|United States of America||Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)||Mar. 4, 1913||Mar. 4, 1921|
|United Kingdom||David Lloyd George (1863-1945)||Dec. 7, 1916||Oct. 22, 1922|
|United Kingdom||George V (1865-1936)||May 6, 1910||Jan. 20, 1936|
|Soviet Union||Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)||Nov. 8, 1917||Jan. 21, 1924|
|China||Xu Shichang (1855-1939)||Oct. 10, 1918||June 2, 1922|
|Canada||Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937)||Oct. 10, 1911||July 10, 1920|
|France||Raymond Poincaré (1860-1934)||Feb. 18, 1913||Feb. 18, 1920|
|Germany||Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925)||Feb. 11, 1919||Feb. 28, 1925|
|Italy||Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947)||July 29, 1900||May 9, 1946|
|Spain||Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)||May 17, 1886||Apr. 14, 1931|
|Japan||Emperor Taisho (1879-1926)||July 30, 1912||Dec. 25, 1926|
|Mexico||Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920)||Mar. 11, 1917||May 21, 1920|
|Turkey||Sultan Mehmed VI (1861-1926)||July 3, 1918||Nov. 1, 1922|
|Papacy||Benedict XV (1854-1922)||Sept. 3, 1914||Jan. 22, 1922|
1920 Chinese Year: Monkey - milky chunky monkey year? Pop.: world: 1,811M, U.S.S.R.: 136M, Japan: 78M, Germany: 60M, Great Britain: 42.5M, New York City: 5.62M, Los Angeles: 576K. The Fourteenth (14th) (1920) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 105,710,620 in a land area of 2,969,451 (35.6 per sq. mi.) (2nd straight time that U.S. land area goes down from the previous Census); the first year that U.S. urban pop. exceeds rural pop. (farm pop. 30.1%); the number of people engaged in manufacturing exceeds the number engaged in farming for the 1st time; the percentage of the labor force engaged in agriculture falls to 25.2% from 85% in 1800 (27% of Americans); 100K 1st and 2nd gen. Germans from Russia live in N.D., most of any state - wunnerful, wunnerful? Coal production (tons): U.S.: 645M, Britain: 229M, Germany: 107M. Oil production (barrels): U.S.: 443M, Mexico: 163M, Russia: 25M. Licensed motor vehicles: U.S.: 8.89M, Britain: 663K. By this year almost all U.S. municipal water supplies are filtered, causing public health advocates to point to a dramatic decline in typhoid fever as proof that govt. needs to be in the health regulation biz. Divorces in Britain: 3,747 - Mildred will never do it like Paulette and Fifi? The avg. U.S. dairy cow produces 542 lbs. of butterfat this year, compared to over 700 in the year 2000. In this decade Venezuelan oil production zooms from 1M to 137M barrels a year, while dictator (1908-35) Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez (1857-1935) and his friends grease their pockets. The American Irish become Mister Feelgood? By this decade the Irish have "arrived" in the U.S., and could probably run it if they just weren't !?!? Roman Catholic?; "There are judges by the dozen, incl. a third of the Supreme Court, three Cardinals, Senators, multi-millionaires and captains of industry by the score, like Mr. Henry Ford, the motor king, Mr. Doheny, who dominates the petrol industry, Mr. Thomas F. Ryan, the partner of King Leopold in the Congo diamond mines, Mr. Mellon, the secy. to the Treasury, Mr. Doughtery, the Atty.-Gen., Mr. Smith, the gov. of New York, Mr. Hylan, the mayor of New York, Mr. Tumulty, private secy. to Pres. Wilson, Gen. O'Ryan of the American Army, Dudly Malone, chief official of the port of New York, J.R. Ryan, the head of the Copper Trail, John Mitchel, mayor of New York, Col. Concanon, chmn. of the White Star Line, and J.A. Farrell, Pres. of the U.S. Steel Co." (Terence Sheehy) - we've been ratted out, boys? In this decade the Purple (as in rotting meat) (Sugar House) Gang of mostly Jewish bootleggers, hijackers, and hitmen, incl. Abe Bernstein, Raymond Bernstein, Abe Kaminsky, Abe Axler, and Irving Shapiro dominate Detroit, Mich., making a deal with Al Capone of Chicago to supply Old Log Cabin Canadian whiskey, tipping off Bugs Moran about a truckload of booze headed to Chicago that allows him to stage the 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massace; too bad, after gunning down dirty police officer Vivian Welsh on Feb. 1, 1927, then murdering three members of the their own gang at the Collingwood Manor on Sept. 16, 1931, three high-ranking members are convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life, after which the gang self-destructs, becoming the subject of the 1935 film Public Hero No. 1. In this decade the Denver, Colo. crime family, run by Joe "Little Caesar" Roma (-1933) and Pete Carlino and Sam Carlino control bootlegging from Denver S to Pueblo; in 1933 the Smalldone Brothers, incl. Eugene "Checkers" Smalldone (1911-92), Clyde (Gaetano) "Flip Flop" Smalldone (1906-98), and Clarence "Chauncey" Smalldone (1916-2006) assassinate Joe Roma in North Denver and take over, founding Gaetano's Italian restaurant in 1947 as their HQ and continuing their rise until Chauncey is found guilty of jury tampering in 1953, and Eugene is imprisoned for loan sharking in 1983. On Jan. 1 Harvard defeats Oregon by 7-6 to win the 1920 Rose Bowl, which is played in Pasadena, Calif., beginning a tradition continuing until 1942; Harvard throws five passes, Oregon two. On Jan. 3 the New York Yankees buy "the Bambino", "the Sultan of Swat", 25-y.-o. pitcher George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. (1895-1948) from Boston Red Sox owner Harry Herbert Frazee (1881-1929) for $125K in cash plus a $300K loan so he can finance the Dec. 1919 Broadway play My Lady Friends (in which his girlfriend appears) (which is turned into No, No, Nanette in 1925), launching the 84-year Curse of the Bambino World Series jinx (ends 2004); the Yankees play as tenants of the NL New York Giants at the Polo Grounds, and win 95 games and their first AL pennant this year, with Ruth switching to outfielder (until 1934); the signed 5-page typed "cursed contract" is auctioned for $996K on June 10, 2005; Babe Ruth becomes the 1st ML player to hit 30, then 40, then 50 homers in a season, reaching 54, which beats the total for every AL team (the St. Louis Browns had 50), and seven of the eight NL teams (the Philadelphia Phillies had 64). On Jan. 9 "Human Fly" George Gibson Polley scales the Woolworth Bldg. in New York City, reaching the 30th floor (out of 57) before being arrested. On Jan. 10 the Treaty of Versailles comes into force sans the approval of the U.S., whose support it was framed to require; on Jan. 11 the Euro powers in Versailles recognize the Azerbaijan Dem. Repub. de facto; the League of Nations is founded, holding its first meeting in London on Feb. 11; Sir James Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth (1876-1951) of Britain becomes secy.-gen. #1 (until 1933); the HQ is then moved to Geneva, and The Hague is selected as the seat of the Internat. Court of Justice (World Court); the League of Nations Covenant (effective Jan. 10) incl. Article 16, stating that an act of war against one member will be deemed an act of war against all, with the military forces of the members combined "to protect the covenants of the League"; Article 23 tries to curb the arms, drug, and white slave trades, provide "just treatment" for native peoples, and provide for internat. prevention and cure of disease. On Jan. 12 the front page of the New York Times reads "Believes Rocket Can Reach Moon", and on Jan. 13 an editorial disses the idea; too bad, it is forced to pub. A Correction on July 17, 1969 after Apollo 11 is launched, with the soundbyte: ' "Further investigation and experimentation have confirmed the findings of Isaac Newton in the 17th cent. and it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vaccum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error." On Jan. 14 after his army's acts of brutality alienate them, the Czecho-Slovaks hand White Russian Adm. Alexander Kolchak (b. 1874) over to the Bolsheviks after promising him safe passage to the British military mission in Irkutsk; on Jan. 20 the rev. govt. of Irkutsk gives him over to a Bolshevik military committee, which tries and executes him on Feb. 7, along with his PM Viktor Pepelyayev (b. 1885); meanwhile in Jan. British and French ships evacuate Gen. Denikin's routed White Russian forces on the Black Sea; after learning of the execution of their leader Kolchak, his 30K-man White Russian army (plus families and possessions, plus the gold of the tsar) is pursued to frozen Lake Baikal and trapped, causing them to undertake the unfunny Great Siberian Ice March across the lake to Transbaikalia (ends Feb.), with thousands freezing to death and remaining like statues until the spring thaw causes them to disappear in 1-mi.-deep water - fitting end for the white army? On Jan. 16 the Allies demand that the Netherlands extradite German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who fled there in 1918; on Jan. 23 they refuse - he's such a good bridge partner? On Jan. 16 Prohibition begins in the U.S. with the passage of the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, making the manufacture, sale, and transportation (but not consumption or private possession) of alcoholic beverages a federal crime, causing bootlegging to skyrocket; it is not repealed until Dec. 5, 1933 with the ratification of the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; Canadian breweries use the opportunity to being producing Am.-style Cream ale, which after Prohibition ends becomes popular in both countries; meanwhile in the 1920s brewers try to stay in business by producing near bears, incl. Pablo (Pabst), Famo (Schlitz), Vivo (Miller), Lux-O (Stroh), and Bevo (Anheuser-Busch), producing 300M gal. in 1921 and 88M gal. in 1932. On Jan. 17 at one minute past midnight the Eighteenth (18th) (XVIII) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution goes into effect, and the U.S. officially goes dry. On Jan. 17 after the public blames him for the Treaty of Versailles being too lenient on the Krauts, French PM Georges Clemenceau is defeated in the pres. (sen.) election by Paul Deschanel (1855-1922); on Feb. 18 Deschanel replaces Raymond Poincare as pres. of the Third Repub., and Clemenceau resigns as PM; on Sept. 15 Deschanel resigns from ill health, and on Sept. 23 former minister of war and gen. commissioner of Alsace-Lorraine Alexandre Millerand (1859-1943) ( who was expelled from the French Socialist Party in 1903 and moved right) becomes French pres. #12 (until June 11, 1924) as the center-right Bloc Nat. (Millerand, Clemenceau, Poincare, Briand) continues to hold onto power, enjoying continuing splits on the backstabbing left. On Jan. 20 the Albanian Repub. is founded. On Jan. 28 El Tercio de Extranjeros (Sp. "Regiment of Foreigners"), later the Spanish Legion is established by decree of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. On Jan. 28 the last Ottoman parliament convenes in Istanbul, and is dissolved on Feb. 12 by British forces after the declaration of the Nat. Pact (Misak-i Milli); on Apr. 23 the grand nat. assembly of Turkey is established, with Mustafa (Mustapha) Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938) as speaker, who on May 3 becomes PM #1 of Turkey (until Jan. 24, 1921), attempting to institute secular pro-Western reforms despite fundamentalist Muslim opposition, with the motto "For the people, despite the people"; reforms incl. shutting down religious schools, purging Turkish of Arabic vocabulary, and banning the veil and fez. In Jan. Emir Faisal (Faysal) (son of Sharif Husayn of Mecca) returns to Damascus as king of an independent Syria after negotiating the French military occupation of Lebanon (which is declared the state of Greater Lebanon by French Gen. Gouraud) and the coastal regions of Syria; on Mar. 8 the 2nd Gen. Syrian Congress in Damascus declares Syrian independence and chooses Faisal as king, and in Apr. France is awarded the mandate over Syria; too bad, when Faisal's agreement is not accepted by the Syrians, the French invade in July, and defeat the Syrians on July 23 at the Battle of Maysalun Pass 12 mi. W of Damascus, occupying Damascus and forcing him into exile in Britain in Aug.; the French occupy Aleppo in July, with the Syrians holding out in the Alawi region around Latakia and W of Aleppo until the end of 1921; on Sept. 1 France establishes admin. territories in Syria under the mandate, with Greater Lebanon (incl. Mt. Lebanon, the Biqa, and Tripoli-Sidon-Tyre) as an admin. district of Syria (until 1922), with a combined pop. of 2.2M, 85% Muslim and of them 80% Sunni; too bad, only the Lebanese Christians (Beirut, Mt. Lebanon) want to be separate from Syria. In Jan. the transition from a wartime to peacetime economy causes the 1920-1 U.S. Recession (Depression) to begin (ends July 1921), causing the GNP to plunge 24% from $91.5B to $69.6B; the number of unemployed people rises from 2.1M to 4.9M; after it ends the Roaring Twenties begins. On Feb. 2 the Tartu (Dorpat) Peace Treaty between Estonia and the Soviet Union recognizes a free and independent Estonian Repub. in perpetuity with fixed borders; on June 15 Estonia adopts a constitution, with a unicameral assembly in the capital Tallinn (sounds like an inn for tall people?); women have the right to vote but lack other rights. On Feb. 2 Iowa-born Successful Farming publisher (since 1908) (100K circ.) Edwin Thomas Meredith (1876-1928) becomes U.S. agriculture secy. #6 (until Mar. 4, 1921), succeeding David Franklin Houston (1866-1940), who becomes U.S. treasury secy. #48 (until Mar. 3, 1921), increasing rediscount rates to prevent inflation like in Europe, pushing for easier credit for farmers while urging them to produce less; too bad, when farm prices fall, farmers accuse him of wrecking their prosperity; Houston joins Wilson and Congress in resisting pressure from England and France to cancel their war debts, converting short-term to long-term financing instead. On Feb. 10 and Mar. 14 plebiscites approve a N area of Schleswig going to Denmark, officially incorporated on July 9. On Feb. 14 the League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago, Ill. during the last meeting of the Nat. Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. by Carrie Chapman Catt; its first pres. is Radcliffe-educated Maud Wood Park (1871-1955), pioneer of the "front door lobby". On Feb. 23 the Atlanta Constitution pub. the article $50,000 Raised to Save Suffering Jews. On Feb. 24 the German Romantics' Last Gasp, AKA the Twenty-Five Points of the German Workers' Party, by his mentor Gottfried Feder (1883-1941) are given their first public reading by Adolf Hitler to a crowd of 2K at the Hofbrauhaus in Munich, becoming the first important public meeting held by the future Nazi Party. In Feb. the French Socialist Party votes to leave the Second Internat., and in Dec. holds a convention in Tours, where one-fourth of the members led by Leon Blum refuse to join the Third Internat., secede, and rename themselves the French Communist Party. In Feb. an Allied force of British, French and Italian troops arrives in Upper Silesia, but fails to maintain order since the French are pro-Pole and the Brits and Italians are pro-German. In Feb. FDR's mistress Lucy Mercer marries New York City socialite Winthrop Rutherfurd, and Marguerite "Missy" LeHand (1898-1944) becomes FDR's new private secy.; they start an affair which causes him to leave half of his estate to her in his will, cutting out his children. On Mar. 1 as the Romanians finish their pullout (Feb. 14-Mar. 28), taking as much booty as they could carry, Adm. Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya (1868-1957) becomes regent of landlocked Hungary (until Oct. 15, 1944); the Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919 (begun Nov. 1918) ends, with the Romanians losing 188 officers and 11,478 non-officer casualties and 69 officers and 3,601 non-officers KIA. On Mar. 1 the Battle of Tel Hai (Chai) (Heb. "Hill of Life") in N Palestine between Jewish settlers and Arab bedouins becomes the first battle between future Israel and Syria; eight Jews are killed, incl. two women and six men, incl. Russian-born Joseph Trumpeldor (b. 1880), inspiring Jews in Jerusalem and becoming an inspiration for the creation of Israel; the town of Kiryat Shemona ("Town of Eight") is later named after them; Trumpeldor's last words: "Never mind, it is good to die for our country"; meanwhile the idea of a Muslim Palestinian nation is born; "In January 1920, Palestinian nationalism hardly existed; by December of that critical year, it had been born." (Daniel Pipes) On Mar. 2 Mary Pickford divorces her estranged alcoholic hubby (since 1910) Owen Moore (1886-1939) and on Mar. 28 marries her longtime beau Douglas Fairbanks Sr. (Douglas Elton Ullman) (1883-1939) (whose love codeword is "by the clock"); too bad, their Euro honeymoon turns into a nightmare when she is mobbed in London by fans who want to touch her curls and trample her, followed by another riot in Paris, where she is locked in a meat cage for protection; her return to Hollywood is marked by crowds meeting them along the way at every railway station, after which the couple becomes known as "Hollywood royalty", with foreign dignitaries at the White House routinely requesting an audience with them at their 22-room Pickfair Mansion at 1143 Summit Dr. in Beverly Hills. On Mar. 7 the Red Army enters Irkutsk. On Mar. 8 Denmark and Cuba join the League of Nations. On Mar. 10 pro-Menshevik anti-Bolshevik former astronomer Karl Hjalmar Branting (1860-1925) (known for the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!", meaning keep them separate) becomes PM #16 of Sweden (until Oct. 27) (also Oct. 13, 1921 to Apr. 19, 1923, and Oct. 18, 1924 to Jan. 24, 1925), becoming the first Social. Dem. Party PM of Sweden. On Mar. 13 after Hermann Mueller (1876-1931) becomes chancellor of Germany, obscure East Prussian civil servant Dr. Wolfgang Kapp (1858-1922), backed by the Freikorps and Gen. Ludendorff proclaims himself chancellor of the German Reich in Berlin in a short-lived monarchist coup; after hearing the news, Ritter Gustav von Kahr (1862-1934) assumes dictatorial powers in Munich the next day after presenting an ultimatum to the Social Dem. govt. of Johannes Hoffman during the night; both dictators are really puppets of the army; the Kapp dictatorship collapses on Mar. 18, and Kapp flees to exile in Sweden - the most famous nonentity in German history? On Mar. 15 a battle between right and left in Dresden, Germany results in a bullet damaging a painting by Rubens in the Zwinger Art Gallery, pissing-off Oskar Kokoschka, who writes an Open Letter to the People of Dresden, with the soundbyte: "Pictures cannot run away from places where human protection fails them, and the Entente might make the argument that we do not appreciate pictures the excuse for raiding our gallery." On Mar. 18 the Freikorps savagely kills a boy for hooting at them as they march along the Unter den Linden in Berlin, then fires into the infuriated crowd. Mohandas K. "Mahatma" Gandhi (1869-1948) becomes the leader of the Indian Nat. Congress, and on Mar. 20 he recommends Satyagraha (Non-Cooperation), nonviolent disobedience against the British. On Mar. 18 French war minister Andre Lefevre dedicates the Ornes Memorial NE of Verdun. On Mar. 19 the U.S. Senate by 49-35 rejects the Treaty of Versailles for a 2nd time. On Mar. 27 Social Dem. leader Otto Braun (1872-1955) becomes PM of Prussia (until Apr. 21, 1921, then Nov. 5, 1921-Feb. 18, 1925, then Apr. 6, 1925-July 20, 1932). On Mar. 31 the British Parliament official disestablishes the Anglican Church in Wales, organizing the Welsh Anglican Church under its own archbishop - where are the antidisestablishmentarians now? In Mar. Bolshevik forces under Gen. Mikhail Tukhachevsky defeat anti-Bolshevik forces under Gen. Denikin in S Russia. In Mar. the Easter Crisis (Paskekrisen) in Denmark starts when the king calls for new elections and the govt. balks, causing the king to dismiss it, leading to strikes, forcing the king to yield and appoint a caretraker ministry to propose electoral reforms before new elections. On Apr. 4-7 the 1920 Nabi Musa Riots in Jerusalem see 60K-70K Arabs massed in the city square of Old Jerusalem shouting "Palestine is our land, and Jews are our dogs" ransack the Jewish Quarter, looting homes and shops, wounding 160 Jews until the British move in to stop it, with a total of four Arabs and five Jews killed, and 216 Jews and 23 Arabs wounded; ironically, most of the Jewish victims are anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews. On Apr. 9 Mexican gens. Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928) (former chickpea farmer) and Plutarco Elias Calles (1877-1945) unite against Pres. Carranza, accusing him of attempting to dictate his successor, and winning popular support for their "Revindicating Revolution". Meanwhile an alliance of Sonoran gens. from N Mexico led by Sonoran gov. Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor (1882-1955), proclaim the Plan de Agua Prieta, signed in a curio shop near the border; on May 8 Gen. Obregon captures Mexico City, causing Carranza to flee to the state of Puebla; on May 21 after Obregon captured cities on the east coast, Carranza is assassinated on Obregon's orders, and Huerta becomes Mexican pres. #38 on June 1-Nov. 30, ending the civil war after 1M die and many thousands flee to the U.S. et al.; on July 27 Pancho Villa surrenders, and is given a retirement estate to put him out to pasture; on Dec. 1 Obregon becomes pres. #39 of Mexico (until Nov. 30, 1924). On Apr. 11 Sultan Mehmed VI dissolves Parliament, causing the Turkish nationalists to establish a provisional govt. in Ankara. On Apr. 17 (until Nov. 19) up-and-coming Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), hoping to lead a new Munich putsch in imitation of Dr. Kapp gives speeches at 16 public beer hall meetings in Munich, with attendance ranging from 1.2K to 3.5K (avg. 1.8K). On Apr. 15 after the 1917 Guatemala earthquake weakens the grip of Manuel Estrada Cabrera (pres. since 1898), and he is deposed by the assembly for opposing Central Am. federation, Carlos Herrera y Luna (1856-1930) becomes pres. of Guatemala (until Dec. 10, 1921). On Apr. 20 seven killer tornadoes rock Miss., Ala. and Tenn., killing 220 and causing $3.5M in property damage. On Apr. 23 former French PM Joseph Caillaux is sentenced to three years in priz for dealing with the enemy; he is amnestied in Nov. 1924. On Apr. 19 the Conference of San Remo of the Allied Supreme Council convenes in San Remo, Italy (ends Apr. 26), dealing with the question of German war reparations, attended by British PM David Lloyd George, French PM Alexandre Millerand, Italian PM Francesco Nitti, and Japanese ambassador K. Matsui; on Apr. 25 the San Remo Resolution (Agreement) incorporates the 1917 Balfour Declaration, and Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant, approving the British Mandate of Palestine, giving the Jews the right to reconstitute their nat. home in Palestine, and conferring on Britain the mandate to bring this into effect in the area covered by modern-day Israel, Jordan, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza; on Apr. 25 it approves the British Mandate of Mesopotamia; on Apr. 26 the council decides to leave the fuming Fiume question to Italy and Yugoslavia; it gives control of oil within French dominions to the Brits, pissing the French off?; on July 1 the British appoint Zionist Jew Sir Herbert Louis Samuel (1870-1963) as British high commissioner of Palestine #1 (until June 20, 1925), pissing-off the Muslims and Christians; the Arabs now call 1920 the Year of the Catastrophe (Am an-Nakba), since after hearing the bad news they begin uprisings in Syria, Palestine, and Iraq; meanwhile Arab and other Muslim countries get busy expelling 900K Jews between 1920-70, of which 600K end up settling in Israel and 300K in France. On Apr. 19 the U.S. Supreme (White) Court rules 7-2 in Mo. v. Holland that treaties made by the federal govt. are supeme over any concerns about states rights under the 10th Amendment; Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes first mentions the idea of a living constitution. In Apr. the Poles incited by the French open a new campaign against the Russian Bolsheviks, and send reactionary raider Baron Peter (Piotr) Nikolayevich Wrangel (1878-1928) into Russia - right service, right price? Fallujah me once, Fallujah me twice? On May 5 after English Middle East traveler Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (1868-1926) draws a map that Winston Churchill doesn't contest (because he hated Classics at Harrow School?), the League of Nations mandate for the phony patchwork kingdom of Iraq (named after the ancient city of Uruk and/or Arab. "fertile land") is formally accepted by Britain, creating a new country from the former Ottoman provinces (vilayets) of Baghdad (mostly Sunni), Mosul (mostly Kurdish and Assyrian Christian), and Basra (mostly Shiite), with a pop. of 3M, 97% Muslim, 35%-40% (20%?) Sunni, and 60%-65% Shiite; 80% are Arabic speaking and 15% Kurdish speaking; the Shiites constitute 80% of the Arab pop.; 80% are rural, with the largest city being Baghdad with 200K pop.; Baghdad is the center of the Sunni pop. which extends N into Anbar and W into Diyala Provinces; Basra and Kurdistan are later found to contain oil, which the Sunnis latch onto, improverishing the Shiites and creating mucho grievances; Britain grants independence to Iraq in 1932; in June British Lt. Col. Gerard Evelyn Leachman (1880-1920) (known for his dark Semitic looks and camel-riding ability, allowing him to pass as a Bedouin), who fought against the Ottomans in WWI then tries to stop rebel Arab tribesmen by wholesale slaughter is assassinated in Fallujah, Iraq by a son of Sheikh Dari (Dhari), sparking a violent uprising against British rule in N and C Iraq which lasts most of the summer and is finally crushed by RAF warplanes from the nearby base at Habaniyah (50 mi. W of Baghdad); Fallujah remains the capital of anti-British resistance in Iraq; Winston Churchill suggests using chemical weapons "against recalcitrant Arabs as an experiment", with the soundbyte: "I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes to spread a lively terror"; on Sept. 5 Gertrude Bell utters the soundbyte: "We are now in the middle of a full-blown Jihad, that is to say we have against us the fiercest prejudices of a people in a primeval state of civilization." Harith al-Dari (al-Dhari) (1941-), grandson of big hero Sheikh Dari, who presents his granddaddy's gun to Saddam Hussein in 2000 becomes secy.-gen. of the Assoc. of Sunni Muslim Scholars, formed on Apr. 14, 2003 (four days after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq), and backs the anti-U.S. insurgency in the 2003 U.S. Iraq War, and on Nov. 16, 2006 he becomes the most wanted man in Iraq after an arrest warrant is issued by the U.S.-backed Iraq govt. On May 7 the New York Times pub. an article announcing a $100K gift from Macy's owner Nathan Straus (1848-1931) to help the 6M suffering Jews in C and E Europe. On May 10 Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (1868-1950) of the Liberal Alliance becomes pres. #18 of Chile (until July 26, 1924), getting into a war with the conservative nat. congress. On May 10 the May Uprising sees Armenian Bolsheviks attempt a cup in Alexandropol (Gyumri), which is brutally suppressed by May 14, with the leaders executed. In early summer Adolf Hitler introduces the Swastika (Sans. "auspicious object") of the Nat. Socialist German Workers' Party, causing English writer Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) to remove it from several of his books that used it along with an elephant carrying a lotus blossom; as Hitler puts it, "It was like a blazing torch... In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in the white the national idea, in the swastika the mission to struggle for the victory of Aryan man and at the same time the victory of the idea of creative work, which is eternally anti-Semitic and always will be." On May 16 French toast Joan of Arc (1412-31) is canonized by Pope Benedict XV in Rome. On May 19 unionizing efforts by new UMW pres. John Llewellyn Lewis (1880-1969) on behalf of coal miners in W. Va. leads to the Battle of Matewan, culminating next year in the largest insurrection since the U.S. Civil War. On May 26 a performance at the Salle Gaveau in Paris becomes the climax of the Paris Dada anti-art movement; Andrew Breton comes onstage with a revolver tied to each temple, Paul Eluard is dressed as a ballerina, and others wear tubes or funnels on their heads while spouting out attacks on everything bourgeoise, causing the audience to pelt them with foodstuffs with delight. In May Muhammad Tawfiq Nessim Pasha (1874-1938) becomes PM of Egypt (until 1921, then again in 1922-3). In May the French Gen. Confederation of Labor stages a failed gen. strike. In May a festival of the works of French composer Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921) is held in Athens, Greece. Hungary is trisected into close to none? On June 4 after Romania seizes Transylvania, it is formally ceded by Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon, signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, France by the Hungarian delegation under protest, becoming the last member of the Central Powers to accept terms of defeat, reducing Hungary's size by about two-thirds, from 325K to 93K sq. km, causing it to lose access to the sea; Hungary's pop. is reduced from 20.9M to 7.6M; Czech. receives Slovakia and Ruthenia; Austria receives the Burgenland; Romania doubles its size, gaining sovereignty over most of Bucovina, all of Transylvania, a strip of the Hungarian plain W of the Transylvanian (Crisana-Maramures) uplands, and NE Banat, a total of 52K sq. mi., and occupies 17K-sq.-mi. Bessarabia, its position confirmed by the Allied Powers, though Russia refuses to acknowledge it; the Hungarian army is limited to 35K; the Little Entente of Czech., Yugoslavia and Romania is formed this year and next; on Oct. 1 a new 1920 Austrian Constitution comes into force. On June 8-12 the 1920 Repub. Nat. Convention is held in Chicago, Ill.; after deadlocking between Leonard Wood and Frank O. Lowden, on his solemn affirmation that there was no reason in his past he shouldn't be pres., they select dark horse U.S. Sen. William Gamaliel Harding of Ohio (married to wealthy widow Florence Kling DeWolf, and publisher of the small-town newspaper Marion Star) for pres., and Gov. John Calvin Coolidge of Mass. for vice-pres.; in Feb., after announcing his candidacy, Harding calls for "a return to normalcy", with an "America first" campaign that promotes industrialization and cuts in govt. expenditures, and end to foreign influence, with the soundbyte that the govt. should "strike the shackles from industry", adding "We need vastly more freedom than we do regulation", adopting the campaign slogan "Less government in business", and ridiculing his anti-Prohibition opponent James M. Cox with the slogan "Cox and cocktails", even though he enjoys liquor later in the White House; Harding's father-in-law Amos H. Kling (1833-1913) once pub. a defamatory book about him. On June 9 after being twice reconstructed the Nitti cabinet in Italy falls, and 78-y.-o. veteran Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) becomes PM again, forming a new cabinet, with anti-Fascist Count Carlo Sforza (1873-1952) as foreign minister (until 1921). On June 22 at the urging of PM Alexander the Great, er, Eleutherios Venizelos, the Orthodox Christian Greek army begins an offensive in Ottoman Muslim-held Anatolia (Asia Minor). On June 13 Albanian PM in exile (since 1914) Essad Pasha Toptani (b. 1863) is assassinated outside the Hotel Continental in Paris by Albanian nat. assembly member Avni Rustemi (1895-1924), who claims to be the true ruler of Paris, and escapes back to Albania. On June 20 the New York Times first uses the term "wetback", meaning a Mexican who swims the Rio Grande River to illegally enter Tex. On June 24 the French nat. assembly adopts a bill drafted by French nationalist Maurice Barres establishing a nat. day in honor of Joan of Arc. On June 28-July 6 the 1920 Dem. Nat. Convention selects Ohio Gov. and newspaper publisher James Middleton Cox (1870-1957) for pres. on the 44th ballot after the favorite, railroad admin. William Gibbs McAdoo (1863-1941) (wartime treasury secy. and Wilson's son-in-law) doesn't quite live up to his billing of "crown prince"; New York gov. Alfred E. Smith is rejected as a candidate for pres.; Franklin Delano Roosevelt of New York (asst. Navy secy.) is chosen for vice-pres.; stricken Pres. Wilson asks that the election be "a great and solemn referendum" on the League of Nations; Cox and Roosevelt dutifully visit him in the White House, while Harding likes to sit on his front porch in Marion, Ohio, pontificating about a "return to normalcy" and "agreement among nations", with a "make no enemies" campaign strategy. In June the U.S. Red Scare peaks, with 10K imprisoned solely for their political beliefs after U.S. atty.-gen. Alexander Mitchell Palmer (1872-1936) announces that a Communist Rev. is planned for the U.S. on May 1; when it fails to materalize, and all those people are seen to be locked up for nothing, his political career stinks as it sinks? In June the Mountainous Repub. of the Northern Caucasus (founded Mar. 1917) is occupied and dissolved by the Red Army, who next Jan. 20 establish the Soviet Mountain Repub. of the Russian SFSR (ends July 7, 1924). In June after the Polish army looking for Lebensraum advances as far as Kiev, the Red Army under Gen. Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (1893-1937) attacks, driving them W almost to Warsaw, causing Poland to appeal to Britain and France for help; Col. Charles de Gaulle (who gave Gen. Mikhail Tukhachevsky French lessons in a German POW camp in 1917) is sent as an advisor. In the summer the first Boy Scout Jamboree is held in Olympia Hall in London, attended by 8K Scouts from 34 countries, after which they are held every four years. The origin of the Ponzi scheme - 50% profit in 45 days? In the summer after receiving $15M in small investments in the past two years from 40K Bostonians, mostly poor people raiding their mattresses, and living like a king with fancy clothes, cigars, and nubile young sexretary Lucy Meli, the phony Internat. Postal Union coupon empire of slick-talking 5'2" Italian immigrant Charles (Carlo) K. Ponzi (1882-1949) begins to crash, and after blue collar investors swarm his Pie Alley office in Boston, he is arrested on Aug. 15; $2M is found to be missing, and Ponzi declared bankrupt still owing 10.5K creditors $4.3M; he is sentenced to five years in federal prison in Plymouth, Mass., and deported to Italy in 1934, where he tries to defraud Mussolini, finally dying in a charity ward in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On July 7-24 the World Zionist Conference in London, England establishes Keren Hayesod (haYesod) (Heb. "The Foundation Fund") to raise funds for the creation of the Jewish state of Israel; in Jan. 1956 it becomes an official Israeli org. On July 10 Canadian PM (since 1911) Sir Robert Laird Borden resigns due to ill health, and Arthur Meighen (1874-1960) becomes PM #9 of Canada (until Dec. 29, 1921). On July 12 the Suez Canal formally opens after the little landslide problem is fixed after six years. In July Army Hospital No. 21 in Aurora, Colo. is renamed Fitzsimons Army Hospital in honor of Lt. William T. Fitzsimons (-1917) the first U.S. officer killed in WWI (closed 1995). In July English actor Archibald Alexander Leach (Cary Grant) (1904-86) first comes to the U.S. as a member of the Bob Pender vaudeville comedians aboard the HMS Olympic, sister ship of HMS Titanic, meeting newlyweds Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and Mary Pickford, causing him to want a suntan like big Doug; Charlie Chaplin returns to England on the same ship next Aug.; Pender's show plays 426 perf. on Broadway, and Leach stays behind when it returns to England, taking odd jobs; his mother Elsie was committed to a mental institution in the spring of 1914, and he doesn't see her again until 1940, finding out that she didn't recognize him in the movies. On Aug. 1 the Bolsheviks take Brest-Litovsk, and advance on Lemberg. On Aug. 2 after their position becomes untenable Italy agrees to evacuate Albania, with the exception of the island of Saseno. On Aug. 4 British PM David Lloyd George delivers an ultimatum to Russian emissaries in London to pull their troops out of Poland or face war with Britain. On Aug. 6 17K Polish troops under Gen. Josef (Jozef) Klemens Pilsudski (1867-1935) defeat 15K Bolshevik troops at the Battle of Radzymin 12 mi. NE of Warsaw, driving them back to the Bug River; on Aug. 14 the Battle of Ossow near Wolomin sees the Bolsheviks seize the village of Ossow until the Poles drive them back. On Aug. 8 Adolf Hitler changes the name of his party to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP); meanwhile the Sturm Abteilung (SA) (Ger. "Storm Battalion") (later Brownshirts) is founded by very gay Ernst Julius Gunther Roehm (Röhm) (b. 1887-1934), bringing street thug tactics with them. On Aug. 8 British labor orgs. appoint an action council to arrange a gen. strike if Britain declares war on the Soviet Union. Your inner beauty will shine through? On Aug. 10 Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sevres (Sèvres) between Turkey and the Allies, reducing the once-proud Ottoman Empire to little more than little ole Turkey itself; Armenian independence is recognized, with the borders to be "settled by the arbitration of Pres. Wilson"; Greece obtains Smyrna, the Dodecanese (except Rhodes), E Thrace, Imbros, and Tenedos; the arrangement pisses-off Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who persuades the nat. assembly to form a nat. army and take on the Allied occupation forces, starting the Franco-Turkish (Cilicia) War (ends 1923), the Greco-Turkish War (ends Oct. 1922), and the Turkish-Armenian War (Sept. 24-Dec. 23); the Persian-speaking Kurds, distributed in Turkey, Persia, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia are promised an autonomous homeland, but after the Ottoman Empire is overthrown by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1922, Turkey, Persia, and Iraq all renege, and by the end of the cent. they end up as the largest ethnic group in the world (25M) without their own country; the Turks remain in control of the Armenian city of Erzerum, but Armenian leader Boghos Nubar Pasha (1851-1930) (son of Egyptian PM Nubar Pasha) tells the Allies that he will drive them out; meanwhile more Armenians try to set up in the areas conquered by Russia in 1878, with capital at Kars; too bad, after the U.S. turns its back, the Turks invade Armenia from two sides, conquering it in six weeks. On Aug. 12-25 just when they seem assured of victory, the Battle of Warsaw (Miracle at the Vistula) sees the Bolsheviks under gen. Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevski (1893-1937) defeated by the Poles under gen. Joseph (Jozef) Klemens Pilsudski (1867-1935), with 10K Bolsheviks killed, 10K wounded, and 66K taken POW vs. 4.5K Poles killed, 22K wounded and 10K missing, turning the Polish-Soviet war around and saving Poland from being gobbled up again, and making Pilsudski into the George Washington of Poland. On Aug. 14-Sept. 12 after an 8-year hiatus the VII (7th) Summer Olympic Games are held in Antwerp, Belgium (to honor WWI suffering), with 2,626 athletes from 29 nations participating in 156 events in 22 sports; Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria are banned; the Olympic Oath is first uttered, the Olympic Flag is first flown, and doves are first released to symbolize peace; the U.S. team revolts against its barracks-style living quarters and threatens to boycott the games; the U.S. wins the most events, with 41 golds, 27 silvers, and 27 bronzes; figure skating and ice hockey debut; Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973) debuts, winning the first of six gold medals (1920, 1924, 1928), and breaking U.S. dominance in track and field with nine medals; Ethelda M. Bleibtrey (1902-78), who was arrested in 1919 for nude bathing for swimming without stockings wins three golds (100m, 300m, 400m relay) in swimming, becoming the first U.S. woman to win Olympic gold, and one of the first women to wear a flapper "bob"; Albert George Hill (1889-1969) of Britain wins golds in the 800m and 1500m, and silver in the 3000m; "the Calif. Cannonball" Charles William "Charlie" Paddock (1900-43) of the U.S. wins the 100m in 8.3 sec.; his teammate "the New York Thunderbolt" Jackson Volney Scholz (1897-1986) makes a mistake and looks at him and comes in 2nd at 8.4; 72-y.-o. Oscar Gomer Swahn (1847-1927) of Sweden becomes the oldest Olympic gold medal winner (team double-shot running deer event) (until ?); the last Olympics to host the tug-of-war event (Britain gold, Netherlands silver, Belgium bronze). figure skating makes its debut; Canada (WInnipeg Falcons) win the gold medal in the debut of Olympic ice hockey, followed by the U.S. and Czech. On Aug. 18 Tenn. becomes the 36th state to ratify the Nineteenth (19th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving women the vote; on Aug. 26 it is signed into law (08-26-20). On Aug. 19 an anti-Bolshevik peasant revolt begins in the Tambov province of Russia. On Aug. 19-25 the Second Silesian Uprising begins after a German newspaper prints false reports of the fall of Warsaw to the Red Army, causing celebrations among Germans in Upper Silesia, which pisses-off the Poles; the Allies finally restore order after agreeing to disband the German-run Sipo police and create a new 50% Polish one. On Aug. 24 the Soviets transfer Vilnyus (Vilnius) to the new independent state of Lithuania, which proclaims it as the capital, only to be seized by Polish troops on Sept. 9. On Aug. 31 in Italy a general lockout in the metallurgical factories leads to the occupation of the factories by the workers throughout the country by Sept.; failure to attempt to seize govt. bldgs. prevents a Socialist rev., and the conflict is settled peacefully. On Sept. 7 Belgium and France sign a military convention, and work closely regarding internat. imports. On Sept. 10 "Everybody's Sweetheart" silent film actress Olive Thomas (Oliveretta Elaine Duffy) (b. 1894) ("the most beautiful girl in the world"), wife of boozing womanizing Canadian actor Jack Pickford (1896-1933) (brother of Mary Pickford) dies of mercury poisoning in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France four days after accidentally taking a large dose of his syphilis pills; her last film "Everybody's Sweetheart" is released a week after her death, becoming a box-office smash; later her ghost is regularly seen in the New Amsterdam Theatre in New York City; producer David Selznick adds the middle initial "O" to his name as a tribute; the scandal of her death sets off an entire decade of Hollywood scandals? On Sept. 15-25 the Battle of the Nieman (Niemen) River near Hrodna between Bialystok, Grodno, and Suwalki sees 96K Polish troops under Gen. Josef Pilsudski outflank and defeat 100K Bolsheviks under Gen. Mikhail Tukhachevski, with 40K Russian vs. 7K Polish casualties, causing the Bolsheviks on Oct. 12 to sign an armistice to take effect on Oct. 18. On Sept. 16 the J.P. Morgan Bldg. on Wall St. in New York City is bombed by a wagon bomb, killing 35 and injuring 130; Commies are suspected, but the case is not solved until ?. On Sept. 20 Benito Mussolini gives a speech in Trieste, containing the soundbyte: "Everything is possible, including the impossible and absurd." In Sept. the Communist Internat. holds the Congress of the Peoples of the East in Baku, Ajerbaijan, attended by 1.9K delegates, calling for Muslims to join the struggle against the West and pledging support of rev. anti-colonial movements in the East, with Karl Radek uttering the soundbyte: "We appeal, comrades, to the warlike feelings which once inspired the peoples of the East when these peoples, led by their great conquerors, advanced upon Europe. We know, comrades, that our enemies will say that we are appealing to the memory of Genghis Khan and to the memory of the great conquering Caliphs of Islam... when the capitalists of Europe say that a new wave of barbarism threatens... we answer them: Long live the Red East, which together with the workers of Europe will create a new civilization under the banner of Communism!" In Sept. LeLand's Lincoln luxury car is introduced (the L series). On Oct. 1 Sir Percy Cox (1864-1937) arrives in Iraq as British high commissioner. On Oct. 5-10 the Cleveland Indians (AL) defeat the Brooklyn Dodgers (NL) (AKA Brooklyn Robins after mgr. Wilbert Robinson) 5-2 to win the Seventeenth (17th) World Series; in Game 5 Cleveland Indians 2B William Adolf "Bill "Wamby" Wambsganss (1894-1985) makes the first Unassisted Triple Play in the WS (until ?), putting out Pete Kilduff, Clarence Mitchell, and Otto Miller; he drops off his glove with a repairman and never picks it up, and it is never seen again; the first WS grand slam and homer by a pitcher also go down in the 1920 WS. On Oct. 8 the Riga Treaty ends Poland's invasion of Russia to their territorial advantage, but frees the Bolsheviks to go after the anti-Bolsheviks within their boundaries. On Oct. 14 the Treaty of Dorpat (Tartu) ends the Russo-Finnish War of 1919, reaffirming Finland's independence and giving it a narrow strip of land between Murmansk and E Norway, along with the ice-free Barents Sea port of Pechenga. On Oct. 19 membership in the Communist Party is ruled grounds for deportation by a New York judge - you've heard the phrase comfort food? On Oct. 25 Greek king (since 1917) Alexander I (b. 1893) dies of septicemia from pet monkey bites, and Queen Olga becomes regent of Greece; on Nov. 14 the Venizelists are overwhelmingly defeated in the elections because of dissatisfaction with the Anatolian offensive, and Venizelos resigns as PM; on Dec. 5 a plebiscite held despite Allied warnings shows a nearly unanimous vote to return king (1913-17) Constantine I (1868-1923), and he returns to Athens (until 1922), resuming the war with Turkey, while Venizelos goes into exile in the U.S. next year (until 1924), and the Allies withdraw support from Greece. On Oct. 25 Sinn Fein leader (lord mayor of Cork since Mar.) Terence James MacSwiney (b. 1879) dies after a 74-day hunger strike in Brixton Prison in Lambeth, England, becoming a martyr and bringing the Irish War of Independence to internat. attention; next Mar. 1 future cardinal Terence Cooke is born in New York City, named after him. On Nov. 1 Nat. League candidate (atty. and poet) Dr. Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso (1861-1934) is elected pres. of Cuba (until 1925) over former pres. (1908-13), Liberal candidate Jose Miguel Gomez, who cries election fraud, causing the U.S. govt. to send Maj. Gen. Enoch Herbert Crowder (1859-1932) to arrange for new elections for 1921. On Nov. 1 Aeromarine West Indies Airways is founded, establishing an air service between Key West, Fla. and Havana, Cuba, becoming the first internat. air passenger-mail service in the U.S. On Nov. 2 radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Penn., owned by Westinghouse, and featuring announcer Frank Conrad (1874-1941) becomes the first broadcast radio station, initially carrying the Harding-Cox election returns; by 1923 there are 500+ radio stations in the U.S.; the 1920 U.S. Pres. Election, in which six past and future presidents are involved (Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, FDR) sees the Repub. Harding-Coolidge ticket after a 4-1 spending advantage with the slogan "return to normalcy" defeat the Dem. Cox-Roosevelt ticket 2-to-1, 16M (60.2%) to 9M popular votes (404 to 127 electoral votes), incl. every state outside the Solid South plus Tenn., incl. the first Repub. Vs in Ariz., N.M., and Okla.; Harding becomes the 2nd person since Garfield in 1880 to move directly from Congress to the White House (you guessed it, it happens again in 1960, and you guessed it again, he becomes a victim of the Zero-Year Pres. Curse); Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs runs for pres. from prison, and receives 915,302 votes, winning respect from non-Socialists because they think the govt. is wrong wrong wrong? On Nov. 10 the former kingdom of Austria, once the dominant power in Europe, but now in chaos and ruin, and stripped of Bohemia and Moravia receives a new democratic 1920 Austrian Constitution, and becomes a parliamentary democracy. On Nov. 11 (2nd anniv. of the Armistice) the British Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Warrior) in London is dedicated by George V. On Nov. 11 Faysal's brother, Hashemite emir (amir) Sharif Abdullah (Abdallah) Ibn Hussein (1882-1951) arrives in Ma'an, Jordan after the throne of Iraq goes to his brother Faysal rather than him, and Faysal is driven from Syria by the French, letting him take over the remnants of Faysal's Syrian kingdom left by the French and British, consisting of about 250K people, 90% Muslim. On Nov. 12 the Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia makes Fiume a free state, and Gabriele D'Annunzio's forces leave Fiume on Nov. 11; on Dec. 1 fuming D'Annunzio declares war on Italy and returns, but is forced to evacuate after Italian forces bombard Fiume on Dec. 27; he spends the rest of his life in his villa thumbing through his lit. works? On Nov. 14 the last White Army under Baron Peter Wrangel wrangles its you know what out of the Crimea; on Nov. 16 they are defeated in the final major battle of the Russian Civil War (begun Dec. 31, 1917) by Red Army forces led by gen. Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher (1889-1938), who started out as a pvt. in WWI, and becomes a field marshal in 1935; the Red Army captures Odessa. On Nov. 15 after Haller's Blue Army seizes Pomerania and enters the city in the name of Poland, the Free City of Danzig becomes autonomous under League of Nations protection (until 1939). On Nov. 15 the League of Nations tables a proposal to not increase armaments for two years after France, Poland, Romania, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay oppose it; France remains the most heavily-armed state in Europe, giving Germany a continuing grievance. On Nov. 21 after the British Parliament debates the Govt. of Ireland Act (Act to Provide for the Better Govt. of Ireland), dividing Ireland into two political units with some powers of self-govt. and their own parliaments, and Ulster Protestants accept the idea, but the Sinn Fein in Dublin rejects all British attempts to split Ireland, and continues the guerrilla war, causing the British to create the special auxiliary police called the Black and Tans from unemployed WWI veterans, and on Oct. 14 IRA leader Sean Treacy Tracy (b. 1895) is killed in Dublin in a shootout with the stanking' English, pissing the IRA off, Bloody Sun. sees the IRA kill 14 British undercover intel agents in Dublin, causing the Black and Tans to retaliate by killing 12 at a Dublin soccer match; in Dec. the military begins a killing and looting spree, causing £3M in damage; on Dec. 23 the Govt. of Ireland Act is passed, creating eternally-divided Northern Ireland by dividing six Unionist NE counties from the other 26, while entrapping many non-Unionists within its boundaries; two Irish parliaments are created, one (Stormont) for the north and one for the south. In Nov. an estimated 1M people go on official strikes in the U.S. On Dec. 9 the Egyptian commission, led by German-born British statesman Sir Alfred Milner (1854-1925) pub. the Milner Commission Report, recommending independence, with certain reservations to protect British interests, especially control of the Suez Canal - get the polyp out before it turns to cancer? On Dec. 13 the U.S. Supreme (White) Court rules 8-1 in U.S. v. Wheeler that the Privileges and Immunities Clause doesn't give the federal govt. the power to prosecute kidnappers, leaving only the states with the authority to punish the violation of a person's freedom of movement, with Justice Edward Douglass White writing the soundbyte: "In all the States from the beginning down to the adoption of the Articles of Confederation the citizens thereof possessed the fundamental right, inherent in citizens of all free governments, peacefully to dwell within the limits of their respective States, to move at will from place to place therein, and to have free ingress thereto and egress therefrom, with a consequent authority in the States to forbid and punish violations of this fundamental right"; it takes until June 22, 1932 for the U.S. to pass the U.S. Federal Kidnapping Act AKA the Little Lindbergh Law. On Dec. 16 Finland joins the League of Nations. On Dec. 16 an 8.6 earthquake in Kansu Province in W China destroys 30K sq. mi. and kills 200K. On Dec. 22 a Christmas Radio Concert is transmitted from the Funkerberg in Konigswusterhausen, Germany, becoming the first German radio broadcast. On Dec. 24 tenor Enrico Caruso gives his last perf. in La Juive at the Metropolitan Opera House. Italian Fascists under bean-bald Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) distinguish themselves in active combat with Communists. Otto Meissner (1880-1953) becomes pres. of the German Weimar Repub., and continues on into the Nazi era (until 1945). Bainbridge Colby (1869-1950) succeeds Robert Lansing as U.S. secy. of state (until 1921). Czech pres. (since Nov. 14, 1918) Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850-1937) is reelected, and again 1927 and 1934 (until Dec. 14, 1935). Chinese Gen. Wu P'ei-fu (1874-1939) defeats the Anfu Party in N China. Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica sign a convention. The First Internat. Conference of Communist Women is held in St. Petersburg, chaired by Lenin's French-born comrade Inessa Armand (b. 1874), a firm believer in sexual liberation; too bad, she dies of cholera on Sept. 24. Efforts begin to open up the interior of Liberia, where dense tropical forests avg. 160 in. of rainfall a year. The huge French war losses causes concerns about depop., and a law is enacted prohibiting artificial conception and infanticide (AKA abortion), incl. their advocacy, although women are needed in the labor force now, causing firms in this decade to begin recruiting foreign labor, causing France to pass the U.S. as a destination for emigrants. Iceland continues its break with Denmark by establishing its own supreme court. The League of Nations grants the former German Solomons, incl. Bougainville to Australia as a mandate of New Guinea. Britain abolishes conscription - all wars are ended, right? Unemployment insurance is introduced in Britain and Austria. U.S. Adm. William Sowden Sims (1858-1936) pub. the Sims Report for the U.S. Senate, alleging grave errors in the management of U.S. naval operations during WWI. The Orthodox Church of Yugoslavia is founded, absorbing the former churches of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia in the single patriarchate of Serbia. Paramahansa Yogananda founds the Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles, Calif. Internat. Telephone and Telegraph Co. is founded, later changing its name to ITT and getting into internat. water control and defense and involving itself in right-wing politics in the U.S., Chile, Nigeria et al.; in 1989 it sells its telcom biz to Alcatel (later Alcatel-Lucent), and changes its name to Cortelco Kellogg (later Cortelco, short for Corinth Telecommunications Corp., based in Corinth, Miss.); Lucent is really a Satanic corp.? German industrialist Hugo Stinnes (1870-1924) begins organizing a colossal trust. The Royal Inst. of Internat. Affairs (later Chatham House), a British think tank is founded in London, funded by a large donation by wealthy businessman Sir John Cecil Power, 1st Baronet (1870-1950). In this decade the Modernism Movement in art and lit. is centered in Paris; "Paris was where the twentieth century was" (Gertrude Stein). In this decade the golden age of (Harlem) Stride Piano in jazz (an evolution of ragtime) begins in New York City (ends 1943), dominated by the "big three" of black pianists Thomas Wright "Fats" Waller (1904-43), William Henry Joseph Bonaparte Bertholoff "Willie the Lion" Smith (1893-1973), and James Price "Jimmy" Johnson (1894-1955). In this decade (1918-29?) the Harlem Renaissance (New Negro Movement) of African-Am. writers in Harlem, Manhattan, N.Y. begins, led by Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) (the Dean) (first African-Am. Rhodes scholar, 1907), James Mercer Langston Hughes (1902-67), Arna Wendell "Arna" Bontemps (1902-73), Countee Cullen (1903-46), Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961), Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar Nelson (1875-1935) et al. In 1928 Countee Cullen marries the daughter of W.E.B. Du Bois. In this decade Western Swing originates in small towns in SW U.S., influenced by Dixieland jazz, featuring the steel guitar. In this decade the Mexican Mural Renaissance begins (ends 1960), led by the "big three muralists" Diego Rivera (1886-1957), Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), and Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974), producing works of social realism after studying art at the San Carlos Academy in Mexico City (founded 1781). In this decade the first Crime Scene Investigation (CSI) units begin to operate in Britain to supervise police investigations, spurred by Sherlock Holmes stories incl. "The Boscombe Valley Mystery". In this decade Rancho Mirage, Calif. near Palm Springs, former home of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians is first settled, going on to become a fun-in-the-sun location for the wealthy, with 12 golf courses incl. Thunderbird Guest Ranch (opened 1946). In this decade the Reuben Sandwich is invented by Lithuanian-born grocer Reuben Kulakofsky in Omaha, Neb., first gaining fame when Blackstone Hotel owner Charles Schimmel puts it on his lunch menu, and a former hotel employee wins a nat. contest with the recipe; Omaha later proclaims Mar. 14 as Reuben Sandwich Day. The Engineers' Case in Australia gives the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Court authority to regulate labor conditions for state employees. Swiss-born Am. composer Ernest Bloch (1880-1959) founds the Cleveland Inst. of Music in Ohio. Denver, Colo. U.S. Mint worker Orville Harrington is caught stealing an estimated $80K in 7 in. gold bars by secreting them in his hollow wooden leg; he gets 10 years at Leavenworth, Kan. The Atlanta, Ga. public relations firm Southern Publicity Assoc., owned by Edward Clarke and Mrs. Elizabeth Tyler signs a deal with the Ku Klux Klan to keep $8 of the $10 initiation fee for signing up new members, and soon divides the U.S. into provinces, sending out a sales force of 1.1K "Kleagles"; within 16 mo. they clear $212K in net profit. Lithuanian-born anarchist brain woman Emma Goldman (1869-1940) spends the decade as a Wandering Jew, getting deported from the U.S. late last year, moving to the Soviet Union, becoming an admirer of the Soviet regime for awhile, then waking up and speaking out and getting expelled in 1921, then moving to Britain and marrying Welsh anarchist miner James Colton (1860-1936) in 1925 to become a British subject, then traveling to Spain in 1936 for the Spanish Civil War, and finally ending up in Canada, the U.S. allowing her body to be buried in the U.S. - I want to be one less statistic? The Dem. Party selects its first Senate leader, Ala. Sen. (1915-27) Oscar Wilder Underwood (1862-1929) (until 1923); after Henry Cabot Lodge becomes the unofficial Repub. Senate leader, in 1925, Kan. Sen. (1907-13, 1915-29) Charles Curtis (1860-1936) becomes the first official Repub. Senate leader (until 1929). About this time HIV gains its first toehold in Kanshasa, Congo; the DRC gains independence from Belgium in 1960, it spreads to S Africa; the disease is not reported until 1981; the virus is officially discovered in 1983. The Second Moroccan (Rif) War begins between Spain (later France) and the Berbers of the Rif Mts. in N Morocco led by Abd al-Karim (1882-1963), who wins the early battles using guerrilla tactics and capture weapons, but is eventually overwhelmed and surrenders in 1926 and is exiled; his guerrilla warfare tactics later influence Mao Tse-tung, Ho Chi Minh, and Che Guevara. In this decade Alvin "Shipwreck" Kelly (1893-1952) of the U.S. becomes famous as a flagpole sitter; in the summer of 1930 he spends seven weeks on top of a flagpole at Atlantic City's Steel Pier. The Royal Northwest Mounted Police and Dominion Police are combined into the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) (Mounties). The U.S. Bureau of Prohibition is established by the Bureau of Internal Revenue; on Apr. 1, 1927 it becomes the independent Bureau of Prohibition within the U.S. Dept. of Treasury; the most famous Prohibition Agent ("prohi") is Eliot Ness (1903-57), who joins in 1927. Rapid transit is extended to Coney Island, making it available to every New Yorker. Hamilton Airport in Milwaukee, Wisc. is founded; on Mar. 17, 1941 it is renamed to Gen. Mitchell Field after USAF Brig. Ben. William "Billy" Mitchell. Oxford U. grants its first degrees to women. Birbeck College of London U. is founded from the London Mechanics' Inst. (founded 1823) to give part-time tuition to working adults. Canadian history journal The Beaver is founded; in 2010 after getting tired of being hit by porno junkies and blocked by spam filters, it changes its name to Canada's History. In this decade writers and artists begin flocking to the French Quarter of New Orleans, La., "the most civilized city in America" (Sherwood Anderson), where liquor flows freely despite Prohibition, jazz and hos party on, and Exchange Alley is a flocking place for male gays, incl. Tennessee Williams. In this decade Country Club Plaza, the first suburban shopping center in the U.S. is developed in Kansas City, Mo. by Jesse Clyde "J.C." Nichols (1880-1950), who foresaw a nation on wheels - goodbye round plate, hello square plate? After Arab riots, the Zionist Jewish Haganah (Heb. "the defense") paramilitary org. is founded in Palestine (until 1948), growing to 160K members, plus a 6K-member unit called the Palmach; actually there was an underground Haganah in Palestine since Ottoman times; in 1931 the most radical elements led by Ze'ev Jabotinsky (Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky) (1880-1940) split off and form the Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi (Heb. "Nat. Military Org.") (AKA Etzel), followed in 1940 by the 200-300 member hardcore Lehi (Stern) Gang. The Red Crescent Muslim charit,y modeled after the Internat. Red Cross is founded in Detroit, Mich.; the Indian Red Cross Society is founded in Delhi, India. Keep a stiff hairless upper lip? In this decade Urdu-speaking Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) founds the Tablighi Jamaat ("proselytizing group") in Delhi, India to combat "distortions" of Islam caused by Hinduism, and it eventually expands into a global army of identically-dressed bearded Muslim missionaries who teach emulation of the weird habits of Prophet Muhammad, such as sleeping on the side and never on the stomach, entering a bathroom leading with the left foot, putting on pants leading with the right foot, eating with index, middle finger, and thumb and never a fork, wearing pants or robes halfway between the knee and ankle, and letting the beard grow while shaving the upper lip; terrorists such as Zacarias Moussaoui and Djamel Beghal eventually come out of it; each Nov. it holds the yearly 3-day Tablighi Jamaat Gathering in Raiwind, Lahore, Pakistan, which becomes #2 to the Hajj in drawing Muslims, drawing an attendance of 1M by the end of the cent. In this decade Boston, Mass. gets so serious about book censorship that the phrase "banned in Boston" enters the Am. language. The East Boston Immigration Station in Mass. opens, becoming the Ellis Island of Boston, processing 23K immigrants by 1954. The annual Hendon Pageant airshow by the RAF is founded at Hendon Aerodrome in Middlesex, London (until 1937). The Knox-King-Pye Board at the U.S. Naval War College, led by retired Capt. (later commodore) Dudley Wright Knox (1877-1960), Ernest J. King, and William S. Pye examines prof. military education, producing a report with recommendations, incl. systematic postgraduate education for officers. The Algonquin School (Canadian Group of Seven) of Canadian landscape painters is founded (until 1933), incl. J.E.H. (James Edward Hervey) MacDonald (1873-1932), Frederick Horsman "Fred" Varley (1881-1969), A.Y. (Alexander Young) Jackson (1882-1974), Arthur Lismer (1885-1969), Lawren Stewart Harris (1885-1970), Frank Johnston (1888-1949), and Franklin Carmichael (1890-1945), emphasizing direct contact with Nature, becoming the first major Canadian art movement; in 1933 it is succeeded by the 28-member Canadian Group of Painters. In this decade French fashion designer Madeleine Vionnet (1876-1975) becomes a hit by throwing away the upholstered look with bustles and petticoats and going Greek, with flowing feminine clothing incl. the chiffon handkerchief dress, cowl neck and halter top, introducing the bias cut, which cuts the cloth (incl. crepe de chine, gabardine and satin) diagonally to the grain so that it clings and moves with the body and creates a sleek body-slimming look; she continues on big into the 1930s, and only WWII shuts her down in 1939. The U. of New Haven (originally New Haven YMCA Junior College) is founded in New Haven, Conn. as a branch of Northeastern U., starting out sharing facilities with Yale U.; in 1926 it is chartered as New Haven College; in 1970 it receives it current name, becoming known for its undergrad engineering program. The Royal British Legion (RBL) is founded by fired gen. Sir Frederick Barton Maurice (1871-1951) for those in the British armed forces. Niels Bohr becomes dir. of the new Inst. of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, Denmark. Am. mining magnate William Boyce Thompson (1869-1930) establishes the Boyce Thompson Inst. for Plant Research at Cornell U., with a $10M endowment. The Lucis Trust (originally Lucifer?) is founded in New York City by Manchester, England-born Theosophist Alice Ann Bailey (1880-1949) to pub. spiritualist and esoteric books; in 1932 it founds the World Goodwill Group, which obtains recognition as a non-govt. org. (NGO) by the U.N., causing conspiracy theorists to accuse the latter of Satanic New Age connections; members incl. David Rockefeller, Henry Kissinger, Paul Volcker, and George Schultz? English-born comedian Bob Hope (b. 1903) becomes a U.S. citizen. Humphrey Bogart becomes mgr. of the touring play "The Ruined Lady" for $50 a week, and out of boredom gets one line to speak, causing him to want to become an actor, becoming known for rumors of well-endowed sexual equipment. After claiming contact by Helena Blavatsky's guru Master Morya, St. Petersburg-born Russian Theosophist Nicholas Roerich (Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh) (1874-1947) and his wife Helena Ivanovna Roerich (1879-1955) found the Agni (Sans. "Fire") Yoga school of occult thinking in Mar., and pub. a series of books. Max Liebermann (1847-1935) is elected pres. of the Prussian Academy of Arts. Visitors to the Dadaist Art exhibition in Cologne are allowed to smash paintings. Future Am. playwright Robert Emmet Sherwood (1896-1955) leaves Vanity Fair (since 1919) to become an ed. with Life mag. (until 1928). Scofield Thayer (1889-1982) refounds the 1840s Transcendentalist mag. The Dial as a lit. mag. (until 1929), which goes on to pub. most important U.S.-Euro poems in the 1920s. Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli (1890-1957) makes his debut on Nov. 26 as Mefistofele at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City (until 1932), going on to become known as the "second Caruso". Ga.-born Roland Hayes (1887-1977) makes his London debut at Aeolian Hall, followed by a tour of Europe, becoming the first African-Am. male concert artist to receive internat. and U.S. acclaim. 18-y.