Capitulation Agreements; "Iran could develop modern,
European-style legal and political systems if it took one vital step. It
must impose the law equally on everyone, incl. foreigners, and never
grant special privileges to anyone."
Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916),
Psychology and Industrial Efficiency;
written with the goal "to sketch the outlines of a new science which is to intermediate between
the modern laboratory psychology and the problems of economics: the psychological
experiment is systematically to be placed at the service of commerce and industry",
founding Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Alfred Noyes (1880-1958),
The Sea in English Poetry
Francis O'Neill (1848-1936),
Irish Minstrels and Musicians.
Mary White Ovington (1865-1951),
The Status of the Negro in the United States.
Charles Peguy (1873-1914), La Tapisserie de Sainte Genevieve
et de Jeanne d'Arc; La Tapisserie de Notre-Dame;
George E. Pickett, The Heart of a Soldier
(posth.); his letters to his wife, revealing his feelings about Gettysburg.
Otto Rank (1884-1939), The Significance of Psychoanalysis for the Human Sciences.
Herbert William Richmonad (1871-1946),
Papers Relating to the Loss of Minorca in the 1756 Naval Records Society
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), Fifty Years of My Life.
Luigi Russolo (1883-1947),
The Art of Noises
(L'Arte dei Rumon); the first treatise on electronic music?; builds the Intonarumori (intoners)
as noise machines for performances.
Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931),
Naturliche Theologie und Allegemeine Religionsgeschichte.
Werner Sombart (1863-1941),
The Bourgeoisie (The Quintessence of Capitalism);
the "greed for gold" mantra is the root of capitalism?
William Graham Sumner (1840-1910),
Earth-Hunger and Other Essays (posth.).
J.J. Thomson (1856-1940), Rays of Positive Electricity and Their Application to Chemical Analysis.
Lester Frank Ward (1841-1913), Glimpses of the Cosmos: a Mental Autobiography (1913-18).
Elsie de Wolfe (1865-1950), The House in Good Taste;
Anon., Isch Ka Bibble (I Should Worry); Yiddish folk song.
Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Hebridean Symphony.
Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Three Pieces for Small Orchestra;
Christmas Eve on the Mountains (symphonic poem); composed in Glaen na Smol in County Dublin, Ireland.
Alban Berg (1885-1935), Five Songs on Picture Postcard Texts by Peter Altenberg;
its Vienna debut, conducted by Arnold Schoenberg cause a riot, and it is not performed in full again until 1952.
Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Trois Poemes Juifs.
Lili Boulanger (1893-1918), Faust et Helene (cantata) (winner of Prix de Rome).
Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Summer Night on the River.
Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Falstaff (symphonic poem) (London).
Manuel de Falla (1876-1946), La Vida Breve (opera) (Nice).
Fred Fisher (1875-1942) and Alfred Bryan (1871-1958),
Peg O'My Heart (Mar. 15);
inspired by the main char. in the musical of the same name starring Laurette Taylor;
featured in the musical "Ziegfeld Follies" this year.
Michel Fokine (1880-1942), The Rite of Spring (ballet).
Victor Herbert (1859-1924), Harry Bache Smith (1860-36), and Robert Bache Smith (1875-1951),
(operetta) (New Amsterdam Theatre, New York) (Sept. 8) (Liberty Theatre, New York) (Nov. 10) (136 perf.);
stars Christie MacDonald as Princess Jeanne, daughter of King Rene of Zilinia, who was smuggled as an infant to Bruges doesn't know she's a princess,
while the monk Mikel Mikeloviz conspires to put her on the throne in the place of heir presumptive Prince Franz, who travels in disguise and falls for her;
features the song On Parade; filmed in 1938 starring Jeanette MacDonald and Nelson Eddy,
becoming the first all-Technicolor MGM film; revived at the Shubert Theatre in New York on Jan. 21, 1947 (288 perf.).
Paul Lincke (1866-1946), Casanova (operetta) (Darmstadt).
Italo Montemezzi (1875-1952), L'Amore dei Tre Re
(The Love of the Three Kings) (Apr. 20) (La Scala, Milan); Lucrezia Borgia, er, Bori sings the role of Fiora.
Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), St. Francois d'Assisi.
Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915), Prometheus
(symphonic poem) (Moscow); requires a "claviere a lumieres", AKA Luxe, a color organ that projects colored light rather than sound.
Oscar Straus (1870-1954), Love and Laughter.
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Rite of Spring: Pictures from Pagan Russia
(Le Sacre du Printemps) (Sacred Spring) (Theatre des Champs-Elysees, Paris) (May 29);
about pagan sex rituals in ancient Russia; "I have penetrated the secret of the rhythm of the spring";
the debut, featuring the sexy dancing of Nijinsky is so daring that many in the audience are
shocked and outraged, causing a riot to break out and Stravinsky and Nijinsky to flee the theater;
meanwhile 14-y.-o. Francis Poulenc witnesses elderly Comtesse de Pourtales screaming that she's
being taken for a fool, while Maurice Ravel keeps shouting "Genius!"; choreographer
Sergei Diaghilev orders the lights flipped on and off while the crowd boos and hisses power burgers;
"A blasphemous attempt to destroy music as an art" (Carl Van Vechten);
there are only nine more performances this year, but next year a concert version receives a standing ovation.
Arthur Edward Waite (1857-1942), The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts (London).
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), A London Symphony.
Francis J. Grandon's The Adventures of Kathlyn,
the first movie serial debuts in Chicago, Ill. on Dec. 29.
Augustus E. Thomas' Arizona (Aug.) stars Robert Broderick, Cyril Scott, and Gail Kane,
becoming the first film released by All Star Feature Film Corp.,
which releases its last of 12 films "Garden of Lies" on July 12, 1915.
D.W. Griffith's The Battle at (of) Elderbush Gulch
(Nov.) (Biograph) stars Mae Marsh, Lillian Gish, and Lionel Barrymore fighting
red savages, becoming the first-ever use of irising (circular masking) by camerman G.W. Bitzer.
J. Searle Dawley's Caprice (Nov. 10) (Famous Players Film Co.) stars Mary Pickford as Mercy Baxter, Owen Moore
as Jack Henderson, Ernest Truex as Wally Hendeson, and Ogden Crane as Jim Baxter.
Lucius J. Henderson's Cymbeline (Mar. 28), produced by Thanhouser Film Corp. is the first movie adaptation of the Shakespeare play,
starring William Russell as Cymbeline, Jean Darnell as his queen, Lorence La Badie as Imogen, James Cruze as Leonatus, and William Garwood as Iachimo.
Herbert Brennon's and Carl Laemmle's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Universal Film Manufacturing Co.),
based on the 1886 Robert Louis Stevenson story stars King Baggot as Dr. Henry Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; re-released in Aug. 1927.
Edwin S. Porter's A Good Little Devil
(Famous Players) (July 10), based on the Austin Strong play based on the Maurice Rostand play "Un Bon Petit Diable" is the feature film debut
of Mary Pickford as Juliet; David Belasco plays himself, Ernest Truex plays Charles MacLance, Edward Connelly plays Old Nick Sr., Wilda Bennett
plays Queen Mab, and Arthur Hill plays Rab the Dog; too bad, it bombs.
Ralph Ince's How Fatty Made Good
(Jan. 31) (Vitagraph) stars Hughie Mack as Fatty, Lucille Lee Stewart as Lucy,
and Richard Rosson as Zeb.
King Vidor's Hurricane in Galveston
is the dir. debut of Galveston, Tex.-born King Wallis Vidor (1894-1982),
who receives five best dir. Oscar nominations during the next 70 years.
J. Searle Dawley's In the Bishop's Carriage
(Sept. 10), based on the 1910 Miriam Michelson novel and filmed on the East Coast stars
Mary Pickford and English actor Robert House Peters Sr. (1880-1967),
who next year becomes one of the first film actors to permanently settle in Los Angeles, going on to become known as "the Star of a Thousand Emotions" only to get phased-out in
the late 1920s when the talkies arrive.
Ralph W. Ince's A Million Dollar Bid (Feb. 7) (Vitagraph) (copyrighted Nov. 26, 1913),
shown in the new Vitagraph Theatre
on Broadway, complete with a Wurlitzer organ stars Anita Stewart as Agnes Belgradin,
Charles Kent as Sidney Belgradin, and Julia Swayne Gordon as Mrs. Belgradin bucks conventional wisdom
that theater goers won't sit still for more than an hour, and gives them five reels, becoming a hit,
upping the ante in the movie biz; too bad, after rival movie exhibitors boycott Vitagraph,
they sell it in 1916, and it becomes the Criterion Theatre, after which in 1920 Paramount-Famous Players
buys it, making it a reserved-seat theater showing only Paramount releases until 1926, when
the flagship Paramount Theatre opens in Times Square.
Mack Sennett's A Noise from the Deep
(July 17) stars Fatty Arbuckle, and features up-and-coming star
Mabel Normand (1892-1930),
who becomes the first person to throw a cream pie on film.
Arthur V. Johnson's The Power of the Cross
(Apr. 18) (Lubin) stars Johnson as Rev. Paul Damer, Florence Hackett as Iris Temple, Charles Brandt as her father Rev. John Temple, and Lottie Briscoe
as Mary Grey; "Never part with your cross; it was your father's."
Edwin S. Porter's and Hugh Ford's The Prisoner of Zenda
(Feb. 18) (Famous Players), their first full length feature film, based on the 1894 Anthony Hope novel stars has-been Canadian stage actor
James Keteltas Hackett (1869-1926), who reluctantly interviews Adolph Zukor wearing a fur-collared
coat with frayed sleeves, carrying a gold-headed cane.
Enrico Guazzoni's Quo Vadis,
based on the Henryk Sienkiewicz novel about Nero is produced in Italy, becoming cinema's first big financial success.
Charles Farley's The Romance of the Utah Pioneers
(Jan. 7) (Bison Motion Pictures) debuts, is the film debut of Lafayette, Ind.-born
Louise Fazenda (1895-1962),
who goes on to appear in almost 300 films, specializing in comedy, and marrying Warner Bros. producer Hal B. Wallis in 1927, becoming known for her kindly acts of charity.
Hobart Bosworth's The Sea-Wolf,
based on the 1904 Jack London novel stars Bosworth as Capt. Wolf Larsen, who quotes Milton about it being better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
Stellan Rye's and Paul Wegener's silent horror film The Student of Prague (Aug. 22) (Der Student von Prag)
(A Bargain with Satan), based on the legend of Faust, set at the U. of Prague in 1820 and produced in Germany is about student Balduin (Wegener), who is tricked by sorcerer Scapinelli (John Gottowt) into
giving up his mirror reflection, foiling his attempts to woo Countess Margit (Grete Berger); the first independent film in history?; refilmed in 1926, 1935, and 2004.
Lucius J. Henderson's Tannhauser (Tannhäuser)
(July 15) (Thanhouser Film Corp.), based on the Richard Wagner opera stars James Cruze as Tannhauser, Marguerite Snow as Princess Elisabeth,
Florence La Badie as Venus, and William Russell as Wolfram.
George Loane Tucker's Traffic in Souls
(Universal Studios), about white slavery is filmed on location in Manhattan
and Ellis Island stars Walter Long, shocking the U.S. and resulting in
white slavery being added to the list of banned topics under the Hays Code, making Chicago, Ill.-born dir.
George Loane Tucker (1880-1921) into the "first of the immortals".
Robert G. Vignola's The Vampire
stars Harry F. Millarde as Harold Brentwell and Marguerite Courtot as his sweetheart Helen,
whom he abandons for fast woman Sybil (Alice Hollister), who turns out to be a you know what.
On Apr. 4, 1913 ?'s A Wolf Among Lambs
(Apr. 4) (Essanay) is the film debut of San Francisco, Calif.-born stage actor
Allen Holubar (1888-1923),
who married Baltimore, Md.-born actress ("Kid Nazimova") Dorothy Phillips (Dorothy Gwendolyn Strible)
(1889-1980), in 1912, and appears in 38 films by 1917, then directs 33 films until his untimely 1923 death from gallstone surgery and pneumonia.
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916), Unique Forms of Continuity in Space;
Dynamism of the Human Body.
George Braques, Woman With a Guitar.
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Bicycle Wheel (sculpture);
loses it twice, then makes 3rd version in 1951.
Eric Rowland Gill (1882-1940),
Stations of the Cross
(stone carvings in Westminster Cathedral); their archaic style causes
Juan Gris (1887-1927),
Glass of Beer and Playing Cards;
Violin and Checkerboard.
Marsden Hartley (1877-1943), Painting No. 3.
Robert Henri (1867-1929),
Biddy and Johnnie Commungs on Achill Island, Ireland.
Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Black Lines.
Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980), Bride of the Wind;
self-portrait with his babe Alma Mahler (1879-1964).
Franz Marc (1880-1916), The Fate of the Animals;
The Lamb (1913-4).
Sidney Harold Meteyard (1868-1947), The Lady of Shallot; illustration of Tennyson's 1842 poem ("I am half sick of shadows").
Francis Picabia (1879-1953), Udnie (Young American Girl) (The Dance);
Chinese Year: Tiger - coincidence?
Pop. of Jews in Russia: 4M; 640K serve in the army in WWI.
8M Americans have parents or grandparents of German descent; 4M are of Irish descent.
1914 is the year that Satan and his evil angels are kicked out of heaven by Michael (Jesus) and his good angels down to Earth, where they know their time is short and pull out the
stops, beginning an all-out effort to stir up world strife, according to the
who claim that the Week of Years of Years (7 x 360 = 2520) since the fall of Babylon in 607 B.C.E. is up, i.e., 2520 - 607 + 1 = 1914;
too bad, secular historians claim that Babylon fell in 587 B.C.E., which would make the big year 1934 instead; not that that wouldn't also make sense, since Hitler took power in 1933,
and they'd only be off by one?
Total world railway mileage: 696,274.
At the start of the war the French franc is valued at 5.18 to the U.S. dollar and
25.22 to the English pound, and maintains its value to the end of the war;
prices are about the same as they were in 1815.
The vultures circle the skies in the Balk Balk Balkans?
The network of European alliances leading to WWI: Roman Catholic
Austria-Hungary is allied to Germany, Italy via the Triple Alliance of
1883, and separately with Romania, backed by King Carol; Greek Orthodox
Russia is allied to Roman Catholic France, and is the patron of Greek
Orthodox Serbia; Protestant Britain has the Triple Entente with Roman
Catholic France and Greek Orthodox Russia, but no alliances; Hungary-hating
nephew and heir apparent of Austria-Hungary Archduke Franz Ferdinand wants
to create a "Peoples' Parliament" for Hungary that would give non-Hungarian
minorities incl. the Slovaks and Croats more power, and to lop off
the S Slav provinces of Hungary and unite them with predominantly Slav
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and make it the 3rd monarchy in a triad, which
makes him popular with the Bosnian bourgeoisie but alienates the
ultranationalist Irredentist (don't pull that tooth?) Slavs of S
Bosnia, who want instead to unite with the kingdom of Serbia to create
a Greater Serbia; meanwhile the Kaiser and tsar are cousins by marriage,
and call each other "Willie" and "Nicky", the Kaiser and George V of Britain
are both grandsons of Queen Victoria, and all three are cousins - baby,
you gotta be cruel to be kind?
On Jan. 1 the New York Times
carries stories about the merger of two British colonies, one Muslim, one Christian to create Nigeria,
an article on the 1910 Mexican Rev., an article on a march by suffragists from Manhattan to Albany
demanding the vote for women, and a notice that the North German Lloyd shipping line has cut its rates
to encourage trans-Atlantic passenger traffic.