-o. Brazilian soprano Bidu Sayao (Bidú Sayão) (1902-99) makes her debut in Rio de Janeiro, going on to become one of the leading coloratura sopranos in Europe. In this decade with a klutz like Warren Harden or Calvin Coolidge and his wife Grace Anna Goodhue to turn them off to politics and home life, U.S. women incl.New Yorker columnist Lois Long come out of the boring parlors to enjoy cars, airplanes, radios, movies, and clubs, starting the Flapper style with bobbed hair and lipstick, short pants and dresses, driving cars, smoking cigs and having extramarital sex, esp. oral; female fashions in the U.S. and Britain feature straight dresses with no waistline, and skirts above the knees, along with cloche hats - those lipsticked lips holding a lit fag give men a woody and those cloche hats make them think about ringing their bell with a French kiss? White copycats take American jazz white and right in this decade, and the blacks even try to copy them? In this decade Skiffle, jazz played with homemade instruments incl. washboard, jugs, musical saw, kazoos et al. begins to be recorded in Chicago, Ill. Cricklewood Studios is founded in Cricklewood, London, England from a converted airplane factory by Australian-born Sir Oswald Stoll (1866-1942) for his cos. Stoll Pictures (founded Apr. 1918) and Surbiton Studios (founded 1918), becoming the largest film studio in Britain until ?, hiring dir. Maurice Elvey and producing "The Four Feathers" (1921) along with Fu Manchu and Sherlock Holmes film series; it closes in 1938. After WWI keeps him from doing it, British archeologist Lt. Col. Percy Harrison Fawcett (1867-1925) travels to the Mato Grosso region of Brazil in search of the Lost City of Z, and gives up after catching a fever and shooting his pack animal; a 2nd expedition in 1925 with his son Jack and Raleigh Rimell ends in failure after they disappear in the jungle. German dancer-choreographer Mary Wigman (1886-1973) founds Dresden Central School in Germany, taking modern dance to the limits, incl. the Witch Dance, receiving praise from the German govt. until the Nazis come to power and shut her down. The town of Anoka, Minn. holds one of the first Halloween parades, causing it to call itself "Halloween Capital of the World". A naturalist movement in poetry is launched in Korea by Yom Sang-sop (1897-1963) et al. The Beau Nash Picture House cinema in Bath is built, named for the spa town's famous 18th cent. MC Richard "Beau" Nash (1674-1761). In this decade Chinese artist Huang Erhnan paints on silk cloth using his tongue as a brush - popular with women? In this decade the Finnish custom of delivering babies in saunas dies out. In this decade Leaf Confectionary Co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Sol S. Leaf, introducing Rainblo Bubble Gum in 1940; in 1947 it merges with Overland Candy Co., Leaf Machinery, and Chicago Biscuit Co. to form Leaf Brands, issuing the first post-WWII color baseball cards in 1948; in 1949 it reintroduces Whoppers Malted Milk Balls, which is sold in 1960 to W.R. Grace and Co., who sells it back in 1976; in 1983 Leaf acquires Jolly Rancher before being acquired by the conglomerate Huhtamaki (Huhtamäki) Oyj of Helsinki, Finland (founded 1920), who merges it with Phoenix Candy and Irving, Tex.-based Donruss trading card div. of Gen. Mills (founded 1954); in 1986 Phoenix Candy is sold to Kouri Capital of Finland, which becomes Phoenix Confections; in 1988 it acquires Payday and ZERO bars from Sara Lee, followed in 1989 by Heath bars; in 1996 it becomes the 4th largest candy manufacturer in the U.S.; in 1996 it is acquired by Hershey Co.; on Feb. 15, 2012 it merges with Cloetta of Sweden, dropping the Leaf name. The weekly Time and Tide mag., founded by Welsh suffragette Sybil Margaret Thomas, 1st Viscountess Rhondda (1857-1941) begins pub. in Britain (until 1977), starting out on the left and gradually moving to the right as she does. In this decade macadamia nuts are planted as a commercial crop in Hawaii. French artist Marcel Duchamp begins making abstract movies. After dropping out of law school, New York City-born librettist Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (1895-1960) (grandson of New York City impresario Oscar Hammerstein I) debuts his first musical Always You on Broadway, going on to become a producer and co-write 850 songs in collaboration with Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Richard A. Whiting, Sigmund Romberg, and Richard Rodgers in musicals incl. "Oklahoma!", "Carousel", "South Pacific", "The King and I", and "The Sound of Music". Mazda (named after Persian god Ahura Mazda) (called Matsuda in Japan) (originally Toyo Cork Kogyo Co. Ltd.) is founded in Hiroshima, Japan by Jujiro Matsuda (1875-1962) to produce machine tools; in 1927 it becomes Toyo Kogyo Co.; in 1931 they introduce their first vehicle, the Mazda-Go (Mazdago) 3-wheeled motorcycle-truck (autorickshaw), going on to develop the Wankel rotary engine, producing the Cosmo Sport in 1967-95; in 1984 they officially adopt the Mazda name. The Oh Henry! candy bar, consisting of peanuts, carmel, and fudge coated in chocolate is introduced by the Williamson Candy Co. of Chicago, Ill., allegedly named after Am. writer O. Henry, or a boy who liked to flirt with girls, but really invented last year by Tom Henry of Arkansas City, Kan., who sold-out; in 1994 it is acquired by Nestle. The ZERO (originally Double Zero, as in cool) candy bar, made of caramel, peanut, and almond nougat covered with white chocolate fudge is introduced by Hollywood Candy Co. (Brands) of Hollywood, Minn. (founded 1912), who build a factory in Centralia, Ill.; in 1967 they are acquired to Consolidated Foods Corp. (Sara Lee), followed in 1988 by Leaf Inc., which in 1996 is acquired by Hershey Foods Corp. The De Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd. is founded in London, England by Sir Geoffrey de Havilland (1882-1965) (cousin of Hollywood actresses Olivia de Havilland and Joan Fontaine), going on to manufacture the 2-seat De Havilland DH.60 Moth biplane (first flight Feb. 22, 1925), which becomes the std. airplane for British recreation, and the De Havilland DH.83 Fox Moth 3-passenger biplane (first flight Jan. 29, 1932). Cole Haan (originally Cole, Rood and Hahn) high-end men's and women's footwear manufacturing co. is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Trafton Cole and Eddie Haan. Johannes "Hans" Riegel Sr. (1893-1945) founds the Haribo Co. in Bonn, Germany to manufacture Gummy Bears, introducing the Dancing Bear (Tanzbar) in 1922, followed by the Gold Bear (Goldbar), expanding sales worldwide. Mosfilm movie studio is founded in Moscow, becoming the first in Russia, growing into the largest in Europe. Sports: On Jan. 31 Maurice Joseph "Phantom Joe" Malone (1890-1969) sets an NHL record of seven goals in a single game (until ?); he ends his 15-season career after the 1924 season with 343 goals, averaging 2 goals per game. In Jan. Prohibition begins in the U.S (until Dec. 1933), causing bowling alleys to dissociate from saloons, turning bowling into a family game and encouraging the growth of women bowlers, with the membership of the Women's Nat. Bowling Assoc. (WNBA) reaching 10K in 1927. On Feb. 14 the Negro Nat. League is formed for African-Am. baseball players by Andrew Rube Foster (1879-1930). On Mar. 22-Apr. 1 the 1920 Stanley Cup Finals see the Ottawa Senators of the NHl defeat the Seattle Metropolitans of the PCHA 3-2, becoming the last Finals appearance by a West Coast U.S.-based team until 1993; the Ottawa Senators become the first NHL dynasty in 1920-27. On May 31 the 1920 (8th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Swiss-born Gaston Chevrolet (1892-1920) after leader Ralph De Palma's car stalls on lap 187, allowing him to gain the lead, and he runs out of fuel on lap 197 but coasts to the pits and refuels, becoming the first driver in Indy history to win without making a tire change, ending the dominance of Euro-built cars in his Frontenac; too bad, he is killed in an automobile crash in Beverly Hills on Nov. 25. On Sept. 17 the Am. Prof. Football Assoc. is founded at Ralph Hay's Hupmobile dealership in Canton, Ohio, with James Francis "Jim" Thorpe (1888-1953) as pres. #1; in 1922 it is renamed the Nat. Football League (NFL); the 13 initial teams incl. the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Dayton Triangles, and Decatur Staleys; the 8-3 Akron Pros defeat the 10-1 Decatur Staleys for the league title; player season salaries are $1.9K; after the season ends, Staleys coach George "Papa Bear" Halas (1895-1983) buys the team from A.J. Staley for $5K, moves to Chicago, Ill., and after another season renames them the Chicago Bears because they play on the The N.Y. Walker Law is passed by the New York State Legislature to regulate prof. boxing, relegalizing it after the repeal of the Frawley Act in 1917, creating the New York State Athletic Commission, with rules incl. 15 rounds max., no head butting, and a physician required to be in attendance. "Gorgeous" George Harold Sisler (1893-1973) of the St. Louis Browns (later the Baltimore Orioles) ends the season with 257 hits (.407), setting a record that takes Ichiro Suzuki until 2004 to break (262 hits), and in 159 vs. 162 games. Doubleday Field, the site of the original baseball field in Cooperstown, N.Y. is dedicated as a permanent memorial. The Lively (Live) Ball Era in U.S. ML baseball begins after a new "lively" ball is introduced, causing offensive stats to rise dramatically; actually, the ball is the same, but rule changes favor the batter, incl. using new balls at the first sign of wear and eliminating the spitball? Mexican aerialist Alfredo Codona (1893-1937) of the Flying Codonas becomes the first to perfect the triple somersault. Theatrical player William Tatem "Big Bill" Tilden II (1893-1953) begins dominating the Wimbledon tennis singles title (until 1925). The first 1.5 mi. Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe Thoroughbred horserace, most prestigious in Europe is hosted at Longchamp Racecourse in Paris; it becomes the 2nd richest turf horserace after the Japan Cup (founded 1981); "Not so much a race as a monument" (slogan). The sport of Water Skiing is invented on Lake Annecy, Haute Savoie, France. Architecture: On May 8 the first truss of Hangar No. 1 at the Naval Air Engineering Station in Lakehurst, Ocean County, N.J. (for dirigibles) is built, becoming known for the May 6, 1937 Hindenburg diaster. On Sept. 30 the Times Square Theatre at 217 West 42nd St. in Manhattan, N.Y. E of the Lyric Theatre (cap. 1,032) opens, with Florence Reed starring in "The Mirage"; on Nov. 17 the Apollo Theatre at 223 West 42nd St. in Manhattan opens, sharing its facade with the Times Square Theatre, debuting the Ira and George Gershwin musical Strike Up the Band on Jan. 14 (191 perf.), and George White's Scandals before turning into a movie theater until the late 1970s; in 1990 the New 42nd Street org. merges it into the new Ford Center, later called the Lyric Theatre. The 1.3K-ft. Tatlin's Tower (Monument to the Third Internat.) is designed by Russian architect Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953) to dwarf the Eiffel Tower, consisting of twin spirals within which a cube, a pyramid, and a cylinder rotate at different rates (once a year/month/day); too bad, the cost is too high and it is never built. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Leon Bourgeois (1851-1925) (France); Lit.: Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) (Norway); Physics: Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861-1938) (Switzerland); Chem.: Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) (Germany) [Third Law of Thermodynamics]; Medicine: Schack August Steenberg Krogh (1874-1949) (Denmark) [capillary regulation in skeletal muscle]. Inventions: In this decade the Fruehauf Trailer Co. of Detroit, Mich. (founded 1918)introduces the first refrigerated trailers, using ice and salt. Dornier of Germany develops the single-engine all-metal high-wing monoplane Dornier Delphin I commercial flying boat (first flight 1920), the Dornier Komet (Mercur) flying boat (first flight 1921), and the twin engine Donier Do J (Do 16) Wal (Whale) flying boat (first flight Nov. 6, 1922). Air-Way Sanitizor of Toledo, Ohio begins marketing the first vacuum cleaner with a "filter fiber" disposable bag. Band-Aid brand adhesive bandages are invented by Earle Dickson (1892-1961), a cotton buyer at Johnson & Johnson after his wife cuts her finger and puts crinoline (woven horse hair and linen or cotton thread) on some gauze before sticking it to tape; they are first marketed in 1924 in 3 in. x 18 in. rolls. Frederick Samuel Duesenberg (1876-1932) and August Samuel Duesenberg (1879-1955) introduce the first production straight 8-cylinder engine and hydraulic front brakes on their new Duesenberg Model A (Straight Eight) (1921-6), made in Indianapolis, Ind., which next year becomes the first U.S.-made car to win the Grand Prix at Le Mans, France, beating the entire field by 14 min.; on Oct. 26, 1926 Chicago financier Errett Lobban "E.L." Cord (1894-1974) buys them out, allowing the Duesenberg brothers to stay on, and in 1928-37 they produce the Duesenberg Model J, with supercharger option in 1932, becoming the most luxurious and best-engineered automobile of the time, which is later prized by collectors; Cord takes the co. over completely in 1933, makes the cover of the Apr. 23, 1934 Time mag., and buys the Stinson Aircraft Corp. and Century Airlines before facing bankruptcy and diddling with the stock and being forced by the SEC to sell his shares in 1936, causing production to end in 1937. Russian physicist Leon Theremin (Lev Sergeyevich Termen) (1896-1993) invents the Theremin electronic musical instrument in Oct., later used for outer space effects in movies; Lenin loves it so much he sends him on a world tour to demonstrate Soviet superiority, allowing him to patent it in the U.S. in 1928. The Air-Way Sanitizer Co. in Toledo, Ohio offers the first disposable vacuum cleaner "filter fiber" bag. In this decade the Gibson Cocktail (a martini with a pickled onion instead of olive) is invented by U.S. ambassador Hugh Simons Gibbon (1883-1954) in London to get around Prohibition - maybe not, but it makes a good story? German Jewish chemist Fritz Haber invents Zyklon B (Ger. "Cyclone") cyanide-based insecticide; in 1929 the U.S. begins using it to disinfect freight trains and clothes of Mexican immigrants; its use in German concentration camps brings suspicions of mass murder. Sebastian Hinton of Chicago, Ill. patents the Jungle Gym for children's playgrounds. Kimberly-Clark Co. begins marketing Kotex (cotton + texture) sanitary napkins in a hospital blue box, 12 for 60 cents; they are made of leftover cellucotton (wood fibers) from WWI bandages (invented in 1917); prudishness causes the product to er, swim against the tide until Montgomery Ward begins advertising them in its 1926 catalog, reaching $11M sales in 1927 in 57 countries; it becomes one of the first self-service items in Am. retailing after it is strategically placed on countertops with a special payment box so that the woman doesn't have to ask a clerk for it and touch hands; Tampax appears in 1936; belts are needed until the 1970 introduction of Stayfree by Personal Products Co. and New Freedom Pads by Kimberly-Clark. Peter Pan Peanut Butter is introduced by Swift & Co.'s Derby Foods subsidiary under the name E.K. Pond (until 1928), packaged in a tin can with a turn key and reclosable lid, which is changed to glass jars during WWII, and plastic jars in 1988 (first peanut butter brand to be sold in plastic jars). Am. inventor Arthur H. Pitney (1871-1933) and English-born entrepeneur Walter Bowes (1882-1957) invent the Model M Postage Meter, which the U.S. Postal Service approves on Nov. 16. J.C. Shaw develops a servomechanism for a milling machine using a sensing device. Former Carl Zeiss Co. employee Royal Raymond Rife (1888-1971) of the U.S. invents the first microscope for viewing viruses; unlike electron microscopes, it doesn't kill them; too bad, it later turns out that he is only viewing bacilli; also too bad, he goes on to claim that viruses cause cancer, that the cure is RF energy of the "Mortal Oscillatory Rate", usually 10K-100K, and builds a Beam Ray Machine for his cancer clinic, causing the AMA to get his medical license revoked; the 1980 book The Cancer Cure That Worked by Barry Lynes attempts to rehabilitate him. Retired U.S. Army officer John Taliaferro Thompson (1860-1940), who has been working since WWI to develop a "trench broom" finally patents the .45-cal. Thompson Submachine Gun (Tommy Gun), and since the Great War is over he begins marketing it to law enforcement agencies, meaning that the criminals get all they want; after gangs adopt it, it becomes known as the Chicago Typewriter. A tapeworm pill to control weight is sold in this decade. Science: In this decade Am. geneticist Clarence Cook "C.C." Little (1888-1971) of Harvard U. pioneers the use of lab mice for cancer research, founding the Jackson Laboratory in 1929 to sell them to researchers, and getting them named as the official animal model in the 1973 U.S. Nat. Cancer Inst. Act. In this decade Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate chnages by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun. On Apr. 26 the Shapley-Curtis (Great) Debate rocks the learned halls with an argument over the size of the Universe, with Heber Doust Curtis (1872-1942) curtly claiming that the Sun is at the center of the Milky Way, and Shapley shapily claiming that it's in a nondescript location; too bad, Harlow goes too far and claims that globular clusters and spiral nebulae are also inside the Milky Way; in the 1920s German astronomer Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (1863-1932) studies the Milky Way, proving the existence of clouds of dark matter, and showing that spiral and gaseous nebulae have different absoption spectra - like Romulus and Remus suckling on wolf milk? Here's why you should buy a Toyota right now? German top funky mathematician David Hilbert (1862-1943) proposes Hilbert's Program, an attempt to prove that all of mathematics follows from a finite set of axioms, and is consistent; too bad, Kurt Godel blows the program out of the water in 1931 with his Incompleteness Theorem. Polish mathematician Stefan Banach (1892-1945) introduces the concept of Banach Space, founding modern Functional Analysis. Am. mathematician Edward Kasner (1878-1955) coins the word "Google" to mean 1 followed by 100 zeroes (ten duotrigintillion); the name was thought up his 9-y.-o. nephew Milton Sirotta (1911-81). Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz (1878-1956) invents Polish (Lukasiewicz) (Warsaw) (Prefix) Notation, which dispenses with parentheses and places operators before operands to make for unambiguous parsing, becoming popular with computer scientists, who use it with a last-in first-out recursive stack computer memory. Amala (-1921) and Kamala (-1929) the Wolf Girls are found in a wolf den in India by Rev. Joseph Amrito Lal Singh in Godamuri, Midnapore (W of Calcutta), who raises them in his orphanage like wild wolves in a cage, where they walk on all fours and eat raw meat from a bowl on the ground, howling at night - hey man can't you see I'm doing an interview with Geraldo? Carl Ulrich Franz Mannich (1877-1947) and Helene Lowenheim (Löwenheim) of Germany first synthesize Hydrocodone; it is approved by the FDA for sale on Mar. 23, 1943; since it is 6x (VI) as strong as codeine, it is later marketed under the trade name Vicodin. The Shapley-Curtis Debate on Apr. 26 rocks the learned halls with an argument over the size of the Universe, with Heber Doust Curtis (1872-1942) curtly claiming that the Sun is at the center of the Milky Way, and Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) shapily claiming that it's in a nondescript location; too bad, Harlow goes too far and claims that globular clusters and spiral nebulae are also inside the Milky Way; meanwhile in this decade John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) and his asst. Rosalie Rayner perform the Little Albert Experiment, which uses classical conditioning to make a young boy afraid of white rats. Am. psychologist Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (1874-1949) pub. the article A Constant Error in Psychological Ratings, describing the Halo Effect, when someone's shine colors your opinion of them. German astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) studies the Milky Way, proving the existence of clouds of dark matter, and showing that spiral and gaseous nebulae have different absoption spectra - like Romulus and Remus suckling on wolf milk? In this decade Austrian meteorologist Heinrich von Ficker (1881-1957) stresses the importance of the stratosphere in weather phenomena. Am. astronomer Francis Gladheim Pease (1881-1938) of Mt. Wilson Observatory becomes the first to use an interferometer to measure the diam. of a star, Betelgeuse, the big red magnitude-1 star in Orion, which varies from 180M-260M mi. diam. (0.047 arc-sec.). The Raschig-Hooker Process to produce phenol by chlorination of benzene using hydrogen chloride is developed by German chemist Friedrich August Fritz Raschig (1863-1928) and ? Hooker. English scientist Ernest Rutherford names the proton after scientist William Prout (1785-1850). Zurich-born Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922), nicknamed "Kleck" (inkblot) for his interest in art invents the Rorschach Inkblot Test, based on a series of 10 inkblot plates. German chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965) discovers polymerization of small molecules into plastics (polymers), and coins the term "macromolecule", going on to pub. 700+ papers in this field by 1950 - macromind? In this decade French-Russian surgeon Serge Voronoff (1866-1951) experiments with induced rejuvenation using xenotransplants between animals and humans, grafting monkey testicle tissue onto the testicles of hopeful men - is his assistant's name Igor? Nonfiction: Alfred Adler (1870-1937), The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. Samuel Alexander (1859-1938), Space, Time and Deity; emergent quality and emergent evolution; "Space-Time, the universe in its primordial form, is the stuff out of which all existents are made"; "For Time makes Space distinct and Space makes Time distinct... Space or Time may be regarded as supplying the element of diversity to the element of identity supplied by the other." Hermann Bahr (1863-1934), Burgtheater. Jacques Bainville (1879-1936), Les Consequences Politques de la Paix (Political Consequences of Peace); answer to John Maynard Keynes' views on the Treaty of Versailles; the German trans. is used as evidence that France wants to destroy Germany. Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), Herbert Beerbohm Tree: Some Memories of Him and His Art; And Even Now. Friedrich von Bernhardi, On the War of the Future in the Light of the Lessons of the First World War (Vom Kriege der Zukunft, nach den Erfahrungen des Weltkrieges). Count von Bernstorff (1862-1939), My Three Years in America. Paul Eugen Bleuler, Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. Edward William Bok (1863-1930), The Americanization of Edward Bok: The Autobiography of a Dutch Boy Fifty Years After (Pulitzer Prize); bestseller by Dutch-born "Ladies' Home Journal" ed. (1889-1919), who coined the term "living room". Jules Bordet (1870-), Traite de l'Immunite dans les Maladies Infectieuses. Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923), Implication and Linear Inference. Leon Bourgeois (1851-1925), Le Pacte de 1919 et la Societe des Nations; Le Traite de Versailles. Capt. D.G. Browne, The Tank in Action (London). Sir E.A. Wallis Budge (1857-1934), An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary; By Nile and Tigris (autobio.). Jose Capablanca (1888-1942), My Chess Career (autobio.). Gustav Cassel (1866-1945), Memorandum on the World's Monetary Problems; promoted by the League of Nations at the Internat. Finance Conference in Brussels, proposing the idea of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), making a fan of John Maynard Keynes. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The New Jerusalem; "[Islam] was content with the idea that it had a great truth; as indeed it had a colossal truth. It was so huge a truth that it was hard to see it was a half-truth"; "The highest message of Mahomet is a piece of divine tautology. The very cry that God is God is a repetition of words, like the repetitions of wide sands and rolling skies. The very phrase is like an everlasting echo, that can never cease to say the same sacred word." Lionel Curtis (1872-1955), Dyarchy; influences the 1919 Govt. of India Act. Clarence Day (1874-1935), This Simian World; on the origins of Homo sapiens; makes him an instant celeb. Hans Delbruck (1848-1929), History of Warfare in the Framework of Political History (3rd ed.) (4 vols.). William Edward Dodd (1869-1940), Woodrow Wilson and His Work; highly pro-Wilson and pro-Progressivism. Charles Montagu Doughty (1843-1926), Mansoul; or The Riddle of the World. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), Darkwater. Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), Space, Time, and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory; proposes that stellar energy is liberated by nuclear fusion in the formation of helium from hydrogen. Charles L. Edson, The Gentle Art of Columning. T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism; incl. "Hamlet and His Problems"; "These minds often find in Hamlet a vicarious existence for their own artistic realization. Such a mind had Goethe, who made of Hamlet a Werther; and such had Coleridge, who made of Hamlet a Coleridge; and probably neither of these men in writing about Hamlet remembered that his first business was to study a work of art." Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926), Socialism: An Analysis. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929), The Women's Victory and After: Personal Reminiscences. Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1876-1967), New Light on the Origins of the World War, I. Berlin and Vienna, to July 29 (July); pub. in The Am. Historical Review. John Frederick Charles Fuller (1878-1966), Tanks in the Great War, 1914-1918. Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), La Mort et Son Mystere (1920-1). Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932), The Life and Works of Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose. Katherine Gerould (1879-1944), Modes and Morals. Sir Philip Gibbs (1877-1962), The Realities of War; English journalist tells the truth about the Great War now that he's free of censorship, dissing Gen. Sir Douglas Haig; warns of the need to avert "another massacre of youth like that five years' sacrifice of boys of which I was a witness"; "The evil in Germany had to be killed. There was no other way, except by helping the Germans to kill it before it mastered them"; "Our men were never dry. They were wet in their trenches and wet in their dugouts. They slept in soaking clothes, with boots full of water, and they drank rain with their tea, and ate mud with their 'bully', and endured it all with the philosophy of 'grin and bear it!' and laughter, as I heard them laughing in those places, between explosive curses." George Peabody Gooch (1873-1968), Germany and the French Revolution. Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Recollections (autobio.); incl. Recollections of Tolstoy. David George Hogarth (1862-1927), Hittite Seals. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Jr. (1841-1935), Collected Legal Papers. Henry Mayers Hyndman (1842-1921), The Evolution of Revolution. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Psychological Types. Gen. Alexander von Kluck (1846-1935), The March on Paris and the Battle of the Marne, 1914. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder; how real Communists have to go with the long-term flow and not just an instant rev. Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1852-1940), The Making of Man. Robert Harry Lowie (1883-), Primitive Society. Emil Ludwig (1881-1948), Goethe. Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1971), The Theory of the Novel. Pierre Loti (1850-1923), La Mort de Notre Chere France en Orient. Jacques Maritain (1882-1972), Art et Scolastique. William McDougall (1871-1938), The Group Mind; Physiological Psychology. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947), Steps in the Development of American Democracy. Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth; claims that a socialist govt. can't make the calculations required to operate a complex economy, launching the Economic (Socialist) Calculation Debate between classical liberals and socialists. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951), The Lafayette Flying Corps. Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), Italy and the World War. Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949), The New Aesthetic of Musical Impotence: A Symptom of Decline? Arthur Cecil Pigou (1877-1959), The Economics of Welfare; claims that economic externalities make markets inefficient, causing market failures that require govt. intervention, proposing the Pigovian (Pigouvian) Tax, which is to be applied to a market activity that is generating negative externalities, e.g., pollution. George Walter Prothero (1848-1922), Peace Handbooks; set of 160 briefing books on different countries for British negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference, commissioned by the British Foreign Office in spring 1917, incl. Anatolia, Arabia, Armenia and Kurdistan, France and the Levant, Mesopotamia, Mohammedan History, Persian Gulf, Syria and Palestine, Serbia, Turkey in Asia, and Turkey in Europe, gaining Prothero a knighthood this year. Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Instigations. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), The Complex Vision; "What we are, in the first place, assured of is the existence within our own individual body of a real actual living thing composed of a mysterious substance wherein what we call mind and what we call matter are fused and intermingled. This is our real and self-conscious soul, the thing in us which says, 'I am I', of which the physical body is only one expression, and of which all the bodily senses are only one gateway of receptivity." Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch (1863-1944), The Art of Reading. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), Points of Friction. Herbert William Richmond (1871-1946), The Navy in the War of 1739-48 (2 vols.); written in 1907-14 and held during the Great War, during which the Admiralty ignored his advice and eventually succeeded in getting him relegated to the status of a "paper man" not fit for top command. James Harvey Robinson (1863-1936) and James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), History of Europe: Ancient and Medieval; followed by History of Europe: Our Own Times: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: The Opening of the Twentieth Century and the World War (w/Charles Austin Beard) (1921). Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), Letters (2 vols.) (posth.); ed. by J.B. Bishop. Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922), Psycho-Signatures (Psychodiagnostik); the Rorschach Inkblot Test, based on 300 mental patients and 100 control subjects. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. George Saintsbury (1845-1933), Notes on a Cellar-Book; big hit among wine drinkers, causing the Saintsbury Club for lit. men and members of the wine trade to be founds. George Santayana (1863-1952), Character and Opinion in the United States. William Henry Schofield (1878-1940), Mythical Bards and the Life of William Wallace; Blind Harry et al. Ted Shawn (1891-), Ruth St. Denis, Pioneer and Prophet. William Sowden Sims (1858-1936) and Burton Jesse Hendrick (1870-1949), The Victory at Sea (London) (Pulitzer Prize). Ethel Snowden, Through Bolshevik Russia coins the term "iron curtain" (used as a safety curtain in theaters) for the border of Communist Russia. Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931), Introduction to the History of Religion. Johannes Stark (1874-1957), Aenderungen der Struktur und des Spectrums Chemischer Atome. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy; bestseller pushing Nordic racial theories. R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), The Acquisitive Society; blasts capitalism for its amoral selfish individualism, promoting Christian socialism to combat greed and imperialism, becoming hugely influential in Britain and helping lead it to a welfare state; "a socialist bible" (Richard Crossman). H.W.V. Temperley, History of the Peace Conference of Paris (6 vols.) (1920-4). Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930), My Memoirs (2 vols.). Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend (1861-1924), My Campaign in Mesopotamia; tries to whitewash his defeat by the Turks, getting elected to parliament as a Conservative (until 1922); too bad, the truth comes out and he dies in disgrace. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), Beyond Planet Earth; "Earth is the cradle of humanity but one cannot live in the cradle forever." Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932), The Significance of the Frontier in American History; the Frontier Thesis of the Am. psyche - see the opening theme of "Star Trek"? Graham Wallas (1858-1932), Human Nature in Politics; 3rd ed. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Outline of History: The Whole Story of Man (Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind) (3 vols.); bestseller (2M copies) modelled on Denis Diderot's "Encyclopedie"; written in Oct. 1918-Nov. 1919; leans heavily on the Encyclopaedia Britannica; acknowledges help from 100+ experts, but later investigation fails to find any supporting correspondence; "Such a synthesis, such an interpretation of life as a cognate whole has never been attempted single-handed by any other man" (Hector Charlesworth); too bad, it contains strange quirky omissions incl. Adam Smith, the Enlightenment, Romanticism, Feminism, etc.; impacts higher education history teaching after a period where the teachers turn into Luddites and pooh-pooh it because they couldn't write such a broad work themselves, and fear it might put them out of work?; "Mr. H. G. Wells's The Outline of History was received with unmistakable hostility by a number of historical specialists.... They seemed not to realize that, in re-living the entire life of Mankind as a single imaginative experience, Mr. Wells was achieving something which they themselves would hardly have dared to attempt... In fact, the purpose and value of Mr. Wells's book seem to have been better appreciated by the general public than by the professional historians of the day" (Arnold J. Toynbee); in 1927 Canadian feminist historian Florence Amelia Deeks (1864-1959) sues Wells for stealing from her ms. "The Web" which she had submitted to Macmillan Canada and was returned 9 mo. later dog-eared and stained, losing her case despite appealing all the way to George V (due to prejudice against women?); in 2000 Canadian historian A.B. McKillop (1946-) of Carleton U. pub. The Spinster & the Prophet: Florence Deeks, H.G. Wells, and the Mystery of the Purloined Past, bolstering her claims. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), The Concept of Nature. M.W. Williams, Social Scandinavia in the Viking Age. Robert Wilton (1868-1925), and George Gustav Telberg, The Last Days of the Romanovs; claims that the execution of the tsar and his family was a Jewish ritual murder. Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), Romain Rolland, an Appreciation. Music: Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), The Truth About Russian Dancers (ballet). Sir Arthur Bliss (1891-1975), Two Studies. Henry Hadley, Cleopatra's Night (opera) (New York Metropolitan Opera). Victor Herbert (1859-1924), My Golden Girl (operetta). Gustav Holst (1874-1934), The Planets Suite (complete) (London). Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931), The Legend of St. Christopher (opera) (Paris). Al Jolson (1886-1950), Swanee; big hit. Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Das Hollandweibchen (The Little Dutch Girl) (operetta) (Vienna). Jerome Kern (1885-1945), Victor Herbert (1859-1924), Clifford Grey (1887-1941), Buddy De Sylva (1895-1950), P.G. Wodehouse (1881-1975), Anne Caldwell (1868-1936), and Guy Bolton (1884-1979), Sally (musical) (New Amsterdam Theatre, New York) (Dec. 21) (570 perf.) (Winter Garden Theatre, Camden, London) (1921) (387 perf.); Broadway production is the debut of Evansville, Ind.-born Marilyn Miller (Mary Ellen Reynolds) (1898-1936) as Sally, a dishwasher at the Alley Inn, who poses as a famous foreign ballerina and joins the Ziegfeld Follies, rising to fame, starring in a ballet and getting married; filmed in 1929; features the song Look for the Silver Lining. Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897-1957), Die Tote Stadt (The Dead City) (Hamburg). Franz Lahar (1870-1948), Die Blaue Mazur (The Blue Mazurka) (Vienna). Leonide Massine (1896-1979), The Rite of Spring (ballet); reworking of Igor Stravinsky's 1913 work; makes a big star of English ballerina Lydia Sokolova (Hilda Munnings) (1896-1974) as the Chosen Maiden in the longest solo in theatrical history. Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), Memories of Brazil (Saudades do Brasil) (1920-1); from his experience in the French embassy in Rio de Janeiro in 1917-18. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), La Valse. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), The Imperial Orgy: An Account of the Tsars from the First to the Last. Oscar Straus (1870-1954), The Last Waltz (Berlin). Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Pulcinella (ballet); Le Chant du Rossignol (ballet) (Paris). Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), London Symphony (final version). Movies: U.S. film production begins moving from the East Coast to Hollywood, with an avg. of 800 film releases in the 1920s-30s; in 1925 total capital investment is $2B; by 1929 there are 20 studios in Hollywood. Cecil Hepworth's 5-reel Alf's Button is an internat. hit., causing him to take his co. public; too bad, the stock bombs and he goes bankrupt by 1924. Hans Werckmeister's Algol: Tragedy of Power (Sept. 30), about an alien from the planet Algol with a machine to rule the world stars Emil Jannings and John Gottowt. Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Feb. 26) stars Werner Krauss (1884-1959) as Caligari, and co-stars Conrad Veidt as his somnambulist Cesare, who are visited at the carnival in Holstenwall, Germany by Francis (Friedrich Feher), and Alan (Hans Heinrich von Twardowski), whom Caligari correctly prophesies will die by dawn, causing Francis to begin investigating them; Cesare then kidnaps Francis' babe Jane (Lil Dagover), and after Caligari orders him to kill her, he falls in love with her and helps her escape, falling to his death; meanwhile Caligari is discovered to be head of a local insane asylum, obsessed with a medieval Dr. Caligari, after which the twist ending has Caligari revealed to be the insane asylum doctor who is trying to cure the narrator Francis all along - he's got documentation, play ball? A.E. Coleby's The Call of the Night (Oct.) (I.B. Davidson) is the film debut of English-born (not Irish) former heavyweight boxer (who defeated Jack Johnson in an exhibition match) (Protestant not Catholic) Victor Andrew de Bier Everleigh McLaglen (1886-1959) as disowned gambler Alf Truscott, who becomes a you-guessed-it boxer; in 1925 he moves to Hollywood, gaining a rep for playing Irish drunks. Winsor McCay's The Centaurs is a realistic B&W cartoon that makes horses sexy. Erich von Stroheim's The Devil's Pass Key (Passkey) (Aug. 30) (Universal Pictures) (Stroheim's 2nd film) stars Sam De Grasse as Warren Goodright, whose Am. playwright wife Grace (Una Trevelyn) has overspent in Paris and owes dressmaker Renee Malot (Maude George) money, causing him to suggest that she contact U.S. Army Capt. Rex Strong (Clyde Fillmore) for a loan, but he wants sex in return, which she refuses, causing Malot to attempt to blackmail her. and Leo White. Winsor McCay's Dreams of the Rarebit Field - Bug Vaudeville is another realistic B&W cartoon. Alan Crosland and Laurence Trimble's Everybody's Sweetheart (Oct. 4) stars Olive Thomas as you know what. Alan Crosland's The Flapper (May 10) stars Olive Thomas as 16-y.-o. Genevieve "Ginger" King, who is wooed out of her girls' seminary by distinguished older man William P. Carleton (Richard Channing). Carl Boese's and Paul Wegener's The Golem: How He Came Into the World, about a clay man brought to life by rabbis features vast architectural set designs by Hans Poelzig, and is widely emulated in the later Frankenstein films. Ewald Andre Dupont's Das Grand Hotel Babylon stars Hans Albers. Henry Kolker's Heart of Twenty (June 20) stars newlyweds ZaSu Pitts and Tom Gallery. Clarence Brown and Maurice Tourneur's The Last of the Mohicans (Nov. 21), based on the 1826 James Fenimore Cooper novel stars Wallace Berry as Magua, Barbara Bedford as Cora Munro, James Gordon as Col. Munro, and Albert Roscoe as Uncas. Manolescus Memoiren stars Adele Sandrock. Fred Niblo's The Mark of Zorro (Dec. 5) introduces a gay masked Californian Spanish swordsman with a smashing fashion sense (Douglas Fairbanks Sr.); Mary Pickford plays the virtuous but fiery girl next door. Paul Powell's Pollyanna (Jan. 18), based on the 1913 Eleanor Hodgman Porter novel stars Mary Pickford as young orphan Pollyanna Whittier, who is adopted by bitter cold Aunt Polly Harrington (Katherine Griffith). Chester Withey's Romance (May 30) (United Artists), based on the 1913 Edward Sheldon play stars starring St. Joseph, Mich.-born Doris Keane (1881-1945) as opera singer Madame Cavallini, and her hubby (1918-25), St. Osyth, Essex, England-born Basil Sydney (1894-1968) in his film debut as Bishop Armstrong; he goes on to appear in 50+ films. Herbert Blache's The Saphead (Oct. 18), based on the play "The New Henrietta" by Winchell Smith, based on the novel by Victor Mapes is the film debut of Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton (1895-1966) as rich playboy Bertie "the Lamb" Van Alstyne. D.W. Griffith's Way Down East (Sept. 3) (United Artists), the big box office draw of the year, based on the play by Lottie Blair Parker stars Lillian Gish (de Guiche) (1893-1993) as innocent New England country girl Anna Moore, who must face life with a child born out of wedlock; she ends up in a blizzard, stranded on an ice floe headed toward a waterfall until saved by farmer's son David Bartlett (Richard Barthelmess), who makes an honest woman of her; does $2M box office on a $700K budget. Art: Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), Leda (sculpture). Charles Burchfield (1893-1967), February Thaw. Le Corbusier (1887-1965), Still Life - help pick a name? Lovis Corinth (1858-1925), Pieta. Otto Dix (1891-1969), War Cripples; featured in the 1937 Degenerate Art exhibition by the Nazis as "an insult to the German heroes of the Great War". Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Fresh Widow. Max Ernst (1891-1976), Le Limacon de Chambre; The Small Fistule That Says Tic Tac; The Fall of an Angel; Un Peu Malade le Cheval Patte Pelu; The Gramineous Bicycle Garnished with Bells the Dappled Fire Damps and the Echinoderms Bending the Spine to Look for Caresses (1920-1) - was it something in the bath? Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), Church (cubist). Naum Gabo (1890-1977), Kinetic Construction (sculpture). George Grosz (1893-1959), Self-Portrait With Two Women; Berlin 1920s porno?; he's bragging? Fernand Leger (1881-1955), The Tug Boat; The Mechanic (Purist Mona Lisa?). Stanton MacDonald-Wright (1890-1973), Airplane Synchromy in Yellow-Orange. John Marin (1870-1953), Lower Manhattan. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), L'Odalisque. Sir William Nicholson (1872-1949), Sunflowers. Amedee Ozenfant (1886-1966), Guitar and Bottles (Guitare et Bouteilles). Max Pechstein (1881-1955), Self-Portrait with Death. Francis Picabia (1879-1953), The Virgin Saint (La Sainte Vierge); Tableau Dada: Portrait of Cezanne and Rembrandt. Man Ray (1890-1976), Enigma of Isidore Ducasse (New York); "chance meeting of an umbrella and sewing machine on a dissecting table". John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), Gassed. Stanley Spencer (1891-1959), Christ Carrying the Cross. Plays: Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), Seven Men. Gordon Bottomley (1874-1948), King Lear's Wife and Other Plays. Arnolt Bronnen, Vatermord. Van Wyck Brooks (1886-1963), The Ordeal of Mark Twain. Colette (1873-1954), Cheri; aging demi-mondaine Lea and her young lover Cheri, who is torn between love for her and his rich wife; followed by "La Fin de Cheri" (1926). Fernand Crommelynck (1886-1970), Le Cocu Magnifique; big hit, launching his career. Francois de Curel (1854-1928), L'Ame en Folie. Ronald Firbank (1886-1926), The Princess Zoubaroff; "I am always disappointed with mountains... I should like to shake Switzerland." John Galsworthy (1867-1933), In Chancery; The Skin Game. Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), Piet Bouteille (Oude Piet); Le Cavalier Bizarre (The Strange Rider). Susan Glaspell (1882-1948), Bernice. Susan Glaspell (1876-1948) and George Cram Cook (1873-1924), Suppressed Desires. Howard Hanson (1896-1981), The California Forest Play. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), The White Savior (verse drama); how the Christian Conquistadors suck and Montezuma rocks? Avery Hopwood (1882-1928) and Charlton Andrews, Ladies Night in a Turkish Bath; stars Charlie Ruggles. Franz Kafka (1883-1924), A Country Doctor. Hanns Johst (1890-1978), Der König (The King); a heroic revolutionary is betrayed by reactionaries and the bourgeoisie, taking his own life rather than abandon his principles; makes a fan of Adolf Hitler, who sees the play 17x, meets him in 1923, and tells him that he suspects that his own life will end the same way, later making him poet laureate of the Third Reich. Georg Kaiser (1878-1945), Gas II (3rd in trilogy). George S. Kaufman (1889-1961) and Marc Connelly (1890-1980), Dulcy; makes a star of Lynn Fontanne (1887-1983). Karl Kraus (1874-1936), Die Letzten Tage der Menschheit (The Last Days of Mankind) (tragedy). Federico Garcia Lorca (1898-1936), El Maleficio de la Mariposa. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), The Romantic Age (comedy); The Stepmother; The Red Feathers. Ferenc Molnar (1878-1952), The Swan. George Moore (1852-1933), The Coming of Gabrielle. Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), Beyond the Horizon (Morosco Theatre, New York) (Feb. 3) (Criterion Theatre, New York) (Feb. 24) (Little Theatre, New York) (Mar. 9) (Pulitzer Prize); dir. by Homer Saint-Gaudens; the first native Am. tragedy?; farm brothers Andrew and Robert, Andrew's girl Ruth, and sea captain Uncle Dick. The Emperor Jones (Playwright's Theatre, New York) (Nov. 1) (204 perf.); his first hit; African-Am. Pullman porter Brutus Jones (Charles Sidney Gilpin) kills another black man in a dice game, and escapes to a small backward island in the West Indies, exploiting the residents' ignorance and superstitions to gain power. David Pinski (1872-1959), The Treasure. Charles Vildrac (1882-1971), Le Paquebot Tenacity. Poetry: Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), Heavens and Earth. Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), October and Other Poems. Alex de Candole (1897-1918), Poems (posth.); incl. When the Last Long Trek is Over. Kahlil Gibran (1911-72), The Forerunner. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Treasure Box; Country Sentiment. Arthur Guiterman (1871-), Ballads of Old New York. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), Leda. Vachel Lindsay (1879-1931), The Golden Whales of California. John Masefield (1878-1967), Reynard the Fox; Enslaved and Other Poems. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Jack Kelso: A Dramatic Poem; Domesday Book; "Take any life you choose and study it;/ It gladdens, troubles, changes many lives./ The life goes out, how many things result?/ Fate drops a stone, and to the utmost shores/ The circles spread." Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), A Few Figs from Thistles: Poems and Sonnets; becomes controversial for its exploration of feminism and female sexuality; "And if I love you Wednesday,/ Well, what is that to you?/ I do not love you Thursday -/ So much is true./ And why you come complaining/ Is more than I can see./ I loved you Wednesday, - yes - but what/ Is that to me?"; "Cut if you will, with Sleep's dull knife,/ Each day to half its length, my friend, - / The years that Time takes off my life,/ He'll take off from the other end!"; "She wrote the best sonnets of the century." (Richard Wilbur) Walter Herries Pollock (1850-1926), Icarian Flights: Translations of Some of the Odes of Horace. Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Hugh Selwyn Mauberly; a "quintesential autobiography" addressing his failure as a poet who attempted to "wring lillies from the acorn"; "For three years, out of key with his time/ He strove to resuscitate the dead art/ Of poetry"; "Beside this thoroughfare/ The sale of half-hose has/ Long since superseded the cultivation/ Of Pierian roses." "There died a myriad/ And of the best, among them,/ For an old bitch gone in the teeth,/ For a botched civilisation." Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), Launcelot; Ben Trovato; The Three Taverns. Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), Smoke and Steel. Sara Teasdale (1884-1933), Flame and Shadow. Julian Tuwim (1894-1953), Dancing Socrates. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), El Cristo de Velasquez. Louis Untermeyer (1885-1977) (ed.), Modern British Poetry; incl. The Barrel Organ by Alfred Noyes (1880-1958). Charles Vildrac (1882-1971), Chants du Desespere. William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), Kora in Hell, Improvisations. Novels: Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941), Poor White; inventor Hugh McVey on the banks of the Mississippi River. Michael Arlen (1895-1956), The London Venture (first novel); Armenian dandy lives in London and fills his writing with "Arlenesque" inversions, inflections, and a heightened exotic pitch. Charles Brackett (1892-1969), Counsel of the Ungodly (first novel). Bryher (1894-1983), Development. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Slayer of Souls. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Mysterious Affair at Styles (first novel); introduces 5'4" Belgian detective Hercule Poirot, who retired from the Belgian police dept. in 1904, and relies on his "leetle gray cells" to solve crimes; also introduces Chief Inspector Japp and Captain Hastings; first of 80 novels and short story collections incl. 38 Hercule Poirot, 12 Miss Jane Marple, and five Thomas "Tommy" Beresford and Prudence "Tuppence" Cowley books, plus six under the alias Mary Westmacott, and 19 plays; praised by the Pharmaceutical Journal "for dealing with poisons in a knowledgeable way, and not with the nonsense about untraceable substances that so often happens." Padraic Collum (1881-1972), The Boy Apprenticed to an Enchanter. Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), The Rescue; Capt. Lingard must choose between love and duty. F. Wills Crofts, The Cask; one of the first modern detective stories. Grazia Deledda (1871-1936), La Madre. Floyd Dell (1887-1969), Moon-Calf; bildungsroman. Norman Douglas (1868-1953), They Went. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Cycle de Salavin (1920-32). Hans Fallada (1893-1947), Young Goedeschal (first novel). F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), This Side of Paradise (first novel) (Mar. 26); title taken from Rupert Brooke's poem "Tiare Tahiti"; coming of age novel set at Princeton U. about wealthy attractive student Amory Blaine, who "inherited from his mother every trait, except the stray inexpressible few, that made him worth while"; Isabelle is inspired by his college girlfriend Ginevra King; Rosalind is inspired by his girlfriend Zelda Fitzgerald (1900-48) (a Southern Belle he met in an Ala. country club), who "does resemble you in more ways than four", using quotes from her diary in the novel, and when the novel is a hit they marry on Apr. 3, becoming New York City celebs; "Amor had decided definitely on Princeton, even though he would be the only boy to enter that year from St. Regis'. Yale had a romance and glamour from the tales of Minneapolis, and St. Regis' men who had been 'tapped for Skull and Bones', but Princeton drew him most, with its atmosphere of bright colors and its alluring reputation as the pleasantest country club in America"; Flappers and Philosophers (short stories); "I had no idea of originating an American flapper when I first began to write. I simply took girls whom I knew very well and, because they interested me as unique human beings, I used them for my heroines." (Metropolitan Mag., Nov. 1923). Renato Fucini (1843-1921), Acqua Passata: Storielle e Aneddoti della Mia Vita; incl. The Colonel. Zona Gale (1874-1938), Miss Lulu Bett; bestseller about a woman who marries her brother-in-law's brother Ninian, then finds he is already married. Romulo Gallegos (1884-1969), Reinaldo Solar; how life sucks under Venezuelan dictator Juan Vicente Gomez. Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920), Der Laufende Berg. Jean Giono (1895-), Colline. Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944), L'Adorable Clio; WWI novel. Louis Golding (1895-1958), Forward from Babylon (first novel). Zane Grey (1872-1939), The Man of the Forest; bestseller. J. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The Ancient Allan; Smith and the Pharaohs. Cicely Hamilton (1872-1952), William, an Englishman (first novel). Jaroslav Hasek (1883-1923), The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schwejk (Schweik) (1920-23); a Czech dog-catcher in the Austrian imperial army. James Hilton (1900-54), Catherine Herself (first novel). Jean de La Hire (1878-1956), The Nyctalope vs. Lucifer; Leo Saint-Clair AKA the Nyctalope, with night vision, hypnotic powers, artificial heart, and super senses vs. Glo von Warteck and his plot to rule mankind with Omega Rays; becomes the basis of U.S. comic books? Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Sweet Rocket. Bernhard Kellermann (1879-1951), The Ninth of November; disses the German Army in WWII, causing the Nazis to later ban and publicly burn it and hound him out of the country in 1933. Sophie Kerr (1880-1965), Painted Meadows. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), The Lost Girl. Maurice Leblanc (1864-1941), Le Formidable Evenement; an earthquake creates a new landmass between France and England. Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), Main Street; bestseller of 1921 (250K copies in first 6 mo.); Will Kennicott marries liberal Carol Milford, who goes to work reforming 1910s Gopher Prairie, Minn., causing them to snub her; "I do not admit that Main Street is as beautiful as it should be! I do not admit that dishwashing is enough to satisfy all women!"; its Pulitzer Prize is revoked in favor of Edith Wharton's "The Age of Innocence", causing Lewis to refuse the Pulitzer in 1926 for "Arrowsmith", after which he becomes the first Am. to receive the Nobel Lit. Prize in 1930. William John Locke (1863-1930), The House of Baltazar. Hugh John Lofting (1886-1947), The Story of Doctor Dolittle, Being the History of His Peculiar Life at Home and Astonishing Adventures in Foreign Parts (Lewis Carroll Shelf Award); about Victorian English physician John Dolittle, MD ca. 1820, who lives in Puddleby-on-the-Marsh in the West Country, and keeps a menagerie that scares off his clients until his parrot Polynesia teaches him to talk with the animals and he becomes a veterinarian, going on an adventure to W Africa, meeting up with a 2-headed pushmi-pullyu (gazelle-unicorn cross) which he brings back to England to exhibit for profit; Gub-Gub the Pig, Jip the Dog, Dab-Dab the Duck, Chee-Chee the Monkey, Too-Too the Owl, Whitey the White Mouse; too bad, the PC police later get it censored for his depiction of black Africans, incl. Prince Bump, who wishes he were white so he can marry Sleeping Beauty, causing the doctor to bleach him, his skin giving off the smell of "burning brown paper", after which "The Prince's face had turned as white as snow, and his eyes, which had been mud-colored, were a manly gray!"; followed by 10 sequels (1924-42), plus three more pub. posth. in 1948-52. Emil Ludwig (1881-1948), Meeresstille und Gluckliche Fahrt. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), Potterism. Denis Mackail (1892-1971), What Next? (first novel). Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923), Bliss (short stories). Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Mitch Miller (first novel). William Babington Maxell (1866-1938), A Remedy Against Sin. William McFee (1881-1966), Captain Macedoine's Daughter; A Six Hour Shift. Herman Cyril McNeile (AKA Sapper) (1888-1937), Bulldog Drummond; crime-solving British Capt. Hugh "Bulldog" Drummond, D.S.O., M.C., veteran of the WWI Loamshire Regiment; "His best friend would not call him good-looking but he possesses that cheerful type of ugliness which inspires immediate confidence"; big hit, causing him to pub. nine sequels. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), Mr. Pym Passes By. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Great Impersonation; The Devil's Paw; Aaron Rodd, Diviner (short stories); Ambrose Lavendale, Diplomat (short stories); Hon. Algernon Knox, Detective (short stories). Aldo Palazzeschi (1885-1974), Due Imperi... Mancati. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), After My Fashion (3rd novel); pub. in 1980. Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), The Dream-Den (first novel); about his pre-WWI lit. circle; it is so sentimental that he buys up all unsold copies from the publisher Ullstein. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958) and Avery Hopwood (1882-1928), The Bat. Romain Rolland (1866-1944), Clerambault (Clérambault): The Story of an Independent Spirit During the War; a father loses his son in WWI and decries militarism; Pierre et Luce; lovers during WWI. Jules Romains (1885-1972), Donogoo-Tonka. Upton Sinclair (1878-1968), 100 Percent, the Story of a Patriot. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), A Man of the Islands. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951) and Margaret Stacpoole, Uncle Simon (The Man Who Found Himself). Vincent Starrett (1886-1974), The Adventure of the Unique Hamlet. Sigrid Undset (1882-1949), Kristin Lavransdatter (3 vols.) (1920-1922); a woman in 14th cent. Norway. Paul Valery (1875-1945), Le Cimetiere Marin. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Captives. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920), Harvest. Edith Wharton (1862-1937), The Age of Innocence (Pulitzer Prize) (first female to win for fiction); Newland Archer falls for Ellen Olenska in 1870s New York society. Grace Miller White (1868-1957) and Frank Tenney Johnson (1874-1939), Storm Country Polly. Anzia Yezierska (1885-1970), Hungry Hearts. Births: Am. prolific super-brain pansophist scientist-novelist-writer (Jewish) (atheist) (Humanist) (claustrophile) (aviophobe) Isaac Asimov (Isaak Ozimov) (d. 1992) (Russ. "ozimiye" = winter grain) on Jan. 2 in Petrovichi, Russia; migrates to the U.S. at age 3; educated at Columbia U. Am. psychologist Paul Everett Meehl (d. 2003) on Jan. 3 in Minneapolis, Minn.; educated at the U. of Minn. Am. CIA dir. (1973-6) (Roman Catholic) ("the Warrior Priest") William Egan Colby (d. 1996) on Jan. 4 in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at Columbia U. Am. civil rights leader (black) (founder of CORE) James L. "Jim" Farmer (d. 1999) on Jan. 12 in Marshall, Tex.; educated at Howard U. Am. CBS newsman George Edward Herman (d. 2005) on Jan. 14; educated at Dartmouth College. Am. Frisbee inventor (1946) Walter Frederick "Fred" Morrison (d. 2010) on Jan. 16 in Richfield, Utah; grows up in Calif. Am. ballerina-choreographer-producer (Jewish) ("the Duse of Dance") Nora Kaye (Koreff) (d. 1987) on Jan. 17 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian immigrant parents; wife (1948-9) of Isaac Stern (1920-2001), and (1959-87) Herbert Ross (1927-2001). Italian "La Dolce Vida" film dir. Federico Fellini (d. 1993) on Jan. 20 in Rimini. U.S. Rep. (D-Fla.) (1963-97) Sam Melville Gibbons (d. 2012) on Jan. 20 in Tampa, Fla.; educated at the U. of Fla. Am. writer (Jewish) ("Godfather of Neoconservatism") Irving Kristol (d. 2009) on Jan. 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at CCNY; starts out as a Trotskyite then drifts right during the Vietnam War. Am. "Lollipop Guild munchkin in green who gives Dorothy Gale the lollipop in The Wizard of Oz", "The Gong Show" 3'4" actor Jerry Maren (Gerard Marenghi) on Jan. 24 in Boston, Mass. Am. dancer-choreographer-dir. Donald Saddler on Jan. 24 in Van Nuys, calif. Am. "Pepino Garcia in The Real McCoys" actor-bandleader Tony Martinez (d. 2002) on Jan. 27 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. German violinist Helmut Zacharias (d. 2002) on Jan. 27. Am. family therapy psychiatrist Donald deAvila Jackson (d. 1968) on Jan. 28. Japanese "Sazae-san" comic strip manga artist (female) Machiko Hasegawa (d. 1992) on Jan. 30. English painter-designer-writer Patrick Heron (d. 1999) on Jan. 30 in Headingley, Leeds, Yorkshire. Am. "Marty", "Desire Under the Elms", "The Bachelor Party", "That Touch of Mink", "Fitzwilly", "Heidi" dir.-producer Delbert Martin Mann Jr. (d. 2007) on Jan. 30 in Lawrence, Kan.; educated at Vanderbilt U. Am. microbiologist (Jewish) Albert Israel Schatz (d. 2005) on Feb. 2 in Norwich, Conn.; educated at Rutgers U. Am. Heimlich Maneuver surgeon (Jewish) Henry Judah Heimlich (d. 2016) on Feb. 3 in Wilmington, Del.; educated at Cornell U.; 2nd cousin of Anson Williams (1949-). Am. "The Magical Number Seven" cognitive psychologist (Christian Scientist) George Armitage Miller (d. 2012) on Feb. 3 in Charleston, W. Va.; educated at the U. of Ala. Am. social psychologist (Jewish) Morton Deutsch on Feb. 4 in New York City; educated at CCNY, and the U. of Penn. Am. Wang Labs founder An Wang (d. 1990) on Feb. 7 in Shanghai; educated at Harvard U.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1945. English "The Joy of Sex" life extensionist physician Alex Comfort (d. 2000) on Feb. 10; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Egyptian king (1936-52) Farouk (Arab. "discerning truth from falsehood") I (d. 1965) on Feb. 11 in Cairo; son of Fuad I (1868-1936); father of Fuad II (1952-). Mexican bullfighter ("the Mexican Cyclone") Carlos Arruza (Carlos Ruiz Camino) (d. 1966) on Feb. 17 in Mexico City. Am. country musician William Lewis "Billy" Boyd (d. 2001) (Texas Troubadours) on Feb. 17 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. "The Price Is Right", "I've Got a Secret", "To Tell the Truth" radio-TV personality ("Dean of Game Show Hosts") William Lawrence Francis "Bill" Cullen (d. 1990) on Feb. 18 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; known for wearing thick eyeglasses; contracts polio at age 18 mo., causing him to be crippled for life. Grenadian PM (1967-79) (black) Sir Eric Matthew Gairy (d. 1997) on Feb. 18 in St. Andrew's Parish (near Grenville). Am. nutritionist Jean Mayer (d. 1993) on Feb. 19 in France; educated at the U. of Paris; pres. #10 of Tufts U. (1976-92). Am. Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel architect Walter A. Netsch (d. 2008) on Feb. 23; educated at MIT. Am. activist Dem. Tex. judge William Wayne Justice (d. 2009) on Feb. 25 in Athens, Tex.; educated at the U. of Tex. South Korean Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon (Mun Seon-myeong) (Mun Yong-myeong) (d. 2012) on Feb. 25 in Jeong-ju (Chongju), North Pyongan. Am. "Felix Unger in The Odd Couple" actor (Jewish) Tony Randall (Arthur Leonard Rosenberg) (d. 2004) on Feb. 26 in Tulsa, Okla. Am. "The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind" psychologist Julian Jaynes (d. 1997) on Feb. 27 in ?; educated at Yale U. Am. poet laureate (Jewish) Howard Nemerov (d. 1991) on Feb. 29 in New York City; daughter of Russek's Fifth Ave. Dept. Store owners David Nemerov and Gertrude Russek Nemerov; brother of Diane Arbus (1923-71); father of Alexander Nemerov (1963-); educated at Harvard U. Canadian 5'9" hockey hall-of-fame player Maxwell Herbert Lloyd "Max" Bentley (d. 1984) on Mar. 1 in Delisle, Sask.; brother of Reg Bentley (1914-80) and Doug Bentley (1916-72). Am. prof. golfer Julius Nicholas Boros (d. 1994) on Mar. 3 in Fairfield, Conn.; Irish Roman Catholic immigrant parents. Canadian "Montgomery Scotty Scott in Star Trek", "Timber Tom in Howdy Doody" actor James Montgomery Doohan (d. 2005) on Mar. 3 in Vancouver, B.C. Am. "Alfie", "You Only Live Twice", "The Spy Who Loved Me" dir.-producer-writer Lewis Gilbert on Mar. 6 in London. Am. "The Year the Yankees Lost the Pennant" novelist John Douglass Wallop III (d. 1985) on Mar. 8 in Washington, D.C.; educated at the U. of Md. Am. country musician (steel guitar) Gerald Lester "Jerry" Byrd (d. 2005) on Mar. 9 in Lima, Ohio. Am. country musician (mandolin) Kenneth C. "Jethro" Burns (d. 1989) (Homer and Jethro) on Mar. 10 in Conasauga, Tenn.; grows up Knoxville, Tenn.; partner of Henry D. Haynes (1920-71). Mexican Roman Catholic priest (pedophile) Father Marcial Maciel Degollado (d. 2008) on Mar. 10 in Cotija, Michoacan. Am. coffee entrepreneur ("the Dutchman who taught America how to drink coffee") Alfred H. Peet (d. 2007) on Mar. 10 in Alkmaar; emigrates to the U.S. in 1955. Dutch-Am. physicist Nicolaas Bloembergen on Mar. 20 in Dordrecht; educated at the U. of Leiden; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1958; 1981 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Dennis the Menace" cartoonist Henry King "Hank" Ketcham (d. 2001) on Mar. 14 in Seattle, Wash. French film critic Jacques Doniol-Valcroze (d. 1989) on Mar. 15 in Paris. Am. "The Anderson Tapes" novelist (the Robin Leach of the detective novel?) Lawrence Sanders (d. 1998) on Mar. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. physician Edward Donnall "Don" Thomas on Mar. 15; educated at the U. of Tex.; 1990 Nobel Med. Prize. English "Tom Jones" film composer John Mervyn Addison (d. 1998) on Mar. 16 in Chobham, Surrey; educated at the Royal College of Music. German Adolf Hitler's private secy. (Dec. 1942-Apr. 1945) Traudl Junge (Gertraud Humps) (d. 2002) on Mar. 16 in Munich; daughter of a brewer; "I liked the greatest criminal who ever lived." Australian "Horace Rumpole in Rumpole of the Bailey" actor Reginald "Leo" McKern (d. 2002) on Mar. 16 in Sydney, N.S.W.; loses his left eye at age 15. Bangladesh pres. #1 (1970-5) Mujibur Rahman (d. 1975) on Mar. 17 in Tungipara, Bengal. Am. "Capt. Adam Greer in Mod Squad", "Kras the Klingon in Star Trek" actor Tiger "Tige" Andrews (d. 2007) on Mar. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y. English Matchbox Toys designer John William "Jack" Odell (d. 2007) on Mar. 19 in North London; kicked out of school at age 13. Am. New Age teacher John Starr Cooke (d. 1976) on Mar. ? in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. 6'2" "Lt. Ripley Rip Masters in The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin" actor-singer James E. (L.) (Bowen) "Jimmy" Brown (d. 1992) on Mar. 22 in Desdemona, Tex.; educated at Baylor U. Am. "Col. Klink in Hogan's Heroes" actor Werner Klemperer (d. 2000) on Mar. 22 in Cologne; son of Otto Klemperer (1885-1973) and Johanna Geisler; emigrates to the U.S. in 1933. Am. "Artemus Gordon in The Wild Wild West" actor (Jewish) Ross Martin (Martin Rosenblatt) (d. 1981) on Mar. 22 in Grodek, Poland; grows up in New York City. English "Staying On", "Raj Quartet" novelist-poet-playwright (bi?) Paul Mark Scott (d. 1978) on Mar. 25 in Southgate, Middlesex. Japanese "Adm. Yamamoto in Midway" actor-producer Toshiro Mifune (d. 1997) on Apr. 1 in Tsingtao (Qingdao), Shandong, China. Canadian Bank of Canada gov. (1973-87) Gerald Keith Bouey (d. 2004) on Apr. 2 in Axford, Saskatchewan. Am. "Sgt. Joe Friday in Dragnet" actor-dir.