On Jan. 1 Ore. Gov. Oswald West sends his female secy. Fern Hobbs to the mining town of
close down its saloons.
On Jan. 6 Merrill, Lynch & Co.
is founded by Fla.-born
Charles Edward Merrill (1885-1956)
and Md.-born Edmund Calvert Lynch (1885-1938),
going on to successfully predict the 1929 stock market crash and benefit its clients.
On Jan. 7 Calvin Coolidge gives a memorable
on democracy to the Mass. Senate.
On Jan. 9 the first-ever public defender's office
opens in Los Angeles County, Calif.
On Jan. 12 24-y.-o. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
(b. Apr. 20, 1889) is summoned to present himself for Austrian
military service, and is rejected on Feb. 5 as unfit, but on Aug. 3
(the day Germany declares war on France) he petitions Ludwig III of
Bavaria for permission to join the army, is approved on Aug. 4, enrolls
in the 1st Company of the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry on Aug. 6,
and is sent to the Front on Oct. 21, adopting the toothbrush mustache after
the Prussian style won't fit under a gas mask.
On Jan. 15 Siberian-born
Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev
(1885-1920) gives a speech urging education for Siberians in their
native language, for which he ends up in jail for two weeks, after which
he joins the White Russian movement and rises to PM in the Siberian govt.
of gen. Alexander Kolchak, remaining his last faithful minister before
the crash of 1920.
On Jan. 19 the Austrian gov. of Galicia reports to Vienna: "Recently the
agitation of the Russophile party... has become more lively... The continuing
Russification of Galicia, aided by Orthodoxy, requires greater attention on the
part of administrative officers if they are to be able to combat it."
Early in the year Kaiser Wilhelm II sends Gen.
Otto Liman von Sanders (1855-1929)
to reorganize the army, supported by money and equipment, pissing-off the Russians.
On Jan. 26 the works of mystic Socialist Belgian Nobel Lit. Prize winner
Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
are placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum by the Roman Catholic Church,
making them more popular?
In Jan. Pune, India-born guru
Meher Baba ("compassionate father") (Merwan Sheriar Irani)
(1894-1969) is converted by the God kiss of holy woman
Hazrat Babajan (1806-1931)
in Pune, going silent in 1925, and declaring in 1954 that he is the Avatar of the Age, on a mission to bring together all humanity.
Early in the year Britain begins negotiating a dominant share of the Persian oilfields, beating the Germans and their railway; in June a joint
British-German co. obtains exclusive rights for oil exploration in Mesopotamia; meanwhile Sir
Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
suggests secret negotiations with German adm. Alfred von Tirpitz to end "the unwholesome concentration of fleets in home waters", but he is overruled by
foreign secy. (since Dec. 10, 1905) Sir Edward Grey (1862-1933),
who claims that if the news leaks "the wildest reports will be circulated and we shall be involved in constant explanations to ambassadors at the Foreign Office,
and in denials in the press of the things that will be attributed to us."
On Feb. 8 Gen. Oreste Zamor (1861-1915)
becomes pres. of Haiti until Oct. 29, when Davilmar Theodore (1847-1917)
overthrows him (until Feb. 22, 1915), facing deflation so bad that paper currency becomes known as the Bons Da (Creole for derriere).
On Feb. 13 (Fri.) the
Am. Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP)
is founded at the Hotel Claridge in New York City by George M. Cohan, Victor Herbert, Louis Hirsch, John Raymond Hubbell, Glen MacDonough, George Maxwell
(pres. #1) et al. to collect music royalties; in 1919 it signs a reciprocal agreement with the Performing Rights Society of Great Britain.
On Feb. 24 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in
Weeks v. U.S.
that warantless seizure of evidence from a private residence violates the
4th Amendment, creating the exclusionary rule in federal courts; it is
extended to the states in 1961 in Mapp v. Ohio.
On Mar. 7 German Prince Wilhelm of Wied becomes King (Prince)
Vidi I (Skanderbeg II)
(1876-1945) of Albania, sparking the Muslim-led
Albanian Peasant Revolt,
which demands return to suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan; on May 23 Dutch gendarmes
and N Mirdita Catholics fail to capture Shijak, and are captured by the rebels, who
attack Durres, causing Wied to flee to an Italian ship anchored in the bay; on June 15 Durres cmdr., Dutch Col.
Lodewijk Willem Johan Karel Thomson (b. 1869)
is KIA by the rebels, who capture Berat on July 12, and Vlore on Aug. 21 without a fight; on July 29 the Great Powers
establish an internat. police force for Albania, replacing the Dutch officers with ones from Austria-Hungary and Germany; on
Sept. 3 Wied flees, continuing to reign officially until the Albanian Repub. is declared on Jan. 31, 1925; on Sept. 10
the rebels siege and capture Durres and hoist the Ottoman flag; on Sept. 17 after being accused of fomenting the revolt
and being exiled to Italy on May 20, then being invited back by the Albanian senate, rich Muslim landowner and Ottoman cmdr.
Essad Pasha Toptani (1863-1920)
signs a secret Serbian-Albanian alliance treaty in Nis, Serbia with Serbian PM (Sept. 12, 1912-Dec. 1, 1918)
Nikola P. Pasic (Pashitch) (Pachitch) (1845-1926); on
Oct. 5 Essad Pasha becomes PM #3 of Albania (until Feb. 23, 1916), using Serbian and Italian backing to recruit a military
force in Diber and recapture Durres and the interior; on Oct. 15 the Great Powers establish an internat. commission of control for Albania.
On Mar. 10 Canadian-born suffragette
Mary Raleigh Richardson (1882-1961)
slashes Diego Velazquez' 1651 "Rokeby Venus" at the Nat. Gallery in London with a knife to protest the arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst, writing the soundbyte:
"I have tried to destroy the picture of the most beautiful woman in mythological history as a protest against the Government for destroying
Mrs Pankhurst, who is the most beautiful character in modern history. Justice is an element of beauty as much as colour and outline on canvas.
Mrs Pankhurst seeks to procure justice for womanhood, and for this she is being slowly murdered by a Government of Iscariot politicians.
If there is an outcry against my deed, let every one remember that such an outcry is an hypocrisy so long as they allow the destruction of
Mrs Pankhurst and other beautiful living women, and that until the public cease to countenance human destruction the stones cast against me
for the destruction of this picture are each an evidence against them of artistic as well as moral and political humbug and hypocrisy."
On Mar. 12 the USS Texas
is launched on Mar. 12 from the Newport News, Va. Naval Ship Yard.
The original O.J. Simpson Murder Trial?
On Mar. 16 the Calmette-Caillaux Affair
in France sees Madame Henriette Caillaux (1874-1943)
(2nd wife of French PM Joseph Caillaux) shoot 6x and kill Gaston Calmette (b. 1858),
ed. of Le Figaro (brother of scientist Leon Charles Albert Calmette) for pub. explicit love letters she had written to
her hubby while he was still married to his first wife, which had been stolen by the first wife to get even; on July 28 after a
sensational trial featuring a deposition from the pres. of France, she is acquitted after her atty. Pat Schroeder, er,
Geraldine Ferraro, er, Hillary Clinton, er, Fernand Gustave Gaston Labori (1860-1917)
(Alfred Dreyfus' defense atty.) convinces the jury that women shouldn't be able to control their passions, but her hubby is
forced to resign as finance minister, going on to lead a French peace party during the Great War, promoting a compromise peace
with Germany at the expense of Britain; too bad, the rise of Clemenceau to power leads to his arrest and trial for treason in 1918
and a 3-year sentence - if his wife wasn't such a good shot he might have prevented the Great War?
In Mar. the British Parliament debates the
Third Home Rule Bill
for Ireland, which proves unpopular in Protestant Ulster after "Home Rule within Home Rule" is rejected, sparking the
near Dublin on Mar. 20, giving the English govt. the excuse to amend the bill to exclude the six counties of Northern Ireland from home rule for six years,
after which the bill is passed on Sept. 18, becoming the first attempt at devolved govt. in the U.K.; too bad, the outbreak of WWI causes it to be formally
postponed for a min. of 12 mo.; meanwhile the Irish Volunteers are established to enforce home rule, while the Ulster Covenanters form the Ulster Volunteers to oppose it.
On Apr. 6 Hiram Percy Maxim (1869-1936)
(son of Maxim Gun inventor Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim) and Clarence Denton "C.D." Tuska (1896-1985)
found the Am. Radio Relay League (ARRL) for amateur radio enthusiasts.
On Apr. 7 the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in Canada is completed.
On Apr. 19 atty. Victorino Marquez (Márquez) Bustillos (1858-1941)
becomes provisional pres. of Venezuela (until 1922) as a puppet of Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez, who is also elected pres., but prefers to remain in Maracay as CIC.
It doesn't get any bigger than that?
On Apr. 20 after 10K miner employees of John D. Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Co. strike in Nov. 1913, and the women join them, causing them all
to be evicted from co.-owned houses and forced to set up tent colonies, Nat. Guard troops open fire on a tent colony of 1.2K striking miners in 200 tents in
firing machine guns into a tent and killing 14 adults (2 women) and 11 children supposedly in an attempt to disarm the strikers, taking another two weeks
and 40 deaths to protect the empty plain from Trinidad to Walsenburg until the union runs out of money in Dec., ending the Colo. Coalfield War (begun 1913);
sympathetic Pres. Wilson appoints the U.S. (Presidential) Colo. Coal Commission
to settle the strike, with Seth Low as chmn., only to see the miners unconditionally surrender to the mean mine owners; the Congressional Commission on Industrial Relations
grills Rockefeller, giving his huge lily-white butt its true stink?; in 1915 Colo. passes the
Colo. Industrial Relations Act,
giving public sector employees the right to strike, and giving the Colo. dir. of labor authority over employer-employee disputes, with strikes while
he/she is involved carrying a $50 fine and 6 mo. in prison per day.
I love tortillas, I love them dearly, but there's no torillas, there's only bread?
On Apr. 9 the Tampico Affair
sees the Mexican govt. of Pres. Huerta arrest nine U.S. Marines for 1.5 hours for entering a
prohibited zone in Tampico for supplies, causing U.S. Adm. Mayo to demand a 21-gun salute to
the U.S. flag, which Huerta refuses, causing Pres. Wilson to send the U.S. fleet to Tampico,
and U.S. Marines on Apr. 21 to occupy the port of Veracruz; Huerta then breaks off relations
with the U.S., but South Am. states mediate, and on Nov. 23 the Marines evacuate;
USMC officer Smedley Darlington Butler (1881-1940),
"the Fighting Quaker", "Old Gimlet Eye" receives the Medal of Honor for Veracruz,
then receives another one in WWII and rises to the rank of Maj. Gen., later writing the book
War Is a Racket;
anti-U.S. riots break out in Mexico, threatening war; on May 18-July 2 the
of the ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) at Niagara Falls in Ontario, Canada fails
because of Wilson's insistence on Huerta's ouster; on July 5 Huerta is reelected, then
resigns on July 15 after the U.S. refuses to recognize him, fleeing to Spain and averting war.
On May 9 Charles William Post (b. 1854) commits suicide, and his 27-y.-o. daughter
Marjorie Merriweather Post (1887-1973)
inherits her daddy's Postum Cereal Co. along with his $33M net worth, then in 1920
marries arch-conservative (later anti-New Deal) financier
Edward Francis Hutton (1875-1962)
(1904 founder of E.F. Hutton & Co.), going on to develop Birds Eye Frozen Foods and form
General Foods Corp. in 1929 out of 14 smaller cos., creating an Am. capitalist dynasty.
In Apr. the Pentecostal (Holy Roller) Assemblies of God,
founded by E.N. Bell, Howard Goss, D.C.O. Opperman et al. hold their first meeting in the opera house in Hot Springs, Ark.
after sponsoring revival meetings in the same place last fall by New Lisbon, Ohio-born evangelist
Maria Buelah Woodworth-Etter (1844-1924),
who goes on to preach to large crowds throughout the U.S., causing the church to grow to 140 autonomous groups with 384K ministers
and 67.5M members in 200+ countries by 2016, becoming the world's largest Pentecostal denomination; in 1988 a world fellowship is formed.
On May 7 Pres. Wilson's youngest daughter, 24-y.-o. Eleanor Wilson (1889-1967)
marries 51-y.-o. recently widowed (with six kids) U.S. treasury secy.
William Gibbs McAdoo (1863-1941)
in the Blue Room of the White House, which only has 80 guests because the president's
wife is seriously ill (I wonder why?);
the 6th daughter of a pres. to be married in the White House (next 1967).
On May 8 Independence, Kan.-born West Coast movie theater owner
William Wadsworth Hodkinson (1881-1971)
merges 11 film rental bureaus to create
the first U.S.-wide feature film distributor, introducing block booking,
forcing exhibitors to buy a bundled package containing movies from his
partners incl. Adolph Zukor's Famous Players, Jesse L. Lasky's Feature Play Co.
et al., charging movie producers 35%, launching the
Hodkinson System of Movie Distribution, which takes over the industry,
making him into "the Man Who Invented Hollywood"; in 1914 he designs the
Paramount logo by doodling 9,712-ft. Ben Lomond Mt. in Utah on a napkin;
in 1916 he sells out to Famous Players-Lasky and forms Superpictures Inc.
in Nov. 1916; in 1929 he leaves the motion picture business and goes into
airplane manufacturing until he's forced out of business in 1936.
On May 9 (2nd Sun.) Pres. Wilson proclaims
(2nd Sun. in May) a U.S. nat. holiday.
On May 12 the British Cabinet notes with approval that "the large contemplated
increase in the Baltic Fleet of Russia must necessarily ease our position
vis-a-vis Germany in home waters."
On May 12 German chief of staff (1906-14) Gen.
Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke the Younger
(1848-1916) meets with Austrian chief of staff (1906-17)
Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad von Hoetzendorf (Hötzendorf)
(1852-1925), telling him that a delay in going to war with Russia "meant a lessening
of our chances - we could not compete with Russia in masses"; on May 20 he meets with
German foreign secy. (1913-16)
Gottlieb von Jagow (1863-1935)
in Berlin, telling him that he fears that Russia will crank up its war machine to the max in 2-3 years,
making it mandatory that Germany "wage preventative war in order to beat the enemy while we still
have some chance of winning", hence von Jagow must "orientate our policy at the early provocation of war."
On May 12 the sultan of the Malayan state of Johore signs an agreement
with the British agreeing to be guided by the advice of a British gen.
adviser, giving British total control of British Malaya, consisting of
the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Penang, Province Wellesly, the
Dindings, and Malacca), the Federated Malay States (Perak, Selangor,
Negri Sembilan, and Pahang), and the Unfederated Malay States (Johore,
Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Trengganu).
On May 21 the
from Calcutta, carrying 340 Sikhs, 12 Hindus and 24 Muslims arrives in
Vancouver, Canada to test immigration laws, and is turned back, arriving
in Calcutta on Oct. 2 and causing rioting which kills 16.
On May 29
Empress of Ireland
collides with a Norwegian ship in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and sinks, killing 1,023.
On May 29 U.S. pres. emissary Col.
Edward Mandell House (1858-1938)
writes from Berlin, with the news that Germany is bad-to-the-bone eager for war, with the soundbyte
"It only needs a spark to set the whole thing off"; "There is too much hatred, too many jealousies. Whenever England consents,
France and Russia will close in on Germany and Austria. England does not want Germany wholly crushed, for she would then have
to reckon alone with her ancient enemy, Russia; but if Germany insists upon an ever-increasing navy, then England will have no choice."