-writer-producer (founder of Mark VII Limited) John Randolph "Jack" Webb (d. 1982) on Apr. 2 in Santa Monica, Calif.; husband (1947-54) of Julie London (1926-2000). Am. "Maybelle Merriwether in Gone With the Wind", "Alice MacKenzie in Lifeboat", "Catherine Harrington in Peyton Place" actress Mary "Bebe" Anderson on Apr. 3 in Birmingham, Ala.; sister of James Anderson (1921-69). Ukrainian-Am. accused war criminal John Demjanjuk (Ivan Mykolaiovych Demianiuk) (d. 2012) on Apr. 3 in Berdychiv, Kiev; emigrates to the U.S. in 1952. Dutch PM #36 (1971-3) Barend Willem Biesheuvel (d. 2001) on Apr. 5 in Haarlemmerliede; educated at Vrije U. English "Airport", "Hotel" novelist Arthur Hailey (d. 2004) on Apr. 5 in Luton, Bedfordshire; not to be confused with Am. writer Alex Haley (1921-1992). Am. banker (Jewish) Arthur Goodhart Altschul (d. 2002) on Apr. 6 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Yale U.; father of Arthur Altschul Jr. (1965-), Emily Altschul (1966-), and Serena Altschul (1970-). Swiss-Am. biochemist Edmond H. Fischer on Apr. 6 in Shanghai, China; 1992 Nobel Med. Prize. Indian sitar player (Hindu) (vegetarian) Ravi Shankar (Robindro Shaunkor Chowdhury) (d. 2012) on Apr. 7 in Benares; brother of Uday Shankar (1900-77); father of singer Norah Jones (1979-) and sitar player Anoushka Shankar (1981-) - rock the tabla? Am. "Sgt. Whipple in Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.", "Deputy Joe Watson in The Andy Griffith Show" actor Buck Young (d. 2000) on Apr. 12; husband (1953-) of Peggy Stewart (1923-); brother-in-law of Patricia O'Rourke and Wayne Morris (1914-59). Italian banker ("God's Banker") Roberto Calvi (d. 1982) on Apr. 13 in Milan. French novelist Edmonde Charles-Roux on Apr. 17 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Am. "Crazy Googenheim in The Jacky Gleason Show" comedian Frank Fontaine (d. 1978) on Apr. 19 in Cambridge, Mass. U.S. Supreme Court justice #? (1975-2010) John Paul Stevens on Apr. 20 in Chicago, Ill. - heil stevens? Am. "Doc Holliday in Bonanza" actor Christopher "Chris" Dark (Alfred Francis DeLeo) (d. 1971) on Apr. 21 in New York City; friend of fellow amateur astronomer Guy Williams. Italian-German composer-conductor Bruno Maderna (d. 1973) on Apr. 21 in Venice. Am. comedian and TV show host (Jewish) Hal March (Harold Mendelson) (d. 1970) on Apr. 22 in San Francisco, Calif. Italian conductor Guido Cantelli (d. 1956) on Apr. 27 in Novara. Am. historian (Jewish) Gerda Lerner (Gerda Hedwig Kronstein) (d. 2013) on Apr. 30 in Vienna, Austria; educated at the New School for Social Research, and Columbia U. Austrian ecologist Otto Buchsbaum (d. 2001) on May 2 in Vienna; moves to Brazil in 1939; husband of Florence Buchsbaum (Gertrude Rosenberg) (1926-96). Am. jazz pianist-composer (black) John Aaron Lewis (d. 2001) on May 3 in La Grange, Ill.; founder of the Modern Jazz Quartet. Am. scientist (1950 discoverer of prednisone) Arthur Nobile (d. 2004) on May 6. Am. "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit" novelist (alcoholic) Sloan Wilson (d. 2003) on May 8 in Norwalk, Conn.; educated at Harvard U.; father of David Sloan Wilson (1949-). English "Watership Down" novelist Richard George Adams (d. 2016) on May 9 in Newbury, Berkshire; educated at Worcester College, Oxford U. Am. "Briscoe Darling in The Andry Griffith Show", "Uncle Jesse Duke in The Dukes of Hazzard" actor Denver Dell Pyle (d. 1997) on May 11 in Bethune, Colo. French "Lola Montes" blonde sex symbol actress Martine Carol (Marie-Louise Jeanne Nicolle Mourer) (d. 1967) on May 16 in Saint-Mande, Val-de-Marne. Polish pope #263 (1978-2005) John Paul II (Karol Jozef Wojtyla) (d. 2005) on May 18 in Wadowice; archbishop of Cracow (Krakow); first Polish pope, and first non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522-3); 2nd longest reign (26 years) after Pius IX (32 years). Austrian astrophysicist Thomas Gold (d. 2004) on May 22 in Vienna; co-founder of the Steady State Theory of the Universe (1948). Am. "Fever" singer-songwriter-actress Peggy Lee (Norma Engstrom) (d. 2002) on May 26 in Jamestown, N.D.; Norwegian-Swedish ancestry; drinks a shot of cognac, screams once, and stomps her foot once before every perf.. Australian-Am. economist (atheist) John Charles (Janos Karoly) Harsanyi (d. 2000) on May 29 in Budapest, Hungary; emigrates to Australia in 1950, and the U.S. in 1961; educated at the U. of Sydney. Ugandan pes. #5 (1979-80) (black) Godfrey Lukongwa Binaisa (d. 2010) on May 30 in Kampala. Am. "Patton", "Papillon", "Planet of the Apes", "The Boys from Brazil" dir. Franklin James Schaffner (d. 1989) on May 30 in Tokyo, Japan; raised in Japan; educated at Columbia U. Irish "The Longest Day" writer-journalist Cornelius Ryan (d. 1974) on June 5 in Dublin. Am. "The Howling Man in The Twilight Zone", "Brian O'Bannion in Auntie Mame" actor Robin Hughes (d. 1989) on June 7 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Am. leftist lit. critic (Jewish) Irving Howe (Horenstein) (d. 1993) on June 11 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at CCNY. Trinidadian "Tico Tico" jazz singer-pianist (black) Hazel Dorothy Scott (d. 1981) on June 11 in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; raised in New York City; educated at Juilliard School; first African-Am. with her own TV show (1950); wife (1945-56) of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-72). Zanzibar pres. #2 (1972-84) (black) Aboud Jumbe Mwinyi (d. 2016) on June 14 in Juba, Sudan. Am. "The Kingfisher" poitt (Quaker) Amy Clampitt (d. 1994) on June 15 in New Providence, Iowa; educated at Grinnell College. British Guardsman Edward Colquhoun Charlton (d. 1945) on June 15 in Rowlands Gill, County Durham. French biologist Francois Jacob (d. 2013) on June 17 in Nancy; 1965 Nobel Med. Prize. French designer Louis Jourdan (Gendre) on June 19 in Marseille. Am. "Midway", "The Beatles", "Ludwig Von Drake", "Boris Badenov" voice actor (Jewish) ("The Man of a Thousand Voices") Paul Frees (Solomon Hersh Frees) (d. 1986) (AKA Buddy Green) on June 22 in Chicago, Ill.; known for his 4-octave range voice. Guyanese "To Sir, With Love" novelist-writer-diplomat (black) Edward Ricardo Braithwaite on June 27 in Georgetown; educated at Cambridge U. Am. "Papa Hemingway" novelist-playwright-biographer Aaron Edward Hotchner on June 28 in St. Louis, Mo.; friend of Ernest Hemingway; co-founder with Paul Newman of Newman's Own Co. Am. producer and SFX creator Raymond Frederick "Ray" Harryhausen on June 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Katherine Caldwell in Son of Dracula" actress Louise Albritton (d. 1979) on July 3 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; wife (1946-79) of Charles Collingwood (1917-85). Am. "Queen of Mean" billionaire (Jewish) Leona Mindy Roberts Helmsley (nee Rosenthal) (d. 2007) on July 4 in Marbletown, N.Y.; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; hatmaker father; husband (1972-97) of real estate investor Harry B. Hemsley (1909-97) . Am. Quaker sociologist Elise M. Boulding (nee Biorn-Hansen) (d. 2010) on July 6 in Oslo, Norway; emigrates to the U.S. as an infant; wife of Kenneth Boulding (1910-93); educated at the U. of Mich. Am. "Huntley-Brinkley Report" TV journalist David McClure Brinkley (d. 2003) on July 10 in Wilmington, N.C.; educated at Vanderbilt U.; father of Alan Brinkley (1949-). Am. "The King and I", "The Magnificent Seven" actor (bald) Yuliy Borisovich "Yul" Brynner (Taidje Khan) (d. 1985) on July 11 in Sakhalin Island, Russia; raised by gypsies. Canadian "The Secret World of Og" writer-novelist Pierre Francis De Marigny Berton (d. 2004) on July 12 in Whitehorse, Yukon. Am. physicist (laser inventor) (atheist) Gordon Gould (d. 2005) on July 17 in New York City; Methodist parents; educated at Yale U. Spanish IOC pres. #7 (1980-2001) Juan Antonio Samanaranch Torello (Torelló), Marquess de Samaranch (d. 2010) on July 17 in Barcelona. Am. "My Dear Secretary" actress Helen Walker (d. 1968) on July 17 in Worcester, Mass.; a serious car accident in 1946 curtails her career. Am. "Robert Maynard in Blackbeard the Pirate", "Joe Doyle in Clash by Night" actor-singer Keith (John Charles) Andes (d. 2005) on July 12 in Ocean City, N.J.; educated at Temple U. and Oxford U. U.S. HEW secy. #9 (1970-3), U.S. defense secy. #11 (1973), U.S. atty.-gen. #69 (1973), and U.S. commerce secy. #24 (1976-7) Elliot Lee Richardson (d. 1999) on July 20 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. violinist-conductor (Jewish) Isaac Stern (d. 2001) on July 21 in Kremenetz, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1921; husband (1948-9) of Nora Kaye (1920-87). Am. feminist Dem. politician (Jewish) Bella Savitsky Abzug (d. 1998) on July 24 in New York City. Am. Broadway producer (Jewish) Alexander H. Cohen (d. 2000) on July 24 in New York City. English scientist (co-discoverer of DNA) Rosalind Elsie Franklin (d. 1958) on July 25 in London; the one who gets shafted for the Nobel. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (Los Angeles Rams) (1945-52) Robert Stanton "Bob" Waterfield (d. 1983) on July 26 in Elmira, N.Y.; educated at UCLA.; husband (1943-68) of Jane Russell (1921-). Am. country musician Henry Doyle Haynes (d. 1971) (Homer and Jethro) on July 27 near Knoxville, Tenn.; partner of Kenneth C. "Jethro" Burns (1920-89). British physicist Hans Kronberger (d. 1970) on July 28 in Linz, Austria. English-Am. "Gunsmoke", "McLintock!", "Chisum" TV-film dir. Andrew Victor McLaglen on July 28 in London; son of Victor McLaglen (1886-1959). French Club Med founder Gilbert Trigano (d. 2001) on July 28 in Saint-Maurice. Zimbabwe African Nat. Union (ZANU) founder (1963) (black) (Methodist) Rev. Ndabaningi Sithole (d. 2000) on July 13 in Nyamandhlovu; educated at Andover Newton Theological School. Am. "The 12th Planet" writer (Jewish) Zecharia Sitchin (d. 2010) on July ? in Baku, Azerbaijan; raised in Palestine. Am. "Bullwinkle the Moose and Mr. Peabody", "George of the Jungle" animated film writer-producer-voice actor William John "Bill" Scott (d. 1985) on Aug. 2 in Philadelphia, Pann. Am. "Adam Dalgliesh" crime novelist P.D. (Phyllis Dorothy) James, Baroness James of Holland Park on Aug. 3 in Oxford. Am. UPI journalist (1943-2000) (Greek Orthodox Christian) ("the Sitting Buddha") Helen Thomas (d. 2013) on Aug. 4 in Winchester, Ky.; Lebanese immigrant parents. Am. "Rocky Top", "Bye Bye Love", "All I Have to Do is Dream" songwriter Diadorius Boudleaux Bryant (d. 1987) on Aug. 7 in Shellman, Ga.; husband of Felice Bryant (Matilda Genevieve Scaduto) (1925-2003). Am. "Woodrow Wilson" historian (Lutheran) Arthur Stanley Link (d. 1998) on Aug. 8 in New Market, Va.; of German descent; Lutheran minister father; educated at the U. of N.C.; father of William A. Link. German "The Willing Flesh" novelist Willi Heinrich (d. 2005) on Aug. 9 in Heidelberg. Am. hall-of-fame basketball player-coach (New York Knicks, 1967-82) (Jewish) William "Red" Holzman (d. 1998) on Aug. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant father, Romanian Jewish immigrant mother; educated at the U. of Baltimore, and CCNY. Am. poet-novelist ("Poet Laureate of Skid Row") Henry Charles Bukowski (d. 1994) on Aug. 16 in Andernach, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923; his alter ego is Henry Chinaski, known for pursuing alcohol, women, and writing. Am. "Esmeralda in The Hunchback of Notre Dame", "Doris Walker in Miracle on 34th Street", "Mary Kate Danaher in The Quiet Man" actress (Roman Catholic) (redhead) Maureen O'Hara (FitzSimons) (d. 2015) on Aug. 17 in Ranelagh, County Dublin; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1946; sister of Charles B. FitzSimons (1924-2001) (her mgr.), James FitzSimons (1927-92), and Margot FitzSimons; wife (1939-41) of George H. Brown (1913-2001), (1941-53) Will Price (1913-62), and (1968-78) Charles F. Blair Jr. (1909-78). Am. "A Place in the Sun", "The Poseidon Adventure" actress (Jewish) ("the Blonde Bombshell") Shelley Winters (Shirley Schrift) (d. 2000) on Aug. 18 in East St. Louis, Ill.; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. actor Lawrence Neville Brand (d. 1992) on Aug. 13 in Griswold, Iowa. Am. historian Don Edward Fehrenbacher (d. 1997) on Aug. 21 in Sterling, Ill. Am. "Christopher Robin in Winnie-the-Pooh" celeb Christopher Robin Milne (d. 1996) on Aug. 21 in Chelsea, London; son of A.A. Milne (1882-1956). Am. "Fahrenheit 451", "The Martian Chronicles" sci-fi/fantasy novelist (aviophobe) Raymond Douglas "Ray" Bradbury (d. 2012) on Aug. 22 in Waukegan, Ill.; no college education or driver's license. Am. heart surgeon Denton Arthur Cooley on Aug. 22; educated at Johns Hopkins U. Am. Color Field painter Gene Davis (d. 1985) on Aug. 22 in Washington, D.C. Canadian artist Alex Colville on Aug. 24 in Toronto, Ont. Am. "Parker's Mood" jazz "bebop" alto saxophonist-composer (black) Charles Christopher "Charlie" "Bird" "Yardbird" Parker Jr. (d. 1955) on Aug. 29 in Kansas City, Kan. Am. "Sen. Pat Geary in The Godfather Part II" actor Gervais Duan "G.D." Spradlin on Aug. 31 in Daylight, Okla. Am. New York Times food critic (gay) Craig Claiborne (d. 2000) on Sept. 4 in Sunflower, Miss. Am. "Crusader Rabbit", "Rocky and Bullwinkle" cartoonist Alexander Hume "Alex" Anderson Jr. (d. 2010) on Sept. 5 in Berkeley, Calif.; collaborator of Jay Ward (1920-89). Am. composer Peter Racine Fricker (d. 1990) on Sept. 5 in London; descendent of Racine (1639-99); emigrates to the U.S. in 1970. Am. "Liz Matthews in Another World" actress Irene Dailey on Sept. 12 in New York City; brother of Dan Dailey (1913-78). Am. economist (pioneer in computer modeling) Lawrence Robert Klein on Sept. 14 in Omaha, Neb.; educated at UCB, and MIT; 1980 Nobel Econ. Prize. Dutch Communist resistance fighter ("the girl with the red hair") Jannetje Johanna (Jo) Schaft (d. 1945) (AKA Hannie) on Sept. 16 in Haarlem; Mennonite mother. Am. "Juror No. 7 in 12 Angry Men" actor (Jewish) Jack Warden (John Warden Lebzelter Jr.) (d. 2006) on Sept. 18 in Newark, N.J.; of Penn. Dutch and Irish ancestry; boxes as a welterweight under the name Johnny Costello. Am. baseball novelist Roger Angell on Sept. 19. Am. "Erica Kane's mother Mona Kane Tyler in All My Children" actress Mary Frances Heflin (d. 1994) on Sept. 20 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; sister of Van Heflin (1910-71). Am. "Rocky & Bullwinkle" animated film producer J. Troplong "Jay" Ward (d. 1989) on Sept. 20 in Berkeley, Calif.; educated at UCB and Harvard U. Am. medical researcher (melatonin discoverer) Aaron Bunsen Lerner (d. 2007) on Sept. 21 in Minneapolis, Minn.; educated at the U. of Minn. Am. "Andy Hardy" ("how old am I, I'll never tell?") actor Mickey Rooney (Joseph Ninian Yule Jr.) (d. 2014) on Sept. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Scottish-born vaudeville comedian father Joseph Yule Sr. (1894-1950), Am. mother Nellie W. Yule (nee Carter); first performs at age 15 mo. in a tuxedo; stars as Mickey McGuire in 78 comedies from 1927-36, and later claims that Walt Disney named Mickey Mouse after him; husband of (1942-3) Ava Gardner, (1944-8) Betty Jane Rase (Phillips) (Miss Birmingham, 1944), (1949-52) Martha Vickers, (1952-8) Elaine Devry, (1958-66) Carolyn Mitchell, (1966-7) Margaret "Marge" Lane), (1969-74) Carolyn Hockett, and (1978-2014) Jan Chamberlain; father of Mickey Rooney Jr. (1945-) and Tim Rooney (1947-2006). Israeli Sephardic chief rabbi (1973-83) (Jewish) Ovadia Yosef (Abdullah Youssef) (d. 2013) on Sept. 23 (1918)? in Baghdad, Iraq; emigrates to Jerusalem in 1924. Am. WWII USAF ace ("Ace of Aces" Richard Ira "Dick" "Bing" Bong (d. 1945) on Sept. 24 in Superior, Wisc. English "The Life That I Have" cryptographer-playwright (Jewish) Leo Marks (d. 2001) on Sept. 24 in London; husband (1966-2000) of Elena Gaussen. Am. "Cannon" actor-producer-dir. William Conrad (John William Cann Jr.) (d. 1994) on Sept. 27 in Louisville, Ky. Am. "Song of the Thin Man", "Lady in the Lake" actress Jayne Meadows (Cotter) on Sept. 27 in Wuchang, China; Episcopal missionary parents; sister of Audrey Meadows (1926-96); wife (1954-) of comedian Steve Allen. English biochemist Peter Dennis Mitchell (d. 1992) on Sept. 29 in Mitcham, Surrey; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge. U.S. Sen. (D-Va.) (1966-73) William Belser Spong Jr. (d. 1997) on Sept. 20 in Portsmouth, Va.; educated at the U. of Va. and U. of Edinburgh. Am. "Looking Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe" historian David Herbert Donald (d. 2009) on Oct. 1 in Goodman, Miss.; educated at the U. of Ill.; student of James G. Randall (1881-1953). Am. "Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple" actor (Jewish) Walter John Matthau (Matthow) (d. 2000) on Oct. 1 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; husband (1959-) of Carol Matthau (1925-2003); father of Charles Matthau (1962-). Irish-Am. "Dune" novelist Frank Patrick Herbert Jr. (d. 1986) on Oct. 8 in Tacoma, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. "A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich" playwright-novelist (black) Alice Childress (d. 1994) on Oct. 12 in Charleston, S.C. Am. "Redhead" composer-songwriter (Jewish) Albert Hague (Marcuse) (d. 2001) on Oct. 13 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939. Am. "The Godfather" novelist Mario Puzo (d. 1999) on Oct. 15 in New York City. Am. "Philip Boynton in Our Miss Brooks" Robert Rockwell (d. 2003) on Oct. 15 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "George Eastman in A Place in the Sun", "Pvt. Robert E. Lee Prew Prewitt in From Here to Eternity", "Noah Ackerman in The Young Lions" moody sensitive actor (bi) Edward Montgomery Clift (d. 1966) on Oct. 17 in Omaha, Neb.; great-grandson of U.S. postmaster gen. Montgomery Blair (1813-83); great-great-grandson of Francis Preston Blair Sr. (1791-1876) and Levi Woodbury (1789-1851). Am. "Aunt Esther in Sanford and Son" actress (black) LaWanda Page (Alberta Peal) (d. 2002) on Oct. 19 in Cleveland, Ohio; grows up in St. Louis, Mo. Venezuelan immunologist (Jewish) Baruj Benacerraf on Oct. 29 in Caracas; African Sephardic Jewish parents; educated at Columbia U. Guyanan pres (1997-9) (Jewish) Janet Rosalie Jagan (nee Rosenberg) on Oct. 20 in Chicago, Ill.; wife (1943-) of Cheddi Jagan (1918-97). Am. psychologist and LSD guru ("Turn on, tune in, drop out") Timothy Francis Leary (d. 1996) on Oct. 20 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at the U. of Ala., Washington State U., and UCB.; one of "several million middle-class, liberal, intellectual robots" until he reads the May 13, 1957 Life mag. article on psychedelic mushrooms by R. Gordon Wasson. Am. "Becky Thatcher in Tom Sawyer", "Little Orphan Actress" child actress Mitzi Green (Elizabeth Keno) (d. 1969) on Oct. 22 in Bronx, N.Y. French Resistance leader Genevieve de Gaulle-Anthonioz (d. 2002) Oct. 25; niece of Charles de Gaulle. Am. actress (hearing-challenged) Nanette Ruby Bernadette Fabray (Fabares) on Oct. 27 in San Diego, Calif. British novelist-jockey Richard Stanley "Dick" Francis on Oct. 31 in Lawrenny, S Wales; father is a jockey. Am. "Point-Counterpoint" conservative newspaper columnist James Jackson "Kilpo" Kilpatrick (d. 2010) on Nov. 1 in Oklahoma City, Okla.; educated at the U. of Mo.; starts out an ardent white supremacist and segregationist, then mellows. Canadian-Am. "Careen in Gone With the Wind", "Ghost of Christmas Past in A Christmas Carol", "Polly Benedict in Andy Hardy" actress Therese Ann Rutherford on Nov. 2 in Vancouver, B.C.; sister of Judith Arlen (1914-68); wife (1953-) of William Dozier (1908-91). Am. economist Douglass Cecil North on Nov. 5 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at UCB; 1993 Nobel Econ. Prize. Dutch heroine Marion Pritchard (nee Binsbergen) (d. 2016). Am. "Florida Evans in Maude and Good Times" actress (black) Esther Rolle (d. 1998) on Nov. 8 in Pompano Beach, Fla.; educated at Hunter College, and Spelman College. Am. spymaster-journalist Cord Meyer (d. 2001) on Nov. 10; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). British Social Dem. politician Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead (d. 2003) on Nov. 11 in Aberyschan, Monmouthshire, Wales; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. wall-eyed villain actor William Scott "Jack" Elam (d. 2003) on Nov. 13 in Miami, Fla.; loses left eye when a fellow Boy Scout throws a pencil at him at a meeting. Am. Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and Dem. politician Robert Frederick Drinan (d. 2007) on Nov. 15 in Hyde Park, Mass.; first Roman Catholic priest in the U.S. Congress (1970-80). Am. Pop Art painter Wayne Thiebaud (pr. TEE-bo) on Nov. 20 in Mesa, Ariz; grows up in Long Beach, Calif.; known for painting candies, cakes, etc. Am. "Mike Hammer in Kiss Me Deadly" actor Ralph Meeker (Rathgerber) (d. 1988) on Nov. 21 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player (lefty) ("the Donora Greyhound") (St. Louis Cardinals, 1941-63) Stanley Frank "Stan the Man" Musial (Stanislaw Franciszek Musial) (d. 2013) on Nov. 21 in Donora, Penn.; Polish immigrant parents. Romanian "Todesfuge" poet (Jewish) Paul Celan (Antschel) (d. 1970) on Nov. 23 in Cernauti, Bukovina; becomes a French citizen in 1955. Am. civil rights atty. (black) Percy Sutton on Nov. 24 in San Antonio, Tex. Mexican "Mr. Roarke in Fantasy Island", "Corinthian leather hawker in Chrysler Cordoba ads", "Khan Noonien Singh in Star Trek: TOS" actor (Roman Catholic) Ricardo Gonzalo Pedro Montalban (Montalbán) y Merino (d. 2009) on Nov. 25 in Mexico City; husband (1944-2007) of Georgiana Young (1924-2007). Am. "Lois Lane in Superman" actress Noel Neill on Nov. 25 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. Adm. Elmo Russell "Bud" Zumwalt Jr. (d. 2000) on Nov. 29 in San Francisco, Calif.; youngest chief of naval ops so far (1970); known for promoting the first African-Am. and female officers to adm. and allowing women to serve on warships and become naval aviators. Am. "Verna Jarrett in White Heat", "The Best Years of Our Lives" actress-dancer Virginia Mayo (Virginia Clara Jones) (d. 2005) on Nov. 30 in St. Louis, Mo. French populist politician Pierre Poujade (d. 2003) on Dec. 1 in Saint-Cere (Lot). English "Rangi Ram in It Ain't Half Hot Mum" actor Michael Bates (d. 1978) on Dec. 4 in Jhansi, India. Am. "Take Five", "In Your Own Sweet Way", "The Duke" jazz pianist David Warren "Dave" Brubeck (Dave Brubeck Quartet) on Dec. 6 in Concord, Calif.; almost kills himself by diving into the surf in Hawaii in 1951; likes unusual time signatures. Am. physical chemist Michael Kasha on Dec. 6 in Elizabeth, N.J.; Ukranian immigrant parents; educated at UCB. English chemist George Hornidge Porter, Baron Porter of Luddenham (d. 2002) on Dec. 6 in Stainforth (near Thorne), West Riding, Yorkshire; educated at the U. of Leeds; created baron in 1990. Am. "The Huntley-Brinkley Report" TV producer (Jewish) Reuven Frank (d. 2006) on Dec. 7 in Montreal, Quebec; educated at Columbia U. Austrian Nazi fighter ace (258 Vs - first with 250 Vs) Maj. Walter "Nowi" Nowotny (d. 1944) on Dec. 7 in Gmund. English writer radio producer (gay) Beryl Hallam Augustine Tennyson (d. 2005) on Dec. 10 in Chelsea, London; great-grandson of Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92); educated at Eaton, and Oxford U. Am "Airboy" comic book artist Fred Kida (d. 2014) on Dec. 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Japenese descent; grows up in Manhattan, N.Y. Am. statesman (U.S. secy. of state) George Pratt Shultz on Dec. 13. English "The Eagle of the Ninth" children's novelist Rosemary Sutcliff (d. 1992) on Dec. 14 in East Clandon, Surrey; Am. jazz trumpeter (black) (flugelhorn pioneer) Clark Terry (d. 2015) on Dec. 14 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. jazz trumpeter (black) Clark "Mumbles" Terry on Dec. 14 in St. Louis, Mo. Egyptian liberal Muslim scholar Gamal al-Banna on Dec. 15 in Mahmudiya; youngest brother of Hassan al-Banna (1906-49); great-uncle of Tariq Ramadan (1962-). Am. "May the Bird of Paradise Fly Up Your Nose" 4'11" country singer James Cecil "Little Jimmy" Dickens (d. 2015) (The Country Boys) on Dec. 19 in Bolt, W. Va.; first to wear rhinestone-studded outfits in performances. Cuban ballerina Alicia Alonso on Dec. 21 in Havana. Am. "Angie in Marty", "Walsh in Chinatown" actor Joseph "Joe" Mantell on Dec. 21 in New York City; first to utter the line "You talkin' to me" to a mirror in "The Twilight Zone" (episode 39). Cuban ballerina-choreographer (blind) Alicia Alonso Martinez> on Dec. 21 in Havana; loses her peripheral vision in 1941 to a detached retina; dance partner of Igor Youskevitch (1912-94). Am. songwriter-bandleader (black) Dave Bartholomew on Dec. 24 in Edgard, La. Am. "Felix Leiter in Dr. No", "Steve McGarrett in Hawaii Five-O", "Book 'em, Dano" actor Jack Lord (John Joseph Patrick Ryan) (d. 1998) on Dec. 30 in New York City. Am. actor-singer-songwriter ("the Arizona Cowboy") ("Last of the Silver Screen Cowboys") ("the Voice of the West") Rex Elvie Allen (d. 1999) on Dec. 31 in Willcox, Ariz. Peruvian U.N. secy.-gen. #5 (1982-91) (first from Latin Am.) Javier Perez de Cuellar (Javier Pérez de Cuéllar) y de la Guerra on ? in Lima. Am. historian David Herbert Donald on ? in Goodman, Miss.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. ecologist Robert Harding Whittaker (d. 1980) on ? in Wichita, Kan.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. burlesque queen Georgia Sothern (Hazel Eunice Finklestein) (d. 1981) on ? in ?. Am. nudist photographer Ed Lange (d. 1995) on ? in ?. Am. Kitty Litter inventor Edward H. Lowe (d. 1995) on ? in ?. English writer Jasper Godwin Ridley (d. 2004) on ? in ?; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U., and the Sorbonne. Am. "How to Meditate" psychologist Lawrence LeShan on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Chicago. Deaths: U.S. vice-pres. #22 (1889-93) Levi Parsons Morton (b. 1824) on May 16 at age 96 in RhineBeck (1970-), N.Y; longest-living U.S. vice-pres. - levy a parsimonious price on mortality? French paleographer Leopold Delisle (b. 1826). French empress (1853-71) (wife of Napoleon III) Eugenie de Montijo (b. 1826) on July 11 in Madrid. Am. penologist Zebulon Reed Brockway (b. 1827); his last years in Elmira (1876-1900) are spent running a corrupt prison? Italian philosopher Roberto Ardigo (b. 1828) on Sept. 15 in Mantova. German mathematician Moritz Cantor (b. 1829) on Apr. 10. British Liberal Unionist politician Jesse Collings (b. 1831) on Nov. 20. Am. Methodist Episcopal bishop John Heyl Vincent (b. 1832) on May 9. German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt (b. 1832) on Aug. 31 in Grossbothen (near Leipzig). English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (b. 1836). French physicist Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (b. 1837) on Aug. 31 in Agen. Am. "novelist-editor-critic William Dean Howells (b. 1837) on May 11: "The secret of a man who is universally interesting is that he is universally interested"; "We are creatures of the moment; we live from one little space to another, and only one interest at a time fills these"; "I hope the time is coming when not only the artist, but the common, avgerage man... will reject the ideal grasshopper whenever he finds it, in science, in literature, in art." Am. inventor John Wesley Hyatt (b. 1837) on May 10. German composer Max Bruch (b. 1838) on Oct. 2 in Berlin-Friedenau. English novelist Rhoda Broughton (b. 1840). English painter Briton Riviere (b. 1840). British Adm. Sir Jackie Fisher (b. 1841) on July 10 in Kilverstone, Norfolk. Am. voting machine inventor Jacob Hiram Myers (b. 1841) on Apr. 1 in Rochester, N.Y. English painter Sir William B. Richmond (b. 1842). British photographic chemist Sir William Abney (b. 1843). Spanish novelist Benito Perez Galdos (b. 1843) on Jan. 4 in Madir. Jewish publisher Rudolf Mosse (b. 1843) on Sept. 8 in Berlin. English theologian William Sanday (b. 1843) on Sept. 16. German botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (b. 1845) on Jan. 31. Hungarian painter-politician Pal Szinyei Merse (b. 1845) on Feb. 2 in Jernye. Russian jeweled egg designer Peter Carl Faberge (b. 1846) on Sept. 24 in Lausanne, Switzerland. German-born Am. financier-philantropist Jacob Schiff (b. 1847) on Sept. 25 in New York City. Australian writer Louisa Lawson (b. 1848) on Aug. 12 in Gladesville, N.S.W. Australian PM #1 (1901-3) Sir Edmund Barton (b. 1849) on Jan. 7 in Medlow Bath. Irish stage actor James O'Neill (b. 1849) on Aug. 10 in New London, Conn.; father of Eugene O'Neill. Am. painter Abbot Thayer (b. 1849). Syrian scholar Tahir al-Jaza'iri (b. 1851). Belgian WWI gen. Gerard Mathieu Leman (b. 1851) on Oct. 17 in Brussels. British novelist Mrs. Humphry (Mary) Ward (b. 1851) on Mar. 26. Am. Panama Canal Army surgeon Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas (b. 1854) on July 3 in London. German novelist Ludwig Ganghofer (b. 1855) on July 24 in Tegernsee; sells 30M copies of his feel-good-about-the-homeland novels. South African novelist Olive Schreiner (b. 1855) on Dec. 11 in Wynberg. Austrian field marshal Svetozar Boroevic (b. 1856) on May 23 in Klagenfurt. Somali Mad Mullah Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (b. 1856) on Dec. 21 in Imi, Ogaden. Am. explorer Robert Edwin Peary (b. 1856) on Feb. 20 in Washington, D.C; buried in Arlington Nat. Cemetery: "The pole at last! The prize of three centuries, my dream and ambition for 23 years, mine at last!" - did Penguin Peary die warm? French stage actress Gabrielle Rejane (b. 1856) on June 14 in Paris. German artist Max Klinger (b. 1857) on July 5. Mexican pres. #17 (1917-20) Venustiano Carranza (b. 1859) on May 21 in Tlaxcalantongo, Puebla; assassinated by forces of Gen. Rodolfo Herrero; last words: "Lawyer, they have already broken one of my legs." Am. composer Reginald De Koven (b. 1859) on Jan. 16. Swedish painter Anders Leonard Zorn (b. 1860) on Aug. 22. Am. poet Louise Imogen Guiney (b. 1861) on Nov. 20. German poet Richard Dehmel (b. 1863) on Nov. 18 in Blankenese (Hamburg). Albanian PM #3 (1914-6) Essad Pasha Toptani (b. 1863) on June 13 in Paris, France (assassinated by Avni Rustemi, who claims to be the true ruler of Albania). British-born Am. Mt. McKinley climber Rev. Hudson Stuck (b. 1863) on Oct. 10 in Fort Yukon, Alaska (pneumonia); assigned the feast day of Apr. 22 along with John Muir by the U.S. Episcopal Church. Am. auto magnate John Francis Dodge (b. 1864) on Jan. 20 in Detroit, Mich. (influenza); interred in the Egyptian-style Dodge Brothers Mausoleum in Woodlawn Cemetery, Detroit, Mich. German philosopher Max Weber (b. 1864) on June 14 in Munich. Colombian astronomer Julio Garavito Armero (b. 1865). Am. violinist Maud Powell (b. 1868) on Jan. 8. Czech novelist Ruzena Svobodova (b. 1868). Am. auto magnate Horace Elgin Dodge Sr. (b. 1868) on Dec. 10 in Detroit, Mich. (influenza); interred in the Egyptian-style Dodge Brothers Mausoleum in Woodlawn Cemetery, Detroit, Mich. Am. "Pollyanna" novelist Eleanor Hodgman Porter (b. 1868) on May 21 in Cambridge, Mass. Am. historian George Louis Beer (b. 1872) on Mar. 15 in New York City; dies after serving as a colonial expert on Pres. Wilson's Am. Commission of Inquiry in WWI, attending the Paris Peace Conference as chief of the colonial div. in 1918-19, becoming a member of the Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, and dir. of the Mandatory Section of the League's Secretariat in 1919; leaves a bequest in his will to establish the George Louis Beer Prize in 1923 for best historical writing about Euro internat. history since 1895 by citizens or permanent residents of the U.S., becoming the Academy Award of book prizes for modern Euro historians; the first winner is Edward Mead Earle (1894-1954) for "Turkey, the Great Powers, and the Bagdad Railway: A Study in Imperialism" (1923). French-born Russian Communist Inessa Armand (b. 1874) on Sept. 24 (cholera). Afghan king (1919) Nasrullah Khan (b. 1874) in Kabul. White Russian Adm. Alexander Kolchak (b. 1874) on Feb. 7 in Kirkutsk (executed by the Bolsheviks). Irish Sinn Fein lord mayor of Cork (1920) Terence MacSwiney (b. 1879) on Oct. 25 in Brixton Prison, Lambeth, England (hunger strike). Iranian religious-political leader Shaikh Mohammad Khiabani (b. 1880) in Tabriz (murdered by Mokhber os-Saltaneh on the orders of the new PM). Am. composer Charles Tomlinson Griffes (b. 1884) on Apr. 8 in New York City (influenza). Italian artist Amedeo Modigliani (b. 1884) on Jan. 24 in Paris (TB); dies broke and addicted to absinthe, clinging to his pregnant nurse-lover Jeanne Hebuterne (Hébuterne) (b. 1898), who is taken in by her parents and commits suicide by leaping from an upstairs window; a large crowd from Paris attends his funeral, and his work later becomes valuable, feeding the myth that artists need to become addicts to receive inspiration. White Russian PM Viktor Pepelyayev (b. 1885) on Feb. 7 in Kirkutsk (executed by the Bolsheviks). Indian number theory mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan (b. 1887) on Apr. 26 - the good die young? Am. Communist journalist John Reed (d. 1887) on Oct. 20 in Moscow, Russia (typhus); first American buried in Red Square. French-born Am. auto racer-manufacturer Gaston Chevrolet (b. 1892) on Nov. 25 in Los Angeles, Calif. (auto accident at Beverly Hills Speedway). Greek king (1917-20) Alexander I (b. 1893) on Oct. 25 in Athens; dies of sepsis after being bitten by two monkeys. Am. Notre Dame U. football star (#66) (1917-20) George "Gipper" Gipp (b. 1895) on Dec. 14 in South Bend, Ind. (pneumonia); on his deathbed he tells coach Knute Rockne: "Sometime when the boys are up against it and the pressure's really on Notre Dame, tell them to win one for the Gipper"; once ran the 100 yards in 10.2 sec. in full uniform; has a contract to play baseball for the Chicago Cubs. Irish independence leader Sean Treacy (b. 1895) on Oct. 14 in Dublin; killed in a shootout with the stanking' British.
1921 Chinese Year: Chicken. The pop. of Ireland, which peaked at 6.25M before the 1846-8 potato famine is down to 4.3M. After the end of WWI causes the heavy industry boom to bust, 50K emigrate from Scotland. Divorces in Germany: 39K (18K in 1913). Gasoline production in U.S.: 472M barrels. Illegitimate births: Germany: 173K, France 65K, Chile 55K, Italy 49K. The most devastating drought in Russian history occurs this year in the areas around the Caspian Sea, and millions perish while the Bolshevik govt. is powerless to deal with the crisis, and Britain refuses aid. Between 1921 and 1924 the number of Americans in Paris swells from 6K to 30K - hot child in the city? On Jan. 1 Calif. defeats Ohio State by 28-0 to win the 1921 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 the Ambassador Hotel at 3400 Wiltshire Blvd. in Los Angeles, Calif. opens, designed by Pasadena architect Myron Hunt (1868-1952), becoming a favorite spot for Hollywood celebs, Academy Award ceremonies, and U.S. presidents from Hoover to Nixon, who all groove on the Cocoanut Grove Nightclub, which has a big fire on Nov. 28, 1942 that kills 492, and goes on to become the hotel where RFK is killed on June 6, 1968. On Jan. 2 religious services are first broadcast on radio when KDKA in Pittsburgh, Penn. airs the regular Sunday service of the Calvary Episcopal Church - Henry VIII rolls over in his tomb? On Jan. 3 Italy stops issuing passports to those emigrating to the U.S. On Jan. 4 Congress overrides Pres. Wilson's veto, reactivating the War Finance Corps to aid struggling farmers. On Jan. 5 Richard Wagner's Die Valkyrie ("Die Walkure) opens in Paris, becoming the first German opera performed in Paris since the beginning of WWI. On Jan. 6 the U.S. Navy orders the sale of 125 flying boats to encourage commercial aviation. On Jan. 13 the French Gen. Confederation of Labor is dissolved by court order over its failed May 1920 gen. strike, causing a schism between the Roman Catholic and Communist members; only 10% of French workers are unionized. On Jan. 13-22 the Congress of the Socialist Party in Livorno, Italy ends in a split into moderate and radical Communist wings, the latter led by Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), pub. of Ordine Nuovo in Turin (Torino); the Italian Communist Party is born. On Jan. 24-30 the Paris Conference fixes German reparation payments at 226B gold Reichmarks over 42 years, despite British warnings that they can never pay it; on Mar. 1 German foreign minister Walter Simons (1861-1937) meets with the Brits in London and counteroffers 30B marks, then refuses to accept the Paris Conference terms; in Mar. the French and British seize the Ruhr River ports of Dusseldorf, Duisburg, and Ruhrort, causing the German delegation to quit all talks. On Jan. 21 J.D. Rockefeller pledges $1M for the relief of Europe's destitute; on Jan. 22 U.S. farmers pledge 15M bushels of corn for Europe. On Jan. 21 the Carol A. Deering is stranded on rough seas off Diamond Shoals near Cape Hatteras, and her crew mysteriously disappears, spawning ghost ship legends. On Jan. 28 Albert Einstein startles Berlin by suggesting the possibility of measuring the Universe. On Feb. 2 airmail service opens between New York City and San Francisco; on Feb. 23 an airmail plane sets a record of 33 hours 20 min. On Feb. 12 Winston Churchill of London is appointed colonial secy. On Feb. 19 the U.S. Red Cross reports that approx. 20K children die yearly in auto accidents. On Feb. 21 dissolute Persian shah (since 1909) Ahmed Shah Qajar (known for his love of French hos, and for losing and gaining 200 lbs. in two years) is deposed in a British-backed military coup led by Col. Reza Pahlavi (1878-1944), the Qajar Dynasty (founded 1794) ends; in 1923 the shah is forced into exile in France with his family, and on Oct. 28 Reza Pahlavi becomes PM of Persia (until Nov. 1, 1925), taking the title of khan; the Persian army is barred from intervening in politics, becoming known as the Silent Beauty. On Feb. 27 Sheikh Salim of Kuwait dies, and is succeeded by Ahmad al-Jaber (al-Jabir) al-Sabah (1885-1950). On Feb. 27 riots break out between Communists and Fascist Arditi (strike breakers) in Florence, Italy, ultimately becoming a mini-civil war. On Feb. 28 the Soviet-Afghan Treaty of Mutual Recognition gives Afghanistan a counterweight to the threat of British India; on Mar. 1 the Turkish-Afghan Treaty of Friendship is signed, followed on June 22 by the Persian-Afghan Treaty of Friendship; Afghan emir Amanullah paints himself as a pan-Islamic leader, getting laws passed banning child marriage and marriages between close relatives, and setting a cap on wedding and dowry expenses. In Feb. shipping firm Mitsubishi Co. (founded 1870) of Nagoya, Japan invites British Sopwith Camel designer Herbert Smith (1889-1977) to help them establish an aircraft manufacturing div., going on to develop the Mitsubishi 1MF (Navy Type 10 Carrier Fighter) (first flight 1921), the Mitsubishi 2MR (Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft) (C1M) recon aircraft (first flight Jan. 12, 1922), the Mitsubishi 1MT (Navy Type 10 Torpedo Bomber) (first flight Aug. 1922), and the Mitsubishi B1M (Navy Type 13 Carrier-Borne Aircraft) torpedo bomber (first flight 1923). On Mar. 1 ex-king (1910-18) Nicholas I (b. 1841) of Montenegro dies, and Montenegro formally becomes a province of Yugoslavia. On Mar. 1-18 the Kronstadt Rebellion by sailors ("the Praetorian Guard of Bolshevism") in the port of Kronstadt near Petrograd on the Gulf of Finland is put down by Russian soldiers. On Mar. 3 the 1921 British Emergency Unemployment Act increases unemployment payments for the 1M unemployed, but funds them out of future unemployment insurance contributions; it works, since on Mar. 28 the Labour Party refuses to affiliate with the Communists. On Mar. 4 Blooming Grove, Ohio-born Repub. Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923) ("President Hardly") ("Wobbly Warren") becomes the 29th U.S. pres. (until Aug. 2, 1923) in the 39th U.S. Pres. Inauguration (first U.S. pres. elected with female suffrage) (first incumbent U.S. Sen.) (first newspaper publisher) (first pres. to ride in a car at his inauguration, and to drive himself) John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) becomes the 29th U.S. vice-pres.; Woodrow Wilson leaves the White House for his home on S Street; Harding holds a child welfare ball instead of an inaugural ball; a newspaperman who loves reporters, he restores the biweekly White House meetings scrapped by press-hating Pres. Wilson; First Lady Florence "Flossie" Mabel Kling De Wolfe Harding (1860-1924) (first coed college grad) is the wealthy daughter of the richest man in Marion, Ohio (who politically backs her hubby); Pres. Harding's Inaugural Address contains the soundbyte "The recorded progress of our republic, materially and spiritually, in itself proves the wisdom of the inherited policy of noninvolvement in Old World affairs. Confident of our ability to work out our own destiny, and jealously guarding our right to do so, we seek no part in directing the destinies of the Old World. We do not mean to be entangled... The America builded on the foundation laid by the inspired fathers, can be a party to no permanent military alliance. It can enter into no political commitments, nor assume any economic obligations which will subject our decisions to any other than our own authority"; Harding appoints Welsh-born Moose Lodge head and former steel mill worker James John "Puddler Jim" Davis (Davies) (1873-1947) as labor secy., who goes on to work to restrict immigration, establish the U.S. Border Patrol, and survive three presidents (until 1930); on Mar. 4 millionaire financier Andrew William Mellon (1855-1937) becomes U.S. treasury secy. #49 (until Feb. 12, 1932), lasting for three presidents (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover); on Mar. 5 Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (1862-1948), close loser of the 1916 U.S. Pres. Election becomes U.S. secy. of state #44 (until Mar. 4, 1925), convening the Conference on the Limitation of Armament in Washington, D.C. on Nov. 12 (until Feb. 6, 1922); on Mar. 5 mining engineer Herbert Clark Hoover (1874-1964) becomes U.S. commerce secy. #3 (until Aug. 21, 1928); former U.S. ambassador to France (1912-14) Myron Timothy Herrick (1854-1929) is reappointed (until 1929), just in time to greet Lucky Lindbergh; Harding fights the 1920 recession by cutting federal spending in half, cutting federal taxes by a third, and paying off debt. On Mar. 6 N.Y. passes a movie censorship law, causing William Aloysius Brady (1863-1950), pres. of the Nat. Assoc. of the Motion Picture Industry (1915-22) to go on a U.S. tour to protest movie censorship, causing the industry to turn to self-censorship next year to forestall govt. intervention. On Mar. 8 Spanish PM (since 1920) Eduardo Dato (b. 1856) is assassinated by Catalan anarchists while leaving Parliament in Madrid, becoming the first Spanish PM assassination since Jose Canalejas in 1912. On Mar. 8 French troops occupy Dusseldorf. On Mar. 13 after driving the Chinese out of Urga (Ulaan Baatar) in Feb., Mongolia declares independence from China, and gains it on July 11 (National Day), led by German-Estonian "Bloody White Baron" Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (1886-1921), who declares himself khan of Mongolia, adopting Mongolian dress and trying to pass himself off as Genghis Khan's successor; too bad, after he establishes a protectorate over the Bogd Khan, a Red Army defeats him next July-Aug., causing him to flee W with his troops hoping to set himself up later as king of Tibet, only to be handed over by his own soldiers to the Red Army on Aug. 21 for his dictatorial abuses, and executed in Novosibirsk on Sept. 21 - viva Genghis Khan? On Mar. 15 new elections in Cuba give another V to Dr. Alfredo Zayas (until 1925), but the meddling of U.S. Gen. Enoch Herbert Crowder (1859-1932) causes a resurgence in Cuban nationalism and opposition to U.S. interference; meanwhile the sugar industry is in collapse, causing the island to look for a new source of income. :) On Mar. 16 the 10th Russian Communist Party Congress passes Resolution 12, banning factions within the party - you never know what might happen? On Mar. 16 the Treaty of Moscow between the Bolsheviks and Kemalists of Turkey establishes a new Turkish-Soviet border that makes 1-y.-o. Armenia go poof, splitting its pop. On Mar. 16 the bilateral 1921 Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement is signed as part of Lenin's capitalist-friendly New Economic Policy, ending the British blockade and opening Russian ports to British ships, with both sides agreeing to stop their hostile agitprop, opening a period of extensive trade. On Mar. 17 Edinburgh-born Scottish paleobotanist Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1880-1958), author of "Married Love" (1918) opens the Mother's Clinic, Britain's first family planning clinic at 61 Marlborough Rd., Holloway, North London, advocating birth control and trying to soften Anglo-Saxon sex guilt attitudes; too bad, she stinks her name up by getting involved in the eugenics movement - we are trying to let you get lucky, right? On Mar. 17 the honor society Phi Alpha Theta (originally Univ. Historical Society) is founded at the U. of Ark. by Nels Cleven for students and professors of history, growing to 350K members by 2017. On Mar. 18 the Treaty (Peace) of Riga between Poland and Russia is signed, ending their conflict, incorporating large areas of Lithuania, White Russia, and W Ukraine into Poland, making it territorially satisfied for the first time - how is it rigged against the Poles this time? On Mar. 20 a plebiscite in Upper Silesia is a V for Germany over Poland, causing the Third Silesian Uprising on May 2-July 21 between Polish and German insurgents, which is ended by the arrival of British troops and a gen. amnesty, followed by the division of Upper Silesia, with the Poles getting one-third of the territory (3K out of 11K sq. km). On Mar. 21 U.S. commerce secy. Herbert Hoover publicly opposes all trade with poor, starving but Bolshevist Russia. On Mar. 23 U.S. Lt. Arthur G. Hamilton sets a new parachute record, safely jumping 24.4K ft. On Mar. 27 (Sun.) the first Easter sunrise service is held in the in-construction Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, Calif. On Mar. 27 the British recognize Sharif Abdullah Ibn Hussein (1882-1951) (brother of King Faysal) as provisional ruler of Transjordan (not subject to the Balfour Declaration), and in Apr. appoint Albert Abramson (1876-) as his British advisor (actually head of the British Secret Service for the British Mandate of Palestine); on Nov. 21 he is replaced by Ceylon-born polyglot Arabophile Harry St. John Bridger "Jack" Philby (1885-1960) (AKA Sheikh Abdullah) (who organized the Arab revolt against the Turks in WWI, and wrote the Iraqi constitution last year), who goes on to back Ibn Saud against Sharif Hussein as "king of the Arabs", and recommend a united Arabian peninsula, while leaking state secrets to Ibn Saud, causing the British govt. to think he "went native" and force his resignation in 1924. On Mar. 31 the Great Coal Strike in Britain begins after proposals for nationalization are rejected and govt. control of the mines ends; Britain declares a state of emergency after railway and transport workers join the strike; too bad, the latter return to work on Apr. 15 ("Black Friday"), and on June 28 the strike is settled with a govt. offer of a subsidy and increased wages, ending officially on July 1. In Mar. Congress provides for the burial of an unidentified U.S. soldier from World War I in a special place of honor. In Mar. in Russia the New Economic Plan (denationalization except for large-scale industry, banking, and foreign trade) is instituted. In Mar. a Communist uprising in C Germany led by Max Holz of Plauen, Saxony is quashed, and Holz is sentenced to life in prison. On Apr. 2 Albert Einstein (1879-1955) lectures on his Theory of Relativity at Columbia U. to mucho publicity; he lectured at City College of New York first. On Apr. 3 lord chief justice (since 1913) Lord Reading succeeds Lord Chelmsford as British viceroy of India (until Apr. 3, 1926), and (did I mention?) is created marquis of Reading, becoming the highest peerage rank reached by a Jew in British history. On Apr. 8 right-wing former PM (1915) Demetrios (Dimitrios) Gounaris (1866-1922), leader of the anti-Venizelos People's Party becomes PM of Greece (until May 16, 1922), continuing the war against Turkey, which ends up getting him canned and killed. On Apr. 10 Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) is elected pres. of China (until ?). On Apr. 11 Iowa becomes the first state to impose a cigarette tax (2 cents). On Apr. 12 Pres. Harding's First Message to Congress calls for cuts in corporate taxes, incl. on "excess profits", with personal income taxes to remain as-is, with a top rate of 8% on incomes above $4K a year; on June 10 the U.S. Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 is passed, becoming the first unified federal budget, establishing the Bureau of the Budget, whose dir. reports to the pres., and the Gen. Accounting Office (GAO) to cut wasteful spending, whose dir. is the U.S. comptroller gen.; too bad, Senators want to give bonuses to WWI vets, like 38 states already did, starting a war with Harding. On Apr. 14-15 a U.S. record 75.8 in. of snow falls in a 24-hour period at Silver Lake, Colo. On Apr. 18 Ontario announces prohibition, to take effect within 3 mo. On Apr. 18 Junior Achievement, created to encourage business skills in young people is incorporated in ever-corny Colorado Springs, Colo. On Apr. 19 Ain-born former simple country girl turned chef Eugenie "La Mere" Brazier (1895-1977) opens her first restaurant in onion-loving Lyon, France, rising with help of food critic Curnonsky to become the first woman to earn three Michelin stars in 1933, turning Lyon into the #2 food capital of France after Paris; she also becomes the first French chef of either sex to attain six Michelin stars for her restaurants on Rue Royale and in the Alpine foothills at Col de la Luère; her cooking attracts celebrity clientele incl. Charles de Gaulle, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, and Marlene Dietrich, who loves her Langouste Belle Aurore, a whole sweet lobster drenched in brandy and cream; her student Paul Bocuse (1926-) goes on to keep Lyon at the top. On Apr. 20 the Allies set up a customs frontier on the Rhine; as the big day for the first reparation payment (May 1) approaches, the Reparation Commission folds and fixes the liability at a lower sum of 132B marks, but adds another 12B for reconstruction of industrial works, and demands that all the gold of the Reichsbank be handed over as insurance. On Apr. 26 the first weather news is aired by radio station WEW in St. Louis, Mo. In Apr. the U.S. Big Red Scare reaches its height. On May 1 Quebec takes control of liquor sales. On May 1-7 the Jaffa Riots (Heb. Me'oraot Tarpa) in the Palestine Mandate starts out as a fight between two groups of Jews that attracts madass Muslim Arabs; "Arab men bearing clubs, knives, swords, and some pistols broke into Jewish buildings and murdered their inhabitants, while women followed to loot. They attacked Jewish pedestrians and destroyed Jewish homes and stores. They beat and killed Jews in their homes, including children, and in some cases split open the victims' skulls"; the Haycraft Commission of Inquiry whitewashes it with the report "Palestine: Disturbances in May 1921", blaming it on the Jews as well as Arabs: "The fundamental cause of the Jaffa riots and the subsequent acts of violence was a feeling among the Arabs of discontent with, and hostility to, the Jews, due to political and economic causes, and connected with Jewish immigration, and with their conception of Zionist policy as derived from Jewish exponents", causing British high commissioner Herbert Samuel Samuel to limit Jewish immigration to the region "only to the extent that it did not burden the economy"; Jews are only 10% of the pop. On May 3 W. Va. imposes the first state sales tax - on cigarettes and cough drops? On May 3 the term Big Apple (a gambling term meaning a desirable prize) is first used in reference to New York City by John J. Fitz Gerald in the New York Morning Telegraph. On May 10 the Allies issue an ultimating giving Germany until May 12 to accept all of their reparation and disarmament demands and to begin trying German war criminals, causing the cabinet of chancellor Konstantine Fehrenbach to resign, and a center-left coalition cabinet to be formed by Catholic Center Party minister of finance Karl Joseph Wirth (1879-1956), who starts a policy of "fulfillment" in an effort to demonstrate that Germany is incapable of paming, going on to begin paying reparations on Aug. 31, causing the mark to begin falling in value; the final payment isn't made until Oct. 3, 2010. On May 15 the first elections in Italy under universal suffrage result in the Liberals and Democrats winning 275 seats, the Socialists 122, Roman Catholics 107, Fascists 22, and Communists 16. On May 16 the U.S. Supreme (White) Court rules unanimously in Dillon v. Gloss that Congress when proposing a constitutional amendment may fix a definite period for ratification, incl. the 7-year period they set for passing the 18th Amendment. On May 19 Congress passes the U.S. Emergency Quota Act, establishing nat. quotas for immigrants entering the U.S. On May 20 a peace treaty is signed by Germany and China. On May 21 Taggart Baking Co. of Indianapolis, Ind. begins marketing Wonder Bread, named by Edward Cline for the red-white-yellow-blue balloons at Indianapolis Speedway; in 1925 it is acquired by Continental Baking Co., who adds "It's Slo Baked" on the logo; in 1927 it expands to Canada, later Mexico; in the 1930s it becomes one of the first white breads shipped pre-sliced; a steel shortage in WWII causes it to be sold unsliced in 1943-5, after which it begins enriching it, helping spur the Quiet Miracle that reduces the incidence of beriberi, pellagra et al.; in the 1950s it sponsors The Howdy Doody Show, with the slogan: "Wonder Bread builds strong bodies 8 ways. Look for the red, yellow and blue balloons printed on the wrapper"; in the 1960s the slogan is "Helps build strong bodies 12 ways"; in 1995 it is acquired by Interstate Bakers Corp. (later Hostess brands), which goes through bankruptcy in 2004-Feb. 2009; on Aug. 28, 2007 after a court judgment it ends production in Southern Calif., causing a consumer reaction that helps it return in Sept. 2009; on July 22, 2013 after it files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, it is acquired by Flowers Foods. On May 22 (Sun.) the duly elected parliament of Northern Ireland is opened by the English king, who gives a conciliatory speech; the southern parliament never assembles, and instead a self-constituted body called the Dail Eireann ("assembly of Ireland") (pr. doll-ERR-an) begins meeting, with Eamon de Valera (1882-1975) as pres. #1 of the Irish Free State (ends 1937); on July 8 a truce is agreed to, and signed by Great Britain and the IRA on July 11; Michael Collins signs it, saying he's really signed his death warrant, and is assassinated on Aug. 22, 1922; on Dec. 6 Great Britain gives the Irish Free State dominion status under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, while six counties in Northern Ireland remain part of the U.K.; the truce leads to a split in the IRA and a civil war in Ireland. On May 27 Pres. Harding signs an emergency tariff measure, and in July the House passes a bill increasing tariffs across the board. On May 30 the Teapot Dome Scandal results after the U.S. Navy transfers the Teapot Dome oil reserves in Wyo. to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior; on Mar. 5 N.M. Sen. (since Mar. 27, 1912) Albert Bacon Fall (1861-1944) becomes U.S. interior secy. #28 (until Mar. 4, 1923), leasing them to two private oil cos. at low rates sans competitive bidding, and is later convicted of accepting bribes from Sinclair Oil tycoon Harry Ford Sinclair (1876-1956), incl. $269K and several prize head of cattle for oil-drilling rights to public lands in Wyo. and Calif., testifying before the U.S. Congress, and uttering the immortal Milkshake Analogy: "Sir, if you have a milkshake and my straw reaches across the room, I'll end up drinking your milkshake", which is used in the 2008 film "There Will Be Blood"; Ford ends up serving 6 mo. in prison for jury tampering. On May 31 Lithuanian-Ams. present Pres. Harding with 1M signatures requesting de jure recognition of Lithuania. On May 31 after not seeing each other for two years and exchanging no love letters, after which she sends him a letter in Jan. saying "I am alone now with Mother. If you still care for me just send for me", silent film star Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton (1895-1966) marries silent film actress Natalie Talmadge (1896-1969), sister of his producer Joseph Schenck's wife Norma Talmadge; too bad, after spending his dough like water for fancy homes and clothes, and giving him two sons James (b. 1922) and Robert (b. 1924) she stops having sex with him, causing him to begin seeking other dames, which she uses as an excuse for bitter divorce in 1932, taking the rest of his fortune along with the sons, and he becomes an alcoholic, selling his lavish $300K 10K sq. ft. Beverly Hills Italian villa The General (built 1926) (used in the 1972 film "The Godfather") in the 1933; "I took a lot of pratfalls to build that dump." On May 31-June 1 the 16-hour Tulsa Race Riot breaks out in "Black Wall Street" (Greenwood neighborhood) of Tulsa, Okla., with a mob of 10K whites aided by police and the Nat. Guard burning down 35 city blocks (1,256 homes), causing $1.8M in property damage, leaving 10K homeless, and killing 200-300 (official totals 23 blacks, 16 whites); some whites drop dynamite from a plane onto the black ghetto?; after white Tulsa businessman Cyrus Stevens Avery (1871-1963) begins a push to build Route 66 (Nov. 11, 1926), and makes sure it goes through the town, and white country groups such as Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys set up shop, the town becomes a white haven, dubbed "America's most beautiful city" by Time mag. in the 1950s. On June 3 the Great Pueblo Flood of the Arkansas River destroys Pueblo, Colo., killing 100 and causing $30M damage, causing a concrete channel to be built for the river in 1923, followed by the Pueblo Dam in the 1970s. On June 12 Pres. Harding urges every young man to attend military training camp - for what, their health, so they won't end up looking like Taft? On June 20-Aug. 5 the Imperial Conference of 1921 is held in London; Australian PM W.M. Hughes utters the soundbyte "We ought not spend one shilling or risk one life to further the ambitious projects of King Constantine" against the Turks. On June 21-July 21 under the direction of asst. chief Brig. Gen. William "Billy Mitchell", U.S. Army Air Service pilots bomb the captured German battleship Ostfriesland to demonstrate the effectiveness of aerial bombing on warships, becoming the first naval vessels sunk by aircraft - the beginnings of Shock and Awe? On June 22 civil war breaks out in China; on June 30-July 1 the Chinese Communist Party is founded by young deer-in-the-headlights librarian Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976) under the leadership of Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. On June 24 the League of Nations council gives Finland sovereignty over the Aland Islands, with its own autonomous govt. On June 25 Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) is elected head of the AFL for the 40th and last time (1886-1924). On June 26 the Giolitti cabinet falls over its foreign policy, and on July 4 Ivanhoe Bonomi (1873-1951) becomes PM with a new cabinet (until Feb. 26, 1922). On June 30 Pres. Harding appoints former Repub. pres. #27 (1909-13) William Howard Taft (1857-1930) as U.S. Chief Justice #10 and its 69th justice to fill the vacancy left by Edward Douglass White (1910-21), and he is sworn-in on July 11 (until Feb. 3, 1930), becoming the first person to have held both offices (until ?). On July 2 Pres. Harding signs the joint congressional Knox-Porter Resolution declaring an end to the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary; Johann Schober (1874-1932), an Austrian police minister who was made pres. just before the fall of the Hapsburg monarchy in 1918 is chosen to head a coalition govt. supported by the Christian Social and Pan-German parties, also acting as foreign minister in Dec. to conclude the Treaty of Lany (Lány) with Czech., which pisses-off the Pan-Germans, who want to unite with Germany, leading to his downfall. On July 4 caretaker Jack Torrance celebrates in the ballroom of the Overlook Hotel in Colo. to the song "Midnight, the Stars and You" - Steven King's 1977 novel "The Shining" On July 7 moderate Filipp Makharadze (1868-1941) is removed as chmn. of the Georgian Rev. Committee and replaced by Polikarp "Budu" Mdivani (1877-1937), who next year begins the Georgian Affair of 1922 (ends Jan. 1923), a bitter conflict with Stalin contesting his centralizing policy, accusing him of "Great Russian chauvinism", which Stalin counters by calling his party "national deviationists", both sides trying to win Lenin over; too bad, Mdivani fails to stop the amalgamation of Georgia with Armenia and Azerbaijan into the Transcaucasian Repub., and is removed next Jan. On July 11 after issuing an ultimatum, Adolf Hitler is given dictatorial powers in the fledgling 3-member German Nazi Party (NSDAP), and elected pres. of the party on July 29. On July 14 Italian-born Am. anarchists Nicola Sacco (1891-1927) (clean-shaven) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888-1927) (big moustache) (charged in 1920) are found guilty of the murders of a guard and a paymaster in South Braintree, Mass. during an Apr. 15, 1920 robbery of the slater and Morrill Shoe Co. in Braintree, Mass. in a trial charged with Red Scare politics, protesting their innocence, gaining internat. publicity and global protests; after being convicted of first-degree murder, they are electrocuted at Charlestown State Prison on Aug. 23, 1927, sparking, er, more riots in London, Paris et al.; on Aug. 23, 1977 Mass. Gov. Michael Dukakis proclaims that they had been given an unfair trail, and that "any disgrace should be forever removed from their names." On July 20 the New York Times pub. an article, with the soundbyte: "Russia's 6,000,000 Jews are facing extermination by massacre. As the famine is spreading, the counter-revolutionary movement is gaining and the Soviet's control is waning." On July 22-Aug. 9 in Morocco Gen. Fernandez Silvestre and 20K Spaniards are disastrously defeated by the Riffians under Abd-el-Krim at the Battle (Disaster) of Annual; the Spanish lose 12K men, Silvestre commits suicide, and the Spanish ministry falls; a Spanish parliamentary commission submits a report on the disaster in 1922, recommending the execution of several generals and ministers, and is suppressed - I'll do anything, I'm your puppet? On July 25 Belgium and Luxembourg sign the 50-year Belgian-Luxembourg Economic Union Convention in Brussels, abolishing customs frontiers between them effective next May 1 - a covenant man is a lover? Big date for conspiracy theorists? On July 29 the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is founded in Washington D.C. by Col. Edward Mandell House (1858-1938), chief advisor to Pres. Wilson as the U.S. counterpart of the English Royal Inst. of Internat. Affairs; it pub. the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, becoming influential in high places - the Illuminati conspiracy? On Aug. 10 39-y.-o. Franklin D. Roosevelt is stricken with polio (infantile paralysis) at his summer home on Campobello Island, New Brunswick, forcing his wife to become his eyes and ears by travelling on his behalf. On Aug. 16 king (since 1903) Peter I of Serbia (b. 1844) dies, and his son Alexander I (1888-1934) becomes king of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia). On Aug. 16-18 the London Times pub. a series of articles debunking The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (its mass distribution recently backed by Henry Ford) as a forgery with a traceable history. On Aug. 22 Baltimore, Md.-born William John Burns (1861-1932), 1909 founder of the William J. Burns Internat. Detective Agency, known as "America's Sherlock Holmes" becomes dir. of the Bureau of Investigation (later FBI) of the U.S. Dept. of Justice (until May 10, 1924). On Aug. 23-Sept. 13 the Battle of the Sakarya (Sangarios) between the Greeks and Turks near the Sakarya River near Ankara stops the Greeks before they reach Ankara. On Aug. 24 a British ZR-2 dirigible breaks in two on a trip near Hull, England, killing 62. On Aug. 25 the U.S. (which never ratified the Versailles Treaty ending World War I) finally signs a peace treaty with Germany in Berlin, which is ratified by the Reichstag on Sept. 30 and the U.S. Senate on Oct. 19. On Aug. 25-Sept. 2 the Battle of Blair Mountan in Logan County, W. Va. sees 10K armed coal miners attacked by 3K lawmen and strikebreakers (Logan Defendrs) to stop unionization by the United Mine Workers (UMW), firing 1M rounds until U.S Army troops intervene and quash the strike, with 50-100 miners killed and 985 miners arrested. On Aug. 26 German finance minister Matthias Erzberger (b. 1875) (who signed the German WWI armistice on Nov. 11, 1918 and was forced from office in Mar.) is assassinated in the Bad Grisebach spa in the Black Forest to get even for stabbing Germany in the back by the anti-Semitic ultra-right-wing death squad Organisation Consul (who take care of traitor Walther Rathenau next year); meanwhile German Jewish industrialist (Freemason) Walther Rathenau (1867-1922) is appointed German minister for reconstruction as the German mark begins a rapid fall and inflation becomes a problem, pushing a permanent solution of an economic-political union of Germany, France, Austria, and Belgium; the mark ultimately drops to 4.2T marks to 1 U.S. dollar. In Aug. exiled Faisal I (1885-1933) returns to Iraq and is crowned king of Iraq with British support. In Aug. after WWI causes govt. expenditures and taxation to skyrocket, PM David Lloyd George appoints a committee headed by Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes (1875-1937), which recommends Geddes' Axe to slash everything. The first O.J. case in Hollyweird? On Sept. 10 Keystone Kops movie star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (1887-1933) is charged with murder over the Sept. 9 (Labor Day) death of 26-y.-o. alcoholic rising actress Virginia Rappe (b. 1895) (whose smiling face in a sunbonnet appeared on the sheet music cover of "Let Me Call You Sweetheart"), who dies of peritonitis from a burst bladder after going into a bathroom in his suite in San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel during a celebration of his new $3M 5-year Paramount contract; accused of bursting her bladder with his big prick, or with a jagged piece of ice, or a Coke bottle, the big iced-Coke-guzzling prick is acquitted after three trials, and later evidence suggests she was drunk and tried a self-induced abortion, but his career is ruined with all the bad publicity, which sells zillions of papers for Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Examiner, and gets him blacklisted; he later makes a comeback as a film producer under the name William B. Goodrich (Will B. Good), but dies suddenly before pulling himself out of, er, debt; San Francisco chief of police Daniel J. O'Brien, father of actor George O'Brien ordered Arbuckle's arrest. On Sept. 4 Adolf Hitler physically attacks Bayernbund (NSDAP rival) leader Otto Ballerstedt (1887-1934), is arrested and spends 1 mo. in jail. On Sept. 8 after the Fall Frolic last Sept. 25, consisting of 350 men pushing wicker chairs carrying young maidens and headed by Miss Ernestine Cremona wearing a white Peace robe is a hit, Miss America 1921, the first Miss America Pageant is held at the Million Dollar Pier at the Boardwalk in Atlantic City, N.J. in an effort to extend the tourist season beyond the summer, with 100K attending; the winner of the $100 Golden Mermaid crown is 5'1" 30-25-32 108 lb. 16-y.-o. Miss Washington, D.C. Margaret Gorman (Margaret G. Cahill) (1905-95), who also wins the Bathers' Review; the only judge is His Oceanic Majesty King Neptune Maxim Hudson (1853-1927), inventor of smokeless gunpowder, who also officiates the 1922 pageant. On Sept. 13 the White Castle 5-cent hamburger chain opens in Wichita, Kan., founded by cook Walt A. Anderson and insurance salesman Edgar Waldo "Billy" Ingram, with a small bldg. with white porcelain enamel on steel exteriors built to resemble the Chicago Water Tower, stainless steel interior, and employees wearing spotless white uniforms to suggest cleanliness and counter Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel "The Jungle"; next year they expand to El Dorado, Kan., becoming the first fast food restaurant chain. On Sept. 21 after the Great Russian Famine of 1921-23 sees 100K die a week (5M-10M total), resulting in cannibalism, the first U.S. Am. Relief Admin. (ARA) relief ships arrive led by Herbert Hoover arrive in Soviet Russia with the first of $20M in corn and wheat seed; by Aug. 1922 the ARA is feeding 11M a day in 19K kitchens, and seed from the U.S. Midwest is planted in spring 1922 to end the famine, causing Maxim Gorky to write to Hoover in July 1922 in behalf of the Soviet govt. to thank him, although later they claim it was a Capitalist spy trick; Hoover saves more lives than anybody else so far in history? On Sept. 22 Estonia joins the League of Nations. On Sept. 26 Eduard Benes (1884-1948) becomes PM #4 of Czech. (until Oct. 7, 1922). On Sept. 27 Kan.-born Mabel Walker Willebrandt (1889-1963) is appointed U.S. asst. atty.-gen. (until 1929), becoming known as the "First Lady of Law" as she vigorously prosecuted the U.S. Volstead Act. In Sept. the Yakut Revolt (ends June 1923), the last phase of the Russian Civil War begins with 200 White Russians led by Mikhail Yakovlevich Korobeinikov (-1924) centered in the Ayano-Maysky District of E Russia. In Sept. after he and English pacifist Philip John Noel-Baker (1889-1982) evacuate 500K German-Austrian POWs from Russia (even though the Soviet govt. won't recognize the League of Nations, by getting them to dump them on the borders, where he picks them up on German ships captured by the British), Norwegian explorer-diplomat Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) invents Nansen Passports, issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees, allowing them to help 1.5M Russians emigrate from Russia to 52 different countries, winning him the 1922 Nobel Peace Prize. In Sept. U.S. commerce secy. Herbert Hoover asks Pres. Harding to call a Conference on Unemployment to explore govt. intervention in the economy, but Harding refues, saying "There will be depression after inflation, just as surely as the tides ebb and flow." On Oct. 5-13 the New York Giants (NL) defeat the New York Yankees (AL) 5-3 in the Eighteenth (18th) (1921) World Series; on Oct. 5 the WS is broadcast on radio for the 1st time; in the regular season Babe Ruth, "Sultan of Swat", "King of Clout" hits 59 homers, passing Roger Conner (NL). On Oct. 11 a conference between the Dail Eireann and the British govt. is held in London in Whitehall on Downing St. under a truce, with Sir James Craig representing the Sinn Fein, and Eamon De Valera representing the Dail Eireann. On Oct. 12 the cruise ship City of Honolulu catches fire en route from Honolulu to Long Beach, Calif., and all are rescued. On Oct. 13 the Daily Colonist in Victoria, B.C., Canada coins the term "cold turkey" in reference to quitting an addiction. On Oct. 18 the Soviets grant the Crimea independence. On Oct. 19 a rev. in Lisbon, Portugal results in the murder of Antonio Machado Santos (b. 1875), founder of the Portuguese Repub. (founded 1910). On Oct. 20 France signs the Ankara (Franklin-Bouillon) Agreement (Accord) (Treaty) with Turkey, giving up all its territorial claims N of Syria. On Oct. 21 the U.S. bans the transportation of foreign liquor through its territory. On Oct. 24 after U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1917-29) Thomas Lindsay Blanton (1872-1957) is impeached for placing obscene material in the Congressional Record, but the motion to expel him fails by eight votes, after which he is unanimously censured for "abuse of leave to print" - causing it to sell-out? On Oct. 26 after attempts to negotiate loans with foreign banks fall through, and the German govt. requests a delay in payment of reparations, the German cabinet resigns, and chancellor Joseph Wirth forms a 2nd cabinet that is supported by all but the right and the Communists. In Oct. New Brunswick bans the importation of liquor. In Oct. the first annual Festival of Contemporary Music is held in Donaueschingen in SW Germany at the confluence of the Brigach and Breg Rivers (the two source tributaries of the Danube River) under the protection of the House of Furstenberg. On Nov. 1 the groundbreaking ceremony for the 217-ft. limestone cylindrical Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Mo. for soldiers KIA in WWI is attended by French Gens. Armando Diaz and Ferdinand Foch, British Adm. David Beatty, Belgian Gen. Baron Jacques, and U.S. Gen. John J. Pershing; U.S. vice-pres. Calvin "Silent Cal" Coolidge is a speaker; on Nov. 11, 1926 Pres. Calvin Coolidge dedicates it; in 2004 the underground Nat. World War I Museum is designated by the U.S. Congress, opening to the public in Dec. 2006; too bad, in 2012 a movement arises to put a nat. monument on the Nat. Mall in Washington, D.C. On Nov. 1 Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) founds the Am. Birth Control League (ABCL). On Nov. 3 striking milk drivers dump thousands of gallons of milk on New York City streets. On Nov. 4 Japanese PM (since 1918) Takashi Hara (b. 1856) is assassinated in Tokyo by a radical right-wing student believed to be insane. On Nov. 7 Il Duce Benito Mussolini declares himself leader of the 300K-member Nat. Fascist Party in Italy. On Nov. 9 Pres. Harding signs the U.S. Federal Aid Highway (Phipps) Act, calling for the creation of "an adequate and connected system of highways, interstate in character", launching a new era in U.S. highway construction. On Nov. 11 (3rd anniv. of the Armistice) the U.S. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington Nat. Cemetery is dedicated by Pres. Harding; a marble block tomb is installed in 1932, and develops a large crack. On Nov. 12 reps. of nine nations gather for the start of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-2; on Dec. 13 the U.S., Britain, Japan, and France sign the Four-Power Treaty, pledging to consult one another if any of their Pacific island possessions is threatened. On Nov. 14 the Cherokee Tribe asks the U.S. Supreme Court to review their claim to 1M acres of land in Texas. On Nov. 18 New York City considers varying work hours to avoid long traffic jams. On Nov. 22 the Treaty of Kabul (Anglo-Afghan Treaty) of 1921 secures full formal independence for Afghanistan; the Third Anglo-Afghan War (begun 1919) ends, and Afghanistan is made safe for Westerners once again. On Nov. 23 Pres. Harding signs the U.S. Willis Campbell Act, better known as the anti-beer bill, sponsored by U.S. Sen. (R-Ohio) Frank B. Willis and U.S. Rep. (R-Kan.) Philip P. Campbell, forbidding doctors to prescribe beer or liquor for medicinal purposes, but really aimed at unregulated patent medicines - must have been voided by the time of Capt. Kirk and Doctor McCoy? On Nov. 23 Pres. Harding signs the Sheppard-Towner Act (Promotion of the Welfare and Hygiene of Maternity and Infancy Act), sponsored by U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) Morris Sheppard and U.S. Rep. (R-Iowa) Horace Mann Tower, providing federal funding for maternity and child care, becoming Congress' first social security legislation, and the first major legislation for women after their full enfranchisement - from skid row to 18 and life to go? On Nov. 25 Crown Prince Hirohito (b. 1901) becomes prince regent of Japan after his father retires from mental illness - a mad god? On Nov. 28 Abdul-Baha (b. 1844) dies in Akka, Palestine, and Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (1897-1957) becomes guardian #1 of the Baha'i Faith (until Nov. 4, 1957), presiding over its growth from 100K to 400K members. In Nov. Yugoslavian troops invade Albania; the League of Nations commission forces a withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's 1913 borders. On Dec. 1 the first helium balloon, the C-7 non-rigid Navy dirigible makes its maiden flight from Hampton Roads, Va. to Washington, D.C. On Dec. 3 Germany and Switzerland sign a treaty which sets up a court of arbitration to deal with disputes. On Dec. 5 Pres. Carlos Herrera of Guatemala is overthrown by a junta led by gen. Jose Maria Orellana (1872-1926) (until 1926); he rejects the Central Am. federation plan, and goes on to create the new unit of currency known as the quetzal, his image appearing on the back. On Dec. 6 Britain and the Sinn Fein sign the Anglo-Irish Treaty in London, providing for the creation of an Irish Free State; Eamon De Valera revolts and begins a civil war with the Irish Free State. On Dec. 6 wealthy New York shipbuilder James Showan is arrested after his palatial yacht is seized off the Calif. coast carrying more than 100 cases of whiskey - smash, slap, slip slide boom? On Dec. 15 Australia adopts a higher tariff to protect post-war industry; meanwhile the Australian Labour Party adopts a program of socialization. On Dec. 22 the U. S. passes the Russian Famine Relief Act, authorizing the expenditure of $20M for the purchase of foodstuffs. On Dec. 23 bucking the Am. Legion and the New York Times Pres. Harding commutes Socialist Eugene Debs' 10-year sentence so he can be home by Xmas, and invites him to the White House; he also frees 23 other political prisoners. On Dec. 28 tfter the 1918 U.S. Pittman Act requires the U.S. Mint to strike millions of silver dollars using the Morgan dollar design, the U.S. Mint begins issuing the art deco Peace Dollar to memorialize the peace following WWI, designed by Anthony (Antonio) de Francisci (1887-1964), becoming the first U.S. coin honoring peace (until 1928, then 1934-5), becoming the last solid .900 fine silver U.S. dollar. Canada goes for king and byng? On Dec. 29 William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950) becomes PM #10 of Canada (until June 28, 1926) (3rd Canadian PM with Mackenzie in their name); on Aug. 2 British Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George "Bungo" Byng (1862-1935) becomes gov.-gen. #12 of Canada (until Aug. 5, 1926). On Dec. 29 Sears & Roebuck pres. Julius Rosenwald pledges $20M of his personal fortune to help Sears through hard times. In Dec. the Popular Party in Albania, led by Bektashi (Sufi) Muslim Xhafer Ypi (1880-1940) forms a govt. as PM #10 (until Dec. 26, 1922), with Ahmed Zogu (1895-1961) as minister of internal affairs (until 1922). In Dec. Am. writer Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), who lived on 1599 Bathurst St. in Toronto, Ont. in 1920, then the north side of Chicago in 1921, where he married his 1st wife Elizabeth Hadley Richardson (1891-1979) on Sept. 21 of this year and lived in the 1300 block of Clark St. followed by 1239 N. Dearborn, leaves for Paris with a letter of introduction from Sherwood Anderson, which leads him to Gertrude Stein and the Montparnasse Quarter of the Lost Generation (coined by her mechanic); he returns to Toronto in 1923. Ex-emperor Charles I of Austria (b. 1887) (Charles IV of Hungary) makes two unsuccessful attempts to retain the Hungarian throne, and goes into exile on the island of Madeira, where he dies of pneumonia in 1922. Elections are held in Fiume, and when the Italians are defeated they destroy the returns and start a civil war, inviting Italian fascists in. Capital punishment is abolished in Sweden. Costa Rican troops invade Panama over a border dispute, and are persuaded to withdraw by U.S. officials. The first Indian Parliament meets in the new parliament house in Delhi. A plebiscite in Upper Silesia results in a 63% vote for incorporation in Germany. The Soviet Union and Turkey establish mutual borders, and the remaining independent Armenian lands fall under Russian control; Armenia's borders are gerrymandered in order to give the Caucasus territories to the Soviet Union, creating the area of Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous enclave for Armenians surrounded by Azerbaijan. Liechtenstein gets a new constitution providing for a legislature (Landtag) of 15 members elected by male suffrage; Switzerland begins administering its postal services. Chinese "Christian General" Feng Yuxiang (Yu-Hsiang) (1882-1948), former aide to Gen. Wu P'ei-fu organizes the famous Chinese 11th Div., and quells disorders in Shensi Province, becoming its military gov., followed by Henan (Honan) Province in 1922. British military gov. of Jerusalem (since 1917) Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs (1881-1955) ("the most brilliant Englishman in the Middle East" - T.E. Lawrence) is appointed British civilian gov. of Jerusalem and Judea (until 1926), insisting that all of the bldgs. in Jerusalem be built or faced with white Jerusalem stone - nothing's too good for my Jesus? Attempting to bend over backwards to please the Arabs, Sir Herbert Samuel appoints rabidly anti-Semitic Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (al-Husseini) (1895-1974) as grand mufti of Palestine (until 1948), allowing him to become the most powerful figure in the mandate, working to destroy Zionism, stinking himself up by backing Hitler and asking him in 1941 to oppose the establishment of a Jewish nat. home in Palestine. The Dem. Party defeats the Repub. machine of William Van Rensselaer Erving in Albany, N.Y. with the election of mayor #70 William Stormont Hackett (1868-1926) (until Mar. 4, 1926), with help from wealthy Edwin Corning (1883-1934) (who becomes N.Y. lt. gov. in 1927-8), and Dem. Party chmn. Daniel Patrick "Dan" O'Connell (1885-1977), who runs the Dem. political machine for the next 56 years, starts out running wealthy non-ethnic Protestants incl. Franklin Delano Roosevelt for local and state office as a front for the working class Irish-Am. Roman Catholic members. The German Communist Party is founded, with Ernst Reuter (1889-1953) as gen. secy., but after it votes to affiliate with the Communist Internat. he quits and joins the Social Dem. Party, editing the Social Dem. newspaper Vorwarts (Vorwärts), until it is shut down by the Nazis in 1933. In 1921 the first Communist Party Purge is performed by the Bolsheviks, kicking out 220K members; by 1933 800K are purged; not until 1936 does expulsion from the Party mean arrest, imprisonment, or execution. Belgium institutes an 8-hour workday. Oil is discovered at Signal Hill in Long Beach, Calif., causing the city to ramp up the wells, producing 258M barrels of oil by the end of 1927. The British Legion is founded; in 1971 it becomes the Royal British Legion. The city of Brest-Litovsk changes its name to simple bare Brest. The 1890 U.S. Census is partially damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Bldg.; in 1931 it is almost completely destroyed. The U.S. Children's Bureau is established in the U.S. Dept. of Labor, led by Hull House social worker Julia Clifford Lathrop (1858-1932), who helps pass the U.S. Sheppard-Towner Act. Bank Hapoalim is founded in Tel Aviv by the World Zionist Org. and the Histadrug trade union congress (Gen. Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel); it goes on to become Israel's largest bank. Muckraking Am. journalist Lincoln Steffens visits Russia, and comments, "I have seen the future and it works." Am. Lutheran minister Frank Nathan Daniel Buchman (1878-1961) founds the Oxford Group in England, with the motto "World-changing through life-changing", then in 1938 founds the Moral Re-Armament religious movement, which proselytizes via "house parties". Marconi opens the first public broadcasting station in Britain at his research center in Writtle. RCA absorbs Marconi, with David Sarnoff as pres. Lord Lee presents the 16th cent. country estate of Chequers (Court) in Buckinghamshire at the foot of the Chiltern Hills to the British govt., and it becomes the official country residence of the British PM, starting with Lloyd George. A muckraking campaign by the New York World causes the Ku Klux Klan to be investigated by the U.S. Congress; when no charges are brought against them, membership soars; the KKK in Denver, Colo., headed by physician John Galen Locke gets Denver mayor Benjamin F. Stapleton elected in 1923-31 and 1935-47, along with police chief William "Coca-Cola" Candish (Koka-Kola Kandish), and terrorizes Jews, Catholics, blacks, and gays, selling Cyana (Catholics, you are not Americans) cigars, and boycotting Jewish fashion store owner Meyer Neusteter. Wendell Willkie leaves his 2-year job as legal counsel to Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. in Akron, Ohio to go into private practice, and Harvey Firestone tells him: "I like you, young man, but I don't think you will ever amount to a great deal because I understand you are a Democrat, and no Democrat can ever amount to much" - the head dummies always have the junior dummies help them out? The name of the Grand River, originating in Colo., is changed at the state's request to the Colorado River. A British team under Charles Kenneth Howard-Bury (1881-1963) explores the N approaches of Mt. Everest, successfully paving the way for the later Everest Expedition; after he returns, his description of tracks of a "large loping grey wolf" get garbled with Sherpa descriptions of a "filthy snowman" ("metch kangmi") by Henry Newman of the Calcutta Statesman, who astounds the world with tales of the Abominable Snowman; the whole affair makes Howard-Bury a celeb and gets him elected to Parliament - the original Tricky Dicky Nixon? Stephen F. Austin (SFA) State U. is founded in Nacogdoches, Tex. as a teachers college; classes begin in 1923; sports teams are called the Lumberjacks. Scottish educator Alexander Sutherland Neill (1883-1973) founds the Freudian-based humanistic Summerhill School near Dresden, Germany, with the soundbyte: "I see that all outside compulsion is wrong, that inner compulsion is the only value"; he prefers the word "dominie" for teacher. Dow Jones & Co. owner (since 1903) Clarence W. Barron (1855-1928) founds Barron's Nat. Financial Weekly (later called Barron's Mag.), priced at 10 cents an issue and reaching 30K circ. by 1926. The Nat. Inst. for Industrial Psychology (NIIP) is founded in London. The Lucy Stone League is founded by Am. feminist writer Ruth Hale (1887-1934) to fight for women to keep their maiden names after marriage, named after Lucy Stone (1818-93), the first woman in the U.S. to do it; the motto is:' "My name is the symbol for my identity and must not be lost"; Am. novelist Fannie Hurst (1889-1968) and Am. artist Neysa McMein (1888-1949) are among the first members. The Dadaists put French white supremacist anti-Semitic nationalist writer Maurice Barres (Barrès) (1862-1963) on a mock trial for "an attempt against the surety of the spirit", and sentence him to 20 years of forced labor, after which the Dadaists disband. Edgar Varese founds the Internat. Composers Guild. Mary Pickford founds the Motion Picture Relief Fund for needy actors with funds left over from her war bond work, with Joseph Schenck (1878-1961) as pres. and her as vice-pres.; in 1932 she creates a payroll deduction program for studio workers (0.5%) which allows the fund to build the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital in 1940 (closes in 2009), which later houses Stanley Kramer and DeForest Kelley; in 1971 it becomes the Motion Picture Relief Fund. "9/32s Cherokee" Will Rogers (1879-1935) from Oologah, Okla. begins his career as a homespun humorist, reaching his peak in the mid-1920s. This year 7,319 books are pub. in Britain (14,399 in 1928). Am. expatriate (in Paris) Harold Loeb (1891-1974) (cousin of Peggy Guggenheim) begins pub. the avant-garde lit. mag. Broom (until 1924); Hemingway bases the char. Robert Cohn on him in his 1926 novel "The Sun Also Rises". The Inst. of Historical Research (IHR) in London is established at the U. of London by Isle of Wight-born British historian A.F. (Albert Frederick) Pollard (1869-1948), funded by an anon. £20K donation by wealthy real estate developer Sir John Cecil Power, 1st Baronet (1870-1950); it officially opens on July 8, 1921; in 1996 it begins pub. Reviews in History; in 2002 it launches the Web site British History Online. The Society for Army Historical Research is founded in Britain to foster interest "in the history and traditions of British and Commonwealth armies, and to encourage research in these fields"; presidents incl. Field Marshal Sir Gerald Walter Robert Templer (1898-1979) (1965-79), in whose name the Templer Medal is established in 1982 by the U. of Birmingham Centre for First World War Studies. The Warburg Inst. is founded at the U. of Hamburg in Germany by wealthy Jewish art historian (Renaissance culture freak) Abraham Moritz "Aby" Warburg (1866-1929) and Viennese Jewish art historian Friedrich "Fritz" Saxl (1890-1948) to study the influence of classical antiquity on Euro civilization, moving to London in 1933 and becoming affiliated with the U. of London in 1944. In 1921-4 French Egyptologist Jean Pierre Marie Montet (1885-1966) excavates in Byblos (modern-day Jbail) in Lebanon; in 1929 he begins excavating at Tanis in Lower Egypt Egypt, hitting it big in the 1939-40 season, discovering the intact tombs of Pharaoh Psusennes I, Pharaoh Amenemope, and Pharaoh Shoshenq II, along with the partially-plundered tomb of Takelot I, and the fully-plundered tomb of Osorkon II; on May 20, 1939 removes Shoshenq II's coffin lid in the presence of King Farouk of Egypt, and discovers a hawk-headed silver coffin, gold funerary mask, and a treasure trove of jewel-encrusted bracelets and pectorals. The First Internat. Psychical Congress is held in Copenhagen, Denmark, attended by Hereward Carrington (1880-1958) of the U.S. et al. Le Boeuf sur le Toit (The Ox on the Roof) cabaret bar at 28 Rue Boissy d'Anglas in Paris is founded, named aftter a popular Brazilian song that was turned into a ballet by Darius Milhaud, becoming the center of Parisian cabaret society throughout the 1920s, and the home of the avant-garde Les Six composer group led by Milhaud and Jean Cocteau. The Gayety Theatre in Manchester (founded 1907) (the first British repertory theater) closes due to lack of support. Cecil B. De Mille founds Cecil B. De Mille Productions, and specializes in lavish spectacles and battle scenes. The German intellectual mag. Der Querschnitt (The Cross-Cut) begins pub. (until 1933). In France the Colombe d'Or (Golden Dove) inn N of Nice begins as a restaurant called "A Robinson" under Paul Roux and Baptistine Roux. The Duke of Westminster sells Thomas Gainsborough's "Blue Boy" and Joshua Reynolds' "Portrait of Mrs. Siddons" for a record £200K to U.S. collector Henry Edwards Huntington (1850-1927). Impoverished but brilliant Russian writer Fyodor Sologub (Teternikov) (1863-1927) and his critic wife are finally permitted to leave Russia, but on that very day the wife disappears; her body is later found in the Neva River - change your mind yet? The remodeled Teatro alla Scala opens under Arturo Toscanini. The Samba (Port. "to rub navels") dance craze is brought to Paris by white Brazilian musician Manuel "Duque" Diniz, spreading through Europe; meanwhile he brings the trumpet, trombone, sax, and banjo back to Brazil. The Nat. Symphony Orchestra amalgamates with the New York Philharmonic Society, with former (1919-21) NSO conductor Artur Bodanzky guest-conducting. Ukrainian-born pianist Vladimir Horowitz (1903-89) and Ukrainian-born violinist Nathan Milstein (1903-92) begin performing together throughout the Soviet Union, followed by W Europe in 1925, billing themselves as "children of the revolution". Am. cartoonist Russell Channing "Russ" Westover (1886-1966) creates the comic strip Tillie the Toiler (originally "Rose of the Office"), about a working Flapper girl, which is syndicated by the Hearst newspaper chain and becomes a big hit, carried by 600+ newspapers; in 1927 it is filmed by Hearst's Cosmopolitan Pictures, starring Marion Davies; it runs until 1959. After receiving MIT's first degree in aeronautical engineering in 1914, Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (1892-1981) founds the Douglas Aircraft Co. in Santa Monica, Calif., building planes which perform the first circumnavigation of Earth in 1924, going on to pass rival Boeing Co. with its Douglas DC-3 and C-47 and gain 80% of the commercial aircraft market by 1941, only to be passed by Boeing in the jet age; in 1967 it merges with McDonnell Aircraft of St. Louis, Mo. to form McDonnell Douglas, then merges with Boeing in 1997. Listerine brand mouthwash (invented 1865) begins to advertise itself as a cure for "dreaded halitosis", causing revenues to rise from $115K to $8M in the next seven years. Washburn Crosby Co. of Minneapolis, Minn. creates Betty Crocker, named after retired co. exec William Crocker, with a contest held for female employees for the best signature; in 1924 the Betty Crocker Radio Show debuts (until 1948), becoming the first radio cooking show in the U.S.; she gets a face in 1936. Louhans-born French chef Fernand Point (1897-1955) takes over his father's restaurant in Vienne (20 mi. S of Lyon) and renames it La Pyramide after the Plan de l'Aiguille, a truncated Roman pyramid left over from a Roman circus, turning it into France's #1 restaurant, with three Michelin stars, defining modern French cuisine; too bad, after his death it starts losing stars. Ernest Hemingway's first wife Hadley loses a bad containing the ms. of his first novel on a Parisian train; it is not found until ? Gloria Swanson becomes a big movie star, going on to work for dir. Sam Wood and become Hollywood's first clothes horse, spending $50K for gowns, $25K for fur coats, $5K for headdresses, $10K for lingerie, and $6K for perfume yearly while making up to $900K a year at Paramount; she drives a leopard-upholstered Lancia. Black Swan Records is founded in Harlem, N.Y. to release jazz and blues records, proudly advertising itself as owned, operated by, and marketing exclusively to African-Ams. Durant Motors is founded by ex-GM dir. William Crapo "Billy" Durant (1861-1947); in 1922 it acquires Locomobile; in 1931 after the stock market crash doesn't help it any, it goes bankrupt, and Durant dies broke slinging hamburgers and managing a bowling alley. A&W Root Beer founds its first franchise in Sacramento, Calif., becoming the first U.S. co. to sell franchises. The Drackett Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio begins marketing Drano lye-based drain cleaner, God's gift to home plumbers and sadists. Jantzen swimsuit co. introduces its Red Diving Girl logo. Queen Anne Candy Co. is founded in South Side, Chicago, Ill. by Herman Glickman, Henry Martin, and Max Weiss; in 1948 they introduce Queen Anne Cordial Cherries; in 2006 it is acquired by World's Finest Chocolate Co. See's Candies is founded in Los Angeles, Calif. by Charles See and his mother Mary See. Leo "Lindy" Lindeman (-1957) opens fashionable Lindy's Restaurant in New York City at 1626 Broadway (closes 1969). The Baby Ruth candy bar is introduced by the Curtiss Candy Co. (founded 1916) of Chicago, Ill., owned by Otto Y. Schnering (1891-1953), allegedly not named for famous baseball player Babe Ruth but for Pres. Grover Cleveland's daughter Ruth Cleveland (which doesn't stop the shine from making them more sales?); in 1923 Curtiss introduces the Butterfinger crisp crunchy chocolate-carmel-coated peanut butter candy bar; in 1964 Curtiss is acquired by Standard Brands, which in 1990 is acquired by Nestle. Doumak Inc. is founded in Los Angeles, Calif. by Alex Doumak to make marshmallows, starting out with a cast mold process then patenting an extrusion process in 1954, allowing mass production; in 1961 they move to Elk Grove Village, Ill. After the success of their Konabar (chocolate-covered coconuts, nuts, and fruit), Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Co., of New Haven, Conn., founded in 1919 by six Armenian immigrants led by Peter Paul Halajian (1864-1927) begins marketing the 5-cent dark chocolate-coconut Mounds candy bar, bucking the Great Depression by doubling the size for the same price in 1934, introducing the Dreams bar in 1934, diced almonds and coconut covered with dark chcolate, and splitting the stock 2-for-1 in Feb. 1935 after increasing workers' wages up to 20%; during WWII despite sugar and coconut shortages the Mounds bar becomes a hit with the U.S. military, which purchases 80% of the production (5M bars/month) by 1944; in 1948 they introduce the milk chocolate-coconut Almond Joy candy bar, which is packaged in blue to compliment the red-packaged Mounds, becoming the first candy manufacturer to use full-color TV commercials, which feature the Peter Paul Pixies singing that Mounds and Almond Joys are "Indescribably Delicious" after Leon Weiss of Gary, Ind. coins it in 1955 for a contest, winning $10; in July 1972 Peter Paul acquires New York Cone Co., maker of York Peppermint Patties; in 1972 they introduce the 15-cent Peanut Butter with No Jelly Bar, which is discontinued in 1979 after several name and price changes; in 1978 they are acquired for $58M by Cadbury Schweppes, whose U.S. chocolate business is purchased in 1988 for $300M by Hershey Co.; in the 1970s the advertising jingle is: "Something you feel like a nut, sometimes you dont/ Almond Joy's got nuts/ Mounds don't", composed by Leon Carr. See's Candies is founded by Canadian immigrant Charles Alexander See II (1884-1949), his wife Florence MacLean Wilson See (1885-1956), and his widowed mother Mary Wiseman See (1854-1939) in Los Angeles, Calif.; in 1936 they expand to San Francisco, Calif.; on May 1, 1941 they open their first white "all porceelain" store in Bakersfield, Calif.; in 1972 they are acquired by Berkshire Hathaway. Sports: On Mar. 21-Apr. 4 the 1921 Stanley Cup Finals see the Ottawa Senators of the NHL defeat the Vancouver Millionaires of the PCHA 3-2, becoming their 2nd straight. On Apr. 29 Jimmy Blouin (1886-1947) defeats Jimmy Smith in 30 games in Milwaukee, Wisc. after 30 games in Chicago, Ill., claiming the world bowling title (until 1926). On May 30 the 1921 (9th) Indianapolis 500 is won by 1-eyed Thomas "Tommy" Milton (1893-1962) in a straight-eight Frontenac built by Louis Chevrolet after Ralph De Palma leads for 109 laps and breaks a connecting road, drops out on lap 112, then retires after leading a record 612 laps in the Indy 500 (until 1987). On June 11 The Belmont Stakes is run counterclockwise for the 1st time in its 53 years, breaking with the English custom; Grey Lag (1918-42) (jockey Earle Sande) wins. On July 2 the Jack Dempsey-Georges Carpentier Fight, boxing's first $1M gate is billed as the fight of the cent., becoming the first broadcast live on radio; French boxer ("the Orchid Man") Georges Carpentier (1894-1975) is badly beaten then KOd in min. 2 of round 4; the first fight sanctioned by the new World Boxing Assoc. (WBA), which was set up to compete with the New York State Athletic Commission. On Aug. 5 the first radio broadcast of a baseball game takes place in Pittsburgh, Penn.; J. Andrew White becomes the first pro radio announcer. On Oct. 2 the first Petersen Classic Bowling Tournament AKA The Pete, founded by bowling promoter Louis P. Petersen (1892-1958) is held at Archer-35th Recreation Center in Chicago, Ill.; 64 bowlers in two squads of 32 compete in 8 games for a $1,600 purse, with a $28 entry fee, becoming the richest bowling tournament so far; it is such a big hit that in 1922 he holds one tournament in the spring and another in the fall, attracting 600 bowlers by 1926, 10K in 1958, and 36K in 1981, with the event stretching from Oct. to July; in 1958 Petersen dies, and his son-in-law Mark Philip Collor (1915-2002) takes over; in 1987 first prize earns $55K; in 1994 it moves to Hoffman Lines in Hoffman Estates, Ill.; in 1998 AMF takes over the tournament. Graham McNamee (1888-1942) makes the first radio broadcast of a baseball game from the New York Polo Grounds, which the New York Giants tell the Yankees to leave as soon as possible, causing them to build Yankee Stadium ("the House That Ruth Built") less than 1 mi. away in 284 days with a unique triple-deck grandstand and 58K seats (finished 1923). After the Big Four League collapses on allegations of paying amateurs, the prof. West Canada Hockey League (WCHL) is founded by the Edmonton Eskimos, Calgary Tigers, Regina Capitals, and Saskatoon (later Moose Jaw) Sheiks, playing 6-man hockey without a rover; the league winner plays the winner of the Pacific Coast Hockey Assoc., and the winner of that plays against the NHL winner for the Stanley Cup; in 1925 it becomes the Western Hockey League before it is disbanded in 1926. In 1921 basket ball is officially spelled basketball. Chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932) buys the Chicago Cubs NL baseball team, changing the home park to Wrigley Field, bringing the team to his home of Catalina Island in Calif. (26 mi. across the sea?) for spring training (until 1956). Johnny Weissmuller (1904-84) wins his first U.S. nat. swimming title, eventually setting records in every freestyle distance from 100 yards to 880 yards as well as the 150-yard backstroke; he retires from amateur competition in 1929, and his 51 sec. mark for the 100 yards is unbeaten for 17 years. British jockey Sir Gordon Richards (1904-88) rides his first winner; in 1954 he retires with 4,870 races won out of 21,834. Hialeah Park Race Track in Hialeah in S Fla. opens; after being damaged by hurricanes in 1926 and 1930, it reopens on Jan. 14, 1932, complete with the first Australian Totalisator in the U.S. for automated parimutuel betting; it becomes famous for its flocks of flamingos. Anna Margarethe "Molla" Bjurstedt Mallory (1884-1959) of the U.S. outruns French tennis champ Suzanne Lenglen (1899-1938) at the U.S. Open, beating her 6-2 in the first set, after which she resigns, huffing, puffing, coughing, and weeping, and claiming sickness, causing a row in the French Tennis Federation and the resignation of vice-pres. Albert de Joannis after it exonerates her. The Federazione Italiana Pallacanestro (Italian Basketball Federation) is founded; in 1932 it joins FIBA. The old game of table tennis (ping-pong) is revived. Emanuel Lasker loses his world chess title (since 1894) to Cuban chess player Jose Raul Capablanca y Granperra (Graupera) (1888-1942), who becomes world chess champ #3 (until 1927). Architecture: German Jewish Expressionist architect Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953) designs the Einstein Tower observatory near Potsdam, featuring relativistic flowing Expressionist-style lines (begun 1919), then flees Germany for England in 1933, after which the Nazis seize his property. Italian immigrant Sabato "Simon" "Sam" Rodia (1879-1965) begins building the Watts Towers in Los Angeles, Ca., finishing in 1955; it emerges unscathed from the 1965 Watts Riots and ends up as a state historical park. King George V Dock in London (begun 1912) opens, insuring London's position as the #1 port system in the world. The cool 42-story Cathedral of Learning in C Pittsburgh, Penn. is built as the main classroom bldg. of the U. of Pittsburgh. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Karl Hjalmar Branting (1860-1925) (Sweden) and Christian Louis Lange (1869-1938) (Norway); Lit.: Anatole France (1844-1924) (France); Physics: Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (Germany) [photoelectric effect]; Chem.: Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) (England) [isotopes]; Med.: no award; Einstein has by this time become a fossil in his field, clinging to the notion that "God doesn't roll dice with the Universe" and letting the fast-moving field of Quantum Physics pass him by? Inventions: On May 5 (5-5) French fashion designer Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (1883-1971) starts selling Chanel No. 5, combining the scent of flowers (like respectable women wear) with animal musk and jasmine (worn by hos), discovered by accident by an asst. of Russian-French perfume chemist Ernest Beaux (1881-1961), who claims it reminds him of a fragrance he smelled inside the Arctic Circle, "where the rivers and lakes release a note of incredible freshness"; in 1923 Coco develops a tan on a yachting trip, starting a fad. Beaver, Utah-born Rigby H.S. student Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906-71) conceives the basic features of the electronic television (TV) system for his science teacher Justin Tolman, who encourages him to pursue it, launching his career - tell all the world to join into the Love Train? Robert Fergusson invents Rust-Oleum for protecting paint after noticing that raw fish oil protects rusty metal from corrosion. On Aug. 16 William M. Folberth and his brother Fred of Cleveland, Ohio patent the automatic windshield wiper, using the vacuum from the engine manifold, which causes it to vary in speed with the engine, pissing-off drivers and leading to the electrical wiper in the 1930s. Hungarian-born Am. escape artist Harry Houdini (1874-1926) invents a fast-releasing diving suit for his escape acts. Am. dentist Joseph Lascaux invents a Cotton Candy machine, which becomes a big hit. Danish-born Am. blacksmith Vilhelm "Bill" Petersen of DeWitt, Neb. patents vice-grip locking pliers. Belarus-born Jewish-Am. dressmaker Ida Rosenthal (nee Kaganovich) (1886-1973) opens the Maiden Form Dress Shop in New York City, inventing the brassiere, followed by maternity bras, and standardizing cup sizes; their sexy newspaper ads showing dames in underwear feature the slogan "I dreamed... in a Maidenform Bra" - the feminine codpiece? Swedish designer Axel Lennart Wenner-Gren (1881-1961) designs the Electrolux Model V tank vacuum cleaner that lies on two removable thin metal runners and has a pistol grip on one end to push or pull it over the carpet, convincing his employer, the Swedish Electrolux lighting co. to buy his patent and pay him royalties in company stock; in 1924 Swedish-born businessman Gustaf Sahlin introduces it in the U.S., becoming an overnight success, raising the bar for competitors, after which they introduce the Model XI in 1927, the Model XII in 1930, the Model XXX in 1937, and many more thereafter; Wenner-Gren ends up owning the company by the early 1930s, becoming one of the wealthiest people in the world. Science: Dutch Elm Disease is first identified in Holland, spreading to North Am. in 1930 and England in 1970. Canadian physiologists Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941), James Bertram Collip (1892-1965), and Charles Herbert Best (1899-1978), working under the direction of Scottish physiologist and diabetes researcher John James Rickard Macleod (1876-1935) discover and isolate Insulin, and share the 1923 Nobel Med. Prize, except for Best, who is snubbed, pissing-off Banting, who shares half of his prize money with him - macleodly banting the best part of the dough? French mathematician Felix Edouard Justin Emile (Félix Édouard Justin Émile) Borel (1871-1956) begins pub. a series of papers on Game Theory, becoming the first to define games of strategy. Danish chemist Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted (1879-1947) and Hungarian chemist Georg Charles de Hevesy (1885-1966) develop a method for separating isotopes. Am. physicist Thomas Townsend Brown (1905-85) discovers the Biefeld-Brown Effect while experimenting with a Coolidge X-ray tube, finding that a tube with assymetrical electrodes exerts a force when connected to a high-voltage source, later claiming that it might be used by ETs to create anti-gravity machines. The BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) Vaccine for TB, developed by French bacteriologist Leon Charles Albert Calmette (1863-1933) and French immunologist Jean-Marie Camille Guerin (Guérin) (1872-1961), with help from Norwegian physician Kristian Feyer Andvord (1855-1934), in development since 1906 is perfected and tested on newborns in the Paris Charite; too bad, in 1930 a bad batch causes 72 children in Lubeck, Germany to contract TB, freaking out Calmette, who dies the next year, after which production techniques are tightened. Edgar Dacque (Dacqué) (1878-1945) of the U. of Munich pioneers phylogentically-oriented paleontology, becoming especially interested in the origin of human bipedalism, but eventually goes off the deep end into mythology and gets a bad rep? - Wacque Dacque? Friedrich Dessauer (1881-1963) of Germany develops medium-voltage X-ray therapy, and in the 1930s flees to Turkey, giving them his knowledge. ? Dressel, ? Kothe, and ? Rohel of guess where discover Germanin, useful in treating sleeping sickness. German pharmacologist Otto Loewi (1873-1961) discovers the chemical transmission of nerve impulses, later tracing it to acetylcholine after a dream on Easter Sat. night 1923, making him the "Father of Neuroscience"; English neuroscientist Sir Henry Hallett Dale (1875-1968) independently discovers it, winning them the 1936 Nobel Med. Prize. Thomas Midgley Jr. (1889-1944) of Charles F. Kettering's Delco Co. discovers that Tetraethyl Leaded Gasoline prevents engine knock - while poisoning the environment? Am. industrial chemist Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) pub. theories of atomic structure and absorption. Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) of Columbia U. postulates the chromosome theory of heredity, winning the 1933 Nobel Med. Prize. Ernst Rutherford and James Chadwick disintegrate all the known elements except carbon, oxygen, lithium, and beryllium in an attempt to split the atom. Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha (1893-1956) pub. the Saha Thermal Ionization Equation, and applies it to stellar spectra. German embryologist Hans Spemann (1869-1941) postulates an organizer principle responsible for the formative interaction between neighboring embryonic regions, causing embryologists to start searching for the inductive chemical molecule. German physicists Otto Stern (1888-1969) and Walther Gerlach (1889-1979) conduct the Stern-Gerlach Experiment, splitting a beam of atomic silver in two instead of merely broadening it like classical physics predicts by passing it through a nonhomogeneous magnetic field, proving space quantization and opening physics up to unimaginable possibilities such as bar code scanners, CDs, and the decoding of the human genome; it had something to do with a bad cigar? Rhodesian Man is found at Broken Hill in N Rhodesia. Nonfiction: Lyman Abbott (1835-1922), What Christianity Means to Me. James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), The Founding of New England (Pulitzer Prize); vol. 1 of 3 of "A History of American Life", incl. Revolutionary New England, 1691-1776 (1923), and New England in the Republic, 1776-1850 (1926). Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946), Chess in Soviet Russia. Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960), Across Mongolian Plains: A Naturalist's Account of China's Great Northwest. Vladimir Arsenyev (1872-1930), Through the Ukraine (autobio.). Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968), The Social History of the Western World: An Outline Syllabus. Charles Baudouin, Suggestion and Autosuggestion; the Emile Coue (Coué) Method; "Every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better" (Tous les jours a tous points de vue je vais de mieux en mieux). Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948) and Mary Ritter Beard (1876-1958), History of the United States (2 vols.). Genevieve Behrend, Your Invisible Power; student of Judge Thomas Troward (1847-1916); incl. "How I Attracted to Myself 20,000 Dollars". Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), Hellenism and Christianity. Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), Further Essays on Capital and Interest (posth.). M.O. Bircher-Benner (1867-1939), The Fundaments of Our Nutrition; a Swiss physician recommends raw foods? Herbert Eugene Bolton (1870-1953), The Spanish Borderlands. Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950), The New World: Problems in Political Geography. Robert Briffault (1874-1948), Psyche's Lamp: A Re-evaluaton of Psychological Principles as a Foundation of All Thought. A.A. Brill (1874-1948), Psychoanalysis: Its Theories and Practical Application. Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976), History of the Synoptic Tradition; Christians in an age of science don't need history, only the bare fact of Christ crucified? Luther Burbank (1849-1926), How Plants Are Trained to Work for Man (8 vols). James Bryce (1838-1922), Modern Democracies. Jose Capablanca (1888-1942), Chess Fundamentals. Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), Einstein's Theory of Relativity; English trans. 1923. Sir Sidney Colvin (1845-1927), Memories and Notes. Elmer Davis (1890-1958), History of the New York Times, 1851-1921. Carl Van Doren (1885-1950), The American Novel. Norman Douglas (1868-1952), Alone; his travels in Italy. Horatio Willis Dresser (1866-1954), The Quimby Manuscripts. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego; "Libido is an expression taken from the theory of the emotions", claiming that all neuroses are caused by emotion, and are unpleasurable, hence the cure is to analyze, work through, and uproot all emotions "like the draining of the Zuyder Zee", with the psychoanalyst helping make the unconscious conscious by providing the patient with cognitive insight, subduing the drive of the irrational Id to emerge. Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Paideuma; Atlantis: Volksmarchen und Volksdichtung Afrikas (6 vols.); incl. "Gassire's Lute"; examples of native civilization in Africa, contradicting the white supremacist view of primitiveness. Eduard Fueter Sr. (1876-1928), World History, 1815-1920 (Weltgeschichte der Letzten Hundert Jahre, 1815-1920) (Zurich); English tr. by Sidney Bradshaw Fay pub. in 1922; the European colonization of the world as seen from an allegedly impartial neutral Swiss POV; "No event of the past century has exercised so powerful an influence upon the future of mankind, and not least on the European states themselves, as this Europeanization of the world." Hamlin Garland (1860-1940), A Daughter of the Middle Border (Pulitzer Prize). Emory Holloway (1885-1977), The Uncollected Poetry and Prose of Walt Whitman (2 vols.). Col. Edward Mandell House (1858-1938) and Charles Seymour (eds.), What Really Happened in Paris; by U.S. delegates and advisors. Martin Elmer Johnson (1884-1937) and Osa Helen Johnson (1894-1953), Cannibal Land. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), A Treatise on Probability; proposes that probabilities are truth values intermediate between simple truth and falsity, and pioneers the decision weight approach and the interval approach. Frank Knight (1885-1972), Risk, Uncertainty and Profit; claims that most business decisions involve an unmeasurable step into the unknown, which becomes known as Knightian Uncertainty, which is distinguished from economic risk, which is governed by known probability distributions, founding the strongly pro-Keynesian Old Chicago School of Economics along with Jacob Viner (1892-1970) and Henry Calvert Simons (1899-1946), with students incl. James M. Buchanan, Milton Friedman, and George Stigler, who go anti-Keynesian and libertarian, becoming known as the New School in the 1950s. Kurt Koffka (1886-1941), Die Grundlagen der Psychischen Entwicklung. Alfred Korzybski (1879-1950), Manhood of Humanity; humans as the time-binding class of life. Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964), Physique and Character. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), Sea and Sardinia; Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious. J.M.E. McTaggart, The Nature of Existence; English neo-Hegelianism? Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), The Grand Secret. Gilbert Murray (1866-1957), The Problem of Foreign Policy. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951), Faery Lands of the South Pacific; written after moving there, liking it so much they stay permanently, Nordhoff marrying Tahitian woman Pepe Teara, and Hall marrying part-Polynesian woman Sara "Lala" Winchester. De Lacy O'Leary (1872-1957), Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. Sir William Orpen (1878-1931), An Onlooker in France, 1917-1919. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), The Evolution of Modern Medicine (posth.). William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Essays on Modern Dramatists (1921-2). Kenneth Roberts (1885-1957), Europe's Morning After; by a staff correspondent (1919-37) for the Saturday Evening Post. James Harvey Robinson (1863-1936), The Mind in the Making: The Relation of Intelligence to Social Reform; bestseller; intro. by H.G. Wells; rev. ed. in 1923; argues for freedom of thought on the ground that history has proved that it is essential to progress; "If some magical transformation could be produced in men's ways of looking at themselves and their fellows, no inconsiderable part of the evils which now afflict society would vanish away or remedy themselves automatically." (opening line) Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922), Psychodiagnostic. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Analysis of Mind. Max Scheler (1874-1928), On the Eternal in Man. Carl Schmitt (1888-1985), On Dictatorship (Die Diktatur); "If the constitution of a state is democratic, then every exceptional negation of democratic principles, every exercise of state power independent of the approval of the majority, can be called dictatorship." Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965), On the Edge of the Primeval Forest. Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931), När Stunderna Växla. Georges Sorel (1847-1922), De l'Utilite du Pragmatisme. E.L. Stern-Rubarth, Propaganda as a Political Weapon - signed copy to Hitler? Lytton Strachey (1880-1932), Queen Victoria; his 2nd effort at debunking biography, backfiring and turning into a love-fest? A. Tardieu, The Truth About the Treaty; the French POV. Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949), The Teacher's Word Book; to help them with reading instruction; 2nd ed. 1932; 3rd ed. 1944. Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Marx: Leben und Lehre. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929), The Engineers and the Price System. Arthur Edward Waite (1857-1942), A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. Arthur Waley, The No Plays of Japan. Graham Wallas (1858-1932), Our Social Heritage. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Mein Weg als Deutscher und Jude (My Life as a German and a Jew) (autobio.). Raymond Melbourne Weaver (1888-1948), Herman Melville: Mariner and Mystic; the first full bio., which resurrects overlooked genius Melville and launches the Melville Revival. Nesta H. Webster, World Revolution; links Communism with Jews, Freemasonry, the Illuminati et al., causing a sensation. Joseph Weissenberg (1855-1941), Health Apostle (Berlin). Walter Weyl (1873-1919), Tired Radicals, and Other Papers (posth.). Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Logico-Philosophicus. Lucien Wolf (1857-1930), The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affaird: The Truth About the Forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion; disses the theory that Communism is Jewish, Ashkenazi Jewish, etc. Ed Wynn (1886-1966), The Perfect Fool. Music: Eugene d'Albert (1864-1932), Scirocco (opera). Irving Berlin (1888-1989), The Music Box Revues (New York). Eubie Blake (1887-1983) and Noble Sissle (1889-1975), Shuffle Along (Daly's 63rd St. Theatre, New York) (May 23) (484 perf.) (until July 15, 1922); dir. by Walter Brooks; the first major Broadway production in over a decade written, produced, and performed entirely by African-Ams., and the first black love story, with blacks not restricted to balcony seats; makes stars of Josephine Baker, Adelaide Hall (as Jazz Jasmine), Florence Mills (as Ruth Little), Fredi Washington, Roger Matthews (as Harry Walton), and Paul Robeson, causing "curtain time traffic jams" on 63rd St; about corrupt politicians Sam and Steve, who run for mayor in Jimtown and agree to appoint the loser as chief of police, until virtuous Harry Walton wins the next election and runs them out of town; makes the observation that the lighter an African-Am. woman's skin is, the more desirable she is; features I'm Just Wild About Harry (adopted by Harry Truman for his pres. campaign theme), Love Will Find a Way. (In) Honeysuckle Time, Shuffle Along Overture, If You Haven't Been Vamped by a Brownskin, You Haven't Been Vamped at All, I'm Simply Full of Jazz, and Bandana Days; after leaving New York City it becomes the first black musical to play in white theaters across the U.S., while opening up Broadway to black actors, although only plots portraying blacks as half-civilized become acceptable. Sir Arthur Bliss (1891-1975), Melee Fantistique; rev. 1937, 1965. Henri Busser (1872-1973), Colomba (opera). Victor Herbert (1859-1924), Orange Blossoms (operetta). Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Murder, Hope of Women (Morder, Hoffnung der Frauen) (one-act opera) (Stuttgart); Das Nusch-Nuschi (one-act opera) (Stuttgart). Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), King David (Le Roi David) (oratorio). Leos Janacek (1854-1928), Katya Kabynova (opera) (Brno). George Jessel (1898-1981), The Toastmaster. Isham Jones (1894-1956), Wabash Blues (#1 in the U.S.); first in a string of hits by a bandleader in Chicago, Ill. Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Die Bajadere (The Yankee Princess) (operetta). William James Kirkpatrick (1838-1921), Away in a Manger. Eduard Kunnecke, Der Vetter aus Dingsda (The Cousin from Nowhere) (Berlin). Joseph Marx (1882-1964), Eine Herbstsymphonie (Autumn Symphony). Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949), Von Deutscher Seele, Op. 28 (Romantic cantata). Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953), The Love for Three Oranges (opera) (Chicago). Sigmund Romberg (1887-1951), In Blossom Time (New York); based on the Viennese operetta "Das Dreimaderlhaus", about Franz Schubert. Charles-Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921), Clarinet Sonata in E flat major, Op. 167; just like Mozart in 1791, he writes something for a clarinet in his last year of life? Robert Elisabeth Stolz (1880-1975), Der Tanz ins Gluck (The Dance into Happiness) (operetta). Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Symphony for Wind Instruments (London). Ethel Waters (1896-1977), Down Home Blues (#5 in the U.S.); There'll Be Some Changes Made (#5 in the U.S.). Movies: Lois Weber's and Phillips Smalley's The Blot (Sept. 4) (Lois Weber Productions) stars Philip Hubbard as starving Prof. Andrew Theodore Griggs, Margaret McWade as his wife, Claire Windsor as his daughter Amelia, and Louis Calhern as his pupil Phil West, who calls his inadequate salary a "blot on the present day civilization". Malcolm St. Clair's Bright Eyes stars ZaSu Pitts and Tom Gallery. Dimitri Buchowetzki's and Carl Froelich's The Brothers Karamazov (July 20) stars Emil Jannings as Dimitri, Werner Krauss as Serjakov, and Bernhard Goetzke as Ivan. Dimitri Buchowetzki's Danton (May 4), based on the play "Danton's Death" by Georg Buchner stars Emil Jannings, Werner Krauss, and Conrad Veidt. Henry Kolker's Disraeli (Aug. 21), based on the play by Louis N. Parker stars English actor George Arliss (George Augustus Andrews) (1868-1946) as Benjamin Disraeli, and his wife Florence Arliss (1871-1950) as his wife Lady Beaconsfield; remade as a talkie in 1929. George Fitzmaurice's Experience (Oct. 23) (Famous Players-Lasky), based on the 1914 play by George V. Hobart stars Richard Barthelmess and Nita Naldi as Youth and Temptation, and is the film debut of openly lesbian Jewish Ziegfeld Follies performer Lilyan Tashman (1896-1934) (as Pleasure), who in 1925 marries openly gay actor Edmund Downlow, er, Lowe; her husky contralto voice allows her to survive into the talkie era, making 66 films. Cecil B. De Mille's Forbidden Fruit. Rex Ingram's The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (Mar. 6), based on the Vicente Blasco-Ibanez novel about a South Am. playboy who becomes a hero in France during WWI stars Alice Terry, becoming the big break for gaucho pants-wearing tango-dancing Latin lover Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filibert Guglielmi d'Antonguolla di Valentina) (1895-1926) (as Julio Desnoyers) after screenwriter June Mathis (1889-1927) insists on playing with, er, on him playing the lead (a platonic affair, with him calling her "Little Mother"?); the film is the #1 hit of 1921, grossing $4.5M, establishing Valentino as Hollyweird's first male sex symbol, with his lithe body, dark features, and killer gaze, and making Mathis the most powerful woman in Hollywood; Valentino continues with George Melford's The Sheik (Oct. 20), based on the novel by Edith Maude Hull, playing Arab chieftain Sheik Ahmed, who abducts English Lady Diana (Agnes Ayres) only to reveal his true identity as a British aristocrat; does $1.5M box office on a $200K budget. Robert Z. Leonard's The Gilded Lily (Mar. 6) (Famous Players-Lasky) stars Mae Murray as Broadway cabaret star Lillian Drake, who gives it all up for Creighton Howard (Lowell Sherman); the film debut of Hillsdale, Mich.-born stage actor Jason Nelson Robards Sr. (1892-1963) as Frank Thompson. Svend Gade's and Heinz Schall's Hamlet, based on "The Mystery of Hamlet" by Edward P. Vining, based on the Shakespeare play with Hamlet becoming a female disguised as a male stars Danish actress Asta Nielsen. Leopold Jessner's and Paul Lerti's Hintertreppe (Backstairs), about a crippled mailman in love with a maid stars blond Aryan-looking actress Henny Porten (1888-1960); too bad, when she refuses to divorce her Jewish husband the Nazis blacklist her. Charlie Chaplin's The Kid (Jan. 21), written by Chaplin is his dir. debut, starring John Leslie "Jackie" Coogan (1914-84) as John the Kid, combining comedy with pathos in a winning combo; does $2.5M box office on a $250K budget, becoming the #2 grossing film of 1921; after his parents squander his earnings, Coogan gets Calif. to pass the Calif. Child Actor's (Coogan) Act in 1939. Richard Oswald's Lady Hamilton (Oct. 21), based on the Heinrich Vollrath Schumacher novels stars Liane Haid as Lady Hamilton, Conrad Veidt as Lord Nelson, Werner Krauss as Lord William Hamilton, Reinhold Schunzel as Ferdinand IV of Naples, and Adele Sandrock in a minor role. Alfred E. Grace's Little Lord Fauntleroy (Sept. 15), based on the 1886 book by Frances Hodgson Burnett stars Mary Pickford as sissy-dressing Cedric Errol and his mother Widow Errol; Claude Gillingwater plays softhearted meanie the Earl of Dorincourt. Jess Robbins' The Lucky Dog (Dec. 1) is the screen debut of the comedy team of Laurel and Hardy, consisting of thin ever-whimpering English-born Stan Laurel (Arthur Stanley Jefferson) (1890-1965) and fat ever-pompous Atlanta, Ga.-born Oliver "Ollie" "Babe" (Norvell) Hardy (1892-1957); in this first film they act separately. William C. de Mille's Midsummer Madness (Jan. 23) (Famous Players-Lasky) stars Jack Holt, Conrad Nagel, Lois Wilson, and Lila Lee, and is the film debut of Passaic, N.J.-born Ethel Wales (1878-1952), wife of Mary Pickford's business mgr. Wellington E. Wales (1886-1954), who goes on to appear in 130+ films over 30 years. William C. de Mille's Miss Lulu Bett (Nov. 1) (Famous Players-Lasky), based on the 1920 novel and play by Zona Gale stars Lois Wilson as Lulu Bett, Ethel Wales as Grandma Bett, and Theodore Roberts, Helen Ferguson, Mabel Van Buren, Mae Giraci, and Clarence Burton as Dwight, Diana, Ina, Monona, and Ninian Deacon. Theodore Reed's The Nut (Mar. 6) (Douglas Fairbanks Pictures) stars Douglas Fairbanks as Charlie Jackson, and Marguerite De La Motte as Estrell Wynn, and is the film debut of Barbara La Marr (Reatha Dale Watson) (1896-1926) ("the Girl Who Is Too Beautiful") as Claudine Dupree; she goes on to appear in 30+ films and write seven screenplays; too bad, she gets addicted to cocaine and heroin, is dropped by MGM, picked up by First Nat. Pictures, then makes three films before dying of TB and nephritis on Jan. 30, 1926. Albert Austin's On a Summer Day (Feb. 6) (Mack Sennett) is a comedy starring Kalla Pasha and Harriet Hammond, and is the film debut of Mammoth, Utah-born Marion Mack (Joey Marion McCreery) (1902-89) as Farmerette (using her real name); also the film debut of Scottish-born Andrew Allan "Andy" Clyde (1892-1967), who continues on into the TV age as Cully Wilson in "Lassie" and George MacMichael in "The Real McCoys". D.W. Griffith's Orphans of the Storm (Dec. 29), based on the novels by Adolphe d'Ennery and Eugene Cormon about two orphan sisters in the French Rev. stars Lillian Gish and Dorothy Gish, and is the breakthrough role for 6'3" Indianapolis, Ind.-born Monte Blue (Gerard Montgomery Bluefeather) (1887-1963) (half-French, half-Cherokee/Osage father) (who debut as an extra in "The Birth of a Nation" in 1915) as Danton. John McDermott's Patsy (Feb. 1), based on the play by Er Lawshe stars ZaSu Pitts as Potsy, John MacFarlane as Pops, and Tom Gallery as Bob Brooks. Allan Dwan's A Perfect Crime (Mar. 5) (Allan Dwan Productions), based on a story by Carl Clausen stars Monte Blue, Jacqueline Logan, and Stanton Heck, and is the screen debut of Carole Lombard (Jane Alice Peters) (1908-42), born into a wealthy family in Ft. Wayne, Ind., who was discovered by Dwan while playing baseball at Virgil Junior H.S.; too bad, after Fox Film Corp. signs her in Oct. 1924 at age 16, they drop her after an auto accident leaves a scar on her face, causing her to switch to Pathe in Sept. 1927-Mar. 1929, moving to Fox and Parmount by 1930, marrying William Powell in 1931-3, followed by Clark Gable in 1939, after which she is killed on Jan. 16, 1942 in an airplane crash on Mt. Potosi, Nev. while returning from a WWII war bond tour. Buster Keaton's The Playhouse stars Keaton playing every member of a stage co., the audience, and a chimp. J. Gordon Edwards' The Queen of Sheba (Apr. 10) makes a star out of actress Betty Blythe (1893-1972), who supplements her acting talent with skimpy costumes showing her bare breasts; Fritz Leiber plays King Solomon; 1920s petting parties for teenies all now want "Shebas"; nobody knows that the real Sheba was black? Dimitri Buchowetzki's Sappho (Sept. 9) is released in 1923 by Samuel Goldwyn as "Mad Love", starring Pola Negri. King' Vidor's The Sky Pilot (Apr. 17), based on the 1921 novel by Ralph Connor and set in Swan Creek, Canada stars John Bowers as the Sky Pilot (a parson), Colleen Moore as Gwen, and David Butler as Ashley Ranch foreman Bill Hendricks, who kicks him out of town for trying to start a church then hires him as a cowboy, after which he wins their acceptance as a parson. Henry King's Tol'able David (Dec. 31) (Inspiration Pictures), written by Edmund Goulding based on the story by Joseph Hergesheimer stars Richard Barthelmess "tol'able" (not yet a man) David Kinemon, who takes his brother's place as mailman for a W. Va. mountain community and suffers the mean Hatburn brothers; Gladys Hulette plays his babe Esther Hatburn, Walter P. Lewis plays Iscah Haburn, Ralph Yearsley plays Saul "Little Buzzard" Hatburn, and Forrest Robinson plays Grandpa Hatburn; the film debut of Scottish-born Ernest Torrence (Torrance-Thomson) (1878-1933) as Luke Hatburn; refilmed as a talkie in 1930. Lois Weber's What's Worth While? (Feb. 27) (Famous Players-Lasky) stars Claire Windsor as Phoebe Jay Morrison, Arthur Stuart Hull as Mr. Morrison, and Mona Lisa as Sophia, becoming the film debut of Brooklyn, N.Y.-born "Cobra" stage idol Louis Calhern (Carl Henry Vogt) (1895-1956), who leaves film in 1923, then returns in 1931 after they go talkie, continuing on the stage at the same time. Art: Georges Braque (1882-1963), Still Life with Guitar. Carlo Carra (1881-1966), Stone-pine at the Sea (futurist). Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944), Massasoit (sculpture). Arthur Garfield Dove (1880-1946), Thunderstorm. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Belle Haleine - Eau de Voilette (photo); Why Not Sneeze, Rrose Selavy (Sélavy)? ("ready-made sculpture", consisting of an oral thermometer, sugar-cube-sized marble cups inside a birdcage, etc.). Max Ernst (1891-1976), Approaching Puberty or the Pleiads; The Elephant Celebes; Seascape; The Word or Woman-Bird; Birds, Fish-Snake and Scarecrow; Young Chimera. Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Red Spot II. Paul Klee (1879-1940), View of Room With the Dark Door; Dream City; The Fish. Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980), Music (expressionist). Fernand Leger (1881-1955), Woman With a Cat; Three Women; Still Life With a Beer Mug. Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), Tyros and Portraits; satires of the "new epoch" after WWI. Frans Masereel, Passion of a Man (woodcuts). Piet Mondrian (1872-1944), Composition. Sir Alfred J. Munnings (1878-1959), Portrait of Edward, Prince of Wales, Astride His Mare Forest Witch. Piet Mondriaan (1872-1944), Tableau I. Edvard Munch (1863-1944), The Kiss; the painting of the 20th cent? Max Pechstein (1881-1955), Our Father Who Art in Heaven (woodcut). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Three Musicians; Large Bather. Man Ray (1890-1976), Rrose Selavy (Sélavy) (a pun on "Eros, c'est la vie", i.e., "eros, that's life" and "Arroser la vie", i.e., "make a toast to life"); photos of Marcel Duchamp dressed in drag. Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948), Merz Picture 321 (Cherry Picture). Florine Stettheimer, Spring Sale at Bendell's. Plays: William Archer (1856-1924), The Green Goddess (Booth Theatre, New York). Philip Barry (1896-1949), A Punch for Judy (first play). Jean-Jacques Bernard (1888-1972), Le Feu qui Reprend Mal (The Sulky Fire). Gordon Bottomley (1874-1948), Gruach and Britain's Daughter. Karel Capek (1890-1938), R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (Jan.) (Prague); coins the word "robot", from Russian "robotatch", meaning to work, coined by his brother Josef Capek (1887-1945) - somehow robots and Commies get fouled up conceptually in time? Karel Capek (1890-1938) and Josef Capek (1887-1945), The Life of the Insects. Owen Davis Sr. (1874-1956), The Detour. Grazia Deledda (1871-1936), Il Segreto dell' Uomo Solitario (The Secret). Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), Der Hollandische Kaufman. Susan Glaspell (1882-1948), The Verge (New York). Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Indipohdi; how Christianity sucks and Buddhism rocks? Herman Heijermans (1864-1924), De Dageraad. Avery Hopwood (1882-1928), The Demi-Virgin; stars Hazel Dawn. Avery Hopwood (1882-1928) and Wilson Collison, Getting Gertie's Garter; stars Hazel Dawn. Sidney Coe Howard (1891-1939), Swords (debut). W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), The Circle. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Two Slatterns and a King (1-act play). A.A. Milne (1882-1956), The Sunny Side; The Great Broxopp: Four Chapters in Her Life (Mar.) (New York) (comedy); The Truth about the Blayds (Globe Theatre, London); The Dover Road (New York). Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), Anna Christie (Vanderbilt Theatre, New York) (Nov. 2) (Pulitzer Prize); original title "Chris Christopherson"; a Swedish ho in 1910 Provincetown tries to turn her life around aboard coal barge Simeon Winthrop captained by her old father Chris C. Christopherson; filmed in 1923 starring Blanche Sweet, and in 1930 starring Greta Garbo (her first talkie, with the ad slogan "Garbo Talks!"). Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Six Characters in Search of an Author (Sei Personaggi in Cerca d'Autore) (Teatro Valle, Rome); inspired by Pinocchio; panned until the 3rd ed. in 1925, making him the #1 Italian dramatist until WWII? Victorien Sardou (1831-1908), Diplomacy. Jean Sarment, Le Pecheur d'Ombres. Carl Sternheim (1878-1942), Manon Lescaut. Michael Strange (Blanche Oelrichs) (1890-1950), Clair de Lune (Moonlight); stars her hubby John Barrymore and his sister Ethel Barrymore; a flop. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Plays for Dancers. Poetry: Richard Aldington (1892-1962), Hymen (Hilda Doolittle); Medallions in Clay. Lord Dunsany (1878-1957), If. William Faulkner (1897-1962), Vision in Spring. Louis Golding (1895-1958), Prophet and Fool. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), The Pier-Glass. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), The Book of American Negro Poetry. Aline Murray Kilmer (1888-1941), Vigils. Vachel Lindsay (1879-1931), In Praise of Johnny Appleseed. John Masefield (1878-1967), King Cole. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The Open Sea. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Second April (sonnets); incl. "Spring", "Ode to Silence", "The Beanstalk"; The Lamp and the Bell (sonnets); composed for a Vassar College commencement. Marianne Moore (1887-1972), Poems. James Oppenheim (1882-1932), The Mystic Warrior. Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Poems 1918-1921. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), Avon's Harvest; Mr. Flood's Party; Haunted House; Collected Poems (1922 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry, the first not paid for by the Poetry Society). Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921), A Penny Whistle: Together With the Babette Ballads (posth.). William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), Sour Grapes. Elinor Wylie (1885-1928), Nets to Catch the Wind (debut). William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Michael Robartes and the Dancer. Novels: Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941), The Triumph of the Egg (short story). Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Anicet ou le Panorama (first novel). Michael Arlen (1895-1956), The Romantic Lady (short stories). Faith Baldwin (1893-1978), Mavis of Green Hill; launches her bestselling U.S. romance novel career. Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), The Beginning of Wisdom (first novel). Johan Bojer (1872-1959), Der Sidste Viking. James Branch Cabell (1879-1958), Figures of Earth; swineherd Manual, of divine birth, rises to become a legendary ruler in a medieval world. Ralph Connor (1860-1937), The Sky Pilot. Marie Corelli (1855-1924), The Secret Power. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), How I Found the Philosopher's Stone (first work); The Silkworm's Enemy. Edna Ferber (1885-1968), The Girls. John Galsworthy (1867-1933), A Family Man. Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944), Suzanne et le Pacifique. J. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), She and Allan. Georgette Heyer (1902-74), The Black Moth (first novel). Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Der Schwierige (The Difficult One). Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), Stardust: The Story of an American Girl. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), Chrome Yellow (first novel). Mary Johnston (1870-1936), Silver Cross. Sheila Kaye-Smith (1887-1956), Joanna Godden. Robert Keable (1887-1927), Simon Called Peter; semi-autobio. novel written in 12 days by a unhappily-married missionary in Bechuanaland; sells 300K copies with its plot about sex outside marriage being a sacrament. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), Women in Love; the Brangwen sisters; artist Gudrun hooks up with industrialist Gerald Crich, while teacher Ursula hooks up with intellectual Rupert Birkin (Lawrence?), who end up in the Swiss Alps and get into male-male eroticism. Wiliam John Locke (1863-1930), The Apostle. Pierre Loti (1850-1923) and Samuel Viaud, Supremes Visions d'Orient. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), Dangerous Ages. Denis Mackail (1892-1971), Romance to the Rescue. Curzio Malaparte (1898-1957), La Rivolta dei Santi; corrupt Rome is the real enemy? Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973), La Coeur des Autres. Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), Memoirs of a Midget. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), The Trembling of a Leaf (short stories); incl. Miss Thompson, about a a missionary who tries to reform a ho, dramatized in 1923 as "Rain". Andre Maurois (1885-1967), The Discourses of Doctor O'Grady. Nellie McClung (1873-1951), Purple Springs. George Moore (1852-1933), Heloise and Abelard; his masterpiece? Robert Nathan (1894-1985), Autumn. Charles Gilman Norris (1881-1945), Brass: A Novel of Marriage. Joseph Opatoshu (1886-1954), In Polish Woods (trilogy); English trans. 1938; the decline of Hasidism. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Profiteers; Jacob's Ladder; Nobody's Man. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), Three Soldiers; the impact of war on civilization and art; Dan Fuselli, Chrisfield, John Andrews. Marcel Proust (1871-1922), Le Cote (Coté) des Guermantes (The Guermantes Way); Sodome et Gomorrhe (Sodom and Gomorrah) (Cities of the Plain); vols. 3-4 of 7. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), Scaramouche; a young lawyer during the French Rev. who becomes an actor playing you know who while playing both sides; filmed in 1923 starring Ramon Novarro; "He was born with the gift of laughter and a sense that the world was mad" (first line). Nelly Sachs (1891-1970), Legenden und Erzahlungen (Erzählungen) (debut). Georges Simeon (1903-89), Au Pont des Arches (first novel); pub. under alias "G. Sim". Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Satan: A Story of the Sea King's Country. Gene Stratton-Porter (1863-1924), Her Father's Daughter. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), Coquette. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), The Thief. Booth Tarkington (1869-1946), Alice Adams (Pulitzer Prize). Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Thirteen Travellers. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Pleasure. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), The Beautiful Years; #1 in the 4-vol. Willie Maddison series "The Flax of Dreams" (1921-8). Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Monday or Tuesday (short stories). Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), Helen of the Old House. Elinor Wylie (1885-1928), Jennifer Lorn: A Sedate Extravaganza. Yevgeny Zamyatin (1884-1937), a href="http://orwell.ru/library/others/zamyatin/my/">We; the diary of D-503 of the no-privacy glass-city One State and his babe I-330, who hooks him up with the resistance group Mephi; forerunner of George Orwell's "Animal Farm" and "1984". Births: French sculptor Cesar (César) Baldaccini (d. 1998) on Jan. 1 in Marseille; likes to work in scrap metal and to be called Cesar (César). Am. "Sleeper House" architect Charles Uutter Deaton (d. 1996) on Jan. 1 in Clayton, N.M. Iranian Shiite Grand Ayatollah Hossein Vahid Khorasani on Jan. 1 in Nishapur; father-in-law of Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani (1960-). Am. Dem. politician Maury Maverick Jr. (d. 2003) on Jan. 3; son of Maury Maverick Sr. (1895-1954); grandson of Sam Maverick (1803-70). Am. "Marshal Dan Troop in Lawman" actor John Lawrence Russell (d. 1991) on Jan. 3 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif. Luxembourger grand duke (1964-2000) Jean Beanoit Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano on Jan. 5; son of grand duchess Charlotte (1896-1985) and prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma (1893-1970); father of grand duke Henri (1955-). Swiss dramatist Friedrich Durrenmatt (Dürrenmatt) (d. 1990) on Jan. 5 in Konolfingen (near Berne). Am. pollster Louis Harris on Jan. 6 in New Haven, Conn. Am. golfer Emmett Cary Middlecoff (d. 1998) on Jan. 6 in Halls, Tenn. Am. "The Rake's Progress" poet-librettist (Jewish) (gay) Chester Simon Kallman (d. 1975) on Jan. 7 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Brooklyn College and the U. of Mich.; lover (1939-73) of W.H. Auden (1907-73). Am. auto racer Rodger Ward (d. 2004) on Jan. 10 in Beloit, Kan. French chef (in the U.S.) Pierre Franey (d. 1996) on Jan. 13 in Saint Vinnemer, Yonne. English military historian John Alfred Terraine (d. 2003) on Jan. 15 in London; educated at Keble College, Oxford U. English "Capt. Peacock in Are You Being Served?" actor Frank Thornton (Ball) on Jan. 15 in Dulwich, London. Am. fashion photographer Francesco Scavullo (d. 2004) on Jan. 16 in Staten Island, N.Y. Am. physicist Yoichiro Nambu on Jan. 18 in Tokyo; emigrates to the U.S. in 1952; 2008 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. evangelist Harold Egbert Camping (d. 2013) on Jan. 19 in Boulder, Colo. Am. "Strangers on a Train", "The Talented Mr. Ripley" novelist (lesbian) (alcoholic) Patricia Highsmith (Mary Patricia Plangman) (d. 1995) on Jan. 19 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; educated at Barnard College; friend of July Holliday; moves to Europe in 1963. Am. "Living Love" writer Ken Keyes Jr. (d. 1995) on Jan. 19 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Duke U., and the U. of Miami; contracts polio in Feb. 1946. English "Alph" sci-fi novelist Charles Eric Maine (real name David McIlwain) (d. 1981) on Jan. 21 in Liverpool. Lithuanian-Am. archeologist Marija Gimbutas (Marija Birute Alseikate) (d. 1994) on Jan. 23 in Vilnius; educated at the U. of Vilnius; emigrates to the U.S. in 1949. Am. physicist ("the Father of the Neutron Bomb") (Jewish) Samuel Theodore Cohen (d. 2010) on Jan. 25 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Austrian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at UCLA, and UCB. Am. "Lorene in From Here to Eternity", "Second Miss Ellie in Dallas" actress Donna Reed (Donna Belle Mullenger) (d. 1986) on Jan. 27 in Denison, Iowa. Am. "Jeremiah Collins in Dark Shadows", "Don Corey in Checkmate" actor Anthony (Ottavio Gabriel) George (d. 2005) on Jan. 29 in Endicott, N.Y.; Italian immigrant parents. Am. "Sands of Iwo Jima", "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon" 6'1" actor John G. Agar (d. 2002) on Jan. 31 in Chicago, Ill.; husband (1945-50) of Shirley Temple (1928-2014). Am. "Hello, Dolly!" actress-singer Carol Elaine Channing on Jan. 31 in Seattle, Wash. Am. "The Feminine Mystique" feminist writer (Jewish) Betty Friedan (Betty Naomi Goldstein) (d. 2006) on Feb. 4 in Peoria, Ill.; educated at Smith College. Am. fuzzy logic mathematician (Jewish) Lofti Asker Zadeh on Feb. 4 in Baku, Azerbaijan; emigrates to the U.S. in 1944; educated at MIT and Columbia U. Am. "Neither black Nor White" historian (feminist) Carl Neumann Degler (d. 2014) on Feb. 6 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Upsala College, and Columbia U.; one of two male founding members of the Nat. Org. for Women (NOW). Am. country singer Wilma Lee Cooper (Leary) on Feb. 7 in Valley Head, W. Va.; wife (1939-) of Stoney Cooper (1918-77). Am. actress ("the Sweater Girl") Lana (Julia Jean Frances Mildred) Turner on Feb. 8 in Wallace, Idaho; Tenn. miner father, mother is 16-y.-o. Ala. girl; wife (1942-4) of Stephen Crane (1916-85); mother of Cheryl Crane (1943-). Am. U.S. treasury secy. #69 (1993-4) and U.S. Sen. (D-Tex.) (1971-93) Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. (d. 2006) on Feb. 11 in Mission, Tex.; son of "Big Lloyd" Bentsen Sr., owner of the Arrowhead Ranch (sold in 1997 for $6M). Am. TV entertainer Hugh Malcolm Downs on Feb. 14 in Akron, Ohio; no relation to CBS Radio broadcaster Bill Downs (1914-78). Am. "The Belle of New York", "White Christmas", "Call Me Madam" actress-dancer Vera-Ellen (Vera Ellen Westmeier Rohe) (d. 1981) on Feb. 16 in Norwood, Ohio; of German descent; known as "the smallest waist in Hollywood". Chinese PM (1976-80) Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng) (Su Zhu) on Feb. 16 in Jiaocheng, Shanxi; changes his real name Su Zhu to Hua Guofeng, short for "Zhonghua kangri jiuguo xianfengdui" (Chinese resistance gainst Japanese nation-saving vanguard). South African Conservative Party leader-founder Rev. ("Dr. No.") Andries Petrus Treurnicht (d. 1993) on Feb. 19 in Piketberg, Cape Province. Am. test pilot Joseph Albert "Joe" Walker (d. 1966) on Feb. 20 in Washington, Penn.; not to be confused with playwright Joseph A. Walker (1935-). Am. "A Theory of Justice" philosopher John Borden (Bordley) Rawls (d. 2002) on Feb. 21 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Princeton U. Am. Whitcomb Area Rule aeronautical engineer Richard Travis Whitcomb (d. 2009) on Feb. 21 in Evanston, Ill.; educated at Worcester Polytechnic Inst. Am. lit. critic Wayne Clayson Booth (d. 2005) on Feb. 22 in American Fork, Utah; educated at Brigham Young U., and U. of Chicago. Swedish "Martin Beck in Man on the Roof" actor Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt (d. 1992) on Feb. 24 in Stockholm. Am. "Det. Sgt. Phil Fish in Barney Miller", "Sal Tessio in The Godfather" actor (Jewish) Abraham Charles "Abe" Vigoda (d. 2016) on Feb. 24 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "The Perils of Pauline", "Annie Get Your Gun" actress-singer Betty Hutton (Elizabeth June Thornburg) (d. 2007) on Feb. 26 in Battle Creek, Mich. Am. "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", "Amadeus" record-film producer (Jewish) Saul Zaentz on Feb. 28 in Passaic, N.J. Am. New York archbishop (1968-) and cardinal (1969-) Terence James Cooke (d. 1983) on Mar. 1 in New York City; Irish immigrant parents; named after Cork Sinn Fein mayor-martyr Terence MacSwiney (1879-1920). Am. conductor (Jewish) Julius Rudel on Mar. 6 in Vienna, Austria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; educated at Mannes College of Music. Am. 5'6" "The Band Wagon" actress-dancer Cyd Charisse (Tula Ellice Finklea) (d. 2008) on Mar. 8 in Amarillo, Tex.; contracts polio in childhood. Am. "Skipper Jonas Grumby in Gilligan's Island" actor Alan Hale Jr. (Alan Hale MacKahan) (d. 1990) on Mar. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Alan Hale Sr. (1892-1950) and Gretchen Hartman (1897-1979). Am. "Dr. Alex Stone in The Donna Reed Show", "Clinton Judd in Judd for the Defense" actor Carl Lawrence Betz (d. 1978) on Mar. 9 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Carnegie Tech. Argentine tango composer ("El Gran Astor") Astor Pantaleon Piazzolla (d. 1992) on Mar. 11 in Mar del Plata. Am. "Oklahoma!", "Carousel" actor-singer Albert Gordon MacRae (d. 1986) on Mar. 12 in East Orange, N.J.; husband (1941-67) of Sheila MacRae (1921-2014). Am. Chick-fil-A founder (Southern Baptist) Samuel Truett Cathy (d. 2014) on Mar. 14 in Eatonton, Ga. Am. architecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable on Mar. 14 in New York City. Am. dir.-writer Joseph W. Sarno on Mar. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; cousin of Joe Santos (1931-). Am. jazz bassist Yervant Harry "the Bear" Babasin Jr. (d. 1988) on Mar. 19 in Dallas, Tex.; Armenian father; educasted at North Tex. State U. Am. baritone (black) Robert McFerrin Sr. (d. 2006) on Mar. 19 in Marianna, Ark.; father of Bobby McFerrin (1950-). Israeli ambassador (Jewish) Yaacov (Yaakov) Herzog (d. 1972) on Mar. 21 in Dublin, Ireland; son of Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog; brother of Chaim Herzog; emigrates to Palestine in 1937. Am. "Zerelda Zee James in Jesse James" actress Nancy Kelly (d. 1995) on Mar. 21 in Lowell, Mass.; sister of Jack Kelly (1927-92); works in 23 films in 1927-9. Am. "Things of This World", "Mayflies" poet Richard Purdy Wilbur on Mar. 21 in New York City; grows up in North Caldwell, N.J.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard U. Am. Vail Mountain ski resort co-founder George Peck Caulkins Jr. (d. 2005) on Mar. 25 in Grosse Point, Mich. French actress (Jewish) Simone Signoret (Simone Henriette Charlotte Kaminker) (d. 1985) on Mar. 25 in Wiesbaden, Germany. French economist Georges Anderla (d. 2005) on Mar. 27 in Prague, Czech. Am. "The Lone Ranger" radio-TV announcer Frederick William "Fred" Foy (d. 2010) on Mar. 21 in Detroit, Mich. Am. Boing 747 aircraft designer Joseph F. "Joe" Sutter (d. 2016) on Mar. 21 in Seattle, Wash.; of Slovenian descent; educated at the U. of Wash. Soviet world chess champ #7 (1957-8) Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (d. 2010) on Mar. 24 in Moscow. Canadian "Studio One" dir.-producer-writer Fletcher Markle (d. 1991) on Mar. 27 in Winnipeg, Man.; husband (1950-62) of Mercedes McCambridge (1916-2004). Am. tap dancer (black) Harold Lloyd Nicholas (d. 2000) on Mar. 27 in Winston-Salem, N.C; brother of Fayard Nicholas (1914-2006); husband (1942-51) of Dorothy Dandridge (1924-66). Am. abstract expressionist painter Norman Bluhm (d. 1999) on Mar. 28 in Chicago, Ill.; student of Mies van der Rohe. English "Lt. Gen. Frederick Boy Browning in A Bridge Too Far" actor-novelist (gay) Dirk Bogarde (Derek Jules Gaspard Ulric Niven van den Bogaerde) (d. 1999) on Mar. 28 in West Hampstead, London. Am. "It's Never Too Late" playwright Sumner Arthur Long (d. 1993) on Mar. 31 in Mass. Am. lightweight boxer (black) Beau Jack (Sidney Walker) (d. 2000) on Apr. 1 in Augusta, Ga. Am. "The Rifleman" 6'5" actor (Roman Catholic) Chuck (Kevin Joseph Aloysius) Connors (d. 1992) on Apr. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Irish immigrant parents from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, Canada; first baseman in 66 games of the 1951 season with the Chicago Cubs; also plays for the NBA - does that make him like that salsa from New York? Am. "The Purple People Eater", "Pete Nolan in Rawhide", "Frank Miller in High Noon" actor-singer Shelby F. "Sheb" Wooley (d. 2003) (AKA Ben Colder) on Apr. 10 in Erick, Okla. Am. Marilyn Monroe's 1st hubby James Edward "Jim" Dougherty (d. 2005) on Apr. 12 in Tex. Am. economist Thomas Crombie Schelling on Apr. 14 in Oakland, Calif.; educated at UCB and Harvard U.; 2005 Nobel Econ. Prize. Soviet cosmonaut Georgi Timofeyevich Beregovoi (d. 1995) on Apr. 15 in Fedorovka, Ukraine. English "Nero in Quo Vadis", "Lentulus Batiatus in Spartacus" actor-playwright Sir Peter Alexander (Baron von) Ustinov (d. 2004) on Apr. 16 in London; son of Jona "Klop" Ustinov and Nadezhda Leontievna "Nadia" Benois; of Ethiopian, French, German, Russian, Swiss, Italian, and Jewish descent; educated at Westminster School; knighted in 1990; has a half-Ethiopian grandmother "whose Christian name was Magdalena... born in a tent during the Battle of Magdala, which opposed Ethiopian forces to British ones under Lord Napier; my grandmother's youngest sister was still, until recently, a lady-in-waiting at the court of Haile Selassie." Am. "Della Street on Perry Mason" actress Barbara Hale on Apr. 18 in DeKalb, Ill. Am. jockey Anna Lee Aldred (nee Mills) (d. 2006) on Apr. 19 in Montrose. Colo.; first woman in the U.S. to receive a jockey license (1939). Am. "Betty Smith in The Smith Family" actress Janet Blair (Martha Janet Lafferty) (d. 2007) on Feb. 19 in Altoona, Blair County, Penn. Am. baseball pitcher (lefty) Warren Edward Spahn on Apr. 23 in Buffalo, N.Y. Finnish composer Laci Boldemann (d. 1969) on Apr. 24 in Helsinki. Dutch artist Karel Appel (d. 2006) on Apr. 25 in Amsterdam. Am. jazz clarinetist-composer (white) James Peter "Jimmy" Giuffre (d. 2008) on Apr. 26 in Dallas, Tex.; Italian immigrant father; educated at North Tex. State Teachers College. Am. "Evans-Novak Political Report" conservative journalist Rowland Evans Jr. (d. 2001) on Apr. 28 in Whitemarsh Township, Penn.; educated at Yale U.; collaborator of Robert D. Novak (1931-2009). Am. historian (Jewish) John Morton Blum (d. 2011) on Apr. 29 in New York City; educated at Phillips Academy, and Harvard U. Am. welter-middleweight boxing champ (1951, 1955, 1957-8) (black) Sugar Ray Robinson (Walker Smith Jr.) (d. 1989) on May 3 in Ailey, Ga.; wins world title 2x in 1951. Am. 6'4" baseball player (LF) (Detroit Tigers) (1941-9) Richard Cummings "Dick" Wakefield (d. 1985) on May 6 in Chicago, Ill. English "A Social History of the Media" historian Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs on May 7 in Keighley, West Riding of Yorkshire; educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge U., and U. of London; created baron in 1976. Am. peace activist (Jesuit) Daniel Berrigan on May 9 in Virginia, Minn.; brother of Philip Berrigan (1923-2002). Am. "Near Changes" poet Mona Jane Van Duyn (d. 2004) on May 9 in Waterloo, Iowa; educated at the U. of Iowa; friend of James Merrill (1926-95). Am. 4'10" "Ida Morgenstern in Rhoda" actress-comedian Nancy Walker (Ann Myrtle Swoyer) (d. 1992) on May 10 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. Mr. Coffee co-inventor Edmund Angel Abel Jr. (d. 2014) on May 12 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "How Much Is That Doggie in the Window", "Honeycomb", "People" composer-lyricist-songwriter (Jewish) Bob Merrill (Henry Robert Merrill Levan) (d. 1998) (AKA Paul Stryker) on May 17 in Atlantic City, N.J.; grows up in Philly. Am. "Auntie Mame" novelist (bi) Patrick Dennis (Edward Everett Tanner III) (d. 1976) on May 18 in Evanston, Ill.; starts out as a bestselling author in the 1950s; ends up as a butler for McDonald's founder Ray Kroc. German perf. artist Joseph Beuys (d. 1986) on May 21 in Krefeld; grows up in Kleve. Canadian "Never Cry Wolf" conservationist writer Farley McGill Mowat on May 12 in Belleville, Ont. Am. "Red River", "Rio Bravo" actor Harry Carey Jr. (Henry G. Carey) on May 16 in Saugus, Calif.; son of Harry Carey Sr. (1878-1947) and Olive Carey (1896-1988); appears with his mother in "The Searchers" (1956); friend of John Ford (1894-1973). English children's writer Peggy Cripps Appiah (d. 2006) on May 21 in Lechlade, Gloucestershire; daughter of Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (1889-1952); wife (1953-) of Ghanaian politician Joseph Emmanuel Appiah (1918-90); mother of Kwame Anthony Appiah (1954-). Soviet nuclear physicist and human rights activist Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (d. 1989) on May 21 in Moscow; inventor of the Tokamak. Am. "Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head", "Do You Know the Way to San Jose", "Walk on By", "What the World Needs Now Is Love" hall-of-fame lyricist-songwriter (Jewish) Harold Lane "Hal" David (d. 2012) on May 25 in New York City; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y.; son of Austrian Jewish immigrants; collaborator of Burt Bacharach (1928-). Am. newspaper pub. James Cline Quayle (d. 2000) on May 25 in Joliet, Ill.; educated at DePauw U.; father of James Danforth Quayle (1947-). Am. physicist (Jewish) (atheist) (humanist) Hans Jakob "Jack" Steinberger on May 25 in Bad Kissingen, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1934; educated at the U. of Chicago; father of Ned Steinberger (1948-); 1988 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. historian (Jewish) Walter Ze'ev Laqueur on May 26 in Breslaw, Germany (Wroclaw, Poland); emigrates to Palestine in 1938. Am. "Red Light Bandit" rapist-kidnapper-robber Caryl Whittier Chessman (d. 1960) on May 27 in St. Joseph, Mich. Am. "Sheriff J.W. Pepper in James Bond", "Southern Carr in Cool Hand Luke" actor George Clifton James on May 29 in New York City. Am. "NBC's Voice of God" announcer Howard Reig (pr. REEG) on May 31 in New York City; replaced on Dec. 17, 2007 by the voice of Michael Douglas. Am. 6'4" Harlem Globetrotters basketball player (black) (original clown prince) Reece "Goose" Tatum (d. 1967) on May 31 in El Dorado, Ark.; inventor of the hook shot (skyhook). German film producer Alexander Salkind (d. 1997) on June 21 in Danzig; son of Michael Salkind; father of Ilya Salkind (1947-). Am. "The Blue Max" novelist-artist Jack D. Hunter (d. 2009) on June 4 in Hamilton, Ohio; educated at Penn State U. Russian ballerina Nina Vyroubova (d. 2007) on June 4 in Gurzuf; moves to France at an early age. British RAF pilot Cyril Joe Barton (d. 1944) on June 5 in Elveden, Suffolk. Am. expressionaist artist LeRoy Neiman (Leroy Leslie Runquist) (d. 2012) on June 8 in St. Paul, Minn. Canadian 5'9" "Jessica Montford in Dallas", "Winifred Stanley in Here Comes the Groom" actress-dancer ("the Dynamite Girl") Alexis (Gladys) Smith (d. 1993) on June 8 in Penticton, B.C.; wife (1944-93) of Craig Stevens (1918-2000). Indonesian pres. #2 (1967-98) (Muslim) gen. Suharto (Soeharto) (d. 2008) on June 8 near Yogyakarta; ethnic Javanese parents. Am. New York diva Brenda Diana Duff Frazier (d. 1982) on June 9; father of Boston Brahmin Frank Duff Frazier and Brenda Germaine Henshaw Williams-Taylor (daughter of Bank of Montreal pres. Sir Frederick Williams-Taylor); inventorr of the white face look; popularizes strapless gowns; wife (1941-) of John "Shipwreck" Kelly. English duke and Greek-Danish prince Philip (Philippos) Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich on June 10 [Gemini] in Villa Mon Repos, Corfu, Greece; only son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (1882-1944) and Princess Alice of Battenberg (1885-1969); member of the Danish-German House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg; great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria; husband (1947-) of Queen Elizabeth II (1926-), who is a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, making them 3rd cousins, as well as 2nd cousins once-removed through Christian IX of Denmark. Am. "The Tragedy of American Diplomacy" Cold War revisionist historian ("favorite historian of the Middle American New Left") William Appleman "Bill" Williams (d. 1990) on June 12 near Atlantic, Iowa; educated at the U. of Wisc.; disciple of Fred Harvey Harrington, Merle Curti, and Hoard K. Beale; teacher of Walter LaFeber (1933-). Am. "Misty" 5'2" jazz pianist-composer (black) Erroll Louis Garner (d. 1977) on June 15 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; likes to sit on telephone books while performing. British "Ill Met by Moonlight: The Abduction of General Kreipe" writer Capt. Ivan William Stanley "Billy" Moss (d. 1965) on June 15 in Yokohama, Japan. Am. respirator inventor Forrest M. Bird on June 21 in Stoughton, Mass. German Nazi soldier hero Fritz Christen (d. 1995) on June 21 in Wredenhagen. Am. "Billie Dawn in Born Yesterday", "Gladys Glover in It Should Happen to You" actress (Jewish) Judy Holliday (Judith Tuvim) (d. 1965) on June 21 in New York City: Russian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Judy Flaquer in The Paradine Case" actress Joan Margaret Tetzel (d. 1977) on June 21 in New York City; wife (1949-) of Oscar Homolka (1898-1978). Am. bandleader Nelson Smock Riddle Jr. (d. 1985) on June 21 in Oradell, N.J. Am. "The Outlaw", "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" 5'7" 38D-24-36 actress Ernestine Jane Geraldine Russell on June 21 in Bemidji, Minn.; wife (1943-68) of Bob Waterfield (1920-83). Am. New York Shakespeare Festival, "Hair", "A Chorus Line" impresario (Jewish) Joseph Papp (Yosl Papirofsky) (d. 1991) on June 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian immigrant parents. U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1961-83) Paul Findley on June 23. Canadian ballet dir. (Jewish) Celia Franca (Franks) (d. 2007) on June 25 in London, England. Canadian country singer ("King of the Yodelers") Stanley Beresford "Donn" Reynolds (d. 1997) on June 26 in Winnipeg, Man. French Resistance agent-martyr Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell Szabo (d. 1945) on June 26 in Paris; English father, French mother. British actress Muriel Lilian Pavlow on June 27 in Leigh, Kent; Russian father, French mother; wife (1947-86) of Derek Farr (1912-86). Indian PM #9 (1991-6) Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (d. 2004) on June 28 in Vangara; educated at the U. of Pune. French "San-Antonio" crime novelist Frederic Charles Antoine Dard (d. 2000) on June 29 in Bourgoin-Jallieu. German Bertelsmann publisher Reinhard Mohn (d. 2009) on June 29 in Gutersloh, Westphalia; starts out a Nazi, then goes liberal. French-Am. economist Gerard (Gérard) Debreu (d. 2004) on July 4 in Calais; becomes U.S. citizen in 1975. Am. "A Raisin in the Sun", "The Owl and the Pussycat", "Purlie", "Shenandoah" theatrical producer (Jewish) Philip Rose (d. 2011) on July 4 in Manhattan, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; husband (1946-) of Doris Belack (1926-2011). Am. "The Prince and the Pauper" actors Robert Joseph "Bob" Mauch (d. 2007) and William J. "Billy" Mauch (d. 2006) on July 6 in Peoria, Ill. U.S. Repub. First Lady (1981-9) and "Nurse Lt. Helen Blair in Hellcats of the Navy" actress Nancy Davis Reagan (Anne Frances Robbins) (d. 2016) on July 6 [Cancer] in Manhattan, N.Y. (same birthday as Pres. George W. Bush, Merv Griffin, Ned Beatty, and Sylvester Stallone); wife (1952-2004) of Pres. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004). Am. heavyweight boxing champ (1949-51) (black) Ezzard Mack Charles (d. 1975) on July 7 in Lawrenceville, Ga. Am. boxer ("The Raging Bull") ("The Bronx Bull") Giacobbe "Jake" LaMotta on July 10 in New York City; 83 wins (30 KOs), 19 losses, 4 draws. Am. Special Olympics co-founder Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver (d. 2009) on July 10 in Brookline, Mass.; 5th of 9 children of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. (1888-1969) and Rose Kennedy (1890-1995); educated at Stanford U.; wife (1953-) of R. Sargent Shriver (1915-); mother of Maria Shriver (1955-). Am. "Robert E. Lee Bob Ewell in To Kill a Mockingbird" actor James Anderson (d. 1999) on July 13 in Wetumpka, Ala.; brother of Mary "Bebe" Anderson (1920-). English chemist Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson (d. 1996) on July 14 in Springside (near Todmorden), Yorkshire. Am. "The Urban Frontier" historian Richard Clement Wade (d. 2008) on July 14 in Des Moines, Iowa; grows up in Winnetaka, Ill.; educated at the U. of Rochester, and Harvard U. Am. "Lizzie Borden", "The Sweet Bye and Bye" composer Jack Beeson on July 15 in Muncie, Ind. Am. biochemist Robert Bruce Merrifield (d. 2006) on July 15 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; educated at UCLA. Scottish virologist (Jewish) Alick Isaacs (d. 1967) on July 17 in Glasgow; Jewish Lithuanian immigrant paternal grandparents; educated at the U. of Glasgow. French mountain climber Louis Lachenal (d. 1955) on July 17 in Annecy, Haute-Savole. Israeli heroine (Jewish) Hannah Szenes (Hannah Senesh) (Chana Senesh) (d. 1944) on July 17 in Hungary; emigrates to Israel in 1939. Am. Cognitive Therapy psychiatrist Aaron Temkin Beck on July 18 in Providence, R.H.; educated at Brown U. Am. astronaut and Dem. U.S. Sen. (D-Ohio) (1974-99) (Freemason) (redhead) John Herschel Glenn Jr. (d. 2016) on July 18 in Cambridge, Ohio; educated at Muskingum College; 3rd American in space, and first to orbit the Earth (1962). Am. "The Light in the Piazza" novelist Elizabeth Spencer on July 19 in Carrollton, Miss.; educated at Vanderbilt U. Am. physicist Rosalyn Sussman Yalow on July 21 in New York City; educated at Hunter College and Columbia U.; 1977 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. jazz pianist-composer (black) Billy Taylor on July 21 in Greenville, N.C. Australian electrical engineer Ronald Newbold Bracewell (d. 2007) on July 22 in Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge U. Am. "Larry 'Bud' Melman in Late Night with David Letterman" actor Calvert DeForest (d. 2007) on July 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; first face seen on the debut of The Letterman Show on Feb. 1, 1982. Am. composer (Jewish) Jerome Rosen on July 23 in Boston, Mass.; educated at UCB. Am. "A Christmas Story" radio-TV personality-writer-actor Jean Parker "Shep" Shepherd (d. 1999) on July 26 in Chicago, Ill.; not to be confused with singer Jean Shepard (1933-). Am. bowler Fred Joseph Riccilli (d. 2015) on July 30. Am. tennis player Jack Albert Kramer on Aug. 1 in Las Vegas, Nev. Am. "The Pajama Game", "Damn Yankees" Broadway composer Richard Adler on Aug. 3 in New York City; collaborator of Jerry Ross (1926-55). Am. jazz guitarist (white) Michell Herbert "Herb" Ellis (d. 2010) (Oscar Peterson Trio) on Aug. 4 in Farmersville, Tex.; raised in Dallas, Tex. Canadian hockey hall-of-fame player (Montreal Canadiens #9, 1942-60) Joseph Henri Maurice "Rocket" Richard (d. 2000) on Aug. 4 in Montreal, Quebec; first NHL player to score 50 goals in a season and 500 goals in a career. Am. composer-conductor Karel Husa on Aug. 7 in Prague, Czech.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1954. Am. "Our Miss Brooks", "I Love Lucy", "Bewitched" "Muscle Beach Party" dir.-producer-writer (inventor of the sitcom?) William Milton Asher (d. 2012) on Aug. 8 in New York City; son of Ephraim M. Asher (1887-1937) (Jewish) and Lillian Bonner (Roman Catholic); husband (1963-73) of Elizabeth Montgomery (1933-95). Am. "In the Jailhouse Now" country singer Webb Michael Pierce (d. 1991) on Aug. 8 in West Monroe, La. Am. actress-swimmer Esther Jane Williams (d. 2013) on Aug. 8 in Inglewood, Calif. Am. "Farewell to Manzanar" actor Yuki Shimoda (d. 1981) on Aug. 10 in Sacramento, Calif.; Japanese immigrant parents; educated at Sacramental Junior College. Am. "Roots" novelist (black) (Freemason) Alexander Murray Palmer "Alex" Haley (d. 1992) on Aug. 11 in Ithaca, N.Y.; not to be confused with Arthur Hailey (1920-2004). Am. 5'2" "General Hospital" TV producer Gloria Monty (d. 2006) on Aug. 12; educated at NYU and Columbia U. English historian Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (Gottfried Rudolf Ehrenberg) (d. 1994) on Aug. 17 in Tubingen, Germany. Am. jazz drummer Don Lamond (d. 2003) on Aug. 18 in Oklahoma City, Okla. Am. "Star Trek" writer-producer (Freemason) Eugene Wesley "Gene" Roddenberry (d. 1991) on Aug. 19 in El Paso, Tex. Am. "Lost in a Harem" actress Marvel Marilyn Maxwell (d. 1972) on Aug. 3 in Clarinda, Iowa; has a longtime affair with Bob Hope, causing her to become known as Mrs. Bob Hope; has another longtime affair with Frank Sinatra. Am. Arrow's Impossibility Theorem economist Kenneth Joseph Arrow on Aug. 23 in New York City; educated at CCNY, and Columbia U.; 1972 Nobel Econ. Prize. Canadian "Let's Make a Deal" TV personality (Jewish) Maurice "Monty Hall" Halperin on Aug. 25 in Winnipeg, Man. - Monty Hall isn't from Montreal? Irish "The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne" novelist (Roman Catholic turned atheist) Brian Moore (d. 1999) (pr. BREE-an) on Aug. 25 in Belfast, Northern Ireland; emigrates to Canada in 1947, then the U.S. Am. Watergate journalist (exec ed. of the Washington Post in 1968-91) Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (d. 2014) on Aug. 26 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. Am. actor-dir. (Jewish) Leo Z. Penn (d. 1998) on Aug. 27 in Lawrence, Mass.; Russian-Lithuanian Jewish parents; father's surname is Pinon (Spanish); husband of Eileen Ryan (1928-); father of Michael Penn (1958-), Sean Penn (1960-) and Chris Penn (1965-2006). Am. "Miss Jane Hathaway in The Beverly Hillbillies" actress Nancy Jane Kulp (d. 1991) on Aug. 28 in Harrisburg, Penn.; educated at Fla. State U., and U. of Miami. Am. hall-of-fame stock car racer (black) (first African-Am. driver in NASCAR, and first to win a race in the Grand Nat. Series) Wendell Oliver Scott (d. 1990) on Aug. 29 in Danville, Va. Welsh "Culture and Society", "The Long Revolution" leftist writer-novelist-critic Raymond Henry Williams (d. 1988) on Aug. 31 in Llanfihangel Crucorney (near Abergavenny), Wales; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U. Am. photographer Ruth Orkin (d. 1985) on Sept. 3 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Los Angeles City College. Am. Motion Picture Assoc. of Am. pres. Jack Joseph Valenti (d. 2007) on Sept. 5 in Houston, Tex. Am. barcode co-inventor Norman Joseph Woodland on Sept. 6 in Atlantic, City, N.J.; educated at Drexel U. Am. pianist Arthur Ferrante (d. 2009) on Sept. 7 in New York City; collaborator of Louis Teicher (1924-2008). Welsh "If I Ruled the World", "This Is My Song" tenor Sir Harry Donald Secombe (d. 2001) on Sept. 8 in St. Thomas, Swansea; knighted in 1981. Am. TV journalist Frank McGee (d. 1974) on Sept. 12 in Monroe, La. Am. civil rights atty. and federal judge (1966-) (black) Constance Baker Motley (d. 2005) on Sept. 14 in New York City; first African-Am. female federal judge. Am. Delta bluesman and harmonica player (black) James Edward "Snooky" Pryor (d. 2006) on Sept. 15 in Lambert, Miss. Brazilian "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" educator (Marxist) Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (d. 1997) on Sept. 19 in Recife. Polish "Solaris" sci-fi novelist (atheist) Stanislaw Lem (d. 2006) on Sept. 21 in Lwow. Am. R&B singer (black) Billy Ward (d. 2002) (Billy Ward and the Dominoes) on Sept. 19 in Savannah, Ga. Swedish Stockholm Syndrome criminologist Nils Bejerot (d. 1988) on Sept. 21 in Norrtalje, Stockholm. Am. "ABC's Wide World of Sports: TV sportscaster (1961-98) Jim McKay (James Kenneth McManus) on Sept. 24 in Philadelphia, Penn.; voice of the "the thrill of victory, the agony of defeat"; father of Sean McManus (1955-). English "Alice Kdramden in The Jackie Gleason Show" actress (Christian Scientist) Sheila Margaret MacRae (Sheila Margaret Stephens) (d. 2014) on Sept. 24 in London; emigrates to the U.S. in 1939; wife (1941-67) of Gordon MacRae (1921-86); mother of Heather MacRae (1946-) and Meredith MacRae (1944-2000). Scottish "From Here to Eternity", "Anna Leonowens in The King and I" actress Deborah Kerr (Deborah Jan Kerr-Trimmer) (d. 2007) on Sept. 30 in Helensburgh; "Kerr rhymes with star" (Hollywood ad). Am. actor James Allen Whitmore Jr. (d. 2009) on Oct. 1 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones). Am. lobbyist Anne Wexler (d. 2009) on Oct. 3 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "the right stuff" test pilot and X-15 rocket plane aircraft designer Albert Scott Crossfield (d. 2006) on Oct. 9 in Berkeley, Calif.; feducated at the U. of Wash.; first pilot to reach Mach 2.0 (1953). English archbishop of Canterbury (1980-91) Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, Baron Runcie of Cuddesdon (d. 2000) on Oct. 2 in Great Crosby (near Liverpool); educated at Brasenose College, Oxford U. French "Garcon" actor-singer Yves Montand (Ivo Livi) (d. 1991) on Oct. 13 in Monsummano Terme (near Florence), Italy; grows up in Marseille; husband (1951-85) of Simone Signoret; basis of the Looney Tunes char. Pepe Le Pew. Am. actor Tom Poston (d. 2007) on Oct. 17 in Columbus, Ohio. U.S. Sen. (R-N.C.) (1973-2003) ("Senator No") Jesse Alexander Helms Jr. (d. 2008) on Oct. 18 in Monroe, N.C. Am. "Joe Shannon in Shannon" actor George Nader (d. 2002) on Oct. 19 in Pasadena, Calif.; educated at Occidental College. English composer Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold (d. 2006) on Oct. 21 in Northampton; educated at Royal College of Music; knighted in 1993. Am. 6'5" basketball player ("first of the high-scoring forwards") Joseph Franklin "Jumping Joe" Fulks (d. 1976) on Oct. 26 in Birmingham, Ky.; educated at Murray State U. Am. "The Thomas Crown Affair" jazz-classical trumpeter-composer-arranger Arturo "Chico" O'Farrill (d. 2001) (Afro-Latin Jazz Orchestra) on Oct. 28 in Havana; pioneer of Afro-Cuban jazz. Am. political cartoonist William "Bill" Mauldin (d. 2003) on Oct. 29 in Mountain Park, N.M. Am. "Death Wish" actor Charles Bronson (Charles Dennis Buchinsky) (d. 2003) on Nov. 3 in Ehrenfield, Penn.; Tatar immigrant father Walter Bunchinski, Lithuanian-Am.mother; husband (1968-90) of Jill Ireland (1936-90). Am. "From Here to Eternity", "The Thin Red Line" novelist James Ramon Jones (d. 1977) on Nov. 6 in Robinson, Ill.; father of Kaylie Jones (1960-). Am. golfer Jack Fleck on Nov. 7 in Bettendorf, Iowa. Am. "Uncle Bill Davis in Family Affair", "The Parent Trap" actor (Roman Catholic) Robert Alba "Brian" Keith (d. 1997) on Nov. 14 in Bayonne, N.J.; son of Robert Keith (1896-1968) and Helena Shipman; begins acting at age 2. Swiss pianist Geza Anda (d. 1976) on Nov. 19 in Hungary; emigrates to Switzerland in 1943; first to record all of Mozarto's piano concertos (1961-9). Am. baseball hall-of-fame catcher (black) Roy "Campy" Campanella (d. 1993) on Nov. 19 in Homestead, Penn.; Italian father, black mother; paralyzed in an auto accident in 1958. Am. Baptist pastor Peter Sturges Ruckman (d. 2016) on Nov. 19 in Wilmington, Del.; grows up in Topeka, Kan.; founder of Ruckmanism, which claims that the King James Version of the Bible provides "advanced revelation" and is more trustworthy than the ancient texts. Canadian "Rebel Daughter" women's rights activist-writer Doris Hilda Anderson (d. 2007) on Nov. 20 in Calgary, Alberta. Am. "On the Trail of the Assassins" New Orleans district atty. (1961-73) Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison (d. 1992) on Nov. 20 in Denison, Iowa; educated at Tulane U. Am. liberal Repub. New York City mayor #103 (1966-73) (Episcopalian) John Vliet Lindsay (d. 2000) on Nov. 24 in New York City; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). Am. "no respect" comedian Rodney Dangerfield (d. 2004) on Nov. 22 in Babylon, Long Island, N.Y. Am. liberal Repub. politician John Vliet Lindsay (d. 2000) on Nov. 24 on New York City; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). Czech. leader (originator of Perestroika) Alexander Dubcek (d. 1992) on Nov. 27 in Uhroved. U.S. asst. atty. gen. (1960-7) John Michael Doar on Dec. 3 in Minneapolis, Minn.; educated at Princeton U., and UCB. Canadian "Edna in Every Sunday", "Penelope Penny Craig in Three Smart Girls" actress-singer (1930s child star) ("Winnipeg's Golden Girl") Deanna (Edna Mae) Durbin (d. 2013) on Dec. 4 in Winnipeg. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (Cleveland Browns) Otto Everett Graham Jr. (d. 2003) on Dec. 6 in Waukegan, Ill. Am. mathematician-economist David Gale (d. 2008) on Dec. 13 in New York City; educated at Princeton U. Am. disc jockey Albert James "Alan" "Moondog" Freed (d. 1965) on Dec. 15 in Windberg, Penn. Am. 6'5" "The Sunny Side of the Mountain", "Lonesome 7-7203" country music singer Harold Franklin "Hawkshaw" Hawkins (d. 1963) on Dec. 22 in Huntington, W. Va.; nicknamed after the comic strip "Hawkshaw the Detective"; husband of Jean Shepard. Am. "Ryan in The Valachi Papers", "Lt. Ed Ryker in The Rookies" actor-dir. Gerald Stuart O'Loughlin on Dec. 23 in New York City. Am. comedian-entertainer (Jewish) Steve Allen (d. 2000) on Dec. 26 in New York City; son of vaudeville comedian Belle Montrose ("funniest woman in vaudeville" - Milton Berle). Am. "Willie and the Hand Jive", "Double Crossing Blues" R&B bandleader (white) ("Godfather of Rhythm and Blues") Johnny Otis (Yannis or Ioannis Alexandres Veliotes) (d. 2012) on Dec. 28 in Vallejo, Calif.; brother of Nicholas Alexander Veliotes (1928-); father of Shuggie Otis (1953-); decides to live as a black. Swedish-Am. "Dark City, "King of Kings", "Creepshow" actress Elsa Viveca Torstensdotter Lindfors (d. 1995) on Dec. 29 in Uppsala. Lebanese statesman Rashid Abdul Hamid Karami (d. 1987) on Dec. 30 in Mariatta (near Tripoli); educated at Cairo U. Italian-Am. 5'7" singer-actor (alcoholic) ("most famous tenor in the world") Mario Lanza (Alfred Arnold Cocozza) (d. 1959) in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. TV exec John H. Mitchell (d. 1988) on ? in New York City; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. physicist Arthur Leonard Schawlow (d. 1999); brother-in-law of Theodore maiman (1927-2007). Am. Mind Dynamics founder Alexander Everett (d. 2005) in England; emigrates to the U.S. in 1962. Am. artist Bonnie Woolsey (Benschneider) (d. 2006) on ? in Waterloo, Iowa. Canadian "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" voice actress Billie Mae Richards (nee Dinsmore) (d. 2010) on ? in Toronto, Ont. Romanian prince Michael on ? in ?. Nigerian mathematician Chike Obi on ? in ?. Deaths: British statesman H.S. Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury (b. 1823) - an old giffard? Am. female mainstream Protestant minister #1 Antoinette Brown Blackwell (b. 1825) on Nov. 5 in Elizabeth, N.J. Am. historian James Phinney Baxter (b. 1831) on May 8 in Portland, Maine. Am. cardinal James Gibbons (b. 1834) on Mar. 24 in Baltimore, Md. French PM #69 (1902-5) Emile Combes (b. 1835) on May 25 in Pons. Austrian painter Franz von Defregger (b. 1835) on Jan. 2 in Munich. French composer Charles-Camille Saint-Saens (b. 1835) on Dec. 16. Am. poet-novelist Harriet Prescott Spofford (b. 1835). Am. naturalist John Burroughs (b. 1837) on Mar. 29 near Kingsville, Ohio; dies on a train. English poet Henry Austin Dobson (b. 1840) on Sept. 2. Scottish pneumatic rubber tire king John Boyd Dunlop (b. 1840). German geologist Paul Gussfeldt (b. 1840) on Jan. 18. Austrian economist Carl Menger (b. 1840) on Feb. 26. English Theosophist wriiter Alfred Percy Sinnett (b. 1840) on June 26; leaves Autobiography of Alfred Percy Sinnett. English actress-mgr. Marie Effie Wilton, Lady Bancroft (b. 1840). Montenegran king (1910-18) Nicholas I (b. 1841) on Mar. 1 in Cap d'Antibes, France. British Adm. Charles Cooper Penrose-Fitzgerald (b. 1841) on Aug. 11 in Folkestone, Kent. English Socialist reformer Henry Mayers Hyndman (b. 1842). Am. psychologist George Trumbull Ladd (b. 1842) on Aug. 8 in New Haven, Conn. Russian geographer-anarchist Prince Petr Alekseyevich Kropotkin (b. 1842) near Moscow. English artist Sir William Blake Richmond (b. 1842) on Feb. 11. Italian poet Renato Fucini (b. 1843) on Feb. 25 in Empoli. Swedish soprano Christine Nilsson (b. 1843) on Nov. 20 in Vaxjo. Am. Bible scholar Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (b. 1843) on July 24 in Douglaston, Long Island, N.Y. Iranian Baha'i leader (1892-1921) Abdul-Baha (b. 1844) on Nov. 28 in Akka, Palestine. French novelist Anatole France (b. 1844) on Oct. 12 in Tours; 1921 Nobel Lit. Prize. English actor-mgr. Sir John Hare (b. 1844) on Dec. 28. Serbian king Peter I (b. 1844) on Aug. 16. French physicist Gabriel Lippmann (b. 1845) on July 13 in the Atlantic Ocean on SS France en route from Canada; 1908 Nobel Physics Prize. Bavarian king (last) (1913-18) Ludwig III (b. 1845) on Oct. 18 in Sarvar, Hungary. U.S. chief justice #9 (1910-21) Edward Douglass White (b. 1845). Am. Ouija Board inventor Elijah Jefferson Bond (b. 1847) on Apr. 14 in Baltimore, Md. German diplomat Prince Philip of Eulenburg-Hertefeld (b. 1847) on Sept. 17 in Liebenberg. English historian William Warde Fowler (b. 1847) on June 15. German sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand (b. 1847) on Jan. 18. Russian aerodynamic mathematician Nikolai Zhukovsky (b. 1847) on Mar. 17 in Moscow. Am. newspaper ed. John B. Bogart (b. 1848) on Nov. 16 in New York City: "When a dog bites a man, that is not news, because it happens so often. But if a man bites a dog, that is news." German king (1891-1918) William II of Wurttemberg (b. 1848) on Oct. 2 in Bebenhausen. Scottish statesman A.H. Bruce, 6th Baron Balfour of Burleigh (b. 1849) on July 6. Am. painter (camouflage inventor) Abbott Thayer (b. 1849) on May 29. German gen. Hans Hartwig von Beseler (b. 1850) on Dec. 20 in Potsdam. U.S. Dem. House Speaker (1911-9) Champ Clark (b. 1850) on Mar. 2 in Washington, D.C. Hungarian scholar Ignac Goldhizer (b. 1850) on Nov. 13 Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov (b. 1850) on Sept. 22 in Sofia. Spanish novelist Emilia Pardo Bazan (b. 1851). German-born Am. Berlitz Language Schools founder Maximilian Berlitz (b. 1852) on Apr. 6 in New York City. Canadian-born Am. lawman living legend Bat Masterson (b. 1853) on Oct. 25 in New York City. U.S. atty.-gen. (1906-9) Charles Joseph Bonaparte (b. 1856) on June 28 in Baltimore, Md.; cause of death is listed as "St. Vitus Dance". English financier-philanthropist Sir Ernest Cassel (b. 1852) on Sept. 21 in London; converts to a Roman Catholic before death, leaving an estate worth £6M. Am. archeologist John Punnett Peters (b. 1852). Am. politician Philander Chase Knox (b. 1853) on Oct. 12 in Washington, D.C. Russian novelist V.G. Korolenko (b. 1853). German Petri Dish inventor Julius Richard Petri (b. 1853) on Dec. 20 in Zeitz. English celeb Lady Randolph Churchill (b. 1854) on June 9 in London; dies after slipping on a staircase in new high-heeles shoes, breaking an ankle and having it amputated after gangrene sets in; mother of Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965). German composer Engelbert Humperdinck (b. 1854) on Sept. 27. British Adm. Louis Alexander Mountbatten, 1st marquess of Milford Haven (b. 1854) on Sept. 11 in London. English film pioneer William Friese-Greene (b. 1855) on May 5 in London. Serbian Gen. Zivojin Misic (b. 1855) on Jan. 20 in Belgrade. Am. writer Edgar Saltus (b. 1855) on July 31 in New York City; "Style is a synonym for Saltus": "Skepticism is history's bedfellow." Am. bacteriologist William Thompson Sedgwick (b. 1855) on Jan. 25 in Boston, Mass. Am. scholar-educator Barrett Wendell (b. 1855). Japanese liberal PM Takashi Hara (b. 1856) on Nov. 4 in Tokyo (assassinated). German chancellor (1909-17) Theobold von Bethmann-Hollweg (b. 1856) on Jan. 1 (pneumonia). Cuban pres. Jose Miguel Gomez (b. 1858). French archeologist Joseph Reinach (b. 1856). French Gen. Louis de Maud'huy (b. 1857) on July 16 in Paris. Belgian painter Fernand Khnopff (b. 1858) on Nov. 12 in Brussels. Argentine politician Luis Maria Drago (b. 1859). English mountaineer Oscar Eckenstein (b. 1859). Am. man of letters J.G. Huneker (b. 1860). U.S. Sen. (R-Penn.) "Boss" Boies Penrose (b. 1860) on Dec. 31 in Washington, D.C. Belgian-born British composer Ivan Caryll (b. 1861) on Nov. 29 in New York City (hemorrhage). Am. engineer-inventor Peter Cooper Hewitt (b. 1861) on Aug. 25. British Quartermaster-Gen. Sir John S. Cowans (b. 1862). German physiologist Max Verworn (b. 1863) on Nov. 23. Austrian journalist Alfred Hermann Fried (b. 1864) on May 5 in Vienna; 1911 Nobel Peace Prize. Canadian-born Am. Dem. politician Franklin Knight Lane (b. 1864) on May 18 in Rochester, Minn. Am. theatrical mgr. Alf Hayman (b. 1865). English tenor Gervase Elwes (b. 1866) on Jan. 12 in Boston, Mass. (accidental death at the railway platform). Am. humorist poet Bert Leston Taylor (b. 1866) on Mar. 19 in Chicago, Ill. (pneumonia). Scottish Arctic explorer William Speirs Bruce (b. 1867) on Oct. 28 in Edinburgh. German writer Ludwig Thoma (b. 1867) on Aug. 28 in Rotach am Deganse. Am. atty. Prescott Farnsworth Hall (b. 1818) on May 28 in Brookline, Mass. Am. astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt (b. 1868) on Dec. 12 in Cambridge, Mass. (cancer); passed over for a Nobel Prize because of her gender? French composer Deodat de Severac (b. 1872) on Mar. 24 in Ceret, Pyrenees-Orientales. Italian tenor Enrico Caruso (b. 1873) on Aug. 2 in Naples; kept on public display in a glass coffin for five years. Am. Monel (nickel-copper alloy) metal manufacturer Ambrose Monell (b. 1874) on May 2 in Beacon, N.Y.; dies in a sanitarium. Turkish minister Talaat Pasha (b. 1874) on Mar. 15 in Charlottenburg, Germany (assassinated by Armenians paid by the Brits for organizing against them). German politician Matthias Erzberger (b. 1875) on Aug. 26 in Bad Griesbach (assassinated). English singer George Formby Sr. (b. 1875) on Feb. 8 in Stockton Heath, Cheshire. Russian poet Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (b. 1880) on Aug. 7 (famine?). Am. silent film dir. George Loane Tucker (b. 1880) on June 20 in Los Angeles, Calif. German "Bloody White Baron" gen. Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (b. 1886) on Sept. 15 in Novosibirsk, Siberia (executed). Australian aviation pioneer Harry Hawker (b. 1889) on July 12 in Hendon Aerodrome, North London, England (hemorrage resulting in aircraft crash). British Peter Pan model Michael Llewelyn Davies (b. 1900) on May 19 in Sandford-on-Thames (drowns with gay bud Rupert Buxton) (suicide?)
1922 Chinese Year: Dog. The U.S. govt. this year has revenues of $4.919B and expenditures of $4.068B, and cuts federal spending from $6.3B in 1920 to $3.2B, while cutting federal taxes from $6.6B in 1920 to $4B; federal taxes reach a low point in 1924 as the federal debt, which had been $24.2B in 1920 continues to decline until 1930; U.S. GNP: $74.1B; unemployed in the U.S.: 2.8M (6.7%); unemployment reaches a low of 1.8% in 1926 at the peak of the Roaring Twenties, and is only lower in 1944; "The seven years from the autumn of 1922 to the autumn of 1929 were arguably the brightest period in the economic history of the United States. Virtually all the measures of economic well-being suggested that the economy had reached new heights in terms of prosperity and the achievement of improvements in human welfare. Real gross national product increased every year, consumer prices were stable (as measured by the consumer price index), real wages rose as a consequence of productivity advance, stock prices tripled. Automobile production in 1929 was almost precisely double the level of 1922. It was in the twenties that Americans bought their first car, their first radio, made their first long-distance telephone call, took their first out-of-state vacation. This was the decade when America entered 'the age of mass consumption.'" (Veder and Gallaway). British textile exports (yards): cotton: 4.313B, linens: 77M, silk: 5M; British trade union membership: 5.6M. Marriages in the U.S.: 1.126M; divorces: 148K (13%). Japanese pop. growth becomes a public concern as emigration doesn't ease it, causing a turn to foreign trade to provide employment. After pogroms in Europe and the opening of the Suez Canal attract them, the Jewish pop. of Egypt is 75K-80K; by 2004 it is less than 100. On Jan. 1 Flemish (the English-like W Germanic Dutch dialect of N Belgium) is put on a par with French as an official language in Belgium. On Jan. 2 Calif. and Washington and Jeferson College play to a scoreless tie in the 1922 Rose Bowl - anyone breathing the perfumed airs of the Rose Bowl could have problems? On Jan. 4 U.S. Senate Resolution No. 127 directs the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate the home furnishings industry; on Oct. 6, 1924 Vol. 3 is pub., covering vacuum cleaners, with Ch. 2 reporting that four cos. account for over half the industry's dollar volume, and that the rate of return on investment in the vacuum cleaner industry is 44.1%, "very much higher than the average rates of return... on house furnishings, domestic appliances" due to it being "a comparatively new device, the market for which is far from fully exploited and was protected by patents with limited competition." On Jan. 8 a Polish-controlled plebiscite boycotted by Lithuanians is used as an excuse by Poland to annex the Lithuanian capital city of Vilnius, causing the Lithuanian govt. to sever diplomatic relations with Poland (until 1938); in Nov. the Vatican recognizes Lithuania, with a stipulation by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri that Lithuania "have friendly relations with Poland", pissing it off and causing it to refuse virtually all episcopal appointments. On Jan. 14 after the Fatty Arbuckle scandal, U.S. postmaster gen. #46 (since ?, 1921) William Harrison "Will" Hays (1879-1954) (known for working with other Repubs. to wreck the League of Nations) resigns to become pres. of the new Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of Am., formed by the "Big Three" studios MGM, First National, and Famous Players-Lasky, taking office on Mar. 6 with a $100K/year salary, helping the film industry's six major Hollywood studios police themselves to forestall govt. censorship, but with no formal code. On Jan. 21 conservative atty. Raymond Poincare (1860-1934), who unsuccessfully defended sci-fi writer Jules Verne in a libel suit in the 1890s over a mad scientist novel becomes PM of France (until 1913), forming a new cabinet with an agenda of forcing reparation payments from Germany to pay for restoring devastated regions; Alexander Millerand remains pres. On Jan. 22 Pope (since 1914) Benedict XV (b. 1854) dies, and after a 5-day conclave (longest of the 20th cent.) on Feb. 6 Cardinal (since 1921, a total of only 8 mo.) Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti is elected Pope (#259) Pius XI (1857-1939), going on to strongly condemn Communism, and forbid the growing movement of devotion to Mary as a priest(ess) - too pagan even for them? On Jan. 23 after two years of talks with Britain, the Egyptian Wafdist (nationalist) leaders proclaim a policy of passive resistance to British rule; on Feb. 28 Britain relents and grants Egypt its independence, but retains authority over its foreign policy and defense, the Suez Canal and the Sudan, along with the Capitulations (special courts for foreigners), ending the 1919 Egyptian Rev.; since it is a unilateral declaration with four hated reservations, the Egyptians accept it grumblingly while waiting for their chance, the pot bubbling ever harder until the 1952 rev., while 32 different govts. are formed, with a stable pool of cabinet members dominated by the landholding class and the Wafdist Party; the only opposition party at first is the Liberal Constitutional Party, led by Adli Yakan (Yegen) Pasha (1864-1933), based on the writings of Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid (1872-1963) and Muhammad Husayn Haykal (1888-1956); an Egyptian Communist Party is formed, but it never attracts much support; the success of the nonviolent Egyptian rev. inspires Gandhi - where did all the good times go? Speaking of good times? On Jan. 24 after inventing the idea and in 1919 and launching sales last year, Danish-born Onawa, Iowa chemist Christian Kent Nelson (1893-1999) receives a patent for "I-Scream Bars", with a special chocolate shell that hardens in the cold and retains the ice cream inside, going into business with Alton, Kan.-born chocolate manufacturer Russell William Stover (1888-1954), who trademarks the name Eskimo Pie, a chocolate-dipped ice cream bar, which becomes a big hit until copycats nearly put them out of business in 1924, after which Stover and his wife Clara sell-out for $25K and move to Denver, Colo. in 1925, marketing chocolates under the name Russell Stover Candies (originally Mrs. Stover's Bungalow Candies), selling-out to box maker Louis Ward in 1969, who sells it to Lindt of Switzerland on July 14, 2014; meanwhile Nelson sells-out to U.S. Foil Co. (later Reynolds Metal Co.), rejoining in 1935 and inventing new manufacturing and shipping methods until his retirement in 1992, when Eskimo Pie Corp. is acquired by Nestle, followed in 2000 by CoolBrands Internat. of Markham, Ont., Canada; meanwhile in Jan. 1922 after hearing about the Eskimo Pie and sending 12 ice cream trucks out in 1920 selling his own version door-to-door under the name Good Humor Ice Cream Suckers, Harry B. Burt (1875-1926) of Youngstown, Ohio applies for a patent for the Good Humor Bar chocolate-coated ice cream on a stick, receiving it in Oct. 1923, and operating trucks until the 1970s; meanwhile in 1925 he files a patent violation lawsuit against Popsicle Corp., which is settled out of court. In Jan. Ion Bratianu becomes PM of Romania again (until 1927), and this time rules as a virtual dictator, nationalizing the mines and forests, and instituting universal suffrage - which is all token anyway? In Jan. Marxist Felipe Carrillo Puerto (1874-1924), AKA "Red Dragon with Jade Eyes" and "Apostle of the Indians" of the Southeast Socialist Party (PSS) becomes gov. of Yucatan, Mexico (until 1924), instituting agrarian reform and land redistribution, and having an affair with U.S. journalist Alma Reed (1889-1966) until they bump him off - maybe you think you have a going problem? On Feb. 1 after insisting on honoring the Treaty of Versailles, Jewish industrialist Walther Rathenau (b. 1867), known for opposing Zionism and Socialism in favor of assimilation of Jews into German society is named German foreign minister, then on June 24 is assassinated by three Protocols of the Elders of Zion-thumping German ultra-nationalists (Erwin Kern, Hermann Fischer, Ernst Werner Techow), causing the fledgling Nazi Party to point to him as proof of the Jewish Communist conspiracy and declare his assassins nat. heroes on June 24, 1933; Albert Einstein comments that the assassination caused him to be "greatly disturbed"; on Nov. 22 after Joseph Wirth resigns, Wilhelm Cuno (1876-1933) becomes German chancellor (until Aug. 12, 1923), going on to run the printing presses to pay German debts, leading to hyperinflation, which peaks next summer; Friedrich Ebert Sr. is reelected pres. of Germany. On Feb. 1 Irish-born Hollywood movie dir. (head of Paramount subsidiary Famous Players-Lasky and dir. of the Screen Directors' Guild) William Desmond Taylor (William Cunningham Deane-Tanner) (b. 1872) (who vanished from his home in New York City on Oct. 23, 1908, leaving a wife and daughter, moving to Hollywood and changing his name) is murdered in his bungalow apt. on Alvarado St. in the Westlake district of Los Angeles, Calif., with his body discovered the next morning by his black servant Henry Peavey, laying on his back on the floor of his study, with his large lucky diamond ring still on his finger and two .38 bullets in his heart, causing him to run down the street crying "Dey've kilt Massa!"; he is later found out to have been carrying on simultaneous affairs with Mabel Normand (who rushed to the bungalow to search for love letters before the police got there, along with Famous Players-Lasky gen. mgr. Charles Eyton, and Paramount boss Adolph Zukor?), Mary Miles Minter (Juliet Reilly) (1902-84) and her manipulative actress mother Charlotte Shelby (1877-1957), and to have a cache of porno and locked closet full of women's underwear tagged with initials and dates, incl. one embroidered MMM, causing Minter's rep as a virgin to tank and her career to skid; it is also found out that he visited queer dens that served drugs, and that Normand spent $2K a mo. for cocaine, forcing her to retire; the case is never solved, but the lurid revelations of hanky-panky, drugs, and bisexuality spur the growing movement to clean up Hollywood, ending in the 1930 Code of Decency; gossip pins the murder on Shelby, ruining Minter's career, causing her to retire in 1923, after which she and her mother go to fat. On Feb. 5 a railroad train in ?, Japan is buried by an avalanche, killing 110. On Feb. 8 Pres. Harding has a radio installed in the White House. On Feb. 9 the Bonomi cabinet resigns, and on Feb. 26 Luigi Facta (1861-1930) becomes Italian PM #39 with a new cabinet, but de facta is he doesn't last the year as he fails to deal with Mussolini, getting fired and reappointed in July, then deciding to declare martial law, only to have the king refuse to sign it and sack him on Oct. 31 because the Fascists are advancing on Rome and taking over the provinces - is that a facta? The final shrine to White is Right in America? On Feb. 12 (Pres. Abraham Lincoln's birthday) the $3M Lincoln Memorial in West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C. is dedicated, designed by Watseka, Ill.-born architect Henry Bacon (1866-1924), with the seated statue of Lincoln designed in 1920 by Exeter, N.H.-born sculptor Daniel Chester French (1850-1931), and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers, with interior murals painted by St. Louis, Mo.-born Jules Vallee Guerin (Jules Vallée Guérin) (1866-1946); poet Edwin Markham reads his poem Lincoln, the Man of the People, containing the soundbyte "Into the shape she breathed a flame to light/ That tender, tragic, ever-changing face./ Here was a man to hold against the world,/ A man to match the mountains and the sea"; chief justice William H. Taft dedicates it again on May 30; the bldg. is of marble, granite, and limestone (all white), and there are 36 Doric pillars representing the 36 states in the Union in 1865; the white marble statue of Lincoln is designed by Daniel Chester French, and behind it are the words "In this temple, as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union, the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever"; the S wall decorations depict the Emancipation of the Black Race, with subordinate groups representing Civilization and Progress; the N wall represents Reunion and Progress in the Arts and Sciences; other walls contain the Gettysburg Speech and Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address. On Feb. 12 Jewish-Am. sportswriter Nathaniel Stanley "Nat" Fleischer (1887-1972) begins pub. the mag. The Ring, covering the boxing world. On Feb. 18 Pres. Harding signs the U.S. Capper-Volstead Act, exempting farmers' cooperatives from antitrust legislation. On Feb. 21 the U.S. dirigible Roma crashes and burns in Norfolk, Va., killing Capt. Dale Mabry (b. 1891) and 33 others, becoming the worst U.S. aviation accident so far. On Feb. 25 "French Bluebeard" Henri Desire Landru (b. 1869) is guillotined after being convicted of placing lonely hearts ads seeking lonely widows, then luring them to his villa and murdering them to get their money, then burning their bodies in his oven to get rid of the evidence; too bad, he has so many alias that he keeps ledgers, which condemn him. On Feb. 27 the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upholds the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, and women's votes are safe. On Mar. 3 a Fascist coup overthrows the govt. in Fiume, and on Mar. 17 it is occupied by Italian troops, straining relations with Yugoslavia. The dirtier the laundry, the longer it takes to launder? The Earp legend is a long time in coming? On Mar. 12 the Los Angeles Times pub. the story Lurid Trails Left By Older-Day Bandits, claiming that the "Earp Gang" started the 1882 O.K. Corral Gunfight "when four cowboys refused to recognize the right of the Earp gang to rule the town", and "the Earps ordered the cowboys out of town and they were preparing to leave when they were waylaid and a gun battle followed", causing Wyatt Earp (1848-1929) and his wife Josie Marcus to go nonlinear and write to silent film cowboy actor William S. Hart to vindicate them with a film, which he tries but fails to make; meanwhile Earp gets his secy. John H. Flood Jr. to write his bio., but the style is so stilted that every publisher rejects it, then in 1928 he hires San Diego, Calif. writer Stuart N. Lake, who writes Wyatt Earp, Frontier Marshal, which is pub. in 1931, two years after Earp's death; Josie then pub. I Married Wyatt Earp; Earp's own self-glorifying version of of the O.K. Corral gunfight, Wyatt Earp by Wyatt S. Earp is not pub. until 1981 - by then it's too late, Star Trek took it over? On Mar. 18 Gandhi is sentenced to six years on civil disobedience pip-pip sedition charges; he is released after two years. On Mar. 23 the Yakut rebels take the main town of Yakutsk from the Red Arm with their six machine guns, and proclaim a people's govt., causing the Soviets on Apr. 27 to declare the Yakut SSR instead and send an army down to take it back, ousting the White rebels from Yakutsk in the summer, causing them to retreat to the E Russian ports of Okhotsk and Ayan and call on the people's govt. of Vladivostok for aid. On Apr. 10 the Genoa Conference opens between 24 creditor and debtor nations from WWI; it ends on May 19 without resolution after the Apr. 16 announcement of the Treaty of Rapallo between the "outcast powers" Germany and the Soviet Union, which mutually cancels war debts and gives Germany most-favored nation status; in this decade the Germans and Soviets are great pals, and the Germans secretly manufacture munitions and train troops in the Soviet Union in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. On Apr. 18-22 the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs holds hearings on a resolution expressing satisfaction with the Balfour Declaration, with France, Italy, Serbia, Greece, Netherlands, Siam, China, and Japan sending letters expressing support; on June 30 a joint resolution of both houses of the U.S. Congress endorses a mandate for Palestine, and confirms the right of Jews to settle anywhere between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River. In Apr. the Union Treaty formally joins Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus into the Union of Soviet Socialist Repubs. (Soviet Union) (ends Dec. 8, 1991); on Dec. 20 the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Repub. (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) is accepted into the Soviet Union; Germany formally recognizes the Soviet Union; Armenia becomes a Soviet success story as its pop. increases by 50% by 1939 and its industrial production goes from 20% to 75% of the country's total in 50 years; Soviet means "a transmission belt from the party to the masses" (Joseph Stalin). On May 11 100-watt 857 kHz BBC 2LO becomes the 2nd radio station to begin regular broadcasts in Britain. On May 13 the Hitler Youth (Hitler-Jugend) are formed by the Nazi Party, On May 16 the govt. of Demetrius Gounaris narrowly survives a vote of confidence over the deepening military crisis, causing Gounaris to resign and accept a demotion to justice minister, while engineer-politician Petros Protopapadakis (1854-1922) becomes patsy, er, PM (until Sept. 26). On May 26 Am. stage actor Alfred Lunt (1892-1977) and English stage actress Lynn Fontanne (1887-1983) marry and begin acting opposite each other, becoming the leading acting couple in the U.S. through the 1950s, when they are replaced by Hollywood actors Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward - six n's vs. 3 n's and 3 o's? In May the Fascists drive out the Communist city govt. of Bologna, and attempt to follow suit all over Italy. In May Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) becomes gen. secy. of the CPSU (Soviet Communist Party), promoting his buddy Lazar Kaganovich (1893-1991) to head the Orgburo (org. dept.) of the secretariat so that he can promote his supporters to key positions in the bureaucracy; in 1925-8 Kaganovich becomes first secy. of the Ukrainian Communist Party, working to bloodily suppress kulaks (rich peasants), after which he is transferred back to Moscow to become secy. of the central committee until 1939, overseeing the development of the underground Moscow Metro while mentoring young Nikita Khrushchev. In May the German Shepherd wonder dog Rin Tin Tin (Rin-Tin-Tin) (Rinty) (1918-32) makes his debut in the film The Man From Hell's River; the part is played by a dog who was born in a trench in France during WWI and found in a bombed dog kennel by Cpl. Lee Duncan, and saved along with his sister Nannette, then shipped to Los Angeles, Calif., where Nannette dies; he is voted the most popular film star in 1926, and has four sons who become dog stars playing him; he is later buried in France and his bloodline continues in a Tex. kennel; he is stationed at Ft. Apache. On June 7 State Farm Insurance is founded in Bloomington, Ill. by retired farmer George Jacob Mecherle (1877-1951) (pr. ma-herl) to sell automobile insurance to farmers sans coverage for city driving, expanding to all types of insurance, with 67K employees, 17K agents, and 77M policies incl. 40M automobiles by 2009; in 1971 Barry Manilow writes the jingle "Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there." On June 30 a joint resolution of both houses of the U.S. Congress endorses a mandate for Palestine, and confirms the right of Jews to settle anywhere between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River. In June seeing their chance, the Kurdish Revolt in N Iraq begins (ends July 1924), led by Sheik Mahmud al-Barzinji, who declares himself king of the independent state of Kurdistan. On July 1 the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 (Railway Shopmen's Strike) by 400K workers in seven of 16 railroad labor orgs. begins, collapsing in Aug. after 11 are killed, becoming the largest railway strike in the U.S. since the 1894 Pullman strike, and biggest strike of any kind since the 1919 steel strike; on July 27 "Sage of Emporia" William Allen White (1868-1944) pub the editorial "To an Anxious Friend" in the Emporia Gazette, airing his gripes about being arrested for protesting the way the state of Kan. treated the strikers. On July 16 French Pres. Millerand dedicates the Monument to Cpl. Andre Peugeot (-1914) at Jonchery-sur-Vesle, the first soldier KIA in WWI; after the Germans destroy it in July 1940, it is rebuilt in 1959. On July 24 after both houses of the U.S. Congress approve it on June 30, the League of Nations enacts the British Mandate for Palestine as a first step towards implementation of the Balfour Declaration, calling for the establishment of a Jewish nat. home incl. the right to increase Jewish settlement in all of the historical territory of Israel, incl. Judea, Samaria, and Jerusalem; in Aug. the 5th Arab Congress in Nablus rejects the mandate, and Arab riots and pressure lead to the Churchill White Paper, which postpones the provisions of the mandate in Eastern Palestine (E of the Jordan River), giving it to the Arab Hashemi family and effectively denying Jews access to three-fourths of Palestine for the purpose of settlement in the new state of Transjordan, with Sharif Abdullah Ibn Hussein granted autonomy by Britain within the Palestinian mandate; Winston's Hiccup (Churchill's Sneeze), a narrow of strip of Transjordan extending into Iraq is attributed to Winston Churchill drawing the boundary after a big meal; later Article 80 of the U.N. Charter stipulates that the U.N. shall recognize all decisions made by the League of Nations council. In July the Tenente Rebellion in Brazil by middle class officers and poor enlisted men against the Brazilian agarian oligarchies, led by Communist revolutionary Luis Carlos Prestes (1898-1990) is crushed after the 25K km "Long March" through the Brazilian interior shows they have the numbers. On Aug. 3-4 the Fascists seize control of the Milan city govt. On Aug. 14 Arthur Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (b. 1865) dies, and John Jacob Astor, 1st Baron Astor of Hever (1886-1971) purchases the London Times (until 1966). On Aug. 18 the Turks begin a counteroffensive against the Greeks, and take Smyrna on Aug. 27-Sept. 9, followed by Edirne (Adrianople), causing the Greeks to evacuate Anatolia (Turkey) in a hurry, becoming known as the Asia Minor Catastrophe; the People's Party govt. of Demetrios Gounaris is on its last legs; meanwhile on Nov. 1 the grand assembly abolishes the sultanate, with the intention of introducing Ataboy's pro-Western modernization reforms, which the ignorant Muslim pop. mixes-up, thinking they're returning to the days of the first caliphs?; sultan (since 1918) Mehmed VI (b. 1861) flees to Malta, and on Nov. 19 is succeeded by Abdul Mejid (Abdulmecid) II (1868-1944), who is demoted from sultan #37 to caliph (until Mar. 3, 1924). On Aug. 30 750 White Russian volunteers under gen. Anatoly Nikolaevich Pepelyayev (1891-1938) (brother of Viktor Pepelyayev) sail from Vladivostok to help the Yakut rebels, landing in Ayan on Sept. 2 and marching to Yakutsk, going on to occupy Nelkan, only to learn that the Red Army has captured Vladivostok, effectively ending the Russian Civil War (begun Dec. 31, 1917), turning them into doomed suckers. On Sept. 5 after being nominated by Pres. Harding, English-born U.S. Rep. (R-Utah) (1901-3) and U.S. Sen. (1905-17) Alexander George Sutherland (1862-1942) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #70 (until Jan. 17, 1938); on Dec. 21 Dakota County, Minn.