On May 30 after cents. of inactivity,
in the Cascade Mts. of NE Calif. begins, continuing until Feb. 1921, with almost 300 explosions; in 1916 163 sq. mi.
Lassen Volcanic Nat. Park
In May Czech Austrian parliament deputy
Karel Kramar (1860-1937)
sends to a friend in Russia his idea for a "Slav confederation ruled from
St. Petersburg" that could be created after Russia defeats Austria.
Early June brings one of the nicest summers for Euros to be alive in history,
esp. for the young and high class, with the advantages of modern technology
but the ease of the old slow pace?
In early June German chancellor Theobold von Bethmann-Hollweg tells
Bavarian Berlin minister Count Hugo von Lerchenfeld that many in Germany
believe that a war will lead Germany "in a conservative direction", but
that he believes that it will do the opposite, because "a world war with
its incalculable consequences would strengthen the tremendous power of
social democracy, because they preached peace, and would topple many a throne."
On June 11 a spectacular dinner and ball is held at
Caen Wood House
in N London, with an orchestra brought from Vienna, hosted by
Russian Grand Duke Michael, 2nd cousin of Tsar Nicholas II and
great-great-grandson of Catherine II the Great, with guests
incl. George V and Queen Mary.
On June 12-13 Kaiser Wilhelm II spends the weekend with Archduke Franz Ferdinand
in Koponischt near Prague, while Tsar Nicholas II visits the Romanian royal
family in Constanta; Franz Ferdinand asks Wilhelm II if he will support
Austria in destroying the Serbian "hornets' nest" that is stirring up
anti-Austrian feeling in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the Kaiser tells him that
Austria should act before the situation worsens since Russia isn't yet ready for war.
On June 13 Socialist public instruction minister
Rene Viviani (1863-1925)
becomes PM #81 of France (until Oct. 29, 1915).
On June 22-28 Kiel Week
on the Elbe is attended by Kaiser Wilhelm II to celebrate the
widening of the Kiel Canal,
alllowing German ships easy access to the North Sea, which alarms the Brits,
who whip-up anti-German sentiment back home, causing repeated calls for military
conscription, which the Liberal govt. resists; on June 26 the Kaiser,
who is a British Adm. of the Fleet wears his British uniform aboard
British battleship King George V, telling
British Berlin embassy counsellor Sir Horace Rumbold that his top hat
and morning coat are out of place on a ship, and that "If I see that again
I will smash it in - one doesn't wear tall hats on board ships"; on
June 27 the British squadron cmdr. gives a cordial evening reception for the
German officers; on June 28 the Elbe Regatta in Kiel Bay sees the Kaiser
race in his yacht Meteor; too bad, after receiving a telegram that
his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife have been assassinated in Sarjevo,
the race is canceled along with Kiel Week, and the Kaiser returns to
his palace in Potsdam after uttering the soundbyte "A higher power has
restablished the order which I, alas, could not preserve", referring to
his dislike of the archuke's marriage outside the inbred European royalty
circle, and his sympathy for a third South Slav state on a par with
Hungary, which the assassins ironically don't know about?; although the
archduke was forced to swear exactly 14 years earlier that his children
from this marriage would be barred from the throne, Franz Josef fears
that he would renege, and is satisfied with new heir (#5), his
great-nephew Archduke Charles, commenting "For me it is a great relief from worry."
The Never on a Sunday Shot Heard Round the World Original Domino Theory?
More like a butterfly wing swishing once too many and causing a hurricane leading
to a worldwide tsunami? The Fatal Triangle of the Balkans, the Baltic, and the Black Sea
leads to world war after a lone gunman knocks off the Hapsburg heir, toppling the shaky
repressive Hapsburg Empire at the same time, launching the Short 20th Cent. (1914-89),
which sets records for human misery?
On June 28 (June 15 Old Style) (Sun.) (St. Vitus Day AKA Vidovdan) (the Serbian nat. holiday,
anniv. of the 1389 Battle of the Blackbirds in Kosovo Field that saw the Christian Serbs humiliatingly
defeated by the Muslim Ottomans) after waiting seemingly forever in vain for his old fart uncle
Austrian-Hungarian emperor (since Dec. 2, 1848)
Franz Josef (Francis Joseph) I (1830-1916)
to die, and shooting 200K neatly-numbered game animals in the meantime and mounting
5K in his palace hallway, and observing two days of maneuvers by two Austrian army corps
(which Serbs fear will spearhead a future attack on Serbia), and ignoring a message from the
Serbian foreign minister for Bosnia-Herzegovina to the Austrian finance minister in Vienna that
the visit is unwise, handlebar-mustachioed Archduke
Franz (Francis) Ferdinand (b. 1863),
heir (since 1889) to the Hapsburg throne of Austria-Hungary and his morganatic wife (since 1900)
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (1868-1914) d
rive in their open Graf und Stift automobile along the Appel Quay beside the Miliaca River in the flag-draped (low security forces)
Bosnian capital of Sarajevo, when a bomb is thrown onto their car by one of six Bosnian Serb conspirators
in the crowd, but bounces off the side, hitting the next car and wounding two officers of
the archduke's staff, and they visit the Burgomaster and Bosnia-Herzegovina
gov.-gen. (May 10, 1911-Dec. 22, 1914) Gen.
(1853-1933) at the town hall, telling him "So, you welcome your guests here with bombs?",
causing him to comment that Bosnians don't make two assassination attempts in the same day,
causing the couple to decide to take off again to visit the wounded officers in a hospital,
this time with high security alert; too bad, while driving to the hospital on Francis-Joseph (Franz-Josef) St.,
driver Leopold Lojka (Loyka) (1885-1926)
(AKA Franz Urban) stops to go into reverse after discovering he took a wrong turn
and they are back on the narrow Latin Bridge on Appel Quay, and at 11:15 a.m. from
the crowd lucky consumptive 19-y.-o. Black Hand-trained (bad shot) Bosnian-born
Serb nationalist (Austrian subject)
Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918)
(whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor
Bobcat Goldthwait (1962-)?),
who with secret Serb military backing wants to create a Greater Serbia by
breaking off Austria-Hungary's S Slav provinces in Bosnia assassinates
the archduke and his wife with two shots from a 6-shot
Browning FN Model 1910
.380 pistol (serial #19074) (rediscovered in 2004)
that had been given to him by the chief of the intel section of the Serbian
gen. staff in Belgrade before he was smuggled across the Austrian border
into Bosnia in May, and is immediately arrested, causing 200 Serbs to be
rounded up; the Hasbeen Pair die en route to the hospital, with the archduke's
last words being "It's nothing", and the news is dispatched at 12:30 p.m., and
by the next day Europe is buzzing with talk of Serbian intrigue, along with
anti-Serb riots in Berlin and Vienna, even though Serbia itself is later vindicated
(just a small cadre of military officers involved), and the archduke's own family
ignores his funeral; on June 28 (p.m.) after learning of the assassination,
Emperor Franz Joseph utters the soundbyte: "the All-Powerful cannot be defied";
at 2:30 p.m. Kaiser Wilhelm II receives the news while racing his yacht at Kiel;
at night Austrian chief of the gen. staff Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorff writes to his
mistress that a war "will be a hopeless struggle, but nevertheless it must be because
such an ancient monarchy and such an ancient army cannot perish ingloriously" (I've got my
spine I've got my orange crush?);
at night Liberal Austrian Jewish Reichsrat rep. (1907-18)
Joseph (Josef) Redlich (1869-1936)
writes the soundbyte in his diary:
"It must now be clear to everyone that peaceful coexistence is impossible to achieve between
[Austria] and a Balkan nationalism roused to a fanatical lust for murder";
in the eve. a mob demolishes the Cafe Fahrig in Munich after its band refuses to play the
patriotic song "Die Wacht am Rhein";
instead of blowing over, this fractal moment in human history leads directly to the outbreak of
World War I
(ends Nov. 11, 1918) (1 of ?).
On June 29 the NAACP establishes the
for outstanding achievement by a black American in honor of, er,
white Jewish NAACP leader
Joel Elias Spingarn
(1875-1939), with the first medal going to marine biologist
Ernest Everett Just
On June 29 anti-Serb riots erupt in Vienna, Brunn, Sarajevo, and throughout Bosnia; the
Bosnian parliament condemns the assassination, only to be permanently dissolved by Austria-Hungary;
Serbian PM Nikola Pasic denounces the Black Hand, and orders all public meeting places closed;
meanwhile Belgrade wires its condolences to Vienna, and the secy. of the Austrian legation in
Belgrade implicates the Serbs in the assassination.
On June 29 Hungarian PM Count Istvan Tisza tells Austrian foreign minister Count Leopold von Berchtold
that war would be a fatal mistake, and he agrees, resisting a call for mobilization by Austrian
chief of the gen. staff Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorff and deciding to wait until French leaders
end their trip to Russia on July 23; on June 30 Berchtold flops and calls for a "final and
fundamental reckoning" with Serbia, trying in vain for several days to launch a quick strike.
On June 29 George V of Britain decrees seven days of mourning for Archduke You Know Who, while
Tsar Nicholas II orders 12.
On June 30 Kaiser Wilhelm II writes the
"The Serbs must be disposed of, and that right soon", responding to a remark by his ambassador
in Vienna that Serbia requires "only a mild punishment", adding "I hope not."
On June 30 Russian ambassador to Vienna Count
Nikolai Nikolayeich Schebeko
predicts that "at least in the immediate future the course of Austro-Hungarian policy will be more
restrained and calm", noting that the Vienna Stock Exchange hasn't been affected.
On June 30 the British naval squadron leaves Kiel, with the British adm. signaling to the German Fleet:
"Friends in past, and friends for ever"; on June 30 British Foreign Office head Sir Arthur Nicolson
writes to the British ambassador in St. Petersburg: "The tragedy which has just taken place in
Sarajevo will not, I trust, lead to further complications."
On June 30 (night) Serbian newspapers false report mass murders of Serbs in Bosnia, causing a
press war with Austria through July.
In July Boston, Mass.-born atty. and legal historian
Charles Warren (1868-1954)
becomes asst. U.S. atty. gen. (until Apr. 1918), going on to help draft the 1917 U.S. Espionage Act.
On July 1 Austrian battleship Viribus Unitis arrives in Trieste with the bodies of the
archduke and his wife.
On July 1 Austrian chief of staff Baron
Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad von Hoetzendorf (Hötzendorf)
(1852-1925) writes that Hungarian PM Count Istvan Tisza "was against war with Serbia;
he was anxious, fearing that Russia might strike at us and Germany leave us in the lurch";
Austria remains unsure of Germany's attitude; meanwhile after secretly being put up to it by
German Vienna ambassador (1907-16) Count
Heinrich Leonard von Tschirschky under Bogendorff (Bögendorff)
(1858-1916) (whose reports to Berlin urge caution), German newspapers urge Austria to get
tough with Serbia (until July 4); on July 2 Tschirschky assures Count Berchtold and
Emperor Franz Joseph of German support, with the emperor replying, "I see a very dark future."
On July 2 as bands of Austrian-flag-waving Croats and Muslims attack Serb properties in
Bosnia, martial law is declared.
On July 2 Gavrilo Princip and two accomplices make full confessions, implicating Serbia.
On July 2 (eve.) the bodies of the archduke and duchess arrive in Vienna, lying in state in Hofburg Palace
until after a requiem mass on July 4, after which they are moved to the chapel in the archduke's
castle in Artstetten; the kaiser skips the "third class funeral" for fear of assassination.
On July 3 the kaiser comments on the cautious June 30 report from Vienna ambassador Count Tschirschky:
"The Serbs must be disposed of, and that right soon!"; on July 4 (p.m.) the German Foreign Office
receives the material and begins to adopt a hard line toward Serbia.
On July 3 Berlin announces the planned extension of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway S to Basra,
providing Germany an outlet on the Persian Gulf plus overland access to the Indian Ocean.
On July 4 German London ambassador (1912-14)
Karl Max, 6th Prince Lichnowsky
(1860-1928) returns from Berlin, and tells British secy. of state for war
Lord Haldane that he is "very worried" about "the general feeling in Berlin...
that Serbia could not be allowed to go on intriguing and agitating against Austria,
and that Germany must support Austria in any action she proposed to take"; in 1916
he pub. a pamphlet blaming German diplomacy for starting the war.
On July 4 Austrian foreign ministry chief Count Hoyos leaves Vienna for Berlin with Austrian
plans to crush Serbia, seeking full German suppor for a war against Serbia in the event of
Russian aggression; meanwhile German ambassador Count Tschirschky tells an Austrian official
that Germany will support Austria-Hungary "through thick and thin", adding "The earlier Austria
attacks the better. It would have been better to attack yesterday than today, and better
to attack today than tomorrow."
Is war catching, like a cold? Play the tragic piano music now?
On July 5 (noon) the July Crisis
begins when Austrian foreign minister (1912-15) Count
Leopold Anton Johann Sigismund Josef Korsinus Ferdinand von Berchtold
(1863-1942) thinks he's too old and deaf to handle it, and sends emissary Count
Ludwig Alexander Georg von Hoyos (1876-1937)
to review the documents with him first, and Kaiser Wilhelm II tells aging Austrian ambassador in Berlin
(since Oct. 24, 1892) Count
(Szogyeny-Marich de Magyar-Szogyen et Szolgaegyhaza) (1841-1916) in Potsdam that Russia
is "in no way prepared for war", and that Austria would regret it if "we did not make use of
the present moment, which is all in our favor", adding that Germany would support Austria in
a war with Russia, later that day telling German chancellor Theobold von Bethmann-Hollweg and
Prussian war minister Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn that not only are Russia and France not ready
for war, but "he did not believe that there was any prospect of great warlike developments"
because "the tsar would not side with the Archduke's murderers", hence "there was no need to
make special dispositions", giving Austria-Hungary a blank check to attack Serbia?
On July 6 Kaiser Wilhelm II returns to Kiel and departs in his royal yacht
Hohenzollern for his annual 3-week summer cruise in Norway.
On July 7 the 8-member Austrian-Hungarian cabinet discusses the kaiser's offer
of German backing, causing chmn. Count Berchtold to propose an immediate attack
on Serbia sans declaration of war; on July 8 Hungarian PM Count Istvan Tisza
writes to the kaiser that an Austrian attack on Serbia "would, in human possibility,
provoke the world war", bringing Russia and Romania in, which he calls a "very unfavorable"
prospect; meanwhile on July 7 Theobald Bethmann-Hollweg utters the soundbyte:
"The future lies with Russia, she grows and grows, and lies on us like a nightmare",
telling Prince Lichnowsky on July 8 that "not only the extremists" in Berlin,
"but even level-headed politicians are worried at the increases in Russian strength,
and the imminence of Russian attack."
007 Bond, James Bond?
On July 7 German ambassador to the U.S. (since 1908) Count
Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff
(1862-1939) is recalled to Germany, but returns on Aug. 2 after being recruited to do
intel work to assist the German war effort, complete with a large slush fund, forging
passports for German-Ams. who want to return home to fight.