-born Dem. Pierce Butler (1866-1939) (son of Irish Roman Catholic immigrants) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #71 (until Nov. 16 1939) (firt from Minn.) to fill the vacancies left by John H. Clarke (1916-22), William D. Day (1903-22), and Mahlon Pitney (1912-22), leaving the court at eight members until next year, and going on to become two of the Four Horsemen who strike down FDR's New Deal legislation. On Sept. 7 the Miss America 1922 contest is held at the Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City, N.J., with the Bathing Review of 57 beauty pageant contestants joined by the mayor and his entire police force in bathing atire; Miss Columbus, Ohio Mary Katherine Campbell (1905-90) edges out last year's winner Margaret Gorman; judges incl. Norman Rockwell, James Montgomery Flagg, and Howard Chandler Christy, who start out with a body part points system then switch to overall beauty; the last time that the Inter-City champ (Campbell) must compete against prof. (Dorothy Knapp) and amateur (Gladys Grenemeyer) winners. On Sept. 13 El Azizia, Libya reaches a world record high temp. of 136 F (58 C). On Sept. 19 Pres. Harding vetoes a WWI vets' bonus bill, despite the House passing it by 333-70 and the Senate by 35-17, saying that it is unfair to add to the burdens of 110M taxpayers. On Sept. 26 a pro-Venizelos military coup in Greece led by Col. Nikolaos Plastiras (1883-1953) and Col. Stylianos Gonatas (1876-1966) takes power and sets up a token civilian govt., with Alexandros Zaimis (1855-1936) as PM, who demands the abdication of Constantine I; he abdicates on Sept. 27 and dies next Jan. 11 in exile in Palermo, Italy; meanwhile his son George II (1890-1947) becomes king of Greece (1922-3, 1935-47) as a military puppet; on Nov. 13 after Zaimis resigns, Constantine's ministers and military cmdrs. are tried for treason over the Asia Minor Catrastophe, and after the Trial of the Six, Demetrios Gounaris, Petros Protopapadakis, Nikolaos Stratos, and three others are convicted on shot at Goudi on Nov. 15 despite a telegram from Venizelos in Paris; on Dec. 4 the ex-king's brother Prince Andrew is banished from Greece for life, settling in London; Panayotis (Panagis) (Panagiotis) Tsaldaris (1868-1936) becomes the new leader of the wounded People's Party, which takes until 1932 to recover. In Sept. the Repub.-backed U.S. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (R-Mich.) Joseph Warren Fordney (1853-1932) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.D.) Porter James McCumber (1858-1933) raises avg. rates on imports to 38.5% in a record-breaking attempt to encumber and deny the ford with the rest of the world and achieve U.S. economic and political isolation after WWI; too bad, other countries retaliate with high tariffs, hurting U.S. agriculture and helping to bring on the Great Depression. In Sept. the unsolved double-murder of Rev. Edwin Wheeler Hall and Mrs. James Mills in a lover's lane in N.J. is called the Crime of the Cent. - for starters maybe? On Oct. 4-8 the 93-61 New York Giants (NL) defeat the 94-60 New York Yankees (AL) 4-0-1 in the Nineteenth (19th) World Series (the format is changed back to best-of-7); Rogers Hornsby (1896-1963) of St. Louis becomes player #3 to win baseball's triple crown (#2 is Heinie Zimmerman in 1912); this season Babe Ruth swats only 35 homers, losing to Ken Williams, who has 44; Ruth leads in homers for every other season from 1914-34 except for 1925 (Stan Musial with 33), and ties in 1918 (11, Tilly Walker of Philadelphia) and 1931 (46, Lou Gehrig). On Oct. 10 the Anglo-Iraq Treaty (ratified in 1924) gives Britain management of Iraq's foreign affairs and defense, along with advisors in the govt., while giving a Iraq a constitution that makes Iraqis pay for their British bosses; in an attempt to end border disputes Sir Percy Cox, British high commissioner in Iraq draws new borders between Iraq, Kuwait, and Arabia. Once Italy goes black it'll never go back? On Oct. 16 Mussolini forms a quadrumvirate to rule Italy, consisting of Michele Bianchi (1883-1930), Italo Balbo (1896-1940), Gen. Emilio De Bono (1866-1944), and Robert De Niro lookalike Dino Grandi (1895-1988), who becomes Italian foreign affairs minister in Sept. 12, 1929-July 20, 1932. On Oct. 18 the British Broadcasting Co. (BBC) is licensed as a monopoly, and begins domestic radio service on Nov. 14, with Sir John Charles Walsham Reith (1889-1971) as gen. mgr.; initiating broadcasts from London Station 2LO on Nov. 4; next Jan. 8 it broadcasts the British Nat. Opera Co.'s production of The Magic Flute from Covent Garden; next June 6 Edgar Wallace reports on the Epsom Derby, becoming the first British radio sports journalist; on Apr. 23, 1924 George V makes his first broadcast on the BBC from Wembly Stadium, opening the British Empire Exhibition. On Oct. 20 Chicago, Ill.-born Army Air Service Lt. Harold Ross Harris (1895-1988) bails out of a crippled test plane at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio, becoming the first member of the Caterpillar Club for those who have been saved by a parachute; Harris goes on to make the first flight by a U.S.pilot over the Alps from Italy to Franc4, invent crop-dusting, test the world's first pressurized aicrraft, rise to brig. gen. in the USAF, and become vice-pres. of Pan Am. On Oct. 22 the secret Tupolev Co. (originally Tupolev Design Bureau OKB-156) is founded in Fili, Moscow, Russia by Hugo Junkers to get around the Versailles Treaty, concentrating on R&D into all-metal aircraft; in 1925 he turns it over to Russian aerospace engineer Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev (1888-1972), going oon to manufacture the ANT-4 twin-engine bomber (1925), the ANT-6 4-engine bomber (1932), and the 8-engine Tupolev ANT-20 Maxim Gorky (first flight May 19, 1934), which becomes the largest airplane of the 1930s and is used for propaganda. On Oct. 22-29 after Mussolini hears that PM Luigi Facta gave Gabriele d'Annunzio the go-ahead to organize a large anti-Fascist demonstration on Nov. 22, the March on Rome sees ? of 700K Fascist Party members march on Rome; on Oct. 24 before 60K at the Fascist Congress in Naples, Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) calls for the resignation of Luigi Facta and formation of a Fascist cabinet; after Facta refuses, on Oct. 28 Mussolini's Blackshirts (known for bludgeoning enemies then force-feeding them castor oil to humiliate them) march on Rome to make him an offer he can't refuse; on Oct. 29 Mussolini is summoned from Milan, and on Mar. 30 is appointed PM #40 of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III, being sworn-in on Oct. 31 (until July 25, 1943) and forming a cabinet of Fascists and Nationalists; on Nov. 25 the king and parliament grant him dictatorial powers until Dec. 31, 1923, and he assumes the title of Julius, er, Il Duce, appointing prefects and subprefects for a new govt. modelled on the kaput ancient Roman Empire, while still mouthing support for the constitution; chamber of deputies pres. Vittorio Orlando supports the Fascist govt. (until 1925); Alessandro Pavolini (1903-45) becomes Fascist Party secy. On Oct. 23 after gen. elections in Britain give Conservatives 344 seats, Labour 138, and Liberals 117, Kingston, New Brunswick, Canada-born Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law (1858-1923), known for working for tariff reform and against Irish Home Rule, becomes the first province-born British PM (until May 22, 1923), and first to be born outside the British Isles (until ?), going on to negotiate its war debt with the U.S.; too bad, he contracts terminal throat cancer. On Oct. 27 (birthday of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt) the first annual celebration of Navy Day is organized by the Navy League of the U.S.; in 1775 it changes the date to Oct. 13 to concide with the birthday of the Continental Navy; meanwhile in 1949 the U.S. Navy changes the date to Armed Forces Day on the 3rd Sat. in May. In Oct. Am.-born Anglophile T.S. Eliot (1888-1965) founds the quarterly lit. journal The Criterion (until Jan. 1939), and becomes a British subject in 1927, writing pessimistic poems until 1927, when he gets religion and hope? On Nov. 1 the 1922 U.S. Congressional Election reduces the Repub. majority in the House by 77 seats (225 vs. 207 for the Dems.), making it hard for Pres. Hardly to govern. On Nov. 2 the Associated Press (AP) pub. a Report on Global Warming, with the soundbyte: "The Arctic Ocean is warming up, icebergs are growing scarcer, and in some places the seals are finding the water too hot. Reports from fishermen, seal hunters, and explorers all point to a radical change in climate conditions and hitherto unheard-of temperatures in the Arctic zone. Exploration expeditions report that scarcely any ice has been met as far north as 81 degrees 29 minutes. Within a few years it is predicted that due to the ice melt the sea will rise and make most coastal cities uninhabitable." On Nov. 4 Kensington, London-born English Egyptologist Howard Carter (1874-1939) announces his discovery, along with financial backer George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl Carnarvon (1866-1923) of KV62, the Valley of the Kings tomb of 18-y.-o. king Tut (Tutankhamun) (d. -1323) underneath workmen's huts from the Ramesside Period, becoming the first Egyptian tomb discovered unopened in modern times, containing more than 5K objects, incl. his lifelike Gold Death Mask of King Tutankhamun on his mummy, found inside nine outer cases and a 300-lb. gold inner case; on Nov. 26 Carter makes a "tiny breach in the top left hand corner", allowing them to peer by candlelight at the "wonderful things" of glimmering gold and ebony. On Nov. 14 Janis Cakste (1859-1927) becomes pres. #1 of Latvia (until Mar. 14, 1927). On Nov. 21 the Conference of Lausanne (ends 1923) in Switzerland convenes to parley with Kemal Ataturk, who sends his chief of staff Ismet Pasa (hero of a double V over the Greeks in Inonu) as new foreign minister with instructions to take a hard stand on Turkish sovereignty, promoting him to Lt. Gen., after which he changes him name to Mustafa Ismet Inonu (Inönü) (1884-1973) in 1934. On Nov. 21 Rebecca Ann Felton (1835-1930) becomes the first woman to sit in the U.S. Senate, serving 24 hours after the gov. of Ga. appoints her to fill the vacancy left by her hubby Thomas E. Watson - the original Granny Clampett? In Nov. Gen. Josef Pilsudski resigns as pres. of Poland. On Dec. 10 elections in Australia gives the Nationalist Party 27 seats, the Labour Party 29, and the anti-Nationalist Country Party 14 and a balance of power. On Dec. 18 a Federal Reserve truck parked at a loading dock of the U.S. Mint near the State Capitol in Denver, Colo. (W. Colfax Ave. and Delaware St.) is robbed of $200K in $5 bills by three men carrying shotguns, killing a guard; on Jan. 5 their car is found in a garage nearby in Denver's Capitol Hill, complete with the frozen body of one robber; $80K of the loot is recovered near Minneapolis, but the case is never solved, although in 1934 police claim that five men and two women were conspirators, but do not release names, claiming they are all dead or in prison already. On Dec. 19 24-y.-o. Mrs. Theresa Vaughn admits to a police court in Sheffield, England that she has married 62 men in the past five years without obtaining any divorces - the polyandry loophole? On Dec. 30 Vladimir I. Lenin proclaims the establishment of the atheist Union of Soviet Socialist Repubs. (U.S.S.R.) (Soviet Union); the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan near Nevsky Prospekt in Leningrad becomes known as the Museum of Atheism; a small enclave of White Russians still hold "Pepelyayevshchina" in E Russia - the Atheistic New Jerusalem with its own Christ and Holy Sepulchre, and a few remaining doubting Thomases, whom the regime can't wait to nail? Ignaz Seipel (1876-1932) becomes federal chancellor of Austria's First Repub. (until 1924), going on to promote cooperation between the Heimwehr and wealthy industrialists - and these are my employees? Hipolito Irigoyen retires as required by the Argentine constitution, and Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear (1868-1942) becomes pres. of Argentina (until 1928). Germany secedes Upper Silesia to Poland. Gen. elections in Australia give Labour 29 seats, Nationalists 27, and the Country Party 14. The Irish Free State is officially proclaimed. Afghanistan establishes its first nat. budget. Russian troops led by Gen. Vasili Blucher take Vladivostok, terminus of the Trans-Siberian railway from Japanese occupation troops. The Teapot Dome Scandal over the leasing of naval oil reserves is investigated by the U.S. Senate under the leadership of Thomas James Walsh (1859-1933) (D-Mont.) and Burton Kendall Wheeler (1882-1975) (D-Mont.). The Federal Narcotics Control Board is established by Pres. Harding, which is consolidated with the Drug Enforcement Assoc. on June 14, 1930. Unemployed Glasgow workers stage a hunger march to London. Niger is made a French colony after numerous rebellions are quashed and order restored. The League of Nations gives final approval to the French mandate for Syria. The British Empire Settlement Act promises British govt. assistance in promoting emigration to Australia, becoming the first large-scale state-assisted migration program by the British govt., with 400K receiving £6M in subsidies. After her daughter Margaret was denied in 1919, Welsh suffragette Sybil Margaret Thomas, 1st Viscountess Rhondda (1857-1941) is permitted to take a seat in the British House of Lords, then summarily refused before her fanny can hit the cushion; it takes until 1958 for Lady Stella Reading to do it. The Trust (ends 1925) is created by Cheka head Felix Dzerzhinsky et al. as a fake anti-Bolshevik govt. in order to lure real anti-Bolsheviks into supporting it so they can neutralize them; it proves extremely successful, bringing in $3M a year and thwarting the efforts of real anti-Bolsheviks. Italian anti-Fascist historian Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942) is cracked down on by the govt. and forbidden to leave Italy until 1930, when he becomes a prof. at the U. of Geneva and continues dissing them, causing the govt. to seize all his writings in Italian. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Japanese are not eligible for naturalization because they are not "free white persons" under the 1790 naturalization law, and not "persons of African descent" under the 1870 law. East Africa adopts a decimal currency system. Ra'anana, Israel on the S Sharon Plain is founded. The Aniakchak Volcano on the coast of Alaska is discovered - couldn't sit down for a week? The world's first concentration camp is set up by the Soviets in the Solovki Islands in the White Sea. Count Richard Nikolas Coudenhove-Kalergi (1894-1972) of Austria-Hungary, whose mother is Japanese and whose father speaks 16 languages founds the Pan-European Union (PEU), later backed by Crown Prince Otto von Hapsburg (1912-) as "the only way to prevent a world hegemony by Russia"; next year it pub. the Pan-Europa Manifesto. Germany achieves up to 3 hours flight with gliders; the first Experimental Gliding Congress is held in Vauville (near Cherbourg) in France. Southern Rhodesia votes down a proposal to become the 5th province of the Union of South Africa in favor of self-autonomy, and next Sept. 12 it is annexed by the U.K., adopting a constitution on Oct. 1 (until Apr. 1980). The Austin Seven microcar begins production in Britain (until 1939), monopolizing the British market and becoming the British Model T, with 290K units sold. The Benedictines of Solesmes, revivers of authentic Gregorian chants return to their abbey after 21 years of exile on the (enchanted?) Isle of Wight. The Russian Cheka is changed into the GPU (State Political Directorate, a section of the NKVD, with Feliz Dzerzhinsky still in total control - pass the potato chips? Lenin decides that cinema is the most important of all the arts for the future education of good Soviets. Willia Cather's babe Isabelle McClung moves to Europe with her hubby, ending their 17-year love relationship; Cather says, "In 1922 or thereabouts the world broke in half, and I belong with the former half", and refuses to change with the times in her writing? Despite grossing $10.5M in the previous two years, the Ku Klux Klan is almost bankrupt through mismanagement. Florence Harding becomes the first First Lady with a fortune teller in the White House. The Chicago Tribune Tower Competition, the first internat. competition for the design of a bldg. draws many European entrants, but the winner is Am. architect Raymond Mathewson Hood (1881-1934), with a Gothic design. The Internat. Brotherhood of Magicians is founded; members promise not to tell how their tricks work - like how they use fake legs and a trap door for the sawing the lady in half trick? A 42.90 gram silver decadrachm piece, made in 470 B.C.E. to celebrate the Greek victory over the Persians is found in Sparta, becoming the most valuable non-U.S. coin among coin collectors ($272,240 in 1974). C.B.C., later known as Columbia Pictures is founded; their Gem of the Ocean Logo features 16-y.-o. Jane Chester as the Proud Lady, holding a torch aloft in her right hand; retired in 1976. Ford buys the Lincoln Motor Co. for $8M. U.S. agriculture secy. (1920-1) Edwin Thomas Meredith (1876-1928), pub. of "Successful Farming" since 1914 (circ. 600K) founds Better Homes and Gardens mag. The information explosion shows signs of arrival with the debut of Reader's Digest of condensed books and mags. ("articles of lasting interest"), founded by Dewitt Wallace (1889-1981) and Lila Bell Wallace (nee Acheson) (1889-1984) in Greenwich Village, N.Y.; in 1955 it begins carrying ads. Gas gauges are now featured on car instrument panels, and backup lights on a few models. Mercedes-Daimler cars become #1 in auto racing. Essex Motor Co. is founded by Roy Dikeman Chapman of Hudson Motor Car Co., producing the first affordable mass-produced enclosed automobile, and causing the U.S. auto industry to move away from open touring cars to coaches. U.S.-style cocktails become popular in Europe after English novelist Alec Waugh (1898-1981) (brother of novelist Evelyn Waugh) serves rum swizzles to shocked friends who came for tea, inventing the Cocktail Party. Am. vaudeville performer Ted Healy (1896-1937) (real name Clarence Ernst Nash) hires old friend Moe Howard (Horwitz) (1897-1975) for his act as a stooge (a shill pretending to be an audience member who comes onstage, with Healy as the straight man), and next year hires Moe's older brother Shemp Howard (Horwitz) (1895-1955), then Larry Fine (Louis Feinberg) (1902-75) in 1925, and Moe's younger brother Jerome "Curly" Howard (Horwitz) (1903-52) in 1932, forming the act later known as the Three Stooges (all Jewish, nyuk nyuk). New York City cartoonist Rollin Kirby (1875-1972) wins a Pulitzer Prize for his 1921 editorial cartoon On the Road to Moscow, becoming the first cartoon to win; he does it again in 1925 and 1929. The U.S. Honeybee Act prohibits the importation of adult honeybees into the U.S. The League of Nations bans white-lead interior paint; the U.S. declines to join the ban. Manufactured cigarettes surpass plug tobacco to become the highest grossing tobacco product in the U.S. When the spotlight's on, I gotta be on? Lord Northcliffe (b. 1865) dies, and his brother Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere (1868-1940) inherits the London Daily Mail; Boston, Mass.-born historian Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976) (distant relative of T.S. Eliot) becomes the first to hold the position of Harmsworth Visiting Prof. of Am. History at Queen's College, Oxford U. for visiting Am. historians, established by Lord Rothermere in memory of his sons Vyvyan and Vere, who were KIA in WWI; in 1925 Morison returns to Harvard U., becoming the last prof. to arrive on campus on horseback. Maxim Gorky moves to Sorrento, Italy for his health until 1928, and on his return to the Soviet Union is received with official honors. The U.S. military goes band-crazy, and founds the U.S. Army Band ("Pershing's Own") this year, followed by the U.S. Navy Band and U.S. Coast Guard Band in 1925, and the U.S. Air Force Band in 1941. The word "oops" first appears in a cartoon in the Washington Post. The elegant Classic Style takes over women's fashions in the U.S. Joseph P. Babcock of Standard Oil Co. begins importing Mah Jong (Jongg) (Chin. "cluttering birds") sets from Shanghai to the U.S., starting a worldwide craze by 1924, with a flurry of books on it pub., calling it Pung-Chow, Mah Chang, Mahjunk, Ma Cheuk, the Game of Sparrow (the Bird of 100 Intelligences) et al. Columbia U. man Carl Van Doren leaves The Nation and becomes literary ed. of Century Mag. (founded 1881) (until 1925); his younger brother and fellow Colombia U. man Mark Van Doren (1894-1972) becomes lit. editor of The Nation in 1924-8 - how adorable - that makes me sweat? The Detroit Inst. of Arts in Mich. acquires its own version of Rodin's The Thinker, sitting it at the entrance. The city of Sacramento, Calif. passes an ordinance requiring "all male citizens over the age of consent to grow whiskers and thus make the town look like it used to" in 1849; enthusiastic men found a Whiskerino Club, and the longest pair is 17 ft. long. The Internat. Union for Cultural Cooperation is founded in Vienna. The Internat. Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM) is founded in Salzburg, Austria following the "Young Viennese" composers' concert. The first John Newbery Medal is awarded by the Assoc. for Library Service to Children, a div. of the Am. Library Assoc. for "the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children" to Hendrik Willem van Loon for The Story of Mankind. The Vienna Circle is founded in Austria by physics-trained Austrian philosopher Moritz Schlick (1882-1936), along with a bunch of other Jewish philosophers and scientists incl. Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970), Kurt Friedrich Godel (Gödel) (1906-78), Otto Neurath (1882-1945), Hans Hahn (1879-1934), Herbert Feigl (1902-88), and Friedrich Waisman (1896-1959) to discuss metaphysics-free Logical Positivism and the exciting new Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and when the latter interacts with them he ends up writing his exciting new Philosophical Investigations; too bad, the rise of the Nazis shuts them down - they gave up the Hebrew Scriptures but are still in love with the truth in words? Les Nouvelles Litteraires, Artistique et Scientifiques mag. is founded in Paris. Japanese Buddhist Mikao Usui (1865-1926) founds Reiki, a spiritual practice based on fasting and meditation on Mt. Kurama in Japan, signing up mainly students from the military. The Izaak Walton League of Am. in Chicago, Ill. is founded to preserve fishing streams. Internat. PEN (Poets, Essayists, and Novelists) Club, an internat. club for writers is founded on Oct. 5 in London by Mrs. Catherine Amy Dawson Scott (1865-1934), with "Forsyte Saga" novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933) as pres. #1, going on to fight for writers' rights, becoming the first human rights org. and first internat. lit. org.; in 2010 it becomes PEN Internat. The Wampas Baby Stars promotional campaign is founded by the Western Assoc. of Motion Picture Advertisers (until 1934, except 1930 and 1933), honoring 13 hot new starlets at the Wampas Frolic each year (15 in 1932); 150 stars are eventually honored, some who get hot and most not, incl. Bessie Love (1898-1986) (1922), Evelyn Brent (1899-1975) (1923), Jobyna Ralston (1899-1967) (1923), Clara Bow (1905-65) (1924), Janet Gaynor (1906-84) (1926), June Collyer (1906-68) (1928), Jean Arthur (1900-91) (1929), Loretta Young (1913-2000) (1929), Joan Blondell (1906-79) (1931), Eleanor Holm (1913-2004) (1932), Gloria Stuart (1910-2010) (1932), Marian Shockley (1911-81) (1932), Ginger Rogers (1911-95) (1932), and Judith Arlen (Laurette Rutherford) (1914-68) (1934). Cameo Records is founded in Manattan, N.Y. in Feb. to produce 50-cent jazz dance records (until 1930). New Orleans, La.-born Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong (1901-71) launches his career with Joe "King" Oliver's Creole Jazz Band in New Orleans. Fritz Busch (1890-1951) becomes dir. of the State Opera in Dresden, Germany. Marc Chagall leaves grim cold Russia for gay warm sunny Paris - no brainer? T.E. Lawrence of Arabia resigns from the Middle East div. of the British Colonial Office (1921-2) and enlists as a private with the RAF under the name Ross to escape publicity hounds. Charlie Chaplin (Chaplain?) (known in Hollywood for being well-endowed) auditions for a role as Jesus Christ, with the soundbyte: "I want to play the role of Jesus. I'm a logical choice. I look the part. I'm a Jew. And I'm a comedian... And I'm an atheist, so I'd be able to look at the character objectively." Am. actor John Barrymore (John Sidney "Jack" Blyth) (1882-1942), "the Great Profile" achieves stardom playing Hamlet in New York City this year and in England in 1925 before leaving the stage to return to Hollywood in 1926. The Webb Schools (originally Webb School of Calif.) boarding schools for grades 9-12 are founded in Claremont, Calif. by Thompson Webb (1887-1975), with the motto "Principes, non homines" (Leaders, not ordinary men); the Vivian Webb School for girls is founded in 1981. Beaconsfield Film Studios is founded in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire by producer George Clark (1888-1946) and actor-dir. Guy Newhall (1885-1937), selling-out to British Lion Film Corp. in 1929, going on to produce Britain's first talkie, and found a film-TV production school in 1971 that results in the animated chars. Wallace and Gromit. Wilhelm Furtwangler (1886-1954) conducts the Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig. Cigar-chomping German Jewish film dir. Ernst Lubitsch (1894-1947) leaves Berlin for Hollywood after Mary Pickford hires him, then gets a 3-year 6-film contract with Warner Bros. The Newbery Medal for children's lit., named for British children's lit. pub. John Newbery (1713-67) begins to be awarded by the Am. Library Assoc.; the first goes to Hendrik Willem Van Loon (1882-1944) for The Story of Mankind. Russian abstract art founder Vassily Kandinsky becomes a prof. at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany (until 1933). Archibald Leach (Cary Grant) gets a job as a stiltwalker at Coney Island in N.Y. Austrian Jewish bass Emanuel List (1888-1967) makes his opera debut at the Volksoper in Vienna as Mephistopheles in Charles Gounod's "Faust"; in 1933 after doing the entire Wagnerian Ring Cycle in Bayreuth, he flees Germany for the U.S. German soprano Elisabeth Rethberg (1894-1976) makes her debut with the Metropolitan Opera as Verdi's Aida, going on to remain with them for 20 seasons, becoming a favorite of conductor Arturo Toscanini and the #1 opera soprano, with Rosa Ponselle as #2. Constantin S. Stanislavsky goes on a European tour with the Moscow Arts Theater (1922-4). David Warfield begins touring the U.S. as Shylock in Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice" (until 1924) - Dustin who? Russian Symbolist theatrical dir. Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold (1874-1942) opens the Meyerhold Theater in Moscow, staging avant-garde shows and tutoring filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein; too bad, he disses Stalin's Socialist realism, and his theater is closed in Jan. 1938, and on June 20, 1939 he is arrested, tortured, and executed as a spy. Raytheon ("Gr. "light from the gods") Co. (originally the Am. Appliance Co.) is founded in Cambridge, Mass. by engineers Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) and Laurence K. Marshall, and scientist Charles G. Smith to produce refrigerators, switching to electronics, manufacturing a rectifier tube for radios that allows them to plug into the house current and eliminate batteries; in WWII it manufactures magnetron tubes; in 1945 it invents the microwave oven, manufacturing the Radarange microwave oven in 1947; in 1945 it acquires the Submarine Signal Co. (founded 1901) and goes into defense work. The Checker Taxicab begins to be manufactured in Kalamazoo, Mich. (until 1982). Am. shoe manufacturer John Ward Melville (1877-1977) creates the Thom McAn shoe line, named after Scottish golfer Thomas McCann, opening 650 stores by 1939 and becoming known for quality leather at affordable prices. Candymaker Hans Riegel Sr. of Bonn, Germany founds Haribo (Hans Reigel, Bonn) on Dec. 13 to manufacture Gummi Bears. Wheaties brand breakfast cereal is invented accidentally on a hot stove by a clinician working for the Washburn Crosby Co. (later Gen. Mills) in Minn., and 1924 after being perfected by head miller George Cormack, they are introduced as Washburn's Gold Medal Whole Wheat Flakes, with the final name selected via an employee contest won by export mgr. Jane Bausman; in 1927 they advertise in the minor league baseball Nicollette Park in Minneapolis, Minn., beginning their association with sports, after adman Knox Reeves of Minneapolis coins the slogan "The Breakfast of Champions", which peaks in the 1930s and 1940s, with 46 of 51 players of the 1939 ML All-Star Game endorsing it, and sponsoring the first ML baseball game ever televised on Aug. 29, 1939 on NBC-TV; the first Athlete on a Wheaties box is Lou Gehrig in 1934; Ronald Reagan launches his Hollywood career as the most popular Wheaties announcer of the year 1937. Heinkel Flugzeugwerke is founded in Warnemunde, Mecklenburg-Worpommern, Germany by Ernst Heinkel (1888-1958), going on to produce bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe in WWII and pioneer liquid-fueled rockets and turbojet-powered aircraft. Jaguar Cars (originally the Swallow Sidecar Co.) is founded in Whitley, Coventry, England by "Mr. Jaguar" Sir William Lyons (1901-85) and William Walmsley (1892-1961) to make motorcycle sidecars, founding SS Cars Ltd. in 1935, and first using the Jaguar name in 1935, going on to produce a series of ultra-cool sports cars incl. the Jaguar SS100 (1936-40), Jaguar XK120 (1948-54), Jaguar XK 140 (1954-7), Jaguar XK150 (1957-61), and Jaguar E-Type (XK-E) (1961-75); in 1945 after WWII causes their initials SS to become un-PC, they change their name to Jaguar Cars Ltd.; in 1966 they are acquired by British Motor Corp., and in 1968 merge with Leyland Motor Corp., which is nationalized in 1975-84, then in 1990 are acquired by Ford. Grupo Modelo brewery is founded in Mexico City, Mexico, introducing Modelo Especial in 1925, which becomes the #2 imported beer in the U.S., known for cute stubby bottles, and Corona Extra brand beer in 1925, becoming the best-selling beer in Mexico, and the #1 imported beer in the U.S., known for clear glass long neck bottles into which consumer stick lime or lemon slices; the logo is red poppies; the co. goes on to capture 63% of the Mexican beer market; in ? Anheuser-Busch InBev acquires 50% ownership. Sports: On Feb. 25 the first invitational World Classic Bowling Tournament is held in Chicago, Ill., with 24 bowlers bowling 115 games on four specially-built lanes in the Chicago Coliseum, with the winner having to defaet the 2nd-4th place finishers in separate 60-game matches; the winner is Jimmy Blouin, winning $1,200 prize money; Blouin goes on to defeat Phil Wolf on Sept. 22, Mort Lindsey on Nov. 11, and Jimmy Smith on Dec. 19, becoming the official World Match Game champion, defending his title aganist Joe Falcaro on Oct. 23, 1923, and against Joe Scribner on Jan. 31, 1925. On Mar. 17-28 the 1922 Stanley Cup Finals in Arena Gardens in Toronto see the Toronto St. Patricks of the NHL defeat the Vancouver Millionaires of the PCHA 3-2; Vancouver center Jack Adams is the star, scoring 6 goals. On Apr. 29-May 5 the 1922 WNBA Nat. Tournament sees Emma Jaeger (1888-1964) of Toledo, Ohio win the singles competition with a score of 603, becoming the first over 600 to win; she goes on to threepeat in 1921-3, and win the WBNA all-events title in 1918, 1921, 1928, and 1929. On May 18 Irish driver Kenelm Edward Lee Guinness (1887-1937) (member of the Guinness brewing family) sets a new land speed record of 136.05 mph in his Sunbeam 350HP with V12 Manitou engine, becoming the last to be set on a racetrack rather than a beach or salt flat. On May 30 the 1922 (10th) Indianapolis 500 is won by James Anthony "Jimmy" Murphy (1894-1924), who becomes the first to win from the pole position; Ralph De Palma comes in 4th. On Aug. 25 after jumping to a 25-6 lead in the 4th inning, and seeing the Phillies close the score and load the bases in the 9th inning, after which CF Bevo LeBourveau is struck out by relief pitcher Tiny Osborne, the Cubs defeat the Phillies by 26-23 before 7K fans at Cubs Park, becoming the highest scoring ML baseball game of the 20th cent. On Nov. 11 the Commonwealth Five all-black basketball team, founded by boxing promoters Ed McMahon and Jess McMahon makes its debut at the Commonwealth Sporting Club and Casino at 135th St. and Madison Ave. in Harlem, N.Y., defeating the all-white Monarch Elks Five by 25-13, becoming the first all-black pro basketball team, going on win the Colored Basketball World Championship in 1924. The U.S. Congress grants anti-trust action immunity to ML baseball. Joyce Wethered (Lady Heathcote-Amory) (1901-97) of England wins the first of four golf championships; Jesse W. "Jess" Sweetser (1902-89) defeats Bobby Jones and Chick Evans to win the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and Gene Sarazen (1902-99) wins the U.S. Open along with the PGA Championship, going on to win a career Grand Slam; in 1926 Sweetser becomes the first U.S.-born player to win the British amateur golf title. George V of Britain opens a new 15K-seat concrete tennis stadium at Wimbledon; Bill Tilden and W.M. Johnston win the singles, and Tilden and V. Richards lose the doubles but win the Davis Cup in tennis; Suzanne Lenglen avenges the previous year's loss to Molla Mallory with a 26-min. 6-2, 6-0 win at Wimbledon; in the summer they play for the last time, and Lenglen wins 6-0, 6-0. In 1922 the NFL begins requiring players to sign contracts instead of oral agreements sealed with a handshake. The Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team backfield from 1922 to the Rose Bowl game of 1925 gains legendary status as the Four Horsemen, incl. QB Harry Augustus Stuhldreher (1901-65), HB Don Miller (1902-79), HB James H. "Jim" Crowley (1902-86), and FB Elmer Francis Layden (1903-73); Bobby "Rube" Marshall (1890-1958) (end) of the Rock Island Independents and Frederick Douglass "Fritz" Pollard (1894-1986) (halfback) of the Akron Pros break the color barrier to become the first black players in pro football, joining the NFL. Honkbal Hoofdklasse becomes the first prof. baseball league in the Netherlands. The ABC separates bowling alley owners and employees in separate membership classes; in 1929 it adds financial backers and instructors; the rule is dropped in 1948. Austrian skiing champ Hannes Schneider (1890-1955) opens a ski school in St. Anton am Arlberg. Victor Marlborough Silvester (1900-78) of Britain becomes the world ballroom dancing champ. The Chosun Racing Club in South Korea is founded to sponsor horse races; nexst year it adopts the parimutuel betting system; in 1933 the Chosun Horse Racing Authority is established to regulate the sport nationally, being renamed in 1945 to the Korea Racing Authority. Architecture: On July 11 the Hollywood Bowl (cap. 17,376) at 2301 N Highland Ave. S of the Hollywood Hills behind the famous Hollywood sign opens, with seating on wooden benches on the hillsides of Bolton Canyon, becoming the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic; the debut performance is conducted by Alfred Hertz; in 1927 Frank Lloyd Wright builds a pyramidal shell to improve the acoustics, replacing it with a fiberglass shell in 1928. Canadian-born Pentecostal preacher Aimee Simple McPherson builds the spaceship-like Angelus Temple in Echo Park, Los Angeles, Calif. (cap. 5.3K) (dedicated Jan. 1, 1923) - making California the home of the UFO cult way back in 1922? The Earl Carroll Theatre at 753 Seventh Ave. & West 50th Street in Manhattan, N.Y. opens, reopening on a more lavish scale in Aug. 1931, billed as "the largest legitimate theater in the world" before going bankrupt in 1932 and purchased by Florenz Ziegfeld, who renames it the Casino Theatre, successfully reviving "Show Boat" before going bankrupt in 1933, after which it is acquired by Billy Rose, who turns it into a nightclub; in 1939, and in 1940 it becomes a Woolworth's store; a second Earl Carroll Theatre at 6230 Sunset Blvd. in Hollywood, Calif. opens on Dec. 26, 1938, featuring "the most beautiful girls in the world", with a 20-ft.-high neon portrait of Beryl Wallace; in 1948 after Carroll and Wallace are killed in the crash of Airlines Flight 624, it is sold, and operates until the 1950s. London County Council Hall in London, England is built. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) (Norway) [Nansen Passports]; Lit.: Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954) (Spain); Physics: Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962) (Denmark) [quantum physics]; Chem.: Francis William Aston (1877-1945) (England) [mass spectrograph and isotopes]. Inventions: On Mar. 20 converted coal carrier USS Langley (CV-1) (originally commissioned Apr. 7, 1913 as USS Jupiter and renamed for Samuel Pierpont Langley) becomes the first aircraft carrier; on Oct. 17 Lt. Virgil C. Griffin takes off in his Vought VE-7 from it, launching the aircraft carrier era. On July 16 German-born Jewish-Am. gramophone inventor Emile Berliner (1851-1929) and his son Henry Adler Berliner (1895-1970) demonstrate a working helicopter to the U.S. Army, consisting of a Nieuport 23 fighter aircraft fuselage with two horizontal rotors mounted on a truss, becoming the first working helicopter; in 1923 he adds triple wings as a backup; too bad, it never reaches an elevation higher than 15 ft. The first Snowmobile is built by Joseph-Armand Bombardier (1907-64) of Canada, who goes on to patent it in 1937, calling it the B-7, featuring a sprocket caterpillar half-track in the back and skis in front, followed by the 12-passenger B-12 in 1942. German inventors Josef Engl (1893-1942), Joseph Massolle (1889-1957) and Hans Vogt (1890-1979) invent the Tri-Ergon (Gr. "work of three") sound film system using photoelectric cells, but can't perfect it, and sell it to Fox Movie Corp., who hire Theodore Willard Case (1888-1944) to perfect it, creating the Fox Movietone Sound-on-Film System in 1927. Anton Flettner (1885-1961) of Germany invents the cool-looking look-ma-no-sails Flettner Rotorship, based on the Magnus Spin Drift Effect, which causes a rotating object to move through the water in a constant direction perpendicular to the airflow; in 1924 constructs the 3-masted 960-ton roto schooner Buckau, which works fine but wears out before it can pay for itself, causing the rotor ship idea to fizzle (until ?). 18-y.-o. George Frost of Lane High School in Chicago, Ill. invents the car radio by fitting one to the door of a Ford Model T. John Harwood (1895-1963) of England invents a self-winding wristwatch (patented 1924) - masturbation jokes here? Chelsea, Mass.-born engineer Herbert Thomas Kalmus (1881-1963) develops Technicolor, the first commercially successful color process for motion pictures; he names it in tribute to his alma mater MIT; ex-wife Natalie Kalmus (1878-1965) appears as "color coordinator" on virtually every Technicolor film from 1934-49, becoming unpopular on sets for trying to make them make colors more bland while being unable to fire her. Fla. citrus grower Charles Murcott Smith develops the easily-peeled "big red" Murcott Honey Orange (really a tangerine). Stephen Poplawski invents the Blender (Liquidiser), putting a spinning blade at the bottom of a container to make soda fountain drinks. Am. sculptor Grace Storey Putnam invents the Bye-Lo Baby, becoming a popular doll. English aviator Maj. J.C. Savage invents Skywriting after watching WWI airplanes leaving smoke trails. RCA buys the 1918 patent for the Superheterodyne Radio from Edwin Howard Armstrong, creating a monopoly for the rest of the decade as it only requires one dial and everybody ditches the multi-dial regenerative models for it. Eureka ignores the 1926 expiration date of the original Hoover patents to introduce the $45 Eureka Model 9 upright vacuum cleaner, which is half the price of a Hoover and 6 lbs. lighter (11 lbs.) with the same motor horsepower, along with a front-mounted bag that won't hit furniture and spew dust unlike the rear-mounted bag on competitors' models, offering a 10-day free trial, becoming their best-selling model of all time, doing for vacuum cleaners what Henry Ford's Model T did for automobiles, selling 1M units in three years, vs. 713K for Hoover, and 2M units by 1927, reaching a one-third share, allowing them to expand into electric ranges and other appliances. Science: English physicist Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett (1897-1974) experiments with element transmutation, winning the 1948 Nobel Physics Prize. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) of France discovers white corpuscles. Am. physicist William Weber Coblentz (1873-1962) measures the relative thermal intensities of stellar images. The rare (#47) metallic element Hafnium (Lat. "Copenhagen") (#72), naturally occuring in most zirconium minerals (5% strength) is discovered in Copenhagen by Dutch physicist Dirk Coster (1889-1950) and Hungarian chemist George Charles de (Georg Karl von) Hevesy (1885-1966) based on Niels Bohr's prediction that it should resemble zirconium in structure, causing them to look in guess what kind of ores. Vitamin E (antisterility factor X) (alpha-tocopherol) is discovered by Am. embyrologist Herbert McLean Evans (1882-1971) and his asst. Katherine S. Bishop of the U. of Calif.; named by E.V. Shute in 1924. Czech chemist Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890-1967) of Charles U. in Prague invents Polarography during investigations of the electrode potential of aluminum, pioneering the electroanalytic method and the field of Electrochemistry, winning him the 1959 Nobel Chem. Prize. Vitamin D is discovered in cod liver oil by Am. biochemist Elmer Verner McCollum (1879-1967). Am. zoologist T.H. Morgan experiments with the heredity mechanisms of fruit flies - I'm already on the pullout couch but we can make room? French philosopher Edouard Le Roy introduces the term "noosphere" for the future evolutionary state of the biosphere. Russian microbiologist Sergei Winogradsky (1856-1953) is appointed to the Pasteur Inst. in Brie-Comte-Robert, France, where he discovers and documents the biological process of nitrification and the cycle of life. Nonfiction: Alice Ann Bailey (1880-1949), Initiation, Human and Solar; first in a series channeling the Ageless Wisdom of Tibetan ascended master D.K. (Djwal Khul), who first contacted her in 1919; she becomes known for the teaching that St. Germain (AKA Master Rakoczi or Master R.) (the resurrected Sir Francis Bacon) will be chmn. of the Executive Council of Christ, who will return and stay and bring world peace for the entire 2,150-year period of the Age of Aquarius; too bad, she claims that Christ will return in an airplane on global TV - I think Neil Armstrong beat him to it? R.S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement (3 vols.). Clive Bell (1881-1964), Art. Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953), The Jews; "The anti-Semitic movement is essentially a reaction against the abnormal growth in Jewish power, and the new strength of anti-Semitism is largely due to the Jews themselves." Diedrich Bischoff, The Religion of the Freemasons. Max Born (1882-1970), Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Paul Bourget (1852-1935), Nouvelles Pages de Critique et de Doctrine. Abraham Arden Brill (1874-1948), Fundamental Conceptions of Psychoanalysis. William Cabell Bruce (1860-1946), John Randolph of Roanoke, 1773-1883: A Biography Based Largely on New Material (2 vols.). Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970), The Space; logical positivism. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), Eugenics and Other Evils; What I Saw In America; "America is the only nation in the world that is founded on a creed. That creed is set forth with dogmatic and even theological lucidity in the Declaration of Independence; perhaps the only piece of practical politics that is also theoretical politics and also great literature. It enunciates that all men are equal in their claim to justice, that governments exist to give them that justice, and that their authority is for that reason just. It certainly does condemn anarchism, and it does also by inference condemn atheism, since it clearly names the Creator as the ultimate authority from whom these equal rights are derived. Nobody expects a modern political system to proceed logically in the application of such dogmas, and in the matter of God and Government it is naturally God whose claim is taken more lightly. The point is that there is a creed, if not about divine, at least about human things." Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962), Secondary Radiations Produced by X-Rays. James John Davis (1873-1947), The Iron Puddler (autobio.). Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), Mein Leben (autobio.) (posth.). Tyler Dennett (1883-1949), Americans in Eastern Asia. Chauncey M. Depew (1834-1928), My Memories of Eighty Years (autobio.). John Dewey (1859-1952), Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Alfred Einstein (ed.), Riemann's Musiklexikon (10th ed.). Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1876-) (ed.), Fueter's World History 1815-1920. Lucien Febvre (1878-1956) and Lionel Bataillon, A Geographical Introduction to History. H.J. Fleure, Races of England and Wales. Henry Ford (1863-1947), My Life and Work (autobio.). Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878-1969), Christianity and Progress. Etienne Gilson (1884-1978), Le Thomisme. Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928), Memorie della Mia Vita (2 vols.). Burton J. Hendrick (1870-1949), The Life and Letters of Walter H. Page (Pulitzer Prize). David George Hogarth (1862-1927), Arabia. Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), American Individualism. Karen Horney (1885-1952), Feminine Psychology (14 essays) (1922-37); takes on Sigmund Freud's theory of Penis Envy, founding Feminist Psychology. W.H. Hudson (1841-1922), A Hind in Richmond Park. Dudley Wright Knox (1877-1960), The Eclipse of American Sea Power. Kurt Koffka (1886-1941), Perception: An Introduction to the Gestalt Theory. Nikolai Kondratiev (1892-1938), The World Economy and Its Conjectures During and After the War. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), Fantasia of the Unconscious. Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939), La Mentalite Primitive (The Primitive Mentality). Walter Lippmann (1889-1974), Public Opinion; coins the phrase "the manufacture of consent". Hendrik Willem van Loon (1882-1944), The Story of Mankind; "The people of the early Middle Ages never saw a textbook of Roman history. They were ignorant of many things which every school-boy to-day knows before he has entered the third grade. But the Roman Empire, which is merely a name to you, was to them something very much alive." Emil Ludwig (1881-1948), Bismarck: The Story of a Fighter (3 vols.) (1922-3). Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942), Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea; about the Trobriand People in the Kiriwina Islands NE of Papua New Guinea; founds the science of ethnography, or study of one culture via direct contact, which is combined into multi-cultural studies by library ethnologists, who are considered second class since they're just paper-pushers?; followed by "The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia" (1929), and "Coral Gardens and Their Magic" (1935). Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Children of the Market Place: A Fictitious Autobiography; life of Stephen Dougas. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The Validity of American Ideals. Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis; an all-out attempt to refute socialism, which contains the soundbyte: "The only certain fact about Russian affairs under the Soviet regime with regard to which all people agree is: that the standard of living of the Russian masses is much lower than that of the masses in the country which is universally considered as the paragon of capitalism, the United States of America. If we were to regard the Soviet regime as an experiment, we would have to say that the experiment has clearly demonstrated the superiority of capitalism and the inferiority of socialism." Charles Edward Montague (1867-1928), Disenchantment; criticizes the way WWI was fought. De Lacy O'Leary (1872-1957), Islam at the Cross Roads: A Brief Survey of the Present Position and Problems of the World of Islam; A Short History of the Fatimid Khalifate. Sylvia Pankhurst (1858-1928), The Truth About the Oil War; "Oil concessions are those for which the great capitalists scramble most eagerly to-day." Emily Post (1872-1960), Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home; giant hit, updated yearly, brings the way the upper-classes live to the lower classes, esp. immigrants; "Manners are made up of trivialities of deportment which can be easily learned if one does not happen to know them; manner is personality - the outward manifestation of one's innate character and attitude toward life"; makes her an instant star, and becomes the bible of social graces. James Harvey Robinson (1863-1936), The Humanizing of Knowledge; article in Science, July 28. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Problem of China. Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1888-1965), New Viewpoints in American History; pioneers social history and urban history, containing the soundbyte: "From reading history in textbooks one would think half of our population made only a negligible contribution to history", along with the essay "The Significance of Jacksonian Democracy", with the soundbyte: "While democracy was working out its destiny in the forests of the Mississippi Valley, the men left behind in the eastern cities were engaging in a struggle to establish conditions of equality and social well-being adapted to their special circumstances"; in 1924 he becomes a history prof. at Harvard U. Carl Schmitt (1888-1985), Political Theology; uses Roman Catholicism to deny free will and bolster dictatorship; "Sovereign is he who decides on the exception"; "All significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts". Boris Sidis (1867-1923), Nervous Ills: Their Cause and Cure; blames fear as the underlying cause of much mental illness. Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921), The Early Days of Theosophy in Europe (posth.). Frederick Soddy (1877-1956), Cartesian Economies. Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921) and Henry B. Fuller, The So-Called Human Race (essays) (posth.). Sir John Arthur Thompson (1861-1933), Outline of Science; big hit claiming to reconcile science and religion, selling 100K copies. Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Kritik der Offentlichen Meinung (Criticique of Public Opinion). Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975), The Western Question in Greece and Turkey: A Study in the Contact of Civilizations. John Venn (1834-1923) and John Archibald Venn (1883-1958), The Biographical History of Cambridge University (10 vols.) (1922-53); son takes over his dead daddy's project. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Public School Life: Boys, Parents, Masters. Max Weber (1864-1920), Methodology of the Social Sciences: The Meaning of Ethical Neutrality in Sociology and Economics. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), A Short History of the World - just look inside the music? Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus; a model of clarity, only 75 pages long; "The sum-total of reality is the world". William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Trembling of the Veil (autobio.). Music: Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Symphony No. 1; The Happy Forest; Mediterranean. Irving Berlin (1888-1989), April Showers. Sir Arthur Bliss (1891-1975), A Color Symphony; incl. Pyonepsion (last movement). Henri Busser (1872-1973), Les Noces Corinthiennes (opera). John Alden Carpenter (1876-1951), Krazy Kat (blues ballet); based on the comics. Leo Fall (1873-1925), Madame Pompadour (operetta) (Vienna). Fred Fisher (1875-1942), Chicago; made into a hit by Frank Sinatra in the 1940s. P. Grainger and E. Robbins, 'T Ain't Nobody's Business (If I Do) (song). Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Sancta Susanna (one-act opera) (Frankfurt). Jacques Ibert (1890-1962), Escales. Isham Jones (1894-1956), On the Alamo (#1 in the U.S.). Heinrich Kaminsky (1886-1946), Concerto Grosso for Double Orchestra. Nick Lucas (1897-1982), Picking the Guitar; Teasing the Frets. Joseph Marx (1882-1964), Eine Symphonische Nachtmusik. Carl Nielsen, Symphony No. 5. Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936), Concerto Gregoriano. Trixie Smith (1895-1943), My Man Rocks Me With One Steady Roll; first record to use the phrase "rock and roll" outside a Gospel context, with the sexual double entendre. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Mavra (comic opera) (Paris Opera). Harry Warren (1893-1981) and Edgar Leslie (1885-1976), Rose of the Rio Grande; launches the career of Harry Warren (Salvatore Antonio Guaragna) (1893-1981), who remains virtually anon. while writing 800+ songs and pub. 500+ of them, which are used in 300 films and 112 Warner Brothers Looney Tunes Cartoons, incl. "I Only Have Eyes For You", "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", "We're In the Money", "Lullaby of Broadway", "Jeepers Creepers" et al. Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), Pastoral Symphony, No. 3 (London). Movies: William A. Seiter's The Beautiful and the Damned (Dec. 10) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1922 F. Scott Fitzgerald novel stars Kenneth Harlan (1895-1967) and Marie Prevost (Marie Bickford Dunn) (1898-1937), who marry on the set for publicity, which backfires when Prevost's secret first hubby Sonny Gerke materializes, causing Jack Warner to get the secret marriage annulled so that the marriage can go through in 1924; too bad, in 1926 their contract is not renewed, driving Prevost to alcoholism, and they separate in 1927; after he career spirals downward, compounded by obesity, she is finally found dead in her house on Jan. 21, 1937 of acute alcoholism, with her barking dog feasting on body parts to survive; her estate is valued at $300, and a promissory note to Joan Crawford is found, causing the Hollywood community to create the Motion Picture Country House in San Fernando Valley, Calif. in 1942, followed by the Motion Picture House in 1948, later extended to TV stars. Fred Niblo's Blood and Sand (Aug. 5), written by June Mathis based on the 1909 Vicente Blasco-Ibanez novel stars "every woman's dream", "Latin Lover" "Dark Lover" Rudolph Valentino as illiterate Spanish peasant bullfighter Juan Gallardo, who cheats on his virtuous wife Carmen (Lila Lee) with seductive vamp widow Dona Sol (Nita Naldi); Rouben Mamoulian remakes it in sound and technicolor in 1941 starring Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell (wife), and Rita Hayworth (vamp); Naldi and Valentino co-star in two more films, "A Sainted Devil" (1924), "Cobra" (1925). E. Mason Hopper's Brothers Under the Skin (Nov. 19) (Goldwyn Pictures) stars Pat O'Malley, Helene Chadwick, Norman Kerry, and Claire Windsor, becoming the film debut (uncredited) of William "Billy" Haines (Charles William Haines) (1900-73), an open gay who in 1926 hooks up with James "Jimmie" Shields and becomes brothers under the skin, staying with him for life ("the happiest married couple in Hollywood" - Joan Crawford); with the studio covering for him, he becomes a top star from 1928-32; too bad, in 1933 he is arrested in a YMCA doing the wild thing with a sailor, causing Louis B. Mayer to give him an ultimatum to engage in a sham "lavender" marriage or be fired, and he chooses the latter, becoming a top interior designer with his gay bud Shields. Edward F. Cline's Cops (Mar.) (First Nat.), filmed during the Kafka-esque rape-murder trial of his mentor Fatty Arbuckle stars Buster Keaton, who flees hundreds LAPD cops in a Kafka-esque nightmare; the film ends with the title "The End" written on a tombstone with Keaton's pork pie hat propped on it; "A roar from the riot squad." Paul Powell's A Daughter of Luxury (Dec. 25), based on a play by Leonard Merrick stars Agnes Ayres as Mary Fenton, Tom Gallery as Blake Walford, Edith Yorke as Ellen Marsh, and ZaSu Pitts as Mary Cosgrove. Marcel L'Herbier's Don Juan and Faust (Oct. 7) stars Vanni Marcoux as Faust. Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler (May 26), based on the Norbert Jacques novel stars Rudolf Klein-Rogge as the evil Berlin doctor (a criticism of post-WWI Germany); "He's the damnation and the salvation"; spawns three sequels. Erich von Stroheim's Foolish Wives (Jan. 11) stars Stroheim as fake Count Wladislaw Sergius Karamzin, who tries to seduce Miss DuPont (Helen Hughes), wife of U.S. envoy to Monaco Andrew J. Hughes (Rudolph Christians) to get her money; billed by Universal Pictures as "the first real million dollar picture"; the uncredited debut of producer Irving Thalberg; too bad, the studio cuts the film down from 10 hours to 117 min. J. Stuart Blackton's Glorious Adventure (Apr. 23) stars Diana Manners as Lady Beatrice Fair, Gerald Lawrence as Hugh Argyle, Cecil Humphreys as Walter Roderick, and Victor McLaglen as Bulfinch. Emile Chautard's The Glory of Clementina (May 28) stars Pauline Frederick, George Cowl, Edward Martindel, Lincoln Plumer, Edward Hearn, Jean Calhoun, and Clarence Wilson, and is the film debut of Evansville, Ind.-born Louise Dresser (Louise Josephine Kerlin) (1878-1965) (friend of Buster Keaton since his childhood days, and friend of songwriter Paul Dresser, whose name she adopts) as Lena Fontaine. Tom Buckingham's and Larry Semon's Golf (Sept. 3) stars Lucille Carlisle as a blonde Flapper girl. Fred C. Newmeyer's Grandma's Boy (Sept. 3) stars Harold Lloyd as Grandma's Boy, who joins a posse after looking for a tramp accused of murder. Benjamin Christiansen's Haxan: Witchcraft Through the Ages stars the dir. as the Devil. Ernst Lubitsch's The Loves of Pharaoh (Das Weib des Pharao) (Feb. 1) stars Emil Jannings as Pharaoh Amenes. Richard Oswald's Lucrezia Borgia (Oct. 20) stars Liane Haid as Lucrezia, Conrad Veidt as Cesare Borgia, and Albert Bassermann as Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). Irving Cummings' The Man From Hell's River (May); the debut (as a wolf) of German Shepherd wonder dog Rin Tin Tin (Rin-Tin-Tin) (Rinty) (1918-32), who was born in a trench in France during WWI and found in a bombed dog kennel by Cpl. Lee Duncan, and saved along with his sister Nannette, then shipped to Los Angeles, Calif., where Nannette dies; he is voted the most popular film star in 1926, and has four sons who become dog stars playing him; he is later buried in France and his bloodline continues in a Tex. kennel; he is stationed at Ft. Apache. Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North: A Story of Life and Love in the Actual Arctic (June 11) stars Allakariallak as Eskimo Nanook, and Nyla and Cunayou as his wives. Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's Nosferatu: Eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror) (Mar. 4) (Prana Film) (Gr. "nosophoros" = plague carrier), filmed in Bremen, Bavaria stars Max Schreck as Count Orlok, becoming the first film to feature vampires; too bad, they make the mistake of advertising it as "freely adapted from Bram Stoker's Dracula", pissing-off his widow Florence Balcombe Stoker (1858-1937), who tries to get all the prints destroyed, winning her copyright lawsuit in July 1925; luckily some prints survive and the first U.S. screenings take place on June 3, 1929 - so who's under the red light of doom next? Alfred Hitchcock's Number 13 (Mrs. Peabody) is the dir. debut of London-born Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (1899-1980); too bad, the budget falls through, and it is never finished; Hitchcock goes on to direct 50+ films over six decades, becoming the #1 film director of all time?; he becomes known for cameo appearances in his own films, innovative movement of the camera, innovative editing, icy blonde female chars., twist endings, and Freudian sexual overtones, becoming known as "the Master of Suspense". D.W. Griffith's The Orphans of the Storm, based on the French play "The Two Orphans" stars Lillian Gish and Dorothy Gish as sisters who are separated, one raised by thieves, the other by aristocrats before the French Rev. Dimitri Buchowetzki's Othello (Feb.); based on the Shakespeare play, becoming the first major film production; stars Emil Jannings as Othello, Werner Krauss as Iago, and Ica von Lenkeffy as Desdemona. Hal Roach's Our Gang debuts, a series showing cute children sans acting lessons or racism; it converts to sound in Apr. 1929; in 1938 it is acquired by MGM, which ends production in 1944 after 220 shorts featuring 41 child actors; in 1955 the 80 talkie versions are syndicated for TV under the title "The Little Rascals"; early stars incl. Ernie "Sunshine Sammy" Morrison, Allen "Farina" Hoskins, Jackie Condon, Mickey Daniels, Joe Cobb, and Pete the Pup, a pit bull terrier with a ring around his eye; in 1929 new actors are added incl. Jackie Cooper, Norman "Chubby" Chaney, Dorothy DeBorba, Matthew "Stymie" Beard, and Donald Haines; June Marlowe plays teacher Miss Crabtree; in 1931 George "Spanky" McFarland joins, becoming the top star; in 1935 Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer and his brother Harold Switzer join, along with Darla Hood and Eugene "Porky" Lee; in 1939 Robert Blake (Mickey Gubitosi), Janet Burston, and Bill "Froggy" Laughlin join; by May 2014 only Robert Blake, Sidney Kibrick, Jean Darling, Marianne Edwards, Dickie Moore, Jerry Tucker, Lassie Lou Ahern, Mildred Kornman, and Leonard Landy are still living. Dimitri Buchowetzki's Peter der Grosse (Peter the Great) (Nov. 2) stars Emil Jannings. Rex Ingram's The Prisoner of Zenda (Sept. 11), based on the 1894 Anthony Hope novel and 1896 play by Hope and Edward Rose stars Lewis Shepard Stone (1879-1953) and Alice Terry (1899-1987), who marries dir. Rex Ingram (Reginald Ingram Montgomery Hitchcock) (1892-1950) for the rest of his life. Allan Dwan's Robin Hood (Oct. 18) (Douglas Fairbanks Pictures) stars swashbuckler Douglas Fairbanks Sr. (1883-1939) as the Earl of Huntington, who fights to save good King Richard Lionheart's throne from the bad Sheriff of Nottingham; debuts on Oct. 18 at the Egyptian Theater in Los Angeles, Calif., becoming their first-ever silent film premiere; does $1M box office. Tom Forman's Shadows (Nov. 10) (Preferred Pictures Corp.) stars Walter Long as fisherman Daniel Gibbson, Harrison Ford as John Malden, Marguerite De La Motte as Sympathy Gibbs, and Lon Chaney Sr. as mysterious Chinaman Yen Sin. Sidney Franklin's Smilin' Through (Feb. 13 (First Nat. Pictures)), based on the 1919 Jane Cowl play and produced by Joseph M. Schenck stars Norma Talmadge as Kathleen/Moonyeen in her biggest box-office smash; Harrison Ford (1884-1957) stars as Kenneth/Jeremiah Wayne, and Wyndham Standing plays John Carteret; the film debut of Canadian-born Edwin Eugene "Gene" Lockhart (1891-1957); does $1M box office; remade in 1932 and 1941 by MGM. Robert G. Vignola's When Knighthood Was in Flower (Sept. 14) (Paramount) (12 reels), based on the novel by Charles Major and play by Paul Kester stars Marion Davies as Mary Tudor, Lyn Harding as Henry VIII, Teresa Maxwell-Conover as Queen Catherine, and Forrest Stanley as Charles Brandon; the $1.8M budget makes it the most expensive picture made to date; refilmed in 1953 as "The Sword and the Rose". Art: Max Beckmann (1884-1950), Before the Bell. Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), Rossetti and His Circle (drawings). Robert Delaunay (1885-1941), Portrait of Louis Aragon; Portrait of Andre Breton. Max Ernst (1891-1976), Oedipus Rex; A Friend's Reunion (Au Rendezvous des Amis). Tsuguhara Foujita (1886-1968), Morning Glories. Eric Rowland Gill (1882-1940), Christ Driving the Moneylenders Out of the Temple (sculpture) (Leeds U.); freaks the critics by depicting the figures wearing top hats and frock coats. Paul Klee (1879-1940), The Twittering Machine. David Low (1891-1963), Lloyd George and Co. (cartoons). John Marin (1870-1953), Sunset. Andre Masson (1896-1987), Pedestal Table in the Studio. Joan Miro (1893-1983), The Farm. P.W. Steer, Mrs. Raynes. Josef Thorak (1889-1952), Der Sterbende Krieger (statue); memorial to the WWI dead of Stolpmuende. Plays: Leonid Nikolaevich Andreyev (1871-1919), The Rape of the Sabine Women; He Who Gets Slapped (posth.). Solomon Ansky (1863-1920), The Dyubbuk; a dead soul takes possession of a living body to right a wrong; Eugene Vakhtangov's first Habima production. Jean-Jacques Bernard (1888-1972), Martine. Ugo Betti (1892-1953), The Thoughtful King. Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), Baal (first play); a travelling musician destroys lives with ease; Drums in the Night (Trommeln in der Nacht). Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), Oedipe-Roi (Oedipus Rex). Francois de Curel (1854-1928), L'Ivresse du Sage. James Elroy Flecker (1884-1915), The Story of Hassan of Bagdad and How He Came to Make the Golden Journey to Samarkand (posth). Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Das Grosse Salzburger Welttheater. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), Berlud, Unlimited (Chelsea, London); The Lucky One. Anne Nichols (1891-1966), Abie's Irish Rose (comedy) (Fulton Theatre, New York) (May 23) (2,327 perf.); an Irish Roman Catholic girl marries a Jewish man despite their families' objections; filmed in 1928 and 1946. Charles Gilman Norris (1881-1945) and Nino Marcelli, The Rout of the Philistines. Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), The Hairy Ape. Sir Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), The Enchanged Cottage (comedy). Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Enrico IV (Henry IV). Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), The Woods of Meadowside (debut). Austin Strong, Seventh Heaven (Booth Theatre, New York) (Oct. 22) (704 perf.); produced by John Golden; stars Helen Menken as Diane, and George Gaul as Chico, a street cleaner who saves her life; also features Frank Morgan as Brissac; filmed in 1927 as "7th Heaven", and in 1937. Ben Travers (1886-1980), The Dippers (first play); launches his career of writing farces which are performed at the Aldwych Theatre in West End, London. John Willard (1885-1942), The Cat and the Canary (New York City) (Feb. 7). Poetry: Maurice Baring (1874-1945), The Puppet Show of Memory. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), The First Encounter. Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), Young People's Pride. T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), The Waste Land (Dec.) (434 lines); about the legend of the Holy Grail and Fisher King combined with vignettes of contemporary British society mixed with Buddhism and Hinduism; divided into five sections: "The Burial of the Dead", "A Game of Chess", "The Fire Sermon", "Brief Lyrical Petition", "What the Thunder Said"; "The human engine waits/ Like a taxi throbbing waiting"; "April is the cruelest month,/ Breeding Lilacs out of the dead land.../ Stirring Dull roots with spring rain"; "I will show you fear in a handful of dust"; "Shantih shantih shantih." Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), Late Lyrics and Earlier. Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Gedichte. A.E. Housman (1859-1936), Last Poems; his 2nd slender vol. of poetry, cementing his top-shelf rep.; "A stranger and afraid/ In a world I never made." Claude McKay (1889-1948), Harlem Shadows. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), The Harp-Weaver and Other Poems (Pulitzer Prize) ; beats out T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" for the 1923 Pulitzer for Poetry, after which she goes silly? Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957), Desolacion. Marianne Moore (1887-1972), Observations. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), The Cluster. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), Youth Grows Old. Amado Nervo (1870-1919), The Motionless Loved One (La Amada Inmovil) (posth.). Boris Pasternak (1890-1960), Life, My Sister. Gene Porter (1868-1924), The Fire Bird. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Sonnets to Orpheus (Sonette au Orpheus); "The trees you planted in childhood have grown/ too heavy. You cannot bring them along./ Give yourself to the air, to what you cannot hold" - beautiful sonnets in ugly German? Edith Sitwell (1887-1964), Facade. Gene Stratton-Porter (1863-1924), The Fire Bird. Genevieve Taggard (1894-1948), For Eager Lovers. Bert Leston Taylor (1866-1921), The Well in the Wood (posth.).; becomes children's classic. Julian Tuwim (1894-1953), The Seventh Autumn. Paul Valery (1875-1945), Charmes. Yvor Winters (1900-68), The Magpie's Shadow. Novels: Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Les Aventures de Telemaque. Michael Arlen (1895-1956), Piracy. Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Mr. Prohack. + Pierre Benoit (1886-1962), The Giant's Causeway (La Chaussee des Geants); The Forgotten Man (L'Oublie). Phyllis Eleanor Bentley (1894-1977), Environment; first in her series of novels about life in West Yorkshire, England. J.J. Bernard, Martine. Phyllis Bottome (1884-1963), Kingfisher. John Buchan (1875-1940), Huntingtower. Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), The Chessmen of Mars; features the chess variant called Jetan. Barbara Cartland (1901-2000), Jigsaw (first novel); bestseller, followed by a torrent of 723 books pub. by 2000, making her the #1-selling novelist on Earth and the Queen of Romance. Willa Cather (1873-1947), One Of Ours (Pulitzer Prize); a critical failure, Hemingway claiming she got her WWI scenes from movies, but it becomes her first bestseller. Robert William Chambers (1865-1933), The Flaming Jewel. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936), The Man Who Knew Too Much and Other Stories; filmed in 1935 by Alfred Hitchcock. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Secret Adversary; introduces Thomas "Tommy" Tuppence and Prudence "Tuppence" Cowley, who start out as blackmailers but find out that being detectives is more profitable. Richmal Crompton (1890-1969), Just William; 11-y.-o. scruffy English schoolboy William Brown, leader of the Outlaws, rivals of the Hubert Laneites; first of a series of 38 (ends 1970). Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), The Diary of a Drug Fiend. E.R. Eddison (1882-1945), The Worm Ouroboros; the war between King Gorice of Witchland and the Lords of Demonland on planet Mercury. F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), The Beautiful and Damned the downhill slide of a wealthy young couple; Tales of the Jazz Age; incl. The Curious Case of Benjamin Button; a baby is born old and grows young. Roger Martin du Gard (1881-1958), The Thibaults (Les Thibault) (8 vols.) (1922-40); giant epic of a middle-class French Roman Catholic bourgeois family from 1904 to the end of WWI, incl. Jacques and Antonine Thibault, and passionate artist Daniel de Fontanin, who try to live without belief in God, winning him the 1937 Nobel Lit. Prize; makes a fan of Andre Gide and Albert Camus; influences Evelyn Waugh's "Brideshead Revisited" (1945); "A work whose learned obtuseness is, so far as I know, unequaled in fiction." (Mary McCarthy) David Garnett (1892-1981), Lady into Fox; 24-y.-o. Sylvia Tebrick, wife of Richard Tebrick turns into a fox in the woods, after which she tries to act human but ends up back in the woods, bearing five cubs then getting killed by dogs. Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944), Siegfried et le Limousin; the hostility between France and Germany dissected. Madame Sarah Grand (1854-1943), Variety. H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), The Virgin of the Sun. Cicely Hamilton (1872-1952), Theodore Savage: A Story of the Past or the Future. Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Siddhartha; the search for you-taught-it-to-me-too spiritual happiness by Siddhartha (Sansk. "siddha" + "artha" = achieved meaning) and his friend Govinda during the time of Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilavastu (the Buddha); first chapter is titled "Son of the Brahman"; "Knowledge can be communicated, but not wisdom. One can find it, live it, do wonders through it, but one cannot communicate and teach it." A.S.M. Hutchinson, If Winter Comes; bestseller about 34-y.-o. Mark Sabre in Penny Green in 1912, who watches a girl being abandoned by her family for unwed motherhood. Douglas Hyde (1860-1949), An Leath-rann. Johannes V. Jensen, Den Lange Rejse (The Long Journey) (trilogy). Sir Harry Johnston, Mrs. Warren's Daughter; sequel to George Bernard Shaw's 1893 play "Mrs. Warren's Profession". Mary Johnston (1870-1936), 1492. James Joyce (1882-1941), Ulysses (Feb. 2) (2/2/22) (his 40th birthday) (Paris) (265K words); it-has-to-be Jewish ad space salesman Leopold Bloom (Ulysses) (Hungarian Jewish father, Irish mother), wife Molly (Penelope), future son Stephen Dedalus; 18 episodes, each based on an academic discipline and a bodily organ; "To read it with ease, one should have a Ph.D. in comparative languages and literature; to read it with difficulty, one should know the Odyssey, The Golden Bough, Joyce's life and other works, E. K. Chambers' William Shakespeare, and much about the history of English literature, the Celtic Renaissance, Irish politics, and Roman Catholic liturgy... a vocabulary of nearly 25,000 words, Joyce transcends the bounds of Webster's International." (John Greenway); "All perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes" (ending); after it uses the word "fuck" twice (once as a noun, once as a verb), the U.S. Post Office burns 500 copies upon arrival in the U.S., and govt. censorship causes Joyce to become a star; the 1935 ed. features illustrations by Henri Matisse; "History is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake" (Stephen Dedalus). Bernhard Kellermann (1879-1951), Die Heiligen (The Saints). Sophie Kerr (1880-1965), One Thing is Certain. Joseph Kessel (1898-1979), La Steppe Rouge. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), Aaron's Rod; Aaron Sisson. Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), Babbitt; a businessman who conforms unthinkingly to prevailing middle-class standards; "I have neve done a thing that I wanted to do in all my life"; set in the fictional town of Zenith (pop. 361K) in the fictional state of Winnemac (capital Galop de Vache) to appease the residents of Sauke Center, Minn., who got pissed-off at his novel "Main Street"; "The state of Winnemac is bounded by Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, and like them it is half Eastern, half Midwestern. There is a feeling of New England in its brick and sycamore villages, its stable industries, and a tradition which goes back to the Revolutionary War. Zenith, the largest city in the state, was founded in 1792. But Winnemac is Midwestern in its fields of corn and wheat, its red barns and silos, and, despite the immense antiquity of Zenith, many counties were not settled till 1860." ("Arrowsmith") William John Locke (1863-1930), The Tale of Triona. Hugh John Lofting (1886-1947), The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle (Newbery Medal); Dr. Dolittle #2; set in 1839. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), Mystery at Geneva: An Improbable Tale of Singular Happenings. Denis Mackail (1892-1971), Bill the Bachelor. Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), The Altar Steps. Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923), The Garden Party (short stories). Victor Margueritte (1866-1942), La Gorconne. Francois Mauriac (1885-1970), The Kiss to the Leper (Le Baiser au Lépreux; the world is so bad to a Roman Catholic? William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), A Little More; Spinster of This Parish. William McFee (1881-1966), Harbours of Memory; Command. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), The Red House Mystery; first mystery to use light humor as an important feature? Paul Morand (1889-1976), Ouvert la Nuit. Kathleen Norris (1880-1966), Certain People of Importance. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Evil Shepherd; The Great Prince Shan. Sir Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), Carnac's Folly. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), A Pushcart at the Curb; Rosinante to the Road Again. Elliott Harold Paul (1891-1958), Indelible. Olive Higgins Prouty (1882-1974), Stella Dallas. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Breaking Point. Romain Rolland (1866-1944), The Enchanted Soul (L'Ame Enchantee) (7 vols.) (1922-33); roman fleuve; vol. 1 is "Annette et Sylvie". Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), Captain Blood; pirate Adm. Peter Blood; filmed in 1935 starring Errol Flynn. Edgar Saltus (1855-1921), The Ghost Girl (posth.). Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), Rootabaga Stories; for his kids. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Men, Women, and Beasts; Vanderdecken: The Story of a Man. T.S. Stribling (1881-1965), Birthright; Harvard-educated mulatto Peter Siner returns to Hooker's Bend, Tenn., and is treated like an N-word. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Three Lovers. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), Aguri. Ben Travers (1886-1980), A Cuckoo in the Nest. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Cathedral; The Young Enchanted. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), The Lonely Unicorn. Rebecca West (1892-1983), The Judge. Grace Miller White (1868-1957), The Marriage of Patricia Pepperday. Margery Williams (1881-1944), The Velveteen Rabbit or How Toys Become Real; illustrated by Sir William Nicholson (1872-1949); "He was fat and bunchy, as a rabbit should be; his coat was spotted brown and white, he had real thread whiskers, and his ears were lined with pink sateen"; loved to a nub, tossed out with the trash, and saved by a magic fairy, who turns him "into Real" to live in the forest with the other rabbits; "Generally, by the time you are Real, most of your hair has been loved off, and your eyes drop out and you get loose in the joints and very shabby. But these things don't matter at all, because once you are Real you can't be ugly, except to people who don't understand." Henry Williamson (1895-1977), Dandelion Days. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Jacob's Room. Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), Amok and Other Stories. Births: U.S. Sen. (D-S.C.) (1966-2005) Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings on Jan. 1 in Charleston, S.C.; educated at the U. of S.C. Am. actor Jason (Herb) Evers (d. 2005) on Jan. 2 in New York City. Am. baseball player-mgr. (SS) Alvin Ralph "Blackie" "Swamp Fox" Dark on Jan. 7 in Comanche, Okla. French flautist Jean-Pierre Louis Rampal (d. 2000) on Jan. 7 in Marseille. Am. biochemist Har Gobind (Hargobind) Khorana (d. 2011) on Jan. 9 in Raipur, Punjab, British India; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1966; educated at the U. of Liverpool. Guinea pres. (1958-84) Ahmed Sekou Toure (Sékou Touré) (Ahmen Seku Ture) (d. 1984) on Jan. 9 in Faranah; of Mandinka (Mandingo) descent. Russian-Israeli physicist (Jewish) Yuri Abramovich Golfand (d. 1994) on Jan. 10 in Kharkiv. French novelist-phiosopher Michel Henry (d. 2002) on Jan. 10 in Haiphong, French Indochina (Vietnam). Mexican pres. (1970-6) Luis Echeverria Alvarez (Álvarez) on Jan. 17 in Mexico City. U.S. atty. gen. #65 (1965-6) Nicholas deBelleville "Nick" Katzenbach (d. 2012) on Jan. 17 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, Princeton U., Yale U., and Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. abstract expressionist painter (bi) Robert Mario De Niro Sr. (d. 1993) on Jan. 17 in Syracuse, N.Y.; husband (1942-) of Virginia Admiral (1915-2000); father of Robert De Niro Jr. (1943-); lover of Robert Edward Duncan (1919-88). Am. "Golden Girls" actress Betty Marion White on Jan. 17 in Oak Park, Ill.; wife (1963-81) of Allen Ludden (1917-81). Am. "Wild Bill Hickock" actor Guy Madison (Robert Ozell Moseley) (d. 1996) on Jan. 19 in Bakersfield, Calif. English "Sir Thomas More in A Man for All Seasons" actor David Paul Scofield (d. 2008) on Jan. 21 in Birmingham, Warwickshire; grows up in Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. Am. "The Bunny Hop", "The Hokey Pokey", "Theme from Peter Gunn" bandleader-trumpeter Ray Anthony (Raymond Antonini) on Jan. 20 in Bentleyville, Penn.; grows up in Cleveland, Ohio; husband (1955-61) of Mamie Van Doren (1931-). Am. poet-dramatist-critic Howard Moss (d. 1987) on Jan. 22 in New York City; educated at the U. of Mich.; discovers Anne Sexton and Amy Clampitt; "Is Robert Lowell/ Better than Noel/ Coward/ Howard?" - W.H. Auden (1907-73) and Chester Kallman (1921-75). Am. "Laugh-In" comedian-dir. Dick Martin (d. 2008) on Jan. 30 in Battle Creek, Mich. Am. "Red River, "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon" actress Joanne Dru (Joanne Letitia LaCock) (d. 1996) on Jan. 31 in Logan, W. Va.; sister of Peter Marshall (1930-). Am. scientist (co-discoverer of streptomycin) (Jewish) Albert Schatz (d. 2005) on Feb. 2 in Norwich, Conn.; of Russian Jewish descent. Am. economist Hans F. Sennholz (d. 2007) on Feb. 3 in Brambauer, Unna, Germany; student of Ludwig von Mises; educated at NYU. English "John Steed in The Avengers" actor Daniel Patrick Macnee on Feb. 6 in Paddington, London; son of horse trainer Daniel "Shrimp" Macnee and Dorothea Mary Macnee, who becomes a lesbian and divorces him. Am. "Alice Kramden in The Honeymooners" actress Audrey Meadows Six (nee Cotter) (d. 1996) on Feb. 8 in Wuchang, China; Episcopal missionary parents; sister of Jayne Meadows (1920-). Am. "Show Boat", "Kiss Me, Kate" actress-singer Kathryn Grayson (Zelma Kathryn Elisabeth Hedrick) on Feb. 9 in Winston-Salem, N.C. Am. 6'6" basketball player (black) (Tri-Cities Blackhawks, 1950-1) Henry Lincoln "Hank" Dezonie (d. 2009) on Feb. 12 in ?; educated at Clark Atlanta U. Am. "The Calculus of Consent" economist Gordon Tullock (d. 2014) on Feb. 13 in Rockford, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. U.S. liberal Rep. (R-Ill.) (1961-81) John Bayard Anderson on Feb. 15 in Rockford, Ill. Am. "On Thermonuclear War" military strategist (Jewish-turned-atheist) (founder of the Hudson Inst.) Herman Kahn (d. 1983) on Feb. 15 in Bayonne, N.J.; raised in Bronx, N.Y. and Los Angeles, Calif.; Eastern European Jewish immigrant parents; educated at UCLA, and Caltech. Am. impresario Harry Charles "Enrico" Banducci (d. 2007) on Feb. 17 in Bakersfield, Calif. Am. "It's All in the Game" singer-songwriter (black) Thomas "Tommy" Edwards (d. 1969) on Feb. 17 in Richmond, Va. Am. "Cosmopolitan" mag. editor Helen Gurley Brown on Feb. 18 in Green Forest, Ark.; teacher parents. Israeli shipping magnate (Jewish) Sammy (Sami) Ofer (Samuel Herskovich) (d. 2011) on Feb. 22 in Galati, Romania; emigrates to Haifa in 1924; brother of Yuli Ofer (1924-2011). father of Eyal Ofer (1950-) and Idan Ofer (1955-). English pop artist Richard Hamilton on Feb. 24 in Pimlico, London. Am. "Dan Briggs in Mission: Impossible", "Adam Schiff in Law & Order" actor Steven Hill on Feb. 24 in Seattle, Wash. Am. economist William Jack Baumol on Feb. 26 in New York City; educated at CCNY, and London School of Economics. English "Separate Tables" actress Margaret Leighton (d. 1976) on Feb. 26 in Barnt Green, Worcestershire. Israeli PM #5 (1974-7, 1992-5) (Jewish) Yitzhak Rabin (d. 1995) on Mar. 1 in Jerusalem; first native-born Israeli PM. Am. "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie", "Marnie", "Cabaret", "Funny Lady" playwright-novelist and screenwriter-dir.-producer (Jewish) Jay (Jacqueline) Presson Allen (d. 2006) on Mar. 3 in San Angelo, Tex.; uses her first initial until a Social Security clerk flubs it into Jay? Am. "Gov. Eugene Gatling in Benson" actor James Noble on Mar. 5 in Dallas, Tex. Italian "The Gospel According to Matthew" dir.-novelist-poet (atheist) Pier Paolo Pasolini (d. 1975) on Mar. 5 in Bologna; expelled from his hometown and the Communist Party for a sex scandal, ending up in Rome, where he decides to become a dir. Am. engineer (video game pioneer) (Jewish) ("the Father of Video Games") Ralph Henry (Rudolf Heinrich) Baer (d. 2014) on Mar. 8 in Rodalben, Palatinate, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; inventor of the Magnavox Odyssey video game, Simon, and the light gun. Am. "Dion Patrick in The Californians", "Raise the Titanic" actor-writer-novelist-artist Adam Kennedy (d. 1997) on Mar. 10 in Otterbein, Ind.; educated at DePauw U. Malaysian PM #2 (1970-76) Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato' Hussein Al-Haj (d. 1976) on Mar. 11 in Pekan, Pahang. Am. "Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope" playwright-actress (black) Vinnette Justine Carroll (d. 2002) on Mar. 11 in New York City; educated at NYU and Columbia U.; first African-Am. woman to direct on Broadway (1972). Am. Buddhist Beat poet-writer Jack Kerouac (Jean-Louis Lebris de Kerouac) (d. 1969) on Mar. 12 in Lowell, Mass.; educated at Columbia U. Am. AFL-CIO pres. (1979-95) Lane Kirkland (d. 1999) on Mar. 12 in Camden, S.C. German historian Karl Dietrich Bracher on Mar. 13 in Stuttgart; educated at the U. of Tubingen, and Havard U. Am. basketball exec (Nat. Collegiate Athletic Assoc., 1951-88) Walter Byers on Mar. 13 in ?. Am. sociologist (Jewish) Seymour Martin Lipset (d. 2006) on Mar. 18 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at CCNY; starts out Socialist, then goes centrist in 1960. Am. civil rights activist (black) Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth (Freddie Lee Robinson) (d. 2011) on Mar. 18 in Mt. Meigs, Ala.; namesake of the Birmingham Airport. Am. producer-dir.-comedian (Jewish) Carl Reiner on Mar. 20 in Bronx, N.Y.; father of Rob Reiner (1947-); Austrian-Hungarian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "Vixen!" porno dir.-producer-writer-actor Russell Albion "Russ" Meyer (d. 2004) on Mar. 21 in San Leandro, Calif. Am. "The Last of the Secret Agents?", "Hello Dere" actor-comedian (Jewish) Marty Allen (Morton Alpern) on Mar. 23 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Am. "Bones and body, body and bones" modeling agency founder Eileen Ford (nee Otte) on Mar. 25 in Great Neck, N.Y. English "Babe the Gallant Pig" children's writer Dick King-Smith on Mar. 27 in March Bitton, Gloucestershire. Am. abstract Color Field painter Jules Olitski (Jevel Demikovski) (d. 2007) on Mar. 27 in Snovsk, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1923. English "The Night of Wenceslas" spy novelist (Jewish) Lionel Davidson (d. 2009) on Mar. 31 in Hull, Yorkshie. Am. "Don Quixote in Man of La Mancha", "voice in Jurassic Park" actor-singer Richard Paul Kiley (d. 1999) on Mar. 31 in Chicago, Ill. Irish "Marat/Sade" actor-dir. Patrick George Magee (McGee) (d. 1982) on Mar. 31 in Armagh, Northern Ireland. Am. "The Death of a President" writer William Manchester (d. 2004) on Apr. 1 in Springfield, Mass. Tanzanian pres. #1 (1961-85) (black) Julius Kambarage Nyerere (d. 1999) on Apr. 3 in Tanganyika. Am. "The Magnificent Seven", "To Kill a Mockingbird" film composer (Jewish) Elmer Bernstein (d. 2004) on Apr. 4 in New York City; no relation to Leonard Bernstein (1918-90), but their resemblance causes him to be called Bernstein West and Leonard to be called Bernstein East. English "Mr. Belvedere" actor-dir. Christopher Michael Hewett (d. 2001) on Apr. 5 in Worthing, Sussex. Am. "My Little Margie" actress-singer Gale Storm (Josephine Owaissa Cottle) (d. 2009) on Apr. 5 in Bloomington, Tex.; Owaissa is Indian for "bluebird". Am. "Air Hostess" actress Audrey Long on Apr. 12 in Orlando, Fla.; wife of Leslie Charteris (1907-93). English "Room at the Top" novelist John Gerard Braine (d. 1986) on Apr. 13 in Bingley (near Bradford), Yorkshire. Am. "Cochise in Broken Arrow" actor Michael Ansara on Apr. 15 in Syria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1924; grows up in Calif. Am. psychologist (Jewish) Stanley Schachter (d. 1997) on Apr. 15 in Flushing, N.Y.; Romanian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Yale U., and the U. of Mich.; student of Leon Festinger. Am. Dem. Chicago mayor #51 (first African-Am.) (1983-7) (black) Harold Lee Washington (d. 1987) on Apr. 15 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Roosevelt U., and Northwestern U. English "The Death of Grass" sci-fi novelist John Christopher (Sam Youd) (d. 2012) on Apr. 16 in Huyton, Lancashire. Trinidadian calypso musician (black) Lord Kitchener (Kitch) (Aldwin Roberts) (d. 2000) on Apr. 18 in Arima. English WWII French Resistance hero Anthony Morris "Tony" Brooks (d. 2007) on Apr. 21 in Essex, England; raised in France and Switzerland; is staying with relatives in France in 1939 when the Germans invade, and joins the Resistance, earning a Distinguished Service Order for exceptional valor at age 20; learns in 1945 that his daddy flew secret missions in WWI. Am. "Pithecanthropus Erectus" jazz bassist-pianist-composer-bandleader (black) ("the Angry Man of Jazz") Charles Mingus Jr. (d. 1979) on Apr. 22 in Nogales, Ariz.; African-Swedish father, African-Chinese-English mother; raised in Watts, Los Angeles, Calif.; heir of Duke Ellington? Am. abstract expressionist painter Richard Clifford Diebenkorn Jr. (d. 1993) on Apr. 22 in Portland, Ore.; educated at Stanford U. Am. occultist artist Marjorie Cameron (d. 1995) on Apr. 23 in Belle Plaine, Iowa; wife of Jack Parsons (1914-52). Turkish Sufi imam Sheikh Nazim (Nazeem) Kubrisi (al-Qubrusi) on Apr. 23 in Larnaca, Cyprus. Am. "Chief Clifford in McCloud" actor J.D. (John Donovan) Cannon (d. 2005) on Apr. 24 in Salmon, Idaho. English "Lucky Jim" novelist-poet-critic (alcoholic) Sir Kingsley William Amis (d. 1995) on Apr. 26 in Clapham, South London; educated at St. John's College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1990; friend of Philip Larkin (1922-85); father of Martin Amis (1949-); starts out Communist then turns conservative after the 1956 Hungarian Rev. Am. "Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple", "Quincy, M.E.", "Juror #5 in 12 Angry Men" actor (Jewish) Jacob Joachim "Jack" Klugman (d. 2012) on Apr. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Carnegie Mellon U. Am. writer and USAF undersecy. (1967-9) Townsend Walter Hoopes II (d. 2004) on Apr. 28 in Duluth, Minn.; educated at Phillips Academy, and Yale U. (Skull & Bones). Scottish "The Guns of Navarrone", "Where Eagles Dare" novelist Alistair Stuart MacLean (d. 1987) on Apr. 28 in Glasgow. Am. medical researcher (Jewish) Ernest Ludwig Wydner (d. 1999) on Apr. 30 in Herford; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; first to show with partner Evarts Ambrose Graham (1883-1957) that tobacco smoke tar causes cancer in mice (1953). Am. "All the Way Home" playwright George Ault "Tad" Mosel Jr. on May 1 in Steubenville, Ohio; educated at Columbia U. Am. actor-singer-musician Lewis Burr "Lew" Anderson (d. 2006) on May 7 in Kirkman, Iowa; 3rd and final Clarabell the Clown in "The Howdy Doody Show". Am. "Carl Kolchak in Kolchak: The Night Stalker", "Mr. Parker in A Christmas Story" actor Darren McGavin (William Lyle Richardson) (d. 2006) on May 7 in San Joaquin, Calif.; husband (1968-2003) of Kathie Browne (1930-2003). Canadian billionaire real estate tycoon (Jewish) David Joshua Azrieli (d. 2014) on May 10 in Makow, Mazowiecki, Poland; emigrates to Canada in 1954; educated at Carelton U. German font designer Otl (Otto) Aicher (d 1991) on May 13 in Ulm. Am. 5'10" "Maude Findlay in Maude", "Dorothy Zbornak in Golden Girls" actress (Jewish) Beatrice "Bea" Arthur (Bernice Frankel) (d. 2009) on May 13 in New York City. Am. Arby's co-founder Forrest Bernard "Fuzzy" Raffel (d. 2008) on May 14 in Fairmont, Marion, W.V.; brother of Leroy Raffel (1926-). Am. "Walter Findlay in Maude" actor (Jewish) Bill Macy (Wolf Martin Garber) on May 18 in Revere, Mass. Am. movie reviewer (Jewish) Judith Crist on May 22; educated at Hunter College and Columbia U. Am. "Little Things Mean a Lot" singer (Jewish) Kitty Kallen on May 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. Sonic Drive-In founder Troy Nuel Smith Sr. (d. 2009) on May 26 in Oilton, Okla.; grows up in Seminole, Okla. English 6'5" "Dracula", "The Mummy", "Francisco Scaramanga in The Man with the Golden Gun", "Saruman in The Lord of the Rings" actor-musician Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee (d. 2015) on May 27 in Belgravia, Westminster; son of Lt. Col. Geoffrey Trollope Lee and Contessa Estelle Marie; great-grandson of Marie Carandini (1826-94); knighted in 2009; record 266 acting roles since 1948. Am. psychologist James Olds (d. 1976) on May 30 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Amherst College, and Harvard U. Am. "Mission of Gravity" hard sci-fi novelist Hal Clement (Harry Clement Stubbs) (d. 2003) (AKA George Richard) on May 30 in Somerville, Mass.; educated at Harvard U., Boston U., and Simmons College. English "Dr. Marcus Brody in Raiders of the Lost Ark" actor (bi) Denholm Mitchell Elliott (d. 1992) on May 31 in Ealing, London. Am. geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson (d. 1995) on June 2 in Mitchelville, Iowa.; educated at Grinnell College and the U. of Iowa U.S. vice-adm. (black) Samuel Lee Gravely Jr. (d. 2004) on June 4 in Richmond, Va.; first African-Am. to command a U.S. Navy warship and to rise to massuh, er, Adm. (1971). Canadian "Hee Haw" comedian Gordon Robert "Gordie" Tapp on June 4 in London, Ont. English actress Sheila Beryl Grant Attenborough, Lady Attenborough on June 5 in Liverpool; wife (1945-) of Richard Attenborough (1923-2014). Am. "The Seven Year Itch", "Breakfast at Tiffany's", "The Manchurian Candidate" playwright-producer-dir.-screenwriter (Jewish) George Axelrod (d. 2003) on June 9 in New York City; Russian Jewish father, Scottish-English mother. Am. "Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz", "A Star is Born" 4'11" singer-actress (lefty) Judy Garland (Frances Ethel Gumm) (d. 1969) on June 10 in Grand Rapids, Minn.; Hollywood's leading musical comedy star in the 1940s; wife of (1941-4) David Rose, (1945-51) Vincente Minnelli (1903-86), (1952-65) Sidney Luft (1915-2005), (1965-7) Mark Herron, and (1969) Mickey Deans; mother of Liza Minnelli (1946-) and Lorna Luft (1952-). Am. "Butterflies Are Free" playwright-screenwriter Leonard Gershe (d. 2002) on June 10 in New York City. Greek Cypriot "Zorba the Greek" dir. Michael Cacoyannis on June 11 in Limassol, Cyprus. Am. architect Kevin Roche on June 14 in Dublin, Ireland; educated at Univ. College Dublin U.S. 6'5" liberal rep. (D-Ariz.) (1961-91) (Mormon) Morris King "Mo" Udall (d. 1998) on June 15 in St. Johns, Ariz.; loses an eye at age 6; plays with the Denver Nuggets NBA team. Danish nuclear physicist Aage Niels Bohr (d. 2009) on June 19 in Copenhagen; son of Niels Bohr (1885-1962) and Margrethe Bohr. U.S. 1st Lt. (first officer over the Rhine River in WWII) Karl Heinrich Timmermann (d. 1951) on June 19 in Frankfurt, Germany. Am. "timeless American style" fashion designer (gay) William Ralph "Bill" Blass (d. 2002) on June 22 in Ft. Wayne, Ind. Am. "Harvey Cookie Cook in Stalag 17" actor-sportscaster ("Time to call 'em as I see 'em") Gil Stratton Jr. (d. 2008) on June 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Caged", "Detective Story", "Interrupted Melody", "Baroness Elsa Schraeder in The Sound of Music" actress Eleanor Jean Parker on June 26 in Cedarville, Ohio; grows up in East Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "Lilacs" composer (black) George Theophilus Walker on June 27 in Washington, D.C.; West Indian immigrant father, African-Am. mother; educated at Oberlin College. French fashion designer Pierre (Pietro) Cardin on July 22 in San Biagio di Callalta (near Treviso), Italy. Am. "Laugh-In" comedian Daniel Hale "Dan" Rowan (d. 1987) on July 22 in Beggs, Okla. Am. "Martin Lane in The Patty Duke Show", "Leander Pomfritt in The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis", "Nilz Baris in Star Trek" actor William Joseph Schallert on July 6 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Edwin Francis Schallert; educated at UCLA. Am. "Please Don't Eat the Dasies", "The Song of Bernadette" writer-playwright Jean Kerr (Bridget Jean Collins) (d. 2003) on July 10 in Scranton, Penn.; wife of Walter Kerr (1913-96). German July 20 Plotter Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (d. 2013) on July 10 in Schmenzin, Pomerania; son of Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (1890-1945). Am. 6'1-1/2" "Sgt. Zack in The Steel Helmet", "Tom McCord in Cattle Queen of Montana" actor (redhead) Eugene Barton "Gene" Evans (d. 1998) on July 11 in Holbrook, Ariz. Am. "Booker T. Washington" biographer Louis Rudolph Harlan (d. 2010) on July 13 near West Point, Miss.; educated at Emory U., and Johns Hopkins U. British Pvt. William "Piper Bill" Millin (d. 2010) on July 14 in Regina, Sask.; Scottish father; grows up in Glasgow. Am. physicist (Jewish) Leon Max Lederman on July 15 in New York City; educated at CCNY and Columbia U.; 1988 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. labor economist Jacob Mincer (d. 2006) on July 15 in Tomaszow, Poland; educated at Emory U., and Columbia U. Am. "Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon" novelist Marjorie Kellogg (d. 2005) on July 17 in Santa Barbara, Calif.; educated at UCB. Japanese "Tiger Tanaka in You Only Live Twice" actor Tetsuro Tamba (d. 2006) on July 17 in Tokyo. Am. "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" philosopher (of science) Thomas Samuel Kuhn (d. 1996) on July 18 in Cincinnati, Ohio; educated at Harvard U. U.S. Sen. (D-S.D.) (1963-81) George Stanley McGovern on July 19 in Avon, S.D.; educated at Dakota Wesleyan U., and Northwestern U. Am. "Wheel of Fortune", "The Rock and Roll Waltz" jazz singer Kay Starr (Katherine Laverne Starks) on July 21 in Dougherty, Okla.; Iroquois father, Irish-Am. Indian mother. English "Mrs. Slocombe in Are You Being Served" actress Mary Isobel "Mollie" Sugden (d. 2009) on July 21 in Keighley, Yorkshire. U.S. Senator (R-Md.) (1969-87) Charles McCurdy "Mac" Mathias Jr. (d. 2010) on July 24 in Frederick, Md.; educated at Yale U. and the U. of Md. Am. physicist John Bannister Goodenough on July 25 in Jena, Germany; educated at Yale U. (Skull & Bones), and U. of Chicago. Am. "Breakfast at Tiffany's", "Pink Panther", "Days of Wine and Roses" dir. Blake Edwards (William Blake Crump) (d. 2010) on July 26 in Tulsa, Okla.; husband (1969-) of Julie Andrews (1935-). Am. "Ben Bradlee in All the President's Men", "Henry P.G. Drummond in A Big Hand for the Little Lady", "Howard Hughes in Melvin and Howard" actor (alcoholic) Jason Nelson Robards Jr. (d. 2000) on July 26 in Chicago, Ill.; son of Jason Robards Sr. (1892-1963); husband (1961-9) of Lauren Bacall (1924-2014); father of Sam Robards (1961-). Am. "All in the Family", "Sanford and Son", "The Jeffersons", Maude", "Good Times" TV producer (Jewish) Norman Lear on July 27 in New Haven, Conn. Am. baseball player-mgr. (New York Yankees, 1948-59) (Kansas City Athletics, 1960-1) (Baltimore Orioles, 1964-8) Henry Albert "Hank" Bauer (d. 2007) on July 31 in East St. Louis, Ill. Canadian "Dr. Jeremy Stone in The Andromeda Strain", "Owen Marshal: Counselor at Law" actor Arthur Edward Spence Hill (d. 2006) on Aug. 1 in Melfort, Sask.; educated at the U. of British Columbia. Am. Chicago blues singer-drummer (black) ("the Memphis Blues Boy") Willie Nix (d. 1991) on Aug. 6 in Memphis, Tenn. Am. child psychiatrist (Jewish) ("the Father of ADHD") Leon Eisenberg (d. 2009) on Aug. 8 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Penn. U.S. Sen. (R-Nev.) (1974-87) and Nev. gov. #22 (1967-71) Paul Dominique Laxalt on Aug. 2 in Reno, Nev. Am. paleontologist-zoologist Charles Repenning (d. 2005) on Aug. 4 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at UCB. Am. golfer-weightlifter Frank Richard Stranahan on Aug. 5 in Toledo, Ohio. English no-frills airline entrepreneur Sir Freddie Laker (d. 2006) on Aug. 6 in Canterbury, Kent. Am. "Domino Kid", "River of No Return" actor-producer Rory Calhoun (Francis Timothy McCown) (d. 1999) on Aug. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. historian (Jewish) Gertrude Himmelfarb (Bea Kristol) on Aug. 8 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Chicago, and Girton College, Cambridge U.; wife (1942-) of Irving Kristol (1920-2009); sister of Milton Himmelfarb (1918-2006). English "The North Ship" poet-novelist Philip Arthur Larkin (d. 1985) on Aug. 9 in Coventry, Warwickshire; educated at St. John's College, Oxford U. Am. "On the Way to Cape May" singer-composer Al Alberts (Albertini) (Four Aces) on Aug. 10 in Chester, Penn. Am. sculptor and graphic artist (Jewish) Leonard Baskin (d. 2000) on Aug. 15 in New Brunswick, N.J.; educated at Yale U.; cousin of Sophie Maslow (1911-2006). Am. "Hogan's Goat" playwright William Alfred (d. 1999) on Aug. 16 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Brooklyn College, and Harvard U. French "Le Voyeur" Nouveau Roman writer-filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet (d. 2008) on Aug. 18 in Brest. Canadian Quebec PM #23 (1976-85) Rene Levesque (d. 1987) on Aug. 24 in Campbellton, N.B.; raised in New Carlisle, Quebec. Am. "A People's History of the United States" Communist activist historian-playwright (Jewish) Howard Zinn (d. 2010) on Aug. 24 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Austrian-Hungarian Jewish father, Russian Siberian Jewish mother; educated at NYU, and Columbia U. Am. economist Walter Adams (d. 1998) on Aug. 27 in Vienna, Austria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1935; educated at Yale U. Am. "Ten Worst Dressed Women List" fashionista (Jewish) (gay) Richard "Mr." Blackwell (Richard Sylvan Seltzer) (d. 2008) on Aug. 29 in Brooklyn Heights, N.Y; partner of Robert Spencer. Am. "Do You Hear What I Hear?", "Rain, Rain Go Away", "Goodbye, Cruel World", "Dominique" songwriter (Unitarian) Noel (Noël) Regney (Leon Schlienger) (d. 2002) on Aug. 29 in Strasbourg, Alsace, France; husband of Gloria Shayne Baker (1923-2008) and Dominique Gillain. English "Col. Charles Reynolds in It Ain't Half Hot Mum" actor Donald Hewlett on Aug. 30 in Northenden, Manchester. Am. mezzo-soprano opera singer Regina Resnik on Aug. 30 in New York City. Am. "Sephora in The Ten Commandments", "Lily Munster in The Munsters" actress Yvonne De Carlo (Peggy Yvonne Middleton) (d. 2007) on Sept. 1 in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. U.S. Repub. defense secy. #10 (1969-73) Melvin Robert "Bom" Laird on Sept. 1 in Omaha, Neb.; educated at Carleton College. English "Are You Being Served?" actor-writer-producer Maj. David John Croft (Sharland) on Sept. 7 in Sandbanks, Poole, Dorset. Am. "Your Show of Shows" comedian (Jewish) Isaac Sidney "Sid" Caesar (d. 2014) on Sept. 8 in Yonkers, N.Y.; Jewish immigrant parents. Am. nuclear fusion political activist Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche Jr. on Sept. 8 in Rochester, N.H.; Quaker parents; descendant of Mayflower leader William Brewster the Elder (1566-1644); goes from a radical Communist to a backer of the "American System", with heroes Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin? Am. physicist Hans Georg Dehmelt on Sept. 9 in Gorlitz, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1952; 1989 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. psychologist (Jewish) Mark Richard Rosenzweig (d. 2009) on Sept. 12 in Rochester, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Our Gang", "The Champ", "Perry White in Superman" actor-dir.-producer John "Jackie" Cooper Jr. (d. 2011) on Sept. 15 in Los Angeles, Calif.; newphew of Norman Taurog (1899-1981). Angolan pres. #1 (195-9) and #1 poet (black) Antonio Agostinho Neto (d. 1979) on Sept. 17 in Bengo. Am. "The Sun Saboteurs" sci-fi writer Damon Francis Knight (d. 2002) on Sept. 19 in Baker, Ore. Czech Olympic runner Emil Zatopek (Zátopek) (d. 2000) on Sept. 19 in Koprivnice. Am. Anthora paper cup inventor (Jewish) Leslie Buck (Laszlo Buch) (Büch) (d. 2010) on Sept. 20 in Khust, Czech.; emigrates to the U.S. in 1946. Am. pianist (Jewish) William Kapell (d. 1953) on Sept. 20 in New York City; of Russian descent. Am. "Yang-Mills Theory" nuclear physicist Chen-Ning Franklin Yang on Sept. 22 in in Hofei, Anwhei, China; emigrates to the U.S. in 1946; educated at the U. of Chicago; 1957 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Bonnie and Clyde", "The Miracle Woker", "Alice's Restaurant" dir.-producer (Jewish) Arthur Hiller Penn (d. 2010) on Sept. 27 in Philadelphia, Penn.; brother of Irving Penn (1917-2009). Am. historian William Edward Leuchtenburg on Sept. 28 in New York City; educated at Cornell U., and Columbia U. Am. economist (AIM founder) Reed John Irvine (d. 2004) on Sept. 29 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. "The Strange Love of Martha Ivers" actress Lizabeth Scott (Emma Matzo) on Sept. 29 in Scranton, Penn.; Slovakian immigrant parents. Am. "The Family Circus" cartoonist William Aloysius "Bil" Keane (d. 2011) on Oct. 5 in Philadelphia, Penn.; only one l in Bil. Am. "Route 66", "Naked City" writer-producer (Jewish) Herbert Breiter "Bert" Leonard (d. 2006) on Oct. 8 in New York City; educated at NYU. Am. "Harvey Lipschultz in Boston Public" actor (Jewish) Fyvush Finkel on Oct. 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S. ambassador to Iran (1977-9) William Healy Sullivan on Oct. 12 in R.I. Am. "Backstage" journalist Allen Zwerdling (d. 2009) on Oct. 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; collaborator of Ira Eaker (1922-2002). Am. 6'8" basketball player (New York Knicks #8, 1950-56) (black) Nathaniel "Sweetwater" C lifton (Clifton Nathaniel) (d. 1990) on Oct. 13 in Little Rock, Ark.; educated at Xavier U. of La. Am. "The Christmas Song" songwriter-producer Robert Wells (d. 1998) on Oct. 15 in Raymond, Wash.; educated at USC; collaborator of Mel Torme (1925-99). Am. civil rights leader (black) Rev. Leon Howard Sullivan (d. 2001) on Oct. 16 in Charleston, W. Va. Am. muckraking columnist Jack Anderson on Oct. 19 in Long Beach, Calif. French philanthropist Liliane Henriette Charlotte Bettencourt (nee Schueller) on Oct. 21 in Paris; only child of L'Oreal founder Eugene Schueller; wife (1950-) of Andre Bettencourt (1919-2007). Am. "Private Benjamin" dir. (Jewish) Howard Zieff (d. 2009) on Oct. 21 in Chicago, Ill. Romanian king (1927-30, 1940-7) Michael I on Oct. 25 in Sinaia; son of Carol II (1893-1953). Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder-announcer Ralph McPherran Kiner (d. 2014) on Oct. 27 in Santa Rita, N.M.; raised in Alhambra, Calif. Am. "Dr. Matthew Matt Powers in The Doctors" actor James Turner Pritchett Jr. (d. 2011) on Oct. 27 in Lenoir, N.C. Am. "Flying Home" jazz tenor saxophonist (black) Jean-Baptiste Illinois Jacquet (d. 2004) on Oct. 31 in Broussard, La.; grows up in Houston, Tex. Cambodian king/head of state (1941-55, 1960-70, 1975-6, 1993-) Norodom Sihanouk on Oct. 31 in Phnom Penh; the politician who has held the greatest variety of political offices (until ?). U.S. Rep. (R-N.Y.) (1965-85) and World Bank pres. (1986-91) Barber Benjamin Conable Jr. (d. 2003) on Nov. 2 in Warsaw, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. (Quill & Dagger). Am. "Honey in the Horn", "Cotton Candy" trumpeter Alois Maxwell "Al" Hirt (d. 1999) on Nov. 7 in New Orleans, La. Hungarian philosopher of science (Jewish) Imre Lakatos (Avrum Lipschitz) (d. 1974) on Nov. 9 in Debrecen; Lakatos is Hungarian for locksmith. Am. "Slaughterhouse-Five" novelist Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (b. 1922) on Nov. 11 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Concentration" TV show host (Jewish) John William "Jack" Narz Jr. (d. 2008) on Nov. 13 in Louisville, Ky.; brother of Tom Kennedy (1927-); brother-in-law of Bill Cullen. Austrian "Montag in Fahrenheit 451", "Dr. Schumann in Ship of Fools" actor (pacifist) (alcoholic) Oskar Werner (Oskar Josef Bschliessmayer) (d. 1984) on Nov. 13 in Vienna. Egyptian U.N. secy.-gen. #6 (1992-6) Boutros Boutros-Ghali on Nov. 14 in Cairo; born into a Coptic Christian family (Boutros = Petros = Peter); educated at Cairo U., and U. of Paris. Am. "This Gun for Hire", "I Married a Witch" actress ("Queen of Film Noir") Veronica Lake (Constance Frances Marie Ockelman) (d. 1973) on Nov. 14 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Danish-Irish descent father. Am. computer engineer Gene Myron Amdahl (d. 2015) on Nov. 16 in Flandreau, S.C.; educated t the S.D. State U., and U. of Wisc. Am. biochemist (Jewish) Stanley Cohen on Nov. 17; educated at Oberlin College and the U. of Mich.; 1986 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "Bang the Drum Slowly" novelist (Jewish) Mark Harris (Finkelstein) (d. 2007) on Nov. 19 in Mount Vernon, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Denver, and U. of Minn. Russian Mayan language philologist Yuri Valentinovich Knorosov (Knorozov) (d. 1999) on Nov. 19 in Kharkov, Ukraine. Indonesian air vice-marshal Abdul Halim Perdanakusuma (d. 1947) on Nov. 22 in Sampang. Am. pianist Bruce (Leonard) Hungerford (d. 1977) on Nov. 24 in Korumburra, Victoria, Australia. Portuguese "The Stone Raft", "Blindness" Communist novelist-playwright (atheist) Jose de Sousa Saramago (d. 2010) on Nov. 22 in Azinhaga, Ribatejo. Am. M16 weapons designer Eugene Morrison Stoner (d. 1997) on Nov. 22 in Gosport, Ind. Am. photosynthesis chemist James Alan Bassham (d. 2012) on Nov. 26 in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif. Am. "Peanuts" cartoonist Charles Monroe "Sparky" Schulz (d. 2000) on Nov. 26 in Minneapolis, Minn.; German father, Norwegian mother; nicknamed "Sparky" after Spark Plug, the horse in the "Barney Google" comic strip. British military historian Sir Michael Eliot Howard on Nov. 29 in Ashmore, Dorset; educated at Wellington College, and Christ Church, Oxford U. Canadian bodybuilding magnate (Jewish) Josef E. "Joe" Weider on Nov. 29 in Montreal, Quebec; brother of Ben Weider (1924-2008). Am. "Lee Hobson in The Untouchables" actor Paul Picerni on Dec. 1 in Queens, N.Y. Scottish esotericist (ed. of Share Internat. mag.) Benjamin Creme (pr. krem) on Dec. 5 in Glasgow. English painter-printmaker (Jewish) Lucian Michael Freud on Dec. 8 in Berlin, Germany; grandson of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); brother of writer Clement Raphael Freud and Stephan Gabriel Freud; moves with family to Britain in 1933; husband (1953-8) of Lady Caroline Blackwood (1931-96); father of Esther Freud (1963-); rumored to have 40 illegitimate children by 2001. Am. actress Jean Porter (AKA Than Hall) on Dec. 8 in Cisco, Tex.; wife (1948-99) of Edward Dmytryk (1908-99). Am. "My Dear Companion" folk singer-songwriter ("the Mother of Folk") (Baptist) Jean Ritchie (d. 2015) on Dec. 8 in Viper, Ky. Am. "Fred Sanford in Sanford and Son" actor-comedian (black) Redd Foxx (John Elroy Sanford) (d. 1991) on Dec. 9 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "The Little Disturbances of Man" writer-activist (Jewish) Grace Paley (d. 2007) on Dec. 11 in Bronx, N.Y.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Hunter College and NYU. Am. "Death Ship" sculptor-printmaker Horace Clifford "Cliff" Westermann (d. 1981) on Dec. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. Soviet laser physicist Nikolay (Nikolai) Gennadiyevich Basov (d. 2001) on Dec. 14 in Usman, Lipetsk Oblast. Am. CBS "60 Minutes" exec producer (Jewish) Donald S. "Don" Hewitt (d. 2009) on Dec. 14 in New York City; Russian Jewish immigrant father, German Jewish descent mother; educated at NYU; coins the term "anchorman". French "La Mise en scene" nouveau roman novelist Claude Ollier (d. 2014) on Dec. 17. Am. "Jerry Mahoney, Knucklehead Smiff and Mortimer Snerd" ventriloquist (Jewish) Paul Winchell (Pinkus Wilchinski) (d. 2005) on Dec. 21 in New York City. U.S. Dem. House Speaker #56 (1987-9) James Claude "Jim" Wright Jr. on Dec. 22 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; educated at UTA. Am. "Paths of Glory", "One-Eyed Jacks", "The Graduate" novelist-screenwriter Calder Baynard Willingham Jr. on Dec. 23 in Atlanta, Ga. Am. "Eloyise Y. Honey Bear Kelly in Mogambo", "Julie LaVerne in Show Boat", "Maria Vargas in The Barefoot Contessa" actress Ava Lavinia Gardner (Lucy Johnson) (d. 1990) on Dec. 24 in Johnston County, N.C.; tobacco farmer father of Irish and Tuscarora descent; likes to go barefoot. Lithuanian filmmaker (not Jewish) ("Godfather of American Avant-Garde Cinema") Jonas Mekas on Dec. 24 in Semeniskiai (near Birzai); collaborator of Lionel Rogosin (1924-2000). Am. "Cal Calhoun in Bourbon Street Beat" actor Andrew Duggan (d. 1988) on Dec. 28 in Franklin, Ind. Am. "Spider-Man" comic book author (Jewish) Stan Lee (Stanley Martin Lieber) on Dec. 28 in New York City; Romanian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. "JR" novelist William Gaddis (d. 1998) on Dec. 29 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Name That Tune" TV host-singer-comedian George DeWitt (Florentine) (d. 1979) on Dec. 30 in Atlantic City, N.J. Am. neurologist and cryosurgery pioneer Irving S. Cooper (d. 1985); educated at George Washington U. and the U. of Minn. Soviet engineer Georgy Pavlovich Lyshchinsky (d. 1995) on ? in ?. Am. "Backstage" publisher Ira Eaker (d. 2002); collaborator of Allen Zwerdling (1922-2009); educated at CCNY. Iranian grand ayatollah (Shiite Muslim) Hossein (Hussein) Ali Montazeri Najafabi (d. 2009) on ? in Najafabad. Am. historian Lacey Baldwin Smith (d. 2013); educated at Bowdoin College, and Princeton U. Am. historian Bernard Bailyn on ? in Hartford, Conn.; educated at Williams College and Harvard U. Am. ex-Jehovah's Witness activist Raymond Franz on ? in ?. Am. anthropologist Edmund Snow "Ted" Carpenter on ? in Rochester, N.Y. Am. McDonnell Douglas CEO Sanford N. "Sandy" McDonnell on ? in Little Rock, Ark.; nephew of James Smith McDonnell (1899-1980); educated at Princeton U., U. of Colo., and Washington State U. Deaths: English explorer (Australia) rear Adm. John Moresby (b. 1830) on July 12 in Fareham, Hampshire. Am. physician Horatio Robinson Storer (b. 1830) on Sept. 18. French painter Leon Joseph Florentin Bonnat (b. 1833) on Sept. 8 in Paris. English baritone Sir Charles Santley (b. 1834). Am. writer-theologian Lyman Abbott (b. 1835) on Oct. 22. English jurist Albert Venn Dicey (b. 1835) on Apr. 7. Danish pacifist Fredrik Bajer (b. 1837) on Jan. 22; 1908 Nobel Peace Prize: "Always bear in mind that law must be substituted for power, and care taken to serve the interests of law." British historian-diplomat James Bryce, 1st viscount Bryce (b. 1838) on Jan. 22 in Sidmouth, Devon. French mathematician Camille Jordan (b. 1838) on Jan. 22 in Paris. Belgium chemist Ernest Solvay (b. 1838) on May 26 in Brussels. Am. merchant John Wanamaker (b. 1838): "The customer is always right". English chocolate manufacturer and social reformer George Cadbury (b. 1839) on Oct. 24 in Northfield Manor. Catalan-born Moulin Rouge French impresario Joseph Oller (b. 1839) in Paris. Irish portraitist John Butler Yeats (b. 1839) on Feb. 3. English poet-traveller Sir Wilfred Scawen Blunt (b. 1840) on Sept. 10. Italian novelist-dramatist Giovanni Verga (b. 1840) on Jan. 27 in Catania. Anglo-Argentine "Green Mansions" naturalist novelist W.H. Hudson (b. 1841); in 1925 the Rima Memorial in the bird sanctuary of Kensington Gardens, London is built by Jacob Epstein. Spanish Catalan composer Felip Pedrell (b. 1841) on Aug. 19 in Barcelona. Am. Standard Oil Co. co-founder William Avery Rockefeller Jr. (b. 1841) on June 24 in Tarryton, N.Y.; leaves a $102M estate. French historian Ernest Lavisse (b. 1842). Am. painter Charles Henry Miller (b. 1842). German surgeon Heinrich Quincke (b. 1842) on May 19. Tasmanian-born English evangelist Elizabeth Reid, Lady Hope (b. 1842) on Mar. 8 in Sydney, Australia (cancer). Am. Tammany Hall boss Richard Croker (b. 1843) on Apr. 29 in County Dublin, Ireland; buried in Kilgobbin Cemetery in County Dublin, where his Glencairn Estate in Sandyford has an exact replica of the Epsom Downs race track incl. the left-hand downhill Tattenham Corner. Am. lawyer Richard Theodore Greener (b. 1844) on May 2 in Chicago, Ill. Scottish malaria research pioneer Sir Patrick Manson (b. 1844) on Apr. 9 in London. English scholar Sir John Edwin Sandys (b. 1844) on July 6 in Cambridge. French malaria physician Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (b. 1845) on May 18 in Paris; 1907 Nobel Medicine Prize. Italian "Funiculi Funicula" composer Luigi Denza (b. 1846) on Jan. 26 in London. Am. automobile inventor George B. Selden (b. 1846) on Jan. 17 in Rochester, N.Y. Scottish telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell (b. 1847) on Aug. 2 in Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada; upon his death all telephones in the U.S. stop ringing for 1 min. English poet Alice Meynell (b. 1847) on Nov. 27 in London. Italian PM #19 (1906, 1909-10) Baron Sidney Sonnino (b. 1847) on Nov. 24 in Rome. French syndicalist philosopher Georges Sorel (b. 1847) on Aug. 29. Monaco prince Albert I (b. 1848) on June 26 in Paris. English historian Sir George Walter Prothero (b. 1848) on July 10. German Assyriologist Friedrich Delitzsch (b. 1850) on Dec. 19 in Langenschwalbach bei Wiesbaden. English cartoonist Sir Leslie Ward (AKA Spy) (b. 1851) on May 15. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player Cap Anson (b. 1852) on Apr. 14 in Chicago, Ill; first with 3K+ career hits. Am. surgeon William Stewart Halsted (b. 1852) on Sept. 7 in Baltimore, Md. English singer-actor Rutland Barrington (b. 1853) on May 31 in South London; dies in poverty after suffering a stroke in 1919. French journalist Pierre Giffard (b. 1853) on jan. 21 in Maisons-Laffitte. Am. mathematician George Bruce Halsted (b. 1853) on Mar. 16. Am. "Old South" writer-diplomat Thomas Nelson Page (b. 1853) on Nov. 1 in Hanover County, Va. Italian pope (1914-22) Benedict XV (b. 1854) on Jan. 22. English naval historian Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (b. 1854) on Sept. 21 in Stopham, Pulborough, Sussex. Japanese-born Am. chemist Jokichi Takamine (b. 1854) on July 22. South African Boer politician-gen. Christiaan De Wet (b. 1854) on Feb. 3. Hungarian conductor Arthur Nikisch (b. 1855) on Jan. 23 in Leipzig, Germany. Russian mathematician Andrei Markov (b. 1856) on July 22 in Petrograd. Am. populist politician Tom Watson (b. 1856) on Sept. 26 in Washington, D.C. Am. historian William Archibald Dunning (b. 1857) on Aug. 25. Italian last castrato Alessandro Moreschi (b. 1858) on Apr. 21 in Rome. Lithuanian-born Zionist founder Elieser Ben-Yehuda (b. 1858) on Dec. 16 in Jerusalem (TB); leaves an unfinished comprehensive Hebrew dictionary. German physicist Wilhelm Hallwachs (b. 1859) on June 20 in Dresden. Am. singer-actress Lillian Russell (b. 1860) on June 6. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player Sam Thompson (b. 1860) on Nov. 7 in Detroit, Mich. Korean nationalist leader Son Byong-Hi (b. 1861). German gen. Erich von Falkenhayn (b. 1861) on Apr. 8 in Schloss Lindstedt (near Potsdam). Hungarian novelist Geza Gardonyi (b. 1863) on Oct. 30 in Eger. British politician Lewis Vernon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt (b. 1863) on Feb. 24 in London. Am. journalist Nellie Bly (b. 1864) on Jan. 27 in New York City (pneumonia). Swedish political scientist Johan Rudolf Kjellen (b. 1864) on Nov. 14 in Uppsala. British Conservative politician and Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson (b. 1864) on June 22 in London (assassinated by the IRA). English newspaper publisher Arthur Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (b. 1865) on Aug. 14. Greek PM (1915, 1921-2) Demetrios Gounaris (b. 1866) on Nov. 15 in Athens (executed). Am. inventor David T. Kenney (b. 1866) on May 24 near Beacon, N.Y. (suicide); his body is found on June 4; he recently lost his wife and a sister. German-born Am. Tootsie Roll candy inventor Leo Hirschfeld (b. 1867) on Jan. 13 in Manhattan, N.Y. (suicide); shoots himself in his room at the Monterey Hotel in Manhattan, leaving the note: "I'm sorry, but I couldn't help it". Turkish journalist-minister Ali Kemal Bey (b. 1922) on Nov. 6 in Izmit (lynched by a mob). Australian writer Henry Lawson (b. 1867) on Sept. 2 in Sydney. German industrialist-statesman Walther Rathenau (b. 1867) on Feb. 1 (assassinated). Am. sculptor Solon Hannibal Borglum (b. 1868). French serial murderer (10 widows plus one of their sons) Henri Landru (b. 1869) on Feb. 25 (guillotined); "I did it. I burned their bodies in my kitchen stove" (alleged confession note). Irish writer and IRA activist Robert Erskine Childers (b. 1870) on Nov. 24 (executed by the Irish Free State for possession of an automatic pistol given to him by Michael Collins); tells his 16-y.-o. son Erskine Hamilton Childers to seek out and shake the hand of every man who signed his death warrant, then shakes hands with each member of the firing squad before uttering the soundbyte: "Take a step or two forward, lads, it will be easier that way." English music hall star Marie Lloyd (b. 1870) on Oct. 7 in London; dies after taking sick on stage at the Empire Music Hall in Edmonton, London; her Oct. 12 funeral in Hampstead is attended by 100K. Am. naturalist Enos Mills (b. 1870). Am. minister William Joseph Seymour (b. 1870) on Sept. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. French asthmatic novelist Marcel Proust (b. 1871); leaves the final 3 vols. of his 7-vol. "Remembrance of Things Past" in ms. form - what, no Nobel? French dramatist Henri Bataille (b. 1872). Am. archeologist Howard Crosby Butler (b. 1872). Irish Sinn Fein founder Arthur Griffith (b. 1872) on Aug. 12 in Dublin. Turkish gen. Djemal Pasha (b. 1872) on July 21 in Tbilisi, Georgia. Am. movie dir. William Desmond Taylor (b. 1872) on Feb. 1 in Los Angeles, Calif. (murdered). Irish-born British Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (b. 1874) on Jan. 5 in South Georgia Island. English silent film actor Roy Redgrave (b. 1873) on May 25 in Sydney, N.S.W., Australia. Lebanese Christian journalist Farah Antun (b. 1874). Mexican rev. leader Ricardo Flores Magon (b. 1874) on Nov. 21. English composer James William Tate (b. 1875) on Feb. 5 in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire (pneumonia). Bahamas-born Am. actor-singer-dir. Bert Williams (b. 1875) on Mar. 4. Turkish leader Enver Pasha (b. 1881) on Aug. 4 in Turkestan; KIA in a battle with the Bolsheviks. Swiss "inkblot" psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (b. 1884). Austrian exiled emperor (1916-18) Charles I (b. 1887) on Apr. 1 in Madeira, Portugal (pneumonia); beatified on Oct. 3, 2004. Irish rev. leader (IRA founder) Michael "Mick" Collins (b. 1890) on Aug. 22 in Beal na m'Blath (Mouth of the Flowers), County Cork (assassinated) - the good die young? Danish-born Australian WWI Pvt. Jorgen Christian Jensen (b. 1891) on May 31 in Adelaide. Sicilian-born mobster Umberto Valenti (b. 1891) on Aug. 11 in New York City (murdered by Lucky Luciano outside a cafe at the corner of 2nd Ave. and E. 12th St.).
Chinese Year: Pig.
Trade union membership: Germany: 9.2M, Soviet Union: 4.6M, Britain: 4.4M, U.S.: 3.6M.
In 1923 trade union membership: Germany: 9.2M, Soviet Union: 4.6M, Britain: 4.4M, U.S.: 3.6M.
Hyperinflation rages in Germany;
by fall the German mark plummets to one-trillionth of its pre-war value (4M to one U.S. dollar); on Oct. 15 the
based on mortgages on land is introduced, finally bringing inflation under control.
On Jan. 1 USC defeats Penn State by 14-3 to win the
1923 Rose Bowl,
played in the new Rose Bowl Stadium.
On Jan. 11 French and Belgian troops invade the Ruhr Valley,
occupying it by Jan. 23 in order to collect reparations from Germany for WWI, causing the German people to stage a gen. strike in protest and
abandon passive resistance; the U.S. Senate calls for recall of the occupation forces; France occupies Darmstadt, Karlsruhe, and Mannheim.
On Jan. 14 Italian king Victor Emmanuel III authorizes a voluntary Fascist military.
On Jan. 29 after Pres. Harding nominates him on Jan. 24 to the seat vacated by Mahlon Pitney upon the advice of chief justice William Howard Taft,
Knoxville, Tenn.-born Edward Terry Sanford (1865-1930)
is appointed as U.S. Supreme Court justice #72 (until Mar. 8, 1930), bringing the court members back up to nine.
In Jan. Adolf Hitler convinces the Bavarian authorities to permit him to hold a rally in the
in Munich, and 1K storm troopers and 4K party members attend; in Mar. he links up with Capt. Ernst Rohem's
Reich War Flag, and almost stages a putsch in May, but backs down when Gen.
Otto von Lossow (1868-1938),
military cmdr. of Bavaria (Wehrkreis VII) flops - what a lossow?
In Jan. British chancellor of the exchequer Stanley Baldwin goes to the U.S. with the British Financial Mission to fund the war debt.
On Feb. 3 the Australian govt. of William M. Hughes (in power since 1915) resigns under pressure
of the Country Party, and on Feb. 9
Stanley Melbourne Bruce (1883-1967)
becomes PM #12 of Australia (until 1929), forming a coalition cabinet of Nationalist and Country Party members - in the white room
with black curtains in the station?
On Feb. 9 the Soviet Union founds
Aeroflot (Russ. "air fleet"),
which begins operations on July 15, becoming the world's largest airline.
On Feb. 12 the Red Army under Gen.
defeats the White Army under Gen. Anatoly Pepelyayev at the
Battle of Sasyl-Sasyg,
ousting them from Amga in Mar.
On Feb. 16 the sealed burial chamber of the
Tomb of King Tutankhamen (King Tut),
unearthed last Nov. 4 by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon in the Valley of the Kings
in Egypt is unsealed, bringing
King Tut's Curse
on all 20 involved, starting on Apr. 5 with Lord Carnarvon, along with his personal secy.
Capt. Richard Bethell (Nov. 15, 1929) and his father Lord Westbury (Feb. 20, 1930),
Carnarvon's half-brother Aubrey Herbert (Sept. 23, 1923), and Carnarvon's friend
Sir Ernest Wallis Budge (Nov. 23, 1934), but not Carter himself, who lives for 17 years
and dies at the age of 65; "Everywhere the glint of gold";
six mysterious London deaths attributed to the curse were really ritual revenge murderers
by "wickedest man in the world" English Satanist
On Mar. 1 Greece adopts the Gregorian Calendar for civil purposes only.
On Mar. 3 weekly
mag., founded by Yale classmates (both inducted into Skull & Bones in 1920)
Henry Robinson Luce
(1898-1967) begins pub., becoming the first and most successful
news mag., giving small town hicks a source of nat. news and analysis
with clever invented words and inverted sentences;
Roy Edward Larsen
(1899-1979) replaces Luce, becoming pres. in 1939-60 - the original
Great Track of Time one week at a time with no ability to revise?
On Mar. 9 after a massive stroke, Vladimir Lenin resigns as leader of the Communist Party - hard to give speeches now?
On Mar. 14 Pres. Harding becomes the first U.S. pres. to file an income tax return.
On Mar. 15 the comic strip
by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Percy Lee Crosby (1891-1964)
debuts in Life mag., going into syndication in 1925 and earning Crosby $2,350/week, inspiring
Charles Schulz's "Peanuts" comic strip and made into a 1931 Oscar-winning film; about young Skippy Skinner,
who wears a huge collar and tie and floppy checked hat, and gets into mischief; in 1925 Crosby registers
Skippy as a trademark, licensing it to toymakers, clothing makers et al.; newspaper syndication ends in 1945.
On Mar. 16 the Egyptian Women's Union
is formed by upper-class Egyptian women led by
Hoda (Huda) Shaarawi (1879-1947),
calling for a ban on polygamy and a man's right to summary divorce, and demanding equality for women;
Huda shocks the country by publicly unveiling at a railway station in Cairo after returning from a
women's conference in Italy, even though it's only practiced by upper class women anyway; too bad,
the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood causes many Egyptian women to wear veils again by the early 21st cent.
On Mar. 24 the Italian judicial system is reformed by the Fascists - deformed?
On Mar. 31 the first dance marathon in the U.S., held in New York City ends with
setting a world record of 27 hours on her feet - looking for my date, kind of short, very handsome, probably has his shoes untied?
On Apr. 1 compulsory military service in France is reduced to 1.5 years.
On Apr. 9 Afghanistan proclaims the 1923 Afghan Constitution,
giving the emir all executive powers and the right to appoint half of the legislature, which has mainly consultative functions.
On Apr. 9 the U.S. Supeme (Taft) Court rules 5-3 in
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
that federal minimum wage legislation for women is an unconstitutional violation of liberty of contract as protected by the
5th Amendment's Due Process Clause, with Chief Justice William Taft writing the soundbyte:
"Legislatures in limiting freedom of contract between employee and employer by a minimum wage proceed on the assumption that employees, in the class
receiving least pay, are not upon a full level of equality of choice with their employer and in their necessitous circumstances are prone to accept
pretty much anything that is offered. They are peculiarly subject to the overreaching of the harsh and greedy employer. The evils of the sweating system
and of the long hours and low wages which are characteristic of it are well known. Now, I agree that it is a disputable question in the field of political
economy how far a statutory requirement of maximum hours or minimum wages may be a useful remedy for these evils, and whether it may not make the case of
the oppressed employee worse than it was before. But it is not the function of this court to hold congressional acts invalid simply because they are passed
to carry out economic views which the court believes to be unwise or unsound"; dissenting Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes writes the soundbyte:
"The earlier decisions upon the same words in the Fourteenth Amendment began within our memory and went no farther than an unpretentious assertion of the
liberty to follow the ordinary callings. Later that innocuous generality was expanded into the dogma, Liberty of Contract. Contract is not specially mentioned
in the text that we have to construe. It is merely an example of doing what you want to do, embodied in the word liberty. But pretty much all law consists
in forbidding men to do some things that they want to do, and contract is no more exempt from law than other acts. Without enumerating all the restrictive laws
that have been upheld I will mention a few that seem to me to have interfered with liberty of contract quite as seriously and directly as the one before us.
Usury laws prohibit contracts by which a man receives more than so much interest for the money that he lends. Statutes of frauds restrict many contracts to
certain forms. Some Sunday laws prohibit practically all contracts during one-seventh of our whole life. Insurance rates may be regulated";
Justice Louis Brandeis recuses himself; overturned by West Coast Hotel v. Parrish (1937).
On Apr. 20 (Hitler's birthday) Der Stuermer (Stürmer)
(The Attacker) begins pub. in Germany, ed. by loyal Hitler follower
Julius Streicher (1885-1946) (until 1945),
who utters the soundbyte "We will be slaves of the Jew, therefore he must go."
On Apr. 21 Egypt proclaims the
1923 Egyptian Constitution,
with a bicameral legislature, and power shared between King Fouad I and the cabinet, which the king appoints; on Sept. 23 the first elections are
held, and the Wafdist Party scores an overwhelming V; too bad, since the king also schedules elections, and the British have him on puppet
strings, he goes on to regularly defeat popular elected govts. by dismissing their cabinets and putting in his own, hamstringing the Wafdists.
On Apr. 26 Prince Albert Windsor (later George VI) marries
whom his brother Prince David (later Edward VIII) calls "Cookie" because she looks like a plump Scottish cook?
In Apr. Brussels-born French Gen.
Maxime Weygand (1867-1965)
arrives in Syria as the new French high commissioner (until 1925).
On May 2-3 Lts.
John A. Macready (1887-1979) and
Oakley G. Kelly
fly a single-engine Fokker T-2 nonstop from New York to San Diego (2.5K mi.) in 26 hours, 50 min., becoming the first nonstop transcontinental flight.
On May 23 Sabena,
the nat. airline of Belgium is founded (until 2001).
On May 25 the Anglo-Transjordanian Treaty
from the Palestine mandate and gives it independence with a permanent govt. but with foreign policy controlled by Britain; the
Arab Legion (founded 1921),
led by British Lt. Col.
Frederick Gerard Peake (1886-1970)
acts as its army and police force.
In May PM Bonar Law (b. 1858) resigns, and dies on Oct. 30; on ? British gen. elections give Conservatives 258 seats, Labour 191,
and Liberals 158, and chancellor of the exchequer (since 1922)
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1867-1947)
(whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor Robert DeNiro (1943-)?)
becomes PM (until 1924), with Neville Chamberlain as chancellor of the exchequer.
In May the Catholic Popular Party in Italy is ousted by the Fascists; Popular Party founder
Don Luigi Sturzo (1871-1959),
leader of the left wing resists, but Pope Pius XI denounces him - thanka youa papa?
On June 9 Spanish engineer On June 9 Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva y Codorniu (1895-1936)
makes the first successful flight in a rotary wing autogiro (autogyro)
aircraft in Madrid, using a normal airplane propeller instead of the fancy articulated rotor blade with cyclic pitch control.
On June 11 Britain's King George V awards Benito Mussolini the Order of the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath - and tells him to take one?
On June 17 after being defeated near Okhotsk on June 6 and near Ayan on June 16, Gen. Anatoly Pepelyayev surrenders the last 230 White Russian
soldiers and 103 officers in Ayano-Maysky District on the Pacific Coast, ending the Russian Civil War (begun 1918), securing the vast Soviet
territory for Communism with a total of 13M civilian casualties (incl. 1M refugees leaving Russian permanently), 1.2M Bolshevik, and 300K White Russian
casualties - Dirty Linen's gang are now free to create the myth of the Soviet Paradise?
I can't stand the suspense, shoot me?
In June Pres. Harding goes on a nat. speaking tour to assure the Am. people that he isn't a crook?;
Jess Smith (b. 1872),
an aide working for U.S. atty.-gen. Harry M. Daugherty, known for showing off
huge sums of money that he "earned" by corruption is found shot one morning
in the left temple, his head in a waste basket and a pistol in his right
(wrong, since he's a leftie?) hand; the pistol disappears and the body is
buried without an autopsy; on Aug. 2 after returning from Alaska (first pres. to visit it),
where he drives the first (golden) spike in a railroad in Nenana,
Pres. Warren G. Harding (b. 1865) dies unexpectedly of a heart attack
("apoplexy") in a San Francisco, Calif. hotel, becoming the 5th straight victim
of the Zero-Year Pres. Curse after W.H. Harrison, Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley;
his body is returned to Washington, D.C. on a funeral train greeted by 9M;
no autopsy is performed; did Harding's wife "The Duchess" have him poisoned to avoid
the disgrace of an imminent impeachment?
In June Ind. Repub. Sen. (1899-1911) Albert Jeremiah Beveridge (1862-1927),
who bolted to the doomed Progressive Party in 1912, ruining his career gives a speech at the annual dinner of the Sons of the Revolution,
decrying his former support of govt. regulation, with the soundbyte:
"America would be better off as a country and Americans happier and more prosperous as a people if half of our Government boards, bureaus and
commissions were abolished, hundreds of thousands of our Government officials, agents and employees were discharged, and two-thirds of our
Government regulations, restrictions, and inhibitions were removed."
On July 6 the Union of Soviet Socialist Repubs. is officially formed.
On July 24 the Treaty of Lausanne
between Turkey and Greece recognizes Turkish independence, after which Allied forces leave Istanbul in 10 weeks; all remaining Christians
in Turkey are evacuated; the Turkish Pop. Directorate
enables the govt. to register people and give them ancestry codes (1=Greek, 2=Armenian, 3=Jewish), which are used until ? for govt.-backed
discrimination; on Sept. 4-11 the Sivas Congress
in CE Turkey, called by Mustafa Kemal Pasha is held, and on Sept. 9 officially establishes the
Repub. People's Party (CHP)
as the founding party of modern 1-party Turkey, with a party flag consisting of six white arrows on a red background; on Oct. 29 the
Repub. of Turkey
is proclaimed, with Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as pres. #1 (until Nov. 10, 1938) and Ismet Inonu (who signed the treaty for Turkey) as PM #1 (until 1937),
going on to play Ataturk ball and try to secularize medieval, er, Muslim Turkey;
the 1923 Pop. Exchange
sees 1.25M Greeks repatriated in 1923-30 with the help of the League of Nations and the Near East Relief Commission, causing the pop. of Greece
to rise from 2.6M in 1907 to 6.2M in 1928; meanwhile the Greek pop. in Turkey goes from 2M in 1900 to 48K in 1965 and less than 5K by 2006.
In July the Fascists begin Italianizing the South Tyrol (Upper Adige).