On July 9 British foreign secy. (since Dec. 10, 1905) Sir
Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon
(1862-1933) tells German London ambassador Prince Lichnowsky that
Britain has been "endeavoring to persuade the Russian government even at
the present juncture to adopt a calm view and a conciliatory attitude
towards Austria, should the Vienna Cabinet feel obliged in consequence
of the Sarajevo murder to take up a stern attitude towards Serbia", but
warns that Austria takes the risk of "arousing Slav feeling", making it
impossible for Russia to "remain passive";
meanwhile despite being told by his subordinate
Robert Gilbert Vansittart (1881-1957)
(later head of the foreign office, opposed to appeasement) that
"The unwisdom of a blindly anti-Serbian policy is not at all appreciated in Austria, and that is the real point in a rather
threatening situation", Grey's principal advisor Sir
Arthur Nicolson (1849-1928)
writes the British ambassador in Vienna: "I have my doubts as to whether Austria will take any action of a serious character
and I expect the storm will blow over."
Back in the remaining large white sanctuary of America, people still go to see baseball and don't care about Europe?
On July 9 after a teacher at St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys in Baltimore, Md. brings promising young
George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. (1895-1948) (taught by Brother Matthias)
to the attention of John Joseph "Jack" Dunn (1872-1928) ,
and he signs him to pitch for the minor league Baltimore Orioles and becomes his legal guardian (causing fellow players
to nickname him "Jack Dunn's Babe"), he turns around and sells him to the Boston Red Sox; on July 11 Ruth makes his pitching debut, after
which he is optioned to the minor league Providence Grays of R.I., and hits his first homer on Sept. 5, then next spring secures a starting pitcher position;
meanwhile on Oct. 17 he marries Boston waitress Helen Woodford.
On July 11 Kaiser Wilhelm II meets with chief of staff (since 1906) Gen.
Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke the Younger
(1848-1916) (not a count, and not a field marshal, a step below at col.-gen.),
nephew of famous Prussian War Field Marshal Count
Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
(1800-91) (but without any battlefield experience, known for liking Goethe, Maeterlinck,
and the writings of the Christian Scientists), and admiralty chief Grand Adm.
Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz
(1849-1930) in the rose gardens of Konopic in Bohemia, followed by Moltke
and chief of the gen. staff Gen. Baron
Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad von Hoetzendorf (Hötzendorf)
(1852-1925) meeting in Karlsbad to discuss the
to conquer France in six weeks through invasion via Belgium with 1.5M men in seven
armies, along with another plan to support Austria-Hungary against the Serbians
and Russians and get the Romanians to join in the quick glorious fun; on July 25
German ambassador to Britain (1912-14)
Karl Max, 6th Prince Lichnowsky
(1860-1928) becomes the only German diplomat to raise objections to Germany's
attempt to provoke an Austro-Serbian war, pointing out that Britain would intervene,
and begging the German govt. to accept an offer of British mediation; after several
cables are ignored, a final one on July 29 contains the soundbyte "If war breaks
out it will be the greatest catastrophe the world has ever seen", but by the time
time it arrives the Austrians are already bombing Belgrade; on Aug. 4 after Britain
declares war, Lichnowsky returns to Germany, being saluted by a British military
guard of honor, after which in 1916 he privately circulates the
Lichnowsky Memorandum (My Mission to London, 1912-1914)
(its pub. in the U.S. in 1917 causing him to be expelled from the Prussian House of Lords),
lamenting the alliance with Austria-Hungary for dragging Germany into crises in the Balkans and Russia,
and forecasting an Allied V, with the soundbytes: "This is a return to the days of the Holy Roman Empire
and the mistakes of the Hohenstaufens and Habsburgs";
"The world will belong to the Anglo-Saxons, Russians and Japanese, and the Germans will remain
alone with Austria and Hungary. German rule will be that of thought and commerce, not that of
the bureaucrat and soldiers. Germany made its appearance too late, and its last chance of making
good the past, that of founding a colonial empire, was annihilated by the World War."
On July 13 a secret Austrian report from Sarajevo reaches Vienna, stating that there was no evidence
to implicate the Serbian govt. in the assassination, which doesn't stop Count Berchtold from talking
emperor Franz Josef into attacking Serbia because no other nation will side with them, and he agrees
to an ultimatum.
On July 14 Hungarian PM Count Istvan Tisza is won over by Conrad von Hoetzendorf, and
when he asks the Emperor Franz Josef "If the answer [to Count Hoyos] shows
that Germany stands on our side, do we then go to war with Serbia?",
he replies, "Dann ja"; the Austrian council of ministers decides to
deliver an ultimatum in one week.
On July 16 bestselling English Socialist pacifist Norman Angell gives a
in London on the danger of a "grand military bonfire", uttering the soundbyte":
"The younger generation are, I believe, increasingly determined not to be the victims of that supreme futility."
On July 16 German ambassador Prince Lichnowsky utters the soundbyte that
it was the fault of Austria for sending Franz Ferdinand into an "alley of
bomb-throwers" in Sarajevo.
On July 17 German deputy chief of staff Gen. Waldersee writes to foreign secy.
Gottlieb von Jagow from Berlin that "I shall remain here ready to jump; we are all
prepared at the General Staff."
On July 18 the
Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
is created by the U.S. Congress, with 44 officers, 224 men, and 23 aircraft; by
Apr. 6, 1917 it has 1,218 men and 280 aircraft.
On July 18 Gottlieb von Jagow writes to Prince Lichnowsky in London:
"The more resolute Austria shows herself and the more energetically we
support her, the sooner will Russia stop her outcry. To be sure, they
will make a great to-do in St. Petersburg, but when all is said and done,
Russia is at present not ready for war."
On July 19 the Austrian council of ministers in Vienna finalizes their
ultimatum, blaming Serbia
for the assassination and making 15 demands, incl. Serbian condemnation
of anti-Austrian propaganda, a joint commission to investigate the assassination,
a Serbian army order condemning Serbian military involvement, a firm promise
of no further Serbian intrigue in Bosnia, punishment of anti-Austrian
propagandists, and Austrian official involvement in the legal process of
punishing those connected with the plot; Serbia is expected to reject
the terms, giving Austria an excuse to invade; on July 21 Emperor Franz Josef
agrees to the ultimatum after deciding that some groups inside Serbia had
been involved in the plot, and for fear of Serbian expansion;
Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorf is hottest for war, hoping to make territorial
gains on the Bosnian border.
On July 22 Russian foreign minister (1910-16)
Sergei (Sergius) Dmitrievich Sazonov
(1860-1927) warns Austria against taking drastic action, but declines
to threaten military action.
On July 23 British chancellor of the exchequer (1908-15)
David Lloyd George
(1863-1945) delivers a speech to the House of Commons, with the soundbyte that
"civilization" would have no difficulty in regulating disputes between nations
by means "of some sane and well-ordered arbitrament", saying that British
relations with Germany are the best in years, and the next budget will
show a reduction in armaments.
On July 23 (6 p.m.) after the Kaiser gives the green light while on his
Norwegian cruise, Serbia is presented by Austria-Hungary with the
July (Serbian) Ultimatum
(signed by Count Berchtold), timed so that French pres.
Raymond Poincare and PM Rene Viviani are unavailable for
consultation by Russia because they have just embarked from Kronstadt after
a state visit there, giving Serbia 48 hours to respond; on July 24
Sir Edward Grey calls it "the most formidable document that was ever
addressed by one state to another"; on ? Winston Churchill calls the
ultimatum "the most insolent document of its kind ever devised"; on
July 24 Russia announces that it "cannot remain indifferent", and secretly
mobilizes 13 army corps;
Serbia surprises them by virtually accepting the terms on July 25 at 5:45 p.m.,
asking to refer the demand to participate in the judicial process to the
Internat. Tribunal at The Hague;
too bad, Austria wants war like mad to get even for killing the emperor's dear
little nephew, and when Serbia makes the mistake of ordering mobilization at
3 p.m. on July 25 before delivering their reply, they jump on them, using
the old excuse that "mobilization means war", and Austrian ambassador (since
Nov. 13, 1913) Gen.
Wladimir Rudolf Karl Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen
(1860-1936) leaves Belgrade at 6:15 p.m. without reading the Serbian reply,
after which Emperor Franz Josef orders mobilization against Serbia at 9:23 p.m.
the same day, to begin on July 28; on July 26 Austrian chief of staff
Conrad von Hoetzendorf tells Count Berchtold that full-scale invasion of
Serbia will take several weeks; it takes Austria 16 days to complete mobilization,
but the Germans mobilize much faster, so the war actually ends up beginning
in the West; meanwhile the Serbian govt. withdraws S to Nis, and Serbian
army chief of staff Gen. Putnik is detained in Budapest while returning
from a Bohemian spa, causing real gentleman Emperor Franz Josef to order him
to be given a special train to Serbia with an apology.
On July 25 the first German warship sails through the widened Kiel Canal
to the North Sea, causing Britain to see danger signals.
On July 25-26 the Russians secretly begin mobilization, while British leaders
enjoy a weekend vacation on purpose because Sir Edward Grey is secretly
in league with Russia,
pretending with Germany to be an honest broker while trying to buy them time
On July 26 (4:00 p.m.) (Sun.) the German High Seas Fleet is ordered home from the
Norwegian coast to Spithead by Prince Louis of Battenberg, and the fleet mobilized,
encouraging Russian and French hardliners.
On July 27 Sir Edward Grey proposes that the ambassadors of Germany, France,
and Italy meet with him in London, and Germany counters with a proposal for
direct talks between Austria and Russia, which the latter rejects; the
British foreign office spreads a rumor that German preparations for war are
more advanced than those of France or Russia in order to juke the public into
a war mentality?
On July 27 Kaiser Wilhelm II tells a friend, "We are not at war yet, and if
I can, I shall prevent it."
On July 27 Liberal British MP (pres. of the Board of Trade)
John Elliot Burns (1858-1943)
tells the British Cabinet that war must be averted "by all means in our power",
writing in his diary "Why four great powers should fight over Serbia no fellow
can understand", after which David Lloyd George tells the press that "there
could be no question of our taking part in any war in the first instance. I
know of no minister who would be in favor of it"; the anti-war faction, led by
colonial secy. Lewis Harcourt
consists of 11 of the 19 ministers, who constitute a "Peace party which if necessary
shall break up the Cabinet in the interest of our abstention; the cabinet decides that the
British First and Second Fleets undergoing exercises in Portland in home waters
be ordered not to disperse; after the war starts, he resigns; meanwhile the
British War Office instructs Home Defence Army cmdr. Gen. Sir
Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien
(1858-1930) to guard "all vulnerable points" in S Britain, and
Winston Churchill orders special armed guards assigned to ammo and oil depots,
and tells naval commanders: "European political agitation makes war between
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente powers by no means impossible. This is
not the warning telegram, but be prepared to shadow possible hostile men-of-war";
meanwhile, British foreign secy. Sir Edward Grey tries in vain to mediate, proposing on
July 27 that the Austrian-Serbian dispute be submitted to a conference of reps from
Germany, Britain, France, and Italy, which is rejected by Germany as "not practicable",
after which Russia opens talks with Austria, until the latter under suspected German influence breaks them off.
On July 28 (a.m.?) the Austrian ambassador to Germany informs Count Berchtold of German pressure to occupy Belgrade even before completing mobilization, with the
soundbyte: "We are urgently advised to act at once and present the world a fait accompli"; on July 28 (11:00 a.m.) Kaiser Wilhelm reads for the first time the
full text of the Austrian ultimatum and Serbian capitulation, and writes in the margin: "A great moral victory for Vienna, but with it every reason for war is
removed and Giesl ought to remain quietly in Belgrade. On the strength of this I should never have ordered mobilization... I am convinced that on the whole the
wishes of the Danube monarchy have been acceded to. The few reservations that Serbia makes in regard to individual points, can in my opinion be well
cleared up by negotiations. But it contains the announcement orbi et urbi of a capitulation of the most humiliating kind, and with it every reason
for war is removed", suggesting that "as a visible satisfaction d'honneur for Austria, the Austrian army should temporarily occupy Belgrade as a pledge" to begin
negotiations; Winston Churchill, backed by Sir Edward Grey orders the fleet to war stations before receiving news of a Balkan war, despite Grey issuing a message
to other countries to refrain from all military steps until his mediation has been tried; too bad, on July 28 (noon)
Austria declares war on Serbia,
launching the Serbian Campaign
(ends Nov. 3, 1918), sending forces led by guess-who-rode-in-the-car Gen. Oskar Potiorek toward the Serbian frontiers on the Save and Danube Rivers; on July 28 (eve.) German
chancellor Theobald Bethmann-Hollweg sends a telegram to Vienna pressuring Berchtold to negotiate, notifying Britain and Russia, telling the British ambassador
"A war between the Great Powers must be avoided", but Berchtold doesn't respond, causing him to send three more telegrams on July 29 (eve.)?
On July 28 after the Ottomans talk
the Germans into it, the basic terms of a secret Ottoman-German alliance are agreed to,
with Kaiser Wilhelm II giving an order to his skeptical negotiators:
"A refusal or a snub would result in Turkey's going over to Russo-Gallia, and our influence
would be gone forever... Under no circumstances whatsoever can we afford to turn them away";
the Ottomans weren't forced into WWI in a last-ditch attempt to save it from being dismantled,
but eagerly plunged into it as a unique opportunity to take advantage of the destruction
of Russia to expand and unify its territories?
Russia gets into the act to help its fellow Orthodox Christian Serbs against
the horrible Roman Catholic Huns, and WWI reaches critical mass?
On July 29 (1:00 a.m.) the
begin when Tsar Nicholas II sends a
to his 3rd cousin Kaiser Wilhelm II:
"An ignoble war has been declared to a weak country. The indignation in
Russia shared fully by me is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall
be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme
measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European
war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your
allies from going too far" (signed "Nicky);
it crosses with one from the Kaiser: "I am exerting my utmost influence to
induce the Austrians to deal straightly to arrive at a satisfactory
understanding with you" (signed "Willie"); encouraged, the tsar cancels
gen. mobilization, and proposes that the Austrian-Serbian problem be handed
over to the Internat. Court at The Hague, causing the Kaiser to beg him
to "remain a spectator of the Austro-Serbian conflict, without involving
Europe in the most horrible war she ever witnessed", offering to help
promote a Russian-Austrian understanding, causing the tsar to attempt to
cancel the partial mobilization, and when that proves impossible, he telegraphs
the Kaiser after midnight: "We need your strong pressure on Austria to come to an understanding with us."
On July 29 (a.m.) an Austrian Danube flotilla bombards Belgrade from the N, beginning the actual hostilities, and the same morning Tsar Nicholas II orders partial
mobilization on the Austrian frontier of 6M men (to defend people he doesn't love?).
On July 29 (a.m.) Winston Churchill proposes to the British Cabinet that the European sovereigns "be brought together for the sake of peace", while the cabinet authorizes the sending
of a warning telegram across the British Empire despite military operations dir.
Sir Henry Wilson writing the soundbyte in his diary: "I don't know why we are doing it, because there is nothing moving in Germany "too bad, their war machines can't be stopped,
and the German fleet begins mobilization, while the British Fleet is sent to war stations in the North Sea.
On July 29 the Kaiser's brother Prince Henry, who broke off his yachting trip at the Cowes Regatta and visited his cousin George V at Buckingham Palace a
few days earlier, reports that he said to him "We shall try all we can to keep out of this and shall remain neutral"; when Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz expresses
his doubts, the Kaiser replies "I have the word of a king, and that is good enough for me."
On July 29 German chief of staff Gen. Helmuth von Moltke reports:
"It appears that Russia and France are moving hand in hand as regards their preparations."