On Aug. 3 (early a.m.) Vt.-born storekeeper's son (Amherst College grad.) (former Boston mayor and Mass. gov.) (one of three mayors to become U.S. pres.),
reserved, publicly noncommittal Vt. farmboy "Silent Cal" (high nasal voice)
John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933)
becomes the 30th U.S. pres. (until 1929) in the 40th U.S. Pres. Inauguration;
his old-fashioned homespun look-feel rescues the stinking presidency, even though his gung-ho capitalism and famous soundbyte
"The chief business of America is business" gives a blank check to crooks?; his act is carefully shaped by PR men
Bruce Fairchild Barton (1886-1967) and "the Father of PR"
Edward Louis James Bernays (1891-1995),
who use newsreels and radio to portray him as that's no lie this is what you get gee ain't he cute and doesn't say much; First Lady
Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (1879-1957) (married 1905)
was a teacher at the Clarke Inst. for the Deaf
in Northampton, Mass. (perfect match?); his storekeeper daddy swears him in; he holds twice-weekly press conferences, silent or not; he keeps a
mechanical horse in his White House dressing room for exercise; gambles away a set of china from Benjamin Harrison's admin. at a White House poker game;
the first U.S. pres. in office to have a coin with his portrait issued by the U.S. Mint.
The Corfu Incident gives Mussolini a chance to flex his muscles?
On Aug. 27 the Corfu Incident
sees Gen. Enrico Tellini (b. 1871)
and four members of his staff assassinated on the Greek-Albanian frontier, causing the Italian govt. to send Greece an ultimatum on Aug. 29, then
bombard and occupy Corfu on Aug. 31, causing Greece to appeal to the League of Nations; the Italians evacuate Corfu on Sept. 27 after pressure from Britain et al.
In Aug. Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929)
is elected chancellor of Germany (until Nov. 30), and orders an end to the strike, declaring martial law over the whole nation on Aug. 13-Nov. 23; on Nov. 30
Wilhelm Marx (1863-1946)
succeeds Stresemann as German chancellor (until May 12, 1926).
On Sept. 1 (11:58 a.m. local time) the 7.9 Great Kanto Earthquake
in Japan kills 142K in Tokyo, and 8K in Yokohama; the Imperial Hotel,
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, which opened a few mo. earlier survives due to its shallow foundation that floats on the soft mud beneath it.
On Sept. 7 the Miss America 1923
contest is held at the Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City, N.J.; 1922 winner Mary Katherine Campbell repeats, becoming the first (until ?).
On Sept. 8 the Honda Point Disaster
sees seven Navy destroyers run aground in the Santa Barbara Channel in Calif., killing 23 sailors: the U.S.S. Chauncy, Delphy
(flagship), Fuller, S.P. Lee, Nicholas, Woodbury, and Young; the Farragut and Somers are damaged.
On Sept. 12 the Spanish garrison at Barcelona mutinies and a separatist
movement breaks out; on Sept. 13 Catalonian Capt. gen.
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja (1870-1930)
stages a military coup with the approval of the king, taking Barcelona, followed by Madrid on Sept. 15, then on Sept. 15 dissolving the Cortes (until 1931)
and proclaiming martial law (until 1927), becoming the dictator of Spain, suspending civil liberties and causing the exile of writers
Miguel de Unamuno (in 1924), Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (in voluntary exile in France since WWI) et al.;
the Confederaciones Sindicales Hidrograficas,
a public works program runs up a 1B peseta budget deficit by 1928.
On Sept. 25 Hitler addresses a meeting of the heads of all the right-wing groups in Munich, and convinces them to place themselves under his
overall command - I saw that on the Twilight Zone?
On Sept. 30 Adolf Hitler visits the Bavarian town of Beyreuth, and
home of German composer Richard Wagner (1813-83),
and meets his 86-y.-o. widow Cosima, along with his son Siegfried, his English-born wife Winifred,
his son-in-law, arch German nationalist Houston Stewart Chamberlain (son of an English adm. from
Portsmouth), and finds them all to be admiring fans, helping him believe he is the new German Messiah
and not just "eine kleine Johannisnatur" (John the Baptist type).
On Oct. 2 the Boulevard of the Allies
between Pittsburgh and Oakland, Penn. opens.
On Oct. 5 Antonio Jose de Almeida is succeeded by "Maria Adelaide" novelist
Manuel Teixeira Gomes
(1860-1941) of the Liberal Repub. Party as pres. #7 of the
1st Portuguese Repub. (founded 1910) (until 1925).
On Oct. 10-15 the New York Yankees (AL) defeat the New York Giants (NL)
4-2 to win the
Twentieth (20th) World Series,
with future "Old Perfessor"
Charles Dillon "Casey" Stengel
(1890-1975) hitting homers to win the two games for the Giants
(incl. the first WS homer in Yankee Stadium), which doesn't stop
Giants mgr. (1902-32)
John Joseph McGraw
(1873-1934) (AKA Little Napoleon and Muggsy) from trading him
to the 2nd tier Boston Braves, causing Stengel to comment
"It's lucky I didn't hit three home runs in three games, or McGraw would
have traded me to the 3-I League" (Ill.-Ind.-Iowa minor league, 1901-61).
On Oct. 23 the Communist-led Hamburg Uprising
is quashed, with 100+ killed.
On Oct. 23 Albert Tagora
of Paterson, N.J. sets a record by typing 8,840 words in one hour, averaging 147 words a min. and 12.5 strokes a sec. - what a waste of a good C++ programmer?
On Oct. 29 the new Repub. of Turkey
is proclaimed, with Kemal Ataturk as pres.; the capital is moved from Constantinople to Ankara;
Ataturk begins a modernization and secularization program - the impossible dream, secular Muslims?
In Oct. German airship pioneer Dr. Hugo Eckener (1868-1954),
lead of the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin flies his ZR-3
dirigible from Friedrichshafen, Germany across the Atlantic to Lakehurst, N.Y. for deliverty to
the U.S. Navy, which names it USS Los Angeles, becoming the largest airship in the world;
;it is commissioned next Nov. 25; it flies 5K mi., the longest Zeppelin flight to date; it is
decommissioned on June 30, 1932 at Lakehurst, N.J.
On Nov.. 4
1924 Chinese Year: Rat. The U.S. begins iodizing salt to reduce the incidence of goiter, also raising IQs during gestation. On Jan. 1 10-1 Washington and 5-1-2 Navy tie 14-14 in the 1924 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 3 Yucatan gov. (since 1922) Felipe Carrillo Puerto (b. 1874) is assassinated, along with three brothers and eight friends, after which the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto in Quintana Roo is named after him; meanwhile Alma Reed, who had been planning a Jan. 14 wedding with him in San Fran is out of luck. On Jan. 6 the French Roman Catholic Church is allowed to reoccupy its property under a system of diocesan assocs. In early Jan. a coup in Greece causes king (since 1922) George II to abdicate, and on Jan. 11 Eleutherios Venizelos arrives in Athens from the U.S. and becomes PM again, but tries to get the king reinstated and resigns on Feb. 3, claiming ill health; on Apr. 13 a plebiscite overwhelmingly votes for a Greek repub., which is proclaimed on May 1, with Adm. Paul Koundouriotis (1855-1935) as provisional pres. (until 1929); too bad, the govt. is unstable, and there are six govts. by June of 1925. Communism teaches the Rabbit Lesson? On Jan. 21 (6:50 p.m.) Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin (b. 1870) dies at age 54 from a 4th stroke (brought on by syphilis?) (his brain had shrunk to 25% normal size?); a triumvirate (troika) of Caligula-reincarnation (gen.-secy. of the CPSU since 1922) Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (Russ. "iron") (Djugashvili) (1879-1953) of Georgia, Grigori Zinoviev (Hirsch Apfelbaum) (1883-1936) of Ukraine, and Lev Borisovich Kamenev (1883-1936) of Moscow is formed to govern the wild wild Soviet Union, and begins army purges; on Jan. 24 Petrograd (St. Petersburg until 1914) is renamed Leningrad (until 1991); Lenin's birthplace of Simbirsk in SW Russia on the Volga River is renamed Ulyanovsk; on Jan. 27 atheist pharaoh Lenin's well-preserved body is laid in the Lenin Mausoleum in Red Square (the roof makes a great place for an official reviewing stand?); the clock is stopped at guess what, and visitors are not allowed to insult him by putting their hands in their pockets; a statue of him is erected in a park opposite Finland Station in Leningrad, where he first arrived from exile, followed by zillions of others all over the country; his widow Nadezhda Krupskaya is immediately rendered powerless, Stalin calling her a "syphilitic whore", and after she doesn't like the way his body is displayed, she utters the soundbyte "Comrade Lenin may be in need of a new widow", but she is never arrested since she's a sacred red herring; Bolshoi Dom (Big House) in Leningrad near the E end of the Neva River Embankment, where Lenin's brother was once tried for attempting to assassinate Alexander III becomes HQ of the Soviet secret police, and later the HQ for the Red Terror; Stalin's war commissioner Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (1885-1938) sets up the All-Union Chess Section to train Communist youth in chess; meanwhile Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Leon Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (1879-1940) form a conspiracy against Stalin in the neverending reality check story Red Workers' Paradise. On Jan. 25-Feb. 5 the I (1st) (First) Winter Olympic Games (originally called "Internat. Winter Sports Week") are held in Chamonix, France, at the foot of Mount Blanc, with 293 participants from 16 nations in eight sports and 16 events; Winter Games are held the same year as the Summer Games until 1992; the first gold medal goes to Charles Jewtraw (1900-96) of the U.S. in 500m speedskating; 11-y.-o. Sonja Henie of Norway comes in last in the ladies' figure skating competition, but takes gold in the next three Winter Olympics; after the judges goof, Anders Haugen (1888-1984) of the U.S. (who really came in 4th) is awarded the bronze medal in ski jumping, becoming the final medal awarded, and it takes 50 years to discover that the real winner should have been Thorleif Haug (1894-1934) of Norway, who won all three Nordic skiing events; in 2006 the IOC retroactively awards medals to the curling teams. On Jan. 26 Wafdist leader Saad Zaghlul (1859-1927) becomes PM #1 of Egypt (until Nov. 24). On Jan. 27 the Treaty of Rome between Italy and Yugoslavia (Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) is signed in Rome, awarding Fiume and the surrounding district to Italy, while recognizing Yugoslav sovereignty over the small part of Baross in Fiume Harbor, and declaring the Fiume railway station as an internat. frontier station; Italy controls Fiume until 1945. In Jan. after the French govt. refuses to raise taxes and relies on loans from the Bank of France, causing a flight of capital, the franc falls dramatically, creating an economic crisis; on Feb. 8 Pres. Raymond Poincare is given extraordinary powers to handle the crisis, and the franc regains stability on Mar. 10, although the crisis continues until 1926. In Jan. Stanley Baldwin resigns after he appeals to the nation to let him renege on his pledge to Bonar Law not to levy protective tarrifs, resulting in a Labor and Liberal majority in the elections, and Labour Party leader James Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) becomes PM of Britain (until Nov.), forming Britain's first Labour govt., which soon jumps the gun and recognizes the Labour Paradise of the Soviet Union; former Liberal lord chancellor (1912-5) Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane (1856-1928) (who was forced to resign after being falsely accused of German sympathies, and switched parties) becomes the "Labour Lord Chancellor", being portrayed in Punch as drinking a mug of beer and smoking a pipe like any working man in a pub.; too bad, in Oct. the Zinoviev Letter, in which the Third Internat. allegedly instructs Britons to provoke a Commie rev. is pub. by the London Foreign Office, bringing down the Labour Party before the paint is dry on Downing St.; it is later claimed to be a dirty trick forgery by "Ace of Spies" Sidney Reilly (Sigmund Georgevich Rosenblum) (1874-1925); in Nov. the Conservatives handily win the gen. election with 413 seats vs. 150 for Labour and only 40 for the Liberals, and Stanley Baldwin becomes PM again (until 1929); Winston Churchill (1874-1965) smartly switches from the Liberals to the Conservatives, and is rewarded by being made chancellor of the exchequer - just in time for the Stock Market Crash of 1929, because it's all a conspiracy? In Jan. after his son John Hadley Nicanor "Bumby" Hemingway (1923-) is born, Ernest Hemingway and his wife Elizabeth return to Paris, where he hooks up with wealthy Am. expatriate Pauline Marie Pfeiffer (1895-1951) in early 1925, causing his wife to divorce him in Jan. 1927, then in 1933 marry Am. expatriate Paul Scott Mowrer (1887-1971), who in 1929 becomes the first recipient of a Pulitzer Prize awarded for foreign correspondence; meanwhile Hemingway marries Pauline on May 10, 1927 (until Nov. 4, 1940). The U.S. Marines ensure once again that the U.S. has bananas? On Feb. 1 after elections the previous year prove indecisive, Honduran pres. (since Feb. 1, 1919) gen. Rafael Lopez Gutierrez (1855-1924) establishes a dictatorship, causing the conservatives, led by Tiburcio Carias Andino (1876-1960) to revolt and march on the capital; after the U.S. severs relations with Gutierrez and lands Marines on Feb. 28, he dies on Mar. 10 while trying to flee to the U.S. to get insulin for his diabetes; on Mar. 31 after the Marines leave, the rebels occupy the capital, causing the U.S. to send a mission led by Sumner Welles to deprive them of their bases; on Apr. 30 Vicente Tosta Carrasco (1886-1930) becomes provisional pres. (until Feb. 1, 1925), and on May 3 the Pact of Ampala is signed with the rebels in Ampala (the same port that the U.S. Pacific Squadron cruised to in 1903 to wield Teddy Roosevelt's big stick); another revolt in Aug. led by Gregorio Ferrara is suppressed after more U.S. troops arrive on Sept. 10 and leave on Sept. 15, after which Tosta proclaims the 1924 Honduran Constitution. On Feb. 3 U.S. pres. #28 (1913-21) Woodrow Wilson (b. 1856) dies in retirement in his sleep in Washington, D.C., becoming the first U.S. pres. buried there (in the Nat. Cathedral). On Feb. 8 the gas chamber is used for the 1st time to execute a murderer when Maj. D.A. Turner of the U.S. Medical Corps uses hydrocyanic gas on alleged Chinese Tong member Gee Jon (b. 1895) at the Nevada State Prison in Carson City - a new kind of bitter almond chicken? On Feb. 14 Thomas John Watson Sr. (1874-1956) renames the Computing Tabulating Recording Corp. (CTR) (which he joined on May 1, 1914) into Internat. Business Machines (IBM), going on to create a monopoly - and set the bar for future monopolist Bill Gates? On Feb. 22 Calvin Coolidge delivers the first pres. radio broadcast from the White House. On Feb. 26-Apr. 1 Hitler, Ludendorff et al. are put on trial for the Munich Putsch of 1923; Hitler's defense speech legitimizes his actions by pointing to Kemal Ataturk in 1920 and Mussolini in 1922; on Apr. 1 Adolf Hitler begins serving his 5-year sentence at the Fortress of Landsberg am Lech for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch (cell #7); he is released on Dec. 20. In Feb. a clique led by Texas dentist Hiram Walker buys out Ku Klux Klan (KKK) owner William J. Simmons for $146.5K; the annual Klonvocation is attended by 1K delegates in Kansas City, Mo.; the Klux Klan (KKK) reaches its peak of strength in the U.S. with a membership of 3M-4M, only to find itself all dressed up with nowhere to go as it has no actual program other than keeping niggers in their place and away from their white women while they dip their white wicks in black women every chance they get?; after a campaign against Roman Catholics and the foreign-born, the KKK takes over both chambers in the Ind. Statehouse, plus the gov.'s office and most seats in Congress. On Mar. 3 after experimenting with making sultan (since Nov. 19, 1922) Abdul Mejid II a caliph only, with pressure from Kemal Ataturk, who utters the soundbyte "The religion of Islam will be elevated if it will cease to be a political instrument", the horrible blood-soaked Muslim Caliphate (line of rulers tracing back to Muhammad in 632 C.E. who claim to head Sunni Islam) is abolished in Turkey in hopes that Islam might peacefully co-exist with the West; Abdul Mejid II flees to Paris and becomes a painter; the Ottoman Dynasty (founded 1299) ends; Ataturk tries to make Turkey a modern European state (first non-Communist 1-party state?), turning Adolf Hitler and his Nazis into adoring fans; Turks are ordered to give up the Arabic alphabet and traditional costume; too bad, this only pisses-off hardcore violent fundamentalist Muslims, who begin to regroup, taking decades to build up momentum; in his Oct. 7, 2001 video Osama bin Laden calls it a "humiliation and disgrace" - ever since, no Muslim is quite sure if they have the right to call for a jihad like he already did? On Mar. 10 the U.S. Supreme Court in Radice v. New York upholds a New York state law forbidding late-night work for women - because they'll turn tricks? On Mar. 10 U.S. Navy secy. (since 1921) Edwin C. Denby (1870-1929) is forced to resign over the Teapot Dome oil lease scandal. On Mar. 10 after new (since 1923) Greek Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Gregory VII (1850-1924) overcomes strong religious opposition and dumps the Julian Calendar and introduces the use of the 1582 Gregorian Calendar in the Greek Orthodox Church, Mar. 9 is followed by Mar. 23; in Mar. he also assumes jurisdiction of Greek Orthodox Christians living in the Greek Diaspora (Australia, New Zealand et al.); the Greek Orthodox Church finally repeals its prohibition against using modern Greek translations of the Bible. On Mar. 13 the Reichstag is dissolved for the 5th time in German history. On Mar. 14 English textile worker Nellie Kershaw (1891-1924) dies, becoming the first case of Asbestosis to be described in medical lit., and the first pub. account of a disease caused by occupational asbestos exposure; when her employer Turner Brothers Asbestos refuses to accept any responsibility, there is a British govt. investigation, which officially acknowledges the existence of asbestosis and its causation by asbestos inhalation, passing the first asbestos industry regulations in 1931, taking effect on Mar. 1, 1932; meanwhile the first lawsuit against an asbestos manufacturer is filed in 1929. On Mar. 15 Sweden recognizes the Soviet Union. On Mar. 17 the First World Flight sees eight U.S. Army airmen take off from Clover Field in Santa Monica, Calif. in four single engine open cockpit biplane Douglas Aircraft World Cruisers, land in Seattle, Wash., take off again on Apr. 6 and circle the globe, three of them landing back in Clover Field on Sept. 18 after 175 days and 28,945 mi.; the planes are Seattle, piloted by Maj. (later Maj. Gen.) Frederick L. Martin (1882-1944) and SSgt. Alva L. Harvey, which crashes off Alaska on Apr. 30 and does not finish the flight; Chicago, piloted by Lt. Lowell H. Smith (1892-1945) and Lt. Leslie P. Arnold; Boston, piloted by Lt. (later Maj. Gen. Leigh Wade (1897-1991) and Lt. Henry H. Ogden; and New Orleans, piloted by Lt. (later Maj. Gen.) Erik H. Nelson and Lt. Jack Harding. On Mar. 31 British Imperial Airways is founded. In Mar. in Albania Ahmed Zogu's party wins the election for the Nat. Assembly, but Zogu steps down after a financial scandal and an assassination attempt. On Apr. 6 in Italy the Fascists strong-arm, er, poll 65% of the votes in the gen. election, and receive 375 seats, up from their previous 35; Italian PM Giovanni Giolitti approves their rise to power at first, but after a perid in the chamber of deputies with the Benito Bums he wakes up and becomes an opponent. The original She Bangs? On Apr. 11 elections in Denmark increase the Socialist seats from 39 to 55, and Socialist Thorvald Stauning (1873-1942) becomes PM of Denmark (until 1926); Nina Henriette Wendeline Bang (1866-1928) becomes the first Danish woman elected to a nat. post (minister of education) (until 1926), and the first female minister in Europe? On Apr. 12 the French Nat. Assembly revises laws on civil and military pensions, increasing the number of pensioners. On Apr. 17 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) Studios) is founded by Marcus Loew from a merger of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and Louis B. Mayer Pictures. On Apr. 19 the National Barn Dance debuts on WLS-AM in Chicago, Ill. (owned by Sears, Roebuck & Co., hence the initials WLS stand for World's Largest Store), founded by Edgar L. Bill, reaching an audience of 20M in the 1930s-1940s, featuring Orvon Grover "Gene" Autry (1907-98), Clyde Julian "Red" Foley (1910-68), Judy Martin (Eva Alaine Overstake) (1917-51) (2nd wife of Red Foley) (grandmother of Debby Boone), Jenny Lou Carson (Virginia Lucille Overstake) (1915-78) (who performs an Annie Oakley act), and Evelyn Carson AKA the Three Little Maids (Overstake Sisters), Eddie Dean (Edgar Dean Glosup) (1907-99) and his brother Jimmie Dean (not to be confused with Jimmy Dean), Lulu Belle and Scotty ("the Sweethearts of Country Music") incl. Myrtle Eleanor Cooper (1913-99) and Scott Greene Wiseman (1908-81), Maxwell Emmett "Pat" Buttram (1915-94), George Leslie Gobel (1919-91), the Williams Brothers incl. Bob Williams, Don Williams, Dick Williams, and Andy Williams, the DeZurik Sisters Mary Jane DeZurik (1917-81) and Carolyn DeZurik (1918-2006), the Hoosier Hot Shots, Lester Alvin "Smiley" Burnett (1911-67), Edwin Ellsworth "Eddie" Peabody (1902-70) ("King of the Banjo"), and Joe Kelly; NBC-Radio picks it up in 1933-46, followed by ABC-Radio in 1946-52; live performances cease in 1957, and it is discontinued in 1959. On Apr. 23 the U.S. passes the Soldiers' Bonus Bill, putting off the promised wartime service bonus until 1945. On Apr. 23 George V makes his first broadcast on BBC from Wembly Stadium, opening the British Empire Exhibition. In Apr. the Khost Rebellion in Afghanistan by the Mangal tribe in opposition to govt. modernization efforts begins (ends 1925). In Apr. Dillsboro, N.C.-born fiddler and 5-string banjo player "Aunt" Samantha Bumgarner (1878-1960) and guitarist Eva Davis become the first female musicians to release country music records, recording about a dozen with Columbia Records in New York City, inspiring Pete Seeger et al. On May 2 Craters of the Moon Nat. Monument and Preserve in C Idaho on the Snake River Plain is established, known for its well-preserved flood basalt areas. Chariots of Fire? On May 4-July 27 the VIII (8th) (Eighth) Summer Olympic Games are held in Paris, with 3,092 participants from 44 nations in 24 sports and 137 events; the U.S. wins 12 gold medals; "Flying Finn" Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973) wins four gold medals; British runners Harold Maurice Arahams (1899-1978) (Jewish) (known for the Abrahams Dip) and "the Flying Scotsman" Eric Henry Liddell (1902-45) (rhymes with fiddle) (Christian) win gold medals in the 100m (Sun.) and 400m races, respectively, wearing newfangled spiked running shoes made by Reebok Internat. Ltd. of England, originally J.W. Foster & Sons, which introduced the first spiked running shoes in 1895; Abrahams stirs displeasure of English Christian elitists by hiring half-Italian half-Arab prof. trainer Scipio Africanus "Sam" Musabini (1867-1927); starting blocks aren't used for another 10 years; after making worldwide news for refusing to run on Sun. (the Sabbath), devout Scottish Presbyterian Liddell becomes the first Scot to win a gold medal; before the 400m race an Am. masseur slips a piece of paper into his hand with a quotation from 1 Sam. 2:30 ("Those who honor me I will honor"), which he runs with; Abrahams becomes the first Euro to win the 100m, beating U.S. favorites "the Calif. Cannonball" Charles William "Charlie" Paddock (1900-43) and "the New York Thunderbolt" Jackson Volney Scholz (1897-1986); Yale U. medical student Benjamin McLane Spock (1903-98) wins a gold medal as part of the men's 8-man rowing team; Romanian-born Am. swimmer Peter John "Johnny" Weismuller (1904-84) wins a record two solo golds in swimming; "Little Miss Poker Face" Helen Wills Moody (Helen Newington Wills Roark) (1905-98) wins two golds in tennis (singles and doubles), going on to win 31 Grand Slam titles incl. 19 singles titles, and a record eight Wimbledon singles titles, which isn't surprassed until Martina Navratilova in 1990; William Butler Yeats' brother Jack B. Yeats wins a silver medal in painting for his work "The Liffey Swim"; the last year that tennis is an Olympic sport until 1988; 60K watch Uruguay defeat Switzerland 3-0 for the gold medal in soccer, becoming the sport's first worldwide exposure. On May 10 29-y.-o. John Edgar Hoover (1875-1972) is appointed head of the Bureau of Investigation (renamed FBI in 1935). Speaking of chariots of fire? On May 11 French elections give the Radical leftist-Socialist Cartel des Gauches of Edouard Herriot (1872-1957) a majority in the chamber over Poincare's failure to coerce German reparations, causing him to resign, and the defeated and stunned right to fall back on its instincts and form its first Fascist party, the Faisceau, along with a paramilitary group, the Jeunesses Patriotes (Young Patriots), who flourish until the economic recovery begins in 1926; on June 11 French pres. (since 1920) Alexandre Millerand is forced to resign, and Herriot becomes PM (until 1925); on June 13 Pierre Gaston Doumergue (1863-1937) becomes pres. #13 of France (until June 13, 1931); Socialist mathematician and former PM Paul Painleve returns as pres. of the chamber of deputies (until 1925). On May 17 the Giant Dipper roller coaster in Santa Cruz, Calif. opens. On May 19 the U.S. World War Veterans Adjusted Compensation (Soldier's Bonus) Act is passed over a veto by Pres. Coolidge, granting a cash payment for loss of wages during wartime service. On May 21 the sensational Leopold and Loeb Case sees 14-y.-o. Robert "Bobby" Franks murdered in a "thrill killing" committed by brainy rich gay lovers Nathan Freudenthal Leopold Jr. (1904-71) (son of the pres. of the Fibre Can Co.) and Richard Albert Loeb (1905-36) (son of a vice-pres. of Sears), two rich Jewish college kids at the U. of Chicago who think they're Nietzsche's Supermen; Franks is Loeb's cousin, and they kill him with four chisel smashes to the head; not-so-smart Leopold's eyeglasses are discovered near his body, and Loeb breaks down and confesses, followed by Leopold; the sensational murder trial features the most eloquent attack on the death penalty in a U.S. courtroom to date by famed atty. Clarence Seward Darrow (1857-1938), who saves them from capital punishment by blaming the univ. for teaching them Nietzsche (plus playing the "Jew card"?), getting them life sentences plus 99 years each; they had intended to murder Armand Deutsch, an heir to the Sears & Roebuck fortune, but he was ill and stayed home that day (he later becomes a successful Hollywood producer); Loeb is murdered by another convict in 1936; Leopold is paroled in 1958. On May 23 Greenland-born Danish explorer Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen (1879-1933) reaches Point Barrow after completing the longest dog sledge journey ever made across the North Am. Arctic, becoming the first Euro to cross the Northwest Pessage via dog sled. On May 24 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Rogers Act, combining the diplomatic and consular services into the U.S. Foreign Service as a div. of the U.S. Dept. of State, which traces its origins all the way back to Benjamin Franklin in 1776; the merit system is extended to all categories of the foreign service. Speaking of rats? On May 28 after eugenics experts Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957) et al. influence them, the U.S. govt. passes the Ugly Betty U.S. Immigration Restriction Act, closing U.S. borders and restricting the annual immigration of any nationality to 2% of the number that were U.S. residents in 1890, while prohibiting the immigration of "aliens ineligible for citizenship" and "undesirable" racial groups, incl. the Japanese, with Pres. Coolidge issuing the soundbyte "America must remain American"; on July 1 the Japanese observe Humiliation Day with anti-U.S. demonstrations in Tokyo - we brought Pearl Harbor on right here, thanks Henry Herbert Goddard? On May 30 the first airplanes designed for crop dusting are flown in the Mississippi Delta by Collett Everman Woolman (1889-1966) of Macon, Ga., who sprays calcium arsenate powder to control pesky boll weevils, then goes on to expand into cargo and passenger service, moving to Monroe, La. in 1925, purchasing Huff Daland on Sept. 13, 1928, and founding Delta Air Lines, expanding E to Atlanta, Ga. and W to Ft. Worth, Tex. in 1930, only to go bankrupt after the Post Office awards their route to Am. Airlines, then being resurrected after Congress enacts the 1934 U.S. Air Mail Act; in 1941 it moves its HQ from Monroe, La. to Atlanta, Ga. In May Gen. Ludendorff is elected to the Reichstag as a Nat. Socialist. Unemployed white Am. cowboys find a new gig? On June 1 the U.S. Immigration (Johnson-Reed) (Nat. Origins) (Asian Exclusion) Act is passed, establishing the U.S. Immigration Service under the Dept. of Labor, relieving mounted Immigrations and Customs inspectors along the U.S. borders so that they can man official ports of entry; until now the only excludable aliens were Orientals or "Celestials", who liked to come in at Fairbanks, Alaska by the San Pedro River; the U.S. Border Patrol, organized by Wisc.-born Clifford Alan Perkins, with the motto "Honor First" starts out with 600 men, and now gets to nab Mexicans, but in practice they spend most of their time catching rumrunners, beginning the 10-year Volstead Wild West Show, getting in a gunfight every 17 days in the El Paso district alone, and losing five men in their first two years in gunfights; after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 it is tamed down. On June 2 the Pres. Coolidge signs the U.S. Indian Citizenship (Snyder) Act, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (R-N.Y.) (1915-25) Homer Peter Snyder (1863-1937), granting U.S. citizenship to all "domestic dependent nations", i.e. Amerindians - that's mighty white of you palefaces who stole my country? On June 6 after the London Conference approves it, the German Reichstag accepts the Dawes Plan, drafted by Charles Gates Dawes (1865-1951), the U.S. plan to help Germany pay the 20B mark war reparations debt and take it out of the sphere of political controversy by ending the Allied occupation of the Ruhr and providing for staggered payments. On June 7 street gangster Joey Chill shoots and kills Thomas Wayne, father of young Bruce in Gotham City; at the sight of her husband being shot, his wife Martha dies of a heart attack; pissed-off Bruce Wayne dedicates himself to fighting crime and avenging his parents' death, becoming Batman, the Caped Crusader :) On June 8 English mountaineer George Herbert Leigh Mallory (b. 1886) of Cambridge U. and Oxford U. student Andrew Comyne "Sandy" Irvine (b. 1902) attempt to reach the top of 29K-ft. Mt. Everest from their camp at 26.8K ft. (the Death Zone begins at 26K ft.) using the North to Northeast Ridge route; neither return; the body of Mallory is found May 1, 1999 on a ledge on the N face at 26,760 ft.; Mallory earlier claimed he wants to climb it "because it is there" ("the most famous four words in mountaineering"). On June 10 the Italian Socialist anti-Fascist deputy Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885) (author of The Fascists Exposed, detailing their violent modus operandi) is kidnapped and assassinated by Fascist Quadristi in Roma (Rome), who are later acquitted or given slaps on the wrists; on June 15 the non-Fascist third of the chamber secedes in the Aventine Secession (an attempt to repeat the one of 494 B.C.E.), vowing not to return until the Matteotti Affair has been cleared up, and demanding the disbanding of the Fascist militia; hi there? on June 17 the Fascist militia marches into Rome and settles things; rigid press censorship is introduced on July 1, and opposition parties are forbidden on Aug. 3; the opposition never returns to parliament - why hold any more elections, he's Il Duce? On June 10-12 the 1924 Repub. Nat. Convention in Cleveland, Ohio nominates Calvin Coolidge of Mass. for pres., and Charles Gates Dawes of Ill. (of Dawes Plan fame) for vice-pres.; the campaign ads feature an electric fan and the slogan "Keep Cool With Cal". On June 24 the tabloid New York Daily Mirror is founded by William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) to compete with the #1-in-the-U.S. New York Daily News, attracting top talent incl. Ringgold Wilmer "Ring" Lardner Jr. (1915-2000), sports photographer Hy Peskin (1915-2005) (who helps make the Brooklyn Dodgers famous), and liberal Jewish-Am. former vaudeville performer Walter Winchell (1897-1972), whose gossip column "On Broadway" ends up being syndicated in 2K papers worldwide and read by 50M a day until the early 1960s; in 1930 Winchell begins Sun. night radio broadcasts, ending up on NBC's Blue Network and reaching another 20M to the late 1950s, opening with "Good morning, Mrs. and Mrs. North and South America and all the ships at sea, let's go to press", then delivering his lines at jet speed; Hearst ends up with a string of 28 newspapers, selling the Mirror in 1928, then buying it back in 1932; too bad, despite being #2 in the U.S. in circulation, it folds on Oct. 16, 1963 after the 114-day 1962 New York City newspaper strike. On June 24-July 9 the 1924 Dem. National Convention is held in New York's Madison Square Garden; Lena Springs (Mrs. Leroy Springs) (-1942) is the first woman considered for the job of vice-pres.; on July 11 after 103 roll-calls the Dems. bypass N.Y. gov. Alfred E. Smith and William G. McAdoo of Calif., and nominate famous constitutional lawyer John William Davis (1873-1955) of W. Va. and Charles Wayland Bryan (1867-1945) (younger brother of William Jennings Bryan) to run against Calvin Coolidge. On June 26 after eight years of occupation, U.S. troops leave the Dominican Repub. On June 28 four tornadoes rock Ohio and Penn., killing 96 and causing $13M in property damage. On June 30 Jan Christiaan Smuts of the South African Party is replaced as PM of South Africa by anti-British statesman James Barry Munnik Hertzog (1866-1942) of the Nat. Party (until 1939); the two parties merge in 1934 to form the United Party. On June 30 after the orthodox Eida Chareidis group splits with the secular Jewish Zionists over their program to create a secular "new Jew" for a future state of Israel and begins contacting Arabs and Brits, Dutch-born Eida Chareidis leader Jacob Israel de Haan (b. 1881) is assassinated by the Haganah under Yitzhak Ben-Zvi as he leaves the synagogue of the Shaarei Tzedek Hospital in Jerusalem, stopping the group from negotiating with the British for a separate peace, becoming the first victim of Zionist political violence, and launching an eternal war between secular and religious Jews. In June the U.S. Senate remits all of China's 1900 Boxer indemnity payments. In June after a May visit to Sicily sees Mafia boss Francesco Cuccia snub him, pissing him off, Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fascists begin a campaign against the Sicilian Mafia, which had dominated Sicilian politics for the past half cent., appointing "Iron Prefect" Cesare Mori (1871-1942) as prefect of Palermo next Oct. 25 (until June 1929), resulting in mass arrests and trials (11K by 1929); too bad, it causes a mass exodus to the U.S. - now the Fascists are doomed? In June-July a peasant-backed insurgency wins control of Tirana, Albania; on July 10 conservative backers of Zogu get even for an assassination attempt on him by assassinating liberal leader Avni Rustemi (Rrustemi) (b. 1895); on July 17 Albanian chief Orthodox bishop Theofan "Fan" Stilian Noli (1882-1965) gives a speech at Rustemi's funeral so powerful that it causes Zogu to flee to Yugoslavia, and Noli becomes PM, unsuccessfully attempting a 20-point reform program; too bad, Zogu returns during Christmas (Dec. 25) backed by the Yugoslavians, and Noli flees to Italy under sentence of death, then moves to the U.S. in 1932 to form a repub. opposition to King Zogu. On July 4 Italian-born chef Caesar Cardini (1896-1956) of scam-city bordertown Tijuana, Mexico invents Caesar Salad (Romaine lettuce, Parmesan cheese, 2-min. eggs, olive oil, Worcestershire sauce et al.), making Caesar's Restaurant popular with Hollywood stars; in 1926 his brother Alex adds anchovies; Giacomo Junia of the New York Cafe in Chicago, Ill. invented it first in 1903? - the English version is Richard the Lettuce Heart? On July 25 Greece announces the deportation of 50K Armenians - on Noah's Ark? In July the Kurdish tribal revolt in N Iraq (begun 1922) is suppressed. On Aug. 5 the comic strip Little Orphan Annie by Harold Lincoln Gray (1894-1968) (a Freemason) debuts - she's got red hair, hence must be Mary Magdalene in disguise? In Aug. the British issue an ultimatum to Transjordan, causing it to cave in and accept greater British control; Lt. Col. Sir Henry Cox (1880-1953) becomes British rep. to Transjordan (until 1939); the Tribal Courts Law gives tribal sheiks official legal powers. On Sept. 3 after discontent with low salaries, 56 military officers "rattle their sabers" at Chilean pres. (since 1920) Arturo Alessandri, and after he gets an income tax passed on Sept. 8 to pay for higher salaries, he resigns on Sept. 9 and requests asylum at the U.S. embassy, after which the nat. congress grants him a 6 mo. leave of absence, allowing him to flee to Italy; on Sept. 11 a military junta led by Gen. Luis Altamirano Talavera (1867-1938) dissolves the assembly and rules as a dictator, but fails to control the economic crisis and is overthrown next Jan. 23 by another military coup led by AF Col. Marmaduque Grove Vallejo (1878-1954) and Lt. Carlos Ibanez del Camp (Carlos Ibáñez del Campo) (1877-1960), with atty. Emilio Bello Codecido (1868-1941) as interim pres. (until Mar. 20, 1925), who asks Alessandri to return from exile, which he does next year, naming Ibanez as minister of war and interior and drafting a new constitution reducing the powers of the congress and providing for direct pres. elections; after Alessandri is called Ibanez's puppet, he resigns on Oct. 1 and goes into exile again. On Sept. 6 the Miss America 1924 contest is held at the Million Dollar Pier in Atlantic City, N.J.; the winner is Miss Philadelphia Ruth Malcomson (1906-88), last year's amateur winner; last year's winner Mary Katherine Campbell is runner-up; future actress Beatrice Roberts is a finalist; repeat winners are prohibited. On Sept. 24 the 1K-y.-old Thunder Pagoda in China falls down after too many people steal bricks from it to ward off evil spirits. On Sept. 28 two U.S. Army planes land in Seattle after having completed the first round-the-world flight in 175 days - 95 days too long, sorry? On Oct. 4-10 the Washington Senators (AL) defeat the New York Giants (NL) 4-3 to win the Twenty-First (21st) World Series. In Oct. the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Repub. is proclaimed, with capital at Dushanbe ("two days after Saturday", "Monday"), becoming a center for cotton and silk production after forced relocation of tens of thousands from around the Soviet Union; it changes its name to Tajik Soviet Socialist Repub. in 1929, with Dushanbe renamed to Stalinabad until 1961. On Nov. 1 legendary Okla. marshal Bill Tilghman (b. 1856) is gunned down by a drunk in Cromwell, Okla. On Nov. 4 the 1924 U.S. Pres. Election elects "Keep Cool with" Calvin Coolidge on a pro-business platform, becoming the 2nd Repub. vice-pres. to succeed to the presidency then get reelected (first Teddy Roosevelt in 1904); the Dems. win just 29% of the popular vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Sen. Robert "Fighting Bob" LaFolette of Wisc. of the Progressive Party (382 to 186 electoral votes); the 3rd time that a third party polls more than 10% of the vote in a U.S. Pres. Election (1892, 1912, 1968); Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1977) of Wyo. is elected America's first woman gov., serving the remaining term of her husband William B. Ross, who died in office; 15 days later Dem. Miriam Amanda Wallace "Ma" Ferguson (1875-1961), wife of impeached gov. (1915-17) James Edward "Pa" Ferguson (1871-1944) becomes the first woman gov. of Texas and the 2nd woman state gov. in the U.S. (until 1927) (reelected 1933-5). On Nov. 10 Chicago bootlegger Charles Dean "Dion" O'Banion (b. 1892) (leader of the North Side Gang and rival of Al Capone and Johnny Torio), known for his florist business, boyish face, and trigger-happy ways, who lavishes flowers on funerals and starts a fashion is gunned down by Frankie Yale, John Scalise, and Albert Anselmi, his well-flowered funeral attended by 15K; his death starts a 5-year gang war between the North Side Gang and the Chicago Outfit that ends in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929. On Nov. 14 the Additional Protocol to the Pan-American Sanitary Code is signed in Havana, Cuba. On Nov. 14 Le Vieux-Colombier, the first avante-garde film theater opens in Paris. On Nov. 20 Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack (b. 1868), CIC (sirdar) of the Egyptian army is assassinated, causing the first Wafdist govt. to fall, and Saad Zaghlul to be removed as PM; the pissed-off Brits demand indemnities and the withdrawal of Egyptian troops from the Sudan. On Nov. 19-28 Alfonso XIII of Spain and Pres. Primo de Rivera visit Rome in return for a visit of the king and queen of Italy next June, and establish friendly relations with the Fascisti. On Nov. 23 the remains of Jean Jaures are transferred to the French Pantheon. On Nov. 24 Chinese gens. Feng Yu-Hsiang and Chang Tso-lin stage another coup, making Gen. Tuan Ch'i-jui (1864-1936) pres. of China (until ?); meanwhile China having degenerated into the control of warlords Chang (Manchuria), Feng (the "Christian general", N of Peking), Lu, Wu, Yen, et al., Russian Communist Mikhail Borodin (1884-1951) assists Dr. Sun Yat-sen (who utters the soundbyte that the Chinese people don't have a nat. spirit but are "just a heap of loose sand") in organizing the Chinese Kuomintang Party in Canton based on his Three Principles: Nationalism, Democracy, Social Justice (Popular Livelihood) (take from the rich and give to the poor?); the military section is led by young Chinese officer Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975), husband of Sun's sister-in-law; Russian Gen. Vasili Blucher becomes their military advisor (under the name Ga Lin) until 1928, then becomes cmdr. of Soviet military forces in E Siberia until 1938, when he is mysteriously dismissed and vanishes. On Nov. 24 after making her pregnant, 35-y.-o. Charlie Chaplin marries 16-y.-o. Lita Grey (Lillita "Lolita" McMurray) (1908-) in a highly-publicized event in Empalme, Sonora, Mexico where they run from reporters; they first met at Kitty's Come-On Inn in 1915 where her scheming mother Nana McMurray worked as a waitress, and he kept his eye on her as she grew up, watching her role as an angel in "The Kid", then getting her a role as a dance hall girl in The Gold Rush, putting her name on Edna Purviance's dressing room door and filming tons of unusable scenes because she can't act or take direction; her stage name comes from a grey angora cat Charlie gave her; after the marriage Nana moves in along with the whole McMurray clan; they have son Charles Chaplin Jr. on June 28, 1925, and 2nd son Sydney Earle Chaplin on Mar. 30, 1926; on Dec. 1, 1926 (night) Charlie returns home to find a drunken circus, kicking the whole McMurray clan out, and Lita files for divorce on Jan. 10, 1927, demanding $1M, causing a bitter court battle that turns Charlie's hair white, featuring salacious newspaper accounts of him demanding fellatio, saying "all married people do it" that paint him as a pervert and her as a saint; to prevent the names of five actresses he allegedly hooked up with (incl. Marion Davies) from being revealed, he settles out of court, and on Aug. 22, 1927 Lita is awarded $625K, after which Chaplin returns to work on "The Circus", which had been interrupted for a year, dying his hair black. On Nov. 26 the Mongolian People's Repub. is proclaimed, becoming the 2nd Communist country on Earth after the Soviet Union; the name of the capital city Urga is changed to Ulan Bator (Ulaan Baatar) ("red hero"). On Nov. 27 150 Communists are tried, convicted and imprisoned in Estonia, causing an Estonian Communist Uprising on Dec. 1, which is suppressed. On Nov. 27 (Thanksgiving Day) the first Macy's Parade is held in New York City from Central Park West to Herald Square on Broadway, from 145th St. down to 34th St., watched by 250K, with employees dressed in costumes, with floats, bands, and bears borrowed from Central Park Zoo, which scare the kids so much that balloons replace them in 1927, starting with silent cartoon star Fritz the Cat. On Dec. 1 after the Mexican revolt of Adolfo de la Huerta (begun 1923) is crushed, Plutarco Elias Calles (1877-1945) becomes pres. #40 of Mexico (until Nov. 30, 1928), beginning a decade of direct and indirect authoritarian rule called the Maximato. On Dec. 3 Pres. Coolidge gives his 1924 State of the Union Address to Congress, becoming the first to be broadcast on radio. On Dec. 15 the Soviets warn the U.S. against repeated entry of ships into their territorial waters. On Dec. 20 Adolf Hitler is released from Landsberg Prison - you take care of business, office depot takes care of you? On Dec. 24 after former pres. (1910-14) Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno (1859-1945) is elected pres. of Costa Rica (until 1928), he withdraws the country from the Tides of Barbarism, er, League of Nations. An attempt is made on the life of Austrian Chancellor Ignaz Seipel. Rama VI of Siam establishes the Palace Law of Succession. Gandhi fasts for 21 days in protest against the Hindu-Moslem feuds in India - no cow, no pork, no nothing? The Fed (U.S. Federal Reserve System) adopts an easy money policy. Germany returns to the gold standard and adopts the Reichmark, which has a value equivalent to the pre-war gold mark. The World Power Conference is held in Wembley, London (1.7K delegates from 40 countries), along with the British Empire Exhibition. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1924 prohibits the discharge of any kind of oil into navigable waters. The Racial Integrity Act is passed in Va., prohibiting interracial marriage; overturned in 1967; too bad, the act classifies most Indian aborigines in Va. as black. Afghanistan promulgates a new penal code which incl. secular law aspects, pissing-off the religious establishment, which considers it an attempt to invade their turf. Spanish Cortes deputy and lit. giant Miguel de Unamuno is exiled to the Canary Islands, then granted amnesty after a few mo., causing him to tell them to stuff it and move to Paris (until 1930). German gay serial murderer Friedrich Heinrich Karl "Fritz" Haarmann (1879-1925), "the Butcher of Hanover", "the Hanover Vampire", "the Wolf Man", who killed 27 boys and young men since 1918 by biting them in the neck then decapitating and stripping their flesh is convicted of 24 murders and sentenced to death by guillotine, and executed on Apr. 15, 1925 in Hanover - what a waste of a good potential Nazi? In France the Ile St.-Louis makes an unsuccessful attempt to secede from Paris and France, and issues its own passports. In Belgium the Flemish cause a commercial treaty with France to be rejected. In Belgium old age pensions become obligatory - the commode is stopped up with a diaper and it's a bad day at Black Rock? The first traffic light in Europe is set up on the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin - and Hitler gets the first ticket? Stalin divides the remnants of Turkestan into the Central Asian repubs.; Kyrgyzstan becomes a Soviet federated Socialist repub.; the Bolsheviks form a tiny Soviet repub. in Transnistria as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania. Nejd ruler Ibn Saud invades Hejaz, conquering it by next year, and in 1926 proclaims himself king of Hejaz - Louis Armstrong would dispute that? Xuantong (Aisingyoro Henry Puyi), the last Chinese emperor goes to the puppet state of Manchuria (Manchukuo) in NE China after he is evicted from the Forbidden City by a warlord. The British govt. takes over admin. of Northern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Co. An expedition sponsored by Johns Hopkins U. and led by Am. engineer Lincoln Ellsworth (1880-1951) makes a geological survey of the Andes Mts. from the Pacific Ocean E to the headwaters of the Amazon River; in 1925 he inherits a bundle from his daddy and hooks up with Roald Amundsen. Cool French flower girl (spiritualist anarchist Buddhist) Alexandra David-Neel (David-Néel)(d. 1969) becomes the first Euro woman to visit Lhasa, Tibet. Walter Herschel Beech (1879-1950) and Clyde Vernon Cessna (1879-1954) found Travel Air Manufacturing Co. in Wichita, Kan., turning the town into a leading aircraft manufacturer; they part ways in 1927. Greenland becomes a Danish crown colony following Danish agreements with Norway and Great Britain. Herzliya, (named after Zionism founder Theodor Herzl) near Tel Aviv in Palestine is founded as a Jewish farming community. F.M. Bailey, H.T. Morsehead, and F.K. Ward find the source of the Brahmaputra-Tsangpo River in Tibet. The Royal Fine Arts Commission is founded in Britain to advise on public memorials and buildings. The Soviets found the Central Office for the Examination of Rocket Problems in Moscow. The U.S. bans heroin use. The Lithuanian Embassy in Washington, D.C. on 16th st. is founded, going on to become the longest continuously-owned embassy bldg. in Washington, D.C. After a campaign against Roman Catholics and the foreign-born, the KKK takes over both chambers in Ind. Statehouse, plus the gov.'s office and most seats in Congress. Wupatki Nat. Monument in N Ariz. is established, featuring farm dwellings built by ancestors of the Hopis. Summerhill School in Leiston, Suffolk, England is founded by Scottish schoolmaster A.J. Neill to try out his views that children should run the shcool and adult staff should only help when asked. The Technion (Israel Institute of Technology) in Haifa, Palestine, endorsed by Albert Einstein, who visited in 1923 and planted the first palm tree finally opens its doors with 17 students after foundations were laid in 1912; next year British Zionist industrialist Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett (1868-1930) becomes pres. #1. The last known wolf is eliminated from Calif. Tularemia, an acute infectious rural febrile disease makes its debut in Tulare, Calif., and is later traced to rabbits after a false lead of deer flies. Russian conductor Serge Koussevitzky (1874-1951), who settled in Paris in 1920 moves to the U.S. and becomes conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (until 1949). Mary Louise Curtis Bok (1876-1970) founds the Curtis Inst. of Music in Philadelphia, Penn., marrying violinist Efrem Zimbalist Sr. (1889-1985) in 1943 and running it together to crank out top musicians. St. Louis, Mo.-born naughty African-Am. jazz singer ("the Bronze Venus") ("the Bronze Pearl") ("the Jazz Cleopatra") ("the Creole Goddess") Josephine Baker (Freda Josephine McDonald) (1906-75) becomes a star in Paris with such acts as the seminude "Danse Sauvage", and the "Banana Dance", costumed in a girdle of rhinestone-studded bananas; in 1974 she makes a 50th anniv. comeback with an entrance on a motorcyle. Danish feminist writer Maria Kirstine Dorothea "Thit" Jensen (1876-1957) founds the Org. for Sexual Awareness (Foreiningen for Seksuel Oplysning) to give women the choice of having an abortion, with their own doctor. Vitezslav Nezval (1900-58) and Frantisek Halas (1901-49) found the Poetismus (Poetist) movement in Czech., which junks social content in favor of "pure" poetry. French tenor Georges Thill (1897-1984) debuts in the Paris Opera, going on to become #1 in France, and record the hit Cantique de Noel (O Holy Night). Henry Ford startles the world by offering the Model T for only $290 (same price that the Asians offer kids' motorized Pocket Rockets for in the year 2004?); Ford Motor Co. produces its 10 millionth car; there is a widespread movement to run Ford for pres. Over 73B cigarettes are sold in the U.S. this year; Philip Morris Co. begins marketing "mild as May" Marlboro brand cigarettes to well-born ladies, which ruse backfires when it has to make it their first filtered brand in the 1950s. European-born Jewish immigrants Louis Burt Mayer (1884-1957), Marcus Loew (1870-1927) and Samuel Goldwyn (Goldfish) (Szmuel Gelbfisz) (1879-1974) found Metro Goldwyn Mayer (MGM) to produce motion pictures; in 1928 its logo becomes Leo the Lion, who in ? dies and is buried in Gillette, N.J. CBS Film Sales, named after founders Cohn-Brandt-Cohn is renamed to Columbia Pictures; the company icon "Our Lady of Columbia" debuts clad in a flag and holding a torch; the flag is changed to a cape in 1941. Am. drama critic George Jean Nathan (1882-1958) and witty writer ("the Sage of Baltimore") H.L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (1880-1956) found The American Mercury mag. (ends 1981) (after Mencken quits as ed. of Smart Set), going on to shake America up with their irreverent observations; it never reaches over 84K circ., but manages to stir up the religious and the yokels from time to time; "What we need is something that looks highly respectable outwardly... What will go on inside the tent is another story" (Mencken); "The dead hand of the yokelry on the instinct for beauty cannot be so heavy if the handsome green and black cover of the American Mercury exists" (Simeon Strunsky, New York Times). Louis Armstrong moves to New York City at the invitation of Fletcher Henderson to play with his orchestra, moving the focus of Am. jazz from Chicago to the Big Apple. Alderson, W. Va.-born cigar-chomping jazz singer Ada Beatrice Queen Victoria Louise Virginia Smith (1894-1984) opens the Chez Bricktop jazz cabaret in Paris (until 1939), attracting clientele incl. Cole Porter, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, John Steinbeck, and F. Scott Fitzgerald, becoming known as "the Doyenne of Cafe Society", having a lezzie affair with Josephine Baker; Cole Porter writes the song Miss Otis Regrets for her; in 1929 it moves to 66 Rue Pigalle, and shuts down in 1939 after the Nazis invade Paris. Mich.-born cartoonist Jay Norwood "Ding" Darling (1876-1962) wins the Pulitzer Prize for cartooning, going on to ridicule FDR's relief programs and promote conservation, winning another one in 1943. Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986) marries 23-year-older photographer Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946). Austrian-born Jewish actor Max Reinhardt (Goldmann) (1873-1943) opens the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna (until 1933), going on to found the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, introducing innovations in theater before the Nazis kick him out. MCA (Music Corp. of America) is founded by Jules C. Stein (1896-1981) et al. as a music booking agency in Chicago, Ill., going on to book big bands incl. King Oliver and Jelly Roll Morton and His Red Hot Pepper, becoming the world's largest talent agency by the late 1930s, moving to Beverly Hills in 1939 and gaining the nickname "The Octopus", triggering endless monopoly investigations by the U.S. Dept. of Justice; in 1936 Lewis Robert "Lew" Wasserman (1913-2002) joins it, rising to head in 1948, and becoming famous for taking down the Hollywood studio system, causing him to be known as the Pope of Hollywood. Tsukiji Little Theater opens in Tokyo, inaugurating the modern theater movement in Japan, staging many plays by Eugene O'Neill. After being inspired by Magnus Hirschfeld, Bavarian-born Henry Gerbert (Henry Joseph Dittmar) (1892-1972) founds the Society for Human Rights (SHR) in Chicago, Ill., becoming the first homosexual org. in the U.S.; too bad, the police shut it down after a few mo.; on June 22, 2015 the Henry Gerber House in Chicago is designated a nat. historic landmark. The British Tank Museum in Bovington, England is established; exhibits incl. the first British tank, known as Big Willie, His Majesty's Landship Centipede, and Mother; too bad, it is sent to a munitions factory in 1940. The World Union of Jewish Students (WUJA) is founded in Jerusalem by internat. lawyer Sir Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960), with Albert Einstein as pres. #1. The Slump of 1924 in Britain causes many film studios to close. Italian Cubist painter Giorgio de Chirico arrives in Paris. Juan Gris gives the definitive lecture Possibilites de la Peinture at the Sorbonne. Swiss-born French architect Le Corbusier (1887-1965) starts the how-can-you-be-against-it Functionalist Movement in architecture, with the motto "A house is a machine for living in." Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) returns to Africa and builds a hospital that cares for thousands, incl. 300 lepers, staying permanently except for occasional tours of Europe for lectures and organ recitals; otherwise a saint, his opinions that African blacks are lazy, shiftless, and untrustworthy is later covered up, along with his soundbyte "They [Africans] have neither the intellectual, mental or emotional abilities to equate or to share equally with white men in any of the functions of our civilization." Russian pianist Alexander Brailowsky (1896-1976), who debuted in Paris in 1919 performs his first complete historical recital of the works of Frederic Chopin (1810-49), using Chopin's own piano for part of it. The Blauen Vier (Blue Four) German expressionist artists' group is formed by art dealer Galka "Emmy" Esther Scheyer (1889-1945) of Weimar from painters Lyonel Charles Feininger (1871-1956), Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941), Wassily (Vassily) Kandinsky (1866-1944), and Paul Klee (1879-1940); she travels to New York City to sell their works, and finds the Yanks unenthusiastic about this modern art crap? Sergei Koussevitzky beecomes chief conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (until 1949). Russian-born Jewish immigrant Samuel Bronfman (1889-1971) founds the Distillers Corp. in Montreal, Canada, making a fortune selling cheap whiskey to U.S. bootleggers, then in 1928 buys a classy joint, Joseph E. Seagram & Sons of Waterloo, Ont. Bavarian brothers Adolf "Adi" Dassler (1900-78) and Rudolf Dassler (1898-1974) found Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory, supplying shoes and spikes to athletes incl. Jesse Owens in 1936; after they both become Nazis and Adi rats Rudolf out after the war as SS, they split, Rudolf founds Puma nearby across the Aurach River, while Adi changes the name of his co. to Adidas. Gainsborough Pictures is founded in Hoxton, Shoreditch London on the S bank of Regent's Canal by Sir Michael Elias Balcon (1896-1977); in 1915 it builds Lime Grove Studios in shepherd's Bush, West London, becoming the first bldg. built in Britain solely for film production; in 1927 it becomes sister co. to Gaumont British, which acquires Islington Studios; it closes in 1951. The MG Car Co. Ltd. (Morris Garages) in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England is founded by Cecil Kimber (1888-1945) to make 2-seater sports cars, becoming a separate div. of Morris Motors; in 1952 it merges with Austin. Bit-O-Honey honey-flavored taffy candy with almond bits is introduced by Schutter-Johnson Co. of Chicago, Ill.; in 1969 it merges with Ward Candy Co. of New York City, which is acquired by Nestle Co. in 1984, who in May 2013 sells it to Pearson's Candy Co. of St. Paul, Minn. Dum Dums brand sphere-shaped lollipops are invented by I.C. Bahr of the Akron Candy Co. in Bellevue, Ohio, which is later acquired by Spangler Candy Co. Sports: On Jan. 18 the Lahore Race Club in India (later Pakistan) is founded, surviving the break with India. On Mar. 22-25 the 1924 Stanley Cup Finals see the Montreal Tigers of the NHL defeat the Calgary Tigers of the WCHL 2-0, becoming their 2nd title; the last Final until 1983 with a team from Alberta, and the last Final until 1986 with a team from Calgary; after the 1923-4 season the Hart Memorial Trophy is established by the NHL for the "player judged most valuable to his team"; it is first awarded to Julius Francis "Frank" "Pembroke Peach" Nighbor (1893-1966) of the Ottawa Senators; in 1960 the original trophy is retired and a new one substituted. On May 30 the 1924 (12th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Joseph "Joe" Boyer (1890-1924) after he is relieved on lap 109, and on lap 111 relieves Lora Lawrence Corum (1899-1949), leading for the last 24 laps, becoming the first Indy 500 in which the relief driver finishes the race, causing them to be declared co-winners; Boyer's car is taken over by Ernie Ansterberg, Corum, and Thane Houser, who crashes it on turn 1 after 176 laps; Jimmy Murphy finishes 3rd. On July 6 Indianapolis 500 winner Rene (René) Thomas (1886-1975) sets a new world land speed record of 143.31 mph in his Delage. On July 20 Federation Internationale des Echecs (FIDE) (Internat. Federation of Chess) is founded in Paris, France. On July 24 George Carpentier loses by TKO after 15 rounds to Gene Tunney at the Polo Grounds in New York; he retires in 1927. On Oct. 20 baseball's first Negro (Colored) World Series is held in Kansas City, Mo., and the Kansas City Monarchs defeat the Hilldale Daisies, who get even next year. Nellie Morse (1921-41), owned by "Mutt and Jeff" cartoonist Bud Fisher becomes the 4th filly to win the Preakness Stakes (until ?); his colt Mr. Mutt finishes 2nd in the Belmont Stakes. Exterminator (Old Bones), winner of the 1918 Kentucky Derby is put out to pasture. The 1924 Notre Dame football team (coach Knute Rockne) becomes famous not only for its Four Horsemen but its Seven Mules (linemen), with a 9-0 record, incl. an upset of Army at the Polo Grounds in N.Y. Walter Hagen of the U.S. wins the British Open golf title for a 2nd time; Bobby Jones wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and Cyril Walker wins the Open. The U.S. team of Bill Tilden, V. Richards, and W.M. Johnston defeats Australia to win the Davis Cup in tennis; the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. men's singles title is won by Bill Tilden, and the women's singles title by Helen N. Willis. Marie Boyd of Lonaconing Central H.S. in Md. scores a nat. girl h.s. record of 156 points in 162-3 V over Cumberland Ursuline Academy of Md. Rogers Hornsby bats a record .424 this season. Steel shafts are permitted in golf; being cheaper than hickory shafts, more people can afford to play. The All Blacks rugby football team from New Zealand makes an undefeated tour of Britain. Boston becomes the first U.S. city to join the Nat. Hockey League (NHL) (founded 1917), with the Boston Bruins. who play their home games at Boston Arena, winning their first game against the Montreal Maroons on Dec. 1, 1924 by 2-1 before end up last place for the season with a 6-24 record; first gen. mgr. is former star player Arthur Howey "Art" Ross (1886-1964), who becomes coach 4x until his 1945 retirement; in 1928 they move to the $10M Boston Garden (opened Nov. 17, 1928), losing their first game on Nov. 20, 1928 to the Montreal Canadians 1-0. The Montreal Maroons (Montreal Prof. Hockey Club) is founded, backed by the English-speaking community of Montreal against French-speaking favorite Montreal Canadiens, playing their home games in the new $1.5M Montreal Forum (opened Nov. 29, 1924); they suspend play in 1938, and their franchise is cancelled in 1947. 5'9" center ("the Stratford Streak") ("the Mitchell Meteor") Howard William "Howie" Morenz (1902-37) begins playing for the Montreal Canadiens, leading them in goals and points for seven seasons, and helping them win three Stanley Cups, winning league MVP 3x, playing for 14 seasons until his leg is fractured in four places by Chicago Black Hawks player Earl Seibert on Jan. 28, 1937, dying of a heart attack in the hospital on Mar. 8, after which 50K attend his funeral on Mar. 11 at the Montreal Forum, and his jersey number #7 is retired by the Canadiens (first time for any player), becoming of the first 12 players inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945; the Canadian Press calls him the best ice hockey player of the first half of the 20th cent. Denver, Colo. 6'4" boxer Eddie Bohn (1902-90) is crowned Rocky Mountain Heavyweight Champion, then works as Jack Dempsey's sparring partner at $100 a round, finally returning to Denver to found the Pig 'N Whistle restaurant on U.S. Highway 40 (West Colfax Ave. and Wolff St.), which until closure in 1991 hosts an endless stream of boxing-connected visitors incl. Dempsey, Gene Tunney, Max Baer, Primo Carnera, and other celebs incl. Roy Rogers, Babe Didrikson Zaharias, the Dorsey brothers, Wally Schirra, Billy Martin (manages the Denver Bears before going to the New York Yankees), even Clint Eastwood. Architecture: On Oct. 9 Soldier Field in Chicago, Ill. (begun 1922) opens, becoming the home of the NFL Chicago Bears (until ?). On Nov. 8 the Fortune Theatre on Russell St. near Covent Garden in Westminster, West End, London (cap. 422) opens with "Sinners" by Lawrence Cowen; after WWII it becomes a receiving house, going on to host "The Woman in Black" starting in 1989. On Nov. 11 the Martin Beck Theatre at 302 West 45th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. (cap. 1,424) opens with "Madame Pompadour", becoming the only theater in New York City without a mortgage, and the most opulent theater of the time, with dressing rooms for 200 actors; on June 21, 2003 it is renamed the Al Hirschfeld Theatre. Henry Wright, Clarence S. Stein et al. design Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, N.Y. (finished 1929) on land purchased from the Penn. Railroad Co. The Pasadena Museum of Mondern Art, later named the Norton Simon Museum is founded on Colorado Blvd. in Pasadena, Calif., on the route of the annual Rose Bowl Parade. The 9'x5'x5' 50-room Queen Mary Doll House is presented to Queen Mary of England, and has its own electric generator, functioning elevator, plumbing system, wine cellar with genuine cobwebs and real vintage wine mini-bottles, and a library with hundreds of actual books, most handwritten by Rudyard Kipling et al. Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, N.Y., a working-class suburb with cul-de-sac streets to deter crime and its own private park, backed by a group incl. Louis Mumford and Eleanor Roosevelt. Am. philanthropist Herbert Fleishhacker (1872-1957) builds Fleishhacker Pool in ?, becoming the world's largest saltwater swimming pool (until ?). The Wilhelm-Marx-Haus in Dusseldorf, Germany (begun in 1922) is completed, becoming the first German skyscraper. Edwin Lutyens designs Britannic House in Finsbury Circus, London; a new one is built in Moor Lane in 1967. Nobel Prizes: Peace: no award; Lit.: Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont (1868-1925) (Poland); Physics: Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (1886-1978) (Sweden) [X-ray spectroscopy]; Chem.: no award; Med.: Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) (Netherlands) [EKG]. Inventions: The modern-day AM radio band (550-1550 KHz) is assigned in the U.S., with the U.S. govt. adopting the position that it owns the airwaves and has the power to allocate frequencies and coverage; 1.4K radio stations are broadcasting to 2.5M-3M radio sets in the U.S. The Rhon-Rossitten (Rhön-Rossitten) Gesellschaft (RRG) in Darmstadt, Germany is founded by "the Father of German Gliding" ("the Rhon Father") ("Rhönvater") Carl Oskar Ursinus (1877-1952) as a German nat. gliding org. to get around the Treaty of Versailles' prohibition of powered flight in Germany, which is partially lifted in 1925; in 1933 the Nazis nationalize it, renaming it the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Segelflug, going on to produce the DFS 194 rocket-powered plane (first flight 1940), forerunner of the Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket plane. The 3:2 aspect ratio Leica (Leitz) Camera, developed by Oskar Barnack (1879-1936) of the Leitz Co. in Wetzlar, Hesse, Germany begins production, becoming the first mass-marketed 35mm camera (36 exposures per roll), with the motto "Small negatives - large images"; he invented it in 1913, but the war delayed production. Am. engineer William H. Mason (1877-1947) invents Masonite hardboard, made of recycled wood chips. Richard Howland Ranger (1899-1962) of RCA Corp. invents the wireless photogradiogram, AKA transoceanic radio facsimile; on Nov. 29 a photo of Pres. Calvin Coolidge is sent from New York City to London, becoming the first photo TRF; radio fax ends up being used for transmitting weather charts and info. into the next cent.; meanwhile Herbert Eugene Ives (1882-1953) of AT&T transmits and receives the first color fax. DuPont and GM combine efforts to produce a fast-drying color lacquer that has a longer lasting finish; the result, "true blue" first appears on the 1924 GM Oakland model. 16-y.-o. Lionel Sternberger (1908-64) of Pasadena, Calif. invents the cheeseburger at his father's sandwich shop, getting the credit in the Feb. 7, 1964 issue of Time mag. The frosted incandescent lamp is invented in the U.S. Insecticides are first used. The Du Pont Co. introduces Rayon, a synthetic fiber manufactured from the cellulose fiber of natural wood pulp; colored Hawaiian shirts begin to proliferate like tropical vines? Science: English scientist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) utilizes short wavelength radio waves (shortwaves) to penetrate the Heaviside (E-Layer) in the upper atmosphere at about 100 km, proving the existence of the ionosphere; radar is born. Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960) discovers Mesozoic dinosaur fossils in the Gobi Desert. German neurologist Hans Berger (1873-1941) of the U. of Jena invents Electroencephalograpy (EEG), proving that the mind exhibits continuous electrical activity, casting doubt on the Pavlovian model of perception and response; in 1934 B.C.H. Matthews and Edgar Douglas Adrian verify his conclusions by tracing a single impulse in a single nerve fiber using a galvanometer. Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974) gets Albert Einstein's help to pub. a paper deriving Planck's quantum radiation law without any reference to classical physics, and Einstein becomes co-author, creating Bose-Einstein Statistics, which predicts a new form of matter known as the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), which is experimentally verified in 1995; too bad, blackish-skinned doctorateless Bose is snubbed for a Nobel Prize. Am. surgeons Warren Henry Cole (1898-1990) and Evarts Ambrose Graham (1883-1957) develop Oral Cholecystography to visualize the gallbladder and bile ducts to detect disease. French physicist Prince Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie (1892-1987) pub. his Wave Theory of Matter, a mathematical analysis of matter based on the assumption that particles of matter have wavelike properties (de Broglie waves), or are essentially superpositions of waves of all wavelengths; in 1927 Am. physicists Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Halbert Germer (1895-1971) of Western Electric experimentally verify it - but I don't like broccoli? The Taung Baby (Child), Australopithecus africanus is discovered in South Africa by Australian anthropologist