On July 29 the German ambassador to London Prince Lichnowsky sends a
telegram to Berlin
warning that the British believe that a world war is inevitable unless the
Austrians negotiate over Serbia, and begs Sir Edward Grey to try to prevent
a Russian mobilization on Germany's borders, calling the consequences "beyond
conception"; Grey promises to try, but lies, meeting with Lichnowsky in the
evening and stroking him to give Russia more time?
On July 29 Sir Edward Grey tells the French London ambassador: "If Germany
became involved and France became involved, we had not made up our minds what
we should do; it was a case that we should have to consider", causing
Russian foreign minister Sergei Sazonov to tell him that if Britain doesn't
make it clear that it will stand firmly with France and Russia, rivers of blood
would flow and Britain would be dragged in anyway; Germany sends a secret
message to Britain offering to take no territory from France except its colonies
if it remains neutral, which Sir Edward Grey rejects; Grey later claims to be stymied
by "a veiled coalition" (Churchill), where he can't threaten Germany with
British attack were it to attack France, even though ahem, he knows it will,
while goofing up and failing to explicitly communicate to Germany that failure to
both respect and protect the neutrality of Belgium will bring a British declaration
of war against Germany; too bad, by the time he does, the Germans are already
poised to invade, allowing Gen. Helmuth von Moltke to convince the Kaiser that
it's too late to stop the plan?; Grey writes four telegrams that are never sent
but are later pub. as official documents to cover his tracks?
On July 29 the first
transcontinental telephone call
is completed by AT&T between Alexander Graham Bell in New York City and
Dr. Thomas Watson in San Francisco, Calif. - rings, hello?
On July 29 August Belmont Jr.'s
Cape Cod Canal,
"the widest sea level canal in the world", between Cape Cod and Buzzard's Bay opens;
too bad, it's too narrow, only 140-ft. in width and 25 ft. in depth, making navigation
difficult, and costs $16 a trip for a schooner, causing mariners to avoid it, until
the U.S. govt. purchases it on Mar. 30, 1928.
On July 30 (noon) the
of Berlin issues an extra ed. announcing a decree for gen. mobilization of the German army,
which is immediately suppressed by the authorities after they're sure the Russians get the message.
On July 30 Kaiser Wilhelm II sends a
to Tsar Nicholas II:
"I have gone to the utmost limits of the possible in my efforts to save peace...
Even now, you can still save the peace of Europe by stopping your military measures."
On July 30 (4:00 p.m.) the tsar orders gen. mobilization, surprising the Austrians
by its speed and messing up all their plans to kick Serbian butt, causing the
Austrian Second Army on the Save River W of Belgrade to be split in two, with half
sent to Galicia to meet the Russians, leaving the other half for the Serb bad boys;
the tsar pledges that he will not order any attack as long as negotiations are in
progress, which Germany ignores, making WWI their fault?
On July 31 (a.m.) German chancellor Theobald Bethmann-Hollweg telegraphs
Count Berchtold of Austria, urging Austria not to mobilize against Russia;
meanwhile German chief of staff Gen. Helmuth von Moltke advises Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorf
in Vienna to mobilize immediately, causing Berchtold to utter the soundbyte
"Who rules in Berlin: Moltke or Bethmann?", after which Austria orders
gen. mobilization, and at 4:00 p.m. Germany issues an
to Russia to demobilize within 12 hours, which it disregards (Russia's last tsar had
the last chance in his hands to stop WWI but feared war less than showing weakness?);
Germany also issues an ultimatum to France demanding a definite statement whether it
will remain neutral in the event of a Russo-German war, and, in the event of a oui,
demanding that it hand over the fortresses of Toul and Verdun E of Paris as a pledge
(knowing that France will never agree?), which it rejects, mobilizing 3M men via 4,278 trains;
meanwhile the tsar sends a
to Kaiser Wilhelm II:
"It is technically impossible to stop our military preparations which were obligatory
owing to Austria's mobilization. We are far from wishing for war. As long as the
negotiations with Austria on Serbia's account are taking place my troops shall not
make any provocative action. I give you my solemn word for this";
meanwhile Sir Edward Grey attempts to mediate in the dispute between Serbia and Austria
with a "stop in Belgrade" message, which is laughed off by the Germans, and on July 31 he
sends a note to Paris and Berlin asking them to repect the neutrality of Belgium, which
France agrees to, while Germany won't answer.
On July 31 Winston Churchill writes
to his wife Clementine:
"There is still hope, although the clouds are blacker and blacker. Germany is realising
I think how great are the forces against her and is trying tardily to restrain her idiot ally.
We are working to soothe Russia... Everybody is preparing swiftly for war... Germany has sent
a proposal to us to be neutral if she promises not to take French territory nor to invade
Holland [but] she must take French colonies and she cannot promise not to invade Belgium…Grey
[the British Foreign Secretary] has replied that these proposals are impossible and disgraceful.
Everything points therefore to a collision on these issues... Prices of foods are rising to
On July 31 Kaiser Wilhelm II utters the
"For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves -
knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria-Hungary - to use the Austro-Serb
conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us... Our dilemma over keeping
faith with the old and honorable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives
England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice
on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe,
i.e. playing off all European States for her own benefit against us."
On July 31 German Jewish assimilationist industrialist
Walther Rathenau (1867-1922)
pub. an article in the Berliner Tageblatt protesting the blind loyalty
of Germany towards Austria: "Without the protection of this loyalty, Austria
could not have ventured on the step she has taken", adding that the mere
issue of Austrian official participation in the Serbian plot investigation
"is no reason for an international war"; although he vigorously supports the war
after it starts, the article is used after the war to accuse him of treason.
On July 31 while calling for pan-European working class unity to stop war
and mobilization, French pro-German pacifist Socialist leader (ed. of "L'Humanite")
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Leon Jaures (Léon Jaurès)
(b. 1859) is assassinated in a Paris cafe by young aesthete French nationalist
(member of the League of Young Friends of Alsace-Lorraine)
(1885-1936), and the French checks and balances are now kaput?
On July 31 in Berlin, French ambassador
Jules-Martin Cambon (1845-1935)
and Belgian ambassador Baron
Napoleon-Eugene Beyens (1855-1934)
appeal to U.S. ambassador James W. Gerard, who writes to Theobald Bethmann-Hollweg:
"Is there nothing that my country can do?"; there is no reply; Beyens ends up having to
take receipt of the declaration of war by the Germans.
Darling Danke Schoen? Diplomacy breaks down in one day, and the Guns of August begin?
On Aug. 1 (Sat.) (12:30 a.m.) Germany learns that Russia won't suspend its mobilization;
at 2:00 a.m. Germany telegraphs an evasive response to a British request for a pledge to
respect Belgian neutrality, while at 1:12 a.m. France pledges to respect it; at 2:00 a.m.
Russian ambassador in Paris (since 1910) Count
Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky (Iswolsky)
(1856-1919) wakes French Pres. Raymond Poincare to ask him how France would respond to a
German attack on Russia, later remarking "C'est ma guerre" (This is my war";
at 3:45 a.m. Count Berchtold sends a veiled rejection to British requests for mediation;
at 3:30 a.m. George V sends a personal telegram to "My dear Nicky" urging a peaceful solution,
with the soundbyte:
"I cannot help thinking that some misunderstanding has produced this deadlock. I am most
anxious not to miss any possibility of avoiding the terrible calamity which at present threatens
the whole world", asking him "to leave still open grounds for negotiation and peace";
at 7:30 a.m. German ambassador to Russia (since 1907) Count
Jacob Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Graf von Pourtales (Pourtalès)
(1853-1928) warns Nicholas II that the German mobilization will almost certainly mean war;
at 8:00 a.m. fearing a secret German mobilization, French Gen. Joseph Joffre orders a gen. mobilization
by 4:00 p.m.;
in the morning Gen. von Moltke convinces Nicholas II that Germany will declare war on Russia,
but the noon German ultimatum deadline passes without incident; before noon the British cabinet meets,
and is sharply split, deciding not to send troops to France after the neutrality faction threatens
to bring down the govt.;
at 11:00 a.m. the French foreign office prepares dispatches saying "The attitude of Germany proves
that she wishes for war, and she wishes it for France";
at 11:14 a.m. Prince Lichnowsky mistakenly wires Berlin that Britain is offering to guarantee
French neutrality; at noon French PM Rene Viviani responds to an inquiry from German ambassador (since 1910)
Wilhelm Eduard Freiherr von Schoen (Schön)
(1851-1933) that "France will have regard to her own interests" (danke shoen but shove it?);
at noon German ambassador to Belgium
Klaus von Below-Saleski
assures Belgian ambassador Count
Alfred de Bassompierre
that "Belgium has nothing to fear from Germany", while in his safe is a secret ultimatum to be
delivered to the Belgian govt. when word comes from Berlin?; at 1:00 p.m. Germany telegraphs
its declaration of war to Count Pourtales in St. Petersburg; at 2:00 p.m. the tsar assures the
kaiser that Russian mobilization need not lead to war, and asks Germany to pledge ditto;
meanwhile the French cabinet decides to order mobilization by 4:00 p.m. if there is no improvement
in the crisis; in the afternoon excited crowds mill about in Berlin waiting for the good news
of warry war war; "the afternoon passed in almost insufferable anxiety";
in mid-afternoon chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg addresses the German federal council, with the soundbyte:
"If the iron dice roll, may God help us", after which it unanimously approves war with Russia;
in the afternoon Liberal MP (since 1908)
Arthur Augustus William Harry Ponsonby
(1871-1946) draws up a resolution of British neutrality, with strong support,
but Sir Edward Grey rejects it, warning the German ambassador at 3:30 p.m. that
a German invasion of Belgium will likely bring Britain into the war, causing Prince Lichnowsky
to lose all hope of British neutrality; at 3:35 p.m. France orders mobilization, effective
at noon on Aug. 2, with French PM Rene Viviani issuing the soundbyte:
"At this hour there are no longer parties. There is only eternal France, pacific and resolute France";
in the late afternoon Lord Earl Grey tells French ambassador Paul Cambon not to expect help
from Britain, causing Cambon to mutter "They're going to abandon us";
at 4:00 p.m. the kaiser meets with Chancellor Theobald Bethmann von Hollweg
and Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn, and agrees to sign mobilization orders;
at 5:01 p.m. Germany orders a gen. mobilization starting Aug. 2, causing the crowds in Berlin
to sing the nat. hymn while officers drive around waving swords and handkerchiefs;
at 5:00 p.m. Germany and France order mobilization almost simultaneously,
although the French troops are kept at a discreet distance from the frontier;
shortly after 5:00 p.m. the Kaiser receives a telegram from Prince Lichnowsky in London
mistakenly telling him that Britain might be willing to remain neutral and to guarantee
French neutrality as long as Germany doesn't attack France, pleasing the kaiser, but
Gen. Helmuth von Moltke tells him that the attack on France is already in gear and mobilization
can't be redirected towards Russia, and suffers a small stroke, his spirit broken; this
doesn't stop the kaiser from ordering a halt, only to change his mind at 11:00 p.m. after
deciding that the guarantees of neutrality are unreliable;
at 6:00 p.m. Sergei Sazonov meets with British ambassador to Russia (1910-18) Sir
George William Buchanan
(1854-1924) and French ambassador
Maurice Paleologue (Paléologue)
(1859-1944) to discuss a response to George V's plea for peace;
at 7:00 p.m. Germany accepts the erroneous offer;
too late at ?, the tsar appeals to the kaiser to stop the war, seeking assurance
that German mobilization doesn't definitely mean war, with the soundbyte:
"Our long proved friendship must succeed, with God's help, in avoiding bloodshed",
with the kaiser replying:
"I yesterday pointed out to your government the way by which alone war may be
avoided... I have... been obliged to mobilize my army. Immediate affirmative
clear and unmistakable answer from your government is the only way to avoid
endless misery. Until I have received this answer alas, I am unable to discuss
the subject of your telegram. As a matter of fact I must request you to immediately
order your troops on no account to commit the slightest act of trespassing over
at 7:10 p.m. Germany declares war on Russia,
making public its suppressed mobilization order, and the big boys are all in it now;
the German declaration of war is delivered to Sergei Sazonov in St. Petersburg by German ambassador
Count Pourtales; Sazonov tells him "This is a criminal act of yours", to which Pourtales replies
"We are defending our honor", getting the riposte "Your honor was not involved. You could have
prevented the war by one word - you didn't want to", causing Pourtales to break down in tears;
Sir Edward Grey telegraphs to the British ambassador in Berlin: "It might be possible to secure peace";
too bad, it arrives after the German declaration of war is delivered;
a crowd in the Odeonsplatz in Munich celebrates the coming of war, and a photo by Heinrich Hoffmann
shows Wowed Adolf Hitler
in the crowd; too bad, it is first pub. on Mar. 12, 1932 in the Nazi Illustrierte Beobachter
one day before the pres. election, and was faked by the Nazis to portray him as a patriot
and man of the people?;
another crowd in Paris shouts "A Berlin" (To Berlin), while soldiers marching to the
railway stations are festooned with flowers and showered with kisses from women;
Count Ignatiev, head of the Russian military mission in Paris telegraphs St. Petersburg that
the French war ministry is "seriously suggesting that Russia invade Germany and advance on Berlin",
causing Russian Gen. Golovin to comment that it "was equivalent to asking Russia to commit suicide,
in the full sense of the word";
Russia changes the German name of St. Petersburg to the Russian equivalent Petrograd (changed to
Leningrad in 1924, and back to St. Petersburg in 1991);
itself as on a religious "messianic vision", while Russia see itself as "the" Christian state,
with both viewing their enemy as controlled by Satan?
On Aug. 1 the London evening newspaper ?
carries the headline:
"Three hundred million people today lie under the spell of fear and fate. Is there no one to break the spell, no gleam of light on this cold dark scene?"
The Germans take first blood in the West?
On Aug. 1 (Sat.) (night) the Germans, who had been keeping six brigades ready on the
Belgian frontier for years in case they had to seize the Belgian fortress of Liege
(which blocks the gap between the Limburg Appendix of Holland and the Ardennes Forest)
break their treaty and send a division from Trier to enter little
to seize the railways needed for the invasion of brave little bulging Belgium,
causing the duchess to meet the advance guard and make formal protests in vain;
after seizing the railway station at
Troisvierges (Three Virgins)
(last station in Luxembourg before passing into Belgium on its way to Gouvy),
they are withdrawn a half hour later by order of the kaiser, who suffers from the brief illusion
that Britain will ensure French neutrality, tearing up the railroad tracks and destroying
telegraph cables; in the evening Russian diplomats report possible Austrian peace feelers,
too late, Albert I of Belgium personally appeals to the kaiser, declaring that it will uphold
its neutrality, and Franz Josef I assures Germany that Austria will primarily focus on Russia,
although Austrian forces continue to deploy against Serbia;
at 8:00 p.m. the German navy is mobilized, and British ships at Hamburg are seized;
at 8:00 p.m. Winston Churchill orders the British Royal Navy to mobilize after approval by
Herbert Henry Asquith but without cabinet approval;
at 10:45 p.m. George V's personal plea for peace is belatedly delivered to "Nicky";
at 11:00 p.m. George V's denial of British or French neutrality arrives in Berlin,
pissing-off the kaiser, who orders the German advance on Luxembourg and Belgium to resume,
reoccupying Troisvierges at midnight;
at 11:30 p.m. frightened Russian ambassador Alexander Izvolsky informs French pres. Raymond Poincare
of Germany's declaration of war on Russia;
Austrian army chief of staff Conrad von Hoetzendorf asks Italian army chief of staff Gen.
(1850-1928) when Italian forces will arrive in Galiciaa, and on Aug. 2 he reports that
it will take a month to mobilize the Italian army, after which on Aug. 3 his request for
mobilization is denied;
the British navy seizes new paid-for (£4M) Turkish battleships Sultan Osman I and
Reshadieh in the Tyne River shipyards, renaming them
and HMS Erin,
and keeping the money, pissing-off the Turkish govt. after Winston Churchill announces
it on Aug. 3, becoming a reason to join the Central Powers.
On Aug. 1 Switzerland and Netherlands mobilize; Denmark and Norway declare neutrality.
The Guns of August are how big?
On Aug. 1 at the start of WWI the belligerents together have 335 infantry divs. (5M-5.5M men),
50 cavalry divs. (500K men), and 500K men in their navies;
Russia has the biggest army, with 114 infantry divs. (7M troops, with another 21M
available for callup);
France has 62 divs. (4M troops, incl. 2.5M in the home army and 1.5M in the territorial army);
Britain has only six divs. available in its expeditionary force (the Old Contemptibles)
to send to France, along with a regular army of 156K, a territorial army of 250K, and
500K native troops in the
(rising to 1.3M by the end of the war incl. 400K Muslims, all volunteers), along with
volunteer soldiers in overseas dominions;
Germany has 50 divs. (2M troops, with 1.5M more soon mobilized, giving 87 divs., of
which 20 are sent to France and six to Russia at the war's start); the Germans are way
better equipped and trained than anybody else, thanks to Prussian king Frederick II the Great;
Austria-Hungary has 49 divs. (1M troops, with 2M more soon mobilized);
Turkey has 20 divs. (750K troops);
Bulgaria has 12 divs. (500K troops);
Italy has 1.2M trained troops, 800K partly-trained troops, and 1M available for callup;
Belgium has 120K troops at the start, later increased to 250K;
Serbia has 350K troops to face the Austrians;
the British Royal Navy has 24 battleships, the German navy 17, the French navy 6, and
the Italian navy 3;
the British Mediterranean Fleet is concentrated at Malta, while the German warships
Goeben and Breslau
(AKA the Mittelmeerdivision) rendezvous at Taranto, Italy;
20 German U-boats in two flotillas assemble off Heligoland in the North Sea, while the
German High Seas Fleet concentrates in Jade Bay near Wilhelmshaven;
the Law of Siege divides Germany into 24 army corps districts.
On Aug. 1-4 the Swiss parliament grants its executive unlimited powers in the wake of massive
mobilization, proclaims neutrality, and notifies Germany that attempts to invade will be met
with armed force - you don't want to mess with us rugged Swiss mountain fighters, do ya?
In early Aug. the U.S. asks the belligerent powers to abide by the
1856 Paris Maritime Declaration,
which was never ratified but is important to the U.S. because of its privateers;
the Central Powers agree on the condition that the Entente do ditto, and Britain agrees,
after adding certain modifications that effectively negate the declaration incl. adding a
large number of previously "free" items to the "conditional" contraband list, and changing the
status of key raw materials incl. food to "absolute" contraband, allegedly because they could
be used by the German army, even if en route to neutral ports; the real intent is to "starve
the whole population — men, women, and children, old and young, wounded and sound — into submission"
(Winston Churchill); Britain assumes practically complete control over all neutral trade (in
violation of internat. laws?); the U.S. State Dept. prepares a strong protest, which is never sent,
with Col. Edward M. House and British ambassador to the U.S. (1912-18) Sir
Cecil Arthur Spring-Rice (1859-1918)
instead politely requesting reconsideration, which the Brits nix.
On Aug. 2 (2:30 a.m.) at a meeting of ministers, German war minister Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn utters
"The war is here and the question of a declaration of war on France is a matter of indifference";
navy minister Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz is shocked to learn that the Schlieffen Plan is the army's
On Aug. 2 (3:00 a.m.) the French cabinet affirms that after completing mobilization France will
declare war against Germany.
On Aug. 2 (4:00 a.m.) the last "Nicky" telegram from the kaiser ("Willy") is received, with a
belated peace offer.
On Aug. 2 (a.m.) Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg argues against declarations of war on France and
Belgium with military leaders, pissing-off Gen. von Moltke, who denounces him to Da Kaiser.
On Aug. 2 (a.m.) German cruisers bombard
near the East Prussian frontier.
On Aug. 2 (6:00 a.m.) German troops cross the Luxembourg frontier then cross the Moselle River
at Remich and
heading S to Luxembourg City; on Aug. 2 (a.m.) French ambassador Paul Cambon asks Britain to
intervene on behalf of Luxembourg; by night the Germans led by Col. (later maj. gen.)
Richard Karl von Tessmar
(1853-1928) occupy Luxembourg City,
capital of Luxembourg; on Aug. 30 Gen. Helmuth von Moltke establishes his HQ there.
On Aug. 2 (7 a.m.) the Belgians answer the Germans, refusing their demands; on Aug. 2 (a.m.)
Albert I appeals to George V of England for diplomatic intervention to safeguard Belgian integrity,
while the Belgian govt. in Brussels informs Britain that it doesn't need foreign aid to repel
the Germans and doesn't intend to appeal to other nations to affirm its neutrality; on Aug. 2 (a.m.)
Belgian ambassador Napoleon-Eugene Beyens telegraphs Berlin, with the message:
"Pessimistic rumors concerning us. I believe Belgian Army should be ready immediately for all
eventualities"; meanwhile German ambassador Klaus von Below-Saleski tells the Belgian press:
"Your neighbor's roof may catch fire, but your own house will be safe."
On Aug. 2 (a.m.) a German patrol crosses the French frontier (first time since 1871) at
causing immediate dispatch of French troops toward it, with plans to defend the line
from Luxembourg S to Switzerland along the Alsace-Lorraine border; at 9:59 a.m. French Cpl.
Jules Andre Peugeot (b. 1893)
is shot in Joncherey
on the French border with German Alsace-Lorraine, dying at 10:37 a.m., becoming the first
French soldier KIA in WWI.
On Aug. 2 (11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.) after House of Lords opposition leader
Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne
(1845-1927) and House of Commons opposition leader
Andrew Bonar Law (1858-1923)
offer Herbert Asquith unconditional Conservative Party support for British intervention,
and Liberal atty. gen. (Oct. 19, 1913-May 25, 1915) Sir
John Allsebrook Simon (1873-1954)
threatens to resign if Britain enters the war but is talked out of it by Asquith, the
British Cabinet meets, and Asquith and Edward Grey force the neutralist faction to affirm support
for British intervention if Germany attacks the N French coast or invades Belgium, making
intervention unstoppable?; at 3:00 p.m. Grey informs French ambassador Paul Cambon that Britain
will intervene against a German naval attack on the N French coast, but that troops can't be sent immediately.
On Aug. 2 (2:00 p.m.) the French govt. gives Gen. Joseph Joffree full freedom of action, and
he orders French forces to move to the German border - different faces everywhere?
On Aug. 2 (3:00 p.m.) a solemn mass is held in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, in which
Nicholas II vows to fight "so long as one of the enemy is on the soil of the Fatherland", causing
the attendees to break into cheers along with the crowds outside; at 3:15 p.m. Nicholas II
responds to George V's peace telegram, appealing for British intervention against Germany,
supported by British ambassador Sir George William Buchanan.
On Aug. 2 (4:00 p.m.) an antiwar demonstration is held in the rain in
in London, led by Scottist Socialist Labour MP (1892-95, 1900-15)
James Keir Hardie (1856-1915);
too bad, the invasion of "Gallant Little Belgium" turns public opinion against Germany - step on
the brakes, speed up the pace, take it to the maximum?
On Aug. 2 France declares a state of siege (ratified Aug. 5) incl. martial law and military control
of railways; French naval minister (Mar. 20-June 9, June 13-)
Armand (Elzear) Gauthier (Armand Gauthier de l'Aude)
(1850-1926) suffers a mental collapse, and resigns on Aug. 3.
On Aug. 2 Canada offers to send troops to aid Britain.
On Aug. 2 the Norwegian navy mobilizes.
On Aug. 2 Greece declares neutrality, pissing-off the kaiser, who wants an alliance.
On Aug. 2 Bulgaria submits a draft alliance to Austria and Germany.
On Aug. 2 the Germans begin sieging Ft. Longwy,
"the iron gate to Paris" 90 mi. NW of Nancy in Lorraine 19 mi. SW of the Luxembourg border,
starting with small skirmishes, turning into relentless shelling on Aug. 21 (5:00 a.m.)
(ends Aug. 26); on Aug. 10 a German demand to surrender is rejected by the cmdr. Lt. Col.
Natalis Constant Darche (1856-1947).
On Aug. 2 one day after Germany declares war on hated Orthodox Christian Russia, the
Muslim Ottoman Empire agrees to enter the war on the side of the nominally non-Orthodox
Christian Central Powers with the
signing of the secret
in Constantinople by PM (Grand Vizier) Said Halim and war minister Enver Pasha; it is never signed
by army CIC Sultan Mehmed V; German ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1912-Oct. 25, 1915) Baron
Hans von Wangenheim (1859-1915)
signs for Germany;
the Russians hinted at an alliance, but only on condition of a protectorate on Ottoman lands;
the Ottomans first asked Britain for an alliance, but were refused?;
Djemal Pasha won't sign because he wants an alliance with France, but the rest nix him because
France has been an ally of Russia against the Ottomans since 1828;
since a majority of the cabinet favors neutrality their entry into the war is delayed until
the Ottoman navy jumps the gun and bombards Russian ports on Oct. 29.
On Aug. 2 Russia seeks an accord with Austria to separate it from Germany, causing
Conrad von Hoetzendorf to delay an Austrian declaration of war against Russia and France.
On Aug. 2 Gen. Helmuth von Moltke is named German army CIC, and sends a
to the German Foreign Office urging them to secure British neutrality by pledging postwar "moderation" in ruling a defeated France, to force Scandinavia, Turkey, Italy, Japan, and
Iran to enter the war on Germany's side, and to forment revolt in India, Egypt, and South Africa.
On Aug. 2 Britain orders full naval mobilization, with orders to catch two German warships en route to Turkey through the Mediterranean, the
SMS Goeben and
which arrive at the entrance to the Dardanelles on Aug. 10 (9:00 p.m.), which the Ottomans
closed on Aug. 5, after which at the request of German Lt. Col.
Freidrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870-1948)
they are allowed to enter by Turkish war minister Enver Pasha, with orders to fire upon British warships trying to follow them;
the Ottoman govt. allows them into Constantinople, pissing-off Russia, and to maintain the illusion of neutrality buys them and
changes their names to Javus Sultan Selim and Midilli, with German Rear Adm.
Wilhelm Anton Souchon (1864-1946)
flying the Turkish flag and becoming Ottoman navy CIC (until Sept. 1917) under the name Yavuz Sultan Selim; on
Aug. 15 Turkey cancels its maritime agreement with Britain, causing the Royal Navy mission under Adm. Sir
Arthur Henry Limpus (1863-1931)
to limp out by Sept. 15; on Aug. 16 their bloodless arrival in Constantinople after eluding the British fleet is
a giant propaganda V, contributing to the Ottoman entry in the war on the side of the Central Powers, with
Winston Churchill uttering the soundbyte that the ships brought "more slaughter, more misery, and more ruin than
has ever before been borne within the compass of a ship";
Britain gives France secret assurance that it will assist French ships in the North Sea and English Channel.
Germany brands itself as the aggressor by beating up on Belgium?
On Aug. 2 (7:00 p.m.) German ambassador Klaus von Below-Saleski hands Belgian foreign minister
M. Davignon a 12-hour ultimatum to permit free passage
of its troops, falsely claiming that France intends to violate Belgian neutrality, and on
Aug. 3 (a.m.) they refuse
and mobilize, with the soundbyte: "Were the Belgian government to accept the propositions
conveyed to it, it would be sacrificing the nation's honour and betraying its engagements to Europe";
Albert I assumes direct control of the Belgian Army, declining a French offer of military aid, and
ordering the demolition of the Meuse bridges and tunnels near Liege and the rail links from Luxembourg,
with Belgian chief of staff Lt. Gen. Chevalier
Albert de Selliers de Moranville
(1884-1990) unsuccessfully attempting to block it; the work is done by Aug. 6.
On Aug. 2 after mobilizing 500K men, Serbia begins invading Bosnia, seizing frontier towns on
On Aug. 3 after Theophile Delcasse is reinstated as French minister of affairs in the new
Ministry of Nat. Defense and
goes to work, the 1882 Triple Alliance
of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy dies when Italy's cabinet, led by PM (since Mar. 21)
(1853-1931) (until June 18, 1916) (jockeying to join the Triple Entente) declares
claiming that Austria's action against Serbia was offensive and was taken without consulting
it under the terms of the Triple Alliance; Italy also begins demanding compensation to
counterbalance the Austrian gains in the Balkans; Delcasse is forced to resign again over
his mistakes regarding the Balkans.
On Aug. 3 (7:00 a.m.) Belgium notifies German minister Klaus von Below-Saleski that it rejects
the German demands and will resist with force.
On Aug. 3 (8:00 a.m.) Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum in London opens a
on the European crisis to a packed house.
On Aug. 3 (8:30 a.m.-9:30 a.m.) the French and British ministers in Brussels send the first reports
of Germany's ultimatum to Belgium.
On Aug. 3 (a.m.) the British Cabinet holds a meeting at which four pacifists resign or state
their intent, authorizing Churchill's mobilization of the navy; meanwhile enthusiastic crowds
line the streets of London.
On Aug. 3 Germans troops occupy Bendzin (Bedzin), Kalish (Kalisz), and Chenstokhov (Czestochowa);
(1856-1929) (grandson of Tsar Nicholas I and first cousin once removed of Tsar Nicholas II)
becomes Russian CIC (until Aug. 21, 1915), in charge of the largest army so far in history,
even though he has never commanded an army before, proving a dud even though popular with
the troops; after he gets in a catfight with Rasputin, the latter prophesies that Russia
will be defeated unless the even less qualified emperor becomes CIC, so guess what?
On Aug. 3 chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg tells the Prussian Cabinet in Berlin
that Britain's entry into the war is now inevitable, to which Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz cries
nuts, er, "All is then lost."
On Aug. 3 Australia offers its navy plus 20K troops to fight for Britain.
On Aug. 3 the Romanian crown council rejects Carol I's demand to ally with Germany, deciding on
On Aug. 3 SS San Wilfrido
owned by the Eagle Oil Transport Co. in Britain strikes a mine and sinks off Cuxhaven in the North Sea,
becoming the first merchant ship sunk in WWI.
On Aug. 3 Sir Edward Grey officially expresses "sincere regret" over the seizure of the two
Turkish battleships, but offers no compensation, causing the Ottomans to mobilize, with
Enver Pasha as CIC, while declaring armed neutrality.
On Aug. 3 (3:00 p.m.) Sir Edward Grey delivers a
to a packed House of Commons, justifying his cabinet's hawkish policy, causing opposition to melt.
I meant what I said and I said what I meant?
On Aug. 3 (4:00 p.m.) the British Army is officially ordered to mobilize; at dusk
British foreign secy. (Dec. 10, 1905-Dec. 10, 1916) Sir
(1862-1933) utters the immortal soundbyte:
"The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our time."
On Aug. 3 (6:15 p.m.)
Germany declares war on France,
with cool German ambassador Wilhelm Schoen handing the papers to cool French PM Rene Viviani,
and a few hours later
France declares war on Germany.
On Aug. 3 (eve.) Albert I receives the kaiser's reply to his personal appeal of Aug. 1, which says
that Germany is making its demands "only with the most friendly intentions toward Belgium", to which
Albert I replies "What does he take me for?"; Albert I assumes direct command of the army, and
declines a French offer of military aid.
On Aug. 3 (11 p.m.) Sir Edward Grey sends the German govt. a
British Ultimatum on Belgium,
which German-born British ambassador to Germany (1908-14) Sir
William Edward Goschen
(1847-1920) delivers personally, demanding that Belgian neutrality be respected and
giving them 24 hours to reply, which Germany foreign secy.
Gottlieb von Jagow (1843-1935)
answers in the negative in person with the observation that German troops are already across
the frontier and that Germany had to do it to prevent France from attacking it through Belgium
first, even though France has already promised to respect Belgian neutrality and if it breaks
its word Britain would likely turn against it; Goschen then demands to speak to German chancellor
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, who lectures him for 20 min. and tells him to ignore the
1839 Treaty of London
between Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia (pledging to maintain Belgian neutrality)
as a mere "scrap of paper" and stay out of the war, causing Goschen to retreat with his tail
between his legs.
On Aug. 4 (6:00 a.m.)
Germany declares war on Belgium;
at 8:00 a.m. German troops invade Belgium, reaching the Meuse River on both sides of Liege by 8:00 a.m.,
then crossing at Vise by mid-afternoon; the German Fourth Army enters the S tip of Belgium from Luxembourg;
at 9:00 a.m. the Belgian Parliament votes unanimously to resist the German invasion, to wild popular acclaim;
meanwhile unaware of the invasion, Sir Edward Grey demands immediate assurance that Germany won't
force its demands on Belgium;
at 12:00 p.m. Albert I calls on Britain and France for aid; at 12:00 p.m. speaking from the throne,
Kaiser Wilhelm II tells the Reichstag: "We draw the sword with a clean conscience and with clean hands";
at 2:00 p.m. Sir Edward Grey sends an ultimatum to the British embassy in Berlin demanding immediate
withdrawal and giving them until midnight to halt the invasion;
at 3:00 p.m. German chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg tells the cheering Reichstag that "Necessity knows no law",
causing them to approve war funding;
too bad, the Belgian army is concentrated behind the Gete River, too far away to support the forts of Liege;
in the afternoon German troops enter the Belgian town of
while German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg tells the Reichstag that military necessity
compels Germany to commit a wrong against Belgium for which reparations will later be made.
On Aug. 4 (6:00 a.m.) German cruisers Goeben and Breslau shell
Bone and Philippeville
in Algeria as British warships lamely attempt to shadow them.
On Aug. 4 (8:30 a.m.) the British Home Fleet leaves Scapa Flow to sweep for German raiders.
On Aug. 4 (3:00 p.m.) French PM Rene Viviani addresses a cheering Parliament, telling them:
"We are without reproach - we are without fear", causing them to approve war funding as French
troops march through Paris amid cheering crowds.
On Aug. 4 (eve.) French ambassador Paul Cambon urgently requests Sir Edward Grey to send troops;
meanwhile Grey informs Austrian ambassador Count Albert von Mensdorff that Britain is still
maintaining relations with Austria.
On Aug. 4 as millions of soldiers are on the move throughout Europe, the first meeting of the
World Alliance for Promoting Internat. Friendship Through the Churches
is held in Konstanz in S Germany, with churchmen from Britain, France, and Germany attending, hoping
to stop the war; too bad, within hours they give up and hurry home; the org. is disbanded in 1947.
On Aug. 4 as France urgently calls for Britain to send troops, while British army reserves and territorial units are mobilized, and Field Marshal
Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (1850-1916)
is offered to head the War Ministry as secy. of state for war, calling off a trip to Egypt, five French armies begin an
in the region between Mezieres and the Belfort Gap (between the Vosges and Jura Mts. near the Franco-Swiss-German border of Alsace-Lorraine), hoping for a breakthrough on either side of Metz;
in the evening Belgian King Albert I gives permission for both French and British forces to cross the Belgian frontier to assist the Belgian army in repelling the German invaders.
On Aug. 4 the Germans occupy Trieux
near Briey in Lorraine.
On Aug. 4 German Gen. von Moltke rejects a proposal by the German navy to intercept British forces
as they cross the English Channel, preferring to "settle" on land, with the soundbyte:
"The more English, the better."
On Aug. 4 U.S. Pres. Wilson issues a
Proclamation of Neutrality - when in doubt
do a George Washington?
On Aug. 4 Romania, Switzerland, and Brazil declare neutrality, while Sweden mobilizes.
On Aug. 4 Sir Edward Grey tells the British Parliament that there is still no British "commitment"
to send troops to Europe; meanwhile after the German admirals tell German chief of staff von Moltke
that they are ready to stop any British troop crossing to France or Belgium, he waves them off,
with the soundbyte: "This is not necessary, and it will even be of advantage if the Armies of the West
can settle with the 160,000 English at the same time as the French and Belgians."
On Aug. 4 after he refuses to make a graceful exit until war begins, aging Count Laszlo Szogyeny
is replaced by Prince
Gottfried (Maximilian Maria) von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst
(Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingfürst, Ratibor und Corvey) (1867-1932)
as Austrian ambassador in Berlin (until Nov. 11, 1918).
On Aug. 4 (11:00 p.m.) via British PM Herbert Asquith
Britain declares war on Germany,
causing a crowd to gather in Trafalgar Square in London until 12 midnight, when the news is
officially announced, causing a great cheer; shortly after 11:00 p.m. a mob attacks and stones
the British embassy in Berlin; the official telegram to Berlin is sent at 11:20 p.m.;
despite receiving a month's wages in advance, the three German embassy servants refuse to help
Berlin ambassasor Horace Rumbold and his staff with their trunks, taking off their uniforms
and spitting and trampling on them, after which next morning an emissary of the Kaiser apologizes
for it all, explaining how deeply Germans "felt the action of England in ranging herself against
Germany and forgetting how we had fought shoulder to shoulder at Waterloo", adding that the Kaiser
is divesting himself of his titles of British field marshal and admiral of the fleet;
Sir Edward Grey immediately flip-flops and begins spewing existential fear of Germany, with
"The issue for us is that, if Germany wins, she will dominate France; the independence of Belgium,
Holland, Denmark, and perhaps of Norway and Sweden, will be a mere shadow; their separate existence
as nations will be a fiction; all their harbours will be at Germany's disposal; she will dominate
the whole of Western Europe, and this will make our position quite impossible. We could not exist
as a first class State under such circumstances"; Fleet Adm. Sir
John Arbuthnot "Jackie" "Jacky" Fisher
(1841-1920) (#2 British navy man after Adm. Horatio Nelson) becomes British first sea lord; Field Marshal
John Denton Pinkstone French (1852-1925)
becomes CIC of the British armies on the Western Front; Adm. Sir
John Rushworth Jellicoe (1859-1935)
becomes cmdr. of the British Grand Fleet (until Nov. 29, 1916);
"The only man on either side who could lose the war in an afternoon" (Winston Churchill);
the British are divided in naval strategy by the Blue Water School of Jackie Fisher, which is
against invasions and scoffs at the army, the Ultramarine School, which wants only to destroy
the enemy's fleet, and the Blue Funk (Bolt from the Blue) School of naval strategist Sir
Julian Stafford Corbett (1854-1922),
which wants only to keep sea routes open.
On Aug. 4 (night) the little Belgian village of
is burned and its inhabitants shot because of an alleged shot fired on the German invaders by
franc-tireurs (free-shooters or snipers), which the Germans claim are civilians, while the Belgians
claim they're soldiers or civil guardsmen (gendarmes);
Auguste Bouko (b. 1863) and Jean-Pierre Thill (b. 1883)
become the first Belgians KIA in WWI;
the Fifth Hague Convention of 1907 forbids Germany from moving troops across neutral Belgium,
and states that resistance to the movements can't be regarded as a hostile act;
after the house of Gen. Erich Ludendorff is fired on,
the Belgium town of Herve (Hervé)
is burned, with all but 19 of 500 (300?) houses destroyed, incl. the church,
town hall, and 1830 flag of honor, and 40 civilians killed;
"The beginning of the end of an age of comfort, confidence, and gentle and
seemly behaviour in Europe" (H.G. Wells); on Aug. 5 British ambassador
Baron von Stumm tells U.S. ambassador Hugh Gibson in Brussels: "Oh, the
poor fools! Why don't they get out of the way of the steamroller? We
don't want to hurt them, but if they stand in our way they will be ground
into the dirt", after which the Belgian govt. forbids local resistance to
keep them from reprisals.
On Aug. 4 (night) the Germans begin the
Battle of Liege (Liège)
(ends Aug. 16), sieging the 12 forts garrisoned by 35K troops, with German Prussian gen.
Albert Theodor Otto von Emmich
(1848-1915) starting on Aug. 5 (early a.m.) by demanding them to surrender, which Belgian gen.
Gerard Mathieu Leman
(1851-1920) says nuts, er, refuses;
Leman used 18K workers since Jan. to improve the fortifications, pooh-poohing
those who said it compromises Belgium's neutrality with the reply that if war
breaks out, he will be thanked, and if it doesn't, "they could take away his
general's stars"; on Aug. 5-6 the German offense collapses with heavy losses
until on Aug. 6 Maj. Gen. Erich Ludendorff takes charge of a 1.5K-man infantry brigade
upon the death of a gen., reverses the retreat, then on Aug. 7 (a.m.) enters the part
of Liege E of the Meuse River personally with his brigade and forces the central fort
to surrender, causing the Belgians to withdraw to the W bank; on Aug. 7 a siege train
carrying heavy artillery incl. the Big Bertha (42 cm shells) arrives, turning the tide
in the Germans' favor; on Aug. 8 (4:00 p.m.) the NE fort of
Fort de Barchon
surrenders after intense shelling, and Germany prematurely announces that the entire Liege
complex has been captured; although the surrounding forts fight on until Aug. 15, the Germans
force Belgian troops back to Brussels and Antwerp; the 2-week siege gives the French and
British time to prepare; Ludendorff wins a Pour le Merite.
On Aug. 5 (6:00 a.m.) Gen. Joseph Joffre arrives at Gen. HQ in
at the W end of the Marne-Rhine Canal;
Gen. Charles Lanrezac requests permission to extend the Fifth Army left flank to counter German
forces in Belgium.
On Aug. 5 Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary;
Nicholas I of Montenegro officially allies with Russia and Serbia against the Central Powers,
but unofficially his fears that Allied victory would bring territorial reduction and the end
of his dynasty lead him to intrigue with Austria; meanwhile Serb nationalists, who want union
with Serbia disavow knowledge of his actions - send in Cinnamon and Rollin Hand?
On Aug. 5 after the kaiser divests himself of his honorary British titles of field marshal and adm.,
Germany reinstitutes the Iron Cross medal.
On Aug. 5 a German minelaying vessel is caught off the mouth of the Thames River by
British cruiser HMS Amphion
and sunk, becoming "the first time that the British and Germans had ever met in conflict
under their own national flags upon land or water" (H.G. Wells).
On Aug. 5 (4:00 p.m.) the British War Council meets, with Lord Kitchener predicting a long war
requiring millions of troops, withholding two of six divs. intended for the BEF, and proposing
that it concentrate further back at Amiens, rejecting a proposal by Gen. Sir
John Denton Pinkstone French
(1852-1925) to send it to Antwerp.
On Aug. 5 (night) Germany cavalry reaches Tongres and Namur, and clashes with Belgian cavalry
in Plaineveaux S of Liege.
On Aug. 5 the German
pub. an article calling for a "holy war", with the soundbyte:
"Germany can and is not allowed to lose... If she loses so, too, does the world lose
its light, its home of justice"; the same day the
pub. the soundbyte:
"And even if a catastrophe were to befall us such as no one dares to imagine, the moral victory
of this week could never be eradicated."
On Aug. 5 the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty
between the U.S. and its puppet Adolfo Diaz of Panama gives the U.S. the right to
build a canal and lease sites for naval bases, causing protests by Costa Rica and
El Salvador for infringing on their sovereignty; the treaty is not ratified by the
U.S. until Apr. 13, 1916 after declaring that its provisions are not intended to
affect the rights of other states.
On Aug. 6 (early a.m.) Gen. Ludendorff leads a brigade that penetrates the ring of forts at Liege,
reaching Liege city in the morning after fierce fighting at Herstal on the Meuse River; after a
German assassination attempt fails, Gen. Leman withdraws the Belgian Third Div. from Liege city,
which is bombed by a zeppelin (first aerial attack) that gets damaged and crashes near Bonn;
German artillery shell it all night; meanwhile three French cavalry divs. under Gen.
Jean-Francois Andre (André) Sordet
(1852-1923) enter Belgium, and Albert I vetoes a proposed counteroffensive and rejects advice
from Gen. Joseph Joffre to retreat to Namur to link with French forces; on Aug. 7 (a.m.)
the Germans occupy Liege city, and Ludendorff personally seizes the citadel, causing
France to award the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor to Liege later that day.
On Aug. 6 always-happy-to-please
Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
On Aug. 6 Serbia declares war on Germany.
On Aug. 6 a small force of Polish riflemen and cavalrymen (carrying their saddles on their heads
in hopes of capturing a horse) from Galicia cross the Russian frontier towards
Kielce, but are chased back by a Russian patrol.
On Aug. 6 British light cruiser
strikes a German mine and sinks, killing all 150 aboard, incl. 18 German POWs
captured from the minelayer Konigin Luise that laid the mine, becoming the
first British casualties of WWI.
On Aug. 6 the Austrian govt. donates money to the
Union for the Liberation of Ukraine,
encouraging separatists; they later do ditto to Armenian and Georgian separatists.
On Aug. 6 a
British White Paper
containing diplomatic correspondence from July 22-Aug. 4 is given to the British House of Commons
to inform them of recent events and apply for supplies; the German White Paper presented
to the Reichstag on Aug. 4 is far less complete, omitting negotiations with the British govt.;
the British White Paper is pub., becoming a bestseller (1M copies).
On Aug. 6 (eve.) after the British Cabinet balks at sending troops to Europe for fear
of a homeland attack, Lord Kitchener shocks the War Council by suggesting that
the war might be a long one, after which they agree to send four of their six
prof. army divs. to Europe starting on Aug. 9; on Aug. 7 Lord Kitchener calls for 100K volunteers,
causing a rush, with 1.5K a day signing up; a request by Irish nationalist leader
John Edward Redmond
(1856-1918) to form an Irish army to send to Europe is denied by Lord Kitchener,
causing BEF gen. Hubert Gough to later write "Kitchener's refusal added a
bloody page to Irish history"; this doesn't stop 160K Irishmen from volunteering
for the British army, of which 49K are killed; meanwhile anti-war sentiment
in Britain is dissolving, with Manchester Guardian ed. (1872-1929)
Charles Prestwich Scott
(1846-1932) flip-flopping on Aug. 7, with the soundbyte:
"I am strongly of opinion that the war ought not to have taken place and that we ought
not to have become parties to it, but once in it, the whole future of our nation is at
stake and we have no choice but to do the utmost we can to secure success."
By Oct. 6 550 German troop trains are crossing the Rhine River daily.
On Aug. 7 (5:00 a.m.) the
Battle of Mulhouse (Mülhausen)
begins, becoming the first attack on Germany by France in WWI, with the French VII Corps crossing
the frontier and seizing the town of Altkirch with a bayonet charge, intending to recapture
Alsace, only to be stopped by overwary Alsace-born Gen.
waiting until Aug. 6 to take Mulhouse after the Germans leave, which doesn't stop wild
celebrations in France; on Aug. 8 (3:00 p.m.) Bonneau leads a 2-hour victory parade in Mulhouse,
issuing the proclamation:
"Children of Alsace, after 44 years of painful waiting, French soldiers once more tread the soil
of your noble land. They are the first laborers in a great work of revenge";
too bad, on Aug. 9 (a.m.) reserves of the German Seventh Army under Gen.
Josias von Heeringen (1850-1926)
(who all along wanted France to waste themselves in Alsace so that the main German invasion of
France could succeed) arrive from Strasbourg and launch a counterattack in Cernay, causing chicken
Bonneau to begin a slow withdrawal towards Belfort on Aug. 10 (7:00 a.m.), pissing-off Gen. Joseph Joffre,
who on Aug. 11 relieves him of command of French VII Corps, adds four more divs. to the Army of Alsace,
and replaces him as French army CIC with Gen.
Paul Marie Cesar Gerald Pau (1848-1932),
who plans an attack to liberate Lorraine; too bad, they prove too slow, and the German success
at Liege causes the French to prepare for a German sweep through Belgium instead.
On Aug. 7 after warning that a massive German offensive over the Meuse River by six corps is
imminent, pissing-off Gen. Joseph Joffre, who accuses him of defeatism, Maubeuge fortress cmdr. Gen.
Joseph Anthelme Fournier (1854-1928)
is sacked, and replaced by Gen.
(1851-1937), known for developing the boat-tailed Shell D in 1898 propelled by Poudre B
for the Langlois field gun.
On Aug. 7 advance parties of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) secretly land in France
to prepare for the arrival of the main force.
On Aug. 7 the Germans execute 27 civilians and destroy 10 homes in
On Aug. 7 the British govt. begins placing "Your King and Country Need You!" posters on hundreds
of public platforms.
On Aug. 7 after returning from Cambridge U., gung-ho Austrian Jewish philosopher
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
(1889-1951) joins the Austrian army despite a double hernia, ending up in a military workshop
in Galicia then outsmarting his superiors to work closer to the front line in a combat position.
On Aug. 8 Britain wastes no time in passing the
Defence of the Realm Act,
giving the govt. wide-ranging powers, allowing it to institute censorship, imprison people without trial,
commandeer economic resources for the war effort, and other authoritarian measures;
"No person shall by word of mouth or in writing spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among any
of His Majesty's forces or among the civilian population";
trivial activities are prohibited incl. flying kites, starting bonfires, buying binoculars, feeding bread to wild animals,
or discussing military matters; alcoholic beverages are watered down and served on restricted hours of noon-3 p.m. and 6:30-9:30 p.m.,
but not on public transports; the afternoon gap in pub opening hours is not lifted until 1988.
On Aug. 8 King Albert I of Belgium warns French foreign minister
Philippe Berthelot (1866-1934)
that the main German blow is coming through Flanders, forcing the Belgian army to withdraw to Antwerp
via the Dyle River; he is ignored; meanwhile French Fifth Army chief of staff
Alexis Roger Hely (Hély) d'Oissel
(1859-1937) visits Gen. Joseph Joffre to voice his concerns of a German offensive through Belgium,
and is ignored; meanwhile Joffre issues
Order No. 1,
ordering his right wing to attack into Lorraine, followed by his center and left driving toward
On Aug. 8 the British begin hostilities in German East Africa, bombarding the coastal towns of
On Aug. 8 the Austrian police arrest suspected Russian spy
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin
(1870-1924) in Neumarkt (Nowy Targ) in Galicia, S Poland 40 mi. from the Russian
border, where he has been living in exile for years; after Austrian Social Dem. leader
(1852-1918) intervenes, assuring them that he will conduct an agitprop campaign against
the tsarist regime and Allies, he is released and allowed to travel to neutral Switzerland.
On Aug. 8 German Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau visits Berlin to volunteer his services,
and is appointed head of the new War Raw Materials Dept., meeting hostility from anti-Semitic army cmdrs.
On Aug. 9 Montenegro declares war on Germany.
On Aug. 9 U.S. diplomats refuse to forward a German peace feeler to Belgium.
On Aug. 9 French Gen. Joseph Joffre urges the French Fifth Army to advance over the Semois River into the
Ardennes, but its cmdr. Gen. Charles Lanrezac
(1852-1925) objects, fearing a German advance through Belgium.
On Aug. 9 German sub U-15
is rammed by British light cruiser HMS Birmingham and sinks, becoming the first
U-boat (Unterseeboot) of 199 (out of 300) sunk by the enemy during the war, 40 by mines.
On Aug. 9-10 the Germans counterattack at
On Aug. 9-14 the French army concentrates its forces toward the frontier.
On Aug. 9-26 the Togoland Campaign
sees the German colony of Togoland surrender to an Anglo-French force; it is divided
between the two countries by Dec. 27, 1916.
On Aug. 10 Kaiser Wilhelm II meets with U.S. ambassador
James Watson Gerard
(1867-1951), who hands him a secret telegram addressed to Pres. Wilson, containing the
soundbyte that Belgian neutrality "had to be violated by Germany on strategical grounds";
he tries to cheer him up by saying that German troops will soon enter Paris, to which Gerard replies:
"The British change the whole situation. An obstinate nation, they will keep up the war.
It cannot end soon."
On Aug. 10 French minister
Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (1861-1937)
uses false stories of Autrian troop movements toward France to break relations with Austria.
On Aug. 10 the French defeat a German brigade at
in Lorraine, France.
On Aug. 10 German soldier ? Uhlan is found on the main road, causing the Germans
to round up and shoot 11 male villagers in
and burn eight homes.
On Aug. 10 French Gen. HQ confirms that the main German offensive won't come through Belgium,
and Gen. Joseph Joffre forms the Army of Alsace under Gen. Paul Pau on the French far right flank.
On Aug. 10 the first British Expeditionary Force train reaches Southampton, England.
On Aug. 10-12 after a herculean effort at the Krupp Works at Essen, two super-heavy siege mortars
are transported to Liege.
On Aug. 11 the French retreat from the Haute Alsace (plains) to the Franco-German border.
On Aug. 11 the Germans attempt an invasion of Belgium with six divs., clashing with the Belgians at
St. Trond (Sint-Truiden), and
causing the French to form defensive positions on a line from Montmedy NW along the Meuse River to
Mezieres, then N to Dinant, then W to Charleroi; the British line up to the left N of Mons; the
French Second Army lines up along the Alsace-Lorraine border, with its right wing in upper Alsace
near Mulhouse and its left wing near Nancy; Belgian King Albert I rejects a personal request from
French Pres. Raymond Poincare to link Belgian forces with the French, preferring to defend Antwerp;
British Gen. Sir John French is informed that the Germans will be using reserves as well as regulars
while British Gen. Sir Douglas Haig
(1861-1928) informs George V that he has "grave doubts" about the his superior French's competence.
On Aug. 11 (p.m.) Fort d'Evegnee
E of Liege falls.
On Aug. 11 (p.m.) French Fifth Army cmdr. Gen. Charles Lanrezac requests permission to reinforce
the Givet-Dinant area on the Meuse River to protect his left; on Aug. 12 Gen. Joseph Joffre permits
him to extend his forces to the Sambre River with his left corps in Dinant (which repels German probes),
but refuses him to shift to the W.
On Aug. 11 the Vandervelde Telegram
is sent to the Russian Duma by new Belgian Socialist state minister (chmn. of the Internat. Socialist Bureau)
(1866-1938) (who was called into St. Petersburg in June to reconcile Socialist factions,
causing him to be highly respected), urging the Socialist deputies to support the war, and
it is pub. in the press and copies distributed in factories, pissing-off Vladimir Lenin in
Switzerland, who smuggles in his anti-war
Theses of the War.
On Aug. 11 Estonian-born liberal Protestant theologian-historian Prof.
Adolf von Harnack
(1851-1930) (head of the royal library) gives a speech in Berlin's town hall
warning of the threat to Western civilization from "the civilization of the Horde
that is gathered and kept together by despots, the Mongolian Muscovite civilization.
This civilization could not endure the light of the eighteenth century, still less
the light of the nineteenth century, and now in the twentieth century it breaks loose
and threatens us. This unorganized Asiatic mass, like the desert with its sands,
wants to gather up our fields of grain."
On Aug. 12 (a.m.) British Lt. Col.
Charles a (à) Court Repington
(1858-1925) pub. an article
in the London Times giving a complete detailed map of the German deployment incl. their
drive through Belgium.
On Aug. 12 the
Battle of the Silver Helmets (Haelen)
sees 4K German cavalry and 2K infantry led by Gen.
Johannes Georg von der Marwitz (1856-1929)
lose to 2.4K Belgian cavalry and 450 bicycle riflemen led by Gen.
Leon Alphonse Ernest Bruno De Witte
(1857-1933), with 150 Germans KIA, 600 wounded, and 200-300 taken POW vs. 160 Belgians KIA and 320 wounded;
after repeated charges by cavalry armed with sabers are shot down, the Germans ditch cavalry permanently.
On Aug. 12 German cavalry probe the main Belgian line on the Gete River.
On Aug. 12 the French occupy
On Aug. 12 the German First Army under Gen.
Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von Kluck (1846-1934)
advances from its assembly areas in Julich and Krefeld.
On Aug. 12 Britain establishes a
Naval Blockade of Germany
to prevent cargo ships from reaching German North Sea ports, and France establishes another
blockade to cutoff trade to Austria's Adriatic ports; the blockade throws Germany into
starvation mode, causing 141 deaths a day in 1915 (88,232), 331 in 1916 (121,114),
712 in 1917 (259K), and 802 in 1918 (293,760), for a total of 762,106.
On Aug. 12 after declaring that small contingents of Austrian troops stationed on the
Franco-German frontier are a "direct menace to France",
Britain and France declare war on Austria-Hungary;
Austrian London ambassador
Albert von Mensdorff
(1861-1945), a cousin and close friend of George V is provided with a British destroyer
to ferry him and 200 Austrians across the English Channel, pissing-off the English pop.;
meanwhile on Aug. 12 Austria begins a discussion with Polish patriots in regard to annexing
the Russian provinces of Poland incl. Warsaw, and on Aug. 16 Austria permits Polish leader
Josef (Jozef) Pilsudski
(1867-1935) to set up a Supreme Nat. Committee in Cracow on Austrian soil,
after which he organizes a 10K-man Polish Legion and leads it against Russia,
hoping to one day march arm-in-arm with the Austrians into Warsaw; too bad,
the Russians and Allies form Polish brigades, and by the end of the war
2M Poles serve on both sides, losing 450K killed.
On Aug. 12 German senior Lt.
is KIA in an air crash in Malmedy, N France; French Sgt.
crashes while returning to base; English 2nd Lt.
Robin Reginald Skene (b. 1891)
and his mechanic
Raymond Keith Barlow
are KIA in their 2-seater plane in a crash in Netheravon near Dover en route to France,
all becoming the first British, French, and German airmen lost in WWI.
On Aug. 12 (midnight) all Euro powers except Italy are at war with each other; Italy
holds out until May 23, 1915.
On Aug. 12-13 180K Austrians under Bosnian gov. Gen.
(1853-1933) (the same genius who had botched security during
Franz Ferdinand's Sarajevo visit) invade Serbia, crossing the Drina River
going E to punish Serbia for the dead archduke, capturing the town of
on the Serbian side of the Sava River, then advancing
along the Jadar Valley, committing atrocities in Sabac and
before meeting up with 180K Serbians under Field Marshal (voivode)
(1847-1917), who defy their would-be badass papa and win the
Battle of the Jadar River (Mt. Cer) on
Aug. 16-19, becoming the first V for the Entente, throwing the
Austrians back over the Sava River into Austria, which the Austrian govt.
attempts to coverup by claiming that they are being withdrawn to fight
Russia because the Serbian invasion is a "punitive expedition" only,
despite 6K Austrians killed, 30K wounded, and 4K taken POW vs. 3K Serbians
killed and 15K wounded; the Serbs gain a foothold on the Sava River,
invading Bosnia until they are thrown back on Oct. 25, with atrocities
on both sides until the archduke matter fades into the bloody mud - no avenging
knight on a white steed?
On Aug. 12-21 after the Germans alter the Schlieffen Plan and the German navy looks the
other way so that Gen. von Moltke can kick their butts along with the French, the 120K-man
British Expeditionary Force (BEF)
under Gen. Sir John Denton Pinkstone French
(1852-1925) (known for accurate hi-speed rifle fire), protected by 19 battleships lands
in Havre, France, and moves to join the French advancing into Belgium, all without the
German high command realizing it?; British I Corps is commanded by Gen. Sir
(1861-1928); British II Corps is commanded by Lt. Gen. Sir
James Moncrieff Grierson (1859-1914),
former chief of staff for Gen. Sir John French;
meanwhile on Aug. 12 (3:00-6:00 p.m.) the British War Council meets, with Lord Kitchener (using the Repington
article pub. that morning in the Times?) predicting a major German drive through Belgium,
but on PM Herbert Henry Asquith's orders sending the BEF to Maubeuge as planned instead of to a
more strategic location in Amiens; Kitchener orders Gen. John French not to consider himself
under the command of the French army; meanwhile Queen Wilhelmina works vigorously to keep the
On Aug. 13 the German advance from Alsace is halted at Belfort.
On Aug. 13 the Germans occupy
On Aug. 13 Fort de Pontisse
at Liege surrenders, followed by
Fort de Chaudfontaine and
On Aug. 13 British naval cmdr.
Edmund L. Rhoades
sails his 1-gun gunboat HMS Gwendolen
across Lake Nyasa in C Africa from the British port of Nkata Bay to the German port
of Sphinxhaven (Liuli) 30 mi. away, and captures German gunboat Hermann von Wissman
while beached for repairs, whose cmdr. Capt. Berndt (his close friend) didn't know there
was a war on; the London Times carries the headline "Naval Victory on Lake Nyasa".
On Aug. 13 after being seen by a spotter plane, French Fifth Army troops are pinned-down by
heavy German artillery fire near Dinant; on
Aug. 15 as heavy fighting rages between French troops and German cavalry, French platoon cmdr.
("the Great Asparagus")
Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle
(1890-1970) is wounded in the knee while trying to capture a bridge, after which his sgt.
falls on top of him dead, and after dragging himself back he ends up in a hospital in Paris.
On Aug. 13 German cavalry erroneously reports that the BEF is landing in Belgian ports, confusing
On Aug. 13 French war minister (June 13)
Adolphe Marie Messimy (1869-1935)
orders work on the defenses of Paris to be completed within three weeks; after Plan 17 fizzles,
he is blamed and forced to resign on Aug. 26.
On Aug. 13 Daily Mail correspondent George Curnock observes the Irish Connaught Rangers Regiment
singing the 1912 song
It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary
by John "Jack" Judge (1872-1938)
as they march through Boulogne, reporting it on Aug. 18, causing it to spread across the British army; in
Nov. well-known tenor John McCormack makes a
which makes it an internat. hit.
On Aug. 14 (09:45 a.m.)